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Sample records for additional oxygen atoms

  1. Additives to reduce susceptibility of thermosets and thermoplastics to erosion from atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orwoll, Robert A.

    1990-01-01

    Polymeric materials have many attractive features such as light weight, high strength, and broad applicability in the form of films, fibers, and molded objects. In low earth orbit (LEO), these materials, when exposed on the exterior of the spacecraft, have the serious disadvantage of being susceptible to erosion by atomic oxygen (AO). AO is the most common chemical species at LEO altitudes. AO can be an extremely efficient oxidizing agent as was apparent from the extensive erosion of organic films exposed in STS missions. The mechanism for erosion involves the reaction of oxygen atoms at the surface of the substrate to form small molecular species. The susceptibility of polymeric materials varies with their chemical composition. Films with silicon atoms incorporated in the molecular structures have large coefficients of thermal expansion. This limits their utility. In an alternative approach additives were sought that mix physically and form a protective oxide layer when the film is exposed to AO. A large number of organic compounds containing silicon, germanium, or tin atoms were screened. Most were found to have very limited solubility in the polyetherimide (Ultem) films that were being protected from AO. However, one, bis(triphenyl tin) oxide, (BTO), is miscible in Ultem up to about 25 percent. Films of Ultem polyimide containing up to 25 wt percent BTO were prepared by evaporation of solvent from a solution of Ultem and BTO. The effects of AO on these films were simulated in the oxygen atmosphere of a radio frequency glow-discharge chamber. In the second part of this study, atoms were incorporated in epoxy resins. Experiments are in progress to measure the resistance of films of the cured epoxy to AO in the discharge chamber.

  2. Atomic Oxygen Fluence Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.

    2011-01-01

    This innovation enables a means for actively measuring atomic oxygen fluence (accumulated atoms of atomic oxygen per area) that has impinged upon spacecraft surfaces. Telemetered data from the device provides spacecraft designers, researchers, and mission managers with real-time measurement of atomic oxygen fluence, which is useful for prediction of the durability of spacecraft materials and components. The innovation is a compact fluence measuring device that allows in-space measurement and transmittance of measured atomic oxygen fluence as a function of time based on atomic oxygen erosion yields (the erosion yield of a material is the volume of material that is oxidized per incident oxygen atom) of materials that have been measured in low Earth orbit. It has a linear electrical response to atomic oxygen fluence, and is capable of measuring high atomic oxygen fluences (up to >10(exp 22) atoms/sq cm), which are representative of multi-year low-Earth orbital missions (such as the International Space Station). The durability or remaining structural lifetime of solar arrays that consist of polymer blankets on which the solar cells are attached can be predicted if one knows the atomic oxygen fluence that the solar array blanket has been exposed to. In addition, numerous organizations that launch space experiments into low-Earth orbit want to know the accumulated atomic oxygen fluence that their materials or components have been exposed to. The device is based on the erosion yield of pyrolytic graphite. It uses two 12deg inclined wedges of graphite that are over a grit-blasted fused silica window covering a photodiode. As the wedges erode, a greater area of solar illumination reaches the photodiode. A reference photodiode is also used that receives unobstructed solar illumination and is oriented in the same direction as the pyrolytic graphite covered photodiode. The short-circuit current from the photodiodes is measured and either sent to an onboard data logger, or

  3. Atomic oxygen stimulated outgassing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linton, Roger C.; Reynolds, John M.

    1991-01-01

    The passive Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Experiment A0034, Atomic Oxygen Simulated Outgassing, consisted of two identical one-sixth tray modules, exposing selected thermal control coatings to atomic oxygen and the combined space environment on the leading edge and, for reference, to the relative wake environment on the trailing edge. Optical mirrors were included adjacent to the thermal coatings for deposition of outgassing products. Ultraviolet grade windows and metal covers were provided for additional assessment of the effects of the various environmental factors. Preliminary results indicate that orbital atomic oxygen is both a degrading and a optically restorative factor in the thermo-optical properties of selected thermal coatings. There is evidence of more severe optical degradation on collector mirrors adjacent to coatings that were exposed to the RAM-impinging atomic oxygen. This evidence of atomic oxygen stimulated outgassing is discussed in relation to alternative factors that could affect degradation. The general effects of the space environment on the experiment hardware as well as the specimens are discussed.

  4. Quantum-chemical model evaluations of thermodynamics and kinetics of oxygen atom additions to narrow nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Slanina, Zdenĕk; Stobinski, Leszek; Tomasik, Piotr; Lin, Hong-Ming; Adamowicz, Ludwik

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports a computational study of oxygen additions to narrow nanotubes, a problem frequently studied with fullerenes. In fact, fullerene oxides were the first observed fullerene derivatives, and they have naturally attracted the attention of both experiment and theory. C60O had represented a long-standing case of experiment-theory disagreement, and there has been a similar problem with C60O2. The disagreement has been explained by kinetic rather than thermodynamic control. In this paper a similar computational approach is applied to narrow nanotubes. Recently, very narrow nanotubes have been observed with a diameter of 5 A and even with a diameter of 4 A. It has been supposed that the narrow nanotubes are closed by fragments of small fullerenes like C36 or C20. In this report we perform calculations for oxygen additions to such model nanotubes capped by fragments of D2d C36, D4d C32, and Ih C20 fullerenic cages (though the computational models have to be rather short). The three models have the following carbon contents: C84, C80, and C80. Both thermodynamic enthalpy changes and kinetic activation barriers for oxygen addition to six selected bonds are computed and analyzed. The lowest isomer (thermodynamically the most stable) is never of the 6/6 type, that is, the enthalpically favored structures are produced by oxygen additions to the nanotube tips. Interestingly enough, the lowest energy isomer has, for the D2d C36 and D4d C32 cases, the lowest kinetic activation barrier as well.

  5. Atomic Oxygen Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Sharon K. R.

    2014-01-01

    Atomic oxygen, which is the most predominant species in low Earth orbit, is highly reactive and can break chemical bonds on the surface of a wide variety of materials leading to volatilization or surface oxidation which can result in failure of spacecraft materials and components. This presentation will give an overview of how atomic oxygen reacts with spacecraft materials, results of space exposure testing of a variety of materials, and examples of failures caused by atomic oxygen.

  6. Atomic Oxygen Textured Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Rutledge, Sharon K.; Hunt, Jason D.; Drobotij, Erin; Cales, Michael R.; Cantrell, Gidget

    1995-01-01

    Atomic oxygen can be used to microscopically alter the surface morphology of polymeric materials in space or in ground laboratory facilities. For polymeric materials whose sole oxidation products are volatile species, directed atomic oxygen reactions produce surfaces of microscopic cones. However, isotropic atomic oxygen exposure results in polymer surfaces covered with lower aspect ratio sharp-edged craters. Isotropic atomic oxygen plasma exposure of polymers typically causes a significant decrease in water contact angle as well as altered coefficient of static friction. Such surface alterations may be of benefit for industrial and biomedical applications. The results of atomic oxygen plasma exposure of thirty-three (33) different polymers are presented, including typical morphology changes, effects on water contact angle, and coefficient of static friction.

  7. Pulsed Source Of Energetic Oxygen Atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caledonia, George; Krech, Robert; Green, David; Pirri, Anthony

    1988-01-01

    Apparatus developed that generates high-flux pulses of oxygen atoms to bombard specimens in experiments on aging and degradation of materials in low Earth-orbit environment. Preliminary studies of specimens irradiated with atomic oxygen provided spectral evidence of erosion, in addition to measurable mass loss. Intense atomic oxygen pulses also useful in studies of microfabrication techniques.

  8. Hyperthermal atomic oxygen generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khandelwal, Govind S.; Wu, Dongchuan

    1990-01-01

    Characterization of the transport properties of oxygen through silver was continued. Specifically, experiments measuring the transport through Ag(111), Ag(110), Ag(100) single crystals and through Ag0.05 Zr alloy were completed. In addition, experiments using glow discharge excitation of oxygen to assist in the transport were completed. It was found that the permeability through the different orientations of single crystal Ag was the same, but significant differences existed in the diffusivity. The experimental ratio of diffusivities, however, was in reasonable agreement with theoretical estimates. Since the solubilities of orientations must be the same, this suggests some problems with the assumption K = DS. The glow discharge experiments show that there is a substantial increase in transport (factor of six) when the upstream pressure is dissociated to some fraction of atoms (which have a much higher sticking coefficient). These results indicate that there is a significant surface limitation because of dissociative adsorption of the molecules. Experiments with the Ag0.05 Zr alloy and its high-grain boundary and defect density show a permeability of greater than a factor of two over ordinary polycrystalline Ag, but it is unclear as to whether this is because of enhanced transport through these defects or whether the Zr and defects on the surface increased the sticking coefficient and therefore the transport.

  9. Atomic Oxygen Task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadaway, James B.

    1997-01-01

    This report details work performed by the Center for Applied Optics (CAO) at the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) on the contract entitled 'Atomic Oxygen Task' for NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (contract NAS8-38609, Delivery Order 109, modification number 1). Atomic oxygen effects on exposed materials remain a critical concern in designing spacecraft to withstand exposure in the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) environment. The basic objective of atomic oxygen research in NASA's Materials & Processes (M&P) Laboratory is to provide the solutions to material problems facing present and future space missions. The objective of this work was to provide the necessary research for the design of specialized experimental test configurations and development of techniques for evaluating in-situ space environmental effects, including the effects of atomic oxygen and electromagnetic radiation on candidate materials. Specific tasks were performed to address materials issues concerning accelerated environmental testing as well as specifically addressing materials issues of particular concern for LDEF analysis and Space Station materials selection.

  10. Advances in atomic oxygen simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Froechtenigt, Joseph F.; Bareiss, Lyle E.

    1990-01-01

    Atomic oxygen (AO) present in the atmosphere at orbital altitudes of 200 to 700 km has been shown to degrade various exposed materials on Shuttle flights. The relative velocity of the AO with the spacecraft, together with the AO density, combine to yield an environment consisting of a 5 eV beam energy with a flux of 10(exp 14) to 10(exp 15) oxygen atoms/sq cm/s. An AO ion beam apparatus that produces flux levels and energy similar to that encountered by spacecraft in low Earth orbit (LEO) has been in existence since 1987. Test data was obtained from the interaction of the AO ion beam with materials used in space applications (carbon, silver, kapton) and with several special coatings of interest deposited on various surfaces. The ultimate design goal of the AO beam simulation device is to produce neutral AO at sufficient flux levels to replicate on-orbit conditions. A newly acquired mass spectrometer with energy discrimination has allowed 5 eV neutral oxygen atoms to be separated and detected from the background of thermal oxygen atoms of approx 0.2 eV. Neutralization of the AO ion beam at 5 eV was shown at the Martin Marietta AO facility.

  11. Atomic oxygen studies on polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morison, W. D.; Tennyson, R. C.; French, J. B.; Braithwaite, T.; Moisan, M.; Hubert, J.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose was to study the effects of atomic oxygen on the erosion of polymer based materials. The development of an atomic oxygen neutral beam facility using a SURFATRON surface wave launcher that can produce beam energies between 2 and 3 eV at flux levels as high as approx. 10 to the 17th power atoms/cm (2)-sec is described. Thin film dielectric materials were studied to determine recession rates and and reaction efficiencies as a function of incident beam energy and fluence. Accelerated testing was also accomplished and the values of reaction efficiency compared to available space flight data. Electron microscope photomicrographs of the samples' surface morphology were compared to flight test specimens.

  12. Polymeric Materials Resistant to Erosion by Atomic Oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiefer, Richard L.; Thibeault, Sheila A.

    2004-01-01

    Polymer-matrix composites are ideally suited for space vehicles because of high strength to weight ratios. The principal component of the low earth orbit (LEO) is atomic oxygen. Atomic oxygen causes surface erosion to polymeric materials. Polymer films with an organometallic additive showed greater resistance to atomic oxygen than the pure polymer in laboratory experiments and in the OPM/MIR experiment. In MISSE, the film with the organometallic additive was still intact after the pure film had completely eroded.

  13. Benefits of oxygen incorporation in atomic laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlqvist, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Atomic laminates such as MAX phases benefit from the addition of oxygen in many ways, from the formation of a protective oxide surface layer with self-healing capabilities when cracks form to the tuning of anisotropic conductivity. In this paper oxygen incorporation and vacancy formation in M 2AlC (M  =  Ti, V, Cr) MAX phases have been studied using first-principles calculations where the focus is on phase stability and electronic structure for different oxygen and/or vacancy configurations. Oxygen prefers different lattice sites depending on M-element and this can be correlated to the number of available non-bonding M d-electrons. In Ti2AlC, oxygen substitutes carbon while in Cr2AlC it is located interstitially within the Al-layer. I predict that oxygen incorporation in Ti2AlC stabilizes the material, which explains the experimentally observed 12.5 at% oxygen (x  =  0.5) in Ti2Al(C1-x O x ). In addition, it is also possible to use oxygen to stabilize the hypothetical Zr2AlC and Hf2AlC. Hence, oxygen incorporation may be beneficial in many ways. Not only can it make a material more stable, but it also can act as a reservoir for internal self-healing with shorter diffusion paths.

  14. MISSE PEACE Polymers Atomic Oxygen Erosion Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deGroh, Kim, K.; Banks, Bruce A.; McCarthy, Catherine E.; Rucker, Rochelle N.; Roberts, Lily M.; Berger, Lauren A.

    2006-01-01

    Forty-one different polymer samples, collectively called the Polymer Erosion and Contamination Experiment (PEACE) Polymers, have been exposed to the low Earth orbit (LEO) environment on the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS) for nearly 4 years as part of Materials International Space Station Experiment 2 (MISSE 2). The objective of the PEACE Polymers experiment was to determine the atomic oxygen erosion yield of a wide variety of polymeric materials after long term exposure to the space environment. The polymers range from those commonly used for spacecraft applications, such as Teflon (DuPont) FEP, to more recently developed polymers, such as high temperature polyimide PMR (polymerization of monomer reactants). Additional polymers were included to explore erosion yield dependence upon chemical composition. The MISSE PEACE Polymers experiment was flown in MISSE Passive Experiment Carrier 2 (PEC 2), tray 1, on the exterior of the ISS Quest Airlock and was exposed to atomic oxygen along with solar and charged particle radiation. MISSE 2 was successfully retrieved during a space walk on July 30, 2005, during Discovery s STS-114 Return to Flight mission. Details on the specific polymers flown, flight sample fabrication, pre-flight and post-flight characterization techniques, and atomic oxygen fluence calculations are discussed along with a summary of the atomic oxygen erosion yield results. The MISSE 2 PEACE Polymers experiment is unique because it has the widest variety of polymers flown in LEO for a long duration and provides extremely valuable erosion yield data for spacecraft design purposes.

  15. Atomic oxygen effects on materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Rutledge, Sharon K.; Brady, Joyce A.; Merrow, James E.

    1989-01-01

    Understanding of the basic processes of atomic oxygen interaction is currently at a very elementary level. However, measurement of erosion yields, surface morphology, and optical properties for low fluences have brought about much progress in the past decade. Understanding the mechanisms and those factors that are important for proper simulation of low Earth orbit is at a much lower level of understanding. The ability to use laboratory simulations with confidence to quantifiably address the functional performance and durability of materials in low Earth orbit will be necessary to assure long-term survivability to the natural space environment.

  16. Atomic oxygen effects on metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fromhold, Albert T.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of specimen geometry on the attack of metals by atomic oxygen is addressed. This is done by extending the coupled-currents approach in metal oxidation to spherical and cylindrical geometries. Kinetic laws are derived for the rates of oxidation of samples having these geometries. It is found that the burn-up time for spherical particles of a given diameter can be as much as a factor of 3 shorter than the time required to completely oxidize a planar sample of the same thickness.

  17. Method for producing an atomic oxygen beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Outlaw, Ronald A. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A method for producing an atomic oxygen beam is provided by the present invention. First, a material 10' is provided which dissociates molecular oxygen and dissolves atomic oxygen into its bulk. Next, molecular oxygen is exposed to entrance surface 11' of material 10'. Next, material 10' is heated by heater 17' to facilitate the permeation of atomic oxygen through material 10' to the UHV side 12'. UHV side 12' is interfaced with an ultra-high vacuum (UHV) environment provided by UHV pump 15'. The atomic oxygen on the UHV side 12' is excited to a non-binding state by exciter 14' thus producing the release of atomic oxygen to form an atomic oxygen beam 35'.

  18. Atomic Oxygen Effects on Coated Tether Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gittemeier, Keith A.; Hawk, Clark W.; Finckenor, Miria M.; Watts, Ed

    2005-01-01

    The University of Alabama in Huntsville s Propulsion Research Center has teamed with NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to research the effects of atomic oxygen (AO) bombardment on coated tether materials. Tethers Unlimited Inc. has provided several candidate tether materials with various coatings for (AO) exposure in MSFC's Atomic Oxygen Beam Facility. Additional samples were exposed to ultraviolet (UV) radiation at MSFC. AO erodes most organic materials, and ultraviolet radiation embrittles polymers. This test series was performed to determine the effect of AO and UV on the mechanical integrity of tether materials that were treated with AO-protective coatings, such as Photosil or metallization. Both TUI's Multi-Application Survivable Tether (MAST) Experiment and Marshall Space Flight Center's Momentum Exchange Electrodynamic Reboost (MXER) programs will benefit from this research by helping to determine tether materials and coatings that give the longest life with the lowest mass penalty.

  19. Attenuation of Scattered Thermal Energy Atomic Oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce a.; Seroka, Katelyn T.; McPhate, Jason B.; Miller, Sharon K.

    2011-01-01

    The attenuation of scattered thermal energy atomic oxygen is relevant to the potential damage that can occur within a spacecraft which sweeps through atomic oxygen in low Earth orbit (LEO). Although there can be significant oxidation and resulting degradation of polymers and some metals on the external surfaces of spacecraft, there are often openings on a spacecraft such as telescope apertures, vents, and microwave cavities that can allow atomic oxygen to enter and scatter internally to the spacecraft. Atomic oxygen that enters a spacecraft can thermally accommodate and scatter to ultimately react or recombine on surfaces. The atomic oxygen that does enter a spacecraft can be scavenged by use of high erosion yield polymers to reduce its reaction on critical surfaces and materials. Polyoxymethylene and polyethylene can be used as effective atomic oxygen scavenging polymers.

  20. Atomic oxygen damage characterization by photothermal scanning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, A. W.; Wood, N. J.; Zakaria, A. B.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper we use a photothermal imaging technique to characterize the damage caused to an imperfectly coated gold-coated Kapton sample exposed to successively increased fluences of atomic oxygen in a laboratory atomic source.

  1. Pulsed source of energetic atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caledonia, George E.; Krech, Robert H.

    1989-01-01

    A large area, high flux beam of energetic oxygen atoms, E about 5 eV, has been developed to study the interaction of atomic oxygen with materials appropriate for spacecraft in low earth orbit. A description of the operating conditions and characteristics of the beam along with typical sample irradiation results are provided.

  2. Atomic oxygen exposure of LDEF experiment trays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourassa, R. J.; Gillis, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    Atomic oxygen exposures were determined analytically for rows, longerons, and end bays of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). The calculations are based on an analytical model that accounts for the effects of thermal molecular velocity, atmospheric temperature, number density, spacecraft velocity, incidence angle, and atmospheric rotation on atomic oxygen flux. Results incorporate variations in solar activity, geomagnetic index, and orbital parameters occurring over the 6-year flight of the spacecraft. To facilitate use of the data, both detailed tabulations and summary charts for atomic oxygen fluences are presented.

  3. Atomic oxygen in the Martian thermosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, A. I. F.; Alexander, M. J.; Meier, R. R.; Paxton, L. J.; Bougher, S. W.; Fesen, C. G.

    1992-01-01

    Modern models of thermospheric composition and temperature and of excitation and radiative transfer processes are used to simulate the O I 130-nm emission from Mars measured by the Mariner 9 ultraviolet spectrometer. This paper uses the Mars thermospheric general circulation model calculations (MTGCM) of Bougher et al. (1988) and the Monte Carlo partial frequency redistribution multiple scattering code of Meier and Lee (1982). It is found that the decline in atomic oxygen through the daylight hours predicted by the MTGCM cannot be reconciled with the excess afternoon brightness seen in the data. Oxygen concentrations inferred from the data show a positive gradient through the day, in agreement with the original analysis by Strickland et al. (1973). In addition, the data suggest that the oxygen abundance increases toward high southerly latitudes, in contrast with the MTGCM prediction of high values in the Northern Hemisphere. It appears that solar forcing alone cannot account for the observed characteristics of the Martian thermosphere and that wave and tidal effects may profoundly affect the structure, winds, and composition.

  4. Atomic Oxygen Durability of Second Surface Silver Microsheet Glass Concentrators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deGroh, Kim K.; Jaworske, Donald A.; Smith, Daniela C.; Mroz, Thaddeus S.

    1996-01-01

    Second surface silver microsheet glass concentrators are being developed for potential use in future solar dynamic space power systems. Traditional concentrators are aluminum honeycomb sandwich composites with either aluminum or graphite epoxy face sheets, where a reflective aluminum layer is deposited onto an organic leveling layer on the face sheet. To protect the underlying layers, a SiO2 layer is applied on top of the aluminum reflective layer. These concentrators may be vulnerable to atomic oxygen degradation due to possible atomic oxygen attack of the organic layers at defect sites in the protective and reflective coatings. A second surface microsheet glass concentrator would be inherently more atomic oxygen durable than these first surface concentrators. In addition, a second surface microsheet glass concentrator design provides a smooth optical surface and allows for silver to be used as a reflective layer, which would improve the reflectivity of the concentrator and the performance of the system. A potential threat to the performance of second surface microsheet glass concentrators is atomic oxygen attack of the underlying silver at seams and edges or at micrometeoroid and debris (MMD) impacts sites. Second surface silver microsheet glass concentrator samples were fabricated and tested for atomic oxygen durability. The samples were iteratively exposed to an atomic oxygen environment in a plasma asher. Samples were evaluated for potential degradation at fabrication seams, simulated MMD impact sites, and edges. Optical microscopy was used to evaluate atomic oxygen degradation. Reflectance was obtained for an impacted sample prior to and after atomic oxygen exposure. After an initial atomic oxygen exposure to an effective fluence of approx. 1 x 10(exp 21) atoms/cm(exp 2), oxidation of the silver at defect sites and edges was observed. Exposure to an additional approx. 1 x 10(exp 21) atoms/cm(exp 2) caused no observed increase in oxidation. Oxidation at an

  5. Pulsed source of energetic atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caledonia, George E.; Krech, Robert H.

    1987-01-01

    A pulsed high flux source of nearly monoenergetic atomic oxygen was designed, built, and successfully demonstrated. Molecular oxygen at several atmospheres pressure is introduced into an evacuated supersonic expansion nozzle through a pulsed molecular beam valve. An 18 J pulsed CO2 TEA laser is focused to intensities greater than 10(9) W/sq cm in the nozzle throat to generate a laser-induced breakdown. The resulting plasma is heated in excess of 20,000 K by a laser supported detonation wave, and then rapidly expands and cools. Nozzle geometry confines the expansion to provide rapid electron-ion recombination into atomic oxygen. Average O atom beam velocities from 5 to 13 km/s were measured at estimated fluxes to 10(18) atoms per pulse. Preliminary materials testing has produced the same surface oxygen enrichment in polyethylene samples as obtained on the STS-8 mission. Scanning electron microscope examinations of irradiated polymer surfaces reveal an erosion morphology similar to that obtained in low Earth orbit, with an estimated mass removal rate of approx. 10(-24) cu cm/atom. The characteristics of the O atom source and the results of some preliminary materials testing studies are reviewed.

  6. Oxygen atom reaction with shuttle materials at orbital altitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leger, L. J.

    1982-01-01

    Surfaces of materials used in the space shuttle orbiter payload bay and exposed during STS-1 through STS-3 were examined after flight. Paints and polymers, in particular Kapton used on the television camera thermal blanket, showed significant change. Generally, the change was a loss of surface gloss on the polymer with apparent aging on the paint surfaces. The Kapton surfaces showed the greatest change, and postflight analyses showed mass loss of 4.8 percent on STS-2 and 35 percent on STS-3 for most heavily affected surfaces. Strong shadow patterns were evident. The greatest mass loss was measured on surfaces which were exposed to solar radiation in conjunction with exposure in the vehicle velocity vector. A mechanism which involves the interaction of atomic oxygen with organic polymer surfaces is proposed. Atomic oxygen is the major ambient species at low orbital altitudes and presents a flux of 8 x 10 to the 14th power atoms/cu cm sec for reaction. Correlation of the expected mass loss based on ground-based oxygen atom/polymer reaction rates shows lower mass loss of the Kapton than measured. Consideration of solar heating effects on reaction rates as well as the high oxygen atom energy due to the orbiter's orbital velocity brings the predicted and measured mass loss in surprisingly good agreement. Flight sample surface morphology comparison with ground based Kapton/oxygen atom exposures provides additional support for the oxygen interaction mechanism.

  7. Method and apparatus for producing a thermal atomic oxygen beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A. (Inventor); Rutledge, Sharon K. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    Atomic oxygen atoms are routed to a material through a sufficiently tortuous path so that vacuum ultraviolet radiation is obstructed from arriving at the surface of the material. However, the material surface continues to be exposed to the atomic oxygen.

  8. Atomic Oxygen Used to Restore Artworks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Miller, Sharon K.

    2004-01-01

    Techniques developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center to produce atomic oxygen in order to simulate the low-Earth-orbit environment for spacecraft materials testing can also be applied in the field of art restoration. Defaced or fire-damaged artwork can be treated with atomic oxygen to remove the damage and enable restoration that could not be accomplished with conventional methods. The process has been patented (U.S. Patents 5,560,781 and 5,693,241) and has been used to restore several works of art.

  9. A simple, inexpensive, hyperthermal atomic oxygen sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, G. P.; Pettigrew, P. J.; Raikar, G. N.; Gregory, J. C.

    1997-09-01

    With the increasing duration of space flights, the development of a permanent facility in space, and the increasing use of ground-based hyperthermal atomic oxygen sources there is a need for a simple instrument to provide long-term monitoring of the beam flux. Such an instrument can also be used as a diagnostic tool to investigate the material degradation process. Reliance on models of the upper atmosphere to determine the fluence of atomic oxygen is not only necessarily complex but also imprecise due to the strong dependence of oxygen concentration on day/night, latitude, and solar activity. Mass spectroscopy, the traditional method for determining the gas phase species densities at low pressure, is not only expensive but is limited in the area that it can monitor as well as subject to effects of material degradation. Our group has developed a simple and inexpensive dosimeter to measure the atomic oxygen fluence via the change in resistance as the sensor element is gradually oxidized. The sensors consist of thin-film circuit elements of selected material deposited on a suitable substrate. Four-point resistance measurements are used to monitor the change in sensor resistance with respect to time. Results obtained from silver and carbon dosimeters flown on STS-46 (CONCAP-II-01) indicate that such sensors are sensitive enough to monitor the diurnal variations in atomic oxygen distribution and sufficiently durable to last the lifetime of a mission.

  10. Additively Manufactured Metals in Oxygen Systems Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tylka, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Metals produced by additive manufacturing methods, such as Powder Bed Fusion Technology, are now mature enough to be considered for qualification in human spaceflight oxygen systems. The mechanical properties of metals produced through AM processes are being systematically studied. However, it is unknown whether AM metals in oxygen applications may present an increased risk of flammability or ignition as compared to wrought metals of the same metallurgical composition due to increased porosity. Per NASA-STD-6001B materials to be used in oxygen system applications shall be based on flammability and combustion test data, followed by a flammability assessment. Without systematic flammability and ignition testing in oxygen there is no credible method for NASA to accurately evaluate the risk of using AM metals in oxygen systems.

  11. Atomic oxygen testing with thermal atom systems - A critical evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koontz, Steven L.; Albyn, Keith; Leger, Lubert J.

    1991-01-01

    The use of thermal atom (kinetic energy near 0.04 eV) test methods as a materials selection and screening technique for LEO spacecraft is critically evaluated in this paper. The physics and chemistry of the thermal atom environments are shown to produce specific mass loss rates (mg/sq cm per min) and reaction efficiencies (Re) radically different from those produced in the LEO environment. A response surface study shows that specific mass loss rates change rapidly with plasma-asher parameters and seldom agree with flight data. FEP Teflon is shown to react by a different mechanism than Kapton, polyethylene, or graphite. The Re (Re = volume of material removed/oxygen atom) of Kapton, polyethylene, Mylar, Tedlar, FEP Teflon, and graphite measured in a flowing afterglow apparatus are 0.001 to 0.0001 those measured with high-energy atoms (kinetic energy 1.5 eV or greater) in beam systems or in LEO. The effect of sample temperature and atom impact energy on Re is discussed. A simple kinetic model describing the reaction of atomic oxygen with polymer surfaces is developed. Guidelines and recommendations for thermal atom testing and interpretation of test results are presented.

  12. A sputtering derived atomic oxygen source for studying fast atom reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrieri, Richard A.; Yung, Y. Chu; Wolf, Alfred P.

    1987-01-01

    A technique for the generation of fast atomic oxygen was developed. These atoms are created by ion beam sputtering from metal oxide surfaces. Mass resolved ion beams at energies up to 60 KeV are produced for this purpose using a 150 cm isotope separator. Studies have shown that particles sputtered with 40 KeV Ar(+) on Ta2O5 were dominantly neutral and exclusively atomic. The atomic oxygen also resided exclusively in its 3P ground state. The translational energy distribution for these atoms peaked at ca 7 eV (the metal-oxygen bond energy). Additional measurements on V2O5 yielded a bimodal distribution with the lower energy peak at ca 5 eV coinciding reasonably well with the metal-oxygen bond energy. The 7 eV source was used to investigate fast oxygen atom reactions with the 2-butene stereoisomers. Relative excitation functions for H-abstraction and pi-bond reaction were measured with trans-2-butene. The abstraction channel, although of minor relative importance at thermal energy, becomes comparable to the addition channel at 0.9 eV and dominates the high-energy regime. Structural effects on the specific channels were also found to be important at high energy.

  13. Small UHV compatible hyperthermal oxygen atom generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Outlaw, Ronald A. (Inventor); Davison, Mark R. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A high purity, hyperthermal, continuous beam atomic oxygen source capable of retrofitting to existing UHV systems has been developed. The instrument complements a general system capability, while its small size and simplicity of design permits tailoring the instrument for most experimental geometries. The flux level presently available is near 1 x 10 (exp 14) cm(exp -2)s(exp -1)(3P) but may be extended toward the theoretical limit of 3x10(exp 15 cm(exp -2)s(exp -1). The energy distribution of the emitted neutrals shows that the mean kinetic energy is about the same as observed for the ions or about 4 eV. The energy of the oxygen atoms may be substantially reduced for other applications by collision with a temperature controlled, non-reactive surface (with a concomitant spread in the energy distribution).

  14. Working group written presentation: Atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leger, Lubert J.; Visentine, James T.

    1989-01-01

    Earlier Shuttle flight experiments have shown NASA and SDIO spacecraft designed for operation in low-Earth orbit (LEO) must take into consideration the highly oxidative characteristics of the ambient flight environment. Materials most adversely affected by atomic oxygen interactions include organic films, advanced (carbon-based) composites, thermal control coatings, organic-based paints, optical coatings, and thermal control blankets commonly used in spacecraft applications. Earlier results of NASA flight experiments have shown prolonged exposure of sensitive spacecraft materials to the LEO environment will result in degraded systems performance or, more importantly, lead to requirements for excessive on-orbit maintenance, with both conditions contributing significantly to increased mission costs and reduced mission objectives. Flight data obtained from previous Space Shuttle missions and results of the Solar Max recovery mission are limited in terms of atomic oxygen exposure and accuracy of fluence estimates. The results of laboratory studies to investigate the long-term (15 to 30 yrs) effects of AO exposure on spacecraft surfaces are only recently available, and qualitative correlations of laboratory results with flight results have been obtained for only a limited number of materials. The working group recommended the most promising ground-based laboratories now under development be made operational as soon as possible to study the full-life effects of atomic oxygen exposure on spacecraft systems.

  15. Atomic Oxygen Erosion Yield Dependence Upon Texture Development in Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Loftus, Ryan J.; Miller, Sharon K.

    2016-01-01

    The atomic oxygen erosion yield (volume of a polymer that is lost due to oxidation per incident atom) of polymers is typically assumed to be reasonably constant with increasing fluence. However polymers containing ash or inorganic pigments, tend to have erosion yields that decrease with fluence due to an increasing presence of protective particles on the polymer surface. This paper investigates two additional possible causes for erosion yields of polymers that are dependent upon atomic oxygen. These are the development of surface texture which can cause the erosion yield to change with fluence due to changes in the aspect ratio of the surface texture that develops and polymer specific atomic oxygen interaction parameters. The surface texture development under directed hyperthermal attack produces higher aspect ratio surface texture than isotropic thermal energy atomic oxygen attack. The fluence dependence of erosion yields is documented for low Kapton H (DuPont, Wilmington, DE) effective fluences for a variety of polymers under directed hyperthermal and isotropic thermal energy attack.

  16. Atomic oxygen beam source for erosion simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuthbertson, J. W.; Langer, W. D.; Motley, R. W.; Vaughn, J. A.

    1991-01-01

    A device for the production of low energy (3 to 10 eV) neutral atomic beams for surface modification studies is described that reproduces the flux of atomic oxygen in low Earth orbit. The beam is produced by the acceleration of plasma ions onto a negatively biased plate of high-Z metal; the ions are neutralized and reflected by the surface, retaining some fraction of their incident kinetic energy, forming a beam of atoms. The plasma is generated by a coaxial RF exciter which produces a magnetically-confined (4 kG) plasma column. At the end of the column, ions fall through the sheath to the plate, whose bias relative to the plasma can be varied to adjust the beam energy. The source provides a neutral flux approximately equal to 5 x 10(exp 16)/sq cm at a distance of 9 cm and a fluence approximately equal to 10(exp 20)/sq cm in five hours. The composition and energy of inert gas beams was diagnosed using a mass spectometer/energy analyzer. The energy spectra of the beams demonstrate energies in the range 5 to 15 eV, and qualitatively show expected dependences upon incident and reflecting atom species and potential drop. Samples of carbon film, carbon-based paint, Kapton, mylar, and teflon exposed to atomic O beams show erosion quite similar to that observed in orbit on the space shuttle.

  17. Theory of atomic additivity in molecular hyperpolizabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baird, James K.

    1987-01-01

    Hyperpolarizability is a function of frequency. This is called dispersion. Because of the Kramers-Kronig relations, researchers expect that a material that is dispersing light is also absorbing it. Where there is both dispersion and absorption, the molecular polarizabilities are complex functions of the frequency. This led researchers to consider atomic additivity in both the real and imaginary parts of the ordinary and hyperpolarizabilities. This effort is desirable not only from a theoretical point of view, but also because of the existence of a large body of complex refractive index data, which may be used to test the additivity principle with the complex valued ordinary dipole polarizability.

  18. Preparation of atomic oxygen resistant polymeric materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tortorelli, Victor J.; Hergenrother, P. M.; Connell, J. W.

    1991-01-01

    Polyphenyl quinoxalines (PPQs) are an important family of high performance polymers that offer good chemical and thermal stability coupled with excellent mechanical properties. These aromatic heterocyclic polymers are potentially useful as films, coatings, adhesives, and composite materials that demand stability in harsh environments. Our approach was to prepare PPQs with pendent siloxane groups using the appropriate chemistry and then evaluate these polymers before and after exposure to simulated atomic oxygen. Either monomer, the bis(o-diamine)s or the bis(alpha-diketone)s can be synthesized with a hydroxy group to which the siloxane chain will be attached. Several novel materials were prepared.

  19. Reactions of atomic oxygen with the chlorate ion and the perchlorate ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anan'ev, Vladimir; Miklin, Mikhail; Kriger, Ludmila

    2014-06-01

    The reactions of the chlorate ion with atomic oxygen formed under photolysis of the nitrate ion introduced to potassium chlorate crystal by co-crystallization were studied by optical and infrared absorption spectroscopy. The perchlorate ion was found to form in solids as product of addition reaction of singlet atomic oxygen, formed under dissociation of the peroxynitrite ion - the product of isomerization of the excited nitrate ion. Triplet atomic oxygen does not react with the chlorate ion. The atomic oxygen formed under photolysis of the nitrate ion introduced to potassium perchlorate crystal by co-crystallization does not react with the perchlorate ion.

  20. Effect of energetic oxygen atoms on neutral density models.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohrbaugh, R. P.; Nisbet, J. S.

    1973-01-01

    The dissociative recombination of O2(+) and NO(+) in the F region results in the production of atomic oxygen and atomic nitrogen with substantially greater kinetic energy than the ambient atoms. In the exosphere these energetic atoms have long free paths. They can ascend to altitudes of several thousand kilometers and can travel horizontally to distances of the order of the earth's radius. The distribution of energetic oxygen atoms is derived by means of models of the ion and neutral densities for quiet and disturbed solar conditions. A distribution technique is used to study the motion of the atoms in the collision-dominated region. Ballistic trajectories are calculated in the spherical gravitational field of the earth. The present calculations show that the number densities of energetic oxygen atoms predominate over the ambient atomic oxygen densities above 1000 km under quiet solar conditions and above 1600 km under disturbed solar conditions.

  1. Density functional theory study the effects of oxygen-containing functional groups on oxygen molecules and oxygen atoms adsorbed on carbonaceous materials.

    PubMed

    Qi, Xuejun; Song, Wenwu; Shi, Jianwei

    2017-01-01

    Density functional theory was used to study the effects of different types of oxygen-containing functional groups on the adsorption of oxygen molecules and single active oxygen atoms on carbonaceous materials. During gasification or combustion reactions of carbonaceous materials, oxygen-containing functional groups such as hydroxyl(-OH), carbonyl(-CO), quinone(-O), and carboxyl(-COOH) are often present on the edge of graphite and can affect graphite's chemical properties. When oxygen-containing functional groups appear on a graphite surface, the oxygen molecules are strongly adsorbed onto the surface to form a four-member ring structure. At the same time, the O-O bond is greatly weakened and easily broken. The adsorption energy value indicates that the adsorption of oxygen molecules changes from physisorption to chemisorption for oxygen-containing functional groups on the edge of a graphite surface. In addition, our results indicate that the adsorption energy depends on the type of oxygen-containing functional group. When a single active oxygen atom is adsorbed on the bridge site of graphite, it gives rise to a stable epoxy structure. Epoxy can cause deformation of the graphite lattice due to the transition of graphite from sp2 to sp3 after the addition of an oxygen atom. For quinone group on the edge of graphite, oxygen atoms react with carbon atoms to form the precursor of CO2. Similarly, the single active oxygen atoms of carbonyl groups can interact with edge carbon atoms to form the precursor of CO2. The results show that oxygen-containing functional groups on graphite surfaces enhance the activity of graphite, which promotes adsorption on the graphite surface.

  2. Density functional theory study the effects of oxygen-containing functional groups on oxygen molecules and oxygen atoms adsorbed on carbonaceous materials

    PubMed Central

    Song, Wenwu; Shi, Jianwei

    2017-01-01

    Density functional theory was used to study the effects of different types of oxygen-containing functional groups on the adsorption of oxygen molecules and single active oxygen atoms on carbonaceous materials. During gasification or combustion reactions of carbonaceous materials, oxygen-containing functional groups such as hydroxyl(-OH), carbonyl(-CO), quinone(-O), and carboxyl(-COOH) are often present on the edge of graphite and can affect graphite’s chemical properties. When oxygen-containing functional groups appear on a graphite surface, the oxygen molecules are strongly adsorbed onto the surface to form a four-member ring structure. At the same time, the O-O bond is greatly weakened and easily broken. The adsorption energy value indicates that the adsorption of oxygen molecules changes from physisorption to chemisorption for oxygen-containing functional groups on the edge of a graphite surface. In addition, our results indicate that the adsorption energy depends on the type of oxygen-containing functional group. When a single active oxygen atom is adsorbed on the bridge site of graphite, it gives rise to a stable epoxy structure. Epoxy can cause deformation of the graphite lattice due to the transition of graphite from sp2 to sp3 after the addition of an oxygen atom. For quinone group on the edge of graphite, oxygen atoms react with carbon atoms to form the precursor of CO2. Similarly, the single active oxygen atoms of carbonyl groups can interact with edge carbon atoms to form the precursor of CO2. The results show that oxygen-containing functional groups on graphite surfaces enhance the activity of graphite, which promotes adsorption on the graphite surface. PMID:28301544

  3. Atomic oxygen reactor having at least one sidearm conduit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koontz, Steven L. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus for treating a microporous structure with atomic oxygen is presented. The apparatus includes a main gas chamber for flowing gas in an axial direction and a source of gas, containing atomic oxygen, connected for introducing the gas into the main gas chamber. The apparatus employs at least one side arm extending from the main atomic oxygen-containing chamber. The side arm has characteristic relaxation times such that a uniform atomic oxygen dose rate is delivered to a specimen positioned transversely in the side arm spaced from the main gas chamber.

  4. Operation of the computer model for microenvironment atomic oxygen exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourassa, R. J.; Gillis, J. R.; Gruenbaum, P. E.

    1995-01-01

    A computer model for microenvironment atomic oxygen exposure has been developed to extend atomic oxygen modeling capability to include shadowing and reflections. The model uses average exposure conditions established by the direct exposure model and extends the application of these conditions to treat surfaces of arbitrary shape and orientation.

  5. Atomic Oxygen Recombination at Surface Defects on Reconstructed (0001) α-Quartz Exposed to Atomic and Molecular Oxygen

    SciTech Connect

    Meana-Paneda, Ruben; Paukku, Yuliya Y.; Duanmu, Kaining; Norman, Paul; Schwartzentruber, Thomas E.; Truhlar, Donald G.

    2015-04-30

    The surface chemistry of silica is strongly affected by the nature of chemically active sites (or defects) occurring on the surface. Here, we employ quantum mechanical electronic structure calculations to study an uncoordinated silicon defect, a non-bridging oxygen defect, and a peroxyl defect on the reconstructed (0001) surface of α-quartz. We characterized the spin states and energies of the defects, and calculated the reaction profiles for atomic oxygen recombination at the defects. We elucidated the diradical character by analyzing the low-lying excited states using multireference wave function methods. We show that the diradical defects consist of weakly coupled doublet radicals, and the atomic oxygen recombination can take place through a barrierless process at defects. We have delineated the recombination mechanism and computed the formation energy of the peroxyl and non-bridging oxygen defects. We found that key recombination reaction paths are barrierless. In addition, we characterize the electronically excited states that may play a role in the chemical and physical processes that occur during recombination on these surface defect sites.

  6. Atomic oxygen interactions with FEP Teflon and silicones on LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Dever, Joyce A.; Gebauer, Linda; Hill, Carol M.

    1992-01-01

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) spacecraft has enabled the measurement of the effects of fixed orientation exposure of high fluence atomic oxygen on fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP Teflon) and silicones. The atomic oxygen erosion yield for the FEP Teflon was found to be 3.64 x 10(exp -25) cm(exp 3)/atom. This erosion yield is significantly higher than that measured from previous low fluence orbital data. The FEP Teflon erosion yield was found to have the same dependence on oxygen arrival angle as Kapton and Mylar. Atomic oxygen interaction with silicon polymers results in the crazing of silicon. Released silicone contaminants were found to darken upon further atomic oxygen exposure.

  7. Kinetics and mechanisms of some atomic oxygen reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cvetanovic, R. J.

    1987-01-01

    Mechanisms and kinetics of some reactions of the ground state of oxygen atoms, O(3P), are briefly summarized. Attention is given to reactions of oxygen atoms with several different types of organic and inorganic compounds such as alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, aromatics, and some oxygen, nitrogen, halogen and sulfur derivatives of these compounds. References to some recent compilations and critical evaluations of reaction rate constants are given.

  8. Low Earth Orbital Atomic Oxygen Interactions With Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Miller, Sharon K.; deGroh, Kim K.

    2004-01-01

    Atomic oxygen is formed in the low Earth orbital environment (LEO) by photo dissociation of diatomic oxygen by short wavelength (< 243 nm) solar radiation which has sufficient energy to break the 5.12 eV O2 diatomic bond in an environment where the mean free path is sufficiently long ( 108 meters) that the probability of reassociation or the formation of ozone (O3) is small. As a consequence, between the altitudes of 180 and 650 km, atomic oxygen is the most abundant species. Spacecraft impact the atomic oxygen resident in LEO with sufficient energy to break hydrocarbon polymer bonds, causing oxidation and thinning of the polymers due to loss of volatile oxidation products. Mitigation techniques, such as the development of materials with improved durability to atomic oxygen attack, as well as atomic oxygen protective coatings, have been employed with varying degrees of success to improve durability of polymers in the LEO environment. Atomic oxygen can also oxidize silicones and silicone contamination to produce non-volatile silica deposits. Such contaminants are present on most LEO missions and can be a threat to performance of optical surfaces. The LEO atomic oxygen environment, its interactions with materials, results of space testing, computational modeling, mitigation techniques, and ground laboratory simulation procedures and issues are presented.

  9. MISSE Scattered Atomic Oxygen Characterization Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; deGroh, Kim K.; Miller, Sharon K.

    2006-01-01

    An experiment designed to measure the atomic oxygen (AO) erosion profile of scattered AO was exposed to Low Earth Orbital (LEO) AO for almost four years as part of the Materials International Space Station Experiment 1 and 2 (MISSE 1 and 2). The experiment was flown in MISSE Passive Experiment Carrier 2 (PEC 2), Tray 1, attached to the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS) Quest Airlock. The experiment consisted of an aperture disk lid of Kapton H (DuPont) polyimide coated on the space exposed surface with a thin AO durable silicon dioxide film. The aperture lid had a small hole in its center to allow AO to enter into a chamber and impact a base disk of aluminum. The AO that scattered from the aluminum base could react with the under side of the aperture lid which was coated sporadically with microscopic sodium chloride particles. Scattered AO erosion can occur to materials within a spacecraft that are protected from direct AO attack but because of apertures in the spacecraft the AO can attack the interior materials after scattering. The erosion of the underside of the Kapton lid was sufficient to be able to use profilometry to measure the height of the buttes that remained after washing off the salt particles. The erosion pattern indicated that peak flux of scattered AO occurred at and angle of approximately 45 from the incoming normal incidence on the aluminum base unlike the erosion pattern predicted for scattering based on Monte Carlo computational predictions for AO scattering from Kapton H polyimide. The effective erosion yield for the scattered AO was found to be a factor of 0.214 of that for direct impingement on Kapton H polyimide.

  10. Materials screening chamber for testing materials resistance to atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pippin, H. G.; Carruth, Ralph

    1989-01-01

    A unique test chamber for exposing material to a known flux of oxygen atoms is described. The capabilities and operating parameters of the apparatus include production of an oxygen atom flux in excess of 5 x 10 to the 16th atoms/sq cm-sec, controlled heating of the sample specimen, RF circuitry to contain the plasma within a small volume, and long exposure times. Flux measurement capabilities include a calorimetric probe and a light titration system. Accuracy and limitations of these techniques are discussed. An extension to the main chamber to allow simultaneous ultraviolet and atomic oxygen exposure is discussed. The oxygen atoms produced are at thermal energies. Sample specimens are maintained at any selected temperature between ambient and 200 C, to within + or - 2 C. A representative example of measurements made using the chamber is presented.

  11. Use of Atomic Oxygen for the Determination of Document Alteration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Klubnik, Larisa M.

    2003-01-01

    Atomic oxygen, which normally is found only the near Earth space environment, causes oxidation and erosion of polymers on spacecraft. The development of technology to prevent this degradation has required NASA to develop ground laboratory facilities that generate atomic oxygen. Atomic oxygen has also been found to be able to oxidize most types of ink from a variety of types of pens. The use of atomic oxygen to identify alteration of documents has been investigated and is reported. Results of testing indicates that for many types of ink, pen, and paper, identification of document alteration of pen and ink numbers and evidence of alteration can be made visible by exposing the questionable writing to atomic oxygen. Atomic oxygen provides discrimination because different inks may oxidize at different rates, the amount of time between delayed alteration may add to ink thickness at crossings, and the end of pen strokes tend to have much thicker ink deposits than the rest of the character. Examples and techniques of using atomic oxygen to identify document alteration indicate that the technology can, in many but not all cases, provide discrimination between original and altered documents.

  12. Protocol for Atomic Oxygen Testing of Materials in Ground-Based Facilities. No. 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minton, Timothy K.

    1995-01-01

    A second version of standard guidelines is proposed for improving materials testing in ground-based atomic oxygen environments for the purpose of predicting the durability of the tested materials in low Earth orbit (LEO). Accompanying these guidelines are background information and notes about testing. Both the guidelines and the additional information are intended to aid users who wish to evaluate the potential hazard of atomic oxygen in LEO to a candidate space component without actually flying the component in space, and to provide a framework for more consistent atomic oxygen testing in the future.

  13. Boron nitride nanosheets as oxygen-atom corrosion protective coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Yi, Min; Shen, Zhigang; Zhao, Xiaohu; Liang, Shuaishuai; Liu, Lei

    2014-04-07

    The research of two-dimensional nanomaterials for anticorrosion applications is just recently burgeoning. Herein, we demonstrate the boron nitride nanosheets (BNNSs) coatings for protecting polymer from oxygen-atom corrosion. High-quality BNNSs, which are produced by an effective fluid dynamics method with multiple exfoliation mechanisms, can be assembled into coatings with controlled thickness by vacuum filtration. After exposed in atom oxygen, the naked polymer is severely corroded with remarkable mass loss, while the BNNSs-coated polymer remains intact. Barrier and bonding effects of the BNNSs are responsible for the coating's protective performance. These preliminary yet reproducible results pave a way for resisting oxygen-atom corrosion.

  14. Comments on the interaction of materials with atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torre, Larry P.; Pippin, H. Gary

    1987-01-01

    An explanation of the relative resistance of various materials to attack by atomic oxygen is presented. Data from both ground based and on-orbit experiments is interpreted. The results indicate the importance of bond strengths, size and structure of pendant groups, and fluorination to the resistance of certain polymers to atomic oxygen. A theory which provides a partial explanation of the degradation of materials in low Earth orbit due to surface recombination of oxygen atoms is also included. Finally, a section commenting on mechanisms of material degradation is provided.

  15. Boron nitride nanosheets as oxygen-atom corrosion protective coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Min; Shen, Zhigang; Zhao, Xiaohu; Liang, Shuaishuai; Liu, Lei

    2014-04-01

    The research of two-dimensional nanomaterials for anticorrosion applications is just recently burgeoning. Herein, we demonstrate the boron nitride nanosheets (BNNSs) coatings for protecting polymer from oxygen-atom corrosion. High-quality BNNSs, which are produced by an effective fluid dynamics method with multiple exfoliation mechanisms, can be assembled into coatings with controlled thickness by vacuum filtration. After exposed in atom oxygen, the naked polymer is severely corroded with remarkable mass loss, while the BNNSs-coated polymer remains intact. Barrier and bonding effects of the BNNSs are responsible for the coating's protective performance. These preliminary yet reproducible results pave a way for resisting oxygen-atom corrosion.

  16. Atomic oxygen interactions with FEP Teflon and silicones on LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Gebauer, Linda

    1991-01-01

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) spacecraft represents the first controlled unidirectional exposure of high-fluence atomic oxygen on fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP Teflon) and silicones. The atomic oxygen erosion yield for FEP Teflon was found to be significantly in excess of previous low fluence orbital data and is an order of magnitude below that of polyimide Kapton. LDEF FEP Teflon erosion yield data as a function of angle of attack is presented. Atomic oxygen interaction with silicon polymers results in crazing of the silicones as well as deposition of dark contaminant oxidation products on adjoining surfaces. Documentation of results and possible mechanistic explanations are presented.

  17. A review on recent upper atmosphere atomic oxygen measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufmann, Martin; Ern, Manfred; Riese, Martin; Zhu, Yajun

    2016-07-01

    Atomic oxygen is a key player in the upper mesosphere lower and thermosphere chemistry, energy balance, and dynamics. In recent years, a few new global datasets of this species have been presented. They are based on airglow measurements from low earth satellites. Surprisingly, the atomic oxygen abundance differs by 30-50% for similar atmospheric conditions. This paper gives an overview on the various atomic oxygen datasets available so far and presents most recent results obtained from measurements of the SCIAMACHY instrument on Envisat. Differences between the datasets are discussed.

  18. The effects of atomic oxygen on polymeric materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orwoll, Robert A.

    1988-01-01

    At the altitudes of low-earth orbit (LEO), atomic oxygen (AO) is the most abundant chemical species. This strong oxidizing agent reacts with virtually any organic material that is not already fully oxidized. Erosion by AO can be extensive and jeopardizes any protective coatings, thermal blankets, adhesives, and structural composites exposed on the exterior of satellites in LEO. Researchers prepared and tested organic materials for their susceptibility to AO using a commercial plasma asher which approximately simulates the oxygen effects in LEO. Experiments were performed on a polyimide, a polysulfone, and two epoxy adhesives into which low molecular-weight additives have been dissolved. Incorporated in the molecular structure of these additives are elements such as silicon whose nonvolatile oxides, which are formed on exposure to AO, remain as a coating on the surface to create a barrier between the remainder of the organic material and the AO. We find that the additives protect the materials, but the low solubility of some limit their utility. Concurrent studies are underway to measure the effect of the additives on the thermal expansion coefficients of the materials. Tows of aramid fibers, which are important components in the proposed tether satellite systems, have been eroded in the asher. The results which show that the square root of the mass remaining decreases linearly with the time of exposure (see the figure) are consistent with a constant rate of surface erosion. The tensile strength of these eroded tows decreases with time of exposure also; additional measurements are in progress.

  19. Proposed reference models for atomic oxygen in the terrestrial atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Llewellyn, E. J.; Mcdade, I. C.; Lockerbie, M. D.

    1989-01-01

    A provisional Atomic Oxygen Reference model was derived from average monthly ozone profiles and the MSIS-86 reference model atmosphere. The concentrations are presented in tabular form for the altitude range 40 to 130 km.

  20. Collisions of Electrons with Atomic Oxygen: Current Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, P. V.; Kanik, I.; Tayal, S. S.

    2005-01-01

    In 1990, two significant reviews of electron-atomic-oxygen collision processes were published. Since that time, a large volume of both experimental and theoretical research into these processes has occurred. These data are reviewed and recommendations regarding existing data sets and future research in this area are made. Attention is given to the challenges associated with handling atomic oxygen in terms of both experiment and theory.

  1. Low Earth Orbital Atomic Oxygen Interactions With Spacecraft Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; deGroh, Kim K.; Miller, Sharon K.

    2004-01-01

    Atomic oxygen, formed in Earth s thermosphere, interacts readily with many materials on spacecraft flying in low Earth orbit (LEO). All hydrocarbon based polymers and graphite are easily oxidized upon the impact of approx.4.5 eV atomic oxygen as the spacecraft ram into the residual atmosphere. The resulting interactions can change the morphology and reduce the thickness of these materials. Directed atomic oxygen erosion will result in the development of textured surfaces on all materials with volatile oxidation products. Examples from space flight samples are provided. As a result of the erosive properties of atomic oxygen on polymers and composites, protective coatings have been developed and are used to increase the functional life of polymer films and composites that are exposed to the LEO environment. The atomic oxygen erosion yields for actual and predicted LEO exposure of numerous materials are presented. Results of in-space exposure of vacuum deposited aluminum protective coatings on polyimide Kapton indicate high rates of degradation are associated with aluminum coatings on both surfaces of the Kapton. Computational modeling predictions indicate that less trapping of the atomic oxygen occurs, with less resulting damage, if only the space-exposed surface is coated with vapor deposited aluminum rather than having both surfaces coated.

  2. Laboratory simulation of Low Earth Orbit (LEO) atomic oxygen effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caledonia, George E.; Krech, Robert H.; Oakes, David B.

    1994-01-01

    A pulsed fast oxygen atom source has been used extensively over the last 7 years to investigate the effects of ambient oxygen atoms impacting materials placed in low Earth orbit. In this period, we irradiated well over 2000 material samples with 8 km/s oxygen atoms generated in our source. Typical irradiance level is 3 x 10(exp 20) O atoms/sq cm although some materials have been irradiated to fluence levels as high as 6 x 10(exp 21) O atoms/sq cm. The operating principles and characteristics of our source are reviewed along with diagnostic and handling procedures appropriate to material testing. Representative data is presented on the velocity dependence of oxygen atom erosion rates (the PSI source provides oxygen atoms tunable over the velocity range of 5 to 12 km/s) as well as the dependence on material temperature. Specific examples of non-linear oxidative effects related to surface contamination and test duration are also be provided.

  3. Production of pulsed atomic oxygen beams via laser vaporization methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinza, David E.; Coulter, Daniel R.; Liang, Ranty H.; Gupta, Amitava

    1986-01-01

    The generation of energetic pulsed atomic oxygen beams by laser-driven evaporation of cryogenically frozen ozone/oxygen films and thin indium-tin oxide (ITO) films is reported. Mass spectroscopy is used in the mass and energy characterization of beams from the ozone/oxygen films, and a peak flux of 3 x 10 to the 20th/sq m per sec at 10 eV is found. Analysis of the time-of-flight data suggests that several processes contribute to the formation of the oxygen beam. Results show the absence of metastable states such as the 2p(3)3s(1)(5S) level of atomic oxygen blown-off from the ITO films. The present process has application to the study of the oxygen degradation problem of LEO materials.

  4. Angular distribution of photoelectrons from atomic oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manson, S. T.; Kennedy, D. J.; Starace, A. F.; Dill, D.

    1974-01-01

    The angular distribution of photoelectrons from atomic oxygen is investigated using Hartree-Fock (HF) wave functions. The correct formulation is used to compare HS and HF results. Agreement between these results is good and the HS calculations have been extended to atomic nitrogen and carbon as well.

  5. Recovery of a Charred Painting Using Atomic Oxygen Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutledge, Sharon K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Chichernea, Virgil A.

    1999-01-01

    A noncontact method is described which uses atomic oxygen to remove soot and char from the surface of a painting. The atomic oxygen was generated by the dissociation of oxygen in low pressure air using radio frequency energy. The treatment, which is an oxidation process, allows control of the amount of material to be removed. The effectiveness of char removal from half of a fire-damaged oil painting was studied using reflected light measurements from selected areas of the painting and by visual and photographic observation. The atomic oxygen was able to effectively remove char and soot from the treated half of the painting. The remaining loosely bound pigment was lightly sprayed with a mist to replace the binder and then varnish was reapplied. Caution should he used when treating an untested paint medium using atomic oxygen. A representative edge or corner should he tested first in order to determine if the process would be safe for the pigments present. As more testing occurs, a greater knowledge base will be developed as to what types of paints and varnishes can or cannot be treated using this technique. With the proper precautions, atomic oxygen treatment does appear to be a technique with great potential for allowing very charred, previously unrestorable art to be salvaged.

  6. Atomic oxygen effects on LDEF experiment AO171

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, Ann F.; Kamenetzky, Rachel R.; Finckenor, Miria M.; Norwood, Joseph K.

    1993-01-01

    The Solar Array Materials Passive Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Experiment (SAMPLE), AO171, contained in total approximately 100 materials and materials processes with a 300 specimen complement. With the exception of experiment solar cell and solar cell modules, all test specimens were weighed before flight, thus allowing an accurate determination of mass loss as a result of space exposure. Since almost all of the test specimens were thermal vacuum baked before flight, the mass loss sustained can be attributed principally to atomic oxygen attack. The atomic oxygen effects observed and measured in five classes of materials is documented. The atomic oxygen reactivity values generated for these materials are compared to those values derived for the same materials from exposures on short term shuttle flights. An assessment of the utility of predicting long term atomic oxygen effects from short term exposures is given. This experiment was located on Row 8 position A which allowed all experiment materials to be exposed to an atomic oxygen fluence of 6.93 x 10(exp 21) atoms/cm(sup 2) as a result of being positioned 38 degrees off the RAM direction.

  7. Low earth orbital atomic oxygen simulation for materials durability evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Rutledge, Sharon K.

    1989-01-01

    The erosion yields of numerous materials have been evaluated in low earth orbital space tests. There appears to be three classes of materials: materials of high erosion yield which include most of the hydrocarbon organic materials; materials which either do not react with atomic oxygen or form self-protecting oxides which allow the underlying material to appear durable to atomic oxygen, and materials with low but nonnegligeable erosion yields, such as fluoropolymers. A NASA atomic oxygen effects test program has been established to utilize collective data from a multitude of simulation facilities to promote an understanding of mechanism and erosion yield dependencies. Atomic oxygen protective coatings for Kapton polymide solar array blankets, fiberglass-epoxy composite mast structures, and solar dynamic power system concentrator surfaces have been identified and evaluated under atomic oxygen exposure in RF plasma asher laboratory tests. The control of defect density in protective coatings appears to be the key to the assurance of long-term protection of oxidizable materials in low earth orbit.

  8. Surface modification of polymers by atomic oxygen using ECR plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdul majeed, Riyadh M. A.; Datar, A.; Bhoraskar, S. V.; Bhoraskar, V. N.

    2007-05-01

    Polyimide (PI) and fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) samples were exposed to atomic oxygen ions of average energy ˜12 eV and flux ˜5 × 10 13 ions cm -2 s -1, produced in an ECR plasma. The fluence of the oxygen ions was varied from sample to sample over a range from ˜5 × 10 16 to 2 × 10 17 ions cm -2. The pre- and the post-irradiated samples were characterized by the contact angle, AFM and XPS techniques. The results indicate that the surface roughness of the polyimide increased from ˜7 to ˜65 nm, that of the FEP from ˜5 to ˜28 nm and the surface regions of both polyimide and FEP changed from hydrophobic to hydrophilic after exposure to atomic oxygen ions. The XPS results reveal that the concentrations of carbon, fluorine and oxygen changed even at a fluence of ˜10 17 ions cm -2 of the atomic oxygen ions. The results of the present study reveal that significant changes have been induced in the surface morphology and adhesion properties of polyimide and FEP after exposure to atomic oxygen ions.

  9. Production of pulsed atomic oxygen beams via laser vaporization methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinza, David E.; Coulter, Daniel R.; Liang, Ranty H.; Gupta, Amitava

    1987-01-01

    Energetic pulsed atomic oxygen beams were generated by laser-driven evaporation of cryogenically frozen ozone/oxygen films and thin films of indium-tin oxide (ITO). Mass and energy characterization of beams from the ozone/oxygen films were carried out by mass spectrometry. The peak flux, found to occur at 10 eV, is estimated from this data to be 3 x 10(20) m(-2) s(-1). Analysis of the time-of-flight data indicates a number of processes contribute to the formation of the atomic oxygen beam. The absence of metastable states such as the 2p(3) 3s(1) (5S) level of atomic oxygen blown off from ITO films is supported by the failure to observe emission at 777.3 nm from the 2p(3) 3p(1) (5P sub J) levels. Reactive scattering experiments with polymer film targets for atomic oxygen bombardment are planned using a universal crossed molecular beam apparatus.

  10. Energetic Metastable Oxygen and Nitrogen Atoms in the Terrestrial Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kharchenko, Vasili; Dalgarno, A.

    2005-01-01

    This report summarizes our research performed under NASA Grant NAG5-11857. The three-year grant have been supported by the Geospace Sciences SR&T program. We have investigated the energetic metastable oxygen and nitrogen atoms in the terrestrial stratosphere, mesosphere and thermosphere. Hot atoms in the atmosphere are produced by solar radiation, the solar wind and various ionic reactions. Nascent hot atoms arise in ground and excited electronic states, and their translational energies are larger by two - three orders of magnitude than the thermal energies of the ambient gas. The relaxation kinetics of hot atoms determines the rate of atmospheric heating, the intensities of aeronomic reactions, and the rate of atom escape from the planet. Modeling of the non-Maxwellian energy distributions of metastable oxygen and nitrogen atoms have been focused on the determination of their impact on the energetics and chemistry of the terrestrial atmosphere between 25 and 250 km . At this altitudes, we have calculated the energy distribution functions of metastable O and N atoms and computed non-equilibrium rates of important aeronomic reactions, such as destruction of the water molecules by O(1D) atoms and production of highly excited nitric oxide molecules. In the upper atmosphere, the metastable O(lD) and N(2D) play important role in formation of the upward atomic fluxes. We have computed the upward fluxes of the metastable and ground state oxygen atoms in the upper atmosphere above 250 km. The accurate distributions of the metastable atoms have been evaluated for the day and night-time conditions.

  11. Flight Validation of Atomic Oxygen Resistant Resistant Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiefer, Richard L.; Orwoll, Robert A.

    1999-01-01

    Because of its high reactivity, atomic oxygen causes surface erosion on polymeric materials. although the reaction efficiency depends on the chemical structure of the polymer. We have found an organotin compound, bis(triphenyltin) oxide (BTO), which has an unusually high solubility in solutions of a number of commercial high performance polymers. Films of these polymers containing BTO showed a substantial reduction in erosion by atomic oxygen when compared with films of the pure material. Analysis has shown that in the presence of atomic oxygen, erosion of the exposed surfaces of the BTO-containing films leaves a residual protective tin oxide coating . Since the additive is uniformly distributed throughout the polymeric material, any break or puncture in the protective coating is "healed" by the material below. Samples were exposed to the environment of the low earth orbit (LEO) on two Space Shuttle flights, STS-46, in June of 1992, and STS-51 in September of 1993. The analysis of these samples has been reported previously. For both flights, the samples were small (1.3 cm and 1.9 cm respectively) thus limiting the scope of analysis. In the research under this cooperative agreement, films of a polyetherimide, were exposed to the LEO environment on Space Shuttle flight STS-85 in August of 1997 as part of the Evaluation of Space Environment and Effects on Materials (ESEM) experiment. The polyetherimide chosen is available commercially as Ultem, registered to the General Electric Company. Films of pure Ultem, Ultem with 10% BTO by mass, and Ultem with 20% BTO by mass were exposed in the ram direction for 40 hours during STS-85. Ultem has a Tg of 215 deg C and is soluble in common chlorinated solvents. Granules of the polymer were dried at 120 deg C, but otherwise were used as received. Films were cast on a glass plate from a solution of the polymer in a 60/40 (w/w) mixture of chloroform and 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane. The plate was placed in a dust-free box for at least

  12. Photoionization research on atomic beams. 2: The photoionization cross section of atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comes, F. J.; Speier, F.; Elzer, A.

    1982-01-01

    An experiment to determine the absolute value of the photo-ionization cross section of atomic oxygen is described. The atoms are produced in an electrical discharge in oxygen gas with 1% hydrogen added. In order to prevent recombination a crossed beam technique is employed. The ions formed are detected by a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The concentration of oxygen atoms in the beam is 57%. The measured photoionization cross section of atomic oxygen is compared with theoretical data. The results show the participation of autoionization processes in ionization. The cross section at the autoionizing levels detected is considerably higher than the absorption due to the unperturbed continuum. Except for wavelengths where autoionization occurs, the measured ionization cross section is in fair agreement with theory. This holds up to 550 A whereas for shorter wavelengths the theoretical values are much higher.

  13. Atomic oxygen effects on POSS polyimides in low earth orbit.

    PubMed

    Minton, Timothy K; Wright, Michael E; Tomczak, Sandra J; Marquez, Sara A; Shen, Linhan; Brunsvold, Amy L; Cooper, Russell; Zhang, Jianming; Vij, Vandana; Guenthner, Andrew J; Petteys, Brian J

    2012-02-01

    Kapton polyimde is extensively used in solar arrays, spacecraft thermal blankets, and space inflatable structures. Upon exposure to atomic oxygen in low Earth orbit (LEO), Kapton is severely eroded. An effective approach to prevent this erosion is to incorporate polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) into the polyimide matrix by copolymerizing POSS monomers with the polyimide precursor. The copolymerization of POSS provides Si and O in the polymer matrix on the nano level. During exposure of POSS polyimide to atomic oxygen, organic material is degraded, and a silica passivation layer is formed. This silica layer protects the underlying polymer from further degradation. Laboratory and space-flight experiments have shown that POSS polyimides are highly resistant to atomic-oxygen attack, with erosion yields that may be as little as 1% those of Kapton. The results of all the studies indicate that POSS polyimide would be a space-survivable replacement for Kapton on spacecraft that operate in the LEO environment.

  14. Cleaning of Fire Damaged Watercolor and Textiles Using Atomic Oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutledge, Sharon K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Chichernea, Virgil A.; Haytas, Christy A.

    2000-01-01

    A noncontact technique is described that uses atomic oxygen generated under low pressure in the presence of nitrogen to remove soot from the surface of a test watercolor panel and strips of cotton, wool and silk. The process, which involves surface oxidation, permits control of the amount of surface material removed. The effectiveness of soot removal from test panels of six basic watercolors (alizarin crimson, burnt sienna, lemon yellow, yellow ochre, cerulean blue and ultramarine blue) and strips of colored cotton, wool and silk was measured using reflectance spectroscopy. The atomic oxygen removed soot effectively from the treated areas and enabled partial recovery of charred watercolors. However, overexposure can result in removal of sizing, bleaching, and weakening of the structure. With the proper precautions, atomic oxygen treatment appears to have great potential to salvage heavily smoke damaged artworks which were previously considered unrestorable.

  15. New Active Optical Technique Developed for Measuring Low-Earth-Orbit Atomic Oxygen Erosion of Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; deGroh, Kim K.; Demko, Rikako

    2003-01-01

    uniformly thick sheet of semitransparent polymer such as Kapton H polyimide, then as atomic oxygen erodes the polymer, the short-circuit current from the photodiode will increase in an exponential manner with fluence. This nonlinear response with fluence results in a lack of sensitivity for measuring low atomic oxygen fluences. However, if one uses a variable-thickness polymer or carbon sample, which is configured as shown in the preceding figure, then a linear response can be achieved for opaque materials using a parabolic well for a circular geometry detector or a V-shaped well for a rectangular-geometry detector. Variable-thickness samples can be fabricated using many thin polymer layers. For semitransparent polymers such as Kapton H polyimide, there is an initial short-circuit current that is greater than zero. This current has a slightly nonlinear dependence on atomic oxygen fluence in comparison to opaque materials such as black Kapton as shown in the graph. For this graph figure, the total thickness of Kapton H was assumed to be 0.03 cm. The photodiode short-circuit current shown in the graph was generated on the basis of preliminary measurements-a total reflectance rho of 0.0424 and an optical absorption coefficient a of 146.5 cm(sup -1). In addition to obtaining on-orbit data, the advantage of this active erosion and erosion yield measurement technique is its simplicity and reliance upon well-characterized fluence witness materials as well as a nearly linear photodiode short-circuit current dependence upon atomic oxygen fluence. The optical technique is useful for measuring either atomic oxygen fluence or erosion, depending on the information desired. To measure the atomic oxygen erosion yield of a test material, one would need to have two photodiode sensors, one for the test material and one that uses a known erosion yield material (such as Kapton) to measure the atomic oxygen fluence.

  16. Vacuum ultraviolet radiation/atomic oxygen synergism in materials reactivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koontz, Steven; Leger, Lubert; Albyn, Keith; Cross, Jon

    1990-01-01

    Experimental results are presented which indicate that low fluxes of vacuum UV (VUV) radiation exert a pronounced influence on the atomic oxygen reactivity of such fluorocarbon and fluorocarbon spacecraft materials as the FEP Teflon and PCTFE that are under consideration for the Space Station Freedom. With simultaneous exposure to VUV fluxes comparable to those experienced in LEO, the reactivity of these materials becomes comparable to that of Kapton; VUV radiation has also been shown to increase the reactivity of Kapton with thermal-energy oxygen atoms.

  17. Study of the reaction of atomic oxygen with aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akers, F. I.; Wightman, J. P.

    1975-01-01

    The rate of disappearance of atomic oxygen was measured at several pressures in a fast flow pyrex reactor system with its walls treated with (NH4)2SO4 (s), H2SO4 (l), and NH4CL (s). Atomic oxygen, P-3 was generated by dissociation of pure, low pressure oxygen in a microwave discharge. Concentrations of atomic oxygen were measured at several stations in the reactor system using chemiluminescent titration with NO2. Recombination efficiencies calculated from experimentally determined wall recombination rate constants are in good agreement with reported values for clean Pyrex and an H2SO4 coated wall. The recombination efficiency for (NH4)2SO4, results in a slightly lower value than for H2S04. A rapid exothermic reaction between atomic oxygen and the NH4Cl wall coating prevented recombination efficiency determination for this coating. The results show that the technique is highly useful for wall recombination measurements and as a means of extrapolating to the case of free stream aerosol-gas interactions.

  18. Theoretical model for electrophilic oxygen atom insertion into hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Bach, R.D.; Su, M.D. ); Andres, J.L. Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI ); McDouall, J.J.W. )

    1993-06-30

    A theoretical model suggesting the mechanistic pathway for the oxidation of saturated-alkanes to their corresponding alcohols and ketones is described. Water oxide (H[sub 2]O-O) is employed as a model singlet oxygen atom donor. Molecular orbital calculations with the 6-31G basis set at the MP2, QCISD, QCISD(T), CASSCF, and MRCI levels of theory suggest that oxygen insertion by water oxide occurs by the interaction of an electrophilic oxygen atom with a doubly occupied hydrocarbon fragment orbital. The electrophilic oxygen approaches the hydrocarbon along the axis of the atomic carbon p orbital comprising a [pi]-[sub CH(2)] or [pi]-[sub CHCH(3)] fragment orbital to form a carbon-oxygen [sigma] bond. A concerted hydrogen migration to an adjacent oxygen lone pair of electrons affords the alcohol insertion product in a stereoselective fashion with predictable stereochemistry. Subsequent oxidation of the alcohol to a ketone (or aldehyde) occurs in a similar fashion and has a lower activation barrier. The calculated (MP4/6-31G*//MP2/6-31G*) activation barriers for oxygen atom insertion into the C-H bonds of methane, ethane, propane, butane, isobutane, and methanol are 10.7, 8.2, 3.9, 4.8, 4.5, and 3.3 kcal/mol, respectively. We use ab initio molecular orbital calculations in support of a frontier MO theory that provides a unique rationale for both the stereospecificity and the stereoselectivity of insertion of electrophilic oxygen and related electrophiles into the carbon-hydrogen bond. 13 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Solar filters as feasible acceptors of atomic oxygen.

    PubMed

    Durán-Giner, Neus; Encinas, Susana; Miranda, Miguel A

    2013-05-01

    The triazine derivative Tinosorb S has been shown to accept atomic oxygen generated by N-oxide photodeoxygenation. This is a unique example of a solar filter and mechanism-directed antioxidant. The concept has been proved by a combination of steady-state and laser-flash photolysis.

  20. Atomic Oxygen Lamp Cleaning Facility Fabricated and Tested

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sechkar, Edward A.; Stueber, Thomas J.

    1999-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center's Atomic Oxygen Lamp Cleaning Facility was designed to produce an atomic oxygen plasma within a metal halide lamp to remove carbon-based contamination. It is believed that these contaminants contribute to the high failure rate realized during the production of these lamps. The facility is designed to evacuate a metal halide lamp and produce a radio frequency generated atomic oxygen plasma within it. Oxygen gas, with a purity of 0.9999 percent and in the pressure range of 150 to 250 mtorr, is used in the lamp for plasma generation while the lamp is being cleaned. After cleaning is complete, the lamp can be backfilled with 0.9999-percent pure nitrogen and torch sealed. The facility comprises various vacuum components connected to a radiation-shielded box that encloses the bulb during operation. Radiofrequency power is applied to the two parallel plates of a capacitor, which are on either side of the lamp. The vacuum pump used, a Leybold Trivac Type D4B, has a pumping speed of 4-m3/hr, has an ultimate pressure of <8x10-4, and is specially adapted for pure oxygen service. The electronic power supply, matching network, and controller (500-W, 13.56-MHz) used to supply the radiofrequency power were purchased from RF Power Products Inc. Initial test results revealed that this facility could remove the carbon-based contamination from within bulbs.

  1. Novel oxygen atom source for material degradation studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krech, R. H.; Caledonia, G. E.

    1988-01-01

    Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) has developed a high flux pulsed source of energetic (8 km/s) atomic oxygen to bombard specimens in experiments on the aging and degradation of materials in a low earth orbit environment. The proof-of-concept of the PSI approach was demonstrated in a Phase 1 effort. In Phase 2 a large O-atom testing device (FAST-2) has been developed and characterized. Quantitative erosion testing of materials, components, and even small assemblies (such as solar cell arrays) can be performed with this source to determine which materials and/or components are most vulnerable to atomic oxygen degradation. The source is conservatively rated to irradiate a 100 sq cm area sample at greater than 10(exp 17) atoms/s, at a 10 Hz pulse rate. Samples can be exposed to an atomic oxygen fluence equivalent to the on-orbit ram direction exposure levels incident on Shuttle surfaces at 250 km during a week-long mission in a few hours.

  2. Atomic Oxygen Interactions With Silicone Contamination on Spacecraft in Low Earth Orbit Studied

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.

    2001-01-01

    Silicones have been widely used on spacecraft as potting compounds, adhesives, seals, gaskets, hydrophobic surfaces, and atomic oxygen protective coatings. Contamination of optical and thermal control surfaces on spacecraft in low Earth orbit (LEO) has been an ever-present problem as a result of the interaction of atomic oxygen with volatile species from silicones and hydrocarbons onboard spacecraft. These interactions can deposit a contaminant that is a risk to spacecraft performance because it can form an optically absorbing film on the surfaces of Sun sensors, star trackers, or optical components or can increase the solar absorptance of thermal control surfaces. The transmittance, absorptance, and reflectance of such contaminant films seem to vary widely from very transparent SiOx films to much more absorbing SiOx-based films that contain hydrocarbons. At the NASA Glenn Research Center, silicone contamination that was oxidized by atomic oxygen has been examined from LEO spacecraft (including the Long Duration Exposure Facility and the Mir space station solar arrays) and from ground laboratory LEO simulations. The findings resulted in the development of predictive models that may help explain the underlying issues and effects. Atomic oxygen interactions with silicone volatiles and mixtures of silicone and hydrocarbon volatiles produce glassy SiOx-based contaminant coatings. The addition of hydrocarbon volatiles in the presence of silicone volatiles appears to cause much more absorbing (and consequently less transmitting) contaminant films than when no hydrocarbon volatiles are present. On the basis of the LDEF and Mir results, conditions of high atomic oxygen flux relative to low contaminant flux appear to result in more transparent contaminant films than do conditions of low atomic oxygen flux with high contaminant flux. Modeling predictions indicate that the deposition of contaminant films early in a LEO flight should depend much more on atomic oxygen flux than

  3. Alternative Methods of the Thermospheric Atomic Oxygen Density Determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett. Adam C.; Omidvar, Kazem; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Atomic oxygen density in the upper thermosphere (approximately 300 km) can be calculated using ground based incoherent scatter radar and Fabry-Perot interferometer measurements. Burnside et al. [1991] was the first to try this method, but Buonsanto et al. provided an extensive treatment of the method in 1997. This paper further examines the method using 46 nights of data collected over six years and the latest information on the oxygen collision frequency. The method is compared with the MSIS-86 atomic oxygen prediction values, which are based upon in situ rocket born and satellite measurements from the 70's to the mid-80's In general, the method supports the MSIS-86 model, but indicates several areas of discrepancy. Furthermore, no direct correlation is found between the geomagnetic conditions and the difference between the method and MSIS-86 predictions.

  4. Alternative Method for the Thermospheric Atomic Oxygen Density Determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, A. C.; Omidvar, K.; Atlas, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Atomic oxygen density in the upper thermosphere (approximately 300 km) can be calculated using ground based incoherent scatter radar and Fabry-Perot interferometer measurements. Burnside et al. was the first to try this method, but Buonsanto et al. provided an extensive treatment of the method in 1997. This paper further examines the method using 46 nights of data collected over six years and the latest information on the oxygen collision frequency. The method is compared with the MSIS (Mass Spectrometer Incoherent Scatter)-86 atomic oxygen prediction values, which are based upon in situ rocket born and satellite measurements from the 70s to the mid-80s. In general, the method supports the MSIS-86 model, but indicates several areas of discrepancy. Furthermore, no direct correlation is found between the geomagnetic conditions and the difference between the method and MSIS-86 predictions.

  5. LEO atomic oxygen effects on spacecraft materials: STS-5 results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, A. F.

    1984-01-01

    Effects of low Earth orbit (LEO) atomic oxygen were measured on a variety of spacecraft materials which obtained exposure on STS-5. Material degradation dependency on temperature was found in one material. Of the five paints flown, only S13GLO was unaffected. Generally, the glossy paints became Lambertian and the diffuse coatings improved. Scanning electron microscope examinations indicated removal of urethane and epoxy paint binder materials. Reaction products were evident on the surfaces of Z302 paint and Mylar. Thin films showed thickness losses ranging from negligible loss in Teflon to considerable loss in Mylar and Kapton. Glossy films such as black Kapton and white Tedlar became diffused. Kevlar 29 rope lost tensile strength and silver solar cell interconnect material oxidized. Oxidation on the backside of an elevated specimen indicated that reflections of oxygen atoms were occurring and that reflecting surfaces, probably Kapton, were not fully accommodating the incident atoms.

  6. Velocity distributions of oxygen atoms incident on spacecraft surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, P. N.; Sisk, R. C.; Gregory, J. C.

    1988-01-01

    The angular distributions of oxygen atoms incident on surfaces in low earth orbit have been calculated for a number of ambient gas temperatures. Atom fluxes to surfaces were modeled by integrals over all permitted angles of incidence. Angles of incidence are limited by masking structures, and a number of types of mask were considered. Combustible surfaces exposed to the orbital atmosphere are heavily etched, creating profiles in mask shadows that are sensitive to ambient temperatures. The influence of the angular distributions on the characteristics of etched surfaces is discussed. Profiles measured for a September, 1983 flight were fitted to this model profile with a temperature of 750 + or - 50 K, which agrees with estimates based on solar activity at that time. Applications to sensing ambient temperatures and oxygen atom densities are discussed.

  7. Changes in Polymeric Tether Properties Due to Atomic Oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finckenor, Miria M.; Vaughn, Jason A.; Watts, Edward W.

    2003-01-01

    The Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS) mission is designed to provide an on-orbit demonstration of the electrodynamic propulsion capabilities of tethers in space. The ProSEDS experiment will be a secondary payload on a Delta II unmanned expendable booster. A 5-km conductive tether is attached to the Delta II second stage and collects current fiom the low Earth orbit (LEO) plasma to facilitate de-orbit of the spent stage. The conductive tether is attached to a 10-km non-conductive tether, which is then attached to an endmass containing several scientific instruments. Atomic oxygen (AO) erodes most organic materials. As the orbit of the Delta II second stage decas, the AO flux (atoms/sq cm sec) increases. A nominal AO fluence of 1 x l0(exp 21) atoms/sq cm was agreed upon by the investigators as an adequate level for evaluating the performance of the tether materials. A test series was performed to determine the effect of atomic oxygen (AO) on the mechanical integrity and possible strength loss of ProSEDS tether materials. The tether materials in this study were Dyneema, an ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene material used as the non-conducting portion of the ProSEDS tether, and the Kevlar core strength fiber used in the conductive tether. Samples of Dyneema and Kevlar were exposed to various levels of atomic oxygen up to 1.07 x 10(exp 21) atoms/sq cm in the Marshall Space Flight Center Atomic Oxygen Beam Facility (AOBF). Changes in mass were noted after AO exposure. The tethers were then tensile-tested until failure. AO affected both the Dyneema and Kevlar tether material strength. Dyneema exposed to 1.07 x 10(exp 21) atoms/sq cm of atomic oxygen failed due to normal handling when removed fiom the AOBF and was not tensile-tested. Another test series was performed to determine the effect of AO on the electrical properties of the ProSEDS conductive tether. The conductive tether consists of seven individually coated strands of 28 AWG 1350

  8. Resonant enhanced multiphoton ionization studies of atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dixit, S. N.; Levin, D.; Mckoy, V.

    1987-01-01

    In resonant enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI), an atom absorbs several photons making a transition to a resonant intermediate state and subsequently ionizing out of it. With currently available tunable narrow-band lasers, the extreme sensitivity of REMPI to the specific arrangement of levels can be used to selectively probe minute amounts of a single species (atom) in a host of background material. Determination of the number density of atoms from the observed REMPI signal requires a knowledge of the multiphoton ionization cross sections. The REMPI of atomic oxygen was investigated through various excitation schemes that are feasible with available light sources. Using quantum defect theory (QDT) to estimate the various atomic parameters, the REMPI dynamics in atomic oxygen were studied incorporating the effects of saturation and a.c. Stark shifts. Results are presented for REMPI probabilities for excitation through various 2p(3) (4S sup o) np(3)P and 2p(3) (4S sup o) nf(3)F levels.

  9. Synthesis of low color, atomic oxygen resistant polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacInnes, Dave

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop low color, atomic oxygen resistant polyimides for potential applications on spacecraft in low earth orbit. The material is needed in order to protect satellites and spacecraft from the gases and radiation found at those altitudes. Phosphorous containing polyimides have been shown to be especially resistant to corrosion and weight loss under oxygen plasma. Unfortunately the color of these phosphorous containing polyimides is still too high for them to be good heat insulators. While they are not as effective as teflon, the current material of choice. polyimides are much less dense than teflon and would be especially valuable if they could be made with low color. The approach taken was to synthesize a monomer which would contain the elements needed for giving the final polyimide its desired properties. In particular the monomer should incorporate phosphine or phosphine oxides and have bulky side groups to block any color forming charge transfer structures. The target molecule, 3,5-di-(trifluoromethylphenyl)-bis(3-aminophenyl) phosphine oxide, (containing both a phosphine oxide group and a bulky ditrifluoromethylphenyl group) was synthesized via three reactions in overall yield of 21 percent. In addition, a model compound, bis(3-phenylamine) phenyl phosphine oxide, was synthesized two different ways in order to establish the conditions for the nitration of phosphine oxides and their reduction to the amine. Finally, a trisubstituted phosphine oxide was synthesized. In all, seven phosphorus containing organic compounds were synthesized, purified and characterized. The model compound was reacted with oxydiphthalic anhydride to form a polyamic acid with inherent viscosity of 0.34. This material was cast into a film and heated, forming a normally colored fairly strong polyimide with a Tg of 240 C. The target compound was reacted with 6-fluorodiphthalic anhydride to give a polyamic acid with inherent viscosity of 0.19 and cast to

  10. Atomic oxygen patterning from a biomedical needle-plasma source

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, Seán; Turner, Miles M.

    2013-09-28

    A “plasma needle” is a cold plasma source operating at atmospheric pressure. Such sources interact strongly with living cells, but experimental studies on bacterial samples show that this interaction has a surprising pattern resulting in circular or annular killing structures. This paper presents numerical simulations showing that this pattern occurs because biologically active reactive oxygen and nitrogen species are produced dominantly where effluent from the plasma needle interacts with ambient air. A novel solution strategy is utilised coupling plasma produced neutral (uncharged) reactive species to the gas dynamics solving for steady state profiles at the treated biological surface. Numerical results are compared with experimental reports corroborating evidence for atomic oxygen as a key bactericidal species. Surface losses are considered for interaction of plasma produced reactants with reactive solid and liquid interfaces. Atomic oxygen surface reactions on a reactive solid surface with adsorption probabilities above 0.1 are shown to be limited by the flux of atomic oxygen from the plasma. Interaction of the source with an aqueous surface showed hydrogen peroxide as the dominant species at this interface.

  11. Consequences of Atomic Oxygen Interaction With Silicone and Silicone Contamination on Surfaces in Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; deGroh, Kim K.; Rutledge, Sharon K.; Haytas, Christy A.

    1999-01-01

    The exposure of silicones to atomic oxygen in low Earth orbit causes oxidation of the surface, resulting in conversion of silicone to silica. This chemical conversion increases the elastic modulus of the surface and initiates the development of a tensile strain. Ultimately, with sufficient exposure, tensile strain leads to cracking of the surface enabling the underlying unexposed silicone to be converted to silica resulting in additional depth and extent of cracking. The use of silicone coatings for the protection of materials from atomic oxygen attack is limited because of the eventual exposure of underlying unprotected polymeric material due to deep tensile stress cracking of the oxidized silicone. The use of moderate to high volatility silicones in low Earth orbit has resulted in a silicone contamination arrival at surfaces which are simultaneously being bombarded with atomic oxygen, thus leading to conversion of the silicone contaminant to silica. As a result of these processes, a gradual accumulation of contamination occurs leading to deposits which at times have been up to several microns thick (as in the case of a Mir solar array after 10 years in space). The contamination species typically consist of silicon, oxygen and carbon. which in the synergistic environment of atomic oxygen and UV radiation leads to increased solar absorptance and reduced solar transmittance. A comparison of the results of atomic oxygen interaction with silicones and silicone contamination will be presented based on the LDEF, EOIM-111, Offeq-3 spacecraft and Mir solar array in-space results. The design of a contamination pin-hole camera space experiment which uses atomic oxygen to produce an image of the sources of silicone contamination will also be presented.

  12. Further investigations of experiment A0034 atomic oxygen stimulated outgassing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linton, Roger C.; Finckenor, Miria M.; Kamenetzky, Rachel R.

    1995-01-01

    Thermal control coatings within the recessed compartments of LDEF Experiment A0034 experienced the maximum leading edge fluence of atomic oxygen with considerably less solar UV radiation exposure than top-surface mounted materials of other LDEF experiments on either the leading or the trailing edge. This combination of exposure within A0034 resulted in generally lower levels of darkening attributable to solar UV radiation than for similar materials on other LDEF experiments exposed to greater cumulative solar UV radiation levels. Changes in solar absorptance and infrared thermal emittance of the exposed coatings are thus unique to this exposure. Analytical results for other applications have been found for environmentally induced changes in fluorescence, surface morphology, light scattering, and the effects of coating outgassing products on adjacent mirrors and windows of the A0034 experiment. Some atmospheric bleaching of the thermal control coatings, in addition to that presumably experience during reentry and recovery operations, has been found since initial post-flight observations and measurements.

  13. Interaction of atomic oxygen with a graphite surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateljevic, Natasa

    This project was a part of the Multi University Research Initiative (MURI) Center for Materials Chemistry in the Space Environment which seeks to develop a quantitative and predictive understanding of how materials degrade or become passivated in the space environment. This is a critical research area for the Department of Defense (DoD) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) given the large and increasing dependence on satellites and manned spacecrafts that reside in, or pass through, the low-Earth orbit (LEO) space environment. In this work, we completed three separate projects. First, we carried out ab initio electronic structure studies of the interaction of oxygen atoms with graphite surfaces. The (O3 P) ground state of oxygen interacts weakly with the graphite surface while the excited (O1D) state interacts more strongly with a binding energy sufficient for a high coverage of oxygen to be maintained on the surface. Thus, it requires a transition from O(3P) to O(1D) in order for oxygen to strongly bind. Since graphite is a semi-metal, it requires a vanishingly small energy to remove an electron of up spin from just below the Fermi level, and replace it with a down spin electron just above the Fermi level; spin-orbit interaction is not required to switch the state of the oxygen atom. We have examined this complexity for the first time and developed guidelines for properly describing chemical reactivity on graphite surfaces. The second project is a kinetic Monte Carlo study of the erosion of graphite by energetic oxygen atoms in LEO and in the laboratory. These simulations, in conjunction with experiments by our MURI collaborators, reveal new insights about reaction pathways. Finally, we have developed a new model for accommodation of energy and momentum in collisions of gases with highly corrugated surfaces. This model promises to be valuable in simulating frictional heating and drag of objects moving through the atmosphere.

  14. Hypervelocity atomic oxygen source for the study of atom-surface interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freedman, A.; Unkel, W.; Stinespring, C.

    1987-01-01

    Planned improvements in an electric discharge heated atomic oxygen beam source are described which will provide 6 to 7 kms(-1) beams of atomic oxygen with a flux of 10(16) cm(-2) s(-1) at 50 cm distance from the source aperture. A major advance will be the use of a zone of silence nozzle-skimmer arrangement which is necessitated by the need for high source flux and performance. It is anticipated that a Phase 2 program would provide for the fabrication of a two stage vacuum system which would be suitable for bolting on to a UHV (ultrahigh vacuum) surface study apparatus.

  15. Modified Truncated Cone Target Hyperthermal Atomic Oxygen Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughn, J. A.; Kamenetsky, R. R.; Finckenor, M. M.

    1999-01-01

    The modified truncated cone target is a docking target planned for use on the International Space Station. The current design consists of aluminum treated with a black dye anodize, then crosshairs are laser etched for a silvery color. Samples of the treated aluminum were exposed to laboratory simulation of atomic oxygen and ultraviolet radiation to determine if significant degradation might occur. Durability was evaluated based on the contrast ratio between the black and silvery white areas of the target. Degradation of optical properties appeared to level off after an initial period of exposure to atomic oxygen. The sample that was not alodined according to MIL-C-5541, type 1A, performed better than alodined samples.

  16. Removal of Biologically Active Organic Contaminants using Atomic Oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A. (Inventor); Banks, Michael A. (Inventor); Banks, Eric B. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    Biomedical devices that are to come into contact with living tissue, such as prosthetic and other implants for the human body and the containers used to store and transport them, are together cleaned of non-living, but biologically active organic materials, including endotoxins such as lipopolysaccharides, and assembled into a hermetically sealed package without recontamination. This is achieved by cleaning both the device and package components together in an apparatus, which includes a hermetically sealed chamber, in which they are contacted with atomic oxygen which biocleans them, by oxidizing the biologically active organic materials. The apparatus also includes means for manipulating the device and container and hermetically sealing the cleaned device into the cleaned container to form the package. A calibrated witness coupon visually indicates whether or not the device and container have received enough exposure to the atomic oxygen to have removed the organic materials from their surfaces. Gamma radiation is then used to sterilize the device in the sealed container.

  17. Applying Additive Manufacturing to a New Liquid Oxygen Turbopump Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Neal, Derek

    2016-01-01

    A liquid oxygen turbopump has been designed at Marshall Space Flight Center as part of the in-house, Advanced Manufacturing Demonstrator Engine (AMDE) project. Additive manufacturing, specifically direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) of Inconel 718, is used for 77% of the parts by mass. These parts include the impeller, turbine components, and housings. The near-net shape DMLS parts have been delivered and final machining is underway. Fabrication of the traditionally manufactured hardware is also proceeding. Testing in liquid oxygen is planned for Q2 of FY2017. This topic explores the design of the turbopump along with fabrication and material testing of the DMLS hardware.

  18. Energetic Atomic Oxygen in the Region of the Terrestrial Exobase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shizgal, B.; Sospedra-Alfonso, R.

    2012-12-01

    Translationally energetic atoms in the terrestrial exosphere with energies considerably above thermal energies are responsible for nonthermal emissions and enhanced nonthermal escape of atmospheric species. These escape mechanisms play an important role in the evolution of Earth's atmosphere. The existence of an extended coronae of translationally energetic oxygen atoms O* has been firmly established [1]. One mechanism to produce energetic oxygen atoms is the dissociative recombination reaction, O2+ + e- -> O* + O*. There is a continued interest in a better understanding of the physics of this process for the terrestrial exosphere. The terrestrial atmosphere can be divided into three main regions characterized by their relaxation properties [1]. The lower thermosphere (200-250 km), the upper exosphere (700-800 km) and the transition region (300-700). The lower thermosphere has a predominance of elastic collisions and therefore the particles are essentially in local equilibrium. In contrast, the thermalization in the upper exosphere is less predominant, although the production rate of nonthermal particles is also low. In the transition region, the production rate of nonthermal particles is significant and there is a decrease in the thermalization rate. This region is the main source of the nonthermal geocorona [1]. The relaxation properties of this region implies that the particle distribution can deviate from statistical equilibrium, and the distribution of nonthermal particles can be described with kinetic theory. In [2], we modeled the energetic oxygen distribution with a linear Boltzmann equation that included a source term for the production of hot oxygen owing to dissociative recombination. The distribution function was assumed to be isotropic and the objective was to determine the departure of the distribution function from Maxwellian and the departure of the density profile from barometric. In the present work, we consider a two component system of

  19. Monte Carlo modeling of atomic oxygen attack of polymers with protective coatings on LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Degroh, Kim K.; Auer, Bruce M.; Gebauer, Linda; Edwards, Jonathan L.

    1993-01-01

    Characterization of the behavior of atomic oxygen interaction with materials on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) assists in understanding of the mechanisms involved. Thus the reliability of predicting in-space durability of materials based on ground laboratory testing should be improved. A computational model which simulates atomic oxygen interaction with protected polymers was developed using Monte Carlo techniques. Through the use of an assumed mechanistic behavior of atomic oxygen interaction based on in-space atomic oxygen erosion of unprotected polymers and ground laboratory atomic oxygen interaction with protected polymers, prediction of atomic oxygen interaction with protected polymers on LDEF was accomplished. However, the results of these predictions are not consistent with the observed LDEF results at defect sites in protected polymers. Improved agreement between observed LDEF results and predicted Monte Carlo modeling can be achieved by modifying of the atomic oxygen interactive assumptions used in the model. LDEF atomic oxygen undercutting results, modeling assumptions, and implications are presented.

  20. Electron stimulated desorption of atomic oxygen from silver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Outlaw, R. A.; Peregoy, W. K.; Hoflund, Gar B.; Corallo, Gregory R.

    1987-01-01

    The electron stimulated desorption (ESD) of neutral oxygen atoms from polycrystalline silver and of oxygen ions from Ag(110) has been studied. Polycrystalline Ag charged with (16)O2 and (18)O2 and bombarded by low-energy electrons (approx 100 eV) under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) conditions emitted O atom flux levels of 1 x 10 to the 12th power/sq cm/s at a Ag temperature of 300 C. The flux was detected with a quadrupole mass spectrometer operating in the appearance potential mode. The neutral cross section at about 100 C was determined to be 7 x 10 to the -19 sq cm. Ancillary experiments conducted in a UHV chamber equipped with a cylindrical mirror analyzer and rigged for ion energy distribution and ion angular distribution were used to study O ions desorbed from Ag(110). Two primary O(+) energies of 2.4 and 5.4 eV were detected from the Ag(110) after having been dosed with 2500 L of (16)O2. It also appears that in both experiments there was strong evidence for directionality of the emitted flux. The results of this study serve as a proof of concept for the development of a laboratory atomic oxygen beam generator that simulates the gas flux environment experienced by orbiting vehicles.

  1. A Comprehensive X-Ray Absorption Model for Atomic Oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorczyca, T. W.; Bautista, M. A.; Hasoglu, M. F.; Garcia, J.; Gatuzz, E.; Kaastra, J. S.; Kallman, T. R.; Manson, S. T.; Mendoza, C.; Raassen, A. J. J.; de Vries, C. P.; Zatsarinny, O.

    2013-01-01

    An analytical formula is developed to accurately represent the photoabsorption cross section of atomic Oxygen for all energies of interest in X-ray spectral modeling. In the vicinity of the K edge, a Rydberg series expression is used to fit R-matrix results, including important orbital relaxation effects, that accurately predict the absorption oscillator strengths below threshold and merge consistently and continuously to the above-threshold cross section. Further, minor adjustments are made to the threshold energies in order to reliably align the atomic Rydberg resonances after consideration of both experimental and observed line positions. At energies far below or above the K-edge region, the formulation is based on both outer- and inner-shell direct photoionization, including significant shake-up and shake-off processes that result in photoionization-excitation and double-photoionization contributions to the total cross section. The ultimate purpose for developing a definitive model for oxygen absorption is to resolve standing discrepancies between the astronomically observed and laboratory-measured line positions, and between the inferred atomic and molecular oxygen abundances in the interstellar medium from XSTAR and SPEX spectral models.

  2. Experimental results on atomic oxygen corrosion of silver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fromhold, Albert T.

    1988-01-01

    The results of an experimental study of the reaction kinetics of silver with atomic oxygen in 10 degree increments over the temperature range of 0 to 70 C is reported. The silver specimens, of the order of 10,000 A in thickness, were prepared by thermal evaporation onto 3 inch diameter polished silicon wafers. There were later sliced into pieces having surface areas of the order of 1/4 to 1/2 square inch. Atomic oxygen was generated by a gas discharge in a commercial plasmod asher operating in the megahertz frequency range. The sample temperature within the chamber was controlled by means of a thermoelectric unit. Exposure of the silver specimens to atomic oxygen was incremental, with oxide film thickness measurements being carried out between exposures by means of an automated ellipsometer. For the early growth phase, the data can be described satisfactorily by a logarithmic growth law: the oxide film thickness increases as the logarithm of the exposure time. Furthermore, the oxidation process is thermally activated, the rate increasing with increasing temperature. However, the empirical activation energy parameter deduced from Arrhenius plots is quite low, being of the order of 0.1 eV.

  3. Multi-functional magnesium alloys containing interstitial oxygen atoms

    PubMed Central

    Kang, H.; Choi, H. J.; Kang, S. W.; Shin, S. E.; Choi, G. S.; Bae, D. H.

    2016-01-01

    A new class of magnesium alloys has been developed by dissolving large amounts of oxygen atoms into a magnesium lattice (Mg-O alloys). The oxygen atoms are supplied by decomposing titanium dioxide nanoparticles in a magnesium melt at 720 °C; the titanium is then completely separated out from the magnesium melt after solidification. The dissolved oxygen atoms are located at the octahedral sites of magnesium, which expand the magnesium lattice. These alloys possess ionic and metallic bonding characteristics, providing outstanding mechanical and functional properties. A Mg-O-Al casting alloy made in this fashion shows superior mechanical performance, chemical resistance to corrosion, and thermal conductivity. Furthermore, a similar Mg-O-Zn wrought alloy shows high elongation to failure (>50%) at room temperature, because the alloy plastically deforms with only multiple slips in the sub-micrometer grains (<300 nm) surrounding the larger grains (~15 μm). The metal/non-metal interstitial alloys are expected to open a new paradigm in commercial alloy design. PMID:26976372

  4. Degradation of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria by neutral oxygen atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Cvelbar, U.; Mozetic, M.; Hauptman, N.; Klanjsek-Gunde, M.

    2009-11-15

    The degradation of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria during treatment with neutral oxygen atoms was monitored by scanning electron microscopy. Experiments were performed in an afterglow chamber made from borosilicate glass. The source of oxygen atoms was remote inductively coupled radiofrequency oxygen plasma. The density of atoms at the samples was 8x10{sup 20} m{sup -3}. The treatment was performed at room temperature. The first effect was the removal of dried capsule. Capsule on exposed parts of bacteria was removed after receiving the dose of 6x10{sup 23} at./m{sup 2}, while the parts of capsule filling the gaps between bacteria were removed after receiving the dose of 2.4x10{sup 24} m{sup -2}. After removing the capsule, degradation continued as etching of bacterial cell wall. The etching was rather nonuniform as holes with diameter of several 10 nm were observed. The cell wall was removed after receiving the dose of about 7x10{sup 24} m{sup -2}. The etching probabilities were about 2x10{sup -5} for the capsule and 2x10{sup -6} for the cell wall. The results were explained by different compositions of capsule and the cell wall.

  5. Multi-functional magnesium alloys containing interstitial oxygen atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, H.; Choi, H. J.; Kang, S. W.; Shin, S. E.; Choi, G. S.; Bae, D. H.

    2016-03-01

    A new class of magnesium alloys has been developed by dissolving large amounts of oxygen atoms into a magnesium lattice (Mg-O alloys). The oxygen atoms are supplied by decomposing titanium dioxide nanoparticles in a magnesium melt at 720 °C the titanium is then completely separated out from the magnesium melt after solidification. The dissolved oxygen atoms are located at the octahedral sites of magnesium, which expand the magnesium lattice. These alloys possess ionic and metallic bonding characteristics, providing outstanding mechanical and functional properties. A Mg-O-Al casting alloy made in this fashion shows superior mechanical performance, chemical resistance to corrosion, and thermal conductivity. Furthermore, a similar Mg-O-Zn wrought alloy shows high elongation to failure (>50%) at room temperature, because the alloy plastically deforms with only multiple slips in the sub-micrometer grains (<300 nm) surrounding the larger grains (~15 μm). The metal/non-metal interstitial alloys are expected to open a new paradigm in commercial alloy design.

  6. First-principles calculations of the diffusion of atomic oxygen in nickel: thermal expansion contribution.

    PubMed

    Megchiche, E H; Amarouche, M; Mijoule, C

    2007-07-25

    Within the framework of density functional theory using the projector augmented-wave (PAW) method, we present some energetic properties of atomic oxygen interstitials in crystalline Ni, i.e. the insertion and activation energies of the O diffusion. Concerning the activation energy, two pathways for the migration process are studied. The charge transfer process between atomic oxygen and nickel atoms is analysed in the interstitial sites. We find that the interstitial octahedral site (O site) is lower in energy than the tetrahedral site (T site). The most favourable pathway for the migration between two octahedral sites corresponds to an intermediate metastable state located in a tetrahedral site. Concerning the charge transfers we find that the atomic oxygen ionizes as O(-) and that the electron migrates essentially from the Ni nearest neighbours of atomic oxygen. In addition, the thermal expansion contribution through the dilatation of the solid is studied. When the thermal expansion is introduced, we show that the insertion process is stabilized and that the tetrahedral insertion energy becomes nearly equal to the octahedral ones. However, the activation energy decreases with the dilatation. Taking into account the thermal expansion effects, our results are consistent with the more reliable experimental data.

  7. Atomic Oxygen and Space Environment Effects on Aerospace Materials Flown with EOIM-3 Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scialdone, John J.; Clatterbuck, Carroll H.; Ayres-Treusdell, Mary; Park, Gloria; Kolos, Diane

    1996-01-01

    Polymer materials samples mounted on a passive carrier tray were flown aboard the STS-46 Atlantis shuttle as complement to the EOIM-3 (Evaluation of Oxygen Interaction with Materials) experiment to evaluate the effects of atomic oxygen on the materials and to measure the gaseous shuttle bay environment. The morphological changes of the samples produced by the atomic oxygen fluence of 2.07 x 10(exp 20) atoms/cm(exp 2) are being reported. The changes have been verified using Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA), gravimetric measurement, microscopic observations and thermo-optical measurements. The samples, including Kapton, Delrin, epoxies, Beta Cloth, Chemglaze Z306, silver Teflon, silicone coatings, 3M tape and Uralane and Ultem, PEEK, Victrex (PES), Polyethersulfone and Polymethylpentene thermoplastic, have been characterized by their oxygen reaction efficiency on the basis of their erosion losses and the oxygen fluence. Those efficiencies have been compared to results from other experiments, when available. The efficiencies of the samples are all in the range of E-24 g/atom. The results indicate that the reaction efficiencies of the reported materials can be grouped in about three ranges of values. The least affected materials which have efficiencies varying from 1 to 10(exp 25) g/atom, include silicones, epoxies, Uralane and Teflon. A second group with efficiency from 10 to 45(exp 25) g/atom includes additional silicone coatings, the Chemglaze Z306 paint and Kapton. The third range from 50 to 75(exp 25) includes organic compound such as Pentene, Peek, Ultem, Sulfone and a 3M tape. A Delrin sample had the highest reaction efficiency of 179(exp 25) g/atom. Two samples, the aluminum Beta cloth X389-7 and the epoxy fiberglass G-11 nonflame retardant, showed a slight mass increase.

  8. Characterization of carbon nanotube yarn after exposure to hyperthermal atomic oxygen and thermal fatigue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misak, H. E.; Mall, S.

    2016-12-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT)-yarn was evaluated for the survivability under hazardous space environmental conditions which were thermal fatigue, atomic oxygen and additive effect of these two exposures. Its tensile strength, tenacity, stiffness, strain to failure and electrical conductivity were characterized at the two extreme space temperatures of -150 and 120 °C before and after exposure to these environmental conditions. Tensile strength, stiffness and electrical conductivity of unexposed CNT yarn increased at the cryogenic temperature relative to at the elevated temperature. There was no change in the tensile properties after exposure to the space environmental conditions when measured at the elevated and cryogenic temperatures. Electrical conductivity decreased after exposure to three hazardous environments involving thermal fatigue, but it had no or small decrease when exposed to atomic oxygen only. No additive effect of thermal fatigue followed by atomic oxygen or by atomic oxygen followed by thermal fatigue environments on the CNTs' tensile properties and electrical conductivity was observed. Considering the low density 0.59 g/cc and good resistant to the extreme hazardous space environment, CNT-yarns have potential for applications in spacecraft and satellites.

  9. Applying Additive Manufacturing to a New Liquid Oxygen Turbopump Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O’Neal, T. Derek

    2016-01-01

    A liquid oxygen turbopump has been designed at Marshall Space Flight Center as part of the in-house, Advanced Manufacturing Demonstrator Engine (AMDE) project. Additive manufacturing, specifically direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) of Inconel 718, is used for 77% of the parts by mass. These parts include the impeller, turbine components, and housings. This paper discusses the impacts of the DMLS fabrication technique on the design of the turbopump and lessons learned during DMLS hardware fabrication and material testing.

  10. Photochemistry of molecular and atomic oxygen in the terrestrial nightglow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lednyts'kyy, Olexandr; Von Savigny, Christian; Sinnhuber, Miriam

    2016-07-01

    The electronic states of molecular oxygen ({O}_2) are in constant communication through collisions in high vibrational levels of {O}_2 in the MLT (Mesosphere/Lower Thermosphere) region. We assume that the Herzberg {O}_2 electronic states transfer energy to O-atoms to generate the green line. Our Multiple Nightglow Chemistry model is based on more than 80 (odd oxygen and odd hydrogen) aeronomical reactions to implement this concept. We retrieved atomic oxygen concentration ([O]) profiles in the MLT region with help of SCIAMACHY (SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY) and SABER (Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry) infrared radiometer observations of the nightglow. Particularly, we obtained volume emission rate (VER) profiles (due to the infrared atmospheric {O}_2(a^1Δ_g) nightglow at 1.27 μm) from SABER to retrieve [O] profiles. We discussed quenching profiles that correspond to retrieved [O] profiles to reflect complex molecularity of infrared atmospheric and green line nightglow emissions.

  11. A high flux source of swift oxygen atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, M.; Kohl, D. A.; Keto, J. W.; Antoniewicz, P.

    1987-01-01

    A source of swift oxygen atoms is described which has several unique features. A high current ion beam is produced by a microwave discharge, accelerated to 10 keV and the mass selected by a modified Du Pont 21-110 mass spectrometer. The O(+) beam exciting the mass spectrometer is focused into a rectangular shape with an energy spread of less than 1 eV. The next section of the machine decelerates the ion beam into a counterpropagating electron beam in order to minimize space charge effects. After deceleration, the ion beam intersects at 90 deg, a neutral oxygen atom beam, which via resonant charge exchange produces a mixture of O(+) and O. Any remaining O(+) are swept out of the beam by an electric field and differentially pumped away while the desired O beam, collimated by slits, impinges on the target. In situ monitoring of the target surface is done by X-ray photoelectron or Auger spectroscopy. Faraday cups provide flux measurements in the ion sections while the neutral flux is determined by a special torsion balance or by a quadrupole mass spectrometer specially adapted for swift atoms. While the vacuum from the source through the mass spectrometer is maintained by diffusion pumps, the rest of the machine is UHV.

  12. Pressure broadening of atomic oxygen two-photon absorption laser induced fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinov, Daniil; Drag, Cyril; Blondel, Christophe; Guaitella, Olivier; Golda, Judith; Klarenaar, Bart; Engeln, Richard; Schulz-von der Gathen, Volker; Booth, Jean-Paul

    2016-12-01

    Atomic oxygen, considered to be a determining reactant in plasma applications at ambient pressure, is routinely detected by two-photon absorption laser induced fluorescence (TALIF). Here, pressure broadening of the (2p 4 3 P 2  →  3p 3 P J=0,1,2) two-photon transition in oxygen atoms was investigated using a high-resolution TALIF technique in normal and Doppler-free configurations. The pressure broadening coefficients determined were {γ{{\\text{O}2}}}   =  0.40  ±  0.08  cm-1/bar for oxygen molecules and {γ\\text{He}}   =  0.46  ±  0.03 cm-1/bar for helium atoms. These correspond to pressure broadening rate constants k\\text{PB}{{\\text{O}2}}   =  9 · 10-9 cm3 s-1 and k\\text{PB}\\text{He}   =  4 · 10-9 cm3 s-1, respectively. The well-known quenching rate constants of O(3p 3 P J ) by O2 and He are at least one order of magnitude smaller, which signifies that non-quenching collisions constitute the main line-broadening mechanism. In addition to providing new insights into collisional processes of oxygen atoms in electronically excited 3p 3 P J state, reported pressure broadening parameters are important for quantification of oxygen TALIF line profiles when both collisional and Doppler broadening mechanisms are important. Thus, the Doppler component (and hence the temperature of oxygen atoms) can be accurately determined from high resolution TALIF measurements in a broad range of conditions.

  13. Atomic scale observation of oxygen delivery during silver-oxygen nanoparticle catalysed oxidation of carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Yonghai; Yuchi, Datong; Guan, Pengfei; Xu, Jia; Guo, Lin; Liu, Jingyue

    2016-07-01

    To probe the nature of metal-catalysed processes and to design better metal-based catalysts, atomic scale understanding of catalytic processes is highly desirable. Here we use aberration-corrected environmental transmission electron microscopy to investigate the atomic scale processes of silver-based nanoparticles, which catalyse the oxidation of multi-wall carbon nanotubes. A direct semi-quantitative estimate of the oxidized carbon atoms by silver-based nanoparticles is achieved. A mechanism similar to the Mars-van Krevelen process is invoked to explain the catalytic oxidation process. Theoretical calculations, together with the experimental data, suggest that the oxygen molecules dissociate on the surface of silver nanoparticles and diffuse through the silver nanoparticles to reach the silver/carbon interfaces and subsequently oxidize the carbon. The lattice distortion caused by oxygen concentration gradient within the silver nanoparticles provides the direct evidence for oxygen diffusion. Such direct observation of atomic scale dynamics provides an important general methodology for investigations of catalytic processes.

  14. Atomic scale observation of oxygen delivery during silver–oxygen nanoparticle catalysed oxidation of carbon nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Yonghai; Yuchi, Datong; Guan, Pengfei; Xu, Jia; Guo, Lin; Liu, Jingyue

    2016-01-01

    To probe the nature of metal-catalysed processes and to design better metal-based catalysts, atomic scale understanding of catalytic processes is highly desirable. Here we use aberration-corrected environmental transmission electron microscopy to investigate the atomic scale processes of silver-based nanoparticles, which catalyse the oxidation of multi-wall carbon nanotubes. A direct semi-quantitative estimate of the oxidized carbon atoms by silver-based nanoparticles is achieved. A mechanism similar to the Mars–van Krevelen process is invoked to explain the catalytic oxidation process. Theoretical calculations, together with the experimental data, suggest that the oxygen molecules dissociate on the surface of silver nanoparticles and diffuse through the silver nanoparticles to reach the silver/carbon interfaces and subsequently oxidize the carbon. The lattice distortion caused by oxygen concentration gradient within the silver nanoparticles provides the direct evidence for oxygen diffusion. Such direct observation of atomic scale dynamics provides an important general methodology for investigations of catalytic processes. PMID:27406595

  15. Atomic Oxygen Treatment for Non-Contact Removal of Organic Protective Coatings from Painting Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutledge, Sharon K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Cales, Michael

    1994-01-01

    Current techniques for removal of varnish (lacquer) and other organic protective coatings from paintings involve contact with the surface. This contact can remove pigment, or alter the shape and location of paint on the canvas surface. A thermal energy atomic oxygen plasma, developed to simulate the space environment in low Earth orbit, easily removes these organic materials. Uniform removal of organic protective coatings from the surfaces of paintings is accomplished through chemical reaction. Atomic oxygen will not react with oxides so that most paint pigments will not be affected by the reaction. For paintings containing organic pigments, the exposure can be carefully timed so that the removal stops just short of the pigment. Color samples of Alizarin Crimson, Sap Green, and Zinc White coated with Damar lacquer were exposed to atomic oxygen. The lacquer was easily removed from all of the samples. Additionally, no noticeable change in appearance was observed after the lacquer was reapplied. The same observations were made on a painted canvas test sample obtained from the Cleveland Museum of Art. Scanning electron microscope photographs showed a slight microscopic texturing of the vehicle after exposure. However, there was no removal or disturbance of the paint pigment on the surface. It appears that noncontact cleaning using atomic oxygen may provide a viable alternative to other cleaning techniques. It is especially attractive in cases where the organic protective surface cannot be acceptably or safely removed by conventional techniques.

  16. Solar photolysis of ozone to singlet D oxygen atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackburn, Thomas E.; Bairai, Solomon T.; Stedman, Donald H.

    1992-01-01

    The ground-level photolysis frequency of ozone J(O3) to produce metastable singlet D oxygen atoms (O (D-1)) is measured using a novel instrumental technique involving electrical conductivity. The O(D-1) atoms produced react with nitrous oxide (N2O) carrier gas to form higher oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)). These oxides were detected by mixing with methanol and determining the increase in electrical conductivity with a continuous-flow dual conductivity cell. Over 70 days of data were collected under varying sky conditions. The effect of temperature on J(O3) was measured. The results agree with model predictions. The effects of atmospheric aerosols, changes in overhead ozone column, and local cloudiness are discussed.

  17. Atomic oxygen, atomic hydrogen, and chemical heating rates derived from SABER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mlynczak, M. G.

    The SABER instrument on the TIMED satellite measures the infrared OH airglow at 2.0 um in the terrestrial mesosphere. These measurements are inverted to provide the volume emissions rates of the OH(9-7 + 8-6) bands. These high-lying bands are formed directly upon the reaction of atomic hydrogen and ozone and thus the measured volume emission rate is a direct measure of the rate of reaction. The SABER OH emission rates and the measured SABER ozone are used to derive the concentration of atomic hydrogen in the mesopause region. The emission rate is also a direct measure of the rate of energy deposition due to the reaction of atomic hydrogen and ozone. Rates of chemical heating are then readily derived upon provision of atmospheric temperature and density from SABER. Under the assumption of photochemical steady state in the production and loss of ozone, the emission rates can also be used to derive atomic oxygen. The abundances of H and O enable the computation of rates of chemical heating due to numerous exothermic reactions. A key to these derivations lies in the knowledge of the rate of quenching/reaction of vibrationally excited OH with atomic oxygen. We present the SABER airglow models, data inversion approach, and results for O, H, and chemical heating.

  18. Escape of Hot Oxygen Atoms from the Atmosphere of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmati, A.; Croxell, J. A.; Cravens, T.; Pothapragada, S.; Nagy, A. F.; Ledvina, S. A.

    2013-12-01

    The main source of the production of hot oxygen atoms in the Martian atmosphere is the dissociative recombination (DR) reaction of O2+ ions with electrons. In this study, the primary production rate of hot O atoms is found for four energy channels of DR reaction. The one-dimensional energy and altitude dependent up and down flux differential equations are solved using a two-stream transport method, by taking into account the primary, secondary and cascade productions of hot O and also, the interactions with the background atmosphere. The forward and backward scattering probabilities and energy loss coefficients for 12 neutral target species are found using a Monte-Carlo simulation. The neutral target species are H, H2, He, C, N, O, CO, N2, NO, O2, Ar and CO2 for which the density profiles appropriate for Viking landers condition are used. From the up and down fluxes, the energy distribution function of hot O atoms and the escape flux at the exobase of Mars is calculated and by using the Liouville equation, the density profile of hot O is found above the exobase, extending out to several Martian radii. The results are used to study the interaction of escaping hot O atoms with the solar wind and specifically, the fluxes of energetic O+ pickup ions are determined.

  19. K-shell auger decay of atomic oxygen

    SciTech Connect

    Stolte, W.C.; Lu, Y.; Samson, J.A.R.

    1997-04-01

    The aim of the present research is to understand the interaction between the ejected photoelectron and Auger electron produced by the Auger decay of a 1s hole in atomic oxygen, and to understand the influence this interaction has on the shape of the ionization cross sections. To accomplish this the authors have measured the relative ion yields (ion/photon) in the vicinity of the oxygen K-shell (525 - 533 eV) for O{sup +} and O{sup 2+}. The measurements were performed at the ALS on beamline, 6.3.2. The atomic oxygen was produced by passing molecular oxygen through a microwave-driven discharge. A Rydberg analysis of the two series leading to the [1s]2s{sup 2}2p{sup 4}({sup 4}P) and [1s]2s{sup 2}2p{sup 4}({sup 2}P) limits were obtained. This analysis shows some differences to the recently published results by Menzel et al. The energy position of the main 1s{sup 1}2s{sup 2}2p{sup 5}({sup 3}P) resonance differs by approximately 1 eV from the authors value, all members of the ({sup 2}P)np series differ by 0.3 eV, but the members of the ({sup 4}P)np series agree. The molecular resonance at 530.5 eV and those between 539 eV and 543 eV, measured with the microwave discharge off show identical results in both experiments.

  20. The effects of atomic oxygen on the thermal emittance of high temperature radiator surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Rutledge, S.K.; Hotes, D.L.; Paulsen, P.E.

    1994-09-01

    Radiator surfaces on high temperature space power systems such as the SP-100 space nuclear power system must maintain a high emittance level in order to reject waste heat effectively. one of the primary materials under consideration for the radiators is carbon-carbon composite. Since carbon is susceptible to attack by atomic oxygen in the low Earth orbital environment, it is important to determine the durability of carbon composites in this environment as well as the effect atomic oxygen has on the thermal emittance of the surface if it is to be considered for use as a radiator. Results indicate that the thermal emittance of carbon-carbon composite (as low as 0.42) can be enhanced by exposure to a directed beam of atomic oxygen to levels above 0.85 at 800 K. This emittance enhancement is due to a change in the surface morphology as a result of oxidation. High aspect ratio cones are formed on the surface which allow more efficient trapping of incident radiation. Erosion of the surface due to oxidation is similar to that for carbon; so that at altitudes less than {approximately}600 km, thickness loss of the radiator could be significant (as much as 0.1 cm/year). A protective coating or oxidation barrier forming additive may be needed to prevent atomic oxygen attack after the initial high emittance surface is formed. Textured surfaces can be formed in ground based facilities or possibly in space if emittance is not sensitive to the orientation of the atomic oxygen arrival that forms the texture.

  1. Atom interaction propensities of oxygenated chemical functions in crystal packings

    PubMed Central

    Jelsch, Christian; Bibila Mayaya Bisseyou, Yvon

    2017-01-01

    The crystal contacts of several families of hydrocarbon compounds substituted with one or several types of oxygenated chemical groups were analyzed statistically using the Hirshfeld surface methodology. The propensity of contacts to occur between two chemical types is described with the contact enrichment descriptor. The systematic large enrichment ratios of some interactions like the O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds suggests that these contacts are a driving force in the crystal packing formation. The same statement holds for the weaker C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds in ethers, esters and ketones, in the absence of polar H atoms. The over-represented contacts in crystals of oxygenated hydrocarbons are generally of two types: electrostatic attractions (hydrogen bonds) and hydrophobic interactions. While Cl⋯O interactions are generally avoided, in a minority of chloro-oxygenated hydrocarbons, significant halogen bonding does occur. General tendencies can often be derived for many contact types, but outlier compounds are instructive as they display peculiar or rare features. The methodology also allows the detection of outliers which can be structures with errors. For instance, a significant number of hydroxylated molecules displaying over-represented non-favorable oxygen–oxygen contacts turned out to have wrongly oriented hydroxyl groups. Beyond crystal packings with a single molecule in the asymmetric unit, the behavior of water in monohydrate compounds and of crystals with Z′ = 2 (dimers) are also investigated. It was found in several cases that, in the presence of several oxygenated chemical groups, cross-interactions between different chemical groups (e.g. water/alcohols; alcohols/phenols) are often favored in the crystal packings. While some trends in accordance with common chemical principles are retrieved, some unexpected results can however appear. For example, in crystals of alcohol–phenol compounds, the strong O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds between two phenol groups

  2. The interaction of atomic oxygen with thin copper films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, B. C.; Williams, J. R.; Fromhold, A. T., Jr.; Bozack, M. J.; Neely, W. C.; Whitaker, Ann F.

    1992-01-01

    A source of thermal, ground-state atomic oxygen has been used to expose thin copper films at a flux of 1.4 x 10 exp 17 atoms/sq cm s for times up to 50 min for each of five temperatures between 140 and 200 C. Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy was used to characterize the oxide formed during exposure. The observations are consistent with the oxide phase Cu2O. The time dependence and the temperature dependence of the oxide layer thickness can be described using oxide film growth theory based on rate limitation by diffusion. Within the time and temperature ranges of this study, the growth of the oxide layers is well described by the equation L(T,t) = 3.6 x 10 to 8th exp(- 1.1/2k sub B T)t exp 1/2, where L,T, and t are measured in angstroms, degrees Kelvin, and minutes, respectively. The deduced activation energy is 1.10 +/- 0.15 eV, with the attendant oxidation rate being greater than that for the corresponding reaction in molecular oxygen.

  3. MISSE 6 Stressed Polymers Experiment Atomic Oxygen Erosion Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deGroh, Kim K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Mitchell, Gianna G.; Yi, Grace T.; Guo, Aobo; Ashmeade, Claire C.; Roberts, Lily M.; McCarthy, Catherine E.; Sechkar, Edward A.

    2013-01-01

    Polymers and other oxidizable materials used on the exterior of spacecraft in the low Earth orbit (LEO) space environment can be eroded away by reaction with atomic oxygen (AO). For spacecraft design, it is important to know the LEO AO erosion yield, Ey (volume loss per incident oxygen atom), of materials susceptible to AO erosion. The Stressed Polymers Experiment was developed and flown as part of the Materials International Space Station Experiment 6 (MISSE 6) to compare the AO erosion yields of stressed and non-stressed polymers to determine if erosion is dependent upon stress while in LEO. The experiment contained 36 thin film polymer samples that were exposed to ram AO for 1.45 years. This paper provides an overview of the Stressed Polymers Experiment with details on the polymers flown, the characterization techniques used, the AO fluence, and the erosion yield results. The MISSE 6 data are compared to data for similar samples flown on previous MISSE missions to determine fluence or solar radiation effects on erosion yield.

  4. A comprehensive X-ray absorption model for atomic oxygen

    SciTech Connect

    Gorczyca, T. W.; Bautista, M. A.; Mendoza, C.; Hasoglu, M. F.; García, J.; Gatuzz, E.; Kaastra, J. S.; Raassen, A. J. J.; De Vries, C. P.; Kallman, T. R.; Manson, S. T.; Zatsarinny, O.

    2013-12-10

    An analytical formula is developed to accurately represent the photoabsorption cross section of O I for all energies of interest in X-ray spectral modeling. In the vicinity of the K edge, a Rydberg series expression is used to fit R-matrix results, including important orbital relaxation effects, that accurately predict the absorption oscillator strengths below threshold and merge consistently and continuously to the above-threshold cross section. Further, minor adjustments are made to the threshold energies in order to reliably align the atomic Rydberg resonances after consideration of both experimental and observed line positions. At energies far below or above the K-edge region, the formulation is based on both outer- and inner-shell direct photoionization, including significant shake-up and shake-off processes that result in photoionization-excitation and double-photoionization contributions to the total cross section. The ultimate purpose for developing a definitive model for oxygen absorption is to resolve standing discrepancies between the astronomically observed and laboratory-measured line positions, and between the inferred atomic and molecular oxygen abundances in the interstellar medium from XSTAR and SPEX spectral models.

  5. Operation of the computer model for direct atomic oxygen exposure of Earth satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourassa, R. J.; Gruenbaum, P. E.; Gillis, J. R.; Hargraves, C. R.

    1995-01-01

    One of the primary causes of material degradation in low Earth orbit (LEO) is exposure to atomic oxygen. When atomic oxygen molecules collide with an orbiting spacecraft, the relative velocity is 7 to 8 km/sec and the collision energy is 4 to 5 eV per atom. Under these conditions, atomic oxygen may initiate a number of chemical and physical reactions with exposed materials. These reactions contribute to material degradation, surface erosion, and contamination. Interpretation of these effects on materials and the design of space hardware to withstand on-orbit conditions requires quantitative knowledge of the atomic oxygen exposure environment. Atomic oxygen flux is a function of orbit altitude, the orientation of the orbit plan to the Sun, solar and geomagnetic activity, and the angle between exposed surfaces and the spacecraft heading. We have developed a computer model to predict the atomic oxygen exposure of spacecraft in low Earth orbit. The application of this computer model is discussed.

  6. Materials International Space Station Experiment-6 (MISSE-6) Atomic Oxygen Fluence Monitor Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Miller, Sharon K.; Waters, Deborah L.

    2010-01-01

    An atomic oxygen fluence monitor was flown as part of the Materials International Space Station Experiment-6 (MISSE-6). The monitor was designed to measure the accumulation of atomic oxygen fluence with time as it impinged upon the ram surface of the MISSE 6B Passive Experiment Container (PEC). This was an active experiment for which data was to be stored on a battery-powered data logger for post-flight retrieval and analysis. The atomic oxygen fluence measurement was accomplished by allowing atomic oxygen to erode two opposing wedges of pyrolytic graphite that partially covered a photodiode. As the wedges of pyrolytic graphite erode, the area of the photodiode that is illuminated by the Sun increases. The short circuit current, which is proportional to the area of illumination, was to be measured and recorded as a function of time. The short circuit current from a different photodiode, which was oriented in the same direction and had an unobstructed view of the Sun, was also to be recorded as a reference current. The ratio of the two separate recorded currents should bear a linear relationship with the accumulated atomic oxygen fluence and be independent of the intensity of solar illumination. Ground hyperthermal atomic oxygen exposure facilities were used to evaluate the linearity of the ratio of short circuit current to the atomic oxygen fluence. In flight, the current measurement circuitry failed to operate properly, thus the overall atomic oxygen mission fluence could only be estimated based on the physical erosion of the pyrolytic graphite wedges. The atomic oxygen fluence was calculated based on the knowledge of the space atomic oxygen erosion yield of pyrolytic graphite measured from samples on the MISSE 2. The atomic oxygen fluence monitor, the expected result and comparison of mission atomic oxygen fluence based on the erosion of the pyrolytic graphite and Kapton H atomic oxygen fluence witness samples are presented in this paper.

  7. Atomic oxygen protective coating with resistance to undercutting at defect sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A. (Inventor); Rutledge, Sharon K. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    Structures composed at least partially of an organic substrate may be protected from oxidation by applying a catalyst onto said substrate for promoting the combination of atomic oxygen to molecular oxygen. The structure may also be protected by applying both a catalyst and an atomic oxygen shielding layer onto the substrate. The structures to be protected include spacecraft surfaces.

  8. In-space technology development: Atomic oxygen and orbital debris effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Visentine, James T.; Potter, Andrew E., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Earlier Shuttle flight experiments have shown atomic oxygen within the orbital environment can interact with many materials to produce surface recession and mass loss and combine catalytically with other constituents to generate visible and infrared glows. In addition to these effects, examinations of returned satellite hardware have shown many spacecraft materials are also susceptible to damage from high velocity impacts with orbital space debris. These effects are of particular concern for large, multi-mission spacecraft, such as Space Station and SDI operational satellites, that will operate in low-Earth orbit (LEO) during the late 1990's. Not only must these spacecraft include materials and exterior coatings that are resistant to atomic oxygen surface interactions, but these materials must also provide adequate protection against erosion and pitting that could result from numerous impacts with small particles (less than 100 microns) of orbital space debris. An overview of these concerns is presented, and activities now underway to develop materials and coatings are outlined that will provide adequate atomic protection for future spacecraft. The report also discusses atomic oxygen and orbital debris flight experiments now under development to expand our limited data base, correlate ground-based measurments with flight results, and develop an orbital debris collision warning system for use by future spacecraft.

  9. Simulations of Ground and Space-Based Oxygen Atom Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minton, T. K.; Cline, J. A.; Braunstein, M.

    2002-01-01

    Fast, pulsed atomic oxygen sources are a key tool in ground-based investigations of spacecraft contamination and surface erosion effects. These technically challenging ground-based studies provide a before and after picture of materials under low-earth-orbit (LEO) conditions. It would be of great interest to track in real time the pulsed flux from the source to the surface sample target and beyond in order to characterize the population of atoms and molecules that actually impact the surface and those that make it downstream to any coincident detectors. We have performed simulations in order to provide such detailed descriptions of these ground-based measurements and to provide an assessment of their correspondence to the actual LEO environment. Where possible we also make comparisons to measured fluxes and erosion yields. To perform the calculations we use a detailed description of a measurement beam and surface geometry based on the W, pulsed apparatus at Montana State University. In this system, a short pulse (on the order of 10 microseconds) of an O/O2 beam impacts a flat sample about 40 cm downstream and slightly displaced &om the beam s central axis. Past this target, at the end of the beam axis is a quadrupole mass spectrometer that measures the relative in situ flux of 0102 to give an overall normalized erosion yield. In our simulations we use the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method, and track individual atoms within the atomic oxygen pulse. DSMC techniques are typically used to model rarefied (few collision) gas-flows which occur at altitudes above approximately 110 kilometers. These techniques are well suited for the conditions here, and multi-collision effects that can only be treated by this or a similar technique are included. This simulation includes collisions with the surface and among gas atoms that have scattered from the surface. The simulation also includes descriptions of the velocity spread and spatial profiles of the O/O2 beam

  10. A technique for synergistic atomic oxygen and vacuum ultraviolet radiation durability evaluation of materials for use in LEO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutledge, Sharon K.; Banks, Bruce A.

    1996-01-01

    Material erosion data collected during flight experiments such as the Environmental Oxygen Interaction with Materials (EOIM)-3 and the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) have raised questions as to the sensitivity of material erosion to levels of atomic oxygen exposure and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation. The erosion sensitivity of some materials such as FEP Teflon used as a thermal control material on satellites in low Earth orbit (LEO), is particularly important but difficult to determine. This is in large part due to the inability to hold all but one exposure parameter constant during a flight experiment. This is also difficult to perform in a ground based facility, because often the variation of the level of atomic oxygen or VUV radiation also results in a change in the level of the other parameter. A facility has been developed which allows each parameter to be changed almost independently and offer broad area exposure. The resulting samples can be made large enough for mechanical testing. The facility uses an electron cyclotron resonance plasma source to provide the atomic oxygen. A series of glass plates is used to focus the atomic oxygen while filtering the VUV radiation from the plasma source. After filtering, atomic oxygen effective flux levels can still be measured which are as high as 7 x 10(exp 15) atoms/cm(exp 2)-sec which is adequate for accelerated testing. VUV radiation levels after filtering can be as low as 0.3 suns. Additional VUV suns can be added with the use of deuterium lamps which allow the VUV level to be changed while keeping the flux of atomic oxygen constant. This paper discusses the facility, and results from exposure of Kapton and FEP at pre-determined atomic oxygen flux and VUV sun levels.

  11. Effects of combined irradiation of 500 keV protons and atomic oxygen on polyimide films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikov, Lev; Chernik, Vladimir; Zhilyakov, Lev; Voronina, Ekaterina; Chirskaia, Natalia

    2016-07-01

    Polyimide films are widely used on the spacecraft surface as thermal control coating, films in different constuctions, etc. However, the space ionizing radiation of different types can alter the mechanical, optical and electrical properties of polyimide films. For example, it is well known that 20-100 keV proton irradiation causes breaking of chemical bonds and destruction of the surface layer in polyimide, deterioration of its optical properties, etc. In low-Earth orbits serious danger for polymeric materials is atomic oxygen of the upper atmosphere of the Earth, which is the main component in the range of heights of 200-800 km. Due to the orbital spacecraft velocity, the collision energy of oxygen atoms with the surface ( 5 eV) enhances their reactivity and opens additional pathways of their reaction with near-surface layers of materials. Hyperthermal oxygen atom flow causes erosion of the polyimide surface by breaking chemical bonds and forming of volatiles products (primarily, CO and CO _{2}), which leads to mass losses and degradation of material properties. Combined effect of protons and oxygen plasma is expected to give rise to synergistic effects enhancing the destruction of polyimide surface layers. This paper describes experimental investigation of polyimide films sequential irradiation with protons and oxygen plasma. The samples were irradiated by 500 keV protons at fluences of 10 ^{14}-10 ^{16} cm ^{-2} produced with SINP cascade generator KG-500 and 5-20 eV neutral oxygen atoms at fluence of 10 ^{20} cm ^{-2} generated by SINP magnetoplasmodynamics accelerator. The proton bombardment causes the decrease in optical transmission coefficient of samples, but their transmittance recovers partially after the exposure to oxygen plasma. The results of the comparative analysis of polyimide optical transmission spectra, Raman and XPS spectra obtained at different stages of the irradiation of samples, data on mass loss of samples due to erosion of the surface are

  12. Atomic oxygen interaction at defect sights in protective coatings on polymers flown on LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Degroh, Kim K.; Auer, Bruce M.; Gebauer, Linda; Lamoreaux, Cynthia

    1993-01-01

    Although the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) has exposed materials with a fixed orientation relative to the ambient low-Earth-orbital environment, arrival of atomic oxygen is angularly distributed as a result of the atomic oxygen's high temperature Maxwellian velocity distribution and the LDEF's orbital inclination. Thus, atomic oxygen entering defects in protective coatings on polymeric surfaces can cause wider undercut cavities than the size of the defect in the protective coating. Because only a small fraction of atomic oxygen reacts upon first impact with most polymeric materials, secondary reactions with lower energy thermally accommodated atomic oxygen can occur. The secondary reactions of scattered and/or thermally accommodated atomic oxygen also contribute to widening the undercut cavity beneath the protective coating defect. As the undercut cavity enlarges, exposing more polymer, the probability of atomic oxygen reacting with underlying polymeric material increases because of multiple opportunities for reaction. Thus, the effective atomic oxygen erosion yield for atoms entering defects increases above that of the unprotected material. Based on the results of analytical modeling and computational modeling, aluminized Kapton multilayer insulation exposed to atomic oxygen on row 9 lost the entire externally exposed layer of polyimide Kapton, yet based on the results of this investigation, the bottom surface aluminum film must have remained in place, but crazed. Atomic oxygen undercutting at defect sites in protective coatings on graphite epoxy composites indicates that between 40 to 100 percent of the atomic oxygen thermally accommodates upon impact, and that the reaction probability of thermally accommodated atomic oxygen may range from 7.7 x 10(exp -6) to 2.1 x 10(exp -3), depending upon the degree of thermal accommodation upon each impact.

  13. Reaction and protection of electrical wire insulators in atomic-oxygen environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Ching-Cheh; Cantrell, Gidget

    1994-11-01

    Atomic-oxygen erosion on spacecraft in low Earth orbit is an issue which is becoming increasingly important because of the growing number of spacecraft that will fly in the orbits which have high concentrations of atomic oxygen. In this investigation, the atomic-oxygen durability of three types of electrical wire insulation (carbon-based, fluoropolymer, and polysiloxane elastomer) were evaluated. These insulation materials were exposed to thermal-energy atomic oxygen, which was obtained by RF excitation of air at a pressure of 11-20 Pa. The effects of atomic-oxygen exposure on insulation materials indicate that all carbon-based materials erode at about the same rate as polyamide Kapton and, therefore, are not atomic-oxygen durable. However, the durability of fluoropolymers needs to be evaluated on a case by case basis because the erosion rates of fluoropolymers vary widely. For example, experimental data suggest the formation of atomic fluorine during atomic-oxygen amorphous-fluorocarbon reactions. Dimethyl polysiloxanes (silicone) do not lose mass during atomic-oxygen exposure, but develop silica surfaces which are under tension and frequently crack as a result of loss of methyl groups. However, if the silicone sample surfaces were properly pretreated to provide a certain roughness, atomic oxygen exposure resulted in a sturdy, non-cracked atomic-oxygen durable SiO2 layer. Since the surface does not crack during such silicone-atomic oxygen reaction, the crack-induced contamination by silicone can be reduced or completely stopped. Therefore, with proper pretreatment, silicone can be either a wire insulation material or a coating on wire insulation materials to provide atomic-oxygen durability.

  14. Reaction and Protection of Electrical Wire Insulators in Atomic-oxygen Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, Ching-Cheh; Cantrell, Gidget

    1994-01-01

    Atomic-oxygen erosion on spacecraft in low Earth orbit is an issue which is becoming increasingly important because of the growing number of spacecraft that will fly in the orbits which have high concentrations of atomic oxygen. In this investigation, the atomic-oxygen durability of three types of electrical wire insulation (carbon-based, fluoropolymer, and polysiloxane elastomer) were evaluated. These insulation materials were exposed to thermal-energy atomic oxygen, which was obtained by RF excitation of air at a pressure of 11-20 Pa. The effects of atomic-oxygen exposure on insulation materials indicate that all carbon-based materials erode at about the same rate as polyamide Kapton and, therefore, are not atomic-oxygen durable. However, the durability of fluoropolymers needs to be evaluated on a case by case basis because the erosion rates of fluoropolymers vary widely. For example, experimental data suggest the formation of atomic fluorine during atomic-oxygen amorphous-fluorocarbon reactions. Dimethyl polysiloxanes (silicone) do not lose mass during atomic-oxygen exposure, but develop silica surfaces which are under tension and frequently crack as a result of loss of methyl groups. However, if the silicone sample surfaces were properly pretreated to provide a certain roughness, atomic oxygen exposure resulted in a sturdy, non-cracked atomic-oxygen durable SiO2 layer. Since the surface does not crack during such silicone-atomic oxygen reaction, the crack-induced contamination by silicone can be reduced or completely stopped. Therefore, with proper pretreatment, silicone can be either a wire insulation material or a coating on wire insulation materials to provide atomic-oxygen durability.

  15. Comparison of Atomic Oxygen Erosion Yields of Materials at Various Energy and Impact Angles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Waters, Deborah L.; Thorson, Stephen D.; deGroh, Kim, K.; Snyder, Aaron; Miller, Sharon

    2006-01-01

    The atomic oxygen erosion yields of various materials, measured in volume of material oxidized per incident atomic oxygen atom, are compared to the commonly accepted standard of Kapton H (DuPont) polyimide. The ratios of the erosion yield of Kapton H to the erosion yield of various materials are not consistent at different atomic oxygen energies. Although it is most convenient to use isotropic thermal energy RF plasma ashers to assess atomic oxygen durability, the results can be misleading because the relative erosion rates at thermal energies are not necessarily the same as low Earth orbital (LEO) energies of approx.4.5 eV. An experimental investigation of the relative atomic oxygen erosion yields of a wide variety of polymers and carbon was conducted using isotropic thermal energy (approx.0.1 eV) and hyperthermal energy (approx.70 eV) atomic oxygen using an RF plasma asher and an end Hall ion source. For hyperthermal energies, the atomic oxygen erosion yields relative to normal incident Kapton H were compared for sweeping atomic oxygen arrival with that of normal incidence arrival. The results of isotropic thermal energy, normal incident, and sweeping incident atomic oxygen are also compared with measured or projected LEO values.

  16. Techniques for Measuring Low Earth Orbital Atomic Oxygen Erosion of Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deGroh, Kim K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Demko, Rikako

    2002-01-01

    Polymers such as polyimide Kapton and Teflon FEP (fluorinated ethylene propylene) are commonly used spacecraft materials due to their desirable properties such as flexibility, low density, and in the case of FEP, a low solar absorptance and high thermal emittance. Polymers on the exterior of spacecraft in the low Earth orbit (LEO) environment are exposed to energetic atomic oxygen. Atomic oxygen reaction with polymers causes erosion, which is a threat to spacecraft durability. It is therefore important to understand the atomic oxygen erosion yield (E, the volume loss per incident oxygen atom) of polymers being considered in spacecraft design. The most common technique for determining E is through mass loss measurements. For limited duration exposure experiments, such as shuttle experiments, where the atomic oxygen fluence is often so low that mass loss measurements can not produce acceptable uncertainties, recession measurements based on atomic force microscopy analyses can be used. Equally necessary to knowing the mass loss or recession depth for determining the erosion yield of polymers is the knowledge of the atomic oxygen fluence that the polymers were exposed to in space. This paper discusses the procedures and relevant issues for mass loss and recession depth measurements for passive atomic oxygen erosion yield characterization of polymers, along with techniques for active atomic oxygen fluence and erosion characterization. One active atomic oxygen erosion technique discussed is a new technique based on optical measurements. Details including the use of both semi-transparent and opaque polymers for active erosion measurement are reviewed.

  17. The reaction efficiency of thermal energy oxygen atoms with polymeric materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koontz, S. L.; Nordine, Paul

    1990-01-01

    The reaction efficiency of several polymeric materials with thermal-energy (0.04 eV translational energy), ground-state (O3P) oxygen atoms was determined by exposing the materials to a room temperature gas containing a known concentration of atomic oxygen. The reaction efficiency measurements were conducted in two flowing afterglow systems of different configuration. Atomic oxygen concentration measurements, flow, transport and surface dose analysis is presented in this paper. The measured reaction efficiencies of Kapton, Mylar, polyethylene, D4-polyethylene and Tedlar are .001 to .0001 those determined with high-energy ground-state oxygen atoms in low earth orbit or in a high-velocity atom beam. D4-polyethylene exhibits a large kinetic isotope effect with atomic oxygen at thermal but not hyperthermal atom energies.

  18. Complexes of self-interstitials with oxygen atoms in Ge

    SciTech Connect

    Khirunenko, L. I.; Pomozov, Yu. V.; Sosnin, M. G.; Abrosimov, N. V.; Riemann, H.

    2014-02-21

    Interactions of germanium self-interstitials with interstitial oxygen atoms in Ge subjected to irradiation at ∼80 K and subsequently to annealing have been studied. To distinguish the processes involving vacancies and self-interstitials the doping with tin was used. It was shown that absorption lines with maximum at 602, 674, 713 and 803 cm{sup −1} are self-interstitials-related. Two lines at 602 and 674, which develop upon annealing in the temperature range 180–240 K, belong to IO complexes, while the bands at 713 and 803 cm{sup −1}, which emerge after annealing at T>220 K, are associated with I{sub 2}O. It is argued that the annealing of IO occurs by two mechanisms: by dissociation and by diffusion.

  19. Hyperthermal atomic oxygen reactions with kapton and polyethylene. [in LEO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, J. B.; Koontz, S. L.; Gregory, J. C.; Edgell, M. J.

    1990-01-01

    Gas phase reaction products produced by the interaction of high kinetic energy (1-3 eV) 3p ground state atomic oxygen (AO) with polyethylene and kapton were found to be H2, H2O, CO, and CO2 with NO being a possible secondary product from kapton. Hydrogen abstraction at high AO kinetic energy is postulated to be the key reaction controlling the erosion rate of kapton and polyethylene. An Arrhenius-like expression having an activation barrier of 0.4 eV can be fit to the data, which suggests that the rate limiting step in the AO/kapton reaction mechanism can be overcome by translational energy.

  20. Atomic Oxygen Energy in Low Frequency Hyperthermal Plasma Ashers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Miller, Sharon K R.; Kneubel, Christian A.

    2014-01-01

    Experimental and analytical analysis of the atomic oxygen erosion of pyrolytic graphite as well as Monte Carlo computational modeling of the erosion of Kapton H (DuPont, Wilmington, DE) polyimide was performed to determine the hyperthermal energy of low frequency (30 to 35 kHz) plasma ashers operating on air. It was concluded that hyperthermal energies in the range of 0.3 to 0.9 eV are produced in the low frequency air plasmas which results in texturing similar to that in low Earth orbit (LEO). Monte Carlo computational modeling also indicated that such low energy directed ions are fully capable of producing the experimentally observed textured surfaces in low frequency plasmas.

  1. Effect of additive oxygen gas on cellular response of lung cancer cells induced by atmospheric pressure helium plasma jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joh, Hea Min; Choi, Ji Ye; Kim, Sun Ja; Chung, T. H.; Kang, Tae-Hong

    2014-10-01

    The atmospheric pressure helium plasma jet driven by pulsed dc voltage was utilized to treat human lung cancer cells in vitro. The properties of plasma plume were adjusted by the injection type and flow rate of additive oxygen gas in atmospheric pressure helium plasma jet. The plasma characteristics such as plume length, electric current and optical emission spectra (OES) were measured at different flow rates of additive oxygen to helium. The plasma plume length and total current decreased with an increase in the additive oxygen flow rate. The electron excitation temperature estimated by the Boltzmann plot from several excited helium emission lines increased slightly with the additive oxygen flow. The oxygen atom density in the gas phase estimated by actinometry utilizing argon was observed to increase with the additive oxygen flow. The concentration of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) measured by fluorescence assay was found to be not exactly proportional to that of extracellular ROS (measured by OES), but both correlated considerably. It was also observed that the expression levels of p53 and the phospho-p53 were enhanced in the presence of additive oxygen flow compared with those from the pure helium plasma treatment.

  2. Effect of additive oxygen gas on cellular response of lung cancer cells induced by atmospheric pressure helium plasma jet.

    PubMed

    Joh, Hea Min; Choi, Ji Ye; Kim, Sun Ja; Chung, T H; Kang, Tae-Hong

    2014-10-16

    The atmospheric pressure helium plasma jet driven by pulsed dc voltage was utilized to treat human lung cancer cells in vitro. The properties of plasma plume were adjusted by the injection type and flow rate of additive oxygen gas in atmospheric pressure helium plasma jet. The plasma characteristics such as plume length, electric current and optical emission spectra (OES) were measured at different flow rates of additive oxygen to helium. The plasma plume length and total current decreased with an increase in the additive oxygen flow rate. The electron excitation temperature estimated by the Boltzmann plot from several excited helium emission lines increased slightly with the additive oxygen flow. The oxygen atom density in the gas phase estimated by actinometry utilizing argon was observed to increase with the additive oxygen flow. The concentration of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) measured by fluorescence assay was found to be not exactly proportional to that of extracellular ROS (measured by OES), but both correlated considerably. It was also observed that the expression levels of p53 and the phospho-p53 were enhanced in the presence of additive oxygen flow compared with those from the pure helium plasma treatment.

  3. Effect of additive oxygen gas on cellular response of lung cancer cells induced by atmospheric pressure helium plasma jet

    PubMed Central

    Joh, Hea Min; Choi, Ji Ye; Kim, Sun Ja; Chung, T. H.; Kang, Tae-Hong

    2014-01-01

    The atmospheric pressure helium plasma jet driven by pulsed dc voltage was utilized to treat human lung cancer cells in vitro. The properties of plasma plume were adjusted by the injection type and flow rate of additive oxygen gas in atmospheric pressure helium plasma jet. The plasma characteristics such as plume length, electric current and optical emission spectra (OES) were measured at different flow rates of additive oxygen to helium. The plasma plume length and total current decreased with an increase in the additive oxygen flow rate. The electron excitation temperature estimated by the Boltzmann plot from several excited helium emission lines increased slightly with the additive oxygen flow. The oxygen atom density in the gas phase estimated by actinometry utilizing argon was observed to increase with the additive oxygen flow. The concentration of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) measured by fluorescence assay was found to be not exactly proportional to that of extracellular ROS (measured by OES), but both correlated considerably. It was also observed that the expression levels of p53 and the phospho-p53 were enhanced in the presence of additive oxygen flow compared with those from the pure helium plasma treatment. PMID:25319447

  4. Sensitive Technique Developed Using Atomic Force Microscopy to Measure the Low-Earth-Orbit Atomic Oxygen Erosion of Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deGroh, Kim D.; Banks, Bruce A.; Clark, Gregory W.; Hammerstrom, Anne; Youngstrom, Erica; Kaminski, Carolyn; Fine, Elizabeth; Marx, Laura

    2001-01-01

    A recession measurement technique has been developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center to determine the atomic oxygen durability of polymers exposed to the space environment for short durations. Polymers such as polyimide Kapton and Teflon FEP (fluorinated ethylene propylene, DuPont) are commonly used in spacecraft because of their desirable properties, such as flexibility, low density, and in the case of FEP, low solar absorptance and high thermal emittance. Polymers on the exterior of spacecraft in the low- Earth-orbit environment are exposed to energetic atomic oxygen, resulting in erosion and potential structural loss. It is, therefore, important to understand the atomic oxygen erosion yield (E, the volume loss per incident oxygen atom) of polymers being considered in spacecraft design. Because long-term space exposure data are rare and very costly, short-term exposures, such as on the space shuttles, are often relied on for atomic oxygen erosion determination. The most common technique for determining E is through mass-loss measurements. For limited-duration exposure experiments, such as shuttle flight experiments, the atomic oxygen fluence is often so small that mass-loss measurements are not sensitive enough. Therefore, a recession measurement technique has been developed at Glenn to obtain accurate erosion yields of polymers exposed to low atomic oxygen fluences.

  5. Thermospheric atomic oxygen density estimates using the EISCAT Svalbard Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vickers, H.; Kosch, M. J.; Sutton, E. K.; Ogawa, Y.; La Hoz, C.

    2012-12-01

    The unique coupling of the ionized and neutral atmosphere through particle collisions allows an indirect study of the neutral atmosphere through measurements of ionospheric plasma parameters. We estimate the neutral density of the upper thermosphere above ~250 km with the EISCAT Svalbard Radar (ESR) using the year-long operations of the first year of the International Polar Year (IPY) from March 2007 to February 2008. The simplified momentum equation for atomic oxygen ions is used for field-aligned motion in the steady state, taking into account the opposing forces of plasma pressure gradient and gravity only. This restricts the technique to quiet geomagnetic periods, which applies to most of IPY during the recent very quiet solar minimum. Comparison with the MSIS model shows that at 250 km, close to the F-layer peak the ESR estimates of the atomic oxygen density are typically a factor 1.2 smaller than the MSIS model when data are averaged over the IPY. Differences between MSIS and ESR estimates are found also to depend on both season and magnetic disturbance, with largest discrepancies noted during winter months. At 350 km, very close agreement with the MSIS model is achieved without evidence of seasonal dependence. This altitude was also close to the orbital altitude of the CHAMP satellite during IPY, allowing a comparison of in-situ measurements and radar estimates of the neutral density. Using a total of 10 in-situ passes by the CHAMP satellite above Svalbard, we show that the estimates made using this technique fall within the error bars of the measurements. We show that the method works best in the height range ~300-400 km where our assumptions are satisfied and we anticipate that the technique should be suitable for future thermospheric studies related to geomagnetic storm activity and long-term climate change.

  6. Atomic scale behavior of oxygen-based radicals in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verlackt, C. C. W.; Neyts, E. C.; Bogaerts, A.

    2017-03-01

    Cold atmospheric pressure plasmas in and in contact with liquids represent a growing field of research for various applications. Understanding the interactions between the plasma generated species and the liquid is crucial. In this work we perform molecular dynamics (MD) simulations based on a quantum mechanical method, i.e. density-functional based tight-binding (DFTB), to examine the interactions of OH radicals and O atoms in bulk water. Our calculations reveal that the transport of OH radicals through water is not only governed by diffusion, but also by an equilibrium reaction of H-abstraction with water molecules. Furthermore, when two OH radicals encounter each other, they either form a stable cluster, or react, resulting in the formation of a new water molecule and an O atom. In addition, the O atoms form either oxywater (when in singlet configuration) or they remain stable in solution (when in triplet configuration), stressing the important role that O atoms can play in aqueous solution, and in contact with biomolecules. Our observations are in line with both experimental and ab initio results from the literature.

  7. Roles of additives and surface control in slurry atomization

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, S.C.

    1992-01-01

    This project studies the rheology and airblast atomization of micronized coal slurries. Its major objectives are (1) to promote further understanding of the mechanisms and the roles of additives in airblast atomization of coal water slurry (CWS), and (2) to investigate the impacts of coal particle surface properties and interparticle forces on CWS rheology. We have found that the flow behavior index (n) of a suspension (or slurry) is determined by the relative importance of the interparticle van der Waals attraction and the interparticle electrostatic repulsion. The interparticle attraction, measured by the Hamaker constant scaled to the thermal energy at 25[degrees]C (A/kT), causes particle aggregation, which breaks down at high shear rates, and thus leads to slurry pseudoplastic behavior (n< 1). At a constant particle volume fraction and surface charge density (qualitatively measured by the zeta potential in deionized water), n decreases linearly as A/kT increases. The relative viscosity of the pseudoplastic suspension with respect to that of the suspending liquid is found to be independent of particle density and correlate well with the particle Peclet number which equals the particle diffusional relaxation time multiplied by shear rate. Specifically, the relative viscosities of the pseudoplastic glycerol/water coal slurry and the ethylene glycol/glycerol sand slurry, at same volume fractions as well as similar particle size distributions and liquid viscosities, as functions of the particle Peclet number fall along the same line.

  8. Large-Area Atomic Oxygen Facility Used to Clean Fire-Damaged Artwork

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutledge, Sharon K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Steuber, Thomas J.; Sechkar, Edward A.

    2000-01-01

    In addition to completely destroying artwork, fires in museums and public buildings can soil a displayed artwork with so much accumulated soot that it can no longer be used for study or be enjoyed by the public. In situations where the surface has not undergone extensive charring or melting, restoration can be attempted. However, soot deposits can be very difficult to remove from some types of painted surfaces, particularly when the paint is fragile or flaking or when the top surface of the paint binder has been damaged. Restoration typically involves the use of organic solvents to clean the surface, but these solvents may cause the paint layers to swell or leach out. Also, immersion of the surface or swabbing during solvent cleaning may move or remove pigment through mechanical contact, especially if the fire damage extends into the paint binder. A noncontact technique of removing organic deposits from surfaces was developed out of NASA research on the effects of oxygen atoms on various materials. Atomic oxygen is present in the atmosphere surrounding the Earth at the altitudes where satellites typically orbit. It can react chemically with surface coatings or deposits that contain carbon. In the reaction, the carbon is converted to carbon monoxide and some carbon dioxide. Water vapor is also a byproduct of the reaction if the surface contains carbon-hydrogen bonds. To study this reaction, NASA developed Earth-based facilities to produce atomic oxygen for material exposure and testing. A vacuum facility designed and built by the Electro-Physics Branch of the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field to provide atomic oxygen over a large area for studying reactions in low Earth orbit has been used to successfully clean several full-size paintings. (This facility can accommodate paintings up to 1.5 by 2.1 m. The atomic oxygen plasma is produced between two large parallel aluminum plates using a radiofrequency power source operating at roughly 400 W. Atomic oxygen is

  9. Oxygen-free atomic layer deposition of indium sulfide.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Robert F; Weimer, Matthew S; Emery, Jonathan D; Hock, Adam S; Martinson, Alex B F

    2014-08-13

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) of indium sulfide (In2S3) films was achieved using a newly synthesized indium precursor and hydrogen sulfide. We obtain dense and adherent thin films free from halide and oxygen impurities. Self-limiting half-reactions are demonstrated at temperatures up to 225 °C, where oriented crystalline thin films are obtained without further annealing. Low-temperature growth of 0.89 Å/cycle is observed at 150 °C, while higher growth temperatures gradually reduce the per-cycle growth rate. Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) together with depth-profiling Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) reveal a S/In ratio of 1.5 with no detectable carbon, nitrogen, halogen, or oxygen impurities. The resistivity of thin films prior to air exposure decreases with increasing deposition temperature, reaching <1 Ω·cm for films deposited at 225 °C. Hall measurements reveal n-type conductivity due to free electron concentrations up to 10(18) cm(-3) and mobilities of order 1 cm(2)/(V·s). The digital synthesis of In2S3 via ALD at temperatures up to 225 °C may allow high quality thin films to be leveraged in optoelectronic devices including photovoltaic absorbers, buffer layers, and intermediate band materials.

  10. Thermal relaxation of molecular oxygen in collisions with nitrogen atoms.

    PubMed

    Andrienko, Daniil A; Boyd, Iain D

    2016-07-07

    Investigation of O2-N collisions is performed by means of the quasi-classical trajectory method on the two lowest ab initio potential energy surfaces at temperatures relevant to hypersonic flows. A complete set of bound-bound and bound-free transition rates is obtained for each precollisional rovibrational state. Special attention is paid to the vibrational and rotational relaxations of oxygen as a result of chemically non-reactive interaction with nitrogen atoms. The vibrational relaxation of oxygen partially occurs via the formation of an intermediate NO2 complex. The efficient energy randomization results in rapid vibrational relaxation at low temperatures, compared to other molecular systems with a purely repulsive potential. The vibrational relaxation time, computed by means of master equation studies, is nearly an order of magnitude lower than the relaxation time in N2-O collisions. The rotational nonequilibrium starts to play a significant effect at translational temperatures above 8000 K. The present work provides convenient relations for the vibrational and rotational relaxation times as well as for the quasi-steady dissociation rate coefficient and thus fills a gap in data due to a lack of experimental measurements for this system.

  11. Enhancement of burning velocity by dissociated oxygen atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akashi, Haruaki; Yoshinaga, Tomokazu; Sasaki, Koichi

    2015-09-01

    Green technology, such as preventing global warming, has been developed for years. Researches on plasma assisted combustion is one of the technologies and have been done for investigating more efficient combustion, more efficient use of fossil fuel with plasmas or applying electric fields. In the ignition time delay analyses with the dissociated oxygen atoms which is generated by non-equilibrium plasma had significant effect on the ignition time. In this paper, dissociated oxygen could effect on burning velocity or not has been examined using CHEMKIN. As a result, no effect can be seen with dissociation degree of lower than 10-3. But there is an effect on the enhancement of burning velocity with higher degree of 10-3. At the dissociation degree of 5×10-2, the burning velocity is enhanced at a factor of 1.24. And it is found that the distributions of each species in front of preheat zone are completely different. The combustion process is proceeded several steps in advance, and generation of H2O, CO and CO2 can be seen before combustion in higher dissociation case. This work was supported by KAKENHI (22340170).

  12. Thermal relaxation of molecular oxygen in collisions with nitrogen atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrienko, Daniil A.; Boyd, Iain D.

    2016-07-01

    Investigation of O2-N collisions is performed by means of the quasi-classical trajectory method on the two lowest ab initio potential energy surfaces at temperatures relevant to hypersonic flows. A complete set of bound-bound and bound-free transition rates is obtained for each precollisional rovibrational state. Special attention is paid to the vibrational and rotational relaxations of oxygen as a result of chemically non-reactive interaction with nitrogen atoms. The vibrational relaxation of oxygen partially occurs via the formation of an intermediate NO2 complex. The efficient energy randomization results in rapid vibrational relaxation at low temperatures, compared to other molecular systems with a purely repulsive potential. The vibrational relaxation time, computed by means of master equation studies, is nearly an order of magnitude lower than the relaxation time in N2-O collisions. The rotational nonequilibrium starts to play a significant effect at translational temperatures above 8000 K. The present work provides convenient relations for the vibrational and rotational relaxation times as well as for the quasi-steady dissociation rate coefficient and thus fills a gap in data due to a lack of experimental measurements for this system.

  13. Adsorption of oxygen atom on MoSi2 (110) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, S. P.; Li, X. P.; Wang, H. J.; Jiang, Y.; Yi, D. Q.

    2016-09-01

    The adsorption energy, structural relaxation and electronic properties of oxygen atom on MoSi2 (110) surface have been investigated by first-principles calculations. The energetic stability of MoSi2 low-index surfaces was analyzed, and the results suggested that MoSi2 (110) surface had energetically stability. The site of oxygen atom adsorbed on MoSi2 (110) surface were discussed, and the results indicated that the preference adsorption site of MoSi2 (110) surface for oxygen atom was H site (hollow position). Our calculated work should help to understand further the interaction between oxygen atoms and MoSi2 surfaces.

  14. Dioxygen molecule adsorption and oxygen atom diffusion on clean and defective aluminum(111) surface using first principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guiltat, Mathilde; Brut, Marie; Vizzini, Sébastien; Hémeryck, Anne

    2017-03-01

    First principles calculations are conducted to investigate kinetic behavior of oxygen species at the surface of clean and defective Al(111) substrate. Oxygen island, aluminum vacancy, aluminum sub-vacancy, aluminum ad-atom and aluminum terraces defects are addressed. Adsorption of oxygen molecule is first performed on all these systems resulting in dissociated oxygen atoms in main cases. The obtained adsorbed configurations are then picked to study the behavior of atomic oxygen specie and get a detailed understanding on the effect of the local environment on the ability of the oxygen atom to diffuse on the surface. We pointed out that local environment impacts energetics of oxygen atom diffusion. Close packed oxygen island, sub-vacancy and ad-atoms favor oxygen atom stability and decrease mobility of oxygen atom on the surface, to be seen as surface area for further nucleation of oxygen island.

  15. Evaluation of atomic oxygen resistant protective coatings for fiberglass-epoxy composites in LEO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutledge, Sharon K.; Paulsen, Phillip E.; Brady, Joyce A.

    1989-01-01

    Fiberglass-epoxy composite masts are the prime structural members for the Space Station Freedom solar array. At the altitude where Space Station Freedom will operate, atomic oxygen atoms are the most predominant species. Atomic oxygen is highly reactive and has been shown to oxidize organic and some metallic materials. Tests with random and directed atomic oxygen exposure have shown that the epoxy is removed from the composite exposing brittle glass fibers which could be easily removed from the surface where they could contaminate Space Station Freedom Systems. Protection or fiber containment systems; inorganic based paints, aluminum braid, and a metal coating; were evaluated for resistance to atomic oxygen, vacuum ultraviolet radiation, thermal cycling, and mechanical flexing. All appeared to protect well against atomic oxygen and provide fiber containment except for the single aluminum braid covering. UV radiation resistance was acceptable and in general, thermal cycling and flexure had little to no effect on the mass loss rate for most coatings.

  16. 75 FR 39629 - Use of One Additional Portable Oxygen Concentrator Device on Board Aircraft

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-12

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 121 RIN 2120-AJ77 Use of One Additional Portable Oxygen... Oxygen Concentrator Systems on Board Aircraft, to allow for the use of one additional portable oxygen... the traveling public in need of oxygen therapy. When this rule becomes effective, there will be...

  17. Application of cold beam of atoms and molecules for studying luminescence of oxygen atoms stimulated by metastable helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khmelenko, V. V.; Mao, S.; Meraki, A.; Wilde, S. C.; McColgan, P. T.; Pelmenev, A. A.; Boltnev, R. E.; Lee, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    We describe a method for creating a high flux beam of cold atoms and molecules. By using this beam method, spectroscopic studies of the afterglow of oxygen-helium gas mixtures at cryogenic temperatures were performed. The cooling by helium vapor of a helium jet containing trace amounts of oxygen after passing through a radiofrequency discharge zone led to the observation of strong emissions from atomic oxygen. The effect results from the increased efficiency of energy transfer from metastable helium atoms and molecules to the atomic oxygen in the cold dense helium vapor. The effect might find application for the detection of small quantities of impurities in helium gas as well as possible laser action.

  18. Modelling of Atomic Oxygen Visible emissions from Comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghuram, Susarla; Bhardwaj, Anil

    Green (5577 Å) and red-doublet (6300, 6364 Å) lines are prompt emissions of metastable oxygen atoms of O((1) S) and O((1) D) respectively, that have been observed in several comets. The observed red-doublet emission intensity is used to estimate the H_{2}O production rate, whereas the green to red-doublet intensity ratio (G/R ratio) has been used to confirm the parent molecule of oxygen lines as H_{2}O. The observed higher G/R ratio values are ascribed to higher CO_{2} and CO relative abundances. A coupled chemistry-emission model is developed to study the production and loss mechanisms of O((1) S) and O((1) D) atoms and the generation of red and green lines in comets. Our model calculations on different comets suggest that the G/R ratio depends not only on photochemistry, but also on the projected area observed for cometary coma, which is a function of the dimension of the slit used and the geocentric distance of the comet. Our calculated mean excess energy in various photodissociation processes show that the high energy photons dissociate CO_{2} and produce O((1) S) with large velocities than that in photodissociation of H_{2}O which is consistent with larger width of green line compared to that of the red-doublet lines observed in several comets The photodissociation of H_{2}O mainly governs the red-doublet emission, whereas CO_{2} plays an important role in controlling the green line emission. The collisional quenching of O((1) S) and O((1) D) can alter the G/R ratio more than that can be due to variation in the CO_{2} and CO relative abundances. The role of CO photodissociation is found to be insignificant in producing green and red-doublet emission lines and consequently in determining the G/R ratio. If a comet has equal composition of CO_{2} and H_{2}O, which happens when comet is at larger heliocentric distances, then ˜50% of red-doublet emission intensity is controlled by the photodissociation of CO_{2}. References: Festou, M.C., & Feldman, P.D., Astron

  19. Simulation of the low earth orbital atomic oxygen interaction with materials by means of an oxygen ion beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Rutledge, Sharon K.; Paulsen, Phillip E.; Steuber, Thomas J.

    1989-01-01

    Atomic oxygen is the predominant species in low-Earth orbit between the altitudes of 180 and 650 km. These highly reactive atoms are a result of photodissociation of diatomic oxygen molecules from solar photons having a wavelength less than or equal to 2430A. Spacecraft in low-Earth orbit collide with atomic oxygen in the 3P ground state at impact energies of approximately 4.2 to 4.5 eV. As a consequence, organic materials previously used for high altitude geosynchronous spacecraft are severely oxidized in the low-Earth orbital environment. The evaluation of materials durability to atomic oxygen requires ground simulation of this environment to cost effectively screen materials for durability. Directed broad beam oxygen sources are necessary to evaluate potential spacecraft materials performance before and after exposure to the simulated low-Earth orbital environment. This paper presents a description of a low energy, broad oxygen ion beam source used to simulate the low-Earth orbital atomic oxygen environment. The results of materials interaction with this beam and comparison with actual in-space tests of the same meterials will be discussed. Resulting surface morphologies appear to closely replicate those observed in space tests.

  20. Use of Atomic Oxygen for Increased Water Contact Angles of Various Polymers for Biomedical Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beger, Lauren; Roberts, Lily; deGroh, Kim; Banks, Bruce

    2007-01-01

    In the low Earth orbit (LEO) space environment, spacecraft surfaces can be altered during atomic oxygen exposure through oxidation and erosion. There can be terrestrial benefits of such interactions, such as the modification of hydrophobic or hydrophilic properties of polymers due to chemical modification and texturing. Such modification of the surface may be useful for biomedical applications. For example, atomic oxygen texturing may increase the hydrophilicity of polymers, such as chlorotrifluoroethylene (Aclar), thus allowing increased adhesion and spreading of cells on textured Petri dishes. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of atomic oxygen exposure on the hydrophilicity of nine different polymers. To determine whether hydrophilicity remains static after atomic oxygen exposure or changes with exposure, the contact angles between the polymer and a water droplet placed on the polymer s surface were measured. The polymers were exposed to atomic oxygen in a radio frequency (RF) plasma asher. Atomic oxygen plasma treatment was found to significantly alter the hydrophilicity of non-fluorinated polymers. Significant decreases in the water contact angle occurred with atomic oxygen exposure. Fluorinated polymers were found to be less sensitive to changes in hydrophilicity for equivalent atomic oxygen exposures, and two of the fluorinated polymers became more hydrophobic. The majority of change in water contact angle of the non-fluorinated polymers was found to occur with very low fluence exposures, indicating potential cell culturing benefit with short treatment time.

  1. Atomic oxygen interaction with solar array blankets at protective coating defect sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Auer, Bruce M.; Rutledge, Sharon K.; Hill, Carol M.

    1991-01-01

    Atomic oxygen in the low-Earth-orbital environment oxidizes SiOx protected polyimide Kapton solar array blankets at sites which are not protected such as pin windows or scratches in the protective coatings. The magnitude and shape of the atomic oxygen undercutting which occurs at these sites is dependent upon the exposure environment details such as arrival direction and reaction probability. The geometry of atomic oxygen undercutting at defect sites exposed to atomic oxygen in plasma asher was used to develop a Monte Carlo model to simulate atomic oxygen erosion processes at defect sites in protected Kapton. Comparisons of Monte Carlo predictions and experimental results are presented for plasma asher atomic oxygen exposures for large and small defects as well as for protective coatings on one or both sides of Kapton. The model is used to predict in-space exposure results at defect sites for both directed and sweeping atomic oxygen exposure. A comparison of surface textures predicted by the Monte Carlo model and those experimentally observed from both directed space ram and laboratory plasma asher atomic oxygen exposure indicate substantial agreement.

  2. Atomic oxygen effects measurements for shuttle missions STS-8 and 41-G

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Visentine, James T. (Compiler)

    1988-01-01

    The effects of the atomic oxygen interactions upon optical coatings, thin metallized films, and advanced spacecraft materials, such as high temperature coatings for infrared optical systems are summarized. Also included is a description of a generic model proposed by JPL, which may explain the atomic oxygen interaction mechanisms that lead to surface recession and weight loss.

  3. Low Earth orbit atomic oxygen simulation for durability evaluation of solar reflector surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degroh, Kim K.; Banks, Bruce A.

    1992-01-01

    To evaluate the performance and durability of solar reflector surfaces in the atomic oxygen environment typical of low Earth orbit (LEO), one must expose the reflector surface either directly to LEO or to ground-laboratory atomic oxygen environments. Although actual LEO exposures are most desired, such opportunities are typically scarce, expensive, and of limited duration. As a result, ground-laboratory exposures must be relied upon as the most practical long-term durability evaluation technique. Plasma ashers are widely used as LEO simulation facilities by producing atomic oxygen environments for durability evaluation of potential spacecraft materials. Atomic oxygen arrival differs between ground and space exposure in that plasma asher exposure produces isotropic arrival and space solar tracking produces sweeping arrival. Differences in initial impact reaction probability occur, dependent upon the energy and species existing in these environments. Due to the variations in ground-laboratory and space atomic oxygen, quantification of in-space performance based on plasma asher testing is not straightforward. The various atomic oxygen interactions that can occur with reflector surfaces, such as undercutting in organic substrates at protective coating defect sites, ground-laboratory techniques recommended for evaluating the atomic oxygen durability of reflectors based on asher exposures, and computational techniques which make use of ground-laboratory atomic oxygen exposure to predict in-space LEO durability are addressed.

  4. Calculated values of atomic oxygen fluences and solar exposure on selected surfaces of LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillis, J. R.; Pippin, H. G.; Bourassa, R. J.; Gruenbaum, P. E.

    1995-01-01

    Atomic oxygen (AO) fluences and solar exposure have been modeled for selected hardware from the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). The atomic oxygen exposure was modeled using the microenvironment modeling code SHADOWV2. The solar exposure was modeled using the microenvironment modeling code SOLSHAD version 1.0.

  5. Model of spacecraft atomic oxygen and solar exposure microenvironments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourassa, R. J.; Pippin, H. G.

    1993-01-01

    Computer models of environmental conditions in Earth orbit are needed for the following reasons: (1) derivation of material performance parameters from orbital test data, (2) evaluation of spacecraft hardware designs, (3) prediction of material service life, and (4) scheduling spacecraft maintenance. To meet these needs, Boeing has developed programs for modeling atomic oxygen (AO) and solar radiation exposures. The model allows determination of AO and solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposures for spacecraft surfaces (1) in arbitrary orientations with respect to the direction of spacecraft motion, (2) overall ranges of solar conditions, and (3) for any mission duration. The models have been successfully applied to prediction of experiment environments on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) and for analysis of selected hardware designs for deployment on other spacecraft. The work on these models has been reported at previous LDEF conferences. Since publication of these reports, a revision has been made to the AO calculation for LDEF, and further work has been done on the microenvironments model for solar exposure.

  6. Low-Energy Elastic Electron Scattering by Atomic Oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zatsarinny O.; Bartschat, K.; Tayal, S. S.

    2006-01-01

    The B-spline R-matrix method is employed to investigate the low-energy elastic electron scattering by atomic oxygen. Flexible non-orthogonal sets of radial functions are used to construct the target description and to represent the scattering functions. A detailed investigation regarding the dependence of the predicted partial and total cross sections on the scattering model and the accuracy of the target description is presented. The predicted angle-integrated elastic cross sections are in good agreement with experiment, whereas significant discrepancies are found in the angle-differential elastic cross sections near the forward direction. .The near-threshold results are found to strongly depend on the treatment of inner-core short-range correlation effects in the target description, as well as on a proper account of the target polarizability. A sharp increase in the elastic cross sections below 1 eV found in some earlier calculations is judged to be an artifact of an unbalanced description of correlation in the N-electron target structure and the (N+l)-electron-collision problems.

  7. Calculation of muon transfer from muonic hydrogen to atomic oxygen

    SciTech Connect

    Dupays, Arnaud; Lepetit, Bruno; Beswick, J. Alberto; Rizzo, Carlo; Bakalov, Dimitar

    2003-06-01

    The muon-transfer probabilities between muonic hydrogen and an oxygen atom are calculated in a constrained geometry one-dimensional model for collision energies between 10{sup -6} and 10{sup 3} eV. For relative translational energies below 10{sup -1} eV, for which the de Broglie wavelength (>1 Aa) is much larger than the characteristic distance of the potential interaction ({approx}0.1 Aa), the problem corresponds to an ultracold collision. The close-coupling time-independent quantum equations are written in terms of hyperspherical coordinates and a diabatic-by-sectors basis set. The muon-transfer probabilities are qualitatively interpreted in terms of a model involving two Landau-Zener crossings together with the threshold energy dependence. Based on this analysis, a simple procedure to estimate the energy dependence of the muon-transfer rate in three dimensions is proposed. These estimated rates are discussed in the light of previous model calculations and available experimental data for this process. It is concluded that the high transfer rates at epithermal energies inferred from experiments are unlikely to be correct.

  8. An Atmospheric Atomic Oxygen Source for Cleaning Smoke Damaged Art Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Rutledge, Sharon K.; Norris, Mary Jo

    1998-01-01

    Soot and other carbonaceous combustion products deposited on the surfaces of porous ceramic, stone, ivory and paper can be difficult to remove and can have potentially unsatisfactory results using wet chemical and/or abrasive cleaning techniques. An atomic oxygen source which operates in air at atmospheric pressure, using a mixture of oxygen and helium, has been developed to produce an atomic oxygen beam which is highly effective in oxidizing soot deposited on surfaces by burning candles made of paraffin, oil or rendered animal fat. Atomic oxygen source operating conditions and the results of cleaning soot from paper, gesso, ivory, limestone and water color-painted limestone are presented,

  9. Durability Issues for the Protection of Materials from Atomic Oxygen Attack in Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce; Lenczewski, Mary; Demko, Rikako

    2002-01-01

    Low Earth orbital atomic oxygen is capable of eroding most polymeric materials typically used on spacecraft. Solar array blankets, thermal control polymers, and carbon fiber matrix composites are readily oxidized to become thinner and less capable of supporting the loads imposed upon them. Protective coatings have been developed that are durable to atomic oxygen to prevent oxidative erosion of the underlying polymers. However, the details of the surface roughness, coating defect density, and coating configuration can play a significant role as to whether or not the coating provides long duration atomic oxygen protection. Identical coatings on different surface roughness surfaces can have drastically different durability results. Examples and analysis of the causes of resultant differences in atomic oxygen protection are presented. Implications based on in-space experiences, ground laboratory testing, and computational modeling indicate that thin film vacuum-deposited aluminum protective coatings offer much less atomic oxygen protection than sputter-deposited silicon dioxide coatings.

  10. Monte Carlo Computational Modeling of the Energy Dependence of Atomic Oxygen Undercutting of Protected Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Stueber, Thomas J.; Norris, Mary Jo

    1998-01-01

    A Monte Carlo computational model has been developed which simulates atomic oxygen attack of protected polymers at defect sites in the protective coatings. The parameters defining how atomic oxygen interacts with polymers and protective coatings as well as the scattering processes which occur have been optimized to replicate experimental results observed from protected polyimide Kapton on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) mission. Computational prediction of atomic oxygen undercutting at defect sites in protective coatings for various arrival energies was investigated. The atomic oxygen undercutting energy dependence predictions enable one to predict mass loss that would occur in low Earth orbit, based on lower energy ground laboratory atomic oxygen beam systems. Results of computational model prediction of undercut cavity size as a function of energy and defect size will be presented to provide insight into expected in-space mass loss of protected polymers with protective coating defects based on lower energy ground laboratory testing.

  11. Atomic oxygen-metal surface studies as applied to mass spectrometer measurements of upper planetary atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sjolander, G. W.

    1976-01-01

    The problem of atomic oxygen loss in mass spectrometer ion sources can be reduced to an understanding of the possible surface interactions between oxygen atoms and the metal surface of the ion source. Results are presented for an experimental study in which an atomic oxygen beam apparatus and a mass spectrometer were used to measure the oxygen atom reflection, recombination, general surface reaction, and occlusion probabilities on six different engineering surfaces as a function of atomic oxygen exposure. The materials studied are gold, Nichrome V, aluminum, titanium, silver, and platinum. The variation in measured reflection probability seems to occur with metals that form oxides, Nichrome V being stable in terms of reflection stability. Recombination is observed an all surfaces except aluminum and platinum. Variation in the complete set of measurements in a single experiment is the result of varying surface conditions.

  12. Vacuum Ultraviolet Absorption Measurements of Atomic Oxygen in a Shock Tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Scott Andrew

    1995-01-01

    The absorption of vacuum ultraviolet light by atomic oxygen has been measured in the Electric Arc-driven Shock Tube (EAST) Facility at NASA-Ames Research Center. This investigation demonstrates the instrumentation required to determine atomic oxygen concentrations from absorption measurements in impulse facilities. A shock wave dissociates molecular oxygen, producing a high temperature sample of atomic oxygen in the shock tube. A probe beam is generated with a Raman-shifted ArF excimer laser. By suitable tuning of the laser, absorption is measured over a range of wavelengths in the region of the atomic line at 130.49 nm. The line shape function is determined from measurements at atomic oxygen densities of 3x10(exp 17) and 9x10(exp 17) cm(exp -3). The broadening coefficient for resonance interactions is deduced from this data, and this value is in accord with available theoretical models.

  13. Vacuum Ultraviolet Absorption Measurements of Atomic Oxygen in a Shock Tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Scott Andrew

    1995-01-01

    The absorption of vacuum ultraviolet light by atomic oxygen has been measured in the Electric Arc-driven Shock Tube (EAST) Facility at NASA-Ames Research Center. This investigation demonstrates the instrumentation required to determine atomic oxygen concentrations from absorption measurements in impulse facilities. A shock wave dissociates molecular oxygen, producing a high temperature sample of atomic oxygen in the shock tube. A probe beam is generated with a Raman-shifted ArF excimer laser. By suitable tuning of the laser, absorption is measured over a range of wavelengths in the region of the atomic line at 130.49 nm. The line shape function is determined from measurements at atomic oxygen densities of 3 x 10(exp 17) and 9 x 10(exp 17) cm(exp -3). The broadening coefficient for resonance interactions is deduced from this data, and this value is in accord with available theoretical models.

  14. Vacuum Ultraviolet Absorption Measurements of Atomic Oxygen in a Shock Tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Scott Andrew

    1995-01-01

    The absorption of vacuum ultraviolet light by atomic oxygen has been measured in the Electric Arc-driven Shock Tube (EAST) Facility at NASA-Ames Research Center. This investigation demonstrates the instrumentation required to determine atomic oxygen concentrations from absorption measurements in impulse facilities. A shock wave dissociates molecular oxygen, producing a high temperature sample of atomic oxygen in the shock tube. A probe beam is generated with a Raman-shifted ArF excimer laser. By suitable tuning of the laser, absorption is measured over a range of wavelengths in the region of the atomic line at 130.49 nm. The line shape function is determined from measurements at atomic oxygen densities of 3 x 10(exp 17) and 9 x 10(exp 17)/cu cm. The broadening coefficient for resonance interactions is deduced from this data, and this value is in accord with available theoretical models.

  15. Atomic oxygen durability of solar concentrator materials for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degroh, Kim K.; Terlep, Judith A.; Dever, Therese M.

    1990-01-01

    The findings are reviewed of atomic oxygen exposure testing of candidate solar concentrator materials containing SiO2 and Al2O3 protective coatings for use on Space Station Freedom solar dynamic power modules. Both continuous and iterative atomic oxygen exposure tests were conducted. Iterative air plasma ashing resulted in larger specular reflectance decreases and solar absorptance increases than continuous ashing to the same fluence, and appears to provide a more severe environment than the continuous atomic oxygen exposure that would occur in the low Earth orbit environment. First generation concentrator fabrication techniques produced surface defects including scratches, macroscopic bumps, dendritic regions, porosity, haziness, and pin hole defects. Several of these defects appear to be preferential sites for atomic oxygen attack leading to erosive undercutting. Extensive undercutting and flaking of reflective and protective coatings were found to be promoted through an undercutting tearing propagation process. Atomic oxygen erosion processes and effects on optical performance is presented.

  16. Atomic oxygen durability of solar-concentrator materials for Space Station Freedom

    SciTech Connect

    Degroh, K.K.; Terlep, J.A.; Dever, T.M.

    1990-01-01

    The findings are reviewed of atomic oxygen exposure testing of candidate solar concentrator materials containing SiO2 and Al2O3 protective coatings for use on Space Station Freedom solar dynamic power modules. Both continuous and iterative atomic oxygen exposure tests were conducted. Iterative air plasma ashing resulted in larger specular reflectance decreases and solar absorptance increases than continuous ashing to the same fluence, and appears to provide a more severe environment than the continuous atomic oxygen exposure that would occur in the low Earth orbit environment. First generation concentrator fabrication techniques produced surface defects including scratches, macroscopic bumps, dendritic regions, porosity, haziness, and pin hole defects. Several of these defects appear to be preferential sites for atomic oxygen attack leading to erosive undercutting. Extensive undercutting and flaking of reflective and protective coatings were found to be promoted through an undercutting tearing propagation process. Atomic oxygen erosion processes and effects on optical performance is presented.

  17. Simulation of the synergistic low Earth orbit effects of vacuum thermal cycling, vacuum UV radiation, and atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dever, Joyce A.; Degroh, Kim K.; Stidham, Curtis R.; Stueber, Thomas J.; Dever, Therese M.; Rodriguez, Elvin; Terlep, Judith A.

    1992-01-01

    In order to assess the low Earth orbit (LEO) durability of candidate space materials, it is necessary to use ground laboratory facilities which provide LEO environmental effects. A facility combining vacuum thermal cycling and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation has been designed and constructed at NASA Lewis Research Center for this purpose. This facility can also be operated without the VUV lamps. An additional facility can be used to provide VUV exposure only. By utilizing these facilities, followed by atomic oxygen exposure in an RF plasma asher, the effects of the individual vacuum thermal cycling and VUV environments can be compared to the effect of the combined vacuum thermal cycling/VUV environment on the atomic oxygen durability of materials. The synergistic effects of simulated LEO environmental conditions on materials were evaluated by first exposing materials to vacuum thermal cycling, VUV, and vacuum thermal cycling/VUV environments followed by exposure to atomic oxygen in an RP plasma asher. Candidate space power materials such as atomic oxygen protected polyimides and solar concentrator mirrors were evaluated using these facilities. Characteristics of the Vacuum Thermal Cycling/VUV Exposure Facility which simulates the temperature sequences and solar ultraviolet radiation exposure that would be experienced by a spacecraft surface in LEO are discussed. Results of durability evaluations of some candidate space power materials to the simulated LEO environmental conditions will also be discussed. Such results have indicated that for some materials, atomic oxygen durability is affected by previous exposure to thermal cycling and/or VUV exposure.

  18. Materials selection for long life in low earth orbit - A critical evaluation of atomic oxygen testing with thermal atom systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koontz, S. L.; Albyn, K.; Leger, L.

    1990-01-01

    The use of thermal atom test methods as a materials selection and screening technique for low-earth orbit (LEO) spacecraft is critically evaluated. The chemistry and physics of thermal atom environments are compared with the LEO environment. The relative reactivities of a number of materials determined in thermal atom environments are compared with those observed in LEO and in high-quality LEO simulations. Reaction efficiencies (cu cm/atom) measured in a new type of thermal atom apparatus are one-thousandth to one ten-thousandth those observed in LEO, and many materials showing nearly identical reactivities in LEO show relative reactivities differing by as much as a factor of eight in thermal atom systems. A simple phenomenological kinetic model for the reaction of oxygen atoms with organic materials can be used to explain the differences in reactivity in different environments. Certain speciic thermal atom test environments can be used as reliable materials screening tools.

  19. Development of a Supersonic Atomic Oxygen Nozzle Beam Source for Crossed Beam Scattering Experiments

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Sibener, S. J.; Buss, R. J.; Lee, Y. T.

    1978-05-01

    A high pressure, supersonic, radio frequency discharge nozzle beam source was developed for the production of intense beams of ground state oxygen atoms. An efficient impedance matching scheme was devised for coupling the radio frequency power to the plasma as a function of both gas pressure and composition. Techniques for localizing the discharge directly behind the orifice of a water-cooled quartz nozzle were also developed. The above combine to yield an atomic oxygen beam source which produces high molecular dissociation in oxygen seeded rare gas mixtures at total pressures up to 200 torr: 80 to 90% dissociation for oxygen/argon mixtures and 60 to 70% for oxygen/helium mixtures. Atomic oxygen intensities are found to be greater than 10{sup 17} atom sr{sup -1} sec{sup -1}. A brief discussion of the reaction dynamics of 0 + IC1 ..-->.. I0 + C1 is also presented.

  20. Enhancing SNCR-aided combustion with oxygen addition

    DOEpatents

    Kobayashi, Hisashi; Wu, Kuang Tsai; Bool, III, Lawrence E.

    2004-03-09

    NOx emissions from combustion are reduced, NOx reduction efficiency by SNCR is improved, and other efficiencies are realized, by injecting oxygen into a fuel-rich combustion zone under controlled conditions.

  1. Thermochemical analyses of the oxidative vaporization of metals and oxides by oxygen molecules and atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohl, F. J.; Leisz, D. M.; Fryburg, G. C.; Stearns, C. A.

    1977-01-01

    Equilibrium thermochemical analyses are employed to describe the vaporization processes of metals and metal oxides upon exposure to molecular and atomic oxygen. Specific analytic results for the chromium-, platinum-, aluminum-, and silicon-oxygen systems are presented. Maximum rates of oxidative vaporization predicted from the thermochemical considerations are compared with experimental results for chromium and platinum. The oxidative vaporization rates of chromium and platinum are considerably enhanced by oxygen atoms.

  2. Roles of additives and surface control in slurry atomization

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, S.C.

    1990-01-01

    This report focuses on the effects of interparticle forces on the rheology and airblast atomization of micronized coal water slurry (CWS). We found that the CWS flow behavior index is determined by the relative importance of the interparticle van der Waals attraction and the interparticle electrostatic repulsion. The former intensifies as the Hamaker constant increases and the interparticle distance reduces while the latter increases as the particle surface charge density increases. The interparticle attraction causes particle aggregation, which breaks down at high shear rates, and thus leads to slurry pseudoplastic behavior. In contrast, the interparticle repulsion prevents particle aggregation and thus leads to Newtonian behavior. Both atomized at low atomizing air pressures (less than 270 kPa) using twin-fluid jet atomizers of various distributor designs. We found that the atomized drop sizes of micronized coal water slurries substantially decrease as the atomizing air pressure exceeds a threshold value. The effects of coal volume fraction, coal particle surface charge, liquid composition and liquid viscosity on slurry atomization can be accounted for by their effects on slurry rheology. 26 refs.

  3. Exposure of LDEF materials to atomic oxygen: Results of EOIM 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaggers, C. H.; Meshishnek, M. J.

    1995-01-01

    The third Effects of Oxygen Atom Interaction with Materials (EOIM 3) experiment flew on STS-46 from July 31 to August 8, 1992. The EOIM-3 sample tray was exposed to the low-earth orbit space environment for 58.55 hours at an altitude of 124 nautical miles resulting in a calculated total atomic oxygen (AO) fluence of 1.99 x 10(exp 20) atoms/sq cm. Five samples previously flown on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Experiment M0003 were included on the Aerospace EOIM 3 experimental tray: (1) Chemglaze A276 white thermal control paint from the LDEF trailing edge (TE); (2) S13GLO white thermal control paint from the LDEF TE; (3) S13GLO from the LDEF leading edge (LE) with a visible contamination layer from the LDEF mission; (4) Z306 black thermal control paint from the LDEF TE with a contamination layer from the LDEF mission; and (5) anodized aluminum from the LDEF TE with a contamination layer from the LDEF mission. The purpose of this experiment was twofold: (l) investigate the response of trailing edge LDEF materials to atomic oxygen exposure, thereby simulating LDEF leading edge phenomena; (2) investigate the response of contaminated LDEF samples to atomic oxygen in attempts to understand LDEF contamination-atomic oxygen interactions. This paper describes the response of these materials to atomic oxygen exposure, and compares the results of the EOIM 3 experiment to the LDEF mission and to ground-based atomic oxygen exposure studies.

  4. The reaction of propylene with ordered and disordered oxygen atoms adsorbed on the Ag(110) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranney, Jeffrey T.; Bare, Simon R.

    1997-06-01

    The adsorption and reaction of propylene on oxygen covered Ag(110) was investigated using temperature programmed desorption spectroscopy. Propylene oxidation was compared on the oxygen reconstructed (ordered) Ag(110) surface and on the unreconstructed (disordered) oxygen dosed surface. Oxygen atoms adsorbed < 185 K do not incorporate into long silver-oxygen chains on the (110) surface and are referred to as disordered. Propylene desorbs from clean Ag(110) with an activation energy of 9.8 kcal mol -1. The desorption activation energy increases by 30% as the coverage of oxygen is increased up to 0.33 monolayers. While the desorption activation energy increase was the same on the reconstructed and unreconstructed surface, the reactivity of the adsorbed oxygen for propylene oxidation was quite different. Disordered oxygen adatoms were determined to be at least ten times more active for propylene oxidation than ordered oxygen atoms on the reconstructed surface. The decrease in activity of the oxygen atoms is attributed to the embedding of the oxygen adatoms into long silver-oxygen chains at higher temperatures. With increasing propylene coverage on the oxygen pre-covered surface the water yield increases and the yield of carbon dioxide decreases, indicating that water formation through hydrogen abstraction consumes the bulk of the oxygen at higher propylene coverages.

  5. Development of a chemical oxygen - iodine laser with production of atomic iodine in a chemical reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Censky, M; Spalek, O; Jirasek, V; Kodymova, J; Jakubec, I

    2009-11-30

    The alternative method of atomic iodine generation for a chemical oxygen - iodine laser (COIL) in chemical reactions with gaseous reactants is investigated experimentally. The influence of the configuration of iodine atom injection into the laser cavity on the efficiency of the atomic iodine generation and small-signal gain is studied. (lasers)

  6. Fuel and oxygen addition for metal smelting or refining process

    DOEpatents

    Schlichting, M.R.

    1994-11-22

    A furnace for smelting iron ore and/or refining molten iron is equipped with an overhead pneumatic lance, through which a center stream of particulate coal is ejected at high velocity into a slag layer. An annular stream of nitrogen or argon enshrouds the coal stream. Oxygen is simultaneously ejected in an annular stream encircling the inert gas stream. The interposition of the inert gas stream between the coal and oxygen streams prevents the volatile matter in the coal from combusting before it reaches the slag layer. Heat of combustion is thus more efficiently delivered to the slag, where it is needed to sustain the desired reactions occurring there. A second stream of lower velocity oxygen can be delivered through an outermost annulus to react with carbon monoxide gas rising from slag layer, thereby adding still more heat to the furnace. 7 figs.

  7. Fuel and oxygen addition for metal smelting or refining process

    DOEpatents

    Schlichting, Mark R.

    1994-01-01

    A furnace 10 for smelting iron ore and/or refining molten iron 20 is equipped with an overhead pneumatic lance 40, through which a center stream of particulate coal 53 is ejected at high velocity into a slag layer 30. An annular stream of nitrogen or argon 51 enshrouds the coal stream. Oxygen 52 is simultaneously ejected in an annular stream encircling the inert gas stream 51. The interposition of the inert gas stream between the coal and oxygen streams prevents the volatile matter in the coal from combusting before it reaches the slag layer. Heat of combustion is thus more efficiently delivered to the slag, where it is needed to sustain the desired reactions occurring there. A second stream of lower velocity oxygen can be delivered through an outermost annulus 84 to react with carbon monoxide gas rising from slag layer 30, thereby adding still more heat to the furnace.

  8. Materials preparation and longevity in hyperthermal atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bareiss, Lyle E.; Sjolander, Gary P.; Gregory, John C.

    1987-01-01

    Flight hardware fabrication, the design and fabrication of an atom beam source, construction of a surface science laboratory, and progress in research on processes and mechanisms of interaction of hyperthermal atoms at solid surfaces are discussed.

  9. Neutral atomic oxygen beam produced by ion charge exchange for Low Earth Orbital (LEO) simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce; Rutledge, Sharon; Brdar, Marko; Olen, Carl; Stidham, Curt

    1987-01-01

    A low energy neutral atomic oxygen beam system was designed and is currently being assembled at the Lewis Research Center. The system utilizes a 15 cm diameter Kaufman ion source to produce positive oxygen ions which are charge exchange neutralized to produce low energy (variable from 5 to 150 eV) oxygen atoms at a flux simulating real time low Earth orbital conditions. An electromagnet is used to direct only the singly charged oxygen ions from the ion source into the charge exchange cell. A retarding potential grid is used to slow down the oxygen ions to desired energies prior to their charge exchange. Cryogenically cooled diatomic oxygen gas in the charge exchange cell is then used to transfer charge to the oxygen ions to produce a neutral atomic oxygen beam. Remaining non-charge exchanged oxygen ions are then swept from the beam by electromagnetic or electrostatic deflection depending upon the desired experiment configuration. The resulting neutral oxygen beam of 5 to 10 cm in diameter impinges upon target materials within a sample holder fixture that can also provide for simultaneous heating and UV exposure during the atomic oxygen bombardment.

  10. Formation of surface oxides and Ag2O thin films with atomic oxygen on Ag(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derouin, Jonathan; Farber, Rachael G.; Heslop, Stacy L.; Killelea, Daniel R.

    2015-11-01

    The nature of the oxygen species adsorbed to silver surfaces is a key component of the heterogeneously catalyzed epoxidation of ethylene and partial oxidation of methanol over silver catalysts. We report the formation of two different silver-oxygen species depending on the flux and energy of incident gas-phase oxygen atoms on an Ag(111) surface. A combination of surface science techniques was used to characterize the oxidized surfaces. Atomic oxygen was generated with an Ir filament; lower temperatures created surface oxides previously reported. When O was deposited with a higher filament temperature, the surface became highly corrugated, little subsurface oxygen was observed, and thin layers of Ag2O were likely formed. These results show that the energy and flux of oxygen are important parameters in the chemical identity and abundance of oxygen on silver surfaces and suggest that formation of the Ag2O thin film hinders formation of subsurface oxygen.

  11. 75 FR 739 - Use of Additional Portable Oxygen Concentrator Devices on Board Aircraft

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-06

    ... Administration 14 CFR Part 121 RIN 2120-AJ55 Use of Additional Portable Oxygen Concentrator Devices on Board... amends Special Federal Aviation Regulation 106 (SFAR 106), Use of Certain Portable Oxygen Concentrator Devices on Board Aircraft, to allow for the use of four additional portable oxygen concentrator...

  12. 77 FR 63217 - Use of Additional Portable Oxygen Concentrators on Board Aircraft

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-16

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 121 RIN 2120-AK18 Use of Additional Portable Oxygen...: This action amends the FAA's rules for permitting limited use of portable oxygen concentrator systems on board aircraft, to allow for the use of additional portable oxygen concentrator (POC) devices...

  13. Atomic structures and oxygen dynamics of CeO2 grain boundaries

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Bin; Sugiyama, Issei; Hojo, Hajime; Ohta, Hiromichi; Shibata, Naoya; Ikuhara, Yuichi

    2016-01-01

    Material performance is significantly governed by grain boundaries (GBs), a typical crystal defects inside, which often exhibit unique properties due to the structural and chemical inhomogeneity. Here, it is reported direct atomic scale evidence that oxygen vacancies formed in the GBs can modify the local surface oxygen dynamics in CeO2, a key material for fuel cells. The atomic structures and oxygen vacancy concentrations in individual GBs are obtained by electron microscopy and theoretical calculations at atomic scale. Meanwhile, local GB oxygen reduction reactivity is measured by electrochemical strain microscopy. By combining these techniques, it is demonstrated that the GB electrochemical activities are affected by the oxygen vacancy concentrations, which is, on the other hand, determined by the local structural distortions at the GB core region. These results provide critical understanding of GB properties down to atomic scale, and new perspectives on the development strategies of high performance electrochemical devices for solid oxide fuel cells. PMID:26838958

  14. Time-dependent density functional theory Ehrenfest dynamics: collisions between atomic oxygen and graphite clusters.

    PubMed

    Isborn, Christine M; Li, Xiaosong; Tully, John C

    2007-04-07

    An ab initio direct Ehrenfest dynamics method with time-dependent density functional theory is introduced and applied to collisions of 5 eV oxygen atoms and ions with graphite clusters. Collisions at three different sites are simulated. Kinetic energy transfer from the atomic oxygen to graphite local vibrations is observed and electron-nuclear coupling resulting in electronic excitation within the graphite surface as well as alteration of the atomic charge is first reported in this paper. The three oxygen species studied, O(3P), O-(2P), and O+(4S), deposit different amounts of energy to the surface, with the highest degree of damage to the pi conjugation of the cluster produced by the atomic oxygen cation. Memory of the initial charge state is not lost as the atom approaches, in contrast to the usual assumption.

  15. Oxygen Atom Adsorption on and Diffusion into Nb(110) and Nb(100) from First Principles

    SciTech Connect

    Tafen, De Nyago; Gao, Michael C

    2013-11-01

    In order to understand the dynamics of oxidation of Nb, we examine the adsorption, absorption, and diffusion of an oxygen atom on, in, and into Nb(110) and Nb(100) surfaces, respectively, using density functional theory. Our calculations predict that the oxygen atom adsorbs on the threefold site on Nb(110) and the fourfold hollow site on Nb(100), and the adsorption energy is -5.08 and -5.18 eV respectively. We find the long and short bridge sites to be transition states for O diffusion on Nb(110), while the on top site is a rank-2 saddle point. In the subsurface region, the oxygen atom prefers the octahedral site, as in bulk niobium. Our results also show that the O atom is more stable on Nb(110) subsurface than on Nb(100) subsurface. The diffusion of oxygen atoms into niobium surfaces passes through transition states where the oxygen atom is coordinated to four niobium atoms. The diffusion barriers of the oxygen atom into Nb(110) and Nb(100) are 1.81 and 2.05 eV, respectively. Analysis of the electronic density of states reveals the emergence of well localized electronic states below the lowest states of clean Nb surfaces due to d-p orbital hybridization.

  16. Comparison of the Atomic Oxygen Erosion Depth and Cone Height of Various Materials at Hyperthermal Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waters, Deborah L.; Banks, Bruce A.; Thorson, Stephen D.; deGroh, Kim, K.; Miller, Sharon K.

    2007-01-01

    Atomic oxygen readily reacts with most spacecraft polymer materials exposed to the low Earth orbital (LEO) environment. If the atomic oxygen arrival comes from a fixed angle of impact, the resulting erosion will foster the development of a change in surface morphology as material thickness decreases. Hydrocarbon and halopolymer materials, as well as graphite, are easily oxidized and textured by directed atomic oxygen in LEO at energies of approx.4.5 eV. What has been curious is that the ratio of cone height to erosion depth is quite different for different materials. The formation of cones under fixed direction atomic oxygen attack may contribute to a reduction in material tensile strength in excess of that which would occur if the cone height to erosion depth ratio was very low because of greater opportunities for crack initiation. In an effort to understand how material composition affects the ratio of cone height to erosion depth, an experimental investigation was conducted on 18 different materials exposed to a hyperthermal energy directed atomic oxygen source (approx.70 eV). The materials were first salt-sprayed to provide microscopic local areas that would be protected from atomic oxygen. This allowed erosion depth measurements to be made by scanning microscopy inspection. The polymers were then exposed to atomic oxygen produced by an end Hall ion source that was operated on pure oxygen. Samples were exposed to an atomic oxygen effective fluence of 1.0x10(exp 20) atoms/sq cm based on Kapton H polyimide erosion. The average erosion depth and average cone height were determined using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The experimental ratio of average cone height to erosion depth is compared to polymer composition and other properties.

  17. Line Profile Measurements of Atomic Oxygen at 1300 A with a VUV Raman Shifter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, Surendra P.; Exberger, Richard J.; Meyer, Scott A.; Gilmore, John O.

    1994-01-01

    We are currently developing an atomic oxygen diagnostic to study the degree of oxygen dissociation in ground-based facilities. The absorption of the (sub 3)P - (sup 3)S(sup 0) resonance triplet in the vacuum ultraviolet is a direct measure of the ground state number density of atomic oxygen. Although the integrated line strength is well known for these transitions, the line profile is not. We report the results of a series of experiments in which the line profile is measured in shock-heated oxygen. An ArF excimer laser and a hydrogen Raman shifter generate tunable VUV radiation at the resonance wavelength. The test gas is dissociated oxygen, generated in the Electric Arc Shock Tube (EAST) Facility at NASA-Ames Research Center. By measuring the absorption of known concentrations of atomic oxygen, we are able to study the absorption line profile. The results will serve as a calibration to apply this diagnostic in other flowfields.

  18. Atomic Oxygen Durability Evaluation of Protected Polymers Using Thermal Energy Plasma Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Rutledge, Sharon K.; Degroh, Kim K.; Stidham, Curtis R.; Gebauer, Linda; Lamoreaux, Cynthia M.

    1995-01-01

    The durability evaluation of protected polymers intended for use in low Earth orbit (LEO) has necessitated the use of large-area, high-fluence, atomic oxygen exposure systems. Two thermal energy atomic oxygen exposure systems which are frequently used for such evaluations are radio frequency (RF) plasma ashers and electron cyclotron resonance plasma sources. Plasma source testing practices such as ample preparation, effective fluence prediction, atomic oxygen flux determination, erosion measurement, operational considerations, and erosion yield measurements are presented. Issues which influence the prediction of in-space durability based on ground laboratory thermal energy plasma system testing are also addressed.

  19. Low Earth orbital atomic oxygen micrometeoroid, and debris interactions with photovoltaic arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Rutledge, Sharon K.; Degroh, Kim K.

    1991-01-01

    Polyimide Kapton solar array blankets can be protected from atomic oxygen in low earth orbit if SiO sub x thin film coatings are applied to their surfaces. The useful lifetime of a blanket protected in this manner strongly depends on the number and size of defects in the protective coatings. Atomic oxygen degradation is dominated by undercutting at defects in protective coatings caused by substrate roughness and processing rather than micrometeoroid or debris impacts. Recent findings from the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) and ground based studies show that interactions between atomic oxygen and silicones may cause grazing and contamination problems which may lead to solar array degradation.

  20. Development of a high flow source of energetic oxygen atoms for material degradation studies. [of Space Shuttles in low earth orbit environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caledonia, G. E.; Krech, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    A technique for the generation, in the laboratory, of thermally 'cold', high flux of energetic oxygen atoms is presented. The flux of nearly mono-energetic oxygen atoms is obtained after a laser-induced breakdown of oxygen molecules followed by a rapid expansion of the recombining plasma. The experimental apparatus, the optical and spectral measurements, the O-atom source characterization, and the material degradation studies are discussed. Average oxygen atom velocities of about 5 to 13 km/s are measured with an estimated flux of 10 to the 18th per pulse, over pulse durations of several microseconds. The flow of the O2 gas for about 200 microseconds before applying the laser pulse is found to give best results. It is also found that the energetic O-atom irradiation of sample targets such as Al, Fe, and polyethylene, induces mass removal. In addition, spectral scans of the radiation reveals the existence of two main spectral subsets.

  1. Oxygen dayglow emissions as proxies for atomic oxygen and ozone in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yankovsky, Valentine A.; Martyshenko, Kseniia V.; Manuilova, Rada O.; Feofilov, Artem G.

    2016-09-01

    The main goal of this study is to propose and then to justify a set of methods for retrieving the [O] and [O3] altitude distributions from the observation of emissions of the excited oxygen molecules and O(1D) atom at daytime in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) region. In other words, we propose retrieving the [O] and [O3] using the proxies. One of the main requirements for the proxy is that the measured value should be directly related to a variable of our interest while, at the same time, the influence of the proxies on [O3] and [O(3P)] should be minimal. For a comprehensive analysis of different O3 and O(3P) proxies, we use a full model of electronic vibrational kinetics of excited products of O3 and O2 photolysis in the MLT of the Earth. Based on this model, we have tested five excited components; namely, O2(b1Σg+, v = 0, 1, 2), O2(a1Δg , v = 0) and O(1D) as the [O3] and [O(3P)] proxies in the MLT region. Using an analytical approach to sensitivity studies and uncertainty analysis, we have therefore developed the following methods of [O(3P)] and [O3] retrieval, which utilise electronic-vibrational transitions from the oxygen molecule second singlet level (O2(b1 Σg+, v = 0, 1, 2). We conclude that O2(b1 Σg+, v = 2) and O2(b1 Σg+, v = 0) are preferable proxies for [O(3P)] retrieval in the altitude range of 90-140 km, while O2(b1 Σg+, v = 1) is the best proxy for [O3] retrieval in the altitude range of 50-98 km.

  2. The Effect of Low Earth Orbit Atomic Oxygen Exposure on Phenylphosphine Oxide-Containing Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W.

    2000-01-01

    Thin films of phenylphosphine oxide-containing polymers were exposed to low Earth orbit aboard a space shuttle flight (STS-85) as part of flight experiment designated Evaluation of Space Environment and Effects on Materials (ESEM). This flight experiment was a cooperative effort between the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) and the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA). The thin film samples described herein were part of an atomic oxygen exposure experiment (AOE) and were exposed to primarily atomic oxygen (1 X 1019 atoms/cm2). The thin film samples consisted of three phosphine oxide containing polymers (arylene ether, benzimidazole and imide). Based on post-flight analyses using atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and weight loss data, it was found that atomic oxygen exposure of these materials efficiently produces a phosphate layer at the surface of the samples. This layer provides a barrier towards further attack by AO. Consequently, these materials do not exhibit linear erosion rates which is in contrast with most organic polymers. Qualitatively, the results obtained from these analyses compare favorably with those obtained from samples exposed to atomic oxygen and or oxygen plasma in ground based exposure experiments. The results of the low Earth orbit atomic oxygen exposure on these materials will be compared with those of ground based exposure to AO.

  3. Reactions of atomic carbon with oxygenated compounds and the investigation of fullerene chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Tsongming.

    1993-01-01

    The reaction of atomic carbon with oxygenated organics produces CO and an energetic fragment. Reactions involving deoxygenation of carbonyl compounds to carbenes, epoxides to alkenes, and ethers to a pair of radicals have been investigated. Carbon atom deoxygenation of cyclopentanone and cylcopentene oxide give the cleavage products, ethylene and allene, along with cyclopentene. The use of 2,2,5,5-d[sub 4]-cyclopentanone as the substrate reveals the direct cleavage of cyclopentanylidene carbene is occurring. A calculation of the energetics of this reaction at the MP4/6-31G[sup *]//6-31G[sup *] level suggests a nonconcerted cleavage via a biradical intermediate. Carbon atoms deoxygenate cyclohexene. Inert gas deactivated energetic cyclohexene. The deoxygenation of other oxygenated compounds by atomic carbon, such as 7-oxabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane to cyclohexane-1,4-diyl biradical, 1,2-epoxy-5-hexane to energetic 1,S-hexadiene, allyl ether to allyl radicals, and [gamma]-butyrolactone to trimethylene-1,3-diyl biradical have also been carried out. Methylketene was deoxygenated to vinylidene carbene which rearranges to propyne via a 1,2-H shift. Dimethylketene was deoxygenated to dimethylethylidene carbene which gives 2-butyne via a 1,2-methyl shift and 1,3-butadiene via a vicinal C-H bond insertion. The addition of hydrogen donors to systems in which C[sub 60] is generated results in the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons whose carbon skeleton might represent intermediates in fullerene formation. Based on this result, the author proposed a mechanism of fullerene formation. The use of various amounts of propene as a trap showed that the yield of fullerenes decreases as the amount of the trapped product increases. Attempts to trap intermediates in fullerene formation using halides and metals have been studied. The author has attempted metal encapsulation reactions and investigated some possible chemical reactions of fullerenes.

  4. The mechanism of low-k SiOCH film modification by oxygen atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Braginsky, O. V.; Kovalev, A. S.; Lopaev, D. V.; Malykhin, E. M.; Mankelevich, Yu. A.; Rakhimova, T. V.; Rakhimov, A. T.; Vasilieva, A. N.; Zyryanov, S. M.; Baklanov, M. R.

    2010-10-15

    The interaction of oxygen atoms with three types of plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition low-k SiOCH films is studied. The samples were treated by O atoms in the far plasma afterglow conditions in a special experimental system designed for this study. The experimental system allowed avoiding the effect of ions and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photons on surface reactions and controlling the oxygen atom concentration over the samples. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, x-ray fluorescence, and atomic force microscopy techniques were used to analyze the changes occurring in low-k films. Monte Carlo model for O atom interaction with low-k material that includes penetration, recombination, and reactions with methyl groups was developed. It is shown that the surface recombination on the pore wall surface determines the profile and penetration depth of O atoms into the films. The reaction of O atoms with methyl groups has lower probability and therefore proceeds in the background mode.

  5. Poly(arylene ether)s That Resist Atomic Oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W.; Hergenrother, Paul; Smith, Joseph G., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Novel poly(arylene ether)s containing phosphine oxide (PAEPO's) made via aromatic nucleophilic displacement reactions of activated aromatic dihalides (or, in some cases, activated aromatic dinitro compounds) with new bisphenol monomers containing phosphine oxide. Exhibited favorable combination of physical and mechanical properties and resistance to monatomic oxygen in oxygen plasma environment. Useful as adhesives, coatings, films, membranes, moldings, and composite matrices.

  6. Atomic Oxygen Treatment and Its Effect on a Variety of Artist's Media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Sharon K. R.; Banks, Bruce A.; Waters, Deborah L.

    2005-01-01

    Atomic oxygen treatment has been investigated as an unconventional option for art restoration where conventional methods have not been effective. Exposure of surfaces to atomic oxygen was first performed to investigate the durability of materials in the low Earth orbit environment of space. The use of the ground based environmental simulation chambers, developed for atomic oxygen exposure testing, has been investigated in collaboration with conservators at a variety of institutions, as a method to clean the surfaces of works of art. The atomic oxygen treatment technique has been evaluated as a method to remove soot and char from the surface of oil paint (both varnished and unvarnished), watercolors, acrylic paint, and fabric as well as the removal of graffiti and other marks from surfaces which are too porous to lend themselves to conventional solvent removal techniques. This paper will discuss the treatment of these surfaces giving an example of each and a discussion of the treatment results.

  7. Issues and Consequences of Atomic Oxygen Undercutting of Protected Polymers in Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Snyder, Aaron; Miller, Sharon K.; Demko, Rikako

    2002-01-01

    Hydrocarbon based polymers that are exposed to atomic oxygen in low Earth orbit are slowly oxidized which results in recession of their surface. Atomic oxygen protective coatings have been developed which are both durable to atomic oxygen and effective in protecting underlying polymers. However, scratches, pin window defects, polymer surface roughness and protective coating layer configuration can result in erosion and potential failure of protected thin polymer films even though the coatings are themselves atomic oxygen durable. This paper will present issues that cause protective coatings to become ineffective in some cases yet effective in others due to the details of their specific application. Observed in-space examples of failed and successfully protected materials using identical protective thin films will be discussed and analyzed. Proposed approaches to prevent the failures that have been observed will also be presented.

  8. Application of an atomic oxygen beam facility to the investigation of shuttle glow chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, G. S.; Peplinski, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    A facility for the investigation of the interactions of energetic atomic oxygen with solids is described. The facility is comprised of a four chambered, differentially pumped molecular beam apparatus which can be equipped with one of a variety of sources of atomic oxygen. The primary source is a dc arc heated supersonic nozzle source which produces a flux of atomic oxygen in excess of 10 to the 15th power sq cm/sec at the target, at a velocity of 3.5 km/sec. Results of applications of this facility to the study of the reactions of atomic oxygen with carbon and polyimide films are briefly reviewed and compared to data obtained on various flights of the space shuttle. A brief discussion of possible application of this facility to investigation of chemical reactions which might contribute to atmosphere induced vehicle glow is presented.

  9. Characterization of a 5-eV neutral atomic oxygen beam facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughn, J. A.; Linton, R. C.; Carruth, M. R., Jr.; Whitaker, A. F.; Cuthbertson, J. W.; Langer, W. D.; Motley, R. W.

    1991-01-01

    An experimental effort to characterize an existing 5-eV neutral atomic oxygen beam facility being developed at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory is described. This characterization effort includes atomic oxygen flux and flux distribution measurements using a catalytic probe, energy determination using a commercially designed quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS), and the exposure of oxygen-sensitive materials in this beam facility. Also, comparisons were drawn between the reaction efficiencies of materials exposed in plasma ashers, and the reaction efficiencies previously estimated from space flight experiments. The results of this study show that the beam facility is capable of producing a directional beam of neutral atomic oxygen atoms with the needed flux and energy to simulate low Earth orbit (LEO) conditions for real time accelerated testing. The flux distribution in this facility is uniform to +/- 6 percent of the peak flux over a beam diameter of 6 cm.

  10. Quantitative inactivation-mechanisms of P. digitatum and A. niger spores based on atomic oxygen dose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Masafumi; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Ohta, Takayuki; Hori, Masaru

    2014-10-01

    We have investigated inactivation mechanisms of Penicillium digitatum and Asperguills niger spores using atmospheric-pressure radical source quantitatively. The radical source was specially developed for supplying only neutral radicals without charged species and UV-light emissions. Reactive oxygen radical densities such as grand-state oxygen atoms, excited-state oxygen molecules and ozone were measured using VUV and UV absorption spectroscopies. The measurements and the treatments of spores were carried out in an Ar-purged chamber for eliminating the influences of OH, NOx and so on. The results revealed that the inactivation of spores can be explained by atomic-oxygen dose under the conditions employing neutral ROS irradiations. On the basis of the dose, we have observed the changes of intracellular organelles and membrane functions using TEM, SEM and confocal- laser fluorescent microscopy. From these results, we discuss the detail inactivation-mechanisms quantitatively based on atomic-oxygen dose.

  11. Study of double bond equivalents and the numbers of carbon and oxygen atom distribution of dissolved organic matter with negative-mode FT-ICR MS.

    PubMed

    Bae, EunJung; Yeo, In Joon; Jeong, Byungkwan; Shin, Yongsik; Shin, Kyung-Hoon; Kim, Sunghwan

    2011-06-01

    A strong linear relationship was observed between the average double bond equivalence (DBE) and the ratio of carbon to oxygen atoms in oxygenated compounds of dissolved organic matter (DOM). Data were acquired by a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FT-ICR MS), equipped with a negative-mode electrospray ionization source. The slope and y-intercepts extracted from the linear relationship can be used to compare DOM samples originating from different locations. Significant differences in these parameters were observed between inland riverine and offshore coastal DOM samples. Offshore coastal DOM molecules underwent a change of one DBE for each removal or addition of two oxygen atoms. This suggested the existence of multiple carboxyl groups, each of which contains a double bond and two oxygen atoms. Inland riverine samples exhibited a change of ~1.5 DBE following the addition or removal of two oxygen atoms. This extra change in DBE was attributed to cyclic structures or unsaturated chemical bonds. The DBE value with maximum relative abundance and the minimum DBE value for each class of oxygenated compounds showed that approximately two oxygen atoms contributed to a unity change in DBE. The qualitative analyses given here are in a good agreement with results obtained from analyses using orthogonal analytical techniques. This study demonstrates that DBE and the carbon number distribution, observed by high resolution mass spectrometry, can be valuable in elucidating and comparing structural features of oxygenated molecules of DOM.

  12. Atomic Oxygen-Resistant, Static-Dissipative, Pinhole-Free Coatings for Spacecraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-29

    Coatings  Resistant to atomic oxygen  Static dissipative Sheet resistance < 105 Ω/square  UV-resistant  Pinhole-free  Thin To reduce weight...10 coatings had sheet resistance < 105 Ω/square both before and after exposure to atomic oxygen.  Optical Properties: 8 of 9 transparent coatings...bending, and thermal cycling had no effect on the coatings – No change in sheet resistance – No cracks or delaminations detected by SEM – No erosion

  13. Atomic oxygen fine-structure splittings with tunable far-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zink, Lyndon R.; Evenson, Kenneth M.; Matsushima, Fusakazu; Nelis, Thomas; Robinson, Ruth L.

    1991-01-01

    Fine-structure splittings of atomic oxygen (O-16) in the ground state have been accurately measured using a tunable far-infrared spectrometer. The 3P0-3pl splitting is 2,060,069.09 (10) MHz, and the 3Pl-3P2 splitting is 4,744,777.49 (16) MHz. These frequencies are important for measuring atomic oxygen concentration in earth's atmosphere and the interstellar medium.

  14. Atomic Oxygen Durability Testing of an International Space Station Solar Array Validation Coupon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forkapa, Mark J.; Stidham, Curtis; Banks, Bruce A.; Rutledge, Sharon K.; Ma, David H.; Sechkar, Edward A.

    1996-01-01

    An International Space Station solar array validation coupon was exposed in a directed atomic oxygen beam for space environment durability testing at the NASA Lewis Research Center. Exposure to atomic oxygen and intermittent tensioning of the solar array were conducted to verify the solar array#s durability to low Earth orbital atomic oxygen and to the docking threat of plume loading both of which are anticipated over its expected mission life of fifteen years. The validation coupon was mounted on a specially designed rotisserie. The rotisserie mounting enabled the solar and anti-solar facing side of the array to be exposed to directed atomic oxygen in a sweeping arrival process replicating space exposure. The rotisserie mounting also enabled tensioning, in order to examine the durability of the array and its hinge to simulated plume loads. Flash testing to verify electrical performance of the solar array was performed with a solar simulator before and after the exposure to atomic oxygen and tensile loading. Results of the flash testing indicated little or no degradation in the solar array#s performance. Photographs were also taken of the array before and after the durability testing and are included along with comparisons and discussions in this report. The amount of atomic oxygen damage appeared minor with the exception of a very few isolated defects. There were also no indications that the simulated plume loadings had weakened or damaged the array, even though there was some erosion of Kapton due to atomic oxygen attack. Based on the results of this testing, it is apparent that the International Space Station#s solar arrays should survive the low Earth orbital atomic oxygen environment and docking threats which are anticipated over its expected mission life.

  15. 30 CFR 77.102 - Tests for methane; oxygen deficiency; qualified person, additional requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tests for methane; oxygen deficiency; qualified... methane; oxygen deficiency; qualified person, additional requirement. Notwithstanding the provisions of... and oxygen deficiency unless he has demonstrated to the satisfaction of an authorized...

  16. 30 CFR 77.102 - Tests for methane; oxygen deficiency; qualified person, additional requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tests for methane; oxygen deficiency; qualified... methane; oxygen deficiency; qualified person, additional requirement. Notwithstanding the provisions of... and oxygen deficiency unless he has demonstrated to the satisfaction of an authorized...

  17. 30 CFR 77.102 - Tests for methane; oxygen deficiency; qualified person, additional requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tests for methane; oxygen deficiency; qualified... methane; oxygen deficiency; qualified person, additional requirement. Notwithstanding the provisions of... and oxygen deficiency unless he has demonstrated to the satisfaction of an authorized...

  18. 30 CFR 77.102 - Tests for methane; oxygen deficiency; qualified person, additional requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tests for methane; oxygen deficiency; qualified... methane; oxygen deficiency; qualified person, additional requirement. Notwithstanding the provisions of... and oxygen deficiency unless he has demonstrated to the satisfaction of an authorized...

  19. 30 CFR 77.102 - Tests for methane; oxygen deficiency; qualified person, additional requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Tests for methane; oxygen deficiency; qualified... methane; oxygen deficiency; qualified person, additional requirement. Notwithstanding the provisions of... and oxygen deficiency unless he has demonstrated to the satisfaction of an authorized...

  20. Lessons Learned From Atomic Oxygen Interaction With Spacecraft Materials in Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; deGroh, Kim, K.; Miller, Sharon K.; Waters, Deborah L.

    2008-01-01

    There have been five Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) passive experiment carriers (PECs) (MISSE 1-5) to date that have been launched, exposed in space on the exterior of International Space Station (ISS) and then returned to Earth for analysis. An additional four MISSE PECs (MISSE 6A, 6B, 7A, and 7B) are in various stages of completion. The PECs are two-sided suitcase to size sample carriers that are intended to provide information on the effects of the low Earth orbital environment on a wide variety of materials and components. As a result of post retrieval analyses of the retrieved MISSE 2 experiments and numerous prior space experiments, there have been valuable lessons learned and needs identified that are worthy of being documented so that planning, design, and analysis of future space environment experiments can benefit from the experience in order to maximize the knowledge gained. Some of the lessons learned involve the techniques, concepts, and issues associated with measuring atomic oxygen erosion yields. These are presented along with several issues to be considered when designing experiments, such as the uncertainty in mission duration, scattering and contamination effects on results, and the accuracy of measuring atomic oxygen erosion.

  1. Kinetics of CO oxidation on high-concentration phases of atomic oxygen on Pt(111).

    PubMed

    Gerrard, Alex L; Weaver, Jason F

    2005-12-08

    Temperature-programmed reaction spectroscopy (TPRS) and direct, isothermal reaction-rate measurements were employed to investigate the oxidation of CO on Pt(111) covered with high concentrations of atomic oxygen. The TPRS results show that oxygen atoms chemisorbed on Pt(111) at coverages just above 0.25 ML (monolayers) are reactive toward coadsorbed CO, producing CO(2) at about 295 K. The uptake of CO on Pt(111) is found to decrease with increasing oxygen coverage beyond 0.25 ML and becomes immeasurable at a surface temperature of 100 K when Pt(111) is partially covered with Pt oxide domains at oxygen coverages above 1.5 ML. The rate of CO oxidation measured as a function of CO beam exposure to the surface exhibits a nearly linear increase toward a maximum for initial oxygen coverages between 0.25 and 0.50 ML and constant surface temperatures between 300 and 500 K. At a fixed CO incident flux, the time required to reach the maximum reaction rate increases as the initial oxygen coverage is increased to 0.50 ML. A time lag prior to the reaction-rate maximum is also observed when Pt oxide domains are present on the surface, but the reaction rate increases more slowly with CO exposure and much longer time lags are observed, indicating that the oxide phase is less reactive toward CO than are chemisorbed oxygen atoms on Pt(111). On the partially oxidized surface, the CO exposure needed to reach the rate maximum increases significantly with increases in both the initial oxygen coverage and the surface temperature. A kinetic model is developed that reproduces the qualitative dependence of the CO oxidation rate on the atomic oxygen coverage and the surface temperature. The model assumes that CO chemisorption and reaction occur only on regions of the surface covered by chemisorbed oxygen atoms and describes the CO chemisorption probability as a decreasing function of the atomic oxygen coverage in the chemisorbed phase. The model also takes into account the migration of

  2. The effect of leveling coatings on the atomic oxygen durability of solar concentrator surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Degroh, K.K.; Dever, T.M.; Quinn, W.F.

    1990-04-01

    Space power systems for Space Station Freedom will be exposed to the harsh environment of low earth orbit (LEO). Neutral atomic oxygen is the major constituent in LEO and has the potential of severely reducing the efficiency of solar dynamic power systems through degradation of the concentrator surfaces. Several transparent dielectric thin films have been found to provide atomic oxygen protection, but atomic oxygen undercutting at inherent defect sites is still a threat to solar dynamic power system survivability. Leveling coatings smooth microscopically rough surfaces, thus eliminating potential defect sites prone to oxidation attack on concentrator surfaces. The ability of leveling coatings to improve the atomic oxygen durability of concentrator surfaces was investigated. The application of a EPO-TEK 377 epoxy leveling coating on a graphite epoxy substrate resulted in an increase in solar specular reflectance, a decrease in the atomic oxygen defect density by an order of magnitude and a corresponding order of magnitude decrease in the percent loss of specular reflectance during atomic oxygen plasma ashing.

  3. The effect of leveling coatings on the atomic oxygen durability of solar concentrator surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degroh, Kim K.; Dever, Therese M.; Quinn, William F.

    1990-01-01

    Space power systems for Space Station Freedom will be exposed to the harsh environment of low earth orbit (LEO). Neutral atomic oxygen is the major constituent in LEO and has the potential of severely reducing the efficiency of solar dynamic power systems through degradation of the concentrator surfaces. Several transparent dielectric thin films have been found to provide atomic oxygen protection, but atomic oxygen undercutting at inherent defect sites is still a threat to solar dynamic power system survivability. Leveling coatings smooth microscopically rough surfaces, thus eliminating potential defect sites prone to oxidation attack on concentrator surfaces. The ability of leveling coatings to improve the atomic oxygen durability of concentrator surfaces was investigated. The application of a EPO-TEK 377 epoxy leveling coating on a graphite epoxy substrate resulted in an increase in solar specular reflectance, a decrease in the atomic oxygen defect density by an order of magnitude and a corresponding order of magnitude decrease in the percent loss of specular reflectance during atomic oxygen plasma ashing.

  4. Atomic oxygen distributions in the Venus thermosphere: Comparisons between Venus Express observations and global model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brecht, A. S.; Bougher, S. W.; Gérard, J.-C.; Soret, L.

    2012-02-01

    Nightglow emissions provide insight into the global thermospheric circulation, specifically in the transition region (˜70-120 km). The O 2 IR nightglow statistical map created from Venus Express (VEx) Visible and InfraRed Thermal Imaging Spectrometer (VIRTIS) observations has been used to deduce a three-dimensional atomic oxygen density map. In this study, the National Center of Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Venus Thermospheric General Circulation Model (VTGCM) is utilized to provide a self-consistent global view of the atomic oxygen density distribution. More specifically, the VTGCM reproduces a 2D nightside atomic oxygen density map and vertical profiles across the nightside, which are compared to the VEx atomic oxygen density map. Both the simulated map and vertical profiles are in close agreement with VEx observations within a ˜30° contour of the anti-solar point. The quality of agreement decreases past ˜30°. This discrepancy implies the employment of Rayleigh friction within the VTGCM may be an over-simplification for representing wave drag effects on the local time variation of global winds. Nevertheless, the simulated atomic oxygen vertical profiles are comparable with the VEx profiles above 90 km, which is consistent with similar O 2 ( 1Δ) IR nightglow intensities. The VTGCM simulations demonstrate the importance of low altitude trace species as a loss for atomic oxygen below 95 km. The agreement between simulations and observations provides confidence in the validity of the simulated mean global thermospheric circulation pattern in the lower thermosphere.

  5. A Sensitive Technique Using Atomic Force Microscopy to Measure the Low Earth Orbit Atomic Oxygen Erosion of Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deGroh, Kim K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Clark, Gregory W.; Hammerstrom, Anne M.; Youngstrom, Erica E.; Kaminski, Carolyn; Fine, Elizabeth S.; Marx, Laura M.

    2001-01-01

    Polymers such as polyimide Kapton and Teflon FEP (fluorinated ethylene propylene) are commonly used spacecraft materials due to their desirable properties such as flexibility, low density, and in the case of FEP low solar absorptance and high thermal emittance. Polymers on the exterior of spacecraft in the low Earth orbit (LEO) environment are exposed to energetic atomic oxygen. Atomic oxygen erosion of polymers occurs in LEO and is a threat to spacecraft durability. It is therefore important to understand the atomic oxygen erosion yield (E, the volume loss per incident oxygen atom) of polymers being considered in spacecraft design. Because long-term space exposure data is rare and very costly, short-term exposures such as on the shuttle are often relied upon for atomic oxygen erosion determination. The most common technique for determining E is through mass loss measurements. For limited duration exposure experiments, such as shuttle experiments, the atomic oxygen fluence is often so small that mass loss measurements can not produce acceptable uncertainties. Therefore, a recession measurement technique has been developed using selective protection of polymer samples, combined with postflight atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis, to obtain accurate erosion yields of polymers exposed to low atomic oxygen fluences. This paper discusses the procedures used for this recession depth technique along with relevant characterization issues. In particular, a polymer is salt-sprayed prior to flight, then the salt is washed off postflight and AFM is used to determine the erosion depth from the protected plateau. A small sample was salt-sprayed for AFM erosion depth analysis and flown as part of the Limited Duration Candidate Exposure (LDCE-4,-5) shuttle flight experiment on STS-51. This sample was used to study issues such as use of contact versus non-contact mode imaging for determining recession depth measurements. Error analyses were conducted and the percent probable

  6. Kinetic modeling of primary and secondary oxygen atom fluxes at 1 AU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balyukin, Igor; Katushkina, Olga; Alexashov, Dmitry; Izmodenov, Vladislav

    2016-07-01

    The first quantitative measurements of the interstellar heavy (oxygen and neon) neutral atoms obtained on the IBEX spacecraft were presented in Park et al. (ApJS, 2015). Qualitative analysis of these data shows that the secondary component of the interstellar oxygen atoms was also measured along with the primary interstellar atoms. This component is formed near the heliopause due to process of charge exchange of interstellar oxygen ions with hydrogen atoms and its existence in the heliosphere was previously predicted theoretically (Izmodenov et al, 1997, 1999, 2001). Quantitative analysis of fluxes of interstellar heavy neutral atoms is only possible with the help of a model which takes into account both filtration of the primary and origin of the secondary interstellar oxygen in the region of interaction of the solar wind with the local interstellar medium as well as a detailed simulation of the motion of interstellar atoms inside the heliosphere. This simulation must take into account the temporal and heliolatitudinal dependences of ionization, the process of charge exchange with the protons of the solar wind and the effect of the solar gravitational attraction. This paper presents the results of modeling interstellar oxygen and neon atoms in the heliospheric shock layer and inside the heliosphere based on a new three-dimensional kinetic-MHD model of the solar wind interaction with the local interstellar medium (Izmodenov and Alexashov, ApJS, 2015) and the comparison of this results with the data obtained on the IBEX spacecraft.

  7. Impact of local atomic stress on oxygen segregation at tilt boundaries in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohno, Yutaka; Inoue, Kaihei; Fujiwara, Kozo; Kutsukake, Kentaro; Deura, Momoko; Yonenaga, Ichiro; Ebisawa, Naoki; Shimizu, Yasuo; Inoue, Koji; Nagai, Yasuyoshi; Yoshida, Hideto; Takeda, Seiji; Tanaka, Shingo; Kohyama, Masanori

    2017-02-01

    Using the atom probe tomography, transmission electron microscopy, and ab initio calculations, we investigate the three-dimensional distributions of oxygen atoms segregating at the typical large-angle grain boundaries (GBs) ( Σ 3 { 111 } , Σ 9 { 221 } , Σ 9 { 114 } , Σ 9 { 111 } / { 115 } , and Σ 27 { 552 } ) in Czochralski-grown silicon ingots. Oxygen atoms with a covalent radius that is larger than half of the silicon's radius would segregate at bond-centered positions under tensile stresses above about 2 GPa, so as to attain a more stable bonding network by reducing the local stresses. The number of oxygen atoms segregating in a unit GB area N GB (in atoms/nm2) is hypothesized to be proportional to both the number of the tensilely-stressed positions in a unit boundary area n bc and the average concentration of oxygen atoms around the boundary [ O i ] (in at. %) with N GB ˜ 50 n bc [ O i ] . This indicates that the probability of oxygen atoms at the segregation positions would be, on average, fifty times larger than in bond-centered positions in defect-free regions.

  8. Adsorption of atomic nitrogen and oxygen on [Formula: see text] surface: a density functional theory study.

    PubMed

    Breedon, M; Spencer, M J S; Yarovsky, I

    2009-04-08

    The adsorption of atomic nitrogen and oxygen on the ([Formula: see text]) crystal face of zinc oxide (ZnO) was studied. Binding energies, workfunction changes, vibrational frequencies, charge density differences and electron localization functions were calculated. It was elucidated that atomic oxygen binds more strongly than nitrogen, with the most stable [Formula: see text] structure exhibiting a binding energy of -2.47 eV, indicating chemisorption onto the surface. Surface reconstructions were observed for the most stable minima of both atomic species. Positive workfunction changes were calculated for both adsorbed oxygen and nitrogen if the adsorbate interacted with zinc atoms. Negative workfunction changes were calculated when the adsorbate interacted with both surface oxygen and zinc atoms. Interactions between the adsorbate and the surface zinc atoms resulted in ionic-type bonding, whereas interactions with oxygen atoms were more likely to result in the formation of covalent-type bonding. The positive workfunction changes correlate with an experimentally observed increase in resistance of ZnO conductometric sensor devices.

  9. Spatially and Temporally Resolved Atomic Oxygen Measurements in Short Pulse Discharges by Two Photon Laser Induced Fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lempert, Walter; Uddi, Mruthunjaya; Mintusov, Eugene; Jiang, Naibo; Adamovich, Igor

    2007-10-01

    Two Photon Laser Induced Fluorescence (TALIF) is used to measure time-dependent absolute oxygen atom concentrations in O2/He, O2/N2, and CH4/air plasmas produced with a 20 nanosecond duration, 20 kV pulsed discharge at 10 Hz repetition rate. Xenon calibrated spectra show that a single discharge pulse creates initial oxygen dissociation fraction of ˜0.0005 for air like mixtures at 40-60 torr total pressure. Peak O atom concentration is a factor of approximately two lower in fuel lean (φ=0.5) methane/air mixtures. In helium buffer, the initially formed atomic oxygen decays monotonically, with decay time consistent with formation of ozone. In all nitrogen containing mixtures, atomic oxygen concentrations are found to initially increase, for time scales on the order of 10-100 microseconds, due presumably to additional O2 dissociation caused by collisions with electronically excited nitrogen. Further evidence of the role of metastable N2 is demonstrated from time-dependent N2 2^nd Positive and NO Gamma band emission spectroscopy. Comparisons with modeling predictions show qualitative, but not quantitative, agreement with the experimental data.

  10. Atomic Oxygen Exposure of Power System and other Spacecraft Materials: Results of the EOIM-3 Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morton, Thomas L.; Ferguson, Dale C.

    1997-01-01

    In order to test their reactivity with Atomic Oxygen, twenty five materials were flown on the EOIM-3 (Evaluation of Oxygen Interactions with Materials) portion of the STS-46 Mission. These materials include refractory metals, candidate insulation materials, candidate radiator coatings, and a selection of miscellaneous materials. This report documents the results of the pre- and post-flight analysis of these materials.

  11. Hot hydrogen and oxygen atoms in the upper atmospheres of Venus and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagy, Andrew F.; Kim, Jhoon; Cravens, Thomas E.

    1990-01-01

    Optical observations of hot atoms in the atmospheres of Venus and Mars are briefly reviewed. A summary of hot hydrogen and oxygen production and loss processes is given. Results of some recent model calculations as well as a number of new results of the hot hydrogen and oxygen populations are presented and their implication in terms of solar wind interaction processes is discussed.

  12. Atomic Oxygen (AO) and Nitrogen (AN) In-situ Flux Sensor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-10

    Grant # FA9550-01-1-0433 M. R. Beasley, PI Stanford University Project Title: Atomic Oxygen (AO) and Nitrogen (AN) In-situ Flux Sensor ...intensity. The major technological challenge is the VUV nature of the relevant spectral lines in the case of oxygen and nitrogen. A LabVIEW™-based data

  13. The hydrogen-atom environment of the ether oxygen atom in crystal structures of some representative muscarinic agonists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroon, J.; Scherrenberg, R. L.; Kooijman, H.; Kanters, J. A.

    1990-06-01

    The hypothesis that the ether oxygen atom in muscarinic agonists acts as a hydrogen-bond acceptor is supported by evidence from crystallographic data. The same evidence suggests that in such interactions N +CH⋯O bonds donated by the ligand to the receptor may be involved.

  14. Atomic oxygen adsorption and absorption on Rh(111) and Ag(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derouin, Jonathan D.

    A central question in the field of heterogeneous catalysis is how surface structure and subsurface species influence catalytic behavior. One key to answering that question is determining which surface structures and subsurface species are present under catalytically relevant conditions. This dissertation presents results of Auger electron spectroscopy, low energy electron diffraction, temperature programmed desorption, and scanning tunneling microscopy experiments on oxidized Rh(111) and Ag(111) crystals. Exposing Rh(111) to O2 produced a predominately (2 x 1) adlayer, but even after extended dosing, (2 x 2) domains were also present. Exposing Rh(111) to atomic oxygen yielded O coverages greater than 0.5 ML and (1 x 1) domains were observed to form along terrace step edges. However, (2 x 1) and (2 x 2) domains were still present. Atomic oxygen was used to oxidize Ag(111) in order to study the effect of sample temperature as well as oxygen flux and energy. When atomic oxygen was generated using a lower temperature thermal cracker, a variety of previously reported surface structures were observed. When O was generated using a higher filament temperature, the surface became highly corrugated, layers of Ag 2O appeared to form, and little subsurface oxygen was observed. To investigate the role of sample temperature, the Ag(111) sample was held at various temperatures while being exposed to atomic oxygen. For short doses, sample temperature had minimal effect on surface reconstruction. For longer doses, changes in sample temperature in the range of 490 K to 525 K had a substantial impact on surface reconstruction and subsurface oxygen absorption. Higher temperature dosing yielded the same surface structures which were observed after short doses. Lower temperature dosing with atomic oxygen resulted in subsurface oxygen formation and new structures which covered the surface. The results indicate the rich complexity of oxygen/transition metal interactions and illustrate how

  15. Reaction Mechanism of Oxygen Atoms with Unsaturated Hydrocarbons by the Crossed-Molecular-Beams Method

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Buss, R. J.; Baseman, R. J.; Guozhong, H.; Lee, Y. T.

    1982-04-01

    From a series of studies of the reaction of oxygen atoms with unsaturated hydrocarbons using the crossed molecular beam method, the dominant reaction mechanisms were found to be the simple substitution reactions with oxygen atoms replacing H, Cl, Br atom or alkyl groups. Complication due to secondary reaction was avoided by carrying out experiments under single collisions and observing primary products directly. Primary products were identified by measuring the angular and velocity distributions of products at all the mass numbers which could be detected by the mass spectrometer, and from comparison of these distributions, applying the requirement of energy and momentum conservation.

  16. Growth control of Saccharomyces cerevisiae through dose of oxygen atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashizume, Hiroshi; Ohta, Takayuki; Hori, Masaru; Ito, Masafumi

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the dose-dependent effects of neutral oxygen radicals on the proliferation as well as the inactivation of microorganisms, we treated suspensions of budding yeast cells with oxygen radicals using an atmospheric-pressure oxygen radical source, varying the fluxes of O(3Pj) from 1.3 × 1016 to 2.3 × 1017 cm-2 s-1. Proliferation was promoted at doses of O(3Pj) ranging from 6 × 1016 to 2 × 1017 cm-3, and suppressed at doses ranging from 3 × 1017 to 1 × 1018 cm-3; cells were inactivated by O(3Pj) doses exceeding 1 × 1018 cm-3, even when the flux was varied over the above flux range. These results showed that the growth of cells was regulated primarily in response to the total dose of O(3Pj).

  17. Potential energy surfaces for atomic oxygen reactions: Formation of singlet and triplet biradicals as primary reaction products with unsaturated organic molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, Richard L.

    1987-01-01

    The experimental study of the interaction of atomic oxygen with organic polymer films under LEO conditions has been hampered by the inability to conduct detailed experiments in situ. As a result, studies of the mechanism of oxygen atom reactions have relied on laboratory O-atom sources that do not fully reproduce the orbital environment. For example, it is well established that only ground electronic state O atoms are present at LEO, yet most ground-based sources are known to produce singlet O atoms and molecules and ions in addition to O(3P). Engineers should not rely on such facilities unless it can be demonstrated either that these different O species are inert or that they react in the same fashion as ground state atoms. Ab initio quantum chemical calculations have been aimed at elucidating the biradical intermediates formed during the electrophilic addition of ground and excited-state O atoms to carbon-carbon double bonds in small olefins and aromatic molecules. These biradicals are critical intermediates in any possible insertion, addition and elimination reaction mechanisms. Through these calculations, we will be able to comment on the relative importance of these pathways for O(3P) and O(1D) reactions. The reactions of O atoms with ethylene and benzene are used to illustrate the important features of the mechanisms of atomic oxygen reaction with unsaturated organic compounds and polymeric materials.

  18. Laser supported detonation wave source of atomic oxygen for aerospace material testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krech, Robert H.; Caledonia, George E.

    1990-01-01

    A pulsed high-flux source of nearly monoenergetic atomic oxygen was developed to perform accelerated erosion testing of spacecraft materials in a simulated low-earth orbit (LEO) environment. Molecular oxygen is introduced into an evacuated conical expansion nozzle at several atmospheres pressure through a pulsed molecular beam valve. A laser-induced breakdown is generated in the nozzle throat by a pulsed CO2 TEA laser. The resulting plasma is heated by the ensuing laser-supported detonation wave, and then it rapidly expands and cools. An atomic oxygen beam is generated with fluxes above 10 to the 18th atoms per pulse at 8 + or - 1.6 km/s with an ion content below 1 percent for LEO testing. Materials testing yielded the same surface oxygen enrichment in polyethylene samples as observed on the STS mission, and scanning electron micrographs of the irradiated polymer surfaces showed an erosion morphology similar to that obtained on low earth orbit.

  19. Effect of reactor loading on atomic oxygen concentration as measured by NO chemiluminescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerner, N. R.

    1989-01-01

    It has previously been observed that the etch rate of polyethylene samples in the afterglow of an RF discharge in oxygen increases with reactor loading. This enhancement of the etch rate is attributed to reactive gas phase products of the polymer etching. In the present work, emission spectroscopy is employed to examine the species present in the gas phase during etching of polyethylene. In particular, the concentration of atomic oxygen downstream from the polyethylene samples is studied as a function of the reactor loading. It is found that the concentration of atomic oxygen increases as the reactor loading is increased. The increase of etch rate with increased reactor loading is attributed to the increase of atomic oxygen concentration in the vicinity of the sample.

  20. Oxygen-induced restructuring with release of gold atoms from Au(111)

    SciTech Connect

    Min, B.K.; Deng, X.; Schalek, R.; Pinnaduwage, D.; Friend, C.M.

    2005-09-15

    Adsorption of oxygen atoms, achieved via electron-induced dissociation of nitrogen dioxide, induces restructuring of the 'herringbone' to a striped, soliton-wall structure accompanied by release of gold from the 'elbows' in the herringbone structure. The number density of 'elbows' (dislocations corresponding to a change in direction of the reconstruction) decreases as a function of increasing atomic oxygen coverage while the long range order observed in low energy electron diffraction (LEED) changes from ({radical}(3)x22)-rec. to (1x22) in the limit of saturation coverage. Small islands and serrated step edges were formed due to the release of gold atoms from elbow sites of Au(111). The overall structural change of the Au(111) surface may result from the reduction of anisotropy related to the tensile stress relief of the Au(111) surface by oxygen atoms.

  1. ENERGETIC NEUTRAL ATOMS: AN ADDITIONAL SOURCE FOR HELIOSPHERIC PICKUP IONS

    SciTech Connect

    Bochsler, Peter; Moebius, Eberhard

    2010-09-20

    Recently, Schwadron and McComas discussed the possibility of inner source pickup particles originating from the ionization of energetic neutral atoms (ENAs), based on new data from the IBEX mission. This proposition has some interesting features, namely, it might be able to explain why inner source pickup ions (PUIs) have a composition resembling solar abundances and show no indication of overabundance of refractory elements, although this should be expected, if the conventional explanation of solar wind-dust interaction for the origin of this heliospheric component were correct. In this Letter, we explore further consequences for ENA-related PUIs and investigate their velocity distributions. We conclude that this model will not reproduce the observed velocity distributions of inner source PUIs and point out a substantial deviation in their composition. However, it seems likely that the ionization of ENAs as observed with IBEX could contribute a significant amount of heliospheric suprathermal tail ions. Some possible consequences of our investigation for heliospheric particle populations are briefly discussed.

  2. First detection of the 63 μm atomic oxygen line in the thermosphere of Mars with GREAT/SOFIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezac, L.; Hartogh, P.; Güsten, R.; Wiesemeyer, H.; Hübers, H.-W.; Jarchow, C.; Richter, H.; Klein, B.; Honingh, N.

    2015-08-01

    Context. The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) with its 2.5 m telescope provides new science opportunities for spectroscopic observations of planetary atmospheres in the far-infrared wavelength range. Aims: This paper presents first results from the 14 May, 2014 observing campaign of the Martian atmosphere at 4.7 THz using the German REceiver for Astronomy at Terahertz frequencies (GREAT) instrument. Methods: The atomic oxygen 63 μm transition, OI, was detected in absorption against the Mars continuum, with a high signal-to-noise ratio (~35). A beam-averaged atomic oxygen from a global circulation model was used as input to the radiative transfer simulations of the observed line area and to obtain a new estimate on the column density using a grid-search method. Results: Minimizing differences between the calculated and observed line intensities in the least-square sense yields an atomic oxygen column density of (1.1 ± 0.2) × 1017 cm-2. This value is about twice as low as predicted by a modern photochemical model of Mars. The radiative transfer simulations indicate that the line forms in the upper atmospheric region over a rather extended altitude region of 70-120 km. Conclusions: For the first time, a far-infrared transition of the atomic oxygen line was detected in the atmosphere of Mars. The absorption depth provides an estimate on the column density, and this measurement provides additional means to constrain the photochemical models in global circulation models and airglow studies. The lack of other means for monitoring the atomic oxygen in the Martian upper atmosphere makes future observations with the SOFIA observatory highly desirable. Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  3. Atomic Oxygen Durability Evaluation of a UV Curable Ceramer Protective Coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Karniotis, Christina A.; Dworak, David; Soucek, Mark

    2004-01-01

    The exposure of most silicones to atomic oxygen in low Earth orbit (LEO) results in the oxidative loss of methyl groups with a gradual conversion to oxides of silicon. Typically there is surface shrinkage of oxidized silicone protective coatings which leads to cracking of the partially oxidized brittle surface. Such cracks widen and branch crack with continued atomic oxygen exposure ultimately allowing atomic oxygen to reach any hydrocarbon polymers under the silicone coating. A need exists for a paintable silicone coating that is free from such surface cracking and can be effectively used for protection of polymers and composites in LEO. A new type of silicone based protective coating holding such potential was evaluated for atomic oxygen durability in an RF atomic oxygen plasma exposure facility. The coating consisted of a UV curable inorganic/organic hybrid coating, known as a ceramer, which was fabricated using a methyl substituted polysiloxane binder and nanophase silicon-oxo-clusters derived from sol-gel precursors. The polysiloxane was functionalized with a cycloaliphatic epoxide in order to be cured at ambient temperature via a cationic UV induced curing mechanism. Alkoxy silane groups were also grafted onto the polysiloxane chain, through hydrosilation, in order to form a network with the incorporated silicon-oxo-clusters. The prepared polymer was characterized by H-1 and Si-29 NMR, FT-IR, and electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy. The paper will present the results of atomic oxygen protection ability of thin ceramer coatings on Kapton H as evaluated over a range of atomic oxygen fluence levels.

  4. Effects of atomic oxygen on OH Meinel emission bands in the MLT region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Von Savigny, Christian; Lednyts'kyy, Olexandr

    The OH Meinel airglow is one of the most prominent features of the terrestrial nightglow and has been employed for several decades to remotely sense the mesopause region. However, some aspects of the OH kinetics are still not fully understood. In this contribution we present recent results on the importance of quenching by atomic oxygen on the vertical distribution of different OH Meinel bands. OH Meinel emissions from different vibrational levels are known to occur at slightly different altitudes in the terrestrial airglow with emissions originating from higher vibrational levels peaking at higher altitudes. Our earlier model studies suggested quenching by atomic oxygen to be a principal cause of these vertical shifts. Here we employ the tropical mesopause region - characterized by pronounced semiannual variations - as a natural laboratory to test the hypothesis that vertical shifts between different OH Meinel bands are a consequence of quenching by atomic oxygen. Multiyear nighttime satellite measurements of OH(3-1) and OH(6-2) volume emission rate profiles and atomic oxygen with SCIAMACHY (Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography) on Envisat are used. The MLT atomic oxygen profiles are retrieved from measurements of the O(1S-1D) green line emission based on the accepted 2-step excitation scheme and a semi-empirical photochemical model. The results clearly demonstrate that vertical shifts between the OH bands investigated are indeed correlated with the amount of atomic oxygen in the upper mesosphere, corroborating the hypothesis that quenching by atomic oxygen is a driver for the vertical shifts between different OH Meinel bands.

  5. Cyanobacterial aldehyde deformylase oxygenation of aldehydes yields n-1 aldehydes and alcohols in addition to alkanes.

    PubMed

    Aukema, Kelly G; Makris, Thomas M; Stoian, Sebastian A; Richman, Jack E; Münck, Eckard; Lipscomb, John D; Wackett, Lawrence P

    2013-10-04

    Aldehyde-deformylating oxygenase (ADO) catalyzes O2-dependent release of the terminal carbon of a biological substrate, octadecanal, to yield formate and heptadecane in a reaction that requires external reducing equivalents. We show here that ADO also catalyzes incorporation of an oxygen atom from O2 into the alkane product to yield alcohol and aldehyde products. Oxygenation of the alkane product is much more pronounced with C9-10 aldehyde substrates, so that use of nonanal as the substrate yields similar amounts of octane, octanal, and octanol products. When using doubly-labeled [1,2-(13)C]-octanal as the substrate, the heptane, heptanal and heptanol products each contained a single (13)C-label in the C-1 carbons atoms. The only one-carbon product identified was formate. [(18)O]-O2 incorporation studies demonstrated formation of [(18)O]-alcohol product, but rapid solvent exchange prevented similar determination for the aldehyde product. Addition of [1-(13)C]-nonanol with decanal as the substrate at the outset of the reaction resulted in formation of [1-(13)C]-nonanal. No (13)C-product was formed in the absence of decanal. ADO contains an oxygen-bridged dinuclear iron cluster. The observation of alcohol and aldehyde products derived from the initially formed alkane product suggests a reactive species similar to that formed by methane monooxygenase (MMO) and other members of the bacterial multicomponent monooxygenase family. Accordingly, characterization by EPR and Mössbauer spectroscopies shows that the electronic structure of the ADO cluster is similar, but not identical, to that of MMO hydroxylase component. In particular, the two irons of ADO reside in nearly identical environments in both the oxidized and fully reduced states, whereas those of MMOH show distinct differences. These favorable characteristics of the iron sites allow a comprehensive determination of the spin Hamiltonian parameters describing the electronic state of the diferrous cluster for the

  6. Reactive scattering of a supersonic oxygen atom beam : O IBr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durkin, A.; Smith, D. J.; Grice, R.

    Reactive scattering of O atoms with IBr molecules has been studied at an initial translational energy E = 40 kJ mol-1 using a supersonic beam of O atoms seeded in He, and at E = 15 kJ mol-1 using O atoms seeded in Ne. Velocity distributions of OI product were measured by cross-correlation time-of-flight analysis. Full contour maps of the differential reaction cross section were obtained which show mild peaking equally in the forward and backward directions at both initial translational energies. The product translational energy distributions are consistent with a long-lived collision complex dissociating via a loose transition state. The triplet O-I-Br complex is more stable with respect to reaction products than the corresponding O-Br-Br complex of the O + Br2 reaction, due to the lower electronegativity of the central halogen atom. The emergence of rebound dynamics in the O + Br2 reaction is attributed to a shallower well in the exit valley of the potential energy surface compared with that for O + IBr.

  7. Monte Carlo Technique Used to Model the Degradation of Internal Spacecraft Surfaces by Atomic Oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Miller, Sharon K.

    2004-01-01

    Atomic oxygen is one of the predominant constituents of Earth's upper atmosphere. It is created by the photodissociation of molecular oxygen (O2) into single O atoms by ultraviolet radiation. It is chemically very reactive because a single O atom readily combines with another O atom or with other atoms or molecules that can form a stable oxide. The effects of atomic oxygen on the external surfaces of spacecraft in low Earth orbit can have dire consequences for spacecraft life, and this is a well-known and much studied problem. Much less information is known about the effects of atomic oxygen on the internal surfaces of spacecraft. This degradation can occur when openings in components of the spacecraft exterior exist that allow the entry of atomic oxygen into regions that may not have direct atomic oxygen attack but rather scattered attack. Openings can exist because of spacecraft venting, microwave cavities, and apertures for Earth viewing, Sun sensors, or star trackers. The effects of atomic oxygen erosion of polymers interior to an aperture on a spacecraft were simulated at the NASA Glenn Research Center by using Monte Carlo computational techniques. A two-dimensional model was used to provide quantitative indications of the attenuation of atomic oxygen flux as a function of the distance into a parallel-walled cavity. The model allows the atomic oxygen arrival direction, the Maxwell Boltzman temperature, and the ram energy to be varied along with the interaction parameters of the degree of recombination upon impact with polymer or nonreactive surfaces, the initial reaction probability, the reaction probability dependence upon energy and angle of attack, degree of specularity of scattering of reactive and nonreactive surfaces, and the degree of thermal accommodation upon impact with reactive and non-reactive surfaces to be varied to allow the model to produce atomic oxygen erosion geometries that replicate actual experimental results from space. The degree of

  8. Atmospheric Pressure Method and Apparatus for Removal of Organic Matter with Atomic and Ionic Oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A. (Inventor); Rutledge, Sharon K. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A gas stream containing ionic and atomic oxygen in inert gas is used to remove organic matter from a substrate. The gas stream is formed by flowing a mixture of gaseous oxygen in an inert gas such as helium at atmospheric pressure past a high voltage, current limited, direct current arc which contacts the gas mixture and forms the ionic and atomic oxygen. The arc is curved at the cathode end and the ionic oxygen formed by the arc nearer to the anode end of the arc is accelerated in a direction towards the cathode by virtue of its charge. The relatively high mass to charge ratio of the ionic oxygen enables at least some of it to escape the arc before contacting the cathode and it is directed onto the substrate. This is useful for cleaning delicate substrates such as fine and historically important paintings and delicate equipment and the like.

  9. Atmospheric Pressure Method and Apparatus for Removal of Organic Matter with Atomic and Ionic Oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A. (Inventor); Rutledge, Sharon K. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A gas stream containing ionic and atomic oxygen in inert gas is used to remove organic matter from a substrate. The gas stream is formed by flowing a mixture of gaseous oxygen in an inert gas such as helium at atmospheric pressure past a high voltage, current limited, direct current arc which contacts the gas mixture and forms the ionic and atomic oxygen. The arc is curved at the cathode end and the ionic oxygen formed by the arc nearer to the anode end of the arc is accelerated in a direction towards the cathode by virtue of its charge. The relatively high mass to charge ratio of the ionic oxygen enables at least some of it to escape the arc before contacting the cathode and it is directed onto the substrate. This is useful for cleaning delicate substrates such as fine and historically important paintings and delicate equipment and the like.

  10. 48 CFR 204.470 - U.S.-International Atomic Energy Agency Additional Protocol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false U.S.-International Atomic Energy Agency Additional Protocol. 204.470 Section 204.470 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... Information Within Industry 204.470 U.S.-International Atomic Energy Agency Additional Protocol....

  11. 48 CFR 204.470 - U.S.-International Atomic Energy Agency Additional Protocol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false U.S.-International Atomic Energy Agency Additional Protocol. 204.470 Section 204.470 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... Information Within Industry 204.470 U.S.-International Atomic Energy Agency Additional Protocol....

  12. The formation of diethyl ether via the reaction of iodoethane with atomic oxygen on the Ag(110) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, G. Scott; Barteau, Mark A.; Vohs, John M.

    1999-01-01

    The reactions of iodoethane (ICH 2CH 3) on clean and oxygen-covered Ag(110) surfaces were investigated using temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) and high-resolution electron energy-loss spectroscopy (HREELS). Iodoethane adsorbs dissociatively at 150 K to produce surface ethyl groups on both clean and oxygen-covered Ag(110) surfaces. The ethyl species couple to form butane on both surfaces, with the desorption peak maximum located between 218 and 238 K, depending on the ethyl coverage. In addition to butane, a number of oxidation products including diethyl ether, ethanol, acetaldehyde, surface acetate, ethylene, carbon dioxide and water were formed on the oxygen-dosed Ag(110) surface. Diethyl ether was the major oxygenate produced at all ethyl:oxygen ratios, and the peak temperature for ether evolution varied from 220 to 266 K depending on the relative coverages of these reactants. The total combustion products, CO 2 and H 2O, were primarily formed at low ethyl coverages in the presence of excess oxygen. The formation of ethylene near 240 K probably involves an oxygen-assisted dehydrogenation pathway since ethylene is not formed from ethyl groups on the clean surface. Acetaldehyde and ethanol evolve coincidentally with a peak centered at 270-280 K, and are attributed to the reactions of surface ethoxide species. The surface acetate which decomposes near 620 K is formed from subsequent reactions of acetaldehyde with oxygen atoms. The addition of ethyl to oxygen to form surface ethoxides was verified by HREELS results. The yields of all products exhibited a strong dependence on the relative coverages of ethyl and oxygen.

  13. The Metal or the Ligand? The Preferred Locus for Redox Changes in Oxygen Atom Transfer Reactions of Rhenium Amidodiphenoxides.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Justin M; Oliver, Allen G; Brown, Seth Nathaniel

    2017-03-03

    The rhenium(V) oxo complex oxo(triphenylphosphine)(bis(3,5-di-tert-butyl-2-phenoxo)amido)rhenium(V), (ONO(Cat))ReO(PPh3), reacts with molecular oxygen to give triphenylphosphine oxide and the dimeric rhenium(VII) complex fac,anti-(ONO(Cat))Re(O)(μ-O)2Re(O)(ONO(Cat)). The ONO ligand adopts an unusual fac geometry, presumably to maximize π donation to rhenium; strong π donation is substantiated by the intraligand bond distances (metrical oxidation state = -2.24(9)). Addition of the N-heterocyclic carbene ligand IMes to fac,anti-(ONO(Cat))Re(O)(μ-O)2Re(O)(ONO(Cat)) cleaves the dimer into monomeric C1-symmetric fac-(ONO(Cat))ReO2(IMes). The monorhenium(VII) complex is deoxygenated by PMe2Ph to give the rhenium(V) compound (ONO(Cat))ReO(IMes), which can be independently prepared by ligand substitution of (ONO(Cat))ReO(PPh3). The degree of stereochemical rigidity exhibited by the dioxo compound, as established by dynamic NMR spectroscopy, excludes the intermediacy of mer-(ONO(Q))Re(V)O2(IMes) in this oxygen atom transfer reaction. Thus, oxygen atom transfer takes place preferentially by direct reduction of the oxorhenium(VII) moiety (classical oxygen atom transfer) rather than through initial internal electron transfer and ligand-centered reduction of an oxorhenium(V)-iminoquinone.

  14. Recombination of atomic oxygen on α-Al 2O 3 at high temperature under air microwave-induced plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balat-Pichelin, M.; Bedra, L.; Gerasimova, O.; Boubert, P.

    2007-11-01

    New ceramic materials are necessary for the design of primary heat shields for future reusable space vehicles re-entering atmospheric planet. During the re-entry phase on earth, one of the most important phenomena occurring on the heat shield is the recombination of atomic species and among them atomic oxygen. The recombination of atomic oxygen is catalyzed by the material of the heat shield. This paper presents some experimental results for the recombination coefficient γ and the thermal flux of recombination transferred to the material in the surface-catalyzed recombination of oxygen atoms based on experiments performed on the MESOX set-up using optical emission spectroscopy, actinometry and calorimetry techniques. Experimental results on the recombination coefficient are presented for three types of α-Al 2O 3 in the temperature range 900-2400 K for 300 Pa total air pressure. The thermal flux of recombination is given for only two representative samples. These three alumina differ essentially by their content of sintering additives. Different behaviors of the recombination coefficient versus temperature are observed according to the impurity level of the α-alumina.

  15. Effects of atomic oxygen on polymeric materials flown on EOIM-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamenetzky, Rachel R.; Linton, Roger C.; Finckenor, Miria M.; Vaughn, Jason A.

    1995-01-01

    Diverse polymeric materials, including several variations of Kapton, were flown on STS-46 as part of the Evaluation of Oxygen Interaction with Materials Experiment (EOIM-3). These materials were flown in the cargo bay and exposed to the space environment July 31 - August 8, 1992, including 40 hours of direct atomic oxygen impingement. The atomic oxygen exposure was approximately 2.2 x 10(exp 20) atoms/sq cm. Polymeric materials flown on EOIM-3 include coated and uncoated Kapton, Tefzel ETFE, Lexan, FEP and TFE Teflon, bulk Halar and PEEK, S383 silicone and Viton elastomeric seal material. Analyses performed included thickness measurements using Dektak and eddy current methods, mass loss, resistance, permeability, hardness, and FTIR. The effects of stress and the space environment on Kapton were also evaluated. Previous EOIM missions on STS-5 and STS-8 and the Long Duration Exposure Facility also contained polymeric material samples. Data from these previous flights are shown for comparison, as well as ground simulation of space environment effects using both thermal energy flow tubes and 5 eV neutral atomic oxygen beam facilities. Reaction efficiencies for the various atomic oxygen exposure conditions are discussed.

  16. Synergistic effects of ultraviolet radiation, thermal cycling and atomic oxygen on altered and coated Kapton surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dever, Joyce A.; Bruckner, Eric J.; Rodriguez, Elvin

    1992-01-01

    The photovoltaic (PV) power system for Space Station Freedom (SSF) uses solar array blankets which provide structural support for the solar cells and house the electrical interconnections. In the low earth orbital (LEO) environment where SSF will be located, surfaces will be exposed to potentially damaging environmental conditions including solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation, thermal cycling, and atomic oxygen. It is necessary to use ground based tests to determine how these environmental conditions would affect the mass loss and optical properties of candidate SSF blanket materials. Silicone containing, silicone coated, and SiO(x) coated polyimide film materials were exposed to simulated LEO environmental conditions to determine their durability and whether the environmental conditions of UV, thermal cycling and oxygen atoms act synergistically on these materials. A candidate PV blanket material called AOR Kapton, a polysiloxane polyimide cast from a solution mixture, shows an improvement in durability to oxygen atoms erosion after exposure to UV radiation or thermal cycling combined with UV radiation. This may indicate that the environmental conditions react synergistically with this material, and the damage predicted by exposure to atomic oxygen alone is more severe than that which would occur in LEO where atomic oxygen, thermal cycling and UV radiation are present together.

  17. Synergistic effects of ultraviolet radiation, thermal cycling and atomic oxygen on altered and coated Kapton surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Dever, J.A.; Bruckner, E.J.; Rodriguez, E. Cleveland State University, OH )

    1992-01-01

    The photovoltaic (PV) power system for Space Station Freedom (SSF) uses solar array blankets which provide structural support for the solar cells and house the electrical interconnections. In the low earth orbital (LEO) environment where SSF will be located, surfaces will be exposed to potentially damaging environmental conditions including solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation, thermal cycling, and atomic oxygen. It is necessary to use ground based tests to determine how these environmental conditions would affect the mass loss and optical properties of candidate SSF blanket materials. Silicone containing, silicone coated, and SiO(x) coated polyimide film materials were exposed to simulated LEO environmental conditions to determine their durability and whether the environmental conditions of UV, thermal cycling and oxygen atoms act synergistically on these materials. A candidate PV blanket material called AOR Kapton, a polysiloxane polyimide cast from a solution mixture, shows an improvement in durability to oxygen atoms erosion after exposure to UV radiation or thermal cycling combined with UV radiation. This may indicate that the environmental conditions react synergistically with this material, and the damage predicted by exposure to atomic oxygen alone is more severe than that which would occur in LEO where atomic oxygen, thermal cycling and UV radiation are present together. 14 refs.

  18. The surface properties of fluorinated polyimides exposed to VUV and atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forsythe, John S.; George, Graeme A.; Hill, David J. T.; Odonnell, James H.; Pomery, Peter J.; Rasoul, Firas A.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of atomic oxygen flux and VUV radiation alone and in combination on the surface of fluorinated polyimide films was studied using XPS spectroscopy. Exposure of fluorinated polyimides to VUV radiation alone caused no observable damage to the polymer surface, while an atomic oxygen flux resulted in substantial oxidation of the surface. On the other hand, exposure to VUV radiation and atomic oxygen in combination caused extensive oxidation of the polymer surface after only 2 minutes of exposure. The amount of oxidized carbon on the polymer surface indicated that there is aromatic ring opening oxidation. The changes in the O1s/C1s, N1s/C1s, and F1s/C1s ratios suggested that an ablative degradation process is highly favorable. A synergistic effect of VUV radiation in the presence of atomic oxygen is clearly evidenced from the XPS study. The atomic oxygen could be considered as the main factor in the degradation process of fluorinated polyimide films exposed to a low earth orbit environment.

  19. A kinetic study of the interaction between atomic oxygen and aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akers, F. I.; Wightman, J. P.

    1976-01-01

    This study was concerned with the effects of NH4Cl and (NH4)2SO4 aerosols on the kinetics of disappearance of atomic oxygen. Atomic oxygen was generated by a 2.45-GHz microwave discharge and the kinetics of disappearance measured in a fast flow system using NO2 titration. Values of the recombination coefficient for heterogeneous wall recombination were determined for clean, H2SO4-coated, and (NH4)2SO4-coated Pyrex to be 0.000050, 0.000020, and 0.000019, respectively. A rapid exothermic chemical reaction was found to occur between atomic oxygen and an NH4Cl wall coating; the products were NH3, NO, H2O, and HCl. The NH4Cl aerosol was generated by gas phase reaction of NH3 with HCl. The aerosol particles were approximately spherical and nearly monodisperse with a mean diameter of 1.6 plus or minus 0.2 micron. The rate constant for the disappearance of atomic oxygen in the presence of NH4Cl aerosol was measured. No significant decrease was observed in the rate of disappearance of atomic oxygen in the presence of an (NH4)2SO4 aerosol at a concentration of 285 mg per cu m.

  20. Synergistic effects of ultraviolet radiation, thermal cycling, and atomic oxygen on altered and coated Kapton surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dever, Joyce A.; Bruckner, Eric J.; Rodriguez, Elvin

    1992-01-01

    The photovoltaic (PV) power system for Space Station Freedom (SSF) uses solar array blankets which provide structural support for the solar cells and house the electrical interconnections. In the low Earth orbital (LEO) environment where SSF will be located, surfaces will be exposed to potentially damaging environmental conditions including solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation, thermal cycling, and atomic oxygen. It is necessary to use ground based tests to determine how these environmental conditions would affect the mass loss and optical properties of candidate SSF blanket materials. Silicone containing, silicone coated, and SiO(x) coated polyimide film materials were exposed to simulated LEO environmental conditions to determine there durability and whether the environmental conditions of UV, thermal cycling and oxygen atoms act synergistically on these materials. A candidate PV blanket material called AOR Kapton, a polysiloxane polyimide cast from a solution mixture, shows an improvement in durability to oxygen atoms erosion after exposure to UV radiation or thermal cycling combined with UV radiation. This may indicate that the environmental conditions react synergistically with this material, and the damage predicted by exposure to atomic oxygen alone is more severe than that which would occur in LEO where atomic oxygen, thermal cycling and UV radiation are present together.

  1. Growth control of Saccharomyces cerevisiae through dose of oxygen atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Hashizume, Hiroshi; Ohta, Takayuki; Ito, Masafumi; Hori, Masaru

    2015-08-31

    To investigate the dose-dependent effects of neutral oxygen radicals on the proliferation as well as the inactivation of microorganisms, we treated suspensions of budding yeast cells with oxygen radicals using an atmospheric-pressure oxygen radical source, varying the fluxes of O({sup 3}P{sub j}) from 1.3 × 10{sup 16} to 2.3 × 10{sup 17 }cm{sup −2} s{sup −1}. Proliferation was promoted at doses of O({sup 3}P{sub j}) ranging from 6 × 10{sup 16} to 2 × 10{sup 17 }cm{sup −3}, and suppressed at doses ranging from 3 × 10{sup 17} to 1 × 10{sup 18 }cm{sup −3}; cells were inactivated by O({sup 3}P{sub j}) doses exceeding 1 × 10{sup 18 }cm{sup −3}, even when the flux was varied over the above flux range. These results showed that the growth of cells was regulated primarily in response to the total dose of O({sup 3}P{sub j})

  2. Heat conduction in double-walled carbon nanotubes with intertube additional carbon atoms.

    PubMed

    Cui, Liu; Feng, Yanhui; Tan, Peng; Zhang, Xinxin

    2015-07-07

    Heat conduction of double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs) with intertube additional carbon atoms was investigated for the first time using a molecular dynamics method. By analyzing the phonon vibrational density of states (VDOS), we revealed that the intertube additional atoms weak the heat conduction along the tube axis. Moreover, the phonon participation ratio (PR) demonstrates that the heat transfer in DWCNTs is dominated by low frequency modes. The added atoms cause the mode weight factor (MWF) of the outer tube to decrease and that of the inner tube to increase, which implies a lower thermal conductivity. The effects of temperature, tube length, and the number and distribution of added atoms were studied. Furthermore, an orthogonal array testing strategy was designed to identify the most important structural factor. It is indicated that the tendencies of thermal conductivity of DWCNTs with added atoms change with temperature and length are similar to bare ones. In addition, thermal conductivity decreases with the increasing number of added atoms, more evidently for atom addition concentrated at some cross-sections rather than uniform addition along the tube length. Simultaneously, the number of added atoms at each cross-section has a considerably more remarkable impact, compared to the tube length and the density of chosen cross-sections to add atoms.

  3. Fast Three-Dimensional Method of Modeling Atomic Oxygen Undercutting of Protected Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Aaron; Banks, Bruce A.

    2002-01-01

    A method is presented to model atomic oxygen erosion of protected polymers in low Earth orbit (LEO). Undercutting of protected polymers by atomic oxygen occurs in LEO due to the presence of scratch, crack or pin-window defects in the protective coatings. As a means of providing a better understanding of undercutting processes, a fast method of modeling atomic-oxygen undercutting of protected polymers has been developed. Current simulation methods often rely on computationally expensive ray-tracing procedures to track the surface-to-surface movement of individual "atoms." The method introduced in this paper replaces slow individual particle approaches by substituting a model that utilizes both a geometric configuration-factor technique, which governs the diffuse transport of atoms between surfaces, and an efficient telescoping series algorithm, which rapidly integrates the cumulative effects stemming from the numerous atomic oxygen events occurring at the surfaces of an undercut cavity. This new method facilitates the systematic study of three-dimensional undercutting by allowing rapid simulations to be made over a wide range of erosion parameters.

  4. Materials selection for long life in LEO: A critical evaluation of atomic oxygen testing with thermal atom systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koontz, S. L.; Kuminecz, J.; Leger, L.; Nordine, P.

    1988-01-01

    The use of thermal atom test methods as a materials selection and screening technique for low-Earth orbit (LEO) spacecraft is critically evaluated. The chemistry and physics of thermal atom environments are compared with the LEO environment. The relative reactivities of a number of materials determined to be in thermal atom environments are compared to those observed in LEO and in high quality LEO simulations. Reaction efficiencies measured in a new type of thermal atom apparatus are one-hundredth to one-thousandth those observed in LEO, and many materials showing nearly identical reactivities in LEO show relative reactivities differing by as much as a factor of 8 in thermal atom systems. A simple phenomenological kinetic model for the reaction of oxygen atoms with organic materials can be used to explain the differences in reactivity in different environments. Certain specific thermal test environments can be used as reliable materials screening tools. Using thermal atom methods to predict material lifetime in LEO requires direct calibration of the method against LEO data or high quality simulation data for each material.

  5. Atomic oxygen interaction with spacecraft materials: Relationship between orbital and ground-based testing for materials certification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, Jon B.; Koontz, Steven L.; Lan, Esther H.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of atomic oxygen on boron nitride (BN), silicon nitride (Si3N4), Intelsat 6 solar cell interconnects, organic polymers, and MoS2 and WS2 dry lubricant, were studied in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) flight experiments and in a ground based simulation facility. Both the inflight and ground based experiments employed in situ electrical resistance measurements to detect penetration of atomic oxygen through materials and Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA) analysis to measure chemical composition changes. Results are given. The ground based results on the materials studied to date show good qualitative correlation with the LEO flight results, thus validating the simulation fidelity of the ground based facility in terms of reproducing LEO flight results. In addition it was demonstrated that ground based simulation is capable of performing more detailed experiments than orbital exposures can presently perform. This allows the development of a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms involved in the LEO environment degradation of materials.

  6. The Materials Chemistry of Atomic Oxygen with Applications to Anisotropic Etching of Submicron Structures in Microelectronics and the Surface Chemistry Engineering of Porous Solids

    SciTech Connect

    Koontz, S.L.; Leger, L.J.; Wu, C.; Cross, J.B.; Jurgensen, C.W. |

    1994-05-01

    Neutral atomic oxygen is the most abundant component of the ionospheric plasma in the low Earth orbit environment (LEO; 200 to 700 kilometers altitude) and can produce significant degradation of some spacecraft materials. In order to produce a more complete understanding of the materials chemistry of atomic oxygen, the chemistry and physics of O-atom interactions with materials were determined in three radically different environments: (1) The Space Shuttle cargo bay in low Earth orbit (the EOIM-3 space flight experiment), (2) a high-velocity neutral atom beam system (HVAB) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and (3) a microwave-plasma flowing-discharge system at JSC. The Space Shuttle and the high velocity atom beam systems produce atom-surface collision energies ranging from 0.1 to 7 eV (hyperthermal atoms) under high-vacuum conditions, while the flowing discharge system produces a 0.065 eV surface collision energy at a total pressure of 2 Torr. Data obtained in the three different O-atom environments referred to above show that the rate of O-atom reaction with polymeric materials is strongly dependent on atom kinetic energy, obeying a reactive scattering law which suggests that atom kinetic energy is directly available for overcoming activation barriers in the reaction. General relationships between polymer reactivity with O atoms and polymer composition and molecular structure have been determined. In addition, vacuum ultraviolet photochemical effects have been shown to dominate the reaction of O atoms with fluorocarbon polymers. Finally, studies of the materials chemistry of O atoms have produced results which may be of interest to technologists outside the aerospace industry. Atomic oxygen `spin-off` or `dual use` technologies in the areas of anisotropic etching in microelectronic materials and device processing, as well as surface chemistry engineering of porous solid materials are described.

  7. The Materials Chemistry of Atomic Oxygen with Applications to Anisotropic Etching of Submicron Structures in Microelectronics and the Surface Chemistry Engineering of Porous Solids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koontz, Steve L.; Leger, Lubert J.; Wu, Corina; Cross, Jon B.; Jurgensen, Charles W.

    1994-01-01

    Neutral atomic oxygen is the most abundant component of the ionospheric plasma in the low Earth orbit environment (LEO; 200 to 700 kilometers altitude) and can produce significant degradation of some spacecraft materials. In order to produce a more complete understanding of the materials chemistry of atomic oxygen, the chemistry and physics of O-atom interactions with materials were determined in three radically different environments: (1) The Space Shuttle cargo bay in low Earth orbit (the EOIM-3 space flight experiment), (2) a high-velocity neutral atom beam system (HVAB) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and (3) a microwave-plasma flowing-discharge system at JSC. The Space Shuttle and the high velocity atom beam systems produce atom-surface collision energies ranging from 0.1 to 7 eV (hyperthermal atoms) under high-vacuum conditions, while the flowing discharge system produces a 0.065 eV surface collision energy at a total pressure of 2 Torr. Data obtained in the three different O-atom environments referred to above show that the rate of O-atom reaction with polymeric materials is strongly dependent on atom kinetic energy, obeying a reactive scattering law which suggests that atom kinetic energy is directly available for overcoming activation barriers in the reaction. General relationships between polymer reactivity with O atoms and polymer composition and molecular structure have been determined. In addition, vacuum ultraviolet photochemical effects have been shown to dominate the reaction of O atoms with fluorocarbon polymers. Finally, studies of the materials chemistry of O atoms have produced results which may be of interest to technologists outside the aerospace industry. Atomic oxygen 'spin-off' or 'dual use' technologies in the areas of anisotropic etching in microelectronic materials and device processing, as well as surface chemistry engineering of porous solid materials are described.

  8. Proceedings of the NASA Workshop on Atomic Oxygen Effects. [low earth orbital environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinza, David E. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    A workshop was held to address the scientific issues concerning the effects of atomic oxygen on materials in the low Earth orbital (LEO) environment. The program included 18 invited speakers plus contributed posters covering topics such as LEO spaceflight experiments, interaction mechanisms, and atomic oxygen source development. Discussion sessions were also held to organize a test program to evaluate atomic oxygen exposure facilities. The key issues raised in the workshop were: (1) the need to develop a reliable predictive model of the effects of long-term exposure of materials to the LEO environment; (2) the ability of ground-based exposure facilities to provide useful data for development of durable materials; and (3) accurate determination of the composition of the LEO environment. These proceedings include the invited papers, the abstracts for the contributed posters, and an account of the test program discussion sessions.

  9. Atomic oxygen and ultraviolet radiation mission total exposures for LDEF experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourassa, R. J.; Gillis, J. R.; Rousslang, Ken W.

    1992-01-01

    Atomic oxygen and solar radiation exposures were determined analytically for rows, longerons, and end bays of the LDEF. Calculated atomic oxygen exposures are based on an analytical model that accounts for the effects of thermal molecular velocity, atmospheric temperature, number density, spacecraft velocity, incidence angle, and atmospheric rotation. Results also incorporate variations in solar activity, geomagnetic index, and orbital parameters occurring over the six year flight of the spacecraft. Solar radiation exposure calculations are based on the form factors reported in the Solar Illumination Data Package prepared by NASA Langley. The earth albedo value for these calculations was based on the Nimbus 7 earth radiation data set. Summary charts for both atomic oxygen and solar radiation exposure are presented to facilitate the use of the data generated by LDEF experimenters.

  10. A high flux pulsed source of energetic atomic oxygen. [for spacecraft materials ground testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krech, Robert H.; Caledonia, George E.

    1986-01-01

    The design and demonstration of a pulsed high flux source of nearly monoenergetic atomic oxygen are reported. In the present test setup, molecular oxygen under several atmospheres of pressure is introduced into an evacuated supersonic expansion nozzle through a pulsed molecular beam valve. A 10J CO2 TEA laser is focused to intensities greater than 10 to the 9th W/sq cm in the nozzle throat, generating a laser-induced breakdown with a resulting 20,000-K plasma. Plasma expansion is confined by the nozzle geometry to promote rapid electron-ion recombination. Average O-atom beam velocities from 5-13 km/s at fluxes up to 10 to the 18th atoms/pulse are measured, and a similar surface oxygen enrichment in polyethylene samples to that obtained on the STS-8 mission is found.

  11. Atomic oxygen degradation of Intelsat 4-type solar array interconnects: Laboratory investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koontz, S. L.; Cross, J. B.; Hoffbauer, M. A.; Kirkendahl, T. D.

    1991-01-01

    A Hughes 506 type communication satellite belonging to the Intelsat organization was marooned in low Earth orbit on March 14, 1990, following failure of the Titan third stage to separate properly. The satellite, Intelsat VI, was designed for service in geosynchronous orbit and contains several material configurations which are susceptible to attack by atomic oxygen. Analysis showed the silver foil interconnects in the satellite photovoltaic array to be the key materials issue because the silver is exposed directly to the atomic oxygen ram flux. The results are reported of atomic oxygen degradation testing of Intelsat VI type silver foil interconnects both as virgin material and in a configured solar cell element. Test results indicate that more than 80 pct. of the original thickness of silver in the Intelsat VI solar array interconnects should remain after completion of the proposed Space Shuttle rescue and/or reboost mission.

  12. Low Earth orbital atomic oxygen and ultraviolet radiation effects on polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Dever, J.A.

    1991-02-01

    Because atomic oxygen and solar ultraviolet radiation present in the low earth orbital (LEO) environment can alter the chemistry of polymers resulting in degradation, their effects and mechanisms of degradation must be determined in order to determine the long term durability of polymeric surfaces to be exposed on missions such as Space Station Freedom. The effects of atomic oxygen on polymers which contain protective coatings must also be explored, since unique damage mechanisms can occur in areas where the protective coatings has failed. Mechanisms can be determined by utilizing results from previous LEO missions, by performing ground based LEO simulation tests and analysis, and by carrying out focussed space experiments. A survey is presented of the interactions and possible damage mechanisms for environmental atomic oxygen and UV radiation exposure of polymers commonly used in LEO.

  13. Low Earth orbital atomic oxygen and ultraviolet radiation effects on polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dever, Joyce A.

    1991-01-01

    Because atomic oxygen and solar ultraviolet radiation present in the low earth orbital (LEO) environment can alter the chemistry of polymers resulting in degradation, their effects and mechanisms of degradation must be determined in order to determine the long term durability of polymeric surfaces to be exposed on missions such as Space Station Freedom. The effects of atomic oxygen on polymers which contain protective coatings must also be explored, since unique damage mechanisms can occur in areas where the protective coatings has failed. Mechanisms can be determined by utilizing results from previous LEO missions, by performing ground based LEO simulation tests and analysis, and by carrying out focussed space experiments. A survey is presented of the interactions and possible damage mechanisms for environmental atomic oxygen and UV radiation exposure of polymers commonly used in LEO.

  14. Longitudinal structure in atomic oxygen concentrations observed with WINDII on UARS. [Wind Imaging Interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, G. G.; Thuillier, G.; Solheim, B. H.; Chandra, S.; Cogger, L. L.; Duboin, M. L.; Evans, W. F. J.; Gattinger, R. L.; Gault, W. A.; Herse, M.

    1993-01-01

    WINDII, the Wind Imaging Interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite, began atmospheric observations on September 28, 1991 and since then has been collecting data on winds, temperatures and emissions rates from atomic, molecular and ionized oxygen species, as well as hydroxyl. The validation of winds and temperatures is not yet complete, and scientific interpretation has barely begun, but the dominant characteristic of these data so far is the remarkable structure in the emission rate from the excited species produced by the recombination of atomic oxygen. The latitudinal and temporal variability has been noted before by many others. In this preliminary report on WINDII results we draw attention to the dramatic longitudinal variations of planetary wave character in atomic oxygen concentration, as reflected in the OI 557.7 nm emission, and to similar variations seen in the Meine1 hydroxyl band emission.

  15. The effect of atomic oxygen on polysiloxane-polyimide for spacecraft applications in low Earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutledge, Sharon K.; Cooper, Jill M.; Olle, Raymond M.

    1991-01-01

    Polysiloxane-polyimide films are of interest as a replacement for polyimide Kapton in the Space Station Freedom solar array blanket. The blanket provides the structural support for the solar cells as well as providing transport of heat away from the back of the cells. Polyimide Kapton would be an ideal material to use; however, its high rate of degradation due to attack by atomic oxygen in low Earth orbit, at the altitudes Space Station Freedom will fly, is of such magnitude that if left unprotected, the blanket will undergo structural failure in much less than the desired 15 year operating life. Polysiloxane-polyimide is of interest as a replacement material because it should from its own protective silicon dioxide coating upon exposure to atomic oxygen. Mass, optical, and photomicrographic data obtained in the evaluation of the durability of polysiloxane-polyimide to an atomic oxygen environment are presented.

  16. DFT studies of oxygen dissociation on the 116-atom platinum truncated octahedron particle.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Paul C; Aleksandrov, Hristiyan A; Neyman, Konstantin M; Johnston, Roy L

    2014-12-28

    Density functional theory calculations are performed to investigate oxygen dissociation on 116-atom truncated octahedron platinum particles. This work builds on results presented previously [Jennings et al., Nanoscale, 2014, 6, 1153], where it was shown that shell flexibility played an important role in facilitating fast oxygen dissociation. In this study, through investigation of the larger particle size, it is shown that oxygen dissociation on the (111) facet of pure platinum species is still aided by shell flexibility at larger sizes. Only the hollow sites close to the edges of the (111) facet mediate oxygen dissociation; oxygen is bound too weakly at other hollow sites for dissociation to occur. Further studies are performed on the (100) facet, which is larger for the Pt116 particle than for either the Pt38 or Pt79 ones. Much higher dissociation barriers are found on the (100) facet compared to the (111) facet, where the bridge sites are favourable for oxygen dissociation.

  17. Total photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen from threshold to 44.3A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angel, G. C.; Samson, James A. R.

    1987-01-01

    The relative cross section of atomic oxygen for the production of singly charged ions has been remeasured in more detail and extended to cover the wavelength range 44.3 to 910.5 A by the use of synchrotron radiation. In addition, the contribution of multiple ionization to the cross sections has been measured allowing total photoionization cross sections to be obtained below 250 A. The results have been made absolute by normalization to previously measured data. The use of synchrotron radiation has enabled measurements of the continuum cross section to be made between the numerous autoionizing resonances that occur near the ionization thresholds. This in turn has allowed a more critical comparison of the various theoretical estimates of the cross section to be made. The series of autoionizing resonances leading to the 4-P state of the oxygen ion have been observed for the first time in an ionization type experiment and their positions compared with both theory and previous photographic recordings.

  18. Use of Atomic Oxygen for Increased Water Contact Angles of Various Polymers for Biomedical Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deGroh, Kim; Berger, Lauren; Roberts, Lily

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of atomic oxygen (AO) exposure on the hydrophilicity of nine different polymers for biomedical applications. Atomic oxygen treatment can alter the chemistry and morphology of polymer surfaces, which may increase the adhesion and spreading of cells on Petri dishes and enhance implant growth. Therefore, nine different polymers were exposed to atomic oxygen and water-contact angle, or hydrophilicity, was measured after exposure. To determine whether hydrophilicity remains static after initial atomic oxygen exposure, or changes with higher fluence exposures, the contact angles between the polymer and water droplet placed on the polymer s surface were measured versus AO fluence. The polymers were exposed to atomic oxygen in a 100-W, 13.56-MHz radio frequency (RF) plasma asher, and the treatment was found to significantly alter the hydrophilicity of non-fluorinated polymers. Pristine samples were compared with samples that had been exposed to AO at various fluence levels. Minimum and maximum fluences for the ashing trials were set based on the effective AO erosion of a Kapton witness coupon in the asher. The time intervals for ashing were determined by finding the logarithmic values of the minimum and maximum fluences. The difference of these two values was divided by the desired number of intervals (ideally 10). The initial desired fluence was then multiplied by this result (2.37), as was each subsequent desired fluence. The flux in the asher was determined to be approximately 3.0 x 10(exp 15) atoms/sq cm/sec, and each polymer was exposed to a maximum fluence of 5.16 x 10(exp 20) atoms/sq cm.

  19. A Fiber Optic Catalytic Sensor for Neutral Atom Measurements in Oxygen Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Zaplotnik, Rok; Vesel, Alenka; Mozetic, Miran

    2012-01-01

    The presented sensor for neutral oxygen atom measurement in oxygen plasma is a catalytic probe which uses fiber optics and infrared detection system to measure the gray body radiation of the catalyst. The density of neutral atoms can be determined from the temperature curve of the probe, because the catalyst is heated predominantly by the dissipation of energy caused by the heterogeneous surface recombination of neutral atoms. The advantages of this sensor are that it is simple, reliable, easy to use, noninvasive, quantitative and can be used in plasma discharge regions. By using different catalyst materials the sensor can also be applied for detection of neutral atoms in other plasmas. Sensor design, operation, example measurements and new measurement procedure for systematic characterization are presented. PMID:22666005

  20. Atomic oxygen flux and fluence calculation for Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourassa, Roger J.; Gillis, James R.

    1991-01-01

    The LDEF mission was to study the effects of the space environment on various materials over an extended period of time. One of the important factors for materials degradation in low earth orbit is the atomic oxygen fluxes and fluences experienced by the materials. These fluxes and fluences are a function of orbital parameters, solar and geomagnetic activity, and material surface orientation. Calculations of atomic oxygen fluences and fluxes for the LDEF mission are summarized. Included are descriptions of LDEF orbital parameters, solar and geomagnetic data, computer code FLUXAV, which was used to perform calculations of fluxes and fluences, along with a discussion of the calculated fluxes and fluences.

  1. Enhanced oxidative vaporization of Cr2O3 and chromium by oxygen atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fryburg, G. C.; Kohl, F. J.; Stearns, C. A.

    1974-01-01

    Rates of oxidative vaporization of Cr2O3 have been found to be markedly enhanced in the presence of oxygen atoms. Investigations were conducted over the temperature range 200-1250 C. For Cr2O3 the enhancement was about 10 to the 9th power at 550 C in oxygen containing 2.5% atoms. Rapid oxidative vaporization of bare chromium was observed below 800 C, the rate being about one-half that of Cr2O3. Results are interpreted in terms of thermochemical analysis.

  2. Issues and Effects of Atomic Oxygen Interactions With Silicone Contamination on Spacecraft in Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce; Rutledge, Sharon; Sechkar, Edward; Stueber, Thomas; Snyder, Aaron; deGroh, Kim; Haytas, Christy; Brinker, David

    2000-01-01

    The continued presence and use of silicones on spacecraft in low Earth orbit (LEO) has been found to cause the deposition of contaminant films on surfaces which are also exposed to atomic oxygen. The composition and optical properties of the resulting SiO(x)- based (where x is near 2) contaminant films may be dependent upon the relative rates of arrival of atomic oxygen, silicone contaminant and hydrocarbons. This paper presents results of in-space silicone contamination tests, ground laboratory simulation tests and analytical modeling to identify controlling processes that affect contaminant characteristics.

  3. Trapping cold molecules and atoms: Simultaneous magnetic deceleration and trapping of cold molecular Oxygen with Lithium atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akerman, Nitzan; Karpov, Michael; Segev, Yair; Bibelink, Natan; Narevicius, Julia; Narevicius, Edvardas

    2016-05-01

    Cooling molecules to the ultra-cold regime remains a major challenge in the growing field of cold molecules. The molecular internal degrees of freedom complicate the effort of direct application of laser cooling. An alternative and general path towards ultra-cold molecules relies on sympathetic cooling via collisions with laser-cooled atoms. Here, we demonstrate the first step towards application of sympathetic cooling by co-trapping of molecular Oxygen with Lithium atoms in a magnetic trap at a temperature of 300 mK. Our experiment begins with a pulsed supersonic beam which is a general source for cold high-flux atomic and molecular beams. Although the supersonic expansion efficiently cools the beam to temperatures below 1K, it also accelerates the beam to high mean velocities. We decelerate a beam of O2 in a moving magnetic trap decelerator from 375 m/s to a stop. We entrained the molecular beam with Li atoms by laser ablation prior to deceleration. The deceleration ends with loading the molecules and atoms into a static quadrupole trap, which is generated by two permanent magnets. We estimate 109 trapped molecules with background limited lifetime of 0.6 Sec. Our achievement enables application of laser cooling on the Li atoms in order to sympathetically cool the O2.

  4. The role of thermal energy accommodation and atomic recombination probabilities in low pressure oxygen plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Andrew Robert; Foucher, Mickaël; Marinov, Daniil; Chabert, Pascal; Gans, Timo; Kushner, Mark J.; Booth, Jean-Paul

    2017-02-01

    Surface interaction probabilities are critical parameters that determine the behaviour of low pressure plasmas and so are crucial input parameters for plasma simulations that play a key role in determining their accuracy. However, these parameters are difficult to estimate without in situ measurements. In this work, the role of two prominent surface interaction probabilities, the atomic oxygen recombination coefficient γ O and the thermal energy accommodation coefficient α E in determining the plasma properties of low pressure inductively coupled oxygen plasmas are investigated using two-dimensional fluid-kinetic simulations. These plasmas are the type used for semiconductor processing. It was found that α E plays a crucial role in determining the neutral gas temperature and neutral gas density. Through this dependency, the value of α E also determines a range of other plasma properties such as the atomic oxygen density, the plasma potential, the electron temperature, and ion bombardment energy and neutral-to-ion flux ratio at the wafer holder. The main role of γ O is in determining the atomic oxygen density and flux to the wafer holder along with the neutral-to-ion flux ratio. It was found that the plasma properties are most sensitive to each coefficient when the value of the coefficient is small causing the losses of atomic oxygen and thermal energy to be surface interaction limited rather than transport limited.

  5. On the electron affinity of the oxygen atom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, C. W., Jr.; Langhoff, S. R.; Partridge, H.; Taylor, P. R.

    1986-01-01

    The electron affinity (EA) of oxygen is computed to be 1.287 eV, using 2p electron full configuration-interaction (CI) wave functions expanded in a 6s5p3d2f Slater-type orbital basis. The best complete active space self-consistent field - multireference CI (CASSCF-MRCI) result including only 2p correlation is 1.263 eV. However, inclusion of 2s intrashell and 2s2p intershell correlation increases the computed EA to 1.290 at the CASSCF-MRCI level. At the full CI basis set limit, the 2s contribution to the electron affinity is estimated to be as large as 0.1 eV. This study clearly establishes the synergistic effect between the higher excitations and basis set completeness on the electron affinity when the 2s electrons are correlated.

  6. On the electron affinity of the oxygen atom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, C. W., Jr.; Langhoff, S. R.; Partridge, H.; Taylor, P. R.

    1986-01-01

    The electron affinity of oxygen is computed to be 1.287 eV, at the full CI level using a 6s5p3d 2f Slater-type orbital basis and correlating only the 2p electrons. The best CASSCF-MRCI result including only 2p correlation is 1.263 eV. However, inclusion of 2s intrashell and 2s2p intershell coorelation increases the computed EA to 1.290 eV at the CASSCF-MRCI level. At the full CI basis set limit, the 2s contribution to the electron affinity is estimated to be as large as 0.1 eV. The higher excitation contribution to the electron affinity is found to increase substantially with basis set completeness, especially when the 2s electrons are correlated. Relativistic effects are shown to make a small (less than 0.01 eV) change in the EA.

  7. Oxygen-free atomic layer deposition of indium sulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Martinson, Alex B.; Hock, Adam S.; McCarthy, Robert; Weimer, Matthew S.

    2016-07-05

    A method for synthesizing an In(III) N,N'-diisopropylacetamidinate precursor including cooling a mixture comprised of diisopropylcarbodiimide and diethyl ether to approximately -30.degree. C., adding methyllithium drop-wise into the mixture, allowing the mixture to warm to room temperature, adding indium(III) chloride as a solid to the mixture to produce a white solid, dissolving the white solid in pentane to form a clear and colorless solution, filtering the mixture over a celite plug, and evaporating the solution under reduced pressure to obtain a solid In(III) N,N'-diisopropylacetamidinate precursor. This precursor has been further used to develop a novel atomic layer deposition technique for indium sulfide by dosing a reactor with the precursor, purging with nitrogen, dosing with dilute hydrogen sulfide, purging again with nitrogen, and repeating these steps to increase growth.

  8. Atomic Oxygen Cleaning Shown to Remove Organic Contaminants at Atmospheric Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutledge, Sharon K.

    1998-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center has developed and filed for a patent on a method to produce atomic oxygen at atmospheric pressure by using a direct current arc in a gas flow mixture of oxygen and helium. A prototype device has been tested for its ability to remove various soot residues from surfaces exposed to fire, and various varnishes such as acrylic and egg white.

  9. Determination of atomic oxygen fluence using spectrophotometric analysis of infrared transparent witness coupons for long duration exposure tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podojil, Gregg M.; Jaworske, Donald A.

    1993-01-01

    Atomic oxygen degradation is one of several major threats to the durability of spaceborne systems in low Earth orbit. Ground-based simulations are conducted to learn how to minimize the adverse effects of atomic oxygen exposure. Assessing the fluence of atomic oxygen in test chambers such as a plasma asher over long periods of time is necessary for accurate determination of atomic oxygen exposure. Currently, an atomic oxygen susceptible organic material such as Kapton is placed next to samples as a witness coupon and its mass loss is monitored and used to determine the effective atomic oxygen fluence. However, degradation of the Kapton witness coupons occurs so rapidly in plasma ashers that for any long term test many witness coupons must be used sequentially in order to keep track of the fluence. This necessitates opening vacuum to substitute fresh coupons. A passive dosimetry technique was sought to monitor atomic oxygen exposure over longer periods without the need to open the plasma asher to the atmosphere. This paper investigates the use of spectrophotometric analysis of durable IR transparent witness coupons to measure atomic oxygen exposure for longer duration testing. The method considered would be conductive to making in situ measurements of atomic oxygen fluence.

  10. Effect of Oxygen-affinity Additives on the Superconducting Properties of Magnesium Diboride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, J.-J.; Ahn, J.-H.

    We examined the effect of oxygen-affinity additives on the superconducting properties of magnesium diborides. The additives were elemental Y, Sm, Ca, Li compounds (LiH, LiBH4), polyethylene and polyethylene glycol, which have a higher oxygen-affinity than magnesium. The formation of magnesium oxide during in-situ sintering of magnesium diboride was inhibited by the addition of such materials. The critical current density was not improved by the additives of Y, Sm, Ca and lithium compounds in spite of reduced oxide phases. Only the addition of polyethylene and polyethylene glycol resulted in the enhanced superconducting property.

  11. Evaluation of Thermal Control Coatings and Polymeric Materials Exposed to Ground Simulated Atomic Oxygen and Vacuum Ultraviolet Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamenetzky, R. R.; Vaughn, J. A.; Finckenor, M. M.; Linton, R. C.

    1995-01-01

    Numerous thermal control and polymeric samples with potential International Space Station applications were evaluated for atomic oxygen and vacuum ultraviolet radiation effects in the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory 5 eV Neutral Atomic Oxygen Facility and in the MSFC Atomic Oxygen Drift Tube System. Included in this study were samples of various anodized aluminum samples, ceramic paints, polymeric materials, and beta cloth, a Teflon-impregnated fiberglass cloth. Aluminum anodizations tested were black duranodic, chromic acid anodize, and sulfuric acid anodize. Paint samples consisted of an inorganic glassy black paint and Z-93 white paint made with the original PS7 binder and the new K2130 binder. Polymeric samples evaluated included bulk Halar, bulk PEEK, and silverized FEP Teflon. Aluminized and nonaluminized Chemfab 250 beta cloth were also exposed. Samples were evaluated for changes in mass, thickness, solar absorptance, and infrared emittance. In addition to material effects, an investigation was made comparing diffuse reflectance/solar absorptance measurements made using a Beckman DK2 spectroreflectometer and like measurements made using an AZ Technology-developed laboratory portable spectroreflectometer.

  12. Hydrogen-induced atomic structure evolution of the oxygen-chemisorbed Cu(110) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Weitao; Liu, Qianqian; Li, Jonathan; Cai, Na; Saidi, Wissam A.; Zhou, Guangwen

    2016-12-01

    Using a combination of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and density functional theory (DFT) modeling, we determine the mechanism of the atomic structural evolution of the oxygenated Cu(110) surface induced by the reaction of adsorbed hydrogen with chemisorbed oxygen in the Cu(110)-c(6 × 2)-O structure. Our STM observations show that the reconstructed Cu(110)-c(6 × 2)-O surface undergoes a phase transition to the (2 × 1)-O reconstruction in the course of oxygen loss induced by the reaction with H2 gas. Using DFT modeling, we find that the surface phase transition is initiated via the adsorption of molecular hydrogen on the chemisorbed oxygen, which results in the formation of H2O molecules that desorb spontaneously from the surface. The loss of chemisorbed oxygen induces the c(6 × 2) → (2 × 1) transition that involves the diffusion of Cu―O―Cu chains along the ⟨1 ¯ 10 ⟩ direction.

  13. Microbial hydroxylation of quinoline in contaminated groundwater: evidence for incorporation of the oxygen atom of water.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pereira, W.E.; Rostad, C.E.; Leiker, T.J.; Updegraff, D.M.; Bennett, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    Studies conducted in an aquifer contaminated by creosote suggest that quinoline is converted to 2(1H)quinolinone by an indigenous consortium of microorganisms. Laboratory microbial experiments using H218O indicate that water is the source of the oxygen atom for this hydroxylation reaction under aerobic and anaerobic conditions.

  14. Comparison of atomic oxygen measurements by incoherent scatter and satellite-borne mass spectrometer techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hedin, A. E.; Alcayde, D.

    1974-01-01

    Atomic oxygen densities determined by the incoherent scatter technique are compared to densities deduced from satellite-borne mass spectrometer measurements and are found to agree within experimental error. The diurnal variations inferred from the incoherent scatter measurements do show, however, some departure from diurnal variations found by modeling the mass spectrometer results. Some implications of these departures are briefly discussed.

  15. Atomic Oxygen Treatment as a Method of Recovering Smoke Damaged Paintings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutledge, Sharon K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Forkapa, Mark; Stueber, Thomas; Sechkar, Edward; Malinowski, Kevin

    1998-01-01

    Smoke damage, as a result of a fire, can be difficult to remove from some types of painting media without causing swelling, leaching or pigment movement or removal. A non-contact technique has been developed which can remove soot from the surface of a painting by use of a gently flowing gas containing atomic oxygen. The atomic oxygen chemically reacts with the soot on the surface creating gasses such as carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide which can be removed through the use of an exhaust system. The reaction is limited to the surface so that the process can be timed to stop when the paint layer is reached. Atomic oxygen is a primary component of the low Earth orbital environment, but can be generated on Earth through various methods. This paper will discuss the results of atomic oxygen treatment of soot exposed acrylic gesso, ink on paper, and a varnished oil painting. Reflectance measurements were used to characterize the surfaces before and after treatment.

  16. Variation with Temperature of the Recombination of Oxygen Atoms on a Platinum Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fryburg, George C.; Petrus, Helen M.

    1960-01-01

    The development of vehicles capable of flight at high Mach speeds and at extreme altitudes has re-stimulated interest in the "catalytic efficiency" of metals for recombination of atomic species of hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. Most of the work to date has been of an exploratory nature, comparing the relative efficiencies of the different metals.

  17. Atomic oxygen interactions with protected organic materials on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Degroh, Kim K.; Bucholz, Justine L.; Cales, Michael R.

    1995-01-01

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) has provided an excellent opportunity to understand the nature of directed atomic oxygen interactions with protected polymers and composites. Although there were relatively few samples of materials with protective coatings on their external surfaces on LDEF which were exposed to a high atomic oxygen fluence, analysis of such samples has enabled an examination of the shape of atomic oxygen undercut cavities at defect sites in the protective coatings. Samples of front-surface aluminized (Kapton) polyimide were inspected by scanning electron microscopy to identify and measure crack defects in the aluminum protective coatings. After chemical removal of the aluminum coating, measurements were also made of the width of the oxidized undercut cavities below the crack defects. The LDEF flight undercut cavity geometries were then compared with Monte Carlo computational model undercut cavity predictions. The comparison of the LDEF results and computational modeling indicates agreement in specific undercut cavity geometries for atomic oxygen reaction probabilities dependent upon the 0.68 to 3.0 power of the energy. However, no single energy dependency was adequate to replicate flight results over a variety of aluminum crack widths.

  18. Theoretical study of atomic oxygen on gold surface by Hückel theory and DFT calculations.

    PubMed

    Sun, Keju; Kohyama, Masanori; Tanaka, Shingo; Takeda, Seiji

    2012-09-27

    It is fundamental to understand the behavior of atomic oxygen on gold surfaces so as to elucidate the mechanism of nano gold catalysts for low-temperature CO oxidation reactions since the atomic oxygen on gold system is an important intermediate involved in both the processes of O(2) dissociation and CO oxidation. We performed theoretical analysis of atomic oxygen adsorption on gold by using Hückel theory. It is found that formation of linear O-Au-O structure on Au surfaces greatly stabilizes the atomic oxygen adsorption due to stronger bond energy and bond order, which is confirmed subsequently by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The linear O-Au-O structure may explain the surprising first order kinetics behavior of O(2) desorption from gold surfaces. This view of the linear O-Au-O structure as the natural adsorption status is quite different from the conventional view, which may lead to new understanding toward the reaction mechanism of low-temperature CO oxidation reaction on nano gold catalysts.

  19. Atomic oxygen dynamics in an air dielectric barrier discharge: a combined diagnostic and modeling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldus, Sabrina; Schröder, Daniel; Bibinov, Nikita; Schulz-von der Gathen, Volker; Awakowicz, Peter

    2015-06-01

    Cold atmospheric pressure plasmas are a promising alternative therapy for treatment of chronic wounds, as they have already shown in clinical trials. In this study an air dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) developed for therapeutic use in dermatology is characterized with respect to the plasma produced reactive oxygen species, namely atomic oxygen and ozone, which are known to be of great importance to wound healing. To understand the plasma chemistry of the applied DBD, xenon-calibrated two-photon laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy and optical absorption spectroscopy are applied. The measured spatial distributions are shown and compared to each other. A model of the afterglow chemistry based on optical emission spectroscopy is developed to cross-check the measurement results and obtain insight into the dynamics of the considered reactive oxygen species. The atomic oxygen density is found to be located mostly between the electrodes with a maximum density of {{n}\\text{O}}=6× {{10}16} cm-3 . Time resolved measurements reveal a constant atomic oxygen density between two high voltage pulses. The ozone is measured up to 3 mm outside the active plasma volume, reaching a maximum value of {{n}{{\\text{O}3}}}=3× {{10}16} cm-3 between the electrodes.

  20. Measurement of atomic oxygen and related airglows in the lower thermosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. J.; Young, R. A.

    1981-01-01

    Instruments on board a sounding rocket were used to make simultaneous observations of atomic oxygen density and airglow emissions between 80 and 120 km. Atomic oxygen was measured with a resonance lamp and was found to have a peak density of 6 x 10 to the 11th at 94 km. Similar structure is seen in the oxygen density profile on both uplegs and downlegs. The following airglow emissions were measured by using vertical-viewing photometers: Herzberg I bands near 300 nm; O(1S) green line at 557.7 nm; background at 566 nm; O2(1 Delta g) bands at 1.27 microns; and OH (X 2 pi) Meinel bands near 1.7 microns.

  1. Rate constant for the reaction of atomic oxygen with phosphine at 298 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stief, L. J.; Payne, W. A.; Nava, D. F.

    1987-01-01

    The rate constant for the reaction of atomic oxygen with phosphine has been measured at 298 K using flash photolysis combined with time-resolved detection of O(3P) via resonance fluorescence. Atomic oxygen was produced by flash photolysis of N2O or NO highly diluted in argon. The results were shown to be independent of (PH3), (O), total pressure and the source of O(3P). The mean value of all the experiments is k1 = (3.6 + or -0.8) x 10 to the -11th cu cm/s (1 sigma). Two previous measurements of k1 differed by more than an order of magnitude, and the results support the higher value obtained in a discharge flow-mass spectrometry study. A comparison with rate data for other atomic and free radical reactions with phosphine is presented, and the role of these reactions in the aeronomy or photochemistry of Jupiter and Saturn is briefly considered.

  2. [Studies on organic protective coatings for anti-atomic oxygen effects by spectrum analysis].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei

    2004-11-01

    This paper describes organic protective coatings on space material for anti-AO effects and the experiments to assess properties of the coatings. Organic protection was analyzed after exposures to ground state fast atomic (AO) radiation in the atomic oxygen beam facility for ground simulation experiments. The tests results have been analyzed with advanced FTIR, XPS and SEM. The test indicated that epoxy, alkyd and urethane organic coatings were highly reactive to AO with a strong degradation and changed in morphology of the surface layer. It is evident that siloxane coatings have excellent properties for anti-AO effects. The erosion product has SiO2 left on the surface, thus providing protection from further attack by the energetic oxygen atoms.

  3. Prolonged cold storage of red blood cells by oxygen removal and additive usage

    DOEpatents

    Bitensky, Mark W.; Yoshida, Tatsuro

    1998-01-01

    Prolonged cold storage of red blood cells by oxygen removal and additive usage. A cost-effective, 4.degree. C. storage procedure that preserves red cell quality and prolongs post-transfusion in vivo survival is described. The improved in vivo survival and the preservation of adenosine triphosphate levels, along with reduction in hemolysis and membrane vesicle production of red blood cells stored at 4.degree. C. for prolonged periods of time, is achieved by reducing the oxygen level therein at the time of storage; in particular, by flushing the cells with an inert gas, and storing them in an aqueous solution which includes adenine, dextrose, mannitol, citrate ion, and dihydrogen phosphate ion, but no sodium chloride, in an oxygen-permeable container which is located in an oxygen-free environment containing oxygen-scavenging materials.

  4. Prolonged cold storage of red blood cells by oxygen removal and additive usage

    DOEpatents

    Bitensky, M.W.; Yoshida, Tatsuro

    1998-08-04

    Prolonged cold storage of red blood cells by oxygen removal and additive usage. A cost-effective, 4 C storage procedure that preserves red cell quality and prolongs post-transfusion in vivo survival is described. The improved in vivo survival and the preservation of adenosine triphosphate levels, along with reduction in hemolysis and membrane vesicle production of red blood cells stored at 4 C for prolonged periods of time, is achieved by reducing the oxygen level therein at the time of storage; in particular, by flushing the cells with an inert gas, and storing them in an aqueous solution which includes adenine, dextrose, mannitol, citrate ion, and dihydrogen phosphate ion, but no sodium chloride, in an oxygen-permeable container which is located in an oxygen-free environment containing oxygen-scavenging materials. 8 figs.

  5. Oxygen atom transfer to a half-sandwich iridium complex: clean oxidation yielding a molecular product.

    PubMed

    Turlington, Christopher R; White, Peter S; Brookhart, Maurice; Templeton, Joseph L

    2014-03-12

    The oxidation of [Ir(Cp*)(phpy)(NCAr(F))][B(Ar(F))4] (1; Cp* = η(5)-pentamethylcyclopentadienyl, phpy = 2-phenylene-κC(1')-pyridine-κN, NCAr(F) = 3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)benzonitrile, B(Ar(F))4 = tetrakis[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]borate) with the oxygen atom transfer (OAT) reagent 2-tert-butylsulfonyliodosobenzene (sPhIO) yielded a single, molecular product at -40 °C. New Ir(Cp*) complexes with bidentate ligands derived by oxidation of phpy were synthesized to model possible products resulting from oxygen atom insertion into the iridium-carbon and/or iridium-nitrogen bonds of phpy. These new ligands were either cleaved from iridium by water or formed unreactive, phenoxide-bridged iridium dimers. The reactivity of these molecules suggested possible decomposition pathways of Ir(Cp*)-based water oxidation catalysts with bidentate ligands that are susceptible to oxidation. Monitoring the [Ir(Cp*)(phpy)(NCAr(F))](+) oxidation reaction by low-temperature NMR techniques revealed that the reaction involved two separate OAT events. An intermediate was detected, synthesized independently with trapping ligands, and characterized. The first oxidation step involves direct attack of the sPhIO oxidant on the carbon of the coordinated nitrile ligand. Oxygen atom transfer to carbon, followed by insertion into the iridium-carbon bond of phpy, formed a coordinated organic amide. A second oxygen atom transfer generated an unidentified iridium species (the "oxidized complex"). In the presence of triphenylphosphine, the "oxidized complex" proved capable of transferring one oxygen atom to phosphine, generating phosphine oxide and forming an Ir-PPh3 adduct in 92% yield. The final Ir-PPh3 product was fully characterized.

  6. Measuring atomic oxygen densities and electron properties in an Inductively Coupled Plasma for thin film deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meehan, David; Gibson, Andrew; Booth, Jean-Paul; Wagenaars, Erik

    2016-09-01

    Plasma Enhanced Pulsed Laser Deposition (PE-PLD) is an advanced way of depositing thin films of oxide materials by using a laser to ablate a target, and passing the resulting plasma plume through a background Inductively-Coupled Plasma (ICP), instead of a background gas as is done in traditional PLD. The main advantage of PE-PLD is the control of film stoichiometry via the direct control of the reactive oxygen species in the ICP instead of relying on a neutral gas background. The aim is to deposit zinc oxide films from a zinc metal target and an oxygen ICP. In this work, we characterise the range of compositions of the reactive oxygen species achievable in ICPs; in particular the atomic oxygen density. The density of atomic oxygen has been determined within two ICPs of two different geometries over a range of plasma powers and pressures with the use of Energy Resolved Actinometry (ERA). ERA is a robust diagnostic technique with determines both the dissociation degree and average electron energy by comparing the excitation ratios of two oxygen and one argon transition. Alongside this the electron densities have been determined with the use of a hairpin probe. This work received financial support from the EPSRC, and York-Paris CIRC.

  7. ESCA Study of Poly (Vinylidene Fluoride) Tetrafluoroethylene - Ethylene Copolymer and Polyethylene Exposed to Atomic Oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, Morton A.; Cormia, Robert D.

    1989-01-01

    The ESCA (electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis) spectra of films of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF), tetrafluoroethylene-ethylene copolymer (TFE/ET) and polyethylene (PE) exposed to atomic oxygen (O(P-3)), in or out of the glow of a radio-frequency O2 plasma, were compared. ESCA spectra of PE films exposed to (O(P-3)) in low Earth orbit (LEO) on the STS-8 Space Shuttle were also examined. Apart from O(P-3)-induced surface recession (etching), the various polymer films exhibited surface oxidation, which proceeded towards equilibrium saturation oxygen levels. The maximum surface oxygen uptakes for in-glow or out-of-glow exposures were in the order: PE greater than TFE/ET greater than PVDF; for PE itself, the oxygen uptakes were in the order: in glow greater than out of glow greater than LEO. Given prior ESCA data on poly(vinyl fluoride) and polytetrafluoroethylene films exposed to O(P-3), the extent of surface oxidation is seen to decrease regularly with increase in fluorine substitution in a family of ethylene-type polymers. (Keywords: ESCA; poly(vinylidene fluoride); tetrafluoroethylene ethylene copolymer; polyethylene; atomic oxygen; radio-frequency oxygen plasma; low Earth orbit)

  8. Evaluation of Additively Manufactured Metals for Use in Oxygen Systems Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tylka, Jonathan; Cooper, Ken; Peralta, Stephen; Wilcutt, Terrence; Hughitt, Brian; Generazio, Edward

    2016-01-01

    Space Launch System, Commercial Resupply, and Commercial Crew programs have published intent to use additively manufactured (AM) components in propulsion systems and are likely to include various life support systems in the future. Parts produced by these types of additive manufacturing techniques have not been fully evaluated for use in oxygen systems and the inherent risks have not been fully identified. Some areas of primary concern in the SLS process with respect to oxygen compatibility may be the porosity of the printed parts, fundamental differences in microstructure of an AM part as compared to traditional materials, or increased risk of shed metal particulate into an oxygen system. If an ignition were to occur the printed material could be more flammable than components manufactured from a traditional billet of raw material and/or present a significant hazards if not identified and rigorously studied in advance of implementation into an oxygen system.

  9. Atomic oxygen and temperature in the lower thermosphere from the O-STATES sounding rocket project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedin, Jonas; Gumbel, Jörg; Megner, Linda; Stegman, Jacek; Seo, Mikael; Khaplanov, Mikhail; Slanger, Tom; Kalogerakis, Konstantinos; Friedrich, Martin; Torkar, Klaus; Eberhart, Martin; Löhle, Stefan; Fasoulas, Stefanos

    2016-04-01

    In October 2015 the O-STATES payload was launched twice from Esrange Space Center (67.9° N, 21.1° E) in northern Sweden, first into moderately disturbed and then into calm geomagnetic conditions. The basic idea of O-STATES ("Oxygen Species and Thermospheric Airglow in The Earth's Sky") is that comprehensive information on the composition, specifically atomic oxygen in the ground state O(3P) and first excited state O(1D), and temperature of the lower thermosphere can be obtained from a limited set of optical measurements. Starting point for the analysis are daytime measurements of the O2(b1 ∑ g+ - X3 ∑ g-) Atmospheric Band system in the spectral region 755-780 nm and the O(1D-3P) Red Line at 630 nm. In the daytime lower thermosphere, O(1D) is produced by O2 photolysis and the excited O2(b) state is mainly produced by energy transfer from O(1D) to the O2(X) ground state. In addition to O2 photolysis, both electron impact on O(3P) and dissociative recombination of O2+ are major sources of O(1D) in the thermosphere. Laboratory studies at SRI International have shown that O2(b) production in vibrational level v=1 dominates. While O2(b, v=0) is essentially unquenched, O2(b, v=1) is subject to collisional quenching that is dominated by O at altitudes above 160 km. Hence, the ratio of the Atmospheric Band emission from O2(b, v=1) and O2(b, v=0) is a measure of the O density at sufficiently high altitudes. In addition, the spectral shape of the O2 Atmospheric Band is temperature dependent and spectrally resolved measurements of the Atmospheric Bands thus provide a measure of atmospheric temperature. This O2 Atmospheric Band analysis has been suggested as a new technique for thermospheric remote sensing under the name Global Oxygen and Temperature (GOAT) Mapping. With O-STATES we want to characterize the GOAT technique by in-situ analysis of the O2 Atmospheric Band airglow and the underlying excitation mechanisms. By performing this dayglow analysis from a rocket

  10. Rapid Hydrogen and Oxygen Atom Transfer by a High-Valent Nickel-Oxygen Species.

    PubMed

    Corona, Teresa; Draksharapu, Apparao; Padamati, Sandeep K; Gamba, Ilaria; Martin-Diaconescu, Vlad; Acuña-Parés, Ferran; Browne, Wesley R; Company, Anna

    2016-10-05

    Terminal high-valent metal-oxygen species are key reaction intermediates in the catalytic cycle of both enzymes (e.g., oxygenases) and synthetic oxidation catalysts. While tremendous efforts have been directed toward the characterization of the biologically relevant terminal manganese-oxygen and iron-oxygen species, the corresponding analogues based on late-transition metals such as cobalt, nickel or copper are relatively scarce. This scarcity is in part related to the "Oxo Wall" concept, which predicts that late transition metals cannot support a terminal oxido ligand in a tetragonal environment. Here, the nickel(II) complex (1) of the tetradentate macrocyclic ligand bearing a 2,6-pyridinedicarboxamidate unit is shown to be an effective catalyst in the chlorination and oxidation of C-H bonds with sodium hypochlorite as terminal oxidant in the presence of acetic acid (AcOH). Insight into the active species responsible for the observed reactivity was gained through the study of the reaction of 1 with ClO(-) at low temperature by UV-vis absorption, resonance Raman, EPR, ESI-MS, and XAS analyses. DFT calculations aided the assignment of the trapped chromophoric species (3) as a nickel-hypochlorite species. Despite the fact that the formal oxidation state of the nickel in 3 is +4, experimental and computational analysis indicate that 3 is best formulated as a Ni(III) complex with one unpaired electron delocalized in the ligands surrounding the metal center. Most remarkably, 3 reacts rapidly with a range of substrates including those with strong aliphatic C-H bonds, indicating the direct involvement of 3 in the oxidation/chlorination reactions observed in the 1/ClO(-)/AcOH catalytic system.

  11. Effects of Contamination, UV Radiation, and Atomic Oxygen on ISS Thermal Control Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Visentine, Jim; Finckenor, Miria; Zwiener, Jim; Munafo, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Thermal control surfaces on the International Space Station (ISS) have been tailored for optimum optical properties. The space environment, particularly contamination, ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and atomic oxygen (AO) may have a detrimental effect on these optical properties. These effects must be quantified for modeling and planning. Also of interest was the effect of porosity on the reaction to simulated space environment. Five materials were chosen for this study based on their use on ISS. The thermal control materials were Z-93 white coating, silverized Teflon, chromic acid anodized aluminum, sulfuric acid anodized aluminum, and 7075-T6 aluminum. Some of the samples were exposed to RTV 560 silicone; others were exposed to Tefzel offgassing products. Two samples of Z-93 were not exposed to contamination as clean "controls". VUV radiation was used to photo-fix the contaminant to the material surface, then the samples were exposed to AO. All samples were exposed to 1000 equivalent sun-hours (ESH) of vacuum ultraviolet radiation (VUV) at the AZ Technology facility and a minimum of 1.5 x 10(exp 20) atoms/sq cm of AO at Marshall Space Flight Center. Half of the samples were exposed to an additional 2000 ESH of VUV at Huntington Beach prior to sent to AZ Technology. Darkening of the Z-93 white coating was noted after VUV exposure. AO exposure did bleach the Z-93 but not back to its original brightness. Solar absorptance curves show the degradation due to contamination and VUV and the recovery with AO exposure. More bleaching was noted on the Tefzel-contaminated samples than with the RTV-contaminated samples.

  12. Atomic and molecular oxygen adsorbed on (111) transition metal surfaces: Cu and Ni

    SciTech Connect

    López-Moreno, S.; Romero, A. H.

    2015-04-21

    Density functional theory is used to investigate the reaction of oxygen with clean copper and nickel [111]-surfaces. We study several alternative adsorption sites for atomic and molecular oxygen on both surfaces. The minimal energy geometries and adsorption energies are in good agreement with previous theoretical studies and experimental data. From all considered adsorption sites, we found a new O{sub 2} molecular precursor with two possible dissociation paths on the Cu(111) surface. Cross barrier energies for the molecular oxygen dissociation have been calculated by using the climbing image nudge elastic band method, and direct comparison with experimental results is performed. Finally, the structural changes and adsorption energies of oxygen adsorbed on surface when there is a vacancy nearby the adsorption site are also considered.

  13. Discovery of the atomic oxygen green line in the Venus night airglow.

    PubMed

    Slanger, T G; Cosby, P C; Huestis, D L; Bida, T A

    2001-01-19

    Green line emission at 557.7 nanometers arising from the O(1S - 1D) transition of atomic oxygen has been observed on the nightside of Venus with HIRES, the echelle spectrograph on the W. M. Keck I 10-meter telescope. We also observe optical emissions of molecular oxygen, consistent with the spectra from the Venera orbiters, but our green line intensity is so high that we cannot explain how it could be inconspicuous in the Venera spectra. An upper limit for the intensity of the O(1D - 3P) oxygen red line at 630 nanometers has also been obtained. The large green/red ratio indicates that the source is not associated with the Venus ionosphere. An important conclusion is that observation of the green line in a planetary atmosphere is not an indicator of an atmosphere rich in molecular oxygen.

  14. Ab initio study of molecular and atomic oxygen on GeTe(111) surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Deringer, Volker L.; Dronskowski, Richard

    2014-11-07

    Oxidation of the phase-change material germanium telluride (GeTe) is an atomic-scale process of fundamental importance, as it is detrimental to the stability of GeTe-based data-storage devices. Here, we present comprehensive density-functional theory simulations of molecular and atomic oxygen in contact with GeTe(111) surfaces. Molecular O{sub 2} is predicted to readily adsorb on the Ge-terminated (111) surface; the pristine Te-terminated counterpart, by contrast, appears quite inert. The coverage-dependent adsorption of O atoms is then investigated, and based on these data, a surface phase diagram for GeTe(111)/O is constructed. These results afford a detailed, atom-resolved picture of the initial surface oxidation of GeTe, and they harmonize well with a previous X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study on this very topic.

  15. Vacuum ultraviolet radiation/atomic oxygen synergism in fluorinated ethylene propylene Teflon erosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stiegman, A. E.; Brinza, David E.; Laue, Eric G.; Anderson, Mark S.; Liang, Ranty H.

    1992-01-01

    A micrographic investigation is reported of samples of the fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) Teflon thermal-blanketing materials recovered from the Long-Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) satellite. The samples are taken from the trailing edge and row 8 which correspond to exposures to vacuum UV (VUV) and VUV + atomic O, respectively. Data are taken from SEM and IR-spectra observations, and the LDEF leading-edge FEP shows a high degree of erosion, roughening, and sharp peaks angled in the direction of the flow of atomic O. The trailing edge sample influenced primarily by VUV shows a hard brittle layer and some cracked mosaic patterns. Comparisons to a reference sample suggest that the brittle layer is related to exposure to VUV and is removed by atomic-O impingement. Polymers that are stable to VUV radiation appear to be more stable in terms of atomic oxygen.

  16. Atomic oxygen effects on candidate coatings for long-term spacecraft in low earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lan, E. H.; Smith, Charles A.; Cross, J. B.

    1988-01-01

    Candidate atomic oxygen protective coatings for long-term low Earth orbit (LEO) spacecraft were evaluated using the Los Alamos National Laboratory O-atom exposure facility. The coatings studied include Teflon, Al2O3, SiO2, and SWS-V-10, a silicon material. Preliminary results indicate that sputtered PTFE Teflon (0.1 micrometers) has a fluence lifetime of 10 to the 19th power O-atoms/cm (2), and sputtered silicon dioxide (0.1 micrometers), aluminum oxide (0.1 micrometers), and SWS-V-10, a silicone, (4 micrometers) have fluence lifetimes of 10 to the 20th power to 10 to the 21st power O-atoms/cm (2). There are large variations in fluence lifetime data for these coatings.

  17. Atomic oxygen interaction with nickel multilayer and antimony oxide doped MoS{sub 2} films

    SciTech Connect

    Dugger, M.T.

    1994-12-31

    Sputtered MoS{sub 2} is a solid lubricant capable of ultralow friction coefficients (below 0.05) load-bearing capacity. Since it exhibits low friction in vacuum, low outgassing rate, is non-migrating and lacks organic binders, this material is an attractive lubricant for space mechanisms. To exploit these new materials to their fullest potential, designers of space-based motion systems require data on the effects of atomic oxygen exposure on dense, sputtered MoS{sub 2}. This paper describes the effects of atomic oxygen in low earth orbit on the friction and surface composition of sputtered MoS{sub 2} films. Sputtered multilayer films of MoS{sub 2} with nickel (0.7 nm Ni per 10 nm MoS{sub 2}, for 1 {mu}m total film thickness), and MoS{sub 2} cosputtered with antimony oxide (nominally 2 {mu}m thick) were exposed to 2.2 to 2.5 x 10{sup 20} oxygen/cm{sup 2} over a period of 42.25 hours in earth orbit on the United States space shuttle. Identical specimens were kept as controls in desiccated storage for the duration of the mission, and another set was exposed to an equivalent fluence of atomic oxygen in the laboratory. The friction coefficient in air and vacuum, and the composition of worn surfaces, were determined prior to the shuttle flight and again after the shuttle flight. Results are described.

  18. Atomic oxygen dosimetry measurements made on STS-46 by CONCAP 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, J. C.; Miller, G. P.; Pettigrew, P. J.; Raikar, G. N.; Cross, Jon B.; Lan, E.; Renschler, C. L.; Sutherland, W. T.

    1995-01-01

    With increasing flight duration and the possibility of a permanent facility in space, long-term monitoring of material degradation due to atomic oxygen is increasing in importance. Reliance on models to determine the fluence of atomic oxygen is not only necessarily complex but also imprecise due to the strong dependence of oxygen concentration on day/night, latitude and solar activity. Mass-spectroscopy, the traditional method for determining the gas phase species densities at low pressure, is not only expensive but is limited in the area that it can monitor. Our group has developed a simple and inexpensive dosimeter to measure the atomic oxygen fluence via the change in resistance as the sensor element is gradually oxidized. The sensors consisted of thin-film circuit elements deposited on a suitable substrate. Four-point resistance measurements were used to monitor the change in resistance. Results obtained using silver and carbon dosimeters flown on STS-46 (CONCAP 2-01) will be discussed.

  19. Rates and mechanisms of the atomic oxygen reaction with nickel at elevated temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christian, J. D.; Gilbreath, W. P.

    1973-01-01

    The oxidation of nickel by atomic oxygen at pressure from 1 to 45 N/sq m between 1050 and 1250 K was investigated. In these ranges, the oxidation was found to follow the parobolic rate law, viz., K sub p = 0.0000114 exp(-13410/T) g squared/cm4/sec for films of greater than 1 micron thickness and was pressure independent. The activation enthalpy for the oxidation reaction was 112 + or - 11 kj/mole (27 + or - 3 kcal/mole). Of a number of possible mechanisms and defect structures considered, it was shown that the most likely was a saturated surface defect model for atomic oxidation, based on reaction activation enthalpies, impurity effects, pressure independence, and magnitudes of rates. A model judged somewhat less likely was one having doubly ionized cationic defects rate controlling in both atomic and molecular oxygen. From comparisons of the appropriate processes, the following enthalpy values were derived: enthalpy of activation (Ni diffusion in Ni0) = 110 + or - 30 kj/mole and standard enthalpy change for reaction formation (doubly ionized cation vacancies in Ni0 from atomic oxygen)= -9 + or - 25 kj/mole.

  20. Etching of Bacillus atrophaeus by oxygen atoms, molecules and argon ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedikt, J.; Flötgen, C.; Kussel, G.; Raball, V.; von Keudell, A.

    2008-10-01

    The etching of spores of Bacillus atrophaeus by oxygen atoms, molecules and argon ions is investigated in a particle beam experiment. Thereby, the conditions occurring in an argon oxygen plasma are mimicked and fundamental inactivation mechanisms are revealed. It is shown that only the combined impact of argon ions and of O atoms or O2 molecules causes significant etching of the spores. This is explained by the process of chemical sputtering, where an ion induced defect at the surface of the spore reacts with either the incident bi-radical O2 or with an incident O atom. This leads to the formation of CO, CO2 and H2O and thus to erosion. This process is compared to the plasma etching of hydrocarbon thin films as an atomistic model system for the spore coat. It is shown that the etch rate in an inductively coupled argon oxygen plasma is only maximal if both, the electron density and thus the ion flux towards the surface and the O atom flux are optimized simultaneously.

  1. Atomic Ordering Enhanced Electrocatalytic Activity of Nanoalloys for Oxygen Reduction Reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Loukrakpam, Rameshwori; Shan, Shiyao; Petkov, Valeri; Yang, Lefu; Luo, Jin; Zhong, Chuan-Jian

    2013-10-01

    For oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) over alloy electrocatalysts, the understanding of how the atomic arrangement of the metal species in the nanocatalysts is responsible for the catalytic enhancement is challenging for achieving better design and tailoring of nanoalloy catalysts. This paper reports results of an investigation of the atomic structures and the electrocatalytic activities of ternary and binary nanoalloys, aiming at revealing a fundamental insight into the unique atomic-scale structure-electrocatalytic activity relationship. PtIrCo catalyst and its binary counterparts (PtCo and PtIr) are chosen as a model system for this study. The effect of thermochemical treatment temperature on the atomic-scale structure of the catalysts was examined as a useful probe to the structure-activity correlation. The structural characterization of the binary and ternary nanoalloy catalysts was performed by combining surface sensitive techniques such as XPS and 3D atomic ordering sensitive techniques such as high-energy X-ray diffraction (HE-XRD) coupled to atomic pair distribution function (PDF) analysis (HE-XRD/PDFs) and computer simulations. The results show that the thermal treatment temperature tunes the nanoalloy’s atomic and chemical ordering in a different way depending on the chemical composition, leading to differences in the nanoalloy’s mass and specific activities. A unique structural tunability of the atomic ordering in a platinum-iridium-cobalt nanoalloy has been revealed for enhancing greatly the electrocatalytic activity toward oxygen reduction reaction, which has significant implication for rational design and nanoengineering of advanced catalysts for electrochemical energy conversion and storage.

  2. Mathematical modeling of chemical composition modification and etching of polymers under the atomic oxygen influence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chirskaia, Natalia; Novikov, Lev; Voronina, Ekaterina

    2016-07-01

    Atomic oxygen (AO) of the upper atmosphere is one of the most important space factors that can cause degradation of spacecraft surface. In our previous mathematical model the Monte Carlo method and the "large particles" approximation were used for simulating processes of polymer etching under the influence of AO [1]. The interaction of enlarged AO particles with the polymer was described in terms of probabilities of reactions such as etching of polymer and specular and diffuse scattering of the AO particles on polymer. The effects of atomic oxygen on protected polymers and microfiller containing composites were simulated. The simulation results were in quite good agreement with the results of laboratory experiments on magnetoplasmadynamic accelerator of the oxygen plasma of SINP MSU [2]. In this paper we present a new model that describes the reactions of AO interactions with polymeric materials in more detail. Reactions of formation and further emission of chemical compounds such as CO, CO _{2}, H _{2}O, etc. cause the modification of the chemical composition of the polymer and change the probabilities of its consequent interaction with the AO. The simulation results are compared with the results of previous simulation and with the results of laboratory experiments. The reasons for the differences between the results of natural experiments on spacecraft, laboratory experiments and simulations are discussed. N. Chirskaya, M. Samokhina, Computer modeling of polymer structures degradation under the atomic oxygen exposure, WDS'12 Proceedings of Contributed Papers: Part III - Physics, Matfyzpress Prague, 2012, pp. 30-35. E. Voronina, L. Novikov, V. Chernik, N. Chirskaya, K. Vernigorov, G. Bondarenko, and A. Gaidar, Mathematical and experimental simulation of impact of atomic oxygen of the earth's upper atmosphere on nanostructures and polymer composites, Inorganic Materials: Applied Research, 2012, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 95-101.

  3. Modeling of yttrium, oxygen atoms and vacancies in γ-iron lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopejenko, Aleksejs; Zhukovskii, Yuri F.; Vladimirov, Pavel V.; Kotomin, Eugene A.; Möslang, Anton

    2011-09-01

    Development of the oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels for fission and fusion reactors requires a deep understanding of the mechanism and kinetics of Y 2O 3 nanoparticle precipitation in the steel matrix. Therefore, it is necessary to perform a large-scale theoretical modeling of the Y 2O 3 formation. In the current study, a series of first-principles calculations have been performed on different elementary clusters consisting of pair and triple solute atoms and containing: (i) the Y-Fe-vacancy pairs, (ii) the two Y atoms substituted for Fe lattice atoms and (iii) the O impurity atoms dissolved in the steel matrix. The latter is represented by a face-centered cubic γ-Fe single crystal. This structure is relevant because a transition to γ-phase occurs in low Cr ferritic-martensitic steels at typically hot isostatic pressing temperatures. The results clearly demonstrate a certain attraction between the Y substitute and Fe vacancy whereas no binding has been found between the two Y substitute atoms. Results of calculations on different Y-O-Y cluster configurations in lattice show that not only a presence of oxygen atom favors a certain binding between the impurity atoms inside the γ-Fe lattice but also the increased concentration of Fe vacancies is required for the growth of the Y 2O 3 precipitates within the iron crystalline matrix.

  4. Angular distribution of photoelectrons from atomic oxygen, nitrogen and carbon. [in upper atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manson, S. J.; Kennedy, D. J.; Starace, A. F.; Dill, D.

    1974-01-01

    The angular distributions of photoelectrons from atomic oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon are calculated. Both Hartree-Fock and Hartree-Slater (Herman-Skillman) wave functions are used for oxygen, and the agreement is excellent; thus only Hartree-Slater functions are used for carbon and nitrogen. The pitch-angle distribution of photoelectrons is discussed, and it is shown that previous approximations of energy-independent isotropic or sin squared theta distributions are at odds with the authors' results, which vary with energy. This variation with energy is discussed, as is the reliability of these calculations.

  5. Ground state atomic oxygen in high-power impulse magnetron sputtering: a quantitative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Britun, Nikolay; Belosludtsev, Alexandr; Silva, Tiago; Snyders, Rony

    2017-02-01

    The ground state density of oxygen atoms in reactive high-power impulse magnetron sputtering discharges has been studied quantitatively. Both time-resolved and space-resolved measurements were conducted. The measurements were performed using two-photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence (TALIF), and calibrated by optical emission actinometry with multiple Ar emission lines. The results clarify the dynamics of the O ground state atoms in the discharge afterglow significantly, including their propagation and fast decay after the plasma pulse, as well as the influence of gas pressure, O2 admixture, etc.

  6. Enhancement of oxidative vaporization of chromium (III) oxide and chromium by oxygen atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fryburg, G. C.; Kohl, F. J.; Stearns, C. A.

    1974-01-01

    Rates of oxidative vaporization of Cr2O3 were found to be markedly enhanced in the presence of O atoms. Investigations were conducted over the temperature range 470 to 1520 K. For Cr2O3 the enhancement was about 10 to the 9th power at 820 K in oxygen containing 2.5 percent atoms. Rapid oxidative vaporization of bare chromium was observed below 1070 K, the rate being about one-half that of Cr2O3. Results are interpreted in terms of thermochemical analysis.

  7. Stable and solubilized active Au atom clusters for selective epoxidation of cis-cyclooctene with molecular oxygen

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Linping; Wang, Zhen; Beletskiy, Evgeny V.; Liu, Jingyue; dos Santos, Haroldo J.; Li, Tiehu; Rangel, Maria do C.; Kung, Mayfair C.; Kung, Harold H.

    2017-01-01

    The ability of Au catalysts to effect the challenging task of utilizing molecular oxygen for the selective epoxidation of cyclooctene is fascinating. Although supported nanometre-size Au particles are poorly active, here we show that solubilized atomic Au clusters, present in ng ml−1 concentrations and stabilized by ligands derived from the oxidized hydrocarbon products, are active. They can be formed from various Au sources. They generate initiators and propagators to trigger the onset of the auto-oxidation reaction with an apparent turnover frequency of 440 s−1, and continue to generate additional initiators throughout the auto-oxidation cycle without direct participation in the cycle. Spectroscopic characterization suggests that 7–8 atom clusters are effective catalytically. Extension of work based on these understandings leads to the demonstration that these Au clusters are also effective in selective oxidation of cyclohexene, and that solubilized Pt clusters are also capable of generating initiators for cyclooctene epoxidation. PMID:28348389

  8. Undercutting of defects in thin film protective coatings on polymer surfaces exposed to atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutledge, Sharon K.; Mihelcic, Judith A.

    1989-01-01

    Protection for polymeric surfaces is needed to make them durable in the low Earth orbital environment, where oxidation by atomic oxygen is the predominant failure mechanism. Thin film coatings of oxides such as silicon dioxide are viable candidates to provide this protection, but concern has been voiced over the ability of these coatings to protect when defects are present in the coating due to surface anomalies occurring during the deposition process, handling, or micrometeoroid and debris bombardment in low Earth orbit. When a defected coating protecting a polymer substrate is exposed to atomic oxygen, the defect provides a pathway to the underlying polymer allowing oxidation and subsequent undercutting to occur. Defect undercutting was studied for sputter deposited coatings of silicon dioxide on polyimide Kapton. Preliminary results indicate that undercutting may be limited as long as the coating remains intact with the substrate. Therefore, coatings may not need to be defect free to give protection to the underlying surface.

  9. Atomic oxygen erosion resistance of polyimide/ZrO 2 hybrid films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Fei; Wang, Kai; Zhan, Maosheng

    2010-10-01

    A series of polyimide/zirconia (PI/ZrO 2) hybrid films were synthesized based on zirconium n-butoxide, pyromellitic acid dianhydride (PMDA) and 4,4'-oxydianiline (ODA) by a sol-gel process. The atomic oxygen (AO) exposure tests were carried out using a ground-based atomic oxygen effects simulation facility. The effects of ZrO 2 content on the morphology and structure evolvement of PI/ZrO 2 hybrid films were investigated using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS), respectively. The results indicated that a zirconia-rich layer was formed on the polyimide film sourcing from the zirconium n-butoxide after AO exposure, which decreased the erosion rate and obviously improved the AO resistance of polyimide films.

  10. The rate constant for the reaction of oxygen /3P/ atoms with dichlorine monoxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miziolek, A. W.; Molina, M. J.

    1978-01-01

    A fast flow discharge apparatus was used to measure the rate constant for the reaction of ground state oxygen atoms with dichlorine monoxide in the temperature range 236-295 K. The air afterflow technique (NO2 chemiluminescence) was used for detection of oxygen atoms. The Arrhenius expression for the rate constant was found to be 2.7 plus or minus 0.3 times 10 to the -11th power exp(-560 plus or minus 80/T) cu cm per molecule per sec. At 295 K the rate constant is 4.1 plus or minus 0.5 times 10 to the -12th power cu cm per molecule per sec.

  11. Pinhole cameras as sensors for atomic oxygen in orbit: Application to attitude determination of the LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Palmer N.; Gregory, John C.

    1992-01-01

    Images produced by pinhole cameras using film sensitive to atomic oxygen provide information on the ratio of spacecraft orbital velocity to the most probable thermal speed of oxygen atoms, provided the spacecraft orientation is maintained stable relative to the orbital direction. Alternatively, information on the spacecraft attitude relative to the orbital velocity can be obtained, provided that corrections are properly made for thermal spreading and a corotating atmosphere. The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) orientation, uncorrected for a corotating atmosphere, was determined to be yawed 8.0 +/- 0.4 degrees from its nominal attitude, with an estimated +/- 0.35 degree oscillation in yaw. The integrated effect of inclined orbit and corotating atmosphere produces an apparent oscillation in the observed yaw direction, suggesting that the LDEF attitude measurement will indicate even better stability when corrected for a corotating atmosphere. The measured thermal spreading is consistent with major exposure occurring during high solar activity, which occurred late during the LDEF mission.

  12. Atomic Oxygen Sensors Based on Nanograin ZnO Films Prepared by Pulse Laser Deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Yunfei; Chen Xuekang; Li Zhonghua; Zheng Kuohai; Wang Lanxi; Feng Zhanzu; Yang Shengsheng

    2009-01-05

    High-quality nanograin ZnO thin films were deposited on c-plane sapphire (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) substrates by pulse laser deposition (PLD). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize the samples. The structural and morphological properties of ZnO films under different deposition temperature have been investigated before and after atomic oxygen (AO) treatment. XRD has shown that the intensity of the (0 0 2) peak increases and its FWHM value decreases after AO treatment. The AO sensing characteristics of nano ZnO film also has been investigated in a ground-based atomic oxygen simulation facility. The results show that the electrical conductivity of nanograin ZnO films decreases with increasing AO fluence and that the conductivity of the films can be recovered by heating.

  13. Comparison of Hyperthermal Ground Laboratory Atomic Oxygen Erosion Yields With Those in Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Dill, Grace C.; Loftus, Ryan J.; deGroh, Kim K.; Miller, Sharon K.

    2013-01-01

    The atomic oxygen erosion yields of 26 materials (all polymers except for pyrolytic graphite) were measured in two directed hyperthermal radio frequency (RF) plasma ashers operating at 30 or 35 kHz with air. The hyperthermal asher results were compared with thermal energy asher results and low Earth orbital (LEO) results from the Materials International Space Station Experiment 2 and 7 (MISSE 2 and 7) flight experiments. The hyperthermal testing was conducted to a significant portion of the atomic oxygen fluence similar polymers were exposed to during the MISSE 2 and 7 missions. Comparison of the hyperthermal asher prediction of LEO erosion yields with thermal energy asher erosion yields indicates that except for the fluorocarbon polymers of PTFE and FEP, the hyperthermal energy ashers are a much more reliable predictor of LEO erosion yield than thermal energy asher testing, by a factor of four.

  14. Ground radiation tests and flight atomic oxygen tests of ITO protective coatings for Galileo Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bouquet, Frank L.; Maag, Carl R.

    1986-01-01

    Radiation simulation tests (protons and electrons) were performed along with atomic oxygen flight tests aboard the Shuttle to space qualify the surface protective coatings. The results, which contributed to the selection of indium-tin-oxide (ITO) coated polyester as the material for the thermal blankets of the Galileo Spacecraft, are given here. Two candidate materials, polyester and Fluorglas, were radiation-tested to determine changes at simulated Jovian radiation levels. The polyester exhibited a smaller weight loss (2.8) than the Fluorglas (8.8 percent). Other changes of polyester are given. During low-earth orbit, prior to transit to Jupiter, the thermal blankets would be exposed to atomic oxygen. Samples of uncoated and ITO-coated polyesters were flown on the Shuttle. Qualitative results are given which indicated that the ITO coating protected the underlying polyester.

  15. Recommended practices for in-space and ground laboratory. Atomic oxygen exposure and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce; Koontz, Steve; Mccargo, Matt; Pippin, Gary; Rutledge, Sharon

    1992-01-01

    A detailed guide to testing materials for atomic oxygen durability in earth orbit environments is presented. The steps covered include sample preparation, including masking of the sample, dehydration, weighing, and handling; effective fluence prediction, including the use of witness samples (notably Kapton); plasma facility and operational considerations, involving such matters as avoidance of silicone contamination, the use of continuous versus incremental ashing, and temperature of operation; and erosion yield measurement, with calculation methods and protective coating performance indices provided.

  16. The mystery of gold's chemical activity: local bonding, morphology and reactivity of atomic oxygen.

    PubMed

    Baker, Thomas A; Liu, Xiaoying; Friend, Cynthia M

    2011-01-07

    Recently, gold has been intensely studied as a catalyst for key synthetic reactions. Gold is an attractive catalyst because, surprisingly, it is highly active and very selective for partial oxidation processes suggesting promise for energy-efficient "green" chemistry. The underlying origin of the high activity of Au is a controversial subject since metallic gold is commonly thought to be inert. Herein, we establish that one origin of the high activity for gold catalysis is the extremely reactive nature of atomic oxygen bound in 3-fold coordination sites on metallic gold. This is the predominant form of O at low concentrations on the surface, which is a strong indication that it is most relevant to catalytic conditions. Atomic oxygen bound to metallic Au in 3-fold sites has high activity for CO oxidation, oxidation of olefins, and oxidative transformations of alcohols and amines. Among the factors identified as important in Au-O interaction are the morphology of the surface, the local binding site of oxygen, and the degree of order of the oxygen overlayer. In this Perspective, we present an overview of both theory and experiments that identify the reactive forms of O and their associated charge density distributions and bond strengths. We also analyze and model the release of Au atoms induced by O binding to the surface. This rough surface also has the potential for O(2) dissociation, which is a critical step if Au is to be activated catalytically. We further show the strong parallels between product distributions and reactivity for O-covered Au at low pressure (ultrahigh vacuum) and for nanoporous Au catalysts operating at atmospheric pressure as evidence that atomic O is the active species under working catalytic conditions when metallic Au is present. We briefly discuss the possible contributions of oxidants that may contain intact O-O bonds and of the Au-metal oxide support interface in Au catalysis. Finally, the challenges and future directions for fully

  17. Automated Multiple-Sample Tray Manipulation Designed and Fabricated for Atomic Oxygen Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sechkar, Edward A.; Stueber, Thomas J.; Dever, Joyce A.; Banks, Bruce A.; Rutledge, Sharon K.

    2000-01-01

    Extensive improvements to increase testing capacity and flexibility and to automate the in situ Reflectance Measurement System (RMS) are in progress at the Electro-Physics Branch s Atomic Oxygen (AO) beam facility of the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field. These improvements will triple the system s capacity while placing a significant portion of the testing cycle under computer control for added reliability, repeatability, and ease of use.

  18. The Effect of Ash and Inorganic Pigment Fill on the Atomic Oxygen Erosion of Polymers and Paints (ISMSE-12)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Simmons, Julie C.; de Groh, Kim K.; Miller, Sharon K.

    2012-01-01

    Low atomic oxygen fluence (below 1x10(exp 20) atoms/sq cm) exposure of polymers and paints that have a small ash content and/or inorganic pigment fill does not cause a significant difference in erosion yield compared to unfilled (neat) polymers or paints. However, if the ash and/or inorganic pigment content is increased, the surface population of the inorganic content will begin to occupy a significant fraction of the surface area as the atomic oxygen exposure increases because the ash is not volatile and remains as a loosely attached surface layer. This results in a reduction of the flux of atomic oxygen reacting with the polymer and a reduction in the rate of erosion of the polymer remaining. This paper presents the results of ground laboratory and low Earth orbital (LEO) investigations to evaluate the fluence dependence of atomic oxygen erosion yields of polymers and paints having inorganic fill content.

  19. Effects of aluminum additions to gas atomized reaction synthesis produced oxide dispersion strengthened alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spicher, Alexander Lee

    The production of an aluminum containing ferritic oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloy was investigated. The production method used in this study was gas atomization reaction synthesis (GARS). GARS was chosen over the previously commercial method of mechanical alloying (MA) process due to complications from this process. The alloy compositions was determined from three main components; corrosion resistance, dispersoid formation, and additional elements. A combination of Cr and Al were necessary in order to create a protective oxide in the steam atmosphere that the boiler tubing in the next generation of coal-fired power plants would be exposed to. Hf and Y were chosen as dispersoid forming elements due to their increased thermal stability and potential to avoid decreased strength caused by additions of Al to traditional ODS materials. W was used as an additive due to benefits as a strengthener as well as its benefits for creep rupture time. The final composition chosen for the alloy was Fe-16Cr-12Al-0.9W-0.25Hf-0.2Y at%. The aforementioned alloy, GA-1-198, was created through gas atomization with atomization gas of Ar-300ppm O2. The actual composition created was found to be Fe-15Cr-12.3Al-0.9W-0.24Hf-0.19Y at%. An additional alloy that was nominally the same without the inclusion of aluminum was created as a comparison for the effects on mechanical and corrosion properties. The actual composition of the comparison alloy, GA-1-204, was Fe-16Cr-0Al-0.9W-0.25Hf-0.24Y at%. An investigation on the processing parameters for these alloys was conducted on the GA-1-198 alloy. In order to predict the necessary amount of time for heat treatment, a diffusion study was used to find the diffusion rate of oxygen in cast alloys with similar composition. The diffusion rate was found to be similar to that of other GARS compositions that have been created without the inclusion of aluminum. The effect of heat treatment time was investigated with temperatures of 950°C, 1000

  20. Atomic Oxygen Erosion Yield Prediction for Spacecraft Polymers in Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Backus, Jane A.; Manno, Michael V.; Waters, Deborah L.; Cameron, Kevin C.; deGroh, Kim K.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to predict the atomic oxygen erosion yield of polymers based on their chemistry and physical properties has been only partially successful because of a lack of reliable low Earth orbit (LEO) erosion yield data. Unfortunately, many of the early experiments did not utilize dehydrated mass loss measurements for erosion yield determination, and the resulting mass loss due to atomic oxygen exposure may have been compromised because samples were often not in consistent states of dehydration during the pre-flight and post-flight mass measurements. This is a particular problem for short duration mission exposures or low erosion yield materials. However, as a result of the retrieval of the Polymer Erosion and Contamination Experiment (PEACE) flown as part of the Materials International Space Station Experiment 2 (MISSE 2), the erosion yields of 38 polymers and pyrolytic graphite were accurately measured. The experiment was exposed to the LEO environment for 3.95 years from August 16, 2001 to July 30, 2005 and was successfully retrieved during a space walk on July 30, 2005 during Discovery s STS-114 Return to Flight mission. The 40 different materials tested (including Kapton H fluence witness samples) were selected specifically to represent a variety of polymers used in space as well as a wide variety of polymer chemical structures. The MISSE 2 PEACE Polymers experiment used carefully dehydrated mass measurements, as well as accurate density measurements to obtain accurate erosion yield data for high-fluence (8.43 1021 atoms/sq cm). The resulting data was used to develop an erosion yield predictive tool with a correlation coefficient of 0.895 and uncertainty of +/-6.3 10(exp -25)cu cm/atom. The predictive tool utilizes the chemical structures and physical properties of polymers to predict in-space atomic oxygen erosion yields. A predictive tool concept (September 2009 version) is presented which represents an improvement over an earlier (December 2008) version.

  1. Terahertz Limb Sounder for Lower Thermosphere Wind, Temperature, and Atomic Oxygen Density Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yee, J. H.; Boldt, J.; Wu, D. L.; Mehdi, I.; Schlecht, E.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we present the concept of a high-sensitivity heterodyne spectrometer operating at Terahertz (THz) frequency for global lower thermospheric neutral wind, temperature and atomic oxygen density measurements from a low earth orbit. The instrument, THz Limb Sounder (TLS) is aimed to provide, for the first time, global neutral wind/temperature/density profile measurements globally during day and night, with focus at altitudes of 100-150 km where most of the ion-neutral energy/momentum couplings take place. It is an ambient-temperature Schottky diode based all solid-state heterodyne spectrometer designed to extend the limb sounding technique employed by Microwave Limb Sounder for density/temperature/wind measurements by measuring the Doppler line shape of atomic oxygen (OI) fine structure emission at 2.06THz. This atomic oxygen line emission is very bright and distributed nearly uniformly globally (at all latitudes including high latitude aurora particle precipitation regions) and temporally (at all local times during both day and night), thus ideal for thermospheric remote sensing. TLS is an ambient-temperature Schottky diode based heterodyne receiver system The TLS instrument concept, measurement methodology, receiver performance, and the expected measurement capability will be presented and discussed in this paper.

  2. Atomic Oxygen Erosion Yield Predictive Tool for Spacecraft Polymers in Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bank, Bruce A.; de Groh, Kim K.; Backus, Jane A.

    2008-01-01

    A predictive tool was developed to estimate the low Earth orbit (LEO) atomic oxygen erosion yield of polymers based on the results of the Polymer Erosion and Contamination Experiment (PEACE) Polymers experiment flown as part of the Materials International Space Station Experiment 2 (MISSE 2). The MISSE 2 PEACE experiment accurately measured the erosion yield of a wide variety of polymers and pyrolytic graphite. The 40 different materials tested were selected specifically to represent a variety of polymers used in space as well as a wide variety of polymer chemical structures. The resulting erosion yield data was used to develop a predictive tool which utilizes chemical structure and physical properties of polymers that can be measured in ground laboratory testing to predict the in-space atomic oxygen erosion yield of a polymer. The properties include chemical structure, bonding information, density and ash content. The resulting predictive tool has a correlation coefficient of 0.914 when compared with actual MISSE 2 space data for 38 polymers and pyrolytic graphite. The intent of the predictive tool is to be able to make estimates of atomic oxygen erosion yields for new polymers without requiring expensive and time consumptive in-space testing.

  3. Atomic Oxygen Density Retrievals using FUV Observations by the Imaging Ultraviolet Spectrograph on MAVEN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, J. Scott; Stevens, Michael H.; Schneider, Nicholas M.; Stewart, Ian; Deighan, Justin; Jain, Sonal Kumar; Eparvier, Francis; Thiemann, E. M.; Bougher, Stephen W.; Jakosky, Bruce

    2016-10-01

    We present the first direct retrievals of neutral atomic oxygen in Mars's upper atmosphere using daytime FUV periapse limb scan observations from 130 - 200 km tangent altitude. Atmospheric composition is inferred using the Atmospheric Ultraviolet Radiance Integrated Code [Strickland et al., 1999] adapted to the Martian atmosphere [Evans et al., 2015]. For our retrievals we use O I 135.6 nm emission observed by IUVS on MAVEN under daytime conditions (solar zenith angle < 60 degrees) over both northern and southern hemispheres (latitudes between -65 and +35 degrees) from October 2014 to August 2016. We investigate the sensitivity of atomic oxygen density retrievals to variability in solar irradiance, solar longitude, and local time. We compare our retrievals to predictions from the Mars Global Ionosphere-Thermosphere Model [MGITM, Bougher et al., 2015] and the Mars Climate Database [MCD, Forget et al., 1999] and quantify the differences throughout the altitude region of interest. The retrieved densities are used to characterize global transport of atomic oxygen in the Martian thermosphere.

  4. Atomic Environment Changes Induced by Iron Addition to Gallium Bismuthate Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, V.; BarzǍ, L.; Simon, S.; ChiuzbǍIAN, S. G.; Neumann, M.

    Atomic environment of xFe2O3·(80-x)Bi2O3·20Ga2O3 heavy glasses (0≤x≤20 mol%) was investigated with respect to electronic structure of the samples. Data obtained from Bi 4f, Ga 2p, Fe 2p, and O 1s core-level photoelectron spectra indicate changes in the local order on the account of partial substitution of bismuth by iron. The bismuth cations behave essentially as network formers while the iron and gallium ones acts as network modifiers. The number of nonbridging oxygens depends on Fe2O3 content.

  5. High intensity 5 eV atomic oxygen source and Low Earth Orbit (LEO) simulation facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, J. B.; Spangler, L. H.; Hoffbauer, M. A.; Archuleta, F. A.; Leger, Lubert; Visentine, James

    1987-01-01

    An atomic oxygen exposure facility has been developed for studies of material degradation. The goal of these studies is to provide design criteria and information for the manufacture of long life (20 to 30 years) construction materials for use in LEO. The studies that are being undertaken using the facility will provide: absolute reaction cross sections for use in engineering design problems; formulations of reaction mechanisms; and calibration of flight hardware (mass spectrometers, etc.) in order to directly relate experiments performed in LEO to ground based investigations. The facility consists of: (1) a CW laser sustained discharge source of O atoms having a variable energy up to 5 eV and an intensity between 10(15) and 10(17) O atoms s(-1) cm(-2); (2) an atomic beam formation and diagnostics system consisting of various stages of differential pumping, a mass spectrometer detector, and a time of flight analyzer; (3) a spinning rotor viscometer for absolute O atom flux measurements; and (4) provision for using the system for calibration of actual flight instruments. Surface analysis equipment is available for the characterization of material surfaces before and after exposure to O atoms.

  6. Electrochemical Stripping of Atomic Oxygen on Single-Crystalline Platinum: Bridging Gas-Phase and Electrochemical Oxidation

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    To understand the interaction between Pt and surface oxygenated species in electrocatalysis, this paper correlates the electrochemistry of atomic oxygen on Pt formed in the gas phase with electrochemically generated oxygen species on a variety of single-crystal platinum surfaces. The atomic oxygen adsorbed on single-crystalline Pt electrodes, made by thermal dissociation of molecular oxygen, is used for voltammetry measurements in acidic electrolytes (HClO4 and H2SO4). The essential knowledge of coverage, binding energy, and surface construction of atomic oxygen is correlated with the charge, potential, and shape of voltammograms, respectively. The differences of the voltammograms between the oxide made by thermal dissociation of molecular oxygen and electrochemical oxidation imply that atomic oxygen is not an intermediate of the electrochemical oxidation of Pt(111). The reconstruction of (100) terrace and step and the low-potential stripping of atomic oxygen on (111) step site provide insight into the first stages of degradation of Pt-based electrocatalysts. PMID:28225278

  7. Metal-Assisted Oxo Atom Addition to an Fe(III) Thiolate.

    PubMed

    Villar-Acevedo, Gloria; Lugo-Mas, Priscilla; Blakely, Maike N; Rees, Julian A; Ganas, Abbie S; Hanada, Erin M; Kaminsky, Werner; Kovacs, Julie A

    2017-01-11

    Cysteinate oxygenation is intimately tied to the function of both cysteine dioxygenases (CDOs) and nitrile hydratases (NHases), and yet the mechanisms by which sulfurs are oxidized by these enzymes are unknown, in part because intermediates have yet to be observed. Herein, we report a five-coordinate bis-thiolate ligated Fe(III) complex, [Fe(III)(S2(Me2)N3(Pr,Pr))](+) (2), that reacts with oxo atom donors (PhIO, IBX-ester, and H2O2) to afford a rare example of a singly oxygenated sulfenate, [Fe(III)(η(2)-S(Me2)O)(S(Me2))N3(Pr,Pr)](+) (5), resembling both a proposed intermediate in the CDO catalytic cycle and the essential NHase Fe-S(O)(Cys114) proposed to be intimately involved in nitrile hydrolysis. Comparison of the reactivity of 2 with that of a more electron-rich, crystallographically characterized derivative, [Fe(III)S2(Me2)N(Me)N2(amide)(Pr,Pr)](-) (8), shows that oxo atom donor reactivity correlates with the metal ion's ability to bind exogenous ligands. Density functional theory calculations suggest that the mechanism of S-oxygenation does not proceed via direct attack at the thiolate sulfurs; the average spin-density on the thiolate sulfurs is approximately the same for 2 and 8, and Mulliken charges on the sulfurs of 8 are roughly twice those of 2, implying that 8 should be more susceptible to sulfur oxidation. Carboxamide-ligated 8 is shown to be unreactive towards oxo atom donors, in contrast to imine-ligated 2. Azide (N3(-)) is shown to inhibit sulfur oxidation with 2, and a green intermediate is observed, which then slowly converts to sulfenate-ligated 5. This suggests that the mechanism of sulfur oxidation involves initial coordination of the oxo atom donor to the metal ion. Whether the green intermediate is an oxo atom donor adduct, Fe-O═I-Ph, or an Fe(V)═O remains to be determined.

  8. A modification of the laser detonation-type hyperthermal oxygen atom beam source for a long-term operation.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Shunsuke; Yatani, Hideaki; Ohmae, Nobuo

    2008-07-01

    It has been an impedimental problem, for the laser detonation-type atom beam generator, that a poppet in the pulsed supersonic valve is rapidly eroded by the irradiation of powerful laser light and high temperature plasma. In order to operate the atom beam source for a long duration, a modification was made to hide the poppet from direct irradiation of laser and plasma. The alteration of device configuration resulted in great improvement in endurance of poppet more than 300,000 repetitions. Morphology of a polyimide film exposed to approximately 200,000 pulses of hyperthermal oxygen atom beam showed a shaglike carpet structure, which is a characteristic to that exposed to energetic oxygen atoms. A flux of the oxygen atom beam was estimated to be 5x10(14) atoms/cm2/pulse at a location of 30 cm away from the nozzle throat.

  9. A modification of the laser detonation-type hyperthermal oxygen atom beam source for a long-term operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinoshita, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Shunsuke; Yatani, Hideaki; Ohmae, Nobuo

    2008-07-01

    It has been an impedimental problem, for the laser detonation-type atom beam generator, that a poppet in the pulsed supersonic valve is rapidly eroded by the irradiation of powerful laser light and high temperature plasma. In order to operate the atom beam source for a long duration, a modification was made to hide the poppet from direct irradiation of laser and plasma. The alteration of device configuration resulted in great improvement in endurance of poppet more than 300 000 repetitions. Morphology of a polyimide film exposed to approximately 200 000 pulses of hyperthermal oxygen atom beam showed a shaglike carpet structure, which is a characteristic to that exposed to energetic oxygen atoms. A flux of the oxygen atom beam was estimated to be 5×1014 atoms/cm2/pulse at a location of 30 cm away from the nozzle throat.

  10. Determination of the neutral oxygen atom density in a plasma reactor loaded with metal samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mozetic, Miran; Cvelbar, Uros

    2009-08-01

    The density of neutral oxygen atoms was determined during processing of metal samples in a plasma reactor. The reactor was a Pyrex tube with an inner diameter of 11 cm and a length of 30 cm. Plasma was created by an inductively coupled radiofrequency generator operating at a frequency of 27.12 MHz and output power up to 500 W. The O density was measured at the edge of the glass tube with a copper fiber optics catalytic probe. The O atom density in the empty tube depended on pressure and was between 4 and 7 × 1021 m-3. The maximum O density was at a pressure of about 150 Pa, while the dissociation fraction of O2 molecules was maximal at the lowest pressure and decreased with increasing pressure. At about 300 Pa it dropped below 10%. The measurements were repeated in the chamber loaded with different metallic samples. In these cases, the density of oxygen atoms was lower than that in the empty chamber. The results were explained by a drain of O atoms caused by heterogeneous recombination on the samples.

  11. Effects of hypolimnetic oxygen addition on mercury bioaccumulation in Twin Lakes, Washington, USA.

    PubMed

    Beutel, Marc; Dent, Stephen; Reed, Brandon; Marshall, Piper; Gebremariam, Seyoum; Moore, Barry; Cross, Benjamin; Gantzer, Paul; Shallenberger, Ed

    2014-10-15

    Twin Lakes, located on the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Indian Reservation in eastern Washington, USA, include North Twin Lake (NT) and South Twin Lake (ST). The mesotrophic, dimictic lakes are important recreational fishing sites for both warm-water bass and cold-water trout. To improve summertime cold-water habitat for trout in NT, dissolved oxygen (DO) addition to the hypolimnion, using liquid oxygen as an oxygen gas source, started in 2009. This study assessed mercury (Hg) in the water column, zooplankton and fish, and related water quality parameters, in Twin Lakes from 2009 to 2012. Because methylmercury (MeHg) buildup in lake bottom water is commonly associated with hypolimnetic anoxia, hypolimnetic oxygenation was hypothesized to reduce Hg in bottom waters and biota in NT relative to ST. Oxygen addition led to significantly higher DO (mean hypolimnetic DO: 2-8 mg/L versus <1 mg/L) and lower MeHg (peak mean hypolimnetic MeHg: 0.05-0.2 ng/L versus 0.15-0.4 ng/L) in North Twin. In North Twin, years with higher DO (2009 and 2011) exhibited lower MeHg in bottom waters and lower total Hg in zooplankton, inferring a positive linkage between oxygen addition and lower bioaccumulation. However, when comparing between the two lakes, Hg levels were significantly higher in zooplankton (total Hg range: 100-200 versus 50-100 μg/kg dry weight) and trout (spring 2010 stocking cohort of eastern brook trout mean total Hg: 74.9 versus 49.9 μg/kg wet weight) in NT relative to ST. Lower Hg bioaccumulation in ST compared to NT may be related to bloom dilution in chlorophyll-rich bottom waters, a vertical disconnect between the location of zooplankton and MeHg in the water column, and high binding affinity between sulfide and MeHg in bottom waters.

  12. Effect of Oxygen addition on altitude blowout and relight of an experimental combustor segment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norgren, C. T.; Ingebo, R. D.

    1974-01-01

    The effect of oxygen addition on the low pressure altitude blowout limits of an experimental combustor segment was investigated. Data were obtained for two inlet-air temperatures, two inlet-airflow rates, and a constant fuel-air ratio of 0.020 with Jet A fuel. It was shown that the pressure at blowout could be reduced to correspond to an increase in altitude of 4.6 kilometers with oxygen flow rates of 8 to 16 percent by weight of the total fuel flow.

  13. Carbon fiber CVD coating by carbon nanostructured for space materials protection against atomic oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastore, Roberto; Bueno Morles, Ramon; Micheli, Davide

    2016-07-01

    In recent years, the emphasis in space research has been shifting from space exploration to commercialization of space. In order to utilize space for commercial purposes it is necessary to understand the low earth orbit (LEO) space environment where most of the activities will be carried out. The studies on the LEO environment are mainly focused towards understanding the effect of atomic oxygen (AO) on spacecraft materials. In the first few shuttle flights, materials looked frosty because they were actually being eroded and textured: AO reacts with organic materials on spacecraft exteriors, gradually damaging them. When a spacecraft travel in LEO (where crewed vehicles and the International Space Station fly), the AO formed from the residual atmosphere can react with the spacecraft surfaces, causing damage to the vehicle. Polymers are widely used in space vehicles and systems as structural materials, thermal blankets, thermal control coatings, conformal coatings, adhesives, lubricants, etc. Exposure of polymers and composites to the space environment may result in different detrimental effects via modification of their chemical, electrical, thermal, optical and mechanical properties as well as surface erosion. The major degradation effects in polymers are due to their exposure to atomic oxygen, vacuum ultraviolet and synergistic effects, which result in different damaging effects by modification of the polymer's chemical properties. In hydrocarbon containing polymers the main AO effect is the surface erosion via chemical reactions and the release of volatile reaction products associated with the mass loss. The application of a thin protective coating to the base materials is one of the most commonly used methods of preventing AO degradation. The purpose is to provide a barrier between base material and AO environment or, in some cases, to alter AO reactions to inhibit its diffusion. The effectiveness of a coating depends on its continuity, porosity, degree of

  14. Atom-probe tomography of tribological boundary films resulting from boron-based oil additives

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yoon-Jun; Baik, Sung-Il; Bertolucci-Coelho, Leonardo; Mazzaferro, Lucca; Ramirez, Giovanni; Erdemir, Ali; Seidman, D K

    2016-01-15

    Correlative characterization using atom-probe tomography (APT) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was performed on a tribofilm formed during sliding frictional testing with a fully formulated engine oil, which also contains a boron-based additive. The tribofilm formed is ~15 nm thick and consists of oxides of iron and compounds of B, Ca, P, and S, which are present in the additive. This study provides strong evidence for boron being embedded in the tribofilm, which effectively reduces friction and wear losses.

  15. Ground-Laboratory to In-Space Effective Atomic-Oxygen Fluence Determined for DC 93-500 Silicone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deGroh, Kim K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Ma, David

    2005-01-01

    Surfaces on the leading edge of spacecraft in low Earth orbit (e.g., surface facing the velocity direction), such as on the International Space Station, are subject to atomic oxygen attack, and certain materials are susceptible to erosion. Therefore, ground-based laboratory testing of the atomic oxygen durability of spacecraft materials is necessary for durability assessment when flight data are not available. For accurate space simulation, the facility is commonly calibrated on the basis of the mass loss of Kapton (DuPont, Wilmington, DE) as a control sample for effective fluence determination. This is because Kapton has a well-characterized atomic oxygen erosion yield (E(sub y), in cubic centimeters per atom) in the low Earth orbit (LEO) environment. Silicones, a family of commonly used spacecraft materials, do not chemically erode away with atomic oxygen attack like other organic materials that have volatile oxidation products. Instead, silicones react with atomic oxygen and form an oxidized hardened silicate surface layer. Often the loss of methyl groups causes shrinkage of the surface skin and "mud-tile" crazing degradation. But silicones often do not lose mass, and some silicones actually gain mass during atomic oxygen exposure. Therefore, the effective atomic oxygen fluence for silicones in a ground-test facility should not be determined on the basis of traditional mass-loss measurements, as it is with polymers that erode. Another method for determining effective fluence needs to be employed for silicones. A new technique has been developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center for determining the effective atomic oxygen fluence for silicones in ground-test facilities. This technique determines the equivalent amount of atomic oxygen oxidation on the basis of changes in the surface-oxide hardness. The specific approach developed was to compare changes in the surface hardness of ground-laboratory-exposed DC93-500 silicone with DC93-500 exposed to LEO atomic oxygen

  16. Laboratory installation for the study of atomic-oxygen and ozone detectors and certain methodological aspects concerning the determination of oxygen-atom concentration by the methods of NO and NO2 titration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bromberg, D. V.; Perov, S. P.

    A laboratory installation is described which can be used to study various characteristics of atomic oxygen and ozone in the pressure range from 0.01 to 50 Pa. The installation can be used to calibrate rocketborne sensors intended for measurements in the middle atmosphere. Systematic and random errors connected with the determination of oxygen-atom concentration by the NO2 and NO titration methods are examined.

  17. Chemical reaction of atomic oxygen with evaporated films of copper, part 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fromhold, A. T.; Williams, J. R.

    1990-01-01

    Evaporated copper films were exposed to an atomic oxygen flux of 1.4 x 10(exp 17) atoms/sq cm per sec at temperatures in the range 285 to 375 F (140 to 191 C) for time intervals between 2 and 50 minutes. Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) was used to determine the thickness of the oxide layers formed and the ratio of the number of copper to oxygen atoms in the layers. Oxide film thicknesses ranged from 50 to 3000 A (0.005 to 0.3 microns, or equivalently, 5 x 10(exp -9) to 3 x 10(exp -7); it was determined that the primary oxide phase was Cu2O. The growth law was found to be parabolic (L(t) varies as t(exp 1/2)), in which the oxide thickness L(t) increases as the square root of the exposure time t. The analysis of the data is consistent with either of the two parabolic growth laws. (The thin-film parabolic growth law is based on the assumption that the process is diffusion controlled, with the space charge within the growing oxide layer being negligible. The thick-film parabolic growth law is also based on a diffusion controlled process, but space-charge neutrality prevails locally within very thick oxides.) In the absence of a voltage measurement across the growing oxide, a distinction between the two mechanisms cannot be made, nor can growth by the diffusion of neutral atomic oxygen be entirely ruled out. The activation energy for the reaction is on the order of 1.1 eV (1.76 x 10(exp -19) joule, or equivalently, 25.3 kcal/mole).

  18. XPS study of the effect of hydrocarbon contamination on polytetrafluoroethylene (teflon) exposed to atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, Morton A.; Wydeven, Theodore; Cormia, Robert D.

    1991-01-01

    The presence of hydrocarbon contamination on the surface of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) markedly affects the oxygen uptake, and hence the wettability, of this polymer when exposed to an oxygen plasma. As revealed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis, the oxygen-to-carbon ratio (O/C) for such a polymer can increase sharply, and correspondingly the fluorine-to-carbon ratio (F/C) can decrease sharply, at very short exposure times; at longer times, however, such changes in the O/C and F/C ratios reverse direction, and these ratios then assume values similar to those of the unexposed PTFE. The greater the extent of hydrocarbon contamination in the PTFE, the larger are the amplitudes of the 'spikes' in the O/C- and F/C-exposure time plots. In contrast, a pristine PTFE experiences a very small, monotonic increase of surface oxidation or O/C ratio with time of exposure to oxygen atoms, while the F/C ratio is virtually unchanged from that of the unexposed polymer (2.0). Unless the presence of adventitious hydrocarbon is taken into account, anomalous surface properties relating to polymer adhesion may be improperly ascribed to PTFE exposed to an oxygen plasma.

  19. Recent Developments in Metal-Catalyzed Additions of Oxygen Nucleophiles to Alkenes and Alkynes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hintermann, Lukas

    Progress in the field of metal-catalyzed redox-neutral additions of oxygen nucleophiles (water, alcohols, carboxylic acids, and others) to alkenes, alkynes, and allenes between 2001 and 2009 is critically reviewed. Major advances in reaction chemistry include development of chiral Lewis acid catalyzed asymmetric oxa-Michael additions and Lewis-acid catalyzed hydro-alkoxylations of nonactivated olefins, as well as further development of Markovnikov-selective cationic gold complex-catalyzed additions of alcohols or water to alkynes and allenes.

  20. Submolecular Imaging by Noncontact Atomic Force Microscopy with an Oxygen Atom Rigidly Connected to a Metallic Probe.

    PubMed

    Mönig, Harry; Hermoso, Diego R; Díaz Arado, Oscar; Todorović, Milica; Timmer, Alexander; Schüer, Simon; Langewisch, Gernot; Pérez, Rubén; Fuchs, Harald

    2016-01-26

    In scanning probe microscopy, the imaging characteristics in the various interaction channels crucially depend on the chemical termination of the probe tip. Here we analyze the contrast signatures of an oxygen-terminated copper tip with a tetrahedral configuration of the covalently bound terminal O atom. Supported by first-principles calculations we show how this tip termination can be identified by contrast analysis in noncontact atomic force and scanning tunneling microscopy (NC-AFM, STM) on a partially oxidized Cu(110) surface. After controlled tip functionalization by soft indentations of only a few angstroms in an oxide nanodomain, we demonstrate that this tip allows imaging an organic molecule adsorbed on Cu(110) by constant-height NC-AFM in the repulsive force regime, revealing its internal bond structure. In established tip functionalization approaches where, for example, CO or Xe is deliberately picked up from a surface, these probe particles are only weakly bound to the metallic tip, leading to lateral deflections during scanning. Therefore, the contrast mechanism is subject to image distortions, artifacts, and related controversies. In contrast, our simulations for the O-terminated Cu tip show that lateral deflections of the terminating O atom are negligible. This allows a detailed discussion of the fundamental imaging mechanisms in high-resolution NC-AFM experiments. With its structural rigidity, its chemically passivated state, and a high electron density at the apex, we identify the main characteristics of the O-terminated Cu tip, making it a highly attractive complementary probe for the characterization of organic nanostructures on surfaces.

  1. Atomic Oxygen Abundance in Molecular Clouds: Absorption Toward Sagittarius B2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lis, D. C.; Keene, Jocelyn; Phillips, T. G.; Schilke, P.; Werner, M. W.; Zmuidzinas, J.

    2001-01-01

    We have obtained high-resolution (approximately 35 km/s) spectra toward the molecular cloud Sgr B2 at 63 micrometers, the wavelength of the ground-state fine-structure line of atomic oxygen (O(I)), using the ISO-LWS instrument. Four separate velocity components are seen in the deconvolved spectrum, in absorption against the dust continuum emission of Sgr B2. Three of these components, corresponding to foreground clouds, are used to study the O(I) content of the cool molecular gas along the line of sight. In principle, the atomic oxygen that produces a particular velocity component could exist in any, or all, of three physically distinct regions: inside a dense molecular cloud, in the UV illuminated surface layer (PDR) of a cloud, and in an atomic (H(I)) gas halo. For each of the three foreground clouds, we estimate, and subtract from the observed O(I) column density, the oxygen content of the H(I) halo gas, by scaling from a published high-resolution 21 cm spectrum. We find that the remaining O(I) column density is correlated with the observed (13)CO column density. From the slope of this correlation, an average [O(I)]/[(13)CO] ratio of 270 +/- 120 (3-sigma) is derived, which corresponds to [O(I)]/[(13)CO] = 9 for a CO to (13)CO abundance ratio of 30. Assuming a (13)CO abundance of 1x10(exp -6) with respect to H nuclei, we derive an atomic oxygen abundance of 2.7x10(exp -4) in the dense gas phase, corresponding to a 15% oxygen depletion compared to the diffuse ISM in our Galactic neighborhood. The presence of multiple, spectrally resolved velocity components in the Sgr B2 absorption spectrum allows, for the first time, a direct determination of the PDR contribution to the O(I) column density. The PDR regions should contain O(I) but not (13)CO, and would thus be expected to produce an offset in the O(I)-(13)CO correlation. Our data do not show such an offset, suggesting that within our beam O(I) is spatially coexistent with the molecular gas, as traced by (13)CO

  2. Determination of Ground-Laboratory to In-Space Effective Atomic Oxygen Fluence for DC 93?500 Silicone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deGroh, Kim K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Ma, David

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this research was to calibrate the ground-to-space effective atomic oxygen fluence for DC 93-500 silicone in a thermal energy electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) oxygen plasma facility. Silicones, commonly used spacecraft materials, do not chemically erode with atomic oxygen attack like other organic materials but form an oxidized hardened silicate surface layer. Therefore, the effective atomic oxygen fluence in a ground test facility should not be determined based on mass loss measurements, as they are with organic polymers. A technique has been developed at the Glenn Research Center to determine the equivalent amount of atomic oxygen exposure in an ECR ground test facility to produce the same degree of atomic oxygen damage as in space. The approach used was to compare changes in the surface hardness of ground test (ECR) exposed DC 93-500 silicone with DC 93-500 exposed to low Earth orbit (LEO) atomic oxygen as part of a shuttle flight experiment. The ground to in-space effective atomic oxygen fluence correlation was determined based on the fluence in the ECR source that produced the same hardness for the fluence in-space. Nanomechanical hardness versus contact depth measurements were obtained for five ECR exposed DC 93-500 samples (ECR exposed for 18 to 40 hrs, corresponding to Kapton effective fluences of 4.2 x 10(exp 20) to 9.4 x 10(exp 20) atoms/sq cm, respectively) and for space exposed DC 93-500 from the Evaluation of Oxygen Interactions with Materials III (EOIM III) shuttle flight experiment, exposed to LEO atomic oxygen for 2.3 x 10(exp 20) atoms/sq cm. Pristine controls were also evaluated. A ground-to-space correlation value was determined based on correlation values for four contact depths (150, 200, 250, and 300 nm), which represent the near surface depth data. The results indicate that the Kapton effective atomic oxygen fluence in the ECR facility needs to be 2.64 times higher than in LEO to replicate equivalent exposure damage in the

  3. Insight into the general rule for the activation of the X-H bonds (X = C, N, O, S) induced by chemisorbed oxygen atoms.

    PubMed

    Xing, Bin; Wang, Gui-Chang

    2014-02-14

    Density functional theory calculations are presented for adsorption and dissociation of NH3, H2O, CH3OH, H2S and C2H4 on clean and oxygen atom pre-adsorbed metal surfaces (Cu, Ag, Au, Ni, Pd, Pt, Rh, Ru, Os and Ir). The calculation results indicated that the oxygen-promotion effect depends both on the metallic activity and the character of the X-H bond. On the one hand, for a given reaction on a series metals, a good linear correlation was found between the energy barrier difference of X-H bond breaking on clean and oxygen-covered metals and the binding strength of oxygen on metals, namely an oxygen-promotion effect was favorable to the less active metals but unfavorable to the more active metals. On the other hand, for a series of X-H bond breaking reactions on a given metal, it was found that the promotion effect follows the trend of O-H > N-H > C-H, that is, the O-H bond is most promoted by the oxygen atom. The possible reason is the O-H bond forms the strongest hydrogen bond in the transition state among the X-H bonds investigated in this work. Additionally, it was found that the oxygen coverage has little effect on the X-H bond scission.

  4. The survivability of large space-borne reflectors under atomic oxygen and micrometeoroid impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulino, Daniel A.

    1987-01-01

    Solar dynamic power system mirrors for use on Space Station and other spacecraft flown in low earth orbit (LEO) are exposed to the harshness of the LEO environment. Both atomic oxygen and micrometeoroids/space debris can degrade the performance of such mirrors. Protective coatings will be required to protect oxidizable reflecting media, such as silver and aluminum, from atomic oxygen attack. Several protective coating materials have been identified as good candidates for use in this application. The durability of these coating/mirror systems after pinhole defects have been inflicted during their fabrication and deployment or through micrometeoroid/space debris impact once on-orbit is of concern. Studies of the effect of an oxygen plasma environment on protected mirror surfaces with intentionally induced pinhole defects have been conducted at NASA Lewis and are reviewed. It has been found that oxidation of the reflective layer and/or the substrate in areas adjacent to a pinhole defect, but not directly exposed by the pinhole, can occur.

  5. The survivability of large space-borne reflectors under atomic oxygen and micrometeoroid impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulino, D. A.

    1987-01-01

    Solar dynamic power system mirrors for use on space station and other spacecraft flown in low Earth orbit (LEO) are exposed to the harshness of the LEO environment. Both atomic oxygen and micrometeoroids/space debris can degrade the performance of such mirrors. Protective coatings will be required to protect oxidizable reflecting media, such as silver and aluminum, from atomic oxygen attack. Several protective coating materials have been identified as good candidates for use in this application. The durability of these coating/mirror systems after pinhole defects have been inflicted during their fabrication and deployment or through micrometeoroid/space debris impact once on-orbit is of concern. Studies of the effect of an oxygen plasma environment on protected mirror surfaces with intentionally induced pinhole defects have been conducted at NASA Lewis and are reviewed. It has been found that oxidation of the reflective layer and/or the substrate in areas adjacent to a pinhole defect, but not directly exposed by the pinhole, can occur.

  6. Low Earth orbital atomic oxygen environmental simulation facility for space materials evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Stidham, C.R.; Banks, B.A.; Stueber, T.J.; Dever, J.A.; Rutledge, S.K.; Bruckner, E.J.

    1993-05-01

    Simulation of low Earth orbit atomic oxygen for accelerated exposure in ground-based facilities is necessary for the durability evaluation of space power system component materials for Space Station Freedom (SSF) and future missions. A facility developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administrations's (NASA) Lewis Research Center provides accelerated rates of exposure to a directed or scattered oxygen beam, vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation, and offers in-situ optical characterization. The facility utilizes an electron-cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma source to generate a low energy oxygen beam. Total hemispherical spectral reflectance of samples can be measured in situ over the wavelength range of 250 to 2500 nm. Deuterium lamps provide VUV radiation intensity levels in the 115 to 200 nm range of three to five equivalent suns. Retarding potential analyses show distributed ion energies below 30 electron volts (eV) for the operating conditions most suited for high flux, low energy testing. Peak ion energies are below the sputter threshold energy (approximately 30 eV) of the protective coatings on polymers that are evaluated in the facility, thus allowing long duration exposure without sputter erosion. Neutral species are expected to be at thermal energies of approximately .04 eV to .1 eV. The maximum effective flux level based on polyimide Kapton mass loss is 4.4 x 10 exp 6 atoms/((sq. cm)*s), thus providing a highly accelerated testing capability.

  7. Low Earth orbital atomic oxygen environmental simulation facility for space materials evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stidham, Curtis R.; Banks, Bruce A.; Stueber, Thomas J.; Dever, Joyce A.; Rutledge, Sharon K.; Bruckner, Eric J.

    1993-01-01

    Simulation of low Earth orbit atomic oxygen for accelerated exposure in ground-based facilities is necessary for the durability evaluation of space power system component materials for Space Station Freedom (SSF) and future missions. A facility developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administrations's (NASA) Lewis Research Center provides accelerated rates of exposure to a directed or scattered oxygen beam, vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation, and offers in-situ optical characterization. The facility utilizes an electron-cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma source to generate a low energy oxygen beam. Total hemispherical spectral reflectance of samples can be measured in situ over the wavelength range of 250 to 2500 nm. Deuterium lamps provide VUV radiation intensity levels in the 115 to 200 nm range of three to five equivalent suns. Retarding potential analyses show distributed ion energies below 30 electron volts (eV) for the operating conditions most suited for high flux, low energy testing. Peak ion energies are below the sputter threshold energy (approximately 30 eV) of the protective coatings on polymers that are evaluated in the facility, thus allowing long duration exposure without sputter erosion. Neutral species are expected to be at thermal energies of approximately .04 eV to .1 eV. The maximum effective flux level based on polyimide Kapton mass loss is 4.4 x 10 exp 6 atoms/((sq. cm)*s), thus providing a highly accelerated testing capability.

  8. Doping SrTiO3 supported FeSe by excess atoms and oxygen vacancies

    DOE PAGES

    Shanavas, Kavungal Veedu; Singh, David J.

    2015-07-24

    Photoemission studies of FeSe monolayer films on SrTiO3 substrate have shown electronic structures that deviate from pristine FeSe, consistent with heavy electron doping. With the help of first-principles calculations we studied the effect of excess Fe and Se atoms on the monolayer and oxygen vacancies in the substrate in order to understand the reported Fermi surface in this system. We find that both excess Fe and Se atoms prefer the same adsorption site above the bottom Se atoms on the monolayer. The adsorbed Fe is strongly magnetic and contributes electrons to the monolayer, while excess Se hybridizes with the monolayermore » Fe-d states and partially opens a gap just above the Fermi energy. We also find that the two-dimensional electron gas generated by the oxygen vacancies is partly transferred to the monolayer and can potentially suppress the hole pockets around the Γ point. Furthermore, both O vacancies in the SrTiO3 substrate and excess Fe over the monolayer can provide high levels of electron doping.« less

  9. THERMAL REACTIONS OF OXYGEN ATOMS WITH ALKENES AT LOW TEMPERATURES ON INTERSTELLAR DUST

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, Michael D.; Price, Stephen D. E-mail: s.d.price@ucl.ac.uk

    2011-11-10

    Laboratory experiments show that the thermal heterogeneous reactions of oxygen atoms may contribute to the synthesis of epoxides in interstellar clouds. The data set also indicates that the contribution of these pathways to epoxide formation, in comparison to non-thermal routes, is likely to be strongly temperature dependent. Our results indicate that an increased abundance of epoxides, relative to the corresponding aldehydes, could be an observational signature of a significant contribution to molecular oxidation via thermal O atom reactions with alkenes. Specifically surface science experiments show that both C{sub 2}H{sub 4}O and C{sub 3}H{sub 6}O are readily formed from reactions of ethene and propene molecules with thermalized oxygen atoms at temperatures in the range of 12-90 K. It is clear from our experiments that these reactions, on a graphite surface, proceed with significantly reduced reaction barriers compared with those operating in the gas phase. For both the C{sub 2}H{sub 4} + O and the C{sub 3}H{sub 6} + O reactions, the surface reaction barriers we determine are reduced by approximately an order of magnitude compared with the barriers in the gas phase. The modeling of our experimental results, which determines these reaction barriers, also extracts desorption energies and rate coefficients for the title reactions. Our results clearly show that the major product from the O + C{sub 2}H{sub 4} reaction is ethylene oxide, an epoxide.

  10. Molecular mimicry of substrate oxygen atoms by water molecules in the beta-amylase active site.

    PubMed

    Pujadas, G; Palau, J

    2001-08-01

    Soybean beta-amylase (EC 3.2.1.2) has been crystallized both free and complexed with a variety of ligands. Four water molecules in the free-enzyme catalytic cleft form a multihydrogen-bond network with eight strategic residues involved in enzyme-ligand hydrogen bonds. We show here that the positions of these four water molecules are coincident with the positions of four potential oxygen atoms of the ligands within the complex. Some of these waters are displaced from the active site when the ligands bind to the enzyme. How many are displaced depends on the shape of the ligand. This means that when one of the four positions is not occupied by a ligand oxygen atom, the corresponding water remains. We studied the functional/structural role of these four waters and conclude that their presence means that the conformation of the eight side chains is fixed in all situations (free or complexed enzyme) and preserved from unwanted or forbidden conformational changes that could hamper the catalytic mechanism. The water structure at the active pocket of beta-amylase is therefore essential for providing the ligand recognition process with plasticity. It does not affect the protein active-site geometry and preserves the overall hydrogen-bonding network, irrespective of which ligand is bound to the enzyme. We also investigated whether other enzymes showed a similar role for water. Finally, we discuss the potential use of these results for predicting whether water molecules can mimic ligand atoms in the active center.

  11. Atomic oxygen erosion of a graphite coating on a TQCM onboard the Return Flux Experiment (REFLEX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benner, Steve M.; Lorentson, Charles C.; Chen, Philip T. C.; Thomson, Shaun R.

    1998-10-01

    A TQCM coated with graphite was flown aboard a Spartan carrier in January 1996. During a flight of about 46 hours at an altitude of 305 km, the graphite reacted with the atomic oxygen (AO) in the environment and was eroded away. The 15-MHz TQCM's frequency dropped from 6800 to 4000 Hz in about 15 hours of exposure and was shown to be a strong function of the TQCM's orientation to the ram direction. The erosion rates for four different ram angels was measured and found to be both consistent and repeatable. The average graphite volume loss for the 61 degree and -62 degree ram angles was calculated to be about 2 X E-08 cm3/hr and for the 18 degrees and 19 degrees angles to be about 8.5 X E-08 cm3/hr, which is slightly less than previous flight data. The erosion data was then correlated with AO density numbers for the particular times and positions of the spacecraft in orbit. From this analysis, an equation was derived that shoed the carbon volume loss as a function of both atomic oxygen density and ram angle. For example, 1.59 E-07 cm3/hr would be the calculated carbon volume loss for a ram angle of 0- degrees and an AO fluence of 3.52 E+17 atoms/hr. The results of this data and analysis may lead to the development of a sensor capable of monitoring the AO fluence on a spacecraft.

  12. Direct rate constant measurements for the reaction of ground-state atomic oxygen with ethylene, 244-1052 K

    SciTech Connect

    Klemm, R.B.; Nesbitt, F.L.; Skolnik, E.G.; Lee, J.H.; Smalley, J.F.

    1987-03-12

    The rate constant for the reaction of ground-state atomic oxygen with ethylene was determined by using two techniques: flash photolysis-resonance fluorescence (FP-RF, 244-1052 K) and discharge flow-resonance fluorescence (DF-RF, 298-1017 K). Kinetic complications due to the presence of molecular oxygen in the FP-RF experiments at high temperatures (T > 800 K) were overcome by using NO as the photolytic source of the O atoms. The rate constant, k/sub 1/ (T), derived in this study exhibits extreme non-Arrhenius behavior, but it can be successfully fit to the sum of exponentials expression, 244-1052 K, k/sub 1/(T) = (1.02 +/- 0.06) x 10/sup -11/ exp(-753 +/- 17 K/T) + (2.75 +/- 0.26) x 10/sup -10/ exp(-4220 +/- 550 K/T), in units of cm/sup 3/ molecule/sup -1/ s/sup -1/. Additionally, a fit of the results of this work to a simple transition-state theory expression and the comparison of these results with those of other workers are discussed.

  13. Insights into the Electronic Structure of Ozone and Sulfur Dioxide from Generalized Valence Bond Theory: Addition of Hydrogen Atoms.

    PubMed

    Lindquist, Beth A; Takeshita, Tyler Y; Dunning, Thom H

    2016-05-05

    Ozone (O3) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) are valence isoelectronic species, yet their properties and reactivities differ dramatically. In particular, O3 is highly reactive, whereas SO2 is chemically relatively stable. In this paper, we investigate serial addition of hydrogen atoms to both the terminal atoms of O3 and SO2 and to the central atom of these species. It is well-known that the terminal atoms of O3 are much more amenable to bond formation than those of SO2. We show that the differences in the electronic structure of the π systems in the parent triatomic species account for the differences in the addition of hydrogen atoms to the terminal atoms of O3 and SO2. Further, we find that the π system in SO2, which is a recoupled pair bond dyad, facilitates the addition of hydrogen atoms to the sulfur atom, resulting in stable HSO2 and H2SO2 species.

  14. Mechanism of Photochemical O-Atom Exchange in Nitrosamines with Molecular Oxygen.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Marilene Silva; Ghogare, Ashwini A; Abramova, Inna; Greer, Edyta M; Prado, Fernanda Manso; Di Mascio, Paolo; Greer, Alexander

    2015-06-19

    The detection of an oxygen-atom photoexchange process of N-nitrosamines is reported. The photolysis of four nitrosamines (N-nitrosodiphenylamine 1, N-nitroso-N-methylaniline 2, N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine 3, and N-nitrosodiethylamine 4) with ultraviolet light was examined in an (18)O2-enriched atmosphere in solution. HPLC/MS and HPLC-MS/MS data show that (18)O-labeled nitrosamines were generated for 1 and 2. In contrast, nitrosamines 3 and 4 do not exchange the (18)O label and instead decomposed to amines and/or imines under the conditions. For 1 and 2, the (18)O atom was found not to be introduced by moisture or by singlet oxygen [(18)((1)O2 (1)Δg)] produced thermally by (18)O-(18)O labeled endoperoxide of N,N'-di(2,3-hydroxypropyl)-1,4-naphthalene dipropanamide (DHPN(18)O2) or by visible-light sensitization. A density functional theory study of the structures and energetics of peroxy intermediates arising from reaction of nitrosamines with O2 is also presented. A reversible head-to-tail dimerization of the O-nitrooxide to the 1,2,3,5,6,7-hexaoxadiazocane (30 kcal/mol barrier) with extrusion of O═(18)O accounts for exchange of the oxygen atom label. The unimolecular cyclization of O-nitrooxide to 1,2,3,4-trioxazetidine (46 kcal/mol barrier) followed by a retro [2 + 2] reaction is an alternative, but higher energy process. Both pathways would require the photoexcitation of the nitrooxide.

  15. Validity of actinometry to monitor oxygen atom concentration in microwave discharges created by surface wave in O2-N2 mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granier, A.; Chéreau, D.; Henda, K.; Safari, R.; Leprince, P.

    1994-01-01

    The validity of actinometry to monitor oxygen atom concentration in O2-N2 microwave discharges created by surface wave is investigated. The plasma is created with a gas flow in a quartz tube of inner diameter 16 mm at pressures in the Torr range. First, it is shown that the reliability of actinometry can be deduced from the longitudinal profile of the actinometry signal. Second, absolute concentrations of oxygen atoms are estimated from the experimental actinometry signal and agree satisfactorily with concentrations simultaneously measured by vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) absorption downstream from the plasma. Moreover, upon varying the nitrogen percentage (0%-100%), it is evidenced that the actinometry signal is proportional to the concentration measured by VUV absorption. Furthermore, it is evidenced that the oxygen dissociation rate is only 2% in pure oxygen plasmas, while it reaches 15% (433 MHz) or 30% (2450 MHz) for mixtures containing more than 20% of nitrogen. This drastic increase in [O] upon the addition of N2 is extensively discussed and, finally, attributed to a decrease in the recombination frequency of oxygen atoms on the quartz wall, in the presence of nitrogen.

  16. A Comparison of Atomic Oxygen Degradation in Low Earth Orbit and in a Plasma Etcher

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, Jacqueline A.; Park, Gloria

    1997-01-01

    In low Earth orbit (LEO) significant degradation of certain materials occurs from exposure to atomic oxygen (AO). Orbital opportunities to study this degradation for specific materials are limited and expensive. While plasma etchers are commonly used in ground-based studies because of their low cost and convenience, the environment produced in an etcher chamber differs greatly from the LEO environment. Because of the differences in environment, the validity of using etcher data has remained an open question. In this paper, degradation data for 22 materials from the orbital experiment Evaluation of Oxygen Interaction with Materials (EOIM-3) are compared with data from EOIM-3 control specimens exposed in a typical plasma etcher. This comparison indicates that, when carefully considered, plasma etcher results can produce order-of-magnitude estimates of orbital degradation. This allows the etcher to be used to screen unacceptable materials from further, more expensive tests.

  17. Atomic layer deposition by reaction of molecular oxygen with tetrakisdimethylamido-metal precursors

    SciTech Connect

    Provine, J Schindler, Peter; Torgersen, Jan; Kim, Hyo Jin; Karnthaler, Hans-Peter; Prinz, Fritz B.

    2016-01-15

    Tetrakisdimethylamido (TDMA) based precursors are commonly used to deposit metal oxides such as TiO{sub 2}, ZrO{sub 2}, and HfO{sub 2} by means of chemical vapor deposition and atomic layer deposition (ALD). Both thermal and plasma enhanced ALD (PEALD) have been demonstrated with TDMA-metal precursors. While the reactions of TDMA-type precursors with water and oxygen plasma have been studied in the past, their reactivity with pure O{sub 2} has been overlooked. This paper reports on experimental evaluation of the reaction of molecular oxygen (O{sub 2}) and several metal organic precursors based on TDMA ligands. The effect of O{sub 2} exposure duration and substrate temperature on deposition and film morphology is evaluated and compared to thermal reactions with H{sub 2}O and PEALD with O{sub 2} plasma.

  18. The energy dependence and surface morphology of Kapton (trademark) degradation under atomic oxygen bombardment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, D. C.

    1984-01-01

    Data from laboratory simulations and from samples returned from STS-8 are used to derive the energy dependence of the mass loss rate of Kapton under atomic oxygen bombardment and to discuss the development of surface structure and its effect on erosion rates. It is concluded that all the laboratory data from discharge and flow tubes and from accelerated beams, along with the orbital data from STS-3 through STS-8, can be accommodated by a rate of mass loss that varies with impact energy normal to the surface. It is hypothesized that increases of mass loss rate with exposure time may be due to trapping of the incoming atoms by the surface structure which develops.

  19. A comparative study of atomic oxygen adsorption at Pd surfaces from Density Functional Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bukas, Vanessa J.; Reuter, Karsten

    2017-04-01

    Based on density functional theory, we present a detailed investigation into the on-surface adsorption of atomic oxygen at all three low-index Pd facets in the low-coverage regime. Relying on one consistent computational framework allows for a systematic comparison with respect to surface symmetry, while discerning trends in the adsorption geometries, energies, work functions, and electron densities. We overall find a persisting degree of O-Pd hybridization that is accompanied by minimal charge transfer from the substrate to the adsorbate, thereby resulting in comparable binding energies and diffusion barriers at the three surfaces. Small differences in reactivity are nevertheless reflected in subtle variations of the underlying electronic structure which do not, however, follow the expected order according to atom packing density.

  20. Polymer Growth Rate in a Wire Chamber with Oxygen,Water, or Alcohol Gas Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Boyarski, Adam; /SLAC

    2008-07-02

    The rate of polymer growth on wires was measured in a wire chamber while the chamber was aged initially with helium-isobutane (80:20) gas, and then with either oxygen, water, or alcohol added to the gas. At the completion of the aging process for each gas mixture, the carbon content on the wires was measured in a SEM/EDX instrument. The same physical wires were used in all the gas mixtures, allowing measurement of polymer build up or polymer depletion by each gas additive. It is found that the rate of polymer growth is not changed by the presence of oxygen, water or alcohol. Conjecture that oxygen reduces breakdown by removing polymer deposits on field wires is negated by these measurements. Instead, it appears that the reduced breakdown is due to lower resistance in the polymer from oxygen ions being transported into the polymer. It is also observed that field wires bombarded by the electrons in the SEM and then placed back into the chamber show an abundance of single electrons being emitted, indicating that electron charge is stored in the polymer layer and that a high electric field is necessary to remove the charge.

  1. Use of an Atmospheric Atomic Oxygen Beam for Restoration of Defaced Paintings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Rutledge, Sharon K.; Karla, Margaret; Norris, Mary Jo; Real, William A.; Haytas, Christy A.

    1999-01-01

    An atmospheric atomic oxygen beam has been found to be effective in removing organic materials through oxidation that are typical of graffiti or other contaminant defacements which may occur to the surfaces of paintings. The technique, developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, is portable and was successfully used at the Carnegie Museum of Art to remove a lipstick smudge from the surface of porous paint on the Andy Warhol painting "Bathtub." This process was also evaluated for suitability to remove felt tip and ball point ink graffiti from paper, gesso on canvas and cotton canvas.

  2. Effects on optical systems from interactions with oxygen atoms in low earth orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, P. N.; Swann, J. T.; Gregory, J. C.

    1986-01-01

    Modifications of material surface properties due to interactions with ambient atomic oxygen have been observed on surfaces facing the orbital direction in low earth orbits. Some effects are very damaging to surface optical properties while some are more subtle and even beneficial. Most combustible materials are heavily etched, and some coatings, such as silver and osmium, are seriously degraded or removed as volatile oxides. The growth of oxide films on metals and semiconductors considered stable in dry air was measured. Material removal, surface roughness, reflectance, and optical densities are reported. Effects of temperature, contamination, and overcoatings are noted.

  3. Atomic oxygen and ultraviolet radiation mission total exposures for LDEF experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourassa, R. J.; Gillis, J. R.; Rousslang, Ken W.

    1991-01-01

    An analytical treatment of the effect of thermal molecular velocity on spacecraft atomic oxygen (AO) flux is presented. The analysis leads to a closed form equation that incorporates the effect of atmospheric temperature, number density, spacecraft velocity, and incidence angle on AO flux. The effects of atmospheric rotation, solar activity, and geomagnetic index on AO flux are also included on the computer model. Data developed with the model are presented for the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). The results incorporate variations in the defining environmental and orbital parameters of the spacecraft over its six year orbital flight. Cumulative ultraviolet solar and albedo exposures were calculated .

  4. Self-Passivation of POSS-Kapton-Polyimides in the Presence of Atomic Oxygen (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-29

    Atomic Oxygen (Preprint) 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER S. Tomczak, G. Yandek, J. Mabry (AFRL/RZSM...provided by Astral Technology Unlimited, Inc. Lot No. 00625-007, with a 130 nm SiO2 coating) were exposed to 100k pulses of the beam, along with a...Kapton H®, (b.) SiO2 coated Kapton HN® (Provided by Astral Industries Inc.), and (c.) 8.75 wt % Si8O11 cage MC-POSS-PI. Samples were exposed to 2.3 x

  5. Atomic Oxygen Treatment as a Method of Recovering Smoke Damaged Paintings. Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutledge, Sharon K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Forkapa, Mark; Stueber, Thomas; Sechkar, Edward; Malinowski, Kevin

    1999-01-01

    A noncontact technique is described that uses atomic oxygen, generated under low pressure in the presence of nitrogen, to remove soot and charred varnish from the surface of a painting. The process, which involves surface oxidation, permits control of the amount of surface material removed. The effectiveness of the process was evaluated by reflectance measurements from selected areas made during the removal of soot from acrylic gesso, ink on paper, and varnished oil paint substrates. For the latter substrate, treatment also involved the removal of damaged varnish and paint binder from the surface.

  6. Energetic atomic and ionic oxygen textured optical surfaces for blood glucose monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Disclosed is a method and the resulting product thereof comprising a solid light-conducting fiber with a point of attachment and having a textured surface site consisting a textured distal end prepared by being placed in a vacuum and then subjected to directed hyperthermal beams comprising oxygen ions or atoms. The textured distal end comprises cones or pillars that are spaced upon from each other by less than 1 micron and are extremely suitable to prevent cellular components of blood from entering the valleys between the cones or pillars so as to effectively separate the cellular components in the blood from interfering with optical sensing of the glucose concentration for diabetic patients.

  7. Material Selection Guidelines to Limit Atomic Oxygen Effects on Spacecraft Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dooling, D.; Finckenor, M. M.

    1999-01-01

    This report provides guidelines in selecting materials for satellites and space platforms, designed to operate within the Low-Earth orbit environment, which limit the effects of atomic oxygen interactions with spacecraft surfaces. This document should be treated as an introduction rather than a comprehensive guide since analytical and flight technologies continue to evolve, flight experiments are conducted as primary or piggyback opportunities arise, and our understanding of materials interactions and protection methods grows. The reader is urged to consult recent literature and current web sites containing information about research and flight results.

  8. Inelastic and reactive scattering of hyperthermal atomic oxygen from amorphous carbon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minton, Timothy K.; Nelson, Christine M.; Brinza, David E.; Liang, Ranty H.

    1991-01-01

    The reaction of hyperthermal oxygen atoms with an amorphous carbon-13 surface was studied using a modified universal crossed molecular beams apparatus. Time-of-flight distributions of inelastically scattered O-atoms and reactively scattered CO-13 and CO2-13 were measured with a rotatable mass spectrometer detector. Two inelastic scattering channels were observed, corresponding to a direct inelastic process in which the scattered O-atoms retain 20 to 30 percent of their initial kinetic energy and to a trapping desorption process whereby O-atoms emerge from the surface at thermal velocities. Reactive scattering data imply the formation of two kinds of CO products, slow products whose translational energies are determined by the surface temperature and hyperthermal (Approx. 3 eV) products with translational energies comprising roughly 30 percent of the total available energy (E sub avl), where E sub avl is the sum of the collision energy and the reaction exothermicity. Angular data show that the hyperthermal CO is scattered preferentially in the specular direction. CO2 product was also observed, but at much lower intensities than CO and with only thermal velocities.

  9. Accelerated Oxygen Atom Transfer and C-H Bond Oxygenation by Remote Redox Changes in Fe3 Mn-Iodosobenzene Adducts.

    PubMed

    de Ruiter, Graham; Carsch, Kurtis M; Gul, Sheraz; Chatterjee, Ruchira; Thompson, Niklas B; Takase, Michael K; Yano, Junko; Agapie, Theodor

    2017-03-24

    We report the synthesis, characterization, and reactivity of [LFe3 (PhPz)3 OMn((s) PhIO)][OTf]x (3: x=2; 4: x=3), where 4 is one of very few examples of iodosobenzene-metal adducts characterized by X-ray crystallography. Access to these rare heterometallic clusters enabled differentiation of the metal centers involved in oxygen atom transfer (Mn) or redox modulation (Fe). Specifically, (57) Fe Mössbauer and X-ray absorption spectroscopy provided unique insights into how changes in oxidation state (Fe(III)2 Fe(II) Mn(II) vs. Fe(III)3 Mn(II) ) influence oxygen atom transfer in tetranuclear Fe3 Mn clusters. In particular, a one-electron redox change at a distal metal site leads to a change in oxygen atom transfer reactivity by ca. two orders of magnitude.

  10. Exposure of Pt(5 5 3) and Rh(1 1 1) to atomic and molecular oxygen: do defects enhance subsurface oxygen formation?

    PubMed

    Farber, Rachael G; Turano, Marie E; Oskorep, Eleanor C N; Wands, Noelle T; Juurlink, Ludo B F; Killelea, Daniel R

    2017-04-26

    Subsurface oxygen is known to form in transition metals, and is thought to be an important aspect of their ability to catalyze chemical reactions. The formation of subsurface oxygen is not, however, equivalent across all catalytically relevant metals. As a result, it is difficult to predict the stability and ease of the formation of subsurface oxygen in metals, as well as how the absorbed oxygen affects the chemical and physical properties of the metal. In comparing how a stepped platinum surface, Pt(5 5 3), responds to exposure to gas-phase oxygen atoms under ultra-high vacuum conditions to planar Rh(1 1 1), we are able to determine what role, if any, steps have on the capacity of a metal for subsurface oxygen formation. Despite the presence of regular defects, we found that only surface-bound oxygen formed on Pt(5 5 3). Alternatively, on the Rh(1 1 1) surface, oxygen readily absorbed into the selvedge of the metal. These results suggest that defects alone are insufficient for the formation of subsurface oxygen, and the ability of the metal to absorb oxygen is the primary factor in the formation and stabilization of subsurface oxygen.

  11. Exposure of Pt(5 5 3) and Rh(1 1 1) to atomic and molecular oxygen: do defects enhance subsurface oxygen formation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farber, Rachael G.; Turano, Marie E.; Oskorep, Eleanor C. N.; Wands, Noelle T.; Juurlink, Ludo B. F.; Killelea, Daniel R.

    2017-04-01

    Subsurface oxygen is known to form in transition metals, and is thought to be an important aspect of their ability to catalyze chemical reactions. The formation of subsurface oxygen is not, however, equivalent across all catalytically relevant metals. As a result, it is difficult to predict the stability and ease of the formation of subsurface oxygen in metals, as well as how the absorbed oxygen affects the chemical and physical properties of the metal. In comparing how a stepped platinum surface, Pt(5 5 3), responds to exposure to gas-phase oxygen atoms under ultra-high vacuum conditions to planar Rh(1 1 1), we are able to determine what role, if any, steps have on the capacity of a metal for subsurface oxygen formation. Despite the presence of regular defects, we found that only surface-bound oxygen formed on Pt(5 5 3). Alternatively, on the Rh(1 1 1) surface, oxygen readily absorbed into the selvedge of the metal. These results suggest that defects alone are insufficient for the formation of subsurface oxygen, and the ability of the metal to absorb oxygen is the primary factor in the formation and stabilization of subsurface oxygen.

  12. Electron ionization of metastable nitrogen and oxygen atoms in relation to the auroral emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandya, Siddharth; Joshipura, K. N.

    Atomic and molecular excited metastable states (EMS) are exotic systems due to their special properties like long radiative life-time, large size (average radius) and large polarizability along with relatively smaller first ionization energy compared to their respective ground states (GS). The present work includes our theoretical calculations on electron impact ionization of metastable atomic states N( (2) P), N( (2) D) of nitrogen and O( (1) S), O( (1) D) of oxygen. The targets of our present interest, are found to be present in our Earth's ionosphere and they play an important role in auroral emissions observed in Earth’s auroral regions [1] as also in the emissions observed from cometary coma [2, 3] and airglow emissions. In particular, atomic oxygen in EMS can radiate, the visible O( (1) D -> (3) P) doublet 6300 - 6364 Å red doublet, the O( (1) S -> (1) D) 5577 Å green line, and the ultraviolet O( (1) S -> (3) P) 2972 Å line. For metastable atomic nitrogen one observes the similar emissions, in different wavelengths, from (2) D and (2) P states. At the Earth's auroral altitudes, from where these emissions take place in the ionosphere, energetic electrons are also present. In particular, if the metastable N as well as O atoms are ionized by the impact of electrons then these species are no longer available for emissions. This is a possible loss mechanism, and hence it is necessary to analyze the importance of electron ionization of the EMS of atomic O and N, by calculating the relevant cross sections. In the present paper we investigate electron ionization of the said metastable species by calculating relevant total cross sections. Our quantum mechanical calculations are based on projected approximate ionization contribution in the total inelastic cross sections [4]. Detailed results and discussion along with the significance of these calculations will be presented during the COSPAR-2014. References [1] A.Bhardwaj, and G. R. Gladstone, Rev. Geophys., 38

  13. Oxygen additive amount dependence of rate of photoresist removal by H radicals generated on a tungsten hot-wire catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Masashi; Umemoto, Hironobu; Ohdaira, Keisuke; Shikama, Tomokazu; Nishiyama, Takashi; Horibe, Hideo

    2016-07-01

    We examined an environmentally friendly photoresist removal method using radicals produced by decomposing mixtures of hydrogen and oxygen on a hot tungsten catalyst. The photoresist removal rate increased with the oxygen additive amount (the flow rate ratio of oxygen to hydrogen) up to an optimal amount and then decreased gradually. When the catalyst temperature was 1600 °C, the optimal oxygen additive amount was 1.0% and the removal rate was 1.7 times higher than that in the pure hydrogen system. At 2000 °C, the optimal amount increased to 2.5% but the increase ratio decreased by 1.3 times. At high catalyst temperatures, the absolute removal rate as well as the optimal oxygen additive amount is high, but the increase ratio is low. At the optimal oxygen additive amount, H, O, and OH radicals may exert their effects together to decompose photosensitive polymers.

  14. Interfacial chemistry of poly(methyl methacrylate) arising from exposure to vacuum-ultraviolet light and atomic oxygen.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Hanqiu; Killelea, Daniel R; Tepavcevic, Sanja; Kelber, Scott I; Sibener, S J

    2011-04-28

    We herein report on the chemical and physical changes that occur in thin films of poly(methyl methacrylate), PMMA, induced by exposure to high-energy vacuum ultraviolet radiation and a supersonic beam of neutral, ground electronic state O((3)P) atomic oxygen. A combination of in situ quartz crystal microbalance and in situ Fourier-transform infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy were used to determine the photochemical reaction kinetics and mechanisms during irradiation. The surface morphological changes were measured with atomic force microscopy. The results showed there was no enhancement in the mass loss rate during simultaneous exposure of vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation and atomic oxygen. Rather, the rate of mass loss was impeded when the polymer film was exposed to both reagents. This study elucidates the kinetics of photochemical and oxidative reaction for PMMA, and shows that the synergistic effect involving VUV irradiation and exposure to ground state atomic oxygen depends substantially on the relative fluxes of these reagents.

  15. The red and green lines of atomic oxygen in the nightglow of Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, J. L.

    1990-01-01

    O(1D) and O(1S), the excited states that give rise to the atomic oxygen red and green lines, are produced in the Venus nightglow in dissociative recombination of O2(+). The emissions should also be excited by precipitation of soft electrons, the suggested source of the 'auroral' emission features of atomic oxygen at 1304 and 1356 A, which have been reported from observations of the Pioneer Venus Orbiter Ultraviolet Spectrometer. No emisison at 6300 or 5577 A was detected, however, by the visible spectrophotometers on the Soviet spacecraft Veneras 9 and 10; upper limits have been placed on the intensities of these features. The constraints placed on models for the auroral production mechanism by the Venera upper limits by modeling the intensities of the red and green lines in the nightglow are evaluated, combining a model for the vibrational distribution of O2(+) on the nightside of Venus with rate coefficients recently computed by Guberman for production of O(1S) and O(1D) in dissociative recombination of O2(+) from different vibrational levels. The integrated overhead intensities are 1 - 2 R for the green line and about 46 R for the red line.

  16. Leveling coatings for reducing the atomic oxygen defect density in protected graphite fiber epoxy composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaworske, D. A.; Degroh, K. K.; Podojil, G.; Mccollum, T.; Anzic, J.

    1992-01-01

    Pinholes or other defect sites in a protective oxide coating provide pathways for atomic oxygen in low Earth orbit to reach underlying material. One concept for enhancing the lifetime of materials in low Earth orbits is to apply a leveling coating to the material prior to applying any reflective and protective coatings. Using a surface tension leveling coating concept, a low viscosity epoxy was applied to the surface of several composite coupons. A protective layer of 1000 A of SiO2 was deposited on top of the leveling coating, and the coupons were exposed to an atomic oxygen environment in a plasma asher. Pinhole populations per unit area were estimated by counting the number of undercut sites observed by scanning electron microscopy. Defect density values of 180,000 defects/sq cm were reduced to about 1000 defects/sq cm as a result of the applied leveling coating. These improvements occur at a mass penalty of about 2.5 mg/sq cm.

  17. Leveling coatings for reducing the atomic oxygen defect density in protected graphite fiber epoxy composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaworske, D. A.; Degroh, Kim K.; Podojil, G.; Mccollum, T.; Anzic, J.

    1992-01-01

    Pinholes or other defect sites in a protective oxide coating provide pathways for atomic oxygen in low Earth orbit to reach underlying material. One concept of enhancing the lifetime of materials in low Earth orbit is to apply a leveling coating to the material prior to applying any reflective and protective coatings. Using a surface tension leveling coating concept, a low viscosity epoxy was applied to the surface of several composite coupons. A protective layer of 1000 A of SiO2 was deposited on top of the leveling coating, and the coupons were exposed to an atomic oxygen environment in a plasma asher. Pinhole populations per unit area were estimated by counting the number of undercut sites observed by scanning electron microscopy. Defect density values of 180,000 defects/sq cm were reduced to about 1000 defects/sq cm as a result of the applied leveling coating. These improvements occur at a mass penalty of about 2.5 mg/sq cm.

  18. MISSE 2 PEACE Polymers Experiment Atomic Oxygen Erosion Yield Error Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCarthy, Catherine E.; Banks, Bruce A.; deGroh, Kim, K.

    2010-01-01

    Atomic oxygen erosion of polymers in low Earth orbit (LEO) poses a serious threat to spacecraft performance and durability. To address this, 40 different polymer samples and a sample of pyrolytic graphite, collectively called the PEACE (Polymer Erosion and Contamination Experiment) Polymers, were exposed to the LEO space environment on the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS) for nearly 4 years as part of the Materials International Space Station Experiment 1 & 2 (MISSE 1 & 2). The purpose of the PEACE Polymers experiment was to obtain accurate mass loss measurements in space to combine with ground measurements in order to accurately calculate the atomic oxygen erosion yields of a wide variety of polymeric materials exposed to the LEO space environment for a long period of time. Error calculations were performed in order to determine the accuracy of the mass measurements and therefore of the erosion yield values. The standard deviation, or error, of each factor was incorporated into the fractional uncertainty of the erosion yield for each of three different situations, depending on the post-flight weighing procedure. The resulting error calculations showed the erosion yield values to be very accurate, with an average error of 3.30 percent.

  19. HIGH PRECISION K-SHELL PHOTOABSORPTION CROSS SECTIONS FOR ATOMIC OXYGEN: EXPERIMENT AND THEORY

    SciTech Connect

    McLaughlin, B. M.; Ballance, C. P.; Bowen, K. P.; Gardenghi, D. J.; Stolte, W. C. E-mail: ballance@physics.auburn.edu E-mail: dgardenghi@gmail.com

    2013-07-01

    Photoabsorption of atomic oxygen in the energy region below the 1s {sup -1} threshold in X-ray spectroscopy from Chandra and XMM-Newton is observed in a variety of X-ray binary spectra. Photoabsorption cross sections determined from an R-matrix method with pseudo-states and new, high precision measurements from the Advanced Light Source (ALS) are presented. High-resolution spectroscopy with E/{Delta}E Almost-Equal-To 4250 {+-} 400 was obtained for photon energies from 520 eV to 555 eV at an energy resolution of 124 {+-} 12 meV FWHM. K-shell photoabsorption cross section measurements were made with a re-analysis of previous experimental data on atomic oxygen at the ALS. Natural line widths {Gamma} are extracted for the 1s {sup -1}2s {sup 2}2p {sup 4}({sup 4} P)np {sup 3} P Degree-Sign and 1s {sup -1}2s {sup 2}2p {sup 4}({sup 2} P)np {sup 3} P Degree-Sign Rydberg resonances series and compared with theoretical predictions. Accurate cross sections and line widths are obtained for applications in X-ray astronomy. Excellent agreement between theory and the ALS measurements is shown which will have profound implications for the modeling of X-ray spectra and spectral diagnostics.

  20. Shock-tube measurements of excited oxygen atoms using cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Nations, Marcel; Wang, Shengkai; Goldenstein, Christopher S; Sun, Kai; Davidson, David F; Jeffries, Jay B; Hanson, Ronald K

    2015-10-10

    We report the use of cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (CEAS) using two distributed feedback diode lasers near 777.2 and 844.6 nm for sensitive, time-resolved, in situ measurements of excited-state populations of atomic oxygen in a shock tube. Here, a 1% O2/Ar mixture was shock-heated to 5400-8000 K behind reflected shock waves. The combined use of a low-finesse cavity, fast wavelength scanning of the lasers, and an off-axis alignment enabled measurements with 10 μs time response and low cavity noise. The CEAS absorption gain factors of 104 and 142 for the P35←S520 (777.2 nm) and P0,1,23←S310 (844.6 nm) atomic oxygen transitions, respectively, significantly improved the detection sensitivity over conventional single-pass measurements. This work demonstrates the potential of using CEAS to improve shock-tube studies of nonequilibrium electronic-excitation processes at high temperatures.

  1. Hydrogen atom addition to the surface of graphene nanoflakes: A density functional theory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tachikawa, Hiroto

    2017-02-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) provide a 2-dimensional (2D) reaction surface in 3-dimensional (3D) interstellar space and have been utilized as a model of graphene surfaces. In the present study, the reaction of PAHs with atomic hydrogen was investigated by means of density functional theory (DFT) to systematically elucidate the binding nature of atomic hydrogen to graphene nanoflakes. PAHs with n = 4-37 were chosen, where n indicates the number of benzene rings. Activation energies of hydrogen addition to the graphene surface were calculated to be 5.2-7.0 kcal/mol at the CAM-B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) level, which is almost constant for all PAHs. The binding energies of hydrogen atom were slightly dependent on the size (n): 14.8-28.5 kcal/mol. The absorption spectra showed that a long tail is generated at the low-energy region after hydrogen addition to the graphene surface. The electronic states of hydrogenated graphenes were discussed on the basis of theoretical results.

  2. The molecular oxygen dayglow emissions as proxies for atomic oxygen and ozone in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yankovsky, Valentine A.; Manuilova, Rada; Martyshenko, Kseniia

    Currently there is no reliable method for remote sensing of altitude profile of the [O( (3) P)] in the daytime mesosphere and lower thermosphere, but atomic oxygen is a key component in the mechanism of the atmosphere cooling by quenching of vibrationally excited CO _{2} molecules and also one of basic quencher of electronically excited components in MLT region. On the other hand, airglow emission in 1.27 mum IR Atm(0 - 0) band from O _{2}(a (1) Delta _{g}, v = 0) has been used as a proxy for [O _{3}] in MLT for over a decade. However, this method is not suitable for detecting of relatively rapid [O _{3}] variations which occur due to the variability of the solar spectrum in the UV range (120 - 320 nm) and other space factors. The reason of above mentioned is the large value of photochemical lifetime of the O _{2}(a (1) Delta _{g}, v = 0) molecule which is within tau _{O2(a)} =3 (.) 10 (2) - 1 (.) 10 (3) s in the mesosphere and reaches 3 (.) 10 (3) s in the lower thermosphere. The aim of this study is revealing of proxies for retrievals of [O( (3) P)] and [O _{3}]. In the framework of developed model of electronic vibrational kinetics of excited products of O _{3} and O _{2} photolysis in MLT of the Earth (model YM-2011) [1] we solved direct problem for the system of 10 kinetic equations for populations of electronically-vibrationally excited levels of oxygen molecule O _{2}(a (1) Delta _{g}, v=0 - 5), O _{2}(b (1) Sigma (+) _{g}, v=0, 1, 2) and excited oxygen atom O( (1) D). In whole, more than 60 aeronomical reactions of photoexcitation and deexcitation, of energy transfer between these excited levels and of quenching of the levels in collisions with O( (3) P), O _{2}, N _{2}, O _{3} and CO _{2} are considered. Sensitivity analysis of obtained solutions showed that emissions in 629 nm band of the O _{2}(b (1) Sigma (+) _{g}, v=2) and 762 nm band of the O _{2}(b (1) Sigma (+) _{g}, v=0) molecules can be effective proxies for atomic oxygen in the altitude range 85

  3. Tattoo inks contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons that additionally generate deleterious singlet oxygen.

    PubMed

    Regensburger, Johannes; Lehner, Karin; Maisch, Tim; Vasold, Rudolf; Santarelli, Francesco; Engel, Eva; Gollmer, Anita; König, Burkhard; Landthaler, Michael; Bäumler, Wolfgang

    2010-08-01

    In the past years, tattoos have become very popular worldwide, and millions of people have tattoos with mainly black colours. Black tattoo inks are usually based on soot, are not regulated and may contain hazardous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Part of PAHs possibly stay lifelong in skin, absorb UV radiation and generate singlet oxygen, which may affect skin integrity. Therefore, we analysed 19 commercially available tattoo inks using HPLC and mass spectrometry. The total concentrations of PAHs in the different inks ranged from 0.14 to 201 microg/g tattoo ink. Benz(a)pyrene was found in four ink samples at a mean concentration of 0.3 +/- 0.2 microg/g. We also found high concentrations of phenol ranging from 0.2 to 385 microg/g tattoo ink. PAHs partly show high quantum yields of singlet oxygen (Phi(Delta)) in the range from 0.18 to 0.85. We incubated keratinocytes with extracts of different inks. Subsequent UVA irradiation decreased the mitochondrial activity of cells when the extracts contained PAHs, which sufficiently absorb UVA and show simultaneously high Phi(Delta) value. Tattooing with black inks entails an injection of substantial amounts of phenol and PAHs into skin. Most of these PAHs are carcinogenic and may additionally generate deleterious singlet oxygen inside the dermis when skin is exposed to UVA (e.g. solar radiation).

  4. Generation of reactive oxygen species by interaction between antioxidants used as food additive and metal ions.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Yusuke; Oda, Momoko; Tsukuda, Yuri; Nagamori, Yuki; Nakazawa, Hiroyuki; Ito, Rie; Saito, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    Food additives, such as preservatives, sweeteners, coloring agents, and flavoring agents, are widely used in food manufacturing. However, their combined effects on the human body are not known. The purpose of this study was to examine whether combinations of antioxidants and metal ions generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) under in vitro conditions using electron spin resonance (ESR). Among the metal ions examined, only iron and copper generated ROS in the presence of antioxidants. Moreover, certain phenolic antioxidants having pro-oxidant activity induced DNA oxidation and degradation via the generation of high levels of ROS in the presence of copper ion, resulting in complete degradation of DNA in vitro.

  5. Fullerenes as precursors for diamond film growth without hydrogen or oxygen additions

    SciTech Connect

    Gruen, D.M.; Liu, S.; Krauss, A.R.; Luo, J.; Pan, X.

    1993-10-01

    Diamond films are predominantly grown using one percent or so of a hydrocarbon precursor in hydrogen gas. Hydrogen is generally believed to be necessary for the diamond thin film growth process. However, hydrogen in varying amounts is inevitably incorporated in the growing diamond lattice, leading to structural defects. The authors report here for the first time the successful growth of diamond films using fullerene precursors in an argon microwave plasma, a unique development achieved without the addition of hydrogen or oxygen. It is speculated that collisional fragmentation of C{sub 60} to give C{sub 2} could be responsible for the high growth rate of the very fine grained diamond films.

  6. Integrated safety assessment of an oxygen reduction project at Connecticut Yankee Atomic Power's Haddam Neck plant

    SciTech Connect

    Aubrey, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    Connecticut Yankee Atomic Power Company (CYAPCo) has implemented an Integrated Safety Assessment Program (ISAP) for the integrated evaluation and prioritization of plant-specific licensing issues, regulatory policy issues, and plant improvement projects. As part of the ISAP process, probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) is utilized to evaluate the net safety impact of plant modification projects. On a few occasions, implementation of this approach has resulted in the identification of projects with negative safety impacts that could not be quantified via the normal design review and 10CFR50.59 safety evaluation process. An example is a plant modification that was proposed to reduce the oxygen in the Haddam Neck plant's demineralized water storage tank (DWST). The project involved the design and installation of a nitrogen blanketing system on the DWST. The purpose of the project was to reduce the oxygen content on the secondary side, consistent with recommendations from the Electric Power Research Institute Steam Generator Owners Group. Oxygen is one of the contributors to the corrosion process in systems in contact with the feedwater and can cause damage to associated components if not controlled.

  7. The electronic structure of oxygen atom vacancy and hydroxyl impurity defects on titanium dioxide (110) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minato, Taketoshi; Sainoo, Yasuyuki; Kim, Yousoo; Kato, Hiroyuki S.; Aika, Ken-ichi; Kawai, Maki; Zhao, Jin; Petek, Hrvoje; Huang, Tian; He, Wei; Wang, Bing; Wang, Zhuo; Zhao, Yan; Yang, Jinlong; Hou, J. G.

    2009-03-01

    Introducing a charge into a solid such as a metal oxide through chemical, electrical, or optical means can dramatically change its chemical or physical properties. To minimize its free energy, a lattice will distort in a material specific way to accommodate (screen) the Coulomb and exchange interactions presented by the excess charge. The carrier-lattice correlation in response to these interactions defines the spatial extent of the perturbing charge and can impart extraordinary physical and chemical properties such as superconductivity and catalytic activity. Here we investigate by experiment and theory the atomically resolved distribution of the excess charge created by a single oxygen atom vacancy and a hydroxyl (OH) impurity defects on rutile TiO2(110) surface. Contrary to the conventional model where the charge remains localized at the defect, scanning tunneling microscopy and density functional theory show it to be delocalized over multiple surrounding titanium atoms. The characteristic charge distribution controls the chemical, photocatalytic, and electronic properties of TiO2 surfaces.

  8. Atomic oxygen effects on boron nitride and silicon nitride: A comparison of ground based and space flight data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, J. B.; Lan, E. H.; Smith, C. A.; Whatley, W. J.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of atomic oxygen on boron nitride (BN) and silicon nitride (Si3N4) were evaluated in a low Earth orbit (LEO) flight experiment and in a ground based simulation facility. In both the inflight and ground based experiments, these materials were coated on thin (approx. 250A) silver films, and the electrical resistance of the silver was measured in situ to detect any penetration of atomic oxygen through the BN and Si3N4 materials. In the presence of atomic oxygen, silver oxidizes to form silver oxide, which has a much higher electrical resistance than pure silver. Permeation of atomic oxygen through BN, as indicated by an increase in the electrical resistance of the silver underneath, was observed in both the inflight and ground based experiments. In contrast, no permeation of atomic oxygen through Si3N4 was observed in either the inflight or ground based experiments. The ground based results show good qualitative correlation with the LEO flight results, indicating that ground based facilities such as the one at Los Alamos National Lab can reproduce space flight data from LEO.

  9. A comparison of ground-based and space flight data: Atomic oxygen reactions with boron nitride and silicon nitride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, J. B.; Lan, E. H.; Smith, C. A.; Whatley, W. J.; Koontz, S. L.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of atomic oxygen on boron nitride (BN) and silicon nitride (Si3N4) have been studied in low Earth orbit (LEO) flight experiments and in a ground-based simulation facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Both the in-flight and ground-based experiments employed the materials coated over thin (approx 250 Angstrom) silver films whose electrical resistance was measured in situ to detect penetration of atomic oxygen through the BN and Si3N4 materials. In the presence of atomic oxygen, silver oxidizes to form silver oxide, which has a much higher electrical resistance than pure silver. Permeation of atomic oxygen through BN, as indicated by an increase in the electrical resistance of the silver underneath, was observed in both the in-flight and ground-based experiments. In contrast, no permeation of atomic oxygen through Si3N4 was observed in either the in-flight or ground-based experiments. The ground-based results show good qualitative correlation with the LEO flight results, thus validating the simulation fidelity of the ground-based facility in terms of reproducing LEO flight results.

  10. ADME evaluation in drug discovery. 2. Prediction of partition coefficient by atom-additive approach based on atom-weighted solvent accessible surface areas.

    PubMed

    Hou, T J; Xu, X J

    2003-01-01

    A novel method for the calculations of 1-octanol/water partition coefficient (log P) of organic molecules has been presented here. The method, SLOGP v1.0, estimates the log P values by summing the contribution of atom-weighted solvent accessible surface areas (SASA) and correction factors. Altogether 100 atom/group types were used to classify atoms with different chemical environments, and two correlation factors were used to consider the intermolecular hydrophobic interactions and intramolecular hydrogen bonds. Coefficient values for 100 atom/group and two correction factors have been derived from a training set of 1850 compounds. The parametrization procedure for different kinds of atoms was performed as follows: first, the atoms in a molecule were defined to different atom/group types based on SMARTS language, and the correction factors were determined by substructure searching; then, SASA for each atom/group type was calculated and added; finally, multivariate linear regression analysis was applied to optimize the hydrophobic parameters for different atom/group types and correction factors in order to reproduce the experimental log P. The correlation based on the training set gives a model with the correlation coefficient (r) of 0.988, the standard deviation (SD) of 0.368 log units, and the absolute unsigned mean error of 0.261. Comparison of various procedures of log P calculations for the external test set of 138 organic compounds demonstrates that our method bears very good accuracy and is comparable or even better than the fragment-based approaches. Moreover, the atom-additive approach based on SASA was compared with the simple atom-additive approach based on the number of atoms. The calculated results show that the atom-additive approach based on SASA gives better predictions than the simple atom-additive one. Due to the connection between the molecular conformation and the molecular surface areas, the atom-additive model based on SASA may be a more

  11. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy as additional treatment in deep sternal wound infections – a single center's experience

    PubMed Central

    Bryndza, Magdalena; Chrapusta, Anna; Kobielska, Ewa; Kapelak, Bogusław; Grudzień, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Deep sternal wound infection (DSWI) is one of the most serious complications after cardiac surgery procedures, observed in 5% of patients. Current standard medical therapy for DSWI includes antibiotics, surgical debridement, resuturing or negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT). Unfortunately, in some cases these methods are insufficient, and additional therapeutic options are needed. Aim To assess the effects and usefulness of additional hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO2) in patients with DSWI after cardiac surgery procedures. Material and methods A retrospective analysis of 10 patients after cardiac surgery who developed DSWI in the period 2010–2012 was performed. After 3 months of ineffective conventional therapy including targeted antibiotic, surgical sternal debridement and NPWT, patients were qualified for additional HBO2 therapy. A total of 20 sessions of HBO2 therapy were performed, each 92 minutes long. Results After 4 weeks of HBO2 treatment, 7 patients presented complete wound healing with fibrous scar formation. One patient was qualified for the another cycle of HBO2 therapy with 20 additional sessions, and complete wound healing was observed. In 2 cases, after 5 and 19 sessions, HBO2 was interrupted because of improper qualifications. Conclusions The HBO2 as an additional therapy in DSWI was successful in 80% of cases, and no complications were observed. However, due to the small number of published studies with a small number of patients, randomized, clinical trials are needed to assess the clinical results of HBO2 in DSWI after cardiac surgery procedures. PMID:27785131

  12. Enthalpy of oxygen addition to anthraquinone derivatives determines their ability to mediate NADH oxidation.

    PubMed

    Jeziorek, D; Dyl, D; Liwo, A; Ossowski, T; Woźnicki, W

    1994-10-01

    Anthraquinone derivatives are important anti-cancer drugs possessing undesirable cardiotoxic properties related to their peroxidating activity. Previous studies have suggested that this activity can be caused by the binding of a singlet oxygen molecule to an anthraquinone, followed by the one-electron reduction of the complex formed, and its further dissociation into anthraquinone and the superoxide anion radical. In this study, we have carried out semi-empirical PM3 calculations of the energetics of the formation of peroxides and hydroperoxides from hydroxy, amino and imino derivatives of 9,10-anthracenedione. These calculations were supplemented with ab initio calculations, using STO-3G, 4-31G and 6-31G basis sets, on the energetics of oxygen binding to 1,4-dihydroxy and 1,4-diaminobenzene. It was found that for anthraquinones possessing hydroxyl groups, the formation of hydroperoxides is significantly favored energetically compared with the formation of peroxides. In the case of anthraquinones containing only amino groups, the formation of hydroperoxides is less favorable, owing to a greater enthalpy of amino group deprotonation compared with that of hydroxyl group. The effect of electrostatic solvation on the energetics of oxygen addition was also investigated using the Conductor-like Screening Model (COSMO) approach. The effect of solvation on peroxide formation was found to be small, while in the case of hydroperoxides solvation was found to lower the enthalpy of this reaction by approximately 10 kcal/mol for epsilon = 78 (simulating an aqueous environment). Significant stabilization of hydroperoxides was estimated in weakly polar media (epsilon = 4) which can simulate the quinone-reducing center of the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase. The enthalpies obtained for oxygen addition to anthraquinones involving the formation of the most stable of the peroxide and hydroperoxide species are in good correlation with the rates of NADPH oxidation stimulated by these

  13. LETTER TO THE EDITOR: Enhancement of neutron radiation dose by the addition of sulphur-33 atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porras, I.

    2008-04-01

    The use of neutrons in radiotherapy allows the possibility of producing nuclear reactions in a specific target inserted in the medium. 10B is being used to induce reactions (n, α), a technique called boron neutron capture therapy. I have studied the possibility of inducing a similar reaction using the nucleus of 33S, for which the reaction cross section presents resonances for keV neutrons, the highest peak occurring at 13.5 keV. Here shown, by means of Monte Carlo simulation of point-like sources of neutrons in this energy range, is an enhancement effect on the absorbed dose in water by the addition of 33S atoms. In addition to this, as the range of the alpha particle is of the order of a mammalian cell size, the energy deposition via this reaction results mainly inside the cells adjacent to the interaction site. The main conclusion of the present work is that the insertion of these sulphur atoms in tumoral cells would enhance the effect of neutron irradiation in the keV range.

  14. Chemical reactivity of hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen atoms at temperatures below 100 k

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgee, H. A., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The synthesis of unusual compounds by techniques employing cryogenic cooling to retard their very extreme reactivity was investigated. Examples of such species that were studied are diimide (N2H2), cyclobutadiene (C4H4), cyclopropanone (C3H4O), oxirene (C2H2O), and many others. Special purpose cryogenically cooled inlet arrangements were designed such that the analyses incurred no warm-up of the cold, and frequently explosively unstable, compounds. Controlled energy electron impact techniques were used to measure critical potentials and to develop the molecular energetics and thermodynamics of these molecules and to gain some insight into their kinetic characteristics as well. Three and four carbon strained ring molecules were studied. Several reactions of oxygen and hydrogen atoms with simple molecules of H, N, C, and O in hard quench configurations were studied. And the quench stabilization of BH3 was explored as a model system in cryochemistry.

  15. Oxygen atom reaction with Shuttle materials at orbital altitudes - Data and experiment status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leger, L.

    1983-01-01

    Significant surface characteristics changes have been noticed on materials that were exposed in the payload bay of the Space Shuttle Orbiter on the first four flights. The most notable change was mass loss of Kapton film used as a component of thermal blankets. This film exhibited as much as 35 percent mass loss on STS-3 and loss of material was noticed on all flights. Other changes consist of rapid aging of paints and oxidation of Torlon surfaces. A mechanism has been proposed for the effects described, which involves the interaction of these organic materials with atomic oxygen available at low earth orbital altitudes. Evidence derived from measurements made on Shuttle materials that supports this mechanism will be presented. Experiments planned for near-term Shuttle flights are being developed to obtain quantitative data on reaction rates.

  16. Exceedingly Fast Oxygen Atom Transfer to Olefins via a Catalytically Competent Nonheme Iron Species.

    PubMed

    Serrano-Plana, Joan; Aguinaco, Almudena; Belda, Raquel; García-España, Enrique; Basallote, Manuel G; Company, Anna; Costas, Miquel

    2016-05-17

    The reaction of [Fe(CF3 SO3 )2 (PyNMe3 )] with excess peracetic acid at -40 °C leads to the accumulation of a metastable compound that exists as a pair of electromeric species, [Fe(III) (OOAc)(PyNMe3 )](2+) and [Fe(V) (O)(OAc)(PyNMe3 )](2+) , in fast equilibrium. Stopped-flow UV/Vis analysis confirmed that oxygen atom transfer (OAT) from these electromeric species to olefinic substrates is exceedingly fast, forming epoxides with stereoretention. The impact of the electronic and steric properties of the substrate on the reaction rate could be elucidated, and the relative reactivities determined for the catalytic oxidations could be reproduced by kinetic studies. The observed fast reaction rates and high selectivities demonstrate that this metastable compound is a truly competent OAT intermediate of relevance for nonheme iron catalyzed epoxidations.

  17. Vacuum ultraviolet radiation and thermal cycling effects on atomic oxygen protective photovoltaic array blanket materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brady, J.; Banks, B.

    1990-01-01

    The importance of synergistic environmental exposure is demonstrated through the evaluation of DuPont 93-1 in simulated LEO environment. Changes in optical properties, surface condition, and mass loss data are described. The qualitative results indicate the necessity for exposure of materials to a series of simulated LEO environments in order to properly determine synergistic effects and demonstrate the overall LEO durability of candidate materials. It is shown that synergistic effects may occur with vacuum thermal cycling combined with VUV radiation followed by atomic oxygen exposure. Testing the durability of candidate solar array blanket materials in a test sequence with necessary synergistic effects makes it possible to determine the appropriate material for providing structural support and maintaining the proper operating temperature for solar cells in the SSF Photovaltaic Power System.

  18. Modeling of transmittance degradation caused by optical surface contamination by atomic oxygen reaction with adsorbed silicones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, Aaron; Banks, Bruce A.; Miller, Sharon K.; Stueber, Thomas; Sechkar, Edward

    2000-09-01

    A numerical procedure is presented to calculate transmittance degradation caused by contaminant films on spacecraft surfaces produced through the interaction of orbital atomic oxygen (AO) with volatile silicones and hydrocarbons from spacecraft components. In the model, contaminant accretion is dependent on the adsorption of species, depletion reactions due to gas-surface collisions, desorption, and surface reactions between AO and silicon producing SiOx (where x is near 2). A detailed description of the procedure used to calculate the constituents of the contaminant layer is presented, including the equations that govern the evolution of fractional coverage by specie type. As an illustrative example of film growth, calculation results using a prototype code that calculates the evolution of surface coverage by specie type is presented and discussed. An example of the transmittance degradation caused by surface interaction of AO with deposited contaminant is presented for the case of exponentially decaying contaminant flux. These examples are performed using hypothetical values for the process parameters.

  19. An Investigation of Stress Dependent Atomic Oxygen Erosion of Black Kapton Observed on MISSE 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Sharon K. R.; Banks, Bruce A.; Sechkar, Edward

    2012-01-01

    Black Kapton XC polyimide was flown as part of the Polymer Film Tensile Experiment (PFTE) on Materials International Space Station Experiment 6 (MISSE 6). The purpose of the experiment was to expose a variety of polymer films, typical of those used for thermal control blankets or supporting membranes on Earth orbiting spacecraft, to the low Earth orbital (LEO) environment under both relaxed and tension conditions. Black Kapton XC under tensile stress experienced a higher erosion rate during exposure in LEO than the same material that was flown in a relaxed condition. Testing conducted to determine the magnitude of the stress and erosion dependence using a ground-based thermal energy atomic oxygen plasma showed a slight dependence of erosion yield on stress for Kapton HN and Black Kapton XC, but not to the extent observed on MISSE 6. More testing is needed to isolate the factors present in LEO that cause stress dependent erosion.

  20. Undercutting of defects in thin film protective coatings on polymer surfaces exposed to atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutledge, Sharon K.; Mihelcic, Judith A.

    1989-01-01

    Protection for polymeric surfaces is needed to make them durable in the low earth orbital environment. Thin film coatings of oxides such as SiO2 are viable candidates to provide this protection, but concern has been voiced over the ability of these coatings to protect when defects are present in the coating due to surface anomalies. When a defected coating protecting a polymer substrate is exposed to atomic oxygen, the defect provides a pathway to the underlying polymer allowing oxidation and subsequent undercutting to occur. Defect undercutting was studied for sputter deposited coatings of SiO2 on polyimide Kapton. Preliminary results indicate that undercutting may be limited as long as the coating remains intact with the substrate. Therefore, coatings may not need to be defect free to give protection to the underlying surface.

  1. Protective coating and hyperthermal atomic oxygen texturing of optical fibers used for blood glucose monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of producing cones and pillars on polymethylmethacralate (PMMA) optical fibers for glucose monitoring. The method, in one embodiment, consists of using electron beam evaporation to deposit a non-contiguous thin film of aluminum on the distal ends of the PMMA fibers. The partial coverage of aluminum on the fibers is randomly, but rather uniformly distributed across the end of the optical fibers. After the aluminum deposition, the ends of the fibers are then exposed to hyperthermal atomic oxygen, which oxidizes the areas that are not protected by aluminum. The resulting PMMA fibers have a greatly increased surface area and the cones or pillars are sufficiently close together that the cellular components in blood are excluded from passing into the valleys between the cones and pillars. The optical fibers are then coated with appropriated surface chemistry so that they can optically sense the glucose level in the blood sample than that with conventional glucose monitoring.

  2. The Dependence of Atomic Oxygen Undercutting of Protected Polyimide Kapton(tm) H upon Defect Size

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Aaron; deGroh, Kim K.

    2001-01-01

    Understanding the behavior of polymeric materials when exposed to the low-Earth-orbit (LEO) environment is important in predicting performance characteristics such as in-space durability. Atomic oxygen (AO) present in LEO is known to be the principal agent in causing undercutting erosion of SiO(x) protected polyimide Kapton(R) H film, which serves as a mechanically stable blanket material in solar arrays. The rate of undercutting is dependent on the rate of arrival, directionality and energy of the AO with respect to the film surface. The erosion rate also depends on the distribution of the size of defects existing in the protective coating. This paper presents results of experimental ground testing using low energy, isotropic AO flux together with numerical modeling to determine the dependence of undercutting erosion upon defect size.

  3. Oxygen atom transfer energetics: assessment of the effect of method and solvent.

    PubMed

    Dinescu, Adriana; Whiteley, Clinton; Combs, Rachel R; Cundari, Thomas R

    2006-03-23

    Several density functional methods, the semiempirical methods AM1 and PM3, Hartree-Fock, and Gaussian3 theories were applied to compute the oxygen atom transfer enthalpies for 14 X/XO couples (inorganic and organic systems, charged and neutral species, light and heavy main group element containing molecules). The calculated reaction enthalpies were compared to available experimental data. The G3 method alone was found to perform within the experimental error, while the popular B3LYP and BLYP functionals provided inadequate results. Solvent effects were estimated for 19 neutral and anionic X/XO couples by using the conductor-like polarizable continuum model and several cavity models coupled with the B3LYP/6-31++G(2d,2p) level of theory. Surprisingly, the magnitude of the aqueous solvent correction was found to vary significantly for different solute cavity models, occasionally giving larger errors than the gas-phase calculation.

  4. Energetic Atomic and Ionic Oxygen Textured Optical Surfaces for Blood Glucose Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Disclosed is a method and the resulting product thereof comprising a solid light-conducting fiber with a point of attachment and having a textured surface site consisting of a textured distal end prepared by being placed in a vacuum and then subjected to directed hyperthermal beams comprising oxygen ions or atoms. The textured distal end comprises cones or pillars that are spaced upon from each other by less than 1 micron and are extremely suitable to prevent cellular components of blood from entering the valleys between the cones or pillars so as to effectively separate the cellular components in the blood from interfering with optical sensing of the glucose concentration for diabetic patients.

  5. Electron impact excitation of atomic oxygen - Revised cross sections. [in thermosphere and auroral substorms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zipf, E. C.; Erdman, P. W.

    1985-01-01

    Revised cross-section values for the excitation of three O I resonance transitions at 1304, 1027, and 989 A, by electron impact on atomic oxygen are presented from threshold to 300 eV. These results are smaller than the excitation cross sections used in some airglow models by a factor of about 2.8. The revised values are in good agreement with recent quantum-scattering calculations. The downward revision is required by new laboratory studies in which the direct and dissociative cross sections for 1304 A excitation were normalized with small probable error to the O and O2 ionization cross sections. The results also reflect new advances in VUV optical calibration techniques. A number of outstanding airglow problems are simplified by these revisions.

  6. Atomic Oxygen Treatment Technique for Removal of Smoke Damage from Paintings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutledge, S. K.; Banks, B. A.

    1997-01-01

    Soot deposits that can accumulate on surfaces of a painting during a fire can be difficult to clean from some types of paintings without damaging the underlying paint layers. A non-contact technique has been developed which can remove the soot by allowing a gas containing atomic oxygen to flow over the surface and chemically react with the soot to form carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. The reaction is limited to the surface, so the underlying paint is not touched. The process can be controlled so that the cleaning can be stopped once the paint surface is reached. This paper describes the smoke exposure and cleaning of untreated canvas, acrylic gesso, and sections of an oil painting using this technique. The samples were characterized by optical microscopy and reflectance spectroscopy.

  7. Linear oxygen-sensing response from a rhenium complex induced by heavy atom: synthesis, characterization, photophysical study and sensing performance.

    PubMed

    Wan, Pu; Zhao, Lun; Wang, Lisha; Xu, Guangyang

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, we synthesized a Br-containing ligand of 2-(4-bromophenyl)-5-(pyridin-2-yl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole and its corresponding Re(I) complex. Their synthesis, characterization, single crystal structure, electronic transitions and photophysical property were presented and discussed in detail. This Re(I) complex was found to be a yellow emitter with slim π→π* radiative decay contribution, and its emission was also found to be sensitive towards O2. By doping this Re(I) complex into a polymer matrix, the oxygen-sensing performance of the resulted composite nanofibers was also investigated. Owing to the porous structure of the supporting matrix, the optimal sample gave the highest sensitivity of 3.91 with short response time of only 9 s. In addition, the linearity of the Stern-Volmer plots was greatly improved due to the highly pure emissive center triggered by heavy-atom turbulence effect from Br atom, as indicted by theoretical calculation result.

  8. Linear oxygen-sensing response from a rhenium complex induced by heavy atom: Synthesis, characterization, photophysical study and sensing performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Wan; Lun, Zhao; Lisha, Wang; Guangyang, Xu

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, we synthesized a Br-containing ligand of 2-(4-bromophenyl)-5-(pyridin-2-yl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole and its corresponding Re(I) complex. Their synthesis, characterization, single crystal structure, electronic transitions and photophysical property were presented and discussed in detail. This Re(I) complex was found to be a yellow emitter with slim π → π* radiative decay contribution, and its emission was also found to be sensitive towards O2. By doping this Re(I) complex into a polymer matrix, the oxygen-sensing performance of the resulted composite nanofibers was also investigated. Owing to the porous structure of the supporting matrix, the optimal sample gave the highest sensitivity of 3.91 with short response time of only 9 s. In addition, the linearity of the Stern-Volmer plots was greatly improved due to the highly pure emissive center triggered by heavy-atom turbulence effect from Br atom, as indicted by theoretical calculation result.

  9. Ground-Laboratory to In-Space Atomic Oxygen Correlation for the Polymer Erosion and Contamination Experiment (PEACE) Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stambler, Arielle H.; Inoshita, Karen E.; Roberts, Lily M.; Barbagallo, Claire E.; deGroh, Kim K.; Banks, Bruce A.

    2011-01-01

    The Materials International Space Station Experiment 2 (MISSE 2) Polymer Erosion and Contamination Experiment (PEACE) polymers were exposed to the environment of low Earth orbit (LEO) for 3.95 years from 2001 to 2005. There were 41 different PEACE polymers, which were flown on the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS) in order to determine their atomic oxygen erosion yields. In LEO, atomic oxygen is an environmental durability threat, particularly for long duration mission exposures. Although spaceflight experiments, such as the MISSE 2 PEACE experiment, are ideal for determining LEO environmental durability of spacecraft materials, ground-laboratory testing is often relied upon for durability evaluation and prediction. Unfortunately, significant differences exist between LEO atomic oxygen exposure and atomic oxygen exposure in ground-laboratory facilities. These differences include variations in species, energies, thermal exposures and radiation exposures, all of which may result in different reactions and erosion rates. In an effort to improve the accuracy of ground-based durability testing, ground-laboratory to in-space atomic oxygen correlation experiments have been conducted. In these tests, the atomic oxygen erosion yields of the PEACE polymers were determined relative to Kapton H using a radio-frequency (RF) plasma asher (operated on air). The asher erosion yields were compared to the MISSE 2 PEACE erosion yields to determine the correlation between erosion rates in the two environments. This paper provides a summary of the MISSE 2 PEACE experiment; it reviews the specific polymers tested as well as the techniques used to determine erosion yield in the asher, and it provides a correlation between the space and ground laboratory erosion yield values. Using the PEACE polymers asher to in-space erosion yield ratios will allow more accurate in-space materials performance predictions to be made based on plasma asher durability evaluation.

  10. Atomic oxygen recombination on the ODS PM 1000 at high temperature under air plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balat-Pichelin, M.; Bêche, E.

    2010-06-01

    High temperature materials are necessary for the design of primary heat shields for future reusable space vehicles re-entering atmospheric planet at hypersonic velocity. During the re-entry phase on earth, one of the most important phenomena occurring on the heat shield is the recombination of atomic oxygen and this phenomenon is more or less catalyzed by the material of the heat shield. PM 1000 is planned to be use on the EXPERT capsule to study in real conditions its catalycity. Before the flight, it is necessary to perform measurements on ground test facility. Experimental data of the recombination coefficient of atomic oxygen under air plasma flow were obtained in the diffusion reactor MESOX on pre-oxidized PM 1000, for two total pressures 300 and 1000 Pa in the temperature range (850-1650 K) using actinometry and optical emission spectroscopy. In this investigation, the evolution of the recombination coefficient is dependent of temperature, pressure level and also of the chemical composition of the surface leading to one order of magnitude for a given temperature. The recombination coefficient is increasing with temperature and also dependent on the static pressure. The surface change due to the plasma exposure is inspected with SEM, XRD and XPS. As chromium oxide is the main part of the oxide layer formed during the oxidation in air plasma conditions, a sintered Cr 2O 3 sample was elaborated from powders to compare the data of the recombination coefficient obtained on PM 1000. Pre- and post-test analyses on the several materials were carried out using SEM, WDS, XRD and XPS.

  11. Boosting Bifunctional Oxygen Electrolysis for N-Doped Carbon via Bimetal Addition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Ciucci, Francesco

    2017-02-15

    The addition of transition metals, even in a trace amount, into heteroatom-doped carbon (M-N/C) is intensively investigated to further enhance oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity. However, the influence of metal decoration on the electrolysis of the reverse reaction of ORR, that is, oxygen evolution reaction (OER), is seldom reported. Moreover, further improving the bifunctional activity and corrosion tolerance for carbon-based materials remains a big challenge, especially in OER potential regions. Here, bimetal-decorated, pyridinic N-dominated large-size carbon tubes (MM'-N/C) are proposed for the first time as highly efficient and durable ORR and OER catalysts. FeFe-N/C, CoCo-N/C, NiNi-N/C, MnMn-N/C, FeCo-N/C, NiFe-N/C, FeMn-N/C, CoNi-N/C, MnCo-N/C, and NiMn-N/C are systematically investigated in terms of their structure, composition, morphology, surface area, and active site densities. In contrast to conventional monometal and N-decorated carbon, small amounts of bimetal (≈2 at%) added during the one-step template-free synthesis contribute to increased pyridinic N content, much longer and more robust carbon tubes, reduced metal particle size, and stronger coupling between the encapsulated metals and carbon support. The synergy of those factors accounts for the dramatically improved ORR and OER activity and stability. By comparison, NiFe-N/C and MnCo-N/C stand out and achieve superior bifunctional oxygen catalytic performance, exceeding most of state-of-the-art catalysts.

  12. LIFE Chamber Chemical Equilibrium Simulations with Additive Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Nitrogen

    SciTech Connect

    DeMuth, J A; Simon, A J

    2009-09-03

    In order to enable continuous operation of a Laser Inertial confinement Fusion Energy (LIFE) engine, the material (fill-gas and debris) in the fusion chamber must be carefully managed. The chamber chemical equilibrium compositions for post-shot mixtures are evaluated to determine what compounds will be formed at temperatures 300-5000K. It is desired to know if carbon and or lead will deposit on the walls of the chamber, and if so: at what temperature, and what elements can be added to prevent this from happening. The simulation was conducted using the chemical equilibrium solver Cantera with a Matlab front-end. Solutions were obtained by running equilibrations at constant temperature and constant specific volume over the specified range of temperatures. It was found that if nothing is done, carbon will deposit on the walls once it cools to below 2138K, and lead below 838K. Three solutions to capture the carbon were found: adding pure oxygen, hydrogen/nitrogen combo, and adding pure nitrogen. The best of these was the addition of oxygen which would readily form CO at around 4000K. To determine the temperature at which carbon would deposit on the walls, temperature solutions to evaporation rate equations needed to be found. To determine how much carbon or any species was in the chamber at a given time, chamber flushing equations needed to be developed. Major concerns are deposition of carbon and/or oxygen on the tungsten walls forming tungsten oxides or tungsten carbide which could cause embrittlement and cause failure of the first wall. Further research is needed.

  13. Atomic structure and oxygen deficiency of the ultrathin aluminium oxide barrier in Al/AlOx/Al Josephson junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Lunjie; Tran, Dung Trung; Tai, Cheuk-Wai; Svensson, Gunnar; Olsson, Eva

    2016-07-01

    Al/AlOx/Al Josephson junctions are the building blocks of a wide range of superconducting quantum devices that are key elements for quantum computers, extremely sensitive magnetometers and radiation detectors. The properties of the junctions and the superconducting quantum devices are determined by the atomic structure of the tunnel barrier. The nanoscale dimension and disordered nature of the barrier oxide have been challenges for the direct experimental investigation of the atomic structure of the tunnel barrier. Here we show that the miniaturized dimension of the barrier and the interfacial interaction between crystalline Al and amorphous AlOx give rise to oxygen deficiency at the metal/oxide interfaces. In the interior of the barrier, the oxide resembles the atomic structure of bulk aluminium oxide. Atomic defects such as oxygen vacancies at the interfaces can be the origin of the two-level systems and contribute to decoherence and noise in superconducting quantum circuits.

  14. Atomic structure and oxygen deficiency of the ultrathin aluminium oxide barrier in Al/AlOx/Al Josephson junctions.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Lunjie; Tran, Dung Trung; Tai, Cheuk-Wai; Svensson, Gunnar; Olsson, Eva

    2016-07-12

    Al/AlOx/Al Josephson junctions are the building blocks of a wide range of superconducting quantum devices that are key elements for quantum computers, extremely sensitive magnetometers and radiation detectors. The properties of the junctions and the superconducting quantum devices are determined by the atomic structure of the tunnel barrier. The nanoscale dimension and disordered nature of the barrier oxide have been challenges for the direct experimental investigation of the atomic structure of the tunnel barrier. Here we show that the miniaturized dimension of the barrier and the interfacial interaction between crystalline Al and amorphous AlOx give rise to oxygen deficiency at the metal/oxide interfaces. In the interior of the barrier, the oxide resembles the atomic structure of bulk aluminium oxide. Atomic defects such as oxygen vacancies at the interfaces can be the origin of the two-level systems and contribute to decoherence and noise in superconducting quantum circuits.

  15. Atomic structure and oxygen deficiency of the ultrathin aluminium oxide barrier in Al/AlOx/Al Josephson junctions

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Lunjie; Tran, Dung Trung; Tai, Cheuk-Wai; Svensson, Gunnar; Olsson, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Al/AlOx/Al Josephson junctions are the building blocks of a wide range of superconducting quantum devices that are key elements for quantum computers, extremely sensitive magnetometers and radiation detectors. The properties of the junctions and the superconducting quantum devices are determined by the atomic structure of the tunnel barrier. The nanoscale dimension and disordered nature of the barrier oxide have been challenges for the direct experimental investigation of the atomic structure of the tunnel barrier. Here we show that the miniaturized dimension of the barrier and the interfacial interaction between crystalline Al and amorphous AlOx give rise to oxygen deficiency at the metal/oxide interfaces. In the interior of the barrier, the oxide resembles the atomic structure of bulk aluminium oxide. Atomic defects such as oxygen vacancies at the interfaces can be the origin of the two-level systems and contribute to decoherence and noise in superconducting quantum circuits. PMID:27403611

  16. Effects of atomic oxygen and ultraviolet radiation on candidate elastomeric materials for long duration missions. Test series no.1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linton, R. C.; Finckenor, M. M.; Kamenetzky, R. R.; Gray, P.

    1993-01-01

    Research was conducted at MSFC on the behavior of elastomeric materials after exposure to simulated space environment. Silicone S383 and Viton V747 samples were exposed to thermal vacuum, ultraviolet radiation, and atomic oxygen and then evaluated for changes in material properties. Characterization of the elastomeric materials included weight, hardness, optical inspection under normal and black light, spectrofluorescence, solar absorptance and emittance, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and permeability. These results indicate a degree of sensitivity to exposure and provided some evidence of UV and atomic oxygen synergism.

  17. Spatial and temporal variations in infrared emissions of the upper atmosphere. 1. Atomic oxygen (λ 63 μm) emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenov, A. I.; Medvedeva, I. V.; Perminov, V. I.; Khomich, V. Yu.

    2016-09-01

    Rocket and balloon measurement data on atomic-oxygen (λ 63 µm) emission in the upper atmosphere are presented. The data from the longest (1989-2003) period of measurements of the atomic-oxygen (λ 63 µm) emission intensity obtained by spectral instruments on sounding balloons at an altitude of 38 km at midlatitudes have been systematized and analyzed. Regularities in diurnal and seasonal variations in the intensity of this emission, as well as in its relation with solar activity, have been revealed.

  18. Angular distributions of 5eV atomic oxygen scattered from solid surfaces on the LDEF satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, John C.; Peters, Palmer N.

    1992-01-01

    The angular distribution of 5eV atomic oxygen scattered off several smooth solid surfaces was measured by experiment A0114 which flew on board the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). Target surfaces were silver, vitreous carbon, and lithium fluoride crystal. The apparatus was entirely passive. It used the property of silver surfaces to absorb oxygen atoms with high efficiency; the silver is converted to optically transmissive silver oxide. A collimated beam of oxygen atoms is allowed to fall on the target surface at some pre-set angle. Reflected atoms are then intercepted by a silver film placed so that it subtends a considerable solid angle from the primary beam impact on the target surface. The silver films are evaporated onto flexible optically-clear polycarbonate sheets which are scanned later to determine oxygen uptake. While the silver detector cannot measure atom velocity or energy, its physical configuration allows easy coverage of large angular space both in the beam-plane (that which includes the incident beam and the surface normal), and in the azimuthal plane of the target surface.

  19. Highly Functionalized Cyclopentane Derivatives by Tandem Michael Addition/Radical Cyclization/Oxygenation Reactions.

    PubMed

    Holan, Martin; Pohl, Radek; Císařová, Ivana; Klepetářová, Blanka; Jones, Peter G; Jahn, Ullrich

    2015-06-26

    Densely functionalized cyclopentane derivatives with up to four consecutive stereocenters are assembled by a tandem Michael addition/single-electron transfer oxidation/radical cyclization/oxygenation strategy mediated by ferrocenium hexafluorophosphate, a recyclable, less toxic single-electron transfer oxidant. Ester enolates were coupled with α-benzylidene and α-alkylidene β-dicarbonyl compounds with switchable diastereoselectivity. This pivotal steering element subsequently controls the diastereoselectivity of the radical cyclization step. The substitution pattern of the radical cyclization acceptor enables a switch of the cyclization mode from a 5-exo pattern for terminally substituted olefin units to a 6-endo mode for internally substituted acceptors. The oxidative anionic/radical strategy also allows efficient termination by oxygenation with the free radical 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinoxyl, and two C-C bonds and one C-O bond are thus formed in the sequence. A stereochemical model is proposed that accounts for all of the experimental results and allows the prediction of the stereochemical outcome. Further transformations of the synthesized cyclopentanes are reported.

  20. K-shell Photoioinization of the atomic nitrogen and oxygen isonuclear sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaughlin, Brendan M.

    2016-05-01

    The advent of third and fourth generation light sources, such as the ALS at Berkeley, USA, SOLEIL in Orsay, France and PETRA III in Hamburg, Germany, this past decade or more and the unprecedented high brightness and spectral resolution have made it possible to perform detailed cross section measurements in the X-ray region of extremely important astrophysical elements such as Carbon, Nitrogen and Oxygen and their isonuclear sequences. In tandem with this world wide experimental endeavour theoretical work has provided interpretation in unravelling and identifying prominent resonance features in the spectra in the vicinity of the K-shell region. For the atomic oxygen sequence (Kα and Kβ resonance positions in the vicinity of the K-edge) we note that ground based measurements (ALS and SOLEIL) and R-matrix with pseudo-states (RMPS) theoretical results are in agreement but are ~ 0.5 eV in discrepancy with satellite observations from CHANDRA and XMM-NEWTON. A review of the current status of experiment, theory and observation will be presented for the various sequences. Supported by NSF, DOE, CNRS, DFG, NERSC and HLRS at Stuttgart University.

  1. Oxygen atom transfer reactions from Mimoun complexes to sulfides and sulfoxides. A bonding evolution theory analysis.

    PubMed

    González-Navarrete, Patricio; Sensato, Fabricio R; Andrés, Juan; Longo, Elson

    2014-08-07

    In this research, a comprehensive theoretical investigation has been conducted on oxygen atom transfer (OAT) reactions from Mimoun complexes to sulfides and sulfoxides. The joint use of the electron localization function (ELF) and Thom's catastrophe theory (CT) provides a powerful tool to analyze the evolution of chemical events along a reaction pathway. The progress of the reaction has been monitored by structural stability domains from ELF topology while the changes between them are controlled by turning points derived from CT which reveal that the reaction mechanism can be separated in several steps: first, a rupture of the peroxo O1-O2 bond, then a rearrangement of lone pairs of the sulfur atom occurs and subsequently the formation of S-O1 bond. The OAT process involving the oxidation of sulfides and sulfoxides is found to be an asynchronous process where O1-O2 bond breaking and S-O1 bond formation processes do not occur simultaneously. Nucleophilic/electrophilic characters of both dimethyl sulfide and dimethyl sulfoxide, respectively, are sufficiently described by our results, which hold the key to unprecedented insight into the mapping of electrons that compose the bonds while the bonds change.

  2. Treatment of enterococcus faecalis bacteria by a helium atmospheric cold plasma brush with oxygen addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei; Huang, Jun; Du, Ning; Liu, Xiao-Di; Wang, Xing-Quan; Lv, Guo-Hua; Zhang, Guo-Ping; Guo, Li-Hong; Yang, Si-Ze

    2012-07-01

    An atmospheric cold plasma brush suitable for large area and low-temperature plasma-based sterilization is designed. Results demonstrate that the He/O2 plasma more effectively kills Enterococcus faecalis than the pure He plasma. In addition, the sterilization efficiency values of the He/O2 plasma depend on the oxygen fraction in Helium gas. The atmospheric cold plasma brush using a proper ratio of He/O2 (2.5%) reaches the optimum sterilization efficiency. After plasma treatment, the cell structure and morphology changes can be observed by the scanning electron microscopy. Optical emission measurements indicate that reactive species such as O and OH play a significant role in the sterilization process.

  3. Treatment of enterococcus faecalis bacteria by a helium atmospheric cold plasma brush with oxygen addition

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Wei; Huang Jun; Wang Xingquan; Lv Guohua; Zhang Guoping; Du Ning; Liu Xiaodi; Guo Lihong; Yang Size

    2012-07-01

    An atmospheric cold plasma brush suitable for large area and low-temperature plasma-based sterilization is designed. Results demonstrate that the He/O{sub 2} plasma more effectively kills Enterococcus faecalis than the pure He plasma. In addition, the sterilization efficiency values of the He/O{sub 2} plasma depend on the oxygen fraction in Helium gas. The atmospheric cold plasma brush using a proper ratio of He/O{sub 2} (2.5%) reaches the optimum sterilization efficiency. After plasma treatment, the cell structure and morphology changes can be observed by the scanning electron microscopy. Optical emission measurements indicate that reactive species such as O and OH play a significant role in the sterilization process.

  4. Three-dimensional evaluation of gettering ability for oxygen atoms at small-angle tilt boundaries in Czochralski-grown silicon crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Ohno, Yutaka Inoue, Kaihei; Fujiwara, Kozo; Deura, Momoko; Kutsukake, Kentaro; Yonenaga, Ichiro; Shimizu, Yasuo; Inoue, Koji; Ebisawa, Naoki; Nagai, Yasuyoshi

    2015-06-22

    Three-dimensional distribution of oxygen atoms at small-angle tilt boundaries (SATBs) in Czochralski-grown p-type silicon ingots was investigated by atom probe tomography combined with transmission electron microscopy. Oxygen gettering along edge dislocations composing SATBs, post crystal growth, was observed. The gettering ability of SATBs would depend both on the dislocation strain and on the dislocation density. Oxygen atoms would agglomerate in the atomic sites under the tensile hydrostatic stress larger than about 2.0 GPa induced by the dislocations. It was suggested that the density of the atomic sites, depending on the tilt angle of SATBs, determined the gettering ability of SATBs.

  5. Biodegradation of potential diesel oxygenate additives: dibutyl maleate (DBM), and tripropylene glycol methyl ether (TGME).

    PubMed

    Marchetti, Alfredo A; Knize, Mark G; Chiarappa-Zucca, Marina L; Pletcher, Ronald J; Layton, David W

    2003-08-01

    The addition of oxygen-bearing compounds to diesel fuel considerably reduces particulate emissions. TGME and DBM have been identified as possible diesel additives based on their physicochemical characteristics and performance in engine tests. Although these compounds will reduce particulate emissions, their potential environmental impacts are unknown. As a means of characterizing their persistence in environmental media such as soil and groundwater, we conducted a series of biodegradation tests of DBM and TGME. Benzene and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) were also tested as reference compounds. Primary degradation of DBM fully occurred within 3 days, while TGME presented a lag phase of approximately 8 days and was not completely degraded by day 28. Benzene primary degradation occurred completely by day 3 and MTBE did not degrade at all. The total mineralized fractions of DBM and TGME achieved constant values as a function of time of approximately 65% and approximately 40%, respectively. Transport predictions show that, released to the environment, DBM and TGME would concentrate mostly in soils and waters with minimal impact to air. From an environmental standpoint, these results combined with the transport predictions indicate that DBM is a better choice than TGME as a diesel additive.

  6. Roles of additives and surface control in slurry atomization. Final project report

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, S.C.

    1992-12-31

    This project studies the rheology and airblast atomization of micronized coal slurries. Its major objectives are (1) to promote further understanding of the mechanisms and the roles of additives in airblast atomization of coal water slurry (CWS), and (2) to investigate the impacts of coal particle surface properties and interparticle forces on CWS rheology. We have found that the flow behavior index (n) of a suspension (or slurry) is determined by the relative importance of the interparticle van der Waals attraction and the interparticle electrostatic repulsion. The interparticle attraction, measured by the Hamaker constant scaled to the thermal energy at 25{degrees}C (A/kT), causes particle aggregation, which breaks down at high shear rates, and thus leads to slurry pseudoplastic behavior (n< 1). At a constant particle volume fraction and surface charge density (qualitatively measured by the zeta potential in deionized water), n decreases linearly as A/kT increases. The relative viscosity of the pseudoplastic suspension with respect to that of the suspending liquid is found to be independent of particle density and correlate well with the particle Peclet number which equals the particle diffusional relaxation time multiplied by shear rate. Specifically, the relative viscosities of the pseudoplastic glycerol/water coal slurry and the ethylene glycol/glycerol sand slurry, at same volume fractions as well as similar particle size distributions and liquid viscosities, as functions of the particle Peclet number fall along the same line.

  7. Effect of oxygen atoms dissociated by non-equilibrium plasma on flame of methane oxygen and argon pre-mixture gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akashi, Haruaki; Yoshinaga, Tomokazu; Sasaki, Koichi

    2014-10-01

    For more efficient way of combustion, plasma-assisted combustion has been investigated by many researchers. But it is very difficult to clarify the effect of plasma even on the flame of methane. Because there are many complex chemical reactions in combustion system. Sasaki et al. has reported that the flame length of methane and air premixed burner shortened by irradiating microwave power. They also measured emission from Second Positive Band System of nitrogen during the irradiation. The emission indicates existence of high energy electrons which are accelerated by the microwave. The high energy electrons also dissociate oxygen molecules easily and oxygen atom would have some effects on the flame. But the dissociation ratio of oxygen molecules by the non-equilibrium plasma is significantly low, compared to that in the combustion reaction. To clarify the effect of dissociated oxygen atoms on the flame, dependence of dissociation ratio of oxygen on the flame has been examined using CHEMKIN. It is found that in the case of low dissociation ratio of 10-6, the ignition of the flame becomes slightly earlier. It is also found that in the case of high dissociation ratio of 10-3, the ignition time becomes significantly earlier by almost half. This work was supported by KAKENHI (22340170).

  8. Hydrodynamics-assisted scalable production of boron nitride nanosheets and their application in improving oxygen-atom erosion resistance of polymeric composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Min; Shen, Zhigang; Zhang, Wen; Zhu, Jinyang; Liu, Lei; Liang, Shuaishuai; Zhang, Xiaojing; Ma, Shulin

    2013-10-01

    Searching for a method for low-cost, easily manageable, and scalable production of boron nitride nanosheets (BNNSs) and exploring their novel applications are highly important. For the first time we demonstrate that a novel and effective hydrodynamics method, which involves multiple exfoliation mechanisms and thus leads to much higher yield and efficiency, can realize large-scale production of BNNSs. The exfoliation mechanisms that multiple fluid dynamics events contribute towards normal and lateral exfoliation processes could be applied to other layered materials. Up to ~95% of the prepared BNNSs are less than 3.5 nm thick with a monolayer fraction of ~37%. Compared to the conventional sonication and ball milling-based methods, the hydrodynamics method has the advantages of possessing multiple efficient ways for exfoliating BN, being low-cost and environmentally-friendly, producing high quality BNNSs in high yield and efficiency, and achieving concentrated BNNSs dispersions even in mediocre solvents. It is also shown for the first time that BNNSs can be utilized as fillers to improve the oxygen-atom erosion resistance of epoxy composites which are widely used for spacecraft in low earth orbit (LEO) where atom oxygen abounds. An addition of only 0.5 wt% BNNSs can result in a 70% decrease in the mass loss of epoxy composites after atom oxygen exposure equivalent to 160 days in an orbit of ~300 km. Overall, the demonstrated hydrodynamics method shows great potential in large-scale production of BNNSs in industry in terms of yield, efficiency, and environmental friendliness; and the innovative application of BNNSs to enhancing oxygen-atom erosion resistance of polymeric composites in space may provide a novel route for designing light spacecraft in LEO.Searching for a method for low-cost, easily manageable, and scalable production of boron nitride nanosheets (BNNSs) and exploring their novel applications are highly important. For the first time we demonstrate that a

  9. Conductance and spin-filter effects of oxygen-incorporated Au, Cu, and Fe single-atom chains

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Xiaolong; Xie, Yi-Qun Ye, Xiang; Ke, San-Huang

    2015-01-28

    We studied the spin-polarized electron transport in oxygen-incorporated Au, Cu, and Fe single-atom chains (SACs) by first-principles calculations. We first investigated the mechanism responsible for the low conductance (<1G{sub 0}) of the Au and Cu SACs in an oxygen environment reported in recent experiments. We found that for the Au SACs, the low conductance plateau around 0.6G{sub 0} can be attributed to a distorted chain doped with a single oxygen atom, while the 0.1G{sub 0} conductance comes from a linear chain incorporated with an oxygen molecule and is caused by an antibonding state formed by oxygen's occupied frontier orbital with d{sub z} orbitals of adjacent Au atoms. For the Cu SACs, the conductance about 0.3G{sub 0} is ascribed to a special configuration that contains Cu and O atoms in an alternating sequence. This exhibits an even-odd conductance oscillation with an amplitude of ∼0.1G{sub 0}. In contrast, for the alternating Fe-O SACs, conductance overall decreases with an increase in O atoms and it approaches nearly zero for the chain with more than four O atoms. While the Cu-O SACs behave as perfect spin filters for one spin channel due to the half metallic nature, the Fe-O SACs can serve as perfect spin filters for two spin channels depending on the polarity of the applied gate voltage.

  10. Hydrodynamics-assisted scalable production of boron nitride nanosheets and their application in improving oxygen-atom erosion resistance of polymeric composites.

    PubMed

    Yi, Min; Shen, Zhigang; Zhang, Wen; Zhu, Jinyang; Liu, Lei; Liang, Shuaishuai; Zhang, Xiaojing; Ma, Shulin

    2013-11-07

    Searching for a method for low-cost, easily manageable, and scalable production of boron nitride nanosheets (BNNSs) and exploring their novel applications are highly important. For the first time we demonstrate that a novel and effective hydrodynamics method, which involves multiple exfoliation mechanisms and thus leads to much higher yield and efficiency, can realize large-scale production of BNNSs. The exfoliation mechanisms that multiple fluid dynamics events contribute towards normal and lateral exfoliation processes could be applied to other layered materials. Up to ~95% of the prepared BNNSs are less than 3.5 nm thick with a monolayer fraction of ~37%. Compared to the conventional sonication and ball milling-based methods, the hydrodynamics method has the advantages of possessing multiple efficient ways for exfoliating BN, being low-cost and environmentally-friendly, producing high quality BNNSs in high yield and efficiency, and achieving concentrated BNNSs dispersions even in mediocre solvents. It is also shown for the first time that BNNSs can be utilized as fillers to improve the oxygen-atom erosion resistance of epoxy composites which are widely used for spacecraft in low earth orbit (LEO) where atom oxygen abounds. An addition of only 0.5 wt% BNNSs can result in a 70% decrease in the mass loss of epoxy composites after atom oxygen exposure equivalent to 160 days in an orbit of ~300 km. Overall, the demonstrated hydrodynamics method shows great potential in large-scale production of BNNSs in industry in terms of yield, efficiency, and environmental friendliness; and the innovative application of BNNSs to enhancing oxygen-atom erosion resistance of polymeric composites in space may provide a novel route for designing light spacecraft in LEO.

  11. Orbital atomic oxygen effects on materials: An overview of MSFC experiments on the STS-46 EOIM-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linton, Roger C.; Vaughn, Jason A.; Finckenor, Miria M.; Kamenetzky, Rachel R.; Dehaye, Robert F.; Whitaker, Ann F.

    1995-01-01

    The third Evaluation of Oxygen Interaction with Materials experiment was flown on Space Shuttle Mission STS-46 (July 31 - August 8, 1992), representing a joint effort of several NASA centers, universities, and contractors. This array of active instrumentation and material exposure sub-assemblies was integrated as a Shuttle cargo bay pallet experiment for investigating the effects of orbital atomic oxygen on candidate space materials. Marshall Space Flight Center contributed several passive exposure trays of material specimens, uniform stress and static stress material exposure fixtures, the Atomic Oxygen Resistance Monitor (AORM), and specimens of thermal coatings for the EOIM-3 variable exposure mechanisms. As a result of 42 hours of spacecraft velocity vector-oriented exposure during the later phases of the STS-46 mission in LEO, EOIM-3 materials were exposed to an atomic oxygen fluence of 2.2 x 10(exp 20) atoms/sq cm. In this paper, an overview is presented of the technical approaches and results from analyses of the MSFC flight specimens, fixtures, and the AORM. More detailed results from earlier EOIM missions, the LDEF, and from laboratory testing are included in associated papers of this conference session.

  12. Influence of oxygen partial pressure and silver additions on microstructure and related properties of YBCO superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, J.P.; Joo, J.; Guttschow, R.; Poeppel, R.B.

    1992-02-01

    Microstructure has a great influence on the mechanical and superconducting properties of YBCO. Mechanical properties of YBCO can be improved by both modifying the monolithic microstructure and developing composites of YBCO with silver (Ag). When monolithic YBCO was sintered to high densities ({approx} 91%) at a relatively low temperature ({approx} 910{degrees}C) by controlling oxygen partial pressure during sintering, the result was a small-grain microstructure (average grain size {approx} 5 {mu}m) and hence a high strength of 191 {plus_minus} 7 MPa. Addition of Ag as a second phase further improved the strength of YBCO. Composites of YBCO with 10 to 15 vol % Ag has a strength of 225 {plus_minus} 6 MPa and a fracture toughness of 3.3 {plus_minus} 0.2 MPa{radical}m. These improvements are believed to be due to compressive stresses in the YBCO matrix as a result of thermal mismatch between the YBCO and Ag phases. Furthermore, the Ag particles may provide increased resistance to crack propagation by pinning the crack. On the other hand, addition of Ag as a dopant to substitute for Cu sites in YBCO has a profound but nonmonotonic effect on grain microstructure and the resulting critical current density.

  13. Influence of oxygen partial pressure and silver additions on microstructure and related properties of YBCO superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, J.P.; Joo, J.; Guttschow, R.; Poeppel, R.B.

    1992-02-01

    Microstructure has a great influence on the mechanical and superconducting properties of YBCO. Mechanical properties of YBCO can be improved by both modifying the monolithic microstructure and developing composites of YBCO with silver (Ag). When monolithic YBCO was sintered to high densities ({approx} 91%) at a relatively low temperature ({approx} 910{degrees}C) by controlling oxygen partial pressure during sintering, the result was a small-grain microstructure (average grain size {approx} 5 {mu}m) and hence a high strength of 191 {plus minus} 7 MPa. Addition of Ag as a second phase further improved the strength of YBCO. Composites of YBCO with 10 to 15 vol % Ag has a strength of 225 {plus minus} 6 MPa and a fracture toughness of 3.3 {plus minus} 0.2 MPa{radical}m. These improvements are believed to be due to compressive stresses in the YBCO matrix as a result of thermal mismatch between the YBCO and Ag phases. Furthermore, the Ag particles may provide increased resistance to crack propagation by pinning the crack. On the other hand, addition of Ag as a dopant to substitute for Cu sites in YBCO has a profound but nonmonotonic effect on grain microstructure and the resulting critical current density.

  14. Practicality of Using Oxygen Atom Emissions to Evaluate the Habitability of Extra-Solar Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slanger, T. G.

    2005-12-01

    It has previously been proposed [Akasofu, 1999] that observation of the O(1S - 1D) green line from the atmospheres of extra-solar planets might be a marker for habitability. Guidance on this question is available within our own solar system. The green line is a dominant feature in the visible terrestrial nightglow, and the ultimate origin of its mesospheric emission is the three-body recombination of oxygen atoms. Until recently, it was believed that the green line was not a feature of the nightglows of the CO2 planets, Venus and Mars. It is now known that Venus at times shows green line emission with an intensity equal to terrestrial values [Slanger et al., 2001]. Furthermore, the intensity is quite variable, as is true for the much stronger O2( a-X) 1.27 μ emission. Recent observations of the Mars nightglow [Bertaux et al., 2005] give ambiguous results in the region of the O(1S-3P) line at 297.2 nm, but the same line in the dayglow is very strong, as evidenced in earlier Mariner results [Barth et al., 1971], and from the recent Mars Express data [F. Leblanc, private communication]. The O(1D-3P) 630 nm red line is a feature associated with Io, where dissociation of SO2 is a presumed source [Scherb et al., 1998]. Thus, observation of the oxygen green/red lines in the atmospheres of extrasolar planets provides insufficient information to reach conclusions about a habitable environment. Such detection would only indicate that there are oxygen-containing molecules present. Determination of an O2 column depth, by Fraunhofer A-band absorption, would be much more conclusive. Akasofu, S.-I., EOS, Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, 80, 397, 1999. Barth, C.A., C.W. Hord, J.B. Pearce, K.K. Kelly, G.P. Anderson, and A.I. Stewart, Mariner 6 and 7 Ultraviolet Spectrometer Experiment: Upper Atmosphere Data, Journal of Geophysical Research, 76, 2213-2227, 1971. Bertaux, J.-L., F. Leblanc, S. Perrier, E. Quemerais, O. Korablev, E. Dimarellis, A. Reberac, F. Forget, P

  15. Protection of Diamond-like Carbon Films from Energetic Atomic Oxygen Degradation Through Si-doping Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Yokota, Kumiko; Tagawa, Masahito; Kitamura, Akira; Matsumoto, Koji; Yoshigoe, Akitaka; Teraoka, Yuden; Fontaine, Julien; Belin, Michel

    2009-01-05

    The effect of hyperthermal atomic oxygen (AO) exposure on the surface properties of Si-doped diamond-like carbon (DLC) was investigated. Two types of DLC were tested that contain approximately 10 at% and 20 at% of Si atoms. Surface analytical results of high-resolution x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation (synchrotron radiation photoemission spectroscopy; SR-PES) as well as Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) have been used for characterization of the AO-exposed Si-doped DLC. It was identified by SR-PES that a SiO{sub 2} layer was formed by the hyperthermal AO exposure at the Si-doped DLC surface. RBS data indicates that AO exposure leads to severe thickness loss on the undopedd DLC. In contrast, a SiO{sub 2} layer formed by the hyperthermal atomic oxygen reaction of Si-doped DLC protects the DLC underneath the SiO{sub 2} layer.

  16. Analytical and experimental investigation of the feasibility of accelerated lifetime testing of materials exposed to an atomic oxygen beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albridge, Royal; Barnes, Alan; Tolk, Norman

    1993-01-01

    The interaction of atomic particles with surfaces is of both scientific and technological interest. Past work emphasizes the measurement of high-energy sputtering yields. Very little work utilized low-energy beams for which chemical and electronic effects can be important. Even less work has been carried out using well-defined low-energy projectiles. The use of low-energy, reactive projectiles permits one to investigate surface processes that have not been well characterized. As the energy of the projectile decreases, the collisional cascades and spikes, that are common for high-energy projectiles, become less important, and chemical and electronic effects can play a significant role. Aspects of particle-surface interactions are of concern in several areas of technology. For example, the erosion, desorption, and glow of surfaces of spacecraft in orbit are important in the arena of space technology. The materials studied under this contract are of possible use on the exterior portions of the power generation system of Space Station Freedom. Under the original designs, Space Station Freedom's power generation system would generate potential differences on the surface as high as 200 volts. Ions in the plasma that often surround orbiting vehicles would be accelerated by these potentials leading to bombardment and erosion of the exposed surfaces. The major constituent of the atmosphere, approximately 90 percent, in the low earth orbit region is atomic oxygen. Since atomic oxygen is extremely reactive with most materials, chemical effects can arise in addition to the physical sputtering caused by the acceleration of the oxygen ions. Furthermore, the incident oxygen ions can remain embedded in the exposed surfaces, altering the chemical composition of the surfaces. Since the effective binding energy of a chemically altered surface can be quite different from that of the pure substrate, the sputtering yield of a chemically altered surface is usually different also. The low

  17. Mobility of Xe atoms within the Oxygen Diffusion Channel of Cytochrome ba3 Oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Luna, V. Mitch; Fee, James A.; Deniz, Ashok A.; Stout, C. David

    2012-01-01

    We use a form of “freeze-trap, kinetic-crystallography” to explore the migration of Xe atoms away from the dinuclear heme-a3/CuB center in Thermus thermophilus cytochrome ba3 oxidase. This enzyme is a member of the heme-copper oxidase super-family, and is thus crucial for dioxygen dependent life. The mechanisms involved in the migration of oxygen, water, electrons, and protons into and/or out of the specialized channels of the heme-copper oxidases are generally not well understood. Pressurization of crystals with Xe gas previously revealed a O2 diffusion channel in cytochrome ba3 oxidase that is continuous, Y-shaped, 18–20 Å in length and comprised of hydrophobic residues, connecting the protein surface within the bilayer to the a3-CuB center in the active site. To understand movement of gas molecules within the O2 channel, we performed crystallographic analysis of 19 Xe laden crystals freeze-trapped in liquid nitrogen at selected times between 0 and 480 seconds while undergoing out-gassing at room temperature. Variation in Xe crystallographic occupancy at five discrete sites as a function of time leads to a kinetic model revealing relative degrees of mobility of Xe atoms within the channel. Xe egress occurs primarily through the channel formed by the Xe1 → Xe5 → Xe3 → Xe4 sites, suggesting that ingress of O2 is likely to occur by the reverse of this process. The channel itself appears not to undergo significant structural changes during Xe migration, thereby indicating a passive role in this important physiological function. PMID:22607023

  18. Determination of additives in PVC material by UV laser ablation inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemmerlin, M.; Mermet, J. M.; Bertucci, M.; Zydowicz, P.

    1997-04-01

    UV laser ablation inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (LA-ICP-AES) has been applied to the direct determination of additives in solid poly(vinyl chloride) materials. A Nd:YAG laser, operating at its fourth harmonic (266 nm), was used with a beam masking device, in the most reproducible conditions, to introduce solid particles into the plasma torch of a simultaneous ICP-AES system. Emphasis was placed on both precision and accuracy in the analysis of PVC materials by LA-ICP-AES. A series of six in-house PVC reference materials was prepared by incorporating several additives in increasing concentrations. Three alternative methods were evaluated to certify the amount of incorporated elements: ICP-AES with sample dissolution, NAA and XRF. Satisfactory results and good agreement were obtained for seven elements (Al, Ca, Cd, Mg, Sb, Sn and Ti) among the ten incorporated. Sample homogeneity appeared to be satisfactory, and calibration graphs obtained by LA-ICP-AES for several elements are presented. Finally, the performance of the technique in terms of repeatability (1.6-5%), reproducibility (2-5%), and limits of detection was investigated.

  19. Production of complex organic molecules:H-atom addition versus UV irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, K.-J.; Fedoseev, G.; Qasim, D.; Ioppolo, S.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Linnartz, H.

    2017-01-01

    Complex organic molecules (COMs) have been identified in different environments in star-forming regions. Laboratory studies show that COMs form in the solid state, on icy grains, typically following a `non-energetic' (atom-addition) or `energetic' (UV photon absorption) trigger. So far, such studies have been largely performed for single processes. Here we present the first work that quantitatively investigates both the relative importance and the cumulative effect of `(non)energetic' processing. We focus on astronomically relevant CO:CH3OH = 4:1 ice analogues exposed to doses relevant for the collapse stage of dense clouds. Hydrogenation experiments result in the formation of methyl formate (MF; HC(O)OCH3), glycolaldehyde (GA; HC(O)CH2OH) and ethylene glycol (EG; H2C(OH)CH2OH) at 14 K. The absolute abundances and the abundance fractions are found to be dependent on the H-atom/CO:CH3OH-molecule ratios and on the overall deposition rate. In the case that ices are exposed to UV photons only, several different COMs are found. Typically, the abundance fractions are 0.2 for MF, 0.3 for GA, and 0.5 for EG as opposed to the values found in pure hydrogenation experiments without UV in which MF is largely absent: 0.0, 0.2-0.6 and 0.8-0.4, respectively. In experiments where both are applied, overall COM abundances drop to about half of those found in the pure UV irradiation experiments, but the composition fractions are very similar. This implies COM ratios can be used as a diagnostic tool to derive the processing history of an ice. Solid-state branching ratios derived here for GA and EG compare well with observations, while the MF case cannot be explained by solid state conditions investigated here.

  20. Pairwise additivity in the nuclear magnetic resonance interactions of atomic xenon.

    PubMed

    Hanni, Matti; Lantto, Perttu; Vaara, Juha

    2009-04-14

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) of atomic (129/131)Xe is used as a versatile probe of the structure and dynamics of various host materials, due to the sensitivity of the Xe NMR parameters to intermolecular interactions. The principles governing this sensitivity can be investigated using the prototypic system of interacting Xe atoms. In the pairwise additive approximation (PAA), the binary NMR chemical shift, nuclear quadrupole coupling (NQC), and spin-rotation (SR) curves for the xenon dimer are utilized for fast and efficient evaluation of the corresponding NMR tensors in small xenon clusters Xe(n) (n = 2-12). If accurate, the preparametrized PAA enables the analysis of the NMR properties of xenon clusters, condensed xenon phases, and xenon gas without having to resort to electronic structure calculations of instantaneous configurations for n > 2. The binary parameters for Xe(2) at different internuclear distances were obtained at the nonrelativistic Hartree-Fock level of theory. Quantum-chemical (QC) calculations at the corresponding level were used to obtain the NMR parameters of the Xe(n) (n = 2-12) clusters at the equilibrium geometries. Comparison of PAA and QC data indicates that the direct use of the binary property curves of Xe(2) can be expected to be well-suited for the analysis of Xe NMR in the gaseous phase dominated by binary collisions. For use in condensed phases where many-body effects should be considered, effective binary property functions were fitted using the principal components of QC tensors from Xe(n) clusters. Particularly, the chemical shift in Xe(n) is strikingly well-described by the effective PAA. The coordination number Z of the Xe site is found to be the most important factor determining the chemical shift, with the largest shifts being found for high-symmetry sites with the largest Z. This is rationalized in terms of the density of virtual electronic states available for response to magnetic perturbations.

  1. Stimulation of hybrid poplar growth in petroleum-contaminated soils through oxygen addition and soil nutrient amendments.

    PubMed

    Rentz, Jeremy A; Chapman, Brad; Alvarez, Pedro J J; Schnoor, Jerald L

    2003-01-01

    Hybrid poplar trees (Populus deltoides x nigra DN34) were grown in a green-house using hydrocarbon-contaminated soil from a phytoremediation demonstration site in Health, Ohio. Two independent experiments investigated the effect of nutrient addition on poplar growth and the importance of oxygen addition to root development and plant growth. Biomass measurements, poplar height, and leaf color were used as indicators of plant health in the selection of a 10/5/5 NPK fertilizer applied at 1121 kg/ha (112 kg-N, 24.4 kg-P, 46.5 kg-K per ha) to enhance hybrid poplar growth at the Health site. Five passive methods of oxygen delivery were examined, including aeration tubes, gravel addition, and an Oxygen Release Compound (ORC). When ORC was placed in coffee filters above hydrocarbon-contaminated soil, a statistically significant increase of 145% was observed in poplar biomass growth, relative to unamended controls. The ORC in filters also stimulated significant increases in root density. A 15.2-cm interval of soil directly below ORC addition exhibited an increase from 2.6 +/- 1.0 mg/cm3 to 4.8 +/- 1.0 mg/cm3, showing stimulation of root growth in hydrocarbon-stained soil. The positive response of hybrid poplars to oxygen amendments suggests that overcoming oxygen limitation to plants should be considered in phytoremediation projects when soil contamination exerts a high biochemical oxygen demand, such as in former refinery sites.

  2. Reactivity of chemisorbed oxygen atoms and their catalytic consequences during CH4-O2 catalysis on supported Pt clusters.

    PubMed

    Chin, Ya-Huei Cathy; Buda, Corneliu; Neurock, Matthew; Iglesia, Enrique

    2011-10-12

    absence of CH(4) show that O(2) activation steps are quasi-equilibrated during catalysis. Measured and DFT-derived C-H bond activation barriers are large, because of the weak stabilization of the CH(3) fragments at transition states, but are compensated by the high entropy of these radical-like species. Turnover rates in this regime decrease with increasing Pt dispersion, because low-coordination exposed Pt atoms on small clusters bind O* more strongly than those that reside at low-index facets on large clusters, thus making O* less effective in H-abstraction. As vacancies (*, also exposed Pt atoms) become available on O*-covered surfaces, O*-* site pairs activate C-H bonds via concerted oxidative addition and H-abstraction in transition states effectively stabilized by CH(3) interactions with the vacancies, which lead to much higher turnover rates than on O*-O* pairs. In this regime, O(2) activation becomes irreversible, because fast C-H bond activation steps scavenge O* as it forms. Thus, O* coverages are set by the prevalent O(2)/CH(4) ratios instead of the O(2) pressures. CH(4)/CD(4) kinetic isotope effects are much larger for turnovers mediated by O*-* than by O*-O* site pairs, because C-H (and C-D) activation steps are required to form the * sites involved in C-H bond activation. Turnover rates for CH(4)-O(2) reactions mediated by O*-* pairs decrease with increasing Pt dispersion, as in the case of O*-O* active structures, because stronger O* binding on small clusters leads not only to less reactive O* atoms, but also to lower vacancy concentrations at cluster surfaces. As O(2)/CH(4) ratios and O* coverages become smaller, O(2) activation on bare Pt clusters becomes the sole kinetically relevant step; turnover rates are proportional to O(2) pressures and independent of CH(4) pressure and no CH(4)/CD(4) kinetic isotope effects are observed. In this regime, turnover rates become nearly independent of Pt dispersion, because the O(2) activation step is essentially

  3. Co/Mo bimetallic addition to electrolytic manganese dioxide for oxygen generation in acid medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, Dario; Minakshi, Manickam; McGinnity, Justin; Kim, Dong-Jin

    2015-10-01

    An efficient electrocatalyst comprising inexpensive and earth-abundant materials for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is crucial for the development of water electrolysis. In this work, in-situ addition of cobalt/molybdenum ions to the electrolytic manganese dioxide has been shown to be beneficial for the OER in acid solution as its overpotential performed better (305 mV) than that of the commercial DSA® (341 mV) at 100 mA cm-2. The OER was investigated at ambient temperature in 2 M H2SO4 solution on the modified EMD (MnMoCoO) electrodes. The energy efficiency of the MnMoCoO electrodes improved significantly with the amount of Co in the plating solution. For the electrodeposited catalysts, physico-chemical and electrochemical measurements were conducted including static overpotentials. The better performance of the modified EMD was attributed to an improved charge transfer resistance (Rct; 0.290 Ω cm2), average roughness factor (rf; 429) and decrease in water content in the electrodeposited catalysts. The kinetic parameters obtained on MnMoCoO catalysts were compared and discussed according to the cobalt concentration.

  4. Atomic Oxygen Exposure of Polyimide Foam for International Space Station Solar Array Wing Blanket Box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finckenor, M. M.; Albyn, K. C.; Watts, E. W.

    2006-01-01

    Onorbit photos of the International Space Station (ISS) solar array blanket box foam pad assembly indicate degradation of the Kapton film covering the foam, leading to atomic oxygen (AO) exposure of the foam. The purpose of this test was to determine the magnitude of particulate generation caused by low-Earth orbital environment exposure of the foam and also by compression of the foam during solar array wing retraction. The polyimide foam used in the ISS solar array wing blanket box assembly is susceptible to significant AO erosion. The foam sample in this test lost one-third of its mass after exposure to the equivalent of 22 mo onorbit. Some particulate was generated by exposure to simulated orbital conditions and the simulated solar array retraction (compression test). However, onorbit, these particles would also be eroded by AO. The captured particles were generally <1 mm, and the particles shaken free of the sample had a maximum size of 4 mm. The foam sample maintained integrity after a compression load of 2.5 psi.

  5. Effects of Atomic Oxygen and Grease on Outgassing and Adhesion of Silicone Elastomers for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deGroh, Henry C., III; Puleo, Bernadette J.; Steinetz, Bruce M.

    2012-01-01

    An investigation of silicone elastomers for seals used in docking and habitat systems for future space exploration vehicles is being conducted at NASA. For certain missions, NASA is considering androgynous docking systems where two vehicles each having a seal would be required to: dock for a period of time, seal effectively, and then separate with minimum push-off forces for undocking. Silicone materials are generally chosen for their wide operating temperatures and low leakage rates. However silicone materials are often sticky and usually exhibit considerable adhesion when mated against metals and silicone surfaces. This paper investigates the adhesion unit pressure for a space rated silicone material (S0383-70) for either seal-on-seal (SoS) or seal-on-aluminum (SoAl) operation modes in the following conditions: as-received, after ground-based atomic-oxygen (AO) pre-treatment, after application of a thin coating of a space-qualified grease (Braycote 601EF), and after a combination of AO pre-treatment and grease coating. In order of descending adhesion reduction, the AO treatment reduced seal adhesion the most, followed by the AO plus grease pre-treatment, followed by the grease treatment. The effects of various treatments on silicone (S0383-70 and ELA-SA-401) outgassing properties were also investigated. The leading adhesion AO pretreatment reduction led to a slight decrease in outgassing for the S0383-70 material and virtually no change in ELA-SA-401 outgassing.

  6. International Test Program for Synergistic Atomic Oxygen and Vacuum Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure of Spacecraft Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Sharon K.

    2001-01-01

    The components and materials of spacecraft in low Earth orbit can degrade in thermal and optical performance through interaction with atomic oxygen and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation, which are predominant in low Earth orbit. Because of the importance of low Earth orbit durability and performance to manufacturers and users, an international test program for assessing the durability of spacecraft materials and components was initiated. Initial tests at the NASA Glenn Research Center consisted of exposure of samples representing a variety of thermal control paints, multilayer insulation materials, and Sun sensors that have been used in space. Materials donated from various international sources were tested alongside materials whose performance is well known, such as Teflon FEP, Kapton H, or Z-93-P white paint. The optical, thermal, or mass loss data generated during the tests were then provided to the participating material suppliers. Data were not published unless the participant donating the material consented to publication. The test program is intended to give spacecraft builders and users a better understanding of degradation processes and effects so that they can improve their predictions of spacecraft performance.

  7. Atomic oxygen durability evaluation of the flexible batten for the photovoltaic array mast on Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stidham, Curtis R.; Rutledge, Sharon K.; Sechkar, Edward A.; Flaherty, David S.; Roig, David M.; Edwards, Jonathan L.

    1994-01-01

    A test program was conducted at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Lewis Research Center (LeRC) to evaluate the long term low Earth orbital (LEO) atomic oxygen (AO) durability of a flexible (fiberglass-epoxy composite) batten. The flexible batten is a component used to provide structural rigidity in the photovoltaic array mast on Space Station. The mast is used to support and articulate the photovoltaic array, therefore, the flexible batten must be preloaded for the 15 year lifetime of an array blanket. Development hardware and composite materials were evaluated in ground testing facilities for AO durability and dynamic retraction-deployment cyclic loading representative of expected full life in-space application. The CV1144 silicone (AO protective) coating was determined to provide adequate protection against AO degradation of the composite material and provided fiber containment, thus the structural integrity of the flexible batten was maintained. Both silicone coated and uncoated flexible battens maintained load carrying capabilities. Results of the testing did indicate that the CV1144 silicone protective coating was oxidized by AO reactions to form a brittle glassy (SiO2) skin that formed cracking patterns on all sides of the coated samples. The cracking was observed in samples that were mechanically stressed as well as samples in non-stressed conditions. The oxidized silicon was observed to randomly spall in small localized areas, on the flexible battens that underwent retraction-deployment cycling. Some darkening of the silicon, attributed to vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation, was observed.

  8. Atomic oxygen behavior at downstream of AC excited atmospheric pressure He plasma jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Keigo; Ishikawa, Kenji; Tanaka, Hiromasa; Sekine, Makoto; Hori, Masaru

    2016-09-01

    Applications of atmospheric pressure plasma jets (APPJ) have been investigated in the plasma medical fields such as cancer therapy, blood coagulation, etc. Reactive species generated by the plasma jet interacts with the biological surface. Therefore, the issue attracts much attentions to investigate the plasma effects on targets. In our group, a spot-size AC excited He APPJ have been used for the plasma medicine. From diagnostics of the APPJ using optical emission spectroscopy, the gas temperature and the electron density was estimated to be 299 K and 3.4 ×1015 cm-3. The AC excited He APPJ which affords high density plasma at room temperature is considered to be a powerful tool for the medical applications. In this study, by using vacuum ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy, the density of atomic oxygen on a floating copper as a target irradiated by the He APPJ was measured as a function of the distance between the plasma source and the copper wire. The measured density became a maximum value around 8 ×1013 cm-3 at 12 mm distance, and then decreased over the distance. It is considered that the behavior was due to the changes in the plasma density on the copper wire and influence of ambient air.

  9. Investigation of Atomic Oxygen Erosion of Polyimide Kapton H Exposed to a Plasma Asher Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Aaron

    1999-01-01

    Experimental results are presented on the erosion characteristics of the polyimide Kapton H, which serves as a blanket material in solar arrays. This polymer has a number of characteristics that make it a suitable choice for both terrestrial and space applications. In this paper attention is focused on the durability of protected Kapton when exposed to atomic oxygen (AO) in a plasma asher. A strip of 0.025-mm thick Kapton film, coated on both sides with SiO2, was studied during a 1306 hour exposure. The erosion, located at defect sites in the protective coating and measured optically, is described in terms of volume loss as a function of AO fluence. Three simple geometric profiles are used to generate a useful array of cavity shapes to model erosion evolution. These models connect the volume erosion rate to the observed lateral expansion of the developing cavities via their diameters, measured adviacent to the upper and lower protective film, and fitted by least-squares regression to simple power law functions of fluence. The rationale for the choice of models is discussed. It was found that lateral growth in cavity size evolves less than linearly with fluence.

  10. International Test Program for Synergistic Atomic Oxygen and VUV Exposure of Spacecraft Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutledge, Sharon; Banks, Bruce; Dever, Joyce; Savage, William

    2000-01-01

    Spacecraft in low Earth orbit (LEO) are subject to degradation in thermal and optical performance of components and materials through interaction with atomic oxygen and vacuum ultraviolet radiation which are predominant in LEO. Due to the importance of LEO durability and performance to manufacturers and users, an international test program for assessing the durability of spacecraft materials and components was initiated. Initial tests consisted of exposure of samples representing a variety of thermal control paints and multilayer insulation materials that have been used in space. Materials donated from various international sources were tested alongside a material whose performance is well known such as Teflon FEP or Kapton H for multilayer insulation, or Z-93-P for white thermal control paints. The optical, thermal or mass loss data generated during the test was then provided to the participating material supplier. Data was not published unless the participant donating the material consented to publication. This paper presents a description of the types of tests and facilities that have been used for the test program as well as some examples of data that have been generated. The test program is intended to give spacecraft builders and users a better understanding of degradation processes and effects to enable improved prediction of spacecraft performance.

  11. Modeling of Transmittance Degradation Caused by Optical Surface Contamination by Atomic Oxygen Reaction with Adsorbed Silicones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Aaron; Banks, Bruce; Miller, Sharon; Stueber, Thomas; Sechkar, Edward

    2001-01-01

    A numerical procedure is presented to calculate transmittance degradation caused by contaminant films on spacecraft surfaces produced through the interaction of orbital atomic oxygen (AO) with volatile silicones and hydrocarbons from spacecraft components. In the model, contaminant accretion is dependent on the adsorption of species, depletion reactions due to gas-surface collisions, desorption, and surface reactions between AO and silicone producing SiO(x), (where x is near 2). A detailed description of the procedure used to calculate the constituents of the contaminant layer is presented, including the equations that govern the evolution of fractional coverage by specie type. As an illustrative example of film growth, calculation results using a prototype code that calculates the evolution of surface coverage by specie type is presented and discussed. An example of the transmittance degradation caused by surface interaction of AO with deposited contaminant is presented for the case of exponentially decaying contaminant flux. These examples are performed using hypothetical values for the process parameters.

  12. Simple-Cubic Carbon Frameworks with Atomically Dispersed Iron Dopants toward High-Efficiency Oxygen Reduction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Biwei; Wang, Xinxia; Zou, Jinxiang; Yan, Yancui; Xie, Songhai; Hu, Guangzhi; Li, Yanguang; Dong, Angang

    2017-03-08

    Iron and nitrogen codoped carbons (Fe-N-C) have attracted increasingly greater attention as electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Although challenging, the synthesis of Fe-N-C catalysts with highly dispersed and fully exposed active sites is of critical importance for improving the ORR activity. Here, we report a new type of graphitic Fe-N-C catalysts featuring numerous Fe single atoms anchored on a three-dimensional simple-cubic carbon framework. The Fe-N-C catalyst, derived from self-assembled Fe3O4 nanocube superlattices, was prepared by in situ ligand carbonization followed by acid etching and ammonia activation. Benefiting from its homogeneously dispersed and fully accessible active sites, highly graphitic nature, and enhanced mass transport, our Fe-N-C catalyst outperformed Pt/C and many previously reported Fe-N-C catalysts for ORR. Furthermore, when used for constructing the cathode for zinc-air batteries, our Fe-N-C catalyst exhibited current and power densities comparable to those of the state-of-the-art Pt/C catalyst.

  13. Study of atomic oxygen greenline dayglow emission in thermosphere during geomagnetic storm conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bag, T.; Singh, Vir; Sunil Krishna, M. V.

    2017-01-01

    The influence of geomagnetic storms on the atomic oxygen greenline (557.7 nm) dayglow emission in thermosphere is studied during solar active and solar quiet conditions. This study is primarily based on the photochemical model with inputs obtained from experimental observations and empirical models. The updated rate coefficients, quantum yields and related cross-sections have been used from experimental results and theoretical studies. This study is presented for a low latitude station Tirunelveli (8.7°N, 77.8°E), India. The volume emission rate (VER) has been calculated using densities and temperatures from the empirical models. The modeled VER shows a positive correlation with the Dst index. The VER also shows a negative correlation with the number densities of O, O2, and N2. The VER, calculated at peak emission altitude, exhibits depletion during the main phase of the storm. The altitude of peak emission rate is unaffected by the geomagnetic storm activity. The study also reveals that the peak emission altitude depends on the F10.7 solar index. The peak emission altitude moves upward as the value of F10.7 solar index increases.

  14. Interaction of gaseous hydrogen atoms with oxygen covered Cu(1 0 0) surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolovos-Vellianitis, D.; Kammler, Th; Küppers, J.

    2001-06-01

    The interaction of H atoms with O precovered Cu(1 0 0) surfaces was studied with thermal desorption and Auger electron spectroscopies between 90 and 300 K. Gaseous product formation was monitored during H admission to the surface and allowed to elucidate the role of elementary reaction steps. Adsorbed and gaseous water were formed as reaction products, their kinetics and yields depending on the reaction temperature. Three elementary reaction steps were identified, two of which involve gaseous H: hydrogenation of adsorbed O towards adsorbed OH, hydrogenation of adsorbed OH towards adsorbed and gaseous water. As third reaction, recombination of adsorbed OH and H was observed. Below 120 K two sequential hydrogenation steps lead to gaseous and adsorbed water, rate determined by OH hydrogenation. Between 130 and 180 K isothermal desorption of water occurs. Above 190 K recombination of OH and H affects the kinetics. The various mechanisms lead to a complicated temperature dependence of the kinetics of gaseous water formation. At any temperature the reactions lead to a complete hydrogenation of oxygen to water. Abstraction of H from adsorbed water was not observed in accordance with the reaction energetics.

  15. A micro-thermoelectric gas sensor for detection of hydrogen and atomic oxygen.

    PubMed

    Park, Se-Chul; Yoon, Seung-Il; Lee, Chung-il; Kim, Yong-Jun; Song, Soonho

    2009-02-01

    This paper demonstrates the fabrication and performance of a micro-thermoelectric gas sensor for an effective and inexpensive gas analysis system. The proposed micro-thermoelectric gas sensor was fabricated by using a surface micromachining technique. The sensing mechanism, consisting of thermoelectric material and a novel metal catalyst, was fabricated on the highly thermally resistive layer for reduced heat transfer to the substrate allowing for a simple fabrication process. The micro-thermoelectric gas sensor detects target gas species by measuring the reaction heat of the catalytic reaction between the target gas and a novel metal catalyst using Cu-Bi thermopiles. The catalytic reaction occurs only on the hot junction of the sensing thermopile where the metal catalyst is deposited. In order to reduce the external thermal noise, a difference between the output voltage of the sensing and the reference thermopiles was measured by using a differential amplifier. The response of the fabricated sensor was linear to temperature difference. The fabricated sensor can be used to detect various concentrations of hydrogen and atomic oxygen, where the output voltage linearly increased with the gas concentration.

  16. New Measurement of the Rate Coefficient for Three-Body Recombination of Oxygen Atoms in Presence of N2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huestis, D. L.; Pejaković, D. A.; Copeland, R. A.; Kalogerakis, K. S.

    2004-12-01

    In the atmospheres of Earth, Venus, and Mars photodissociation of O2 and CO2 produces oxygen atoms that eventually undergo three-body recombination: O + O + M -> O2* + M. The competition between photodissociation, recombination, and diffusive vertical transport controls the atomic and molecular composition of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere. Knowledge of the rate coefficient for recombination of atomic oxygen is essential for modeling atmospheric composition. The most recent measurement of O-atom recombination rate coefficient is over thirty years old [1]. The published values of this rate coefficient have large divergence for both M = O2 and M = N2. For N2 as the third body, the room temperature coefficient varies between about 3 × 10-33 cm6s-1, which is the value recommended in the combustion science community, and 5 × 10-33 cm6s-1, a value used in the atmospheric modeling community. Previous laboratory investigations [2] of the process O + O + N2 -> O2* + N2 shared the same basic approach, which was to use N2 discharge flow system with NO added downstream to generate O-atoms in the absence of O2 through the reaction N + NO -> O + N2. This approach is vulnerable to heterogeneous recombination and other processes that may obscure the reaction of interest, mostly due to the low O-atom densities and, consequently, long reaction times. We employ an F2 laser with up to 50 mJ of 157 nm pulsed output to achieve nearly complete photodissociation of molecular oxygen. In a high-pressure (760 Torr) background of N2 the oxygen atoms recombine in a time scale of several milliseconds. Oxygen atom population is monitored by detecting 845-nm fluorescence, which is induced by the 226 nm output of the second laser via a two-photon process O(2p4 3P) + 2hν -> O(2p33p ^3P). Our measurements give a preliminary value for the O + O + N_2 recombination rate coefficient of approximately 3 \\times 10^{-33} cm^6s^{-1}, which favors the value recommended in the combustion community

  17. Atmospheric plasma generates oxygen atoms as oxidizing species in aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokhtar Hefny, Mohamed; Pattyn, Cedric; Lukes, Petr; Benedikt, Jan

    2016-10-01

    A remote microscale atmospheric pressure plasma jet (µAPPJ) with He, He/H2O, He/O2, and He/O2/H2O gas mixtures was used to study the transport of reactive species from the gas phase into the liquid and the following aqueous phase chemistry. The effects induced by the µAPPJ in water were quantitatively studied using phenol as a chemical probe and by measuring H2O2 concentration and pH values. These results were combined with the analysis of the absolute densities of the reactive species and the modeling of convective/diffusion transport and recombination reactions in the effluent of the plasma jet. Additionally, modified plasma jets were used to show that the role of emitted photons in aqueous chemistry is negligible for these plasma sources. The fastest phenol degradation was measured for the He/O2 plasma, followed by He/H2O, He/O2/H2O, and He plasmas. The modeled quantitative flux of O atoms into the liquid in the He/O2 plasma case was highly comparable with the phenol degradation rate and showed a very high transfer efficiency of reactive species from the plasma into the liquid, where more than half of the O atoms leaving the jet nozzle entered the liquid. The results indicate that the high oxidative effect of He/O2 plasma was primarily due to solvated O atoms, whereas OH radicals dominated the oxidative effects induced in water by plasmas with other gas mixtures. These findings help to understand, in a quantitative way, the complex interaction of cold atmospheric plasmas with aqueous solutions and will allow a better understanding of the interaction of these plasmas with water or buffered solutions containing biological macromolecules, microorganisms, or even eukaryotic cells. Additionally, the µAPPJ He/O2 plasma source seems to be an ideal tool for the generation of O atoms in aqueous solutions for any future studies of their reactivity.

  18. Group additive values for the gas-phase standard enthalpy of formation, entropy and heat capacity of oxygenates.

    PubMed

    Paraskevas, Paschalis D; Sabbe, Maarten K; Reyniers, Marie-Françoise; Papayannakos, Nikos; Marin, Guy B

    2013-11-25

    A complete and consistent set of 60 Benson group additive values (GAVs) for oxygenate molecules and 97 GAVs for oxygenate radicals is provided, which allow to describe their standard enthalpies of formation, entropies and heat capacities. Approximately half of the GAVs for oxygenate molecules and the majority of the GAVs for oxygenate radicals have not been reported before. The values are derived from an extensive and accurate database of thermochemical data obtained by ab initio calculations at the CBS-QB3 level of theory for 202 molecules and 248 radicals. These compounds include saturated and unsaturated, α- and β-branched, mono- and bifunctional oxygenates. Internal rotations were accounted for by using one-dimensional hindered rotor corrections. The accuracy of the database was further improved by adding bond additive corrections to the CBS-QB3 standard enthalpies of formation. Furthermore, 14 corrections for non-nearest-neighbor interactions (NNI) were introduced for molecules and 12 for radicals. The validity of the constructed group additive model was established by comparing the predicted values with both ab initio calculated values and experimental data for oxygenates and oxygenate radicals. The group additive method predicts standard enthalpies of formation, entropies, and heat capacities with chemical accuracy, respectively, within 4 kJ mol(-1) and 4 J mol(-1) K(-1) for both ab initio calculated and experimental values. As an alternative, the hydrogen bond increment (HBI) method developed by Lay et al. (T. H. Lay, J. W. Bozzelli, A. M. Dean, E. R. Ritter, J. Phys. Chem.- 1995, 99, 14514) was used to introduce 77 new HBI structures and to calculate their thermodynamic parameters (Δ(f)H°, S°, C(p)°). The GAVs reported in this work can be reliably used for the prediction of thermochemical data for large oxygenate compounds, combining rapid prediction with wide-ranging application.

  19. Results from LDEF experiment A0114: The interaction of atomic oxygen with materials surfaces at orbital altitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, John C.

    1994-01-01

    In 1975 the University of Alabama in Huntsville proposed an experiment for the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) designed to investigate the effects of the collision of the ambient orbital atmosphere, mainly consisting of atomic oxygen, with satellite surfaces travelling at about 8 km per second. In 1989, the potential for recovery of significant data from A0114 on a wide variety of materials was recognized and funding for three years of data analysis was appropriated. Some significant or unique findings from the experiment A0114 include: numerous measurements of oxidation rates of surfaces under fast O atom bombardment, including Si, Ge, GaAs, SiC, and optical quality metal films; measurement of the stable attitude of the LDEF spacecraft in orbit using the gas dynamics pinhole camera; description of the formation of thick oxide films on copper at 20 C with fast oxygen; measurement of erosion rates of Kapton and other polymers at space station lifetime atomic oxygen fluences (10(exp 22) atoms/sq cm); and measurement of the cosmogenic isotopes Be-7 on spacecraft surfaces.

  20. Addition of oxygen to and distribution of oxides in tantalum alloy T-111 at low concentrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecura, S.

    1975-01-01

    Oxygen was added at 820 and 990 C at an oxygen pressure of about .0003 torr. The technique permitted predetermined and reproducible oxygen doping of the tantalum alloy (T-111). Based on the temperature dependency of the doping reaction, it was concluded that the initial rates of oxygen pickup are probably controlled by solution of oxygen into the T-111 lattice. Although hafnium oxides are more stable than those of tantalum or tungsten, analyses of extracted residues indicate that the tantalum and tungsten oxides predominate in the as-doped specimens, presumably because of the higher concentrations of tantalum and tungsten in the alloy. However, high-temperature annealing promotes gettering of dissolved oxygen and oxygen from other oxides to form hafnium oxides. Small amounts of tantalum and tungsten oxides were still present after high temperature annealing. Tungsten oxide (WO3) volatilizes slightly from the surface of T-111 at 990 C but not at 820 C. The vaporization of WO3 has no apparent effect on the doping reaction.

  1. Determination of mercury in ash and soil samples by oxygen flask combustion method--cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry (CVAFS).

    PubMed

    Geng, Wenhua; Nakajima, Tsunenori; Takanashi, Hirokazu; Ohki, Akira

    2008-06-15

    A simple method was developed for the determination of mercury (Hg) in coal fly ash (CFA), waste incineration ash (WIA), and soil by use of oxygen flask combustion (OFC) followed by cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry (CVAFS). A KMnO4 solution was used as an absorbent in the OFC method, and the sample containing a combustion agent and an ash or soil sample was combusted by the OFC method. By use of Hg-free graphite as the combustion agent, the determination of Hg in ash and soil was successfully carried out; the Hg-free graphite was prepared by use of a mild pyrolysis procedure at 500 degrees C. For six certified reference materials (three CFA samples and three soil samples), the values of Hg obtained by this method were in good agreement with the certified or reference values. In addition, real samples including nine CFAs collected from some coal-fired power plants, five WIAs collected from waste incineration plants, and two soils were analyzed by the present method, and the data were compared to those from microwave-acid digestion (MW-AD) method.

  2. Adsorption sites of single noble metal atoms on the rutile TiO2 (1 1 0) surface influenced by different surface oxygen vacancies.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Katsuyuki; Chang, Teng-Yuan; Ishikawa, Ryo; Dong, Qian; Toyoura, Kazuaki; Nakamura, Atsutomo; Ikuhara, Yuichi; Shibata, Naoya

    2016-05-05

    Atomic adsorption of Au and Pt on the rutile (1 1 0) surface was investigated by atomic-resolution aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) measurements combined with density functional theory calculations. Au single atoms were deposited on the surface in a vacuum condition, and the observed results were compared with Pt single atoms on the same surface prepared by the same experimental manner. It was found that Au single atoms are stably adsorbed only at the bridging oxygen vacancy sites, which is quite different from Pt single atoms exhibiting the most frequently observed adsorption at the basal oxygen vacancy sites. Such a difference in oxygen-vacancy effect between Au and Pt can be explained by electronic structures of the surface vacancies as well as characters of outermost atomic orbitals of Au and Pt.

  3. Launch Vehicle Performance for Bipropellant Propulsion Using Atomic Propellants With Oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan

    2000-01-01

    Atomic propellants for bipropellant launch vehicles using atomic boron, carbon, and hydrogen were analyzed. The gross liftoff weights (GLOW) and dry masses of the vehicles were estimated, and the 'best' design points for atomic propellants were identified. Engine performance was estimated for a wide range of oxidizer to fuel (O/F) ratios, atom loadings in the solid hydrogen particles, and amounts of helium carrier fluid. Rocket vehicle GLOW was minimized by operating at an O/F ratio of 1.0 to 3.0 for the atomic boron and carbon cases. For the atomic hydrogen cases, a minimum GLOW occurred when using the fuel as a monopropellant (O/F = 0.0). The atomic vehicle dry masses are also presented, and these data exhibit minimum values at the same or similar O/F ratios as those for the vehicle GLOW. A technology assessment of atomic propellants has shown that atomic boron and carbon rocket analyses are considered to be much more near term options than the atomic hydrogen rockets. The technology for storing atomic boron and carbon has shown significant progress, while atomic hydrogen is not able to be stored at the high densities needed for effective propulsion. The GLOW and dry mass data can be used to estimate the cost of future vehicles and their atomic propellant production facilities. The lower the propellant's mass, the lower the overall investment for the specially manufactured atomic propellants.

  4. High-resolution TALIF measurements of atomic oxygen: determination of gas temperature and collisional broadening coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, Jean-Paul; Marinov, Daniil; Guaitella, Olivier; Drag, Cyril; Engeln, Richard; Golda, Judith; Schultz-von der Gathern, Volker

    2016-09-01

    Two-photon Absorption Laser-Induced Fluorescence (TALIF) is a well-established technique to measure relative (and with appropriate calibration techniques, absolute) densities of atoms in plasmas and flames. The excitation line profiles can provide additional information, but this is usually overlooked due to the mediocre spectral resolution of commercial pulsed dye laser systems. We have investigated O-atom TALIF excitation line profiles using a house-built narrow line-width pulsed UV laser system, based on pulsed Ti:Sa ring laser seeded by a cw infrared diode laser. The observed Doppler profiles allow unambiguous measurement of gas temperature with high precision in O2 and CO2 DC glow discharges. Sub-Doppler measurements, performed by reflecting the laser beam back through excitation zone, allow the pressure-broadened line shapes to be observed, both in a pure O2 DC discharge (up to 10 Torr pressure) and in an atmospheric pressure RF plasma jet in He/O2. Pressure broadening coefficients of the 3p3PJ state of O were determined for O2 and He bath gases, and were found to be an order of magnitude bigger than that predicted from the measured quenching rate. Work performed in the LABEX Plas@par project, with financial state aid (ANR-11-IDEX-0004-02 and ANR-13-BS09-0019).

  5. Effect of Ozone Addition on Combustion Efficiency of Hydrogen: Liquid-Oxygen Propellant in Small Rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Riley O.; Brown, Dwight D.

    1959-01-01

    An experimental study shows that 2 percent by weight ozone in oxygen has little effect on overall reactivity for a range of oxidant-fuel weight ratios from 1 to 6. This conclusion is based on characteristic-velocity measurements in 200-pound-thrust chambers at a pressure of 300 pounds per square inch absolute with low-efficiency injectors. The presence of 9 percent ozone in oxygen also did not affect performance in an efficient chamber. Explosions were encountered when equipment or procedure permitted ozone to concentrate locally. These experiments indicate that even small amounts of ozone in oxygen can cause operational problems.

  6. Direct atomic-scale imaging of hydrogen and oxygen interstitials in pure niobium using atom-probe tomography and aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoon-Jun; Tao, Runzhe; Klie, Robert F; Seidman, David N

    2013-01-22

    Imaging the three-dimensional atomic-scale structure of complex interfaces has been the goal of many recent studies, due to its importance to technologically relevant areas. Combining atom-probe tomography and aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), we present an atomic-scale study of ultrathin (~5 nm) native oxide layers on niobium (Nb) and the formation of ordered niobium hydride phases near the oxide/Nb interface. Nb, an elemental type-II superconductor with the highest critical temperature (T(c) = 9.2 K), is the preferred material for superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities in next-generation particle accelerators. Nb exhibits high solubilities for oxygen and hydrogen, especially within the RF-field penetration depth, which is believed to result in SRF quality factor losses. STEM imaging and electron energy-loss spectroscopy followed by ultraviolet laser-assisted local-electrode atom-probe tomography on the same needle-like sample reveals the NbO(2), Nb(2)O(5), NbO, Nb stacking sequence; annular bright-field imaging is used to visualize directly hydrogen atoms in bulk β-NbH.

  7. Atomic oxygen on the Venus nightside: Global distribution deduced from airglow mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soret, L.; Gérard, J.-C.; Montmessin, F.; Piccioni, G.; Drossart, P.; Bertaux, J.-L.

    2012-02-01

    The Visible and Infra-Red Thermal Imaging Spectrometer (VIRTIS) instrument on board the Venus Express spacecraft has measured the O 2(a 1Δ) nightglow distribution at 1.27 μm in the Venus mesosphere for more than two years. Nadir observations have been used to create a statistical map of the emission on Venus nightside. It appears that the statistical 1.6 MR maximum of the emission is located around the antisolar point. Limb observations provide information on the altitude and on the shape of the emission layer. We combine nadir observations essentially covering the southern hemisphere, corrected for the thermal emission of the lower atmosphere, with limb profiles of the northern hemisphere to generate a global map of the Venus nightside emission at 1.27 μm. Given all the O 2(a 1Δ) intensity profiles, O 2(a 1Δ) and O density profiles have been calculated and three-dimensional maps of metastable molecular and atomic oxygen densities have been generated. This global O density nightside distribution improves that available from the VTS3 model, which was based on measurements made above 145 km. The O 2(a 1Δ) hemispheric average density is 2.1 × 10 9 cm -3, with a maximum value of 6.5 × 10 9 cm -3 at 99.2 km. The O density profiles have been derived from the nightglow data using CO 2 profiles from the empirical VTS3 model or from SPICAV stellar occultations. The O hemispheric average density is 1.9 × 10 11 cm -3 in both cases, with a mean altitude of the peak located at 106.1 km and 103.4 km, respectively. These results tend to confirm the modeled values of 2.8 × 10 11 cm -3 at 104 km and 2.0 × 10 11 cm -3 at 110 km obtained by Brecht et al. [Brecht, A., Bougher, S.W., Gérard, J.-C., Parkinson, C.D., Rafkin, S., Foster, B., 2011a. J. Geophys. Res., in press] and Krasnopolsky [Krasnopolsky, V.A., 2010. Icarus 207, 17-27], respectively. Comparing the oxygen density map derived from the O 2(a 1Δ) nightglow observations, it appears that the morphology is very

  8. Trimethylaluminum and Oxygen Atomic Layer Deposition on Hydroxyl-Free Cu(111)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) of alumina using trimethylaluminum (TMA) has technological importance in microelectronics. This process has demonstrated a high potential in applications of protective coatings on Cu surfaces for control of diffusion of Cu in Cu2S films in photovoltaic devices and sintering of Cu-based nanoparticles in liquid phase hydrogenation reactions. With this motivation in mind, the reaction between TMA and oxygen was investigated on Cu(111) and Cu2O/Cu(111) surfaces. TMA did not adsorb on the Cu(111) surface, a result consistent with density functional theory (DFT) calculations predicting that TMA adsorption and decomposition are thermodynamically unfavorable on pure Cu(111). On the other hand, TMA readily adsorbed on the Cu2O/Cu(111) surface at 473 K resulting in the reduction of some surface Cu1+ to metallic copper (Cu0) and the formation of a copper aluminate, most likely CuAlO2. The reaction is limited by the amount of surface oxygen. After the first TMA half-cycle on Cu2O/Cu(111), two-dimensional (2D) islands of the aluminate were observed on the surface by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). According to DFT calculations, TMA decomposed completely on Cu2O/Cu(111). High-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) was used to distinguish between tetrahedrally (Altet) and octahedrally (Aloct) coordinated Al3+ in surface adlayers. TMA dosing produced an aluminum oxide film, which contained more octahedrally coordinated Al3+ (Altet/Aloct HREELS peak area ratio ≈ 0.3) than did dosing O2 (Altet/Aloct HREELS peak area ratio ≈ 0.5). After the first ALD cycle, TMA reacted with both Cu2O and aluminum oxide surfaces in the absence of hydroxyl groups until film closure by the fourth ALD cycle. Then, TMA continued to react with surface Al–O, forming stoichiometric Al2O3. O2 half-cycles at 623 K were more effective for carbon removal than O2 half-cycles at 473 K or water half-cycles at 623 K. The growth rate was approximately 3–4

  9. Anti-Adhesion Elastomer Seal Coatings for Ultraviolet and Atomic Oxygen Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Groh, Henry C., III; Puleo, Bernadette J.; Waters, Deborah L.; Miller, Sharon K.

    2015-01-01

    Radiation blocking sunscreen coatings have been developed for the protection of elastomer seals used in low-Earth-orbit (LEO). The coatings protect the seals from ultraviolet (UV) radiation and atomic oxygen (AO) damage. The coatings were developed for use on NASA docking seals. Docking seal damage from the UV and AO present in LEO can constrain mission time-line, flight mode options, and increases risk. A low level of adhesion is also required for docking seals so undocking push-off forces can be low. The coatings presented also mitigate this unwanted adhesion. Greases with low collected volatile condensable materials (CVCM) and low total mass loss (TML) were mixed with slippery and/or UV blocking powders to create the protective coatings. Coatings were applied at rates up to 2 milligrams per square centimeter. Coated seals were exposed to AO and UV in the NUV (near-UV) and UV-C wavelength ranges (300 to 400 nanometers and 254 nanometers, respectively). Ground based ashers were used to simulate the AO of space. The Sun's UV energy was mimicked assuming a nose forward flight mode, resulting in an exposure rate of 2.5 megajoules per square meter per day. Exposures between 0 and 147 megajoules per square meter (UV-C) and 245 megajoules per square meter (NUV) were accomplished. The protective coatings were durable, providing protection from UV after a simulated docking and undocking cycle. The level of protection begins to decline at coverage rates less than 0.9 milligrams per square centimeter. The leakage of seals coated with Braycote plus 20 percent Z-cote ZnO sunscreen increased by a factor of 40 after moderate AO exposure; indicating that this coating might not be suitable due to AO intolerance. Seals coated with DC-7-16.4 percent Z-cote ZnO sunscreen were not significantly affected by combined doses of 2 x 10 (sup 21) atoms per square AO with 73 megajoules per square meter UV-C. Unprotected seals were significantly damaged at UV-C exposures of 0.3 megajoules per

  10. Vacuum Ultraviolet Radiation and Atomic Oxygen Durability Evaluation of HST Bi-Stem Thermal Shield Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dever, Joyce; deGroh, Kim K.

    2002-01-01

    Bellows-type thermal shields were used on the bi-stems of replacement solar arrays installed on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) during the first HST servicing mission (SMI) in December 1993. These thermal shields helped reduce the problem of thermal gradient- induced jitter observed with the original HST solar arrays during orbital thermal cycling and have been in use on HST for eight years. This paper describes ground testing of the candidate solar array bi-stem thermal shield materials including backside aluminized Teflon(R)FEP (fluorinated ethylene propylene) with and without atomic oxygen (AO) and ultraviolet radiation protective surface coatings for durability to AO and combined AO and vacuum ultraviolet (VOV) radiation. NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) conducted VUV and AO exposures of samples of candidate thermal shield materials at HST operational temperatures and pre- and post-exposure analyses as part of an overall program coordinated by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) to determine the on-orbit durability of these materials. Coating adhesion problems were observed for samples having the AO- and combined AO/UV-protective coatings. Coating lamination occurred with rapid thermal cycling testing which simulated orbital thermal cycling. This lack of adhesion caused production of coating flakes from the material that would have posed a serious risk to HST optics if the coated materials were used for the bi-stem thermal shields. No serious degradation was observed for the uncoated aluminized Teflon(R) as evaluated by optical microscopy, although atomic force microscopy (AFM) microhardness testing revealed that an embrittled surface layer formed on the uncoated Teflon(R) surface due to vacuum ultraviolet radiation exposure. This embrittled layer was not completely removed by AO erosion, No cracks or particle flakes were produced for the embrittled uncoated material upon exposure to VUV and AO at operational temperatures to an equivalent exposure of

  11. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  12. Matrix-isolation studies on the radiation-induced chemistry in H₂O/CO₂ systems: reactions of oxygen atoms and formation of HOCO radical.

    PubMed

    Ryazantsev, Sergey V; Feldman, Vladimir I

    2015-03-19

    The radiation-induced transformations occurring upon X-ray irradiation of solid CO2/H2O/Ng systems (Ng = Ar, Kr, Xe) at 8-10 K and subsequent annealing up to 45 K were studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The infrared (IR) spectra of deposited matrices revealed the presence of isolated monomers, dimers, and intermolecular H2O···CO2 complexes. Irradiation resulted in effective decomposition of matrix-isolated carbon dioxide and water yielding CO molecules and OH radicals, respectively. Annealing of the irradiated samples led to formation of O3, HO2, and a number of xenon hydrides of HXeY type (in the case of xenon matrices). The formation of these species was used for monitoring of the postirradiation thermally induced chemical reactions involving O and H atoms generated by radiolysis. It was shown that the radiolysis of CO2 in noble-gas matrices produced high yields of stabilized oxygen atoms. In all cases, the temperatures at which O atoms become mobile and react are lower than those of H atoms. Dynamics and reactivity of oxygen atoms was found to be independent of the precursor nature. In addition, the formation of HOCO radicals was observed in all the noble-gas matrices at remarkably low temperatures. The IR spectra of HOCO and DOCO were first characterized in krypton and xenon matrices. It was concluded that the formation of HOCO was mainly due to the radiation-induced evolution of the weakly bound H2O···CO2 complexes. This result indicates the significance of weak intermolecular interactions in the radiation-induced chemical processes in inert low-temperature media.

  13. Far-Infrared Detection of Neutral Atomic Oxygen Toward the Horsehead Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goicoechea, Javier R.; Compiègne, Mathieu; Habart, Emilie

    2009-07-01

    We present the first detection of the neutral atomic oxygen (3 P 1-3 P 2 fine structure line at ~63 μm) toward the Horsehead photodissociation region (PDR). The cloud has been mapped with the Spitzer Space Telescope at far-IR (FIR) wavelengths using the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer in the spectral energy distribution mode. The [O I]63 μm line peaks at the illuminated edge of the cloud at AV sime 0.1-0.5 (inward the gas becomes too cold and outward the gas density drops). The luminosity carried by the [O I]63 μm line represents a significant fraction of the total FIR dust luminosity (I 63/I FIR sime 4 × 10-3). We analyze the dust continuum emission and the nonlocal O I excitation and radiative transfer in detail. The observations are reproduced with a gas density of n H sime 104 cm-3 and gas and dust temperatures of Tk sime 100 K and Td sime 30 K. We conclude that the determination of the O I 3 PJ level populations and emergent line intensities at such "low" densities is a complex non-LTE problem. FIR radiative pumping, [O I]63 μm subthermal emission, [O I]145 μm suprathermal and even maser emission can occur and decrease the resulting [O I]63/145 intensity ratio. The Herschel Space Observatory, observing from ~55 to 672 μm, will allow us to exploit the diagnostic power of FIR fine structure lines with unprecedented resolution and sensitivity. This work is based on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under a contract with NASA.

  14. Effects of Atomic Oxygen and Grease on Outgassing and Adhesion of Silicone Elastomers for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deGroh, Henry C., III; Puleo, Bernadette J.; Steinetz, Bruce M.

    2011-01-01

    An investigation of silicone elastomers for seals used in docking and habitat systems for future space exploration vehicles is being conducted at NASA. For certain missions, NASA is considering androgynous docking systems where two vehicles each having a seal would be required to: dock for a period of time, seal effectively, and then separate with minimum push-off forces for undocking. Sili-cone materials are generally chosen for their wide operating temperatures and low leakage rates. However silicone materials are often sticky and usually exhibit considerable adhesion when mated against metals and silicone surfaces. This paper investigates the adhesion unit pressure for a space rated silicone material (S0383-70) for either seal-on-seal (SoS) or seal-on-aluminum (SoAl) operation modes in the following conditions: as-received, after ground-based atomic-oxygen (AO) pre-treatment, after application of a thin coating of a space-qualified grease (Bray-cote 601EF), and after a combination of AO pre-treatment and grease coating. In order of descending adhesion reduction, the AO treatment reduced seal adhesion the most, followed by the AO plus grease pre-treatment, followed by the grease treatment. The effects of various treatments on silicone (S0383-70 and ELA-SA-401) outgassing properties were also investigated. The leading adhesion AO pre-treatment reduction led to a slight decrease in outgassing for the S0383-70 material and virtually no change in ELA-SA-401 outgassing.

  15. Results of apparent atomic oxygen reactions on Ag, C, and Os exposed during the Shuttle STS-4 orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, P. N.; Linton, R. C.; Miller, E. R.

    1983-01-01

    Films selected for anticipated reaction with atomic oxygen, namely carbon, silver, and osmium, were exposed during the Shuttle STS-4 mission. A silver film within 5 nm of 225 nm thick was converted to a transparent blue-green interference film within 5 nm of 355 nm thick. Both carbon and osmium films 10-30 nm thick apparently formed volatile oxides and disappeared, except where well shielded. A calculated total of approximately 7 x 10 to the 19th oxygen atoms per sq cm struck the surfaces, which could have removed on the order of 3 microns of material if only 10 percent reacted. The absence of apparent effects on adjacent thin and thick gold films is offered as evidence that sputtering is not responsible.

  16. Reduction of surface leakage current by surface passivation of CdZn Te and other materials using hyperthermal oxygen atoms

    DOEpatents

    Hoffbauer, Mark A.; Prettyman, Thomas H.

    2001-01-01

    Reduction of surface leakage current by surface passivation of Cd.sub.1-x Zn.sub.x Te and other materials using hyperthermal oxygen atoms. Surface effects are important in the performance of CdZnTe room-temperature radiation detectors used as spectrometers since the dark current is often dominated by surface leakage. A process using high-kinetic-energy, neutral oxygen atoms (.about.3 eV) to treat the surface of CdZnTe detectors at or near ambient temperatures is described. Improvements in detector performance include significantly reduced leakage current which results in lower detector noise and greater energy resolution for radiation measurements of gamma- and X-rays, thereby increasing the accuracy and sensitivity of measurements of radionuclides having complex gamma-ray spectra, including special nuclear materials.

  17. A CubeSAT payload for in-situ monitoring of pentacene degradation due to atomic oxygen etching in LEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorreta, Sergi; Pons-Nin, Joan; López, Gema; Figueras, Eduard; Jové-Casulleras, Roger; Araguz, Carles; Via, Pol; Camps, Adriano; Domínguez-Pumar, Manuel

    2016-09-01

    This paper reports and discusses the design and ground tests of a CubeSat payload which allows to measure, in-situ and in real time, the degradation of a polymer of electronic interest due to atomic oxygen etching in LEO. It provides real-time information on how the degradation occurs, eliminating the need to work with samples recovered once the mission has finished. The polymer, TIPS-Pentacene, is deposited on the surface of a microelectromechanical (MEMS) cantilever, which works as a resonator embedded in a Pulsed Digital Oscillator circuit. The mass losses in the polymer due to atomic oxygen corrosion produce variations in the resonant frequency of the MEMS, which is continuously sensed by the circuit and transmitted to the ground. This way, polymer mass losses around 10-12 kg can be detected during the mission. The payload is a part of the 3Cat-1 mission, a nano-satellite aimed at carrying out several scientific experiments.

  18. Branching ratio for the hydrogen atom product channel in the reaction of ground-state atomic oxygen with ethylene

    SciTech Connect

    Smalley, J.F.; Nesbitt, F.L.; Klemm, R.B.

    1986-01-30

    The branching ratio, ..cap alpha../sub 1/, for the H + C/sub 2/H/sub 3/O product channel of the O(/sup 3/P) + C/sub 2/H/sub 3/O reaction was determined from measured H- and O-atom profiles in this flash photolysis-resonance fluorescence study. The relative detection sensitivity of the system for H and O atoms was determined experimentally. A chemical model was used to describe the reaction mechanism together with the relative detection sensitivity, and a value of ..cap alpha../sub 1/ = 0.27 +/- 0.05 was derived at 300 K. At higher temperatures, the value of ..cap alpha../sub 1/ appears to increase slightly. Possible reasons for this increase are discussed. 30 references, 2 figures, 7 tables.

  19. Interactions of atomic oxygen with material surfaces in low Earth orbit: Preliminary results from experiment A0114

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, John C.; Christl, L.; Raikar, G. N.; Weimer, J. J.; Wiser, R.; Peters, P. N.

    1991-01-01

    The University of Alabama at Huntsville atomic oxygen experiment consisted of two trays of 64 one inch diameter solid samples. One tray was placed on the leading edge and one on the trailing edge of the spacecraft. Half of each sample was covered to provide a control. Thus it was intended that the effects of atomic oxygen and solar ultraviolet radiation on the surface properties of each material could be distinguised from each other and from the effects of aging. Sixteen of the samples were placed on a thermally isolated plate of highly polished aluminum, while the main plate was coated with the thermal control coating S13-GLO. Though the experiment was entirely passive, it was hoped that the effects of thermal activation might be observed, if present. The plates were expected to stabilize at temperatures differing by 20 to 30 C. The experiment also carried a device to measure the spacecraft altitude and several oxygen atom reflectometers which have not been analyzed to date. The samples included thin films of metals Os, Ir, Pt, Ni, W, Mo, and Al coated onto fused silica optical flats; metal carbides (WC, SiC), solid carbons of various types, eight polymers and some other coatings of various types.

  20. Oxygen-atom transfer chemistry and thermolytic properties of a di-tert-butylphosphate-ligated Mn4O4 cubane.

    PubMed

    Van Allsburg, Kurt M; Anzenberg, Eitan; Drisdell, Walter S; Yano, Junko; Tilley, T Don

    2015-03-16

    [Mn4O4{O2P(OtBu)2}6] (1), an Mn4O4 cubane complex combining the structural inspiration of the photosystem II oxygen-evolving complex with thermolytic precursor ligands, was synthesized and fully characterized. Core oxygen atoms within complex 1 are transferred upon reaction with an oxygen-atom acceptor (PEt3), to give the butterfly complex [Mn4O2{O2P(OtBu)2}6(OPEt3)2]. The cubane structure is restored by reaction of the latter complex with the O-atom donor PhIO. Complex 1 was investigated as a precursor to inorganic Mn metaphosphate/pyrophosphate materials, which were studied by X-ray absorption spectroscopy to determine the fate of the Mn4O4 unit. Under the conditions employed, thermolyses of 1 result in reduction of the manganese to Mn(II) species. Finally, the related butterfly complex [Mn4O2{O2P(pin)}6(bpy)2] (pin = pinacolate) is described.