Science.gov

Sample records for additional ozone season

  1. 40 CFR 75.75 - Additional ozone season calculation procedures for special circumstances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Additional ozone season calculation... § 75.75 Additional ozone season calculation procedures for special circumstances. (a) The owner or operator of a unit that is required to calculate ozone season heat input for purposes of providing...

  2. 40 CFR 75.75 - Additional ozone season calculation procedures for special circumstances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Additional ozone season calculation... § 75.75 Additional ozone season calculation procedures for special circumstances. (a) The owner or operator of a unit that is required to calculate ozone season heat input for purposes of providing...

  3. 40 CFR 75.75 - Additional ozone season calculation procedures for special circumstances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Additional ozone season calculation... § 75.75 Additional ozone season calculation procedures for special circumstances. (a) The owner or operator of a unit that is required to calculate ozone season heat input for purposes of providing...

  4. 40 CFR 75.75 - Additional ozone season calculation procedures for special circumstances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Additional ozone season calculation... § 75.75 Additional ozone season calculation procedures for special circumstances. (a) The owner or operator of a unit that is required to calculate ozone season heat input for purposes of providing...

  5. 40 CFR 75.75 - Additional ozone season calculation procedures for special circumstances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Additional ozone season calculation... § 75.75 Additional ozone season calculation procedures for special circumstances. (a) The owner or operator of a unit that is required to calculate ozone season heat input for purposes of providing...

  6. Global distribution of ozone for various seasons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koprova, L. I.

    1979-01-01

    A technique which was used to obtain a catalog of the seasonal global distribution of ozone is presented. The technique is based on the simultaneous use of 1964-1975 data on the total ozone content from a worldwide network of ozonometric stations and on the vertical ozone profile from ozone sounding stations.

  7. Ozone measurements in Amazonia - Dry season versus wet season

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirchhoff, V. W. J. H.; Da Silva, I. M. O.; Browell, Edward V.

    1990-01-01

    Recent ozone measurements taken in the Amazonian rain forest environment during the wet season (April-May 1987) are described, revealling new aspects of the regional atmospheric chemistry. The measurements were part of the Amazon Boundary Layer Experiment (ABLE 2B) mission and utilized UV absorption as a measurement technique to obtain surface ozone data; 20 ozonesondes were launched in order to obtain vertical ozone profiles used to describe the upper troposphere and stratosphere. The major differences in comparison to a previous dry season experiment, which found ozone concentrations to be lower in the whole troposphere by nearly a factor of 2, are stressed.

  8. 40 CFR 97.388 - CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations to CAIR NOX Ozone Season opt-in units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations to CAIR NOX Ozone Season opt-in units. 97.388 Section 97.388 Protection of Environment... NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Opt-in Units § 97.388 CAIR NOX Ozone...

  9. 40 CFR 97.388 - CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations to CAIR NOX Ozone Season opt-in units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations to CAIR NOX Ozone Season opt-in units. 97.388 Section 97.388 Protection of Environment... NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Opt-in Units § 97.388 CAIR NOX Ozone...

  10. 40 CFR 97.388 - CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations to CAIR NOX Ozone Season opt-in units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations to CAIR NOX Ozone Season opt-in units. 97.388 Section 97.388 Protection of Environment... NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Opt-in Units § 97.388 CAIR NOX Ozone...

  11. 40 CFR 97.388 - CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations to CAIR NOX Ozone Season opt-in units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations to CAIR NOX Ozone Season opt-in units. 97.388 Section 97.388 Protection of Environment... NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Opt-in Units § 97.388 CAIR NOX Ozone...

  12. 40 CFR 97.388 - CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations to CAIR NOX Ozone Season opt-in units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations to CAIR NOX Ozone Season opt-in units. 97.388 Section 97.388 Protection of Environment... NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Opt-in Units § 97.388 CAIR NOX Ozone...

  13. Seasonal association between ambient ozone and mortality in Zhengzhou, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Lijie; Gu, Jianqin; Liang, Shijie; Fang, Fang; Bai, Weimin; Liu, Xu; Zhao, Tao; Walline, Joseph; Zhang, Shenglong; Cui, Yingjie; Xu, Yaxin; Lin, Hualiang

    2016-12-01

    Different seasonal health effects of ambient ozone (O3) have been reported in previous studies. This might be due to inappropriate adjustment of temperature in different seasons. We used daily data on non-accidental mortality and ambient air pollution in Zhengzhou from January 19, 2013 to June 30, 2015. Season-stratified analyses using generalized additive models were conducted to evaluate the seasonal associations with adjustment of temperature with different lagged days (lag0-1 for warm season, lag0-14 for cold season). We recorded a total of 70,443 non-accidental deaths in Zhengzhou during the study period. Significant associations were observed between ambient O3 and mortality in cold season. Every 10-μg/m3 increment of 24-h O3 of 1-day lagged time was associated with a 1.38% (95% CI 0.60, 2.16%) increase in all cause mortality, 1.35% (95% CI 0.41, 2.30%) increase in cardiovascular mortality, and 1.78% (95% CI 0.43, 3.14%) increase in respiratory mortality. Similar associations were observed when using daily 1- and 8-h maximum concentrations of O3. No significant association was found during warm season. This study suggests a more pronounced ozone-mortality association in cold season in Zhengzhou, and we suggest that different lagged temperatures should be considered when examining the seasonal health effects of ambient ozone.

  14. 40 CFR 96.388 - CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations to CAIR NOX Ozone Season opt-in units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations to CAIR NOX Ozone Season opt-in units. 96.388 Section 96.388 Protection of Environment... SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Opt-in Units § 96.388...

  15. 40 CFR 96.388 - CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations to CAIR NOX Ozone Season opt-in units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations to CAIR NOX Ozone Season opt-in units. 96.388 Section 96.388 Protection of Environment... SO 2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Opt-in Units § 96.388...

  16. 40 CFR 96.388 - CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations to CAIR NOX Ozone Season opt-in units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations to CAIR NOX Ozone Season opt-in units. 96.388 Section 96.388 Protection of Environment... SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Opt-in Units § 96.388...

  17. 40 CFR 96.388 - CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations to CAIR NOX Ozone Season opt-in units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations to CAIR NOX Ozone Season opt-in units. 96.388 Section 96.388 Protection of Environment... SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Opt-in Units § 96.388...

  18. 40 CFR 96.388 - CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations to CAIR NOX Ozone Season opt-in units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations to CAIR NOX Ozone Season opt-in units. 96.388 Section 96.388 Protection of Environment... SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Opt-in Units § 96.388...

  19. 40 CFR 97.521 - Recordation of TR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations and auction results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Recordation of TR NOX Ozone Season... SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS TR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program § 97.521 Recordation of TR NOX Ozone Season... Ozone Season source's compliance account the TR NOX Ozone Season allowances allocated to the TR...

  20. 40 CFR 97.521 - Recordation of TR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations and auction results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Recordation of TR NOX Ozone Season... SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS TR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program § 97.521 Recordation of TR NOX Ozone Season... Ozone Season source's compliance account the TR NOX Ozone Season allowances allocated to the TR...

  1. 40 CFR 97.521 - Recordation of TR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations and auction results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Recordation of TR NOX Ozone Season... SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS TR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program § 97.521 Recordation of TR NOX Ozone Season... Ozone Season source's compliance account the TR NOX Ozone Season allowances allocated to the TR...

  2. 40 CFR 97.512 - TR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations to new units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false TR NOX Ozone Season allowance... TR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program § 97.512 TR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations to new units. (a) For each control period in 2012 and thereafter and for the TR NOX Ozone Season units in...

  3. 40 CFR 97.522 - Submission of TR NOX Ozone Season allowance transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Submission of TR NOX Ozone Season... TR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program § 97.522 Submission of TR NOX Ozone Season allowance transfers. (a) An authorized account representative seeking recordation of a TR NOX Ozone Season...

  4. 40 CFR 97.525 - Compliance with TR NOX Ozone Season assurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compliance with TR NOX Ozone Season... TR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program § 97.525 Compliance with TR NOX Ozone Season assurance provisions. (a) Availability for deduction. TR NOX Ozone Season allowances are available to be deducted...

  5. 40 CFR 97.525 - Compliance with TR NOX Ozone Season assurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Compliance with TR NOX Ozone Season... TR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program § 97.525 Compliance with TR NOX Ozone Season assurance provisions. (a) Availability for deduction. TR NOX Ozone Season allowances are available to be deducted...

  6. 40 CFR 97.512 - TR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations to new units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false TR NOX Ozone Season allowance... TR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program § 97.512 TR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations to new units. (a) For each control period in 2012 and thereafter and for the TR NOX Ozone Season units in...

  7. 40 CFR 97.386 - Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season... CAIR NOX Ozone Season Opt-in Units § 97.386 Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program. Except as provided under paragraph (g) of this section, a CAIR NOX Ozone Season opt-in unit may...

  8. 40 CFR 97.524 - Compliance with TR NOX Ozone Season emissions limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Compliance with TR NOX Ozone Season... TR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program § 97.524 Compliance with TR NOX Ozone Season emissions limitation. (a) Availability for deduction for compliance. TR NOX Ozone Season allowances are available to...

  9. 40 CFR 96.342 - CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance... IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 96.342 CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations. (a)(1) The baseline heat input (in mmBtu) used with respect to CAIR NOX Ozone Season...

  10. 40 CFR 97.522 - Submission of TR NOX Ozone Season allowance transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Submission of TR NOX Ozone Season... TR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program § 97.522 Submission of TR NOX Ozone Season allowance transfers. (a) An authorized account representative seeking recordation of a TR NOX Ozone Season...

  11. 40 CFR 97.523 - Recordation of TR NOX Ozone Season allowance transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Recordation of TR NOX Ozone Season... TR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program § 97.523 Recordation of TR NOX Ozone Season allowance transfers... NOX Ozone Season allowance transfer that is correctly submitted under § 97.522, the Administrator...

  12. 40 CFR 96.342 - CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance... IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 96.342 CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations. (a)(1) The baseline heat input (in mmBtu) used with respect to CAIR NOX Ozone Season...

  13. 40 CFR 97.360 - Submission of CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Submission of CAIR NOX Ozone Season... CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Transfers § 97.360 Submission of CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance transfers. A CAIR authorized account representative seeking recordation of a CAIR NOX Ozone Season...

  14. 40 CFR 97.342 - CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance... Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 97.342 CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations. (a)(1) The baseline heat input (in mmBtu) used with respect to CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations...

  15. 40 CFR 97.360 - Submission of CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Submission of CAIR NOX Ozone Season... CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Transfers § 97.360 Submission of CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance transfers. A CAIR authorized account representative seeking recordation of a CAIR NOX Ozone Season...

  16. 40 CFR 97.386 - Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season... CAIR NOX Ozone Season Opt-in Units § 97.386 Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program. Except as provided under paragraph (g) of this section, a CAIR NOX Ozone Season opt-in unit may...

  17. 40 CFR 97.342 - CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance... Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 97.342 CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations. (a)(1) The baseline heat input (in mmBtu) used with respect to CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations...

  18. 40 CFR 97.524 - Compliance with TR NOX Ozone Season emissions limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Compliance with TR NOX Ozone Season... TR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program § 97.524 Compliance with TR NOX Ozone Season emissions limitation. (a) Availability for deduction for compliance. TR NOX Ozone Season allowances are available to...

  19. 40 CFR 97.353 - Recordation of CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Recordation of CAIR NOX Ozone Season... CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Tracking System § 97.353 Recordation of CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations. (a) By September 30, 2007, the Administrator will record in the CAIR NOX Ozone Season...

  20. 40 CFR 97.525 - Compliance with TR NOX Ozone Season assurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Compliance with TR NOX Ozone Season... TR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program § 97.525 Compliance with TR NOX Ozone Season assurance provisions. (a) Availability for deduction. TR NOX Ozone Season allowances are available to be deducted...

  1. 40 CFR 97.523 - Recordation of TR NOX Ozone Season allowance transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Recordation of TR NOX Ozone Season... TR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program § 97.523 Recordation of TR NOX Ozone Season allowance transfers... NOX Ozone Season allowance transfer that is correctly submitted under § 97.522, the Administrator...

  2. 40 CFR 97.512 - TR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations to new units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false TR NOX Ozone Season allowance... TR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program § 97.512 TR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations to new units. (a) For each control period in 2012 and thereafter and for the TR NOX Ozone Season units in...

  3. 40 CFR 97.360 - Submission of CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Submission of CAIR NOX Ozone Season... CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Transfers § 97.360 Submission of CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance transfers. A CAIR authorized account representative seeking recordation of a CAIR NOX Ozone Season...

  4. 40 CFR 97.353 - Recordation of CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Recordation of CAIR NOX Ozone Season... CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Tracking System § 97.353 Recordation of CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations. (a) By September 30, 2007, the Administrator will record in the CAIR NOX Ozone Season...

  5. 40 CFR 96.342 - CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance... IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 96.342 CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations. (a)(1) The baseline heat input (in mmBtu) used with respect to CAIR NOX Ozone Season...

  6. 40 CFR 97.360 - Submission of CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Submission of CAIR NOX Ozone Season... CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Transfers § 97.360 Submission of CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance transfers. A CAIR authorized account representative seeking recordation of a CAIR NOX Ozone Season...

  7. 40 CFR 96.342 - CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance... IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 96.342 CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations. (a)(1) The baseline heat input (in mmBtu) used with respect to CAIR NOX Ozone Season...

  8. 40 CFR 97.342 - CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance... Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 97.342 CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations. (a)(1) The baseline heat input (in mmBtu) used with respect to CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations...

  9. 40 CFR 97.524 - Compliance with TR NOX Ozone Season emissions limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compliance with TR NOX Ozone Season... TR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program § 97.524 Compliance with TR NOX Ozone Season emissions limitation. (a) Availability for deduction for compliance. TR NOX Ozone Season allowances are available to...

  10. 40 CFR 97.353 - Recordation of CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Recordation of CAIR NOX Ozone Season... CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Tracking System § 97.353 Recordation of CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations. (a) By September 30, 2007, the Administrator will record in the CAIR NOX Ozone Season...

  11. 40 CFR 97.353 - Recordation of CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Recordation of CAIR NOX Ozone Season... CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Tracking System § 97.353 Recordation of CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations. (a) By September 30, 2007, the Administrator will record in the CAIR NOX Ozone Season...

  12. 40 CFR 96.342 - CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance... IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 96.342 CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations. (a)(1) The baseline heat input (in mmBtu) used with respect to CAIR NOX Ozone Season...

  13. 40 CFR 97.360 - Submission of CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Submission of CAIR NOX Ozone Season... CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Transfers § 97.360 Submission of CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance transfers. A CAIR authorized account representative seeking recordation of a CAIR NOX Ozone Season...

  14. 40 CFR 97.342 - CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance... Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 97.342 CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations. (a)(1) The baseline heat input (in mmBtu) used with respect to CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations...

  15. 40 CFR 97.386 - Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season... CAIR NOX Ozone Season Opt-in Units § 97.386 Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program. Except as provided under paragraph (g) of this section, a CAIR NOX Ozone Season opt-in unit may...

  16. 40 CFR 97.386 - Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season... CAIR NOX Ozone Season Opt-in Units § 97.386 Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program. Except as provided under paragraph (g) of this section, a CAIR NOX Ozone Season opt-in unit may...

  17. 40 CFR 97.342 - CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance... Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 97.342 CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations. (a)(1) The baseline heat input (in mmBtu) used with respect to CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations...

  18. 40 CFR 97.523 - Recordation of TR NOX Ozone Season allowance transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Recordation of TR NOX Ozone Season... TR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program § 97.523 Recordation of TR NOX Ozone Season allowance transfers... NOX Ozone Season allowance transfer that is correctly submitted under § 97.522, the Administrator...

  19. 40 CFR 97.386 - Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season... CAIR NOX Ozone Season Opt-in Units § 97.386 Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program. Except as provided under paragraph (g) of this section, a CAIR NOX Ozone Season opt-in unit may...

  20. 40 CFR 97.353 - Recordation of CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recordation of CAIR NOX Ozone Season... CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Tracking System § 97.353 Recordation of CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations. (a) By September 30, 2007, the Administrator will record in the CAIR NOX Ozone Season...

  1. 40 CFR 97.522 - Submission of TR NOX Ozone Season allowance transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Submission of TR NOX Ozone Season... TR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program § 97.522 Submission of TR NOX Ozone Season allowance transfers. (a) An authorized account representative seeking recordation of a TR NOX Ozone Season...

  2. Seasonal variations of troposheric ozone at Natal, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, J. A.; Kirchhoff, V. W. J. H.

    1986-01-01

    An analysis of ozone measurements from Natal, Brazil (6 deg S, 35 W), with a focus on the seasonal behavior in the troposphere, is presented. The amplitude of seasonal cycle at Natal is much larger than at Panama (9 deg N), the only other tropical site for which similar data are available. Concentrations of ozone in the middle troposphere in the southern spring are unexpectedly high, 60-70 ppb, similar to values found at northern midlatitudes in summer, and larger by 20-30 ppb than values found at Panama and at southern midlatitudes. It is suggested that photochemical production of ozone associated with emissions of CO, hydrocarbons, and NO(x) from biomass burning may contribute significantly to the high values of ozone, but note that stratospheric intrusions could also play a role. The data available at present do not permit a definitive evaluation of the relative importance of these two sources of ozone. The data from Natal, in combination with recent aircraft and surface data, show that tropical ozone exhibits strong spatial and temporal inhomogeneities. The distribution of tropospheric ozone appears to be considerably more complex than the traditional view, which suggested a northern midlatitude maximum and north/-south hemispheric asymmetry. The seasonal cycle in the total column of ozone at Natal appears to mirror the behavior of the tropospheric contribution to the ozone column rather than the stratospheric contribution, and this may account for differences in the annual cycle of the total column at Natal versus other tropical locations.

  3. 40 CFR 96.386 - Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season... STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Opt-in Units § 96.386 Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program. Except as provided under paragraph (g) of this section, a CAIR NOX Ozone...

  4. 40 CFR 97.511 - Timing requirements for TR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Timing requirements for TR NOX Ozone... TRADING PROGRAMS TR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program § 97.511 Timing requirements for TR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations. (a) Existing units. (1) TR NOX Ozone Season allowances are allocated, for the...

  5. 40 CFR 97.511 - Timing requirements for TR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Timing requirements for TR NOX Ozone... TRADING PROGRAMS TR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program § 97.511 Timing requirements for TR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations. (a) Existing units. (1) TR NOX Ozone Season allowances are allocated, for the...

  6. 40 CFR 96.386 - Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season... STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Opt-in Units § 96.386 Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program. Except as provided under paragraph (g) of this section, a CAIR NOX Ozone...

  7. 40 CFR 96.386 - Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season... STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Opt-in Units § 96.386 Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program. Except as provided under paragraph (g) of this section, a CAIR NOX Ozone...

  8. 40 CFR 96.386 - Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season... STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Opt-in Units § 96.386 Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program. Except as provided under paragraph (g) of this section, a CAIR NOX Ozone...

  9. 40 CFR 97.511 - Timing requirements for TR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Timing requirements for TR NOX Ozone... TRADING PROGRAMS TR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program § 97.511 Timing requirements for TR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations. (a) Existing units. (1) TR NOX Ozone Season allowances are allocated, for the...

  10. 40 CFR 96.386 - Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season... STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Opt-in Units § 96.386 Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program. Except as provided under paragraph (g) of this section, a CAIR NOX Ozone...

  11. 40 CFR 96.360 - Submission of CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Submission of CAIR NOX Ozone Season... STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Transfers § 96.360 Submission of CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance transfers. A CAIR authorized account representative seeking recordation of a...

  12. 40 CFR 97.320 - General CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program permit requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false General CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading... TRADING PROGRAMS Permits § 97.320 General CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program permit requirements. (a) For each CAIR NOX Ozone Season source required to have a title V operating permit or required,...

  13. 40 CFR 96.320 - General CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program permit requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false General CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading... PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Permits § 96.320 General CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program permit requirements. (a) For each CAIR NOX Ozone Season source required to have a title V...

  14. 40 CFR 96.353 - Recordation of CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Recordation of CAIR NOX Ozone Season... STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Tracking System § 96.353 Recordation of CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations. (a) By September 30, 2007, the Administrator will record...

  15. 40 CFR 96.320 - General CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program permit requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false General CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading... PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Permits § 96.320 General CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program permit requirements. (a) For each CAIR NOX Ozone Season source required to have a title V...

  16. 40 CFR 96.353 - Recordation of CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Recordation of CAIR NOX Ozone Season... STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Tracking System § 96.353 Recordation of CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations. (a) By September 30, 2007, the Administrator will record...

  17. 40 CFR 97.320 - General CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program permit requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false General CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading... TRADING PROGRAMS Permits § 97.320 General CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program permit requirements. (a) For each CAIR NOX Ozone Season source required to have a title V operating permit or required,...

  18. 40 CFR 75.74 - Annual and ozone season monitoring and reporting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Annual and ozone season monitoring and... Annual and ozone season monitoring and reporting requirements. (a) Annual monitoring requirement. (1) The... during the entire calendar year. (b) Ozone season monitoring requirements. The owner or operator of...

  19. 40 CFR 96.353 - Recordation of CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Recordation of CAIR NOX Ozone Season... STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Tracking System § 96.353 Recordation of CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations. (a) By September 30, 2007, the Administrator will record...

  20. 40 CFR 96.353 - Recordation of CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Recordation of CAIR NOX Ozone Season... STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Tracking System § 96.353 Recordation of CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations. (a) By September 30, 2007, the Administrator will record...

  1. 40 CFR 96.360 - Submission of CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Submission of CAIR NOX Ozone Season... STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Transfers § 96.360 Submission of CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance transfers. A CAIR authorized account representative seeking recordation of a...

  2. 40 CFR 75.74 - Annual and ozone season monitoring and reporting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Annual and ozone season monitoring and... Annual and ozone season monitoring and reporting requirements. (a) Annual monitoring requirement. (1) The... during the entire calendar year. (b) Ozone season monitoring requirements. The owner or operator of...

  3. 40 CFR 96.320 - General CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program permit requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false General CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading... PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Permits § 96.320 General CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program permit requirements. (a) For each CAIR NOX Ozone Season source required to have a title V...

  4. 40 CFR 97.320 - General CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program permit requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false General CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading... TRADING PROGRAMS Permits § 97.320 General CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program permit requirements. (a) For each CAIR NOX Ozone Season source required to have a title V operating permit or required,...

  5. 40 CFR 96.360 - Submission of CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Submission of CAIR NOX Ozone Season... STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Transfers § 96.360 Submission of CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance transfers. A CAIR authorized account representative seeking recordation of a...

  6. 40 CFR 75.74 - Annual and ozone season monitoring and reporting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Annual and ozone season monitoring and... Annual and ozone season monitoring and reporting requirements. (a) Annual monitoring requirement. (1) The... during the entire calendar year. (b) Ozone season monitoring requirements. The owner or operator of...

  7. 40 CFR 96.353 - Recordation of CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recordation of CAIR NOX Ozone Season... STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Tracking System § 96.353 Recordation of CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations. (a) By September 30, 2007, the Administrator will record...

  8. 40 CFR 75.74 - Annual and ozone season monitoring and reporting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Annual and ozone season monitoring and... Annual and ozone season monitoring and reporting requirements. (a) Annual monitoring requirement. (1) The... during the entire calendar year. (b) Ozone season monitoring requirements. The owner or operator of...

  9. 40 CFR 96.320 - General CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program permit requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false General CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading... PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Permits § 96.320 General CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program permit requirements. (a) For each CAIR NOX Ozone Season source required to have a title V...

  10. 40 CFR 96.320 - General CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program permit requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading... PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Permits § 96.320 General CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program permit requirements. (a) For each CAIR NOX Ozone Season source required to have a title V...

  11. 40 CFR 75.74 - Annual and ozone season monitoring and reporting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Annual and ozone season monitoring and... Annual and ozone season monitoring and reporting requirements. (a) Annual monitoring requirement. (1) The... during the entire calendar year. (b) Ozone season monitoring requirements. The owner or operator of...

  12. 40 CFR 97.320 - General CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program permit requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false General CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading... TRADING PROGRAMS Permits § 97.320 General CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program permit requirements. (a) For each CAIR NOX Ozone Season source required to have a title V operating permit or required,...

  13. 40 CFR 97.320 - General CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program permit requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading... TRADING PROGRAMS Permits § 97.320 General CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program permit requirements. (a) For each CAIR NOX Ozone Season source required to have a title V operating permit or required,...

  14. 40 CFR 96.360 - Submission of CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Submission of CAIR NOX Ozone Season... STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Transfers § 96.360 Submission of CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance transfers. A CAIR authorized account representative seeking recordation of a...

  15. 40 CFR 96.360 - Submission of CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Submission of CAIR NOX Ozone Season... STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Transfers § 96.360 Submission of CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance transfers. A CAIR authorized account representative seeking recordation of a...

  16. Seasonal Variation of Ozone in the Tropical Lower Stratosphere: Southern Tropics are Different from Northern Tropics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stolarski, Richard S.; Waugh, Darryn W.; Wang, Lei,; Oman, Luke D.; Douglass, Anne R.; Newman, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    We examine the seasonal behavior of ozone by using measurements from various instruments including ozonesondes, Aura Microwave Limb Sounder, and Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II. We find that the magnitude of the annual variation in ozone, as a percentage of the mean ozone, exhibits a maximum at or slightly above the tropical tropopause. The maximum is larger in the northern tropics than in the southern tropics, and the annual maximum of ozone in the southern tropics occurs 2 months later than that in the northern tropics, in contrast to usual assumption that the tropics can be treated as a horizontally homogeneous region. The seasonal cycles of ozone and other species in this part of the lower stratosphere result from a combination of the seasonal variation of the Brewer-Dobson circulation and the seasonal variation of tropical and midlatitude mixing. In the Northern Hemisphere, the impacts of upwelling and mixing between the tropics and midlatitudes on ozone are in phase and additive. In the Southern Hemisphere, they are not in phase. We apply a tropical leaky pipe model independently to each hemisphere to examine the relative roles of upwelling and mixing in the northern and southern tropical regions. Reasonable assumptions of the seasonal variation of upwelling and mixing yield a good description of the seasonal magnitude and phase in both the southern and northern tropics. The differences in the tracers and transport between the northern and southern tropical stratospheres suggest that the paradigm of well-mixed tropics needs to be revised to consider latitudinal variations within the tropics.

  17. Study of the seasonal ozone variations at European high latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, R.; Stebel, K.; Hansen, H. G.; Hoppe, U.-P.; Gausa, M.; Kivi, R.; von der Gathen, P.; Orsolini, Y.; Kilifarska, N.

    2011-02-01

    The geographic area at high latitudes beyond the polar circle is characterized with long darkness during the winter (polar night) and with a long summertime insolation (polar day). Consequentially, the polar vortex is formed and the surrounding strong polar jet is characterized by a strong potential vorticity gradient representing a horizontal transport barrier. The ozone dynamics of the lower and middle stratosphere is controlled both by chemical destruction processes and transport processes.To study the seasonal ozone variation at high latitudes, ozone vertical distributions are examined, collected from the Arctic Lidar Observatory for Middle Atmosphere Research (ALOMAR) (69.3°N, 16.0°E,) station at Andenes and from the stations at Sodankylä (67.4°N, 26.6°E) and at Ny-Ålesund (78.9°N, 11.9°E). The data sets cover the time period from 1994 until 2004. We find a second ozone maximum near 13-15 km, between the tropopause and the absolute ozone maximum near 17-20 km. The maximum is built up by the combination of air mass transport and chemical ozone destruction, mainly caused by the NOx catalytic cycle, which begins after the polar night and intensifies with the increasing day length. Formation of a troposphere inversion layer is observed. The inversion layer is thicker and reaches higher altitudes in winter rather than in summer. However, the temperature inversion during summer is stronger. The formation of an enhanced ozone number density is observed during the spring-summer period. The ozone is accumulated or becomes poor by synoptic weather patterns just above the tropopause from spring to summer. In seasonal average an ozone enhancement above the tropopause is obtained.The stronger temperature inversion during the summer period inhibits the vertical stratosphere-troposphere exchange. The horizontal advection in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere is enforced during summer. The combination of these mechanisms generates a layer with a very low

  18. 40 CFR 97.341 - Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone... TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 97.341 Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations. (a) The Administrator will determine by order the CAIR NOX...

  19. 40 CFR 96.341 - Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone... PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 96.341 Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations. (a) By October 31, 2006, the permitting...

  20. 40 CFR 97.341 - Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone... TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 97.341 Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations. (a) The Administrator will determine by order the CAIR NOX...

  1. 40 CFR 96.341 - Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone... PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 96.341 Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations. (a) By October 31, 2006, the permitting...

  2. 40 CFR 96.341 - Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone... PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 96.341 Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations. (a) By October 31, 2006, the permitting...

  3. 40 CFR 97.341 - Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone... TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 97.341 Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations. (a) The Administrator will determine by order the CAIR NOX...

  4. 40 CFR 97.341 - Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone... TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 97.341 Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations. (a) The Administrator will determine by order the CAIR NOX...

  5. 40 CFR 97.341 - Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone... TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 97.341 Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations. (a) The Administrator will determine by order the CAIR NOX...

  6. 40 CFR 96.341 - Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone... PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 96.341 Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations. (a) By October 31, 2006, the permitting...

  7. 40 CFR 96.341 - Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone... PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 96.341 Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations. (a) By October 31, 2006, the permitting...

  8. Seasonal development of ozone-induced foliar injury on tall milkweed (Asclepias exaltata) in Great Smoky Mountains National Park.

    PubMed

    Souza, Lara; Neufeld, Howard S; Chappelka, Arthur H; Burkey, Kent O; Davison, Alan W

    2006-05-01

    The goals of this study were to document the development of ozone-induced foliar injury, on a leaf-by-leaf basis, and to develop ozone exposure relationships for leaf cohorts and individual tall milkweeds (Asclepias exaltata L.) in Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Plants were classified as either ozone-sensitive or insensitive based on the amount of foliar injury. Sensitive plants developed injury earlier in the season and to a greater extent than insensitive plants. Older leaf cohorts were more likely to belong to high injury classes by the end of each of the two growing seasons. In addition, leaf loss was more likely for older cohorts (2000) and lower leaf positions (2001) than younger cohorts and upper leaves, respectively. Most leaves abscised without prior ozone-like stippling or chlorosis. Failure to take this into account can result in underestimation of the effects of ozone on these plants.

  9. Seasonal and Interannual Variabilities in Tropical Tropospheric Ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziemke, J. R.; Chandra, S.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed characterization of seasonal and interannual variability in tropical tropospheric column ozone (TCO). TCO time series are derived from 20 years (1979-1998) of total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) data using the convective cloud differential (CCD) method. Our study identifies three regions in the tropics with distinctly different zonal characteristics related to seasonal and interannual variability. These three regions are the eastern Pacific, Atlantic, and western Pacific. Results show that in both the eastern and western Pacific seasonal-cycle variability of northern hemisphere (NH) TCO exhibits maximum amount during NH spring whereas largest amount in southern hemisphere (SH) TCO occurs during SH spring. In the Atlantic, maximum TCO in both hemispheres occurs in SH spring. These seasonal cycles are shown to be comparable to seasonal cycles present in ground-based ozonesonde measurements. Interannual variability in the Atlantic region indicates a quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) signal that is out of phase with the QBO present in stratospheric column ozone (SCO). This is consistent with high pollution and high concentrations of mid-to-upper tropospheric O3-producing precursors in this region. The out of phase relation suggests a UV modulation of tropospheric photochemistry caused by the QBO in stratospheric O3. During El Nino events there is anomalously low TCO in the eastern Pacific and high values in the western Pacific, indicating the effects of convectively-driven transport of low-value boundary layer O3 (reducing TCO) and O3 precursors including H2O and OH. A simplified technique is proposed to derive high-resolution maps of TCO in the tropics even in the absence of tropopause-level clouds. This promising approach requires only total ozone gridded measurements and utilizes the small variability observed in TCO near the dateline. This technique has an advantage compared to the CCD method because the latter requires high

  10. Tropical Tropospheric Ozone from SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere ADditional Ozonesondes) Network: A Project for Satellite Research, Process Studies, Education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Oltmans, Samuel J.; Schmidlin, Francis J.; Coetzee, G. J. R.; Hoegger, Bruno; Kirchhoff, V. W. J. H.; Ogawa, Toshihiro; Kawakami, Shuji; Posny, Francoise

    2002-01-01

    The first climatological overview of total, stratospheric and tropospheric ozone in the southern hemisphere tropical and subtropics is based on ozone sounding data from 10 sites comprising the Southern Hemisphere Additional OZonesondes (SHADOZ) network. The period covered is 1998-2000. Observations were made over: Ascension Island; Nairobi, Kenya; Irene, South Africa; Reunion Island; Watukosek, Java; Fiji; Tahiti; American Samoa; San Cristobal, Galapagos; Natal, Brazil. Campaign data were collected on a trans-Atlantic oceanographic cruise and during SAFARI-2000 in Zambia. The ozone data, with simultaneous temperature profiles to approx. 7 hPa and relative humidity to approx. 200 hPa, reside at: . SHADOZ ozone time-series and profiles give a perspective on tropical total, stratospheric and tropospheric ozone. Prominent features are highly variable tropospheric ozone and a zonal wave-one pattern in total (and tropospheric) column ozone. Total, stratospheric and tropospheric column ozone amounts peak between August and November and are lowest between March and May. Tropospheric ozone variability over the Indian and Pacific Ocean displays influences of the Indian Ocean Dipole and convective mixing. Pollution transport from Africa and South America is a seasonal feature. Tropospheric ozone seasonality over the Atlantic Basin shows effects of regional subsidence and recirculation as well as biomass burning. Dynamical and chemical influences appear to be of comparable magnitude though model studies are needed to quantify this.

  11. 75 FR 69036 - Notice of Data Availability Regarding Potential Changes to Required Ozone Monitoring Seasons for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-10

    ... Monitoring Seasons for Colorado, Kansas, and Utah AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... monitoring seasons. The data for these states consist of daily maximum 8-hour ozone concentrations. These... could impact changes to the current and proposed required ozone monitoring seasons for Colorado,...

  12. Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) 1998-2000 tropical ozone climatology 2. Tropospheric variability and the zonal wave-one

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Oltmans, Samuel J.; Schmidlin, Francis J.; Logan, Jennifer A.; Fujiwara, Masatomo; Kirchhoff, Volker W. J. H.; Posny, FrançOise; Coetzee, Gert J. R.; Hoegger, Bruno; Kawakami, Shuji; Ogawa, Toshihiro; Fortuin, J. P. F.; Kelder, H. M.

    2003-01-01

    The first view of stratospheric and tropospheric ozone variability in the Southern Hemisphere tropics is provided by a 3-year record of ozone soundings from the Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) network (http://croc.gsfc.nasa.gov/shadoz). Observations covering 1998-2000 were made over Ascension Island, Nairobi (Kenya), Irene (South Africa), Réunion Island, Watukosek (Java), Fiji, Tahiti, American Samoa, San Cristóbal (Galapagos), and Natal (Brazil). Total, stratospheric, and tropospheric column ozone amounts usually peak between August and November. Other features are a persistent zonal wave-one pattern in total column ozone and signatures of the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) in stratospheric ozone. The wave-one is due to a greater concentration of free tropospheric ozone over the tropical Atlantic than the Pacific and appears to be associated with tropical general circulation and seasonal pollution from biomass burning. Tropospheric ozone over the Indian and Pacific Oceans displays influences of the waning 1997-1998 El Niño, seasonal convection, and pollution transport from Africa. The most distinctive feature of SHADOZ tropospheric ozone is variability in the data, e.g., a factor of 3 in column amount at 8 of 10 stations. Seasonal and monthly means may not be robust quantities because statistics are frequently not Gaussian even at sites that are always in tropical air. Models and satellite retrievals should be evaluated on their capability for reproducing tropospheric variability and fine structure. A 1999-2000 ozone record from Paramaribo, Surinam (6°N, 55°W) (also in SHADOZ) shows a marked contrast to southern tropical ozone because Surinam is often north of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). A more representative tropospheric ozone climatology for models and satellite retrievals requires additional Northern Hemisphere tropical data.

  13. An evaluation of ozone exposure metrics for a seasonally drought-stressed ponderosa pine ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Panek, Jeanne A; Kurpius, Meredith R; Goldstein, Allen H

    2002-01-01

    Ozone stress has become an increasingly significant factor in cases of forest decline reported throughout the world. Current metrics to estimate ozone exposure for forest trees are derived from atmospheric concentrations and assume that the forest is physiologically active at all times of the growing season. This may be inaccurate in regions with a Mediterranean climate, such as California and the Pacific Northwest, where peak physiological activity occurs early in the season to take advantage of high soil moisture and does not correspond to peak ozone concentrations. It may also misrepresent ecosystems experiencing non-average climate conditions such as drought years. We compared direct measurements of ozone flux into a ponderosa pine canopy with a suite of the most common ozone exposure metrics to determine which best correlated with actual ozone uptake by the forest. Of the metrics we assessed, SUM0 (the sum of all daytime ozone concentrations > 0) best corresponded to ozone uptake by ponderosa pine, however the correlation was only strong at times when the stomata were unconstrained by site moisture conditions. In the early growing season (May and June). SUM0 was an adequate metric for forest ozone exposure. Later in the season, when stomatal conductance was limited by drought. SUM0 overestimated ozone uptake. A better metric for seasonally drought-stressed forests would be one that incorporates forest physiological activity, either through mechanistic modeling, by weighting ozone concentrations by stomatal conductance, or by weighting concentrations by site moisture conditions.

  14. Seasonal Variability in Tropospheric Ozone Distribution Over Qatar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayoub, Mohammed; Ackermann, Luis

    2015-04-01

    We report on the vertical distribution and seasonal variability in tropospheric ozone over the Middle East through one year of weekly ozonesondes launched from Doha, Qatar during 2014. A total of 49 2Z-V7 DMT/EN-SCI Electrochemical Concentration Cell (ECC) ozonesondes employing a 1% buffered potassium iodide solution (KI), coupled with iMet-1-RS GPS radiosondes were launched around 1300 local time. The authors used the SkySonde telemetry software (developed by CIRES and NOAA/ESRL) and developed robust in-house data quality assurance and validation methodologies. The average height of the thermal tropopause is between 15-17.5 km (125-85 hPa). Monthly average relative humidity around the tropopause shows an enhancement during the months of June through the beginning of October. Monthly average temperature profiles show the development of the subtropical subsidence inversion around 5-6 km (450-520 hPa) between the months of April through October. The subsidence inversion is strongest during the months of June and July and is accompanied by a sharp drop in relative humidity over a 100-300 m in the vertical. The monthly average ozone background concentration between the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) height and the subsidence inversion increases from 50 ppb in the winter to almost 80 ppb in the summer months. An enhancement of up to 50% in the average ozone in the mid-to-upper troposphere (above the subsidence inversion) is strongest during the summer months (June through September) and results in average concentrations between 80-100 ppb. In the upper troposphere (above 13 km/200 hPa) ozone concentrations are highest during the spring and summer months. This is coupled with a drop in the average height of the tropopause. HYSPLIT back-trajectory analysis shows the enhancement in mid-to-upper tropospheric ozone in the summer is due to persistent high pressure over the Middle East between the months of June through September. Evidence of Stratosphere-Troposphere Exchange

  15. Insights into Tropical Tropospheric Ozone from the 1998-2000 SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes) Data Record

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Oltmans, Samuel J.; Schmidlin, Francis J.; Volker, W.; Kirchhoff, J. H.; Posny, Franaoise; Gert, J.; Coetzee, R.; Hoegger, Bruno; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We describe the first overview of total, stratospheric and tropospheric ozone in the southern hemisphere tropics based on a three year, ten site record of ozone soundings from the Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) network. Observations covering 1998-2000 were made over Ascension Island; Nairobi, Kenya; Irene, South Africa; Reunion Island; Watukosek, Java; Fiji; Tahiti; American Samoa; San Cristobal, Galapagos; Natal, Brazil. The ozone data, with simultaneous temperature profiles to approximately 7 hPa and relative humidity to approximately 200 hPa, are at an archive: http://code9l6. gsfc.nasa.gov/Data_services/shadoz. Prominent features are highly variable tropospheric ozone, a zonal wave-one pattern in total (and tropospheric) column ozone, and signatures of the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO) in stratospheric ozone. Total, stratospheric and tropospheric column ozone amounts usually peak between August and November and are lowest in the first half of the year. Tropospheric ozone variability over the Indian and Pacific Ocean displays influences of the waning 1997-1998 Indian Ocean Dipole and ENSO (El Nino / Southern Oscillation), seasonal convection and pollution transport from Africa. Tropospheric ozone over the Atlantic Basin reflects regional subsidence and recirculation as well as pollution ozone from biomass burning.

  16. Insights Into Tropical Tropospheric Ozone From The 1998-2000 Shadoz (southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes) Data Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, A. M.; Witte, J. C.; Oltmans, S. J.; Schmidlin, F. J.; Kirchhoff, V. W. J. H.; Posny, F.; Coetzee, G. J. R.; Hoegger, B.; Kawakami, S.; Ogawa, T.

    We describe the first overview of total, stratospheric and tropospheric ozone in the southern hemisphere tropics based on a 3-year, 10-site record of ozone soundings from the Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes (SHADOZ) network. Ob- servations covering 1998-2000 were made over Ascension Island; Nairobi, Kenya; Irene, South Africa; Réunion Island; Watukosek, Java; Fiji; Tahiti; American Samoa; San Cristóbal, Galapagos; Natal, Brazil. The ozone data, with simultaneous tem- perature profiles to 7 hPa and relative humidity to 200 hPa, are at an archive: . Prominent features are highly variable tropospheric ozone, a zonal wave-one pattern in total (and tropospheric) col- umn ozone, and signatures of the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO) in stratospheric ozone. Total, stratospheric and tropospheric column ozone amounts usually peak be- tween August and November and are lowest in the first half of the year. Tropospheric ozone variability over the Indian and Pacific Ocean displays influences of the wan- ing 1997-1998 Indian Ocean Dipole and ENSO, seasonal convection and pollution transport from Africa. Tropospheric ozone over the Atlantic Basin reflects regional subsidence and recirculation as well as pollution ozone from biomass burning.

  17. 40 CFR 97.343 - Alternative of allocation of CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowances by permitting authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Ozone Season allowances by permitting authority. 97.343 Section 97.343 Protection of Environment... NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 97.343 Alternative of allocation of CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowances by permitting authority. (a) Notwithstanding §§ 97.341,...

  18. 40 CFR 97.343 - Alternative of allocation of CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowances by permitting authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Ozone Season allowances by permitting authority. 97.343 Section 97.343 Protection of Environment... NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 97.343 Alternative of allocation of CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowances by permitting authority. (a) Notwithstanding §§ 97.341,...

  19. 40 CFR 97.343 - Alternative of allocation of CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowances by permitting authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Ozone Season allowances by permitting authority. 97.343 Section 97.343 Protection of Environment... NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 97.343 Alternative of allocation of CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowances by permitting authority. (a) Notwithstanding §§ 97.341,...

  20. 40 CFR 97.343 - Alternative of allocation of CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowances by permitting authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Ozone Season allowances by permitting authority. 97.343 Section 97.343 Protection of Environment... NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 97.343 Alternative of allocation of CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowances by permitting authority. (a) Notwithstanding §§ 97.341,...

  1. 40 CFR 97.343 - Alternative of allocation of CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowances by permitting authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Ozone Season allowances by permitting authority. 97.343 Section 97.343 Protection of Environment... NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 97.343 Alternative of allocation of CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowances by permitting authority. (a) Notwithstanding §§ 97.341,...

  2. Elevated ozone in boreal fire plumes - the 2013 smoke season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trickl, T.; Vogelmann, H.; Flentje, H.; Ries, L.

    2015-05-01

    In July 2013 very strong boreal fire plumes were observed at the northern rim of the Alps by lidar and ceilometer measurements of aerosol, ozone and water vapour for about three weeks. In addition, some of the lower-tropospheric components of these layers were analyzed at the Global Atmosphere Watch laboratory at the Schneefernerhaus high-altitude research station (2650 m a.s.l., located a few hundred metres south-west of the Zugspitze summit). The high amount of particles confirms our hypothesis that fires in the Arctic regions of North America have a much stronger impact on the Central European atmosphere than the multitude of fires in the United States. This has been ascribed to the prevailing anticyclonic advection pattern during favourable periods and subsidence, in contrast to warm-conveyor-belt export, rainout and dilution frequently found for lower latitudes. A high number of the pronounced aerosol structures were positively correlated with elevated ozone. Chemical ozone formation in boreal fire plumes is known to be rather limited. Indeed, these air masses could be attributed to stratospheric air intrusions over remote high latitude regions obviously picking up the aerosol on their way across Canada. In one case subsidence from the stratosphere over Siberia over as many as 15 to 20 days without increase in humidity was observed although a significant amount of Canadian smoke was trapped. These coherent air streams lead to rather straight and rapid transport of the particles to Europe.

  3. Effects of chronic doses of ozone on loblolly pine: Photosynthetic characteristics in the third growing season

    SciTech Connect

    Sasek, T.W.; Richardson, C.J. )

    1989-09-01

    Gas exchange characteristics of loblolly pine seedlings were measured in the third growing season of ozone fumigations to determine the effects of long-term ozone exposure on photosynthetic capacity. Light and CO{sub 2} response curves indicated significant decreases of 21% and 27%, respectively, in light-saturated and CO{sub 2}-saturated photosynthetic capacities at 2 {times} ambient ozone compared to charcoal-filtered (CF) air, approximately 0.5 {times} ambient ozone. Differences in the response curves suggest changes in light-harvesting and biochemical efficiencies as well as changes in the activity of RuBP carboxylase and the regeneration rate of RuBP. Chlorophyll and carotenoid conditions per unit leaf area were decreased at the high ozone treatment in older flushes. Stomatal resistance limited photosynthesis by about 29% in both CF and 2 {times} ambient ozone treated plants, suggesting that chronic ozone exposure did not affect stomatal control in loblolly pine.

  4. The 1998-2000 SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes) Tropical Ozone Climatology. 2; Stratospheric and Tropospheric Ozone Variability and the Zonal Wave-One

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Oltmans, Samuel J.; Schmidlin, Francis J.; Logan, Jennifer A.; Fujiwara, Masatomo; Kirchhoff, Volker W. J. H.; Posny, Francoise; Coetzee, Gert J. R.; Hoegger, Bruno; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This is the second 'reference' or 'archival' paper for the SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes) network and is a follow-on to the recently accepted paper with similar first part of title. The latter paper compared SHADOZ total ozone with satellite and ground-based instruments and showed that the equatorial wave-one in total ozone is in the troposphere. The current paper presents details of the wave-one structure and the first overview of tropospheric ozone variability over the southern Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Ocean basins. The principal new result is that signals of climate effects, convection and offsets between biomass burning seasonality and tropospheric ozone maxima suggest that dynamical factors are perhaps more important than pollution in determining the tropical distribution of tropospheric ozone. The SHADOZ data at () are setting records in website visits and are the first time that the zonal view of tropical ozone structure has been recorded - thanks to the distribution of the 10 sites that make up this validation network.

  5. Seasonal and diurnal gas exchange differences in ozone-sensitive common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca L.) in relation to ozone uptake.

    PubMed

    Bergweiler, Chris; Manning, William J; Chevone, Boris I

    2008-03-01

    Stomatal conductance and net photosynthesis of common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca L.) plants in two different soil moisture regimes were directly quantified and subsequently modeled over an entire growing season. Direct measurements captured the dynamic response of stomatal conductance to changing environmental conditions throughout the day, as well as declining gas exchange and carbon assimilation throughout the growth period beyond an early summer maximum. This phenomenon was observed in plants grown both with and without supplemental soil moisture, the latter of which should theoretically mitigate against harmful physiological effects caused by exposure to ozone. Seasonally declining rates of stomatal conductance were found to be substantial and incorporated into models, making them less susceptible to the overestimations of effective exposure that are an inherent source of error in ozone exposure indices. The species-specific evidence presented here supports the integration of dynamic physiological processes into flux-based modeling approaches for the prediction of ozone injury in vegetation.

  6. Variability in Ozone in the Tropical Tropopause Region from the 1998-2000 SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes) Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, A. M.; Witte, J. C.; Oltmans, S. J.; Schmidlin, F. J.

    2002-05-01

    The first view of stratospheric and tropospheric ozone variability in the southern hemisphere tropics is provided by a 3-year, 10-site record of ozone soundings from the Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes (SHADOZ) network: (http://code916.gsfc.nasa.gov/Data_services/shadoz). Observations covering 1998-2000 were made over Ascension Island; Nairobi, Kenya; Irene, South Africa; Réunion Island; Watukosek, Java; Fiji; Tahiti; American Samoa; San Cristóbal, Galapagos; Natal, Brazil. Taking the TTL (tropical tropopause layer) as the region between 12 and 17 km, we examine ozone variability in this region on a week-to-week and seasonal basis. The TTL layer is lower in September-October-November than in March-April-May, when ozone is a minimum at most SHADOZ stations. A zonal wave-one pattern is apparent in column-integrated TTL ozone because ozone mixing ratios are greater over the Atlantic and adjacent continents than over the Pacific and eastern Indian Ocean. The wave-one persists all year with varying magnitude and appears to be due to general circulation - with subsidence over the Atlantic and frequent deep convection over the Pacific and Indian Ocean. The variability of deep convection - most prominent at Java, Fiji, Samoa and Natal - is explored in time-vs-altitude ozone curtains. Stratospheric incursions into the troposphere are most prominent in soundings at Irene and Réunion Island.

  7. Variability in Ozone in the Tropical Tropopause Region from the 1998-2000 SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes) Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Witte, J. C.; Oltmans, S. J.; Schmidlin, F. J.

    2002-01-01

    The first view of stratospheric and tropospheric ozone variability in the southern hemisphere tropics is provided by a 3-year, 10-site record of ozone soundings from the Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes (SHADOZ) network. Observations covering 1998-2000 were made over Ascension Island; Nairobi, Kenya; Irene, South Africa; Reunion Island; Watukosek, Java; Fiji; Tahiti; American Samoa; San Cristobal, Galapagos; Natal, Brazil. Taking the TTL (tropical tropopause layer) as the region between 12 and 17 km, we examine ozone variability in this region on a week-to-week and seasonal basis. The TTL layer is lower in September-October-November than in March-April-May, when ozone is a minimum at most SHADOZ stations. A zonal wave-one pattern is apparent in column-integrated TTL ozone because ozone mixing ratios are greater over the Atlantic and adjacent continents than over the Pacific and eastern Indian Ocean. The wave-one persists all year with varying magnitude and appears to be due to general circulation - with subsidence over the Atlantic and frequent deep convection over the Pacific and Indian Ocean. The variability of deep convection - most prominent at Java, Fiji, Samoa and Natal - is explored in time-vs-altitude ozone curtains. Stratospheric incursions into the troposphere are most prominent in soundings at Irene and Reunion Island.

  8. Dynamical component of seasonal and year-to-year changes in Antarctic and global ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tung, Ka Kit; Yang, HU

    1988-01-01

    The dynamics of the ozone concetration components of the Antarctic ozone hole as related to seasonal and year-to-year temperature changes in August, September, October, and November during the 1979-1985 period is studied using a zonally averaged model in which all transport fields are fixed by input temperature data. The results suggest that, prior to 1984, both the seasonal and year-to year variability of the zonal-mean Antarctic ozone minimum and the surrounding maximum can be accounted for by temperature dynamics without invoking changes in chemical composition (e.g., chlorine content) or special chemistry. The same dynamical mechanism also accounts for the good simulation of the observed seasonal and latitudinal structure of column ozone in other parts of the world. However, chemical depletion of ozone may have become more important after 1984. The model also appears to underpredict the September ozone decline in years, leading to an underprediction of the recent minimum values in the Antarctic ozone hole.

  9. Impacts of seasonal and regional variability in biogenic VOC emissions on surface ozone in the Pearl River Delta region, China

    SciTech Connect

    Situ, S.; Guenther, Alex B.; Wang, X. J.; Jiang, X.; Turnipseed, A.; Wu, Z.; Bai, J.; Wang, X.

    2013-12-05

    In this study, the BVOC emissions in November 2010 over the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region in southern China have been estimated by the latest version of a Biogenic Volatile Organic Compound (BVOC) emission model (MEGAN v2.1). The evaluation of MEGAN performance at a representative forest site within this region indicates MEGAN can estimate BVOC emissions reasonably well in this region except overestimating isoprene emission in autumn for reasons that are discussed in this manuscript. Along with the output from MEGAN, the Weather Research and Forecasting model with chemistry (WRF-Chem) is used to estimate the impacts of BVOC emissions on surface ozone in the PRD region. The results show BVOC emissions increase the daytime ozone peak by *3 ppb on average, and the max hourly impacts of BVOC emissions on the daytime ozone peak is 24.8 ppb. Surface ozone mixing ratios in the central area of Guangzhou- Foshan and the western Jiangmen are most sensitive to BVOC emissions BVOCs from outside and central PRD influence the central area of Guangzhou-Foshan and the western Jiangmen significantly while BVOCs from rural PRD mainly influence the western Jiangmen. The impacts of BVOC emissions on surface ozone differ in different PRD cities, and the impact varies in different seasons. Foshan and Jiangmen being most affected in autumn, result in 6.0 ppb and 5.5 ppb increases in surface ozone concentrations, while Guangzhou and Huizhou become more affected in summer. Three additional experiments concerning the sensitivity of surface ozone to MEGAN input variables show that surface ozone is more sensitive to landcover change, followed by emission factors and meteorology.

  10. Seasonal trend analysis of published ground-based and TOMS total ozone data through 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinsel, Gregory C.; Tiao, George C.; Wuebbles, Donald J.; Kerr, James B.; Miller, Alvin J.; Nagatani, Ronald M.; Bishop, Lane; Ying, Lisa H.

    1994-01-01

    A seasonal trend analysis of published Dobson (including stations' newly revised and Brewer-simulated Dobson) total ozone data through 1991 from a network of 56 stations has been performed, using three different data periods. The trend results for the longest data period 1964 - 1991 indicate substantial negative trends in ozone in the higher northern latitudes during the winter and spring seasons, some evidence of negative trend in the higher southern latitudes (30 deg S - 55 deg S) during all seasons, and trends close to zero for all seasons over the 30 deg S - 30 deg N latitude range. For the shortest data period, November 1978 through 1991, there is a clear indication that trends have become more negative in the higher northern latitudes, especially during the winter and spring seasons, and also in the higher southern latitudes in all seasons. A seasonal trend analysis of zonal averages of total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) satellite total ozone data for the comparable period November 1978 through 1991 has also been performed, and moderately good agreement is found between trends in Dobson and TOMS data over this period.

  11. Influence of isentropic transport on seasonal ozone variations in the lower stratosphere and subtropical upper troposphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jing, P.; Cunnold, D. M.; Yang, E.-S.; Wang, H.-J.

    2005-01-01

    The isentropic cross-tropopause ozone transport has been estimated in both hemispheres in 1999 based on the potential vorticity mapping of Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment 11 ozone measurements and contour advection calculations using the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Global and Modeling Assimilation Office analysis. The estimated net isentropic stratosphere-to-troposphere ozone flux is approx.118 +/- 61 x 10(exp9)kg/yr globally within the layer between 330 and 370 K in 1999; 60% of it is found in the Northern Hemisphere, and 40% is found in the Southern Hemisphere. The monthly average ozone fluxes are strongest in summer and weakest in winter in both hemispheres. The seasonal variations of ozone in the lower stratosphere (LS) and upper troposphere (UT) have been analyzed using ozonesonde observations from ozonesonde stations in the extratropics and subtropics, respectively. It is shown that observed ozone levels increase in the UT over subtropical ozonesonde stations and decrease in the LS over extratropical stations in late spring/early summer and that the ozone increases in the summertime subtropical UT are unlikely to be explained by photochemical ozone production and diabatic transport alone. We conclude that isentropic transport is a significant contributor to ozone levels in the subtropical upper troposphere, especially in summer.

  12. Mariner 9 ultraviolet spectrometer experiment: Seasonal variation of ozone on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, C. A.; Hord, C. W.; Stewart, A. I.; Lane, A. L.; Dick, M. L.; Anderson, G. P.

    1973-01-01

    On Mars, the Mariner observations show a twenty-fold variation in the amount of ozone, depending on the presence or absence of another minor constituent, water vapor, in the atmosphere. In the evolution of earth's primitive atmosphere, the formation of an ozone layer may have played an important role in the prebiotic chemistry that took place on the surface. The seasonal formation and disappearance of ozone in the contemporary Martian atmosphere may be of consequence in any prebiotic chemistry that may be occurring there.

  13. Seasonal and interannual variations in total ozone revealed by the Nimbus-4 backscattered ultraviolet experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilsenrath, E.; Heath, D. F.; Schlesinger, B. M.

    1978-01-01

    The first two years of Backscattered Ultraviolet (BUV) ozone data from the Nimbus-4 spacecraft were reprocessed. The seasonal variations of total ozone for the period April 1970 to April 1972 are described using daily zonal means to 10 deg latitude zones and a time-latitude cross section. In addition, the BUV data are compared with analyzed Dobson data and with IRIS data also obtained from the Nimbus-4 spacecraft. A harmonic analysis was performed on the daily zonal means. Amplitudes, days of peaks, and percentage of variance were computed for annual and semi-annual waves and for higher harmonics of an annual period for the two years. Asymmetries are found in the annual waves in the two hemispheres, with a subtle interannual difference which may be due to changes in the general circulation. A significant semi-annual component is detected in the tropics for the first year, which appears to result from influences of the annual waves in the two hemispheres.

  14. SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere ADditional Ozonesondes}: What Have We Learned About Tropical Tropospheric Ozone from the First Three Years (1998-2000) Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The first climatological overview of total, stratospheric and tropospheric ozone in the southern hemisphere tropical and subtropics is based on ozone sounding data from 10 sites comprising the Southern Hemisphere Additional OZonesondes (SHADOZ) network. The period covered is 1998-2000. Observations were made over: Ascension Island; Nairobi, Kenya; Irene, South Africa; Reunion Island; Watukosek, Java; Fiji; Tahiti; American Samoa; San Cristobal, Galapagos; Natal, Brazil. Campaign data were collected on an Trans-Atlantic oceanographic cruise and during SAFARI-2000 in Zambia. The ozone data, with simultaneous temperature profiles to approximately 7 hPa and relative humidity to approximately 200 hPa, reside at: . SHADOZ ozone time-series and profiles give a perspective on tropical total, stratospheric and tropospheric ozone in 1998-2000. Prominent features are highly variable tropospheric ozone, a zonal wave-one pattern in total (and tropospheric) column ozone, and signatures of the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO) in stratospheric ozone. Total, stratospheric and tropospheric column ozone amounts peak between August and November and are lowest between March and May. Tropospheric ozone variability over the Indian and Pacific Ocean displays influences of the Indian Ocean Dipole, and convective mixing. Pollution transport from Africa, South American and the Maritime Continent is a seasonal feature. Tropospheric ozone seasonality over the Atlantic Basin shows effects of regional subsidence and recirculation as well as biomass burning. Dynamical and chemical influences appear to be of comparable magnitude though model studies are needed to quantify this.

  15. SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere ADditional Ozonesondes): What Have We Learned About Tropical Tropospheric Ozone from the First Three Years' (1998-2000) Data?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Bhartia, Pawan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The first climatological overview of total, stratospheric and tropospheric ozone in the southern hemisphere tropical and subtropics is based on ozone sounding data from 10 sites comprising the Southern Hemisphere Additional OZonesondes (SHADOZ) network. The period covered is 1998-2000. Observations were made over: Ascension Island; Nairobi, Kenya; Irene, South Africa; RCunion Island; Watukosek, Java; Fiji; Tahiti; American Samoa; San Cristobal, Galapagos; Natal, Brazil. Campaign data were collected on a trans-Atlantic oceanographic cruise and during SAFARI-2000 in Zambia. The ozone data, with simultaneous temperature profiles to approx. 7 hPa and relative humidity to approx. 200 hPa, reside at: . SHADOZ ozone time-series and profiles give a perspective on tropical total, stratospheric and tropospheric ozone in 1998-2000. Prominent features are highly variable tropospheric ozone, a zonal wave-one pattern in total (and tropospheric) column ozone, and signatures of the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO) in stratospheric ozone. Total, stratospheric and tropospheric column ozone amounts peak between August and November and are lowest between March and May. Tropospheric ozone variability over the Indian and Pacific Ocean displays influences of the Indian Ocean Dipole, and convective mixing. Pollution transport from Africa, South American and the Maritime Continent is a seasonal feature. Tropospheric ozone seasonality over the Atlantic Basin shows effects of regional subsidence and recirculation as well as biomass burning. Dynamical and chemical influences appear to be of comparable magnitude though model studies are needed to quantify this.

  16. Thermochemical Kinetics for Multireference Systems: Addition Reactions of Ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Yan; Tishchenko, Oksana; Gour, Jeffrey R.; Li, Wei; Lutz, Jesse; Piecuch, Piotr; Truhlar, Donald G.

    2009-05-14

    The 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions of ozone to ethyne and ethene provide extreme examples of multireference singlet-state chemistry, and they are examined here to test the applicability of several approaches to thermochemical kinetics of systems with large static correlation. Four different multireference diagnostics are applied to measure the multireference characters of the reactants, products, and transition states; all diagnostics indicate significant multireference character in the reactant portion of the potential energy surfaces. We make a more complete estimation of the effect of quadruple excitations than was previously available, and we use this with CCSDT/CBS estimation of Wheeler et al. (Wheeler, S. E.; Ess, D. H.; Houk, K. N. J. Phys. Chem. A 2008, 112, 1798.) to make new best estimates of the van der Waals association energy, the barrier height, and the reaction energy to form the cycloadduct for both reactions. Comparing with these best estimates, we present comprehensive mean unsigned errors for a variety of coupled cluster, multilevel, and density functional methods. Several computational aspects of multireference reactions are considered: (i) the applicability of multilevel theory, (ii) the convergence of coupled cluster theory for reaction barrier heights, (iii) the applicability of completely renormalized coupled cluster methods to multireference systems, (iv) the treatment by density functional theory, (v) the multireference perturbation theory for multireference reactions, and (vi) the relative accuracy of scaling-type multilevel methods as compared with additive ones. It is found that scaling-type multilevel methods do not perform better than the additive-type multilevel methods. Among the 48 tested density functionals, only M05 reproduces the best estimates within their uncertainty. Multireference perturbation theory based on the complete-active-space reference wave functions constructed using a small number of reaction-specific active orbitals

  17. 40 CFR 97.510 - State NOX Ozone Season trading budgets, new unit set-asides, Indian country new unit set-aside...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false State NOX Ozone Season trading budgets... BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS TR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program § 97.510 State NOX Ozone Season trading budgets, new unit set-asides, Indian country new unit set-aside,...

  18. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart IIIi... - States With Approved State Implementation Plan Revisions Concerning CAIR NOX Ozone Season Opt-in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Implementation Plan Revisions Concerning CAIR NOX Ozone Season Opt-in Units A Appendix A to Subpart IIII of Part...) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Opt-in... Implementation Plan Revisions Concerning CAIR NOX Ozone Season Opt-in Units 1. The following States have...

  19. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart IIIi... - States With Approved State Implementation Plan Revisions Concerning CAIR NOX Ozone Season Opt-in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Implementation Plan Revisions Concerning CAIR NOX Ozone Season Opt-in Units A Appendix A to Subpart IIII of Part...) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Opt-in... Implementation Plan Revisions Concerning CAIR NOX Ozone Season Opt-in Units 1. The following States have...

  20. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart IIIi... - States With Approved State Implementation Plan Revisions Concerning CAIR NOX Ozone Season Opt-in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Implementation Plan Revisions Concerning CAIR NOX Ozone Season Opt-in Units A Appendix A to Subpart IIII of Part...) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Opt-in... Implementation Plan Revisions Concerning CAIR NOX Ozone Season Opt-in Units 1. The following States have...

  1. 40 CFR 97.510 - State NOX Ozone Season trading budgets, new unit set-asides, Indian country new unit set-aside...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false State NOX Ozone Season trading budgets... BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS TR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program § 97.510 State NOX Ozone Season trading budgets, new unit set-asides, Indian country new unit set-aside,...

  2. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart IIIi... - States With Approved State Implementation Plan Revisions Concerning CAIR NOX Ozone Season Opt-in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Implementation Plan Revisions Concerning CAIR NOX Ozone Season Opt-in Units A Appendix A to Subpart IIII of Part...) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Opt-in... Implementation Plan Revisions Concerning CAIR NOX Ozone Season Opt-in Units 1. The following States have...

  3. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart IIIi... - States With Approved State Implementation Plan Revisions Concerning CAIR NOX Ozone Season Opt-in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Implementation Plan Revisions Concerning CAIR NOX Ozone Season Opt-in Units A Appendix A to Subpart IIII of Part...) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Opt-in... Implementation Plan Revisions Concerning CAIR NOX Ozone Season Opt-in Units 1. The following States have...

  4. 40 CFR 97.510 - State NOX Ozone Season trading budgets, new unit set-asides, Indian country new unit set-aside...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false State NOX Ozone Season trading budgets... BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS TR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program § 97.510 State NOX Ozone Season trading budgets, new unit set-asides, Indian country new unit set-aside,...

  5. Seasonal variations of triple oxygen isotopic compositions of atmospheric sulfate, nitrate, and ozone at Dumont d'Urville, coastal Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishino, Sakiko; Hattori, Shohei; Savarino, Joel; Jourdain, Bruno; Preunkert, Susanne; Legrand, Michel; Caillon, Nicolas; Barbero, Albane; Kuribayashi, Kota; Yoshida, Naohiro

    2017-03-01

    Triple oxygen isotopic compositions (Δ17O = δ17O - 0.52 × δ18O) of atmospheric sulfate (SO42-) and nitrate (NO3-) in the atmosphere reflect the relative contribution of oxidation pathways involved in their formation processes, which potentially provides information to reveal missing reactions in atmospheric chemistry models. However, there remain many theoretical assumptions for the controlling factors of Δ17O(SO42-) and Δ17O(NO3-) values in those model estimations. To test one of those assumption that Δ17O values of ozone (O3) have a flat value and do not influence the seasonality of Δ17O(SO42-) and Δ17O(NO3-) values, we performed the first simultaneous measurement of Δ17O values of atmospheric sulfate, nitrate, and ozone collected at Dumont d'Urville (DDU) Station (66°40' S, 140°01' E) throughout 2011. Δ17O values of sulfate and nitrate exhibited seasonal variation characterized by minima in the austral summer and maxima in winter, within the ranges of 0.9-3.4 and 23.0-41.9 ‰, respectively. In contrast, Δ17O values of ozone showed no significant seasonal variation, with values of 26 ± 1 ‰ throughout the year. These contrasting seasonal trends suggest that seasonality in Δ17O(SO42-) and Δ17O(NO3-) values is not the result of changes in Δ17O(O3), but of the changes in oxidation chemistry. The trends with summer minima and winter maxima for Δ17O(SO42-) and Δ17O(NO3-) values are caused by sunlight-driven changes in the relative contribution of O3 oxidation to the oxidation by HOx, ROx, and H2O2. In addition to that general trend, by comparing Δ17O(SO42-) and Δ17O(NO3-) values to ozone mixing ratios, we found that Δ17O(SO42-) values observed in spring (September to November) were lower than in fall (March to May), while there was no significant spring and fall difference in Δ17O(NO3-) values. The relatively lower sensitivity of Δ17O(SO42-) values to the ozone mixing ratio in spring compared to fall is possibly explained by (i) the

  6. Seasonal prediction of US summertime ozone using statistical analysis of large scale climate patterns

    PubMed Central

    Mickley, Loretta J.

    2017-01-01

    We develop a statistical model to predict June–July–August (JJA) daily maximum 8-h average (MDA8) ozone concentrations in the eastern United States based on large-scale climate patterns during the previous spring. We find that anomalously high JJA ozone in the East is correlated with these springtime patterns: warm tropical Atlantic and cold northeast Pacific sea surface temperatures (SSTs), as well as positive sea level pressure (SLP) anomalies over Hawaii and negative SLP anomalies over the Atlantic and North America. We then develop a linear regression model to predict JJA MDA8 ozone from 1980 to 2013, using the identified SST and SLP patterns from the previous spring. The model explains ∼45% of the variability in JJA MDA8 ozone concentrations and ∼30% variability in the number of JJA ozone episodes (>70 ppbv) when averaged over the eastern United States. This seasonal predictability results from large-scale ocean–atmosphere interactions. Warm tropical Atlantic SSTs can trigger diabatic heating in the atmosphere and influence the extratropical climate through stationary wave propagation, leading to greater subsidence, less precipitation, and higher temperatures in the East, which increases surface ozone concentrations there. Cooler SSTs in the northeast Pacific are also associated with more summertime heatwaves and high ozone in the East. On average, models participating in the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project fail to capture the influence of this ocean–atmosphere interaction on temperatures in the eastern United States, implying that such models would have difficulty simulating the interannual variability of surface ozone in this region. PMID:28223483

  7. New Insights on Tropical Ozone from SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes) Profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.

    2004-01-01

    The SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes) ozone sounding network was initiated in 1998 to improve the coverage of tropical in-situ ozone measurements for satellite validation, algorithm development and related process studies. Over 2000 soundings have been archived at the website, , for 12 stations: Ascension Island; Nairobi and Malindi, Kenya; Irene, South Africa; Reunion Island, Watukosek, Java; Fiji; Tahiti; American Samoa; San Cristobal, Galapagos; Natal, Brazil; Paramaribo, Surinam. Key results from SHADOZ will be described from among the following: 1) By using ECC sondes with similar procedures, 5-10% accuracy and precision (1-sigma) of the sonde total ozone measurement was achieved; 2) Week-to-week variability in tropospheric ozone is so great that statistics are frequently not Gaussian; most stations vary up to a factor of 3 in tropospheric column over the course of a year; 3) Longitudinal variability in tropospheric ozone profiles is a consistent feature, with a 10-15 DU column-integrated difference between Atlantic and Pacific sites; this causes a "zonal wave-one" feature in total ozone. 4) The ozone record from Paramaribo, Surinam (6N, 55W) is a marked contrast to southern tropical ozone because Surinam is often north of the Intertropical Convergence Zone; 5) Indian Ocean region pollution may contribute up to half of the excess ozone observed in the south tropical Atlantic paradox in the December-January-February period of the year.

  8. SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes): A Project Overview and New Insights on Tropical Tropospheric Ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Oltmans, S. J.; Schmidlin, F. J.

    2004-01-01

    The SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes) ozone sounding network was initiated in 1998 to improve the coverage of tropical in-situ ozone measurements for satellite validation, algorithm development and related process studies. Over 2000 soundings have been archived at the website, http://croc.gsfc.nasa.gov/shadoz, for 12 stations: Ascension Island; Nairobi and Malindi, Kenya; Irene, South Africa; Reunion Island; Watukosek, Java; Fiji; Tahiti; American Samoa; San Cristobal, Galapagos; Natal, Brazil; Paramaribo, Surinam. Key results from SHADOZ will be described from among the following: 1) By using ECC sondes with similar procedures, 5-10% accuracy and precision (1-sigma) of the sonde total ozone measurement is achieved; 2) Week-to-week variability in tropospheric ozone is so great that statistics are frequently not Gaussian; most stations vary up to a factor of 3 in tropospheric column over the course of a year; 3) Longitudinal variability in tropospheric ozone profiles is a consistent feature, with a 10-15 DU column-integrated difference between Atlantic and Pacific sites; this causes a "zonal wave-one" feature in total ozone; 4) The ozone record from Paramaribo, Surinam (6N, 55W) is a marked contrast to southern tropical ozone because Surinam is often north of the Intertropical Convergence Zone.

  9. Seasonal modelling assessment of ozone sensitivity to precursors in northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabusi, Veronica; Volta, Marialuisa

    One of the major thrusts of model application is to assess the relative importance of NOx and VOC controls in reducing ozone levels; in this paper, the long-term assessment of ozone exposure and sensitivity to NOx and VOC emissions, in terms of mean values and seasonal indicators, has been investigated over a complex domain in northern Italy, including Milan metropolitan area. The analysis has been carried out comparing eight seasonal simulations performed by the Gas Aerosol Modelling Evaluation System (GAMES): the summer season 1996, selected as reference case, and seven simulations obtained feeding the modelling system with increasing or decreasing precursor emissions. The study allowed to: (1) recognize the photochemical regimes of the domain, (2) investigate the influence of Milan plume in ozone production and accumulation processes over neighbouring suburban and rural areas, (3) identify parts of the domain where local emission reduction strategies are not effective, (4) provide a support system for local Air Quality Authorities in selecting effective emission reduction strategies.

  10. Seasonal budgets of ozone and oxidant precursors in an industrial coastal area of northern Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Georgiadis, T.; Alberti, L.; Bonasoni, P.; Fortezza, F.; Giovanelli, G.; Strocchi, V.

    1994-01-01

    The seasonal budgets and evolution of photochemical oxidants reported for greater Ravenna's urban-industrial area in the present study were calculated using the combined data from on-site systematic surveys (1978-1989) and from the monitoring network of the local environmental authorities. The notable differences in the concentrations of ozone and nitrogen oxides depended on season, and meteorological variables showed a marked correlation to the seasonal budget of trace constituents. The weak local circulation, the land-sea breeze system, and high solar radiation in summer, which may persist at length because of the anticyclonic conditions, can produce episodes of intense photochemical reactions. In winter, by contrast, low solar radiation and the absence of the breeze system results in very different evolutions of both pollutant concentrations and their seasonal budget.

  11. Intercontinental transport of tropospheric ozone: a study of its seasonal variability across the North Atlantic utilizing tropospheric ozone residuals and its relationship to the North Atlantic Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creilson, J. K.; Fishman, J.; Wozniak, A. E.

    2003-11-01

    Using the empirically-corrected tropospheric ozone residual (TOR) technique, which utilizes coincident observations of total ozone from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and stratospheric ozone profiles from the Solar Backscattered Ultraviolet (SBUV) instruments, the seasonal and regional distribution of tropospheric ozone across the North Atlantic from 1979-2000 is examined. Its relationship to the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is also analyzed as a possible transport mechanism across the North Atlantic. Monthly climatologies of tropospheric ozone for five different regions across the North Atlantic exhibit strong seasonality. The correlation between these monthly climatologies of the TOR and ozonesonde profiles at nearby sites in both eastern North America and western Europe are highly significant (R values of +0.98 and +0.96 respectively) and help to validate the use of satellite retrievals of tropospheric ozone. Distinct springtime interannual variability over North Atlantic Region 5 (eastern North Atlantic-western Europe) is particularly evident and exhibits similar variability to the positive phase of the NAO (R=+0.61, r=<0.01). Positive phases of the NAO are indicative of a stronger Bermuda-Azores high and a stronger Icelandic low and thus faster more zonal flow across the North Atlantic from west to east. This flow regime appears to be causing the transport of tropospheric ozone across the North Atlantic and onto Europe. The consequence of such transport is the impact on a downwind region's ability to meet their ozone attainment goals. This link between the positive phase of the NAO and increased tropospheric ozone over Region 5 could be an important tool for prediction of such pollution outbreaks.

  12. Intercontinental transport of tropospheric ozone: A study of its seasonal variability across the North Atlantic utilizing tropospheric ozone residuals and its relationship to the North Atlantic Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creilson, J. K.; Fishman, J.; Wozniak, A. E.

    2003-08-01

    Using the empirically-corrected tropospheric ozone residual (TOR) technique, which utilizes coincident observations of total ozone from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and stratospheric ozone profiles from the Solar Backscattered Ultraviolet (SBUV) instruments, the seasonal and regional distribution of tropospheric ozone across the North Atlantic from 1979-2000 is examined. Its relationship to the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is also analyzed as a possible transport mechanism across the North Atlantic. Monthly climatologies of tropospheric ozone for five different regions across the North Atlantic exhibit strong seasonality. The correlation between these monthly climatologies of the TOR and adjacent ozonesonde profiles in both Region 1 (eastern North America-western North Atlantic) and Region 5 (eastern North Atlantic-western Europe) are highly significant (R values of +0.98 and +0.96, respectively) and help to validate the use of satellite retrievals of tropospheric ozone. Distinct springtime interannual variability over North Atlantic Region 5 (eastern North Atlantic-western Europe) is particularly evident and exhibits similar variability to the positive phase of the NAO (R=+0.61, ρ =<0.01). Positive phases of the NAO are indicative of a stronger Bermuda-Azores high and a stronger Icelandic low and thus faster more zonal flow across the North Atlantic from west to east. This flow regime appears to be causing the transport of tropospheric ozone across the North Atlantic and onto Europe. The consequence of such transport is the impact on a downwind region's ability to meet their ozone attainment goals. This link between the positive phase of the NAO and increased tropospheric ozone over Region 5 could be an important tool for prediction of such pollution outbreaks.

  13. Modeling study of ozone seasonal cycle in lower troposphere over east Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jie; Wang, Zifa; Akimoto, Hajime; Gao, Chao; Pochanart, Pakpong; Wang, Xiquan

    2007-11-01

    On the basis of three mountain sites (Mount Tai, Hua and Huang) newly founded in east-central China and several other sites from the Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in east Asia (EANET) and WMO World Data Centre for Greenhouse Gases (WDCGG), we investigate seasonal cycle of ozone over east Asia and its budgets in east-central China by using a regional chemical transport model (NAQPMS). The observations show a striking ozone pattern of two sharp peaks in May-June and September-October at three mountain sites in east-central China which are higher than those observed at other mountain sites in Europe and North America. Ozone budgets analysis by the model confirms that maximum of net photochemical productions reaches 31.8, 15.1, and 11.4 ppbv/d at Mount Tai, Hua, and Huang, respectively. The net photochemical production dominates the formation of ozone maximums at Mount Tai and Hua in June, and the importing transport also plays a comparable importance at Mount Huang. In comparison with those in the western North Pacific, east-central China shows stronger net photochemical productions, which are comparable to anthropogenic sources regions in Europe and North America.

  14. Relationship between ozone and temperature trends in the lower stratosphere: Latitude and seasonal dependences

    SciTech Connect

    McCormack, J.P.; Hood, H.L.

    1994-07-15

    A one-dimensional radiative transfer model with fixed dynamical heating is used to calculate the approximate latitude and seasonal dependences of lower stratospheric temperature changes associated with observed ozone trends. The spatial and temporal distribution of ozone profile trends in the lower stratosphere is estimated from a combination of Nimbus 7 Solar Backscattered Ultraviolet (SBUV) global measurements of the ozone column below 32 mbar for the period 1979-1990 and balloon ozonesonde profile trends at northern middle latitudes. The calculated temperature trends near 100 mbar compare favorably with those recently derived by Randel and Cobb using data from Channel 4 of the Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) on the NOAA operational satellites, although a number of quantitative differences are found. An independent analysis reported here of 100 mbar temperatures derived from northern hemisphere radiosonde data at the Free University of Berlin supports the validity of the satellite-derived lower stratospheric temperature trends. These results are therefore generally consistent with the hypothesis that observed lower stratospheric cooling trends are predominantly determined by reductions in radiative heating associated with stratospheric ozone depletion. 16 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Medium-range mid-tropospheric transport of ozone and precursors over Africa: two numerical case studies in dry and wet seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauvage, B.; Gheusi, F.; Thouret, V.; Cammas, J.-P.; Duron, J.; Escobar, J.; Mari, C.; Mascart, P.; Pont, V.

    2007-10-01

    A meso-scale model was used to understand and describe the dynamical processes driving high ozone concentrations observed during both dry and monsoon season in monthly climatologies profiles over Lagos (Nigeria, 6.6° N, 3.3° E), obtained with the MOZAIC airborne measurements (ozone and carbon monoxide). This study focuses on ozone enhancements observed in the upper-part of the lower troposphere, around 3000 m. Two individual cases have been selected in the MOZAIC dataset as being representative of the climatological ozone enhancements, to be simulated and analyzed with on-line Lagrangian backtracking of air masses. This study points out the role of baroclinic low-level circulations present in the Inter Tropical Front (ITF) area. Two low-level thermal cells around a zonal axis and below 2000 m, in mirror symmetry to each other with respect to equator, form near 20° E and around 5° N and 5° S during the (northern hemisphere) dry and wet seasons respectively. They are caused by surface gradients - the warm dry surface being located poleward of the ITF and the cooler wet surface equatorward of the ITF. A convergence line exists between the poleward low-level branch of each thermal cell and the equatorward low-level branch of the Hadley cell. Our main conclusion is to point out this line as a preferred location for fire products - among them ozone precursors - to be uplifted and injected into the lower free troposphere. The free tropospheric transport that occurs then depends on the hemisphere and season. In the NH dry season, the AEJ allows transport of ozone and precursors westward to Lagos. In the NH monsoon (wet) season, fire products are transported from the southern hemisphere to Lagos by the southeasterly trade that surmounts the monsoon layer. Additionally ozone precursors uplifted by wet convection in the ITCZ can also mix to the ones uplifted by the baroclinic cell and be advected up to Lagos by the trade flow.

  16. Medium-range mid-tropospheric transport of ozone and precursors over Africa: two numerical case-studies in dry and wet seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauvage, B.; Gheusi, F.; Thouret, V.; Cammas, J.-P.; Duron, J.; Escobar, J.; Mari, C.; Mascart, P.; Pont, V.

    2007-04-01

    A meso-scale model was used to understand and describe the processes driving high ozone concentrations observed during both dry and monsoon seasons in monthly climatologies profiles over Lagos (Nigeria, 6.6° N, 3.3° E), obtained with the MOZAIC airborne measurements (ozone and carbon monoxide). This study focuses on ozone enhancements observed in the upper-part of the lower troposphere, around 3000 m. Two individual cases have been selected in the MOZAIC dataset as being representative of the climatological ozone enhancements, to be simulated and analyzed with on-line Lagrangian backtracking of airmasses. This study points out the role of baroclinic low-level circulations present in the Inter Tropical Front (ITF) area. Two low-level thermal cells around a zonal axis and below 2000 m, in mirror symmetry to eachother with respect to equator, form near 20° E and around 5° N and 5° S during the (northern hemisphere) dry and wet seasons respectively. They are caused by surface gradients - the warm dry surface being located poleward of the ITF and the cooler wet surface equatorward of the ITF. A convergence line exists between the poleward low-level branch of each thermal cell and the equatorward low-level branch of the Hadley cell. Our main conclusion is to point out this line as a preferred location for fire products - among them ozone precursors - to be uplifted and injected into the lower free troposphere. The free tropospheric transport that occurs then depends on the hemisphere and season. In the NH dry season, the African Easterly Jet allows transport of ozone and precursors westward to Lagos. In the NH monsoon (wet) season, fire products are transported from the southern hemisphere to Lagos by the southeasterly trade that surmounts the monsoon layer. Additionally ozone precursors uplifted by wet convection in the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone can also mix to the ones uplifted by the baroclinic cell and be advected up to Lagos by the trade flow.

  17. Ozone and aerosol distributions over the Amazon Basin during the wet season

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browell, Edward V.; Gregory, G. L.; Harriss, R. C.; Kirchhoff, V. W. J. H.

    1990-01-01

    Results are presented of O3 and aerosol measurements made in the lower troposphere from April 13 through May 10, 1987, as part of the wet season field experiment. Aircraft flights on the NASA Electra were conducted in the vicinity of Manaus, Brazil and between Manaus and the mouth of the Amazon River. Airborne O3 measurements were made in situ and with a lidar system pointed below the aircraft in nadir mode of operation. Data collection and results concerning the distributions of O3 and aerosols observed during the wet season from within the mixed layer to the middle troposphere over the central Amazon basin and between Manaus and Belem are discussed, and these observations are compared to the measurements obtained in the 1985 dry season. Ozone mixing ratio values are found to be lower than those of the 1985 dry season by 6-8 ppbv, indicating a strong removal process near the surface during wet season. It is also found that within the mixed layer O3 levels appeared to be lower over the forest compared to over the ocean.

  18. Ozone

    MedlinePlus

    ... reactive form of oxygen. In the upper atmosphere, ozone forms a protective layer that shields us from the sun’s ultraviolet rays. At ground level, ozone is a harmful air pollutant and a primary ...

  19. Seasonal profiles of leaf ascorbic acid content and redox state in ozone-sensitive wildflowers.

    PubMed

    Burkey, Kent O; Neufeld, Howard S; Souza, Lara; Chappelka, Arthur H; Davison, Alan W

    2006-10-01

    Cutleaf coneflower (Rudbeckia laciniata L.), crown-beard (Verbesina occidentalis Walt.), and tall milkweed (Asclepias exaltata L.) are wildflower species native to Great Smoky Mountains National Park (U.S.A.). Natural populations of each species were analyzed for leaf ascorbic acid (AA) and dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) to assess the role of ascorbate in protecting the plants from ozone stress. Tall milkweed contained greater quantities of AA (7-10 micromol g(-1) fresh weight) than crown-beard (2-4 micromol g(-1) fresh weight) or cutleaf coneflower (0.5-2 micromol g(-1) fresh weight). DHA was elevated in crown-beard and cutleaf coneflower relative to tall milkweed suggesting a diminished capacity for converting DHA into AA. Tall milkweed accumulated AA in the leaf apoplast (30-100 nmol g(-1) fresh weight) with individuals expressing ozone foliar injury symptoms late in the season having less apoplast AA. In contrast, AA was not present in the leaf apoplast of either crown-beard or cutleaf coneflower. Unidentified antioxidant compounds were present in the leaf apoplast of all three species. Overall, distinct differences in antioxidant metabolism were found in the wildflower species that corresponded with differences in ozone sensitivity.

  20. Ozone

    MedlinePlus

    Ozone is a gas. It can be good or bad, depending on where it is. "Good" ozone occurs naturally about 10 to 30 miles above ... the sun's ultraviolet rays. Part of the good ozone layer is gone. Man-made chemicals have destroyed ...

  1. Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) Ozone Climatology (2005-2009): Tropospheric and Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL) Profiles with Comparisons to Omi-based Ozone Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Miller, Sonya K.; Tilmes, Simone; Kollonige, Debra W.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Oltmans, Samuel J.; Johnson, Brian J.; Fujiwara, Masatomo; Schmidlin, F. J.; Coetzee, G. J. R.; Komala, Ninong; Maata, Matakite; bt Mohammad, Maznorizan; Nguyo, J.; Mutai, C.; Ogino, S-Y; Da Silva, F. Raimundo; Paes Leme, N. M.; Posny, Francoise; Scheele, Rinus; Selkirk, Henry B.; Shiotani, Masato; Stubi, Rene; Levrat, Gilbert; Calpini, Bertrand; Thouret, Valerie; Tsuruta, Haruo; Canossa, Jessica Valverde; Voemel, Holger; Yonemura, S.; Andres Diaz, Jorge; Tan Thanh, Nguyen T.; Thuy Ha, Hoang T.

    2012-01-01

    We present a regional and seasonal climatology of SHADOZ ozone profiles in the troposphere and tropical tropopause layer (TTL) based on measurements taken during the first five years of Aura, 2005-2009, when new stations joined the network at Hanoi, Vietnam; Hilo, Hawaii; Alajuela Heredia, Costa Rica; Cotonou, Benin. In all, 15 stations operated during that period. A west-to-east progression of decreasing convective influence and increasing pollution leads to distinct tropospheric ozone profiles in three regions: (1) western Pacific eastern Indian Ocean; (2) equatorial Americas (San Cristobal, Alajuela, Paramaribo); (3) Atlantic and Africa. Comparisons in total ozone column from soundings, the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI, on Aura, 2004-) satellite and ground-based instrumentation are presented. Most stations show better agreement with OMI than they did for EPTOMS comparisons (1998-2004; Earth-ProbeTotal Ozone Mapping Spectrometer), partly due to a revised above-burst ozone climatology. Possible station biases in the stratospheric segment of the ozone measurement noted in the first 7 years of SHADOZ ozone profiles are re-examined. High stratospheric bias observed during the TOMS period appears to persist at one station. Comparisons of SHADOZ tropospheric ozone and the daily Trajectory-enhanced Tropospheric Ozone Residual (TTOR) product (based on OMIMLS) show that the satellite-derived column amount averages 25 low. Correlations between TTOR and the SHADOZ sondes are quite good (typical r2 0.5-0.8), however, which may account for why some published residual-based OMI products capture tropospheric interannual variability fairly realistically. On the other hand, no clear explanations emerge for why TTOR-sonde discrepancies vary over a wide range at most SHADOZ sites.

  2. Ozone induced leaf loss and decreased leaf production of European Holly (Ilex aquifolium L.) over multiple seasons.

    PubMed

    Ranford, Jonathan; Reiling, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    European Holly (Ilex aquifolium L.) was used to study the impact of one short (28 day) ozone fumigation episode on leaf production, leaf loss and stomatal conductance (g(s)), in order to explore potential longer term effects over 3 growing seasons. Young I. aquifolium plants received an episode of either charcoal-filtered air or charcoal-filtered air with 70 nl l(-1) O(3) added for 7 h d(-1) over a 28 day period from June 15th 1996, then placed into ambient environment, Stoke-on-Trent, U.K. Data were collected per leaf cohort over the next three growing seasons. Ozone exposure significantly increased leaf loss and stomatal conductance and reduced leaf production over all subsequent seasons. Impact of the initial ozone stress was still detected in leaves that had no direct experimental ozone exposure. This study has shown the potential of ozone to introduce long-term phenological perturbations into ecosystems by influencing productivity over a number of seasons.

  3. Seasonal Variability of Middle Latitude Ozone in the Lowermost Stratosphere Derived from Probability Distribution Functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rood, Richard B.; Douglass, Anne R.; Cerniglia, Mark C.; Sparling, Lynn C.; Nielsen, J. Eric

    1999-01-01

    We present a study of the distribution of ozone in the lowermost stratosphere with the goal of characterizing the observed variability. The air in the lowermost stratosphere is divided into two population groups based on Ertel's potential vorticity at 300 hPa. High (low) potential vorticity at 300 hPa indicates that the tropopause is low (high), and the identification of these two groups is made to account for the dynamic variability. Conditional probability distribution functions are used to define the statistics of the ozone distribution from both observations and a three-dimensional model simulation using winds from the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System for transport. Ozone data sets include ozonesonde observations from northern midlatitude stations (1991-96) and midlatitude observations made by the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) (1994- 1998). The conditional probability distribution functions are calculated at a series of potential temperature surfaces spanning the domain from the midlatitude tropopause to surfaces higher than the mean tropical tropopause (approximately 380K). The probability distribution functions are similar for the two data sources, despite differences in horizontal and vertical resolution and spatial and temporal sampling. Comparisons with the model demonstrate that the model maintains a mix of air in the lowermost stratosphere similar to the observations. The model also simulates a realistic annual cycle. Results show that during summer, much of the observed variability is explained by the height of the tropopause. During the winter and spring, when the tropopause fluctuations are larger, less of the variability is explained by tropopause height. This suggests that more mixing occurs during these seasons. During all seasons, there is a transition zone near the tropopause that contains air characteristic of both the troposphere and the stratosphere. The

  4. Atmospheric Ozone Perturbation from Oceanic Asteroid Impacts: Seasonal and Zonal Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierazzo, E.; Garcia, R. R.; Kinnison, D. E.; Marsh, D. R.; Lee-Taylor, J.; Mills, M. J.

    2010-12-01

    , far exceed levels currently experienced anywhere on Earth. Upper atmospheric ozone concentration shows seasonal variability, especially at high latitudes, and the effects of an impact event may vary depending on the season when it occurs. Impact location also affects the atmospheric perturbation. High latitude impacts cause atmospheric perturbations that may be confined to the hemisphere of impact, while atmospheric perturbations from tropical impacts are more likely to be spread to both hemispheres, thus having a global effect. The initial conditions for our initial atmospheric simulations are for January 1, corresponding to Northern Hemisphere winter. The impact was located in the subtropical Northern Pacific, at latitude of 30°N and longitude of 180°E (the dateline). We will report on new simulations with CESM (Community Earth System Model) that explore the seasonal and zonal effects in the perturbation of atmospheric chemistry from an oceanic asteroid impact.

  5. Trend and variability of atmospheric ozone over middle Indo-Gangetic Plain: impacts of seasonality and precursor gases.

    PubMed

    Shukla, K; Srivastava, Prashant K; Banerjee, T; Aneja, Viney P

    2017-01-01

    Ozone dynamics in two urban background atmospheres over middle Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) were studied in two contexts: total columnar and ground-level ozone. In terms of total columnar ozone (TCO), emphases were made to compare satellite-based retrieval with ground-based observation and existing trend in decadal and seasonal variation was also identified. Both satellite-retrieved (Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument-Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (OMI-DOAS)) and ground-based observations (IMD-O3) revealed satisfying agreement with OMI-DOAS observation over predicting TCO with a positive bias of 7.24 % under all-sky conditions. Minor variation between daily daytime (r = 0.54; R (2) = 29 %; n = 275) and satellite overpass time-averaged TCO (r = 0.58; R (2) = 34 %; n = 208) was also recognized. A consistent and clear seasonal trend in columnar ozone (2005-2015) was noted with summertime (March-June) maxima (Varanasi, 290.9 ± 8.8; Lucknow, 295.6 ± 9.5 DU) and wintertime (December-February) minima (Varanasi, 257.4 ± 10.1; Lucknow, 258.8 ± 8.8 DU). Seasonal trend decomposition based on locally weighted regression smoothing technique identified marginally decreasing trend (Varanasi, 0.0084; Lucknow, 0.0096 DU year(-1)) especially due to reduction in monsoon time minima and summertime maxima. In continuation to TCO, variation in ground-level ozone in terms of seasonality and precursor gases were also analysed from September 2014 to August 2015. Both stations registered similar pattern of variation with Lucknow representing slightly higher annual mean (44.3 ± 30.6; range, 1.5-309.1 μg/m(3)) over Varanasi (38.5 ± 17.7; range, 4.9-104.2 μg/m(3)). Variation in ground-level ozone was further explained in terms water vapour, atmospheric boundary layer height and solar radiation. Ambient water vapour content was found to associate negatively (r = -0.28, n = 284) with ground-level ozone with considerable seasonal variation in

  6. Secondary Pollutants from Ozone Reaction with Ventilation Filters and Degradation of Filter Media Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Destaillats, Hugo; Chen, Wenhao; Apte, Michael; Li, Nuan; Spears, Michael; Almosni, Jérémie; Brunner, Gregory; Zhang, Jianshun; Fisk, William J.

    2011-05-01

    Prior research suggests that chemical processes taking place on the surface of particle filters employed in buildings may lead to the formation of harmful secondary byproducts. We investigated ozone reactions with fiberglass, polyester, cotton/polyester and polyolefin filter media, as well as hydrolysis of filter media additives. Studies were carried out on unused media, and on filters that were installed for 3 months in buildings at two different locations in the San Francisco Bay Area. Specimens from each filter media were exposed to {approx}150 ppbv ozone in a flow tube under a constant flow of dry or humidified air (50percent RH). Ozone breakthrough was recorded for each sample over periods of {approx}1000 min; the ozone uptake rate was calculated for an initial transient period and for steady-state conditions. While ozone uptake was observed in all cases, we did not observe significant differences in the uptake rate and capacity for the various types of filter media tested. Most experiments were performed at an airflow rate of 1.3 L/min (face velocity = 0.013 m/s), and a few tests were also run at higher rates (8 to 10 L/min). Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, two oxidation byproducts, were quantified downstream of each sample. Those aldehydes (m/z 31 and 45) and other volatile byproducts (m/z 57, 59, 61 and 101) were also detected in real-time using Proton-Transfer Reaction - Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS). Low-ppbv byproduct emissions were consistently higher under humidified air than under dry conditions, and were higher when the filters were loaded with particles, as compared with unused filters. No significant differences were observed when ozone reacted over various types of filter media. Fiberglass filters heavily coated with impaction oil (tackifier) showed higher formaldehyde emissions than other samples. Those emissions were particularly high in the case of used filters, and were observed even in the absence of ozone, suggesting that hydrolysis of additives

  7. Ozone and daily mortality rate in 21 cities of East Asia: how does season modify the association?

    PubMed

    Chen, Renjie; Cai, Jing; Meng, Xia; Kim, Ho; Honda, Yasushi; Guo, Yue Leon; Samoli, Evangelia; Yang, Xin; Kan, Haidong

    2014-10-01

    Previous studies in East Asia have revealed that the short-term associations between tropospheric ozone and daily mortality rate were strongest in winter, which is opposite to the findings in North America and Western Europe. Therefore, we investigated the season-varying association between ozone and daily mortality rate in 21 cities of East Asia from 1979 to 2010. Time-series Poisson regression models were used to analyze the association between ozone and daily nonaccidental mortality rate in each city, testing for different temperature lags. The best-fitting model was obtained after adjustment for temperature in the previous 2 weeks. Bayesian hierarchical models were applied to pool the city-specific estimates. An interquartile-range increase of the moving average concentrations of same-day and previous-day ozone was associated with an increase of 1.44% (95% posterior interval (PI): 1.08%, 1.80%) in daily total mortality rate after adjustment for temperature in the previous 2 weeks. The corresponding increases were 0.62% (95% PI: 0.08%, 1.16%) in winter, 1.46% (95% PI: 0.89%, 2.03%) in spring, 1.60% (95% PI: 1.03%, 2.17%) in summer, and 1.12% (95% PI: 0.73%, 1.51%) in fall. We found significant associations between short-term exposure to ozone and higher mortality rate in East Asia that varied considerably from season to season with a significant trough in winter.

  8. Ground-Level Ozone Following Astrophysical Ionizing Radiation Events: An Additional Biological Hazard?

    PubMed

    Thomas, Brian C; Goracke, Byron D

    2016-01-01

    Astrophysical ionizing radiation events such as supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, and solar proton events have been recognized as a potential threat to life on Earth, primarily through depletion of stratospheric ozone and subsequent increase in solar UV radiation at Earth's surface and in the upper levels of the ocean. Other work has also considered the potential impact of nitric acid rainout, concluding that no significant threat is likely. Not yet studied to date is the potential impact of ozone produced in the lower atmosphere following an ionizing radiation event. Ozone is a known irritant to organisms on land and in water and therefore may be a significant additional hazard. Using previously completed atmospheric chemistry modeling, we examined the amount of ozone produced in the lower atmosphere for the case of a gamma-ray burst and found that the values are too small to pose a significant additional threat to the biosphere. These results may be extended to other ionizing radiation events, including supernovae and extreme solar proton events.

  9. Observed seasonal cycles in tropospheric ozone at three marine boundary layer locations and their comparison with models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derwent, Richard

    2016-04-01

    Observational data have been used to define the seasonal cycles in tropospheric ozone at the surface at three marine boundary layer (MBL) locations at Mace Head in Ireland, Trinidad Head in the USA and at Cape Grim in Tasmania. Least-squares fits of a sine function to the observed monthly mean ozone mixing ratios allowed ozone seasonal cycles to be defined quantitatively, as follows: y = Y0 + A1 sin(θ + φ1) + A2 sin(2θ + φ2), where Y0 is the annual average ozone mixing ratio over the entire set of observations or model results, A1 and A2 are amplitudes, φ1 and φ2 are phase angles and θ is a variable that spans one year's time period in radians. The seasonal cycles of fourteen tropospheric ozone models, together with our own STOCHEM-CRI model, at the three MBL stations were then analysed by fitting sine curves and defining the five parameters: Y0, A1, φ1, A2, φ2. Compared to the fundamental term: A1 sin(θ + φ1), all models more accurately reproduced the observed second harmonic terms: A2 sin(2θ + φ2). This accurate agreement both in amplitude and phase angle suggested that the term arose from a cyclic phenomenon that was well predicted by all models, namely, the photochemical destruction of ozone. Model treatments of the fundamental term were in many cases far removed from the observations and it was not clear why there was so much variability across the tropospheric ozone models.

  10. Improving the bond strength between steel rebar and concrete by ozone treatment of rebar and polymer addition to concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, X.; Chung, D.D.L.

    1997-05-01

    Ozone treatment of steel rebar, together with latex addition (20% by weight of cement) to concrete, resulted in a 39% increase in the shear bond strength between rebar and concrete, compared to a 25% increase resulted from either ozone treatment alone or latex addition alone. Ozone treatment and latex addition resulted in similarly small increases in the contact electrical resistivity between rebar and concrete. Methylcellulose addition (0.4% by weight of cement) to concrete gave slightly less bond strength increase than the latex addition, but did not affect the contact resistivity.

  11. A season of heat, water vapor, total hydrocarbon, and ozone fluxes at a subarctic fen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Kathleen E.; Fitzjarrald, David R.; Wofsy, Steven C.; Daube, Bruce C.; Munger, J. William; Bakwin, Peter S.; Crill, Patrick

    1994-01-01

    High-latitude environments are thought to play several critical roles in the global balance of radiatively active trace gases. Adequate documentation of the source and sink strengths for trace gases requires long time series of detailed measurements, including heat and moisture budgets. A fen near Schefferville, Quebec, was instrumented during the summer of 1990 for the measurement of the surface energy, radiation, and moisture balances as well as for eddy correlation estimates of ozone and methane flux. Despite the limited fetch at this site, analysis of the tower flux 'footprint' indicates that at least 80% of the flux observed originates from sources within the fen. Sensible heat fluxes averaged 25% of the daytime net radiation at the site, while the latent heat flux, determined from the energy balance, was 63%; the Bowen ratio varied from 0.2 to 0.8 from day to day, without a seasonal trend to the variation. The competing effects of rooted macrophyte development (with concomitant effects on roughness and transpiration) and the normal shift in synoptic pattern around day 200 to warm, dry conditions results in a lack of net seasonal effect on the energy partitioning. Over the period from days 170 to 230, the evaporation (167 mm) was double the rainfall, while the decline in water level was 107 mm, leaving a net runoff of 0.44 mm/d. The total hydrocarbon flux was 75-120 mg m(exp -2)/d, following a diurnal pattern similar to heat or moisture flux, while the daytime ozone flux was about -1.11 x 10(exp 11) molecules cm(exp -2)/s. A period near the end of the experiment, during week 30, produced the strongest total hydrocarbon flux, associated with warmer deep (1 m) soil temperatures, lower fen water levels, and the late summer shift in wind direction at that time. An early summer 'flush' of total hydrocarbon was not observed.

  12. Discoveries about Tropical Ozone from Satellite and SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere ADditional Ozonesondes)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.

    2004-01-01

    We have been producing near-real tropical tropospheric ozone ("TTO") data from TOMS since 1997 with Prof. Hudson and students at the University of Maryland. Maps for 1996-2000 for the operational Earth-Probe instrument reside at: . The tropics is a region strongly influenced by natural variability and anthropogenic activity and the satellite data have been used to track biomass burning pollution and to detect interannual variability and climate signals in ozone. The satellite view of chemical-dynamical interactions in tropospheric ozone is not adequate to capture vertical variability. Thus, in 1998, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, NOAA's Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory (CMDL) and a team of international sponsors established the SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes) project to address the gap in tropical ozone soundings. SHADOZ provides a public archive of ozonesonde data from twelve tropical and subtropical stations at http://croc.gsfc.nasa.gov/shadoz. Highlights from the first 4-5 years of SHADOZ data (presently > 2000 sondes) will be shown.

  13. Influence of the heterogeneous reaction HCl + HOCl on an ozone hole model with hydrocarbon additions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, Scott; Cicerone, Ralph J.; Turco, Richard P.; Drdla, Katja; Tabazadeh, Azadeh

    1994-02-01

    Injection of ethane or propane has been suggested as a means for reducing ozone loss within the Antarctic vortex because alkanes can convert active chlorine radicals into hydrochloric acid. In kinetic models of vortex chemistry including as heterogeneous processes only the hydrolysis and HCl reactions of ClONO2 and N2O5, parts per billion by volume levels of the light alkanes counteract ozone depletion by sequestering chlorine atoms. Introduction of the surface reaction of HCl with HOCl causes ethane to deepen baseline ozone holes and generally works to impede any mitigation by hydrocarbons. The increased depletion occurs because HCl + HOCl can be driven by HOx radicals released during organic oxidation. Following initial hydrogen abstraction by chlorine, alkane breakdown leads to a net hydrochloric acid activation as the remaining hydrogen atoms enter the photochemical system. Lowering the rate constant for reactions of organic peroxy radicals with ClO to 10-13 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 does not alter results, and the major conclusions are insensitive to the timing of the ethane additions. Ignoring the organic peroxy radical plus ClO reactions entirely restores remediation capabilities by allowing HOx removal independent of HCl. Remediation also returns if early evaporation of polar stratospheric clouds leaves hydrogen atoms trapped in aldehyde intermediates, but real ozone losses are small in such cases.

  14. Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) 1998-2000 tropical ozone climatology 1. Comparison with Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and ground-based measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; McPeters, Richard D.; Oltmans, Samuel J.; Schmidlin, Francis J.; Logan, Jennifer A.; Fujiwara, Masatomo; Kirchhoff, Volker W. J. H.; Posny, FrançOise; Coetzee, Gert J. R.; Hoegger, Bruno; Kawakami, Shuji; Ogawa, Toshihiro; Johnson, Bryan J.; VöMel, Holger; Labow, Gordon

    2003-01-01

    A network of 10 southern hemisphere tropical and subtropical stations, designated the Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) project and established from operational sites, provided over 1000 ozone profiles during the period 1998-2000. Balloon-borne electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozonesondes, combined with standard radiosondes for pressure, temperature, and relative humidity measurements, collected profiles in the troposphere and lower to midstratosphere at: Ascension Island; Nairobi, Kenya; Irene, South Africa; Réunion Island; Watukosek, Java; Fiji; Tahiti; American Samoa; San Cristóbal, Galapagos; and Natal, Brazil. The archived data are available at: . In this paper, uncertainties and accuracies within the SHADOZ ozone data set are evaluated by analyzing: (1) imprecisions in profiles and in methods of extrapolating ozone above balloon burst; (2) comparisons of column-integrated total ozone from sondes with total ozone from the Earth-Probe/Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) satellite and ground-based instruments; and (3) possible biases from station to station due to variations in ozonesonde characteristics. The key results are the following: (1) Ozonesonde precision is 5%. (2) Integrated total ozone column amounts from the sondes are usually to within 5% of independent measurements from ground-based instruments at five SHADOZ sites and overpass measurements from the TOMS satellite (version 7 data). (3) Systematic variations in TOMS-sonde offsets and in ground-based-sonde offsets from station to station reflect biases in sonde technique as well as in satellite retrieval. Discrepancies are present in both stratospheric and tropospheric ozone. (4) There is evidence for a zonal wave-one pattern in total and tropospheric ozone, but not in stratospheric ozone.

  15. Stratospheric ozone in boreal fire plumes - the 2013 smoke season over central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trickl, T.; Vogelmann, H.; Flentje, H.; Ries, L.

    2015-08-01

    In July 2013 very strong boreal fire plumes were observed at the northern rim of the Alps by lidar and ceilometer measurements of aerosol, ozone and water vapour for about 3 weeks. In addition, some of the lower-tropospheric components of these layers were analysed at the Global Atmosphere Watch laboratory at the Schneefernerhaus high-altitude research station (2650 m a.s.l., located a few hundred metres south-west of the Zugspitze summit). The high amount of particles confirms our hypothesis that fires in the Arctic regions of North America lead to much stronger signatures in the central European atmosphere than the multitude of fires in the USA. This has been ascribed to the prevailing anticyclonic advection pattern during favourable periods and subsidence, in contrast to warm-conveyor-belt export, rainout and dilution frequently found for lower latitudes. A high number of the pronounced aerosol structures were positively correlated with elevated ozone. Chemical ozone formation in boreal fire plumes is known to be rather limited. Indeed, these air masses could be attributed to stratospheric air intrusions descending from remote high-latitude regions, obviously picking up the aerosol on their way across Canada. In one case, subsidence from the stratosphere over Siberia over as many as 15-20 days without increase in humidity was observed although a significant amount of Canadian smoke was trapped. These coherent air streams lead to rather straight and rapid transport of the particles to Europe.

  16. Projecting policy-relevant metrics to characterize changing ozone extremes over the US: Variations by region, season and scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieder, Harald E.; Fiore, Arlene M.; Correa, Gus; Clifton, Olivia; Horrowitz, Larry W.; Naik, Vaishali

    2015-04-01

    Nitrogen oxide (NOx) emission controls have led to improved air quality (particularly in the Eastern US) over the past two decades, but concerns have been raised that climate warming may offset some of these gains in the coming decades. Here we address these concerns by analyzing the effect of projected future changes of emissions and climate, in isolation and combination, on US surface ozone (O3) during the 21st century in an ensemble of simulations (3 members per scenario) performed with the GFDL chemistry-climate model CM3. We analyze two Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios: RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. Under both scenarios, NOx emissions decrease by ~80% over North America by 2100. In additional 3-member ensemble simulations, termed RCP4.5_WMGG and RCP8.5_WMGG, well-mixed greenhouse gases follow the respective RCP but O3 and aerosol precursor emissions are held at 2005 levels. These simulations enable us to isolate the role of well-mixed greenhouse gas induced climate change from that of emission reductions. Another set of simulations, following RCP8.5 but with methane (CH4) held fixed at 2005 levels, termed RCP8.5_2005CH4, allows us to quantify the background influence of CH4 on O3. For each season, we examine changes in the surface O3 distribution over the US during the 21st century, calculating policy relevant statistics: days above the current national ambient air quality standard (NAAQS) of 75 ppb and other proposed future levels, as well as the probabilistic 1-year return levels for maximum daily 8-hour average ozone (MDA8 O3), within each model grid cell. Specifically, we analyze: (i) regional and seasonal changes in the frequency and return level of high O3 pollution events during the 21st century, as well as (ii) differences among the RCPs by the middle and end of the 21st century. We find that the response of surface O3 to changes in emissions and climate varies strongly, seasonally and spatially, with certain regions more prone to a 'climate

  17. Projecting Policy-Relevant Metrics to Characterize Changing Ozone Extremes over the US: Variations by Region, Season and Scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieder, H. E.; Fiore, A. M.; Correa, G. J. P.; Clifton, O.; Horowitz, L. W.; Naik, V.

    2014-12-01

    Nitrogen oxide (NOx) emission controls have led to improved air quality (particularly in the Eastern US) over the past two decades, but concerns have been raised that climate warming may offset some of these gains in the coming decades. Here we address these concerns by analyzing the effect of projected future changes of emissions and climate, in isolation and combination, on US surface ozone (O3) during the 21st century in an ensemble of simulations (3 members per scenario) performed with the GFDL chemistry-climate model CM3. We analyze two Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios: RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. Under both scenarios, NOx emissions decrease by ~80% over North America by 2100. In additional 3-member ensemble simulations, termed RCP4.5_WMGG and RCP8.5_WMGG, well-mixed greenhouse gases follow the respective RCP but O3 and aerosol precursor emissions are held at 2005 levels. These simulations enable us to isolate the role of well-mixed greenhouse gas induced climate change from that of emission reductions. Another set of simulations, following RCP8.5 but with methane (CH4) held fixed at 2005 levels, termed RCP8.5_2005CH4, allows us to quantify the background influence of CH4 on O3. For each season, we examine changes in the surface O3 distribution over the US during the 21st century, calculating policy relevant statistics: days above the current national ambient air quality standard (NAAQS) of 75 ppb and other proposed future levels, as well as the probabilistic 1-year return levels for maximum daily 8-hour average ozone (MDA8 O3), within each model grid cell. Specifically, we analyze: (i) regional and seasonal changes in the frequency and return level of high O3 pollution events during the 21st century, as well as (ii) differences among the RCPs by the middle and end of the 21st century. We find that the response of surface O3 to changes in emissions and climate varies strongly, seasonally and spatially, with certain regions more prone to a 'climate

  18. Analysis of observed surface ozone in the dry season over Eastern Thailand during 1997-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assareh, Nosha; Prabamroong, Thayukorn; Manomaiphiboon, Kasemsan; Theramongkol, Phunsak; Leungsakul, Sirakarn; Mitrjit, Nawarat; Rachiwong, Jintarat

    2016-09-01

    This study analyzed observed surface ozone (O3) in the dry season over a long-term period of 1997-2012 for the eastern region of Thailand and incorporated several technical tools or methods in investigating different aspects of O3. The focus was the urbanized and industrialized coastal areas recently recognized as most O3-polluted areas. It was found that O3 is intensified most in the dry-season months when meteorological conditions are favorable to O3 development. The diurnal variations of O3 and its precursors show the general patterns of urban background. From observational O3 isopleth diagrams and morning ratios of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) and nitrogen oxides (NOx), the chemical regime of O3 formation was identified as VOC-sensitive, and the degree of VOC sensitivity tends to increase over the years, suggesting emission control on VOC to be suitable for O3 management. Both total oxidant analysis and back-trajectory modeling (together with K-means clustering) indicate the potential role of regional transport or influence in enhancing surface O3 level over the study areas. A meteorological adjustment with generalized linear modeling was performed to statistically exclude meteorological effects on the variability of O3. Local air-mass recirculation factor was included in the modeling to support the coastal application. The derived trends in O3 based on the meteorological adjustment were found to be significantly positive using a Mann-Kendall test with block bootstrapping.

  19. Regional and seasonal radiative forcing by perturbations to aerosol and ozone precursor emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellouin, Nicolas; Baker, Laura; Hodnebrog, Øivind; Olivié, Dirk; Cherian, Ribu; Macintosh, Claire; Samset, Bjørn; Esteve, Anna; Aamaas, Borgar; Quaas, Johannes; Myhre, Gunnar

    2016-11-01

    Predictions of temperature and precipitation responses to changes in the anthropogenic emissions of climate forcers require the quantification of the radiative forcing exerted by those changes. This task is particularly difficult for near-term climate forcers like aerosols, methane, and ozone precursors because their short atmospheric lifetimes cause regionally and temporally inhomogeneous radiative forcings. This study quantifies specific radiative forcing, defined as the radiative forcing per unit change in mass emitted, for eight near-term climate forcers as a function of their source regions and the season of emission by using dedicated simulations by four general circulation and chemistry-transport models. Although differences in the representation of atmospheric chemistry and radiative processes in different models impede the creation of a uniform dataset, four distinct findings can be highlighted. Firstly, specific radiative forcing for sulfur dioxide and organic carbon are stronger when aerosol-cloud interactions are taken into account. Secondly, there is a lack of agreement on the sign of the specific radiative forcing of volatile organic compound perturbations, suggesting they are better avoided in climate mitigation strategies. Thirdly, the strong seasonalities of the specific radiative forcing of most forcers allow strategies to minimise positive radiative forcing based on the timing of emissions. Finally, European and shipping emissions exert stronger aerosol specific radiative forcings compared to East Asia where the baseline is more polluted. This study can therefore form the basis for further refining climate mitigation options based on regional and seasonal controls on emissions. For example, reducing summertime emissions of black carbon and wintertime emissions of sulfur dioxide in the more polluted regions is a possible way to improve air quality without weakening the negative radiative forcing of aerosols.

  20. Variability in Ozone in the Tropical Upper Troposphere-Lower Stratosphere from the 1998 - 200 SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere ADditional Ozonesondes) Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, A.; Witte, J.; Oltmans, S.; Coetzee, G.; Kawakami, S.; Ogawa, T.

    The first view of lower stratospheric and upper tropospheric structure from sondes is provided by a 3 year, 10-site record from the Southern Hemisphere ADditional- OZonesondes (SHADOZ) network: . Observations covering 1998-2000 were made over Ascension Island; Nairobi, Kenya; Irene, South Africa; Reunion Island; Watukosek, Java; Fiji; Tahiti; American Samoa; San Crist"bal, Galapagos; Natal, Brazil. Taking the UT/LS (upper troposphere-lower stratosphere) as the region between 12 and 17 km, we examine ozone variability in this region on a week- to- week and seasonal basis. The tropopause is lower in September-October-November than in March-April- May, when ozone is a minimum at most SHADOZ stations. A zonal wave-one pattern (referring to ozone mixing ratios greater over the Atlantic and adjacent continents than over the Pacific and eastern Indian Ocean), persists all year. The wave, predominantly in the troposphere and with variable magnitude, appears to be due to general circulation - with subsidence over the Atlantic and frequent deep convection over the Pacific and Indian Ocean. The variability of deep convection - most prominent at Java, Fiji, Samoa and Natal - is explored in time-vs-altitude ozone curtains. Stratospheric incursions into the troposphere are most prominent in soundings at Irene and Reunion Island.

  1. Variability in Ozone in the Tropical Upper Troposphere-Lower Stratosphere from the 1998-2000 SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes) Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, A. M.; Witte, J. C.; McPeters, R. D.; Schmidlin, F. J.; Oltmans, S. J.; Kirchhoff, V. W. J. H.; Coetzee, G. J. R.; Posny, F.; Kawakami, S.; Ogawa, T.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The first view of lower stratospheric and upper tropospheric structure from sondes is provided by a 3-year, 10-site record from the Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes (SHADOZ) network: . Observations covering 1998-2000 were made over Ascension Island; Nairobi, Kenya; Irene, South Africa; Reunion Island; Watukosek, Java; Fiji; Tahiti; American Samoa; San Cristobal, Galapagos; Natal, Brazil. Taking the UT/LS (upper troposphere- lower stratosphere) as the region between 12 and 17 km, we examine ozone variability in this region on a week-to-week and seasonal basis. The tropopause is lower in September-October-November than in March-April-May, when ozone is a minimum at most SHADOZ stations. A zonal wave-one pattern (referring to ozone mixing ratios greater over the Atlantic and adjacent continents than over the Pacific and eastern Indian Ocean), persists all year. The wave, predominantly in the troposphere and with variable magnitude, appears to be due to general circulation - with subsidence over the Atlantic and frequent deep convection over the Pacific and Indian Ocean. The variability of deep convection most prominent at Java, Fiji, Samoa and Natal - is explored in time-vs-altitude ozone curtains. Stratospheric incursions into the troposphere are most prominent in soundings at Irene and Reunion Island.

  2. Discoveries about Tropical Tropospheric Ozone from Satellite and SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes) and a Future Perspective on NASA's Ozone Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne

    2003-01-01

    We have been producing near-real tropical tropospheric ozone ('TTO') data from TOMS since 1997 with Prof. Hudson and students at the University of Maryland. Maps for 1996-2000 for the operational Earth-Probe instrument reside at: . We also have archived 'TTO' data from the Nimbus 7/TOMS satellite (1979-1992). The tropics is a region strongly influenced by natural variability and anthropogenic activity and the satellite data have been used to track biomass burning pollution and to detect interannual variability and climate signals in ozone. We look forward to future ozone sensors from NASA; four will be launched in 2004 as part of the EOS AURA Mission. The satellite view of chemical-dynamical interactions in tropospheric ozone is not adequate to capture vertical variability. Thus, in 1998, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, NOAA's Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory (CMDL) and a team of international sponsors established the SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes) project to address the gap in tropical ozone soundings. SHADOZ augments launches at selected sites and provides a public archive of ozonesonde data from twelve tropical and subtropical stations at http://croc.nsfc.nasa.gov/shadoz. The stations are: Ascension Island; Nairobi, Kenya; Irene, South Africa; R,union Island; Watukosek, Java; Fiji; Tahiti; American Samoa; San Cristobal, Galapagos; Natal, Brazil, Malindi, Kenya; Paramaribo, Surinam. From the first 3-4 years of data (presently greater than 1700 sondes), the following features emerge: (a) highly variable tropospheric ozone; (b) a zonal wave-one pattern in tropospheric column ozone; (c) tropospheric ozone variability over the Indian and Pacific Ocean displays strong convective signatures.

  3. Effect of the interaction between dye and acetic acid on the decomposition of Basic Green 4 with additive by ozone.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Arizbeth A; Poznyak, Tatiana I; Chairez, Jorge I

    2014-01-01

    This research investigated the ozonation of Basic Green 4 (BG4) under the presence of acetic acid (AA). This acid is used as a textile additive for many industrial dyes derived from triphenylmethane. Determining the effect of this additive on discoloration, degradation dynamics, and final by-product distribution is the main objective of this study. The reaction system was the ozonation of a dye solution in co-solvents. This solution (dye and AA) was considered a simplified version of real BG4 dyeing wastewaters supplied with additives. The dye concentration was set to 50, 150, and 250 mg/L without pH adjustment (pH = 3). This low value was forced by the AA. Ozonation reaction with dye was mainly done by a direct molecular mechanism. The discoloration dynamics of BG4 without and with the additive were determined by ultraviolet and visible wavelength spectroscopy. The dye decomposition and the intermediate and final product formation-decomposition dynamics were followed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The effects of AA in the ozonation results were significant in the following ways: 1) a possible complex, formed between AA and the dye, changed ozone consumption; 2) the presence of additive decelerated the dye discoloration and decomposition; and 3) the number of by-products was dissimilar in both systems, with and without the additive the ozonation. The accumulation of organic acids with low molecular weight was determined in both systems, with and without the additive. Only one by-product was obtained in ozonation when AA participated in the reactor. A possible reaction mechanism is proposed for the system dye-AA-ozone.

  4. Budgets of reactive nitrogen, hydrocarbons, and ozone over the Amazon forest during the wet season

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacob, Daniel J.; Wofsy, Steven C.

    1990-01-01

    The atmospheric composition over the Amazon forest during the wet season is simulated with a one-dimensional photochemical model for the planetary boundary layer (PBL) extending from the ground to 2000-m altitude. The model is constrained and evaluated using observations from the Amazon Boundary Layer Experiment 2B field expedition. Results indicate that only about 20 percent of NO(x) emitted by soils is exported to the atmosphere above the forest canopy. The balance is deposited to vegetation before leaving the canopy layer. The small NO(x) flux that escapes from the canopy is nevertheless sufficient to account for the low NO concentrations observed in the PBL. Soil emission can account for only a portion of NO(y) observed over the forest. Organic nitrates of nonbiogenic origin likely account for the balance of NO(y). Enhancements of CO observed in the PBL appear to reflect direct emission of CO by the forest ecosystem. Concentrations of O3 in the PBL are regulated largely by transport from aloft and deposition to the canopy, with little net influence from photochemistry. Ozone is photochemically produced immediately above the forest where NO concentrations are relatively high, but is photochemically consumed in the upper portion of the PBL.

  5. Evidence for the influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation on the total ozone column at northern low latitudes and midlatitudes during winter and summer seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ossó, Albert; Sola, Yolanda; Bech, Joan; Lorente, Jerónimo

    2011-12-01

    The strong influence of the winter North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) on the total ozone column (TOC) in the Northern Hemisphere has been reported in a number of previous studies. In this study we show that this influence is not restricted to the winter season but is also significant in summer. Especially interesting effects of the summer NAO (SNAO) on the TOC are observed over the eastern Mediterranean region, where a strongly positive SNAO index is related to the creation of a geopotential height-negative anomaly over Greece with maximum amplitude at 200 hPa. Another anomaly was observed west of the Iberian Peninsula with similar effects on the TOC. Analyzing 26 years of Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) data from the equator to midlatitudes (60°) in the Northern Hemisphere, we demonstrate that the SNAO accounts for up to 30% of the TOC variability with a strong latitudinal and longitudinal dependence. Additionally, we obtain significant correlations between the NAO index and the thermal tropopause pressure and also with the geopotential heights at 200 and 500 hPa. Finally, some indirect connections between NAO and the TOC through teleconnections are also discussed.

  6. SMM mesospheric ozone measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aikin, A. C.

    1990-01-01

    The main objective was to understand the secular and seasonal behavior of ozone in the lower mesosphere, 50 to 70 km. This altitude region is important in understanding the factors which determine ozone behavior. A secondary objective is the study of stratospheric ozone in the polar regions. Use is made of results from the SBUV satellite borne instrument. In the Arctic the interaction between chlorine compounds and low molecular weight hydrocarbons is studied. More than 30,000 profiles were obtained using the UVSP instrument on the SMM spacecraft. Several orbits of ozone data per day were obtained allowing study of the current rise in solar activity from the minimum until the present. Analysis of Nimbus 7 SBUV data in Antarctic spring indicates that ozone is depleted within the polar vortex relative to ozone outside the vortex. This depletion confirms the picture of ozone loss at altitudes where polar stratospheric clouds exist. In addition, there is ozone loss above the cloud level indicating that there is another mechanism in addition to ozone loss initiated by heterogeneous chlorine reactions on cloud particles.

  7. The Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) 1998-2002 Tropical Ozone Climatology. 3; Instrumentation and Station-to-Station Variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Witte, Jacqueline C.; Smit, Herman G. J.; Oltmans, Samuel J.; Johnson, Bryan J.; Kirchhoff, Volker W. J. H.; Schmidlin, Francis J.

    2004-01-01

    Abstract: Since 1998 the Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes (SHADOZ) project has collected more than 2000 ozone profiles from a dozen tropical and subtropical sites using balloon-borne electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozonesondes. The data (with accompanying pressure-temperature-humidity soundings) are archived. Analysis of ozonesonde imprecision within the SHADOZ dataset revealed that variations in ozonesonde technique could lead to station-to-station biases in the measurements. In this paper imprecisions and accuracy in the SHADOZ dataset are examined in light of new data. When SHADOZ total ozone column amounts are compared to version 8 TOMS (2004 release), discrepancies between sonde and satellite datasets decline 1-2 percentage points on average, compared to version 7 TOMS. Variability among stations is evaluated using total ozone normalized to TOMS and results of laboratory tests on ozonesondes (JOSE-2O00, Julich Ozonesonde Intercomparison Experiment). Ozone deviations from a standard instrument in the JOSE flight simulation chamber resemble those of SHADOZ station data relative to a SHADOZ-defined climatological reference. Certain systematic variations in SHADOZ ozone profiles are accounted for by differences in solution composition, data processing and instrument (manufacturer). Instrument bias leads to a greater ozone measurement above 25 km over Nairobi and to lower total column ozone at three Pacific sites compared to other SHADOZ stations at 0-20 deg.S.

  8. Analysis of seasonal ozone budget and spring ozone latitudinal gradient variation in the boundary layer of the Asia-Pacific region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Xuewei; Zhu, Bin; Kang, Hanqing; Gao, Jinhui

    2014-09-01

    The ozone (O3) budget in the boundary layer of the Asia-Pacific region (AP) was studied from 2001 to 2007 using the output of Model of Ozone and Related chemical Tracers, version 4 (MOZART-4). The model-simulated O3 data agree well with observed values. O3 budget analysis using the model output confirms that the dominant factor controlling seasonal variation of O3 differs by region. Photochemistry was found to play a critical role over Japan, the Korean Peninsula and Eastern China. Over the northwestern Pacific Ocean, advective flux was found to drive the seasonal variation of O3 concentrations. The large latitudinal gradient in O3 with a maximum of 52 ppbv over the marine boundary layer around 35°N during the spring was mainly due to chemistry; meanwhile, advection was found to weaken the gradient. The contribution of stratospheric O3 was ranked second (20%) to the local contribution (25%) in Japan and the Korean Peninsula near 35°N. The rate of O3 export from China's boundary layer was the highest (approximately 30%) in low latitudes and decreased with increasing latitude, while the contribution of North America and Europe increased with increasing latitude, from 10% in lower latitudes to 24% in higher latitudes.

  9. Ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-06-01

    The author discusses the debate over whether concern about a hole in the ozone layer in Antarctic is real or science fiction. There is a growing consensus that efforts must be taken to protect the ozone layer. The issue now is not whether chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) should be controlled and regulated but how much and how soon. The United States has urged that the production of dangerous CFCs, and any other chemicals that affect the ozone layer, be restricted immediately to current levels and that their use be reduced 95 percent over the next decade. The American position was too strong for many European nations and the Japanese. Negotiations at an international conference on the matter broke down. The breakdown is due in part to a more acute concern for environmental matters in the United States than exists in many countries. Meanwhile CFCs are linked to another environmental problem that equally threatens the world - the Greenhouse Effect. The earth is in a natural warming period, but man could be causing it to become even warmer. The Greenhouse Effect could have a catastrophic impact on mankind, although nothing has been proven yet.

  10. Factors influencing dry season ozone distributions over the tropical South Atlantic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, B. E.; Gregory, G. L.; Barrick, J. D. W.; Collins, J. E.; Sachse, G. W.; Hudgins, C. H.; Bradshaw, J. D.; Sandholm, S. T.

    1993-01-01

    Airborne measurements of trace gas and aerosol species were obtained in the lower troposphere (less than 5 km) over the western Atlantic Ocean between 13 deg S and 40 deg N during the August/September 1990 NASA Chemical Instrument Test and Evaluation (CITE 3) experiment. The largest background O3 mixing ratios, averaging 35 and 70 ppbv within the mixed layer (ML) and free troposphere (FT; altitudes greater than 2.4 km), respectively, were found over the tropical South Atlantic. Several competing processes were observed to regulate O3 budgets in this region. Within the ML, rapid photochemical destruction produced a diurnal O3 variation of 8 ppbv and an O3/altitude gradient between the surface and 5 km of almost 10 ppbv (O3)/km. ML O3 concentrations were replenished by atmospheric downwelling which occurred at rates of up to and exceeding 1 cm/s. Ozone values within the subsiding FT air were enriched both by long-range transport of O3 produced photochemically within biomass combustion plumes and the downward propagation of dry, upper tropospheric air masses. Overall, the tropospheric O3 column below 3.3 km averaged 13.5 Dobson units (DU) over the South Atlantic region, which is 8-9 DU higher than observed during CITE 3 ferry flights over the northern tropical Atlantic Ocean or measured by ozonesondes over coastal Brazil during the wet season. An examination of simultaneous dew point and combustion tracer (e.g., CO) measurements suggests that the dry subsiding layers and biomass burning layers make approximately equal contributions to the observed O3 enhancement.

  11. AN EVALUATION OF OZONE EXPOSURE METRICS FOR A SEASONALLY DROUGHT STRESSED PONDEROSA PINE ECOSYSTEM. (R826601)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ozone stress has become an increasingly significant factor in cases of forest decline reported throughout the world. Current metrics to estimate ozone exposure for forest trees are derived from atmospheric concentrations and assume that the forest is physiologically active at ...

  12. The seasonal variation of water vapor and ozone in the upper mesosphere - Implications for vertical transport and ozone photochemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bevilacqua, Richard M.; Summers, Michael E.; Strobel, Darrell F.; Olivero, John J.; Allen, Mark

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews the data base supplied by ground-based microwave measurements of water vapor in the mesosphere obtained in three separate experiments over an eight-year period. These measurements indicate that the seasonal variation of water vapor in the mesosphere is dominated by an annual component with low values in winter and high values in summer, suggesting that the seasonal variation of water vapor in the mesosphere (below 80 km) is controlled by advective rather than diffusive processes. Both the seasonal variation and the absolute magnitude of the water vapor mixing ratios obtained in microwave measurements were corroborated by measurements obtained in the Spacelab GRILLE and ATMOS experiments, and were found to be consistent with several recent mesospheric dynamics studies.

  13. Understanding reaction mechanisms in organic chemistry from catastrophe theory: ozone addition on benzene.

    PubMed

    Ndassa, Ibrahim Mbouombouo; Silvi, Bernard; Volatron, François

    2010-12-16

    The potential energy profiles of the endo and exo additions of ozone on benzene have been theoretically investigated within the framework provided by the electron localization function (ELF). This has been done by carrying out hybrid Hartree-Fock DFT B3LYP calculation followed by a bonding evolution theory (BET) analysis. For both approaches, the reaction is exothermic by ~98 kJ mol(-1). However, the activation energy is calculated to 10 kJ mol(-1) lower in the endo channel than in the exo one; therefore the formation of the endo C(6)H(6)O(3) adduct is kinetically favored. Six structural stability domains are identified along both reaction pathways as well as the bifurcation catastrophes responsible for the changes in the topology of the system. This provides a chemical description of the reaction mechanism in terms of heterolytic synchronous bond formation.

  14. Interhemispheric differences in seasonal cycles of tropospheric ozone in the marine boundary layer: Observation-model comparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derwent, Richard G.; Parrish, David D.; Galbally, Ian E.; Stevenson, David S.; Doherty, Ruth M.; Young, Paul J.; Shallcross, Dudley E.

    2016-09-01

    Marine boundary layer ozone seasonal cycles have been quantified by fitting the sum of two sine curves through monthly detrended observations taken at three stations: Mace Head, Ireland, and Trinidad Head, California, in the Northern Hemisphere and Cape Grim, Tasmania, in the Southern Hemisphere. The parameters defining the sine curve fits at these stations have been compared with those from a global Lagrangian chemistry-transport model and from 14 Atmospheric Chemistry Coupled Climate Model Intercomparison Project chemistry-climate models. Most models substantially overestimated the long-term average ozone levels at Trinidad Head, while they performed much better for Mace Head and Cape Grim. This led to an underestimation of the observed (North Atlantic inflow-North Pacific inflow) difference. The models generally underpredicted the magnitude of the fundamental term of the fitted seasonal cycle, most strongly at Cape Grim. The models more accurately reproduced the observed second harmonic terms compared to the fundamental terms at all stations. Significant correlations have been identified between the errors in the different models' estimates of the seasonal cycle parameters; these correlations may yield further insights into the causes of the model-measurement discrepancies.

  15. Seasonal variation of ozone and black carbon observed at Paknajol, an urban site in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putero, D.; Cristofanelli, P.; Marinoni, A.; Adhikary, B.; Duchi, R.; Shrestha, S. D.; Verza, G. P.; Landi, T. C.; Calzolari, F.; Busetto, M.; Agrillo, G.; Biancofiore, F.; Di Carlo, P.; Panday, A. K.; Rupakheti, M.; Bonasoni, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Kathmandu Valley in south Asia is considered as one of the global "hot spots" in terms of urban air pollution. It is facing severe air quality problems as a result of rapid urbanization and land use change, socioeconomic transformation, and high population growth. In this paper, we present the first full year (February 2013-January 2014) analysis of simultaneous measurements of two short-lived climate forcers/pollutants (SLCF/P), i.e., ozone (O3) and equivalent black carbon (hereinafter noted as BC) and aerosol number concentration at Paknajol, in the city center of Kathmandu. The diurnal behavior of equivalent BC and aerosol number concentration indicated that local pollution sources represent the major contributions to air pollution in this city. In addition to photochemistry, the planetary boundary layer (PBL) and wind play important roles in determining O3 variability, as suggested by the analysis of seasonal changes of the diurnal cycles and the correlation with meteorological parameters and aerosol properties. Especially during pre-monsoon, high values of O3 were found during the afternoon/evening. This could be related to mixing and entrainment processes between upper residual layers and the PBL. The high O3 concentrations, in particular during pre-monsoon, appeared well related to the impact of major open vegetation fires occurring at the regional scale. On a synoptic-scale perspective, westerly and regional atmospheric circulations appeared to be especially conducive for the occurrence of the high BC and O3 values. The very high values of SLCF/P, detected during the whole measurement period, indicated persisting adverse air quality conditions, dangerous for the health of over 3 million residents of the Kathmandu Valley, and the environment. Consequently, all of this information may be useful for implementing control measures to mitigate the occurrence of acute pollution levels in the Kathmandu Valley and surrounding area.

  16. Seasonal variation of ozone and black carbon observed at Paknajol, an urban site in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putero, D.; Cristofanelli, P.; Marinoni, A.; Adhikary, B.; Duchi, R.; Shrestha, S. D.; Verza, G. P.; Landi, T. C.; Calzolari, F.; Busetto, M.; Agrillo, G.; Biancofiore, F.; Di Carlo, P.; Panday, A. K.; Rupakheti, M.; Bonasoni, P.

    2015-08-01

    The Kathmandu Valley in South Asia is considered as one of the global "hot spots" in terms of urban air pollution. It is facing severe air quality problems as a result of rapid urbanization and land use change, socioeconomic transformation and high population growth. In this paper, we present the first full year (February 2013-January 2014) analysis of simultaneous measurements of two short-lived climate forcers/pollutants (SLCF/P), i.e. ozone (O3) and equivalent black carbon (hereinafter noted as BC) and aerosol number concentration at Paknajol, in the center of the Kathmandu metropolitan city. The diurnal behavior of equivalent black carbon (BC) and aerosol number concentration indicated that local pollution sources represent the major contributions to air pollution in this city. In addition to photochemistry, the planetary boundary layer (PBL) and wind play important roles in determining O3 variability, as suggested by the analysis of seasonal diurnal cycle and correlation with meteorological parameters and aerosol properties. Especially during pre-monsoon, high values of O3 were found during the afternoon/evening; this could be related to mixing and entrainment processes between upper residual layers and the PBL. The high O3 concentrations, in particular during pre-monsoon, appeared well related to the impact of major open vegetation fires occurring at regional scale. On a synoptic-scale perspective, westerly and regional atmospheric circulations appeared to be especially conducive for the occurrence of the high BC and O3 values. The very high values of SLCF/P, detected during the whole measurement period, indicated persisting adverse air quality conditions, dangerous for the health of over 3 million residents of the Kathmandu Valley, and the environment. Consequently, all of this information may be useful for implementing control measures to mitigate the occurrence of acute pollution levels in the Kathmandu Valley and surrounding area.

  17. Effect of Ozone Addition on Combustion Efficiency of Hydrogen: Liquid-Oxygen Propellant in Small Rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Riley O.; Brown, Dwight D.

    1959-01-01

    An experimental study shows that 2 percent by weight ozone in oxygen has little effect on overall reactivity for a range of oxidant-fuel weight ratios from 1 to 6. This conclusion is based on characteristic-velocity measurements in 200-pound-thrust chambers at a pressure of 300 pounds per square inch absolute with low-efficiency injectors. The presence of 9 percent ozone in oxygen also did not affect performance in an efficient chamber. Explosions were encountered when equipment or procedure permitted ozone to concentrate locally. These experiments indicate that even small amounts of ozone in oxygen can cause operational problems.

  18. Influence of Ar addition on ozone generation in a non-thermal plasma—a numerical investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hsin Liang; Lee, How Ming; Chen, Shiaw Huei; Wei, Ta Chin; Been Chang, Moo

    2010-10-01

    A numerical model based on a dielectric barrier discharge is developed in this study to investigate the influence of Ar addition on ozone generation. The simulation results show good agreement with the experimental data, confirming the validity of the numerical model. The mechanisms regarding how the Ar addition affects ozone generation are investigated with the assistance of a numerical simulation by probing into the following two questions, (1) why the ozone concentration just slightly decreases in the low specific input energy (SIE, the ratio of discharge power to gas flow rate) region even if the inlet O2 concentration is substantially decreased and (2) why the variation of the increased rate of ozone concentration with SIE (i.e. the variation in the slope of ozone concentration versus SIE) is more significant for an O2/Ar mixture plasma. As SIE is relatively low, ozone decomposition through electron-impact and radical attack reactions is less significant because of low ozone concentration and gas temperature. Therefore, the ozone concentration depends mainly on the amount of oxygen atoms generated. The simulation results indicate that the amount of oxygen atoms generated per electronvolt for Ar concentrations of 0%, 10%, 30%, 50% and 80% are 0.178, 0.174, 0.169, 0.165 and 0.166, respectively, explaining why the ozone concentration does not decrease linearly with the inlet O2 concentration in the low SIE region. On the other hand, the simulation results show that increasing Ar concentration would lead to a lower reduced field and a higher gas temperature. The former would lead to an increase in the rate constant of e + O3 → e + O + O2 while the latter would result in a decrease in the rate constant of O + O2 + M → O3 + M and an increase in that of O3 + O → 2O2. The changes in the rate constants of these reactions would have a negative effect on ozone generation, which is the rationale for the second question.

  19. Seasonal variation of ozone and black carbon observed at Paknajol, an urban area in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putero, Davide; Cristofanelli, Paolo; Marinoni, Angela; Adhikary, Bhupesh; Duchi, Rocco; Das Shrestha, Sunil; Pietro Verza, Gian; Landi, Tony Christian; Calzolari, Francescopiero; Busetto, Maurizio; Agrillo, Giacomo; Biancofiore, Fabio; Di Carlo, Piero; Panday, Arnico; Rupakheti, Maheswar; Bonasoni, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    The Kathmandu Valley in the Himalayan foothills, considered as one of the global "hot spots" for what concerns air pollution, is currently facing severe air quality problems due to rapid urbanization processes, dramatic land use changes, socioeconomic transformation and high population growth. In this work, we present the first full year (February 2013 - February 2014) analysis of simultaneous measurements of two short-lived climate forcers/pollutants (SLCF/P), i.e. ozone (O3) and equivalent black carbon (BC), and aerosol number concentration at Paknajol (27°43'4'' N, 85°18'32'' E, 1380 m a.s.l.), in the city center of Kathmandu. These observations were carried out in the framework of the SusKat-ABC (A Sustainable Atmosphere for the Kathmandu Valley - Atmospheric Brown Cloud) campaign in Nepal. The diurnal behavior of BC and aerosol number concentration indicated that local pollution sources represent the major contribution to air pollution in this city. In addition to photochemistry, the planetary boundary layer (PBL) dynamic plays an important role in determining O3 variability, as suggested by the analysis of seasonal changes of the diurnal cycles and the correlation with meteorological parameters and aerosol properties. Especially during pre-monsoon, high values of O3 were observed during the afternoon/evening. This could be related to mixing and entrainment processes between upper residual layers and the PBL. During this season, the high O3 appeared well related to the impact of major open vegetation fires occurring in Nepal. On a synoptic-scale perspective, westerly and regional atmospheric circulations appeared to be especially conducive for the occurrence of the high BC and O3 values. The very high values of the SLCF/P, detected during the whole measurement period, indicated persisting adverse air quality conditions, dangerous for the health of over 3 million residents of the Kathmandu Valley, and the environment. Consequently, all of this information may

  20. Addition of hydrogen peroxide for the simultaneous control of bromate and odor during advanced drinking water treatment using ozone.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongjing; Yu, Jianwei; Zhang, Dong; Yang, Min

    2014-03-01

    Complete removal of the characteristic septic/swampy odor from Huangpu River source water could only be achieved under an ozone dose as high as 4.0 mg/L in an ozone-biological activated carbon (O3-BAC) process, which would lead to the production of high concentrations of carcinogenic bromate due to the high bromide content. This study investigated the possibility of simultaneous control of bromate and the septic/swampy odor by adding H2O2 prior to the O3-BAC process for the treatment of Huangpu River water. H2O2 addition could reduce the bromate concentration effectively at an H2O2/O3 (g/g) ratio of 0.5 or higher. At the same time, the septic/swampy odor removal was enhanced by the addition of H2O2, although optimization of the H2O2/O3 ratio was required for each ozone dose. At an ozone dose of 2.0 mg/L, the odor was removed completely at an H2O2/O3 ratio of 0.5. The results indicated that H2O2 application at a suitable dose could enhance the removal of the septic/swampy odor while suppressing the formation of bromate during ozonation of Huangpu River source water.

  1. Stratospheric influence on the concentration and seasonal cycle of lower tropospheric ozone: Observation at Mount Hehuan, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yu-Chi; Huh, Chih-An; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Lin, Chuan-Yao; Liang, Mao-Chang; Lin, Po-Hsiung

    2014-03-01

    Continuous measurements of ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO), beryllium-7 (7Be), and lead-210 (210Pb) in aerosols along with relative humidity (RH) were carried out at the Mount Hehuan site (24.05°N, 121.10°E, 3380 m above sea level (asl)) from September 2011 to September 2012 in order to investigate the seasonality of stratospheric influence (SI) and its effect on surface ozone concentration in the subtropical free troposphere over central Taiwan. During the 13 month period, the measured O3 concentration fluctuated around a mean of 41 ppb and showed a broad springtime maximum and summertime minimum that can be attributed to regional circulation over subtropical Asia. Beryllium-7, CO, RH, and the normalized fraction of 7Be, f(7Be, 210Pb) were used to identify SI days based on several criteria. Of the total analyzed days, 14 SI days (approximately 4.6%) were found, indicating that SI phenomenon in the subtropical region is much less frequent than at northern midlatitudes. About two thirds of the SI days occurred in the winter, whereas none were found in the summer. The seasonality of SI occurrence could be related to the position of the subtropical jet stream. The proportion of surface O3 derived from the stratosphere was estimated to be only 1.3% on a yearly basis, increasing to ~3.2% in the winter and 27% during the SI days, demonstrating the importance of downward transport of stratospheric air in affecting the level of surface ozone.

  2. Source contributions to seasonal vegetative exposure to ozone in the US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapina, K.; Henze, D. K.; Milford, J.; Huang, M.; Lin, M.; Pfister, G.; Emmons, L. K.; Fiore, A. M.; Boynard, A.; Carmichael, G. R.; Sandiford, V.; Herrick, J. D.; Dutton, S.; Smith, T.; Porter, E. M.

    2012-12-01

    Frequent exposure to high levels of ozone leads to vegetation damage and can result in substantial economic losses. A cumulative ozone exposure metric, W126, has been considered by the US EPA for use as a secondary ozone standard. Information on source regions contributing to the non-attainment of this standard is crucial for developing a successful strategy to mitigate the negative effects of ozone on vegetation. In this work we quantify W126 source contributions for the US regions exceeding selected levels of the W126 standard by applying several source attribution techniques, including "tagging", emissions perturbation and adjoint sensitivity analysis, to a suite of five global and regional chemical transport models. We estimate the W126 North American background (defined as the W126 levels in the absence of North American anthropogenic emissions) and separate source contributions by sector and country of origin. Our calculations are performed for two periods in 2008 and 2010 and are compared to the W126 observations from the Air Quality System and CASTNET. Given that the W126 metric is highly non-linear, we discuss the pros and cons of the applied source attribution methods and the applicability of the results.

  3. Differences in leaf characteristics between ozone-sensitive and ozone-tolerant hybrid aspen (Populus tremula x Populus tremuloides) clones.

    PubMed

    Häikiö, Elina; Freiwald, Vera; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta; Beuker, Egbert; Holopainen, Toini; Oksanen, Elina

    2009-01-01

    The authors analyzed a suite of leaf characteristics that might help to explain the difference between ozone-sensitive and ozone-tolerant hybrid aspen (Populus tremula L. x Populus tremuloides Michx.) clones. An open-field experiment comprising ambient ozone and 1.5x ambient ozone concentration (about 35 ppb) and two soil nitrogen regimes (60 and 140 kg N ha(-1) year(-1)) was conducted over two growing seasons on potted plants of eight hybrid aspen clones. Four of the clones had previously been determined to be ozone sensitive based on impaired growth in response to elevated ozone concentration. Photosynthetic rate, chlorophyll fluorescence, and concentrations of chlorophyll, protein and carbohydrates were analyzed three times during the second growing season, and foliar phenolic concentrations were measured at the end of the second growing season. Nitrogen amendment counteracted the effects of ozone, but had no effect on growth-related ozone sensitivity of the clones. Ozone-sensitive clones had higher photosynthetic capacity and higher concentrations of Rubisco and phenolics than ozone-tolerant clones, but the effects of ozone were similar in the sensitive and tolerant groups. Nitrogen addition had no effect on phenolic concentration, but elevated ozone concentration increased the concentrations of chlorogenic acid and (+)-catechin. This study suggests that condensed tannins and catechin, but not salicylates or flavonol glycosides, play a role in the ozone tolerance of hybrid aspen.

  4. Seasonal/Diurnal Mapping of Ozone and Water in the Martian Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Novak, R. E.; Mumma, M. J.; DiSanti, M. A.; DelloRusso, N.; Magee-Sauer, K.; Bonev, B.

    2003-01-01

    Ozone and water are key species for understanding the stability and evolution of Mars atmosphere; they are closely linked (along with CO, H, OH, and O) through photochemistry. Photolysis of water produces the OH radical (thought to catalyze reformation of CO2 from CO and O2) and atomic hydrogen (which reacts with O3 forming OH and O2). Atomic hydrogen also reacts with O2 (forming HO2), thereby reducing the amount of O2 available to reform O3 from collisions between O and O2. Hence ozone and water should be anti-correlated on Mars. Photolysis of O3 produces O2(a(sup 1) delta g) with 90% efficiency, and the resulting emission band system near 1.27 mm traces the presence and abundance of ozone. This approach was initially used to study ozone on Earth and then applied to Mars. In 1997, we measured several lines of the O2(a(sup 1) delta g) emission using CSHELL at the NASA IRTF; the O2(a(sup 1) delta g) state is also quenched by collisions with CO2. This quenching dominates at lower altitudes so that the detected emissions are used to detect ozone column densities above 20 km. The slit was positioned N-S along Mars' central meridian resulting in a one-dimensional map of ozone. Nearly simultaneous maps may be made of water using CSHELL by detecting the v1 fundamental band of HDO near 3.67 microns and using the D/H ratio for Mars. This technique was used by DiSanti and Mumma. With CSHELL, measurements for both O2(a(sup 1) delta g) emissions and HDO absorptions can be made during the day or night. Since January, 1997, we have repeated these measurements at different times during the Martian year. For all of these dates, we have positioned the slit N-S along the central meridian; for some of these dates, we have also stepped the slit across the planet at 1 arc-sec intervals generating a 2-dimensional map. We have also positioned the slit E-W on Mars thus providing diurnal variations of ozone and water along the slit.

  5. Seasonal Ozone Variations in the Isentropic Layer between 330 and 380 K as Observed by SAGE 2: Implications of Extratropical Cross-Tropopause Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Pi-Huan; Cunnold, Derek M.; Zawodny, Joseph M.; Pierce, R. Bradley; Olson, Jennifer R.; Kent, Geoffrey S.; Skeens, Kristi, M.

    1998-01-01

    To provide observational evidence on the extratropical cross-tropopause transport between the stratosphere and the troposphere via quasi-isentropic processes in the middleworld (the part of the atmosphere in which the isentropic surfaces intersect the tropopause), this report presents an analysis of the seasonal variations of the ozone latitudinal distribution in the isentropic layer between 330 K and 380 K based on the measurements from the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II. The results from SAGE II data analysis are consistent with (1) the buildup of ozone-rich air in the extratropical middleworld through the large-scale descending mass circulation during winter, (2) the spread of ozone-rich air in the isentropic layer from midlatitudes to subtropics via quasi-isentropic transport during spring, (3) significant photochemical ozone removal and the absence of an ozone-rich supply of air to the layer during summer, and (4) air mass exchange between the subtropics and the extratropics during the summer monsoon period. Thus the SAGE II observed ozone seasonal variations in the middleworld are consistent with the existing model calculated annual cycle of the diabatic circulation as well as the conceptual role of the eddy quasi-adiabatic transport in the stratosphere-troposphere exchange reported in the literature.

  6. Diurnal and seasonal cycles of ozone precursors observed from continuous measurement at an urban site in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Kuang-Ling; Ting, Chien-Chung; Wang, Jia-Lin; Wingenter, Oliver W.; Chan, Chang-Chuan

    Hourly measurement of 56 ozone precursors was conducted by a monitoring station located in a metropolitan area in central Taiwan. After nearly a year of continuous operation at this urban site, both diurnal and seasonal cycles of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) were clearly observed, which were caused by the interplay between source, chemical loss, and meteorology. Selected species representing three different types of major sources, namely, the household fuel leakage, vehicular exhaust and gasoline evaporation, as well as biogenic emissions exhibit dramatic diurnal or seasonal cycles with each displaying its own unique characteristics. Ethane and propane, largely originated from leakage of natural gas or liquefied petroleum gases (LPG), showed concentrations elevating throughout the night and early morning, but began to decrease toward noon as the nocturnal temperature inversion elevated. Because of the lower chemical reactivity and somewhat more constant emissions than other measured target compounds, their diurnal cycles were presumably the direct reflection of the mixing height over the metropolitan area. For compounds originating from vehicular plus evaporative emissions such as benzene, which accounts for most of the monitored compounds, their diurnal cycles were also largely controlled by the variation in the height of temperature inversion. Of all the 56 species monitored, isoprene, an abundant biogenic species largely released by plants, showed distinct diurnal and seasonal cycles different from the other measured NMHCs. Its concentration usually peaked at noon in summer and fell when temperature and solar radiation reached their maximum levels, demonstrating the close relationship of isoprene with photosynthesis. Seasonal variation was also clearly observed for the other NMHCs quantified. With the exception of isoprene, most species show higher average concentration in winter and lower average concentration in summer with the fall values being the

  7. Diurnal and seasonal cycles of ozone precursors observed from continuous measurement at an urban site in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Kuang-Ling; Ting, Chien-Chung; Wang, Jia-Lin; Wingenter, Oliver W.; Chan, Chang-Chuan

    Hourly measurement of 56 ozone precursors was conducted by a monitoring station located in a metropolitan area in central Taiwan. After nearly a year of continuous operation at this urban site, both diurnal and seasonal cycles of nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) were clearly observed, which was caused by the interplay between source, chemical loss, and meteorology. Selected species representing three different types of major sources namely the household fuel leakage, vehicular exhaust and gasoline evaporation, as well as biogenic emissions exhibit dramatic diurnal or seasonal cycles with each displaying its own unique characteristics. Ethane and propane, largely originated from leakage of natural gas or liquefied petroleum gases (LPG), showed concentrations elevating throughout the night and early morning, but began to decrease towards noon as the nocturnal temperature inversion elevated. Because of the lower chemical reactivity and somewhat more constant emissions than other measured target compounds, their diurnal cycles were presumably the direct reflection of the mixing height over the metropolitan area. For compounds originating from vehicular plus evaporative emissions such as benzene, which accounts for most of the monitored compounds, their diurnal cycles were also largely controlled by the variation in the height of temperature inversion. Of all the 56 species monitored, isoprene, an abundant biogenic species largely released by plants, showed distinct diurnal and seasonal cycles different from the other measured NMHCs. Its concentration usually peaked at noon in summer and fall when temperature and solar radiation reached their maximum level, demonstrating the close relationship of isoprene with photosynthesis. Seasonal variation was also clearly observed for the other NMHCs quantified. With the exception of isoprene, most species show higher average concentration in winter and lower in summer with the fall values being the intermediate, which presumably

  8. Seasonal variation of nitrogen oxides, ozone and biogenic volatile organic compound concentrations and fluxes at Norway spruce forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juran, Stanislav; Vecerova, Kristyna; Holisova, Petra; Zapletal, Milos; Pallozzi, Emanuele; Guidolotti, Gabriele; Calfapietra, Carlo; Vecera, Zbynek; Cudlin, Pavel; Urban, Otmar

    2015-04-01

    Dynamics of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and ozone concentration and their depositions were investigated on the Norway spruce forest at Bily Kriz experimental station at the Silesian Beskydy Mountains (north-eastern part of the Czech Republic). Both NOx and ozone concentration and fluxes were modelled for the whole season and covering thus different climate conditions. Data were recorded for three consecutive years and therefore deeper analyses were performed. During the summer 2014 BVOC field campaign was carried out using proton-transfer-reaction-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry (PTR-TOF, Ionicon Analytik GmbH, Innsbruck, Austria) and volatile organic compound of biogenic origin (BVOC) were measured at the different levels of tree canopies. By the same time BVOC were trapped into the Tenax tubes (Markes International Ltd., UK) and put afterwards for thermal desorption (Markes Unity System 2, Markes International Ltd., UK) to GS-MS analysis (TSQ Quntum XLS triple Quadrupole, Thermo Scientific, USA). Thus data of different levels of canopies together with different spectra of monoterpenes were obtained. Interesting comparison of both methods will be shown. It was the first BVOC field campaign using PTR technique at any of the forest in the Czech Republic. Highest fluxes and concentrations were recorded around the noon hours, represented particularly by monoterpenes, especially α-pinen and limonene. Other BVOCs than monoterpenes were negligible. Variation of fluxes between different canopies levels was observed, highlighting difference in shaded and sun exposed leaves. Sun leaves emitted up to 2.4 nmol m-2 s-1 of monoterpenes, while shaded leaves emitted only up to 0.6 nmol m-2 s-1 when measured under standard conditions (irradiance 1000 µmol m-2 s-1; temperature 30°C). We discuss here the importance of the most common Norway spruce tree forests in the Czech Republic in bi-directional exchanges of important secondary pollutant such as ozone and nitrogen oxides, their

  9. Cardiac Effects of Seasonal Ambient Particulate Matter and Ozone Co-exposure in Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    BackgroundThe potential for seasonal differences in the physicochemical characteristics of ambient particulate matter (PM) to modify interactive effects with gaseous pollutants has not been thoroughly examined. The purpose of this study was to compare cardiac responses in conscio...

  10. El Nino impacts on seasonal high ozone levels in the lower troposphere

    SciTech Connect

    Linse, E.W. Jr.

    1996-12-31

    The purpose of this paper is to clarify one difficulty in evaluating the control strategies for ozone concentrations. El Nino years may be mistakenly interpreted as periods having improved air quality because of those control programs. In fact, the differences in atmospheric stability and mixing have made some years especially benign for air quality. Improvements or the effectiveness of control programs can only be effectively reviewed if the meteorological signature is removed. It may not be generally known how large the impacts of the El Nino conditions can be.

  11. Tropospheric ozone seasonal and long-term variability as seen by lidar and surface measurements at the JPL-Table Mountain Facility, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granados-Muñoz, Maria Jose; Leblanc, Thierry

    2016-07-01

    A combined surface and tropospheric ozone climatology and interannual variability study was performed for the first time using co-located ozone photometer measurements (2013-2015) and tropospheric ozone differential absorption lidar measurements (2000-2015) at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Table Mountain Facility (TMF; elev. 2285 m), in California. The surface time series were investigated both in terms of seasonal and diurnal variability. The observed surface ozone is typical of high-elevation remote sites, with small amplitude of the seasonal and diurnal cycles, and high ozone values, compared to neighboring lower altitude stations representative of urban boundary layer conditions. The ozone mixing ratio ranges from 45 ppbv in the winter morning hours to 65 ppbv in the spring and summer afternoon hours. At the time of the lidar measurements (early night), the seasonal cycle observed at the surface is similar to that observed by lidar between 3.5 and 9 km. Above 9 km, the local tropopause height variation with time and season impacts significantly the ozone lidar observations. The frequent tropopause folds found in the vicinity of TMF (27 % of the time, mostly in winter and spring) produce a dual-peak vertical structure in ozone within the fold layer, characterized by higher-than-average values in the bottom half of the fold (12-14 km), and lower-than-averaged values in the top half of the fold (14-18 km). This structure is consistent with the expected origin of the air parcels within the fold, i.e., mid-latitude stratospheric air folding down below the upper tropospheric sub-tropical air. The influence of the tropopause folds extends down to 5 km, increasing the ozone content in the troposphere. No significant signature of interannual variability could be observed on the 2000-2015 de-seasonalized lidar time series, with only a statistically non-significant positive anomaly during the years 2003-2007. Our trend analysis reveals however an overall statistically

  12. Lagrangian photochemical modeling studies of the 1987 Antarctic spring vortex. II - Seasonal trends in ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Austin, J.; Jones, R. L.; Mckenna, D. S.; Buckland, A. T.; Anderson, J. G.; Fahey, D. W.; Farmer, C. B.; Heidt, L. E.; Proffitt, M. H.; Vedder, J. F.

    1989-01-01

    A photochemical model consisting of 40 species and 107 reactions is integrated along 80-day air parcel trajectories calculated in the lower stratosphere for the springtime Antarctic. For the trajectory starting at 58 deg S, which may be regarded as outside the circumpolar vortex, only a small change in O3 occurs in the model. In contrast, for the air parcel starting in the vortex at 74 deg S, the O3 concentration is reduced by 93 percent during the 80 days from the beginning of August to late October. The model results for several species are compared with measurements from the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment and, in general, good agreement is obtained. In the model, the dentrification of the air parcels in polar stratospheric clouds increases the amount of chlorine present in active form. Heterogeneous reactions maintain high active chlorine which destroys O3 via the formation of the ClO dimer. Results of calculations with reduced concentrations of inorganic chlorine show considerably reduced O3 destruction rates and compare favorably with the behavior of total O3 since the late 1970s. The remaining major uncertainties in the photochemical aspects of the Antarctic ozone hole are highlighted.

  13. Seasonal surface ozone and filterable bromine relationship in the high Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oltmans, S. J.; Schnell, R. C.; Sheridan, P. J.; Peterson, R. E.; Li, S.-M.; Winchester, J. W.; Tans, P. P.; Sturges, W. T.; Kahl, J. D.; Barrie, L. A.

    Ozone and filterable bromine measurements in the high Arctic during the spring return of solar radiation suggest a rapid concurrent destruction of O 3 and conversion of gaseous to particulate Br. Multiyear observations show that this pattern is an annual feature of O 3 measured near the surface at Barrow, Alaska, and other Arctic locations. Aircraft measurements show low O 3 amounts and high filterable Br concentrations beneath the surface temperature inversion over ice throughout the Arctic in the spring. A wintertime build-up of the gaseous organic compound bromoform and a rapid depletion of bromoform in the spring may be a link between the episodic O 3 depletion events and the accompanying rise in filterable Br.

  14. Non-methane hydrocarbons in the atmosphere of Mexico City: Results of the 2012 ozone-season campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaimes-Palomera, Mónica; Retama, Armando; Elias-Castro, Gabriel; Neria-Hernández, Angélica; Rivera-Hernández, Olivia; Velasco, Erik

    2016-05-01

    With the aim to strengthen the verification capabilities of the local air quality management, the air quality monitoring network of Mexico City has started the monitoring of selected non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs). Previous information on the NMHC characterization had been obtained through individual studies and comprehensive intensive field campaigns, in both cases restricted to sampling periods of short duration. This new initiative will address the NMHC pollution problem during longer monitoring periods and provide robust information to evaluate the effectiveness of new control measures. The article introduces the design of the monitoring network and presents results from the first campaign carried out during the first six months of 2012 covering the ozone-season (Mar-May). Using as reference data collected in 2003, results show reductions during the morning rush hour (6-9 h) in the mixing ratios of light alkanes associated with the consumption and distribution of liquefied petroleum gas and aromatic compounds related with the evaporation of fossil fuels and solvents, in contrast to olefins from vehicular traffic. The increase in mixing ratios of reactive olefins is of relevance to understand the moderate success in the ozone and fine aerosols abatement in recent years in comparison to other criteria pollutants. In the case of isoprene, the typical afternoon peak triggered by biogenic emissions was clearly observed for the first time within the city. The diurnal profiles of the monitored compounds are analyzed in terms of the energy balance throughout the day as a surrogate of the boundary layer evolution. Particular features of the diurnal profiles and correlation between individual NMHCs and carbon monoxide are used to investigate the influence of specific emission sources. The results discussed here highlight the importance of monitoring NMHCs to better understand the drivers and impacts of air pollution in large cities like Mexico City.

  15. The 1998-2000 SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes) Tropical Ozone Climatology: Ozonesonde Precision, Accuracy and Station-to-Station Variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witte, J. C.; Thompson, Anne M.; McPeters, R. D.; Oltmans, S. J.; Schmidlin, F. J.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    As part of the SAFARI-2000 campaign, additional launches of ozonesondes were made at Irene, South Africa and at Lusaka, Zambia. These represent campaign augmentations to the SHADOZ database described in this paper. This network of 10 southern hemisphere tropical and subtropical stations, designated the Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes (SHADOZ) project and established from operational sites, provided over 1000 profiles from ozonesondes and radiosondes during the period 1998-2000. (Since that time, two more stations, one in southern Africa, have joined SHADOZ). Archived data are available at: http://code9l6.gsfc.nasa.gov/Data-services/shadoz>. Uncertainties and accuracies within the SHADOZ ozone data set are evaluated by analyzing: (1) imprecisions in stratospheric ozone profiles and in methods of extrapolating ozone above balloon burst; (2) comparisons of column-integrated total ozone from sondes with total ozone from the Earth-Probe/TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) satellite and ground-based instruments; (3) possible biases from station-to-station due to variations in ozonesonde characteristics. The key results are: (1) Ozonesonde precision is 5%; (2) Integrated total ozone column amounts from the sondes are in good agreement (2-10%) with independent measurements from ground-based instruments at five SHADOZ sites and with overpass measurements from the TOMS satellite (version 7 data). (3) Systematic variations in TOMS-sonde offsets and in groundbased-sonde offsets from station to station reflect biases in sonde technique as well as in satellite retrieval. Discrepancies are present in both stratospheric and tropospheric ozone. (4) There is evidence for a zonal wave-one pattern in total and tropospheric ozone, but not in stratospheric ozone.

  16. Influence of ship emissions on ozone concentrations around coastal areas during summer season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Sang-Keun; Shon, Zang-Ho; Kim, Yoo-Keun; Kang, Yoon-Hee; Oh, In-Bo; Jung, Chang-Hoon

    2010-02-01

    The influence of ship emissions on ozone (O 3) concentrations in a coastal area (CA) including Busan port, Korea was examined based on a numerical modeling approach during a high O 3 episode. The analysis was performed by two sets of simulation scenarios: (1) with ship emissions (e.g., TOTAL case) and (2) without ship emissions (e.g., BASE case). A process analysis (PA) (the integrated processes rate (IPR) and integrated reaction rate (IRR) analyses) was used to evaluate the relative contributions of individual physical and chemical processes in O 3 production in and around the CA (e.g., sites of Dong Sam (DS) and Dae Yeon (DY)). The model study suggested the possibility that pollutant gases emitted from the ships traversing Busan port can exert a direct impact on the O 3 concentration levels in the CA. Largest impacts of ship emissions on the O 3 concentrations were predicted at the coast (up to 15 ppb) and at inland locations (about 5 ppb) due to both the photochemical production of pollutant gases emitted from the ships and meteorological conditions. From the PA, the photochemical production of O 3 (P(O 3)) due to ship emissions in the CA was found to increase by a mean of 1.5 ppb h -1 (especially by ≥10 ppb h -1 at the DS site) during the day.

  17. Remote Sensing of Tropical Tropospheric Ozone: Validation on the R/V R. H. Brown and the SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne

    1999-01-01

    This talk will give background on tropical tropospheric ozone studies in the field and from space from the TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) satellite instrument. Background will be given on why tropospheric ozone in the tropics is of interest to people studying global change and its role in measurements on the R/V R H Brown 1999 Aerosols cruise. The new modified-residual method (Hudson and Thompson, 1998; Thompson and Hudson, 1999) for determining column depth of tropospheric ozone from TOMS will be described. Examples of modified-residual TTO (tropical tropospheric ozone) maps will be shown. These include Earth-Probe TOMS maps of ozone from the 1997 Indonesian fires as well as 14 years of twice-monthly maps from which seasonal and trends behavior can be deduced. The need for validation data for TTO maps has led to establishment of the NASA/NOAA-sponsored SHADOZ network in which 9 tropical nations are participating (Ascension Is., Brazil, Kenya, Indonesia, Fiji, Tahiti, Galapagos, Am. Samoa, Reunion Is. [France]). Some of the R/V Brown ozonesonde data, collected from daily launches on board the ship, from mid-January through mid-february 1999, will be shown.

  18. The 1998-2000 SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere ADditional Ozonesondes) Tropical Ozone Climatology: Comparison with TOMS and Ground-Based Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Witte, Jacquelyn; McPeters, Richard D.; Oltmans, Samuel J.; Schmidlin, Francis J.; Logan, Jennifer A.; Fujiwara, Masatormo; Kirchhoff, Volker W. J. H.; Posny, Francoise; Coetzee, Gerhard J. R.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A network of 10 southern hemisphere tropical and Subtropical stations, designated the Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes, (SHADOZ) project and established from operational sites, provided over 1000 ozone profiles during the period 1998-2000. Balloon-borne electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozonesondes, combined with standard radiosondes for pressure, temperature and relative humidity measurements, collected profiles in the troposphere and lower- to mid-stratosphere at: Ascension Island; Nairobi, Kenya; Irene, South Africa: Reunion Island, Watukosek Java; Fiji; Tahiti; American Samoa; San Cristobal, Galapagos; Natal, Brazil.

  19. Western US Tropospheric Ozone: An Assessment of Vertical and Seasonal Variations over California and Nevada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yates, E.; Iraci, Laura T.; Johnson, Matthew; Ryoo, Ju-Mee; Pierce, Bradley R.; Cullis, Patrick; Gore, Warren J. Y.; Ives, Michael; Johnson, Bryan; LeBlanc, Thierry; Sterling, Chance W.; Tanaka, Tomoaki

    2016-01-01

    In the rural western US free-tropospheric O3 has risen in recent years as a result of rising Asian emissions, deep stratospheric intrusions and more frequent wildfires. This increasing O3 trend combined with the high surface elevation of much of the western US, which aids mixing between boundary layer and free-troposphere, pose challenges in attaining the more stringent O3 National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) at many western US rural surface sites. As such, the ability to identify various sources and transport mechanisms that contribute towards surface O3 is increasingly important. This paper analyzes vertical profiles of O3 from the Alpha Jet Atmospheric eXperiment (AJAX) over California and Nevada, ozonesondes from Trinidad Head, CA and tropospheric ozone profiles from the differential absorption lidar (DIAL) at the JPL Table Mountain Facility, CA. Surface O3 from the US EPA Clean air Status and Trends Network (CASNET) are used to discuss surface trends. GEOS-Chem determines the trends in regional O3 and assess the contributions of various sources on surface O3. And Realtime Air Quality Modeling System (RAQMS) is used to forecast and interpret free-tropospheric observations. Specifically we will address the following questions: What are the effects of the lowered NAAQS? Do we observe elevated O3 during 2012 at surface sites reported in previous studies? And if so, what are the causes? How variable is free-tropospheric O3 over California and Nevada? How frequently do we observe high O3 lamina in the free troposphere and what are the surface impacts?

  20. Seasonal Variability of Middle Latitude Ozone in the Lowermost Stratosphere Derived from Probability Distribution Functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cerniglia, M. C.; Douglass, A. R.; Rood, R. B.; Sparling, L. C..; Nielsen, J. E.

    1999-01-01

    We present a study of the distribution of ozone in the lowermost stratosphere with the goal of understanding the relative contribution to the observations of air of either distinctly tropospheric or stratospheric origin. The air in the lowermost stratosphere is divided into two population groups based on Ertel's potential vorticity at 300 hPa. High [low] potential vorticity at 300 hPa suggests that the tropopause is low [high], and the identification of the two groups helps to account for dynamic variability. Conditional probability distribution functions are used to define the statistics of the mix from both observations and model simulations. Two data sources are chosen. First, several years of ozonesonde observations are used to exploit the high vertical resolution. Second, observations made by the Halogen Occultation Experiment [HALOE] on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite [UARS] are used to understand the impact on the results of the spatial limitations of the ozonesonde network. The conditional probability distribution functions are calculated at a series of potential temperature surfaces spanning the domain from the midlatitude tropopause to surfaces higher than the mean tropical tropopause [about 380K]. Despite the differences in spatial and temporal sampling, the probability distribution functions are similar for the two data sources. Comparisons with the model demonstrate that the model maintains a mix of air in the lowermost stratosphere similar to the observations. The model also simulates a realistic annual cycle. By using the model, possible mechanisms for the maintenance of mix of air in the lowermost stratosphere are revealed. The relevance of the results to the assessment of the environmental impact of aircraft effluence is discussed.

  1. Seasonal Variability of Middle Latitude Ozone in the Lowermost Stratosphere Derived from Probability Distribution Functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cerniglia, M. C.; Douglass, A. R.; Rood, R. B.; Sparling, L. C.; Nielsen, J. E.

    1999-01-01

    We present a study of the distribution of ozone in the lowermost stratosphere with the goal of understanding the relative contribution to the observations of air of either distinctly tropospheric or stratospheric origin. The air in the lowermost stratosphere is divided into two population groups based on Ertel's potential vorticity at 300 hPa. High [low] potential vorticity at 300 hPa suggests that the tropopause is low [high], and the identification of the two groups helps to account for dynamic variability. Conditional probability distribution functions are used to define the statistics of the mix from both observations and model simulations. Two data sources are chosen. First, several years of ozonesonde observations are used to exploit the high vertical resolution. Second, observations made by the Halogen Occultation Experiment [HALOE) on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite [UARS] are used to understand the impact on the results of the spatial limitations of the ozonesonde network. The conditional probability distribution functions are calculated at a series of potential temperature surfaces spanning the domain from the midlatitude tropopause to surfaces higher than the mean tropical tropopause [approximately 380K]. Despite the differences in spatial and temporal sampling, the probability distribution functions are similar for the two data sources. Comparisons with the model demonstrate that the model maintains a mix of air in the lowermost stratosphere similar to the observations. The model also simulates a realistic annual cycle. By using the model, possible mechanisms for the maintenance of mix of air in the lowermost stratosphere are revealed. The relevance of the results to the assessment of the environmental impact of aircraft effluence is discussed.

  2. Interannual Variability of Ozone in the Polar Vortex during the Fall Season

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor); Kawa, S. R.; Newman, P. A.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Stolarski, R. S.; Bevilacqua, R.

    2002-01-01

    Previous analysis has shown that the distribution of O3 at high northern latitudes in the lower-to-middle stratosphere at the beginning of the winter season has a characteristic distribution, which is consistent between in situ and satellite measurements. Initial O3 profiles in the vortex are similar to each other and are quite different from outside the vortex at the same latitude and also from a zonal mean climatology. In the vortex, O3 is nearly constant from 500 to above 800 K with a value near 3 ppmv. Values outside the vortex are up to a factor of 2 higher and increase significantly with potential temperature. Model analysis indicates that the characteristic vortex O3 profiles arise from a combination of seasonally accelerated photochemical loss at high latitudes and minimal transport of air from lower latitudes. Analysis of the relatively high-resolution POAM data shows that these characteristic O3 distributions are consistent from year to year and between the hemispheres. Here we emphasize analysis of the 24-year time series of O3 data from SBUV in the lower-to-middle stratosphere at high latitudes in the fall vortex. We find that the variability of O3 from SBUV is relatively small in this regime and no significant trend is detectable. The implications of the findings for stratospheric O3 chemistry and transport will be explored.

  3. Insights into the Electronic Structure of Ozone and Sulfur Dioxide from Generalized Valence Bond Theory: Addition of Hydrogen Atoms.

    PubMed

    Lindquist, Beth A; Takeshita, Tyler Y; Dunning, Thom H

    2016-05-05

    Ozone (O3) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) are valence isoelectronic species, yet their properties and reactivities differ dramatically. In particular, O3 is highly reactive, whereas SO2 is chemically relatively stable. In this paper, we investigate serial addition of hydrogen atoms to both the terminal atoms of O3 and SO2 and to the central atom of these species. It is well-known that the terminal atoms of O3 are much more amenable to bond formation than those of SO2. We show that the differences in the electronic structure of the π systems in the parent triatomic species account for the differences in the addition of hydrogen atoms to the terminal atoms of O3 and SO2. Further, we find that the π system in SO2, which is a recoupled pair bond dyad, facilitates the addition of hydrogen atoms to the sulfur atom, resulting in stable HSO2 and H2SO2 species.

  4. Seasonal variation exceeds effects of salmon carcass additions on benthic food webs in the Elwha River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morley, S.A.; Coe, H.J.; Duda, J.J.; Dunphy, L.S.; McHenry, M.L.; Beckman, B.R.; Elofson, M.; Sampson, E. M.; Ward, L.

    2016-01-01

    Dam removal and other fish barrier removal projects in western North America are assumed to boost freshwater productivity via the transport of marine-derived nutrients from recolonizing Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.). In anticipation of the removal of two hydroelectric dams on the Elwha River in Washington State, we tested this hypothesis with a salmon carcass addition experiment. Our study was designed to examine how background nutrient dynamics and benthic food webs vary seasonally, and how these features respond to salmon subsidies. We conducted our experiment in six side channels of the Elwha River, each with a spatially paired reference and treatment reach. Each reach was sampled on multiple occasions from October 2007 to August 2008, before and after carcass placement. We evaluated nutrient limitation status; measured water chemistry, periphyton, benthic invertebrates, and juvenile rainbow trout (O. mykiss) response; and traced salmon-derived nutrient uptake using stable isotopes. Outside of winter, algal accrual was limited by both nitrogen and phosphorous and remained so even in the presence of salmon carcasses. One month after salmon addition, dissolved inorganic nitrogen levels doubled in treatment reaches. Two months after addition, benthic algal accrual was significantly elevated. We detected no changes in invertebrate or fish metrics, with the exception of 15N enrichment. Natural seasonal variability was greater than salmon effects for the majority of our response metrics. Yet seasonality and synchronicity of nutrient supply and demand are often overlooked in nutrient enhancement studies. Timing and magnitude of salmon-derived nitrogen utilization suggest that uptake of dissolved nutrients was favored over direct consumption of carcasses. The highest proportion of salmon-derived nitrogen was incorporated by herbivores (18–30%) and peaked 1–2 months after carcass addition. Peak nitrogen enrichment in predators (11–16%) occurred 2–3

  5. Modeling Stomatal Conductance to Estimate Seasonal Uptake in the Ozone-Sensitive Bioindicator Plant Common Milkweed (A. syriaca L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergweiler, C.

    2008-12-01

    The US EPA National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) was not conceived to nor does it provide an accurate definition of the absorbed ozone dose or baseline exposure level to protect vegetation. This research presents a multiplicative modeling approach based not only on atmospheric, but on equally important physiological, phenological, and environmental parameters. Physiological constraints on ozone uptake demonstrate that actual absorption is substantially lower than that assumed by a simple interpretation of hourly atmospheric ozone concentrations. Coupled with development of foliar injury expression this provides evidence that tropospheric ozone is more toxic to vegetation than is currently understood.

  6. Intercontinental Transport of Tropical Ozone from Biomass Burning: Views from Satellite and SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, A. M.; Witte, J. C.; Chatfield, R. B.; Guam, H.

    2003-01-01

    There has been interest in the connection between tropical fires and ozone since about 1980. Photochemically reactive gases released by fires (e.g. NO, CO, volatile organic carbon) interact as they do in an urban environment to form ozone. Interacting with chemical sources, tropical meteorology plays a part in tropospheric ozone distributions in the tropics, through large-scale circulation, deep convection, and regional phenomena like the West African and Asian monsoons. An overview of observations, taken from satellite and from ozone soundings, illustrates regional influences and intercontinental- range ozone transport in the tropics. One of the most striking findings is evidence for impacts of Indian Ocean pollution on the south Atlantic ozone maximum referred to as the "ozone paradox" [Thompson et al., GRL, 2000; JGR, 2003; Chatfield et al., GRL, 20031.

  7. Analysis of the seasonal ozone budget and the impact of the summer monsoon on the northeastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Bin; Hou, Xuewei; Kang, Hanqing

    2016-02-01

    Seasonal variations in ozone (O3) and the impact of the East Asian summer monsoon at Mount Waliguan (WLG) in the northeastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (TP) and in the surrounding regions were analyzed for 1997-2007 using a global chemical transport model coupled with O3 tagging simulations. The model-simulated O3 and its precursors agreed well with observed values. An O3 budget analysis combined with O3 tagging results implied that photochemistry over the TP and long-range transport of O3 from East Asia, Europe, and Africa were responsible for the surface O3 summer maximum at WLG. In June, the contribution of O3 from the TP was 11.8 ppbv, and the total contribution of O3 transport from eastern China, Japan, Korean Peninsula, Europe, and Africa was 22.7 ppbv. At 400 mb, the O3 exports from the stratosphere, Europe, Africa, and the Americas seemed to be the main sources of O3 at WLG. The contributions to surface O3 from deep convection process and lightning-induced photochemistry at WLG were both low in summer and are unlikely to be the key processes or contributors for the O3 peak. At several mountain sites in southeast East Asia, the increasing summer monsoon index was related to a decreasing trend for O3 from spring onward at Mount Tai and Mount Huang. At Mount Hua and WLG, regional O3 accumulated over the monsoon's northernmost marginal zone under the influence of the East Asian summer monsoon and TP thermal circulation; this is most likely a key reason for the O3 summer maxima.

  8. Sources of seasonal variability in tropical upper troposphere and lower stratosphere water vapor and ozone: Inferences from the Ticosonde data set at Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoeberl, Mark R.; Selkirk, Henry B.; Vömel, Holger; Douglass, Anne R.

    2015-09-01

    We present an analysis of joint balloonsonde profiles of water vapor and ozone made at Costa Rica from 2005 to 2011 using compositing techniques, tracer-tracer diagrams, and back trajectory methods. Our analysis reveals important seasonal differences in structure in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. Water vapor amounts in boreal winter at Costa Rica are much lower than expected from local ice saturation temperatures. The boreal summer data show both higher average water vapor amounts and a much higher level of variability than the winter data. To understand this seasonal contrast, we consider three sources of tracer variability: wave-induced vertical motion across strong vertical gradients ("wave variability"), differences in source air masses resulting from horizontal transport ("source variability"), and changes induced along parcel paths due to physical processes ("path variability"). The winter and summer seasons show different mixes of these three sources of variability with more air originating in the tropical western Pacific during winter.

  9. An analysis of the impacts of VOCs and NOx on the ozone formation in Guangzhou

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Y.; Deng, X. J.; Wang, B. G.; Li, F.; Tan, H. B.; Deng, T.; Mai, B. R.; Liu, X. T.

    2014-07-01

    In this study, online monitoring instruments were used to monitor ozone, NOx and VOCs at the Guangzhou Panyu Atmospheric Composition Station (GPACS) of the China Meteorological Administration from June 2011 to May 2012, so as to obtain their characteristic seasonal and diurnal variations, as well as the impacts of NOx and VOCs on local ozone formation and Guangzhou ozone control strategies. The results show that during the observation period the seasonal variation of ozone concentration was lower in the spring and winter and higher in the summer and autumn, which is contrary that of NOx and VOCs. At around 09:00 LT in the summer, autumn and winter, both the ozone concentration and NO2/NO ratio begin to increase, and the NO2/NO ratio reached its maximum after a peak of ozone concentration, but this variation was not particularly evident in the spring. Aromatics and alkenes are the largest components for ozone formation potential, among which aromatic toluene, m-xylene, p-xylene and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene are the most important components, with a total contribution of about 31.6% to ozone formation potential. Through the analysis on local ozone control by the VOC/NOX ratio, it was found that when the ozone concentration reached a peak in the summer and autumn in which high concentrations of ozone were prone to occur, ozone generation was NOx limited, thus NOx emissions must be controlled to regulate the occurrence of high-concentration ozone events. In the spring and winter, ozone generation was always VOCs controlled. Due to the relatively low ozone concentration, although NOx emissions could be controlled to increase ozone concentration, high-concentration ozone events would not occur. Therefore, for the control of ozone in Guangzhou, in addition to the control of VOCs emissions, more attention must be paid to reducing NOx emissions, so as to achieve the purpose of controlling high-concentration ozone.

  10. Projecting Future Changes in Seasonal Vegetative Exposure to Ozone in the Western US Using GEOS-Chem Adjoint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapina, K.; Henze, D. K.; Milford, J. B.

    2014-12-01

    Frequent exposure to elevated levels of ozone leads to negative impacts on ecosystems including the loss of ozone-sensitive tree species and agricultural crops in many regions of the United States. Information on emission sources contributing to these losses is crucial for developing a successful strategy to mitigate the negative effects of ozone on vegetation. A cumulative ozone exposure metric, W126, has been considered by the US EPA for use as secondary ozone standard. The rural West of the US has been demonstrated to have an especially great potential for disconnect between attaining primary versus W126-based ozone standards. In this work we separate the relative impact of emissions sources for the W126 in the Western US using forward and adjoint simulations with the global chemical transport model GEOS-Chem. The obtained source contributions are separated by different locations, species, and sectors and are combined with representative concentration pathway (RCP) anthropogenic emission scenarios to project future changes in W126 through 2050. Focusing on the foreign influences we find that the change in Chinese emissions alone is projected to lead to up to 20% increase in the W126 levels in the West and is strongly dependent on the RCP scenario. We further use concentration-response functions based on the W126 index to estimate the loss of four ozone-sensitive species in the West - ponderosa pine, Douglas Fir, red alder and quacking aspen.

  11. Ozone production and transport over the Amazon Basin during the dry-to-wet and wet-to-dry transition seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bela, M. M.; Longo, K. M.; Freitas, S. R.; Moreira, D. S.; Beck, V.; Wofsy, S. C.; Gerbig, C.; Wiedemann, K.; Andreae, M. O.; Artaxo, P.

    2015-01-01

    The Regional Carbon Balance in Amazonia (BARCA) campaign provided the first Amazon Basin-wide aircraft measurements of ozone (O3) during both the dry-to-wet (November and December 2008) and wet-to-dry (May 2009) transition seasons. Extremely low background values (< 20 ppb) were observed to the west and north of Manaus in both seasons and in all regions during the wet-to-dry transition. On the other hand, elevated O3 levels (40-60 ppb) were seen during the dry-to-wet transition to the east and south of Manaus, where biomass burning emissions of O3 precursors were present. Chemistry simulations with the CCATT-BRAMS and WRF-Chem models are within the error bars of the observed O3 profiles in the boundary layer (0-3 km a.s.l.) in polluted conditions. However, the models overestimate O3 in the boundary layer in clean conditions, despite lacking the predominant NO source from soil. In addition, O3 simulated by the models was either within the error bars or lower than BARCA observations in mid-levels (3-5 km a.s.l.), and lower than total tropospheric O3 retrieved from the OMI/MLS instruments, which is primarily comprised of middle troposphere O3 and thus reflects long-range transport processes. Therefore, the models do a relatively poor job of representing the free troposphere-boundary layer gradient in O3 compared with aircraft and satellite observations, which could be due to missing long-range and convective transport of O3 at mid-levels. Additional simulations with WRF-Chem showed that the model O3 production is very sensitive to both the O3 deposition velocities and the NOx emissions, which were both about one-half of observed values. These results indicate the necessity of more realistic model representations of emissions, deposition, and convective processes for accurate monitoring and prediction of increases in O3 production in the Amazon Basin as the regional population grows.

  12. Molecular and Immunological Characterization of Ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) Pollen after Exposure of the Plants to Elevated Ozone over a Whole Growing Season

    PubMed Central

    Kanter, Ulrike; Heller, Werner; Durner, Jörg; Winkler, J. Barbro; Engel, Marion; Behrendt, Heidrun; Holzinger, Andreas; Braun, Paula; Hauser, Michael; Ferreira, Fatima; Mayer, Klaus; Pfeifer, Matthias; Ernst, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    Climate change and air pollution, including ozone is known to affect plants and might also influence the ragweed pollen, known to carry strong allergens. We compared the transcriptome of ragweed pollen produced under ambient and elevated ozone by 454-sequencing. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was carried out for the major ragweed allergen Amb a 1. Pollen surface was examined by scanning electron microscopy and attenuated total reflectance–Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), and phenolics were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Elevated ozone had no influence on the pollen size, shape, surface structure or amount of phenolics. ATR-FTIR indicated increased pectin-like material in the exine. Transcriptomic analyses showed changes in expressed-sequence tags (ESTs), including allergens. However, ELISA indicated no significantly increased amounts of Amb a 1 under elevated ozone concentrations. The data highlight a direct influence of ozone on the exine components and transcript level of allergens. As the total protein amount of Amb a 1 was not altered, a direct correlation to an increased risk to human health could not be derived. Additional, the 454-sequencing contributes to the identification of stress-related transcripts in mature pollen that could be grouped into distinct gene ontology terms. PMID:23637846

  13. Ozone Gardens for the Citizen Scientist

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pippin, Margaret; Reilly, Gay; Rodjom, Abbey; Malick, Emily

    2016-01-01

    NASA Langley partnered with the Virginia Living Museum and two schools to create ozone bio-indicator gardens for citizen scientists of all ages. The garden at the Marshall Learning Center is part of a community vegetable garden designed to teach young children where food comes from and pollution in their area, since most of the children have asthma. The Mt. Carmel garden is located at a K-8 school. Different ozone sensitive and ozone tolerant species are growing and being monitored for leaf injury. In addition, CairClip ozone monitors were placed in the gardens and data are compared to ozone levels at the NASA Langley Chemistry and Physics Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment (CAPABLE) site in Hampton, VA. Leaf observations and plant measurements are made two to three times a week throughout the growing season.

  14. Growth of soybean at future tropospheric ozone concentrations decreases canopy evapotranspiration and soil water depletion.

    PubMed

    Bernacchi, Carl J; Leakey, Andrew D B; Kimball, Bruce A; Ort, Donald R

    2011-06-01

    Tropospheric ozone is increasing in many agricultural regions resulting in decreased stomatal conductance and overall biomass of sensitive crop species. These physiological effects of ozone forecast changes in evapotranspiration and thus in the terrestrial hydrological cycle, particularly in intercontinental interiors. Soybean plots were fumigated with ozone to achieve concentrations above ambient levels over five growing seasons in open-air field conditions. Mean season increases in ozone concentrations ([O₃]) varied between growing seasons from 22 to 37% above background concentrations. The objective of this experiment was to examine the effects of future [O₃] on crop ecosystem energy fluxes and water use. Elevated [O₃] caused decreases in canopy evapotranspiration resulting in decreased water use by as much as 15% in high ozone years and decreased soil water removal. In addition, ozone treatment resulted in increased sensible heat flux in all years indicative of day-time increase in canopy temperature of up to 0.7 °C.

  15. Polar ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, S.; Grose, W. L.; Jones, R. L.; Mccormick, M. P.; Molina, Mario J.; Oneill, A.; Poole, L. R.; Shine, K. P.; Plumb, R. A.; Pope, V.

    1990-01-01

    The observation and interpretation of a large, unexpected ozone depletion over Antarctica has changed the international scientific view of stratospheric chemistry. The observations which show the veracity, seasonal nature, and vertical structure of the Antarctic ozone hole are presented. Evidence for Arctic and midlatitude ozone loss is also discussed. The chemical theory for Antarctic ozone depletion centers around the occurrence of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) in Antarctic winter and spring; the climatology and radiative properties of these clouds are presented. Lab studies of the physical properties of PSCs and the chemical processes that subsequently influence ozone depletion are discussed. Observations and interpretation of the chemical composition of the Antarctic stratosphere are described. It is shown that the observed, greatly enhanced abundances of chlorine monoxide in the lower stratosphere are sufficient to explain much if not all of the ozone decrease. The dynamic meteorology of both polar regions is given, interannual and interhemispheric variations in dynamical processes are outlined, and their likely roles in ozone loss are discussed.

  16. Tropospheric Vertical Distribution of Tropical Atlantic Ozone Observed by TES during the Northern African Biomass Burning Season

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jourdain, L.; Worden, H. M.; Worden, J. R.; Bowman, K.; Li, Q.; Eldering, A.; Kulawik, S. S.; Osterman, G.; Boersma, K. F.; Fisher, B.; Rinsland, C. P.; Beer, R.; Gunson, M.

    2007-01-01

    We present vertical distributions of ozone from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) over the tropical Atlantic Ocean during January 2005. Between 10N and 20S, TES ozone retrievals have Degrees of Freedom for signal (DOF) around 0.7 - 0.8 each for tropospheric altitudes above and below 500 hPa. As a result, TES is able to capture for the first time from space a distribution characterized by two maxima: one in the lower troposphere north of the ITCZ and one in the middle and upper troposphere south of the ITCZ. We focus our analysis on the north tropical Atlantic Ocean, where most of previous satellite observations showed discrepancies with in-situ ozone observations and models. Trajectory analyses and a sensitivity study using the GEOS-Chem model confirm the influence of northern Africa biomass burning on the elevated ozone mixing ratios observed by TES over this region.

  17. Multi-year objective analyses of warm season ground-level ozone and PM2.5 over North America using real-time observations and Canadian operational air quality models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robichaud, A.; Ménard, R.

    2013-05-01

    We present multi-year objective analyses (OA) on a high spatio-temporal resolution (15 or 21 km, every hour) for the warm season period (1 May-31 October) for ground-level ozone (2002-2012) and for fine particulate matter (diameter less than 2.5 microns (PM2.5)) (2004-2012). The OA used here combines the Canadian Air Quality forecast suite with US and Canadian surface air quality monitoring sites. The analysis is based on an optimal interpolation with capabilities for adaptive error statistics for ozone and PM2.5 and an explicit bias correction scheme for the PM2.5 analyses. The estimation of error statistics has been computed using a modified version of the Hollingsworth-Lönnberg's (H-L) method. Various quality controls (gross error check, sudden jump test and background check) have been applied to the observations to remove outliers. An additional quality control is applied to check the consistency of the error statistics estimation model at each observing station and for each hour. The error statistics are further tuned "on the fly" using a χ2 (chi-square) diagnostic, a procedure which verifies significantly better than without tuning. Successful cross-validation experiments were performed with an OA set-up using 90% of observations to build the objective analysis and with the remainder left out as an independent set of data for verification purposes. Furthermore, comparisons with other external sources of information (global models and PM2.5 satellite surface derived measurements) show reasonable agreement. The multi-year analyses obtained provide relatively high precision with an absolute yearly averaged systematic error of less than 0.6 ppbv (parts per billion by volume) and 0.7 μg m-3 (micrograms per cubic meter) for ozone and PM2.5 respectively and a random error generally less than 9 ppbv for ozone and under 12 μg m-3 for PM2.5. In this paper, we focus on two applications: (1) presenting long term averages of objective analysis and analysis increments

  18. Intercontinental Transport of Tropical Ozone from Biomass Burning: Views from Satellite and SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes) Soundings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.

    2003-01-01

    The atmospheric impacts of tropical fires came to attention in the 1970's and there has been interest in the connection between these fires and ozone since about 1980. Photochemically reactive gases released by fires (e.g. NO, CO, volatile organic carbon) interact as they do in an urban environment to form ozone. Tropical meteorology also plays a part in tropospheric ozone distributions in the tropics - through large-scale circulation, deep convection, regional phenomena (West African and Asian monsoon) - and variations associated with El-Nino and the Quasi- biennial Oscillation have been reported. This Poster is an overview of observations, taken from satellite and from ozone soundings, that illustrate regional influences and intercontinental-range ozone transport in the tropics.

  19. Climatic Zones, Soil Moisture Seasonality and Biomass Burning and Their Influence On Ozone Precursor Concentrations Over West Africa as Retrieved from Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onojeghuo, A. R.; Balzter, H.; Monks, P. S.

    2015-12-01

    West Africa is a region with six different climatic zones including a rich savannah affected by biomass burning annually, the Niger delta oil producing region with major gas flaring sites and a long coastline. Research on atmospheric pollution using remotely sensed data over West Africa has mostly been conducted at regional scale or for individual countries, with little emphasis on the dynamics of climatic zones and the diversity of land cover types. This study analyses annual seasonal dynamics of emissions of two ozone precursors stratified by climatic zone: nitrogen dioxide (NO2) from OMI and carbon monoxide (CO) from TES. The different sources of these pollutants and their seasonality are explicitly considered. Results indicate that the highest annual wet season NO2 column concentrations were in the semi-arid zone (1.33 x 1015 molecules cm-2) after prolonged periods of low soil moisture while the highest dry season were observed in the wet sub-humid zone (2.62 x 1015 molecules cm-2) where the savannah fires occur annually. The highest annual CO concentrations (> 3.1 x 1018 molecules cm-2) were from the Niger Delta, located in the humid zone. There were indications of atmospheric transport of CO from the southern hemisphere in the west season. Climate change induced soil moisture variability was most prominent in the dry sub-humid and semi-arid climatic zones (±0.015m3m-3) . The causal effects of soil moisture variability on NO2 emissions and their seasonal cycles were tested using the Granger causality test. Causal effects of inter-zonal exchanges/transport of NO2 and CO emissions respectively were inferred using Directed Acyclic Graphs. The results indicate that NO2, CO and their seasonal ratios are strongly affected by changes in soil moisture.

  20. Tropospheric ozone pool over Arabian sea during pre-monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Jia; Ladstätter-Weißenmayer, Annette; Hou, Xuewei; Rozanov, Alexei; Burrows, John

    2016-04-01

    This study focuses on the remarkable and stable phenomenon-enhancement of the tropospheric ozone over Arabian Sea (AS) during the pre-monsoon season. Satellite data (SCIAMACHY LNM, OMI/MLS and TES) showed a strong and clear ozone seasonality over AS with ~42 DU maxima in pre-monsoon season. With the help of MACC reanalysis data, our results showed that 3/4 of the enhanced ozone during this season is contributed at 0-8 km height. The main source of the ozone enhancement is believed to be a long range transport, together with a suitable meteorological condition for pollution accumulation. Local chemistry plays different roles over different altitudes. However we believe the contribution to the tropospheric ozone enhancement from the chemistry is low. The contribution of the STE is unclear. In addition, the interannual variation of the pre-monsoon tropospheric ozone enhancement over AS is discussed. The anomalies in 2005 and 2010 could be due to the dynamical variation of ozone caused by the El Niño events.

  1. SEASONAL CHANGES IN ROOT AND SOIL RESPIRATION OF OZONE-EXPOSED PONDEROSA PINE (PINUS PONDEROSA) GROWN IN DIFFERENT SUBSTRATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to(ozone 0-3)has been shown to decrease the allocation of carbon to tree roots. Decreased allocation of carbon to roots might disrupt root metabolism and rhizosphere organisms. The effects of soil type and shoot 0, exposure on below-ground respiration and soil microbial ...

  2. Lidar-derived Correlations Between Lower-tropospheric Column and Surface Ozone: Implications for Satellite Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senff, C. J.; Langford, A. O.; Alvarez, R. J. _II, II; Kirgis, G.; Choukulkar, A.; Brewer, A.; Banta, R. M.; Weickmann, A. M.; Sandberg, S.; Olson, E.

    2015-12-01

    One of the data products that will be provided by the TEMPO satellite mission is 0-2 km ozone column concentration. To make inferences about surface air quality from this data product, the relationship between lower-tropospheric column and surface ozone concentrations and their diurnal, seasonal, and spatial variations have to be well understood. To characterize these relationships, we have used ozone profile observations obtained with NOAA's truck-based, scanning TOPAZ ozone lidar from several recent field campaigns including Discover-AQ Houston and Colorado, the Uintah Basin Wintertime Ozone Study (UBWOS), and the Las Vegas Ozone Study (LVOS). The TOPAZ lidar is ideally suited for this kind of study because it provides ozone profiles from about 15 m above ground level (AGL) up to 3 km AGL at high spatial and temporal resolution. We have used the lidar observations closest to the ground as a proxy for surface ozone and compared them to the 0-2 km AGL average column ozone concentrations measured with the lidar. Results from the Discover-AQ Colorado campaign show that in the afternoon, when the boundary layer (BL) was deep and well mixed, ozone column and surface concentrations agreed quite well. However, during the morning hours, ozone column concentrations were significantly higher than those at the surface, because ozone was depleted in a shallow surface layer due to titration and deposition, whereas ozone levels in the residual layer aloft remained moderately high. The analysis of column and surface ozone correlations using ozone lidar observations from the Discover-AQ Houston, UBWOS and LVOS campaigns is currently underway. The results from these studies will provide additional insights into the relationship between column and surface ozone, in particular their variation as a function of measurement location and season, and their dependence on BL processes such as mixed layer height evolution, land-sea breeze circulation, and terrain-induced flows.

  3. Role of long-range transport and local meteorology in seasonal variation of surface ozone and its precursors at an urban site in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Ravi; Sahu, L. K.; Beig, G.; Jaaffrey, S. N. A.

    2016-07-01

    This study is based on the continuous measurements of ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) at a semi-arid urban site in Udaipur, India during the years 2011-2012. The mixing ratios of trace gases show strong and weak diurnal variations during the winter and monsoon seasons, respectively. The temporal changes in local emission and PBL depth play an important role in the diurnal variation of trace gases. The daily means of O3, CO and NOx were in the ranges of 5-53 ppbv, 121-842 ppbv and 3-29 ppbv, respectively. The mixing ratios of trace gases were highest and lowest during the winter/pre-monsoon and monsoon seasons, respectively. In the winter season, the lowest of O3 during night-morning hours was caused by the efficient loss due to titration and deposition compared to other seasons. During the winter to the pre-monsoon period, higher levels of trace gases were due to regional biomass burning and long-range transport of continental pollutants. However, strong convection, rainfall and transport of oceanic air resulted in the lowest concentrations of trace gases during the monsoon season. The O3min values tend to increase slightly with increasing values of Tmin while COmax and NOxmax decrease rapidly with increasing values of Tmin. The levels of CO and NOx decreased with increasing wind speed, while O3 tends to increase with wind speed. The rates of change of O3 (dO3/dt) were about 3.7 ppbv h- 1 and - 4.5 ppbv h- 1 during the morning and evening hours, respectively. Exceptionally high levels of trace gases during the Diwali (festival) period were due to extensive use of firecrackers from evening till morning hours. The enhancements of O3, CO and NOx compared to normal days were about 61%, 62% and 23%, respectively.

  4. Tropopause Ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prather, M.; Zhu, X.; Hsu, J.; Neu, J.; Tang, Q.

    2009-04-01

    The tropopause, however defined, is meant to describe the boundary between the well mixed troposphere and the stably stratified stratosphere. Ozone abundances in the vicinity of the tropopause exhibit large variations with latitude and season, being controlled by a combination of large-scale transport like the Brewer-Dobson circulation, small-scale turbulent mixing unresolved by global models, and photochemistry. A clear, instantaneous, 3-D definition of the tropopause is needed for diagnostics that separate stratosphere from troposphere, e.g., strat-trop exchange fluxes. In the UCI CTM, we define the stratosphere-troposphere boundary with what is effectively an age-of-air tracer: a tracer emitted uniformly from the surface with a uniform e-fold of 90 days (designated e90). Where the abundance of e90 falls below about 70% of the mass-median value (i.e., 33 days-old), we define as the stratosphere. With this diagnostic of the mixing barrier between stratosphere and troposphere the CTM with EC IFS forecast meteorology is able to match much of the observed seasonal cycle of the tropopause pressure and ozone abundance. With the CTM we examine the importance of chemistry vs. transport in controlling tropopause ozone. For example, we note that photolysis of molecular oxygen in the upper troposphere contributes significantly to tropopause ozone in the tropics and sub-tropics.

  5. Aerosol and ozone observations during six cruise campaigns across the Mediterranean basin: temporal, spatial, and seasonal variability.

    PubMed

    Bencardino, Mariantonia M; Pirrone, Nicola N; Sprovieri, Francesca F

    2014-03-01

    The Mediterranean basin, because of its semi-enclosed configuration, is one of the areas heavily affected by air pollutants. Despite implications on both human health and radiative budget involving an increasing interest, monitoring databases measuring air pollution directly over this area are yet relatively limited. Owing to this context, concentrations of fine (PM2.5) and coarse (PM2.5-10) particles along with other ancillary data, such as ozone levels and meteorological parameters, were measured during six cruise campaigns covering almost the whole Mediterranean basin. Elemental composition of both PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 was also determined to identify specific tracers for different classes of particles that can be found in the Mediterranean atmosphere. Outcomes resulting from the integration of a preliminary qualitative examination with a more quantitative analysis, based on receptor modelling, suggested that European continental influence, Saharan dust outbreaks, wildfire events, sea spray and fossil fuel combustion were the leading causes of the aerosol-ozone variations within the Mediterranean basin. Shipping emissions, consisting in both local harbours and maritime traffic across the basin, were also tested using the marker ratio of V/Ni. Peak values observed for coarse fraction have shown to be driven by the occurrence of African dust events. Considering the major influence of Continental pollution and wildfire events, the spatial variability resulted in larger fine particle concentrations and higher ozone levels over the Eastern Mediterranean side in comparison to the Western one.

  6. Climate Impacts on Tropospheric Ozone and Hydroxyl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shindell, Drew T.; Bell, N.; Faluvegi, G.

    2003-01-01

    Climate change may influence tropospheric ozone and OH via several main pathways: (1) altering chemistry via temperature and humidity changes, (2) changing ozone and precursor sources via surface emissions, stratosphere-troposphere exchange, and light- ning, and (3) affecting trace gas sinks via the hydrological cycle and dry deposition. We report results from a set of coupled chemistry-climate model simulations designed to systematically study these effects. We compare the various effects with one another and with past and projected future changes in anthropogenic and natural emissions of ozone precursors. We find that white the overall impact of climate on ozone is probably small compared to emission changes, some significant seasonal and regional effects are apparent. The global effect on hydroxyl is quite large, however, similar in size to the effect of emission changes. Additionally, we show that many of the chemistry-climate links that are not yet adequately modeled are potentially important.

  7. Ozone and the stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimazaki, Tatsuo

    1987-01-01

    It is shown that the stratospheric ozone is effective in absorbing almost all radiation below 300 nm at heights below 300 km. The distribution of global ozone in the troposphere and the lower stratosphere, and the latitudinal variations of the total ozone column over four seasons are considered. The theory of the ozone layer production is discussed together with catalytic reactions for ozone loss and the mechanisms of ozone transport. Special attention is given to the anthropogenic perturbations, such as SST exhaust gases and freon gas from aerosol cans and refrigerators, that may cause an extensive destruction of the stratospheric ozone layer and thus have a profound impact on the world climate and on life.

  8. Seasonal behavior and long-term trends of tropospheric ozone, its precursors and chemical conditions over Iran: A view from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Yunsoo; Souri, Amir Hossein

    2015-04-01

    To identify spatial and temporal variations over the Iranian region, this study analyzed tropospheric formaldehyde (HCHO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) columns from Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), carbon monoxide (CO) columns from the Measurement of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT), and tropospheric column O3 (TCO) from OMI/MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder) satellites from 2005 to 2012. The study discovered high levels of HCHO (∼12 × 1015 molec./cm2) from plant isoprene emissions in the air above parts of the northern forest of Iran during the summer and from the oxidation of HCHO precursors emitted from petrochemical industrial facilities and biomass burning in South West Iran. This study showed that maximum NO2 levels (∼18 × 1015 molec./cm2) were concentrated in urban cities, indicating the predominance of anthropogenic sources. The results indicate that maximum concentrations were found in the winter, mainly because of weaker local winds and higher heating fuel consumption, in addition to lower hydroxyl radicals (OH). The high CO concentrations (∼2 × 1018 molec./cm2) in the early spring were inferred to mainly originate from a strong continental air mass from anthropogenic CO "hotspots" including regions around Caspian Sea, Europe, and North America, although the external sources of CO were partly suppressed by the Arabian anticyclone and topographic barriers. Variations in the TCO were seen to peak during the summer (∼40 DU), due to intensive solar radiation and stratospheric sources. This study also examined long-term trends in TCO and its precursors over a period of eight years in five urban cities in Iran. To perform the analysis, we estimated seasonal changes and inter-seasonal variations using least-squares harmonic estimation (LS-HE), which reduced uncertainty in the trend by 5-15%. The results showed significant increases in the levels of HCHO (∼0.08 ± 0.06 × 1015 molec./cm2 yr-1), NO2 (∼0.08 ± 0.02 × 1015 molec./cm2 yr-1), and peak

  9. Impact of ozone on the growth of birch (Betula pendula) saplings.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, P E; Uddling, J; Skärby, L; Wallin, G; Selldén, G

    2003-01-01

    Saplings of one half-sib family of birch, Betula pendula, were exposed to three levels of ozone in open-top chambers (OTCs) during two growing seasons 1997-1998. The ozone treatments were non-filtered air (NF, accumulated daylight AOT40 over the two growing seasons of 3.0 l l-1 h), non-filtered air with extra ozone (NF+, accumulated daylight AOT40 of 27.3 l l-1 h) and non-filtered air with additional extra ozone (NF++, accumulated daylight AOT40 of 120 l l-1 h). The birch saplings, including the roots, were harvested after the first and second growing seasons. After the first growing season, the NF++ treatment reduced the total wood biomass by 22%, relative to the NF treatment. There was no further reduction of the total wood biomass in the NF++ treatment after the second growing season. The root biomass was reduced by 30% after the first growing season. The shoot/root ratio, as well as the proportional biomass of leaves, were increased by ozone during both years. The ozone impact on the relative growth rate was estimated to -2% per 10 l l-1 h daylight AOT40 per growing season.

  10. Surface layer ozone and nitric oxides in the Arctic: The inuence of boundary layer dynamics, snowpack chemistry, surface exchanges, and seasonality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Dam, Brie A.

    The snowpack is a region of active chemistry. Aqueous chemistry in a quasi-liquid layer on snow grains and gas-phase chemical reactions in snow interstitial air can lead to the production or destruction of important trace gases. Physical transport parameters such as wind pumping and diffusion affect the vertical distribution of gases within the snowpack. The resulting emission or uptake of trace gases at the atmosphere-snowpack interface can have significant in uence on the chemistry of the lower atmosphere. In this work the dynamic interactions between the snowpack and atmosphere are examined from multiple perspectives. The primary focus is on ozone (O3) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) in the Arctic, a region undergoing widespread environmental change. To investigate an ice-sheet location with year round snow cover, data from a two-year campaign at Summit, Greenland are implemented. At Summit this study examines (1) the processes contributing to vigorous chemistry in snow interstitial air, and (2) the role of the boundary layer over snow in determining surface layer NOx. Physical and chemical processes are shown to contribute to distinct seasonal and diurnal cycles of O3, NO, and NO2 in the snowpack. Boundary layer depths estimated from sonic anemometer turbulence quantities are used alongside sodar-derived values to show that the depth of the stable to weakly stable boundary layer at Summit was not a primary factor in determining NO x in early summer. Motivated by observations of an increase in the length of the snow-free season in the Arctic in recent decades, data from a one-year experiment at the seasonally-snow covered location of Toolik Lake, AK are also incorporated. This study shows the first observations of springtime ozone depletion events at a location over 200 km from the coast in the Arctic. FLEXPART analysis is used to illustrate that these inland events are linked to transport conditions. Lastly at this location, eddy-covariance O3 uxes were calculated to

  11. Use of bioindicators and passive sampling devices to evaluate ambient ozone concentrations in north central Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Yuska, D E; Skelly, J M; Ferdinand, J A; Stevenson, R E; Savage, J E; Mulik, J D; Hines, A

    2003-01-01

    Ambient concentrations of tropospheric ozone and ozone-induced injury to black cherry (Prunus serotina) and common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca) were determined in north central Pennsylvania from 29 May to 5 September 2000 and from 28 May to 18 September 2001. Ogawa passive ozone samplers were utilized within openings at 15 forested sites of which six were co-located with TECO model 49 continuous ozone monitors. A significant positive correlation was observed between the Ogawa passive samplers and the TECO model 49 continuous ozone monitors for the 2000 (r=0.959) and 2001 (r=0.979) seasons. In addition, a significant positive correlation existed in 2000 and 2001 between ozone concentration and elevation (r=0.720) and (r=0.802), respectively. Classic ozone-induced symptoms were observed on black cherry and common milkweed. In 2000, initial injury was observed in early June, whereas for the 2001 season, initial injury was initially observed in late June. During both seasons, injury was noted at most sites by mid- to late-July. Soil moisture potential was measured for the 2001 season and a significant positive relationship (P<0.001) showed that injury to black cherry was a function of cumulative ozone concentrations and available soil moisture.

  12. Ozone hits low levels over Antarctica, U. S

    SciTech Connect

    Zurer, P.

    1993-10-04

    This year's Antarctic ozone hole is as deep as any ever observed and is approaching the record geographical extent of 1992, according to preliminary satellite data. In addition, both groundbased and satellite observations indicate that ozone concentrations over the U.S. hit record lows earlier this year. For more than a decade, almost all the ozone at certain altitudes over Antarctica has been destroyed as the Sun returns to the polar region in September. This dramatic photochemical depletion, catalyzed by chlorine and bromine from man-made compounds, reaches its nadir in early October. Ozone levels return to near normal later in the season, when the circular pattern of winds that isolates air over Antarctica breaks down, and ozone-rich air pours in from the north.

  13. Ozone depletion in the Austral spring from UV microsatellite instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez-Saldivar, J. A.; Underwood, C. I.; Mackin, S.

    2007-10-01

    The Ozone Mapping Detector (OMAD) on board FASat-Bravo micro-satellite observed backscattered UV radiation to retrieve atmospheric ozone with low-spatial-resolution (150 x 150 km). This relatively coarse resolution with continuous global coverage allowed the observation of the seasonal ozone layer depletion over Antarctica in the austral spring in 1998. Previous analysis of this instrument have shown agreement in the radiances observed by OMAD and NASA's Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS-EP); these have even indicated the detection of an apparently higher ozone content anomaly due to a volcanic cloud of Nyamuragira volcano during its eruption in October 1998 [1]. A new improved version of the simplified algorithm used in OMAD data has been applied to the austral region to determine the total Ozone content. The new data processing allowed the observation of the development of the ozone depletion in 1998 from September to early December when ozone depletion normally occurs. The OMAD results showed good agreement overall when compared with those obtained from TOMS-EP despite their intrinsic instrumental differences. Results indicate Ozone contents lower than 150 Dobson Units (DU) in the Antarctic region with absolute errors less than 10 % in the vertical column content and high cross-correlations when compared with TOMS-EP. The value of this low-cost earth observation approach is discussed on the potential of such missions to provide additional atmospheric observations of large-scale phenomena.

  14. Stratospheric Ozone: Transport, Photochemical Production and Loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglass, A. R.; Kawa, S. R.; Jackman, C. H.

    2003-01-01

    Observations from various satellite instruments (e.g., Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS), Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE), Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS)) specify the latitude and seasonal variations of total ozone and ozone as a function of altitude. These seasonal variations change with latitude and altitude partly due to seasonal variation in transport and temperature, partly due to differences in the balance between photochemical production and loss processes, and partly due to differences in the relative importance of the various ozone loss processes. Comparisons of modeled seasonal ozone behavior with observations test the following: the seasonal dependence of dynamical processes where these dominate the ozone tendency; the seasonal dependence of photochemical processes in the upper stratosphere; and the seasonal change in the balance between photochemical and dynamical processes.

  15. Tropospheric Ozone Over a Tropical Atlantic Station in the Northern Hemisphere: Paramaribo, Surinam (6 deg N, 55 deg W)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, W.; Krol, M. C.; Fortuin, J. P. F.; Kelder, H. M.; Thompson, A. M.; Becker, C. R.; Lelieveld, J.; Crutzen, P. J.

    2003-01-01

    We present an analysis of 2.5 years of weekly ozone soundings conducted at a new monitoring station in Paramaribo, Surinam (6 deg N,55 deg W). This is currently one of only three ozone sounding stations in the northern hemisphere (NH) tropics, and the only one in the equatorial Atlantic region. Paramaribo is part of the Southern Hemisphere ADditional Ozone Sounding program (SHADOZ). Due to its position close to the equator, the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) passes over Paramaribo twice per year, which results in a semi-annual seasonality of many parameters including relative humidity and ozone. The dataset from Paramaribo is used to: (1) evaluate ozone variability relative to precipitation, atmospheric circulation patterns and biomass burning; (2) contrast ozone at the NH equatorial Atlantic with that at nearby southern hemisphere (SH) stations Natal (6 deg S,35 deg W) and Ascension (8 deg S,14 deg W); (3) compare the seasonality of tropospheric ozone with a satellite-derived ozone product: Tropical Tropospheric Ozone Columns from the Modified Residual method (MR-TTOC). We find that Paramaribo is a distinctly Atlantic station. Despite its position north of the equator, it resembles nearby SH stations during most of the year. Transport patterns in the lower and middle troposphere during February and March differ from SH stations, which leads to a seasonality of ozone with two maxima. MR-TTOC over Paramaribo does not match the observed seasonality of ozone due to the use of a SH ozone sonde climatology in the MR method. The Paramaribo ozone record is used to suggest an improvement for northern hemisphere MR-TTOC retrievals. We conclude that station Paramaribo shows unique features in the region, and clearly adds new information to the existing SHADOZ record.

  16. Effects of stratospheric ozone recovery on photochemistry and ozone air quality in the troposphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H.; Wu, S.; Huang, Y.; Wang, Y.

    2014-04-01

    There has been significant stratospheric ozone depletion since the late 1970s due to ozone-depleting substances (ODSs). With the implementation of the Montreal Protocol and its amendments and adjustments, stratospheric ozone is expected to recover towards its pre-1980 level in the coming decades. In this study, we examine the implications of stratospheric ozone recovery for the tropospheric chemistry and ozone air quality with a global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem). With a full recovery of the stratospheric ozone, the projected increases in ozone column range from 1% over the low latitudes to more than 10% over the polar regions. The sensitivity factor of troposphere ozone photolysis rate, defined as the percentage changes in surface ozone photolysis rate for 1% increase in stratospheric ozone column, shows significant seasonal variation but is always negative with absolute value larger than one. The expected stratospheric ozone recovery is found to affect the tropospheric ozone destruction rates much more than the ozone production rates. Significant decreases in surface ozone photolysis rates due to stratospheric ozone recovery are simulated. The global average tropospheric OH decreases by 1.7%, and the global average lifetime of tropospheric ozone increases by 1.5%. The perturbations to tropospheric ozone and surface ozone show large seasonal and spatial variations. General increases in surface ozone are calculated for each season, with increases by up to 0.8 ppbv in the remote areas. Increases in ozone lifetime by up to 13% are found in the troposphere. The increased lifetimes of tropospheric ozone in response to stratospheric ozone recovery enhance the intercontinental transport of ozone and global pollution, in particular for the summertime. The global background ozone attributable to Asian emissions is calculated to increase by up to 15% or 0.3 ppbv in the Northern Hemisphere in response to the projected stratospheric ozone recovery.

  17. RAPD analysis of salt-tolerant yeasts from contaminated seasoned pickled plums and their growth inhibition using food additives.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Shingen; Fukuda, Seiko; Fujita, Tokio; Kishimoto, Noriaki

    2008-12-01

    Eight salt-tolerant yeasts were isolated from contaminated pickled plums which were seasoned with honey and "Umami" seasoning. They were classified into four main groups according to random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis, and three of ten kinds of food additives tested inhibited their growth. The type strains of each group were identified as Zygosaccharomyces bisporus, Pichia subpeliculosa, and two strains of Candida apicola based on the D1/D2 region sequence of the 26S rRNA gene. They were able to grow in medium containing 6% (w/v) NaCI. A number of yeasts were isolated from production lines by the swab method, but not from the salted plums used as raw materials. These results show that the production lines require washing with antimicrobial agents effective against salt-tolerant yeasts. Three commercial food additives, San-keeper 381, Sunsoft No.700P-2, and potassium sorbate inhibited the growth of Z. bisporus at 125 to 250 microg/ml. In particular, San-keeper 381 altered the morphology of this species at 125 microg/ml. C. apicola and P. subpelliculosa were inhibited by Sunsoft No.700P-2 and potassium sorbate at 250 microg/ml. These results indicate that the washing of production lines with disinfectant and the use of food additives that effectively prevent salt-tolerant yeast contamination are necessary.

  18. Late season pharmaceutical fate in wetland mesocosms with and without phosphorous addition.

    PubMed

    Cardinal, Pascal; Anderson, Julie C; Carlson, Jules C; Low, Jennifer E; Challis, Jonathan K; Wong, Charles S; Hanson, Mark L

    2016-11-01

    The fate of six human-use drugs was assessed and predicted in mesocosms designed to mimic shallow constructed wetlands during the onset of fall and senescence. Mesocosms were monitored for 28 days after the addition of carbamazepine, clofibric acid, fluoxetine and naproxen (nominal initial concentrations of 5 μg/L each), sulfamethoxazole, and sulfapyridine (nominal initial concentrations of 150 μg/L each), with and without phosphorous (P) addition at 1.6 mg/L. We hypothesized that addition of P would stimulate primary productivity and enhance removal of pharmaceuticals from the water column. Carbamazepine, clofibric acid, fluoxetine, and naproxen had half-lives of 8.7, 11, 1.5, and 2.5, and 8.6, 11.0, 1.4, and 2.5 days in treatments with and without P amendment, respectively. Sulfamethoxazole and sulfapyridine had half-lives of 17 and 4.9 days in mesocosms with P amendment and 17 and 4.7 days without amendment. A concurrent pulse of P with pharmaceuticals did not significantly enhance the removal of these compounds. Predicted half-lives from modeling efforts were consistent with observed values, with photolysis the greatest contributor to chemical attenuation.

  19. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  20. Total ozone seasonal and interannual variations in the principal air masses of the Northern Hemisphere in 1975-1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karol, Igor L.; Klyagina, L. P.; Shalamyansky, A. M.; Jagovkina, S. V.

    1994-01-01

    The diurnally mean total ozone X from the Northern Hemisphere ground based 90 stations for 1975-1990 are averaged over the Arctic (bar X (sub A)) Intermediate (bar X (sub I)) and Tropical (bar X (sub T)) air mass areas, divided by the jet stream axes on the isobaric surfaces 300 and 200 mb. The mean square variations of the so averaged X are considerably smaller than of the X, averaged over the corresponding zonal belts. This property allows one to improve considerably the statistical significance of X trends and changes over various time periods, taking into account the time correlation of data for adjacent time intervals. Bar X (sub A), bar X (sub I), and bar X (sub T) trends are estimated over the periods of solar activity rise and fall in its 21st and rise in its 22nd 11 year cycles and over the periods of west and east phases of the known over the periods of west and east phases of the known quasibiennial oscillation (QBO). Solar activity variations affect mostly bar X (sub T), bar X (sub I) trends in summer months, while QBO phases influence the X changes mostly during the cold half year. X are lower in the west QBO phase and their trend is negative during almost all periods considered. The anthropogenic effects on the X is also estimated.

  1. A Reduced Form Model for Ozone Based on Two Decades of ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A Reduced Form Model (RFM) is a mathematical relationship between the inputs and outputs of an air quality model, permitting estimation of additional modeling without costly new regional-scale simulations. A 21-year Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) simulation for the continental United States provided the basis for the RFM developed in this study. Predictors included the principal component scores (PCS) of emissions and meteorological variables, while the predictand was the monthly mean of daily maximum 8-hour CMAQ ozone for the ozone season at each model grid. The PCS form an orthogonal basis for RFM inputs. A few PCS incorporate most of the variability of emissions and meteorology, thereby reducing the dimensionality of the source-receptor problem. Stochastic kriging was used to estimate the model. The RFM was used to separate the effects of emissions and meteorology on ozone concentrations. by running the RFM with emissions constant (ozone dependent on meteorology), or constant meteorology (ozone dependent on emissions). Years with ozone-conducive meteorology were identified, and meteorological variables best explaining meteorology-dependent ozone were identified. Meteorology accounted for 19% to 55% of ozone variability in the eastern US, and 39% to 92% in the western US. Temporal trends estimated for original CMAQ ozone data and emission-dependent ozone were mostly negative, but the confidence intervals for emission-dependent ozone are much

  2. Simulated Sensitivity of Seasonal Ozone Exposure in the Great Lakes Region to Changes in Anthropogenic Emissions in the Presence of Interannual Variability

    SciTech Connect

    Fast, Jerome D.; Heilman, Warren E.

    2005-09-01

    A coupled meteorological and chemical modeling system with a 12-km horizontal grid spacing was used to simulate the evolution of ozone over the Great Lakes region between May and September of 1999 and 2001. Model performance was evaluated using operational surface and upper-air meteorological measurements and surface ozone data. The overall temporal and spatial variations in hourly ozone concentrations and ozone exposure from control simulations agreed reasonably well with the observations at most locations. The simulated ozone exposure was higher during the summer of 1999 than during 2001, similar to the observations. The emission projection simulation that employed the meteorological conditions of 1999 and increased anthropogenic emissions projected for the year 2020 produced increases in ozone exceeding 80 ppb over the lower peninsula of Michigan, the eastern half of the upper peninsula of Michigan, and over Ontario just north of Lake Superior and Lake Huron. Relatively large increases in ozone exceeding 60 ppb were also produced over agricultural regions. Despite the projected increase in anthropogenic emissions for the year 2020, increases in ozone exceeding 60 ppb occurred only over the lake surfaces and in central Michigan when the meteorological conditions of the summer of 2001 were applied. The meteorological conditions during the summer of 2001 were not as favorable for ozone production and did not result in increased ozone. For both summers, increases in anthropogenic emissions projected for the year 2020 decreased ozone exposure in the immediate vicinity of the largest metropolitan areas. The simulated ozone from this study will be used in the near future as input to biological models to assess the response of ozone-sensitive tree species to current and future ozone levels in the Great Lakes region.

  3. The effect of representing bromine from VSLS on the simulation and evolution of Antarctic ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oman, Luke D.; Douglass, Anne R.; Salawitch, Ross J.; Canty, Timothy P.; Ziemke, Jerald R.; Manyin, Michael

    2016-09-01

    We use the Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry-Climate Model, a contributor to both the 2010 and 2014 World Meteorological Organization Ozone Assessment Reports, to show that inclusion of 5 parts per trillion (ppt) of stratospheric bromine (Bry) from very short lived substances (VSLS) is responsible for about a decade delay in ozone hole recovery. These results partially explain the significantly later recovery of Antarctic ozone noted in the 2014 report, as bromine from VSLS was not included in the 2010 Assessment. We show multiple lines of evidence that simulations that account for VSLS Bry are in better agreement with both total column BrO and the seasonal evolution of Antarctic ozone reported by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument on NASA's Aura satellite. In addition, the near-zero ozone levels observed in the deep Antarctic lower stratospheric polar vortex are only reproduced in a simulation that includes this Bry source from VSLS.

  4. Seasonality, Rather than Nutrient Addition or Vegetation Types, Influenced Short-Term Temperature Sensitivity of Soil Organic Carbon Decomposition.

    PubMed

    Qian, Yu-Qi; He, Feng-Peng; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The response of microbial respiration from soil organic carbon (SOC) decomposition to environmental changes plays a key role in predicting future trends of atmospheric CO2 concentration. However, it remains uncertain whether there is a universal trend in the response of microbial respiration to increased temperature and nutrient addition among different vegetation types. In this study, soils were sampled in spring, summer, autumn and winter from five dominant vegetation types, including pine, larch and birch forest, shrubland, and grassland, in the Saihanba area of northern China. Soil samples from each season were incubated at 1, 10, and 20°C for 5 to 7 days. Nitrogen (N; 0.035 mM as NH4NO3) and phosphorus (P; 0.03 mM as P2O5) were added to soil samples, and the responses of soil microbial respiration to increased temperature and nutrient addition were determined. We found a universal trend that soil microbial respiration increased with increased temperature regardless of sampling season or vegetation type. The temperature sensitivity (indicated by Q10, the increase in respiration rate with a 10°C increase in temperature) of microbial respiration was higher in spring and autumn than in summer and winter, irrespective of vegetation type. The Q10 was significantly positively correlated with microbial biomass and the fungal: bacterial ratio. Microbial respiration (or Q10) did not significantly respond to N or P addition. Our results suggest that short-term nutrient input might not change the SOC decomposition rate or its temperature sensitivity, whereas increased temperature might significantly enhance SOC decomposition in spring and autumn, compared with winter and summer.

  5. Seasonality, Rather than Nutrient Addition or Vegetation Types, Influenced Short-Term Temperature Sensitivity of Soil Organic Carbon Decomposition

    PubMed Central

    He, Feng-Peng; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The response of microbial respiration from soil organic carbon (SOC) decomposition to environmental changes plays a key role in predicting future trends of atmospheric CO2 concentration. However, it remains uncertain whether there is a universal trend in the response of microbial respiration to increased temperature and nutrient addition among different vegetation types. In this study, soils were sampled in spring, summer, autumn and winter from five dominant vegetation types, including pine, larch and birch forest, shrubland, and grassland, in the Saihanba area of northern China. Soil samples from each season were incubated at 1, 10, and 20°C for 5 to 7 days. Nitrogen (N; 0.035 mM as NH4NO3) and phosphorus (P; 0.03 mM as P2O5) were added to soil samples, and the responses of soil microbial respiration to increased temperature and nutrient addition were determined. We found a universal trend that soil microbial respiration increased with increased temperature regardless of sampling season or vegetation type. The temperature sensitivity (indicated by Q10, the increase in respiration rate with a 10°C increase in temperature) of microbial respiration was higher in spring and autumn than in summer and winter, irrespective of vegetation type. The Q10 was significantly positively correlated with microbial biomass and the fungal: bacterial ratio. Microbial respiration (or Q10) did not significantly respond to N or P addition. Our results suggest that short-term nutrient input might not change the SOC decomposition rate or its temperature sensitivity, whereas increased temperature might significantly enhance SOC decomposition in spring and autumn, compared with winter and summer. PMID:27070782

  6. Total Ozone Prediction: Stratospheric Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackman, Charles H.; Kawa, S. Ramdy; Douglass, Anne R.

    2003-01-01

    The correct prediction of total ozone as a function of latitude and season is extremely important for global models. This exercise tests the ability of a particular model to simulate ozone. The ozone production (P) and loss (L) will be specified from a well- established global model and will be used in all GCMs for subsequent prediction of ozone. This is the "B-3 Constrained Run" from M&MII. The exercise mostly tests a model stratospheric dynamics in the prediction of total ozone. The GCM predictions will be compared and contrasted with TOMS measurements.

  7. Impact of biogenic very short-lived bromine on the Antarctic ozone hole during the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, Rafael P.; Kinnison, Douglas E.; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Tilmes, Simone; Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso

    2017-02-01

    Active bromine released from the photochemical decomposition of biogenic very short-lived bromocarbons (VSLBr) enhances stratospheric ozone depletion. Based on a dual set of 1960-2100 coupled chemistry-climate simulations (i.e. with and without VSLBr), we show that the maximum Antarctic ozone hole depletion increases by up to 14 % when natural VSLBr are considered, which is in better agreement with ozone observations. The impact of the additional 5 pptv VSLBr on Antarctic ozone is most evident in the periphery of the ozone hole, producing an expansion of the ozone hole area of ˜ 5 million km2, which is equivalent in magnitude to the recently estimated Antarctic ozone healing due to the implementation of the Montreal Protocol. We find that the inclusion of VSLBr in CAM-Chem (Community Atmosphere Model with Chemistry, version 4.0) does not introduce a significant delay of the modelled ozone return date to 1980 October levels, but instead affects the depth and duration of the simulated ozone hole. Our analysis further shows that total bromine-catalysed ozone destruction in the lower stratosphere surpasses that of chlorine by the year 2070 and indicates that natural VSLBr chemistry would dominate Antarctic ozone seasonality before the end of the 21st century. This work suggests a large influence of biogenic bromine on the future Antarctic ozone layer.

  8. Widespread and persistent ozone pollution in eastern China during the non-winter season of 2015: observations and source attributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guohui; Bei, Naifang; Cao, Junji; Wu, Jiarui; Long, Xin; Feng, Tian; Dai, Wenting; Liu, Suixin; Zhang, Qiang; Tie, Xuexi

    2017-02-01

    Rapid growth of industrialization, transportation, and urbanization has caused increasing emissions of ozone (O3) precursors recently, enhancing the O3 formation in eastern China. We show here that eastern China has experienced widespread and persistent O3 pollution from April to September 2015 based on the O3 observations in 223 cities. The observed maximum 1 h O3 concentrations exceed 200 µg m-3 in almost all the cities, 400 µg m-3 in more than 25 % of the cities, and even 800 µg m-3 in six cities in eastern China. The average daily maximum 1 h O3 concentrations are more than 160 µg m-3 in 45 % of the cities, and the 1 h O3 concentrations of 200 µg m-3 have been exceeded on over 10 % of days from April to September in 129 cities. Analyses of pollutant observations from 2013 to 2015 have shown that the concentrations of CO, SO2, NO2, and PM2.5 from April to September in eastern China have considerably decreased, but the O3 concentrations have increased by 9.9 %. A widespread and severe O3 pollution episode from 22 to 28 May 2015 in eastern China has been simulated using the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled to chemistry (WRF-CHEM) to evaluate the O3 contribution of biogenic and various anthropogenic sources. The model generally performs reasonably well in simulating the temporal variations and spatial distributions of near-surface O3 concentrations. Using the factor separation approach, sensitivity studies have indicated that the industry source plays the most important role in the O3 formation and constitutes the culprit of the severe O3 pollution in eastern China. The transportation source contributes considerably to the O3 formation, and the O3 contribution of the residential source is not significant generally. The biogenic source provides a background O3 source, and also plays an important role in the south of eastern China. Further model studies are needed to comprehensively investigate O3 formation for supporting the design and

  9. Photochemical roles of rapid economic growth and potential abatement strategies on tropospheric ozone over South and East Asia in 2030

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatani, S.; Amann, M.; Goel, A.; Hao, J.; Klimont, Z.; Kumar, A.; Mishra, A.; Sharma, S.; Wang, S. X.; Wang, Y. X.; Zhao, B.

    2014-04-01

    A regional air quality simulation framework including the Weather Research and Forecasting modelling system (WRF), the Community Multi-scale Air Quality modeling system (CMAQ), and precursor emissions to simulate tropospheric ozone over South and East Asia is introduced. Concentrations of tropospheric ozone and related species simulated by the framework are validated by comparing with observation data of surface monitorings, ozone zondes, and satellites obtained in 2010. The simulation demonstrates acceptable performance on tropospheric ozone over South and East Asia at regional scale. Future energy consumption, carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions in 2030 under three future scenarios are estimated. One of the scenarios assumes a business-as-usual (BAU) pathway, and other two scenarios consider implementation of additional energy and environmental strategies to reduce energy consumption, CO2, NOx, and VOC emissions in China and India. Future surface ozone under these three scenarios is predicted by the simulation. The simulation indicates future surface ozone significantly increases around India for a whole year and around north eastern China in summer. NOx is a main driver on significant seasonal increase of surface ozone, whereas VOC as well as increasing background ozone and methane is also an important factor on annual average of surface ozone in East Asia. Warmer weather around India is also preferable for significant increase of surface ozone. Additional energy and environmental strategies assumed in future scenarios are expected to be effective to reduce future surface ozone over South and East Asia.

  10. Atmospheric peroxyacetyl nitrate measurements over the Brazilian Amazon Basin during the wet season - Relationships with nitrogen oxides and ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, H. B.; Herlth, D.; O'Hara, D.; Salas, L.; Torres, A. L.; Gregory, G. L.; Sachse, G. W.

    1990-01-01

    An analysis is presented on the distribution and variability of PAN as well as its relationship with measured chemical and meteorological parameters. The chemicals of most interest for which measurements were available are PAN, NO(x), O3, CO, and C2Cl4. PAN was measured by the electron capture gas chromatographic technique, and the technique for calibrations and measurements are detailed. Data show that significant concentrations of PAN (5-125 ppt) are present during the wet season and this PAN is 1-5 times more abundant than NO(x). PAN levels at different atmospheric locations are discussed, and it is noted that PAN shows evidence of a possible latitudinal gradient in the free troposphere, with values falling rapidly from the northern midlatitudes toward the equator. High correlations between O3 and PAN levels suggest that nonmethane hydrocarbons may contribute significantly to high O3 in the free troposphere. Evidence indicates that virtually all of the NO(x) above 4 km could result from PAN decomposition.

  11. Estimating the Tropospheric Ozone Distribution by the Assimilation of Satellite Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayashi, Hiroo; Stajner, Ivanka; Winslow, Nathan; Jones, Dylan B. A.; Pawson, Steven; Thompson, Anne M.

    2003-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone is important to the environment, because it acts as a strong oxidant to control the concentrations of many reduced gases (methane, carbon monoxide, ... ), its radiative forcing plays a significant role in the greenhouse effect, and direct contact with ozone is harmful to human health. Tropospheric ozone, whose main sources are intrusion from the stratosphere and chemical production from source gases associated with urban pollution or biomass burning, varies on a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. Its transport and chemistry can be influenced by weather, seasonal, or multiannual variability. Despite the importance of tropospheric ozone, it contributes only about 10% of the total ozone loading in the atmosphere. Consequently, satellite instruments lose sensitivity below the stratospheric ozone peak, and provide little information about middle and lower tropospheric ozone. This talk will discuss recent modifications made to the satellite ozone data assimilation system at NASA's Data Assimilation Office (DAO) in order to provide better tropospheric ozone columns and profiles. We use a version of the system that assimilates only the data from the Solar Backscatter UltraViolet/2 (SBUV/2) instrument. The quality of the assimilated ozone in the tropical troposphere is evaluated by comparison with independent observations obtained from the Southern Hemispheric Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) network. It is shown that the quality of ozone fields is sensitive to the winds used in the transport model. Increasing the vertical resolution of the model also has a beneficial impact. The assimilated ozone in the lower troposphere was substantially improved by inclusion of tropospheric ozone production, loss, and dry deposition rates from the Harvard GEOS-CHEM model. The mechanisms behind these results will be examined and the implications for our understanding of tropospheric ozone will be discussed.

  12. Seasonal responses of soil respiration to warming and nitrogen addition in a semi-arid alfalfa-pasture of the Loess Plateau, China.

    PubMed

    Fang, Chao; Ye, Jian-Sheng; Gong, Yanhong; Pei, Jiuying; Yuan, Ziqiang; Xie, Chan; Zhu, Yusi; Yu, Yueyuan

    2017-07-15

    Responses of soil respiration (Rs) to increasing nitrogen (N) deposition and warming will have far-reaching influences on global carbon (C) cycling. However, the seasonal (growing and non-growing seasons) difference of Rs responses to warming and N deposition has rarely been investigated. We conducted a field manipulative experiment in a semi-arid alfalfa-pasture of northwest China to evaluate the response of Rs to nitrogen addition and warming from March 2014 to March 2016. Open-top chambers were used to elevate temperature and N was enriched at a rate of 4.42g m(-2)yr(-1) with NH4NO3. Results showed that (1) N addition increased Rs by 14% over the two-year period; and (2) warming stimulated Rs by 15% in the non-growing season, while inhibited it by 5% in the growing season, which can be explained by decreased plant coverage and soil water. The main effect of N addition did not change with time, but that of warming changed with time, with the stronger inhibition observed in the dry year. When N addition and warming were combined, an antagonistic effect was observed in the growing season, whereas a synergism was observed in the non-growing season. Overall, warming and N addition did not affect the Q10 values over the two-year period, but these treatments significantly increased the Q10 values in the growing season compared with the control treatment. In comparison, combined warming and nitrogen addition significantly reduced the Q10 values compared with the single factor treatment. These results suggest that the negative indirect effect of warming-induced water stress overrides the positive direct effect of warming on Rs. Our results also imply the necessity of considering the different Rs responses in the growing and non-growing seasons to climate change to accurately evaluate the carbon cycle in the arid and semi-arid regions.

  13. [Effects of nitrogen addition on available nitrogen content and acidification in cold-temperate coniferous forest soil in the growing season].

    PubMed

    Chen, Gao-Qi; Fu, Wa-Li; Luo, Ya-Chen; Gao, Wen-Long; Li, Sheng-Gong; Yang, Hao

    2014-12-01

    Based on a low-level and multi-form N addition control experiment, this study took cold-temperate coniferous forest in Daxing'an Ling as the research object. After long-term and continuous nitrogen addition in situ, the available nitrogen (NH4(+) -N & NO3(-) -N) contents and pH values of the soil (0-10 cm) were measured in the early growing season (May) and the peak growing season (August) in 2010, 2012 and 2013. The results showed that, the available nitrogen in the early and peak growing seasons was mainly NH4(+) -N which accounted for over 96% of the inorganic nitrogen content, while the content of NO3(-) -N was very low. With the time extension of nitrogen addition, the effects of nitrogen addition on the NH4(+) -N content in 0-10 cm soil were more obvious in the early growing season than that in the peak growing season, and the NH4(+) -N content was mainly affected by the type of nitrogen addition. On the contrary, the NO3(-) -N content in 0-10 cm soil was higher in the peak growing season than that in the early growing season. The effect of N input was obvious on NO3(-) -N content in both early and peak growing seasons, and low nitrogen treatment tended to promote the enrichment of NO3(-) -N. As time went on, the response of NH4(+) -N and NO3(-) -N content to N addition was changed from insignificant in the early stage to significant in the late stage. N addition had a significant impact on the pH value of the 0-10 cm soil in the early and peak growing seasons. The pH values of the soil with low nitrogen treatment and the soil in the peak growing season were relatively lower. With the extension of the nitrogen addition time, the response of pH value also turned from insignificant in the early stage to significant in the late stage. Because of the long-term and continuous nitrogen addition, the 0 - 10 cm soil in this cold-temperate coniferous forest was obviously acidified.

  14. Impact of Low-level Jet on Regional Ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, F.

    2011-12-01

    During spring and summer seasons, the frequent occurrences of nocturnal low-level jet (LLJ) over Great Plains region of the United States are widely recognized. As an important element of the low-level atmospheric circulation this LLJ effectively transports water vapor from the Gulf of Mexico, which in turn affects the development of server weather over the central United States. The LLJ has long been known to be conducive to summer rainfall and widespread flooding over the Great Plains of North America. The LLJ transports more than just moisture. Ozone episodes occur mainly during summer and are influenced by regional transport. Little is known, however,about the interrelation between the Great Plains LLJ and regional ozone transport. In this study, analysis of observational data during 1993-2006 has shown strong influence of the Great Plains LLJ on local and regional ozone distributions. Hourly ozone measurements from Air Quality System (AQS) are compared with wind fields at 850 hPa from the NCEP North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR). It is demonstrated that the low ozone concentrations over Texas in late spring and summer are identified with large LLJ transport of clean marine air mass from the Gulf of Mexico. Significant negative correlations exist between daily ozone concentration and LLJ index (Figure 1), suggesting that lower ozone over Texas is associated with stronger LLJ. On the other hand, positive correlations occur in the Midwest and Northeast, indicating the important role of regional transport of ozone and precursors along the pathway by the wind circulation accompanying the LLJ. In addition, the LLJ is significantly correlated with northerly flows in the eastern Pacific Ocean and the adjacent coast. This relationship explains the coexistence of low ozone concentrations in Texas and southwestern U.S during summer, both attributed to the inland transport of clean marine air. These observed ozone-LLJ patterns are well simulated by the regional CMM5

  15. Low frequency oscillations in total ozone measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, X. H.; Stanford, J. L.

    1989-01-01

    Low frequency oscillations with periods of approximately one to two months are found in eight years of global grids of total ozone data from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) satellite instrument. The low frequency oscillations corroborate earlier analyses based on four years of data. In addition, both annual and seasonal one-point correlation maps based on the 8-year TOMS data are presented. The results clearly show a standing dipole in ozone perturbations, oscillating with 35 to 50 day periods over the equatorial Indian Ocean-west Pacific region. This contrasts with the eastward moving dipole reported in other data sets. The standing ozone dipole appears to be a dynamical feature associated with vertical atmospheric motions. Consistent with prior analyses based on lower stratospheric temperature fields, large-scale standing patterns are also found in the extratropics of both hemispheres, correlated with ozone fluctuations over the equatorial west Pacific. In the Northern Hemisphere, a standing pattern is observed extending from the tropical Indian Ocean to the north Pacific, across North America, and down to the equatorial Atlantic Ocean region. This feature is most pronounced in the NH summer.

  16. Observation of ozone enhancement in the lower troposphere over East Asia from a space-borne ultraviolet spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashida, S.; Liu, X.; Ono, A.; Yang, K.; Chance, K.

    2015-01-01

    We report observations from space using ultraviolet (UV) radiance for significant enhancement of ozone in the lower troposphere over Central and Eastern China (CEC). The recent retrieval products of the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) onboard the Earth Observing System (EOS)/Aura satellite revealed the spatial and temporal variation of ozone distributions in multiple layers in the troposphere. We compared the OMI-derived ozone over Beijing with airborne measurements by the Measurement of Ozone and Water Vapor by Airbus In-Service Aircraft (MOZAIC) program. The correlation between OMI and MOZAIC ozone in the lower troposphere was reasonable, which assured the reliability of OMI ozone retrievals in the lower troposphere under enhanced ozone conditions. The ozone enhancement was clearly observed over CEC, with Shandong Province as its center, and most notable in June in any given year. Similar seasonal variations were observed throughout the nine-year OMI measurement period of 2005 to 2013. The ozone enhancement in June was associated with the enhancement of carbon monoxide (CO) and hotspots, which is consistent with previous studies of in-situ measurements such those made by the MTX2006 campaign. A considerable part of this ozone enhancement could be attributed to the emissions of ozone precursors from open crop residue burning (OCRB) after the winter wheat harvest, in addition to emissions from industrial activities and automobiles. The ozone distribution presented in this study is also consistent with some model studies that apply emissions from OCRB. The lower tropospheric ozone distribution is first shown from OMI retrieval in this study, and the results will be useful in clarifying any unknown factors that influence ozone distribution by comparison with model simulations.

  17. Tropical Tropospheric Ozone Climatology: Approaches Based on SHADOZ Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Chatfield, Robert B.; Hudson, Robert D.; Andrade, Marcos; Coetzee, Geert J. R.; Posny, Francoise

    2004-01-01

    The SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes) ozone sounding network was initiated in 1998 to improve the coverage of tropical in-situ ozone measurements for satellite validation, algorithm development and related process studies. Over 2000 soundings have been archived at the central website, , for 12 stations that span the entire equatorial zone [Thompson et al., JGR, 108,8238, 2003]. The most striking features of tropospheric ozone profiles in SHADOZ are: (1) persistent longitudinal variability in tropospheric ozone profiles, with a 10-15 DU column-integrated difference between Atlantic and Pacific sites; (2) intense short-term variability triggered by changing meteorological conditions and advection of pollution. The implications of these results for profile climatologies and trends are described along with several approaches to classifying ozone profiles: 1) Seasonal means during MAM (March-April-May) and SON (September-October-November); 2) Maxima and minima, identified through correlation of TOMS-derived TTO (tropical tropospheric ozone) column depth with the sonde integrated tropospheric ozone column; and 3) Meteorological regimes, a technique that is effective in the subtropics where tropical and mid-latitude conditions alternate.

  18. Photochemical roles of rapid economic growth and potential abatement strategies on tropospheric ozone over South and East Asia in 2030

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatani, S.; Amann, M.; Goel, A.; Hao, J.; Klimont, Z.; Kumar, A.; Mishra, A.; Sharma, S.; Wang, S. X.; Wang, Y. X.; Zhao, B.

    2014-09-01

    A regional air quality simulation framework including the Weather Research and Forecasting modeling system (WRF), the Community Multi-scale Air Quality modeling system (CMAQ), and precursor emissions to simulate tropospheric ozone over South and East Asia is introduced. Concentrations of tropospheric ozone and related species simulated by the framework are validated by comparing with observation data of surface monitoring, ozonesondes, and satellites obtained in 2010. The simulation demonstrates acceptable performance on tropospheric ozone over South and East Asia at regional scale. Future energy consumption, carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions in 2030 under three future scenarios are estimated. One of the scenarios assumes a business-as-usual (BAU) pathway, and other two scenarios consider implementation of additional energy and environmental strategies to reduce energy consumption, CO2, NOx, and VOC emissions in China and India. Future surface ozone under these three scenarios is predicted by the simulation. The simulation indicates future surface ozone significantly increases around India for a whole year and around northeastern China in summer. NOx is a main driver on significant seasonal increase of surface ozone, whereas VOC as well as increasing background ozone and methane is also an important factor on annual average of surface ozone in East Asia. Warmer weather around India is also preferable for significant increase of surface ozone. Additional energy and environmental strategies assumed in future scenarios are expected to be effective to reduce future surface ozone over South and East Asia.

  19. Root and shoot gas exchange respond additively to moderate ozone and methyl jasmonate without induction of ethylene: ethylene is induced at higher O3 concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Grantz, D.A.; Vu, H.-B.

    2012-01-01

    The available literature is conflicting on the potential protection of plants against ozone (O3) injury by exogenous jasmonates, including methyl jasmonate (MeJA). Protective antagonistic interactions of O3 and MeJA have been observed in some systems and purely additive effects in others. Here it is shown that chronic exposure to low to moderate O3 concentrations (4–114 ppb; 12 h mean) and to MeJA induced additive reductions in carbon assimilation (A n) and root respiration (R r), and in calculated whole plant carbon balance. Neither this chronic O3 regime nor MeJA induced emission of ethylene (ET) from the youngest fully expanded leaves. ET emission was induced by acute 3 h pulse exposure to much higher O3 concentrations (685 ppb). ET emission was further enhanced in plants treated with MeJA. Responses of growth, allocation, photosynthesis, and respiration to moderate O3 concentrations and to MeJA appear to be independent and additive, and not associated with emission of ET. These results suggest that responses of Pima cotton to environmentally relevant O3 are not mediated by signalling pathways associated with ET and MeJA, though these pathways are inducible in this species and exhibit a synergistic O3×MeJA interaction at very high O3 concentrations. PMID:22563119

  20. Monitoring O3 and Aerosols with the NASA LaRC Mobile Ozone Lidar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganoe, Rene; Gronoff, Guillaume; Berkoff, Timothy; DeYoung, Russell; Carrion, William

    2016-01-01

    The NASA's Langley Mobile Ozone Lidar (LMOL) system routinely measures tropospheric ozone and aerosol profiles, and is part of the Tropospheric Lidar Network (TOLNet). Recent upgrades to the system include a new pump laser that has tripled the transmission output power extending measurements up to 8 km in altitude during the day. In addition, software and algorithm developments have improved data output quality and enabled a real-time ozone display capability. In 2016, a number of ozone features were captured by LMOL, including the dynamics of an early-season ozone exceedance that impacted the Hampton Roads region. In this presentation, we will review current LMOL capabilities, recent air quality events observed by the system, and show a comparison of aerosol retrieval through the UV channel and the green line channel.

  1. Unequivocal detection of ozone recovery in the Antarctic Ozone Hole through significant increases in atmospheric layers with minimum ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Laat, Jos; van Weele, Michiel; van der A, Ronald

    2015-04-01

    An important new landmark in present day ozone research is presented through MLS satellite observations of significant ozone increases during the ozone hole season that are attributed unequivocally to declining ozone depleting substances. For many decades the Antarctic ozone hole has been the prime example of both the detrimental effects of human activities on our environment as well as how to construct effective and successful environmental policies. Nowadays atmospheric concentrations of ozone depleting substances are on the decline and first signs of recovery of stratospheric ozone and ozone in the Antarctic ozone hole have been observed. The claimed detection of significant recovery, however, is still subject of debate. In this talk we will discuss first current uncertainties in the assessment of ozone recovery in the Antarctic ozone hole by using multi-variate regression methods, and, secondly present an alternative approach to identify ozone hole recovery unequivocally. Even though multi-variate regression methods help to reduce uncertainties in estimates of ozone recovery, great care has to be taken in their application due to the existence of uncertainties and degrees of freedom in the choice of independent variables. We show that taking all uncertainties into account in the regressions the formal recovery of ozone in the Antarctic ozone hole cannot be established yet, though is likely before the end of the decade (before 2020). Rather than focusing on time and area averages of total ozone columns or ozone profiles, we argue that the time evolution of the probability distribution of vertically resolved ozone in the Antarctic ozone hole contains a better fingerprint for the detection of ozone recovery in the Antarctic ozone hole. The advantages of this method over more tradition methods of trend analyses based on spatio-temporal average ozone are discussed. The 10-year record of MLS satellite measurements of ozone in the Antarctic ozone hole shows a

  2. Impact of Large-scale Circulation Patterns on Surface Ozone Variability in Houston-Galveston-Brazoria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Jia, B.; Xie, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The Bermuda High (BH) is a key driver of large-scale circulation patterns for Southeastern Texas and other Gulf coast states in summer, with the expected influence on surface ozone through its modulation of marine air inflow with lower ozone background from the Gulf of Mexico. We develop a statistical relationship through multiple linear regression (MLR) to quantify the impact of the BH variations on surface ozone variability during the ozone season in the Houston-Galveston-Brazoria (HGB) area, a major ozone nonattainment region on the Gulf Coast. We find that the variability in BH location, represented by a longitude index of the BH west edge (BH-Lon) in the MLR, explains 50-60% of the year-to-year variability in monthly mean ozone over HGB for Jun and July during 1998-2013, and the corresponding figure for Aug and Sep is 20%. Additional 30%-40% of the ozone variability for Aug and Sep can be explained by the variability in BH strength, represented by two BH intensity indices (BHI) in the MLR, but its contribution is only 5% for June and not significant for July. Including a maximum Through stepwise regression based on Akaike Information Criterion (AIC), the MLR model captures 58~72% of monthly ozone variability during Jun-Sep with a cross-validation R2 of 0.5. This observation-derived statistical relationship will be valuable to constrain model simulations of ozone variability attributable to large-scale circulation patterns.

  3. Global Distribution and Trends of Tropospheric Ozone: An Observation-Based Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, O. R.; Parrish, D. D.; Ziemke, J.; Cupeiro, M.; Galbally, I. E.; Gilge, S.; Horowitz, L.; Jensen, N. R.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Naik, V.; Oltmans, S. J.; Schwab, J.; Shindell, D. T.; Thompson, A. M.; Thouret, V.; Wang, Y.; Zbinden, R. M.

    2014-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone plays a major role in Earth's atmospheric chemistry processes and also acts as an air pollutant and greenhouse gas. Due to its short lifetime, and dependence on sunlight and precursor emissions from natural and anthropogenic sources, tropospheric ozone's abundance is highly variable in space and time on seasonal, interannual and decadal time-scales. Recent, and sometimes rapid, changes in observed ozone mixing ratios and ozone precursor emissions inspired us to produce this up-to-date overview of tropospheric ozone's global distribution and trends. Much of the text is a synthesis of in situ and remotely sensed ozone observations reported in the peer-reviewed literature, but we also include some new and extended analyses using well-known and referenced datasets to draw connections between ozone trends and distributions in different regions of the world. In addition, we provide a brief evaluation of the accuracy of rural or remote surface ozone trends calculated by three state-of-the-science chemistry-climate models, the tools used by scientists to fill the gaps in our knowledge of global tropospheric ozone distribution and trends.

  4. Spatial and temporal patterns of ozone in the high elevation ecosystems of the Colorado Rocky Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liptzin, D.; Helmig, D.

    2015-12-01

    Tropospheric ozone is regulated by the US EPA to protect human health and welfare. Because the precursors to ozone formation largely come from transportation and industrial activity, ozone has typically been thought of as an urban pollution problem. However, there is growing concern about increased ozone concentrations in rural areas. Surprisingly high ozone concentrations have been measured in the high elevation Rocky Mountain ecosystems in the Front Range of Colorado. The annual median ozone mixing ratios over the past decade at three high elevation monitoring stations ranged from 47 to 53 ppbv. The hourly ozone mixing ratio typically exceeds 100 ppbv at some point every year at these sites. The number of days where the ozone mixing ratio exceeded the current 8 hour US EPA National Ambient Air Quality Standard of 75 ppb has ranged from 0 to 25 since 1987 at the monitoring site in Rocky Mountain National Park. A comparison with lower elevation sites suggests that ozone mixing ratios generally increase with elevation. In addition, the diurnal and seasonal variability of ozone decreases with elevation. Along an elevational gradient from the plains to the tundra, the tundra site had the highest median values and the least variability of any site. The seasonal pattern at these high elevation sites is also distinct as the maximum mixing ratios occur in the spring in contrast to the summer maximum typically observed in urban areas. While there have been relatively small changes in concentration in the measured data record going back a few decades, modeling suggests that ozone mixing ratios have almost doubled over the last one hundred years in Colorado. A plethora of studies has shown that elevated ozone damages foliage, with sensitive species showing effect at levels exceeding 35-40 ppbv. Since ozone levels in these high elevation ecosystems are clearly above that, we believe that they have been and will continue to be severely affected by elevated ozone. It is not

  5. Linking Horizontal And Vertical Transports of Biomass Fire Emissions to the Tropical Atlantic Ozone Paradox during the Northern Hemisphere Winter Season: II. 1998-1999.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, Gregory S.; Ryu, Jung-Hee; Thompson, Anne M.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.

    2002-01-01

    The horizontal and vertical transport of biomass fire emissions in West Africa during November 1998 through February 1999, are examined using all available data including wind, fire, aerosol, precipitation, lightning and outgoing longwave radiation. Ozonesonde data from the Aerosols99 Trans-Atlantic cruise are also included with rain and wind analyses. The results here support earlier studies that ozone and ozone precursors associated with biomass burning are confined to the lower troposphere primarily due to the lack of deep convection over land areas. Ozone and its precursors are horizontally transported equatorward or towards the west by winds in the 1000-700 hPa layers. However, rising adiabatic motions associated with the diurnal evolution of the West African n can transport ozone and its precursors vertically into the free troposphere above the marine boundary layer. Moreover, lightning from South America, Central Africa and mesoscale convective systems in the Gulf of Guinea can lead to elevated ozone mixing ratios in the middle and upper troposphere.

  6. On the variability of tropospheric ozone in the Tropical Eastern Pacific and its impact on the oxidizing capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiz-Lopez, A.; Gomez Martin, J.; Hay, T.; Mahajan, A.; Ordoñez, C.; Parrondo Sempere, M.; Gil, M. J.; Agama Reyes, M.; Paredes Mora, J.; Voemel, H.

    2012-12-01

    Observations of surface ozone, NOx and meteorological variables were made during two ground based field campaigns in the Eastern Pacific marine boundary layer (MBL). The first study was PIQUERO (Primera Investigación de la Química, Evolución y Reparto de Ozono), running from September 2000 to July 2001 in parallel to the Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes (SHADOZ) in the Galápagos Islands. The second study is the Climate and HAlogen Reactivity tropicaL EXperiment (CHARLEX), running from September 2010 to present. These long-term, high frequency, measurements enable a detailed description of the daily, monthly, seasonal and interannual variability of ozone and help to constrain the MBL and lower free troposphere (FT) ozone budget. In the Equatorial Eastern Pacific "cold season" (August - October), net ozone photochemical destruction of ~ 2 ppb day-1 occurs in the MBL (~30% due to halogens, and the rest to HOx). Ozone recovers by entrainment from aloft at night. The monthly baseline is set by the tropical instability waves (TIW), which also impact the ozone concentration in the lower FT. In the cold phase of the TIWs the MBL is stratified and, apart from higher surface ozone, it may also contain an upper drier layer with higher ozone between ~ 500 m and the main inversion at ~1 km. In the warm phase the buoyant MBL expands upwards (as much as 500 m) and poor ozone air reaches the FT. As the system shifts to the warm season (February- April), the TIWs stop and the sea becomes warmer, increasing evaporation and reducing ozone. The inversion is pushed upwards and finally disappears or becomes very weak. Surface ozone is so low that even at the low background NOx levels observed ozone production balances photochemical destruction, so the daily profile is flat (observed local effects in the populated areas of Galapagos are discussed). In February Galapagos is almost in the doldrums because the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) shifts south. In this

  7. Can we improve pollen season definitions by using the symptom load index in addition to pollen counts?

    PubMed

    Bastl, Katharina; Kmenta, Maximilian; Geller-Bernstein, Carmi; Berger, Uwe; Jäger, Siegfried

    2015-09-01

    Airborne pollen measurements are the foundation of aerobiological research and provide essential raw data for various disciplines. Pollen itself should be considered a relevant factor in air quality. Symptom data shed light on the relationship of pollen allergy and pollination. The aim of this study is to assess the spatial variation of local, regional and national symptom datasets. Ten pollen season definitions are used to calculate the symptom load index for the birch and grass pollen seasons (2013-2014) in Austria. (1) Local, (2) regional and (3) national symptom datasets are used to examine spatial variations and a consistent pattern was found. In conclusion, national datasets are suitable for first insights where no sufficient local or regional dataset is available and season definitions based on percentages provide a practical solution, as they can be applied in regions with different pollen loads and produce more constant results.

  8. Ozone and carbon monoxide at the Ushuaia GAW-WMO global station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adame, Jose; Cupeiro, Manuel; Yela, Margarita; Cuevas, Emilio; Carbajal, Gerardo

    2016-04-01

    Ozone and carbon monoxide have been investigated in the GAW-WMO station of Ushuaia (Argentina), using hourly values during five years (2010-2014). This work has been developed in the framework of HELADO (Halogens in the Antarctic atmosphere and its role in the Ozone distribution) project and under the collaboration between INTA (National Institute for Aerospace Technology - Spain), SMN (National Meteorological Service - Argentina) and AEMET (State Meteorological Agency - Spain). Meteorological features have been analyzed with in-situ observations and meteorological fields from ECMWF 0.5° as spatial resolution model. These fields have been applied to compute back trajectories with HYSPLIT model. Independently of season, mostly atmospheric flows coming from W-SW (South Pacific Ocean), theses westerlies winds are associated with low pressure systems; in addition with lower frequencies are collected winds from South (Antarctic Peninsula and Weddell Sea), polar easterlies. Hourly averages of surface (in-situ) ozone and CO levels were 20±7 and 71±45 ppb respectively, typical values of remote environments. A clear seasonal pattern has been obtained for surface ozone with monthly peaks in winter of 25 ppb and minimum in summer with 12 ppb; a similar behaviour is found for CO, 93 and 48 ppb for maximum and minimum values, respectively. A weak daily cycle has been obtained in both species, amplitude for ozone of 2-4 ppb and 13-20 ppb for CO. The seasonal levels behaviour for surface ozone is also observed in upper levels, approximately from surface up to 5 km. This result has been obtained from 139 ozone profiles launched in the studied period. Since the ozone precursors and carbon monoxide emissions are low in this area, the origin of the values observed could be in the atmospheric transport processes. As hypothesis to explain the behaviour observed, we suggest that in the warm season with solar radiation, the photochemical mechanisms are active, and the elimination

  9. Stratospheric ozone depletion

    PubMed Central

    Rowland, F. Sherwood

    2006-01-01

    Solar ultraviolet radiation creates an ozone layer in the atmosphere which in turn completely absorbs the most energetic fraction of this radiation. This process both warms the air, creating the stratosphere between 15 and 50 km altitude, and protects the biological activities at the Earth's surface from this damaging radiation. In the last half-century, the chemical mechanisms operating within the ozone layer have been shown to include very efficient catalytic chain reactions involving the chemical species HO, HO2, NO, NO2, Cl and ClO. The NOX and ClOX chains involve the emission at Earth's surface of stable molecules in very low concentration (N2O, CCl2F2, CCl3F, etc.) which wander in the atmosphere for as long as a century before absorbing ultraviolet radiation and decomposing to create NO and Cl in the middle of the stratospheric ozone layer. The growing emissions of synthetic chlorofluorocarbon molecules cause a significant diminution in the ozone content of the stratosphere, with the result that more solar ultraviolet-B radiation (290–320 nm wavelength) reaches the surface. This ozone loss occurs in the temperate zone latitudes in all seasons, and especially drastically since the early 1980s in the south polar springtime—the ‘Antarctic ozone hole’. The chemical reactions causing this ozone depletion are primarily based on atomic Cl and ClO, the product of its reaction with ozone. The further manufacture of chlorofluorocarbons has been banned by the 1992 revisions of the 1987 Montreal Protocol of the United Nations. Atmospheric measurements have confirmed that the Protocol has been very successful in reducing further emissions of these molecules. Recovery of the stratosphere to the ozone conditions of the 1950s will occur slowly over the rest of the twenty-first century because of the long lifetime of the precursor molecules. PMID:16627294

  10. Stratospheric ozone depletion.

    PubMed

    Rowland, F Sherwood

    2006-05-29

    Solar ultraviolet radiation creates an ozone layer in the atmosphere which in turn completely absorbs the most energetic fraction of this radiation. This process both warms the air, creating the stratosphere between 15 and 50 km altitude, and protects the biological activities at the Earth's surface from this damaging radiation. In the last half-century, the chemical mechanisms operating within the ozone layer have been shown to include very efficient catalytic chain reactions involving the chemical species HO, HO2, NO, NO2, Cl and ClO. The NOX and ClOX chains involve the emission at Earth's surface of stable molecules in very low concentration (N2O, CCl2F2, CCl3F, etc.) which wander in the atmosphere for as long as a century before absorbing ultraviolet radiation and decomposing to create NO and Cl in the middle of the stratospheric ozone layer. The growing emissions of synthetic chlorofluorocarbon molecules cause a significant diminution in the ozone content of the stratosphere, with the result that more solar ultraviolet-B radiation (290-320 nm wavelength) reaches the surface. This ozone loss occurs in the temperate zone latitudes in all seasons, and especially drastically since the early 1980s in the south polar springtime-the 'Antarctic ozone hole'. The chemical reactions causing this ozone depletion are primarily based on atomic Cl and ClO, the product of its reaction with ozone. The further manufacture of chlorofluorocarbons has been banned by the 1992 revisions of the 1987 Montreal Protocol of the United Nations. Atmospheric measurements have confirmed that the Protocol has been very successful in reducing further emissions of these molecules. Recovery of the stratosphere to the ozone conditions of the 1950s will occur slowly over the rest of the twenty-first century because of the long lifetime of the precursor molecules.

  11. New Perspectives from Satellite and Profile Observations on Tropospheric Ozone over Africa and the Adjacent Oceans: An Indian-Atlantic Ocean Link to tbe "Ozone Paradox"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Diab, Roseanne D.; Thouret, Valerie; Sauvage, Bastien; Chatfield, B.; Guan, Hong

    2004-01-01

    In the past few years, tropospheric ozone observations of Africa and its adjacent ocenas have been greatly enhanced by high resolution (spatial and temporal) satellite measurements and profile data from aircraft (MOZAIC) and balloon-borne (SHADOZ) soundings. These views have demonstrated for the first time the complexity of chemical-dynamical interactions over the African continent and the Indian and Atlantic Oceans. The tropical Atlantic "ozone paradax" refers to the observation that during the season of maximum biomass burning in west Africa north of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), the highest tropospheric ozone total column occurs south of the ITCZ over the tropical Atlantic. The longitudinal view of tropospheric ozone in the southern tropics from SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes) soundings shown the persistence of a "zonal-wave one" pattern that reinforces the "ozone paradox". These ozone features interact with dynamics over southern and northern Africa where anthropogenic sources include the industrial regions of the South African Highveld and Mideastern-Mediterranean influences, respectively. Our newest studies with satellites and soundings show that up to half the ozone pollution over the Atlantic in the January-March "paradox" period may originate from south Asian pollution. Individual patches of pollurion over the Indian Ocean are transported upward by convective mixing and are enriched by pyrogenic, biogenic sources and lightning as they cross Africa and descend over the Atlantic. In summary, local sources, intercontinental import and export and unique regional transport patterns put Africa at a crossroads of troposheric ozone influences.

  12. Comparison of methylisoborneol and geosmin abatement in surface water by conventional ozonation and an electro-peroxone process.

    PubMed

    Yao, Weikun; Qu, Qiangyong; von Gunten, Urs; Chen, Chao; Yu, Gang; Wang, Yujue

    2017-01-01

    In this study methylisoborneol (MIB) and geosmin abatement in a surface water by conventional ozonation and the electro-peroxone (E-peroxone) process was compared. Batch tests with addition of ozone (O3) stock solutions and semi-batch tests with continuous O2/O3 gas sparging (simulating real ozone contactors) were conducted to investigate O3 decomposition, •OH production, MIB and geosmin abatement, and bromate formation during the two processes. Results show that with specific ozone doses typically used in routine drinking water treatment (0.5-1.0 mg O3/mg dissolved organic carbon (DOC)), conventional ozonation could not adequately abate MIB and geosmin in a surface water. While increasing the specific ozone doses (1.0-2.5 mg O3/mg DOC) could enhance MIB and geosmin abatement by conventional ozonation, this approach resulted in significant bromate formation. By installing a carbon-based cathode to electrochemically produce H2O2 from cathodic oxygen reduction, conventional ozonation can be conveniently upgraded to an E-peroxone process. The electro-generated H2O2 considerably enhanced the kinetics and to a lesser extent the yields of hydroxyl radical (•OH) from O3 decomposition. Consequently, during the E-peroxone process, abatement of MIB and geosmin occurred at much higher rates than during conventional ozonation. In addition, for a given specific ozone dose, the MIB and geosmin abatement efficiencies increased moderately in the E-peroxone (by ∼8-9% and ∼10-25% in the batch and semi-batch tests, respectively) with significantly lower bromate formation compared to conventional ozonation. These results suggest that the E-peroxone process may serve as an attractive backup of conventional ozonation processes during accidental spills or seasonal events such as algal blooms when high ozone doses are required to enhance MIB and geosmin abatement.

  13. Ozone production and transport over the Amazon Basin during the dry-to-wet and wet-to-dry transition seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bela, M. M.; Longo, K. M.; Freitas, S. R.; Moreira, D. S.; Beck, V.; Wofsy, S. C.; Gerbig, C.; Wiedemann, K.; Andreae, M. O.; Artaxo, P.

    2014-06-01

    The Regional Carbon Balance in Amazonia (BARCA) campaign provided the first Amazon Basin-wide aircraft measurements of O3 during both the dry-to-wet (November and December 2008) and wet-to-dry (May 2009) transition seasons. Extremely low background values (<20 ppb) were observed to the west and north of Manaus in both seasons and in all regions during the wet-to-dry transition. On the other hand, elevated O3 levels (40-60 ppb) were seen during the dry-to-wet transition to the east and south of Manaus, where biomass burning emissions of O3 precursors were present. Chemistry simulations with the CCATT-BRAMS and WRF-Chem models are within the error bars of the observed O3 profiles in the boundary layer (0-3 km a.s.l.) in polluted conditions. However, the models overestimate O3 in the boundary layer in clean conditions, despite lacking the predominant NO source from soil. In addition, O3 simulated by the models was either within the error bars or lower than BARCA observations in mid-levels (3-5 km a.s.l.), indicating that the models do not represent the free troposphere - boundary layer gradient in O3. Total tropospheric O3 retrieved from OMI/MLS was higher than that simulated by the models, suggesting that the satellite observations are dominated by the middle troposphere and long-range processes and are not a~good indication of O3 conditions in the PBL. Additional simulations with WRF-Chem showed that the model O3 production is very sensitive to both the O3 deposition velocities, which were about one half of observed values, and the NOx emissions. These results have implications for the monitoring and prediction of increases in O3 production in the Amazon Basin as the regional population grows.

  14. Investigation of the Short-Time Variability of Tropical Tropospheric Ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randriambelo, Tantely; Baray, Jean-Luc; Baldy, Serge; Thompson, Anne M.; Oltmans, Samuel; Keckhut, Philippe

    2003-01-01

    Since 1998, a ground based tropospheric ozone lidar has been running at Reunion Island and has been involved with a daily measurement campaign that was performed in the latter part of the biomass burning season, during November-December 1999. The averaged ozone profile obtained during November-December 1 999 agrees well with averaged ozone profile obtained from ozonesondes launch at Reunion during November-December (1992- 2001). Comparing weekly sonde launches (part of the Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes: SHADOZ program) with the daily ground-based lidar observations shows that some striking features of the day to day variability profiles are not observed in the sonde measurements. Ozone profiles respond to the nature of disturbances which vary from the one day to the next. The vertical ozone distribution at Reunion is examined as a function of prevailing atmospheric circulation. Backtrajectories show that most of the enhanced ozone crossed over biomass burning and convectively active regions in Madagascar and the southern African continent. The analyses of the meteorological data show that ozone stratification profiles are in agreement with the movement of the synoptical situations in November-December 1999. Three different sequences of transport are explained using wind fields. The first sequence from 23 to 25 November is characterized by Northerly transport, the second sequence from 26 to 30 November, the air masses are influenced by meridional transport. The third sequence from 2 to 6 December is characterized by westerly transport associated with the subtropical jet stream. The large standard deviations of lidar profiles in the middle and upper troposphere are in agreement with the upper wind variabilities which evidence passing ridge and trough disturbances. During the transition period between the dry season and the wet season, multiple ozone sources including stratosphere-troposphere exchanges, convection and biomass burning contribute to

  15. The prediction of equatorial total ozone up to the end of 2018 basing on the exact seasonal synchronization of the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) of equatorial stratospheric zonal wind.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabis, Irina; Troshichev, Oleg

    2015-04-01

    Significant effect of the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) on the processes determining the Earth's weather and climate causes the need to forecast the QBO evolution. The quasi-biennial alternations of zonal wind direction in the equatorial stratosphere are related with successive descent of easterly and westerly wind regimes. Our analysis has shown that the delay (stagnation stage) of easterly wind regime descent is observed during each QBO cycle, not just occasionally, as is commonly believed. Moreover, every stagnation starts near solstice (in January or July) and lasts up to the following first, second or third equinox (April or October). The duration of stagnation varies discretely (one, three or five seasons) from cycle to cycle causing the discretely variable period of QBO cycle, which can be equal only 24, 30, or 36 months being appointed as time interval between the beginnings of successive stagnations. The unambiguous relation of the QBO period with duration of corresponding stagnation makes it possible to predict in advance the wind changes. The verification of our previous forecasts for QBO cycles in 2002-2013 shows the excellent agreement between the really observed and predicted wind variations that proves the validity of forecast by this method. The correlation between model and actual wind speed values is 0.95, which is statistically significant at the 99% confidence level. Consequently we can predict the evolution of two QBO cycles up to the end of 2018. The current QBO cycle, starting in January 2014, will last 30 months and will be ended in June 2016. The subsequent QBO cycle will begin in July 2016, will last also 30 months and will be ended in December 2018. Thereafter the following QBO cycle will certainly begin in January 2019; however, its period can be determined only by the end of 2018, when the length of appropriate stagnation stage will be defined. Basing on the predicted wind QBO we can forecast the equatorial total column ozone (TOZ

  16. Ozone studies in the Paso del Norte region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becerra-Davila, Fernando

    obtained from this photolysis study demonstrate that the local ground level ozone formation is not only influenced by the strong solar radiation and changing aerosol makeup, but also by other heterogeneous factors and reactions. In addition, this research provided good evidence that the ground level ozone precursor regime in El Paso during the ozone episode of June 2006 was mostly VOC-limited. Much of this estimation was derived from measurements of local ambient VOC/NOx ratios. This finding shows that at least during June 2006, the non-linear surface ozone production increased during weekends compared to workdays in a habitually VOC-limited regime. The seasonal variations of columnar ozone as measured by a Multi-filter Rotating Shadowband instrument installed at the UTEP campus are analyzed for the first time for this region and results are presented. This investigation has addressed the problem of ground-level ozone formation in the Paso del Norte region. Urban ozone is a complex problem with many aspects that are not fully understood. In this investigation, a range of techniques has been used to address the study of local surface ozone episodes with the purpose of acquiring new insights and knowledge that will help understand and remediate the diverse atmospheric pollution events that affect this bi-national region recurrently. Innovative techniques were developed and used, ranging from the use of local ambient atmospheric pollution data to the utilization of complex modeling techniques to achieve the best possible computer results. Finally, the influence of ground level ozone concentrations in admissions to hospitals for this region due to respiratory diseases is analyzed. The comprehensive results obtained in this work will help to better understand ozone formation in the Paso del Norte Region for future policy regulation implementations.

  17. Observed atmospheric total column ozone distribution from SCIAMACHY over Peninsular Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chooi, T. K.; San, L. H.; Jafri, M. Z. M.

    2014-02-01

    The increase in atmospheric ozone has received great attention because it degrades air quality and brings hazard to human health and ecosystems. The aim of this study was to assess the seasonal variations of ozone concentrations in Peninsular Malaysia from January 2003 to December 2009 using Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Cartography (SCIAMACHY). Level-2 data of total column ozone WFMD version 1.0 with spatial resolution 1° × 1.25° were acquired through SCIAMACHY. Analysis for trend of five selected sites exhibit strong seasonal variation in atmospheric ozone concentrations, where there is a significant difference between northeast monsoon and southwest monsoon. The highest ozone values occurred over industrial and congested urban zones (280.97 DU) on August at Bayan Lepas. The lowest ozone values were observed during northeast monsoon on December at Subang (233.08 DU). In addition, the local meteorological factors also bring an impact on the atmospheric ozone. During northeast monsoon, with the higher rate of precipitation, higher relative humidity, low temperature, and less sunlight hours let to the lowest ozone concentrations. Inversely, the highest ozone concentrations observed during southwest monsoon, with the low precipitation rate, lower relative humidity, higher temperature, and more sunlight hours. Back trajectories analysis is carried out, in order to trace the path of the air parcels with high ozone concentration event, suggesting cluster of trajectory (from southwest of the study area) caused by the anthropogenic sources associated with biogenic emissions from large tropical forests, which can make important contribution to regional and global pollution.

  18. Fine Ambient Particulate and Ozone Co-Exposures in Durham, North Carolina: Influence of Season on Particle Chemistry and Cardiovascular Responses in Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies have shown that the presence of one air pollutant modifies the cardiovascular health effects of another while controlled exposure studies in humans have documented synergistic effects of co-exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) and ozone (O3) on bloo...

  19. Assimilation of Satellite Ozone Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stajner, I.; Winslow, N.; Wargan, K.; Hayashi, H.; Pawson, S.; Rood, R.

    2003-01-01

    This talk will discuss assimilation of ozone data from satellite-borne instruments. Satellite observations of ozone total columns and profiles have been measured by a series of Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS), Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV) instruments, and more recently by the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment. Additional profile data are provided by instruments on NASA's Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite and by occultation instruments on other platforms. Instruments on Envisat' and future EOS Aura satellite will supply even more comprehensive data about the ozone distribution. Satellite data contain a wealth of information, but they do not provide synoptic global maps of ozone fields. These maps can be obtained through assimilation of satellite data into global chemistry and transport models. In the ozone system at NASA's Data Assimilation Office (DAO) any combination of TOMS, SBUV, and Microwave Limb sounder (MLS) data can be assimilated. We found that the addition of MLS to SBUV and TOMS data in the system helps to constrain the ozone distribution, especially in the polar night region and in the tropics. The assimilated ozone distribution in the troposphere and lower stratosphere is sensitive also to finer changes in the SBUV and TOMS data selection and to changes in error covariance models. All results are established by comparisons of assimilated ozone with independent profiles from ozone sondes and occultation instruments.

  20. Ozone Basics

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Learn the difference between good (stratospheric) and bad (tropospheric) ozone, how bad ozone affects our air quality, health, and environment, and what EPA is doing about it through regulations and standards.

  1. 21 CFR 173.368 - Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ozone. 173.368 Section 173.368 Food and Drugs FOOD... ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.368 Ozone. Ozone (CAS Reg... defined in § 170.3(o)(2) of this chapter. (c) The additive meets the specifications for ozone in the...

  2. Chemistry and Dynamics of the Unusual 2015 Antarctic Ozone Hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braathen, Geir O.

    2016-04-01

    The Global Atmosphere Watch of the World Meteorological Organization includes several stations in Antarctica that keep a close eye on the ozone layer during the ozone hole season. Observations made during the unusually large ozone hole of 2015 will be compared to ozone holes from 2003 to 2014 and interpreted in light of the meteorological conditions. Satellite observations will be used to get a more general picture of the size and depth of the ozone hole and will also be used to calculate various metrics for ozone hole severity. In 2003, 2005 and 2006, the ozone hole was relatively large with more ozone loss than normal. This is in particular the case for 2006, which by most ozone hole metrics was the most severe ozone hole on record. On the other hand, the ozone holes of 2004, 2007, 2010 and 2012, 2013 and 2014 were less severe than normal, and only the very special ozone hole of 2002 had less ozone depletion when one regards the ozone holes of the last decade. The South Polar vortex of 2015 was unusually stable and long-lived, so ozone depletion lasted longer than seen in recent years. The ozone hole area, i.e. the area where total ozone is less that 220 DU, averaged over the worst 60 consecutive days was larger in 2015 than in any other year since the beginning of the ozone hole era in the early 1980s.

  3. Ozone Profile Retrievals from GOME-2 UV/Visible Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Zoogman, P.; Chance, K.; Nowlan, C. R.

    2014-12-01

    It has been shown that adding visible measurements in the Chappuis band to ultraviolet (UV) measurements in the Hartley/Huggins bands can significantly enhance retrieval sensitivity to lower tropospheric ozone from backscattered solar radiances due to deeper photon penetration in the visible to the surface than in the ultraviolet. The first NASA Eearth Venture Instrument TEMPO (Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution) instrument is being developed to measure backscattered solar radiation in two channels (~290-490 and 540-740 nm) and make atmospheric pollution measurements over North America from the Geostationary orbit; the primary purpose of including the second channel is to improve lower tropospheric ozone retrieval for air quality monitoring. However, this retrieval enhancement has yet to be solidly demonstrated from existing measurements due to the weak ozone absorption in the visible and strong interference from surface reflectance. We present retrievals from GOME-2 (Global Ozone Monitoring and Experiment-2) UV and visible measurements using the SAO optimal estimation based ozone profile retrieval algorithm, to directly explore the retrieval improvement in lower tropospheric ozone from additional visible measurements. To reduce the retrieval interference from surface reflectance, we add characterization of surface spectral reflectance in the visible into the ozone profile algorithm based on existing surface reflectance spectra and MODIS (Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) BRDF (Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function) climatology. We evaluate the retrieval performance of UV/visible retrieval over the UV retrieval in terms of retrieved lower tropospheric ozone and increase in degree of free for signal (DFS) over the globe in different seasons, and we validate both retrievals against ozonesonde measurements.

  4. The influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation and El Niño-Southern Oscillation on mean and extreme values of column ozone over the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petropavlovskikh, I.; Evans, R.; McConville, G.; Manney, G. L.; Rieder, H. E.

    2014-08-01

    Continuous measurements of total ozone (by Dobson spectrophotometers) across the contiguous United States (US) began in the early 1960s. Here, we analyze temporal and spatial variability and trends in total ozone from the five US sites with long-term records. While similar long-term ozone changes are detected at all five sites, we find differences in the patterns of ozone variability on shorter time scales. In addition to standard evaluation techniques, STL-decomposition methods (Seasonal Trend decomposition of time series based on LOcally wEighted Scatterplot Smoothing, LOESS) are used to address temporal variability and trends in the Dobson data. The LOESS-smoothed trend components show a decline of total ozone between the 1970s and 2000s and a "stabilization" at lower levels in recent years, which is also confirmed by linear trend analysis. Methods from statistical extreme value theory (EVT) are used to characterize days with high and low total ozone (termed EHOs and ELOs, respectively) at each station and to analyze temporal changes in the frequency of ozone extremes and their relationship to dynamical features such as the North Atlantic Oscillation and El Niño Southern Oscillation. A comparison of the "fingerprints" detected in the frequency distribution of the extremes with those for standard metrics (i.e., the mean) shows that more "fingerprints" are found for the extremes, particularly for the positive phase of the NAO, at all five US monitoring sites. Results from the STL-decomposition support the findings of the EVT analysis. Finally, we analyze the relative influence of low and high ozone events on seasonal mean column ozone at each station. The results show that the influence of ELOs and EHOs on seasonal mean column ozone can be as much as ±5%, or about twice as large as the overall long-term decadal ozone trends.

  5. Effects of stratospheric ozone recovery on tropospheric chemistry and air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H.; Wu, S.; Wang, Y.

    2013-08-01

    The stratospheric ozone has decreased greatly since 1980 due to ozone depleting substances (ODSs). As a result of the implementation of the Montreal Protocol and its amendments and adjustments, stratospheric ozone is expected to recover towards its pre-1980 level in the coming decades. We examine the implications of stratospheric ozone recovery for the tropospheric chemistry and ozone air quality with a global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem). Significant decreases in surface ozone photolysis rates due to stratospheric ozone recovery are simulated. Increases in ozone lifetime by up to 7% are calculated in the troposphere. The global average OH decreases by 1.74% and the global burden of tropospheric ozone increases by 0.78%. The perturbations to tropospheirc ozone and surface ozone show large seasonal and spatial variations. General increases in surface ozone are calculated for each season, with increases by up to 5% for some regions.

  6. Ozone: What Would It Be Like to Live in a World Where the Sun Was Dangerous?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clearing, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Defines ozone layer and the meaning, evidence, causes, and significance of ozone depletion. Summarizes solutions to the problem of ozone depletion and government action concerning the issue. Graphically depicts ozone depletion, global ozone loss, and how ozone is destroyed. Provides a lesson plan and listing for additional educational resources.…

  7. A Reevaluation of the Ozone Budget with HALOE UARS Data: No Evidence for the Ozone Deficit.

    PubMed

    Crutzen, P J; Grooß, J U; Brühl, C; Müller, R; Russell, J M

    1995-05-05

    Recently, additional ozone production mechanisms have been proposed to resolve the ozone deficit problem, which arises from greater ozone destruction than production in several photochemical models of the upper stratosphere and lower mesosphere. A detailed ozone model budget analysis was performed with simultaneous observations of O(3), HCl, H(2)O, CH(4), NO, and NO(2) from the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) under conditions with the strongest photochemical control of ozone. The results indicate that an ozone deficit may not exist. On the contrary, the use of currently recommended photochemical parameters leads to insufficient ozone destruction in the model.

  8. Convective Lofting Links Indian Ocean Air Pollution to Recurrent South Atlantic Ozone Maxima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatfield, R. B.; Guan, H.; Thompson, A. M.; Witte, J.

    2003-12-01

    We extend on our analysis of equatorial tropospheric ozone to illustrate the contributions of South Asian pollution export in forming episodes of high O3 over the Atlantic Ocean. We amplify on an earlier description of a broad resolution of the "Atlantic Paradox," for the Jan-Feb-March period, which included initial indications of a very long-distance contribution from South Asia. The approach has been to describe typical periods of significant maximum and minimum tropospheric ozone for early 1999, exploiting TOMS tropospheric ozone estimates jointly with characteristic features of the SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes) ozone soundings. Further investigation of the Total Tropospheric Ozone (TTO) record for all of 1999 suggests that there are repeated periods of very long-distance Asian influence crossing Africa, with an apparent effect on those portions of the Atlantic Equatorial troposphere which are downwind. Trajectory analyses suggest that the pattern over the Indian Ocean is complex: a sequence invoving multiple or mixed combustion sources, low level transport, cumulonimbus venting, and high-level transport to the west seem to be indicated by the TTO record. Biomass burning, fossil and biofuel combustion, and lighting seem to all contribute. For the Atlantic, burning and lighting on adjacent continents as well as episodes of this cross-Africa long-distance transport are all linked in a coordinated seasonal march: all are related by movement of the sun. However, interseasonal tropical variability related to the Madden-Julian oscillation allows intermittent ozone buildups that depart from the seasonal norm.

  9. Trends in total column ozone measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowland, F. S.; Angell, J.; Attmannspacher, W.; Bloomfield, P.; Bojkov, R. D.; Harris, N.; Komhyr, W.; Mcfarland, M.; Mcpeters, R.; Stolarski, R. S.

    1989-01-01

    It is important to ensure the best available data are used in any determination of possible trends in total ozone in order to have the most accurate estimates of any trends and the associated uncertainties. Accordingly, the existing total ozone records were examined in considerable detail. Once the best data set has been produced, the statistical analysis must examine the data for any effects that might indicate changes in the behavior of global total ozone. The changes at any individual measuring station could be local in nature, and herein, particular attention was paid to the seasonal and latitudinal variations of total ozone, because two dimensional photochemical models indicate that any changes in total ozone would be most pronounced at high latitudes during the winter months. The conclusions derived from this detailed examination of available total ozone can be split into two categories, one concerning the quality and the other the statistical analysis of the total ozone record.

  10. Impact of downward-mixing ozone on surface ozone accumulation in southern Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ching-Ho

    2008-04-01

    The ozone that initially presents in the previous day's afternoon mixing layer can remain in the nighttime atmosphere and then be carried over to the next morning. Finally, this ozone can be brought to the ground by downward mixing as mixing depth increases during the daytime, thereby increasing surface ozone concentrations. Variation of ozone concentration during each of these periods is investigated in this work. First, ozone concentrations existing in the daily early morning atmosphere at the altitude range of the daily maximum mixing depth (residual ozone concentrations) were measured using tethered ozonesondes on 52 experimental days during 2004-2005 in southern Taiwan. Daily downward-mixing ozone concentrations were calculated by a box model coupling the measured daily residual ozone concentrations and daily mixing depth variations. The ozone concentrations upwind in the previous day's afternoon mixing layer were estimated by the combination of back air trajectory analysis and known previous day's surface ozone distributions. Additionally, the relationship between daily downward-mixing ozone concentration and daily photochemically produced ozone concentration was examined. The latter was calculated by removing the former from daily surface maximum ozone concentration. The measured daily residual ozone concentrations distributed at 12-74 parts per billion (ppb) with an average of 42 +/- 17 ppb are well correlated with the previous upwind ozone concentration (R2 = 0.54-0.65). Approximately 60% of the previous upwind ozone was estimated to be carried over to the next morning and became the observed residual ozone. The daily downward-mixing ozone contributes 48 +/- 18% of the daily surface maximum ozone concentration, indicating that the downward-mixing ozone is as important as daily photochemically produced ozone to daily surface maximum ozone accumulation. The daily downward-mixing ozone is poorly correlated with the daily photochemically produced ozone and

  11. Estimating Downward Cross-Tropopause Ozone Flux using Column Ozone and Potential Vorticity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, Mark A.; Douglass, Anne R.; Schoeberl, Mark R.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A new method of estimating the downward ozone flux across the midlatitude tropopause is introduced. The algorithm derives the estimate from total column ozone observations. Vertical information is given by analysis potential vorticity fields. This method yields an annual estimate of 500 +/- 140 Tg/yr stratospheric injection of ozone into the northern hemisphere, midlatitude troposphere. The downward ozone flux exhibits the expected spring maximum and autumn minimum. The annual distribution of the cross-tropopause ozone, transport by latitude is consistent with the seasonal frequency and (list distribution) of baroclinic systems. This algorithm also produces localized results and call thus be applied to a single case or global studies.

  12. Low-frequency oscillations in total ozone measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, X. H.; Stanford, J. L.

    1990-01-01

    Low frequency oscillations with periods of approximately one to two months are found in eight years of global grids of total ozone data from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) satellite instrument. The low frequency oscillations corroborate earlier analyses based on four years of data. In addition, both annual and seasonal one-point correlation maps based on the 8-year TOMS data are presented. The results clearly show a standing dipole in ozone perturbations, oscillating with 35 to 50 day periods over the equatorial Indian Ocean-west Pacific region. This contrasts with the eastward moving dipole reported in other data sets. The standing ozone dipole appears to be a dynamical feature associated with vertical atmospheric motions. Consistent with prior analyses based on lower stratospheric temperature fields, large-scale standing patterns are also found in the extratropics of both hemispheres, correlated with ozone fluctuations over the equatorial west Pacific. In the Northern Hemisphere, a standing pattern is observed extending from the tropical Indian Ocean to the north Pacific, across North America, and down to the equatorial Atlantic Ocean region. This feature is most pronounced in the NH summer.

  13. Interactive effects of ambient ozone and climate measured on growth of mature loblolly pine trees

    SciTech Connect

    McLaughlin, S.B.; Downing, D.J.

    1995-02-01

    Analysis of the seasonal growth patterns of mature loblolly pine trees over the interval 1988-1993 has provided the first direct measurement of reductions of stem growth of large forest trees by ambient ozone. Patterns of stem expansion and contraction of 34 trees were examined in eastern Tennessee using serial measurements with sensitive dendrometer bind systems. Study sites varied in soil moisture, soil fertility, and stand density. Levels of ozone, rainfall, and temperature varied widely over the six year study interval. Regression analysis identified statistically and biologically significant influences of ozone on stem growth. Acting either individually or in interaction with high temperature and moisture stress, higher levels of ozone were associated with reduced stem expansion of individual trees within and across years. Observed responses to ozone were relatively rapid, differed widely among trees, and across years, and were significantly amplified by low soil moisture and high air temperatures. Both short term responses, clearly tied to changing stem water status, and longer term cumulative responses were identified. These data indicate that relatively low levels of ambient ozone can significantly reduce growth of mature forest trees and that interactions between ambient ozone and climate are likely to be important modifiers of future forest growth and function. Additional studies of mechanisms of short term response and inter species comparisons are clearly needed.

  14. Measurement of ozone production sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cazorla Andrade, Maria Del Carmen

    The Measurement of Ozone Production Sensor (MOPS) is a new ambient air monitor that measures directly the rate of ozone production in the atmosphere. The sensor consists of two environmental chambers made of UV-transmitting Teflon film continuously exposed to the solar radiation, a unit to convert NO2 to O3, and a modified ozone monitor. In the sample chamber, photolysis processes and radical chemistry produce ozone just as it happens in the atmosphere. In the second chamber, called the reference chamber, a UV-blocking film prevents radical formation in a way that only the photostationary state component of ozone formation is retained. High-efficiency conversion of NO2 to O3 accounts for differences in the NOx photostationary state between both chambers. An ozone monitor operating without its ozone scrubber detects the ozone differential between the sample and the reference chamber. By doing so, the photostationary state component of ozone formation is canceled out and the ozone produced via radical chemistry is detected. The ozone differential is divided by the exposure time of the air in the chambers to find the rate of ozone production. Radical abundance measurements, wall loss tests and radiometric measurements demonstrate the feasibility of the technique. The MOPS was deployed in a rural environment, on the campus of Penn State University (September 2008), and in an urban environment, in Houston during the Study of Houston Atmospheric Radical Precursors SHARP (15 Apr to 31 May, 2009). The MOPS retrieved the first experimental plots of ambient P(O 3) vs. NO in both locations. In addition, the sensitivity of ozone production in these two environments was studied by adding NOx mixtures to the ambient air and looking at the response in the production of ozone. The results presented in this work demonstrate how an extended use of the MOPS can contribute to the improvement of air quality regulations by quantifying ozone production and ozone transport at a regional

  15. What is causing high ozone at Summit, Greenland?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmig, Detlev; Oltmans, Samuel J.; Morse, Thomas O.; Dibb, Jack E.

    Causes for the unusually high and seasonally anomalous ozone concentrations at Summit, Greenland were investigated. Surface data from continuous monitoring, ozone sonde data, tethered balloon vertical profiling data, correlation of ozone with the radionuclide tracers 7Be and 210Pb, and synoptic transport analysis were used to identify processes that contribute to sources and sinks of ozone at Summit. Northern Hemisphere (NH) lower free troposphere ozone mixing ratios in the polar regions are ˜20 ppbv higher than in Antarctica. Ozone at Summit, which is at 3212 m above sea level, reflects its altitude location in the lower free troposphere. Transport events that bring high ozone and dry air, likely from lower stratospheric/higher tropospheric origin, were observed ˜40% of time during June 2000. Comparison of ozone enhancements with radionuclide tracer records shows a year-round correlation of ozone with the stratospheric tracer 7Be. Summit lacks the episodic, sunrise ozone depletion events, which were found to reduce the annual, median ozone at NH coastal sites by up to ˜3 ppbv. Synoptic trajectory analyses indicated that, under selected conditions, Summit encounters polluted continental air with increased ozone from central and western Europe. Low ozone surface deposition fluxes over long distances upwind of Summit reduce ozone deposition losses in comparison to other NH sites, particularly during the summer months. Surface-layer photochemical ozone production does not appear to have a noticeable influence on Summit's ozone levels.

  16. Multiscale multifractal properties between ground-level ozone and its precursors in rural area in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    He, Hong-di; Qiao, Zhong-Xia; Pan, Wei; Lu, Wei-Zhen

    2017-03-10

    In rural area, due to the reduction of NOx and CO emitted from vehicle exhausts, the ozone photochemical reaction exhibits relatively weak effect and ozone formation presents different pattern with its precursors in contrast to urban situation. Hence, in this study, we apply detrended cross-correlation analysis to investigate the multifractal properties between ozone and its precursors in a rural area in Hong Kong. The observed databases of ozone, NO2, NOx and CO levels during 2005-2014 are obtained from a rural monitoring station in Hong Kong. Based on the collected database, the cross-correlation analysis is carried out firstly to examine the cross-correlation patterns and the results indicate that close interactive relations exist between them. Then the detrended cross-correlation analysis is performed for further analysis. The multifractal characters occur between ozone and its precursors. The long-term cross-correlations behaviors in winter are verified to be stronger than that in other seasons. Additionally, the method is extended on daily averaged data to explore the multifractal property on various time scales. The long-term cross-correlation behavior of ozone vs NO2 and NOx on daily basis becomes weaker while that of ozone vs CO becomes stronger. The multifractal properties for all pairs in summer are found to be the strongest among the whole year. These findings successfully illustrate that the multifractal analysis is a useful tool for describing the temporal scaling behaviors of ozone trends in different time series in rural areas.

  17. Rocket ozone sounding network data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, D. U.; Krueger, A. J.; Foster, G. M.

    1979-01-01

    During the period March 1977 through May 1977, three regular monthly ozone profiles were measured at Wallops Flight Center and three regular monthly ozone profiles were measured at the Churchill Research Range. One additional flight was conducted at Wallops Flight Center in support of Nimbus 4 SBUV. Data results and flight profiles for the period covered are presented.

  18. Coherence of longterm stratospheric ozone time series for the study of ozone recovery in the northern mid-latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, Prijitha J.; Godin-Beekmann, Sophie; Pazmino, Andrea

    2010-05-01

    Since mid-to late 1980s decreasing amounts of ozone concentration has been observed in northern mid-latitudes mainly due to the ozone depleting chlorofluorocarbon loading in the stratosphere. Recent works indicate the stabilization of ozone loss in the mid-latitudes, in the upper stratosphere in particular. In order to further investigate the evolution of ozone in the mid-latitudes, a coherent dataset is required. As a first step, we diagnose the long term evolution of ozone at Observatoire de Haute Provence (OHP - 43.93°N, 5.71°E), one of the northern mid-latitude stations. In this study, we present the inter comparison of ozone measurements from OHP LIDAR with collocated SBUV, SAGEII, HALOE, MLS and GOMOS satellite observations as well as the ground based Ozonesondes and Umkehr measurements. A detailed statistical study on the relative differences of the compared measurements is performed to check any specific drifts with time. In addition, the seasonal and annual averages of the relative deviations are also checked to quantify agreement among the data. On average, all instruments show their best agreement with LIDAR between 20 and 40 km, where the differences are within 5%. The agreement with SAGEII measurements are remarkably good since it falls within 1% at 17-41 km. A similar result is also found from the Ozonesondes comparison at 22-31 km. Most comparisons exhibit slightly larger deviations below 20 and above 42 km, of about 10%. The LIDAR masurements are also compared to Umkehr measurements by converting its ozone number density to Dobson units for each Umkehr layer. The analysis reveals a negative bias in Umkehr data within -10% except at layer 6 (around 30 km).

  19. 21 CFR 173.368 - Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ozone. 173.368 Section 173.368 Food and Drugs FOOD... Additives § 173.368 Ozone. Ozone (CAS Reg. No. 10028-15-6) may be safely used in the treatment, storage, and... specifications for ozone in the Food Chemicals Codex, 4th ed. (1996), p. 277, which is incorporated by...

  20. 21 CFR 173.368 - Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ozone. 173.368 Section 173.368 Food and Drugs FOOD... Additives § 173.368 Ozone. Ozone (CAS Reg. No. 10028-15-6) may be safely used in the treatment, storage, and... specifications for ozone in the Food Chemicals Codex, 4th ed. (1996), p. 277, which is incorporated by...

  1. 21 CFR 173.368 - Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ozone. 173.368 Section 173.368 Food and Drugs FOOD... Additives § 173.368 Ozone. Ozone (CAS Reg. No. 10028-15-6) may be safely used in the treatment, storage, and... specifications for ozone in the Food Chemicals Codex, 4th ed. (1996), p. 277, which is incorporated by...

  2. 21 CFR 173.368 - Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ozone. 173.368 Section 173.368 Food and Drugs FOOD... Additives § 173.368 Ozone. Ozone (CAS Reg. No. 10028-15-6) may be safely used in the treatment, storage, and... specifications for ozone in the Food Chemicals Codex, 4th ed. (1996), p. 277, which is incorporated by...

  3. Observations of ozone and carbon monoxide at Mei-Feng mountain site (2269 m a.s.l.) in Central Taiwan: seasonal variations and influence of Asian continental outflow.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu Chi; Lin, Chuan Yao; Lin, Po Hsiung; Engling, Guenter; Lan, Yung-Yao; Kuo, Ten-Ho; Hsu, Wei Ting; Ting, Chia-Chun

    2011-07-15

    Continuous measurements of ozone (O(3)) and carbon monoxide (CO) were carried out at Mei-Feng (24.05°N, 120.10°E, 2269 m above sea level), a remote mountain site in central Taiwan, to investigate the influence of long-range transported air pollution on O(3) and CO variations in the subtropical Pacific region. Data collected from March 2009 to September 2010 revealed average mixing ratios of 37±14 ppb for O(3) and 188±82 ppb for CO at this remote site. Diurnal variations for both O(3) and CO were observed as well in all seasons. The higher levels for O(3) and CO in the afternoon were attributed to transport of boundary layer pollution to the site during daytime upslope flow. Monthly means of both O(3) and CO showed maxima in spring and in the continental air masses from Southeast Asia, coastal China, and Korea/Japan. On the contrary, the lower O(3) and CO levels found in summer were due to the marine air masses originating from the Philippine Sea and Pacific Ocean. The relationship between O(3) and CO was analyzed, using nighttime data to minimize any local influence. The results showed a fairly good correlation between O(3) and CO from March to September. The contribution of CO from the Asian outflow reached a maximum in spring (88 ppb) and had a minimum in summer (27 ppb). The photochemical buildup of O(3) resulting from anthropogenic emissions in continental Asia was estimated to be 15 ppb in spring, while its production was insignificant, with an average of 4 ppb, in summer. A positive correlation between O(3) and CO plus high ozone levels in springtime suggested that the enhancements of O(3) were likely due to O(3) which was photochemically produced over this region.

  4. Significant impact of the East Asia monsoon on ozone seasonal behavior in the boundary layer of Eastern China and the west Pacific region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Y. J.; Uno, I.; Wang, Z. F.; Pochanart, P.; Li, J.; Akimoto, H.

    2008-08-01

    The impact of the East Asia monsoon on the seasonal behavior of O3 in the boundary layer of Eastern China and the west Pacific region was analyzed for 2004 2006 by means of full-year nested chemical transport model simulations and continuous observational data obtained from three inland mountain sites in central and eastern China and three oceanic sites in the west Pacific region. The basic common features of O3 seasonal behaviors over all the monitoring sites are the pre- and post-monsoon peaks with a summer trough. Such bimodal seasonal patterns of O3 are predominant over the region with strong summer monsoon penetration, and become weaker or even disappear outside the monsoon region. The seasonal/geographical distribution of the pre-defined Monsoon Index indicated that the East Asia summer monsoon is responsible for the bimodal seasonal O3 pattern, and also partly account for the differences in the O3 seasonal variations between the inland mountain and oceanic sites. Over the inland mountain sites, the O3 concentration increased gradually from the beginning of the year, reached a maximum in June, decreased rapidly to a minimum in July or August, and then peaked in September or October, thereafter decreased gradually again. Over the oceanic sites, O3 abundance showed a similar increasing trend beginning in January, but then decreased gradually from the end of March, followed by a wide trough with the minimum in July and August and a small peak in October or November. A sensitivity analysis performed by setting China-emission to zero revealed that the chemically produced O3 from China-emission contributed more than 40% of total boundary layer O3 during summertime (60 70% in June) and accounted for about 40 ppb of each peak value over the inland region. In contrast, over the oceanic region in the high monsoon index zone, the contribution of China-emission to total O3 was always less than 20% (<10 ppb), and less than 10% in summer.

  5. Significant impact of the East Asia monsoon on ozone seasonal behavior in the boundary layer of Eastern China and the west Pacific region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Y. J.; Uno, I.; Wang, Z. F.; Pochanart, P.; Li, J.; Akimoto, H.

    2008-12-01

    The impact of the East Asia monsoon on the seasonal behavior of O3 in the boundary layer of Eastern China and the west Pacific region was analyzed for 2004-2006 by means of full-year nested chemical transport model simulations and continuous observational data obtained from three inland mountain sites in central and eastern China and three oceanic sites in the west Pacific region. The basic common features of O3 seasonal behaviors over all the monitoring sites are the pre- and post-monsoon peaks with a summer trough. Such bimodal seasonal patterns of O3 are predominant over the region with strong summer monsoon penetration, and become weaker or even disappear outside the monsoon region. The seasonal/geographical distribution of the pre-defined monsoon index indicated that the East Asia summer monsoon is responsible for the bimodal seasonal O3 pattern, and also partly account for the differences in the O3 seasonal variations between the inland mountain and oceanic sites. Over the inland mountain sites, the O3 concentration increased gradually from the beginning of the year, reached a maximum in June, decreased rapidly to the summer valley in July or August, and then peaked in September or October, thereafter decreased gradually again. Over the oceanic sites, O3 abundance showed a similar increasing trend beginning in January, but then decreased gradually from the end of March, followed by a wide trough with the minimum in July and August and a small peak in October or November. A sensitivity analysis performed by setting China-emission to zero revealed that the chemically produced O3 from China-emission contributed substantially to the O3 abundance, particularly the pre- and post-monsoon O3 peaks, over China mainland. We found that China-emission contributed more than 40% to total boundary layer O3 during summertime (60-70% in July) and accounted for about 40 ppb of each peak value over the inland region if without considering the effect of the nonlinear chemical

  6. Evaluation of Intercontinental Transport of Ozone Using Full-tagged, Tagged-N and Sensitivity Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Y.; Liu, J.; Mauzerall, D. L.; Emmons, L. K.; Horowitz, L. W.; Fan, S.; Li, X.; Tao, S.

    2014-12-01

    Long-range transport of ozone is of great concern, yet the source-receptor relationships derived previously depend strongly on the source attribution techniques used. Here we describe a new tagged ozone mechanism (full-tagged), the design of which seeks to take into account the combined effects of emissions of ozone precursors, CO, NOx and VOCs, from a particular source, while keeping the current state of chemical equilibrium unchanged. We label emissions from the target source (A) and background (B). When two species from A and B sources react with each other, half of the resulting products are labeled A, and half B. Thus the impact of a given source on downwind regions is recorded through tagged chemistry. We then incorporate this mechanism into the Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers (MOZART-4) to examine the impact of anthropogenic emissions within North America, Europe, East Asia and South Asia on ground-level ozone downwind of source regions during 1999-2000. We compare our results with two previously used methods -- the sensitivity and tagged-N approaches. The ozone attributed to a given source by the full-tagged method is more widely distributed spatially, but has weaker seasonal variability than that estimated by the other methods. On a seasonal basis, for most source/receptor pairs, the full-tagged method estimates the largest amount of tagged ozone, followed by the sensitivity and tagged-N methods. In terms of trans-Pacific influence of ozone pollution, the full-tagged method estimates the strongest impact of East Asian (EA) emissions on the western U.S. (WUS) in MAM and JJA (~3 ppbv), which is substantially different in magnitude and seasonality from tagged-N and sensitivity studies. This difference results from the full-tagged method accounting for the maintenance of peroxy radicals (e.g., CH3O2, CH3CO3, and HO2), in addition to NOy, as effective reservoirs of EA source impact across the Pacific, allowing for a significant contribution to

  7. Ozone photochemistry in an oil and natural gas extraction region during winter: simulations of a snow-free season in the Uintah Basin, Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, P. M.; Young, C. J.; Aikin, K.; deGouw, J. A.; Dubé, W. P.; Geiger, F.; Gilman, J. B.; Helmig, D.; Holloway, J. S.; Kercher, J.; Lerner, B.; Martin, R.; McLaren, R.; Parrish, D. D.; Peischl, J.; Roberts, J. M.; Ryerson, T. B.; Thornton, J.; Warneke, C.; Williams, E. J.; Brown, S. S.

    2013-03-01

    The Uintah Basin in northeastern Utah, a region of intense oil and gas extraction, experienced ozone (O3) concentrations above levels harmful to human health for multiple days during the winters of 2009-2010 and 2010-2011. These wintertime O3 pollution episodes occur during cold, stable periods when the ground is snowcovered, and have been linked to emissions from the oil and gas extraction process. The Uintah Basin Winter Ozone Study (UBWOS) was a field intensive in early 2012, whose goal was to address current uncertainties in the chemical and physical processes that drive wintertime O3 production in regions of oil and gas development. Although elevated O3 concentrations were not observed during the winter of 2011-2012, the comprehensive set of observations tests of our understanding of O3 photochemistry in this unusual emissions environment. A box model, constrained to the observations and using the explicit Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM) V3.2 chemistry scheme, has been used to investigate the sensitivities of O3 production during UBWOS 2012. Simulations identify the O3 production photochemistry to be highly radical limited. Production of OH from O3 photolysis (through reaction of O(1D) with water vapor) contributed only 170 pptv day-1, 8% of the total primary radical source on average. Other radical sources, including the photolysis of formaldehyde (HCHO, 52%), nitrous acid (HONO, 26%), and nitryl chloride (ClNO2, 13%) were larger. O3 production was also found to be highly sensitive to aromatic volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations, due to radical amplification reactions in the oxidation scheme of these species. Radical production was shown to be small in comparison to the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), such that NOx acted as the primary radical sink. Consequently, the system was highly VOC sensitive, despite the much larger mixing ratio of total non-methane hydrocarbons (230 ppbv (2080 ppbC), 6 week average) relative to NOx (5.6 ppbv average

  8. Ozone Layer Protection

    MedlinePlus

    ... EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Ozone Layer Protection Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Ozone Layer Protection Welcome to EPA's ozone layer protection web ...

  9. Ozone decomposition.

    PubMed

    Batakliev, Todor; Georgiev, Vladimir; Anachkov, Metody; Rakovsky, Slavcho; Zaikov, Gennadi E

    2014-06-01

    Catalytic ozone decomposition is of great significance because ozone is a toxic substance commonly found or generated in human environments (aircraft cabins, offices with photocopiers, laser printers, sterilizers). Considerable work has been done on ozone decomposition reported in the literature. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the literature, concentrating on analysis of the physico-chemical properties, synthesis and catalytic decomposition of ozone. This is supplemented by a review on kinetics and catalyst characterization which ties together the previously reported results. Noble metals and oxides of transition metals have been found to be the most active substances for ozone decomposition. The high price of precious metals stimulated the use of metal oxide catalysts and particularly the catalysts based on manganese oxide. It has been determined that the kinetics of ozone decomposition is of first order importance. A mechanism of the reaction of catalytic ozone decomposition is discussed, based on detailed spectroscopic investigations of the catalytic surface, showing the existence of peroxide and superoxide surface intermediates.

  10. Ozone decomposition

    PubMed Central

    Batakliev, Todor; Georgiev, Vladimir; Anachkov, Metody; Rakovsky, Slavcho

    2014-01-01

    Catalytic ozone decomposition is of great significance because ozone is a toxic substance commonly found or generated in human environments (aircraft cabins, offices with photocopiers, laser printers, sterilizers). Considerable work has been done on ozone decomposition reported in the literature. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the literature, concentrating on analysis of the physico-chemical properties, synthesis and catalytic decomposition of ozone. This is supplemented by a review on kinetics and catalyst characterization which ties together the previously reported results. Noble metals and oxides of transition metals have been found to be the most active substances for ozone decomposition. The high price of precious metals stimulated the use of metal oxide catalysts and particularly the catalysts based on manganese oxide. It has been determined that the kinetics of ozone decomposition is of first order importance. A mechanism of the reaction of catalytic ozone decomposition is discussed, based on detailed spectroscopic investigations of the catalytic surface, showing the existence of peroxide and superoxide surface intermediates. PMID:26109880

  11. A Study on Generation Ice Containing Ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimura, Kenji; Koyama, Shigeru; Yamamoto, Hiromi

    Ozone has the capability of sterilization and deodorization due to high oxidation power. It is also effective for the conservation of perishable foods and purification of water. However, ozone has a disadvantage, that is, conservation of ozone is difficult because it changes back into oxygen. Recently, ice containing ozone is taken attention for the purpose of its conservation. The use of ice containing ozone seems to keep food fresher when we conserve and transport perishable foods due to effects of cooling and sterilization of ice containing ozone. In the present study, we investigated the influence of temperatures of water dissolving ozone on the timewise attenuations of ozone concentration in water. We also investigated the influence of cooling temperature, ice diameter, initial temperatures of water dissolving ozone and container internal pressure of the water dissolving ozone on ozone concentration in the ice. In addition, we investigated the influence of the ice diameter on the timewise attenuations of ozone concentration in the ice. It was confirmed that the solidification experimental data can be adjusted by a correlation between ozone concentration in the ice and solidification time.

  12. Observed and theoretical variations of atmospheric ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    London, J.

    1976-01-01

    Results are summarized from three areas of ozone research: (1) continued analysis of the global distribution of total ozone to extend the global ozone atlas to summarize 15 years (1957-72) of ground based observations; (2) analysis of balloon borne ozonesonde observations for Arosa, Switzerland, and Hohenpeissenberg, Germany (GFR); (3) contined processing of the (Orbiting Geophysical Observatory-4) satellite data to complete the analysis of the stratospheric ozone distribution from the available OGO-4 data. Results of the analysis of the total ozone observations indicated that the long term ozone variation have marked regional patterns and tend to alternate with season and hemisphere. It is becoming increasingly clear that these long period changes are associated with large scale variations in the general upper atmosphere circulation patterns.

  13. Chloroplastic responses of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) seedlings to ozone exposure.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Paul D; Palmer, Brent; Houpis, James L J; Smith, Mary K; Pushnik, James C

    2003-06-01

    Integrity of chloroplast membranes is essential to photosynthesis. Loss of thylakoid membrane integrity has been proposed as a consequence of ozone (O(3)) exposure and therefore may be a mechanistic basis for decreased photosynthetic rates commonly associated with ozone exposure. To investigate this hypothesis, Pinus ponderosa seedlings were exposed to ambient air or ozone concentrations maintained at 0.15 or 0.30 microliter l(-1) for 10 h day(-1) for 51 days during their second growing season. Over the course of the study, foliage samples were periodically collected for thylakoid membrane, chlorophyll and protein analyses. Additionally, gas-exchange measurements were made in conjunction with foliage sampling to verify that observed chloroplastic responses were associated with ozone-induced changes in photosynthesis. Needles exposed to elevated ozone exhibited decreases in chlorophyll a and b content. The decreases were dependent on the duration and intensity of ozone exposure. When based on equal amounts of chlorophyll, ozone-exposed sample tissue exhibited an increase in total protein. When based on equal amounts of protein, ozone-exposed samples exhibited an increase in 37 kDa proteins, possibly consisting of breakdown products, and a possible decrease in 68 kDa proteins, Rubisco small subunit. There was also a change in the ratio of Photosystem I protein complexes CPI and CPII that may have contributed to decreased photosynthesis. Net photosynthetic rates were decreased in the high ozone treatment suggesting that observed structural and biochemical changes in the chloroplast were associated with alterations of the photosynthetic process.

  14. The Effect of Lightning NOx Production on Surface Ozone in the Continental United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaynak, B.; Hu, Y.; Martin, R. V.; Russell, A. G.; Choi, Y.; Wang, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Lightning NO(x) emissions calculated using the US National Lightning Detection Network data were found to account for 30% of the total NO(x) emissions for July August 2004, a period chosen both for having higher lightning NO(x) production and high ozone levels, thus maximizing the likelihood that such emissions could impact peak ozone levels. Including such emissions led to modest, but sometimes significant increases in simulated surface ozone when using the Community Multi-scale Air Quality Model (CMAQ). Three model simulations were performed, two with the addition of lightning NO(x) emissions, and one without. Domain-wide daily maximum 8-h ozone changes due to lightning NO(x) were less than 2 ppbv in 71 % of the cases with a maximum of 10 ppbv; whereas the difference in 1-h ozone was less than 2 ppbv in 77% of the cases with a maximum of 6 ppbv. Daily maximum 1-h and 8-h ozone for grids containing O3 monitoring stations changed slightly, with more than 43% of the cases differing less than 2 ppbv. The greatest differences were 42 ppbv for both 1-h and 8-h O3 , though these tended to be on days of lower ozone. Lightning impacts on the season-wide maximum 1-h and 8-h averaged ozone decreased starting from the 1 st to 4th highest values (an average of 4th highest, 8-h values is used for attainment demonstration in the US). Background ozone values from the y-intercept of O3 versus NO(z) curve were 42.2 and 43.9 ppbv for simulations without and with lightning emissions, respectively. Results from both simulations with lightning NO(x) suggest that while North American lightning production of NO(x) can lead to significant local impacts on a few occasions, they will have a relatively small impact on typical maximum levels and determination of Policy Relevant Background levels.

  15. Tabulations of ambient ozone data obtained by GASP (Global Air Sampling Program) airliners, March 1975 to July 1979

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jasperson, W. H.; Holdeman, J. D.

    1984-01-01

    Tabulations are given of GASP ambient ozone mean, standard deviation, median, 84th percentile, and 98th percentile values, by month, flight level, and geographical region. These data are tabulated to conform to the temporal and spatial resolution required by FAA Advisory Circular 120-38 (monthly by 2000 ft in altitude by 5 deg in latitude) for climatological data used to show compliance with cabin ozone regulations. In addition seasonal x 10 deg latitude tabulations are included which are directly comparable to and supersede the interim GASP ambient ozone tabulations given in appendix B of FAA-EE-80-43 (NASA TM-81528). Selected probability variations are highlighted to illustrate the spatial and temporal variability of ambient ozone and to compare results from the coarse and fine grid analyses.

  16. Ozone photochemistry in an oil and natural gas extraction region during winter: simulations of a snow-free season in the Uintah Basin, Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, P. M.; Young, C. J.; Aikin, K.; deGouw, J.; Dubé, W. P.; Geiger, F.; Gilman, J.; Helmig, D.; Holloway, J. S.; Kercher, J.; Lerner, B.; Martin, R.; McLaren, R.; Parrish, D. D.; Peischl, J.; Roberts, J. M.; Ryerson, T. B.; Thornton, J.; Warneke, C.; Williams, E. J.; Brown, S. S.

    2013-09-01

    The Uintah Basin in northeastern Utah, a region of intense oil and gas extraction, experienced ozone (O3) concentrations above levels harmful to human health for multiple days during the winters of 2009-2010 and 2010-2011. These wintertime O3 pollution episodes occur during cold, stable periods when the ground is snow-covered, and have been linked to emissions from the oil and gas extraction process. The Uintah Basin Winter Ozone Study (UBWOS) was a field intensive in early 2012, whose goal was to address current uncertainties in the chemical and physical processes that drive wintertime O3 production in regions of oil and gas development. Although elevated O3 concentrations were not observed during the winter of 2011-2012, the comprehensive set of observations tests our understanding of O3 photochemistry in this unusual emissions environment. A box model, constrained to the observations and using the near-explicit Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM) v3.2 chemistry scheme, has been used to investigate the sensitivities of O3 production during UBWOS 2012. Simulations identify the O3 production photochemistry to be highly radical limited (with a radical production rate significantly smaller than the NOx emission rate). Production of OH from O3 photolysis (through reaction of O(1D) with water vapor) contributed only 170 pptv day-1, 8% of the total primary radical source on average (primary radicals being those produced from non-radical precursors). Other radical sources, including the photolysis of formaldehyde (HCHO, 52%), nitrous acid (HONO, 26%), and nitryl chloride (ClNO2, 13%) were larger. O3 production was also found to be highly sensitive to aromatic volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations, due to radical amplification reactions in the oxidation scheme of these species. Radical production was shown to be small in comparison to the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), such that NOx acted as the primary radical sink. Consequently, the system was highly VOC

  17. Ozone Pollution

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Known as tropospheric or ground-level ozone, this gas is harmful to human heath and the environment. Since it forms from emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx), these pollutants are regulated under air quality standards.

  18. Contrasts between Antarctic and Arctic ozone depletion.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Susan; Portmann, Robert W; Thompson, David W J

    2007-01-09

    This work surveys the depth and character of ozone depletion in the Antarctic and Arctic using available long balloon-borne and ground-based records that cover multiple decades from ground-based sites. Such data reveal changes in the range of ozone values including the extremes observed as polar air passes over the stations. Antarctic ozone observations reveal widespread and massive local depletion in the heart of the ozone "hole" region near 18 km, frequently exceeding 90%. Although some ozone losses are apparent in the Arctic during particular years, the depth of the ozone losses in the Arctic are considerably smaller, and their occurrence is far less frequent. Many Antarctic total integrated column ozone observations in spring since approximately the 1980s show values considerably below those ever observed in earlier decades. For the Arctic, there is evidence of some spring season depletion of total ozone at particular stations, but the changes are much less pronounced compared with the range of past data. Thus, the observations demonstrate that the widespread and deep ozone depletion that characterizes the Antarctic ozone hole is a unique feature on the planet.

  19. Response of Phaseolus vulgaris L. to differing ozone regimes having identical total exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musselman, Robert C.; Younglove, Theodore; McCool, Patrick M.

    Protocols were designed to test for differences in response of plants to ozone treatments having equal total exposure (concentration × time) but different exposure profiles Kidney beans ( Phaseolus vulgaris L., cv. California Dark Red) were exposed to ozone in controlled fumigation chambers within a greenhouse Four different ozone exposure profiles were used, each having the same total cumulative exposure (SUM00) and the same 7, 12 and 24 h seasonal means. The three exposure profiles which incorporated peak concentrations more severely impacted response parameters compared to a steady-state profile which did not exceed the National Ambient Air Quality Standard. Significant differences were found in percent necrotic leaf area, number of pods and top dry weight between exposure profiles. In additional analyses, the response parameters were regressed against seasonal cumulative ozone concentrations raised to powers of 0.33 and from 0.5 to 4 in steps of 0.5 in order to increase effective weighting of the higher concentrations. Total dry weight and leaf necrosis were best fit with the sum of the squared concentrations ( n = 2) while number of pods was best fit by the summed concentrations to the 3.5 power ( n = 3.5). These analyses suggest the peak ozone concentrations are important in determining plant response.

  20. Ozone, Tropospheric

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, Jack

    1995-01-01

    In the early part of the 20th century, ground-based and balloon-borne measurements discovered that most of atmosphere's ozone is located in the stratosphere with highest concentrations located between 15 and 30 km (9,3 and 18.6 miles). For a long time, it was believed that tropospheric ozone originated from the stratosphere and that most of it was destroyed by contact with the earth's surface. Ozone, O3, was known to be produced by the photo-dissociation of molecular oxygen, O2, a process that can only occur at wavelengths shorter than 242 nm. Because such short-wave-length radiation is present only in the stratosphere, no tropospheric ozone production is possible by this mechanism. In the 1940s, however, it became obvious that production of ozone was also taking place in the troposphere. The overall reaction mechanism was eventually identified by Arie Haagen-Smit of the California Institute of Technology, in highly polluted southern California. The copious emissions from the numerous cars driven there as a result of the mass migration to Los Angeles after World War 2 created the new unpleasant phenomenon of photochemical smog, the primary component of which is ozone. These high levels of ozone were injuring vegetable crops, causing women's nylons to run, and generating increasing respiratory and eye-irritation problems for the populace. Our knowledge of tropospheric ozone increased dramatically in the early 1950s as monitoring stations and search centers were established throughout southern California to see what could be done to combat this threat to human health and the environment.

  1. Ozone and Cavitation Combination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carreon, Ernestina; Traversoni, Leonardo

    2009-09-01

    From laboratory measurements it is well known that the addition of ozone and cavitation enhances the properties of both, understanding for that the ones related to disinfection and carbon removal from waste water. This paper shows modeling of such phenomena that gives some light to the understanding of it and also provides the opportunity to improve the effectiveness of the current procedures.

  2. Tropical Tropospheric Ozone: New Insights from Remote Sensing, Sondes and Field Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.

    1999-01-01

    This talk will summarize our recent research in tropical tropospheric ozone studies in the field and from space. New tropospheric ozone and aerosol products from the TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) satellite instrument will be highlighted (Hudson and Thompson, 1998; Thompson and Hudson, 1999). These are suitable for studying processes like ozone pollution resulting from biomass fires, seasonal and interannual variations and trends. Archived maps of tropospheric ozone over the tropics, from the Nimbus 7 observing period (1979-1992) are available in digital form at our website: http://metosrv2.umd.edu/-tropo. Real-time processing of TOMS data has produced images of tropical tropospheric ozone (TTO) since early 1997, using Earth-Probe TOMS; these maps are also available on the homepage. The need for validation data for TTO maps has led to establishment of the NASA/NOAA-sponsored SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes) network, from which a 2-year record of high-quality ozonesonde data can be obtained: (http://hyperion.gsfc.nasa.gov/Data-services/Shadoz/shadoz-hmpg2.htrnl). Examples will be shown, along with ozonesondes from the January-February 1999 Aerosols-99 cruise of the R/V Ronald H Brown from Virginia to Cape Town, South Africa.

  3. Comparison of Ozone Retrievals from the Pandora Spectrometer System and Dobson Spectrophotometer in Boulder, Colorado

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, J.; Evans, R.; Cede, A.; Abuhassan, N.; Petropavlovskikh, I.; McConville, G.

    2015-01-01

    A comparison of retrieved total column ozone (TCO) amounts between the Pandora #34 spectrometer system and the Dobson #061 spectrophotometer from direct-sun observations was performed on the roof of the Boulder, Colorado, NOAA building. This paper, part of an ongoing study, covers a 1-year period starting on 17 December 2013. Both the standard Dobson and Pandora TCO retrievals required a correction, TCO(sub corr) = TCO (1 + C(T)), using a monthly varying effective ozone temperature, T(sub E), derived from a temperature and ozone profile climatology. The correction is used to remove a seasonal difference caused by using a fixed temperature in each retrieval algorithm. The respective corrections C(T(sub E)) are C(sub Pandora) = 0.00333(T(sub E) - 225) and C(sub Dobson) = -0.0013(T(sub E) - 226.7) per degree K. After the applied corrections removed most of the seasonal retrieval dependence on ozone temperature, TCO agreement between the instruments was within 1% for clear-sky conditions. For clear-sky observations, both co-located instruments tracked the day-to-day variation in total column ozone amounts with a correlation of r(exp 2) = 0.97 and an average offset of 1.1 +/- 5.8 DU. In addition, the Pandora TCO data showed 0.3% annual average agreement with satellite overpass data from AURA/OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument) and 1% annual average offset with Suomi-NPP/OMPS (Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership, the nadir viewing portion of the Ozone Mapper Profiler Suite).

  4. Analysis of the seasonal and inter-annual variations, and long-term trends of ozone in the metropolitan area of Monterrey, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yassmany Hernández Paniagua, Iván; Clemitshaw, Kevin C.; Mendoza, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    Since 1993, high-precision and high-frequency measurements of ambient O3 have been recorded at 5 sites within the metropolitan area of Monterrey, the third largest city in Mexico. O3was measured by the Integral Environmental Monitoring System of the Nuevo Leon State Government using commercially available, conventional UV photometry instrumentation (precision better than ±1 ppb). The datasets exhibit variations on differing time-scales of minutes to hours, with evidence of seasonal cycles and inter-annual variability. The O3 diurnal cycles vary with length of daylight, which influences its formation and loss via photochemistry. No apparent influence is observed in the amplitudes of O3 diurnal cycles recorded during weekdays with higher emissions from fossil fuel combustion than at weekends, although larger amplitudes occur at sites with polluted air from industrial areas. Seasonal cycles are driven by the variation in solar radiation and changes in emissions of primary precursors, VOCs and NOX. Maximum O3 mixing ratios were recorded in spring, and minimum values in winter, with a secondary trough during summer due to the advection of clean air masses from the Gulf of Mexico. The largest spring maxima are recorded downwind of an industrial area likely due photochemical processing of VOCs and NOx, with the lowest recorded in a highly populated area due to reaction of O3 and NO. At all sites, decreasing seasonal amplitudes were observed during 1993-1998, followed by persistent increases from 1998 to 2014. Wind sector analyses were carried out by splitting the wind direction into 8 categories (45°). At all sites, the highest O3 mixing ratios were recorded from the E and SE sectors, with lowest values recorded in air masses from the W and NW. Wind sector analysis of primary precursors (such as VOCs, CO, NOX) reveal that sources are dominated by emissions from industrial regions in Monterrey and surrounding areas. The largest annual growth rates for the E and SE

  5. Spatial regression analysis on 32 years total column ozone data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knibbe, J. S.; van der A, R. J.; de Laat, A. T. J.

    2014-02-01

    Multiple-regressions analysis have been performed on 32 years of total ozone column data that was spatially gridded with a 1° × 1.5° resolution. The total ozone data consists of the MSR (Multi Sensor Reanalysis; 1979-2008) and two years of assimilated SCIAMACHY ozone data (2009-2010). The two-dimensionality in this data-set allows us to perform the regressions locally and investigate spatial patterns of regression coefficients and their explanatory power. Seasonal dependencies of ozone on regressors are included in the analysis. A new physically oriented model is developed to parameterize stratospheric ozone. Ozone variations on non-seasonal timescales are parameterized by explanatory variables describing the solar cycle, stratospheric aerosols, the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO), El Nino (ENSO) and stratospheric alternative halogens (EESC). For several explanatory variables, seasonally adjusted versions of these explanatory variables are constructed to account for the difference in their effect on ozone throughout the year. To account for seasonal variation in ozone, explanatory variables describing the polar vortex, geopotential height, potential vorticity and average day length are included. Results of this regression model are compared to that of similar analysis based on a more commonly applied statistically oriented model. The physically oriented model provides spatial patterns in the regression results for each explanatory variable. The EESC has a significant depleting effect on ozone at high and mid-latitudes, the solar cycle affects ozone positively mostly at the Southern Hemisphere, stratospheric aerosols affect ozone negatively at high Northern latitudes, the effect of QBO is positive and negative at the tropics and mid to high-latitudes respectively and ENSO affects ozone negatively between 30° N and 30° S, particularly at the Pacific. The contribution of explanatory variables describing seasonal ozone variation is generally large at mid to high

  6. Options to accelerate ozone recovery: ozone and climate benefits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniel, J. S.; Fleming, E. L.; Portmann, R. W.; Velders, G. J. M.; Jackman, C. H.; Ravishankara, A. R.

    2010-08-01

    Hypothetical reductions in future emissions of ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) and N2O are evaluated in terms of effects on equivalent effective stratospheric chlorine (EESC), globally-averaged total column ozone, and radiative forcing through 2100. Due to the established success of the Montreal Protocol, these actions can have only a fraction of the impact on ozone depletion that regulations already in force have had. If all anthropogenic ODS and N2O emissions were halted beginning in 2011, ozone is calculated to be higher by about 1-2% during the period 2030-2100 compared to a case of no additional restrictions. Direct radiative forcing by 2100 would be about 0.23 W/m2 lower from the elimination of anthropogenic N2O emissions and about 0.005 W/m2 lower from the destruction of the chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) bank. Due to the potential impact of N2O on future ozone levels, we provide an approach to incorporate it into the EESC formulation, which is used extensively in ozone depletion analyses. The ability of EESC to describe total ozone changes arising from additional ODS and N2O controls is also quantified.

  7. Insights into Tropical Tropospheric Ozone from the SHADOZ Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, A. M.; Witte, J. C.; Schmidlin, F. J.; Oltmans, S. J.

    2002-01-01

    The first view of lower stratospheric and upper tropospheric structure from sondes is provided by a 3-year, 10-site record from the Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes (SHADOZ) network: http://code9 16.gsfc.nasa.gov/Data_services/shadoz. Observations covering 1998-2000 were made over Ascension Island; Nairobi, Kenya; Irene, South Africa; La Reunion Island; Watukosek, Java; Fiji; Tahiti; American Samoa; San Cristobal, Galapagos; Natal, Brazil. Taking the UT/LS (upper troposphere-lower stratosphere) as the region between 12 and 17 km, we examine ozone variability in this region on a week-to- week and seasonal basis. The tropopause is lower in September-October-November than in March-April-May, when ozone is a minimum at most SHADOZ stations. A zonal wave-one pattern (referring to ozone mixing ratios greater over the Atlantic and adjacent continents than over the Pacific and eastern Indian Ocean), persists all year. The wave, predominantly in the troposphere and with variable magnitude, appears to be due to general circulation - with subsidence over the Atlantic and frequent deep convection over the Pacific and Indian Ocean. The variability of deep convection - most prominent at Java, Fiji, Samoa and Natal - is explored in time-vs-altitude ozone curtains. Stratospheric incursions into the troposphere are most prominent in soundings at Irene and Reunion Island.

  8. Additional cooling and heating load improvements in seasonal performance modeling of room and central air conditioners and heat pumps. Topical report, Subtask 3. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-04-09

    The study focuses on improving the load modeling technique of Seasonal Performance Model (SPM) in order to estimate a more realistic load for seasonal analysis calculations on an hourly basis. A computer simulation program, Seasonal Performance Model Load (SPMLD), was used to calculate the cooling and heating loads for a typical residence in Caribou, Maine; Columbia, Missouri; and Fort Worth, Texas. The derivation of the SPMLD is described and changes made to improve cooling and heating load estimates are identified. (MCW)

  9. Ozone pollution and ozone biomonitoring in European cities Part II. Ozone-induced plant injury and its relationship with descriptors of ozone pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klumpp, Andreas; Ansel, Wolfgang; Klumpp, Gabriele; Vergne, Phillippe; Sifakis, Nicolas; Sanz, María José; Rasmussen, Stine; Ro-Poulsen, Helge; Ribas, Àngela; Peñuelas, Josep; Kambezidis, Harry; He, Shang; Garrec, Jean Pierre; Calatayud, Vicent

    Within the scope of a biomonitoring study conducted in twelve urban agglomerations in eight European countries, the ozone-sensitive bioindicator plant Nicotiana tabacum cv. Bel-W3 was employed in order to assess the occurrence of phytotoxic ozone effects at urban, suburban, rural and traffic-exposed sites. The tobacco plants were exposed to ambient air for biweekly periods at up to 100 biomonitoring sites from 2000 to 2002. Special emphasis was placed upon methodological standardisation of plant cultivation, field exposure and injury assessment. Ozone-induced leaf injury showed a clearly increasing gradient from northern and northwestern Europe to central and southern European locations. The strongest ozone impact occurred at the exposure sites in Lyon and Barcelona, while in Edinburgh, Sheffield, Copenhagen and Düsseldorf only weak to moderate ozone effects were registered. Between-site differences within local networks were relatively small, but seasonal and inter-annual differences were strong due to the variability of meteorological conditions and related ozone concentrations. The 2001 data revealed a significant relationship between foliar injury degree and various descriptors of ozone pollution such as mean value, AOT20 and AOT40. Examining individual sites of the local monitoring networks separately, however, yielded noticeable differences. Some sites showed no association between ozone pollution and ozone-induced effects, whereas others featured almost linear relationships. This is because the actual ozone flux into the leaf, which is modified by various environmental factors, rather than ambient ozone concentration determines the effects on plants. The advantage of sensitive bioindicators like tobacco Bel-W3 is that the impact of the effectively absorbed ozone dose can directly be measured.

  10. Short-term association between exposure to ozone and mortality in Oporto, Portugal.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Sofia Pinto; Casimiro, Elsa; Calheiros, José

    2011-04-01

    Exposures to air pollution in developed countries have generally decreased over the last two decades. However, many recent epidemiological studies have consistently shown positive associations between low-level exposure to air pollutants and health outcomes. In Portugal, very few studies have analysed the acute effect of air pollutants on health. The present study evaluates the association between exposure to air pollution and daily mortality in the Oporto Metropolitan Area, Portugal. Generalised additive models were used for this analysis. Pollutants assessed were ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and particulate matter (PM(10)). Models were adjusted for time trend, seasonality, and weather. We report that an increase of 10 μg/m(3) in the daily ozone 8-h maximum moving-average corresponds to an increase of 0.95% (95%CI: 0.30, 1.60) and 1.58% (95%CI: 0.45, 2.73) in non-accidental mortality and cardiovascular mortality, respectively, in the summer season. A significant effect of 0.67% (95% CI: 0.03:1.32) was also found for the association between PM(10) and non-accidental mortality in the summer season. Associations with ozone and PM(10) exposures were higher in the elderly people. No significant effects on mortality were observed during the summer season with nitrogen dioxide exposures. Our analyses provide the first significant evidence in Oporto that exposures to O(3) and PM(10) have adverse effects on the health of the general population in the summer months.

  11. Intercontinental trans-boundary contributions to ozone-induced crop yield losses in the Northern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollaway, M. J.; Arnold, S. R.; Challinor, A. J.; Emberson, L. D.

    2011-08-01

    Enhanced surface ozone concentrations are known to be harmful to vegetation, reducing crop growth and yields. Tropospheric ozone concentrations have increased steadily since pre-industrial times, driven by in-situ production from anthropogenic emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), CO and volatile organic compounds. Transport of ozone and its precursors between continents has been shown to contribute to surface ozone air quality exceedences in many regions of the Northern Hemisphere. Using a global atmospheric chemistry model, we have quantified for the first time, intercontinental contributions to crop ozone exposure and yield reduction in the Northern Hemisphere. We apply three metrics (AOT40/M7/M12) to assess the impacts of NOx emissions from each of the Northern Hemispheres three major industrialised regions (North (N) America, South East (SE) Asia and Europe) on global and regional exposure of 6 major agricultural crop types to harmful ozone concentrations, and the resultant yield losses during the 2000 growing season. Using these metrics, model calculations show that for wheat, rice, cotton and potato, 100 % reductions in SE Asian anthropogenic NOx emissions tend to produce the greatest global reduction in crop yield losses (48.8 to 94.7 %) with the same cuts to N American emissions resulting in the greatest global impact on crop yield reductions for maize and soybean (57.5 to 81.7 %). N American NOx emissions produce the largest transboundary impact, resulting in European yield loss reductions of between 12.4 % and 55.6 %, when a 100 % cut is applied to NOx emissions from the N American region. European NOx emissions tend to produce a smaller transboundary impact, due to inefficiency of transport from the European domain. The threshold nature of the AOT40 ozone-exposure metric, results in a strong dependence of the diagnosed impact from trans-boundary emissions on local ozone concentration. In addition, we find that in parts of the United States, biomass

  12. The Antarctic Ozone Hole

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Anna E.

    2008-01-01

    Since the mid 1970s, the ozone layer over Antarctica has experienced massive destruction during every spring. In this article, we will consider the atmosphere, and what ozone and the ozone layer actually are. We explore the chemistry responsible for the ozone destruction, and learn about why conditions favour ozone destruction over Antarctica. For…

  13. Tropical behavior of mesospheric ozone as observed by SMM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aikin, A. C.; Kendig, D. J.

    1992-01-01

    The seasonal behavior of low latitude mesospheric ozone, as observed by the SMM satellite solar occultation experiment, is detailed for the 1985-1989 period. Annual as well as semi-annual waves are observed in the 50-70 km altitude region. In the latitude range of +/- 30 deg the ozone phase and amplitude are functions of temperature and seasonal changes in solar flux. Temperature is the controlling factor for the equatorial region and seasonal changes in solar flux become more dominant at latitudes outside the equatorial zone (greater than +/- 15 deg). There is a hemispheric asymmetry in the ozone annual wave in the 20-30 deg region, with Northern Hemispheric ozone having a larger amplitude than Southern Hemispheric ozone.

  14. Observing Tropospheric Ozone From Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, Jack

    2000-01-01

    The importance of tropospheric ozone embraces a spectrum of relevant scientific issues ranging from local environmental concerns, such as damage to the biosphere and human health, to those that impact global change questions, Such is climate warming. From an observational perspective, the challenge is to determine the tropospheric ozone global distribution. Because its lifetime is short compared with other important greenhouse gases that have been monitored over the past several decades, the distribution of tropospheric ozone cannot be inferred from a relatively small set of monitoring stations. Therefore, the best way to obtain a true global picture is from the use of space-based instrumentation where important spatial gradients over vast ocean expanses and other uninhabited areas can be properly characterized. In this paper, the development of the capability to measure tropospheric ozone from space over the past 15 years is summarized. Research in the late 1980s successfully led to the determination of the climatology of tropospheric ozone as a function of season; more recently, the methodology has improved to the extent where regional air pollution episodes can be characterized. The most recent modifications now provide quasi-global (50 N) to 50 S) maps on a daily basis. Such a data set would allow for the study of long-range (intercontinental) transport of air pollution and the quantification of how regional emissions feed into the global tropospheric ozone budget. Future measurement capabilities within this decade promise to offer the ability to provide Concurrent maps of the precursors to the in situ formation of tropospheric ozone from which the scientific community will gain unprecedented insight into the processes that control global tropospheric chemistry

  15. An Extended View of Mars Ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fast, Kelly

    2011-01-01

    We present an ongoing effort to characterize chemistry in Mars' atmosphere in multiple seasons on timescales longer than flight missions through coordinated efforts by GSFC's HIPWAC spectrometer and Mars Express SPICAM, archival measurements, and tests/application of photochemical models. The trace species ozone (O3) is an effective probe of atmospheric chemistry because it is destroyed by chemically active odd hydrogen species (HO(sub x)) that result from water vapor photolysis. Observed ozone abundance on Mars is a critical test for three-dimensional photochemistry coupled general circulation models (GCM) that make specific predictions for the spatial, diurnal, and seasonal behavior of ozone and related chemistry and climatological conditions. Coordinated measurements by HIPWAC and SPICAM quantitatively linked mission data to the 23-year GSFC ozone data record and also revealed unanticipated inter-decadal variability of same-season ozone abundances, a possible indicator of changing cloud activity (heterogeneous sink for HO(sub x)). A detailed study of long-term conditions is critical to characterizing the predictability of Mars' seasonal chemical behavior, particularly in light of the implications of and the lack of explanation for reported methane behavior.

  16. Ozone in the Pacific Troposphere from Ozonesonde Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oltmans, S. J.; Johnson, B. J.; Harris, J. M.; Voemel, H.; Koshy, K.; Simon, P.; Bendura, R.; Thompson, A. M.; Logan, J. A.; Hasebe, F.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Ozone vertical profile measurements obtained from ozonesondes flown at Fiji, Samoa, Tahiti and the Galapagos are used to characterize ozone in the troposphere over the tropical Pacific. There is a significant seasonal variation at each of these sites. At sites in both the eastern and western Pacific, ozone is highest at almost all levels in the troposphere during the September-November season and lowest during, March-May. There is a relative maximum at all of the sites in the mid-troposphere during all seasons of the year (the largest amounts are usually found near the tropopause). This maximum is particularly pronounced during, the September-November season. On average, throughout the troposphere at all seasons, the Galapagos has larger ozone amounts than the western Pacific sites. A trajectory climatology is used to identify the major flow regimes that are associated with the characteristic ozone behavior at various altitudes and seasons. The enhanced ozone seen in the mid-troposphere during September-November is associated with flow from the continents. In the western Pacific this flow is usually from southern Africa (although 10-day trajectories do not always reach the continent), but also may come from Australia and Indonesia. In the Galapagos the ozone peak in the mid-troposphere is seen in flow from the South American continent and particularly from northern Brazil. The time of year and flow characteristics associated with the ozone mixing ratio peaks seen in both the western and eastern Pacific suggest that these enhanced ozone values result from biomass burning. In the upper troposphere low ozone amounts are seen with flow that originates in the convective western Pacific.

  17. Earth's Endangered Ozone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panofsky, Hans A.

    1978-01-01

    Included are (1) a discussion of ozone chemistry; (2) the effects of nitrogen fertilizers, fluorocarbons, and high level aircraft on the ozone layer; and (3) the possible results of a decreasing ozone layer. (MR)

  18. Holistic sludge management through ozonation: A critical review.

    PubMed

    Semblante, Galilee U; Hai, Faisal I; Dionysiou, Dionysios D; Fukushi, Kensuke; Price, William E; Nghiem, Long D

    2017-01-01

    This paper critically reviews the multidimensional benefits of ozonation in wastewater treatment plants. These benefits include sludge reduction, removal of emerging trace organic contaminants (TrOC) from wastewater and sludge, and resource recovery from sludge. Literature shows that ozonation leads to sludge solubilisation, reducing overall biomass yield. Sludge solubilisation is primarily influenced by ozone dosage, which, in turn, depends on the fraction of ozonated sludge, ozone concentration, and sludge concentration. Additionally, sludge ozonation facilitates the removal of TrOCs from wastewater. On the other hand, by inducing cell lysis, ozonation increases the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and nutrient concentration of the sludge supernatant, which deteriorates effluent quality. This issue can be resolved by implementing resource recovery. Thus far, successful retrieval of phosphorous from ozonated sludge supernatant has been performed. The recovery of phosphorous and other resources from sludge could help offset the operation cost of ozonation, and give greater incentive for wastewater treatment plants to adapt this approach.

  19. SPARC Data Initiative: A comparison of ozone climatologies from international satellite limb sounders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tegtmeier, S.; Hegglin, M. I.; Anderson, J.; Bourassa, A.; Brohede, S.; Degenstein, D.; Froidevaux, L.; Fuller, R.; Funke, B.; Gille, J.; Jones, A.; Kasai, Y.; Krüger, K.; Kyrölä, E.; Lingenfelser, G.; Lumpe, J.; Nardi, B.; Neu, J.; Pendlebury, D.; Remsberg, E.; Rozanov, A.; Smith, L.; Toohey, M.; Urban, J.; Clarmann, T.; Walker, K. A.; Wang, R. H. J.

    2013-11-01

    comprehensive quality assessment of the ozone products from 18 limb-viewing satellite instruments is provided by means of a detailed intercomparison. The ozone climatologies in form of monthly zonal mean time series covering the upper troposphere to lower mesosphere are obtained from LIMS, SAGE I/II/III, UARS-MLS, HALOE, POAM II/III, SMR, OSIRIS, MIPAS, GOMOS, SCIAMACHY, ACE-FTS, ACE-MAESTRO, Aura-MLS, HIRDLS, and SMILES within 1978-2010. The intercomparisons focus on mean biases of annual zonal mean fields, interannual variability, and seasonal cycles. Additionally, the physical consistency of the data is tested through diagnostics of the quasi-biennial oscillation and Antarctic ozone hole. The comprehensive evaluations reveal that the uncertainty in our knowledge of the atmospheric ozone mean state is smallest in the tropical and midlatitude middle stratosphere with a 1σ multi-instrument spread of less than ±5%. While the overall agreement among the climatological data sets is very good for large parts of the stratosphere, individual discrepancies have been identified, including unrealistic month-to-month fluctuations, large biases in particular atmospheric regions, or inconsistencies in the seasonal cycle. Notable differences between the data sets exist in the tropical lower stratosphere (with a spread of ±30%) and at high latitudes (±15%). In particular, large relative differences are identified in the Antarctic during the time of the ozone hole, with a spread between the monthly zonal mean fields of ±50%. The evaluations provide guidance on what data sets are the most reliable for applications such as studies of ozone variability, model-measurement comparisons, detection of long-term trends, and data-merging activities.

  20. Ozone depletion at northern and southern latitudes derived from January 1979 to December 1991 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, J. R.; Mcpeters, R.; Larko, D.

    1993-01-01

    An extended version of the Nimbus 7/TOMS ozone data set from the period January 1, 1979 to December 31, 1991 is presented. It is shown that the ozone-trend data indicate that regions of enhanced ozone depletion rates have formed at middle and high latitudes during recent years. The seasonal dependence and geographical extent of the enhanced ozone-depletion rates for the Northern and Southern hemispheres are examined. The variability of the long-term ozone trend determination is discussed via consideration of the differences among 11-, 12-, and 13-yr trend calculations. The effects of the Mount Pinatubo eruption and other volcanic eruptions on the TOMS equatorial zonal average ozone measurements, and its influence on long-term trend determinations are discussed. On the basis of a determination of the aerosol phase function using TOMS data, the effect of stratospheric aerosols on determination of ozone amounts from TOMS are shown to be less than 1 percent.

  1. Tropospheric Ozone Near-Nadir-Viewing IR Spectral Sensitivity and Ozone Measurements from NAST-I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Daniel K.; Smith, William L.; Larar, Allen M.

    2001-01-01

    Infrared ozone spectra from near nadir observations have provided atmospheric ozone information from the sensor to the Earth's surface. Simulations of the NPOESS Airborne Sounder Testbed-Interferometer (NAST-I) from the NASA ER-2 aircraft (approximately 20 km altitude) with a spectral resolution of 0.25/cm were used for sensitivity analysis. The spectral sensitivity of ozone retrievals to uncertainties in atmospheric temperature and water vapor is assessed in order to understand the relationship between the IR emissions and the atmospheric state. In addition, ozone spectral radiance sensitivity to its ozone layer densities and radiance weighting functions reveals the limit of the ozone profile retrieval accuracy from NAST-I measurements. Statistical retrievals of ozone with temperature and moisture retrievals from NAST-I spectra have been investigated and the preliminary results from NAST-I field campaigns are presented.

  2. A reevaluation of the ozone budget with HALOE UARS data: No evidence for the ozone deficit

    SciTech Connect

    Crutzen, P.J.; Groob, J.U.; Bruehl, C.; Mueller, R.; Russell, J.M. III

    1995-05-05

    Recently, additional ozone production mechanisms have been proposed to resolve the ozone deficit problem, which arises from greater ozone destruction than production in several photochemical models of the upper stratosphere and lower mesosphere. A detailed ozone model budget analysis was performed with simultaneous observations of O{sub 3}, HCl, H{sub 2}O, CH{sub 4}, NO, and NO{sub 2} from the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) under conditions with the strongest photochemical control of ozone. The results indicate that an ozone deficit may not exist. On the contrary, the use of currently recommended photochemical parameters leads to insufficient ozone destruction in the model. 30 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Surface Ozone evolution in Coastal Continental Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro-Comas, M.; Yela, M.; Gil, M.; Parrondo, M. C.; Ochoa, H.

    2009-04-01

    Surface ozone measurements from two complete years (February 2007 to February 2009) at Belgrano station (Antarctica, 78°S, 35°W) are presented. Belgrano is a coastal station lying approximately 20 km from the Weddell Sea coast and located 256 m above sea level. A UV photometric ozone analyzer, model TEI 49C, was deployed with the double purpose of, in the first place, perform the quality control of ozonesounding before launching and, on second place, background ozone monitoring in a long term basis. The two years data analysis shows an annual ozone cycle with one month lag on surface ozone data and the solstices. The ozone maximum is reached in mid-winter (in July), while the minimum is attained in summer (in January) in opposition of typical mid-latitude continental observatories, but in agreement with other coastal observatories in Antarctica. The daily mean maximum observed during the whole period peaks at 36.5 ppbv in July and the minimum value observed was found to be 6.9 ppbv, in December. The mean surface ozone concentration value calculated during the observational period was 24.3 ppbv with a standard deviation of 7.7 ppbv. The fast transition night to day that takes place in Belgrano does not correlate with the seasonal ozone distribution suggesting that distribution may be controlled by transport mechanisms with a minor contribution of the photochemistry. It is also observed a higher day to day variation after the polar night, during the Antarctic spring and summer. Several depleted ozone events have been found along the observational period during the Austral spring (October-December) season, attributable to photochemical catalyzed ozone depletion from halogen chemistry. During those days, the ozone mixing ration drops until only a few ppbv in a short period of time (within a few hours). BrO observation from the satellite instrument SCIAMACHY shows large patterns of enhancements of BrO in the Weddell Sea during those days and calculated HYSPLIT

  4. Variability in tropical tropospheric ozone: the climate-dynamical connection observed in SHADOZ ozonesondes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, A.; Witte, J.; Chatfield, R.; Oltmans, S.; Schmidlin, F.

    2003-04-01

    The SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes) ozone sounding network was initiated in 1998 to improve the coverage of tropical in-situ ozone measurements for satellite validation, algorithm development and related process studies. Over 1600 soundings are archived at the SHADOZ website, , for 12 stations: Ascension Island; Nairobi and Malindi, Kenya; Irene, South Africa; Re,union Island; Watukosek, Java; Fiji; Tahiti; American Samoa; San Cristobal, Galapagos; Natal, Brazil; Paramaribo, Surinam. The most striking feature of tropospheric ozone at each SHADOZ station is considerable week-to-week variability [Thompson et al., 2002]. This is a consequence of varying influences: large scale dynamics, vertical mixing and redistribution through convection, advection of pollution with ozone precursors supplied by lightning, biomass burning and biogenic sources. The ozone mixing ratio distributions at various pressure levels are presented. We find that statistics are frequently not Gaussian, suggesting that monthly or seasonal averages are inadequate for satellite climatologies and evaluations of models. Periodicities of the variability correspond to well-known tropical climate signals: migration of the ITCZ, El-Nino, Quasi-Biennial Oscillation, Madden-Julian Oscillation, an annual cycle.

  5. Effects of ambient particulate matter and ozone on daily mortality in Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Hoek, G; Schwartz, J D; Groot, B; Eilers, P

    1997-01-01

    The association between daily variations in all-cause mortality from 1983-1991 in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, and ambient air pollution was investigated. Twenty-four-hour average concentrations of total suspended particulates, Black Smoke, ozone, sulfur dioxide, and carbon monoxide were available on a daily basis. Every other day, total iron content in total suspended particulates samples was available. Poisson regression analysis was used to study associations between air pollution and mortality; generalized additive models were used to adjust for confounders (e.g., seasonal trends, weather). Daily mortality was associated most consistently with previous-day concentrations of total suspended particulates (relative risk = 1.05 for a change of 91 microg/m3) and ozone (relative risk = 1.06 for a change of 67 microg/m3). Total iron was associated less consistently with mortality than total suspended particulate mass was. The associations of mortality with ozone and total suspended particulates were independent of sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide. The relative risks of total suspended particulates and particularly ozone were higher for subjects older than 78 y. The relationship between mortality and ozone did not deviate significantly from linear. The relationship between mortality and total suspended particulates was linear below 100 microg/m3 and leveled off at higher concentrations. If a threshold exists for the effects on mortality of these components, it exists at very low levels.

  6. Effects of ozone on productivity and diversity of an early successional forest community

    SciTech Connect

    Barbo, D.N.; Chappelka, A.H.

    1995-12-31

    Little research exists on the effects of tropospheric ozone on the diversity and productivity of native understory vegetation and tree species growing in competition. To address this question, open-top chambers were utilized at a field site in Auburn, Alabama. After completion of a study in 1990, no weed removal, cutting or chemical treatments were allowed in the chambers. Major species include blackberry, andropogan, bahia grass and two species of blackberry, andropogan, bahia grass and two species of panicum grass. In the winter of 1993-1994, after leaf fall, all vegetation was cut to groundline and left as litter. Vegetation was allowed to regenerate naturally the following spring. In addition 5, one-year-old loblolly pines were planted in each chamber in January, 1994. Four treatments, blocked 4 times were used: carbon-filtered air, non-filtered (ambient air), ambient (no plastics) and twice ambient ozone concentrations. Trees were measured monthly for height and diameter. Abundance and frequency of species, and percent ground cover of understory vegetation were calculated. First year results show a decrease in species diversity with increasing ozone concentrations. Percent cover, however, was greatest in the chambers receiving the lowest and highest ozone exposures. Blackberry was the dominate species in the 2 X-ambient ozone treatments. Loblolly pine growth appeared suppressed in the carbon-filtered chambers due to intense competition from understory vegetation. This study will continue for at least one more growing season.

  7. Meteorological factors affecting lower tropospheric ozone mixing ratios in Bangkok, Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janjai, S.; Buntoung, S.; Nunez, M.; Chiwpreecha, K.; Pattarapanitchai, S.

    2016-09-01

    This paper examines the influence of meteorological conditions in ozone mixing ratio measured at the Thai Meteorological Department (TMD) in Bangkok, Thailand. In addition to surface wind speed and direction, surface ozone concentrations, ozonesondes and CALIPSO Lidar images were collected during the study period extending from 01/01/2014 to 30/04/2015. Surface ozone concentrations show a strong seasonality, with maximum in the dry months of December to April and minimum during the wet southwest (SW) monsoon period extending from May to October. High ozone concentrations are related to biomass burning in the northeast highland regions of the country and neighboring Myanmar and southern China. These precursors travel in a southerly direction towards Bangkok in a well-defined aerosol layer which may be at ground level or at elevated heights. The growth of the daytime mixed layer scavenges some of the upper level aerosols, although local maxima in ozone concentrations at 1-2 km are a frequent feature at Bangkok. There is an evidence of fumigation in the Gulf of Thailand and a return flow via the southerly sea breezes.

  8. Addition of surfactants in ozonated water cleaning for the suppression of functional group formation and particle adhesion on the SiO2 surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jahyun; Im, Kyungtaek; Lim, Sangwoo

    2011-04-01

    Various kinds of surfactants were added to a cleaning solution and deionized (DI) water, and their effect on the suppression of organic function group formation and particle adhesion to a SiO2 surface was analyzed using multi-internal reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results implied that attached organic functional groups are affected by the chemical structure of a surfactant in DI water. Furthermore, the addition of anionic glycolic acid ethoxylate 4-tert-butylphenyl ether (GAE4E) is the most effective in terms of preventing organic group attachment and particle adhesion to the SiO2 surface, whether it was added to the cleaning solution or post-cleaning rinse water, with or without polystyrene latex particles. Moreover, it was possible to completely prevent particle adhesion to the SiO2 surface with the proper addition of GAE4E in DIO3 solution.

  9. Colorado Front Range Surface Ozone Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClure-Begley, A.; Petropavlovskikh, I. V.; Oltmans, S. J.; Kofler, J.; Petron, G.; Cothrel, H.

    2014-12-01

    ozone exceedances allows for further understanding of variability in the long-term and seasonal trends. Knowledge of Colorado Front Range ozone dynamics is imperative for future regulations on this important pollutant.

  10. Effect of Lower Stratospheric Ozone on Trends and Interannual Variability in Tropospheric Ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terao, Y.; Logan, J. A.

    2006-12-01

    Increased emissions of ozone precursors may cause increases in tropospheric ozone. Ozonesonde measurements show that tropospheric ozone increased over Europe and Japan, but did not increase over the U.S., and decreased over Canada from 1970 to 1996 [Logan et al., 1999]. Regional differences in the amount of stratospheric ozone input to the troposphere may have contributed to the spatially inhomogeneous trends in tropospheric ozone. We investigate the effect of input of stratospheric ozone on tropospheric ozone using ozonesonde data and simulations for 1975-2025 by the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center (GFSC) Chemistry Transport Model (CTM) driven by Finite-Volume General Circulation Model (FVGCM) output [Stolarski et al., 2006]. In the GSFC-CTM simulations, tropospheric ozone and stratospheric ozone are treated as separate tracers (O3-trop and O3-strat, below). The seasonal cycle of lower stratospheric and tropospheric ozone in the GSFC-CTM simulations generally agrees well with ozonesonde measurements but the model has a larger spring maximum than the observations. We found a significant correlation between time series of monthly ozone anomalies in the lower stratosphere (200 hPa) and in the mid-troposphere (500 hPa) over the U.S., Atlantic, and Europe, but lower correlations over Asia, in both the observations and the simulations. There are also inhomogeneous patterns for trends in the O3-strat tracer in the mid-troposphere. These analyses support the idea that variations in stratospheric input may be affecting interannual variability and trends in tropospheric ozone.

  11. Average ozone vertical distribution at Sodankyla based on the 1988-1991 ozone sounding data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kyro, Esko; Rummukainen, Markku; Taalas, Petteri; Supperi, Ari

    1994-01-01

    The study presents the statistical analysis of ozone sonde data obtained at Sodankyla (67.4 deg N, 26.6 deg E) from the beginning of the sounding program on March 1988 to the end of December 1991. The Sodankyla sounding data offers the longest continuous record of the ozone vertical distribution in the European Arctic. In this paper, we present the average ozone partial pressures within each 1 km column obtained for different seasons during the almost four year long period. We believe that the data represented here are useful as an interim reference ozone atmosphere, especially considering the fact that northern Scandinavia has become a popular campaign site for the big international ozone experiments.

  12. The 2002 Antarctic Ozone Hole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, P. A.; Nash, E. R.; Douglass, A. R.; Kawa, S. R.

    2003-01-01

    Since 1979, the ozone hole has grown from near zero size to over 24 Million km2. This area is most strongly controlled by levels of inorganic chlorine and bromine oncentrations. In addition, dynamical variations modulate the size of the ozone hole by either cooling or warming the polar vortex collar region. We will review the size observations, the size trends, and the interannual variability of the size. Using a simple trajectory model, we will demonstrate the sensitivity of the ozone hole to dynamical forcing, and we will use these observations to discuss the size of the ozone hole during the 2002 Austral spring. We will further show how the Cly decreases in the stratosphere will cause the ozone hole to decrease by 1-1.5% per year. We will also show results from a 3-D chemical transport model (CTM) that has been continuously run since 1999. These CTM results directly show how strong dynamics acts to reduce the size of the ozone hole.

  13. Tropospheric Ozone and Biomass Burning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandra, Sushil; Ziemke, J. R.; Bhartia, P. K.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper studies the significance of pyrogenic (e.g., biomass burning) emissions in the production of tropospheric ozone in the tropics associated with the forest and savanna fires in the African, South American, and Indonesian regions. Using aerosol index (Al) and tropospheric column ozone (TCO) time series from 1979 to 2000 derived from the Nimbus-7 and Earth Probe TOMS measurements, our study shows significant differences in the seasonal and spatial characteristics of pyrogenic emissions north and south of the equator in the African region and Brazil in South America. In general, they are not related to the seasonal and spatial characteristics of tropospheric ozone in these regions. In the Indonesian region, the most significant increase in TCO occurred during September and October 1997, following large-scale forest and savanna fires associated with the El Nino-induced dry season. However, the increase in TCO extended over most of the western Pacific well outside the burning region and was accompanied by a decrease in the eastern Pacific resembling a west-to-east dipole about the date-line. The net increase in TCO integrated over the tropical region between 15 deg N and 15 deg S was about 6-8 Tg (1 Tg = 10(exp 12) gm) over the mean climatological value of about 72 Tg. This increase is well within the range of interannual variability of TCO in the tropical region and does not necessarily suggest a photochemical source related to biomass burning. The interannual variability in TCO appears to be out of phase with the interannual variability of stratospheric column ozone (SCO). These variabilities seem to be manifestations of solar cycle and quasibiennial oscillations.

  14. [Effects of Ozone on Photosynthesis of Several Plants].

    PubMed

    Li, Miao-miao

    2015-05-01

    In order to investigate the effect of ozone on photosynthesis of Machilus pauhoi, Lindera setchuenensis, Phoebe bournei, Phoebe chekiangensis and Machilus thunbergii, the study was carried out in 12 open-top chambers( OTCs) with different levels of ozone in Qianyanzhou experimental station, and net photosynthesis rate (Pn) and stomatal conductance (Cond) were detected. The results indicated that ozone treatments changed the variation trend of photosynthesis of all tested plants, but ozone exposure did not always play an inhibitory role on them. In fact, photosynthesis changed with ozone concentration, experimental period, season and specific species. Exposed to ozone could even promote Pn to a peak in a short term, and the indicator of plants treated with ozone was higher than that of the control at this point. Low and medium concentrations of ozone treatment enhanced Pn of Phoebe bournei and Machilus thunbergii. The peak of treatment group also came earlier because of ozone. Furthermore, the positive correlation between Pn and Cond did not existed under the condition of ozone. Machilus thunbergii had the strongest resistance to ozone, followed by Phoebe bournei, by comparison, Phoebe chekiangensis, Machilus pauhoi and Lindera setchuenensis were more sensitive.

  15. Surface ozone variability at Kislovodsk Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elansky, Nikolay F.; Makarov, Oleg V.; Senik, Irina A.

    1994-01-01

    The results of the surface ozone observations at the Observatory 'Kislovodsk', situated in the North Caucasus at the altitude 2070 m a.s.l., are given. The observatory is in the background conditions and the variations of the surface ozone are determined by the natural dynamic and photochemical processes. The mean value of the concentration and its seasonal variations are very near to those obtained at the high-mountain stations in Alps. The daily variations have the features, which remain stable during all warm period of the year (April-October). These features, including the minimum of the surface ozone at noon, are formed by the mountain-valley circulation. The significant variations of the surface ozone are connected with the unstationary lee waves.

  16. Policies on global warming and ozone depletion

    SciTech Connect

    Green, B.

    1987-04-01

    The recent discovery of a dramatic seasonal drop in the amount of ozone over Antarctica has catalyzed concern for protection of stratospheric ozone, the layer of gas that shields the entire planet from excess ultraviolet radiation. Conservative scientific models predict about a 5% reduction in the amount of global ozone by the middle of the next century, with large local variations. The predicted global warming from increased emissions of greenhouse gases will also have differing effects on local climate and weather conditions and consequently on agriculture. Although numerous uncertainties are associated with both ozone depletion and a global warming, there is a consensus that world leaders need to address the problems. The US Congress is now beginning to take note of the task. In this article, one representative outlines some perceptions of the problems and the policy options available to Congress.

  17. Convective forcing of mercury and ozone in the Arctic boundary layer induced by leads in sea ice.

    PubMed

    Moore, Christopher W; Obrist, Daniel; Steffen, Alexandra; Staebler, Ralf M; Douglas, Thomas A; Richter, Andreas; Nghiem, Son V

    2014-02-06

    The ongoing regime shift of Arctic sea ice from perennial to seasonal ice is associated with more dynamic patterns of opening and closing sea-ice leads (large transient channels of open water in the ice), which may affect atmospheric and biogeochemical cycles in the Arctic. Mercury and ozone are rapidly removed from the atmospheric boundary layer during depletion events in the Arctic, caused by destruction of ozone along with oxidation of gaseous elemental mercury (Hg(0)) to oxidized mercury (Hg(II)) in the atmosphere and its subsequent deposition to snow and ice. Ozone depletion events can change the oxidative capacity of the air by affecting atmospheric hydroxyl radical chemistry, whereas atmospheric mercury depletion events can increase the deposition of mercury to the Arctic, some of which can enter ecosystems during snowmelt. Here we present near-surface measurements of atmospheric mercury and ozone from two Arctic field campaigns near Barrow, Alaska. We find that coastal depletion events are directly linked to sea-ice dynamics. A consolidated ice cover facilitates the depletion of Hg(0) and ozone, but these immediately recover to near-background concentrations in the upwind presence of open sea-ice leads. We attribute the rapid recoveries of Hg(0) and ozone to lead-initiated shallow convection in the stable Arctic boundary layer, which mixes Hg(0) and ozone from undepleted air masses aloft. This convective forcing provides additional Hg(0) to the surface layer at a time of active depletion chemistry, where it is subject to renewed oxidation. Future work will need to establish the degree to which large-scale changes in sea-ice dynamics across the Arctic alter ozone chemistry and mercury deposition in fragile Arctic ecosystems.

  18. The vertical ozone distribution during maximum and minimum solar activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kokin, G. A.; Brezgin, N. I.; Ivanova, I. N.; Kuznetsova, V. N.; Larin, E. M.; Sazonov, V. V.; Chizhov, A. F.; Shtirkov, O. V.

    1989-01-01

    To study the latitude variation of ozone vertical distribution the complex experiment was carried out in February to July 1985 between 40 deg N to 70 deg S at the Pacific and the Indian Oceans. The great bulk of their data network were taken by the optical rocket ozonometers at the Southern Hemisphere. The results were compared with reference models containing the most extensive set of ozone observations from VS satellites between 1978 and 1982. To analyze latitude-season ozone variability at fixed altitude levels the experimental ozone concentration data were confirmed with model equatorial data. To compare the experimental data with reference model data, analogous model values were calculated. The results of calculation indicated a good agreement between experimental and reference model data of relative latitude-season variations of ozone concentration. Maximum variability is observed at 50 km in the equator and not exceeded 15 percent in the other regions at all altitude levels.

  19. Low ozone amounts during 1992 - 1993 from Nimbus 7 and Meteor 3 total ozone mapping spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, J. R.; Larko, D.

    1994-01-01

    The global distribution of ozone during the October 31, 1978, to May 6, 1993, observing lifetime of the Nimbus 7 total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) is described, with emphasis on the low ozone amounts observed during 1992 and 1993. Ozone amount time series are extended beyong May 6, 1993, to the end of July 1993 using preliminary Meteor 3 TOMS data. Time series for zonally averaged ozone amounts show that there has not been a significant shift in the seasonal patterns of ozone maxima and minima caused by the Mount Pinatubo eruption or by the onset of very low ozone values during 1992 and 1993. There has been a relatively slow, nearly linear decrease in the amount of ozone over the entire globe from 1979 to the end of 1991, with rates ranging from no change at the equator to a 4 - 6% decrease per decade at midlatitudes and a 10 - 12% decrease per decade at higher latitudes. After the eruption of Mount Pinatubo during June 1991, the ozone amount decreased in the equatorial latitudes (10 deg S to 10 deg N) for about 6 months (-10 Dobson units (DU) between 0 deg and 10 deg S and -3 DU between 0 deg and 10 deg N). During 1992 and continuing into 1993, the rate of ozone decrease deviated from the previously linear trend with the onset of changes that were large in comparison with the historical range of ozone values from 1979 to 1991. The first of the large decreases in ozone amount occurred earlier, in February 1990 to May 1990, at 50 deg - 70 deg N. At high northern latitudes, the 1993 decreased ozone amounts were about 12.5% below the envelope of historical values; at midlatitudes they were about 7% lower; and at low latitudes they were about 4% lower. Area-weighted averages in the northern and southern hemispheres show that most of the 1992 - 1993 ozone losses have occurred in the northern hemisphere. The 1993 global average (70 deg S to 70 deg N) ozone amount is 3% below the 1979 to 1991 minimum, 5% below the historical envelope in the northern hemisphere, and

  20. A Global Ozone Climatology from Ozone Soundings via Trajectory Mapping: A Stratospheric Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, J. J.; Tarasick, D. W.; Fioletov, V. E.; McLinden, C.; Zhao, T.; Gong, S.; Sioris, G.; Jin, J. J.; Liu, G.; Moeini, O.

    2013-01-01

    This study explores a domain-filling trajectory approach to generate a global ozone climatology from sparse ozonesonde data. Global ozone soundings of 51,898 profiles at 116 stations over 44 years (1965-2008) are used, from which forward and backward trajectories are performed for 4 days, driven by a set of meteorological reanalysis data. Ozone mixing ratios of each sounding from the surface to 26 km altitude are assigned to the entire path along the trajectory. The resulting global ozone climatology is archived monthly for five decades from the 1960s to the 2000s with grids of 5 degree 5 degree 1 km (latitude, longitude, and altitude). It is also archived yearly from 1965 to 2008. This climatology is validated at 20 ozonesonde stations by comparing the actual ozone sounding profile with that found through the trajectories, using the ozone soundings at all the stations except one being tested. The two sets of profiles are in good agreement, both individually with correlation coefficients between 0.975 and 0.998 and root mean square (RMS) differences of 87 to 482 ppbv, and overall with a correlation coefficient of 0.991 and an RMS of 224 ppbv. The ozone climatology is also compared with two sets of satellite data, from the Satellite Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) and the Optical Spectrography and InfraRed Imager System (OSIRIS). Overall, the ozone climatology compares well with SAGE and OSIRIS data by both seasonal and zonal means. The mean difference is generally under 20 above 15 km. The comparison is better in the northern hemisphere, where there are more ozonesonde stations, than in the southern hemisphere; it is also better in the middle and high latitudes than in the tropics, where assimilated winds are imperfect in some regions. This ozone climatology can capture known features in the stratosphere, as well as seasonal and decadal variations of these features. Furthermore, it provides a wealth of detail about longitudinal variations in the stratosphere such

  1. Ozone Hole Over Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    These images from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) show the progressive depletion of ozone over Antarctica from 1979 to 1999. This 'ozone hole' has extended to cover an area as large as 10.5 million square miles in September 1998. The previous record of 10.0 million square miles was set in 1996. The Antarctic ozone hole develops each year between late August and early October. Regions with higher levels of ozone are shown in red. NASA and NOAA instruments have been measuring Antarctic ozone levels since the early 1970s. Large regions of depleted ozone began to develop over Antarctica in the early 1980s. Ozone holes of substantial size and depth are likely to continue to form during the next few years, scientists hope to see a reduction in ozone loss as levels of ozone-destroying CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons) are gradually reduced. Credit: Images by Greg Shirah, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Scientific Visualization Studio

  2. The Antarctic ozone hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina, Mario J.

    Observations of Antarctic ozone levels and the discovery of a hole in the Antarctic region are examined. The effects of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) on the level of stratospheric ozone are analyzed. Three cycles explaining the cause of ozone depletion in the poles are proposed. A comparison of field data and proposed depletion cycles reveals that the chemical origin of the ozone hole is due to CFCs. The potential global effects of the Antarctic ozone hole are discussed.

  3. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  4. The global distribution on total ozone - Toms satellite measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, Arlin J.

    1989-01-01

    The general behavior of total ozone by season and latitude was known before 1930 through the pioneering observations by Dobson. The ozone record at Oxford and other European stations was dominated by an annual cycle and by irregular short term fluctuations. The amplitude and phase of the annual cycle were determined at representative latitudes in both hemispheres. However, the short term variations appeared to be meteorological origin, although the specific cause could not be identified. Data from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) on the Nimbus 7 spacecraft, with global coverage at an average spatial resolution of 66 km, can now be used to completely map the total ozone field. These maps demonstrate that troughs and ridges in the upper troposphere are responsible for the large, short term ozone variations found at middle latitudes, while in the tropics, the steady, low ozone levels show broad scale structure associated with the Hadley circulation.

  5. Observations of ozone concentrations in the Brazilian cerrado during the TRACE A field expedition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchhoff, V. W. J. H.; Alves, J. R.; da Silva, F. R.; Fishman, J.

    1996-10-01

    The Transport and Atmospheric Chemistry Near the Equator-Atlantic (TRACE A) experiment, sponsored by the NASA GTE program, was a multinational field mission that took place simultaneously in Brazil, Africa, and the South Atlantic region, between the African and the Brazilian coasts. The general objective of the field mission was to investigate the tropospheric minor constituent composition, known to be disturbed by biomass burning practices. This report describes ozone measurements that were made by the Brazilian component. Two field missions in central Brazil were made with the objective of investigating ozone concentrations in the biomass burning source region: one smaller mission in the wet season period, April, and a major mission in the dry season, September/October 1992. The main field expedition during the dry season obtained data over a period of about 20 days in September and a few days in October 1992, in a savanna environment of central Brazil. Simultaneous surface ozone and ozone soundings were made. In the wet season the observation site was Goiânia (16°S, 49°W); and in the dry season, two other sites were added: Cuiabá (16°S, 56°W) and Porto Nacional (11°S, 48°W). In addition, measurements were also made at an Atlantic coast site, Natal (6°S, 35°W), outside of the savanna region, and not affected directly by the biomass burning source areas, used as a control site. The average behavior of the ozone concentrations at the different sites suggests that surface ozone concentrations tend to be rather uniform, despite different precipitation rates, but slightly larger at the drier sites. However, other factors, such as burning fuel, for example, or cloudiness, may be also important to determine ozone concentrations. This is reflected by large day-to-day variabilities that are common in the source region. The diurnal variation of the surface ozone concentrations maximize around 1600 LT. Hourly averages in September, at this time, amount to 47 parts

  6. Smog control fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Lundby, W.

    1993-06-29

    A method is described of controlling, reducing or eliminating, ozone and related smog resulting from photochemical reactions between ozone and automotive or industrial gases comprising the addition of iodine or compounds of iodine to hydrocarbon-base fuels prior to or during combustion in an amount of about 1 part iodine per 240 to 10,000,000 parts fuel, by weight, to be accomplished by: (a) the addition of these inhibitors during or after the refining or manufacturing process of liquid fuels; (b) the production of these inhibitors for addition into fuel tanks, such as automotive or industrial tanks; or (c) the addition of these inhibitors into combustion chambers of equipment utilizing solid fuels for the purpose of reducing ozone.

  7. Characterizing the lifetime and occurrence of stratospheric-tropospheric exchange events in the rocky mountain region using high-resolution ozone measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, John T.; McGee, Thomas J.; Thompson, Anne M.; Pierce, R. Bradley; Sumnicht, Grant K.; Twigg, Laurence W.; Eloranta, Edwin; Hoff, Raymond M.

    2015-12-01

    The evolution of a Stratospheric-Tropospheric Exchange (STE) event from 4 to 8 August 2014 at Fort Collins, Colorado, is described. The event is characterized with observations from the Goddard Space Flight Center TROPospheric OZone (TROPOZ) Differential Absorption Lidar, the University of Wisconsin High Spectral Resolution Lidar, and multiple ozonesondes during NASA's Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality and the Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Experiment (FRAPPE) campaigns. Based on the extended TROPOZ observations throughout the entire campaign, it was found that STE events have largely contributed to an additional 10-30 ppbv of ozone at Fort Collins. Additional measurements of ozone and relative humidity from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder are characterize the transport of the intrusion. The Real-time Air Quality Modeling System simulated ozone agrees well with the TROPOZ ozone concentrations and altitude during the STE event. To extend the analysis into other seasons and years, the modeled ozone to potential vorticity ratio is used as a tracer for stratospheric air residing below the tropopause. It is found that at Fort Collins, CO, and depending on season from 2012 to 2014, between 18 and 31% of tropospheric ozone corresponds to stratospheric air. A relationship to determine the lifetime of stratospheric air below the tropopause is derived using the simulated ratio tracer. Results indicate that throughout summer 2014, 43% of stratospheric air resided below the tropopause for less than 12 h. However, nearly 39% persisted below the tropopause for 12-48 h and likely penetrated deeper in the troposphere.

  8. Ozone Budgets from a Global Chemistry/Transport Model and Comparison to Observations from POLARIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawa, S. Randolph; Newman, P. A.; Douglass, A. R.; Weaver, C. J.; Gao, R.-S.; Salawitch, R. J.; Johnson, D. G.; Jucks, K. W.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of the Photochemistry of Ozone Loss in the Arctic Region in Summer (POLARIS) field mission was to obtain data to better characterize the summertime seasonal decrease of ozone at mid to high latitudes. The decrease in ozone occurs mainly in the lower stratosphere and is expected to result from in situ chemical destruction. Instrumented balloons and aircraft were used in POLARIS, along with satellites, to measure ozone and chemical species which are involved with stratospheric ozone chemistry. In order to close the seasonal ozone budget, however, ozone transport must also be estimated. Comparison to a global chemistry and transport model (CTM) of the stratosphere indicates how well the summertime ozone loss processes are simulated and thus how well we can predict the ozone response to changing amounts of chemical source gases. Moreover, the model gives insight into the possible relative magnitude of transport contributions to the seasonal ozone decline. Initial comparison to the Goddard CTM, which uses transport winds and temperatures from meteorological data assimilation, shows a high ozone bias in the model and an attenuated summertime ozone loss cycle. Comparison of the model chemical partitioning and ozone catalytic loss rates to those derived from measurements shows fairly close agreement both at ER-2 altitudes (20 km) and higher. This suggests that the model transport is too active in resupplying ozone to the high latitude region, although chemistry failings cannot be completely ruled out. Comparison of ozone and related species will be shown along with a full diagnosis of the model ozone budget and its possible sources of error.

  9. Ozone Budgets from a Global Chemistry/ Transport Model and Comparison to Observations from POLARIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawa, S. Randy

    1999-01-01

    The objective of the Photochemistry of Ozone Loss in the Arctic Region in Summer (POLARIS) field mission was to obtain data to better characterize the summertime seasonal decrease of ozone at mid to high latitudes. The decrease in ozone occurs mainly in the lower stratosphere and is expected to result from in situ chemical destruction. Instrumented balloons and aircraft were used in POLARIS, along with satellites, to measure ozone and chemical species which are involved with stratospheric ozone chemistry. In order to close the seasonal ozone budget, however, ozone transport must also be estimated. Comparison to a global chemistry and transport model (CTM) of the stratosphere indicates how well the summertime ozone loss processes are simulated and thus how well we can predict the ozone response to changing amounts of chemical source gases. Moreover, the model gives insight into the possible relative magnitude of transport contributions to the seasonal ozone decline. Initial comparison to the Goddard CTM, which uses transport winds and temperatures from meteorological data assimilation, shows a high ozone bias in the model and an attenuated summertime ozone loss cycle. Comparison of the model chemical partitioning, and ozone catalytic loss rates to those derived from measurements shows fairly close agreement both at ER-2 altitudes (20 km) and higher. This suggests that the model transport is too active in resupplying ozone to the high latitude region, although chemistry failings cannot be completely ruled out. Comparison of ozone and related species will be shown along with a full diagnosis of the model ozone budget and its possible sources of error.

  10. Rocket Ozone Data Recovery for Digital Archival

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, S. H.; Krueger, A. J.; Hilsenrath, E.; Haffner, D. P.; Bhartia, P. K.

    2014-12-01

    Ozone distributions in the photochemically-controlled upper stratosphere and mesosphere were first measured using spectrometers on V-2 rockets after WWII. The IGY(1957-1958) spurred development of new optical and chemical instruments for flight on meteorological and sounding rockets. In the early 1960's, the US Navy developed an Arcas rocket-borne optical ozonesonde and NASA GSFC developed chemiluminescent ozonesonde onboard Nike_Cajun and Arcas rocket. The Navy optical ozone program was moved in 1969 to GSFC where rocket ozone research was expanded and continued until 1994 using Super Loki-Dart rocket at 11 sites in the range of 0-65N and 35W-160W. Over 300 optical ozone soundings and 40 chemiluminescent soundings were made. The data have been used to produce the US Standard Ozone Atmosphere, determine seasonal and diurnal variations, and validate early photochemical models. The current effort includes soundings conducted by Australia, Japan, and Korea using optical techniques. New satellite ozone sounding techniques were initially calibrated and later validated using the rocket ozone data. As satellite techniques superseded the rocket methods, the sponsoring agencies lost interest in the data and many of those records have been discarded. The current task intends to recover as much of the data as possible from the private records of the experimenters and their publications, and to archive those records in the WOUDC (World Ozone and Ultraviolet Data Centre). The original data records are handwritten tabulations, computer printouts that are scanned with OCR techniques, and plots digitized from publications. This newly recovered digital rocket ozone profile data from 1965 to 2002 could make significant contributions to the Earth science community in atmospheric research including long-term trend analysis.

  11. Handbook of ozone technology and applications. Vol. 2. Ozone for drinking water treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, R.G.; Netzer, A.

    1984-01-01

    This volume of the handbook series concerns the application of ozone for the treatment of drinking water. Great emphasis is given ozone's powerful disinfectant and oxidant properties with the added advantage of the non-production of undesirable by-products. European sources have been heavily drawn upon since that is where most of the experience has been. Over one-third of the volume is devoted to a bibliography of some 1600 citations (in addition to 260 as chapter references). Contents: Ozone disinfection of drinking water. Removal of color from drinking water with ozone. Removal of ammonia and other nitrogen derivatives from drinking water with ozone. Raw water preozonation. Recent developments in the treatment of drinking water. Ozone for drinking water treatment - a bibliography. Index.

  12. Relationship between ozone and the air pollutants in Peninsular Malaysia for 2003 retrieved from SCIAMACHY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, K. C.; Lim, H. S.; Mat Jafri, M. Z.

    2013-05-01

    Since few decades ago, air pollution has become a hot topic of environmental and atmospheric research due to the impact of air pollution on human health. Ozone is one of the important chemical constituent of the atmosphere, which plays a key role in atmospheric energy budget and chemistry, air quality and global change. Results from the analysis of the retrieved monthly data from Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY) were utilized, in order to analyze the impact of air pollutants (CO2, CH4, H2O, and NO2) on the ozone in Peninsular Malaysia for 2003 using multiple regression analysis. SCIAMACHY onboard ENVISAT as part of the atmospheric chemistry payload of the third European Space Agency (ESA) Earth observation, is the first satellite instrument whose measurements is enough precise and sensitive for all the greenhouse gases to make observation at all atmospheric altitude levels down to the Earth's surface. Among the four pollutants, ozone was most affected by water vapor (H2O vapor), indicated by a strong beta coefficient (-0.769 - 0.997), depends on the seasonal variety. In addition, CO2 also shows a strong Beta coefficient (-0.654 - 0.717) and also affected by the seasonal variation. The variation of pollutants on the average explains change 50.1% of the ozone. This means that about 50.1% of the ozone is attributed to these pollutant gases. The SCIAMACHY data and the satellite measurements successfully identify the increase of the atmospheric air pollutants over the study area.

  13. Issues in Stratospheric Ozone Depletion.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, Steven Andrew

    Following the announcement of the discovery of the Antarctic ozone hole in 1985 there have arisen a multitude of questions pertaining to the nature and consequences of polar ozone depletion. This thesis addresses several of these specific questions, using both computer models of chemical kinetics and the Earth's radiation field as well as laboratory kinetic experiments. A coupled chemical kinetic-radiative numerical model was developed to assist in the analysis of in situ field measurements of several radical and neutral species in the polar and mid-latitude lower stratosphere. Modeling was used in the analysis of enhanced polar ClO, mid-latitude diurnal variation of ClO, and simultaneous measurements of OH, HO_2, H_2 O and O_3. Most importantly, such modeling was instrumental in establishing the link between the observed ClO and BrO concentrations in the Antarctic polar vortex and the observed rate of ozone depletion. The principal medical concern of stratospheric ozone depletion is that ozone loss will lead to the enhancement of ground-level UV-B radiation. Global ozone climatology (40^circS to 50^ circN latitude) was incorporated into a radiation field model to calculate the biologically accumulated dosage (BAD) of UV-B radiation, integrated over days, months, and years. The slope of the annual BAD as a function of latitude was found to correspond to epidemiological data for non-melanoma skin cancers for 30^circ -50^circN. Various ozone loss scenarios were investigated. It was found that a small ozone loss in the tropics can provide as much additional biologically effective UV-B as a much larger ozone loss at higher latitudes. Also, for ozone depletions of > 5%, the BAD of UV-B increases exponentially with decreasing ozone levels. An important key player in determining whether polar ozone depletion can propagate into the populated mid-latitudes is chlorine nitrate, ClONO_2 . As yet this molecule is only indirectly accounted for in computer models and field

  14. Antarctic Ozone Hole, 2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Each spring the ozone layer over Antarctica nearly disappears, forming a 'hole' over the entire continent. The hole is created by the interaction of some man-made chemicals-freon, for example-with Antarctica's unique weather patterns and extremely cold temperatures. Ozone in the stratosphere absorbs ultraviolet radiation from the sun, thereby protecting living things. Since the ozone hole was discovered many of the chemicals that destroy ozone have been banned, but they will remain in the atmosphere for decades. In 2000, the ozone hole grew quicker than usual and exceptionally large. By the first week in September the hole was the largest ever-11.4 million square miles. The top image shows the average total column ozone values over Antarctica for September 2000. (Total column ozone is the amount of ozone from the ground to the top of the atmosphere. A relatively typical measurement of 300 Dobson Units is equivalent to a layer of ozone 0.12 inches thick on the Earth's surface. Levels below 220 Dobson Units are considered to be significant ozone depletion.) The record-breaking hole is likely the result of lower than average ozone levels during the Antarctic fall and winter, and exceptionally cold temperatures. In October, however (bottom image), the hole shrank dramatically, much more quickly than usual. By the end of October, the hole was only one-third of it's previous size. In a typical year, the ozone hole does not collapse until the end of November. NASA scientists were surprised by this early shrinking and speculate it is related to the region's weather. Global ozone levels are measured by the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS). For more information about ozone, read the Earth Observatory's ozone fact sheet, view global ozone data and see these ozone images. Images by Greg Shirah, NASA GSFC Scientific Visualization Studio.

  15. Upper Tropospheric Ozone Between Latitudes 60S and 60N Derived from Nimbus 7 TOMS/THIR Cloud Slicing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziemke, Jerald R.; Chandra, Sushil; Bhartia, P. K.

    2002-01-01

    This study evaluates the spatial distributions and seasonal cycles in upper tropospheric ozone (pressure range 200-500 hPa) from low to high latitudes (60S to 60N) derived from the satellite retrieval method called "Cloud Slicing." Cloud Slicing is a unique technique for determining ozone profile information in the troposphere by combining co-located measurements of cloud-top, pressure and above-cloud column ozone. For upper tropospheric ozone, co-located measurements of Nimbus 7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) above-cloud column ozone, and Nimbus 7 Temperature Humidity Infrared Radiometer (THIR) cloud-top pressure during 1979-1984 were incorporated. In the tropics, upper tropospheric ozone shows year-round enhancement in the Atlantic region and evidence of a possible semiannual variability. Upper tropospheric ozone outside the tropics shows greatest abundance in winter and spring seasons in both hemispheres with largest seasonal and largest amounts in the NH. These characteristics are similar to lower stratospheric ozone. Comparisons of upper tropospheric column ozone with both stratospheric ozone and a proxy of lower stratospheric air mass (i.e., tropopause pressure) from National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) suggest that stratosphere-troposphere exchange (STE) may be a significant source for the seasonal variability of upper tropospheric ozone almost everywhere between 60S and 60N except in low latitudes around 10S to 25N where other sources (e.g., tropospheric transport, biomass burning, aerosol effects, lightning, etc.) may have a greater role.

  16. Expected ozone benefits of reducing nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired electricity generating units in the eastern United States.

    PubMed

    Vinciguerra, Timothy; Bull, Emily; Canty, Timothy; He, Hao; Zalewsky, Eric; Woodman, Michael; Aburn, George; Ehrman, Sheryl; Dickerson, Russell R

    2017-03-01

    On hot summer days in the eastern United States, electricity demand rises, mainly because of increased use of air conditioning. Power plants must provide this additional energy, emitting additional pollutants when meteorological conditions are primed for poor air quality. To evaluate the impact of summertime NOx emissions from coal-fired electricity generating units (EGUs) on surface ozone formation, we performed a series of sensitivity modeling forecast scenarios utilizing EPA 2018 version 6.0 emissions (2011 base year) and CMAQ v5.0.2. Coal-fired EGU NOx emissions were adjusted to match the lowest NOx rates observed during the ozone seasons (April 1-October 31) of 2005-2012 (Scenario A), where ozone decreased by 3-4 ppb in affected areas. When compared to the highest emissions rates during the same time period (Scenario B), ozone increased ∼4-7 ppb. NOx emission rates adjusted to match the observed rates from 2011 (Scenario C) increased ozone by ∼4-5 ppb. Finally in Scenario D, the impact of additional NOx reductions was determined by assuming installation of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) controls on all units lacking postcombustion controls; this decreased ozone by an additional 2-4 ppb relative to Scenario A. Following the announcement of a stricter 8-hour ozone standard, this analysis outlines a strategy that would help bring coastal areas in the mid-Atlantic region closer to attainment, and would also provide profound benefits for upwind states where most of the regional EGU NOx originates, even if additional capital investments are not made (Scenario A).

  17. HYDROXYL RADICAL/OZONE RATIOS DURING OZONATION PROCESSES. I. THE RCT CONCEPT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ozonation of model systems and several natural waters was examined in bench-scale batch experiments. In addition to measuring the concentration of ozone (03), the rate of depletion of an in situ hydroxyl radical probe compound was monitored, thus providing information on the ...

  18. Total ozone column derived from GOME and SCIAMACHY using KNMI retrieval algorithms: Validation against Brewer measurements at the Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antón, M.; Kroon, M.; López, M.; Vilaplana, J. M.; Bañón, M.; van der A, R.; Veefkind, J. P.; Stammes, P.; Alados-Arboledas, L.

    2011-11-01

    This article focuses on the validation of the total ozone column (TOC) data set acquired by the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) and the Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography (SCIAMACHY) satellite remote sensing instruments using the Total Ozone Retrieval Scheme for the GOME Instrument Based on the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (TOGOMI) and Total Ozone Retrieval Scheme for the SCIAMACHY Instrument Based on the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (TOSOMI) retrieval algorithms developed by the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute. In this analysis, spatially colocated, daily averaged ground-based observations performed by five well-calibrated Brewer spectrophotometers at the Iberian Peninsula are used. The period of study runs from January 2004 to December 2009. The agreement between satellite and ground-based TOC data is excellent (R2 higher than 0.94). Nevertheless, the TOC data derived from both satellite instruments underestimate the ground-based data. On average, this underestimation is 1.1% for GOME and 1.3% for SCIAMACHY. The SCIAMACHY-Brewer TOC differences show a significant solar zenith angle (SZA) dependence which causes a systematic seasonal dependence. By contrast, GOME-Brewer TOC differences show no significant SZA dependence and hence no seasonality although processed with exactly the same algorithm. The satellite-Brewer TOC differences for the two satellite instruments show a clear and similar dependence on the viewing zenith angle under cloudy conditions. In addition, both the GOME-Brewer and SCIAMACHY-Brewer TOC differences reveal a very similar behavior with respect to the satellite cloud properties, being cloud fraction and cloud top pressure, which originate from the same cloud algorithm (Fast Retrieval Scheme for Clouds from the Oxygen A-Band (FRESCO+)) in both the TOSOMI and TOGOMI retrieval algorithms.

  19. Plasmadynamic ozone generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordeev, Yu. N.; Ogurechnikov, V. A.; Chizhov, Yu. L.

    2009-10-01

    The formation of ozone in a low-temperature supersonic flow of a mixture of air and partly dissociated oxygen supplied from a discharge plasmatron has been experimentally studied. For an oxygen mass fraction of 1.1% in the total gas flow supplied to this ozone generator, an ozone-air mixture containing 4.88 × 10-3 kg/m3 ozone is obtained at a specific energy consumption of 25.8 MJ/(kg ozone). In this regime, the ozone generator could operate for several dozen minutes.

  20. The Antarctic ozone hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Anna E.

    2008-07-01

    Since the mid 1970s, the ozone layer over Antarctica has experienced massive destruction during every spring. In this article, we will consider the atmosphere, and what ozone and the ozone layer actually are. We explore the chemistry responsible for the ozone destruction, and learn about why conditions favour ozone destruction over Antarctica. For the historical perspective, the events leading up to the discovery of the 'hole' are presented, as well as the response from the international community and the measures taken to protect the ozone layer now and into the future.

  1. Upper tropospheric ozone derived from the cloud slicing technique: Implications for large-scale convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziemke, J. R.; Chandra, S.; Bhartia, P. K.

    2003-07-01

    This study evaluates the spatial distributions and seasonal cycles in upper tropospheric ozone (pressure range 200-500 hPa) from low to high latitudes (60°S to 60°N) derived from the satellite retrieval method called "cloud slicing." The cloud slicing method determines ozone profile information in the troposphere by combining colocated measurements of cloud top pressure and above-cloud column ozone. Measurements of Nimbus 7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) above-cloud column ozone and Nimbus 7 Temperature Humidity Infrared Radiometer (THIR) cloud top pressure during 1979-1984 were merged to derive upper tropospheric ozone. Because of large footprint measurements from TOMS (˜100 km diameter on average), upper tropospheric ozone derived from cloud slicing coincides with large-scale convection events. These events are not necessarily representative of average atmospheric conditions in regions near and poleward of the tropospheric wind jets (around ±30° latitude), especially in winter and spring seasons when dynamical wave activity in the troposphere and lower stratosphere is most intense. The cloud slicing method with Nimbus 7 geometry in any case provides a unique opportunity to investigate the behavior of upper tropospheric ozone under condition of intense broad-scale convection. In the tropics the measured upper tropospheric ozone shows year-round enhancement in the Atlantic region and evidence of a possible semiannual variability. Outside the tropics, upper tropospheric ozone from cloud slicing shows greatest abundance in winter and spring seasons in both hemispheres with largest variance and largest amounts in the northern hemisphere. This seasonal cycle behavior under conditions of intense convection is different from general ozonesonde climatology which shows instead upper tropospheric ozone maximizing around early to middle summer months. The seasonal cycles and spatial characteristics in upper tropospheric ozone from cloud slicing are similar to

  2. Trends in the Vertical Distribution of Ozone: Assessment and Implications in Terms of Ozone Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, N. R. P.; Hassler, B.; Tummon, F.

    2014-12-01

    The successful implementation of the Montreal Protocol has led to reductions in stratospheric halogen loading, which is expected to result in less chemical depletion of ozone and thus increased stratospheric ozone amounts [WMO, 2011]. To unambiguously identify a positive ozone response directly attributable to declining halogen levels, consistent long-term ozone profile observations are required. Although near-global satellite observations of the ozone profile have been made since 1978, no single instrument has covered this entire period, meaning that merged data series combining several instrument records are required to fully understand long-term ozone changes. All available long-term data sets are analysed for trends in the period 1979-2012. The data sets are based on a varying combination of instruments including SBUV/2, SAGE-2, HALOE, UARS-MLS, OSIRIS, SAGE-3, GOMOS, ACE-FTS, and Aura-MLS. The analyses reveal that all data sets represent seasonality and interannual variability well, with those data sets based on the same instrument set tending to be more similar, despite different merging techniques being used. A multiple linear regression analysis reveals that long-term ozone trends are similar in the period prior to 1997, but show more diversity for the period since 1998. This is likely a result of the different instruments used to construct each data set, which vary more in the latter period. These results have important implications in terms of the detection of ozone recovery resulting from the reduction in stratospheric halogen loading. This work was done as part of the Si2N (Stratosphere-troposphere Processes And their Role in Climate (SPARC), the International Ozone Commission (IOC), the ozone focus area of the Integrated Global Atmospheric Chemistry Observations (IGACO-O3), and the Network for Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC) - SPARC/IOC/IGACO-O3/NDACC) initiative.

  3. Characterizing the Vertical Processes of Ozone in Colorado's Front Range Using the GSFC Ozone DIAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, John T.; McGee, Thomas J.; Hoff, Raymond M.; Sumnicht, Grant; Twigg, Laurence

    2016-06-01

    Although characterizing the interactions of ozone throughout the entire troposphere are important for health and climate processes, there is a lack of routine measurements of vertical profiles within the United States. In order to monitor this lower ozone more effectively, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center TROPospheric OZone DIfferential Absorption Lidar (GSFC TROPOZ DIAL) has been developed and validated within the Tropospheric Ozone Lidar Network (TOLNet). Two scientifically interesting ozone episodes are presented that were observed during the 2014 Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality (DISCOVER AQ) campaign at Ft. Collins, Colorado. The first case study, occurring between 22-23 July 2014, indicates enhanced concentrations of ozone at Ft. Collins during nighttime hours, which was due to the complex recirculation of ozone within the foothills of the Rocky Mountain region. Although quantifying the ozone increase aloft during recirculation episodes has been historically difficult, results indicate that an increase of 20 - 30 ppbv of ozone at the Ft. Collins site has been attributed to this recirculation. The second case, occurring between Aug 4-8th 2014, characterizes a dynamical exchange of ozone between the stratosphere and the troposphere. This case, along with seasonal model parameters from previous years, is used to estimate the stratospheric contribution to the Rocky Mountain region. Results suggest that a large amount of stratospheric air is residing in the troposphere in the summertime near Ft. Collins, CO. The results also indicate that warmer tropopauses are correlated with an increase in stratospheric air below the tropopause in the Rocky Mountain Region.

  4. The global impact of ozone on agricultural crop yields under current and future air quality legislation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Dingenen, Rita; Dentener, Frank J.; Raes, Frank; Krol, Maarten C.; Emberson, Lisa; Cofala, Janusz

    In this paper we evaluate the global impact of surface ozone on four types of agricultural crop. The study is based on modelled global hourly ozone fields for the year 2000 and 2030, using the global 1°×1° 2-way nested atmospheric chemical transport model (TM5). Projections for the year 2030 are based on the relatively optimistic "current legislation (CLE) scenario", i.e. assuming that currently approved air quality legislation will be fully implemented by the year 2030, without a further development of new abatement policies. For both runs, the relative yield loss due to ozone damage is evaluated based on two different indices (accumulated concentration above a 40 ppbV threshold and seasonal mean daytime ozone concentration respectively) on a global, regional and national scale. The cumulative metric appears to be far less robust than the seasonal mean, while the seasonal mean shows satisfactory agreement with measurements in Europe, the US, China and Southern India and South-East Asia. Present day global relative yield losses are estimated to range between 7% and 12% for wheat, between 6% and 16% for soybean, between 3% and 4% for rice, and between 3% and 5% for maize (range resulting from different metrics used). Taking into account possible biases in our assessment, introduced through the global application of "western" crop exposure-response functions, and through model performance in reproducing ozone-exposure metrics, our estimates may be considered as being conservative. Under the 2030 CLE scenario, the global situation is expected to deteriorate mainly for wheat (additional 2-6% loss globally) and rice (additional 1-2% loss globally). India, for which no mitigation measures have been assumed by 2030, accounts for 50% of these global increase in crop yield loss. On a regional-scale, significant reductions in crop losses by CLE-2030 are only predicted in Europe (soybean) and China (wheat). Translating these assumed yield losses into total global economic

  5. The effects of global changes upon regional ozone pollution in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J.; Avise, J.; Lamb, B.; Salathé, E.; Mass, C.; Guenther, A.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Lamarque, J.-F.; O'Neill, S.; McKenzie, D.; Larkin, N.

    2009-02-01

    A comprehensive numerical modeling framework was developed to estimate the effects of collective global changes upon ozone pollution in the US in 2050. The framework consists of the global climate and chemistry models, PCM (Parallel Climate Model) and MOZART-2 (Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers v.2), coupled with regional meteorology and chemistry models, MM5 (Mesoscale Meteorological model) and CMAQ (Community Multi-scale Air Quality model). The modeling system was applied for two 10-year simulations: 1990-1999 as a present-day base case and 2045-2054 as a future case. For the current decade, the daily maximum 8-h moving average (DM8H) ozone mixing ratio distributions for spring, summer and fall showed good agreement with observations. The future case simulation followed the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) A2 scenario together with business-as-usual US emission projections and projected alterations in land use, land cover (LULC) due to urban expansion and changes in vegetation. For these projections, US anthropogenic NOx (NO+NO2) and VOC (volatile organic carbon) emissions increased by approximately 6% and 50%, respectively, while biogenic VOC emissions decreased, in spite of warmer temperatures, due to decreases in forested lands and expansion of croplands, grasslands and urban areas. A stochastic model for wildfire emissions was applied that projected 25% higher VOC emissions in the future. For the global and US emission projection used here, regional ozone pollution becomes worse in the 2045-2054 period for all months. Annually, the mean DM8H ozone was projected to increase by 9.6 ppbv (22%). The changes were higher in the spring and winter (25%) and smaller in the summer (17%). The area affected by elevated ozone within the US continent was projected to increase; areas with levels exceeding the 75 ppbv ozone standard at least once a year increased by 38%. In addition, the length of the ozone season was projected to increase with

  6. The effects of global changes upon regional ozone pollution in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J.; Avise, J.; Lamb, B.; Salathé, E.; Mass, C.; Guenther, A.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Lamarque, J.-F.; O'Neill, S.; McKenzie, D.; Larkin, N.

    2008-08-01

    at least once a year increased by 38%. In addition, the length of the ozone season was projected to increase with more pollution episodes in the spring and fall. For selected urban areas, the system projected a higher number of pollution events per year and these events had more consecutive days when DM8H ozone exceed 75 ppbv.

  7. Ozone enema: a model of microscopic colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Eliakim, R; Karmeli, F; Rachmilewitz, D; Cohen, P; Zimran, A

    2001-11-01

    Ozone is one of the most powerful oxidants available, with many applications in industry and medicine. Medically relevant features of ozone include bacterial and virucidal properties, disinfection, sterilization, circulatory stimulation, and disruption of malignant cells. Ozone therapy is administered in various ways, including intravenously, intramuscularly, and intrarectally. The latter modality is used for the treatment of colitis and hepatitis. Our aim was to examine the effect of ozone water enema on normal and inflamed rat colonic mucosa. Ozone water (20 microg/ml) was prepared via ozone generator and administered intrarectally (0.5 ml) daily. Rats were killed one, three, and seven days after rectal ozone water administration, and their colons resected, rinsed, and weighed (grams per 10 cm). Damage was assessed macro- and microscopically and tissue processed for myeloperoxidase and nitric oxide synthase activity. Rats receiving saline served as controls. In an additional experiment colitis was induced by intrarectal iodoacetamide. Ozone therapy caused no macroscopic damage. Ozone therapy induced microscopic colitis, which lasted for at least a week and was accompanied by increase in segmental weight, myeloperoxidase and nitric oxide activity, and prostaglandin E2 generation. Ozone therapy had no protective effect on inflamed mucosa. In conclusion, ozone water therapy had a deleterious effect on normal colonic mucosa, suggesting intrarectal administration be reevaluated. Ozone water enema may serve as a model of microscopic colitis.

  8. Tropospheric ozone in the western Pacific Rim: Analysis of satellite and surface-based observations along with comprehensive 3-D model simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Sun-Woo; Carmichael, Gregory R.

    1994-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone production and transport in mid-latitude eastern Asia is studied. Data analysis of surface-based ozone measurements in Japan and satellite-based tropospheric column measurements of the entire western Pacific Rim are combined with results from three-dimensional model simulations to investigate the diurnal, seasonal and long-term variations of ozone in this region. Surface ozone measurements from Japan show distinct seasonal variation with a spring peak and summer minimum. Satellite studies of the entire tropospheric column of ozone show high concentrations in both the spring and summer seasons. Finally, preliminary model simulation studies show good agreement with observed values.

  9. Occurrence of ozone anomalies over cloudy areas in TOMS version-7 level-2 data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Newchurch, M. J.; Kim, J. H.

    2003-01-01

    This study investigates anomalous ozone distributions over cloudy areas in Nimbus-7 (N7) and Earth-Probe (EP) TOMS version-7 data and analyzes the causes for ozone anomaly formation. A 5°-longitude by 5°-latitude region is defined to contain a Positive Ozone Anomaly (POA) or Negative Ozone Anomaly (NOA) if the correlation coefficient between total ozone and reflectivity is ≥0.5 or ≥- 0.5. The average fractions of ozone anomalies among all cloud fields are 31.8+/-7.7% and 35.8+-7.7% in the N7 and EP TOMS data, respectively. Some ozone anomalies are caused by ozone retrieval errors, and others are caused by actual geophysical phenomena. Large cloud-height errors are found in the TOMS version-7 algorithm in comparison to the Temperature Humidity Infrared Radiometer (THIR) cloud data. On average, cloud-top pressures are overestimated by 200 hPa (THIR cloud-top pressure ≤ 200 hPa) for high-altitude clouds and underestimated by 150 hPa for low-altitude clouds (THIR cloud-top pressure ≥750 hPa). Most tropical NOAs result from negative errors induced by large cloud-height errors, and most tropical POAs are caused by positive errors due to intra-cloud ozone absorption enhancement. However, positive and negative errors offset each other, reducing the ozone anomaly occurrence in TOMS data. Large ozone/reflectivity slopes for mid-latitude POAs show seasonal variation consistent with total ozone fluctuation, indicating that they result mainly from synoptic and planetary wave disturbances. POAs with an occurrence fraction of 30-60% occur in regions of marine stratocumulus off the west coast of South Africa and off the west coast of South America. Both fractions and ozone/reflectivity slopes of these POAs show seasonal variations consistent with that in the tropospheric ozone. About half the ozone/reflectivity slope can be explained by ozone retrieval errors over clear and cloudy areas. The remaining slope may result from there being more ozone production because of

  10. Occurrence of ozone anomalies over cloudy areas in TOMS version-7 level-2 data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Newchurch, M. J.; Kim, J. H.

    2003-08-01

    This study investigates anomalous ozone distributions over cloudy areas in Nimbus-7 (N7) and Earth-Probe (EP) TOMS version-7 data and analyzes the causes for ozone anomaly formation. A 5°-longitude by 5°-latitude region is defined to contain a Positive Ozone Anomaly (POA) or Negative Ozone Anomaly (NOA) if the correlation coefficient between total ozone and reflectivity is > 0.5 or < -0.5. The average fractions of ozone anomalies among all cloud fields are 31.8 ± 7.7% and 35.8 ± 7.7% in the N7 and EP TOMS data, respectively. Some ozone anomalies are caused by ozone retrieval errors, and others are caused by actual geophysical phenomena. Large cloud-height errors are found in the TOMS version-7 algorithm in comparison to the Temperature Humidity Infrared Radiometer (THIR) cloud data. On average, cloud-top pressures are overestimated by ~200 hPa (THIR cloud-top pressure < 200 hPa) for high-altitude clouds and underestimated by ~150 hPa for low-altitude clouds (THIR cloud-top pressure > 750 hPa). Most tropical NOAs result from negative errors induced by large cloud-height errors, and most tropical POAs are caused by positive errors due to intra-cloud ozone absorption enhancement. However, positive and negative errors offset each other, reducing the ozone anomaly occurrence in TOMS data. Large ozone/reflectivity slopes for mid-latitude POAs show seasonal variation consistent with total ozone fluctuation, indicating that they result mainly from synoptic and planetary wave disturbances. POAs with an occurrence fraction of 30--60% occur in regions of marine stratocumulus off the west coast of South Africa and off the west coast of South America. Both fractions and ozone/reflectivity slopes of these POAs show seasonal variations consistent with that in the tropospheric ozone. About half the ozone/reflectivity slope can be explained by ozone retrieval errors over clear and cloudy areas. The remaining slope may result from there being more

  11. Effect of climate change on surface ozone over North America, Europe, and East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnell, Jordan L.; Prather, Michael J.; Josse, Beatrice; Naik, Vaishali; Horowitz, Larry W.; Zeng, Guang; Shindell, Drew T.; Faluvegi, Greg

    2016-04-01

    The effect of future climate change on surface ozone over North America, Europe, and East Asia is evaluated using present-day (2000s) and future (2100s) hourly surface ozone simulated by four global models. Future climate follows RCP8.5, while methane and anthropogenic ozone precursors are fixed at year 2000 levels. Climate change shifts the seasonal surface ozone peak to earlier in the year and increases the amplitude of the annual cycle. Increases in mean summertime and high-percentile ozone are generally found in polluted environments, while decreases are found in clean environments. We propose that climate change augments the efficiency of precursor emissions to generate surface ozone in polluted regions, thus reducing precursor export to neighboring downwind locations. Even with constant biogenic emissions, climate change causes the largest ozone increases at high percentiles. In most cases, air quality extreme episodes become larger and contain higher ozone levels relative to the rest of the distribution.

  12. An evaluation of electrochemical concentration Cell (ECC) sonde measurements of atmospheric ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geraci, M. J.; Luers, J. K.

    1978-01-01

    Using Dobson spectrophotometer measurements of total ozone as a comparison, an analysis of the electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozonesonde's measurement accuracy is presented. Days of conjunctive ECC-Dobson observations (from 1970 to 1976 at Wallops Flight Center) provide a set of 123 pairs of total ozone values. Sample set statistics are generated with means and standard deviations of total ozone values and differences being noted. An in-depth study of factors such as time assumptions used in calculating residual ozone, and other possible sources of errors are examined. A study of ECC ozone profiles is also presented with an evaluation of sonde measurement of seasonal trends, altitude or peak ozone concentration, and other important ozone parameters. Short-period changes in total ozone using Dobson data during the observational period are also described.

  13. Basic Ozone Layer Science

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Learn about the ozone layer and how human activities deplete it. This page provides information on the chemical processes that lead to ozone layer depletion, and scientists' efforts to understand them.

  14. Sensitivity of stratospheric ozone to present and possible future aircraft emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Wuebbles, D.J.; Kinnison, D.E.

    1990-08-01

    The aircraft industry is showing renewed interest in the development of supersonic, high flying aircraft for intercontinental passenger flights. There appears to be confidence that such high-speed civil transports can be designed, and that aircraft will be economically viable as long as they are also environmentally acceptable. As such, it is important to establish the potential for such environmental problems early in the aircraft design. Initial studies with LLNL models of global atmospheric chemical, radiative, and transport processes have indicated that substantial decreases in stratospheric ozone concentrations could result from emissions of NO{sub x} from aircraft flying the stratosphere, depending on the fleet size and magnitude of the engine emissions. The purpose of this study is to build on previous analyses of potential aircraft emission effects on ozone in order to better define the sensitivity of ozone to such emissions. In addition to NO{sub x}, the effects of potential emissions of carbon monoxide and water vapor are also examined. More realistic scenarios for the emissions as a function of altitude, latitude, and season are examined in comparison to prior analyses. These studies indicate that the effects on ozone are sensitive to the altitude and latitude, as well as the magnitude, of the emissions.

  15. Evaluating stomatal ozone fluxes in WRF-Chem: Comparing ozone uptake in Mediterranean ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rydsaa, J. H.; Stordal, F.; Gerosa, G.; Finco, A.; Hodnebrog, Ø.

    2016-10-01

    The development of modelling tools for estimating stomatal uptake of surface ozone in vegetation is important for the assessment of potential damage induced due to both current and future near surface ozone concentrations. In this study, we investigate the skill in estimating ozone uptake in plants by the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with chemistry (WRF-Chem) V3.6.1, with the Wesely dry deposition scheme. To validate the stomatal uptake of ozone, the model simulations were compared with field measurements of three types of Mediterranean vegetation, over seven different periods representing various meteorological conditions. Some systematic biases in modelled ozone fluxes are revealed; the lack of an explicit and time varying dependency on plants' water availability results in overestimated daytime ozone stomatal fluxes particularly in dry periods. The optimal temperature in the temperature response function is likely too low for the woody species tested here. Also, too low nighttime stomatal conductance leads to underestimation of ozone uptake during night. We demonstrate that modelled stomatal ozone flux is improved by accounting for vapor pressure deficit in the ambient air. Based on the results of the overall comparison to measured fluxes, we propose that additional improvements to the stomatal conductance parameterization should be implemented before applying the modelling system for estimating ozone doses and potential damage to vegetation.

  16. Global ozone and air quality: a multi-model assessment of risks to human health and crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellingsen, K.; Gauss, M.; van Dingenen, R.; Dentener, F. J.; Emberson, L.; Fiore, A. M.; Schultz, M. G.; Stevenson, D. S.; Ashmore, M. R.; Atherton, C. S.; Bergmann, D. J.; Bey, I.; Butler, T.; Drevet, J.; Eskes, H.; Hauglustaine, D. A.; Isaksen, I. S. A.; Horowitz, L. W.; Krol, M.; Lamarque, J. F.; Lawrence, M. G.; van Noije, T.; Pyle, J.; Rast, S.; Rodriguez, J.; Savage, N.; Strahan, S.; Sudo, K.; Szopa, S.; Wild, O.

    2008-02-01

    Within ACCENT, a European Network of Excellence, eighteen atmospheric models from the U.S., Europe, and Japan calculated present (2000) and future (2030) concentrations of ozone at the Earth's surface with hourly temporal resolution. Comparison of model results with surface ozone measurements in 14 world regions indicates that levels and seasonality of surface ozone in North America and Europe are characterized well by global models, with annual average biases typically within 5-10 nmol/mol. However, comparison with rather sparse observations over some regions suggest that most models overestimate annual ozone by 15-20 nmol/mol in some locations. Two scenarios from the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) and one from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (IPCC SRES) have been implemented in the models. This study focuses on changes in near-surface ozone and their effects on human health and vegetation. Different indices and air quality standards are used to characterise air quality. We show that often the calculated changes in the different indices are closely inter-related. Indices using lower thresholds are more consistent between the models, and are recommended for global model analysis. Our analysis indicates that currently about two-thirds of the regions considered do not meet health air quality standards, whereas only 2-4 regions remain below the threshold. Calculated air quality exceedances show moderate deterioration by 2030 if current emissions legislation is followed and slight improvements if current emissions reduction technology is used optimally. For the "business as usual" scenario severe air quality problems are predicted. We show that model simulations of air quality indices are particularly sensitive to how well ozone is represented, and improved accuracy is needed for future projections. Additional measurements are needed to allow a more quantitative assessment of the risks to

  17. Investigation of the structure and dynamics of the ozone layer in the Eastern Arctic region during EASOE Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khattatov, V.; Yushkov, V.; Rudakov, V.; Zaitsev, I.; Rosen, J.; Kjome, N.

    1994-01-01

    Balloon measurements of the vertical distribution of ozone and aerosol were made at Dickson Island (73 deg N, 81 deg E), Kiruna (68 deg N, 20 deg E) and Heiss Island (81 deg N, 58 deg E) from December 1991 to March 1992. To acquire data on the seasonal variability of the vertical ozone distribution, electrochemical ozonesondes ECC-4A were flown three times a week. With ozonesondes on the same balloons, backscattersondes were flown on the average of two or three times per month. Using these instruments, altitude profiles of backscatter ratio were measured at two wavelengths centered at 490 nm and 940 nm. Additionally, at Heiss Island, Dickson, and Yakutsk (63 deg N, 130 deg E) regular total ozone measurements were obtained using Brewer spectrophotometers. Based on measurements of backscatter ratio it was found that after the Pinatubo eruption in June 1991 significant amount of stratospheric aerosols were formed and transported to the Arctic before the polar vortex was well developed. Analysis of ozone data has shown a deep decrease of ozone concentration in the lower stratosphere in times of intensive transportation of air masses from low latitudes to the polar region in the second half of January and also for some periods in February and March of 1992. When the values of backscatter ratio beta were more than 8-10 at a wavelength of 940 nm strong anticorrelation occurred between aerosol loading and ozone concentration in the lower stratosphere. At 50-70 deg N, the mean monthly values of total ozone in winter-spring 1992 proved to be much lower than the climatic mean values.

  18. Ozone decreases spring root growth and root carbohydrate content in ponderosa pine the year following exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, C.P.; Hogsett, W.E.; Wessling, R.; Plocher, M.

    1991-01-01

    Storage carbohydrates are extremely important for new shoot and root development following dormancy or during periods of high stress. The hypothesis that ozone decreases carbohydrate storage and decreases new root growth during the year following exposure was investigated. The results suggest that (1) ponderosa pine seedlings exposed to 122 and 169 ppm hrs ozone for one season have significantly less root starch reserves available just prior to and during bud break the following year, and (2) spring root growth is decreased following ozone exposure. The carry-over effects of ozone stress may be important in long-lived perennial species which are annually subjected to ozone.

  19. Tropospheric ozone variability over the Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, Pavan S.; Bortoli, D.; Salgado, R.; Antón, M.; Costa, M. J.; Silva, A. M.

    2011-01-01

    To study tropospheric ozone variability over the Iberian Peninsula (IP), NASA Langley TOR data have been analyzed for the 1979-2005 period. The maximum tropospheric ozone concentration over the entire IP was found in June (˜41 DU) and a minimum in December (˜29 DU). However the maximum tropospheric ozone concentration was found over West Atlantic Coast (WAC) (˜44 DU), followed by Mediterranean Coast (MC) (˜42 DU), North Atlantic Coast (NAC) (˜41 DU), Central Iberian Peninsula (CIP) (˜40 DU) and Pyrenees Mountain Range (PMR) (˜39 DU) during June-July. The high concentration of tropospheric ozone in July over the Atlantic Ocean near IP is due to the presence of Azores anticyclone and related photochemistry and dynamics, and affects the observed higher tropospheric ozone concentration over WAC zone. Strong seasonal cycle in tropospheric ozone concentration has been observed with large variation over NAC (˜49%), followed by WAC (˜48%) and MC (˜41%) compared to CIP and PMR (˜38%) zones. When the data are compared over the IP for the two periods (1979-1993 and 1997-2005), a systematic increase in the number of months with higher tropospheric ozone concentration has been observed during the second period with respect to the first. These increases are almost 8% to 24% over NAC, 6% to 17% over WAC, 5% to 24% over CIP, 6% to 23% over MC and 13% to 18% over PMR, zones. It has been observed that topography, climatology and population density distribution plays a crucial role in the variability of tropospheric ozone concentration over the IP.

  20. Ozone Trend Detectability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, J. W. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    The detection of anthropogenic disturbances in the Earth's ozone layer was studied. Two topics were addressed: (1) the level at which a trend in total ozoning is detected by existing data sources; and (2) empirical evidence in the prediction of the depletion in total ozone. Error sources are identified. The predictability of climatological series, whether empirical models can be trusted, and how errors in the Dobson total ozone data impact trend detectability, are discussed.

  1. Ozone Layer Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McPeters, Richard; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been monitoring the ozone layer from space using optical remote sensing techniques since 1970. With concern over catalytic destruction of ozone (mid-1970s) and the development of the Antarctic ozone hole (mid-1980s), long term ozone monitoring has become the primary focus of NASA's series of ozone measuring instruments. A series of TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) and SBUV (Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet) instruments has produced a nearly continuous record of global ozone from 1979 to the present. These instruments infer ozone by measuring sunlight backscattered from the atmosphere in the ultraviolet through differential absorption. These measurements have documented a 15 Dobson Unit drop in global average ozone since 1980, and the declines in ozone in the antarctic each October have been far more dramatic. Instruments that measure the ozone vertical distribution, the SBUV and SAGE (Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment) instruments for example, show that the largest changes are occurring in the lower stratosphere and upper troposphere. The goal of ozone measurement in the next decades will be to document the predicted recovery of the ozone layer as CFC (chlorofluorocarbon) levels decline. This will require a continuation of global measurements of total column ozone on a global basis, but using data from successor instruments to TOMS. Hyperspectral instruments capable of measuring in the UV will be needed for this purpose. Establishing the relative roles of chemistry and dynamics will require instruments to measure ozone in the troposphere and in the stratosphere with good vertical resolution. Instruments that can measure other chemicals important to ozone formation and destruction will also be needed.

  2. Convective Lofting Links Indian Ocean Air Pollution to Paradoxical South Atlantic Ozone Maxima

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatfield, Robert B.; Guan, Hong; Thompson, Anne M.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.

    2003-01-01

    We describe a broad resolution of the "Atlantic Paradox" concerning the seasonal and geographic distribution of tropical tropospheric ozone. We describe periods of significant maximum tropospheric O3 for Jan.-April, 1999, exploiting satellite estimates and SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes). Trajectory analyses connecting sondes and Total Tropospheric Ozone (TTO)O3 maps suggest a complex influence from the Indian Ocean: beginning with mixed combustion sources, then low level transport, cumulonimbus venting, and finally high-level transport to the west, with possible mixing over Africa. For the Jan.- March highest column-O3 periods in the Atlantic, distinct sounding peaks trace to specific NO sources, especially lightning, while in the same episodes, recurring every 30 or 60 days, more diffuse buildups of Indian-to-Atlantic pollution make important contributions.

  3. Convective lofting links Indian Ocean air pollution to paradoxical South Atlantic ozone maxima

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatfield, R. B.; Guan, H.; Thompson, A. M.; Witte, J. C.

    2005-01-01

    We describe a broad resolution of the Atlantic Parado concerning the seasonal and geographic distribution, of tropical tropospheric ozone. We highlight periods of significant maximum tropospheric O3 for Jan.- April, 1999, exploiting satellite estimates and SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes). Trajectory analyses connecting sondes and Total Tropospheric Ozone (TTO) maps suggest a complex influence from the Indian Ocean: beginning with mixed combustion sources, then low level transport, cumulonimbus venting, possible stratospheric input, and finally high-level transport to the west, with possible mixing over Africa. For the Jan.-March highest column-O3 periods in the Atlantic, distinct sounding peaks trace to specific NO sources, especially lightning, while in the same episodes, recurring every 20-50 days, more diffuse buildups of Indian-to-Atlantic pollution make important contributions.

  4. Convective lofting links Indian Ocean air pollution to paradoxical South Atlantic ozone maxima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatfield, R. B.; Guan, H.; Thompson, A. M.; Witte, J. C.

    2004-03-01

    We describe a broad resolution of the ``Atlantic Parado'' concerning the seasonal and geographic distribution of tropical tropospheric ozone. We highlight periods of significant maximum tropospheric O3 for Jan.-April, 1999, exploiting satellite estimates and SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes). Trajectory analyses connecting sondes and Total Tropospheric Ozone (TTO) maps suggest a complex influence from the Indian Ocean: beginning with mixed combustion sources, then low level transport, cumulonimbus venting, possible stratospheric input, and finally high-level transport to the west, with possible mixing over Africa. For the Jan.-March highest column-O3 periods in the Atlantic, distinct sounding peaks trace to specific NO sources, especially lightning, while in the same episodes, recurring every 20-50 days, more diffuse buildups of Indian-to-Atlantic pollution make important contributions.

  5. Ozone drinking water treatment handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, R.G.

    1990-01-01

    This book explains how ozone can be used to provide primary disinfection, while minimizing halogenated by-products. This is of use to those who design pilot plant studies in full scale ozone plants-and those who employ ozone and regulatory personnel. Detailed section on components of an ozonization system outlines feed gas preparation (air and oxygen), ozone generation, ozone contacting, ozone off gas destruction, monitoring and control of ozonation systems, engineering aspects of ozone, cost factors in ozone technology, case histories (European and U.S.).

  6. Ozone Antimicrobial Efficacy

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ozone is a potent germicide that has been used extensively for water purification. In Europe, 90 percent of the municipal water systems are treated with ozone, and in France, ozone has been used to treat drinking water since 1903. However, there is limited information on the bioc...

  7. The Application of TOMS Ozone, Aerosol and UV-B Data to Madagascar Air Quality Determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aikin, A.C.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) data products for the area of Madagascar are presented. In addition to total ozone, aerosols and UV-B tropospheric ozone results are shown from 1979 to the present. Tropospheric ozone over Africa and Madagascar is enhanced by 10 to 15 DU in October. This maximum coincides with the time of maximum biomass area burning in Africa and Madagascar. Ozone observations were made from 1979 to 1999 using the TOMS tropospheric ozone convective cloud differential method. As a result of easterly trade winds, ozone originating on Madagascar is transported to the west over the Mozambique Channel. In El Nino years higher level westerly winds descend to transport low level ozone easterly. This results in African continental ozone being transported east of Madagascar. Long range transport of African ozone is observed during El Nino periods. The potential of TOMS and other space data for use in public education and research on Madagascar air quality is demonstrated.

  8. 75 FR 68733 - Approval and Promulgation of One-Year Extension for Attaining the 1997 8-Hour Ozone Standard for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-09

    .../Pennsylvania 2009 .065 42-091-0013 Montgomery/Pennsylvania......... 2009 .070 42-101-0004 Philadelphia..., quality-assured air quality data recorded during the 2009 ozone season. In accordance with requirements... the 2009 ozone season at each monitor in the area is less than 0.084 parts per million (ppm). If...

  9. Tropospheric Ozone and Photochemical Smog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sillman, S.

    2003-12-01

    emitted species, in a process that is driven by sunlight and is accelerated by warm temperatures. This smog is largely the product of gasoline-powered engines (especially automobiles), although coal-fired industry can also generate photochemical smog. The process of photochemical smog formation was first identified by Haagen-Smit and Fox (1954) in association with Los Angeles, a city whose geography makes it particularly susceptible to this type of smog formation. Sulfate aerosols and organic particulates are often produced concurrently with ozone, giving rise to a characteristic milky-white haze associated with this type of air pollution.Today ozone and particulates are recognized as the air pollutants that are most likely to affect human health adversely. In the United States, most major metropolitan areas have periodic air pollution events with ozone in excess of government health standards. Violations of local health standards also occur in major cities in Canada and in much of Europe. Other cities around the world (especially Mexico City) also experience very high ozone levels. In addition to urban-scale events, elevated ozone occurs in region-wide events in the eastern USA and in Western Europe, with excess ozone extending over areas of 1,000 km2 or more. Ozone plumes of similar extent are found in the tropics (especially in Central Africa) at times of high biomass burning (e.g., Jenkins et al., 1997; Chatfield et al., 1998). In some cases ozone associated with biomass burning has been identified at distances up to 104 km from its sources (Schultz et al., 1999).Ozone also has a significant impact on the global troposphere, and ozone chemistry is a major component of global tropospheric chemistry. Global background ozone concentrations are much lower than urban or regional concentrations during pollution events, but there is evidence that the global background has increased as a result of human activities (e.g., Wang and Jacob, 1998; Volz and Kley, 1988). A rise in

  10. About ozone depletion in stratosphere over Brazil in last decade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Inácio M.; Imai, Takeshi; Seguchi, Tomio

    The depletion of stratospheric ozone, resulting from the emission of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), has become a major issue since 1980. The decrease in stratospheric ozone over the polar regions has been pronounced at the South Pole than at the North Pole. In mid-latitude and equatorial regions, ozone depletion becomes less important; it depends on seasonal effects and on the characteristics of a particular region. The detailed mechanism by which the polar ozone holes form is different from that for the mid-latitude thinning, but the most important process in both trends is the catalytic destruction of ozone by atomic chlorine and bromine. The main source of these halogen atoms in the stratosphere is photodissociation of CFC compounds, commonly called freons, and of bromofluorocarbon compounds known as halons. These compounds are transported into the stratosphere after being emitted at the surface. Both ozone depletion mechanisms strengthened as emissions of CFCs and halons increased [1]. Measurements of stratospheric ozone carried out on several locations in Brazil and on the South Pole in the last decade (1996-2005), using detectors placed on ground, stratospheric balloons and Earth Probe TOMS satellites, are presented here. Detailed series analysis from 1980 up to the present describes a mean ozone depletion of 4[1] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ozone/depletion.

  11. Broad features of surface ozone variations over Indian region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shende, R. R.; Jayaraman, K.; Sreedharan, C. R.; Tiwari, V. S.

    1994-01-01

    Surface ozone concentration at three Indian stations - New Delhi (28.6 deg N), Pune (18.5 deg N) and Thiruvananthapuram (formerly Trivandrum (8.3 deg N) - has been measured since 1973 with the help of an electrochemical continuous ozone recorder. These stations show diurnal, seasonal and annual cycles in surface ozone. Daily changes show that the minimum value occurs at sunrise and maximum in the afternoon. As regards seasonal variations, Thiruvananthapuram and Pune have a minimum value during monsoon season (June to August) while at New Delhi the minimum value occurs in January. However, New Delhi also records low ozone amount during monsoon season identical to the amounts show at Thiruvananthapuram and Pune. The annual cycles at these stations have been compared with similar measurements in the northern and southern hemispheres. The Indian measurements agree well with the annual cycles at these stations. Further, the analysis of the Indian data indicates that the major contribution in surface ozone comes from the natural sources like stratospheric-tropospheric exchange, turbulence, and mixing in the boundary layer; however, a small contribution from anthropogenic sources cannot be ruled out at Pune and probably at New Delhi, especially in winter and summer seasons.

  12. Contribution of stratospheric ozone to the interannual variability of tropospheric ozone in the northern extratropics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terao, Yukio; Logan, Jennifer A.; Douglass, Anne R.; Stolarski, Richard S.

    2008-09-01

    We examined the role of variability in the input of stratospheric ozone on the interannual variability of tropospheric ozone in the northern extratropics using correlations of monthly ozone anomalies for the lower stratosphere and the troposphere. We used output from a multiyear simulation of the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Chemistry and Transport Model (CTM), and evaluated model results using ozonesonde data. The GSFC CTM explicitly calculates stratospheric ozone and simulates separate tracers of stratospheric and tropospheric ozone (O3-strat and O3-trop, respectively). The climatological seasonal cycle of ozone shows that O3-strat contributes significantly to the spring maximum of ozone at 500 hPa, ˜40% at high latitudes and ˜30% at midlatitudes. We find large regional differences in the correlation of ozone in the lower stratosphere and troposphere in the model that are supported by the ozonesonde data. Highest correlations are found from the eastern Atlantic to Europe, from the eastern Pacific to the western United States, and over the polar regions, in winter-spring. This spatial pattern is due to the input of O3-strat into the troposphere. The distribution and time lag of the correlations (highest with no lag for midlatitudes and a 1-2 month lag for polar regions) are consistent with the dynamical indicators of stratosphere-troposphere exchange (STE), such as storm tracks in the midlatitudes and slow descending motion in the polar region. Our simple approach can be widely applied to diagnose the effect of STE on tropospheric ozone.

  13. Chemistry-Transport Modeling of the Satellite Observed Distribution of Tropical Tropospheric Ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Wouter; Krol, Maarten; Dentener, Frank; Thompson, Anne M.; Leloeveld, Jos; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We have compared the 14-year record of satellite derived tropical tropospheric ozone columns (TTOC) from the NIMBUS-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) to TTOC calculated by a chemistry-transport model (CTM). An objective measure of error, based on the zonal distribution of TTOC in the tropics, is applied to perform this comparison systematically. In addition, the sensitivity of the model to several key processes in the tropics is quantified to select directions for future improvements. The comparisons indicate a widespread, systematic (20%) discrepancy over the tropical Atlantic Ocean, which maximizes during austral Spring. Although independent evidence from ozonesondes shows that some of the disagreement is due to satellite over-estimate of TTOC, the Atlantic mismatch is largely due to a misrepresentation of seasonally recurring processes in the model. Only minor differences between the model and observations over the Pacific occur, mostly due to interannual variability not captured by the model. Although chemical processes determine the TTOC extent, dynamical processes dominate the TTOC distribution, as the use of actual meteorology pertaining to the year of observations always leads to a better agreement with TTOC observations than using a random year or a climatology. The modeled TTOC is remarkably insensitive to many model parameters due to efficient feedbacks in the ozone budget. Nevertheless, the simulations would profit from an improved biomass burning calendar, as well as from an increase in NOX abundances in free tropospheric biomass burning plumes. The model showed the largest response to lightning NOX emissions, but systematic improvements could not be found. The use of multi-year satellite derived tropospheric data to systematically test and improve a CTM is a promising new addition to existing methods of model validation, and is a first step to integrating tropospheric satellite observations into global ozone modeling studies. Conversely

  14. Stratospheric temperature-ozone relationships 1978-1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelman, M. E.; Nagatani, R. M.; Miller, A. J.; Johnson, K. W.

    1989-01-01

    Global stratospheric temperature and geopotential height at eight pressure levels (70, 50, 30, 10, 5, 2, 1, and 0.4 hPa) were derived at NMC daily since October 1978. These fields are based on NOAA operational satellite sounder information. Comparable daily global fields of stratospheric ozone (30 to 0.4 hPa and total ozone) were derived from the SBUV instrument on Nimbus 7 and are now derived from the operational NOAA SBUV/2 instrument. The ozone and meteorological fields are verified against ground based measurements (Umkehr, balloon, rocket, lidar) to determine fields of temperature and ozone was assembled. Some of the interesting features of correlation between the synoptic patterns of the two data sets as well as their change with time are discussed. Seasonal as well as interannual variations in the patterns of correlation are compared in the Northern and Southern Hemisphere polar regions. Other outstanding features in both the temperature and ozone fields are highlighted.

  15. Comparing and evaluating model estimates of background ozone in surface air over North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberman, J.; Fiore, A. M.; Lin, M.; Zhang, L.; Jacob, D. J.; Naik, V.; Horowitz, L. W.

    2011-12-01

    Tropospheric ozone adversely affects human health and vegetation, and is thus a criteria pollutant regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS). Ozone is produced in the atmosphere via photo-oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and carbon monoxide (CO) in the presence of nitrogen oxides (NOx). The present EPA approach considers health risks associated with exposure to ozone enhancement above the policy-relevant background (PRB), which is currently defined as the surface concentration of ozone that would exist without North American anthropogenic emissions. PRB thus includes production by natural precursors, production by precursors emitted on foreign continents, and transport of stratospheric ozone into surface air. As PRB is not an observable quantity, it must be estimated using numerical models. We compare PRB estimates for the year 2006 from the GFDL Atmospheric Model 3 (AM3) chemistry-climate model (CCM) and the GEOS-Chem (GC) chemical transport model (CTM). We evaluate the skill of the models in reproducing total surface ozone observed at the U.S. Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNet), dividing the stations into low-elevation (< 1.5 km in altitude, primarily eastern) and high-elevation (> 1.5 km in altitude, all western) subgroups. At the low-elevation sites AM3 estimates of PRB (38±9 ppbv in spring, 27±9 ppbv in summer) are higher than GC (27±7 ppbv in spring, 21±8 ppbv in summer) in both seasons. Analysis at these sites is complicated by a positive bias in AM3 total ozone with respect to the observed total ozone, the source of which is yet unclear. At high-elevation sites, AM3 PRB is higher in the spring (47±8 ppbv) than in the summer (33±8 ppbv). In contrast, GC simulates little seasonal variation at high elevation sites (39±5 ppbv in spring vs. 38±7 ppbv in summer). Seasonal average total ozone at these sites was within 4 ppbv of the observations for both

  16. Spatial regression analysis on 32 years of total column ozone data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knibbe, J. S.; van der A, R. J.; de Laat, A. T. J.

    2014-08-01

    Multiple-regression analyses have been performed on 32 years of total ozone column data that was spatially gridded with a 1 × 1.5° resolution. The total ozone data consist of the MSR (Multi Sensor Reanalysis; 1979-2008) and 2 years of assimilated SCIAMACHY (SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY) ozone data (2009-2010). The two-dimensionality in this data set allows us to perform the regressions locally and investigate spatial patterns of regression coefficients and their explanatory power. Seasonal dependencies of ozone on regressors are included in the analysis. A new physically oriented model is developed to parameterize stratospheric ozone. Ozone variations on nonseasonal timescales are parameterized by explanatory variables describing the solar cycle, stratospheric aerosols, the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO), El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and stratospheric alternative halogens which are parameterized by the effective equivalent stratospheric chlorine (EESC). For several explanatory variables, seasonally adjusted versions of these explanatory variables are constructed to account for the difference in their effect on ozone throughout the year. To account for seasonal variation in ozone, explanatory variables describing the polar vortex, geopotential height, potential vorticity and average day length are included. Results of this regression model are compared to that of a similar analysis based on a more commonly applied statistically oriented model. The physically oriented model provides spatial patterns in the regression results for each explanatory variable. The EESC has a significant depleting effect on ozone at mid- and high latitudes, the solar cycle affects ozone positively mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, stratospheric aerosols affect ozone negatively at high northern latitudes, the effect of QBO is positive and negative in the tropics and mid- to high latitudes, respectively, and ENSO affects ozone negatively

  17. Calculations of increased solar UV fluxes and DUV doses due to stratospheric-ozone depletions

    SciTech Connect

    Zardecki, A.; Gerstl, S.A.W.

    1982-02-01

    Accurate radiative transfer calculations are performed in the middle ultraviolet spectral region for aerosol-loaded atmospheres with the goal of determining the solar irradiance at the ground and quantifying the irradiance perturbations due to the presence of aerosols and various ozone depletions. The extent of the increase of UV-B radiation as a function of wave-length and solar zenith angle is calculated for five model atmospheres. In addition, the damaging ultraviolet dose rates and radiation amplification factors are evaluated at different latitudes and seasons for erythemal and DNA action spectra.

  18. Distribution of stratospheric column ozone (SCO) determined from satellite observations: Validation of solar backscattered ultraviolet (SBUV) measurements in support of the tropospheric ozone residual (TOR) method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wozniak, Amy E.; Fishman, Jack; Wang, Pi-Huan; Creilson, John K.

    2005-10-01

    The global (50°N-50°S) distribution of stratospheric column ozone (SCO) is derived using solar backscattered ultraviolet (SBUV) profiles and compared with SCO amounts derived from Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) and ground-based measurements. An evaluation of archived SBUV (version 6) ozone profiles with ozonesonde profiles shows that the low resolution of the SBUV instrument in the troposphere and lower stratosphere leads to a low bias in the SBUV profile in the troposphere and a high bias in the lower stratosphere in regions where anthropogenic tropospheric ozone production influences the climatology. An empirical correction applied to the SBUV profile prior to separating the stratosphere from the troposphere reduces the bias in the lower stratosphere and results in a SCO distribution in good agreement with SCO derived from SAGE ozone profiles. Because the empirical correction is most pronounced at northern middle latitudes, we compare these resultant SCO values with those measured at two northern middle latitude sites (Wallops Island and Hohenpeissenberg) using concurrent measurements from Dobson spectrophotometers and ozonesondes. Our analysis shows that the empirically corrected SCO at these sites captures the seasonal cycle of SCO as well as the seasonal cycle derived from SAGE stratospheric ozone profiles. These results have important implications for the derivation of tropospheric ozone from SBUV ozone profiles in conjunction with Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) total ozone measurements using the tropospheric ozone residual (TOR) methodology.

  19. Options to accelerate ozone recovery:ozone and climate benefits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniel, J. S.; Fleming, E. L.; Portmann, R. W.; Velders, G. J. M.; Jackman, C. H.; Ravishankara, A. R.

    2010-04-01

    Hypothetical reductions in future emissions of ozone-depleting substances (ODSs), including N2O, are evaluated in terms of effects on equivalent effective stratospheric chlorine (EESC), globally-averaged total column ozone, and radiative forcing through 2100. Due to the established success of the Montreal Protocol, these actions can have only a fraction of the impact that regulations already in force have had. If all anthropogenic ODS emissions were halted beginning in 2011, ozone is calculated to be higher by about 1-2{%} during the period 2030-2100 compared to a case of no additional ODS restrictions. Radiative forcing by 2100 would be about 0.23 W/m2 lower due to the elimination of N2O emissions and about 0.005 W/m2 lower due to destruction of the chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) bank. The ability of EESC to be a suitable metric for total ozone is also quantified. Responding to the recent suggestion that N2O should be considered an ODS, we provide an approach to incorporate N2O into the EESC formulation.

  20. Options to Accelerate Ozone Recovery: Ozone and Climate Benefits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, E. L.; Daniel, J. S.; Portmann, R. W.; Velders, G. J. M.; Jackman, C. H.; Ravishankara, A. R.

    2010-01-01

    The humankind or anthropogenic influence on ozone primarily originated from the chlorofluorocarbons and halons (chlorine and bromine). Representatives from governments have met periodically over the years to establish international regulations starting with the Montreal Protocol in 1987, which greatly limited the release of these ozone-depleting substances (DDSs). Two global models have been used to investigate the impact of hypothetical reductions in future emissions of ODSs on total column ozone. The investigations primarily focused on chlorine- and bromine-containing gases, but some computations also included nitrous oxide (N2O). The Montreal Protocol with ODS controls have been so successful that further regulations of chlorine- and bromine-containing gases could have only a fraction of the impact that regulations already in force have had. if all anthropogenic ODS emissions were halted beginning in 2011, ozone is calculated to be higher by about 1-2% during the period 2030-2100 compared to a case of no additional ODS restrictions. Chlorine- and bromine-containing gases and nitrous oxide are also greenhouse gases and lead to warming of the troposphere. Elimination of N 20 emissions would result in a reduction of radiative forcing of 0.23 W/sq m in 2100 than presently computed and destruction of the CFC bank would produce a reduction in radiative forcing of 0.005 W/sq m in 2100. This paper provides a quantitative way to consider future regulations of the CFC bank and N 20 emissions

  1. Overview of ozone bleaching

    SciTech Connect

    Sonnenberg, L.B.

    1995-12-31

    The potential impact of the pulp and paper industry on the environment may be reduced by replacing chlorine-based bleaching reagents with ozone. The reactivity of ozone coupled with the heterogeneity of pulp allows many types of reactions to occur during pulp bleaching. Ozone cleaves the aromatic rings and side chain double bonds in lignin in Criegee-type mechanisms. Activated carbon-hydrogen bonds are fragmented in lignin side chains, as well as Cl carbons of {beta}-glycosides, by way of a 1,3 dipolar insertion forming a hydrotrioxide intermediate. Ozone also attacks carbohydrates at acetal oxygens, depolymerizing at the glycosidic bond. Unsaturated sites are ozonated before aliphatic sites resulting in a predominance of lignin reactions over carbohydrate reactions until lignin is substantially removed from the pulp. Important factors in the successful application of ozone bleaching include minimizing ozone decomposition and other secondary reactions, reducing exposure of cellulose to high concentrations of ozone and radicals, and promoting uniform exposure of ozone to lignin. The quantity of chlorinated organic compounds in effluents can be drastically reduced by replacing chlorine-based bleaching reagents with ozone; less organochlorine is formed and there can be greater recycle of bleach plant wastes back to the recovery cycle. Recycling of bleach plant waste also reduces total organic loading in the effluent. The toxicity of ozone filtrates is variable compared to conventional filtrates and depends on several parameters including bleaching conditions, biological treatment, and target organisms.

  2. Spring polar ozone behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aikin, Arthur C.

    1992-01-01

    Understanding of the springtime behavior of polar stratospheric ozone as of mid 1990 is summarized. Heterogeneous reactions on polar stratospheric clouds as hypothesis for ozone loss are considered and a simplified description of the behavior of Antarctic ozone in winter and spring is given. Evidence that the situation is more complicated than described by the theory is produced. Many unresolved scientific issues remain and some of the most important problems are identified. Ozone changes each spring since 1979 have clearly established for the first time that man made chlorine compounds influence stratospheric ozone. Long before important advances in satellite and in situ investigations, it was Dobson's decision to place a total ozone measuring spectrometer at Halley Bay in Antarctica during the International Geophysical Year and subsequent continuous monitoring which led to the discovery that ozone was being destroyed each spring by chlorine processed by polar stratospheric clouds.

  3. Coincident Observations of Surface Ozone and NMVOCs over Abu Dhabi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi, Naveed; Majeed, Tariq; Iqbal, Mazhar; Tarasick, David; Davies, Jonathan; Riemer, Daniel; Apel, Eric

    2016-07-01

    The vertical profiles of ozone are measured coincidently with non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) at the meteorological site located at the Abu Dhabi international airport (latitude 24.45N; longitude 54.22E) during the years 2012 - 2014. Some of the profiles show elevated surface ozone >95 ppbv during the winter months (December, January and February). The ground-level NMVOCs obtained from the gas chromatography-flame ionization detection/mass spectrometry system also show elevated values of acetylene, ethane, propane, butane, pentane, benzene, and toluene. NMVOCs and ozone abundances in other seasons are much lower than the values in winter season. NMVOCs are emitted from an extensive number of sources in urban environments including fuel production, distribution, and consumption, and serve as precursor of ozone. Transport sources contribute a substantial portion of the NMVOC burden to the urban atmosphere in developed regions. Abu Dhabi is located at the edge of the Arabian Gulf and is highly affected by emissions from petrochemical industries in the neighboring Gulf region. The preliminary results indicate that wintertime enhancement in ozone is associated with large values of NMVOCs at Abu Dhabi. The domestic production of surface ozone is estimated from the combination of oxygen recombination and NMVOCs and compared with the data. It is estimated that about 40-50% of ozone in Abu Dhabi is transported from the neighbouring petrochemical industries. We will present ozone sounding and NMVOCs data and our model estimates of surface ozone, including a discussion on the high levels of the tropospheric ozone responsible for contaminating the air quality in the UAE. This work is supported by National Research Foundation, UAE.

  4. TOMS ozone data analysis of Indonesian forest fire effect on total ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Jianguo; Watanabe, Yoshihiro; Takeuchi, Nobuo; Ogawa, Toshihio

    1998-08-01

    Biomass burning can result in tropospheric ozone increasing. In 1997, Indonesia big forest fire in dry season as a result of El Nino emitted large amounts of biomass burning plumes into the atmosphere, which produce ozone in troposphere via photochemical reaction. We mapped three day average of Earth Probe TOMS data from July to December 1997 in Latitude of 20 degrees S to 20 degrees N, and Longitude of 30 degrees E to 180 degrees E, which involves the forest fire area. As a composition we got every day ADEOS TOMS maps in the same area and the same period in 1996. From this maps we can find that in October 1997 the largest total amount of ozone was about 30 Dobson unit larger than the average in the same period of 1996. The area of largest amount was twice appeared in September 8 to 13 and October 11 to 19 which lasted about ten days. The location of that was in the west not far from the forest fire area which can be considered as a result of seasonal wind form east to west. Besides that a fairly large amount ozone area form east Indonesia through the west, we can find that ozone amount was largely increased than that of 1996.

  5. Model development for naphthenic acids ozonation process.

    PubMed

    Al Jibouri, Ali Kamel H; Wu, Jiangning

    2015-02-01

    Naphthenic acids (NAs) are toxic constituents of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) which is generated during the extraction of bitumen from oil sands. NAs consist mainly of carboxylic acids which are generally biorefractory. For the treatment of OSPW, ozonation is a very beneficial method. It can significantly reduce the concentration of NAs and it can also convert NAs from biorefractory to biodegradable. In this study, a factorial design (2(4)) was used for the ozonation of OSPW to study the influences of the operating parameters (ozone concentration, oxygen/ozone flow rate, pH, and mixing) on the removal of a model NAs in a semi-batch reactor. It was found that ozone concentration had the most significant effect on the NAs concentration compared to other parameters. An empirical model was developed to correlate the concentration of NAs with ozone concentration, oxygen/ozone flow rate, and pH. In addition, a theoretical analysis was conducted to gain the insight into the relationship between the removal of NAs and the operating parameters.

  6. Trends in atmospheric ozone - Conflicts between models and SBUV data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rusch, D. W.; Clancy, R. T.

    1988-01-01

    Results obtained from simple models for the long-term change in ozone and its seasonal amplitude as a function of atmospheric pressure in the region from 3.0-0.1 mbar are compared with ozone measurements obtained with the Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet Instrument (SBUV). The SBUV data show secular trends in ozone which are negative and larger than the largest model trends by a factor of two or more. It is suggested that temperature-correlated variations in photochemistry should be included in the model.

  7. Analysis of a 7 year tropospheric ozone vertical distribution at the Observatoire de Haute Provence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beekmann, Matthias; Ancellet, Gerard; Megie, Gerard

    1994-01-01

    A seven year (1984-90) climatology of tropospheric vertical ozone soundings, performed by electrochemical sondes at the OHP (44 deg N, 6 deg E, 700 m ASL) in Southern France, is presented. Its seasonal variation shows a broad spring/summer maximum in the troposphere. The contribution of photochemical ozone production and transport from the stratosphere to this seasonal variation are studied by a correlative analysis of ozone concentrations and meteorological variables, with emphasis on potential vorticity. This analysis shows the impact of dynamical and photochemical processes on the spatial and temporal ozone variability. In particular, a positive correlation (r = 04.0, significance greater than 99.9 percent) of ozone with potential vorticity is observed in the middle troposphere, reflecting the impact of stratosphere-troposphere exchange on the vertical ozone distribution.

  8. Perspectives on African Ozone from Sondes, Dobson and Aircraft Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, A. M.; Witte, J. C.; Chatfield, R. B.; Diab, R. D.; Thouret, V.; Sauvage, B.

    2004-01-01

    We have been studying variability in ozone over Africa using data from ozonesondes (vertical profiles from surface to stratosphere), aircraft (the MOZAIC dataset with cruise altitude and landing/takeoff profiles) and the ground (Dobson spectrophotometer total ozone column measurement). The following may give context for ozone investigations during AMMA: 1. Total ozone measurements since 1989 show considerable variability in mean value among the African stations in Algeria, Kenya, Egypt, South Africa, as well as in seasonal cycles and year-to-year. Trends are not evident. 2. The impacts of convection, stratospheric injection, biomass burning and lightning appear in ozone sounding profile data. Time-series analysis and case studies point to periodic influences of long-range interactions with the Atlantic ("ozone paradox," wave-one") and Indian Oceans. 3. Tropospheric ozone variations, observed in tropospheric profiles and integrated column amount, follow general seasonal patterns but short- term variability is so strong that simple averages are inadequate for describing "climatology" and statistical classification approaches may be required.

  9. New Total Ozone Algorithm for Application to the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wellemeyer, C.; Bhartia, P. K.; Taylor, S. L.; Qin, W.; Flynn, L.; Seftor, C.

    2003-01-01

    The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) series comprises four instruments providing a total of 25 years of daily global stratospheric ozone data over the sunlit portion of the Earth. A new retrieval algorithm has been developed for TOMS, designated Version 8. The algorithm is based on differential absorption across a pair of wavelength channels chosen close together to minimize the impact of wavelength dependent forward modeling errors. Version 8 enhancements include correction for the presence of tropospheric aerosols and sun glint from water surfaces, a better treatment of variability due to tropospheric ozone and temperature dependence, and an improved forward model, particularly in regions of persistent snow and ice. Among other things, the Version 8 enhancements have reduced latitudinal dependence seen previously in TOMS - Dobson comparisons, predominantly in the Southern Hemisphere's summer, when the tropospheric ozone, temperature, and snow/ice corrections are additive. The basic components of the algorithm and its impact on derived total ozone will be discussed.

  10. Ozone depletion, paradigms, and politics

    SciTech Connect

    Iman, R.L.

    1993-10-01

    The destruction of the Earth`s protective ozone layer is a prime environmental concern. Industry has responded to this environmental problem by: implementing conservation techniques to reduce the emission of ozone-depleting chemicals (ODCs); using alternative cleaning solvents that have lower ozone depletion potentials (ODPs); developing new, non-ozone-depleting solvents, such as terpenes; and developing low-residue soldering processes. This paper presents an overview of a joint testing program at Sandia and Motorola to evaluate a low-residue (no-clean) soldering process for printed wiring boards (PWBs). Such processes are in widespread use in commercial applications because they eliminate the cleaning operation. The goal of this testing program was to develop a data base that could be used to support changes in the mil-specs. In addition, a joint task force involving industry and the military has been formed to conduct a follow-up evaluation of low-residue processes that encompass the concerns of the tri-services. The goal of the task force is to gain final approval of the low-residue technology for use in military applications.

  11. Ozone Depletion from Nearby Supernovae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, Neil; Laird, Claude M.; Jackman, Charles H.; Cannizzo, John K.; Mattson, Barbara J.; Chen, Wan; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Estimates made in the 1970's indicated that a supernova occurring within tens of parsecs of Earth could have significant effects on the ozone layer. Since that time improved tools for detailed modeling of atmospheric chemistry have been developed to calculate ozone depletion, and advances have been made also in theoretical modeling of supernovae and of the resultant gamma ray spectra. In addition, one now has better knowledge of the occurrence rate of supernovae in the galaxy, and of the spatial distribution of progenitors to core-collapse supernovae. We report here the results of two-dimensional atmospheric model calculations that take as input the spectral energy distribution of a supernova, adopting various distances from Earth and various latitude impact angles. In separate simulations we calculate the ozone depletion due to both gamma rays and cosmic rays. We find that for the combined ozone depletion from these effects roughly to double the 'biologically active' UV flux received at the surface of the Earth, the supernova must occur at approximately or less than 8 parsecs.

  12. Biomedical consequences of ozone depletion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coohill, Thomas P.

    1994-07-01

    It is widely agreed that a portion of the earth's protective stratospheric ozone layer is being depleted. The major effect of this ozone loss will be an increase in the amount of ultraviolet radiation (UV reaching the biosphere. This increase will be completely contained within the UVB (290nm - 320nm). It is imperative that assessments be made of the effects of this additional UVB on living organisms. This requires a detailed knowledge of the UVB photobiology of these life forms. One analytical technique to aid in the approximations is the construction of UV action spectra for such important biological end-points as human skin cancer, cataracts, immune suppression; plant photosynthesis and crop yields; and aquatic organism responses to UVB, especially the phytoplankton. Combining these action spectra with the known solar spectrum (and estimates for various ozone depletion scenarios) can give rise to a series of effectiveness spectra for these parameters. This manuscript gives a first approximation, rough estimate, for the effectiveness spectra for some of these bioresponses, and a series of crude temporary values for how a 10% ozone loss would affect the above end-points. These are not intended to masquerade as final answers, but rather, to serve as beginning attempts for a process which should be continually refined. It is hoped that these estimates will be of some limited use to agencies, such as government and industry, that have to plan now for changes in human activities that might alter future atmospheric chemistry in a beneficial manner.

  13. Massive global ozone loss predicted following regional nuclear conflict.

    PubMed

    Mills, Michael J; Toon, Owen B; Turco, Richard P; Kinnison, Douglas E; Garcia, Rolando R

    2008-04-08

    We use a chemistry-climate model and new estimates of smoke produced by fires in contemporary cities to calculate the impact on stratospheric ozone of a regional nuclear war between developing nuclear states involving 100 Hiroshima-size bombs exploded in cities in the northern subtropics. We find column ozone losses in excess of 20% globally, 25-45% at midlatitudes, and 50-70% at northern high latitudes persisting for 5 years, with substantial losses continuing for 5 additional years. Column ozone amounts remain near or <220 Dobson units at all latitudes even after three years, constituting an extratropical "ozone hole." The resulting increases in UV radiation could impact the biota significantly, including serious consequences for human health. The primary cause for the dramatic and persistent ozone depletion is heating of the stratosphere by smoke, which strongly absorbs solar radiation. The smoke-laden air rises to the upper stratosphere, where removal mechanisms are slow, so that much of the stratosphere is ultimately heated by the localized smoke injections. Higher stratospheric temperatures accelerate catalytic reaction cycles, particularly those of odd-nitrogen, which destroy ozone. In addition, the strong convection created by rising smoke plumes alters the stratospheric circulation, redistributing ozone and the sources of ozone-depleting gases, including N(2)O and chlorofluorocarbons. The ozone losses predicted here are significantly greater than previous "nuclear winter/UV spring" calculations, which did not adequately represent stratospheric plume rise. Our results point to previously unrecognized mechanisms for stratospheric ozone depletion.

  14. EMISSION OF OZONE IN THE VALE DO PARAÍBA REGION, IN SOUTHEASTERN BRAZIL, FOR THE YEAR 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dos Santos Zepka, A.; Sales, A. B.; Alvalá, P. C.

    2009-12-01

    The city of São José dos Campos (São Paulo, Brazil) in recent years has shown strong growth and current increase in industrial economy, leading to a sharp urban development and consequent problems of air pollution. The ozone is a major greenhouse gas, present in the troposphere by photochemical reactions in natural emissions of anthropogenic and biogenic hydrocarbons such as volatile organic compounds and nitrogen oxides, which can come from lightning and soil. Due to the fact that this gas is considered the main pollutant responsible for poor air quality, the objective of this study was to characterize the behavior of the emission of ozone in the Vale do Paraíba region, in Southeastern Brazil, in association with meteorological parameters. Researches in this area are essential, because of the need for better knowledge on air quality at regional and global. The motivation for this study was based on the fact that the ozone near the surface can be considered a gas harmful to human and animal health, crops and forests as well of urban areas in general, besides being used as a major indicators of air quality by agencies of monitoring environment, such as the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change), for example. This study is an initial analysis that will lead to a better understanding of chemical and physical processes that occur in the atmosphere of the city and region. Ozone and meteorological data were obtained from two locations in the city, known as INPE (23°12,04'S; 45°51,06'W) and UNIVAP (23°12,05'S; 45°57,02'W) during the year 2007. The ozone data were obtained every 15 minutes and converted in hourly and daily averages. In addition, were collected the maximum and minimum measure daily. The ozone showed similar behavior to temperature and irradiance for the period studied. In spring and summer there was an increase of ozone mixing ratio, which was produced photochemically during the increase of solar irradiance. Moreover, the periods of autumn

  15. Assimilation of ozone profiles from the Improved Limb Atmospheric Spectrometer. 2; Study on Antarctic Ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stajner, Ivanka; Wargan, Krzysztof; Chang, Lang-Ping; yashi, Hiroo; Pawson, Steve; Nakajima, Hideaki

    2005-01-01

    Ozone data from the Improved Limb Atmospheric Spectrometer-II (ILAS-II) were included in addition to other satellite observations in the ozone assimilation system at the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) of NASA/Goddard. The control run assimilated data from NOAA 16 Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet/2 (SBUV/2) and Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement III (POAM III) instruments. Persistent impacts over Antarctica and transient impacts over northern middle and high latitudes are seen from April to October 2003, when ILAS-II provided good coverage. The largest improvements with respect to independent ozone sonde data are seen over the South Pole station. Ozone analyses and forecasts from the assimilation of SBUV/2, POAM III and ILAS-II data b e used to investigate the transport of ozone to southern middle latitudes following the breakup of the Antarctic vortex. The quality of analyses and forecasts is evaluated by comparison with independent Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III (SAGE III) ozone data near 46degs. Anomaly correlations between SAGE III data and forecasts'exceed 0.6 for up to five to seven days at 30,50, and 70 ma. The loss of skill with advancing forecast length is related to dynamical errors due to an excessively persistent vortex in longer forecasts, which hampers the transport of low ozone air into middle latitudes.

  16. Ozone in the upper stratosphere and mesosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Prather, M.J.

    1981-06-20

    A detailed photochemical model of the upper stratosphere and mesosphere is compared with three extensive sets of ozone observations: Atmospheric Explorer-E backscattered ultraviolet experiment (BUV), Nimbus-4 BUV, and rocket flights from Wallops Flight Center (ROCOZ). The Nimbus-4 and rocket observations are most sensitive to ozone between 30 and 50 km, whereas observations from AE-E measure the abundance of ozone up to 70 km. The photochemical model accurately reproduces the observed relationship between BUV intensity and local solar zenith angle, although the absolute calibration on AE-E appears to be in error. The AE-E observations and the model both exhibit a morning-afternoon asymmetry, with more ozone in the morning owing to the build up of HO/sub x/ species in the afternoon. Seasonal changes in atmospheric temperature produce an annual maximum in tropical mesospheric ozone during June-July-August. The amplitude of the observed effect is somewhat larger than calculated by the model. Some problems appear to remain with the presently accepted kinetic rates for HO/sub x/ species in the atmosphere. 71 references, 19 figures, 6 tables.

  17. Probing the Distribution of Ozone on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fast, K. E.; Kostiuk, T.; Hewagama, T.; Livengood, T. A.; Lefevre, F.; Annen, J.; Delgado, J. D.

    2008-01-01

    We present the application of infrared heterodyne line shapes of ozone on Mars to those produced by radiative transfer modeling of ozone profiles predicted by photochemistry-coupled general circulation models (GCM), and to contemporaneous column abundances measured by Mars Express SPICAM. Ozone is an important tracer of photochemistry in Mars' atmosphere, serving as an observable with which to test predictions of photochemical models. Infrared heterodyne measurements of ozone absorption features on Mars have been obtained at various Martian seasons from 1988 until present at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) on Mauna Kea, Hawai'i [I]. The NASAiGoddard Space Flight Center spectrometers used were the Infrared Heterodyne Spectrometer (IRHS) [2, 3] and, since 2003, the Heterodyne Instrument for Planetary Wind and Composition (HIPWAC) [4]. A description the infrared heterodyne technique applied to ground-base observations of Martian ozone can be found in [I]. The most recent measurements on February 21-24 2008 UT at Ls=35deg were made by HIPWAC on or near the Mars Express orbital path with the goal of acquiring spectra that can be directly compared to nadir observations by SPICAM.

  18. Considering Seasons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Mena, Janet

    1994-01-01

    Argues that the traditional way that the four seasons are taught is culturally biased and does not reflect the actual seasons in many parts of the United States and other nations. Suggests that early childhood programs should take into account the diversity of seasonal transitions. (MDM)

  19. Long-Term Exposure to Ozone and Life Expectancy in the United States, 2002 to 2008.

    PubMed

    Li, Chaoyang; Balluz, Lina S; Vaidyanathan, Ambarish; Wen, Xiao-Jun; Hao, Yongping; Qualters, Judith R

    2016-02-01

    Long-term exposure to ground-level ozone is associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality. The association remains uncertain between long-term exposure to ozone and life expectancy. We assessed the associations between seasonal mean daily 8-hour maximum (8-hr max) ozone concentrations measured during the ozone monitoring seasons and life expectancy at birth in 3109 counties of the conterminous U.S. during 2002 to 2008. We used latent class growth analysis to identify latent classes of counties that had distinct mean levels and rates of change in ozone concentrations over the 7-year period and used linear regression analysis to determine differences in life expectancy by ozone levels. We identified 3 classes of counties with distinct seasonal mean daily 8-hr max ozone concentrations and rates of change. When compared with the counties with the lowest ozone concentrations, the counties with the highest ozone concentrations had 1.7- and 1.4-year lower mean life expectancy in males and females (both P < 0.0001), respectively. The associations remained statistically significant after controlling for potential confounding effects of seasonal mean PM2.5 concentrations and other selected environmental, demographic, socio-economic, and health-related factors (both P < 0.0001). A 5 ppb higher ozone concentration was associated with 0.25 year lower life expectancy in males (95% CI: -0.30 to -0.19) and 0.21 year in females (95% CI: -0.25 to -0.17). We identified 3 classes of counties with distinct mean levels and rates of change in ozone concentrations. Our findings suggest that long-term exposure to a higher ozone concentration may be associated with a lower life expectancy.

  20. Long-Term Exposure to Ozone and Life Expectancy in the United States, 2002 to 2008

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chaoyang; Balluz, Lina S.; Vaidyanathan, Ambarish; Wen, Xiao-Jun; Hao, Yongping; Qualters, Judith R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Long-term exposure to ground-level ozone is associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality. The association remains uncertain between long-term exposure to ozone and life expectancy. We assessed the associations between seasonal mean daily 8-hour maximum (8-hr max) ozone concentrations measured during the ozone monitoring seasons and life expectancy at birth in 3109 counties of the conterminous U.S. during 2002 to 2008. We used latent class growth analysis to identify latent classes of counties that had distinct mean levels and rates of change in ozone concentrations over the 7-year period and used linear regression analysis to determine differences in life expectancy by ozone levels. We identified 3 classes of counties with distinct seasonal mean daily 8-hr max ozone concentrations and rates of change. When compared with the counties with the lowest ozone concentrations, the counties with the highest ozone concentrations had 1.7- and 1.4-year lower mean life expectancy in males and females (both P < 0.0001), respectively. The associations remained statistically significant after controlling for potential confounding effects of seasonal mean PM2.5 concentrations and other selected environmental, demographic, socio-economic, and health-related factors (both P < 0.0001). A 5 ppb higher ozone concentration was associated with 0.25 year lower life expectancy in males (95% CI: −0.30 to −0.19) and 0.21 year in females (95% CI: −0.25 to −0.17). We identified 3 classes of counties with distinct mean levels and rates of change in ozone concentrations. Our findings suggest that long-term exposure to a higher ozone concentration may be associated with a lower life expectancy. PMID:26886595

  1. Long-term changes in UT/LS ozone between the late 1970s and the 1990s deduced from the GASP and MOZAIC aircraft programs and from ozonesondes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnadt Poberaj, C.; Staehelin, J.; Brunner, D.; Thouret, V.; de Backer, H.; Stübi, R.

    2009-01-01

    We present ozone measurements of the Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP) performed from four commercial and one research aircraft in the late 1970s to compare them with respective measurements of the ongoing MOZAIC project. Climatologies of UT/LS ozone were built using the aircraft data sets (1975-1979 and 1994-2001), and long-term changes between the 1970s and 1990s were derived by comparison. The data were binned relative to the dynamical tropopause to separate between UT and LS air masses. LS data were analysed using equivalent latitudes. In the UT, pronounced increases are found over the Middle East and South Asia in the spring and summer seasons. Increases are also found over Japan, Europe, and the eastern parts of the Unites States depending on season. LS ozone over northern mid- and high latitudes was found to be lower in the 1990s compared to the 1970s in all seasons of the year. In addition, a comparison with long-term changes deduced from ozonesondes is presented. An altitude offset was applied to the sonde data to account for the slow response time of the ozone sensors. The early 1970s European Brewer-Mast (BM) sonde data agree with GASP within the range of uncertainty (UT) or measured slightly less ozone (LS). In contrast, the 1990s BM sensors show consistently and significantly higher UT/LS ozone values than MOZAIC. This unequal behaviour of aircraft/sonde comparisons in the 1970s and 1990s leads to differences in the estimated long-term changes over Europe: while the comparison between GASP and MOZAIC indicates ozone changes of -5% to 10% over Europe, the sondes suggest a much larger increase of 10%-35% depending on station and season, although statistical significance is not conclusive due to data sample limitations. In contrast to the BM sondes, the Electrochemical Cell (ECC) sonde at Wallops Island, USA, measured higher UT ozone than both GASP and MOZAIC. Hence, long-term changes from GASP/MOZAIC agree within the range of uncertainty with

  2. Advanced treatment of biotreated textile industry wastewater with ozone, virgin/ozonated granular activated carbon and their combination.

    PubMed

    Arslan-Alaton, Idil; Seremet, Ozden

    2004-01-01

    Biotreated textile wastewater (CODo = 248 mg L(-1); TOCo = 58 mg L(-1); A620 = 0.007 cm(-1); A525 = 0.181 cm(-1); A436 = 0.198 cm(-1)) was subjected to advanced treatment with ozonation, granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption in serial and simultaneous applications. Experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of applied ozone dose, ozone absorption rate, specific ozone absorption efficiency, GAC dose, and reaction pH on the treatment performance of the selected tertiary treatment scheme. In separate experiments, the impact of virgin GAC ozonation on its adsorptive capacity for biotreated and biotreated + ozonated textile effluent was also investigated. Ozonation appeared to be more effective for decolorization (kd = 0.15 min(-1) at pH = 3), whereas GAC adsorption yielded higher COD removal rates (54% at pH = 3). It was also found that GAC addition (4 g/L) at pH = 7 and 9 enhanced the COD abatement rate of the ozonation process significantly and that the sequential application of ozonation (at pH = 3-11, 675 mg L(-1) O3) followed by GAC adsorption (at pH = 3-7, 10 g L(-1) GAC) resulted in the highest treatment performances both in terms of color and COD reduction. Simultaneous application of GAC and ozone at acidic and alkaline pH seriously inhibited COD abatement rates as a consequence of competitive adsorption and partial oxidation of textile components and GAC. It could also be established that ozone absorption efficiency decreased after color removal was complete. Ozonation of biotreated textile wastewater with 113 mg L(-1) ozone resulted in an appreciable enhancement of GAC adsorptive capacity in terms of residual color removal. Ozonation of GAC at relatively low doses (= 10.8 mg/g GAC) did not improve its overall adsorption capacity.

  3. The latitudinal distribution of ozone to 35 km altitude from ECC ozonesonde observations, 1982-1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komhyr, W. D.; Oltmans, S. J.; Lathrop, J. A.; Kerr, J. B.; Matthews, W. A.

    1994-01-01

    Electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozone-sonde observations, made in recent years at ten stations whose locations range from the Arctic to Antarctica, have yielded a self-consistent ozone data base from which mean seasonal and annual latitudinal ozone vertical distributions to 35 km have been derived. Ozone measurement uncertainties are estimated, and results are presented in the Bass-Paur (1985) ozone absorption coefficient scale adopted for use with Dobson ozone spectrophotometers January 1, 1992. The data should be useful for comparison with model calculations of the global distribution of atmospheric ozone, for serving as apriori statistical information in deriving ozone vertical distributions from satellite and Umkehr observations, and for improving the satellite and Umkehr ozone inversion algorithms. Attention is drawn to similar results based on a less comprehensive data set published in Ozone in the Atmosphere, Proceedings of the 1988 Quadrennial Ozone Symposium where errors in data tabulations occurred for three of the stations due to inadvertent transposition of ozone partial pressure and air temperature values.

  4. Determining relationships and mechanisms between tropospheric ozone column concentrations and tropical biomass burning in Thailand and its surrounding regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonkaew, Thiranan; Macatangay, Ronald

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to determine the variability and trends of tropical biomass burning, tropospheric ozone levels from 2005-2012 in Thailand and the ozone transport from the surrounding regions. Intense biomass burning and tropospheric ozone in this area have a seasonal variability with the maximum generally occurring during the dry season. The northern part of Thailand was observed to have high tropospheric ozone during the dry peak season in April. Forward trajectory analysis determined that ozone sources due to biomass burning in the northern and western surrounding regions (Myanmar, Laos and India) enhance the tropospheric ozone column in northern Thailand. Seasonal variations were also seen for the middle and northeastern regions of Thailand. During August, most biomass burning occurs in Indonesia and Malaysia. However, forward trajectory analysis showed that the effect in the tropospheric ozone column level in the southern part of Thailand is minimal from these regions. Eight-year trends of tropospheric ozone column were also calculated for the different regions of Thailand. However, statistical analysis showed that these trends were not significant. The interannual variability of the tropospheric ozone column concentrations due to El Niño Southern Oscillation were also investigated. It was observed that the best correlation of the tropospheric ozone column with the Oceanic Niño Index (ONI) occured when ONI was advanced 3 months for the north, northeast and south regions of Thailand and 4 months for the middle region of Thailand.

  5. Tropical Tropospheric Ozone From Nimbus 7 and Earth-Probe Toms: Validation, ENSO Signals and Trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.

    1998-01-01

    The well-known wave-one pattern seen in tropical total ozone has been used to develop a modified-residual (MR) method for retrieving time-averaged stratospheric ozone and tropospheric ozone column amount from TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) over the 14 complete years of Nimbus 7 observations (1979-1992) and from Earth-Probe (1996-present) and ADEOS/TOMS (1996-1997). Nine- to sixteen-day averaged tropical tropospheric ozone (TTO) maps show a seasonality expected from dynamical and chemical influences. Validation of the TTO time-series is presently limited to Atlantic sounding stations, notably Ascension Island, Natal, Brazil, and Brazzaville, Congo. Stratospheric column ozone, which is also derived from the modified-residual method, compares well with sondes and with stratospheric ozone column derived from other satellites.

  6. On the transfer of stratospheric ozone into the troposphere near the North Pole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oltmans, Samuel J.; Raatz, Wolfgang E.; Komhyr, Walter D.

    1989-01-01

    A series of nearly daily ozone vertical profiles obtained at station T-3 on Fletcher's Ice Island (about 85 deg N, about 90 deg W) during the period January-March 1971 shows several significant ozone intrusions into the troposphere. These intrusions are not only associated with enhanced ozone amounts in the stratosphere but also require tropopause folding events to transport ozone into the troposphere. These folds in the arctic tropopause appear to be capable of contributing significantly to the ozone budget of the arctic troposphere during the late winter and spring seasons. The importance of tropopause folding for bringing ozone into the troposphere seen in the daily ozone profiles confirms the results found in the Arctic Gas and Aerosol Sampling Program aircraft flights.

  7. Energetic particle precipitation: A major driver of the ozone budget in the Antarctic upper stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damiani, Alessandro; Funke, Bernd; Santee, Michelle L.; Cordero, Raul R.; Watanabe, Shingo

    2016-04-01

    Geomagnetic activity is thought to affect ozone and, possibly, climate in polar regions via energetic particle precipitation (EPP) but observational evidence of its importance in the seasonal stratospheric ozone variation on long time scales is still lacking. Here we fill this gap by showing that at high southern latitudes, late winter ozone series, covering the 1979-2014 period, exhibit an average stratospheric depletion of about 10-15% on a monthly basis caused by EPP. Daily observations indicate that every austral winter EPP-induced low ozone concentrations appear at about 45 km in late June and descend later to 30 km, before disappearing by September. Such stratospheric variations are coupled with mesospheric ozone changes also driven by EPP. No significant correlation between these ozone variations and solar ultraviolet irradiance has been found. This suggests the need of including the EPP forcing in both ozone model simulations and trend analysis.

  8. Observational Diagnoses of Extratropical Ozone STE During the Aura Era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, Mark A.; Douglass, Anne R.; Witte, Jacquie C.; Kaplan, Trevor B.

    2011-01-01

    The transport of ozone from the stratosphere to the extratropical troposphere is an important boundary condition to tropospheric chemistry. However, previous direct estimates from models and indirect estimates from observations have poorly constrained the magnitude of ozone stratosphere-troposphere exchange (STE). In this study we provide a direct diagnosis of the extratropical ozone STE using data from the Microwave Limb Sounder on Aura and output of the MERRA reanalysis over the time period from 2005 to the present. We find that the mean annual STE is about 275 Tg/yr and 205 Tg/yr in the NH and SH, respectively. The interannual variability of the magnitude is about twice as great in the NH than the SH. We find that this variability is dominated by the seasonal variability during the late winter and spring. A comparison of the ozone flux to the mass flux reveals that there is not a simple relationship between the two quantities. This presentation will also examine the magnitude and distribution of ozone in the lower stratosphere relative to the years of maximum and minimum ozone STE. Finally, we will examine any possible signature of increased ozone STE in the troposphere using sonde and tropospheric ozone residual (TOR) data, and output from the Global Modeling Initiative Chemistry Transport Model (GMI CTM).

  9. Foreign versus Domestic Contributions to China's Ozone Air Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Ruijing; Lin, Jintai; Lin, Weili; Yan, Yingying

    2016-04-01

    Ozone is a critical air pollutant because it damages human health and vegetation. Previous studies for the United States and Europe have shown large influences of foreign emissions on domestic ozone levels, whereas the relative contributions of foreign versus domestic emissions are much less clear for China' ozone pollution. Here, we use the global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) simulations to quantify the contributions of ozone transport from regions with large anthropogenic emissions to China. Our results indicate considerable influences of foreign anthropogenic pollution on China's ozone air quality. Of all ozone over China produced by global anthropogenic emissions, foreign anthropogenic emissions contribute 40% near the surface, and the foreign contribution increases with altitude and reaches up to 70% in the upper troposphere. The contributions by North America and Europe reach maximum levels in spring, in which season Chinese influence on the western United States also peaks. The springtime maxima are associated with strong westerly winds and frequent cyclonic activities favorable to the long-range transport. European anthropogenic pollution enhanced surface ozone concentrations by 1~4 ppbv over Western and Northern China in spring and winter. Despite much longer transport distance, the contribution from North America is distinctly greater than that from Europe due to the nearly tripled VOC emissions. Ozone contributed by Foreign Asian countries peaks in summer and autumn, widely dispersed to the upper troposphere over Southern China with strong upwelling. Therefore, although China produces large amounts of ozone precursor emissions, its domestic ozone pollution is still contributed significantly by foreign anthropogenic emissions. Our study is relevant to Chinese ozone pollution control and global collaboration.

  10. On the link between martian total ozone and potential vorticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, James A.; Lewis, Stephen R.; Patel, Manish R.

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate for the first time that total ozone in the martian atmosphere is highly correlated with the dynamical tracer, potential vorticity, under certain conditions. The degree of correlation is investigated using a Mars global circulation model including a photochemical model. Potential vorticity is the quantity of choice to explore the dynamical nature of polar vortices because it contains information on winds and temperature in a single scalar variable. The correlation is found to display a distinct seasonal variation, with a strong positive correlation in both northern and southern winter at poleward latitudes in the northern and southern hemisphere respectively. The identified strong correlation implies variations in polar total ozone during winter are predominantly controlled by dynamical processes in these spatio-temporal regions. The weak correlation in northern and southern summer is due to the dominance of photochemical reactions resulting from extended exposure to sunlight. The total ozone/potential vorticity correlation is slightly weaker in southern winter due to topographical variations and the preference for ozone to accumulate in Hellas basin. In northern winter, total ozone can be used to track the polar vortex edge. The ozone/potential vorticity ratio is calculated for both northern and southern winter on Mars for the first time. Using the strong correlation in total ozone and potential vorticity in northern winter inside the polar vortex, it is shown that potential vorticity can be used as a proxy to deduce the distribution of total ozone where satellites cannot observe for the majority of northern winter. Where total ozone observations are available on the fringes of northern winter at poleward latitudes, the strong relationship of total ozone and potential vorticity implies that total ozone anomalies in the surf zone of the northern polar vortex can potentially be used to determine the origin of potential vorticity filaments.

  11. The Validation of Ground Based Ozone Measurements over Korea.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, K. H.; Kim, J. H.; Herman, J. R.; Haffner, D. P.; Kim, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Validation of Ground Based Ozone Measurements over KoreaKorea will launch GEMS instrument in 2018 onboard the Geostationary Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite to monitor tropospheric gas concentrations in both high temporal and spatial resolution. In order to utilize information from satellite, it is crucial to carry out validation of satellite data with respect to ground-based measurements because satellite retrievals suffer from large error. The purpose of this study is to examine the performance of total ozone measurements from Pandora, Brewer, and Dobson which will be used for validation of GEMS ozone product. Because single version of the satellite retrieval algorithm is used to process the entire data set for a given satellite instrument and satellite instrument characteristics are typically changing slowly, it is assumed that sudden jumps or large drifts in ground-satellite total ozone measurements difference for individual sites are commonly related to problems with ground-based measurements. Thereby, satellite measurements can be used to estimate the performance of the ground-based measurement network as well as to identify potential problems residing in individual station. As a reference of satellite ozone measurements, we have selected ozone data derived from OMI-TOMS V8.5 algorithm because it is a very robust algorithm that has well studied about various error sources such as the effects of aerosols and clouds, variation in shape of ozone profiles with season, latitude, and total ozone. For the future validation of GEMS measurements, Korea has planned to use Pandora measurement that has been started operating since 2012. However, Pandora measurements reported to have unusual high total column ozone in the presence of clouds from the comparison of Pandora with OMI total ozone during DISCOVERY-AQ campaign. In this study, we will analyze the Pandora measurements associated with cloud and introduce the statistical technique, Kalman Filter, to correct the

  12. Footprints of decadal climate variability in ozone at Mauna Loa Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, M.; Horowitz, L. W.; Oltmans, S. J.; Fiore, A. M.; Fan, S.

    2013-12-01

    Ozone is a greenhouse gas that plays a central role in tropospheric chemistry. A 40-year ozone record at Mauna Loa Observatory (MLO, 3.4 km altitude) reveals strikingly different seasonality of ozone trends from those observed at northern mid-latitudes: increasing in fall at MLO but in spring at northern midlatitude remote sites. These changes in seasonal ozone are well reproduced by a chemistry-climate model. We find that the seasonal ozone changes at MLO cannot be accounted for by trends in ozone precursor emissions alone, but reflect decadal shifts in circulation regimes. Specifically, airflow from Eurasia towards Hawaii weakened in spring but strengthened in fall. In spring, the long-term tropical expansion, combined with an early-2000s shift in the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) towards fewer El Niño events, offsets ozone increases that otherwise would have occurred due to rising Asian emissions. In fall, transport of midlatitude pollution events to MLO has occurred more frequently since the mid-1990s, corresponding with a period of predominantly positive Pacific-North American (PNA) pattern. Our findings highlight the potential for atmospheric ozone measurements at remote sites to document interannual to decadal changes in atmospheric circulation. Decadal shifts in circulation regimes must be considered when attributing ozone changes observed at remote sites to trends in precursor emissions.

  13. Ozone therapy in periodontics.

    PubMed

    Gupta, G; Mansi, B

    2012-02-22

    Gingival and Periodontal diseases represent a major concern both in dentistry and medicine. The majority of the contributing factors and causes in the etiology of these diseases are reduced or treated with ozone in all its application forms (gas, water, oil). The beneficial biological effects of ozone, its anti-microbial activity, oxidation of bio-molecules precursors and microbial toxins implicated in periodontal diseases and its healing and tissue regeneration properties, make the use of ozone well indicated in all stages of gingival and periodontal diseases. The primary objective of this article is to provide a general review about the clinical applications of ozone in periodontics. The secondary objective is to summarize the available in vitro and in vivo studies in Periodontics in which ozone has been used. This objective would be of importance to future researchers in terms of what has been tried and what the potentials are for the clinical application of ozone in Periodontics.

  14. Ozone therapy in periodontics

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, G; Mansi, B

    2012-01-01

    Gingival and Periodontal diseases represent a major concern both in dentistry and medicine. The majority of the contributing factors and causes in the etiology of these diseases are reduced or treated with ozone in all its application forms (gas, water, oil). The beneficial biological effects of ozone, its anti-microbial activity, oxidation of bio-molecules precursors and microbial toxins implicated in periodontal diseases and its healing and tissue regeneration properties, make the use of ozone well indicated in all stages of gingival and periodontal diseases. The primary objective of this article is to provide a general review about the clinical applications of ozone in periodontics. The secondary objective is to summarize the available in vitro and in vivo studies in Periodontics in which ozone has been used. This objective would be of importance to future researchers in terms of what has been tried and what the potentials are for the clinical application of ozone in Periodontics. PMID:22574088

  15. Tropospheric Ozone Changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oltmans, S. J.; Lefohn, A. S.; Scheel, H.; Brunke, E. G.; Claude, H.; Tarasick, D. W.; Galbally, I.; Bodeker, G.; Redondas, A.; Simmonds, P.; Koide, T.; Schmidlin, F. J.; Harris, J. M.; Johnson, B. J.; Davies, J.; Cuevas, E.; Meyer, C.; Shadwick, D.

    2008-12-01

    Growing recognition of the role of "background" tropospheric ozone on climate forcing and as a boundary condition for air quality changes highlights the importance of obtaining a broad picture of tropospheric ozone changes. Key surface and ozonesonde observing sites with tropospheric ozone measurement records longer than ~15 years have been selected to characterize longer term tropospheric ozone changes over broad geographic regions. The sites chosen vary from those with minimal impact by local ozone pollution sources to those that are in relatively close proximity to ozone precursor emissions and are thus affected in part by these sources. Consideration is given to the extent to which various time series represent broad geographic scales. Some series with more limited geographic representativeness can provide valuable information because of the length of the record, particularly in an underrepresented region. The vertical profile information from the ozonesonde stations, which have some of the longest tropospheric ozone records, provides a unique perspective on ozone in the free troposphere that is much less influenced by more local conditions. The general slowing or flattening of ozone increases seen at a number of locations beginning in the early 1990s has generally continued. At Naha, Japan there has been a significant increase in recent years that has not been seen at other Japanese ozonesonde locations. At high latitudes over North America a decade long decline in tropospheric ozone beginning in the 1980s has generally reversed with amounts now similar to those at the beginning of the record. In the S.H. several sites in the mid latitudes have shown significant increases. Although some overall patterns on changes emerge on regional scales and in some cases on continental scales, more general conclusions on hemispheric and global scales do not emerge. This is likely consistent with the varied pattern of ozone lifetimes, precursor emission changes, and

  16. The Antarctic ozone hole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stolarski, Richard S.

    1988-01-01

    Processes that may be responsible for the thinning in the ozone layer above the South Pole are described. The chlorine catalytic cycle which destroys ozone is described, as are the major types of reactions that are believed to interfere with this cycle by forming chlorine reservoirs. The suspected contributions of polar stratospheric clouds to these processes are examined. Finally, the possibility that the ozone hole may be due more to a shift in atmospheric dynamics than to chemical destruction is addressed.

  17. An Extended View of Ozone and Chemistry in the Atmosphere of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Ramsey L.; Fast, Kelly E.; Kostiuk, T.; Lefevre, Frank; Hewagama, Tilak; Livengood, Timothy A.

    2011-01-01

    We present an ongoing effort to characterize chemistry in Mars' atmosphere in multiple seasons on timescales longer than spaceflight missions through coordinated efforts by GSFC's HIPWAC spectrometer and Mars Express SPICAM, archival measurements, and tests/application of photochemical models. The trace species ozone (03) is an effective probe of Mars' atmospheric chemistry because it is destroyed by odd-hydrogen species (HOx, from water vapor photolysis). Observed ozone is a critical test for specific predictions by 3-D photochemical models (spatial, diurnal, seasonal). Coordinated measurements by HIPWAC and SPICAM quantitatively linked mission data to the 23-year GSFC ozone data record and also revealed unanticipated inter-decadal variability of same-season ozone abundances, a possible indicator of changing cloud activity (heterogeneous sink for HOx). A detailed study of long-term conditions is critical to characterizing the predictability of Mars' seasonal chemical behavior, particularly in light of the implications of and the lack of explanation for reported methane behavior.

  18. Observation of ozone enhancement in the lower troposphere over East Asia from a space-borne ultraviolet spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashida, S.; Liu, X.; Ono, A.; Yang, K.; Chance, K.

    2015-09-01

    We report observations from space using ultraviolet (UV) radiance for significant enhancement of ozone in the lower troposphere over central and eastern China (CEC). The recent retrieval products of the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) onboard the Earth Observing System (EOS) Aura satellite revealed the spatial and temporal variation of ozone distributions in multiple layers in the troposphere. We compared the OMI-derived ozone over Beijing with airborne measurements by the Measurement of Ozone and Water Vapor by Airbus In-Service Aircraft (MOZAIC) program. The correlation between OMI and MOZAIC ozone in the lower troposphere was reasonable, which assured the reliability of OMI ozone retrievals in the lower troposphere under enhanced ozone conditions. The ozone enhancement was clearly observed over CEC, with Shandong Province as its center, and was most notable in June in any given year. Similar seasonal variations were observed throughout the 9-year OMI measurement period of 2005 to 2013. A considerable part of this ozone enhancement could be attributed to the emissions of ozone precursors from industrial activities and automobiles, and possibly from open crop residue burning (OCRB) after the winter wheat harvest. The ozone distribution presented in this study is also consistent with some model studies. The lower tropospheric ozone distribution is first shown from OMI retrieval in this study, and the results will be useful in clarifying any unknown factors that influence ozone distribution by comparison with model simulations.

  19. Barreira do Inferno: Five years of ozone research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchhoff, V. W. J. H.; Motta, A. G.; Azambuja, S. O.

    1983-12-01

    A five-year tropospheric ozone research project carried out from 1978 to 1983 under the aegis of the Institute of Space Research and the Launching Center at Barreira do Inferno is described. The principal means of obtaining data was by sondes launched twice a month from November 1978 until mid-1981. Measurements were made by ECC sondes and by Loki, Super-Loki, and Super-Arcas rockets equipped with optical and fluorescent sounding devices. The interest in ozone research is based on the ability of ozone to absorb ultraviolet radiation and thereby affect stratospheric temperature. Results revealed that average ozone concentration over the Brazilian state of Natal was 0.025 ppm (parts per million) with the maximum concentration occurring at 28 km altitude. It was also found that there was 30 percent higher ozone density over Natal than over regions of lower latitudes. In addition, 15 percent more ozone layer density was measured over Natal than over equatorial areas as determined by satellites. Total ozone measured by ECC sondes and by two Dobson spectrophotometers differed only by 4 percent. Higher concentrations of ozone are attributed to nitrogen concentrations, in contradiction with prevailing views. It is concluded that continued monitoring of ozone density is important for further theoretical investigation of the aeronomy of ozone.

  20. Discoveries about Tropospheric Ozone Pollution from Satellite and Sounding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.

    2004-01-01

    We have been producing near-real time tropospheric ozone satellite maps from the TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) sensor since 1997. This is most readily done for the tropics, where the stratospheric and tropospheric ozone column amounts can be discriminated readily. Maps for 1996-2000 for the operational Earth-Probe instrument reside at: chttp://www.atmos.umd.edu/-trope>. Pollution in the tropics is influenced by biomass burning and by transport patterns that favor recirculation and in other cases reflect climate variability like the El-Nino-Southern Oscillation [Thompson et al., 2001]. Time permitting, examples of mid-latitude, intercontinental transport of ozone pollution sensed by TOMS will be shown. The satellite view of chemical-dynamical interactions in tropospheric ozone is not adequate to capture vertical variability. Thus, in 1998, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center and a team of international sponsors established the SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes) project to address the gap in tropical ozone soundings. SHADOZ augments launches and provides a public archive of ozonesonde data from twelve tropical stations at http://croc.gsfc.nasa.gov/shadoz. Further insights into the role of chemical and dynamical influences have emerged from the first 4-5 years of SHADOZ data (less than 2000 ozone profiles): (a) highly variable tropospheric ozone; (b) a zonal wave-one pattern in tropospheric column ozone; (c) convective variability affects tropospheric ozone over the Indian and Pacific Ocean; (d) a "tropical Atlantic Paradox" appears in December-January-February.

  1. Behavioral evaluation of the irritating properties of ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Tepper, J.S.; Wood, R.W.

    1985-05-01

    The sensory irritant properties of ozone have been considered to be responsible for symptoms that occur in humans after exposure. This assumption has not been studied explicitly. One way to assess the aversive properties of airborne irritants is to give the exposed individual an opportunity to control the duration of exposure, i.e., escape from the irritant. Mice were trained to turn off 1000-ppm ammonia, a concentration that, in humans, is irritating to the upper airways. Each mouse could terminate irritant delivery for 1 min by inserting its nose five times into one of two conical response sensors. After the determination of ammonia concentration-effect curves, ozone was substituted for ammonia. Ozone exposures were alternated every other day with ammonia as a control for any changes that might occur as a result of repeated ozone exposure. Ozone reliably maintained escape behavior. Additional mice with no history of ammonia termination were trained to terminate ozone exposure, indicating that the aversive properties of ozone were not dependent on previous experience with other airborne irritants. As the concentration of ozone increased from 0.25 to 24 ppm, the number of escape responses increased, and the duration of ozone tolerated decreased. Ozone concentrations of 0.5 ppm or greater were significantly more aversive than control.

  2. Spatial distribution of tropospheric ozone in western Washington, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooper, S.M.; Peterson, D.L.

    2000-01-01

    We quantified the distribution of tropospheric ozone in topographically complex western Washington state, USA (total area a??6000 km2), using passive ozone samplers along nine river drainages to measure ozone exposure from near sea level to high-elevation mountain sites. Weekly average ozone concentrations were higher with increasing distance from the urban core and at higher elevations, increasing a mean of 1.3 ppbv per 100 m elevation gain for all mountain transects. Weekly average ozone concentrations were generally highest in Cascade Mountains drainages east and southeast of Seattle (maximum=55a??67 pbv) and in the Columbia River Gorge east of Portland (maximum=59 ppbv), and lowest in the western Olympic Peninsula (maximum=34 ppbv). Higher ozone concentrations in the Cascade Mountains and Columbia River locations downwind of large cities indicate that significant quantities of ozone and ozone precursors are being transported eastward toward rural wildland areas by prevailing westerly winds. In addition, temporal (week to week) variation in ozone distribution is synchronous within and between all drainages sampled, which indicates that there is regional coherence in air pollution detectable with weekly averages. These data provide insight on large-scale spatial variation of ozone distribution in western Washington, and will help regulatory agencies optimize future monitoring networks and identify locations where human health and natural resources could be at risk.

  3. Altitude troposphere ozone profiles over Kyiv-Goloseyev station by simultaneous Umkehr and FTIR observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milinevsky, Gennadi; Shavrina, Angelina; Udodov, Evgeny; Liptuga, Anatoly; Kyslyi, Volodymyr; Danylevsky, Vassyl; Kravchenko, Volodymyr; Ivanov, Yuri; Synyavski, Ivan; Romanyuk, Yaroslav; Pavlenko, Yakov; Veles, Oleksandr

    2016-04-01

    Total ozone column and ozone profile data have been obtained from both: (1) standard Dobson measurements and Umkehr method, and (2) using modeling of the ozone absorption spectral band profile near 9.6 microns with the MODTRAN4.3 Atmospheric Radiation Transfer Model based on the HITRAN molecular absorption database from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) observations. The simultaneous ground-based Dobson/Umkehr and FTIR ozone observations have been performed in 2014-2015 at the mid-latitude Kyiv-Goloseyev KGV GAW station for joint altitude troposphere ozone profiles analysis. To retrieve ozone column estimates and ozone profiles from FTIR observations, we used the satellite Aqua-AIRS water vapor, temperature and ozone profiles, and the simultaneous with FTIR observations the Umkehr ozone profiles and surface ozone measurements as input a priori information for the MODTRAN4.3 model. The altitude ozone profiles retrieved from Umkehr method and satellite measurements are in good correspondence in stratosphere layer. However the troposphere part of ozone profiles is uncertain and reproduced with large errors. Therefore we use the MODTRAN4.3 model for interpretation of observed FTIR absorption spectrum to retrieve and improve the troposphere part of ozone altitude distribution. The synergy of Umkehr, satellite and FTIR simultaneous observations including surface ozone measurements allows rendering the ozone profile features in troposphere that indicate the stratosphere-troposphere exchange processes. Season ozone profile variations observed from Umkehr measurements are discussed as well. This work was partly supported by the Polar FORCeS project no. 4012 of the Australian Antarctic Science Program.

  4. Development of a sensitive passive sampler using indigotrisulfonate for the determination of tropospheric ozone.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Gabriel; Allen, Andrew George; Cardoso, Arnaldo Alves

    2010-06-01

    A new sampling and analytical design for measurement of ambient ozone is presented. The procedure is based on ozone absorption and decoloration (at 600 nm) of indigotrisulfonate dye, where ozone adds itself across the carbon-carbon double bond of the indigo. A mean relative standard deviation of 8.6% was obtained using samplers exposed in triplicate, and a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.957 was achieved in parallel measurements using the samplers and a commercial UV ozone instrument. The devices were evaluated in a measurement campaign, mapping spatial and temporal trends of ozone concentrations in a region of southeast Brazil strongly influenced by seasonal agricultural biomass burning, with associated emissions of ozone precursors. Ozone concentrations were highest in rural areas and lowest at an urban site, due to formation during downwind transport and short-term depletion due to titration with nitric oxide. Ozone concentrations showed strong seasonal trends, due to the influences of precursor emissions, relative humidity and solar radiation intensity. Advantages of the technique include ease and speed of use, the ready availability of components, and excellent sensitivity. Achievable temporal resolution of ozone concentrations is 8 hours at an ambient ozone concentration of 3.8 ppb, or 2 hours at a concentration of 15.2 ppb.

  5. Climate-driven ground-level ozone extreme in the fall over the Southeast United States.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuzhong; Wang, Yuhang

    2016-09-06

    Ground-level ozone is adverse to human and vegetation health. High ground-level ozone concentrations usually occur over the United States in the summer, often referred to as the ozone season. However, observed monthly mean ozone concentrations in the southeastern United States were higher in October than July in 2010. The October ozone average in 2010 reached that of July in the past three decades (1980-2010). Our analysis shows that this extreme October ozone in 2010 over the Southeast is due in part to a dry and warm weather condition, which enhances photochemical production, air stagnation, and fire emissions. Observational evidence and modeling analysis also indicate that another significant contributor is enhanced emissions of biogenic isoprene, a major ozone precursor, from water-stressed plants under a dry and warm condition. The latter finding is corroborated by recent laboratory and field studies. This climate-induced biogenic control also explains the puzzling fact that the two extremes of high October ozone both occurred in the 2000s when anthropogenic emissions were lower than the 1980s and 1990s, in contrast to the observed decreasing trend of July ozone in the region. The occurrences of a drying and warming fall, projected by climate models, will likely lead to more active photochemistry, enhanced biogenic isoprene and fire emissions, an extension of the ozone season from summer to fall, and an increase of secondary organic aerosols in the Southeast, posing challenges to regional air quality management.

  6. Climate-driven ground-level ozone extreme in the fall over the Southeast United States

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuhang

    2016-01-01

    Ground-level ozone is adverse to human and vegetation health. High ground-level ozone concentrations usually occur over the United States in the summer, often referred to as the ozone season. However, observed monthly mean ozone concentrations in the southeastern United States were higher in October than July in 2010. The October ozone average in 2010 reached that of July in the past three decades (1980–2010). Our analysis shows that this extreme October ozone in 2010 over the Southeast is due in part to a dry and warm weather condition, which enhances photochemical production, air stagnation, and fire emissions. Observational evidence and modeling analysis also indicate that another significant contributor is enhanced emissions of biogenic isoprene, a major ozone precursor, from water-stressed plants under a dry and warm condition. The latter finding is corroborated by recent laboratory and field studies. This climate-induced biogenic control also explains the puzzling fact that the two extremes of high October ozone both occurred in the 2000s when anthropogenic emissions were lower than the 1980s and 1990s, in contrast to the observed decreasing trend of July ozone in the region. The occurrences of a drying and warming fall, projected by climate models, will likely lead to more active photochemistry, enhanced biogenic isoprene and fire emissions, an extension of the ozone season from summer to fall, and an increase of secondary organic aerosols in the Southeast, posing challenges to regional air quality management. PMID:27551089

  7. Use of satellite data to study tropospheric ozone in the tropics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, Jack; Minnis, Patrick; Reichle, Henry G., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Three independent examples are discussed which suggest that photochemical ozone production in the troposphere can be observed in the tropics from an analysis of total ozone data. The first finding shows that the seasonal cycle of total columnar ozone is dominated by the seasonal cycle of tropospheric ozone, even though tropospheric ozone accounts for only 5-15 percent of the total ozone. Second, a case study is presented which shows that enhanced total ozone observed over the Amazon Basin can be associated with th