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Sample records for additional ozonesondes project

  1. A Status Report on the SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes) Project and Some Issues Affecting Ozone Climatology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Witte, J. C.; McPeters, R. D.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    SHADOZ aims to support the study of local and global patterns in stratospheric and tropospheric ozone and to provide a data set for the validation for satellite products and model calculations of ozone. Southern hemispheric tropical ozone is of particular interest because this region appears to have complex interplay among photochemical ozone formation (from biomass burning and lightning), stratospheric dynamics, convection and possibly cross-hemispheric transport. Balloon-borne ozone instrumentation (ozonesondes), joined with standard radiosondes for measurement of pressure, temperature and relative humidity, is used to collect profiles throughout the troposphere and lower- to mid-stratosphere. A network of 10 southern hemisphere tropical and subtropical stations, called the Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes (SHADOZ) project, has been established from operational sites to assemble sonde data for 1998-2000. A status report on the archive, with station operating characteristics, will be given, along with some operational issues that may affect data analysis and interpretation.

  2. SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes): A Tropical Ozonesonde-Radiosonde Network for the Atmospheric Community

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Oltmans, Samuel J.; Schmidlin, Francis J.

    2003-01-01

    A lack of sounding data has limited the accuracy of ozone satellite retrievals in the tropics and our understanding of chemical-dynamical interactions in a region strongly influenced by natural variability and anthropogenic activity. In 1998, NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center, NOAA's Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory (CMDL) and a team of international sponsors established the SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes) project to address the gap in tropical ozone soundings. SHADOZ augments launches at selected sites and provides a public archive of ozonesonde and radiosonde data from twelve tropical and subtropical stations at http://croc.gsfc.nasa.gov/shadoz. Instrumentation, data and a summary of the first scientific findings from SHADOZ are presented.

  3. Tropical Tropospheric Ozone from SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere ADditional Ozonesondes) Network: A Project for Satellite Research, Process Studies, Education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Oltmans, Samuel J.; Schmidlin, Francis J.; Coetzee, G. J. R.; Hoegger, Bruno; Kirchhoff, V. W. J. H.; Ogawa, Toshihiro; Kawakami, Shuji; Posny, Francoise

    2002-01-01

    The first climatological overview of total, stratospheric and tropospheric ozone in the southern hemisphere tropical and subtropics is based on ozone sounding data from 10 sites comprising the Southern Hemisphere Additional OZonesondes (SHADOZ) network. The period covered is 1998-2000. Observations were made over: Ascension Island; Nairobi, Kenya; Irene, South Africa; Reunion Island; Watukosek, Java; Fiji; Tahiti; American Samoa; San Cristobal, Galapagos; Natal, Brazil. Campaign data were collected on a trans-Atlantic oceanographic cruise and during SAFARI-2000 in Zambia. The ozone data, with simultaneous temperature profiles to approx. 7 hPa and relative humidity to approx. 200 hPa, reside at: . SHADOZ ozone time-series and profiles give a perspective on tropical total, stratospheric and tropospheric ozone. Prominent features are highly variable tropospheric ozone and a zonal wave-one pattern in total (and tropospheric) column ozone. Total, stratospheric and tropospheric column ozone amounts peak between August and November and are lowest between March and May. Tropospheric ozone variability over the Indian and Pacific Ocean displays influences of the Indian Ocean Dipole and convective mixing. Pollution transport from Africa and South America is a seasonal feature. Tropospheric ozone seasonality over the Atlantic Basin shows effects of regional subsidence and recirculation as well as biomass burning. Dynamical and chemical influences appear to be of comparable magnitude though model studies are needed to quantify this.

  4. SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes): An Ozonesonde Network and Resource for Remote Sensing Research and Education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.

    2000-01-01

    Balloon-borne ozone instrumentation (ozonesondes), launched at fixed sites, is used to study local patterns in stratospheric and tropospheric ozone and to provide validation for satellite ozone products and model calculations of ozone. A paucity of coordinated ozonesonde data in the southern hemisphere tropics is being remedied in a 3-year project of coordinated ozonesondes launches at 10 sites. The data are available to the scientific community at the SHADOZ website at NASA/Goddard. Stations and their operational characteristics, with examples of ozone observations, are given. One expectation of SHADOZ is that wide dissemination of data and interaction with users and field projects will leverage local funding to maintain infrastructure and operations. SHADOZ data are well-suited for educational projects in which students learn about regional ozone patterns.

  5. SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes): A New Ozonesonde Data Set for the Earth Science Community

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witte, J. C.; Thompson, A. M.

    1999-01-01

    In the past several years, new tropical tropospheric ozone data products have been developed from TOMS and other satellites. Global chemical-transport models have been developed for interpretation of satellite data and to predict future ozone levels in the troposphere and stratosphere. However, the lack of ozone profile measurements for validation and evaluation of these data sets and models is critical in regions like the tropics. In 1998 NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, in partnership with NOAA/CMDL (Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Lab) and other nations, began a 2-year project to collect weekly ozonesonde measurements at southern hemisphere tropical sites and make the data available to the scientific community at a single electronic location: http://code9lQ.gsfc.nasa.gov/Data services/Shadoz/shadoz hmpq2.htmi A summary of data from the SHADOZ sites will be presented: Ascension Island, Fiji, Tahiti, Galapagos, American Samoa, Natal (Brazil), Reunion Island, Watukosek (Java), Nairobi and Irene, South Africa. SHADOZ is designed to meet other needs: (1) Provide the first climatology of tropical ozone along the equatorial zone for the wave-one pattern in total ozone; (2) Supplement field project observations. (3) Guide algorithm development for future satellite instruments; (4) Train scientists and educators in southern hemisphere tropical locations. From time to time, intensive tropical campaigns are making data available to SHADOZ. Data from the first half of 1999 will include INDOEX (Indian Ocean Experiment), SOWER (Stratospheric Ozone and Water in the Equatorial Region) at Christmas Island (2N, 157W), and a cruise from Norfolk, Virginia to Cape Town and Mauritius on NOAA's RN 'Ronald H Brown.'

  6. The Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) 1998-2002 Tropical Ozone Climatology. 3; Instrumentation and Station-to-Station Variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Witte, Jacqueline C.; Smit, Herman G. J.; Oltmans, Samuel J.; Johnson, Bryan J.; Kirchhoff, Volker W. J. H.; Schmidlin, Francis J.

    2004-01-01

    Abstract: Since 1998 the Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes (SHADOZ) project has collected more than 2000 ozone profiles from a dozen tropical and subtropical sites using balloon-borne electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozonesondes. The data (with accompanying pressure-temperature-humidity soundings) are archived. Analysis of ozonesonde imprecision within the SHADOZ dataset revealed that variations in ozonesonde technique could lead to station-to-station biases in the measurements. In this paper imprecisions and accuracy in the SHADOZ dataset are examined in light of new data. When SHADOZ total ozone column amounts are compared to version 8 TOMS (2004 release), discrepancies between sonde and satellite datasets decline 1-2 percentage points on average, compared to version 7 TOMS. Variability among stations is evaluated using total ozone normalized to TOMS and results of laboratory tests on ozonesondes (JOSE-2O00, Julich Ozonesonde Intercomparison Experiment). Ozone deviations from a standard instrument in the JOSE flight simulation chamber resemble those of SHADOZ station data relative to a SHADOZ-defined climatological reference. Certain systematic variations in SHADOZ ozone profiles are accounted for by differences in solution composition, data processing and instrument (manufacturer). Instrument bias leads to a greater ozone measurement above 25 km over Nairobi and to lower total column ozone at three Pacific sites compared to other SHADOZ stations at 0-20 deg.S.

  7. The 1998-2000 SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere ADditional Ozonesondes) Tropical Ozone Climatology: Comparison with TOMS and Ground-Based Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Witte, Jacquelyn; McPeters, Richard D.; Oltmans, Samuel J.; Schmidlin, Francis J.; Logan, Jennifer A.; Fujiwara, Masatormo; Kirchhoff, Volker W. J. H.; Posny, Francoise; Coetzee, Gerhard J. R.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A network of 10 southern hemisphere tropical and Subtropical stations, designated the Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes, (SHADOZ) project and established from operational sites, provided over 1000 ozone profiles during the period 1998-2000. Balloon-borne electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozonesondes, combined with standard radiosondes for pressure, temperature and relative humidity measurements, collected profiles in the troposphere and lower- to mid-stratosphere at: Ascension Island; Nairobi, Kenya; Irene, South Africa: Reunion Island, Watukosek Java; Fiji; Tahiti; American Samoa; San Cristobal, Galapagos; Natal, Brazil.

  8. Accuracy and Precision in the Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) Dataset in Light of the JOSIE-2000 Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Thompson, Anne M.; Schmidlin, F. J.; Oltmans, S. J.; Smit, H. G. J.

    2004-01-01

    Since 1998 the Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes (SHADOZ) project has provided over 2000 ozone profiles over eleven southern hemisphere tropical and subtropical stations. Balloon-borne electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozonesondes are used to measure ozone. The data are archived at: &ttp://croc.gsfc.nasa.gov/shadoz>. In analysis of ozonesonde imprecision within the SHADOZ dataset, Thompson et al. [JGR, 108,8238,20031 we pointed out that variations in ozonesonde technique (sensor solution strength, instrument manufacturer, data processing) could lead to station-to-station biases within the SHADOZ dataset. Imprecisions and accuracy in the SHADOZ dataset are examined in light of new data. First, SHADOZ total ozone column amounts are compared to version 8 TOMS (2004 release). As for TOMS version 7, satellite total ozone is usually higher than the integrated column amount from the sounding. Discrepancies between the sonde and satellite datasets decline two percentage points on average, compared to version 7 TOMS offsets. Second, the SHADOZ station data are compared to results of chamber simulations (JOSE-2000, Juelich Ozonesonde Intercomparison Experiment) in which the various SHADOZ techniques were evaluated. The range of JOSE column deviations from a standard instrument (-10%) in the chamber resembles that of the SHADOZ station data. It appears that some systematic variations in the SHADOZ ozone record are accounted for by differences in solution strength, data processing and instrument type (manufacturer).

  9. Reprocessing the Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes (SHADOZ) Database for Long-Term Trend Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witte, J. C.; Thompson, A. M.; Coetzee, G.; Fujiwara, M.; Johnson, B. J.; Sterling, C. W.; Cullis, P.; Ashburn, C. E.; Jordan, A. F.

    2015-12-01

    SHADOZ is a large archive of tropical balloon-bone ozonesonde data at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center with data from 14 tropical and subtropical stations provided by collaborators in Europe, Asia, Latin America and Africa . The SHADOZ time series began in 1998, using electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozonesondes. Like many long-term sounding stations, SHADOZ is characterized by variations in operating procedures, launch protocols, and data processing such that biases within a data record and among sites appear. In addition, over time, the radiosonde and ozonesonde instruments and data processing protocols have changed, adding to the measurement uncertainties at individual stations and limiting the reliability of ozone profile trends and continuous satellite validation. Currently, the ozonesonde community is engaged in reprocessing ECC data, with an emphasis on homogenization of the records to compensate for the variations in instrumentation and technique. The goals are to improve the information and integrity of each measurement record and to support calculation of more reliable trends. We illustrate the reprocessing activity of SHADOZ with selected stations. We will (1) show reprocessing steps based on the recent WMO report that provides post-processing guidelines for ozonesondes; (2) characterize uncertainties in various parts of the ECC conditioning process; and (3) compare original and reprocessed data to co-located ground and satellite measurements of column ozone.

  10. Trend Analysis of Tropical Ozone From the Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morioka, H.; Fujiwara, M.; Shiotani, M.; Thompson, A. M.; Witte, J. C.; Oltmans, S. J.

    2007-12-01

    Linear trends of ozone for 1998-2007 are estimated for the troposphere through the lower stratosphere at ten tropical ozonesonde stations participating in the Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) project. Most stations cover the period from early 1998 to the end of 2006, but some stations have a shorter or longer record. Soundings are made once to four times per month, varying for station and year, but cover basically all seasons. The total sounding number ranges from 102 for Malindi to 429 for Ascension Island. Trends are calculated for vertically averaged values in each 1-km bin from 0-1 km to 30-31 km, and expressed as percent per year. Statistical test is also made. Around the tropopause, between 15 and 20 km, negative trends are seen for most stations. At San Cristobal (in the eastern Pacific) at 16-17 km, the trend is -4.3 ± 3.0 percent per year, and at Watukosek (in Indonesia) at 17-18 km, it is -4.8 ± 3.9 percent per year, both statistically significant. However, at Ascension (in the Atlantic) and at Natal (in South America), the tropopause trend is near zero and not statistically significant. At Natal at 12-13 km, the trend is +3.7 ± 3.0 percent per year, and at Malindi (in Africa) at 11-12 km, it is +5.0 ± 4.6 percent per year, both statistically significant. Generally in the free troposphere, positive trends are seen, but are statistically not significant for most regions. In the planetary boundary layer, statistically significant positive trends are seen at Kuala Lumpur (in Southeast Asia) and at Fiji (in the southwestern Pacific), and a statistically significant negative trend is seen at Paramaribo (in South America). The trend analysis is also made for four different seasons. Around the tropopause, seasonality in trend is small for all stations. In the upper troposphere, at Fiji and at Samoa, negative trends are seen in SON, but positive trends are seen in DJF.

  11. Accuracy and Precision in the Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) Dataset 1998-2000 in Light of the JOSIE-2000 Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witte, J. C.; Thompson, A. M.; Schmidlin, F. J.; Oltmans, S. J.; McPeters, R. D.; Smit, H. G. J.

    2003-01-01

    A network of 12 southern hemisphere tropical and subtropical stations in the Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes (SHADOZ) project has provided over 2000 profiles of stratospheric and tropospheric ozone since 1998. Balloon-borne electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozonesondes are used with standard radiosondes for pressure, temperature and relative humidity measurements. The archived data are available at:http: //croc.gsfc.nasa.gov/shadoz. In Thompson et al., accuracies and imprecisions in the SHADOZ 1998- 2000 dataset were examined using ground-based instruments and the TOMS total ozone measurement (version 7) as references. Small variations in ozonesonde technique introduced possible biases from station-to-station. SHADOZ total ozone column amounts are now compared to version 8 TOMS; discrepancies between the two datasets are reduced 2\\% on average. An evaluation of ozone variations among the stations is made using the results of a series of chamber simulations of ozone launches (JOSIE-2000, Juelich Ozonesonde Intercomparison Experiment) in which a standard reference ozone instrument was employed with the various sonde techniques used in SHADOZ. A number of variations in SHADOZ ozone data are explained when differences in solution strength, data processing and instrument type (manufacturer) are taken into account.

  12. Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) 1998-2000 tropical ozone climatology 1. Comparison with Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and ground-based measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; McPeters, Richard D.; Oltmans, Samuel J.; Schmidlin, Francis J.; Logan, Jennifer A.; Fujiwara, Masatomo; Kirchhoff, Volker W. J. H.; Posny, FrançOise; Coetzee, Gert J. R.; Hoegger, Bruno; Kawakami, Shuji; Ogawa, Toshihiro; Johnson, Bryan J.; VöMel, Holger; Labow, Gordon

    2003-01-01

    A network of 10 southern hemisphere tropical and subtropical stations, designated the Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) project and established from operational sites, provided over 1000 ozone profiles during the period 1998-2000. Balloon-borne electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozonesondes, combined with standard radiosondes for pressure, temperature, and relative humidity measurements, collected profiles in the troposphere and lower to midstratosphere at: Ascension Island; Nairobi, Kenya; Irene, South Africa; Réunion Island; Watukosek, Java; Fiji; Tahiti; American Samoa; San Cristóbal, Galapagos; and Natal, Brazil. The archived data are available at: . In this paper, uncertainties and accuracies within the SHADOZ ozone data set are evaluated by analyzing: (1) imprecisions in profiles and in methods of extrapolating ozone above balloon burst; (2) comparisons of column-integrated total ozone from sondes with total ozone from the Earth-Probe/Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) satellite and ground-based instruments; and (3) possible biases from station to station due to variations in ozonesonde characteristics. The key results are the following: (1) Ozonesonde precision is 5%. (2) Integrated total ozone column amounts from the sondes are usually to within 5% of independent measurements from ground-based instruments at five SHADOZ sites and overpass measurements from the TOMS satellite (version 7 data). (3) Systematic variations in TOMS-sonde offsets and in ground-based-sonde offsets from station to station reflect biases in sonde technique as well as in satellite retrieval. Discrepancies are present in both stratospheric and tropospheric ozone. (4) There is evidence for a zonal wave-one pattern in total and tropospheric ozone, but not in stratospheric ozone.

  13. New Insights on Tropical Ozone from SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes) Profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.

    2004-01-01

    The SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes) ozone sounding network was initiated in 1998 to improve the coverage of tropical in-situ ozone measurements for satellite validation, algorithm development and related process studies. Over 2000 soundings have been archived at the website, , for 12 stations: Ascension Island; Nairobi and Malindi, Kenya; Irene, South Africa; Reunion Island, Watukosek, Java; Fiji; Tahiti; American Samoa; San Cristobal, Galapagos; Natal, Brazil; Paramaribo, Surinam. Key results from SHADOZ will be described from among the following: 1) By using ECC sondes with similar procedures, 5-10% accuracy and precision (1-sigma) of the sonde total ozone measurement was achieved; 2) Week-to-week variability in tropospheric ozone is so great that statistics are frequently not Gaussian; most stations vary up to a factor of 3 in tropospheric column over the course of a year; 3) Longitudinal variability in tropospheric ozone profiles is a consistent feature, with a 10-15 DU column-integrated difference between Atlantic and Pacific sites; this causes a "zonal wave-one" feature in total ozone. 4) The ozone record from Paramaribo, Surinam (6N, 55W) is a marked contrast to southern tropical ozone because Surinam is often north of the Intertropical Convergence Zone; 5) Indian Ocean region pollution may contribute up to half of the excess ozone observed in the south tropical Atlantic paradox in the December-January-February period of the year.

  14. Discoveries about Tropical Tropospheric Ozone from Satellite and SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes) and a Future Perspective on NASA's Ozone Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne

    2003-01-01

    We have been producing near-real tropical tropospheric ozone ('TTO') data from TOMS since 1997 with Prof. Hudson and students at the University of Maryland. Maps for 1996-2000 for the operational Earth-Probe instrument reside at: . We also have archived 'TTO' data from the Nimbus 7/TOMS satellite (1979-1992). The tropics is a region strongly influenced by natural variability and anthropogenic activity and the satellite data have been used to track biomass burning pollution and to detect interannual variability and climate signals in ozone. We look forward to future ozone sensors from NASA; four will be launched in 2004 as part of the EOS AURA Mission. The satellite view of chemical-dynamical interactions in tropospheric ozone is not adequate to capture vertical variability. Thus, in 1998, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, NOAA's Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory (CMDL) and a team of international sponsors established the SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes) project to address the gap in tropical ozone soundings. SHADOZ augments launches at selected sites and provides a public archive of ozonesonde data from twelve tropical and subtropical stations at http://croc.nsfc.nasa.gov/shadoz. The stations are: Ascension Island; Nairobi, Kenya; Irene, South Africa; R,union Island; Watukosek, Java; Fiji; Tahiti; American Samoa; San Cristobal, Galapagos; Natal, Brazil, Malindi, Kenya; Paramaribo, Surinam. From the first 3-4 years of data (presently greater than 1700 sondes), the following features emerge: (a) highly variable tropospheric ozone; (b) a zonal wave-one pattern in tropospheric column ozone; (c) tropospheric ozone variability over the Indian and Pacific Ocean displays strong convective signatures.

  15. Variability in Ozone in the Tropical Tropopause Region from the 1998-2000 SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes) Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Witte, J. C.; Oltmans, S. J.; Schmidlin, F. J.

    2002-01-01

    The first view of stratospheric and tropospheric ozone variability in the southern hemisphere tropics is provided by a 3-year, 10-site record of ozone soundings from the Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes (SHADOZ) network. Observations covering 1998-2000 were made over Ascension Island; Nairobi, Kenya; Irene, South Africa; Reunion Island; Watukosek, Java; Fiji; Tahiti; American Samoa; San Cristobal, Galapagos; Natal, Brazil. Taking the TTL (tropical tropopause layer) as the region between 12 and 17 km, we examine ozone variability in this region on a week-to-week and seasonal basis. The TTL layer is lower in September-October-November than in March-April-May, when ozone is a minimum at most SHADOZ stations. A zonal wave-one pattern is apparent in column-integrated TTL ozone because ozone mixing ratios are greater over the Atlantic and adjacent continents than over the Pacific and eastern Indian Ocean. The wave-one persists all year with varying magnitude and appears to be due to general circulation - with subsidence over the Atlantic and frequent deep convection over the Pacific and Indian Ocean. The variability of deep convection - most prominent at Java, Fiji, Samoa and Natal - is explored in time-vs-altitude ozone curtains. Stratospheric incursions into the troposphere are most prominent in soundings at Irene and Reunion Island.

  16. Insights into Tropical Tropospheric Ozone from the 1998-2000 SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes) Data Record

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Oltmans, Samuel J.; Schmidlin, Francis J.; Volker, W.; Kirchhoff, J. H.; Posny, Franaoise; Gert, J.; Coetzee, R.; Hoegger, Bruno; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We describe the first overview of total, stratospheric and tropospheric ozone in the southern hemisphere tropics based on a three year, ten site record of ozone soundings from the Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) network. Observations covering 1998-2000 were made over Ascension Island; Nairobi, Kenya; Irene, South Africa; Reunion Island; Watukosek, Java; Fiji; Tahiti; American Samoa; San Cristobal, Galapagos; Natal, Brazil. The ozone data, with simultaneous temperature profiles to approximately 7 hPa and relative humidity to approximately 200 hPa, are at an archive: http://code9l6. gsfc.nasa.gov/Data_services/shadoz. Prominent features are highly variable tropospheric ozone, a zonal wave-one pattern in total (and tropospheric) column ozone, and signatures of the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO) in stratospheric ozone. Total, stratospheric and tropospheric column ozone amounts usually peak between August and November and are lowest in the first half of the year. Tropospheric ozone variability over the Indian and Pacific Ocean displays influences of the waning 1997-1998 Indian Ocean Dipole and ENSO (El Nino / Southern Oscillation), seasonal convection and pollution transport from Africa. Tropospheric ozone over the Atlantic Basin reflects regional subsidence and recirculation as well as pollution ozone from biomass burning.

  17. Variability in Ozone in the Tropical Tropopause Region from the 1998-2000 SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes) Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, A. M.; Witte, J. C.; Oltmans, S. J.; Schmidlin, F. J.

    2002-05-01

    The first view of stratospheric and tropospheric ozone variability in the southern hemisphere tropics is provided by a 3-year, 10-site record of ozone soundings from the Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes (SHADOZ) network: (http://code916.gsfc.nasa.gov/Data_services/shadoz). Observations covering 1998-2000 were made over Ascension Island; Nairobi, Kenya; Irene, South Africa; Réunion Island; Watukosek, Java; Fiji; Tahiti; American Samoa; San Cristóbal, Galapagos; Natal, Brazil. Taking the TTL (tropical tropopause layer) as the region between 12 and 17 km, we examine ozone variability in this region on a week-to-week and seasonal basis. The TTL layer is lower in September-October-November than in March-April-May, when ozone is a minimum at most SHADOZ stations. A zonal wave-one pattern is apparent in column-integrated TTL ozone because ozone mixing ratios are greater over the Atlantic and adjacent continents than over the Pacific and eastern Indian Ocean. The wave-one persists all year with varying magnitude and appears to be due to general circulation - with subsidence over the Atlantic and frequent deep convection over the Pacific and Indian Ocean. The variability of deep convection - most prominent at Java, Fiji, Samoa and Natal - is explored in time-vs-altitude ozone curtains. Stratospheric incursions into the troposphere are most prominent in soundings at Irene and Réunion Island.

  18. Insights Into Tropical Tropospheric Ozone From The 1998-2000 Shadoz (southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes) Data Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, A. M.; Witte, J. C.; Oltmans, S. J.; Schmidlin, F. J.; Kirchhoff, V. W. J. H.; Posny, F.; Coetzee, G. J. R.; Hoegger, B.; Kawakami, S.; Ogawa, T.

    We describe the first overview of total, stratospheric and tropospheric ozone in the southern hemisphere tropics based on a 3-year, 10-site record of ozone soundings from the Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes (SHADOZ) network. Ob- servations covering 1998-2000 were made over Ascension Island; Nairobi, Kenya; Irene, South Africa; Réunion Island; Watukosek, Java; Fiji; Tahiti; American Samoa; San Cristóbal, Galapagos; Natal, Brazil. The ozone data, with simultaneous tem- perature profiles to 7 hPa and relative humidity to 200 hPa, are at an archive: . Prominent features are highly variable tropospheric ozone, a zonal wave-one pattern in total (and tropospheric) col- umn ozone, and signatures of the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO) in stratospheric ozone. Total, stratospheric and tropospheric column ozone amounts usually peak be- tween August and November and are lowest in the first half of the year. Tropospheric ozone variability over the Indian and Pacific Ocean displays influences of the wan- ing 1997-1998 Indian Ocean Dipole and ENSO, seasonal convection and pollution transport from Africa. Tropospheric ozone over the Atlantic Basin reflects regional subsidence and recirculation as well as pollution ozone from biomass burning.

  19. Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) 1998-2000 tropical ozone climatology 2. Tropospheric variability and the zonal wave-one

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Oltmans, Samuel J.; Schmidlin, Francis J.; Logan, Jennifer A.; Fujiwara, Masatomo; Kirchhoff, Volker W. J. H.; Posny, FrançOise; Coetzee, Gert J. R.; Hoegger, Bruno; Kawakami, Shuji; Ogawa, Toshihiro; Fortuin, J. P. F.; Kelder, H. M.

    2003-01-01

    The first view of stratospheric and tropospheric ozone variability in the Southern Hemisphere tropics is provided by a 3-year record of ozone soundings from the Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) network (http://croc.gsfc.nasa.gov/shadoz). Observations covering 1998-2000 were made over Ascension Island, Nairobi (Kenya), Irene (South Africa), Réunion Island, Watukosek (Java), Fiji, Tahiti, American Samoa, San Cristóbal (Galapagos), and Natal (Brazil). Total, stratospheric, and tropospheric column ozone amounts usually peak between August and November. Other features are a persistent zonal wave-one pattern in total column ozone and signatures of the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) in stratospheric ozone. The wave-one is due to a greater concentration of free tropospheric ozone over the tropical Atlantic than the Pacific and appears to be associated with tropical general circulation and seasonal pollution from biomass burning. Tropospheric ozone over the Indian and Pacific Oceans displays influences of the waning 1997-1998 El Niño, seasonal convection, and pollution transport from Africa. The most distinctive feature of SHADOZ tropospheric ozone is variability in the data, e.g., a factor of 3 in column amount at 8 of 10 stations. Seasonal and monthly means may not be robust quantities because statistics are frequently not Gaussian even at sites that are always in tropical air. Models and satellite retrievals should be evaluated on their capability for reproducing tropospheric variability and fine structure. A 1999-2000 ozone record from Paramaribo, Surinam (6°N, 55°W) (also in SHADOZ) shows a marked contrast to southern tropical ozone because Surinam is often north of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). A more representative tropospheric ozone climatology for models and satellite retrievals requires additional Northern Hemisphere tropical data.

  20. SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere ADditional Ozonesondes): A Look at the First Three Years' (1998-2000) Tropospheric Ozone Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Bhartia, Pawan K. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The first climatological overview of total, stratospheric and tropospheric ozone in the southern hemisphere tropical and subtropics is based on ozone sounding data from 10 sites comprising the Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes (SHADOZ) network. The period covered is 1998-2000. Observations were made over: Ascension Island; Nairobi, Kenya; Irene, South Africa; RCunion Island; Watukosek, Java; Fiji; Tahiti; American Samoa; San Cristobal, Galapagos; Natai, Brazil. Campaign data were collected on a trans-Atlantic oceanographic cruise and during SAFARI-2000 in Zambia. The ozone data, with simultaneous temperature profiles to approx. 7 hPa and relative humidity to approx. 200 hPa, reside at an open archive: . SHADOZ ozone time-series and profiles give a perspective on tropical total, stratospheric and tropospheric ozone in 1998-2000. Prominent features are highly variable tropospheric ozone, a zonal wave-one pattern in total (and tropospheric) column ozone, and signatures of the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO) in stratospheric ozone. Total, stratospheric and tropospheric column ozone amounts peak between August and November and are lowest between March and May. Tropospheric ozone variability over the Indian and Pacific Ocean displays influences of the Indian Ocean Dipole, ENSO, and Madden-Julian circulation on convective mixing. Pollution transport from Africa, South American and the Maritime Continent is a seasonal feature. Tropospheric ozone seasonality over the Atlantic Basin shows effects of regional subsidence and recirculation as well as biomass burning. Dynamical and chemical influences appear to be of comparable magnitude.

  1. The 1998-2000 SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes) Tropical Ozone Climatology. 2; Stratospheric and Tropospheric Ozone Variability and the Zonal Wave-One

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Oltmans, Samuel J.; Schmidlin, Francis J.; Logan, Jennifer A.; Fujiwara, Masatomo; Kirchhoff, Volker W. J. H.; Posny, Francoise; Coetzee, Gert J. R.; Hoegger, Bruno; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This is the second 'reference' or 'archival' paper for the SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes) network and is a follow-on to the recently accepted paper with similar first part of title. The latter paper compared SHADOZ total ozone with satellite and ground-based instruments and showed that the equatorial wave-one in total ozone is in the troposphere. The current paper presents details of the wave-one structure and the first overview of tropospheric ozone variability over the southern Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Ocean basins. The principal new result is that signals of climate effects, convection and offsets between biomass burning seasonality and tropospheric ozone maxima suggest that dynamical factors are perhaps more important than pollution in determining the tropical distribution of tropospheric ozone. The SHADOZ data at () are setting records in website visits and are the first time that the zonal view of tropical ozone structure has been recorded - thanks to the distribution of the 10 sites that make up this validation network.

  2. Variability in Ozone in the Tropical Upper Troposphere-Lower Stratosphere from the 1998-2000 SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes) Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, A. M.; Witte, J. C.; McPeters, R. D.; Schmidlin, F. J.; Oltmans, S. J.; Kirchhoff, V. W. J. H.; Coetzee, G. J. R.; Posny, F.; Kawakami, S.; Ogawa, T.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The first view of lower stratospheric and upper tropospheric structure from sondes is provided by a 3-year, 10-site record from the Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes (SHADOZ) network: . Observations covering 1998-2000 were made over Ascension Island; Nairobi, Kenya; Irene, South Africa; Reunion Island; Watukosek, Java; Fiji; Tahiti; American Samoa; San Cristobal, Galapagos; Natal, Brazil. Taking the UT/LS (upper troposphere- lower stratosphere) as the region between 12 and 17 km, we examine ozone variability in this region on a week-to-week and seasonal basis. The tropopause is lower in September-October-November than in March-April-May, when ozone is a minimum at most SHADOZ stations. A zonal wave-one pattern (referring to ozone mixing ratios greater over the Atlantic and adjacent continents than over the Pacific and eastern Indian Ocean), persists all year. The wave, predominantly in the troposphere and with variable magnitude, appears to be due to general circulation - with subsidence over the Atlantic and frequent deep convection over the Pacific and Indian Ocean. The variability of deep convection most prominent at Java, Fiji, Samoa and Natal - is explored in time-vs-altitude ozone curtains. Stratospheric incursions into the troposphere are most prominent in soundings at Irene and Reunion Island.

  3. Variability in Ozone in the Tropical Upper Troposphere-Lower Stratosphere from the 1998 - 200 SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere ADditional Ozonesondes) Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, A.; Witte, J.; Oltmans, S.; Coetzee, G.; Kawakami, S.; Ogawa, T.

    The first view of lower stratospheric and upper tropospheric structure from sondes is provided by a 3 year, 10-site record from the Southern Hemisphere ADditional- OZonesondes (SHADOZ) network: . Observations covering 1998-2000 were made over Ascension Island; Nairobi, Kenya; Irene, South Africa; Reunion Island; Watukosek, Java; Fiji; Tahiti; American Samoa; San Crist"bal, Galapagos; Natal, Brazil. Taking the UT/LS (upper troposphere-lower stratosphere) as the region between 12 and 17 km, we examine ozone variability in this region on a week- to- week and seasonal basis. The tropopause is lower in September-October-November than in March-April- May, when ozone is a minimum at most SHADOZ stations. A zonal wave-one pattern (referring to ozone mixing ratios greater over the Atlantic and adjacent continents than over the Pacific and eastern Indian Ocean), persists all year. The wave, predominantly in the troposphere and with variable magnitude, appears to be due to general circulation - with subsidence over the Atlantic and frequent deep convection over the Pacific and Indian Ocean. The variability of deep convection - most prominent at Java, Fiji, Samoa and Natal - is explored in time-vs-altitude ozone curtains. Stratospheric incursions into the troposphere are most prominent in soundings at Irene and Reunion Island.

  4. Gravity and Rossby wave signatures in the tropical troposphere and lower stratosphere based on Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ), 1998-2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Allen, Amber L.; Lee, Sukyoung; Miller, Sonya K.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.

    2011-03-01

    Prior investigations attempted to determine the relative influence of advection and convective processes on ozone and water vapor distributions in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) through analyses of tracers, related physical parameters (e.g., outgoing long-wave radiation, precipitable water, and temperature), or with models. In this study, stable laminae in Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesonde Network (SHADOZ) ozone profiles from 1998 to 2007 are interpreted in terms of gravity waves (GW) or Rossby waves (RW) that are identified with vertical and quasi-horizontal displacements, respectively. Using the method of Pierce and Grant (1998) as applied by Thompson et al. (2007a, 2007b, 2010, 2011), amplitudes and frequencies in ozone laminae are compared among representative SHADOZ sites over Africa and the Pacific, Indian, and Atlantic oceans. GW signals maximize in the TTL and lower stratosphere. Depending on site and season, GW are identified in up to 90% of the soundings. GW are most prevalent over the Pacific and eastern Indian oceans, a distribution consistent with vertically propagating equatorial Kelvin waves. Ozone laminae from RW occur more often below the tropical tropopause and with lower frequency (<20%). Gravity wave and Rossby wave indices (GWI, RWI) are formulated to facilitate analysis of interannual variability of wave signatures among sites. GWI is positively correlated with a standard ENSO (El Niño-Southern Oscillation) index over American Samoa (14°S, 171°W) and negatively correlated at Watukosek, Java (7.5°S, 114°E), Kuala Lumpur (3°N, 102°E), and Ascension Island (8°S, 15°W). Generally, the responses of GW and RW to ENSO are consistent with prior studies.

  5. SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere ADditional Ozonesondes): What Have We Learned About Tropical Tropospheric Ozone from the First Three Years' (1998-2000) Data?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Bhartia, Pawan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The first climatological overview of total, stratospheric and tropospheric ozone in the southern hemisphere tropical and subtropics is based on ozone sounding data from 10 sites comprising the Southern Hemisphere Additional OZonesondes (SHADOZ) network. The period covered is 1998-2000. Observations were made over: Ascension Island; Nairobi, Kenya; Irene, South Africa; RCunion Island; Watukosek, Java; Fiji; Tahiti; American Samoa; San Cristobal, Galapagos; Natal, Brazil. Campaign data were collected on a trans-Atlantic oceanographic cruise and during SAFARI-2000 in Zambia. The ozone data, with simultaneous temperature profiles to approx. 7 hPa and relative humidity to approx. 200 hPa, reside at: . SHADOZ ozone time-series and profiles give a perspective on tropical total, stratospheric and tropospheric ozone in 1998-2000. Prominent features are highly variable tropospheric ozone, a zonal wave-one pattern in total (and tropospheric) column ozone, and signatures of the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO) in stratospheric ozone. Total, stratospheric and tropospheric column ozone amounts peak between August and November and are lowest between March and May. Tropospheric ozone variability over the Indian and Pacific Ocean displays influences of the Indian Ocean Dipole, and convective mixing. Pollution transport from Africa, South American and the Maritime Continent is a seasonal feature. Tropospheric ozone seasonality over the Atlantic Basin shows effects of regional subsidence and recirculation as well as biomass burning. Dynamical and chemical influences appear to be of comparable magnitude though model studies are needed to quantify this.

  6. SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere ADditional Ozonesondes}: What Have We Learned About Tropical Tropospheric Ozone from the First Three Years (1998-2000) Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The first climatological overview of total, stratospheric and tropospheric ozone in the southern hemisphere tropical and subtropics is based on ozone sounding data from 10 sites comprising the Southern Hemisphere Additional OZonesondes (SHADOZ) network. The period covered is 1998-2000. Observations were made over: Ascension Island; Nairobi, Kenya; Irene, South Africa; Reunion Island; Watukosek, Java; Fiji; Tahiti; American Samoa; San Cristobal, Galapagos; Natal, Brazil. Campaign data were collected on an Trans-Atlantic oceanographic cruise and during SAFARI-2000 in Zambia. The ozone data, with simultaneous temperature profiles to approximately 7 hPa and relative humidity to approximately 200 hPa, reside at: . SHADOZ ozone time-series and profiles give a perspective on tropical total, stratospheric and tropospheric ozone in 1998-2000. Prominent features are highly variable tropospheric ozone, a zonal wave-one pattern in total (and tropospheric) column ozone, and signatures of the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO) in stratospheric ozone. Total, stratospheric and tropospheric column ozone amounts peak between August and November and are lowest between March and May. Tropospheric ozone variability over the Indian and Pacific Ocean displays influences of the Indian Ocean Dipole, and convective mixing. Pollution transport from Africa, South American and the Maritime Continent is a seasonal feature. Tropospheric ozone seasonality over the Atlantic Basin shows effects of regional subsidence and recirculation as well as biomass burning. Dynamical and chemical influences appear to be of comparable magnitude though model studies are needed to quantify this.

  7. Gravity and Rossby Wave Signatures in the Tropical Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere Based on Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ), 1998-2007

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Allen, Amber L.; Lee, Sukyoung; Miller, Sonya K.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.

    2011-01-01

    Prior investigations attempted to determine the relative influence of advection and convective processes on ozone and water vapor distributions in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) through analyses of tracers, related physical parameters (e.g., outgoing long-wave radiation, precipitable water, and temperature), or with models. In this study, stable laminae in Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesonde Network (SHADOZ) ozone profIles from 1998 to 2007 are interpreted in terms of gravity waves (GW) or Rossby waves (RW) that are identified with vertical and quasi-horizontal displacements, respectively. Using the method of Pierce and Grant (1998) as applied by Thompson et al. (2007a, 2007b, 2010, 2011), amplitudes and frequencies in ozone laminae are compared among representative SHADOZ sites over Africa and the Pacific, Indian, and Atlantic oceans. GW signals maximize in the TTL and lower stratosphere. Depending on site and season, GW are identified in up to 90% of the soundings. GW are most prevalent over the Pacific and eastern Indian oceans, a distribution consistent with vertically propagating equatorial Kelvin waves. Ozone laminae from RW occur more often below the tropical tropopause and with lower frequency 20%). Gravity wave and Rossby wave indices (GWI, RWI) are formulated to facilitate analysis of interannual variability of wave signatures among sites. GWI is positively correlated with a standard ENSO (El Nino-Southern Oscillation) index over American Samoa (14degS, 171degW) and negatively correlated at Watukosek, Java (7.5degS, 114degE), Kuala Lumpur (3degN, 102degE), and Ascension Island (80degS, 15degW). Generally, the responses of GW and RW to ENSO are consistent with prior studies.

  8. Insights into Tropospheric Ozone from the INTEX Ozonesonde Network Study (IONS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Witte, J. C.; Kucsera, T. L.; Merrill, J. T.; Morris, G.; Newchurch, M. J.; Oltmans, S. J.; Schmidlin, F. J.; Tarasick, D. J.

    2004-01-01

    Ozone profile data from soundings integrate models, aircraft and other ground-based measurements for better interpretation of atmospheric chemistry and dynamics. A well-designed network of ozonesonde stations, with consistent sampling, can answer questions not possible with short campaigns or current satellite technology. The SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes) project, for example, has led to these findings about tropical ozone: definition of the zonal tropospheric wave-one pattern in equatorial ozone, characterization of the "Atlantic ozone paradox" and establishment of a link between tropical Atlantic and Indian Ocean pollution. Building on the SHADOZ concept, a short-term ozone network was formed in July-August 2004 to coordinate ozonesonde launches during the ICARTT/INTEX/NEAQS (International Consortium on Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation)/Intercontinental Transport Experiment/New England Air Quality Study. In IONS (INTEX Ozonesonde Network Study), more than 250 soundings, with daily frequency at half the sites, were launched from eleven North American stations and an oceanographic ship in the Gulf of Maine. Although the goal was to examine pollution influences under stable high-pressure systems and transport associated with "warm conveyor belt" flows, the INTEX study region was dominated by a series of weak frontal system that mixed aged pollution with stratospheric ozone in the middle troposphere. Deconvoluting ozone sources provides new insights into ozone in the transition between mid-latitude and polar air.

  9. Seasonal Characteristics of Tropical Ozone Profiles using the SHADOZ Ozonesonde Data Set: Comparisons with TOMS Tropical Ozone Climatology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witte, J. C.; Thompson, A. M.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Advances in tropospheric ozone data products being developed for tropical and subtropical regions using TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) and other satellites are motivating efforts to renew and expand the collection of balloon-borne ozonesonde observations. The SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes) project is a web-based archive established since 1998. It's goals are to support validation of TOMS and SBUV (Solar Backscatter UV) satellite ozone measurements and to improve remote sensing techniques for estimating tropical and subtropical ozone. Profile data are taken from balloon-borne ozonesondes, currently at 11 stations coordinating weekly to bi-weekly launches. Station data are publically available at a central location via the internet: . Since the start of the project, the SHADOZ archive has accumulated over 1500 ozonesonde profiles. Data also includes measurements from various SHADOZ supported field campaigns, such as, the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX), Sounding of Ozone and Water in the Equatorial Region (SOWER) and Aerosols99 Atlantic Cruise. Using data from the archive, profile climatologies from selected stations will be shown to 1/characterize the variability of tropospheric tropical ozone among stations, 2/illustrate the seasonal offsets with respect to the tropical profile used in the TOMS v7 algorithm, and 3/estimate the potential error in TOMS retrieval estimates of the tropospheric portion of the atmosphere.

  10. GTE_PEMTB_OZONESONDES

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-07-23

    ... Order Data Guide Documents:  PEM Tropics B Project Relevant Documents:  GTE ...           Global Tropospheric Experiment. PEM Tropics Data Information GTE Data Archive Format Document 1994 ...

  11. GTE_PEMTA_OZONESONDES

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-07-23

    ... Order Data Guide Documents:  PEM Tropics A Project Relevant Documents:  GTE ...           Global Tropospheric Experiment. PEM Tropics Data Information GTE Data Archive Format Document 1994 ...

  12. The Sodankyla Total Ozone Intercomparison and Validation Campaign: ozonesonde observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kivi, Rigel; Bojkov, Bojan; Kyro, Esko; Heikkinen, Pauli; McGee, Thomas; Brinksma, Ellen

    Ozonesondes are widely used to validate satellite borne atmospheric remote sensing measurements. Sonde data quality depends on the sonde type and the preparation procedure. It is important to assess the accuracy of sonde measurements to be used for the validation of satellite instruments. Here we investigate the performance of ENSCI ozonesondes during the Sodankyl¨ a Total Ozone Intercomparison and Validation Campaign (SAUNA), which took place in March -April 2006 and in February-March 2007 in Sodankyl¨, Finland (67.4 ° N, 26.6 ° E). The cama paign provided a large set of ground-based observational data to validate the performance of ground-based and satellite borne ozone sensors at a high latitude site. We present comparisons with satellite instruments, an ozone lidar and Brewer spectrophotometers and results from dual ozonesonde flights. During March 22- April 14, 2006 we performed altogether 31 balloon flights, and from February 1 to March 3, 2007 in total 54 flights. The balloon launches were timed to the ozone measurements on board the NASA Aura satellite. In each payload an ENSCI ozonesonde was flown prepared with the cathode solution concentration of 0.5% KI. In addition, we made a series of dual sonde flights, which included also a SPC ozonesonde with the cathode solution concentration of 1 % KI. As a result of all dual sonde flights we found relative difference less than 2 % between the sonde types in the stratosphere, and from 3 to 4 % in the troposphere. Total ozone from sondes was in good agreement with the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) observations on board the Aura satellite. During the first campaign phase the average ratio OMI/ sonde was 0.99 +/- 0.02 % and during the second phase 1.00 +/- 0.05 %. The average ratio Brewer/sonde was 1.00 +/- 0.02 %.

  13. Performance evaluation of electrochemical concentration cell ozonesondes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres, A. L.; Bandy, A. R.

    1977-01-01

    Laboratory calibrations of more than a hundred electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozonesondes were determined relative to UV-photometry. The average intercept and slope, 0 plus or minus 5 nb and 0.96 plus or minus 0.06, respectively, indicate reasonable agreement with UV photometry, but with considerable variation from one ECC ozonesonde to another. The time required to reach 85% of the final reaction to a step-change in ozone concentration was found to average 51 seconds. Application of the individual calibrations to 20 sets of 1976 flight data reduced the average of the differences between ozonesonde and Dobson spectrophotometric measurements of total ozone from 3.9 to 1.3%. A similar treatment of a set of 10 1977 flight records improved the average ECC-Dobson agreement from -8.5 to -1.4%. Although systematic differences were reduced, no significant effect on the random variations was evident.

  14. Propagation of radiosonde pressure sensor errors to ozonesonde measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stauffer, R. M.; Morris, G. A.; Thompson, A. M.; Joseph, E.; Coetzee, G. J. R.; Nalli, N. R.

    2014-01-01

    Several previous studies highlight pressure (or equivalently, pressure altitude) discrepancies between the radiosonde pressure sensor and that derived from a GPS flown with the radiosonde. The offsets vary during the ascent both in absolute and percent pressure differences. To investigate this problem further, a total of 731 radiosonde/ozonesonde launches from the Southern Hemisphere subtropics to northern mid-latitudes are considered, with launches between 2005 and 2013 from both longer term and campaign-based intensive stations. Five series of radiosondes from two manufacturers (International Met Systems: iMet, iMet-P, iMet-S, and Vaisala: RS80-15N and RS92-SGP) are analyzed to determine the magnitude of the pressure offset. Additionally, electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozonesondes from three manufacturers (Science Pump Corporation; SPC and ENSCI/Droplet Measurement Technologies; DMT) are analyzed to quantify the effects these offsets have on the calculation of ECC ozone (O3) mixing ratio profiles (O3MR) from the ozonesonde-measured partial pressure. Approximately half of all offsets are > ±0.6 hPa in the free troposphere, with nearly a third > ±1.0 hPa at 26 km, where the 1.0 hPa error represents ~ 5% of the total atmospheric pressure. Pressure offsets have negligible effects on O3MR below 20 km (96% of launches lie within ±5% O3MR error at 20 km). Ozone mixing ratio errors above 10 hPa (~ 30 km), can approach greater than ±10% (> 25% of launches that reach 30 km exceed this threshold). These errors cause disagreement between the integrated ozonesonde-only column O3 from the GPS and radiosonde pressure profile by an average of +6.5 DU. Comparisons of total column O3 between the GPS and radiosonde pressure profiles yield average differences of +1.1 DU when the O3 is integrated to burst with addition of the McPeters and Labow (2012) above-burst O3 column climatology. Total column differences are reduced to an average of -0.5 DU when the O3 profile is

  15. Propagation of Radiosonde Pressure Sensor Errors to Ozonesonde Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stauffer, R. M.; Morris, G.A.; Thompson, A. M.; Joseph, E.; Coetzee, G. J. R.; Nalli, N. R.

    2014-01-01

    Several previous studies highlight pressure (or equivalently, pressure altitude) discrepancies between the radiosonde pressure sensor and that derived from a GPS flown with the radiosonde. The offsets vary during the ascent both in absolute and percent pressure differences. To investigate this problem further, a total of 731 radiosonde-ozonesonde launches from the Southern Hemisphere subtropics to Northern mid-latitudes are considered, with launches between 2005 - 2013 from both longer-term and campaign-based intensive stations. Five series of radiosondes from two manufacturers (International Met Systems: iMet, iMet-P, iMet-S, and Vaisala: RS80-15N and RS92-SGP) are analyzed to determine the magnitude of the pressure offset. Additionally, electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozonesondes from three manufacturers (Science Pump Corporation; SPC and ENSCI-Droplet Measurement Technologies; DMT) are analyzed to quantify the effects these offsets have on the calculation of ECC ozone (O3) mixing ratio profiles (O3MR) from the ozonesonde-measured partial pressure. Approximately half of all offsets are 0.6 hPa in the free troposphere, with nearly a third 1.0 hPa at 26 km, where the 1.0 hPa error represents 5 persent of the total atmospheric pressure. Pressure offsets have negligible effects on O3MR below 20 km (96 percent of launches lie within 5 percent O3MR error at 20 km). Ozone mixing ratio errors above 10 hPa (30 km), can approach greater than 10 percent ( 25 percent of launches that reach 30 km exceed this threshold). These errors cause disagreement between the integrated ozonesonde-only column O3 from the GPS and radiosonde pressure profile by an average of +6.5 DU. Comparisons of total column O3 between the GPS and radiosonde pressure profiles yield average differences of +1.1 DU when the O3 is integrated to burst with addition of the McPeters and Labow (2012) above-burst O3 column climatology. Total column differences are reduced to an average of -0.5 DU when

  16. Propagation of radiosonde pressure sensor errors to ozonesonde measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stauffer, R. M.; Morris, G. A.; Thompson, A. M.; Joseph, E.; Coetzee, G. J. R.

    2013-08-01

    Several previous studies highlight pressure (or equivalently, pressure altitude) discrepancies between the radiosonde pressure sensor and that derived from a GPS flown with the radiosonde. The offsets vary during the ascent both in absolute and percent pressure differences. To investigate this, a total of 501 radiosonde/ozonesonde launches from the Southern Hemisphere subtropics to northern mid-latitudes are considered, with launches between 2006-2013 from both historical and campaign-based intensive stations. Three types of electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozonesonde manufacturers (Science Pump Corporation; SPC and ENSCI/Droplet Measurement Technologies; DMT) and five series of radiosondes from two manufacturers (International Met Systems: iMet, iMet-P, iMet-S, and Vaisala: RS80 and RS92) are analyzed to determine the magnitude of the pressure offset and the effects these offsets have on the calculation of ECC ozone (O3) mixing ratio profiles (O3MR) from the ozonesonde-measured partial pressure. Approximately half of all offsets are > ±0.7 hPa in the free troposphere, with nearly a quarter > ±1.0 hPa at 26 km, where the 1.0 hPa error represents ~5% of the total atmospheric pressure. Pressure offsets have negligible effects on O3MR below 20 km (98% of launches lie within ±5% O3MR error at 20 km). Ozone mixing ratio errors in the 7-15 hPa layer (29-32 km), a region critical for detection of long-term O3 trends, can approach greater than ±10% (>25% of launches that reach 30 km exceed this threshold). Comparisons of total column O3 yield average differences of +1.6 DU (-1.1 to +4.9 DU 10th to 90th percentiles) when the O3 is integrated to burst with addition of the McPeters and Labow (2012) above-burst O3 column climatology. Total column differences are reduced to an average of +0.1 DU (-1.1 to +2.2 DU) when the O3 profile is integrated to 10 hPa with subsequent addition of the O3 climatology above 10 hPa. The RS92 radiosondes are clearly distinguishable

  17. Data Homogenization of the NOAA Long-Term Ozonesonde Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, B.; Cullis, P.; Sterling, C. W.; Jordan, A. F.; Hall, E. G.; Petropavlovskikh, I. V.; Oltmans, S. J.; Mcconville, G.

    2015-12-01

    The NOAA long term balloon-borne ozonesonde sites at Boulder, Colorado; Hilo, Hawaii; and South Pole Station, Antarctica have measured weekly ozone profiles for more than 3 decades. The ozonesonde consists of an electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) sensor interfaced with a weather radiosonde which transmits high resolution ozone and meteorological data during ascent from the surface to 30-35 km altitude. During this 30 year time period there have been several model changes in the commercially available ECC ozonesondes and radiosondes as well as three adjustments in the ozone sensor solution composition at NOAA. These changes were aimed at optimizing the ozonesonde performance. Organized intercomparison campaigns conducted at the environmental simulation facility at the Research Centre Juelich, Germany and international field site testing have been the primary process for assessing new designs, instruments, or sensor solution changes and developing standard operating procedures. NOAA has also performed in-house laboratory tests and launched 28 dual ozonesondes at various sites since 1994 to provide further comparison data to determine the optimum homogenized data set. The final homogenization effort involved reviewing and editing several thousand individual ozonesonde profiles followed by applying the optimum correction algorithms for changes in type of sensor solution composition. The results of improved data sets will be shown with long term trends and uncertainties at various altitude levels.

  18. Strange Creatures: An Additive Wood Sculpture Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wales, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    Describes an art project where students create strange creatures using scraps of wood. Discusses how the students use the wood and other materials. Explains that the students also write about the habitat characteristics of their creatures. Includes learning objectives. (CMK)

  19. Ozonesonde profiles from the West Pacific Warm Pool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newton, R.; Vaughan, G.; Ricketts, H. M. A.; Pan, L. L.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Chemel, C.

    2015-06-01

    We present a series of ozonesonde profiles measured from Manus Island, Papua New Guinea, during February 2014. The experiment formed a part of a wider airborne campaign involving three aircraft based in Guam, to characterise the atmospheric composition above the tropical West Pacific in unprecedented detail. Thirty-nine ozonesondes were launched between 2 and 25 February, of which 34 gave good ozone profiles. Particular attention was paid to measuring the background current of the ozonesonde before launch, as this can amount to half the measured signal in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL). An unexpected contamination event affected these measurements and required a departure from standard operating procedures for the ozonesondes. Comparison with aircraft measurements allows validation of the measured ozone profiles and confirms that for well-characterized sondes (background current <50 nA) a constant background current should be assumed throughout the profile, equal to the minimum value measured during preparation just before launch. From this set of 34 ozonesondes, the minimum reproducible ozone concentration measured in the TTL was 12-13 ppbv; no examples of near-zero ozone concentration as reported by other recent papers were measured. The lowest ozone concentrations coincided with outflow from extensive deep convection to the east of Manus, consistent with uplift of ozone-poor air from the boundary layer. However, these minima were lower than the ozone concentration measured through most of the boundary layer, and were matched only by measurements at the surface in Manus.

  20. An Automated Method for Ozonesonde Calibration: New Insights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidlin, F. J.; Hoegger, Bruno A.; Levrat, Gilbert; Baldwin, Tony

    2008-01-01

    An automated method for preparation of the electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozonesonde is presented. Development of a computer-controlled system for preparation and calibration of the ECC is an improvement over the manual preparation method, and reduces subjectivity considerably. Preparation measurements in digital form aids analysis of the ECC before release and enhances post-flight data certification. Calibration of ozonesondes over a range of ozone concentrations between 0 mPA and 30 mPA is discussed. This presentation describes the automatic system, gives examples of calibrations. The automated system enables comparison of varying potassium iodide (KI) concentrations that should allow adjustment of earlier ozonesonde data obtained with different KT concentrations used since 1970, i.e., 2, 1.5, 1, and 0.5 percent. Preliminary results indicate ECC accuracy has a strong dependence on the electrolyte concentration and should not be considered linear with altitude.

  1. Improved rocket ozonesonde (ROCOZ-A). I - Demonstration of precision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, A. C.; Barnes, R. A.; Lee, H. S.

    1985-01-01

    Measurements of the daytime ozone distribution in the stratosphere have been made with an improved rocket ozonesonde (ROCOZ-A). Vertical cumulative ozone as a function of geometric altitude is the basic information content of these measurements. The instrument-to-instrument repeatability of the ozonesonde was determined by two series of four soundings each. At one standard deviation the instrument repeatability averages from 2.0 to 2.5 percent over the entire altitude range of the instrument. The worst measured repeatability is 3.7 percent at 55 km for one of the flight series.

  2. Additively Manufactured Metals in Oxygen Systems Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tylka, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Metals produced by additive manufacturing methods, such as Powder Bed Fusion Technology, are now mature enough to be considered for qualification in human spaceflight oxygen systems. The mechanical properties of metals produced through AM processes are being systematically studied. However, it is unknown whether AM metals in oxygen applications may present an increased risk of flammability or ignition as compared to wrought metals of the same metallurgical composition due to increased porosity. Per NASA-STD-6001B materials to be used in oxygen system applications shall be based on flammability and combustion test data, followed by a flammability assessment. Without systematic flammability and ignition testing in oxygen there is no credible method for NASA to accurately evaluate the risk of using AM metals in oxygen systems.

  3. A Comparison of Co-located Ozonesonde and Lidar Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGee, Thomas J.; Twigg, L.; Sumnicht, G.; Gross, M.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    As part of the NDSC, the GSFC mobile Ozone Lidar instrument has participated in numerous validation campaigns around the world. During all of these campaigns, ozonesondes were flown as part of the intercomparisons. This poster summarizes the results of these campaigns, and indicates that there are some biases between the sonde and lidar measurements.

  4. Electrochemical concentration cell ozonesonde performance evaluation during STOIC 1989

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komhyr, W. D.; Barnes, R. A.; Brothers, G. B.; Lathrop, J. A.; Opperman, D. P.

    1995-05-01

    Electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozonesondes flown by NOAA and NASA Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) personnel during the Stratospheric Ozone Intercomparison Campaign (STOIC) conducted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Table Mountain Facility, Wrightwood, California, July 21 to August 1, 1989, exhibited highly similar ozone measurement precisions and accuracies even though considerably different methods were used by the two research groups in preparing the instruments for use and in calibrating the instruments. The Table Mountain data as well as data obtained in the past showed the precisions to range from about ±3 to ±12% in the troposphere, remain relatively constant at ±3% in the stratosphere to 10 mbar, then decrease to about ±10% at 4-mbar pressure altitude. Corresponding ozone measurement accuracies for individual ozonesonde soundings were estimated to be about ±6% near the ground, decrease to -7 to 17% in the high troposphere where ozone concentrations are low, increase to about ±5% in the low stratosphere and remain so to an altitude of about 10 mbar (˜32 km), then decrease to -14 to 6% at 4 mbar (˜38 km) where ozone concentrations are again low. Stratospheric ozone measurements were also made during STOIC with ground-based lidars and a microwave radiometer that will be used for ozone measurements in the future at sites of the Network for the Detection of Stratospheric Change (NDSC). The ECC ozonesonde observations provided useful comparison data for evaluating the performance of the lidar and microwave instruments.

  5. Validation of AIRS v4 ozone profiles in the UTLS using ozonesondes from Lauder, NZ and Boulder, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monahan, K. P.; Pan, L. L.; McDonald, A. J.; Bodeker, G. E.; Wei, J.; George, S. E.; Barnet, C. D.; Maddy, E.

    2007-09-01

    Ozonesonde observations from Lauder (45.0°S, 169.7°E) and Boulder (39.9°N, 105.3°W) are used to examine the quality of the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) v4 vertical ozone profile product in the upper troposphere lower stratosphere (UTLS). At lower altitudes (˜700-200 hPa pressure range), AIRS ozone mixing ratios are larger than ozonesonde measurements, and at higher altitudes (˜100-30 hPa pressure range), AIRS ozone mixing ratios are smaller. Compared to the ozonesondes, AIRS retrieval results at Lauder have a median bias of 80% in the region 700-200 hPa, and 0 to -20% in the region 100-30 hPa. For Boulder these values are 40% and 0 to 5%, respectively. Using a tropopause adjusted vertical coordinate system, Lauder has median biases of +90 to +120% in the troposphere and 0 to +25% in the stratosphere whereas Boulder shows median biases of +45 to +70% in the troposphere and 0 to +35% in the stratosphere. Despite the bias, AIRS retrieval in the UTLS region shows a statistically significant positive correlation with the ozonesonde data, indicating that while the absolute values have a large uncertainty, the retrieval captures the variability of ozone in the UTLS region. Hence AIRS ozone is suitable for studies where the change in ozone is important rather than the absolute ozone mixing ratio. Examinations of the training data set show that the retrieval biases are likely influenced by the deficiency of the training data to represent ozone distribution during the regression step of the retrieval. Furthermore the physical retrieval adds little additional information to the final result.

  6. ECC Ozonesonde Reliability, Observations, and Comparisons with Satellite Ozone Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidlin, F. J.; Northam, E. T.; Ross, E. D.; Schauer, A. G.; Gerlach, John C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Electrochemical Concentration Cell (ECC) ozone instruments depend on the quality of care exercised in their pre-flight preparation. The ozone-measuring project conducted at Goddard Space Flight Center's Wallops Flight Facility uses a number of mechanisms designed to inspect the ECC for anomalies that may interfere with the reception of valid ozone profiles. Complete electronic testing of the instrument, individually and when coupled to its radiosonde has led to exceptional monitoring of ozone for detecting long-term atmospheric changes. A number of factors are considered when preparing an ECC instrument for flight. These basically are specific calibrations of pump efficiency, volumetric flow rate, temperature of the air entering the pump, and background current. The concentration of the potassium iodide solution is also important. Wallops is the only site using a UV photometer (Dasibi) to compare ECC ozone output at various concentrations of ozone that allows adjustment to be made to offsets that may appear in the balloon-borne instrument prior to release. All of the above procedures allow identification of potential problems before release of the ECC instrument. Procedures followed at Wallops also are employed in Brazil, and Ascension Island where NASA has cooperative agreements in place to obtain ozonesondes data. All ECC instruments are prepared 3-4 weeks prior to the day of observation. We will briefly describe the instrumental tests employed. These tests have included simultaneous dual observations to compare the effect of different solution concentrations, comparison of sensors of different manufacturers, and comparisons with surface- and space-based instrumentation such as the Dobson Spectrophotometer and satellites. Vertical profiles of ozone from Arctic, mid-latitudes, and Antarctica will be discussed. Although not unusual, the data reveals ozone structure that correlate well with typical atmospheric temperatures and possibly relative humidity. Finally

  7. Validation of Aura Microwave Limb Sounder Ozone by Ozonesonde and Lidar Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jiang, Y. B.; Froidevaux, L.; Lambert, A.; Livesey, N. J.; Read, W. G.; Waters, J. W.; Bojkov, B.; Leblanc, T.; McDermid, I. S.; Godin-Beekmann, S.; Filipiak, M. J.; Harwood, R. S.; Fuller, R. A.; Daffer, W. H.; Drouin, B. J.; Cofield, R. E.; Cuddy, D. T.; Jarnot, R. F.; Knosp, B. W.; Perun, V. S.; Schwartz, W. V.; Snyder, P. C.; Stek, R. P.; Thurstans, P. A.; Wagner, M. J.

    2007-01-01

    We present validation studies of MLS version 2.2 upper tropospheric and stratospheric ozone profiles using ozonesonde and lidar data as well as climatological data. Ozone measurements from over 60 ozonesonde stations worldwide and three lidar stations are compared with coincident MLS data. The MLS ozone stratospheric data between 150 and 3 hPa agree well with ozonesonde measurements, within 8% for the global average. MLS values at 215 hPa are biased high compared to ozonesondes by approximately 20% at middle to high latitude, although there is a lot of variability in this altitude region.

  8. Tethered Ozonesonde Measurements During FRAPPE July-August 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oltmans, S. J.; Johnson, B.; Sterling, C. W.; Cullis, P.; Hall, E. G.; Jordan, A. F.; Wendell, J.; Schnell, R. C.; McClure-Begley, A.; Thompson, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    O3 and temperature profiles were measured from tethered ozonesondes from surface to 400 m above ground level on 9 days during the summer of 2014 Colorado Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Experiment (FRAPPE). The portable tethered ozonesonde system was set up at one of 3 sites located next to a Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment surface monitoring station. The day and site chosen were based on the previous day O3 and weather forecast. Measurements typically began at 8:30 AM and ended at 4:30 PM, averaging 40 profiles in one day. The ozonesonde when sampling at the surface consistently read within 0-3 ppbv of the surface monitor at each of the sites with a typical daytime range of 20-90 ppbv. The hourly values were averaged at 50 meter intervals showing O3 production rates were consistently around 8 ppbv per hour from 50 to 300 meters above ground level. On sunny, light wind days the O3 mixing ratio reached a maximum of 80-90 ppbv between 14:00 and 15:00 local time. The generally constant mixing ratio with height and highest mixing ratios above the surface indicate that photochemical O3 production was taking place throughout the profile. Continuous O3 profiles from a tall tower (5 and 300 m) and daily ozonesondes tracked O3 variability through the experiment. High O3 at each site was associated with different local wind directions. At Ft. Collins winds were generally out of the southeast, at Chatfield from the northeast, and at City Park Golf Course more variable. The tether system was developed at NOAA/ESRL to provide a cost effective method to measure O3 profiles on a continuous basis. The tether system consisted of a deep sea fishing pole, electric motor driving the reel with light-weight fishing line attached to the balloon ozonesonde, a tether control box, and laptop. The in house software package monitored data and controlled the tether speed and turn-around point based on real time GPS altitude from the transmitting radiosonde.

  9. Changes in the vertical distribution of ozone over Canada from ozonesondes: 1980-2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasick, D. W.; Fioletov, V. E.; Wardle, D. I.; Kerr, J. B.; Davies, J.

    2005-01-01

    Measurements of the vertical profile of ozone concentration using balloon-borne ECC ozonesondes have been made weekly since 1980 at several sites in Canada (Edmonton, Goose Bay, Churchill, and Resolute), since 1987 at Alert, and since 1992 at Eureka. Previous analyses of ozone trends over Canada have shown strong negative trends in tropospheric ozone. We present here a new analysis of trends in the vertical distribution of ozone with data up to the end of 2001. In addition, more detailed attention is paid to some potential sources of bias: total ozone correction, background current correction, and time-of-launch (diurnal) variation. For the 1980-2001 period the overall linear trends are primarily negative, both in tropospheric and stratospheric ozone. However, when the data for 1991-2001 only are considered, the trends are positive, even in the lower stratosphere. When the time series are compared with previously reported trends (to 1993), it is evident that ozone has rebounded at all levels below about 63 hPa. These differences do not appear to be related to changes in tropopause height, as the average height of the tropopause (as measured over the ozonesonde stations) has not changed over either the 22-year or the 11-year period. Nevertheless, comparison with another dynamical indicator, the wintertime frequency of occurrence of laminae in the ozone profile, suggests that this rebound may be partly a result of small changes in the atmospheric circulation, rather than a recovery of the ozone layer from halocarbon-induced depletion. The long-term trends in average tropospheric ozone concentrations over Canada are similar to corresponding lower stratospheric trends, and tropospheric ozone levels show significant correlation with lower stratospheric ozone amounts.

  10. Ozonesonde and aircraft measurements in the tropical West Pacific from the CAST field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newton, Richard; Vaughan, Geraint; Ricketts, Hugo

    2015-04-01

    The Coordinated Airborne Studies in the Tropics (CAST) campaign comprised of ozonesonde launches and an aircraft campaign in the West Pacific in January-March 2014. Previous field campaigns in this region have highlighted an area to the east of Papua New Guinea and near the Solomon Islands as sources of deep convection and anomalously low ozone in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL). The CAST campaign provides a unique dataset of ozonesonde launches from Manus Island, Papua New Guinea, close to the hypothesized source region. CAST was performed in coordination with two sister campaigns, CONTRAST and ATTREX, bringing the FAAM BAe 146, NCAR Gulfstream V and NASA Global Hawk aircraft respectively to Guam. The aircraft campaign allowed an unprecedented comparison between ozonesondes and aircraft, which was used to verify the ozonesonde measurements and support the choice of background correction; this correction is of paramount importance in the tropics as the background constitutes half of the measured signal. The data obtained from the CAST ozonesondes suggest that the lowest ozone concentrations, at ~15 ppb, found in the tropical tropopause layer were accompanied by easterly winds from an area of deep convection, suggesting the air was lifted quickly from the marine boundary layer. The evidence from the CAST campaign suggests that the anomalously low near-zero ozone measured during previous campaigns in the tropical West Pacific is an artefact of the ozonesonde behaviour at low pressures (high altitude) - the low-ozone measurements can be recreated with the CAST ozonesondes if the background is not properly treated.

  11. Tropospheric ozone over the North Pacific from ozonesonde observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oltmans, S. J.; Johnson, B. J.; Harris, J. M.; Thompson, A. M.; Liu, H. Y.; Chan, C. Y.; VöMel, H.; Fujimoto, T.; Brackett, V. G.; Chang, W. L.; Chen, J.-P.; Kim, J. H.; Chan, L. Y.; Chang, H.-W.

    2004-08-01

    As part of the Transport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific (TRACE-P) mission, ozonesondes were used to make ozone vertical profile measurements at nine locations in the North Pacific. At most of the sites there is a multiyear record of observations. From locations in the western Pacific (Hong Kong; Taipei; Jeju Island, Korea; and Naha, Kagoshima, Tsukuba, and Sapporo, Japan), a site in the central Pacific (Hilo, Hawaii), and a site on the west coast of the United States (Trinidad Head, California) both a seasonal and event specific picture of tropospheric ozone over the North Pacific emerges. Ozone profiles over the North Pacific generally show a prominent spring maximum throughout the troposphere. This maximum is tied to the location of the jet stream and its influence on stratosphere-troposphere exchange and the increase in photochemical ozone production through the spring. Prominent layers of enhanced ozone in the middle and upper troposphere north of about 30°N seem to be more closely tied to stratospheric intrusions while biomass burning leads to layers of enhanced ozone in the lower and upper troposphere at Hong Kong (22°N) and Taipei (25°N). The lower free tropospheric layers at Hong Kong are associated with burning in SE Asia, but the upper layer may be associated with either equatorial Northern Hemisphere burning in Africa or SE Asian biomass burning. In the boundary layer at Taipei very high mixing ratios of ozone were observed that result from pollution transport from China in the spring and local urban pollution during the summer. At the ozonesonde site near Tokyo (Tsukuba, 36°N) very large enhancements of ozone are seen in the boundary layer in the summer that are characteristic of urban air pollution. At sites in the mid and eastern Pacific the signature of transport of polluted air from Asia is not readily identifiable from the ozonesonde profile. This is likely due to the more subtle signal and the fact that from the ozone profile and

  12. Technique to extend ozonesonde temperature data to the mesopause

    SciTech Connect

    Weichel, R.L.

    1983-10-01

    An analysis of global Multichannel Filter Radiometer radiances and ozone retrieval results revealed that the simulated radiances were not always representative of the measurements for the CO/sub 2/ channels sensing the temperatures in the middle and upper stratosphere. This problem was particularly pronounced, but not limited to, higher latitude winter conditions. Because of the special importance of the middle stratosphere and high latitudes for ozone analyses, a research effort was undertaken to develop an improved method (described below) of extending the temperatures from the ozonesondes used in the simulation procedure. An overview of the radiative transfer theory is provided to show the importance of the temperature profile in the calculation of simulated radiances.

  13. Tropospheric ozone climatology at two Southern Hemisphere tropical/subtropical sites, (Reunion Island and Irene, South Africa) from ozonesondes, LIDAR, and in situ aircraft measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clain, G.; Baray, J. L.; Delmas, R.; Diab, R.; Leclair de Bellevue, J.; Keckhut, P.; Posny, F.; Metzger, J. M.; Cammas, J. P.

    2009-03-01

    This paper presents a climatology and trends of tropospheric ozone in the Southwestern Indian Ocean (Reunion Island) and South Africa (Irene and Johannesburg). This study is based on a multi-instrumental dataset: PTU-O3 ozonesondes, DIAL LIDAR and MOZAIC airborne instrumentation. The seasonal profiles of tropospheric ozone at Reunion Island have been calculated from two different data sets: ozonesondes and LIDAR. The two climatological profiles are similar, except in austral summer when the LIDAR profiles show greater values in the free troposphere, and in the upper troposphere when the LIDAR profiles show lower values during all seasons. These results show that the climatological value of LIDAR profiles must be discussed with care since LIDAR measurements can be performed only under clear sky conditions, and the upper limit of the profile depends on the signal strength. In addition, linear trends have been calculated from ozonesonde data at Reunion and Irene. Considering the whole tropospheric column, the trend is slightly positive for Reunion, and more clearly positive for Irene. Trend calculations have also been made separating the troposphere into three layers, and separating the dataset into seasons. Results show that the positive trend for Irene is governed by the lower layer that is affected by industrial pollution and biomass burning. On the contrary, for Reunion Island, the strongest trends are observed in the upper troposphere, and in winter when stratosphere-troposphere exchange is more frequently expected.

  14. Stratospheric aerosol and gas experiments I and II comparisons with ozonesondes

    SciTech Connect

    Veiga, R.E.; Cunnold, D.M.; Chu, W.P.

    1995-05-20

    Ozone profiles measured by the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiments (SAGE) I and II are compared with ozonesonde profiles at 24 stations over the period extending from 1979 through 1991. Ozonesonde/satellite differences at 21 stations with SAGE II overpasses were computed down to 11.5 km in the midlatitudes, to 15.5 km in the lower latitudes, and for nine stations with SAGE I overpasses down to 15.5 km. The set of individual satellite and ozonesonde profile comparisons most closely colocated in time and space shows mean absolute differences relative to the satellite measurement of 6 {plus_minus} 2% for SAGE II and 8 {plus_minus}3% for SAGE I. The ensemble of ozonesonde/satellite differences, when averaged over all altitudes, shows that for SAGE II, 70% were less than 5%, whereas for SAGE I, 50% were less than 5%. The best agreement occurred in the altitude region near the ozone density maximum where almost all the relative differences were less than 5%. Most of the statistically significant differences occurred below the ozone maximum down to the tropopause in the region of steepest ozone gradients and typically ranged between 0 and {minus}20%. Correlations between ozone and aerosol extinction in the northern midlatitudes indicate that aerosols had no discernible impact on the ozonesonde/satellite differences and on the stratosphere during 1984 to mid-1991. 42 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Ozone in the Pacific Troposphere from Ozonesonde Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oltmans, S. J.; Johnson, B. J.; Harris, J. M.; Voemel, H.; Koshy, K.; Simon, P.; Bendura, R.; Thompson, A. M.; Logan, J. A.; Hasebe, F.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Ozone vertical profile measurements obtained from ozonesondes flown at Fiji, Samoa, Tahiti and the Galapagos are used to characterize ozone in the troposphere over the tropical Pacific. There is a significant seasonal variation at each of these sites. At sites in both the eastern and western Pacific, ozone is highest at almost all levels in the troposphere during the September-November season and lowest during, March-May. There is a relative maximum at all of the sites in the mid-troposphere during all seasons of the year (the largest amounts are usually found near the tropopause). This maximum is particularly pronounced during, the September-November season. On average, throughout the troposphere at all seasons, the Galapagos has larger ozone amounts than the western Pacific sites. A trajectory climatology is used to identify the major flow regimes that are associated with the characteristic ozone behavior at various altitudes and seasons. The enhanced ozone seen in the mid-troposphere during September-November is associated with flow from the continents. In the western Pacific this flow is usually from southern Africa (although 10-day trajectories do not always reach the continent), but also may come from Australia and Indonesia. In the Galapagos the ozone peak in the mid-troposphere is seen in flow from the South American continent and particularly from northern Brazil. The time of year and flow characteristics associated with the ozone mixing ratio peaks seen in both the western and eastern Pacific suggest that these enhanced ozone values result from biomass burning. In the upper troposphere low ozone amounts are seen with flow that originates in the convective western Pacific.

  16. Analysis of actinic flux profiles measured from an ozonesonde balloon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, P.; Allaart, M.; Knap, W. H.; Stammes, P.

    2015-04-01

    A green light sensor has been developed at KNMI to measure actinic flux profiles using an ozonesonde balloon. In total, 63 launches with ascending and descending profiles were performed between 2006 and 2010. The measured uncalibrated actinic flux profiles are analysed using the Doubling-Adding KNMI (DAK) radiative transfer model. Values of the cloud optical thickness (COT) along the flight track were taken from the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) Cloud Physical Properties (CPP) product. The impact of clouds on the actinic flux profile is evaluated on the basis of the cloud modification factor (CMF) at the cloud top and cloud base, which is the ratio between the actinic fluxes for cloudy and clear-sky scenes. The impact of clouds on the actinic flux is clearly detected: the largest enhancement occurs at the cloud top due to multiple scattering. The actinic flux decreases almost linearly from cloud top to cloud base. Above the cloud top the actinic flux also increases compared to clear-sky scenes. We find that clouds can increase the actinic flux to 2.3 times the clear-sky value at cloud top and decrease it to about 0.05 at cloud base. The relationship between CMF and COT agrees well with DAK simulations, except for a few outliers. Good agreement is found between the DAK-simulated actinic flux profiles and the observations for single-layer clouds in fully overcast scenes. The instrument is suitable for operational balloon measurements because of its simplicity and low cost. It is worth further developing the instrument and launching it together with atmospheric chemistry composition sensors.

  17. Ozonesonde profiles from the West Pacific Warm Pool: measurements and validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newton, R.; Vaughan, G.; Ricketts, H. M. A.; Pan, L. L.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Chemel, C.

    2016-01-01

    We present a series of ozonesonde profiles measured from Manus Island, Papua New Guinea, during February 2014, with new insights on the calibration of ozonesondes for measurements in the tropical troposphere. The experiment formed a part of a wider airborne campaign involving three aircraft based in Guam, to characterise the atmospheric composition above the tropical West Pacific in unprecedented detail. Thirty-nine ozonesondes were launched between 2 and 25 February of which 34 gave good ozone profiles. Particular attention was paid to evaluating the background current of the ozonesondes, as this can amount to half the measured signal in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL). An unexpected contamination event affected the measurements and required a departure from standard operating procedures for the ozonesondes. The most significant departure was not exposing the sondes to ozone during preparation, which meant that the background current remained stable before launch. Comparison with aircraft measurements allows validation of the measured ozone profiles and confirms that for well-characterized sondes (background current ˜ 50 nA) a constant background current could be assumed throughout the profile, equal to the minimum value measured during preparation just before launch. From this set of 34 ozonesondes, the minimum reproducible ozone concentration measured in the TTL was 12-13 ppbv; no examples of ozone concentrations < 5 ppbv, as reported by other recent papers, were measured. The lowest ozone concentrations coincided with outflow from extensive deep convection to the east of Manus, consistent with uplift of ozone-poor air from the boundary layer. However, these minima were lower than the ozone concentration measured through most of the boundary layer, and were matched only by measurements at the surface in Manus.

  18. Test Procedure - pumping system for caustic addition project

    SciTech Connect

    Leshikar, G.A.

    1994-10-01

    This test procedure provides the requirements for sub-system testing and integrated operational testing of the submersible mixer pump and caustic addition equipment by WHC and Kaiser personnel at the Rotating Equipment Shop run-in pit (Bldg. 272E).

  19. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  20. Comparison of ozone profiles between Superconducting Submillimeter-Wave Limb-Emission Sounder and worldwide ozonesonde measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imai, Koji; Fujiwara, Masatomo; Inai, Yoichi; Manago, Naohiro; Suzuki, Makoto; Sano, Takuki; Mitsuda, Chihiro; Naito, Yoko; Hasebe, Fumio; Koide, Takashi; Shiotani, Masato

    2013-11-01

    compared ozone profiles measured by the Superconducting Submillimeter-Wave Limb-Emission Sounder (SMILES) with those taken at worldwide ozonesonde stations. To assess the quality of the SMILES version 2.3 ozone data for 16-30 km, 601 ozonesonde profiles were compared with the coincident SMILES ozone profiles. The agreement between SMILES and ozonesonde measurements was generally good within 5%-7% for 18-30 km at middle and high latitudes but degraded below 18 km. At low latitudes, however, the SMILES ozone data showed larger values (~6%-15% for 20-26 km) than those at middle and high latitudes. To explain this bias, we explored some possible issues in the ozonesonde measurement system. One possibility is due to a pressure bias in radiosonde measurements with a pressure sensor, but it would be within a few percent. We also examined an issue of the ozonesonde's response time. The response time was estimated from ozonesonde measurements with ascending and descending profiles showing clear difference, by using the time lag correction method to minimize the difference between them. Our estimation shows 28 s on average which is a similar value derived by prelaunch preparation. By applying this correction to the original profiles, we found a negative bias of the ascending ozonesonde measurement more than 7% at 20 km in the equatorial latitude where the vertical gradient of ozone is steep. The corrected ozonesonde profiles showed better agreement with the SMILES data. We suggest that the response time of ozonesondes could create a negative bias, particularly in the lower stratosphere at equatorial latitudes.

  1. An Analysis of Seacions Ozonesonde Measurements from St. Louis MO: Providing Insight into How Cross Country Wildfires and Descending Stratospheric Air over the Great Plains Impact Regional Air Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkins, J. L.; Morris, G.; de Foy, B.; Fishman, J.

    2014-12-01

    As part of the SouthEast American Consortium for Intensive Ozone Network Study (SEACIONS) mission, 32 ozonesondes were launched from Forest Park in mid-town St. Louis between 8 Aug and 23 Sept 2013. These launches were supported by concurrent co-located continuous ground level ozone measurements at Saint Louis University's St. Louis Ozone Garden. During the operation of this site, wildfires from both Idaho's Beaver Creek (~115K acres) and California's RIM fire (~258k acres) generated copious amounts of pollution. In addition, widespread agricultural fires in the Midwest were also taking place. To interpret our observations over St. Louis, we used multiple satellite-derived products and retrievals in conjunction with trajectory calculations from the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model. We examined a blocking high pressure event [Aug 26-30] which led to ozonesonde profile changes resulting from Stratospheric-Troposphere Exchange (STE) in addition to the smoke from the fires. This case study involved two mixed layer O3 enhancements, which could be spotted at multiple sites within the SEACIONS ozonesonde network. Our findings illustrate how satellite measurements can be used to assess the contribution of the transport of pollution from various sources to local air quality.

  2. Effects of solution mass transport on the ECC ozonesonde background current. [Electrochemical Concentration Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, D. C.; Niazy, N.

    1983-01-01

    A technique is developed to measure the effective mass transport parameter for the electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozonesonde in order to determine the mass transport rate constant for the ECC as a function of pressure. It is shown that a pressure dependent factor in the background current originates in a convective mass transport parameter. It is determined that for atmospheric pressures greater than 100 mb the mass transport parameter is a constant, while at pressures less than 100 mb it decreases logarithmically with pressure. It is suggested that the background current correction is directly correlated to the mass transport parameter pressure dependence. The presently used background current correction, which is based on the partial pressure of oxygen, is found to lead to an overestimation of the integrated ozone value in the troposphere for the ECC ozonesonde data.

  3. Ozonesonde measurements from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) site in Billings, Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    Ozonesonde instruments were prepared and released at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) site located near Billings, Oklahoma. Ozone sensors, associated radiosondes, balloons, and other parts and pieces required for the ozone observations were provided by WFF on a reimbursable arrangement with ANL. Observations were scheduled daily at 1,700 UTC beginning on September 22, 1995. Attempts to maintain this schedule were frustrated by a few simultaneous operations involving different electronic devices in use resulting in considerable rf noise. Since radiosondes are necessarily low-cost instruments their reception is particularly susceptible to noisy rf fields. Overall, however, 36 ozonesonde flights were made with the last observation occurring on November 1, 1995. Ozone data were processed on-site through the ground-station software and preliminary data delivered to Mike Splitt at the ARM site.

  4. Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT): Additive Manufactured Hot Fire Planning and Testing in GRC Cell 32 Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fikes, John C.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this project is to hot fire test an additively manufactured thrust chamber assembly TCA (injector and thrust chamber). GRC will install the additively manufactured Inconel 625 injector, two additively manufactured (SLM) water cooled Cu-Cr thrust chamber barrels and one additively manufactured (SLM) water cooled Cu-Cr thrust chamber nozzle on the test stand in Cell 32 and perform hot fire testing of the integrated TCA.

  5. [The radiologic description of pleural effusions with special reference to an additional projection].

    PubMed

    Hartung, K

    1989-01-01

    Pleural effusions refer to many different conditions of the pleura itself or to generalized diseases. Small amounts of fluid may not be apparent on conventional radiographs. Regarding the standard views the ventrodorsal projection shows the earliest signs of effusion, followed by the lateral recumbent. But even in these projections it is not possible to see a small amount of fluid. An additional lateral oblique view which you obtain by lifting the extremities seems to show small amounts of fluid more precisely and earlier than any of the standard projections. PMID:2669229

  6. Comparisons of observed ozone trends in the stratosphere through examination of Umkehr and balloon ozonesonde data

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, A.J.; Nagatani, R.M.; Tiao, G.C.

    1995-06-20

    During the past several years, several authors have published results of the annual and seasonal trends depicted in the total ozone data from both satellite and ground-based observations. The examination of the vertical profile data available from the balloon ozonesonde and Umkehr observations, however, has been generally restricted to limited periods and to nonseasonal trend calculations. Within this study, the authors have examined the nonseasonal and the seasonal trend behavior of the ozone profile data from both ozonesonde and Umkehr measurements in a consistent manner, covering the same extended time period, 1968-1991, thus providing the first overall comparison of results. Their results reaffirm the observation of significant negative ozone trends in both the lower stratosphere (15-20 km), about {minus}6% per decade, and upper stratosphere (35-50 km), about {minus}6% per decade, separated by a nodal point in the region of 25-30 km. The upper stratosphere decrease is, apparently, associated with the classic gas phase chemical effect of the chlorofluorocarbons, whereas the cause of the lower stratospheric decline is still under investigation, but may well be associated with the chlorine and bromine chemistry in this region. 27 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Changes in the Vertical Distribution of Ozone Over Canada From Ozonesondes: 1980-2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wardle, D. I.; Tarasick, D. W.; Fioletov, V. E.; Kerr, J. B.; Davies, J.

    2005-12-01

    Measurements of the vertical profile of ozone concentration using balloon-borne ECC ozonesondes have been made weekly since 1980 at several sites in Canada (Edmonton, Goose Bay, Churchill and Resolute), since 1987 at Alert and since 1992 at Eureka. Previous analyses of ozone trends over Canada have shown strong negative trends in tropospheric ozone. Here, with data up to the end of 2001, we find that while for the 1980-2001 period the overall linear trends are primarily negative, both in tropospheric and stratospheric ozone, when the data for 1991-2001 only are considered, the trends are positive, even in the lower stratosphere. When the time series are compared with previously reported trends (to 1993), it is evident that ozone has rebounded at all levels below about 63 hPa. These differences do not appear to be related to changes in tropopause height, as the average height of the tropopause (as measured over the ozonesonde stations) has not changed over either the 22-year or the 11-year period. Nevertheless, comparison with another dynamical indicator, the wintertime frequency of occurrence of laminae in the ozone profile, suggests that this rebound may be partly a result of small changes in the atmospheric circulation, rather than a recovery of the ozone layer from halocarbon-induced depletion. The long-term trends in average tropospheric ozone concentrations over Canada are similar to corresponding lower stratospheric trends, and tropospheric ozone levels show significant correlation with lower stratospheric ozone amounts.

  8. Distribution of tropospheric ozone in the tropics from satellite and ozonesonde measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, J.; Brackett, V. G.; Fakhruzzaman, K.

    1992-01-01

    Measurements from two independent satellite data sets have been used to derive the climatology of the integrated amount of ozone in the troposphere. These data have led to the finding that large amounts of ozone pollution are generated by anthropogenic activity originating from both the industrialized regions of the Northern Hemisphere and from the southern tropical regions of Africa. To verify the existence of this ozone anomaly over this region of the world, an ozonesonde capability has been established at Ascension Island, located downwind of the primary source region of this ozone pollution, which likely results from the photochemical oxidation of emissions emanating from the widespread burning of savanna. These first ozonesonde profiles suggest that much of the ozone generated over Africa during the 'burning season' (primarily July-October) reaches Ascension Island. These high levels of ozone in the lower troposphere become much lower by December. Elevated ozone concentrations in the middle troposphere are once again evident in February, which may be the result of biomass burning emissions being transported from western and northern Africa.

  9. 33 CFR 385.13 - Projects implemented under additional program authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Projects implemented under additional program authority. 385.13 Section 385.13 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PROGRAMMATIC REGULATIONS FOR THE COMPREHENSIVE...

  10. 48 CFR 301.606-75 - Additional Project Officer training requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... be applied, and the individual has not yet met the EVM training requirement, the HCA (non-delegable... extension period, the HCA's approval for the individual's assignment to the project will automatically... additional HHS training. The HCA (non-delegable) may grant a time extension of up to 9 months to a...

  11. 48 CFR 301.606-75 - Additional Project Officer training requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional Project Officer training requirements. 301.606-75 Section 301.606-75 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL HHS ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Career Development, Contracting Authority,...

  12. 34 CFR 645.15 - What additional services may Veterans Upward Bound projects provide?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What additional services may Veterans Upward Bound projects provide? 645.15 Section 645.15 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION UPWARD BOUND PROGRAM What Kinds...

  13. 34 CFR 645.15 - What additional services may Veterans Upward Bound projects provide?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What additional services may Veterans Upward Bound projects provide? 645.15 Section 645.15 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION UPWARD BOUND PROGRAM What Kinds...

  14. 34 CFR 645.15 - What additional services may Veterans Upward Bound projects provide?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What additional services may Veterans Upward Bound projects provide? 645.15 Section 645.15 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION UPWARD BOUND PROGRAM What Kinds...

  15. Ozonesonde Climatology and Satellite Product Evaluation: Tropospheric Ozone in the Mid-Atlantic from 2005-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Normile, C.; Thompson, A. M.; Schmidlin, F. J.; Schoeberl, M. R.

    2011-12-01

    Geostationary satellite missions are proposed to remotely assess regional air quality over large swaths, although the precise capability of the current set of satellite instruments to accurately resolve urban scale pollution remains unverified. We use the Trajectory Enhanced Tropospheric Ozone Residual product derived from Aura's Ozone Monitoring Instrument/Microwave Limb Sounder satellite data to examine the regional climatology of ozone pollution in the mid-Atlantic, focusing on the Washington, D.C. area and downwind Delmarva. We use the North American Regional Reanalysis to determine the synoptic scale flow patterns in the lower troposphere. In addition, a set of proxies (OMI NO2, surface ozone, cloud cover, and air mass classification) are employed to understand TTOR performance and interacting meteorological and chemical effects in the region. We find that the TTOR product accuracy varies substantially both temporally and spatially, improving during summer months (0.22% error in May compared to 11% error in October) for example, and over urban areas more than rural ones (12% error versus 16% error). TTOR product accuracy is influenced by air mass effects on advection and on planetary boundary layer ozone concentrations. Conditions conducive to ozone production yield a higher near-surface proportion of the tropospheric column as measured by Wallops Island ozonesondes. We identify synoptic-scale flow regimes that strengthen correlations between urban tropospheric ozone density and column density off the coast of the mid-Atlantic. These results indicate that remotely sensed measurements may indeed be able to discriminate urban influences on regional ozone and their effects in more remote areas and have implications for air quality assessment and model validation.

  16. Trends in the Vertical Distribution of Ozone: A Comparison of Two Analyses of Ozonesonde Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loogan, J. A.; Megretskaia, I. A.; Miller, A. J.; Tiao, G. C.; Choi, D.; Zhang, L.; Bishop, L.; Stolarski, R.; Labow, G. J.; Hollandsworth, S. M.; Bodeker, G. E.; Claude, H.; DeMuer, D.; Kerr, J. B.; Tarasick, D. W.; Oltmans, S. J.; Johnson, B.; Schmidlin, F.; Staehelin, J.; Viatte, P.

    1998-01-01

    We present the results of two independent analyses of ozonesonde measurements of the vertical profile of ozone. For most of the ozonesonde stations we use data that were recently reprocessed and reevaluated to improve their quality and internal consistency. The two analyses give similar results for trends in ozone. We attribute differences in results primarily to differences in data selection criteria and in utilization of data correction factors, rather than in statistical trend models. We find significant decreases in stratospheric ozone at all stations in middle and high latitudes of the northern hemisphere from 1970 to 1996, with the largest decreases located between 12 and 21 km, and trends of -3 to -10 %/decade near 17 km. The decreases are largest at the Canadian and the most northerly Japanese station, and are smallest at the European stations, and at Wallops Island, U.S.A. The mean mid-latitude trend is largest, -7 %/decade, from 12 to 17.5 km for 1970-96. For 1980-96, the decrease is more negative by 1-2 %/decade, with a maximum trend of -9 %/decade in the lowermost stratosphere. The trends vary seasonally from about 12 to 17.5 km, with largest ozone decreases in winter and spring. Trends in tropospheric ozone are highly variable and depend on region. There are decreases or zero trends at the Canadian stations for 1970-96, and decreases of -2 to -8 %/decade for the mid-troposphere for 1980-96; the three European stations show increases for 1970-96, but trends are close to zero for two stations for 1980-96 and positive for one; there are increases in ozone for the three Japanese stations for 1970-96, but trends are either positive or zero for 1980-96; the U.S. stations show zero or slightly negative trends in tropospheric ozone after 1980. It is not possible to define reliably a mean tropospheric ozone trend for northern mid-latitudes, given the small number of stations and the large variability in trends. The integrated column trends derived from the

  17. Pend Oreille Wetlands Wildlife Mitigation Project Management Plan for the "Dilling Addition".

    SciTech Connect

    Entz, Ray D.

    1999-01-15

    This report is a recommendation from the Kalispel Tribe to the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority (CBFWA) for management of the Pend Oreille Wetland Wildlife Mitigation project II (Dilling Addition) for the extensive habitat losses caused by Albeni Falls Dam on Kalispel Ceded Lands. Albeni Falls Dam is located on the Pend Oreille River near the Washington-Idaho border, about 25 miles upstream of the Kalispel Indian Reservation. The dam controls the water level on Lake Pend Oreille. The lake was formerly the center of subsistence use by the Kalispel Tribe. Flooding of wetlands, and water fluctuations both on the lake and downstream on the river, has had adverse impacts to wildlife and wildlife habitat. An extensive process was followed to formulate and prioritize wildlife resource goals. The Kalispel Natural Resource Department provided guidance in terms of opportunities onsite. To prioritize specific goals, the Albeni Falls Interagency Work Group and the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority Wildlife Caucus were consulted. From this process, the top priority goal for the Kalispel Tribe is: Protect and develop riparian forest and shrub, and freshwater wetlands, to mitigate losses resulting from reservoir inundation and river level fluctuations due to Albeni Falls Dam. Indicator species used to determine the initial construction/inundation loses and mitigation project gains include Bald Eagle (breeding and wintering), Black-capped Chickadee, Canada Goose, Mallard, muskrat, white-tailed deer, and Yellow Warbler.

  18. The latitudinal distribution of ozone to 35 km altitude from ECC ozonesonde observations, 1982-1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komhyr, W. D.; Oltmans, S. J.; Lathrop, J. A.; Kerr, J. B.; Matthews, W. A.

    1994-01-01

    Electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozone-sonde observations, made in recent years at ten stations whose locations range from the Arctic to Antarctica, have yielded a self-consistent ozone data base from which mean seasonal and annual latitudinal ozone vertical distributions to 35 km have been derived. Ozone measurement uncertainties are estimated, and results are presented in the Bass-Paur (1985) ozone absorption coefficient scale adopted for use with Dobson ozone spectrophotometers January 1, 1992. The data should be useful for comparison with model calculations of the global distribution of atmospheric ozone, for serving as apriori statistical information in deriving ozone vertical distributions from satellite and Umkehr observations, and for improving the satellite and Umkehr ozone inversion algorithms. Attention is drawn to similar results based on a less comprehensive data set published in Ozone in the Atmosphere, Proceedings of the 1988 Quadrennial Ozone Symposium where errors in data tabulations occurred for three of the stations due to inadvertent transposition of ozone partial pressure and air temperature values.

  19. Vertical ozone distributions observed using tethered ozonesondes in a coastal industrial city, Kaohsiung, in southern Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ching-Ho; Lai, Chin-Hsing; Wu, Yee-Lin; Lai, Hsin-Chih; Lin, Po-Hsiung

    2007-04-01

    This work presents the vertical distributions of ozone and meteorological parameters observed with tethered ozonesondes and meteorological radiosondes in the lower atmosphere during an ozone episode on March 25-27, 2003, in Kaohsiung City in southern Taiwan. Kaohsiung is a coastal industrial city with inland mountain ranges to the east. Extremely complicated ozone structures were identified that spanned day and night during the experimental period. During afternoons, the lower atmosphere was divided into two stratified air layers with substantially different ozone concentrations. On the episode day (March 26), average ozone concentration in the near-ground layer was 85 ppb and the aloft layer was 140 ppb. A very high ozone peak of 199 ppb measured aloft likely resulted from an elevated large point source. Several no-ozone air layers, distributed throughout 400-750 m, were observed to transport on shore during the night. As well, elevated ozone layers peaking at 60-90 ppb and 90-160 ppb were detected below and above the no-ozone air layers, respectively. These complicated ozone structures were likely formed through titration of plumes from large point sources and the circulations of sea breezes or combined sea-breeze/mountain flows in the study area.

  20. Quasibiennial Oscillation in Tropical Ozone as Revealed by Ozonesonde and Satellite Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, J. A.; Jones, D. B. A.; Megretskaia, I. A.; Oltmans, S. J.; Johnson, B. J.; Voemel, H.; Randel, W. J.; Kimani, W.; Schmidlin, F. J.

    2003-01-01

    We present an analysis of the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) in tropical ozone using recent in situ measurements made by ozonesondes, supplemented by satellite profile and column data. The first in situ equatorial ozone profiles reveal the dramatic change in shape of the profile that accompanies the descent of the westerly shear zone. The partial pressure maximum in ozone increases by -25% in 5-6 months as it descends from 17.5 to 24 hPa. The amplitude of the QBO anomaly that extends from 15 to 80 hPa is found to exceed *20%, larger than indicated by earlier analyses of satellite data. The influence of the QBO on equatorial ozone is dominant between 10 and 45 hPa, but the seasonal cycle is more important below 50 hPa. The equatorial ozone anomalies are influenced by El Niiio-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in the lowest part of the stratosphere. The ozone anomaly in the lower stratosphere at 20"s lags that at the equator by only a few months during the easterlies from 1994 to 1998, contrary to the previous picture of the subtropical and equatorial anomalies being out of phase.

  1. New Tether Ozonesonde System Developed for Uintah Basin Ozone Study in February, 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, B. J.; Cullis, P.; Wendell, J.; Hall, E.; Jordan, A.; Albee, R.; Schnell, R. C.

    2012-12-01

    NOAA/ESRL/GMD participated in the February, 2012 UINTAH basin air quality campaign to measure ozone concentrations from surface to 300 meters above ground level. The study region, southwest of Vernal, Utah, is an active oil and gas production and exploration area. During the previous winter in 2011, an air quality study led by state and local agencies and Utah State University measured very high ozone at several sites, exceeding 140 ppbv centered near Ouray, Utah under shallow boundary layer with surface snow-cover conditions. The high ozone conditions never developed during the 2012 campaign. The weather remained dry and warm with typical ozone mixing rations ranging from 20 to 60 ppbv. In order to provide near continuous ozone profiles without consuming a balloon and ozonesonde for each sounding, a tether system was developed by the Global Monitoring Division based upon a motorized deep sea fishing rod and reel with 50 pound line. The lightweight system was shown to be rugged and reliable and capable of conducting an ascending and descending profile to 300 m within 90 minutes. Communication software and data loggers continuously monitor the radiosonde pressure to control the ascent/descent rates and altitude. The system can operate unmanned as it will ascend, descend and hold an altitude as controlled from a laptop computer located up to 30 m distant.

  2. GSFC optical ozonesonde results during the Gap, France, intercomparisons, June 1981

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, A. J.; Simeth, P.; Fry, C. A.; Tewari, K.

    1983-01-01

    O3 soundings made with balloon-borne optical sensors during the French Intercomparison Ozone Campaign in June, 1981, are reported. The GSFC four-channel UV-filter-photometer ozonesonde designed for the Super Loki rocket was attached to the gondola roof for redundant O3-density measurements at altitudes of 22-32 km, using the 300 and 303-nm filters. Sensor calibration, data processing, input constants, and vertical O3-distribution calculations are discussed. The density profiles for three legs of the flight, calculated using Bass or Vigroux cross sections, agreed within a standard error of 1.4 percent for each channel, but showed a consistent 4-5 percent (significant) difference between channels. Total average O3-column amounts determined by combining the GSFC data with ECC measurements for altitudes below 21 km were in good agreement with bias-corrected TOMS data from Nimbus-VII and with ground-based data from the Observatoire de Haute-Provence at Mt. Chiran, when the latter were computed using the pre-campaign calibration. A 9-percent discrepancy arose when the Chiran data were corrected for a post-campaign recalibration of the Dobson spectrophotometer.

  3. 34 CFR 350.55 - What are the additional considerations for selecting Field-Initiated Project applications for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION DISABILITY AND REHABILITATION RESEARCH PROJECTS AND CENTERS PROGRAM How Does the... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What are the additional considerations for selecting Field-Initiated Project applications for funding? 350.55 Section 350.55 Education Regulations of...

  4. 34 CFR 350.55 - What are the additional considerations for selecting Field-Initiated Project applications for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION DISABILITY AND REHABILITATION RESEARCH PROJECTS AND CENTERS PROGRAM How Does the... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true What are the additional considerations for selecting Field-Initiated Project applications for funding? 350.55 Section 350.55 Education Regulations of...

  5. 34 CFR 350.55 - What are the additional considerations for selecting Field-Initiated Project applications for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION DISABILITY AND REHABILITATION RESEARCH PROJECTS AND CENTERS PROGRAM How Does the... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true What are the additional considerations for selecting Field-Initiated Project applications for funding? 350.55 Section 350.55 Education Regulations of...

  6. 34 CFR 350.55 - What are the additional considerations for selecting Field-Initiated Project applications for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION DISABILITY AND REHABILITATION RESEARCH PROJECTS AND CENTERS PROGRAM How Does the... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What are the additional considerations for selecting Field-Initiated Project applications for funding? 350.55 Section 350.55 Education Regulations of...

  7. 77 FR 59393 - Jordan Cove Energy Project LP; Pacific Connector Gas Pipeline LP; Notice of Additional Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-27

    ... Additional Public Scoping Meetings for the Jordan Cove Liquefaction and Pacific Connector Pipeline Projects... (Jordan Cove) proposed liquefaction project in Coos County, Oregon, in Docket No. PF12-7-000, and Pacific... Environmental Impact Statement for the Planned Jordan Cove Liquefaction and Pacific Connector Pipeline...

  8. A sea urchin genome project: sequence scan, virtual map, and additional resources.

    PubMed

    Cameron, R A; Mahairas, G; Rast, J P; Martinez, P; Biondi, T R; Swartzell, S; Wallace, J C; Poustka, A J; Livingston, B T; Wray, G A; Ettensohn, C A; Lehrach, H; Britten, R J; Davidson, E H; Hood, L

    2000-08-15

    Results of a first-stage Sea Urchin Genome Project are summarized here. The species chosen was Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, a research model of major importance in developmental and molecular biology. A virtual map of the genome was constructed by sequencing the ends of 76,020 bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) recombinants (average length, 125 kb). The BAC-end sequence tag connectors (STCs) occur an average of 10 kb apart, and, together with restriction digest patterns recorded for the same BAC clones, they provide immediate access to contigs of several hundred kilobases surrounding any gene of interest. The STCs survey >5% of the genome and provide the estimate that this genome contains approximately 27,350 protein-coding genes. The frequency distribution and canonical sequences of all middle and highly repetitive sequence families in the genome were obtained from the STCs as well. The 500-kb Hox gene complex of this species is being sequenced in its entirety. In addition, arrayed cDNA libraries of >10(5) clones each were constructed from every major stage of embryogenesis, several individual cell types, and adult tissues and are available to the community. The accumulated STC data and an expanding expressed sequence tag database (at present including >12, 000 sequences) have been reported to GenBank and are accessible on public web sites.

  9. Sources of Tropospheric Ozone along the Asian Pacific Rim: An Analysis of Ozonesonde Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Hong-Yu; Jacob, Daniel J.; Chan, Lo Yin; Oltmans, Samuel J.; Bey, Isabelle; Yantosca, Robert M.; Harris, Joyce M.; Duncan, Bryan N.; Martin, Randall V.

    2002-01-01

    The sources contributing to tropospheric ozone over the Asian Pacific Rim in different seasons are quantified by analysis of Hong Kong and Japanese ozonesonde observations with a global three-dimensional (3-D) chemical transport model (GEOS-CHEM) driven by assimilated meteorological observations. Particular focus is placed on the extensive observations available from Hong Kong in 1996. In the middle-upper troposphere (MT- UT), maximum Asian pollution influence along the Pacific Rim occurs in summer, reflecting rapid convective transport of surface pollution. In the lower troposphere (LT) the season of maximum Asian pollution influence shifts to summer at midlatitudes from fall at low latitudes due to monsoonal influence. The UT ozone minimum and high variability observed over Hong Kong in winter reflects frequent tropical intrusions alternating with stratospheric intrusions. Asian biomass burning makes a major contribution to ozone at less than 32 deg.N in spring. Maximum European pollution influence (less than 5 ppbv) occurs in spring in the LT. North American pollution influence exceeds European influence in the UT-MT, reflecting the uplift from convection and the warm conveyor belts over the eastern seaboard of North America. African outflow makes a major contribution to ozone in the low-latitude MT-UT over the Pacific Rim during November- April. Lightning influence over the Pacific Rim is minimum in summer due to westward UT transport at low latitudes associated with the Tibetan anticyclone. The Asian outflow flux of ozone to the Pacific is maximum in spring and fall and includes a major contribution from Asian anthropogenic sources year-round.

  10. Ozone variations over the northern subtropical region revealed by ozonesonde observations in Hanoi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogino, S.-Y.; Fujiwara, M.; Shiotani, M.; Hasebe, F.; Matsumoto, J.; Hoang, Thuy Ha T.; Nguyen, Tan Thanh T.

    2013-04-01

    Seasonal and subseasonal variations in the ozone mixing ratio (OMR) are investigated by using continuous 7 year ozonesonde data from Hanoi (21°N, 106°E), Vietnam. The mean seasonal variations for the 7 years show large amplitude at the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) region (10-18 km) and at the lower troposphere (around 3 km) with standard deviations normalized by the annual mean value of about 30% for both regions. In the UTLS region, the seasonal variation in the OMR shows a minimum in winter and a maximum in spring to summer. The variation seems to be caused by the seasonal change in horizontal transport. Low OMR air masses are transported from the equatorial troposphere in winter by the anticyclonic flow associated with the equatorial convections, and high OMR air masses are transported from the midlatitude stratosphere in summer possibly due to Rossby wave breakings in the UT region and anticyclonic circulation associated with the Tibetan High in the LS region. In the lower troposphere, a spring maximum is found at 3 km height. Biomass burning and tropopause foldings are suggested as possible causes of this maximum. Subseasonal variations in the OMR show large amplitude in the UTLS region (at around 15 km) and in the boundary layer (below 1 km) with the standard deviations normalized by the annual mean larger than 40%. The OMR variations in the winter UTLS region have a negative correlation with the meridional wind. This relation indicates that the low OMRs observed at Hanoi has been transported from the equatorial region.

  11. Intercontinental Transport of Tropical Ozone from Biomass Burning: Views from Satellite and SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes) Soundings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.

    2003-01-01

    The atmospheric impacts of tropical fires came to attention in the 1970's and there has been interest in the connection between these fires and ozone since about 1980. Photochemically reactive gases released by fires (e.g. NO, CO, volatile organic carbon) interact as they do in an urban environment to form ozone. Tropical meteorology also plays a part in tropospheric ozone distributions in the tropics - through large-scale circulation, deep convection, regional phenomena (West African and Asian monsoon) - and variations associated with El-Nino and the Quasi- biennial Oscillation have been reported. This Poster is an overview of observations, taken from satellite and from ozone soundings, that illustrate regional influences and intercontinental-range ozone transport in the tropics.

  12. Intercontinental Transport of Tropical Ozone from Biomass Burning: Views from Satellite and SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, A. M.; Witte, J. C.; Chatfield, R. B.; Guam, H.

    2003-01-01

    There has been interest in the connection between tropical fires and ozone since about 1980. Photochemically reactive gases released by fires (e.g. NO, CO, volatile organic carbon) interact as they do in an urban environment to form ozone. Interacting with chemical sources, tropical meteorology plays a part in tropospheric ozone distributions in the tropics, through large-scale circulation, deep convection, and regional phenomena like the West African and Asian monsoons. An overview of observations, taken from satellite and from ozone soundings, illustrates regional influences and intercontinental- range ozone transport in the tropics. One of the most striking findings is evidence for impacts of Indian Ocean pollution on the south Atlantic ozone maximum referred to as the "ozone paradox" [Thompson et al., GRL, 2000; JGR, 2003; Chatfield et al., GRL, 20031.

  13. Assessment of Odin-OSIRIS ozone measurements from 2001 to the present using MLS, GOMOS, and ozonesondes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, C.; Bourassa, A. E.; Sofieva, V.; Froidevaux, L.; McLinden, C. A.; Hubert, D.; Lambert, J.-C.; Sioris, C. E.; Degenstein, D. A.

    2014-01-01

    The Optical Spectrograph and InfraRed Imaging System (OSIRIS) was launched aboard the Odin satellite in 2001 and is continuing to take limb-scattered sunlight measurements of the atmosphere. This work aims to characterize and assess the stability of the OSIRIS 11 yr v5.0x ozone data set. Three validation data sets were used: the v2.2 Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) and v6 Global Ozone Monitoring by Occultation of Stars (GOMOS) satellite data records, and ozonesonde measurements. Global mean percent differences between coincident OSIRIS and validation measurements are within 5% at all altitudes above 18.5 km for MLS, above 21.5 km for GOMOS, and above 17.5 km for ozonesondes. Below 17.5 km, OSIRIS measurements agree with ozonesondes within 5% and are well-correlated (R > 0.75) with them. For low OSIRIS optics temperatures (< 16 °C), OSIRIS ozone measurements have a negative bias of 1-6% compared with the validation data sets for 25.5-40.5 km. Biases between OSIRIS ascending and descending node measurements were investigated and found to be related to aerosol retrievals below 27.5 km. Above 30 km, agreement between OSIRIS and the validation data sets was related to the OSIRIS retrieved albedo, which measures apparent upwelling, with a positive bias in OSIRIS data with large albedos. In order to assess the long-term stability of OSIRIS measurements, global average drifts relative to the validation data sets were calculated and were found to be < 3% per decade for comparisons with MLS for 19.5-36.5 km, GOMOS for 18.5-54.5 km, and ozonesondes for 12.5-22.5 km. Above 36.5 km, the relative drift for OSIRIS versus MLS ranged from ~ 0 to 6% per decade, depending on the data set used to convert MLS data to the OSIRIS altitude versus number density grid. Overall, this work demonstrates that the OSIRIS 11 yr ozone data set from 2001 to the present is suitable for trend studies.

  14. Seasonal Evolution of Rossby and Gravity Wave Induced Laminae in Ozonesonde Data Obtained from Wallops Island, Virginia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierce, R. Bradley; Grant, William B.

    1998-01-01

    A method for evaluating the seasonal evolution of ozone laminae using ozonesonde data is discussed. The method uses the correlation between small-scale ozone and potential temperature variations to distinguish between laminae generated by quasi-isentropic filamentation by Rossby waves and by vertical displacements of material surfaces by gravity waves. Data from Wallops Island, Virginia show that Rossby wave induced ozone laminae are most frequently encountered at Wallops during the winter months near 15 km while statistically significant gravity wave induced laminae occur above 15 km during the early winter and at the tropopause from late winter through early spring.

  15. 33 CFR 385.13 - Projects implemented under additional program authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Florida ecosystem. (b) Each project implemented under the authority of section 601(c) of WRDA 2000 shall: (1) In general, follow the process described in § 385.11; (2) Not be implemented until a Project Implementation Report is prepared and approved in accordance with § 385.26; and (3) Not exceed a total cost...

  16. 33 CFR 385.13 - Projects implemented under additional program authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Florida ecosystem. (b) Each project implemented under the authority of section 601(c) of WRDA 2000 shall: (1) In general, follow the process described in § 385.11; (2) Not be implemented until a Project Implementation Report is prepared and approved in accordance with § 385.26; and (3) Not exceed a total cost...

  17. 33 CFR 385.13 - Projects implemented under additional program authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Florida ecosystem. (b) Each project implemented under the authority of section 601(c) of WRDA 2000 shall: (1) In general, follow the process described in § 385.11; (2) Not be implemented until a Project Implementation Report is prepared and approved in accordance with § 385.26; and (3) Not exceed a total cost...

  18. 33 CFR 385.13 - Projects implemented under additional program authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Florida ecosystem. (b) Each project implemented under the authority of section 601(c) of WRDA 2000 shall: (1) In general, follow the process described in § 385.11; (2) Not be implemented until a Project Implementation Report is prepared and approved in accordance with § 385.26; and (3) Not exceed a total cost...

  19. A re-evaluated Canadian ozonesonde record: measurements of the vertical distribution of ozone over Canada from 1966 to 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasick, David

    2015-04-01

    In Canada routine ozone soundings have been carried at Resolute Bay since 1966, making this record the longest in the world. Similar measurements started in the 1970s at three other sites (Edmonton, Goose Bay and Churchill). These four sites switched to ECC sondes in 1980, and the network was subsequently expanded with the addition in 1987 of Alert, of Eureka in 1992 and in 2003 of four southern mid-latitude sites, Kelowna, Bratt's Lake, Egbert and Yarmouth. The global ozonesonde record is increasingly important for understanding long-term changes in both tropospheric and stratospheric ozone, as both may be affected by changes in long-range quasi-horizontal transport, as well as by vertical exchange. Much effort has therefore gone into homogenization and re-evaluation of some of the longer time series from Europe and other parts of the world. As part of the SPARC/IO3C/IGACO-O3/NDACC (SI2N) initiative, Canada's important record has also been re-evaluated. The Brewer-Mast sonde, used in the Canadian network until 1980, is somewhat different in construction from the ECC sonde, and the ECC sonde itself has also undergone minor design changes over the period 1980-2013. In order to produce a more homogeneous dataset, corrections have been made for the estimated effects of these changes. The effect of the corrections is generally modest, and so should not invalidate past analyses that have used Canadian network data. However, the overall result is entirely positive: the comparison with co-located total ozone spectrometers is improved, in terms of both bias and standard deviation, and trends in the bias have been reduced or eliminated. An uncertainty analysis (including the additional uncertainty from the corrections, where appropriate) has also been conducted, and the altitude-dependent estimated uncertainty is included with each revised profile. The resulting time series show negative trends in the lower stratosphere of up to 5% per decade for the period 1966-2013. Most

  20. North American Tropospheric Ozone Profiles from IONS (INTEX Ozonesonde Network Study, 2004, 2006): Ozone Budgets, Polution Statistics, Satellite Retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dougherty, M.; Thompson, A. M.; Witte, J. C.; Miller, S. K.; Oltmans, S. J.; Cooper, O. R.; Tarasick, D. W.; Chatfield, R. B.; Taubman, B. F.; Joseph, E.; Baumgardner, D.; Merrill, J. T.; Morris, G. A.; Rappenglueck, B.; Lefer, B.; Forbes, G.; Newchurch, M. J.; Schmidlin, F. J.; Pierce, R. B.; Leblanc, T.; Dubey, M.; Minschwaner, K.

    2007-12-01

    During INTEX-B (both Milagro and IMPEX phases in Spring 2006) and during the summer TEXAQS- 2006/GOMACCS period, the INTEX Ozonesonde Network Study (IONS-06) coordinated ozonesonde launches over North America for Aura overpasses. IONS-06 supported aircraft operations and provided profiles for ozone budgets and pollution transport, satellite validation and evaluation of models. In contrast to IONS-04, IONS-06 had a greater range (all but one 2004 IONS site plus a dozen in California, New Mexico, Mexico City, Barbados and southwestern Canada), yielding more than 700 profiles. Tropospheric pollution statistics to guide Aura satellite retrievals and contrasts in UT-LS (upper tropospheric-lower stratospheric) ozone between 2004 and 2006 are presented. With IONS-04 dominated by low-pressure conditions over northeastern North America, UT ozone originated 25% from the stratosphere [Thompson et al., 2007a,b] with significant amounts from aged or relatively fresh pollution and lightning [Cooper et al., 2006; Morris et al., 2006]. Both IONS-04 and IONS-06 summer periods displayed a persistent UT ozone maximum [Cooper et al., 2007] over the south-central US. March 2006 IONS sondes over Mexico manifested persistent UT/LS gravity wave influence and more sporadic pollution. Regional and seasonal contrasts in IONS-06 ozone distributions are described. intexb/ions06.html

  1. Influence of regional pollution and long range transport over western India: Analysis of ozonesonde data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Shuchita; Lal, S.; Naja, M.; Venkataramani, S.; Gupta, S.

    2012-02-01

    Four years (April 2003 - July 2007) of ozonesonde observations over Ahmedabad have been studied for the first time using ten days backward trajectories in the boundary layer (lower 2 km) and lower troposphere (2.5-4 km). Ozone data are classified according to the residence times of air-masses over the North-Western India (NWI), marine and Northern Africa/Southern Europe (NASE) regions. Ozone increases linearly with increasing residence days over the NWI region for about six days with maximum increase rate (boundary layer ˜4.5 ± 1.1 ppbv/day, lower troposphere ˜3.4 ± 0.8 ppbv/day) during spring and minimum during winter (boundary layer ˜0.7 ± 0.8 ppbv/day, lower troposphere ˜0.8 ± 0.7 ppbv/day). The analysis of surface ozone over Ahmedabad confirms that ozone increase with residence days is largely due to photochemical build up. The estimated background ozone corresponding to zeroth residence day is found to be significantly lower during summer-monsoon (˜26.3 ± 3.3 ppbv) than winter (˜47.7 ± 3.2 ppbv) within the boundary layer. The air masses mainly influenced by NWI region, marine and NASE regions are termed as regionally polluted, marine and long range transport (LRT) respectively. The regionally polluted ozone is found to be higher than the average ozone during spring and summer-monsoon by 22-41% within the boundary layer and by 9-12% in the lower troposphere. The marine air shows lower ozone by 38% and 10% during spring and summer seasons respectively in the boundary layer. LRT plays a significant role in the lower troposphere during spring and summer seasons with an ozone enhancement of 9% and 27% respectively. The present work suggests that regional pollution and long range transport have significant influence on the seasonal distribution of ozone in the lower troposphere whereas the background ozone levels in summer-monsoon are mainly influenced by marine air mass over this region.

  2. The Toxic Effects of Cigarette Additives. Philip Morris' Project Mix Reconsidered: An Analysis of Documents Released through Litigation

    PubMed Central

    Wertz, Marcia S.; Kyriss, Thomas; Paranjape, Suman; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2011-01-01

    Background In 2009, the promulgation of US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) tobacco regulation focused attention on cigarette flavor additives. The tobacco industry had prepared for this eventuality by initiating a research program focusing on additive toxicity. The objective of this study was to analyze Philip Morris' Project MIX as a case study of tobacco industry scientific research being positioned strategically to prevent anticipated tobacco control regulations. Methods and Findings We analyzed previously secret tobacco industry documents to identify internal strategies for research on cigarette additives and reanalyzed tobacco industry peer-reviewed published results of this research. We focused on the key group of studies conducted by Phillip Morris in a coordinated effort known as “Project MIX.” Documents showed that Project MIX subsumed the study of various combinations of 333 cigarette additives. In addition to multiple internal reports, this work also led to four peer-reviewed publications (published in 2001). These papers concluded that there was no evidence of substantial toxicity attributable to the cigarette additives studied. Internal documents revealed post hoc changes in analytical protocols after initial statistical findings indicated an additive-associated increase in cigarette toxicity as well as increased total particulate matter (TPM) concentrations in additive-modified cigarette smoke. By expressing the data adjusted by TPM concentration, the published papers obscured this underlying toxicity and particulate increase. The animal toxicology results were based on a small number of rats in each experiment, raising the possibility that the failure to detect statistically significant changes in the end points was due to underpowering the experiments rather than lack of a real effect. Conclusion The case study of Project MIX shows tobacco industry scientific research on the use of cigarette additives cannot be taken at face value. The

  3. Environmental projects, volume 11. Environmental assessment: Addition to operations building, Mars site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    An Environmental Assessment was performed of the proposed addition to building G-86 at the Mars Site, which will provide space for new electronic equipment to consolidate the Deep Space Network (DSN) support facilities from other Goldstone Deep Space Communication Complex (GDSCC) sites at the Mars Site, and will include a fifth telemetry and command group with its associated link monitor, control processor, and operator consoles. The addition of these facilities will increase the capability of the DSN to support future sophisticated NASA spacecraft missions such as the International Solar and Terrestrial Physics (ISTP) Program. The planned construction of this building addition requires an Environmental Assessment (EA) document that records the existing environmental conditions at the Mars Site, that analyzes the environmental effects that possibly could be expected from the construction and use of the new building addition, and that recommends measures to be taken to mitigate any possible deleterious environmental effects.

  4. Structural evaluation of mixer pump installed in Tank 241-AN-107 for caustic addition project

    SciTech Connect

    Leshikar, G.A.

    1995-06-16

    This report documents the structural analysis and evaluation of a mixer pump and caustic addition system to be used in Tank 107-AN. This pump will be installed in the central pump pit of this double- shell tank for the purpose of bringing the hydroxide ion concentration into compliance with Tank Farm operating specifications.

  5. Optimization of the GSFC TROPOZ DIAL retrieval using synthetic lidar returns and ozonesondes - Part 1: Algorithm validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, J. T.; McGee, T. J.; Leblanc, T.; Sumnicht, G. K.; Twigg, L. W.

    2015-04-01

    field signals to be more appropriately smoothed. With these revisions, the optimized TROPOZ retrieval algorithm (TROPOZopt) has been effective in retrieving nearly 200 m lower to the surface. Also, as compared to the previous version of the retrieval, the TROPOZopt has reduced the mean profile bias by 3.5% and large reductions in bias (near 15 %) were apparent above 4.5 km. Finally, to ensure the TROPOZopt retrieval algorithm is robust enough to handle actual lidar return signals, a comparison is shown between four nearby ozonesonde measurements. The ozonesondes agree well with the retrieval and are mostly within the TROPOZopt retrieval uncertainty bars (which implies that this exercise was quite successful). A final mean percent difference plot is shown between the TROPOZopt and ozonesondes, which indicates that the new operational retrieval is mostly within 10% of the ozonesonde measurement and no systematic biases are present. The authors believe that this analysis has significantly added to the confidence in the TROPOZ instrument and provides a standard for current and future TOLNet algorithms.

  6. Comparison of Long Term Tropospheric Ozone Trends Measured by Lidar and ECC Ozonesondes from 1991 to 2010 in Southern France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ancellet, G.; Gaudel, A.; Godin-Beekmann, S.

    2016-06-01

    ECC (Electrochemical Concentration Cell) ozonesondes and UV DIAL (Differential Absorption Lidar) measurements have been carried out simultaneously at OHP (Observatoire de Haute Provence, 44°N, 6.7°E, 690 m) since 1991. A unique long-term trend assessment by two different instruments operated routinely at the same location is possible. Air mass trajectories have been calculated for all the ozone observations available at OHP. The bias between the seasonal mean calculated with lidar and ECC ozone vertical profiles for 4 timeperiods of 5 years is 0.6 ppbv in the free troposphere (4-8 km). Larger differences (> 10 ppbv) are explained by the need for clear sky conditions during lidar observations. The measurements of both instruments have been combined to decrease the impact of short-term atmospheric variability on the trend estimate.

  7. Evaluation of Additively Manufactured Metals for Use in Oxygen Systems Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tylka, Jonathan; Cooper, Ken; Peralta, Stephen; Wilcutt, Terrence; Hughitt, Brian; Generazio, Edward

    2016-01-01

    Space Launch System, Commercial Resupply, and Commercial Crew programs have published intent to use additively manufactured (AM) components in propulsion systems and are likely to include various life support systems in the future. Parts produced by these types of additive manufacturing techniques have not been fully evaluated for use in oxygen systems and the inherent risks have not been fully identified. Some areas of primary concern in the SLS process with respect to oxygen compatibility may be the porosity of the printed parts, fundamental differences in microstructure of an AM part as compared to traditional materials, or increased risk of shed metal particulate into an oxygen system. If an ignition were to occur the printed material could be more flammable than components manufactured from a traditional billet of raw material and/or present a significant hazards if not identified and rigorously studied in advance of implementation into an oxygen system.

  8. Stratosphere-to-Troposphere Transport Revealed by Ground-based Lidar and Ozonesonde at a Midlatitude Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuang, Shi; Newchurch, M. J.; Burris, John; Wang, Lihua; Knupp, Kevin; Huang, Guanyu

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents ozone structures measured by a ground-based ozone lidar and ozonesonde at Huntsville, Alabama, on 27-29 April 2010 originating from a stratosphere-to-troposphere transport event associated with a cutoff cyclone and tropopause fold. In this case, the tropopause reached 6 km and the stratospheric intrusion resulted in a 2-km thick elevated ozone layer with values between 70 and 85 ppbv descending from the 306-K to 298-K isentropic surface at a rate of 5 km day1. The potential temperature was provided by a collocated microwave profiling radiometer. We examine the corresponding meteorological fields and potential vorticity (PV) structures derived from the analysis data from the North American Mesoscale model. The 2-PVU (PV unit) surface, defined as the dynamic tropopause, is able to capture the variations of the ozone tropopause estimated from the ozonesonde and lidar measurements. The estimated ozone/PV ratio, from the measured ozone and model derived PV, for the mixing layer between the troposphere and stratosphere is approximately 41 ppbv/PVU with an uncertainty of approximately 33%. Within two days, the estimated mass of ozone irreversibly transported from the stratospheric into the troposphere is between 0.07 Tg (0.9 10(exp33) molecules) and 0.11 Tg (1.3 10(exp33) molecules) with an estimated uncertainty of 59%. Tropospheric ozone exhibited enormous variability due to the complicated mixing processes. Low ozone and large variability were observed in the mid-troposphere after the stratospheric intrusion due to the westerly advection including the transition from a cyclonic system to an anticyclonic system. This study using high temporal and vertical-resolution measurements suggests that, in this case, stratospheric air quickly lost its stratospheric characteristics once it is irreversibly mixed down into the troposphere.

  9. Stratosphere-to-troposphere transport revealed by ground-based lidar and ozonesonde at a midlatitude site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuang, Shi; Newchurch, M. J.; Burris, John; Wang, Lihua; Knupp, Kevin; Huang, Guanyu

    2012-09-01

    This paper presents ozone structures measured by a ground-based ozone lidar and ozonesonde at Huntsville, Alabama, on 27-29 April 2010 originating from a stratosphere-to-troposphere transport event associated with a cutoff cyclone and tropopause fold. In this case, the tropopause reached 6 km and the stratospheric intrusion resulted in a 2-km thick elevated ozone layer with values between 70 and 85 ppbv descending from the ˜306-K to 298-K isentropic surface at a rate of ˜5 km day-1. The potential temperature was provided by a collocated microwave profiling radiometer. We examine the corresponding meteorological fields and potential vorticity (PV) structures derived from the analysis data from the North American Mesoscale model. The 2-PVU (PV unit) surface, defined as the dynamic tropopause, is able to capture the variations of the ozone tropopause estimated from the ozonesonde and lidar measurements. The estimated ozone/PV ratio, from the measured ozone and model derived PV, for the mixing layer between the troposphere and stratosphere is ˜41 ppbv/PVU with an uncertainty of ˜33%. Within two days, the estimated mass of ozone irreversibly transported from the stratospheric into the troposphere is between 0.07 Tg (0.9 × 1033 molecules) and 0.11 Tg (1.3 × 1033molecules) with an estimated uncertainty of 59%. Tropospheric ozone exhibited enormous variability due to the complicated mixing processes. Low ozone and large variability were observed in the mid-troposphere after the stratospheric intrusion due to the westerly advection including the transition from a cyclonic system to an anticyclonic system. This study using high temporal and vertical-resolution measurements suggests that, in this case, stratospheric air quickly lost its stratospheric characteristics once it is irreversibly mixed down into the troposphere.

  10. Additive Manufacturing and 3D Printing in NASA: An Overview of Current Projects and Future Initiatives for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clinton, R. G., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    NASA, including each Mission Directorate, is investing in, experimenting with, and/or utilizing AM across a broad spectrum of applications and projects; Centers have created and are continuing to create partnerships with industry, other Government Agencies, other Centers, and Universities; In-house additive manufacturing capability enables rapid iteration of the entire design, development and testing process, increasing innovation and reducing risk and cost to projects; For deep space exploration, AM offers significant reduction to logistics costs and risk by providing ability to create on demand; There are challenges: Overwhelming message from recent JANNAF AM for Propulsion Applications TIM was "certification."; NASA will continue to work with our partners to address this and other challenges to advance the state of the art in AM and incorporate these capabilities into an array of applications from aerospace to science missions to deep space exploration.

  11. Optimization of the GSFC TROPOZ DIAL retrieval using synthetic lidar returns and ozonesondes - Part 1: Algorithm validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, J. T.; McGee, T. J.; Leblanc, T.; Sumnicht, G. K.; Twigg, L. W.

    2015-10-01

    previous version of the retrieval, the TROPOZopt had an overall mean improvement of 3.5 %, and large improvements (upwards of 10-15 % as compared to the previous algorithm) were apparent between 4.5 and 9 km. Finally, to ensure the TROPOZopt retrieval algorithm is robust enough to handle actual lidar return signals, a comparison is shown between four nearby ozonesonde measurements. The ozonesondes are mostly within the TROPOZopt retrieval uncertainty bars, which implies that this exercise was quite successful.

  12. On instrumental errors and related correction strategies of ozonesondes: possible effect on calculated ozone trends for the nearby sites Uccle and De Bilt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Malderen, Roeland; Allaart, Marc A. F.; De Backer, Hugo; Smit, Herman G. J.; De Muer, Dirk

    2016-08-01

    The ozonesonde stations at Uccle (Belgium) and De Bilt (the Netherlands) are separated by only 175 km but use different ozonesonde types (or different manufacturers for the same electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) type), operating procedures, and correction strategies. As such, these stations form a unique test bed for the Ozonesonde Data Quality Assessment (O3S-DQA) activity, which aims at providing a revised, homogeneous, consistent dataset with an altitude-dependent estimated uncertainty for each revised profile. For the ECC ozonesondes at Uccle mean relative uncertainties in the 4-6 % range are obtained. To study the impact of the corrections on the ozone profiles and trends, we compared the Uccle and De Bilt average ozone profiles and vertical ozone trends, calculated from the operational corrections at both stations and the O3S-DQA corrected profiles. In the common ECC 1997-2014 period, the O3S-DQA corrections effectively reduce the differences between the Uccle and De Bilt ozone partial pressure values with respect to the operational corrections only for the stratospheric layers below the ozone maximum. The upper-stratospheric ozone measurements at both sites are substantially different, regardless of the correction methodology used. The origin of this difference is not clear. The discrepancies in the tropospheric ozone concentrations between both sites can be ascribed to the problematic background measurement and correction at De Bilt, especially in the period before November 1998. The Uccle operational correction method, applicable to both ozonesonde types used, diminishes the relative stratospheric ozone differences of the Brewer-Mast sondes in the 1993-1996 period with De Bilt to less than 5 % and to less than 6 % in the free troposphere for the De Bilt operational corrections. Despite their large impact on the average ozone profiles, the different (sensible) correction strategies do not change the ozone trends significantly, usually only within

  13. Global validation of SCIAMACHY limb ozone data (versions 2.9 and 3.0, IUP Bremen) using ozonesonde measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, J.; Rozanov, A.; Ladstätter-Weißenmayer, A.; Burrows, J. P.

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, the latest SCIAMACHY limb ozone scientific vertical profiles, namely the current V2.9 and the upcoming V3.0, are extensively compared with ozonesonde data from the World Ozone and Ultraviolet Radiation Data Centre (WOUDC) database. The comparisons are made on a global scale from 2003 to 2011, involving 61 sonde stations. The retrieval processors used to generate V2.9 and V3.0 data sets are briefly introduced. The comparisons are discussed in terms of vertical profiles and stratospheric partial columns. Our results indicate that the V2.9 ozone profile data between 20 and 30 km are in good agreement with ground-based measurements, with less than 5 % relative differences in the latitude range of 90° S-40° N (with the exception of the tropical Pacific region, where an overestimation of more than 10 % is observed), which corresponds to less than 5 DU partial-column differences. In the tropics the differences are within 3 %. However, this data set shows a significant underestimation northwards of 40° N (up to ~ 15 %). The newly developed V3.0 data set reduces this bias to below 10 % while maintaining a good agreement southwards of 40° N with slightly increased relative differences of up to 5 % in the tropics.

  14. Comparison of STOIC 1989 ground-based lidar, microwave spectrometer, and Dobson spectrophotometer Umkehr ozone profiles with ozone profiles from balloon-borne electrochemical concentration cell ozonesondes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komhyr, W. D.; Connor, B. J.; McDermid, I. S.; McGee, T. J.; Parrish, A. D.; Margitan, J. J.

    1995-05-01

    Ground-based measurements of stratospheric ozone using a Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) lidar, a NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) lidar, a Millitech Corporation/NASA Langley Research Center (Millitech/LaRC) microwave spectrometer, and a NOAA Dobson ozone spectrophotometer were compared with in situ measurements made quasi-simultaneously with balloon-borne electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozonesondes during 10 days of the Stratospheric Ozone Intercomparison Campaign (STOIC). The campaign was conducted at Table Mountain Observatory, California, during the summer of 1989. ECC ozonesondes were flown by NOAA Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory (CMDL) personnel as well as by personnel from the NASA Wallops Island Flight Facility (WFF). Within the altitude range of 20-32 km, ozone measurement precisions were estimated to be ±0.6 to ±1.2% for the JPL lidar, ±0.7% for the GSFC lidar, ±4% for the microwave spectrometer, and ±3% for the NOAA ECC ozonesonde instruments. These precisions decreased in the 32 to 38.6-km altitude range to ±1.3, ±1.5, and ±3% to ±10% for the JPL lidar, GSFC lidar, and the ECC sondes, respectively, but remained at ±4% for the microwave instrument. Ozone measurement accuracies in the 20 to 32 km altitude range were estimated to be ±1.2 to ±2.4% for the JPL lidar, ±1.4% for the GSFC lidar, ±6% for the microwave radiometer, and ±5% for the ECC ozonesondes. The accuracies decreased in the 32 to 38.6-km altitude range to ±2.6, ±3.0, ±7, and 1 ± 4% to -4 ± 10% for the JPL lidar, the GSFC lidar, the microwave spectrometer, and the ECC ozonesondes, respectively. While accuracy estimates for the ECC sondes were obtained by combining random and estimated bias errors, the accuracies for the lidar instruments were obtained by doubling the measurement precision figures, with the assumption that such doubling accounts for systematic errors. Within the altitude range of 20-36 km the mean ozone profiles produced by the

  15. Arctic total ozone trend and variability during 2004 - 2012 based on Brewer revised data, Ozonesonde and satellite measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moeini, Omid; Vaziri, Zahra; McElroy, Tom; Tarasick, David; Savastiouk, Vladimir; Barton, David

    2015-04-01

    It is now known that Single-Monochromator Brewer Spectrophotometer ozone measurements suffer from non-linearity due to the presence of instrumental stray light caused by scattering from the optics within the instrument. Stray light is unwanted radiation from different wavelengths that arrives at the detector during the measurements. Since the gradient of ozone absorption is large in the ultraviolet spectral region, the stray light contribution becomes significant between 300 and 325 nm where the Brewer measures, especially when the amount of ozone in the light path becomes more than 1000 Dobson Units (D.U.). Stray light results in an underestimated ozone column at larger air masses. As the light path (air mass) increases, stray-light effects in the measurements also increase. An ozone column of 600 D.U. with at an air mass factor of 3 (1800 D.U.) can measure as much as 8% lower than the ozone actual amount. These are conditions commonly seen during the Arctic spring. A new method to account for stray light effects is being developed for the Brewer ozone measurements. This method is based on a mathematical model of the instrument response and a non-linear retrieval which calculates the best values for the model parameters. The parameterization used is validated by an instrument physical model simulation. Using the mathematical model in reverse provides correct ozone values. This paper presents the method and the results of a trend analysis based of the re-evaluated data of three Brewers which are located in the Arctic (Alert Lat. 82.44, Lon. -62.55, Eureka Lat. 79.96, Lon. -86.45 and Resolute Lat. 74.69, and Lon. -95.01) from 2004 to 2012. Gaps in the Brewer data are filled with ozonesonde reanalysis data obtained from WOUDC (World Ozone and Ultraviolet radiation Data Centre) and the results will be compared with MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder) satellite data.

  16. 34 CFR 350.55 - What are the additional considerations for selecting Field-Initiated Project applications for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION DISABILITY AND REHABILITATION RESEARCH PROJECTS AND CENTERS PROGRAM How Does the... Field-Initiated Project applications for funding? 350.55 Section 350.55 Education Regulations of the... Project applications for funding? (a) The Secretary reserves funds to support some or all of the...

  17. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  18. Evaluation of Near-Tropopause Ozone Distributions in the Global Modeling Initiative Combined Stratosphere/Troposphere Model with Ozonesonde Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Considine, David B.; Logan, Jennifer A.; Olsen, Mark A.

    2008-01-01

    The NASA Global Modeling Initiative has developed a combined stratosphere/troposphere chemistry and transport model which fully represents the processes governing atmospheric composition near the tropopause. We evaluate model ozone distributions near the tropopause, using two high vertical resolution monthly mean ozone profile climatologies constructed with ozonesonde data, one by averaging on pressure levels and the other relative to the thermal tropopause. Model ozone is high biased at the SH tropical and NH midlatitude tropopause by approx. 45% in a 4 deg. latitude x 5 deg. longitude model simulation. Increasing the resolution to 2 deg. x 2.5 deg. increases the NH tropopause high bias to approx. 60%, but decreases the tropical tropopause bias to approx. 30%, an effect of a better-resolved residual circulation. The tropopause ozone biases appear not to be due to an overly vigorous residual circulation or excessive stratosphere/troposphere exchange, but are more likely due to insufficient vertical resolution or excessive vertical diffusion near the tropopause. In the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere, model/measurement intercomparisons are strongly affected by the averaging technique. NH and tropical mean model lower stratospheric biases are less than 20%. In the upper troposphere, the 2 deg. x 2.5 deg. simulation exhibits mean high biases of approx. 20% and approx. 35% during April in the tropics and NH midlatitudes, respectively, compared to the pressure averaged climatology. However, relative-to-tropopause averaging produces upper troposphere high biases of approx. 30% and 70% in the tropics and NH midlatitudes. This is because relative-to-tropopause averaging better preserves large cross-tropopause O3 gradients, which are seen in the daily sonde data, but not in daily model profiles. The relative annual cycle of ozone near the tropopause is reproduced very well in the model Northern Hemisphere midlatitudes. In the tropics, the model amplitude of the

  19. Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) Ozone Climatology (2005-2009): Tropospheric and Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL) Profiles with Comparisons to Omi-based Ozone Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Miller, Sonya K.; Tilmes, Simone; Kollonige, Debra W.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Oltmans, Samuel J.; Johnson, Brian J.; Fujiwara, Masatomo; Schmidlin, F. J.; Coetzee, G. J. R.; Komala, Ninong; Maata, Matakite; bt Mohammad, Maznorizan; Nguyo, J.; Mutai, C.; Ogino, S-Y; Da Silva, F. Raimundo; Paes Leme, N. M.; Posny, Francoise; Scheele, Rinus; Selkirk, Henry B.; Shiotani, Masato; Stubi, Rene; Levrat, Gilbert; Calpini, Bertrand; Thouret, Valerie; Tsuruta, Haruo; Canossa, Jessica Valverde; Voemel, Holger; Yonemura, S.; Andres Diaz, Jorge; Tan Thanh, Nguyen T.; Thuy Ha, Hoang T.

    2012-01-01

    We present a regional and seasonal climatology of SHADOZ ozone profiles in the troposphere and tropical tropopause layer (TTL) based on measurements taken during the first five years of Aura, 2005-2009, when new stations joined the network at Hanoi, Vietnam; Hilo, Hawaii; Alajuela Heredia, Costa Rica; Cotonou, Benin. In all, 15 stations operated during that period. A west-to-east progression of decreasing convective influence and increasing pollution leads to distinct tropospheric ozone profiles in three regions: (1) western Pacific eastern Indian Ocean; (2) equatorial Americas (San Cristobal, Alajuela, Paramaribo); (3) Atlantic and Africa. Comparisons in total ozone column from soundings, the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI, on Aura, 2004-) satellite and ground-based instrumentation are presented. Most stations show better agreement with OMI than they did for EPTOMS comparisons (1998-2004; Earth-ProbeTotal Ozone Mapping Spectrometer), partly due to a revised above-burst ozone climatology. Possible station biases in the stratospheric segment of the ozone measurement noted in the first 7 years of SHADOZ ozone profiles are re-examined. High stratospheric bias observed during the TOMS period appears to persist at one station. Comparisons of SHADOZ tropospheric ozone and the daily Trajectory-enhanced Tropospheric Ozone Residual (TTOR) product (based on OMIMLS) show that the satellite-derived column amount averages 25 low. Correlations between TTOR and the SHADOZ sondes are quite good (typical r2 0.5-0.8), however, which may account for why some published residual-based OMI products capture tropospheric interannual variability fairly realistically. On the other hand, no clear explanations emerge for why TTOR-sonde discrepancies vary over a wide range at most SHADOZ sites.

  20. Climatology of ozone at altitudes from 19,000 at 59,000 feet based on combined GASP and ozonesonde data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jasperson, W. H.; Nastrom, G. D.; Holdeman, J. D.

    1984-01-01

    A climatology of ozone for altitudes from FL190 to FL590 (19,000 to 59,000 ft) is presented. Climatological tables are given in two appendixes: one with d deg latitude resolution on a monthly basis, and one with 10 deg latitude resolution on a seasonal basis. Data were taken from 11,472 balloon-borne ozonesondes launched at 60 stations from 1963 to 1980 and from over 160,000 observations made by the Global Atmospheric Sampling Program on 4417 commercial airliner flights from 1975 to 1979. Case study and statistical comparisons of results from these two data sets showed that they are compatible and can be combined. Several examples of analyses that can be made by using the tabulated data are given and discussed.

  1. Projections of costs, financing, and additional resource requirements for low- and lower middle-income country immunization programs over the decade, 2011-2020.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Gian; Lydon, Patrick; Cornejo, Santiago; Brenzel, Logan; Wrobel, Sandra; Chang, Hugh

    2013-04-18

    The Decade of Vaccines Global Vaccine Action Plan has outlined a set of ambitious goals to broaden the impact and reach of immunization across the globe. A projections exercise has been undertaken to assess the costs, financing availability, and additional resource requirements to achieve these goals through the delivery of vaccines against 19 diseases across 94 low- and middle-income countries for the period 2011-2020. The exercise draws upon data from existing published and unpublished global forecasts, country immunization plans, and costing studies. A combination of an ingredients-based approach and use of approximations based on past spending has been used to generate vaccine and non-vaccine delivery costs for routine programs, as well as supplementary immunization activities (SIAs). Financing projections focused primarily on support from governments and the GAVI Alliance. Cost and financing projections are presented in constant 2010 US dollars (US$). Cumulative total costs for the decade are projected to be US$57.5 billion, with 85% for routine programs and the remaining 15% for SIAs. Delivery costs account for 54% of total cumulative costs, and vaccine costs make up the remainder. A conservative estimate of total financing for immunization programs is projected to be $34.3 billion over the decade, with country governments financing 65%. These projections imply a cumulative funding gap of $23.2 billion. About 57% of the total resources required to close the funding gap are needed just to maintain existing programs and scale up other currently available vaccines (i.e., before adding in the additional costs of vaccines still in development). Efforts to mobilize additional resources, manage program costs, and establish mutual accountability between countries and development partners will all be necessary to ensure the goals of the Decade of Vaccines are achieved. Establishing or building on existing mechanisms to more comprehensively track resources and

  2. Demography and Population Projection of Aphis fabae (Hemiptera: Aphididae): with Additional Comments on Life Table Research Criteria.

    PubMed

    Akca, Izzet; Ayvaz, Tamer; Yazici, Eda; Smith, Cecil L; Chi, Hsin

    2015-08-01

    We collected developmental, survival, and reproduction data for Aphis fabae Scopoli (Hemiptera: Aphididae) reared on faba bean, Vicia faba L. 'Sevilla' at four constant temperatures (15, 20, 25, and 30°C), 70% relative humidity, and a photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D) h. The highest intrinsic rate of increase (r = 0.4347 d(-1)) and finite rate (λ = 1.5445 d(-1)) were observed at 25°C. The population projection based on the age-stage, two-sex life table quantitatively revealed the growth potential and stage structure of the aphid. We have included the following suggestions to aid researchers in life table studies: 1) The bootstrap method should be used to estimate the variance and SEs of developmental time, survival rate, fecundity, and population parameters. 2) The required number of bootstraps is dependent on the life table data--the higher the variation among individuals, the higher the number of bootstraps should be. In most cases, we suggest that 100,000 bootstraps should be used to obtain a stable estimate of variance and SEs. 3) Computer projection based on the age-stage, two-sex life table should be used to reveal the stage structure during population growth. 4) We used a simple equation based on the total fecundity, survival rate to adult stage, and first reproductive age to detect possible errors in life table parameters. 5) To assist readers in comprehending results, life table studies should include the cohort size, preadult survival rate, number of emerged female adults, mean fecundity, survival and fecundity curves, and population parameters.

  3. Demography and Population Projection of Aphis fabae (Hemiptera: Aphididae): with Additional Comments on Life Table Research Criteria.

    PubMed

    Akca, Izzet; Ayvaz, Tamer; Yazici, Eda; Smith, Cecil L; Chi, Hsin

    2015-08-01

    We collected developmental, survival, and reproduction data for Aphis fabae Scopoli (Hemiptera: Aphididae) reared on faba bean, Vicia faba L. 'Sevilla' at four constant temperatures (15, 20, 25, and 30°C), 70% relative humidity, and a photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D) h. The highest intrinsic rate of increase (r = 0.4347 d(-1)) and finite rate (λ = 1.5445 d(-1)) were observed at 25°C. The population projection based on the age-stage, two-sex life table quantitatively revealed the growth potential and stage structure of the aphid. We have included the following suggestions to aid researchers in life table studies: 1) The bootstrap method should be used to estimate the variance and SEs of developmental time, survival rate, fecundity, and population parameters. 2) The required number of bootstraps is dependent on the life table data--the higher the variation among individuals, the higher the number of bootstraps should be. In most cases, we suggest that 100,000 bootstraps should be used to obtain a stable estimate of variance and SEs. 3) Computer projection based on the age-stage, two-sex life table should be used to reveal the stage structure during population growth. 4) We used a simple equation based on the total fecundity, survival rate to adult stage, and first reproductive age to detect possible errors in life table parameters. 5) To assist readers in comprehending results, life table studies should include the cohort size, preadult survival rate, number of emerged female adults, mean fecundity, survival and fecundity curves, and population parameters. PMID:26470285

  4. A synopsis of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) investment in additive manufacture and what challenges remain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maher, Michael; Smith, Adrien; Margiotta, Jesse

    2014-03-01

    DARPA's interest in additive manufacture dates back to the mid-80s with seedling programs that developed the foundational knowledge and equipment that led to the Solid Freeform Fabrication program in 1990. The drivers for this program included reducing development times by enabling "tool-less" manufacturing as well as integration of design and fabrication tools. DARPA consistently pushed the boundaries of additive manufacture with follow-on programs that expanded the material suite available for 3-D printing as well as new processes that expanded the technology's capability base. Programs such as the Mesoscopic Integrated Conformal Electronics (MICE) program incorporated functionality to the manufacturing processes through direct write of electronics. DARPA's investment in additive manufacture continues to this day but the focus has changed. DARPA's early investments were focused on developing and demonstrating the technology's capabilities. Now that the technology has been demonstrated, there is serious interest in taking advantage of the attributes unique to the processing methodology (such as customization and new design possibilities) for producing production parts. Accordingly, today's investment at DARPA addresses the systematic barriers to implementation rather than the technology itself. The Open Manufacturing program is enabling rapid qualification of new technologies for the manufacturing environment through the development of new modeling and informatics tools. While the technology is becoming more mainstream, there are plenty of challenges that need to be addressed. And as the technology continues to mature, the agency will continue to look for those "DARPA-hard" challenges that enable revolutionary changes in capability and performance for the Department of Defense.

  5. Vertical distribution of ozone and the variation of tropopause heights based on ozonesonde and satellite observations. [Contract title: Internal Wave Motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, R. J.; Liu, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    The distribution of atmospheric ozone is nonuniform both in space and time. Local ozone concentration vary with altitude, latitude, longitude, and season. Two year ozonesonde data, January 1981 to December 1982, observed at four Canadian stations and 2.5 year backscattered ultraviolet experiment data on the Nimbus-4 satellite, April 1970 to August 1972, observed over five American stations were used to study the relationship between the total ozone, vertical height distribution of the ozone mixing ratio, vertical height distribution of half total ozone, and the local tropopause height. The results show that there is a postive correlation between total ozone in Dobson Units and the tropopause height in terms of atmospheric pressure. This result suggests that local intrusion of the statosphere into the troposphere, or the local decreasing of tropopause height could occur if there is a local increasing of total ozone. A comparison of the vertical height distribution of the ozone mixing ratio, the modified pressure height of half total ozone and the tropopause height shows that the pressure height of an ozone mixing ratio of 0.3 micrograms/g, and the modified pressure height of half total ozone are very well correlated with the tropopause pressure height.

  6. Study on visible-light-curable polycarprolactone and poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate for LCD-projected maskless additive manufacturing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yih-Lin; Kao, Hao-Lun

    2015-09-01

    Photopolymers have been applied in many Additive Manufacturing (AM) systems and mostly are cured by UV light. Biodegradable photo-curable polymers are very limited and are not commercially available. DLP-projected maskless AM systems become more and more popular nowadays, but its working area is limited if the part resolution is required. For larger working envelope purpose, liquid crystal display (LCD) panel has great potentials, and LCD's resolution has been improved significantly in the past few years due to the smart phone application. Therefore, in this research, LCD panel is used to replace DLP for a maskless AM system to cure biodegradable materials, Polycarprolactone (PCL) and Poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEG-DA). Due to the characteristics of LCD panel, the material systems should be sensitive and photo-polymerized in visible-light range, particularly in RGB. In this study, various percentages of visiblelight photoinitiator, Irgacure 784, in the material systems were investigated. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were utilized to characterize cured biomaterials. Because of the use of photoinitiator, the biocompatibility of the cured materials was also concerned, and hence, MTT assay tests were performed. The preliminary tests of fabrication, using the LCD-projected maskless AM system, cured grid patterns to illustrate the feasibility. The visible-light-curable PCL and PEG-DA will be able to be adopted in tissue engineering scaffold applications in the future.

  7. Ozone Profiles in the High-latitude Stratosphere and Lower Mesosphere Measured by the Improved Limb Atmospheric Spectrometer (ILAS)-II: Comparison with other Satellite Sensors and Ozonesondes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sugita, T.; Nakajima, H.; Yokota, T.; Kanzawa, H.; Gernandt, H.; Herber, A.; VonderGathen, P.; Koenig-Langlo, G.; Sato, K.; Dorokhov, V.; Yushkov, V. A.; Murayama, Y.; Yamamori, M.; Godin-Beekmann, S.; Goutail, F.; Roscoe, H. K.; Deshler, T.; Yela, M.; Taalas, P.; Kyroe, E.; Oltmans, S. J.; Johnson, B. J.; Allaart, M.; Litynska, Z.; Klekociuk, A.

    2006-01-01

    A solar occultation sensor, the Improved Limb Atmospheric Spectrometer (ILAS)-II, measured 5890 vertical profiles of ozone concentrations in the stratosphere and lower mesosphere and of other species from January to October 2003. The measurement latitude coverage was 54-71degN and 64-88degS, which is similar to the coverage of ILAS (November 1996 to June 1997). One purpose of the ILAS-II measurements was to continue such high-latitude measurements of ozone and its related chemical species in order to help accurately determine their trends. The present paper assesses the quality of ozone data in the version 1.4 retrieval algorithm, through comparisons with results obtained from comprehensive ozonesonde measurements and four satellite-borne solar occultation sensors. In the Northern Hemisphere (NH), the ILAS-II ozone data agree with the other data within +/-10% (in terms of the absolute difference divided by its mean value) at altitudes between 11 and 40 km, with the median coincident ILAS-II profiles being systematically up to 10% higher below 20 km and up to 10% lower between 21 and 40 km after screening possible suspicious retrievals. Above 41 km, the negative bias between the NH ILAS-II ozone data and the other data increases with increasing altitude and reaches 30% at 61-65 km. In the Southern Hemisphere, the ILAS-II ozone data agree with the other data within 10% in the altitude range of 11-60 km, with the median coincident profiles being on average up to 10% higher below 20 km and up to 10% lower above 20 km.

  8. A re-evaluated Canadian ozonesonde record: measurements of the vertical distribution of ozone over Canada from 1966 to 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasick, D. W.; Davies, J.; Smit, H. G. J.; Oltmans, S. J.

    2016-01-01

    In Canada routine ozone soundings have been carried at Resolute Bay since 1966, making this record the longest in the world. Similar measurements started in the 1970s at three other sites, and the network was expanded in stages to 10 sites by 2003. This important record for understanding long-term changes in tropospheric and stratospheric ozone has been re-evaluated as part of the SPARC/IO3C/IGACO-O3/NDACC (SI2N) initiative. The Brewer-Mast sonde, used in the Canadian network until 1980, is different in construction from the electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) sonde, and the ECC sonde itself has also undergone a variety of minor design changes over the period 1980-2013. Corrections have been made for the estimated effects of these changes to produce a more homogeneous data set. The effect of the corrections is generally modest. However, the overall result is entirely positive: the comparison with co-located total ozone spectrometers is improved, in terms of both bias and standard deviation, and trends in the bias have been reduced or eliminated. An uncertainty analysis (including the additional uncertainty from the corrections, where appropriate) has also been conducted, and the altitude-dependent estimated uncertainty is included with each revised profile. The resulting time series show negative trends in the lower stratosphere of up to 5 % decade-1 for the period 1966-2013. Most of this decline occurred before 1997, and linear trends for the more recent period are generally not significant. The time series also show large variations from year to year. Some of these anomalies can be related to cold winters (in the Arctic stratosphere) or changes in the Brewer-Dobson circulation, which may thereby be influencing trends. In the troposphere, trends for the 48-year period are small and for the most part not significant. This suggests that ozone levels in the free troposphere over Canada have not changed significantly in nearly 50 years.

  9. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  10. Ozone profiles obtained by DIAL technique at Maïdo Observatory in La Reunion Island: comparisons with ECC ozone-sondes, ground-based FTIR spectrometer and microwave radiometer measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portafaix, T.; Godin-Beekmann, S.; Payen, G.; de Mazière, M.; Langerock, B.; Fernandez, S.; Posny, F.; Cammas, J. P.; Metzger, J. M.; Bencherif, H.; Vigouroux, C.; Marquestaut, N.

    2016-06-01

    A DIAL lidar system performing stratospheric ozone profile measurements from 15 to 45 km is installed at Reunion Island (southwest of Indian Ocean). The purpose of this communication is to present this DIAL system mounted now at the new Maïdo Observatory since February 2013, and the ozone profile retrieval. The first stratospheric ozone profiles obtained during 2013 and 2014 will be presented and discussed. Inter-comparison and differences observed with other high vertical resolution ozone profiles performed by ECC ozonesonde will be shown. Finally, comparisons with low vertical resolution ozone profiles retrieved from microwave and FTIR remote sensing measurements performed at Maïdo will be carried out, making appropriate use of the associated averaging kernels

  11. Estimation of the dietary intake of 13 priority additives in France, Italy, the UK and Ireland as part of the FACET project.

    PubMed

    Vin, Karine; Connolly, Aileen; McCaffrey, Tracy; McKevitt, Aideen; O'Mahony, Cian; Prieto, Miguel; Tennant, David; Hearty, Aine; Volatier, Jean Luc

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the dietary exposure of 13 priority additives in four European countries (France, Italy, the UK and Ireland) using the Flavourings, Additives and Contact Materials Exposure Task (FACET) software. The studied additives were benzoates (E210-213), nitrites (E249-250) and sulphites (E220-228), butylated hydroxytoluene (E321), polysorbates (E432-436), sucroses esters and sucroglycerides (E473-474), polyglycerol esters of fatty acids (E475), stearoyl-lactylates (E481-482), sorbitan esters (E493-494 and E491-495), phosphates (E338-343/E450-452), aspartame (E951) and acesulfame (E950). A conservative approach (based on individual consumption data combined with maximum permitted levels (Tier 2)) was compared with more refined estimates (using a fitted distribution of concentrations based on data provided by the food industry (Tier 3)). These calculations demonstrated that the estimated intake is below the acceptable daily intake (ADI) for nine of the studied additives. However, there was a potential theoretical exceedance of the ADI observed for four additives at Tier 3 for high consumers (97.5th percentile) among children: E220-228 in the UK and Ireland, E432-436 and E481-482 in Ireland, Italy and the UK, and E493-494 in all countries. The mean intake of E493-494 could potentially exceed the ADI for one age group of children (aged 1-4 years) in the UK. For adults, high consumers only in all countries had a potential intake higher than the ADI for E493-494 at Tier 3 (an additive mainly found in bakery wares). All other additives examined had an intake below the ADI. Further refined exposure assessments may be warranted to provide a more in-depth investigation for those additives that exceeded the ADIs in this paper. This refinement may be undertaken by the introduction of additive occurrence data, which take into account the actual presence of these additives in the different food groups.

  12. Phosphazene additives

    DOEpatents

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  13. Estimation of the limitations for surficial water addition above a potential high level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Fewell, M.E.; Sobolik, S.R.; Gauthier, J.H.

    1992-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project is studying Yucca Mountain in southwestern Nevada as a potential site for a high-level nuclear waste repository. Site characterization includes surface-based and underground testing. Analyses have been performed to design site characterization activities with minimal impact on the ability of the site to isolate waste, and on tests performed as part of the characterization process. One activity of site characterization is the construction of an Exploratory Studies Facility, consisting of underground shafts, drifts, and ramps, and the accompanying surface pad facility and roads. The information in this report addresses the following topics: (1) a discussion of the potential effects of surface construction water on repository-performance, and on surface and underground experiments; (2) one-dimensional numerical calculations predicting the maximum allowable amount of water that may infiltrate the surface of the mountain without affecting repository performance; and (3) two-dimensional numerical calculations of the movement of that amount of surface water and how the water may affect repository performance and experiments. The results contained herein should be used with other site data and scientific/engineering judgement in determining controls on water usage at Yucca Mountain. This document contains information that has been used in preparing Appendix I of the Exploratory Studies Facility Design Requirements document for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project.

  14. Evidence-Based Design for Project-Based Learning: A Case Study for a 50,000 SF Addition Dedicated to the New Tech Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moretti, Richard D.; Conte, Philip R.

    2012-01-01

    The Seaford School District, Seaford, Delaware, determined that a component of their "reinvention" of Seaford High School would be the creation of a New Tech Academy, affiliated with the New Tech Network and housed in an addition to that building. The New Tech Network, headquartered in Napa, California, is a rapidly growing association of New Tech…

  15. Radiological, physical, and chemical characterization of additional alpha contaminated and mixed low-level waste for treatment at the advanced mixed waste treatment project

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, D.P.

    1995-07-01

    This document provides physical, chemical, and radiological descriptive information for a portion of mixed waste that is potentially available for private sector treatment. The format and contents are designed to provide treatment vendors with preliminary information on the characteristics and properties for additional candidate portions of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and offsite mixed wastes not covered in the two previous characterization reports for the INEL-stored low-level alpha-contaminated and transuranic wastes. This report defines the waste, provides background information, briefly reviews the requirements of the Federal Facility Compliance Act (P.L. 102-386), and relates the Site Treatment Plans developed under the Federal Facility Compliance Act to the waste streams described herein. Each waste is summarized in a Waste Profile Sheet with text, charts, and tables of waste descriptive information for a particular waste stream. A discussion of the availability and uncertainty of data for these waste streams precedes the characterization descriptions.

  16. Technical Project Plan for The Enhanced Thermal Conductivity of Oxide Fuels Through the Addition of High Thermal Conductivity Fibers and Microstructural Engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Hollenbach, Daniel F; Ott, Larry J; Besmann, Theodore M; Armstrong, Beth L; Wereszczak, Andrew A; Lin, Hua-Tay; Ellis, Ronald James; Becher, Paul F; Jubin, Robert Thomas; Voit, Stewart L

    2010-09-01

    components with some overlap in personnel. The overlapping areas primarily involve computer simulations and final testing of the fuel in a reactor. The estimated cost and duration of this project is $5,000,000 over three years.

  17. Project: "Project!"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Katherine

    2007-01-01

    In November 2006, the editors of "Campus Technology" launched their first-ever High-Resolution Projection Study, to find out if the latest in projector technology could really make a significant difference in teaching, learning, and educational innovation on US campuses. The author and her colleagues asked campus educators, technologists, and…

  18. Epidemiology of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Korea through an Investigation of the National Registration Project of Type 1 Diabetes for the Reimbursement of Glucometer Strips with Additional Analyses Using Claims Data

    PubMed Central

    Song, Sun Ok; Nam, Joo Young; Park, Kyeong Hye; Yoon, Ji-Hae; Son, Kyung-Mi; Ko, Young; Lim, Dong-Ha

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in Korea. In addition, we planned to do a performance analysis of the Registration Project of Type 1 diabetes for the reimbursement of consumable materials. Methods To obtain nationwide data on the incidence and prevalence of T1DM, we extracted claims data from July 2011 to August 2013 from the Registration Project of Type 1 diabetes on the reimbursement of consumable materials in the National Health Insurance (NHI) Database. For a more detailed analysis of the T1DM population in Korea, stratification by gender, age, and area was performed, and prevalence and incidence were calculated. Results Of the 8,256 subjects enrolled over the 26 months, the male to female ratio was 1 to 1.12, the median age was 37.1 years, and an average of 136 new T1DM patients were registered to the T1DM registry each month, resulting in 1,632 newly diagnosed T1DM patients each year. We found that the incidence rate of new T1DM cases was 3.28 per 100,000 people. The average proportion of T1DM patients compared with each region's population was 0.0125%. The total number of insurance subscribers under the universal compulsory NHI in Korea was 49,662,097, and the total number of diabetes patients, excluding duplication, was 3,762,332. Conclusion The prevalence of T1DM over the course of the study was approximately 0.017% to 0.021% of the entire population of Korea, and the annual incidence of T1DM was 3.28:100,000 overall and 3.25:100,000 for Koreans under 20 years old. PMID:26912154

  19. 15 CFR 292.6 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMS MANUFACTURING EXTENSION PARTNERSHIP; INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS § 292.6 Additional requirements. Federal policies...

  20. Elementary School Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning By Design, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Highlights elementary school construction projects that have won the Learning By Design Awards for 2001. Projects covered involve new school construction; and renovation, additions, and restoration. (GR)

  1. 77 FR 19262 - Procurement List; Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ... received from a consulting firm noting that if this project goes out for a full food service contract, then... is for dining facility attendant--not a full food service contract. Accordingly, this project is... INFORMATION: Additions On 12/23/2011 (76 FR 80346), 1/6/2012 (77 FR 780) and 2/3/2012 (77 FR 5495-5496),...

  2. 42 CFR 52.9 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52.9 Section 52.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR RESEARCH PROJECTS... conditions are necessary to assure or protect advancement of the approved project, the interests of...

  3. 42 CFR 52.9 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52.9 Section 52.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR RESEARCH PROJECTS... conditions are necessary to assure or protect advancement of the approved project, the interests of...

  4. 42 CFR 52.9 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52.9 Section 52.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR RESEARCH PROJECTS... conditions are necessary to assure or protect advancement of the approved project, the interests of...

  5. 42 CFR 52.9 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52.9 Section 52.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR RESEARCH PROJECTS... conditions are necessary to assure or protect advancement of the approved project, the interests of...

  6. 42 CFR 52.9 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52.9 Section 52.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR RESEARCH PROJECTS... conditions are necessary to assure or protect advancement of the approved project, the interests of...

  7. [Food additives and healthiness].

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects.

  8. SHADOZ in the Aura Era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witte, J. C.; Thompson, A. M.; Oltmans, S. J.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Bhartia, P. K.; Froidevaux, L.; Schmidlin, F.; Calpini, B.; Shiotani, M.; Fujiwara, M.; Posny, F.; Vomel, H.; Chow, K. K.; Coetzee, G. R.; Kelder, H.

    2007-01-01

    We present comparisons of observed tropical and sub-tropical ozone from the Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) project with satellite measurements using Aura's Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) instruments. Satellite products of total and derived tropospheric column ozone from OMI and profiles of ozone in the UT/LS region from MLS are used.

  9. Additive Construction with Mobile Emplacement (ACME)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vickers, John

    2015-01-01

    The Additive Construction with Mobile Emplacement (ACME) project is developing technology to build structures on planetary surfaces using in-situ resources. The project focuses on the construction of both 2D (landing pads, roads, and structure foundations) and 3D (habitats, garages, radiation shelters, and other structures) infrastructure needs for planetary surface missions. The ACME project seeks to raise the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of two components needed for planetary surface habitation and exploration: 3D additive construction (e.g., contour crafting), and excavation and handling technologies (to effectively and continuously produce in-situ feedstock). Additionally, the ACME project supports the research and development of new materials for planetary surface construction, with the goal of reducing the amount of material to be launched from Earth.

  10. Visual agnosia and Klüver-Bucy syndrome in marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) following ablation of inferotemporal cortex, with additional mnemonic effects of immunotoxic lesions of cholinergic projections to medial temporal areas.

    PubMed

    Ridley, R M; Warner, K A; Maclean, C J; Gaffan, D; Baker, H F

    2001-04-13

    Inferotemporal ablations in the New World monkey, the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), produced a persistent impairment on visual discrimination learning and a florid, but transient, Klüver-Bucy syndrome. Monkeys with these ablations were impaired on acquisition of object discriminations to a high criterion and on concurrent discrimination learning, to a single high criterion across all trials. Neither the control monkeys nor the monkeys with inferotemporal ablations found acquisition more difficult when the component discriminations of a set were presented concurrently compared to consecutively, although the monkeys with inferotemporal ablations found acquisition under both these conditions somewhat more difficult than did control monkeys. This suggests that the severe impairment caused by inferotemporal ablations on concurrent learning measured across all trials is due to the need for sustained performance across a concurrent set rather than to the extra mnemonic demands of concurrent presentation. When immunotoxic lesions of the cholinergic projection to the hippocampal formation were added to the inferotemporal ablations, a further impairment on retention, and a differential impairment on concurrent, compared to consecutive, learning was observed. Previous studies have shown that lesions of the cholinergic projection to the hippocampus alone, or excitotoxic hippocampal lesions, do not affect simple visual discrimination learning. It is suggested that large inferotemporal ablations in monkeys produce a visual agnosia which causes severe 'psychic blindness' in the first instance, and a persistent impairment on visual discrimination learning. The hippocampus makes a contribution, which may be mnemonic, to discrimination performance after inferotemporal ablations.

  11. 42 CFR 67.22 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional conditions. 67.22 Section 67.22 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING... Research, Evaluation, Demonstration, and Dissemination Projects § 67.22 Additional conditions....

  12. 42 CFR 67.22 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional conditions. 67.22 Section 67.22 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING... Research, Evaluation, Demonstration, and Dissemination Projects § 67.22 Additional conditions....

  13. 42 CFR 67.22 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional conditions. 67.22 Section 67.22 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING... Research, Evaluation, Demonstration, and Dissemination Projects § 67.22 Additional conditions....

  14. 42 CFR 67.22 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional conditions. 67.22 Section 67.22 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING... Research, Evaluation, Demonstration, and Dissemination Projects § 67.22 Additional conditions....

  15. 42 CFR 67.22 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional conditions. 67.22 Section 67.22 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING... Research, Evaluation, Demonstration, and Dissemination Projects § 67.22 Additional conditions....

  16. 42 CFR 52e.9 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52e.9 Section 52e.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL HEART, LUNG, AND BLOOD INSTITUTE GRANTS FOR PREVENTION AND CONTROL PROJECTS § 52e.9 Additional conditions. The...

  17. 15 CFR 292.6 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Additional requirements. 292.6 Section 292.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE... PARTNERSHIP; INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS § 292.6 Additional requirements. Federal policies...

  18. 15 CFR 292.6 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Additional requirements. 292.6 Section 292.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE... PARTNERSHIP; INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS § 292.6 Additional requirements. Federal policies...

  19. 15 CFR 292.6 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Additional requirements. 292.6 Section 292.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE... PARTNERSHIP; INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS § 292.6 Additional requirements. Federal policies...

  20. 15 CFR 292.6 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Additional requirements. 292.6 Section 292.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE... PARTNERSHIP; INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS § 292.6 Additional requirements. Federal policies...

  1. 42 CFR 52e.9 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52e.9 Section 52e.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL HEART, LUNG, AND BLOOD INSTITUTE GRANTS FOR PREVENTION AND CONTROL PROJECTS § 52e.9 Additional conditions. The...

  2. 42 CFR 52e.9 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52e.9 Section 52e.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL HEART, LUNG, AND BLOOD INSTITUTE GRANTS FOR PREVENTION AND CONTROL PROJECTS § 52e.9 Additional conditions. The...

  3. 42 CFR 52e.9 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52e.9 Section 52e.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL HEART, LUNG, AND BLOOD INSTITUTE GRANTS FOR PREVENTION AND CONTROL PROJECTS § 52e.9 Additional conditions. The...

  4. 42 CFR 52e.9 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52e.9 Section 52e.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL HEART, LUNG, AND BLOOD INSTITUTE GRANTS FOR PREVENTION AND CONTROL PROJECTS § 52e.9 Additional conditions. The...

  5. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, James C. (Inventor); Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  6. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of the additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  7. Additional Types of Neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... A A Listen En Español Additional Types of Neuropathy Charcot's Joint Charcot's Joint, also called neuropathic arthropathy, ... can stop bone destruction and aid healing. Cranial Neuropathy Cranial neuropathy affects the 12 pairs of nerves ...

  8. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wender, Ester H.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that food additives are causally associated with hyperkinesis and learning disabilities in children is reviewed, and available data are summarized. Available from: American Medical Association 535 North Dearborn Street Chicago, Illinois 60610. (JG)

  9. Smog control fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Lundby, W.

    1993-06-29

    A method is described of controlling, reducing or eliminating, ozone and related smog resulting from photochemical reactions between ozone and automotive or industrial gases comprising the addition of iodine or compounds of iodine to hydrocarbon-base fuels prior to or during combustion in an amount of about 1 part iodine per 240 to 10,000,000 parts fuel, by weight, to be accomplished by: (a) the addition of these inhibitors during or after the refining or manufacturing process of liquid fuels; (b) the production of these inhibitors for addition into fuel tanks, such as automotive or industrial tanks; or (c) the addition of these inhibitors into combustion chambers of equipment utilizing solid fuels for the purpose of reducing ozone.

  10. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapid prototyping technology that allows parts to be built in a series of thin layers from plastic, ceramics, and metallics. Metallic additive manufacturing is an emerging form of rapid prototyping that allows complex structures to be built using various metallic powders. Significant time and cost savings have also been observed using the metallic additive manufacturing compared with traditional techniques. Development of the metallic additive manufacturing technology has advanced significantly over the last decade, although many of the techniques to inspect parts made from these processes have not advanced significantly or have limitations. Several external geometry inspection techniques exist such as Coordinate Measurement Machines (CMM), Laser Scanners, Structured Light Scanning Systems, or even traditional calipers and gages. All of the aforementioned techniques are limited to external geometry and contours or must use a contact probe to inspect limited internal dimensions. This presentation will document the development of a process for real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record of the additive manufacturing process using Infrared camera imaging and processing techniques.

  11. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamine, containing phenylethvnvl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynviphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pvrrolidinone to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  12. Multifunctional fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Baillargeon, D.J.; Cardis, A.B.; Heck, D.B.

    1991-03-26

    This paper discusses a composition comprising a major amount of a liquid hydrocarbyl fuel and a minor low-temperature flow properties improving amount of an additive product of the reaction of a suitable diol and product of a benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride and a long-chain hydrocarbyl aminoalcohol.

  13. Biobased lubricant additives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fully biobased lubricants are those formulated using all biobased ingredients, i.e. biobased base oils and biobased additives. Such formulations provide the maximum environmental, safety, and economic benefits expected from a biobased product. Currently, there are a number of biobased base oils that...

  14. The Proposal Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    The proposal project stretches over a significant portion of the semester-long sophomore course Professional Communication (ENG 250) at Monroe Community College. While developing their proposal project, students need to use time management skills to successfully complete a quality project on time. In addition, excellent oral and written…

  15. Vinyl capped addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D. (Inventor); Malarik, Diane C. (Inventor); Delvigs, Peter (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Polyimide resins (PMR) are generally useful where high strength and temperature capabilities are required (at temperatures up to about 700 F). Polyimide resins are particularly useful in applications such as jet engine compressor components, for example, blades, vanes, air seals, air splitters, and engine casing parts. Aromatic vinyl capped addition polyimides are obtained by reacting a diamine, an ester of tetracarboxylic acid, and an aromatic vinyl compound. Low void materials with improved oxidative stability when exposed to 700 F air may be fabricated as fiber reinforced high molecular weight capped polyimide composites. The aromatic vinyl capped polyimides are provided with a more aromatic nature and are more thermally stable than highly aliphatic, norbornenyl-type end-capped polyimides employed in PMR resins. The substitution of aromatic vinyl end-caps for norbornenyl end-caps in addition polyimides results in polymers with improved oxidative stability.

  16. Tackifier for addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, J. M.; St.clair, T. L.

    1980-01-01

    A modification to the addition polyimide, LaRC-160, was prepared to improve tack and drape and increase prepeg out-time. The essentially solventless, high viscosity laminating resin is synthesized from low cost liquid monomers. The modified version takes advantage of a reactive, liquid plasticizer which is used in place of solvent and helps solve a major problem of maintaining good prepeg tack and drape, or the ability of the prepeg to adhere to adjacent plies and conform to a desired shape during the lay up process. This alternate solventless approach allows both longer life of the polymer prepeg and the processing of low void laminates. This approach appears to be applicable to all addition polyimide systems.

  17. Electrophilic addition of astatine

    SciTech Connect

    Norseev, Yu.V.; Vasaros, L.; Nhan, D.D.; Huan, N.K.

    1988-03-01

    It has been shown for the first time that astatine is capable of undergoing addition reactions to unsaturated hydrocarbons. A new compound of astatine, viz., ethylene astatohydrin, has been obtained, and its retention numbers of squalane, Apiezon, and tricresyl phosphate have been found. The influence of various factors on the formation of ethylene astatohydrin has been studied. It has been concluded on the basis of the results obtained that the univalent cations of astatine in an acidic medium is protonated hypoastatous acid.

  18. Functional Generalized Additive Models.

    PubMed

    McLean, Mathew W; Hooker, Giles; Staicu, Ana-Maria; Scheipl, Fabian; Ruppert, David

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the functional generalized additive model (FGAM), a novel regression model for association studies between a scalar response and a functional predictor. We model the link-transformed mean response as the integral with respect to t of F{X(t), t} where F(·,·) is an unknown regression function and X(t) is a functional covariate. Rather than having an additive model in a finite number of principal components as in Müller and Yao (2008), our model incorporates the functional predictor directly and thus our model can be viewed as the natural functional extension of generalized additive models. We estimate F(·,·) using tensor-product B-splines with roughness penalties. A pointwise quantile transformation of the functional predictor is also considered to ensure each tensor-product B-spline has observed data on its support. The methods are evaluated using simulated data and their predictive performance is compared with other competing scalar-on-function regression alternatives. We illustrate the usefulness of our approach through an application to brain tractography, where X(t) is a signal from diffusion tensor imaging at position, t, along a tract in the brain. In one example, the response is disease-status (case or control) and in a second example, it is the score on a cognitive test. R code for performing the simulations and fitting the FGAM can be found in supplemental materials available online.

  19. Performance Boosting Additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Mainstream Engineering Corporation was awarded Phase I and Phase II contracts from Goddard Space Flight Center's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program in early 1990. With support from the SBIR program, Mainstream Engineering Corporation has developed a unique low cost additive, QwikBoost (TM), that increases the performance of air conditioners, heat pumps, refrigerators, and freezers. Because of the energy and environmental benefits of QwikBoost, Mainstream received the Tibbetts Award at a White House Ceremony on October 16, 1997. QwikBoost was introduced at the 1998 International Air Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Exposition. QwikBoost is packaged in a handy 3-ounce can (pressurized with R-134a) and will be available for automotive air conditioning systems in summer 1998.

  20. Sewage sludge additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

  1. Perspectives on Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourell, David L.

    2016-07-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has skyrocketed in visibility commercially and in the public sector. This article describes the development of this field from early layered manufacturing approaches of photosculpture, topography, and material deposition. Certain precursors to modern AM processes are also briefly described. The growth of the field over the last 30 years is presented. Included is the standard delineation of AM technologies into seven broad categories. The economics of AM part generation is considered, and the impacts of the economics on application sectors are described. On the basis of current trends, the future outlook will include a convergence of AM fabricators, mass-produced AM fabricators, enabling of topology optimization designs, and specialization in the AM legal arena. Long-term developments with huge impact are organ printing and volume-based printing.

  2. Sarks as additional fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Jyoti; Frampton, Paul H.; Jack Ng, Y.; Nishino, Hitoshi; Yasuda, Osamu

    1991-03-01

    An extension of the standard model is proposed. The gauge group is SU(2) X ⊗ SU(3) C ⊗ SU(2) S ⊗ U(1) Q, where all gauge symmetries are unbroken. The colour and electric charge are combined with SU(2) S which becomes strongly coupled at approximately 500 GeV and binds preons to form fermionic and vector bound states. The usual quarks and leptons are singlets under SU(2) X but additional fermions, called sarks. transform under it and the electroweak group. The present model explains why no more than three light quark-lepton families can exist. Neutral sark baryons, called narks, are candidates for the cosmological dark matter having the characteristics designed for WIMPS. Further phenomenological implications of sarks are analyzed i including electron-positron annihilation. Z 0 decay, flavor-changing neutral currents. baryon-number non-conservation, sarkonium and the neutron electric dipole moment.

  3. Project Wild (Project Tame).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegenthaler, David

    For 37 states in the United States, Project Wild has become an officially sanctioned, distributed and funded "environemtnal and conservation education program." For those who are striving to implement focused, sequential, learning programs, as well as those who wish to promote harmony through a non-anthropocentric world view, Project Wild may…

  4. Additive lattice kirigami

    PubMed Central

    Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M.; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D.

    2016-01-01

    Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes. PMID:27679822

  5. Additive lattice kirigami

    PubMed Central

    Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M.; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D.

    2016-01-01

    Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes.

  6. Hydropower Projects

    SciTech Connect

    2015-04-02

    The Water Power Program helps industry harness this renewable, emissions-free resource to generate environmentally sustainable and cost-effective electricity. Through support for public, private, and nonprofit efforts, the Water Power Program promotes the development, demonstration, and deployment of advanced hydropower devices and pumped storage hydropower applications. These technologies help capture energy stored by diversionary structures, increase the efficiency of hydroelectric generation, and use excess grid energy to replenish storage reserves for use during periods of peak electricity demand. In addition, the Water Power Program works to assess the potential extractable energy from domestic water resources to assist industry and government in planning for our nation’s energy future. From FY 2008 to FY 2014, DOE’s Water Power Program announced awards totaling approximately $62.5 million to 33 projects focused on hydropower. Table 1 provides a brief description of these projects.

  7. Middle/High School Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning By Design, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Highlights middle school/high school construction projects that have won the Learning By Design Awards for 2001. Projects covered involve new school construction; and renovation, additions, and restoration. (GR)

  8. The Ribosomal Database Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, G. J.; Overbeek, R.; Larsen, N.; Marsh, T. L.; McCaughey, M. J.; Maciukenas, M. A.; Kuan, W. M.; Macke, T. J.; Xing, Y.; Woese, C. R.

    1992-01-01

    The Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) complies ribosomal sequences and related data, and redistributes them in aligned and phylogenetically ordered form to its user community. It also offers various software packages for handling, analyzing and displaying sequences. In addition, the RDP offers (or will offer) certain analytic services. At present the project is in an intermediate stage of development.

  9. 78 FR 7413 - Procurement List; Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-01

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Additions On 11/20/2012 (77 FR 69598) and 12/7/2012 (77 FR 73025-73026), the..., Document, 7-hole, Medium Weight, Clear, 8-\\1/2\\''x11''. NSN: 7510-00-NIB-1882--Folders, Project, 8-\\1/2..., 2' x 3', Black. NSN: 7220-00-NIB-0441--Floor Mat, Anti-Fatigue, Ribbed Vinyl, 3' x 5', Black....

  10. Projects Work!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Textor, Martin R.

    2005-01-01

    The great educational value of projects is emphasized by contrasting negative aspects of the life of today's children with the goals of project work. This is illustrated by a project "Shopping." It is shown what children are learning in such projects and what the advantages of project work are. Relevant topic areas, criteria for selecting a…

  11. 3. Northwest side and southwest rear of addition. View to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Northwest side and southwest rear of addition. View to east. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Aerospace Ground Equipment (AGE) Storage Facility, Far Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  12. 5. General interior overview of addition. View to south. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. General interior overview of addition. View to south. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Aerospace Ground Equipment (AGE) Storage Facility, Far Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  13. 6. General interior overview of addition. View to northwest. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. General interior overview of addition. View to northwest. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Aerospace Ground Equipment (AGE) Storage Facility, Far Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  14. 2. Southeast side of addition. View to northwest. Offutt ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Southeast side of addition. View to northwest. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Aerospace Ground Equipment (AGE) Storage Facility, Far Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  15. 151. Interior of north addition to powerhouse, currently used as ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    151. Interior of north addition to powerhouse, currently used as a machine shop, looking east. Photo by Jet Lowe, HAER, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  16. PORTNUS Project

    SciTech Connect

    Loyal, Rebecca E.

    2015-07-14

    The objective of the Portunus Project is to create large, automated offshore ports that will the pace and scale of international trade. Additionally, these ports would increase the number of U.S. domestic trade vessels needed, as the imported goods would need to be transported from these offshore platforms to land-based ports such as Boston, Los Angeles, and Newark. Currently, domestic trade in the United States can only be conducted by vessels that abide by the Merchant Marine Act of 1920 – also referred to as the Jones Act. The Jones Act stipulates that vessels involved in domestic trade must be U.S. owned, U.S. built, and manned by a crew made up of U.S. citizens. The Portunus Project would increase the number of Jones Act vessels needed, which raises an interesting economic concern. Are Jones Act ships more expensive to operate than foreign vessels? Would it be more economically efficient to modify the Jones Act and allow vessels manned by foreign crews to engage in U.S. domestic trade? While opposition to altering the Jones Act is strong, it is important to consider the possibility that ship-owners who employ foreign crews will lobby for the chance to enter a growing domestic trade market. Their success would mean potential job loss for thousands of Americans currently employed in maritime trade.

  17. Evaluation of advanced polymers for additive manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Rios, Orlando; Morrison, Crystal

    2015-09-01

    The goal of this Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) technical collaboration project between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and PPG Industries, Inc. was to evaluate the feasibility of using conventional coatings chemistry and technology to build up material layer-by-layer. The PPG-ORNL study successfully demonstrated that polymeric coatings formulations may overcome many limitations of common thermoplastics used in additive manufacturing (AM), allow lightweight nozzle design for material deposition and increase build rate. The materials effort focused on layer-by-layer deposition of coatings with each layer fusing together. The combination of materials and deposition results in an additively manufactured build that has sufficient mechanical properties to bear the load of additional layers, yet is capable of bonding across the z-layers to improve build direction strength. The formulation properties were tuned to enable a novel, high-throughput deposition method that is highly scalable, compatible with high loading of reinforcing fillers, and is inherently low-cost.

  18. Project GlobWave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busswell, Geoff; Ash, Ellis; Piolle, Jean-Francois; Poulter, David J. S.; Snaith, Helen; Collard, Fabrice; Sheera, Harjit; Pinnock, Simon

    2010-12-01

    The ESA GlobWave project is a three year initiative, funded by ESA and CNES, to service the needs of satellite wave product users across the globe. Led by Logica UK, with support from CLS, IFREMER, SatOC and NOCS, the project will provide free access to satellite wave data and products in a common format, both historical and in near real time, from various European and American SAR and altimeter missions. Building on the successes of similar projects for Sea Surface Temperature and ocean colour, the project aims to stimulate increased use and analysis of satellite wave products. In addition to common-format satellite data the project will provide comparisons with in situ measurements, interactive data analysis tools and a pilot spatial wave forecast verification scheme for operational forecast production centres. The project will begin operations in January 2010, with direction from regular structured user consultation.

  19. Affine projective Osserman structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilkey, P.; Nikčević, S.

    2013-08-01

    By considering the projectivized spectrum of the Jacobi operator, we introduce the concept of projective Osserman manifold in both the affine and in the pseudo-Riemannian settings. If M is an affine projective Osserman manifold, then the deformed Riemannian extension metric on the cotangent bundle is both spacelike and timelike projective Osserman. Since any rank-1-symmetric space is affine projective Osserman, this provides additional information concerning the cotangent bundle of a rank-1 Riemannian symmetric space with the deformed Riemannian extension metric. We construct other examples of affine projective Osserman manifolds where the Ricci tensor is not symmetric and thus the connection in question is not the Levi-Civita connection of any metric. If the dimension is odd, we use methods of algebraic topology to show the Jacobi operator of an affine projective Osserman manifold has only one non-zero eigenvalue and that eigenvalue is real.

  20. Incorporation of additives into polymers

    DOEpatents

    McCleskey, T. Mark; Yates, Matthew Z.

    2003-07-29

    There has been invented a method for incorporating additives into polymers comprising: (a) forming an aqueous or alcohol-based colloidal system of the polymer; (b) emulsifying the colloidal system with a compressed fluid; and (c) contacting the colloidal polymer with the additive in the presence of the compressed fluid. The colloidal polymer can be contacted with the additive by having the additive in the compressed fluid used for emulsification or by adding the additive to the colloidal system before or after emulsification with the compressed fluid. The invention process can be carried out either as a batch process or as a continuous on-line process.

  1. [Patch-testing methods: additional specialised or additional series].

    PubMed

    Cleenewerck, M-B

    2009-01-01

    The tests in the European standard battery must occasionally be supplemented by specialised or additional batteries, particularly where the contact allergy is thought to be of occupational origin. These additional batteries cover all allergens associated with various professional activities (hairdressing, baking, dentistry, printing, etc.) and with different classes of materials and chemical products (glue, plastic, rubber...). These additional tests may also include personal items used by patients on a daily basis such as cosmetics, shoes, plants, textiles and so on.

  2. Additive manufacturing of optical components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, Andreas; Rank, Manuel; Maillard, Philippe; Suckow, Anne; Bauckhage, Yannick; Rößler, Patrick; Lang, Johannes; Shariff, Fatin; Pekrul, Sven

    2016-08-01

    The development of additive manufacturing methods has enlarged rapidly in recent years. Thereby, the work mainly focuses on the realization of mechanical components, but the additive manufacturing technology offers a high potential in the field of optics as well. Owing to new design possibilities, completely new solutions are possible. This article briefly reviews and compares the most important additive manufacturing methods for polymer optics. Additionally, it points out the characteristics of additive manufactured polymer optics. Thereby, surface quality is of crucial importance. In order to improve it, appropriate post-processing steps are necessary (e.g. robot polishing or coating), which will be discussed. An essential part of this paper deals with various additive manufactured optical components and their use, especially in optical systems for shape metrology (e.g. borehole sensor, tilt sensor, freeform surface sensor, fisheye lens). The examples should demonstrate the potentials and limitations of optical components produced by additive manufacturing.

  3. Enantioselective Michael Addition of Water

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bi-Shuang; Resch, Verena; Otten, Linda G; Hanefeld, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    The enantioselective Michael addition using water as both nucleophile and solvent has to date proved beyond the ability of synthetic chemists. Herein, the direct, enantioselective Michael addition of water in water to prepare important β-hydroxy carbonyl compounds using whole cells of Rhodococcus strains is described. Good yields and excellent enantioselectivities were achieved with this method. Deuterium labeling studies demonstrate that a Michael hydratase catalyzes the water addition exclusively with anti-stereochemistry. PMID:25529526

  4. Enantioselective Michael addition of water.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bi-Shuang; Resch, Verena; Otten, Linda G; Hanefeld, Ulf

    2015-02-01

    The enantioselective Michael addition using water as both nucleophile and solvent has to date proved beyond the ability of synthetic chemists. Herein, the direct, enantioselective Michael addition of water in water to prepare important β-hydroxy carbonyl compounds using whole cells of Rhodococcus strains is described. Good yields and excellent enantioselectivities were achieved with this method. Deuterium labeling studies demonstrate that a Michael hydratase catalyzes the water addition exclusively with anti-stereochemistry.

  5. Gasoline additives, emissions, and performance

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The papers included in this publication deal with the influence of fuel, additive, and hardware changes on a variety of vehicle performance characteristics. Advanced techniques for measuring these performance parameters are also described. Contents include: Fleet test evaluation of gasoline additives for intake valve and combustion chamber deposit clean up; A technique for evaluating octane requirement additives in modern engines on dynamometer test stands; A fleet test of two additive technologies comparing their effects on tailpipe emissions; Investigation into the vehicle exhaust emissions of high percentage ethanol blends; Variability in hydrocarbon speciation measurements at low emission (ULEV) levels; and more.

  6. 43 CFR 8.2 - Additional lands for correlative purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional lands for correlative purposes. 8.2 Section 8.2 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior JOINT POLICIES OF THE DEPARTMENTS OF THE INTERIOR AND OF THE ARMY RELATIVE TO RESERVOIR PROJECT LANDS § 8.2 Additional lands...

  7. 43 CFR 8.2 - Additional lands for correlative purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Additional lands for correlative purposes. 8.2 Section 8.2 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior JOINT POLICIES OF THE DEPARTMENTS OF THE INTERIOR AND OF THE ARMY RELATIVE TO RESERVOIR PROJECT LANDS § 8.2 Additional lands...

  8. 43 CFR 8.2 - Additional lands for correlative purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional lands for correlative purposes. 8.2 Section 8.2 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior JOINT POLICIES OF THE DEPARTMENTS OF THE INTERIOR AND OF THE ARMY RELATIVE TO RESERVOIR PROJECT LANDS § 8.2 Additional lands...

  9. 43 CFR 8.2 - Additional lands for correlative purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional lands for correlative purposes. 8.2 Section 8.2 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior JOINT POLICIES OF THE DEPARTMENTS OF THE INTERIOR AND OF THE ARMY RELATIVE TO RESERVOIR PROJECT LANDS § 8.2 Additional lands...

  10. 43 CFR 8.2 - Additional lands for correlative purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional lands for correlative purposes. 8.2 Section 8.2 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior JOINT POLICIES OF THE DEPARTMENTS OF THE INTERIOR AND OF THE ARMY RELATIVE TO RESERVOIR PROJECT LANDS § 8.2 Additional lands...

  11. Additionality of global benefits and financial additionality in the context of the AIJ negotiations

    SciTech Connect

    Puhl, I.

    1996-12-31

    The Conference of the Party at their first meeting (COP1) took a decision regarding criteria for joint implementation as indicated in Art. 4.2 (a) of the FCCC which established a pilot phase for activities implemented jointly (AIJ) under the pilot phase. Besides some more technical issues this decision specified that such measures should bring about real, measurable and long-term environmental benefits related to the mitigation of climate change that would not have occurred in the absence of such activities. It also established that the financing of AIJ shall be additional to the financial obligations of developed country parties. These two requirements are called the additionality criteria for AIJ. The first refers to the realness of GHG emission abatement (which means reduction compared to a baseline) whereas the second describes that funds earmarked for AIJ have no other objective (i.e. profit making, export promotion) but to reduce GHG emissions to avoid the free-riding of investors and subsequently developed country parties. The reporting framework as well as the reporting requirements under national programs do not specify further the two types of additionality and even though research focuses on issues like baseline determination there has been no attempt so far to identify approaches which contribute towards defining strict and practicable methods and guidelines to frame additionality criteria. The first FCCC assessment of pilot project reporting revealed that in the reporting of activities, emissions additionality often remained unclear, especially in cases where AIJ was only a portion of an existing or already planned project, and that there is a point about how to account for financial additionality. It subsequently proposed to develop a uniform approach to baseline determination and the assessment of emission (reduction) additionality and financial additionality.

  12. Solar education project workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.B.

    1980-10-31

    A summary of proceedings of the Solar Education Project Workshop is presented. The workshop had as its focus the dissemination of curriculum materials developed by the Solar Energy Project of the New York State Department of Education under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy. It includes, in addition to presentations by speakers and workshop leaders, specific comments from participants regarding materials available and energy-related activities underway in their respective states and suggested strategies from them for ongoing dissemination efforts.

  13. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step…

  14. Program and Project Management Framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Cassandra D.

    2002-01-01

    The primary objective of this project was to develop a framework and system architecture for integrating program and project management tools that may be applied consistently throughout Kennedy Space Center (KSC) to optimize planning, cost estimating, risk management, and project control. Project management methodology used in building interactive systems to accommodate the needs of the project managers is applied as a key component in assessing the usefulness and applicability of the framework and tools developed. Research for the project included investigation and analysis of industrial practices, KSC standards, policies, and techniques, Systems Management Office (SMO) personnel, and other documented experiences of project management experts. In addition, this project documents best practices derived from the literature as well as new or developing project management models, practices, and techniques.

  15. One project`s waste is another project`s resource

    SciTech Connect

    Short, J.

    1997-02-01

    The author describes the efforts being made toward pollution prevention within the DOE complex, as a way to reduce overall project costs, in addition to decreasing the amount of waste to be handled. Pollution prevention is a concept which is trying to be ingrained into project planning. Part of the program involves the concept that ultimately the responsibility for waste comes back to the generator. Parts of the program involve efforts to reuse materials and equipment on new projects, to recycle wastes to generate offsetting revenue, and to increase awareness, accountability and incentives so as to stimulate action on this plan. Summaries of examples are presented in tables.

  16. Project Gifted.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cranston School Dept., RI.

    Covered in the short discussion of Project Gifted for Intermediate grade children are program description, instructional strategy, classification of question categories to cue various levels of thinking, traits common to intellectually gifted students, and procedure for selection of students participating in Project Gifted. Project Gifted is…

  17. Project management of life-science research projects: project characteristics, challenges and training needs.

    PubMed

    Beukers, Margot W

    2011-02-01

    Thirty-four project managers of life-science research projects were interviewed to investigate the characteristics of their projects, the challenges they faced and their training requirements. A set of ten discriminating parameters were identified based on four project categories: contract research, development, discovery and call-based projects--projects set up to address research questions defined in a call for proposals. The major challenges these project managers are faced with relate to project members, leadership without authority and a lack of commitment from the respective organization. Two-thirds of the project managers indicated that they would be interested in receiving additional training, mostly on people-oriented, soft skills. The training programs that are currently on offer, however, do not meet their needs.

  18. Project management of life-science research projects: project characteristics, challenges and training needs.

    PubMed

    Beukers, Margot W

    2011-02-01

    Thirty-four project managers of life-science research projects were interviewed to investigate the characteristics of their projects, the challenges they faced and their training requirements. A set of ten discriminating parameters were identified based on four project categories: contract research, development, discovery and call-based projects--projects set up to address research questions defined in a call for proposals. The major challenges these project managers are faced with relate to project members, leadership without authority and a lack of commitment from the respective organization. Two-thirds of the project managers indicated that they would be interested in receiving additional training, mostly on people-oriented, soft skills. The training programs that are currently on offer, however, do not meet their needs. PMID:21134487

  19. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-10-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step in understanding mathematical representations of RGB color. Finally, color addition and subtraction are presented for the X11 colors from web design to illustrate yet another real-life application of color mixing.

  20. Measurements of stratospheric ozone by rocket ozonesondes in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watanabe, Takashi; Ogawa, Toshihiro

    1994-01-01

    A small optical ozone instrument has been developed for a rocket-borne dropsonde to measure the altitude profile of stratospheric ozone. It consists of a four-color filter photometer that measures the attenuation of sunlight as a function of altitude at four wavelengths in the middle ultraviolet. The ozone dropsonde is launched aboard a meteorological rocket MT-135, providing the altitude profiles of ozone as well as atmospheric temperature and wind. The rocket launchings have been carried out five times since August 1990 at Uchinoura (31 deg N, 131 deg E), Japan to measure ozone concentration from 52 to 20 km altitudes during the slow fall of the dropsonde. The ozone profiles measured in summer (August 27, 1990; Sep. 11 and 12, 1991) were very stable above an altitude of 28km. where as those measured in winter (Feb. 9, and 11, 1991) showed considerable day-to-day variations at the stratospheric altitudes. Ozone, temperature and wind profiles measured simultaneously by both rocket and balloon ozonsondes are compared with CIRA 1986 model atmosphere.

  1. A rocket ozonesonde for geophysical research and satellite intercomparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilsenrath, E.; Coley, R. L.; Kirschner, P. T.; Gammill, B.

    1979-01-01

    The in-situ rocketsonde for ozone profile measurements developed and flown for geophysical research and satellite comparison is reviewed. The measurement principle involves the chemiluminescence caused by ambient ozone striking a detector and passive pumping as a means of sampling the atmosphere as the sonde descends through the atmosphere on a parachute. The sonde is flown on a meteorological sounding rocket, and flight data are telemetered via the standard meteorological GMD ground receiving system. The payload operation, sensor performance, and calibration procedures simulating flight conditions are described. An error analysis indicated an absolute accuracy of about 12 percent and a precision of about 8 percent. These are combined to give a measurement error of 14 percent.

  2. Project Summary Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Upchurch, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    The project, being the development of resource management applications, consisted entirely of my own effort. From deliverable requirements provided by my mentor, and some functional requirement additions generated through design reviews, It was my responsibility to implement the requested features as well as possible, given the resources available. For the most part development work consisted of database programming and functional testing using real resource data. Additional projects I worked on included some firing room console training, configuring the new NE-A microcontroller development lab network, mentoring high school CubeSat students, and managing the NE interns' component of the mentor appreciation ceremony.

  3. Teebi hypertelorism syndrome: additional cases.

    PubMed

    Machado-Paula, Ligiane Alves; Guion-Almeida, Maria Leine

    2003-03-01

    We report on two unrelated Brazilian boys who have craniofacial and digital anomalies resembling those reported with Teebi hypertelorism syndrome. Additional features such as cleft lip and palate, large uvula, atypical chin and abnormal scapulae were observed.

  4. Polyolefins as additives in plastics

    SciTech Connect

    Deanin, R.D.

    1993-12-31

    Polyolefins are not only major commodity plastics - they are also very useful as additives, both in other polyolefins and also in other types of plastics. This review covers ethylene, propylene, butylene and isobutylene polymers, in blends with each other, and as additives to natural rubber, styrene/butadiene rubber, polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride, polymethyl methacrylate, polyphenylene oxide, polycarbonate, thermoplastic polyesters, polyurethanes, polyamides, and mixed automotive plastics recycling.

  5. Food additives and preschool children.

    PubMed

    Martyn, Danika M; McNulty, Breige A; Nugent, Anne P; Gibney, Michael J

    2013-02-01

    Food additives have been used throughout history to perform specific functions in foods. A comprehensive framework of legislation is in place within Europe to control the use of additives in the food supply and ensure they pose no risk to human health. Further to this, exposure assessments are regularly carried out to monitor population intakes and verify that intakes are not above acceptable levels (acceptable daily intakes). Young children may have a higher dietary exposure to chemicals than adults due to a combination of rapid growth rates and distinct food intake patterns. For this reason, exposure assessments are particularly important in this age group. The paper will review the use of additives and exposure assessment methods and examine factors that affect dietary exposure by young children. One of the most widely investigated unfavourable health effects associated with food additive intake in preschool-aged children are suggested adverse behavioural effects. Research that has examined this relationship has reported a variety of responses, with many noting an increase in hyperactivity as reported by parents but not when assessed using objective examiners. This review has examined the experimental approaches used in such studies and suggests that efforts are needed to standardise objective methods of measuring behaviour in preschool children. Further to this, a more holistic approach to examining food additive intakes by preschool children is advisable, where overall exposure is considered rather than focusing solely on behavioural effects and possibly examining intakes of food additives other than food colours.

  6. Extension of the standard addition method by blank addition.

    PubMed

    Steliopoulos, Panagiotis

    2015-01-01

    Standard addition involves adding varying amounts of the analyte to sample portions of fixed mass or fixed volume and submitting those portions to the sample preparation procedure. After measuring the final extract solutions, the observed signals are linearly regressed on the spiked amounts. The original unknown amount is estimated by the opposite of the abscissa intercept of the fitted straight line [1]. A limitation of this method is that only data points with abscissa values equal to and greater than zero are available so that there is no information on whether linearity holds below the spiking level zero. An approach to overcome this limitation is introduced.•Standard addition is combined with blank addition.•Blank addition means that defined mixtures of blank matrix and sample material are subjected to sample preparation to give final extract solutions.•Equations are presented to estimate the original unknown amount and to calculate the 1-2α confidence interval about this estimate using the combined data set.

  7. ADDITIVITY ASSESSMENT OF TRIHALOMETHANE MIXTURES BY PROPORTIONAL RESPONSE ADDITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    If additivity is known or assumed, the toxicity of a chemical mixture may be predicted from the dose response curves of the individual chemicals comprising the mixture. As single chemical data are abundant and mixture data sparse, mixture risk methods that utilize single chemical...

  8. Extension of the standard addition method by blank addition

    PubMed Central

    Steliopoulos, Panagiotis

    2015-01-01

    Standard addition involves adding varying amounts of the analyte to sample portions of fixed mass or fixed volume and submitting those portions to the sample preparation procedure. After measuring the final extract solutions, the observed signals are linearly regressed on the spiked amounts. The original unknown amount is estimated by the opposite of the abscissa intercept of the fitted straight line [1]. A limitation of this method is that only data points with abscissa values equal to and greater than zero are available so that there is no information on whether linearity holds below the spiking level zero. An approach to overcome this limitation is introduced.•Standard addition is combined with blank addition.•Blank addition means that defined mixtures of blank matrix and sample material are subjected to sample preparation to give final extract solutions.•Equations are presented to estimate the original unknown amount and to calculate the 1-2α confidence interval about this estimate using the combined data set. PMID:26844210

  9. Energy Efficiency Project Development

    SciTech Connect

    IUEP

    2004-03-01

    The International Utility Efficiency Partnerships, Inc. (IUEP) has been a leader among the industry groups that have supported voluntary initiatives to promote international energy efficiency projects and address global climate change. The IUEP maintains its leadership by both supporting international greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction projects under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and by partnering with U.S. and international organizations to develop and implement strategies and specific energy efficiency projects. The goals of the IUEP program are to (1) provide a way for U.S. industry to maintain a leadership role in international energy efficiency infrastructure projects; (2) identify international energy project development opportunities to continue its leadership in supporting voluntary market-based mechanisms to reduce GHG emissions; and (3) demonstrate private sector commitment to voluntary approaches to global climate issues. The IUEP is dedicated to identifying, promoting, managing, and assisting in the registration of international energy efficiency projects that result in demonstrated voluntary reductions of GHG emissions. This Final Technical Report summarizes the IUEP's work in identifying, promoting, managing, and assisting in development of these projects and IUEP's effort in creating international cooperative partnerships to support project development activities that develop and deploy technologies that (1) increase efficiency in the production, delivery and use of energy; (2) increase the use of cleaner, low-carbon fuels in processing products; and (3) capture/sequester carbon gases from energy systems. Through international cooperative efforts, the IUEP intends to strengthen partnerships for energy technology innovation and demonstration projects capable of providing cleaner energy in a cost-effective manner. As detailed in this report, the IUEP met program objectives and goals during the reporting period January 1, 2001 through

  10. [INVITED] Lasers in additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinkerton, Andrew J.

    2016-04-01

    Additive manufacturing is a topic of considerable ongoing interest, with forecasts predicting it to have major impact on industry in the future. This paper focusses on the current status and potential future development of the technology, with particular reference to the role of lasers within it. It begins by making clear the types and roles of lasers in the different categories of additive manufacturing. This is followed by concise reviews of the economic benefits and disadvantages of the technology, current state of the market and use of additive manufacturing in different industries. Details of these fields are referenced rather than expanded in detail. The paper continues, focusing on current indicators to the future of additive manufacturing. Barriers to its development, trends and opportunities in major industrial sectors, and wider opportunities for its development are covered. Evidence indicates that additive manufacturing may not become the dominant manufacturing technology in all industries, but represents an excellent opportunity for lasers to increase their influence in manufacturing as a whole.

  11. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, and to prepare specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives, including flavouring agents. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for eight food additives (Benzoe tonkinensis; carrageenan; citric and fatty acid esters of glycerol; gardenia yellow; lutein esters from Tagetes erecta; octenyl succinic acid-modified gum arabic; octenyl succinic acid-modified starch; paprika extract; and pectin) and eight groups of flavouring agents (aliphatic and alicyclic hydrocarbons; aliphatic and aromatic ethers; ionones and structurally related substances; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; monocyclic and bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; phenol and phenol derivatives; phenyl-substituted aliphatic alcohols and related aldehydes and esters; and sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: citric acid; gellan gum; polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monostearate; potassium aluminium silicate; and Quillaia extract (Type 2). Annexed to the report are tables summarizing the Committee's recommendations for dietary exposures to and toxicological evaluations of all of the food additives and flavouring agents considered at this meeting.

  12. Clinical effects of sulphite additives.

    PubMed

    Vally, H; Misso, N L A; Madan, V

    2009-11-01

    Sulphites are widely used as preservative and antioxidant additives in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Topical, oral or parenteral exposure to sulphites has been reported to induce a range of adverse clinical effects in sensitive individuals, ranging from dermatitis, urticaria, flushing, hypotension, abdominal pain and diarrhoea to life-threatening anaphylactic and asthmatic reactions. Exposure to the sulphites arises mainly from the consumption of foods and drinks that contain these additives; however, exposure may also occur through the use of pharmaceutical products, as well as in occupational settings. While contact sensitivity to sulphite additives in topical medications is increasingly being recognized, skin reactions also occur after ingestion of or parenteral exposure to sulphites. Most studies report a 3-10% prevalence of sulphite sensitivity among asthmatic subjects following ingestion of these additives. However, the severity of these reactions varies, and steroid-dependent asthmatics, those with marked airway hyperresponsiveness, and children with chronic asthma, appear to be at greater risk. In addition to episodic and acute symptoms, sulphites may also contribute to chronic skin and respiratory symptoms. To date, the mechanisms underlying sulphite sensitivity remain unclear, although a number of potential mechanisms have been proposed. Physicians should be aware of the range of clinical manifestations of sulphite sensitivity, as well as the potential sources of exposure. Minor modifications to diet or behaviour lead to excellent clinical outcomes for sulphite-sensitive individuals.

  13. Additive Manufacturing of Hybrid Circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarobol, Pylin; Cook, Adam; Clem, Paul G.; Keicher, David; Hirschfeld, Deidre; Hall, Aaron C.; Bell, Nelson S.

    2016-07-01

    There is a rising interest in developing functional electronics using additively manufactured components. Considerations in materials selection and pathways to forming hybrid circuits and devices must demonstrate useful electronic function; must enable integration; and must complement the complex shape, low cost, high volume, and high functionality of structural but generally electronically passive additively manufactured components. This article reviews several emerging technologies being used in industry and research/development to provide integration advantages of fabricating multilayer hybrid circuits or devices. First, we review a maskless, noncontact, direct write (DW) technology that excels in the deposition of metallic colloid inks for electrical interconnects. Second, we review a complementary technology, aerosol deposition (AD), which excels in the deposition of metallic and ceramic powder as consolidated, thick conformal coatings and is additionally patternable through masking. Finally, we show examples of hybrid circuits/devices integrated beyond 2-D planes, using combinations of DW or AD processes and conventional, established processes.

  14. Postmarketing surveillance of food additives.

    PubMed

    Butchko, H H; Tschanz, C; Kotsonis, F N

    1994-08-01

    Postmarketing surveillance of consumption and of anecdotal reports of adverse health effects has been recognized by a number of regulatory authorities as a potentially useful method to provide further assurance of the safety of new food additives. Surveillance of consumption is used to estimate more reliably actual consumption levels relative to the acceptable daily intake of a food additive. Surveillance of anecdotal reports of adverse health effects is used to determine the presence of infrequent idiosyncratic responses that may not be predictable from premarket evaluations. The high-intensity sweetner, aspartame, is a food additive that has been the subject of extensive evaluation during the postmarketing period and is thus used as an example to discuss postmarketing surveillance.

  15. Organogermanium Chemistry: Germacyclobutanes and digermane Additions to Acetylenes

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew Michael Chubb

    2003-12-12

    This dissertation comprises two main research projects. The first project, presented in Chapter 1, involves the synthesis and thermochemistry of germacyclobutanes (germetanes). Four new germetanes (spirodigermetane, diallylgermetane, dichlorogermetane, and germacyclobutane) have been synthesized using a modified di-Grignard synthesis. Diallylgermetane is shown to be a useful starting material for obtaining other germetanes, particularly the parent germetane, germacyclobutane. The gas-phase thermochemistries of spirodigermetane, diallylgermetane and germacyclobutane have been explored via pulsed stirred-flow reactor (SFR) studies, showing remarkable differences in decomposition, depending on the substitution at the germanium atom. The second project investigates the thermochemical, photochemical, and catalytic additions of several digermanes to acetylenes. The first examples of thermo- and photochemical additions of Ge-Ge bonds to C{triple_bond}C are demonstrated. Mechanistic investigations are described and comparisons are made to analogous disilane addition reactions, previously studied in their group.

  16. Nitrogen oxide abatement by distributed fuel addition

    SciTech Connect

    Wendt, J.O.L.; Meraab, J.

    1988-03-25

    The purpose of this project is to develop techniques for nitrogen oxides abatement by distributed fuel addition. The major nitrogen oxide of interest is Nitric Oxide (NO), a precursor to premature forest damage and to acid rain. Recently interest has also been evoked with respect to an additional oxide of nitrogen, namely Nitrous Oxide (N{sub 2}O). Therefore, abatement measures for NO{sub x} are being investigated to determine their influence on N{sub 2}O as well. This report briefly describes the significance of N{sub 2}O emissions to the environment and the urgent need to develop techniques that can reduce emissions of both NO and N{sub 2}O. Reburning through distributed fuel addition may be an effective technique for NO{sub x} (mainly NO) emission control as described in the previous quarterly report. Reburning may also be effective in reducing N{sub 2}O levels. A technique for N{sub 2}O measurement by gas chromatography/electron capture detection was developed during this quarter, and is described in this report. This analysis technique will be used in the proposed experimental study to investigate the effectiveness of reburning on N{sub 2}O control.

  17. Tougher Addition Polyimides Containing Siloxane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St. Clair, T. L.; Maudgal, S.

    1986-01-01

    Laminates show increased impact resistances and other desirable mechanical properties. Bismaleamic acid extended by reaction of diaminosiloxane with maleic anhydride in 1:1 molar ratio, followed by reaction with half this molar ratio of aromatic dianhydride. Bismaleamic acid also extended by reaction of diaminosiloxane with maleic anhydride in 1:2 molar ratio, followed by reaction with half this molar ratio of aromatic diamine (Michael-addition reaction). Impact resistances improved over those of unmodified bismaleimide, showing significant increase in toughness. Aromatic addition polyimides developed as both matrix and adhesive resins for applications on future aircraft and spacecraft.

  18. Map projections

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1993-01-01

    A map projection is used to portray all or part of the round Earth on a flat surface. This cannot be done without some distortion. Every projection has its own set of advantages and disadvantages. There is no "best" projection. The mapmaker must select the one best suited to the needs, reducing distortion of the most important features. Mapmakers and mathematicians have devised almost limitless ways to project the image of the globe onto paper. Scientists at the U. S. Geological Survey have designed projections for their specific needs—such as the Space Oblique Mercator, which allows mapping from satellites with little or no distortion. This document gives the key properties, characteristics, and preferred uses of many historically important projections and of those frequently used by mapmakers today.

  19. Lubricating additive for drilling muds

    SciTech Connect

    Gutierrez, A.; Brois, S. J.; Brownawell, D. W.; Walker, T. O.

    1985-01-01

    Aqueous drilling fluids containing a minor amount of an additive composition featuring oxazolines of C/sub 1/-C/sub 30/ alkylthioglycolic acid. Such fluids are especially useful where reduced torque drilling fluids are needed. Another embodiment of this invention relates to a method of drilling utilizing the above-described fluids.

  20. Tetrasulfide extreme pressure lubricant additives

    SciTech Connect

    Gast, L.E.; Kenney, H.E.; Schwab, A.W.

    1980-08-19

    A novel class of compounds has been prepared comprising the tetrasulfides of /sup 18/C hydrocarbons, /sup 18/C fatty acids, and /sup 18/C fatty and alkyl and triglyceride esters. These tetrasulfides are useful as extreme pressure lubricant additives and show potential as replacements for sulfurized sperm whale oil.

  1. Promoting Additive Acculturation in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Margaret A.

    1995-01-01

    A study focusing on 113 ninth graders of Mexican descent indicates that most students and their parents adhere to a strategy of additive acculturation (incorporating skills of the new culture and language), but that the school curriculum and general school climate devalue Mexican culture. (SLD)

  2. Individualized Additional Instruction for Calculus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takata, Ken

    2010-01-01

    College students enrolling in the calculus sequence have a wide variance in their preparation and abilities, yet they are usually taught from the same lecture. We describe another pedagogical model of Individualized Additional Instruction (IAI) that assesses each student frequently and prescribes further instruction and homework based on the…

  3. Out of bounds additive manufacturing

    DOE PAGES

    Holshouser, Chris; Newell, Clint; Palas, Sid; Love, Lonnie J.; Kunc, Vlastimil; Lind, Randall F.; Lloyd, Peter D.; Rowe, John C.; Blue, Craig A.; Duty, Chad E.; et al

    2013-03-01

    Lockheed Martin and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are working on an additive manufacturing system capable of manufacturing components measured not in terms of inches or feet, but multiple yards in all dimensions with the potential to manufacture parts that are completely unbounded in size.

  4. Tinkertoy Color-Addition Device.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Joe L.

    1995-01-01

    Describes construction and use of a simple home-built device, using an overhead projector, for use in demonstrations of the addition of various combinations of red, green, and blue light. Useful in connection with discussions of color, color vision, or color television. (JRH)

  5. Additional Financial Resources for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Ben C.

    This paper discusses the continuing need for additional educational funds and suggests that the only way to gain these funds is through concerted and persistent political efforts by supporters of education at both the federal and state levels. The author first points out that for many reasons declining enrollment may not decrease operating costs…

  6. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, with a view to concluding as to safety concerns and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives, including flavouring agents. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for five food additives (magnesium dihydrogen diphosphate; mineral oil (medium and low viscosity) classes II and III; 3-phytase from Aspergillus niger expressed in Aspergillus niger; serine protease (chymotrypsin) from Nocardiopsis prasina expressed in Bacillus licheniformis; and serine protease (trypsin) from Fusarium oxysporum expressed in Fusarium venenatum) and 16 groups of flavouring agents (aliphatic and aromatic amines and amides; aliphatic and aromatic ethers; aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and related esters, sulfides, disulfides and ethers containing furan substitution; aliphatic linear alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, acids and related alcohols, acetals and esters; amino acids and related substances; epoxides; furfuryl alcohol and related substances; linear and branched-chain aliphatic, unsaturated, unconjugated alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; phenol and phenol derivatives; pyrazine derivatives; pyridine, pyrrole and quinoline derivatives; saturated aliphatic acyclic branched-chain primary alcohols, aldehydes and acids; simple aliphatic and aromatic sulfides and thiols; sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds; and sulfur-substituted furan derivatives). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: ethyl cellulose, mineral oil (medium viscosity), modified starches and titanium

  7. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, with a view to concluding as to safety concerns and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives, including flavouring agents. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for five food additives (magnesium dihydrogen diphosphate; mineral oil (medium and low viscosity) classes II and III; 3-phytase from Aspergillus niger expressed in Aspergillus niger; serine protease (chymotrypsin) from Nocardiopsis prasina expressed in Bacillus licheniformis; and serine protease (trypsin) from Fusarium oxysporum expressed in Fusarium venenatum) and 16 groups of flavouring agents (aliphatic and aromatic amines and amides; aliphatic and aromatic ethers; aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and related esters, sulfides, disulfides and ethers containing furan substitution; aliphatic linear alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, acids and related alcohols, acetals and esters; amino acids and related substances; epoxides; furfuryl alcohol and related substances; linear and branched-chain aliphatic, unsaturated, unconjugated alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; phenol and phenol derivatives; pyrazine derivatives; pyridine, pyrrole and quinoline derivatives; saturated aliphatic acyclic branched-chain primary alcohols, aldehydes and acids; simple aliphatic and aromatic sulfides and thiols; sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds; and sulfur-substituted furan derivatives). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: ethyl cellulose, mineral oil (medium viscosity), modified starches and titanium

  8. Russian Language Analysis Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serianni, Barbara; Rethwisch, Carolyn

    2011-01-01

    This paper is the result of a language analysis research project focused on the Russian Language. The study included a diverse literature review that included published materials as well as online sources in addition to an interview with a native Russian speaker residing in the United States. Areas of study include the origin and history of the…

  9. The History Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estes, Matt; Brady, Ann

    2005-01-01

    Matt Estes, a social studies teacher, mentions the main instructional goals for his students like understanding the importance of proper citation and attribution presenting the Machiavelli project that deals with the skills he wants his students to develop and the course material that must be covered. In addition, Ann Brady, a library media…

  10. RESOLVE Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Ray; Coan, Mary; Cryderman, Kate; Captain, Janine

    2013-01-01

    The RESOLVE project is a lunar prospecting mission whose primary goal is to characterize water and other volatiles in lunar regolith. The Lunar Advanced Volatiles Analysis (LAVA) subsystem is comprised of a fluid subsystem that transports flow to the gas chromatograph - mass spectrometer (GC-MS) instruments that characterize volatiles and the Water Droplet Demonstration (WDD) that will capture and display water condensation in the gas stream. The LAVA Engineering Test Unit (ETU) is undergoing risk reduction testing this summer and fall within a vacuum chamber to understand and characterize component and integrated system performance. Testing of line heaters, printed circuit heaters, pressure transducers, temperature sensors, regulators, and valves in atmospheric and vacuum environments was done. Test procedures were developed to guide experimental tests and test reports to analyze and draw conclusions from the data. In addition, knowledge and experience was gained with preparing a vacuum chamber with fluid and electrical connections. Further testing will include integrated testing of the fluid subsystem with the gas supply system, near-infrared spectrometer, WDD, Sample Delivery System, and GC-MS in the vacuum chamber. This testing will provide hands-on exposure to a flight forward spaceflight subsystem, the processes associated with testing equipment in a vacuum chamber, and experience working in a laboratory setting. Examples of specific analysis conducted include: pneumatic analysis to calculate the WDD's efficiency at extracting water vapor from the gas stream to form condensation; thermal analysis of the conduction and radiation along a line connecting two thermal masses; and proportional-integral-derivative (PID) heater control analysis. Since LAVA is a scientific subsystem, the near-infrared spectrometer and GC-MS instruments will be tested during the ETU testing phase.

  11. Decontamination formulation with sorbent additive

    DOEpatents

    Tucker; Mark D. , Comstock; Robert H.

    2007-10-16

    A decontamination formulation and method of making that neutralizes the adverse health effects of both chemical and biological compounds, especially chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The formulation provides solubilizing compounds that serve to effectively render the chemical and biological compounds, particularly CW and BW compounds, susceptible to attack, and at least one reactive compound that serves to attack (and detoxify or kill) the compound. The formulation includes at least one solubilizing agent, a reactive compound, a bleaching activator, a sorbent additive, and water. The highly adsorbent, water-soluble sorbent additive (e.g., sorbitol or mannitol) is used to "dry out" one or more liquid ingredients, such as the liquid bleaching activator (e.g., propylene glycol diacetate or glycerol diacetate) and convert the activator into a dry, free-flowing powder that has an extended shelf life, and is more convenient to handle and mix in the field.

  12. Additive-free digital microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Freire, Sergio L S; Tanner, Brendan

    2013-07-16

    Digital microfluidics, a technique for manipulation of droplets, is becoming increasingly important for the development of miniaturized platforms for laboratory processes. Despite the enthusiasm, droplet motion is frequently hindered by the desorption of proteins or other analytes to surfaces. Current approaches to minimize this unwanted surface fouling involve the addition of extra species to the droplet or its surroundings, which might be problematic depending on the droplet content. Here, a new strategy is introduced to move droplets containing cells and other analytes on solid substrates, without extra moieties; in particular, droplets with bovine serum albumin could be moved at a concentration 2000 times higher than previously reported (without additives). This capability is achieved by using a soot-based superamphiphobic surface combined with a new device geometry, which favors droplet rolling. Contrasting with electrowetting, wetting forces are not required for droplet motion.

  13. Additive concentrates for distillate fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Rossi, A.; Lewtas, K.

    1985-08-27

    An additive concentrate for incorporation into wax containing petroleum fuel oil compositions to improve low temperature flow properties comprising an oil solution containing: 3% to 90 wt. % of a C30-C300 oil-soluble nitrogen compound wax crystal growth inhibitor having at least one straight C8-C40 alkyl chain and partial esters, and at least one mole per mole of an organic acid capable of hydrogen bonding to improve the solubility in the oil.

  14. Additive manufacturing of hybrid circuits

    DOE PAGES

    Bell, Nelson S.; Sarobol, Pylin; Cook, Adam; Clem, Paul G.; Keicher, David M.; Hirschfeld, Deidre; Hall, Aaron Christopher

    2016-03-26

    There is a rising interest in developing functional electronics using additively manufactured components. Considerations in materials selection and pathways to forming hybrid circuits and devices must demonstrate useful electronic function; must enable integration; and must complement the complex shape, low cost, high volume, and high functionality of structural but generally electronically passive additively manufactured components. This article reviews several emerging technologies being used in industry and research/development to provide integration advantages of fabricating multilayer hybrid circuits or devices. First, we review a maskless, noncontact, direct write (DW) technology that excels in the deposition of metallic colloid inks for electrical interconnects.more » Second, we review a complementary technology, aerosol deposition (AD), which excels in the deposition of metallic and ceramic powder as consolidated, thick conformal coatings and is additionally patternable through masking. As a result, we show examples of hybrid circuits/devices integrated beyond 2-D planes, using combinations of DW or AD processes and conventional, established processes.« less

  15. Project EASIER.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvord, David J.; Tack, Leland R.; Dallam, Jerald W.

    1998-01-01

    Describes the development of Project EASIER, a collaborative electronic-data interchange for networking Iowa local school districts, education agencies, community colleges, universities, and the Department of Education. The primary goal of this project is to develop and implement a system for collection of student information for state and federal…

  16. Project Integration Architecture: Application Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, William Henry

    2005-01-01

    The Project Integration Architecture (PIA) implements a flexible, object-oriented, wrapping architecture which encapsulates all of the information associated with engineering applications. The architecture allows the progress of a project to be tracked and documented in its entirety. Additionally, by bringing all of the information sources and sinks of a project into a single architectural space, the ability to transport information between those applications is enabled.

  17. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2009-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, with a view to recommending acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation and assessment of intake of food additives (in particular, flavouring agents). A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and intake data for certain food additives (asparaginase from Aspergillus niger expressed in A. niger, calcium lignosulfonate (40-65), ethyl lauroyl arginate, paprika extract, phospholipase C expressed in Pichia pastoris, phytosterols, phytostanols and their esters, polydimethylsiloxane, steviol glycosides and sulfites [assessment of dietary exposure]) and 10 groups of related flavouring agents (aliphatic branched-chain saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters; aliphatic linear alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, acids and related alcohols, acetals and esters; aliphatic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; alkoxy-substituted allylbenzenes present in foods and essential oils and used as flavouring agents; esters of aliphatic acyclic primary alcohols with aliphatic linear saturated carboxylic acids; furan-substituted aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and related esters, sulfides, disulfides and ethers; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; monocyclic and bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; hydroxy- and alkoxy-substituted benzyl derivatives; and substances structurally related to menthol). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: canthaxanthin; carob bean gum and carob bean gum (clarified); chlorophyllin copper complexes, sodium and potassium salts; Fast Green FCF; guar gum and guar gum (clarified

  18. Fire-Retardant Polymeric Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Martha K.; Smith, Trent M.

    2011-01-01

    Polyhydroxyamide (PHA) and polymethoxyamide (PMeOA) are fire-retardant (FR) thermoplastic polymers and have been found to be useful as an additive for imparting fire retardant properties to other compatible, thermoplastic polymers (including some elastomers). Examples of compatible flammable polymers include nylons, polyesters, and acrylics. Unlike most prior additives, PHA and PMeOA do not appreciably degrade the mechanical properties of the matrix polymer; indeed, in some cases, mechanical properties are enhanced. Also, unlike some prior additives, PHA and PMeOA do not decompose into large amounts of corrosive or toxic compounds during combustion and can be processed at elevated temperatures. PMeOA derivative formulations were synthesized and used as an FR additive in the fabrication of polyamide (PA) and polystyrene (PS) composites with notable reduction (>30 percent for PS) in peak heat release rates compared to the neat polymer as measured by a Cone Calorimeter (ASTM E1354). Synergistic effects were noted with nanosilica composites. These nanosilica composites had more than 50-percent reduction in peak heat release rates. In a typical application, a flammable thermoplastic, thermoplastic blend, or elastomer that one seeks to render flame-retardant is first dry-mixed with PHA or PMeOA or derivative thereof. The proportion of PHA or PMeOA or derivative in the mixture is typically chosen to lie between 1 and 20 weight percent. The dry blend can then be melt-extruded. The extruded polymer blend can further be extruded and/or molded into fibers, pipes, or any other of a variety of objects that may be required to be fire-retardant. The physical and chemical mechanisms which impart flame retardancy of the additive include inhibiting free-radical oxidation in the vapor phase, preventing vaporization of fuel (the polymer), and cooling through the formation of chemical bonds in either the vapor or the condensed phase. Under thermal stress, the cyclic hydroxyl/ methoxy

  19. PLANNING QUALITY IN GEOSPATIAL PROJECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will briefly review some legal drivers and present a structure for the writing of geospatial Quality Assurance Projects Plans. In addition, the Geospatial Quality Council geospatial information life-cycle and sources of error flowchart will be reviewed.

  20. Groups of piecewise projective homeomorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Monod, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    The group of piecewise projective homeomorphisms of the line provides straightforward torsion-free counterexamples to the so-called von Neumann conjecture. The examples are so simple that many additional properties can be established.

  1. Mk12A/W78 ground test project (u)

    SciTech Connect

    Stokes, Kyle R

    2010-12-01

    The slides present the scope, objectives and status of the Mk12A1W78 Ground Test Project for the purpose of updating the ICBM Project Officers Group. In addition, project constraints and risks are discussed.

  2. Metal Additive Manufacturing: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazier, William E.

    2014-06-01

    This paper reviews the state-of-the-art of an important, rapidly emerging, manufacturing technology that is alternatively called additive manufacturing (AM), direct digital manufacturing, free form fabrication, or 3D printing, etc. A broad contextual overview of metallic AM is provided. AM has the potential to revolutionize the global parts manufacturing and logistics landscape. It enables distributed manufacturing and the productions of parts-on-demand while offering the potential to reduce cost, energy consumption, and carbon footprint. This paper explores the material science, processes, and business consideration associated with achieving these performance gains. It is concluded that a paradigm shift is required in order to fully exploit AM potential.

  3. Individualized additional instruction for calculus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takata, Ken

    2010-10-01

    College students enrolling in the calculus sequence have a wide variance in their preparation and abilities, yet they are usually taught from the same lecture. We describe another pedagogical model of Individualized Additional Instruction (IAI) that assesses each student frequently and prescribes further instruction and homework based on the student's performance. Our study compares two calculus classes, one taught with mandatory remedial IAI and the other without. The class with mandatory remedial IAI did significantly better on comprehensive multiple-choice exams, participated more frequently in classroom discussion and showed greater interest in theorem-proving and other advanced topics.

  4. The Mozart Effect: Additional Data.

    PubMed

    Hughes, John R.

    2002-04-01

    After the review of the Mozart effect was published in this journal (Hughes JR. Epilepsy Behav 2001;2:369-417), additional data from the music of Haydn and Liszt have been analyzed that may account for the decrease in seizure activity originally reported during Mozart music. Even with these added data Mozart music continued to score significantly higher than the selections from the other six composers in one of the important characteristics of this music, namely, the repetition of the melody. However Haydn's values were second highest among Mozart, J. S. Bach, Wagner, Beethoven, Chopin, and Liszt.

  5. Additive manufacturing of RF absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Matthew S.

    The ability of additive manufacturing techniques to fabricate integrated electromagnetic absorbers tuned for specific radio frequency bands within structural composites allows for unique combinations of mechanical and electromagnetic properties. These composites and films can be used for RF shielding of sensitive electromagnetic components through in-plane and out-of-plane RF absorption. Structural composites are a common building block of many commercial platforms. These platforms may be placed in situations in which there is a need for embedded RF absorbing properties along with structural properties. Instead of adding radar absorbing treatments to the external surface of existing structures, which adds increased size, weight and cost; it could prove to be advantageous to integrate the microwave absorbing properties directly into the composite during the fabrication process. In this thesis, a method based on additive manufacturing techniques of composites structures with prescribed electromagnetic loss, within the frequency range 1 to 26GHz, is presented. This method utilizes screen printing and nScrypt micro dispensing to pattern a carbon based ink onto low loss substrates. The materials chosen for this study will be presented, and the fabrication technique that these materials went through to create RF absorbing structures will be described. The calibration methods used, the modeling of the RF structures, and the applications in which this technology can be utilized will also be presented.

  6. Fuel Additives: Canada bans MMT

    SciTech Connect

    Sissell, K.

    1997-04-16

    The Canadian Senate voted late last week to ban use of the manganese-based fuel additive MMT, produced only in the US by Ethyl. MMT, which has been sold in Canada for the past 20 years and accounts for about half of Ethyl`s Canadian sales, has been criticized by environmentalists, who have raised public health concerns, and automakers, who say it harms emission control systems. {open_quotes}Canada`s vote is a great victory for public health and the environment,{close_quotes} says Environmental Defense Fund executive director Fred Krupp. {open_quotes}The US should move swiftly to follow suit and suspend sales of MMT until adequate toxicity testing on the additive is completed.{close_quotes} EPA had refused to approve MMT for sale because of health concerns but was compelled to do so by a December 1995 court ruling. Ethyl asserts the ban violates Canada`s obligations under Nafta and says it will file a damage claim with the Nafta arbitration panel.

  7. TIARA project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malecki, P.

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the Test Infrastructure and Accelerator Research Area - the TIARA project[1] is to consolidate and support the European R&D program in the field of physics and techniques of particle accelerators. This project, partially funded by the European Commission, groups 11 participants from 8 European countries, including Poland. Its present, threeyear (2011-2013) preparatory phase (PP) is shortly described in this paper. The project is divided into 9 work packages (WP). We will concentrate on four of them dedicated to governance, R&D infrastructures, joint R&D programming, and education and training, in which Polish participants are actively involved.

  8. 1. Northeast front and southeast side of original section. Addition ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Northeast front and southeast side of original section. Addition to rear view to west. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Aerospace Ground Equipment (AGE) Storage Facility, Far Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  9. Structuring Numbers 1 to 20: Developing Facile Addition and Subtraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellemor-Collins, David; Wright, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The Numeracy Intervention Research Project (NIRP) aims to develop assessment and instructional tools for use with low-attaining 3rd- and 4th-graders. The NIRP approach to instruction in addition and subtraction in the range 1 to 20 is described. The approach is based on a notion of structuring numbers, which draws on the work of Freudenthal and…

  10. 76 FR 27999 - Procurement List; Addition and Deletion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Addition On 3/11/2011 (76 FR 13362-13363), the Committee for Purchase From People Who.... ] Deletion On 3/11/2011 (76 FR 13362-13363), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely... business the opportunity to compete for these projects in the future. The Javits-Wagner-O'Day Act and...

  11. Cathodic protection -- Addition of 6 anodes to existing rectifier 31

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, W.M.

    1995-06-14

    This Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) has been prepared to demonstrate that the cathodic protection system additions are installed, connected, and function as required by project criteria. The cathodic protection system is for the tank farms on the Hanford Reservation. The tank farms store radioactive wastes.

  12. Genomic standards consortium projects.

    PubMed

    Field, Dawn; Sterk, Peter; Kottmann, Renzo; De Smet, J Wim; Amaral-Zettler, Linda; Cochrane, Guy; Cole, James R; Davies, Neil; Dawyndt, Peter; Garrity, George M; Gilbert, Jack A; Glöckner, Frank Oliver; Hirschman, Lynette; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Knight, Rob; Kyrpides, Nikos; Meyer, Folker; Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene; Morrison, Norman; Robbins, Robert; San Gil, Inigo; Sansone, Susanna; Schriml, Lynn; Tatusova, Tatiana; Ussery, Dave; Yilmaz, Pelin; White, Owen; Wooley, John; Caporaso, Gregory

    2014-06-15

    The Genomic Standards Consortium (GSC) is an open-membership community that was founded in 2005 to work towards the development, implementation and harmonization of standards in the field of genomics. Starting with the defined task of establishing a minimal set of descriptions the GSC has evolved into an active standards-setting body that currently has 18 ongoing projects, with additional projects regularly proposed from within and outside the GSC. Here we describe our recently enacted policy for proposing new activities that are intended to be taken on by the GSC, along with the template for proposing such new activities.

  13. Neutron Characterization for Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, Thomas; Bilheux, Hassina; An, Ke; Payzant, Andrew; DeHoff, Ryan; Duty, Chad; Peter, William; Blue, Craig; Brice, Craig A.

    2013-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is leveraging decades of experience in neutron characterization of advanced materials together with resources such as the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) and the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) shown in Fig. 1 to solve challenging problems in additive manufacturing (AM). Additive manufacturing, or three-dimensional (3-D) printing, is a rapidly maturing technology wherein components are built by selectively adding feedstock material at locations specified by a computer model. The majority of these technologies use thermally driven phase change mechanisms to convert the feedstock into functioning material. As the molten material cools and solidifies, the component is subjected to significant thermal gradients, generating significant internal stresses throughout the part (Fig. 2). As layers are added, inherent residual stresses cause warping and distortions that lead to geometrical differences between the final part and the original computer generated design. This effect also limits geometries that can be fabricated using AM, such as thin-walled, high-aspect- ratio, and overhanging structures. Distortion may be minimized by intelligent toolpath planning or strategic placement of support structures, but these approaches are not well understood and often "Edisonian" in nature. Residual stresses can also impact component performance during operation. For example, in a thermally cycled environment such as a high-pressure turbine engine, residual stresses can cause components to distort unpredictably. Different thermal treatments on as-fabricated AM components have been used to minimize residual stress, but components still retain a nonhomogeneous stress state and/or demonstrate a relaxation-derived geometric distortion. Industry, federal laboratory, and university collaboration is needed to address these challenges and enable the U.S. to compete in the global market. Work is currently being conducted on AM technologies at the ORNL

  14. Additives in fibers and fabrics.

    PubMed

    Barker, R H

    1975-06-01

    The additives and contaminants which occur in textile fibers vary widely, depending on the type of fiber and the pretreatment which it has received. Synthetic fibers such as nylon and polyester contain trace amounts of contaminants such as catalysts and catalyst deactivators which remain after the synthesis of the basic polymers. In addition, there are frequently a number of materials which are added to perform specific functions in almost all man-made fibers. Examples of these would include traces of metals or metal salts used as tracers for identification of specific lots of fiber, TiO2 or similar materials added as delustrants, and a host of organic species added for such special purposes as antistatic agents or flame retardants. There may also be considerable quantities of residual monomer or small oligomers dissolved in the polymer matrix. The situation becomes even more complex after the fibers are converted into fabric form. Numerous materials are applied at various stages of fabric preparation to act as lubricants, sizing agents, antistats, bleaches, and wetting agents to facilitate the processing, but these are normally removed before the fabric reaches the cutters of the ultimate consumers and therefore usually do not constitute potential hazards. However, there are many other chemical agents which are frequently added during the later stages of fabric preparation and which are not designed to be removed. Aside from dyes and printing pigments, the most common additive for apparel fabrics is a durable press treatment. This generally involves the use of materials capable of crosslinking cellulosics by reacting through such functions as N-methylolated amides or related compounds such as ureas and carbamates. These materials pose some potential hazards due to both the nitrogenous bases and the formaldehyde which they usually release. There is usually also some residual catalyst in fabrics which have received such treatments. Other types of chemical treatments

  15. Additives in fibers and fabrics.

    PubMed Central

    Barker, R H

    1975-01-01

    The additives and contaminants which occur in textile fibers vary widely, depending on the type of fiber and the pretreatment which it has received. Synthetic fibers such as nylon and polyester contain trace amounts of contaminants such as catalysts and catalyst deactivators which remain after the synthesis of the basic polymers. In addition, there are frequently a number of materials which are added to perform specific functions in almost all man-made fibers. Examples of these would include traces of metals or metal salts used as tracers for identification of specific lots of fiber, TiO2 or similar materials added as delustrants, and a host of organic species added for such special purposes as antistatic agents or flame retardants. There may also be considerable quantities of residual monomer or small oligomers dissolved in the polymer matrix. The situation becomes even more complex after the fibers are converted into fabric form. Numerous materials are applied at various stages of fabric preparation to act as lubricants, sizing agents, antistats, bleaches, and wetting agents to facilitate the processing, but these are normally removed before the fabric reaches the cutters of the ultimate consumers and therefore usually do not constitute potential hazards. However, there are many other chemical agents which are frequently added during the later stages of fabric preparation and which are not designed to be removed. Aside from dyes and printing pigments, the most common additive for apparel fabrics is a durable press treatment. This generally involves the use of materials capable of crosslinking cellulosics by reacting through such functions as N-methylolated amides or related compounds such as ureas and carbamates. These materials pose some potential hazards due to both the nitrogenous bases and the formaldehyde which they usually release. There is usually also some residual catalyst in fabrics which have received such treatments. Other types of chemical treatments

  16. RESOLVE Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Ray O.

    2012-01-01

    The RESOLVE project is a lunar prospecting mission whose primary goal is to characterize water and other volatiles in lunar regolith. The Lunar Advanced Volatiles Analysis (LAVA) subsystem is comprised of a fluid subsystem that transports flow to the gas chromatograph- mass spectrometer (GC-MS) instruments that characterize volatiles and the Water Droplet Demonstration (WDD) that will capture and display water condensation in the gas stream. The LAVA Engineering Test Unit (ETU) is undergoing risk reduction testing this summer and fall within a vacuum chamber to understand and characterize C!Jmponent and integrated system performance. Ray will be assisting with component testing of line heaters, printed circuit heaters, pressure transducers, temperature sensors, regulators, and valves in atmospheric and vacuum environments. He will be developing procedures to guide these tests and test reports to analyze and draw conclusions from the data. In addition, he will gain experience with preparing a vacuum chamber with fluid and electrical connections. Further testing will include integrated testing of the fluid subsystem with the gas supply system, near-infrared spectrometer, WDD, Sample Delivery System, and GC-MS in the vacuum chamber. This testing will provide hands-on exposure to a flight forward spaceflight subsystem, the processes associated with testing equipment in a vacuum chamber, and experience working in a laboratory setting. Examples of specific analysis Ray will conduct include: pneumatic analysis to calculate the WOO's efficiency at extracting water vapor from the gas stream to form condensation; thermal analysis of the conduction and radiation along a line connecting two thermal masses; and proportional-integral-derivative (PID) heater control analysis. In this Research and Technology environment, Ray will be asked to problem solve real-time as issues arise. Since LAVA is a scientific subsystem, Ray will be utilizing his chemical engineering background to

  17. Project summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    California Polytechnic State University's design project for the 1990-91 school year was the design of a close air support aircraft. There were eight design groups that participated and were given requests for proposals. These proposals contained mission specifications, particular performance and payload requirements, as well as the main design drivers. The mission specifications called for a single pilot weighing 225 lb with equipment. The design mission profile consisted of the following: (1) warm-up, taxi, take off, and accelerate to cruise speed; (2) dash at sea level at 500 knots to a point 250 nmi from take off; (3) combat phase, requiring two combat passes at 450 knots that each consist of a 360 deg turn and an energy increase of 4000 ft. - at each pass, half of air-to-surface ordnance is released; (4) dash at sea level at 500 knots 250 nmi back to base; and (5) land with 20 min of reserve fuel. The request for proposal also specified the following performance requirements with 50 percent internal fuel and standard stores: (1) the aircraft must be able to accelerate from Mach 0.3 to 0.5 at sea level in less than 20 sec; (2) required turn rates are 4.5 sustained g at 450 knots at sea level; (3) the aircraft must have a reattack time of 25 sec or less (reattack time was defined as the time between the first and second weapon drops); (4) the aircraft is allowed a maximum take off and landing ground roll of 2000 ft. The payload requirements were 20 Mk 82 general-purpose free-fall bombs and racks; 1 GAU-8A 30-mm cannon with 1350 rounds; and 2 AIM-9L Sidewinder missiles and racks. The main design drivers expressed in the request for proposal were that the aircraft should be survivable and maintainable. It must be able to operate in remote areas with little or no maintenance. Simplicity was considered the most important factor in achieving the former goal. In addition, the aircraft must be low cost both in acquisition and operation. The summaries of the aircraft

  18. An Additive Manufacturing Test Artifact.

    PubMed

    Moylan, Shawn; Slotwinski, John; Cooke, April; Jurrens, Kevin; Donmez, M Alkan

    2014-01-01

    A test artifact, intended for standardization, is proposed for the purpose of evaluating the performance of additive manufacturing (AM) systems. A thorough analysis of previously proposed AM test artifacts as well as experience with machining test artifacts have inspired the design of the proposed test artifact. This new artifact is designed to provide a characterization of the capabilities and limitations of an AM system, as well as to allow system improvement by linking specific errors measured in the test artifact to specific sources in the AM system. The proposed test artifact has been built in multiple materials using multiple AM technologies. The results of several of the builds are discussed, demonstrating how the measurement results can be used to characterize and improve a specific AM system. PMID:26601039

  19. An Additive Manufacturing Test Artifact

    PubMed Central

    Moylan, Shawn; Slotwinski, John; Cooke, April; Jurrens, Kevin; Donmez, M Alkan

    2014-01-01

    A test artifact, intended for standardization, is proposed for the purpose of evaluating the performance of additive manufacturing (AM) systems. A thorough analysis of previously proposed AM test artifacts as well as experience with machining test artifacts have inspired the design of the proposed test artifact. This new artifact is designed to provide a characterization of the capabilities and limitations of an AM system, as well as to allow system improvement by linking specific errors measured in the test artifact to specific sources in the AM system. The proposed test artifact has been built in multiple materials using multiple AM technologies. The results of several of the builds are discussed, demonstrating how the measurement results can be used to characterize and improve a specific AM system. PMID:26601039

  20. SIPSEY WILDERNESS AND ADDITIONS, ALABAMA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schweinfurth, Stanley P.; Mory, Peter C.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of geologic, geochemical, and mineral surveys the Sipsey Wilderness and additions are deemed to have little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral resources. Although limestone, shale, and sandstone resources that occur in the area are physically suitable for a variety of uses, similar materials are available outside the area closer to transportation routes and potential markets. A small amount of coal has been identified in the area, occurring as nonpersistent beds less than 28 in. thick. Oil and (or) natural gas resources may be present if suitable structural traps exist in the subsurface. Therefore, the area has a probable oil and gas potential. Small amounts of asphaltic sandstone and limestone, commonly referred to as tar sands, may also occur in the subsurface. 5 refs.

  1. An Additive Manufacturing Test Artifact.

    PubMed

    Moylan, Shawn; Slotwinski, John; Cooke, April; Jurrens, Kevin; Donmez, M Alkan

    2014-01-01

    A test artifact, intended for standardization, is proposed for the purpose of evaluating the performance of additive manufacturing (AM) systems. A thorough analysis of previously proposed AM test artifacts as well as experience with machining test artifacts have inspired the design of the proposed test artifact. This new artifact is designed to provide a characterization of the capabilities and limitations of an AM system, as well as to allow system improvement by linking specific errors measured in the test artifact to specific sources in the AM system. The proposed test artifact has been built in multiple materials using multiple AM technologies. The results of several of the builds are discussed, demonstrating how the measurement results can be used to characterize and improve a specific AM system.

  2. A novel addition polyimide adhesive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.clair, T. L.; Progar, D. J.

    1981-01-01

    An addition polyimide adhesive, LARC 13, was developed which shows promise for bonding both titanium and composites for applications which require service temperatures in excess of 533 K. The LARC 13 is based on an oligomeric bis nadimide containing a meta linked aromatic diamine. The adhesive melts prior to polymerization due to its oligomeric nature, thereby allowing it to be processed at 344 kPa or less. Therefore, LARC 13 is ideal for the bonding of honeycomb sandwich structures. After melting, the resin thermosets during the cure of the nadic endcaps to a highly crosslinked system. Few volatiles are evolved, thus allowing large enclosed structures to be bonded. Preparation of the adhesive as well as bonding, aging, and testing of lap shear and honeycomb samples are discussed.

  3. Examination of the relationship between project management critical success factors and project success of oil and gas drilling projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alagba, Tonye J.

    Oil and gas drilling projects are the primary means by which oil companies recover large volumes of commercially available hydrocarbons from deep reservoirs. These types of projects are complex in nature, involving management of multiple stakeholder interfaces, multidisciplinary personnel, complex contractor relationships, and turbulent environmental and market conditions, necessitating the application of proven project management best practices and critical success factors (CSFs) to achieve success. Although there is some practitioner oriented literature on project management CSFs for drilling projects, none of these is based on empirical evidence, from research. In addition, the literature has reported alarming rates of oil and gas drilling project failure, which is attributable not to technical factors, but to failure of project management. The aim of this quantitative correlational study therefore, was to discover an empirically verified list of project management CSFs, which consistent application leads to successful implementation of oil and gas drilling projects. The study collected survey data online, from a random sample of 127 oil and gas drilling personnel who were members of LinkedIn's online community "Drilling Supervisors, Managers, and Engineers". The results of the study indicated that 10 project management factors are individually related to project success of oil and gas drilling projects. These 10 CSFs are namely; Project mission, Top management support, Project schedule/plan, Client consultation, Personnel, Technical tasks, Client acceptance, Monitoring and feedback, Communication, and Troubleshooting. In addition, the study found that the relationships between the 10 CSFs and drilling project success is unaffected by participant and project demographics---role of project personnel, and project location. The significance of these findings are both practical, and theoretical. Practically, application of an empirically verified CSFs list to oil

  4. Project Reptile!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diffily, Deborah

    2001-01-01

    Integrating curriculum is important in helping children make connections within and among areas. Presents a class project for kindergarten children which came out of the students' interests and desire to build a reptile exhibit. (ASK)

  5. Project Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Architectural Education, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Fellows of the Association of Collegiate Schools of Architecture Environmental Experience Stipends Program describe their project activities for 1973-74 including: an inservice course for teachers, television programs, graduate courses, high school courses, and workshops. (Author/PG)

  6. Alzheimer's Project

    MedlinePlus

    ... about the films on our message board . Watch films free online now "The Memory Loss Tapes" (85 ... ALZHEIMER'S PROJECT" is a presentation of HBO Documentary Films and the National Institute on Aging at the ...

  7. Geodynamics Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, Charles L.

    1977-01-01

    Describes activities of Geodynamics Project of the Federal Council on Science and Technology, such as the application of multichannel seismic-reflection techniques to study the nature of the deep crust and upper mantle. (MLH)

  8. Adverse reactions to food additives.

    PubMed

    Simon, R A

    1986-01-01

    There are thousands of agents that are intentionally added to the food that we consume. These include preservatives, stabilizers, conditioners, thickeners, colorings, flavorings, sweeteners, antioxidants, etc. etc. Yet only a surprisingly small number have been associated with hypersensitivity reactions. Amongst all the additives, FD&C dyes have been most frequently associated with adverse reactions. Tartrazine is the most notorious of them all; however, critical review of the medical literature and current Scripps Clinic studies would indicate that tartrazine has been confirmed to be at best only occasionally associated with flares of urticaria or asthma. There is no convincing evidence in the literature of reactivity to the other azo or nonazo dyes. This can also be said of BHA/BHT, nitrites/nitrates and sorbates. Parabens have been shown to elicit IgE mediated hypersensitivity reactions when used as pharmaceutical preservatives; however, as with the other additives noted above, ingested parabens have only occasionally been associated with adverse reactions. MSG, the cause of the 'Chinese restaurant syndrome' has only been linked to asthma in one report. Sulfiting agents used primarily as food fresheners and to control microbial growth in fermented beverages have been established as the cause of any where from mild to severe and even fatal reactions in at least 5% of the asthmatic population. Other reactions reported to follow sulfite ingestion include anaphylaxis, gastro intestinal complaints and dermatological eruptions. The prevalence of these non asthmatic reactions is unknown. The mechanism of sulfite sensitive asthma is also unknown but most likely involves hyperreactivity to inhale SO2 in the great majority of cases; however, there are reports of IgE mediated reactions and other sulfite sensitive asthmatics have been found with low levels of sulfite oxidase; necessary to oxidize endogenous sulfite to sulfate.

  9. Ozone Pollution, Transport and Variability: Examples from Satellite and In-Situ Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne

    2003-01-01

    Regional and intercontinental transport of ozone has been observed from satellite, aircraft and sounding data. Over the past several years, we have developed new tropospheric ozone retrieval techniques from the TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) satellite instrument that are of sufficient resolution to follow pollution episodes. The modified-residual technique uses Level 2 total ozone and was used to follow the 1997 fires in the wake of the El-Nino-related fires in southeast Asia and the Indonesian maritime continent. The TOMS-direct method ('TDOT' = TOMS Direct Ozone in the Troposphere) is a newer algorithm that uses TOMS radiances directly to extract tropospheric ozone. Ozonesonde data that have been taken in campaigns (e.g. TRACE-P) and more consistently in the SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes) project, reveal layers of pollution traceable with trajectories. Examples will be shown of long-range transport and recirculation over Africa during SAFARI-2000.

  10. Additive attacks on speaker recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrokh Baroughi, Alireza; Craver, Scott

    2014-02-01

    Speaker recognition is used to identify a speaker's voice from among a group of known speakers. A common method of speaker recognition is a classification based on cepstral coefficients of the speaker's voice, using a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) to model each speaker. In this paper we try to fool a speaker recognition system using additive noise such that an intruder is recognized as a target user. Our attack uses a mixture selected from a target user's GMM model, inverting the cepstral transformation to produce noise samples. In our 5 speaker data base, we achieve an attack success rate of 50% with a noise signal at 10dB SNR, and 95% by increasing noise power to 0dB SNR. The importance of this attack is its simplicity and flexibility: it can be employed in real time with no processing of an attacker's voice, and little computation is needed at the moment of detection, allowing the attack to be performed by a small portable device. For any target user, knowing that user's model or voice sample is sufficient to compute the attack signal, and it is enough that the intruder plays it while he/she is uttering to be classiffed as the victim.

  11. Additive Transforms Paint into Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Tech Traders Inc. sought assistance developing low-cost, highly effective coatings and paints that created useful thermal reflectance and were safe and non-toxic. In cooperation with a group of engineers at Kennedy Space Center., Tech Traders created Insuladd, a powder additive made up of microscopic, inert gas-filled, ceramic microspheres that can be mixed into ordinary interior or exterior paint, allowing the paint to act like a layer of insulation. When the paint dries, this forms a radiant heat barrier, turning the ordinary house paint into heat-reflecting thermal paint. According to Tech Traders, the product works with all types of paints and coatings and will not change the coverage rate, application, or adhesion of the paint. Other useful applications include feed storage silos to help prevent feed spoilage, poultry hatcheries to reduce the summer heat and winter cold effects, and on military vehicles and ships. Tech Traders has continued its connection to the aerospace community by recently providing Lockheed Martin Corporation with one of its thermal products for use on the F-22 Raptor.

  12. Sustainability Characterization for Additive Manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Mani, Mahesh; Lyons, Kevin W; Gupta, SK

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has the potential to create geometrically complex parts that require a high degree of customization, using less material and producing less waste. Recent studies have shown that AM can be an economically viable option for use by the industry, yet there are some inherent challenges associated with AM for wider acceptance. The lack of standards in AM impedes its use for parts production since industries primarily depend on established standards in processes and material selection to ensure the consistency and quality. Inability to compare AM performance against traditional manufacturing methods can be a barrier for implementing AM processes. AM process sustainability has become a driver due to growing environmental concerns for manufacturing. This has reinforced the importance to understand and characterize AM processes for sustainability. Process characterization for sustainability will help close the gaps for comparing AM performance to traditional manufacturing methods. Based on a literature review, this paper first examines the potential environmental impacts of AM. A methodology for sustainability characterization of AM is then proposed to serve as a resource for the community to benchmark AM processes for sustainability. Next, research perspectives are discussed along with relevant standardization efforts. PMID:26601038

  13. Additively manufactured porous tantalum implants.

    PubMed

    Wauthle, Ruben; van der Stok, Johan; Amin Yavari, Saber; Van Humbeeck, Jan; Kruth, Jean-Pierre; Zadpoor, Amir Abbas; Weinans, Harrie; Mulier, Michiel; Schrooten, Jan

    2015-03-01

    The medical device industry's interest in open porous, metallic biomaterials has increased in response to additive manufacturing techniques enabling the production of complex shapes that cannot be produced with conventional techniques. Tantalum is an important metal for medical devices because of its good biocompatibility. In this study selective laser melting technology was used for the first time to manufacture highly porous pure tantalum implants with fully interconnected open pores. The architecture of the porous structure in combination with the material properties of tantalum result in mechanical properties close to those of human bone and allow for bone ingrowth. The bone regeneration performance of the porous tantalum was evaluated in vivo using an orthotopic load-bearing bone defect model in the rat femur. After 12 weeks, substantial bone ingrowth, good quality of the regenerated bone and a strong, functional implant-bone interface connection were observed. Compared to identical porous Ti-6Al-4V structures, laser-melted tantalum shows excellent osteoconductive properties, has a higher normalized fatigue strength and allows for more plastic deformation due to its high ductility. It is therefore concluded that this is a first step towards a new generation of open porous tantalum implants manufactured using selective laser melting.

  14. Additively manufactured porous tantalum implants.

    PubMed

    Wauthle, Ruben; van der Stok, Johan; Amin Yavari, Saber; Van Humbeeck, Jan; Kruth, Jean-Pierre; Zadpoor, Amir Abbas; Weinans, Harrie; Mulier, Michiel; Schrooten, Jan

    2015-03-01

    The medical device industry's interest in open porous, metallic biomaterials has increased in response to additive manufacturing techniques enabling the production of complex shapes that cannot be produced with conventional techniques. Tantalum is an important metal for medical devices because of its good biocompatibility. In this study selective laser melting technology was used for the first time to manufacture highly porous pure tantalum implants with fully interconnected open pores. The architecture of the porous structure in combination with the material properties of tantalum result in mechanical properties close to those of human bone and allow for bone ingrowth. The bone regeneration performance of the porous tantalum was evaluated in vivo using an orthotopic load-bearing bone defect model in the rat femur. After 12 weeks, substantial bone ingrowth, good quality of the regenerated bone and a strong, functional implant-bone interface connection were observed. Compared to identical porous Ti-6Al-4V structures, laser-melted tantalum shows excellent osteoconductive properties, has a higher normalized fatigue strength and allows for more plastic deformation due to its high ductility. It is therefore concluded that this is a first step towards a new generation of open porous tantalum implants manufactured using selective laser melting. PMID:25500631

  15. Sustainability Characterization for Additive Manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Mani, Mahesh; Lyons, Kevin W; Gupta, S K

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has the potential to create geometrically complex parts that require a high degree of customization, using less material and producing less waste. Recent studies have shown that AM can be an economically viable option for use by the industry, yet there are some inherent challenges associated with AM for wider acceptance. The lack of standards in AM impedes its use for parts production since industries primarily depend on established standards in processes and material selection to ensure the consistency and quality. Inability to compare AM performance against traditional manufacturing methods can be a barrier for implementing AM processes. AM process sustainability has become a driver due to growing environmental concerns for manufacturing. This has reinforced the importance to understand and characterize AM processes for sustainability. Process characterization for sustainability will help close the gaps for comparing AM performance to traditional manufacturing methods. Based on a literature review, this paper first examines the potential environmental impacts of AM. A methodology for sustainability characterization of AM is then proposed to serve as a resource for the community to benchmark AM processes for sustainability. Next, research perspectives are discussed along with relevant standardization efforts.

  16. Maximum Capital Project Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Matt

    2002-01-01

    Describes the stages of capital project planning and development: (1) individual capital project submission; (2) capital project proposal assessment; (3) executive committee; and (4) capital project execution. (EV)

  17. Adapting Project Management Practices to Research-Based Projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahr, P.; Baker, T.; Corbin, B.; Keith, L.; Loerch, L.; Mullenax, C.; Myers, R.; Rhodes, B.; Skytland, N.

    2007-01-01

    From dealing with the inherent uncertainties in outcomes of scientific research to the lack of applicability of current NASA Procedural Requirements guidance documentation, research-based projects present challenges that require unique application of classical project management techniques. If additionally challenged by the creation of a new program transitioning from basic to applied research in a technical environment often unfamiliar with the cost and schedule constraints addressed by project management practices, such projects can find themselves struggling throughout their life cycles. Finally, supplying deliverables to a prime vehicle customer, also in the formative stage, adds further complexity to the development and management of research-based projects. The Biomedical Research and Countermeasures Projects Branch at NASA Johnson Space Center encompasses several diverse applied research-based or research-enabling projects within the newly-formed Human Research Program. This presentation will provide a brief overview of the organizational structure and environment in which these projects operate and how the projects coordinate to address and manage technical requirements. We will identify several of the challenges (cost, technical, schedule, and personnel) encountered by projects across the Branch, present case reports of actions taken and techniques implemented to deal with these challenges, and then close the session with an open forum discussion of remaining challenges and potential mitigations.

  18. 7 CFR 2903.6 - Project types.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Project types. 2903.6 Section 2903.6 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE BIODIESEL FUEL EDUCATION PROGRAM Program Description § 2903.6 Project types. OEPNU intends to... predetermined project period with a statement of intention to provide additional support at a future...

  19. 31 CFR 515.575 - Humanitarian projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Humanitarian projects. 515.575 Section..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.575 Humanitarian projects. Specific licenses may be... such additional transactions as are directly incident to certain humanitarian projects in or related...

  20. 7 CFR 2903.6 - Project types.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Project types. 2903.6 Section 2903.6 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE BIODIESEL FUEL EDUCATION PROGRAM Program Description § 2903.6 Project types. OEPNU intends to... predetermined project period with a statement of intention to provide additional support at a future...

  1. 7 CFR 2903.6 - Project types.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Project types. 2903.6 Section 2903.6 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE BIODIESEL FUEL EDUCATION PROGRAM Program Description § 2903.6 Project types. OEPNU intends to... predetermined project period with a statement of intention to provide additional support at a future...

  2. 7 CFR 3430.57 - Project meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Project meetings. 3430.57 Section 3430.57 Agriculture... Post-Award and Closeout § 3430.57 Project meetings. In addition to reviewing (and monitoring the status... sharing of project results. These opportunities also serve to eliminate or minimize NIFA funding...

  3. 7 CFR 3430.57 - Project meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Project meetings. 3430.57 Section 3430.57 Agriculture... Post-Award and Closeout § 3430.57 Project meetings. In addition to reviewing (and monitoring the status... sharing of project results. These opportunities also serve to eliminate or minimize NIFA funding...

  4. 31 CFR 515.575 - Humanitarian projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Humanitarian projects. 515.575 Section..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.575 Humanitarian projects. Specific licenses may be... such additional transactions as are directly incident to certain humanitarian projects in or related...

  5. 31 CFR 515.575 - Humanitarian projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Humanitarian projects. 515.575 Section..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.575 Humanitarian projects. Specific licenses may be... such additional transactions as are directly incident to certain humanitarian projects in or related...

  6. Implementing Large Projects in Software Engineering Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coppit, David

    2006-01-01

    In software engineering education, large projects are widely recognized as a useful way of exposing students to the real-world difficulties of team software development. But large projects are difficult to put into practice. First, educators rarely have additional time to manage software projects. Second, classrooms have inherent limitations that…

  7. Projections of Education Statistics to 2007.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerald, Debra E.; Hussar, William J.

    "Projections of Education Statistics to 2007" is the 26th report in a series begun in 1964 that revises projections annually to show statistics on elementary and secondary schools and institutions of higher education at the national level. Included are projections for enrollment, graduates, classroom teachers, and expenditures. In addition, this…

  8. The Organizational Phase of Project Open Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Donald; Weaver, Shari

    The Yale University Library is now organized to move ahead with Project Open Book, the conversion of 10,000 books from microfilm to digital imagery. In the first phase of the Project--the organizational phase--a Steering Committee was established that included several faculty members, and a project team was created. In addition, Yale conducted a…

  9. 7 CFR 3430.57 - Project meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Project meetings. 3430.57 Section 3430.57 Agriculture...-GENERAL AWARD ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS Post-Award and Closeout § 3430.57 Project meetings. In addition to... facilitate communication and the sharing of project results. These opportunities also serve to eliminate...

  10. 43 CFR 418.29 - Project management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Project management. 418.29 Section 418.29... INTERIOR OPERATING CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR THE NEWLANDS RECLAMATION PROJECT, NEVADA Enforcement § 418.29 Project management. In addition to the provisions of § 418.28, if the District is found to...

  11. 43 CFR 418.29 - Project management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Project management. 418.29 Section 418.29... INTERIOR OPERATING CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR THE NEWLANDS RECLAMATION PROJECT, NEVADA Enforcement § 418.29 Project management. In addition to the provisions of § 418.28, if the District is found to...

  12. 43 CFR 418.29 - Project management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Project management. 418.29 Section 418.29... INTERIOR OPERATING CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR THE NEWLANDS RECLAMATION PROJECT, NEVADA Enforcement § 418.29 Project management. In addition to the provisions of § 418.28, if the District is found to...

  13. 43 CFR 418.29 - Project management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Project management. 418.29 Section 418.29... INTERIOR OPERATING CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR THE NEWLANDS RECLAMATION PROJECT, NEVADA Enforcement § 418.29 Project management. In addition to the provisions of § 418.28, if the District is found to...

  14. 43 CFR 418.29 - Project management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Project management. 418.29 Section 418.29... INTERIOR OPERATING CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR THE NEWLANDS RECLAMATION PROJECT, NEVADA Enforcement § 418.29 Project management. In addition to the provisions of § 418.28, if the District is found to...

  15. 7 CFR 3430.57 - Project meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Project meetings. 3430.57 Section 3430.57 Agriculture... Post-Award and Closeout § 3430.57 Project meetings. In addition to reviewing (and monitoring the status... sharing of project results. These opportunities also serve to eliminate or minimize CSREES...

  16. 7 CFR 3430.57 - Project meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Project meetings. 3430.57 Section 3430.57 Agriculture... Post-Award and Closeout § 3430.57 Project meetings. In addition to reviewing (and monitoring the status... sharing of project results. These opportunities also serve to eliminate or minimize NIFA funding...

  17. LLAMA Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnal, E. M.; Abraham, Z.; Giménez de Castro, G.; de Gouveia dal Pino, E. M.; Larrarte, J. J.; Lepine, J.; Morras, R.; Viramonte, J.

    2014-10-01

    The project LLAMA, acronym of Long Latin American Millimetre Array is very briefly described in this paper. This project is a joint scientific and technological undertaking of Argentina and Brazil on the basis of an equal investment share, whose mail goal is both to install and to operate an observing facility capable of exploring the Universe at millimetre and sub/millimetre wavelengths. This facility will be erected in the argentinean province of Salta, in a site located at 4830m above sea level.

  18. Cloudnet Project

    DOE Data Explorer

    Hogan, Robin

    2008-01-15

    Cloudnet is a research project supported by the European Commission. This project aims to use data obtained quasi-continuously for the development and implementation of cloud remote sensing synergy algorithms. The use of active instruments (lidar and radar) results in detailed vertical profiles of important cloud parameters which cannot be derived from current satellite sensing techniques. A network of three already existing cloud remote sensing stations (CRS-stations) will be operated for a two year period, activities will be co-ordinated, data formats harmonised and analysis of the data performed to evaluate the representation of clouds in four major european weather forecast models.

  19. Additional EIPC Study Analysis. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, Stanton W; Gotham, Douglas J.; Luciani, Ralph L.

    2014-12-01

    Between 2010 and 2012 the Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative (EIPC) conducted a major long-term resource and transmission study of the Eastern Interconnection (EI). With guidance from a Stakeholder Steering Committee (SSC) that included representatives from the Eastern Interconnection States Planning Council (EISPC) among others, the project was conducted in two phases. Phase 1 involved a long-term capacity expansion analysis that involved creation of eight major futures plus 72 sensitivities. Three scenarios were selected for more extensive transmission- focused evaluation in Phase 2. Five power flow analyses, nine production cost model runs (including six sensitivities), and three capital cost estimations were developed during this second phase. The results from Phase 1 and 2 provided a wealth of data that could be examined further to address energy-related questions. A list of 14 topics was developed for further analysis. This paper brings together the earlier interim reports of the first 13 topics plus one additional topic into a single final report.

  20. Additive Manufacturing of Ultem Polymers and Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuang, Kathy C.; Grady, Joseph E.; Draper, Robert D.; Shin, Euy-Sik E.; Patterson, Clark; Santelle, Thomas D.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this project was to conduct additive manufacturing to produce aircraft engine components by Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM), using commercially available polyetherimdes Ultem 9085 and experimental Ultem 1000 filled with 10 chopped carbon fiber. A property comparison between FDM-printed and injection molded coupons for Ultem 9085, Ultem 1000 resin and the fiber-filled composite Ultem 1000 was carried out. Furthermore, an acoustic liner was printed from Ultem 9085 simulating conventional honeycomb structured liners and tested in a wind tunnel. Composite compressor inlet guide vanes were also printed using fiber-filled Ultem 1000 filaments and tested in a cascade rig. The fiber-filled Ultem 1000 filaments and composite vanes were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and acid digestion to determine the porosity of FDM-printed articles which ranged from 25-31. Coupons of Ultem 9085, experimental Ultem 1000 composites and XH6050 resin were tested at room temperature and 400F to evaluate their corresponding mechanical properties.

  1. Computational Process Modeling for Additive Manufacturing (OSU)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagg, Stacey; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Powder-Bed Additive Manufacturing (AM) through Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) or Selective Laser Melting (SLM) is being used by NASA and the Aerospace industry to "print" parts that traditionally are very complex, high cost, or long schedule lead items. The process spreads a thin layer of metal powder over a build platform, then melts the powder in a series of welds in a desired shape. The next layer of powder is applied, and the process is repeated until layer-by-layer, a very complex part can be built. This reduces cost and schedule by eliminating very complex tooling and processes traditionally used in aerospace component manufacturing. To use the process to print end-use items, NASA seeks to understand SLM material well enough to develop a method of qualifying parts for space flight operation. Traditionally, a new material process takes many years and high investment to generate statistical databases and experiential knowledge, but computational modeling can truncate the schedule and cost -many experiments can be run quickly in a model, which would take years and a high material cost to run empirically. This project seeks to optimize material build parameters with reduced time and cost through modeling.

  2. Spent Nuclear Fuel project, project management plan

    SciTech Connect

    Fuquay, B.J.

    1995-10-25

    The Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel Project has been established to safely store spent nuclear fuel at the Hanford Site. This Project Management Plan sets forth the management basis for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project. The plan applies to all fabrication and construction projects, operation of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project facilities, and necessary engineering and management functions within the scope of the project

  3. Project Boomerang

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Allen L.

    1975-01-01

    Describes an experimental project on boomerangs designed for an undergraduate course in classical mechanics. The students designed and made their own boomerangs, devised their own procedures, and carried out suitable measurements. Presents some of their data and a simple analysis for the two-bladed boomerang. (Author/MLH)

  4. Project SUCCEED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarger, Sam; Klingner, Janette

    This paper describes Project SUCCEED (School University Community Coalition for Excellence in Education). The coalition includes the University of Miami School of Education, the University of Miami College of Arts and Sciences, Miami-Dade County Public Schools, and the Miami Museum of Science. The goal is to provide a comprehensive approach to…

  5. Project COLD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazanjian, Wendy C.

    1982-01-01

    Describes Project COLD (Climate, Ocean, Land, Discovery) a scientific study of the Polar Regions, a collection of 35 modules used within the framework of existing subjects: oceanography, biology, geology, meterology, geography, social science. Includes a partial list of topics and one activity (geodesic dome) from a module. (Author/SK)

  6. Project Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Listed and described are student A-level biology projects in the following areas: Angiosperm studies (e.g., factors affecting growth of various plants), 7; Bacterial studies, 1; Insect studies, 2; Fish studies, 1; Mammal studies, 1; Human studies, 1; Synecology studies, 2; Environmental studies, 2; and Enzyme studies, 1. (CS)

  7. Project Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Listed are 32 biology A-level projects, categorized by organisms studied as follows: algae (1), bryophytes (1), angiosperms (14), fungi (1), flatworms (1), annelids (2), molluscs (1), crustaceans (2), insects (4), fish (2), mammals (1), humans (1); and one synecological study. (CS)

  8. Viticultural Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaminske, Volker

    2005-01-01

    The EU offers opportunities to schools - within the Comenius Programme - to develop and implement specific studies in which pedagogical, lingual and science-oriented objectives can be internationally combined if schools from at least three European countries are ready to share in a common project. Geography seems to be especially suited for such…

  9. Project Reconstruct.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helisek, Harriet; Pratt, Donald

    1994-01-01

    Presents a project in which students monitor their use of trash, input and analyze information via a database and computerized graphs, and "reconstruct" extinct or endangered animals from recyclable materials. The activity was done with second-grade students over a period of three to four weeks. (PR)

  10. Thanksgiving Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilden, Pauline

    1976-01-01

    A teacher describes a Thanksgiving project in which 40 educable mentally retarded students (6-13 years old) made and served their own dinner of stew, butter, bread, ice cream, and pie, and in the process learned about social studies, cooking, and proper meal behavior. (CL)

  11. Projected Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Mark Alan

    2006-01-01

    This article presents the idea behind Projected Identities, an art activity wherein students fuse art-making processes and digital image manipulations in a series of exploratory artistic self-examinations. At some point in every person's life they've been told something hard to forget. Students might, for example, translate phrases like, "Good…

  12. Project CAST.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles County Board of Education, La Plata, MD. Office of Special Education.

    The document outlines procedures for implementing Project CAST (Community and School Together), a community-based career education program for secondary special education students in Charles County, Maryland. Initial sections discuss the role of a learning coordinator, (including relevant travel reimbursement and mileage forms) and an overview of…

  13. Project Narrative

    SciTech Connect

    Driscoll, Mary C.

    2012-07-12

    The Project Narrative describes how the funds from the DOE grant were used to purchase equipment for the biology, chemistry, physics and mathematics departments. The Narrative also describes how the equipment is being used. There is also a list of the positive outcomes as a result of having the equipment that was purchased with the DOE grant.

  14. Project Succeed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, John

    Project Succeed is a program for helping failure- and dropout-oriented pupils to improve their school achievement. Attendance and assignment completion are the key behaviors for enhancing achievement. Behavior modification and communications procedures are used to bring about the desired changes. Treatment procedures include current assessment…

  15. Project Katrina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aghayan, Carol; Schellhaas, Andree; Wayne, Angela; Burts, Diane C.; Buchanan, Teresa K.; Benedict, Joan

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a spontaneous project that emerged from a group of 3- and 4-year-old children in Louisiana after Hurricane Katrina. The article describes how the teachers adapted the classroom and curriculum to meet the diverse needs of children who were evacuees, as well as those children who were affected in other ways by the…

  16. Limnological Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hambler, David J.; Dixon, Jean M.

    1982-01-01

    Describes collection of quantitative samples of microorganisms and accumulation of physical data from a pond over a year. Provides examples of how final-year degree students have used materials and data for ecological projects (involving mainly algae), including their results/conclusions. Also describes apparatus and reagents used in the student…

  17. Enrollment Projections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, John

    2000-01-01

    Higher education enrollment is going through a transition. Between 1992 and 1998, the enrollment growth rate has been nearly flat, but the National Center for Education Statistics now projects that enrollment will increase by 1.4% annually during the next decade. Not every college and university will realize this growth. The traditional college…

  18. Cognitive Education Project. Summary Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulcahy, Robert; And Others

    The Cognitive Education Project conducted a 3-year longitudinal evaluation of two cognitive education programs that were aimed at teaching thinking skills. The critical difference between the two experimental programs was that one, Feuerstein's Instrumental Enrichment (IE) method, was taught out of curricular content, while the other, the…

  19. SIMBIOS Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fargion, Giulietta S.; McClain, Charles R.; Busalacchi, Antonio J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this technical report is to provide current documentation of the Sensor Intercomparison and Merger for Biological and Interdisciplinary Oceanic Studies (SIMBIOS) Project activities, NASA Research Announcement (NRAI) research status, satellite data processing, data product validation, and field calibration. This documentation is necessary to ensure that critical information is related to the scientific community and NASA management. This critical information includes the technical difficulties and challenges of validating and combining ocean color data from an array of independent satellite systems to form consistent and accurate global bio-optical time series products. This technical report is not meant as a substitute for scientific literature. Instead, it will provide a ready and responsive vehicle for the multitude of technical reports issued by an operational project.

  20. Project summaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Lunar base projects, including a reconfigurable lunar cargo launcher, a thermal and micrometeorite protection system, a versatile lifting machine with robotic capabilities, a cargo transport system, the design of a road construction system for a lunar base, and the design of a device for removing lunar dust from material surfaces, are discussed. The emphasis on the Gulf of Mexico project was on the development of a computer simulation model for predicting vessel station keeping requirements. An existing code, used in predicting station keeping requirements for oil drilling platforms operating in North Shore (Alaska) waters was used as a basis for the computer simulation. Modifications were made to the existing code. The input into the model consists of satellite altimeter readings and water velocity readings from buoys stationed in the Gulf of Mexico. The satellite data consists of altimeter readings (wave height) taken during the spring of 1989. The simulation model predicts water velocity and direction, and wind velocity.

  1. Project Prometheus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Steve

    2003-01-01

    Project Prometheus will enable a new paradigm in the scientific exploration of the Solar System. The proposed JIMO mission will start a new generation of missions characterized by more maneuverability, flexibility, power and lifetime. Project Prometheus organization is established at NASA Headquarters: 1.Organization established to carry out development of JIMO, nuclear power (radioisotope), and nuclear propulsion research. 2.Completed broad technology and national capacity assessments to inform decision making on planning and technology development. 3.Awarded five NRA s for nuclear propulsion research. 4.Radioisotope power systems in development, and Plutonium-238 being purchased from Russia. 5.Formulated science driven near-term and long-term plan for the safe utilization of nuclear propulsion based missions. 6.Completed preliminary studies (Pre-Phase A) of JIMO and other missions. 7.Initiated JIMO Phase A studies by Contractors and NASA.

  2. Project MEDSAT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    During the winter term of 1991, two design courses at the University of Michigan worked on a joint project, MEDSAT. The two design teams consisted of the Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Spacite System Design and Aerospace Engineering 483 (Aero 483) Aerospace System Design. In collaboration, they worked to produce MEDSAT, a satellite and scientific payload whose purpose was to monitor environmental conditions over Chiapas, Mexico. Information gained from the sensing, combined with regional data, would be used to determine the potential for malaria occurrence in that area. The responsibilities of AOSS 605 consisted of determining the remote sensing techniques, the data processing, and the method to translate the information into a usable output. Aero 483 developed the satellite configuration and the subsystems required for the satellite to accomplish its task. The MEDSAT project is an outgrowth of work already being accomplished by NASA's Biospheric and Disease Monitoring Program and Ames Research Center. NASA's work has been to develop remote sensing techniques to determine the abundance of disease carriers and now this project will place the techniques aboard a satellite. MEDSAT will be unique in its use of both a Synthetic Aperture Radar and visual/IR sensor to obtain comprehensive monitoring of the site. In order to create a highly feasible system, low cost was a high priority. To obtain this goal, a light satellite configuration launched by the Pegasus launch vehicle was used.

  3. Project MEDSAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    During the winter term of 1991, two design courses at the University of Michigan worked on a joint project, MEDSAT. The two design teams consisted of the Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Spacite System Design and Aerospace Engineering 483 (Aero 483) Aerospace System Design. In collaboration, they worked to produce MEDSAT, a satellite and scientific payload whose purpose was to monitor environmental conditions over Chiapas, Mexico. Information gained from the sensing, combined with regional data, would be used to determine the potential for malaria occurrence in that area. The responsibilities of AOSS 605 consisted of determining the remote sensing techniques, the data processing, and the method to translate the information into a usable output. Aero 483 developed the satellite configuration and the subsystems required for the satellite to accomplish its task. The MEDSAT project is an outgrowth of work already being accomplished by NASA's Biospheric and Disease Monitoring Program and Ames Research Center. NASA's work has been to develop remote sensing techniques to determine the abundance of disease carriers and now this project will place the techniques aboard a satellite. MEDSAT will be unique in its use of both a Synthetic Aperture Radar and visual/IR sensor to obtain comprehensive monitoring of the site. In order to create a highly feasible system, low cost was a high priority. To obtain this goal, a light satellite configuration launched by the Pegasus launch vehicle was used.

  4. Evaluation of Additive Manufacturing for Composite Part Molds

    SciTech Connect

    Duty, Chad E.; Springfield, Robert M.

    2015-02-01

    The ORNL Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) collaborated with Tru-Design to test the quality and durability of molds used for making fiber reinforced composites using additive manufacturing. The partners developed surface treatment techniques including epoxy coatings and machining to improve the quality of the surface finish. Test samples made using the printed and surface finished molds demonstrated life spans suitable for one-of-a-kind and low-volume applications, meeting the project objective.

  5. Additional potential for older, Antrim Shale wells

    SciTech Connect

    Frantz, J.H. Jr.; Hopkins, C.W.; Hill, D.G.

    1995-09-01

    The Gas Research Institute (GRI) has been performing evaluations to estimate the recompletion and restimulation potential in older, Antrim Shale wells. The recompletion potential is two-fold: (1) wells that can be deepened to the productive Norwood interval, and (2) wells with Upper Antrim potential. There are also numerous restimulation candidates due to sand flowback and/or other problems. The Antrim Shale is an organic-rich naturally fractured formation which produces both gas and water. Operators today typically complete the Lachine and Norwood intervals but many older wells were not drilled deep enough to encounter to Norwood. We performed an evaluation to determine the optimal deepening method using actual and simulated data. We estimate there are over 500 deepening candidates with total potential reserve additions of 50 Bscf. The Upper antrim formation can be added in approximately 1,500 existing wells throughout several counties. This interval is uphole from the Lachine and Norwood. In this phase of the project, we collected production and reservoir data from several Upper Antrim tests across the basin. We estimate the Upper Antrim could add total new reserves of 100 to 200 Bscf from al the recompletion candidates across the basin. In the restimulation evaluation, we developed a novel injection test unit to help operators identify the best restimulation candidates in a cost effective manner. The injection test determines if an effective hydraulic fracture is connected to the wellbore. Based on 60 test wells, we estimate the restimulations could add 50 to 200 Bscf of future reserves from the 500 to 1,000 candidate wells.

  6. NREL Smart Grid Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Hambrick, J.

    2012-01-01

    Although implementing Smart Grid projects at the distribution level provides many advantages and opportunities for advanced operation and control, a number of significant challenges must be overcome to maintain the high level of safety and reliability that the modern grid must provide. For example, while distributed generation (DG) promises to provide opportunities to increase reliability and efficiency and may provide grid support services such as volt/var control, the presence of DG can impact distribution operation and protection schemes. Additionally, the intermittent nature of many DG energy sources such as photovoltaics (PV) can present a number of challenges to voltage regulation, etc. This presentation provides an overview a number of Smart Grid projects being performed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) along with utility, industry, and academic partners. These projects include modeling and analysis of high penetration PV scenarios (with and without energy storage), development and testing of interconnection and microgrid equipment, as well as the development and implementation of advanced instrumentation and data acquisition used to analyze the impacts of intermittent renewable resources. Additionally, standards development associated with DG interconnection and analysis as well as Smart Grid interoperability will be discussed.

  7. 16 CFR 1102.16 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... PUBLICLY AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE Content Requirements § 1102.16 Additional... in the Database any additional information it determines to be in the public interest,...

  8. 16 CFR 1102.16 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... PUBLICLY AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE Content Requirements § 1102.16 Additional... in the Database any additional information it determines to be in the public interest,...

  9. 16 CFR 1102.16 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... PUBLICLY AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE Content Requirements § 1102.16 Additional... in the Database any additional information it determines to be in the public interest,...

  10. The MERMAID project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowderoy, A. J. C.; Jenkins, John O.; Poulymenakou, A

    1992-01-01

    The tendency for software development projects to be completed over schedule and over budget was documented extensively. Additionally many projects are completed within budgetary and schedule target only as a result of the customer agreeing to accept reduced functionality. In his classic book, The Mythical Man Month, Fred Brooks exposes the fallacy that effort and schedule are freely interchangeable. All current cost models are produced on the assumption that there is very limited scope for schedule compression unless there is a corresponding reduction in delivered functionality. The Metrication and Resources Modeling Aid (MERMAID) project, partially financed by the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) as Project 2046 began in Oct. 1988 and its goal were as follows: (1) improvement of understanding of the relationships between software development productivity and product and process metrics; (2) to facilitate the widespread technology transfer from the Consortium to the European Software Industry; and (3) to facilitate the widespread uptake of cost estimation techniques by the provision of prototype cost estimation tools. MERMAID developed a family of methods for cost estimation, many of which have had tools implemented in prototypes. These prototypes are best considered as toolkits or workbenches.

  11. Project Exodus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Project Exodus is an in-depth study to identify and address the basic problems of a manned mission to Mars. The most important problems concern propulsion, life support, structure, trajectory, and finance. Exodus will employ a passenger ship, cargo ship, and landing craft for the journey to Mars. These three major components of the mission design are discussed separately. Within each component the design characteristics of structures, trajectory, and propulsion are addressed. The design characteristics of life support are mentioned only in those sections requiring it.

  12. SIMBIOS Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fargion, Giulietta S.; McClain, Charles R.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this technical report is to provide current documentation of the Sensor Intercomparison and Merger for Biological and Interdisciplinary Oceanic Studies (SIMBIOS) Project activities, NASA Research Announcement (NRA) research status, satellite data processing, data product validation, and field calibration. This documentation is necessary to ensure that critical information is related to the scientific community and NASA management. This critical information includes the technical difficulties and challenges of validating and combining ocean color data from an array of independent satellite systems to form consistent and accurate global bio-optical time series products. This technical report is not meant as a substitute for scientific literature. Instead, it will provide a ready and responsive vehicle for the multitude of technical reports issued by an operational project. The SIMBIOS Science Team Principal Investigators' (PIs) original contributions to this report are in chapters four and above. The purpose of these contributions is to describe the current research status of the SIMBIOS-NRA-96 funded research. The contributions are published as submitted, with the exception of minor edits to correct obvious grammatical or clerical errors.

  13. Project Exodus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, Rodney (Compiler); Dillon, Jennifer (Compiler); Grewe, George (Compiler); Mcmorrow, Jim (Compiler); Melton, Craig (Compiler); Rainey, Gerald (Compiler); Rinko, John (Compiler); Singh, David (Compiler); Yen, Tzu-Liang (Compiler)

    1990-01-01

    A design for a manned Mars mission, PROJECT EXODUS is presented. PROJECT EXODUS incorporates the design of a hypersonic waverider, cargo ship and NIMF (nuclear rocket using indigenous Martian fuel) shuttle lander to safely carry out a three to five month mission on the surface of Mars. The cargo ship transports return fuel, return engine, surface life support, NIMF shuttle, and the Mars base to low Mars orbit (LMO). The cargo ship is powered by a nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) system which allows the cargo ship to execute a spiral trajectory to Mars. The waverider transports ten astronauts to Mars and back. It is launched from the Space Station with propulsion provided by a chemical engine and a delta velocity of 9 km/sec. The waverider performs an aero-gravity assist maneuver through the atmosphere of Venus to obtain a deflection angle and increase in delta velocity. Once the waverider and cargo ship have docked the astronauts will detach the landing cargo capsules and nuclear electric power plant and remotely pilot them to the surface. They will then descend to the surface aboard the NIMF shuttle. A dome base will be quickly constructed on the surface and the astronauts will conduct an exploratory mission for three to five months. They will return to Earth and dock with the Space Station using the waverider.

  14. Project Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dannenberg, K. K.; Henderson, A.; Lee, J.; Smith, G.; Stluka, E.

    1984-01-01

    PROJECT EXPLORER is a program that will fly student-developed experiments onboard the Space Shuttle in NASA's Get-Away Special (GAS) containers. The program is co-sponsored by the Alabama Space and Rocket Center, the Alabama-Mississippi Section of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Alabama A&M University and requires extensive support by the University of Alabama in Huntsville. A unique feature of this project will demonstrate transmissions to ground stations on amateur radio frequencies in English language. Experiments Nos. 1, 2, and 3 use the microgravity of space flight to study the solidification of lead-antimony and aluminum-copper alloys, the growth of potassium-tetracyanoplatinate hydrate crystals in an aqueous solution, and the germination of radish seeds. Flight results will be compared with Earth-based data. Experiment No. 4 features radio transmission and will also provide timing for the start of all other experiments. A microprocessor will obtain real-time data from all experiments as well as temperature and pressure measurements taken inside the canister. These data will be transmitted on previously announced amateur radio frequencies after they have been converted into the English language by a digitalker for general reception.

  15. SISCAL project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santer, Richard P.; Fell, Frank

    2003-05-01

    The first "ocean colour" sensor, Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS), was launched in 1978. Oceanographers learnt a lot from CZCS but it remained a purely scientific sensor. In recent years, a new generation of satellite-borne earth observation (EO) instruments has been brought into space. These instruments combine high spectral and spatial resolution with revisiting rates of the order of one per day. More instruments with further increased spatial, spectral and temporal resolution will be available within the next years. In the meantime, evaluation procedures taking advantage of the capabilities of the new instruments were derived, allowing the retrieval of ecologically important parameters with higher accuracy than before. Space agencies are now able to collect and to process satellite data in real time and to disseminate them via the Internet. It is therefore meanwhile possible to envisage using EO operationally. In principle, a significant demand for EO data products on terrestrial or marine ecosystems exists both with public authorities (environmental protection, emergency management, natural resources management, national parks, regional planning, etc) and private companies (tourist industry, insurance companies, water suppliers, etc). However, for a number of reasons, many data products that can be derived from the new instruments and methods have not yet left the scientific community towards public or private end users. It is the intention of the proposed SISCAL (Satellite-based Information System on Coastal Areas and Lakes) project to contribute to the closure of the existing gap between space agencies and research institutions on one side and end users on the other side. To do so, we intend to create a data processor that automatically derives and subsequently delivers over the Internet, in Near-Real-Time (NRT), a number of data products tailored to individual end user needs. The data products will be generated using a Geographical Information System (GIS

  16. SISCAL project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santer, Richard P.; Fell, Frank

    2003-05-01

    The first "ocean colour" sensor, Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS), was launched in 1978. Oceanographers learnt a lot from CZCS but it remained a purely scientific sensor. In recent years, a new generation of satellite-borne earth observation (EO) instruments has been brought into space. These instruments combine high spectral and spatial resolution with revisiting rates of the order of one per day. More instruments with further increased spatial, spectral and temporal resolution will be available within the next years. In the meantime, evaluation procedures taking advantage of the capabilities of the new instruments were derived, allowing the retrieval of ecologically important parameters with higher accuracy than before. Space agencies are now able to collect and to process satellite data in real time and to disseminate them via the Internet. It is therefore meanwhile possible to envisage using EO operationally. In principle, a significant demand for EO data products on terrestrial or marine ecosystems exists both with public authorities (environmental protection, emergency management, natural resources management, national parks, regional planning, etc) and private companies (tourist industry, insurance companies, water suppliers, etc). However, for a number of reasons, many data products that can be derived from the new instruments and methods have not yet left the scientific community towards public or private end users. It is the intention of the proposed SISCAL (Satellite-based Information System on Coastal Areas and Lakes) project to contribute to the closure of the existing gap between space agencies and research institutions on one side and end users on the other side. To do so, we intend to create a data processor that automatically derives and subsequently delivers over the Internet, in Near-Real-Time (NRT), a number of data products tailored to individual end user needs. The data products will be generated using a Geographical Information System (GIS

  17. Alcohol project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    The Great Western Sugar Company has announced plans for the construction of a $300 million plant for the production of fuel grade alcohol from corn. The plant at Reserve, Lousiana, will also produce high fructose corn syrup and animal feed by-products and will employ an additional 200 people.

  18. Ceramic Technology Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    The Ceramic Technology Project was developed by the USDOE Office of Transportation Systems (OTS) in Conservation and Renewable Energy. This project, part of the OTS's Materials Development Program, was developed to meet the ceramic technology requirements of the OTS's automotive technology programs. Significant accomplishments in fabricating ceramic components for the USDOE and NASA advanced heat engine programs have provided evidence that the operation of ceramic parts in high-temperature engine environments is feasible. These programs have also demonstrated that additional research is needed in materials and processing development, design methodology, and data base and life prediction before industry will have a sufficient technology base from which to produce reliable cost-effective ceramic engine components commercially. A five-year project plan was developed with extensive input from private industry. In July 1990 the original plan was updated through the estimated completion of development in 1993. The objective is to develop the industrial technology base required for reliable ceramics for application in advanced automotive heat engines. The project approach includes determining the mechanisms controlling reliability, improving processes for fabricating existing ceramics, developing new materials with increased reliability, and testing these materials in simulated engine environments to confirm reliability. Although this is a generic materials project, the focus is on the structural ceramics for advanced gas turbine and diesel engines, ceramic bearings and attachments, and ceramic coatings for thermal barrier and wear applications in these engines. To facilitate the rapid transfer of this technology to US industry, the major portion of the work is being done in the ceramic industry, with technological support from government laboratories, other industrial laboratories, and universities.

  19. Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery. Progress review No. 80. Quarterly report, July--September, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    This report contains information on petroleum enhanced recovery projects. In addition to project descriptions, contract numbers, principal investigators and project management information is included.

  20. 40 CFR 35.935-11 - Project changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Project changes. 35.935-11 Section 35... Project changes. (a) In addition to the notification of project changes required under § 30.900-1 of this... required for: (1) Project changes which may— (i) Substantially alter the design and scope of the...

  1. 40 CFR 35.935-11 - Project changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Project changes. 35.935-11 Section 35... Project changes. (a) In addition to the notification of project changes required under § 30.900-1 of this... required for: (1) Project changes which may— (i) Substantially alter the design and scope of the...

  2. 40 CFR 35.935-11 - Project changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Project changes. 35.935-11 Section 35... Project changes. (a) In addition to the notification of project changes required under § 30.900-1 of this... required for: (1) Project changes which may— (i) Substantially alter the design and scope of the...

  3. 40 CFR 35.935-11 - Project changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Project changes. 35.935-11 Section 35... Project changes. (a) In addition to the notification of project changes required under § 30.900-1 of this... required for: (1) Project changes which may— (i) Substantially alter the design and scope of the...

  4. 40 CFR 35.935-11 - Project changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Project changes. 35.935-11 Section 35... Project changes. (a) In addition to the notification of project changes required under § 30.900-1 of this... required for: (1) Project changes which may— (i) Substantially alter the design and scope of the...

  5. Septic tank additive impacts on microbial populations.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, S; Hoover, M T; Clark, G H; Gumpertz, M; Wollum, A G; Cobb, C; Strock, J

    2008-01-01

    Environmental health specialists, other onsite wastewater professionals, scientists, and homeowners have questioned the effectiveness of septic tank additives. This paper describes an independent, third-party, field scale, research study of the effects of three liquid bacterial septic tank additives and a control (no additive) on septic tank microbial populations. Microbial populations were measured quarterly in a field study for 12 months in 48 full-size, functioning septic tanks. Bacterial populations in the 48 septic tanks were statistically analyzed with a mixed linear model. Additive effects were assessed for three septic tank maintenance levels (low, intermediate, and high). Dunnett's t-test for tank bacteria (alpha = .05) indicated that none of the treatments were significantly different, overall, from the control at the statistical level tested. In addition, the additives had no significant effects on septic tank bacterial populations at any of the septic tank maintenance levels. Additional controlled, field-based research iswarranted, however, to address additional additives and experimental conditions.

  6. Bonanza project, 1971

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, K.

    1972-01-01

    Research on the application of remote sensing techniques to the mineral industry stresses photointerpretation by human interpreter experienced in the extraction of geological information from aerial color and multiband photographs and from thermal scanner imagery. Also considered are optical and digital image enhancement, multiband color additive projection, video image processing, and computer reduction and analysis of infrared spectrometry. Evaluation of those parameters which have the most contrast between adjacent rock formations and which can be remotely sensed establish the following most useful geological characteristics: Topographic landform, color, albedo, and surface temperature.

  7. 34 CFR 387.30 - What additional selection criteria are used under this program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... under this program? In addition to the criteria in 34 CFR 385.31(c), the Secretary uses the following... achievement of the established project objectives of the training project; (ii) The curriculum and teaching methods provide for an integration of theory and practice relevant to the educational objectives of...

  8. Feasibility of a simplified fuel additive evaluation protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Lister, S.J.; Hunzinger, R.D.; Taghizadeh, A.

    1998-12-31

    This report describes the work carried out during the four stages of the first phase of a project that involved the determination of the feasibility of replacing the Association of American Railroads Recommended Practice (ARRP) 503 protocol for testing diesel fuel oil additives with a new procedure using the single cylinder research engine SCRE-251 as the laboratory test engine, which tests for both engine performance as well as emissions compliance. The report begins with a review of the literature on fuel additive testing, then reviews the new US Environmental Protection Agency regulations regarding locomotive diesel emissions. This is followed by a review of the ARRP 503 protocol and the proposed new procedure, a comparison of the ARRP 503 test engines and the SCRE-251, and a study of the SCRE-251`s ability to represent a multi-cylinder medium-speed diesel engine. Appendices include fuel additive manufacturers` information sheets.

  9. Apollo Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    From Spaceflight Revolution: 'Top NASA officials listen to a LOPO briefing at Langley in December 1966. Sitting to the far right with his hand on his chin is Floyd Thompson. To the left sits Dr. George Mueller, NASA associate administrator for Manned Space Flight. On the wall is a diagram of the sites selected for the 'concentrated mission.' 'The most fundamental issue in the pre-mission planning for Lunar Orbiter was how the moon was to be photographed. Would the photography be 'concentrated' on a predetermined single target, or would it be 'distributed' over several selected targets across the moon's surface? On the answer to this basic question depended the successful integration of the entire mission plan for Lunar Orbiter.' The Lunar Orbiter Project made systematic photographic maps of the lunar landing sites. Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, (Washington: NASA, 1995), p. 337.

  10. Project Grandmaster

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2013-09-16

    The purpose of the Project Grandmaster Application is to allow individuals to opt-in and give the application access to data sources about their activities on social media sites. The application will cross-reference these data sources to build up a picture of each individual activities they discuss, either at present or in the past, and place this picture in reference to groups of all participants. The goal is to allow an individual to place themselves in the collective and to understand how their behavior patterns fit with the group and potentially find changes to make, such as activities they weren’t already aware of or different groups of interest they might want to follow.

  11. Project Grandmaster

    2013-09-16

    The purpose of the Project Grandmaster Application is to allow individuals to opt-in and give the application access to data sources about their activities on social media sites. The application will cross-reference these data sources to build up a picture of each individual activities they discuss, either at present or in the past, and place this picture in reference to groups of all participants. The goal is to allow an individual to place themselves inmore » the collective and to understand how their behavior patterns fit with the group and potentially find changes to make, such as activities they weren’t already aware of or different groups of interest they might want to follow.« less

  12. Renewable energy projects in the Dominican Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Viani, B.

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes a US/Dominican Republic program to develop renewable energy projects in the country. The objective is to demonstrate the commercial viability of renewable energy generation projects, primarily small-scale wind and hydropower. Preliminary studies are completed for three micro-hydro projects with a total capacity of 262 kWe, and two small wind power projects for water pumping. In addition wind resource assessment is ongoing, and professional training and technical assistance to potential investors is ongoing. Projects goals include not less than ten small firms actively involved in installation of such systems by September 1998.

  13. Project identification for methane reduction options

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, T.

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses efforts directed at reduction in emission of methane to the atmosphere. Methane is a potent greenhouse gas, which on a 20 year timeframe may present a similar problem to carbon dioxide. In addition, methane causes additional problems in the form of smog and its longer atmospheric lifetime. The author discusses strategies for reducing methane emission from several major sources. This includes landfill methane recovery, coalbed methane recovery, livestock methane reduction - in the form of ruminant methane reduction and manure methane recovery. The author presents examples of projects which have implemented these ideas, the economics of the projects, and additional gains which come from the projects.

  14. K-12 Project Management Education: NASA Hunch Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Joe; Zhan, Wei; Leonard, Matt

    2013-01-01

    To increase the interest in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) among high school students, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) created the "High Schools United with NASA to Create Hardware" (HUNCH) program. To enhance the experience of the students, NASA sponsored two additional projects that require…

  15. VIPER project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kershaw, John

    1990-01-01

    The VIPER project has so far produced a formal specification of a 32 bit RISC microprocessor, an implementation of that chip in radiation-hard SOS technology, a partial proof of correctness of the implementation which is still being extended, and a large body of supporting software. The time has now come to consider what has been achieved and what directions should be pursued in the future. The most obvious lesson from the VIPER project was the time and effort needed to use formal methods properly. Most of the problems arose in the interfaces between different formalisms, e.g., between the (informal) English description and the HOL spec, between the block-level spec in HOL and the equivalent in ELLA needed by the low-level CAD tools. These interfaces need to be made rigorous or (better) eliminated. VIPER 1A (the latest chip) is designed to operate in pairs, to give protection against breakdowns in service as well as design faults. We have come to regard redundancy and formal design methods as complementary, the one to guard against normal component failures and the other to provide insurance against the risk of the common-cause failures which bedevil reliability predictions. Any future VIPER chips will certainly need improved performance to keep up with increasingly demanding applications. We have a prototype design (not yet specified formally) which includes 32 and 64 bit multiply, instruction pre-fetch, more efficient interface timing, and a new instruction to allow a quick response to peripheral requests. Work is under way to specify this device in MIRANDA, and then to refine the spec into a block-level design by top-down transformations. When the refinement is complete, a relatively simple proof checker should be able to demonstrate its correctness. This paper is presented in viewgraph form.

  16. Apollo Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1964-01-01

    Construction of Model 1 used in the LOLA simulator. This was a twenty-foot sphere which simulated for the astronauts what the surface of the moon would look like from 200 miles up. Project LOLA or Lunar Orbit and Landing Approach was a simulator built at Langley to study problems related to landing on the lunar surface. It was a complex project that cost nearly $2 million dollars. James Hansen wrote: 'This simulator was designed to provide a pilot with a detailed visual encounter with the lunar surface; the machine consisted primarily of a cockpit, a closed-circuit TV system, and four large murals or scale models representing portions of the lunar surface as seen from various altitudes. The pilot in the cockpit moved along a track past these murals which would accustom him to the visual cues for controlling a spacecraft in the vicinity of the moon. Unfortunately, such a simulation--although great fun and quite aesthetic--was not helpful because flight in lunar orbit posed no special problems other than the rendezvous with the LEM, which the device did not simulate. Not long after the end of Apollo, the expensive machine was dismantled.' (p. 379) Ellis J. White wrote: 'Model 1 is a 20-foot-diameter sphere mounted on a rotating base and is scaled 1 in. = 9 miles. Models 2,3, and 4 are approximately 15x40 feet scaled sections of model 1. Model 4 is a scaled-up section of the Crater Alphonsus and the scale is 1 in. = 200 feet. All models are in full relief except the sphere.' Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, (Washington: NASA, 1995), p. 379; Ellis J. White, 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' Paper presented at the Eastern Simulation Council (EAI's Princeton Computation Center), Princeton, NJ, October 20, 1966.

  17. Apollo Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1964-01-01

    Artists used paintbrushes and airbrushes to recreate the lunar surface on each of the four models comprising the LOLA simulator. Project LOLA or Lunar Orbit and Landing Approach was a simulator built at Langley to study problems related to landing on the lunar surface. It was a complex project that cost nearly $2 million dollars. James Hansen wrote: 'This simulator was designed to provide a pilot with a detailed visual encounter with the lunar surface; the machine consisted primarily of a cockpit, a closed-circuit TV system, and four large murals or scale models representing portions of the lunar surface as seen from various altitudes. The pilot in the cockpit moved along a track past these murals which would accustom him to the visual cues for controlling a spacecraft in the vicinity of the moon. Unfortunately, such a simulation--although great fun and quite aesthetic--was not helpful because flight in lunar orbit posed no special problems other than the rendezvous with the LEM, which the device did not simulate. Not long after the end of Apollo, the expensive machine was dismantled.' (p. 379) Ellis J. White further described LOLA in his paper 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' 'Model 1 is a 20-foot-diameter sphere mounted on a rotating base and is scaled 1 in. = 9 miles. Models 2,3, and 4 are approximately 15x40 feet scaled sections of model 1. Model 4 is a scaled-up section of the Crater Alphonsus and the scale is 1 in. = 200 feet. All models are in full relief except the sphere.' Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, (Washington: NASA, 1995), p. 379; Ellis J. White, 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' Paper presented at the Eastern Simulation Council (EAI's Princeton Computation Center), Princeton, NJ, October 20, 1966.

  18. Apollo Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Artists used paintbrushes and airbrushes to recreate the lunar surface on each of the four models comprising the LOLA simulator. Project LOLA or Lunar Orbit and Landing Approach was a simulator built at Langley to study problems related to landing on the lunar surface. It was a complex project that cost nearly $2 million dollars. James Hansen wrote: 'This simulator was designed to provide a pilot with a detailed visual encounter with the lunar surface; the machine consisted primarily of a cockpit, a closed-circuit TV system, and four large murals or scale models representing portions of the lunar surface as seen from various altitudes. The pilot in the cockpit moved along a track past these murals which would accustom him to the visual cues for controlling a spacecraft in the vicinity of the moon. Unfortunately, such a simulation--although great fun and quite aesthetic--was not helpful because flight in lunar orbit posed no special problems other than the rendezvous with the LEM, which the device did not simulate. Not long after the end of Apollo, the expensive machine was dismantled.' (p. 379) Ellis J. White described the simulator as follows: 'Model 1 is a 20-foot-diameter sphere mounted on a rotating base and is scaled 1 in. = 9 miles. Models 2,3, and 4 are approximately 15x40 feet scaled sections of model 1. Model 4 is a scaled-up section of the Crater Alphonsus and the scale is 1 in. = 200 feet. All models are in full relief except the sphere.' Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, (Washington: NASA, 1995), p. 379; Ellis J. White, 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' Paper presented at the Eastern Simulation Council (EAI's Princeton Computation Center), Princeton, NJ, October 20, 1966.

  19. Apollo Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    Track, Model 2 and Model 1, the 20-foot sphere. Project LOLA or Lunar Orbit and Landing Approach was a simulator built at Langley to study problems related to landing on the lunar surface. It was a complex project that cost nearly $2 million dollars. James Hansen wrote: 'This simulator was designed to provide a pilot with a detailed visual encounter with the lunar surface; the machine consisted primarily of a cockpit, a closed-circuit TV system, and four large murals or scale models representing portions of the lunar surface as seen from various altitudes. The pilot in the cockpit moved along a track past these murals which would accustom him to the visual cues for controlling a spacecraft in the vicinity of the moon. Unfortunately, such a simulation--although great fun and quite aesthetic--was not helpful because flight in lunar orbit posed no special problems other than the rendezvous with the LEM, which the device did not simulate. Not long after the end of Apollo, the expensive machine was dismantled.' (p. 379) From Ellis J. White, 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' Paper presented at the Eastern Simulation Council (EAI's Princeton Computation Center), Princeton, NJ, October 20, 1966. 'The model system is designed so that a television camera is mounted on a camera boom on each transport cart and each cart system is shared by two models. The cart's travel along the tracks represents longitudinal motion along the plane of a nominal orbit, vertical travel of the camera boom represents latitude on out-of-plane travel, and horizontal travel of the camera boom represents altitude changes.' Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, (Washington: NASA, 1995), p. 379.

  20. Apollo Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1964-01-01

    Artists used paintbrushes and airbrushes to recreate the lunar surface on each of the four models comprising the LOLA simulator. Project LOLA or Lunar Orbit and Landing Approach was a simulator built at Langley to study problems related to landing on the lunar surface. It was a complex project that cost nearly $2 million dollars. James Hansen wrote: 'This simulator was designed to provide a pilot with a detailed visual encounter with the lunar surface; the machine consisted primarily of a cockpit, a closed-circuit TV system, and four large murals or scale models representing portions of the lunar surface as seen from various altitudes. The pilot in the cockpit moved along a track past these murals which would accustom him to the visual cues for controlling a spacecraft in the vicinity of the moon. Unfortunately, such a simulation--although great fun and quite aesthetic--was not helpful because flight in lunar orbit posed no special problems other than the rendezvous with the LEM, which the device did not simulate. Not long after the end of Apollo, the expensive machine was dismantled.' (p. 379) Ellis J. White further described LOLA in his paper 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' 'Model 1 is a 20-foot-diameter sphere mounted on a rotating base and is scaled 1 in. = 9 miles. Models 2,3, and 4 are approximately 15x40 feet scaled sections of model 1. Model 4 is a scaled-up section of the Crater Alphonsus and the scale is 1 in. = 200 feet. All models are in full relief except the sphere.' Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, (Washington: NASA, 1995), p. 379; From Ellis J. White, 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' Paper presented at the Eastern Simulation Council (EAI's Princeton Computation Center), Princeton, NJ, October 20, 1966.

  1. Apollo Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1964-01-01

    Artists used paintbrushes and airbrushes to recreate the lunar surface on each of the four models comprising the LOLA simulator. Project LOLA or Lunar Orbit and Landing Approach was a simulator built at Langley to study problems related to landing on the lunar surface. It was a complex project that cost nearly $2 million dollars. James Hansen wrote: 'This simulator was designed to provide a pilot with a detailed visual encounter with the lunar surface; the machine consisted primarily of a cockpit, a closed-circuit TV system, and four large murals or scale models representing portions of the lunar surface as seen from various altitudes. The pilot in the cockpit moved along a track past these murals which would accustom him to the visual cues for controlling a spacecraft in the vicinity of the moon. Unfortunately, such a simulation--although great fun and quite aesthetic--was not helpful because flight in lunar orbit posed no special problems other than the rendezvous with the LEM, which the device did not simulate. Not long after the end of Apollo, the expensive machine was dismantled.' (p. 379) Ellis J. White further described LOLA in his paper 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' 'Model 1 is a 20-foot-diameter sphere mounted on a rotating base and is scaled 1 in. = 9 miles. Models 2,3, and 4 are approximately 15x40 feet scaled sections of model 1. Model 4 is a scaled-up section of the Crater Alphonsus and the scale is 1 in. = 200 feet. All models are in full relief except the sphere.' Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution, NASA SP-4308, p. 379; Ellis J. White, 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' Paper presented at the Eastern Simulation Council (EAI's Princeton Computation Center), Princeton, NJ, October 20, 1966.

  2. 'Projective transidentification': an extension of the concept of projective identification.

    PubMed

    Grotstein, James S

    2005-08-01

    Questions about the concept of projective identification still persist. The author presents the following hypotheses: Klein's traditional view and Bion's extension and revision of it can be thought of as occupying a continuum in reverse. He postulates that Bion's concept of communicative intersubjective projective identification (which the author renames 'projective transidentification') is primary and inclusive of Klein's earlier unconscious, omnipotent, intrapsychic mode but includes Bion's 'realistic' communicative mode as well. The author hypothesizes, consequently, that intersubjective projective identification constitutes both the operation of an unconscious phantasy of omnipotent intrapsychic projective identification solely within the internal world of the projecting subject--in addition to two other processes: conscious and/or preconscious modes of sensorimotor induction, which would include signaling and/or evocation or prompting gestures or techniques (mental, physical, verbal, posturing or priming) on the part of the projecting subject; followed by spontaneous empathic simulation in the receptive object of the subject's experience in which the receptive object is already inherently 'hard-wired' to be empathic with the prompting subject.

  3. Project Hanford management contract quality improvement project management plan

    SciTech Connect

    ADAMS, D.E.

    1999-03-25

    On July 13, 1998, the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) Manager transmitted a letter to Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc. (FDH) describing several DOE-RL identified failed opportunities for FDH to improve the Quality Assurance (QA) Program and its implementation. In addition, DOE-RL identified specific Quality Program performance deficiencies. FDH was requested to establish a periodic reporting mechanism for the corrective action program. In a July 17, 1998 response to DOE-RL, FDH agreed with the DOE concerns and committed to perform a comprehensive review of the Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) QA Program during July and August, 1998. As a result, the Project Hanford Management Contract Quality Improvement Plan (QIP) (FDH-3508) was issued on October 21, 1998. The plan identified corrective actions based upon the results of an in-depth Quality Program Assessment. Immediately following the scheduled October 22, 1998, DOE Office of Enforcement and Investigation (EH-10) Enforcement Conference, FDH initiated efforts to effectively implement the QIP corrective actions. A Quality Improvement Project (QI Project) leadership team was assembled to prepare a Project Management Plan for this project. The management plan was specifically designed to engage a core team and the support of representatives from FDH and the major subcontractors (MSCs) to implement the QIP initiatives; identify, correct, and provide feedback as to the root cause for deficiency; and close out the corrective actions. The QI Project will manage and communicate progress of the process.

  4. Additive Manufacturing of Aerospace Propulsion Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misra, Ajay K.; Grady, Joseph E.; Carter, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The presentation will provide an overview of ongoing activities on additive manufacturing of aerospace propulsion components, which included rocket propulsion and gas turbine engines. Future opportunities on additive manufacturing of hybrid electric propulsion components will be discussed.

  5. 46 CFR 355.5 - Additional material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... STATES CITIZENSHIP § 355.5 Additional material. If additional material is determined to be essential to clarify or support the evidence of U.S. citizenship, such material shall be furnished by...

  6. 46 CFR 355.5 - Additional material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... STATES CITIZENSHIP § 355.5 Additional material. If additional material is determined to be essential to clarify or support the evidence of U.S. citizenship, such material shall be furnished by...

  7. 46 CFR 355.5 - Additional material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... STATES CITIZENSHIP § 355.5 Additional material. If additional material is determined to be essential to clarify or support the evidence of U.S. citizenship, such material shall be furnished by...

  8. 46 CFR 355.5 - Additional material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... STATES CITIZENSHIP § 355.5 Additional material. If additional material is determined to be essential to clarify or support the evidence of U.S. citizenship, such material shall be furnished by...

  9. 46 CFR 355.5 - Additional material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... STATES CITIZENSHIP § 355.5 Additional material. If additional material is determined to be essential to clarify or support the evidence of U.S. citizenship, such material shall be furnished by...

  10. [Safety of food additives in Japan].

    PubMed

    Ito, Sumio

    2011-01-01

    Recently, many accidents relating to food happened in Japan. The consumer's distrust for food, food companies, and the administration is increasing. The consumer especially has an extreme refusal feeling for chemicals such as food additives and agricultural chemicals, and begins to request agricultural chemical-free vegetables and food additive-free food. Food companies also state no agricultural chemicals and no food additives to correspond with consumers' request and aim at differentiating. The food additive is that the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare specifies the one that person's health might not be ruined by providing for Food Sanitation Law Article 10 in our country. The standard for food additives and standard for use of food additives are provided according to regulations of Food Sanitation Law Article 11. Therefore, it is thought that the food additive used is safe now. Then, it reports on the procedure and the safety examination, etc. in our country for designation for food additive this time.

  11. 42 CFR 412.115 - Additional payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Payment Systems § 412.115 Additional payments. (a) Bad debts. An additional payment is made to each hospital in accordance with § 413.89 of this chapter for bad debts attributable to deductible...

  12. 42 CFR 412.115 - Additional payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Payment Systems § 412.115 Additional payments. (a) Bad debts. An additional payment is made to each hospital in accordance with § 413.89 of this chapter for bad debts attributable to deductible...

  13. 42 CFR 412.115 - Additional payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Payment Systems § 412.115 Additional payments. (a) Bad debts. An additional payment is made to each hospital in accordance with § 413.89 of this chapter for bad debts attributable to deductible...

  14. Ace Project as a Project Management Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cline, Melinda; Guynes, Carl S.; Simard, Karine

    2010-01-01

    The primary challenge of project management is to achieve the project goals and objectives while adhering to project constraints--usually scope, quality, time and budget. The secondary challenge is to optimize the allocation and integration of resources necessary to meet pre-defined objectives. Project management software provides an active…

  15. User computer system pilot project

    SciTech Connect

    Eimutis, E.C.

    1989-09-06

    The User Computer System (UCS) is a general purpose unclassified, nonproduction system for Mound users. The UCS pilot project was successfully completed, and the system currently has more than 250 users. Over 100 tables were installed on the UCS for use by subscribers, including tables containing data on employees, budgets, and purchasing. In addition, a UCS training course was developed and implemented.

  16. 17 CFR 230.408 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional information. 230... RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 General Requirements § 230.408 Additional information. (a) In addition to the information expressly required to be included in a registration statement,...

  17. 17 CFR 230.408 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional information. 230... RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 General Requirements § 230.408 Additional information. (a) In addition to the information expressly required to be included in a registration statement,...

  18. 47 CFR 25.111 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional information. 25.111 Section 25.111... Applications and Licenses General Application Filing Requirements § 25.111 Additional information. (a) The Commission may request from any party at any time additional information concerning any application, or...

  19. 10 CFR 810.14 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Additional information. 810.14 Section 810.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES § 810.14 Additional information. The... activity to submit additional information....

  20. 47 CFR 25.111 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional information. 25.111 Section 25.111... Applications and Licenses General Application Filing Requirements § 25.111 Additional information. (a) The Commission may request from any party at any time additional information concerning any application, or...

  1. 10 CFR 725.13 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Additional information. 725.13 Section 725.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PERMITS FOR ACCESS TO RESTRICTED DATA Applications § 725.13 Additional information. The... and before the termination of the permit, require additional information in order to enable the...

  2. 47 CFR 25.111 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional information. 25.111 Section 25.111... Applications and Licenses General Application Filing Requirements § 25.111 Additional information. (a) The Commission may request from any party at any time additional information concerning any application, or...

  3. 20 CFR 802.215 - Additional briefs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional briefs. 802.215 Section 802.215 Employees' Benefits BENEFITS REVIEW BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Prereview Procedures Initial Processing § 802.215 Additional briefs. Additional briefs may be filed or ordered in...

  4. 10 CFR 55.7 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Additional requirements. 55.7 Section 55.7 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) OPERATORS' LICENSES General Provisions § 55.7 Additional requirements. The Commission may, by rule, regulation, or order, impose upon any licensee such requirements, in addition...

  5. 10 CFR 55.7 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional requirements. 55.7 Section 55.7 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) OPERATORS' LICENSES General Provisions § 55.7 Additional requirements. The Commission may, by rule, regulation, or order, impose upon any licensee such requirements, in addition...

  6. 77 FR 53180 - Procurement List; Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-31

    ... INFORMATION: Additions On 6/15/2012 (77 FR 35942-35944) and 6/29/2012 (77 FR 38775-38776), the Committee for... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase from People who are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY:...

  7. 76 FR 35415 - Procurement List; Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-17

    ... INFORMATION: Additions On 4/29/2011 (76 FR 23998), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Addition to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This...

  8. 78 FR 9386 - Procurement List; Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-08

    ... INFORMATION: Addition On 11/30/2012 (77 FR 71400-71401), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Addition to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This...

  9. 77 FR 31335 - Procurement List; Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-25

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Additions On March 16, 2012 (77 FR 15736) and March 23, 2012 (77 FR 17035), the... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY:...

  10. 76 FR 19751 - Procurement List; Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-08

    ... INFORMATION: Addition On 1/28/2011 (76 FR 5142-5143), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Addition to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This...

  11. 75 FR 4784 - Procurement List; Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-29

    ... INFORMATION: Addition On 11/16/2009 (74 FR 58949-58950), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Addition to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This...

  12. 76 FR 23997 - Procurement List; Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-29

    ... INFORMATION: Addition On 2/25/2011 (76 FR 10571), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Addition to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This...

  13. 75 FR 22745 - Procurement List Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ... INFORMATION: Additions On 10/23/2009 (74 FR 54783-54784) and 3/5/2010 (75 FR 10223-10224), the Committee for... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY:...

  14. 77 FR 71400 - Procurement List, Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-30

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Additions On 8/24/2012 (77 FR 51522-51523) and 10/5/2012 (77 FR 60969), the Committee... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List, Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY:...

  15. 75 FR 72815 - Procurement List Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-26

    ... INFORMATION: Additions On 6/4/2010 (75 FR 31768-31769) and 10/1/2010 (75 FR 60739-60740), the Committee for... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY:...

  16. 77 FR 59595 - Procurement List; Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-28

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Additions On 7/9/2012 (77 FR 40344-40345) and 7/20/2012 (77 FR 42701-42702), the... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY:...

  17. 77 FR 34025 - Procurement List; Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ... INFORMATION: ] Addition On 4/132012 (77 FR 22289-22290), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Addition to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This...

  18. 78 FR 2378 - Procurement List, Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-11

    ... INFORMATION: Addition On 11/9/2012 (77 FR 67343-67344), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List, Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Addition to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This...

  19. 76 FR 54741 - Procurement List; Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ... INFORMATION: Additions On 7/8/2011 (76 FR 40342-40343), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY:...

  20. Polymeric Additives For Graphite/Epoxy Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Nir, Z.

    1990-01-01

    Report describes experimental studies of properties of several graphite/epoxy composites containing polymeric additives as flexibilizing or toughening agents. Emphasizes effects of brominated polymeric additives (BPA's) with or without carboxy-terminated butadiene acrylonitrile rubber. Reviews effects of individual and combined additives on fracture toughnesses, environmental stabilities, hot/wet strengths, thermomechanical behaviors, and other mechanical properties of composites.

  1. 14 CFR 29.927 - Additional tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Additional tests. 29.927 Section 29.927... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 29.927 Additional tests. (a) Any additional dynamic, endurance, and operational tests, and vibratory investigations necessary to...

  2. 14 CFR 27.927 - Additional tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Additional tests. 27.927 Section 27.927... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 27.927 Additional tests. (a) Any additional dynamic, endurance, and operational tests, and vibratory investigations necessary to...

  3. 14 CFR 29.927 - Additional tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional tests. 29.927 Section 29.927... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 29.927 Additional tests. (a) Any additional dynamic, endurance, and operational tests, and vibratory investigations necessary to...

  4. 14 CFR 27.927 - Additional tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Additional tests. 27.927 Section 27.927... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 27.927 Additional tests. (a) Any additional dynamic, endurance, and operational tests, and vibratory investigations necessary to...

  5. 14 CFR 29.927 - Additional tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Additional tests. 29.927 Section 29.927... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 29.927 Additional tests. (a) Any additional dynamic, endurance, and operational tests, and vibratory investigations necessary to...

  6. 14 CFR 27.927 - Additional tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional tests. 27.927 Section 27.927... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 27.927 Additional tests. (a) Any additional dynamic, endurance, and operational tests, and vibratory investigations necessary to...

  7. 7 CFR 1944.686 - Additional grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2011-01-01 2009-01-01 true Additional grants. 1944.686 Section 1944.686...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) HOUSING Housing Preservation Grants § 1944.686 Additional grants. An additional HPG grant may be made when the grantee has achieved or nearly achieved the goals established...

  8. 7 CFR 1944.545 - Additional grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Additional grants. 1944.545 Section 1944.545...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) HOUSING Technical and Supervisory Assistance Grants § 1944.545 Additional grants. An additional grant may be made to an applicant that has previously received a TSA grant and...

  9. 7 CFR 1944.545 - Additional grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2011-01-01 2009-01-01 true Additional grants. 1944.545 Section 1944.545...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) HOUSING Technical and Supervisory Assistance Grants § 1944.545 Additional grants. An additional grant may be made to an applicant that has previously received a TSA grant and...

  10. 7 CFR 1944.686 - Additional grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Additional grants. 1944.686 Section 1944.686...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) HOUSING Housing Preservation Grants § 1944.686 Additional grants. An additional HPG grant may be made when the grantee has achieved or nearly achieved the goals established...

  11. 24 CFR 964.410 - Additional definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Additional definitions. 964.410... Additional definitions. The following additional definitions apply to this subpart only: Directly assisted... assisted by a public housing agency; (2) Whose name appears on the lease; and (3) Is eighteen years of...

  12. 24 CFR 964.410 - Additional definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Additional definitions. 964.410... Additional definitions. The following additional definitions apply to this subpart only: Directly assisted... assisted by a public housing agency; (2) Whose name appears on the lease; and (3) Is eighteen years of...

  13. 24 CFR 964.410 - Additional definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional definitions. 964.410... Additional definitions. The following additional definitions apply to this subpart only: Directly assisted... assisted by a public housing agency; (2) Whose name appears on the lease; and (3) Is eighteen years of...

  14. 10 CFR 55.7 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Additional requirements. 55.7 Section 55.7 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) OPERATORS' LICENSES General Provisions § 55.7 Additional requirements. The Commission may, by rule, regulation, or order, impose upon any licensee such requirements, in addition to those established in...

  15. 44 CFR 6.81 - Additional copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional copies. 6.81... HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 Fees § 6.81 Additional copies. A reasonable number of additional copies shall be provided for the applicable fee to a requestor who...

  16. Feature Program: Project N.I.C.E.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Journal of the Institute for the Development of Indian Law, 1973

    1973-01-01

    The Northern Indian California Education Project, established in 1971, has pilot programs in 6 schools which reach out to 24 additional schools. The article lists project goals, the implementation of these goals, accomplishments, and available materials. (KM)

  17. Final Project Report

    SciTech Connect

    Bogucz, E A

    2010-12-13

    This project pursued innovations to improve energy efficiency and indoor environmental quality (IEQ) in commercial and residential buildings. For commercial buildings, the project developed a testbed for “intelligent nested environmental systems technologies (iNEST),” which monitor and control energy flows and IEQ across a cascade of spaces from individuals’ desktops to office suites to floors to whole buildings. An iNEST testbed was constructed at Syracuse University and was used to assess the use of devices such as personal badges and CO2 sensors to study how reduced energy use and improved IEQ could be achieved. For residential buildings, resources were targeted in support of DoE’s Builders Challenge Program and to recruit Syracuse, NY builders. Three homes in Syracuse’s Near Westside neighborhood were also registered under the program by Syracuse University team, with an additional home registered by one of the builders. Findings from the work at the iNEST testbed facility, and results from other related projects were disseminated through Syracuse Center of Excellence in Environmental and Energy Systems (SyracuseCoE) 2008 Annual Symposium, the 9th International Healthy Buildings 2009 Conference & Exhibition, and through SyracuseCoE’s website and eNewsletters to inform the broader community of researchers, designers and builders. These public communication activities helped enhance the understanding of high performance buildings and facilitate further market acceptance.

  18. Tidd PFBC demonstration project

    SciTech Connect

    Marrocco, M.

    1997-12-31

    The Tidd project was one of the first joint government-industry ventures to be approved by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in its Clean Coal Technology Program. In March 1987, DOE signed an agreement with the Ohio Power Company, a subsidiary of American Electric Power, to refurbish the then-idle Tidd plant on the banks of the Ohio River with advanced pressurized fluidized bed technology. Testing ended after 49 months of operation, 100 individual tests, and the generation of more than 500,000 megawatt-hours of electricity. The demonstration plant has met its objectives. The project showed that more than 95 percent of sulfur dioxide pollutants could be removed inside the advanced boiler using the advanced combustion technology, giving future power plants an attractive alternative to expensive, add-on scrubber technology. In addition to its sulfur removal effectiveness, the plant`s sustained periods of steady-state operation boosted its availability significantly above design projections, heightening confidence that pressurized fluidized bed technology will be a reliable, baseload technology for future power plants. The technology also controlled the release of nitrogen oxides to levels well below the allowable limits set by federal air quality standards. It also produced a dry waste product that is much easier to handle than wastes from conventional power plants and will likely have commercial value when produced by future power plants.

  19. Milliwatt Generator Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latimer, T. W.; Rinehart, G. H.

    1992-05-01

    This report covers progress on the Milliwatt Generator Project from April 1986 through March 1988. Activities included fuel processing and characterization, production of heat sources, fabrication of pressure-burst test units, compatibility studies, impact testing, and examination of surveillance units. The major task of the Los Alamos Milliwatt Generator Project is to fabricate MC2893A heat sources (4.0 W) for MC2730A radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG's) and MC3599 heat sources (4.5 W) for MC3500 RTG's. The MWG Project interfaces with the following contractors: Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque (designer); E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Co. (Inc.), Savannah River Plant (fuel); Monsanto Research Corporation, Mound Facility (metal hardware); and General Electric Company, Neutron Devices Department (RTG's). In addition to MWG fabrication activities, Los Alamos is involved in (1) fabrication of pressure-burst test units, (2) compatibility testing and evaluation, (3) examination of surveillance units, and (4) impact testing and subsequent examination of compatibility and surveillance units.

  20. Cohort Profile: Project Viva

    PubMed Central

    Oken, Emily; Baccarelli, Andrea A; Gold, Diane R; Kleinman, Ken P; Litonjua, Augusto A; De Meo, Dawn; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Sagiv, Sharon; Taveras, Elsie M; Weiss, Scott T; Belfort, Mandy B; Burris, Heather H; Camargo, Carlos A; Huh, Susanna Y; Mantzoros, Christos; Parker, Margaret G; Gillman, Matthew W

    2015-01-01

    We established Project Viva to examine prenatal diet and other factors in relation to maternal and child health. We recruited pregnant women at their initial prenatal visit in eastern Massachusetts between 1999 and 2002. Exclusion criteria included multiple gestation, inability to answer questions in English, gestational age ≥22 weeks at recruitment and plans to move away before delivery. We completed in-person visits with mothers during pregnancy in the late first (median 9.9 weeks of gestation) and second (median 27.9 weeks) trimesters. We saw mothers and children in the hospital during the delivery admission and during infancy (median age 6.3 months), early childhood (median 3.2 years) and mid-childhood (median 7.7 years). We collected information from mothers via interviews and questionnaires, performed anthropometric and neurodevelopmental assessments and collected biosamples. We have collected additional information from medical records and from mailed questionnaires sent annually to mothers between in-person visits and to children beginning at age 9 years. From 2341 eligible women, there were 2128 live births; 1279 mother-child pairs provided data at the mid-childhood visit. Primary study outcomes include pregnancy outcomes, maternal mental and cardiometabolic health and child neurodevelopment, asthma/atopy and obesity/cardiometabolic health. Investigators interested in learning more about how to obtain Project Viva data can contact Project_Viva@hphc.org. PMID:24639442

  1. Nationwide Eclipse Ballooning Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colman Des Jardins, Angela; Berk Knighton, W.; Larimer, Randal; Mayer-Gawlik, Shane; Fowler, Jennifer; Harmon, Christina; Koehler, Christopher; Guzik, Gregory; Flaten, James; Nolby, Caitlin; Granger, Douglas; Stewart, Michael

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of the Nationwide Eclipse Ballooning Project is to make the most of the 2017 rare eclipse event in four main areas: public engagement, workforce development, partnership development, and science. The Project is focused on two efforts, both student-led: online live video of the eclipse from the edge of space and the study of the atmospheric response to the eclipse. These efforts, however, involving more than 60 teams across the US, are challenging in many ways. Therefore, the Project is leveraging the NASA Space Grant and NOAA atmospheric science communities to make it a success. The first and primary topic of this poster is the NASA Space Grant supported online live video effort. College and high school students on 48 teams from 31 states will conduct high altitude balloon flights from 15-20 locations across the 8/21/2017 total eclipse path, sending live video and images from near space to a national website. Video and images of a total solar eclipse from near space are fascinating and rare. It’s never been done live and certainly not in a network of coverage across a continent. In addition to the live video to the web, these teams are engaged in several other science experiments as secondary payloads. We also briefly highlight the eclipse atmospheric science effort, where about a dozen teams will launch over one hundred radiosondes from across the 2017 path, recording an unprecedented atmospheric data sample. Collected data will include temperature, density, wind, humidity, and ozone measurements.

  2. Global response patterns of terrestrial plant species to nitrogen addition.

    PubMed

    Xia, Jianyang; Wan, Shiqiang

    2008-07-01

    Better understanding of the responses of terrestrial plant species under global nitrogen (N) enrichment is critical for projection of changes in structure, functioning, and service of terrestrial ecosystems. Here, a meta-analysis of data from 304 studies was carried out to reveal the general response patterns of terrestrial plant species to the addition of N. Across 456 terrestrial plant species included in the analysis, biomass and N concentration were increased by 53.6 and 28.5%, respectively, under N enrichment. However, the N responses were dependent upon plant functional types, with significantly greater biomass increases in herbaceous than in woody species. Stimulation of plant biomass by the addition of N was enhanced when other resources were improved. In addition, the N responses of terrestrial plants decreased with increasing latitude and increased with annual precipitation. Dependence of the N responses of terrestrial plants on biological realms, functional types, tissues, other resources, and climatic factors revealed in this study can help to explain changes in species composition, diversity, community structure and ecosystem functioning under global N enrichment. These findings are critical in improving model simulation and projection of terrestrial carbon sequestration and its feedbacks to global climate change, especially when progressive N limitation is taken into consideration. PMID:19086179

  3. Project Longshot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, J. Curtis; Chamberlain, Sally A.; Stevens, Robert; Pagan, Neftali

    1989-01-01

    Project Longshot is an unmanned probe to our nearest star system, Alpha Centauri, 4.3 light years away. The Centauri system is a trinary system consisting of two central stars (A and B) orbiting a barycenter, and a third (Proxima Centauri) orbiting the two. The system is a declination of -67 degrees. The goal is to reach the Centauri system in 50 years. This time space was chosen because any shorter time would be impossible of the relativistic velocities involved, and any greater time would be impossible because of the difficulty of creating a spacecraft with such a long lifetime. Therefore, the following mission profile is proposed: (1) spacecraft is assembled in Earth orbit; (2) spacecraft escapes Earth and Sun in the ecliptic with a single impulse maneuver; (3) spacecraft changed declination to point toward Centauri system; (4) spacecraft accelerates to 0.1c; (5) spacecraft coasts at 0.1c for 41 years; (6) spacecraft decelerates upon reaching Centauri system; and (7) spacecraft orbits Centauri system, conducts investigations, and relays data to Earth. The total time to reach the Centauri system, taking into consideration acceleration and deceleration, will be approximately 50 years.

  4. Project LASER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    NASA formally launched Project LASER (Learning About Science, Engineering and Research) in March 1990, a program designed to help teachers improve science and mathematics education and to provide 'hands on' experiences. It featured the first LASER Mobile Teacher Resource Center (MTRC), is designed to reach educators all over the nation. NASA hopes to operate several MTRCs with funds provided by private industry. The mobile unit is a 22-ton tractor-trailer stocked with NASA educational publications and outfitted with six work stations. Each work station, which can accommodate two teachers at a time, has a computer providing access to NASA Spacelink. Each also has video recorders and photocopy/photographic equipment for the teacher's use. MTRC is only one of the five major elements within LASER. The others are: a Space Technology Course, to promote integration of space science studies with traditional courses; the Volunteer Databank, in which NASA employees are encouraged to volunteer as tutors, instructors, etc; Mobile Discovery Laboratories that will carry simple laboratory equipment and computers to provide hands-on activities for students and demonstrations of classroom activities for teachers; and the Public Library Science Program which will present library based science and math programs.

  5. Anthology of Inmate Art. Special Demonstration Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawk, Kim; And Others

    The Anthology of Inmate Art project was a 353 Special Demonstration Project to encourage prison inmates enrolled in adult basic education/General Educational Development (ABE/GED) programs to create and publish their own works of art, poetry, and other creative writing. In addition to gaining experience in creative writing and discussing poetry,…

  6. Projections of Education Statistics to 2009.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerald, Debra E.; Hussar, William J.

    This report includes statistics on elementary and secondary schools and institutions of higher education at the national level. Included are projections for enrollment, graduates, classroom teachers, and expenditures to the year 2008. In addition, the report includes projections of enrollment in public elementary and secondary schools and high…

  7. Kalispel Resident Fish Project : Annual Report, 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, Todd; Olson, Jason

    2003-03-01

    In 2002 the Kalispel Natural Resource Department (KNRD) continued monitoring enhancement projects (implemented from 1996 to 1998) for bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), westslope cutthroat (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi) and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Additional baseline fish population and habitat assessments were conducted, in 2002, in tributaries to the Pend Oreille River. Further habitat and fish population enhancement projects were also implemented in 2002.

  8. Kalispel Resident Fish Project Annual Report, 2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, Jason; Andersen, Todd

    2004-04-01

    In 2003 the Kalispel Natural Resource Department (KNRD) continued monitoring enhancement projects (implemented from 1996 to 1998) for bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), westslope cutthroat (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi) and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Additional baseline fish population and habitat assessments were conducted, in 2003, in tributaries to the Pend Oreille River. Further habitat and fish population enhancement projects were also implemented.

  9. An O-"fish"-ial Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, James; Krustchinsky, Rick; Vanek, Karen; Nguyen, Kim-Thoa

    2009-01-01

    In this "O-"fish"-ial" research project, third-grade students use multiple resources to research several fish species, write a research paper and develop a PowerPoint presentation to communicate their findings. In addition, students actually examine these species up close with samples from the local market, and then conclude the project with a…

  10. Cases for Additive Manufacturing on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Kenneth G.; McLemore, Carole; Anderson, Theodore " Ted"

    2012-01-01

    There are thousands of plastic or non-structural metal components on the International Space Station (ISS), any of which could require replacing sometime between resupply missions. While these may not be life critical, it can cause significant delays to flight projects that have to wait several weeks to months to receive a key part one that could have been designed and built on-board the ISS within a few hours. A plastic deposition additive manufacturing process is a low-energy, low-mass solution to many common needs on board the ISS.

  11. Applying Additive Manufacturing to a New Liquid Oxygen Turbopump Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Neal, Derek

    2016-01-01

    A liquid oxygen turbopump has been designed at Marshall Space Flight Center as part of the in-house, Advanced Manufacturing Demonstrator Engine (AMDE) project. Additive manufacturing, specifically direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) of Inconel 718, is used for 77% of the parts by mass. These parts include the impeller, turbine components, and housings. The near-net shape DMLS parts have been delivered and final machining is underway. Fabrication of the traditionally manufactured hardware is also proceeding. Testing in liquid oxygen is planned for Q2 of FY2017. This topic explores the design of the turbopump along with fabrication and material testing of the DMLS hardware.

  12. 76 FR 78332 - Amended Notice of Limitation on Claims Against Proposed Public Transportation Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-16

    ... Transit). Project description: The project extends the current light rail system an additional 18 miles... Federal Transit Administration Amended Notice of Limitation on Claims Against Proposed Public Transportation Project AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: Amended Notice of Limitation...

  13. Map projections for larger-scale mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, J. P.

    1982-01-01

    For the U.S. Geological Survey maps at 1:1,000,000-scale and larger, the most common projections are conformal, such as the Transverse Mercator and Lambert Conformal Conic. Projections for these scales should treat the Earth as an ellipsoid. In addition, the USGS has conceived and designed some new projections, including the Space Oblique Mercator, the first map projection designed to permit low-distortion mapping of the Earth from satellite imagery, continuously following the groundtrack. The USGS has programmed nearly all pertinent projection equations for inverse and forward calculations. These are used to plot maps or to transform coordinates from one projection to another. The projections in current use are described.

  14. Cincinnati Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM)

    SciTech Connect

    Duty, Chad E.; Love, Lonnie J.

    2015-03-04

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) worked with Cincinnati Incorporated (CI) to demonstrate Big Area Additive Manufacturing which increases the speed of the additive manufacturing (AM) process by over 1000X, increases the size of parts by over 10X and shows a cost reduction of over 100X. ORNL worked with CI to transition the Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) technology from a proof-of-principle (TRL 2-3) demonstration to a prototype product stage (TRL 7-8).

  15. 42 CFR 57.217 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Health Professions Student Loans § 57.217 Additional conditions. The Secretary may with respect to any agreement entered into...

  16. 42 CFR 57.217 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Health Professions Student Loans § 57.217 Additional conditions. The Secretary may with respect to any agreement entered into...

  17. 42 CFR 57.217 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Health Professions Student Loans § 57.217 Additional conditions. The Secretary may with respect to any agreement entered into...

  18. 42 CFR 57.217 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Health Professions Student Loans § 57.217 Additional conditions. The Secretary may with respect to any agreement entered into...

  19. 42 CFR 57.217 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Health Professions Student Loans § 57.217 Additional conditions. The Secretary may with respect to any agreement entered into...

  20. Allergic and immunologic reactions to food additives.

    PubMed

    Gultekin, Fatih; Doguc, Duygu Kumbul

    2013-08-01

    For centuries, food additives have been used for flavouring, colouring and extension of the useful shelf life of food, as well as the promotion of food safety. During the last 20 years, the studies implicating the additives contained in foods and medicine as a causative factor of allergic reactions have been proliferated considerably. In this review, we aimed to overview all of the food additives which were approved to consume in EU and find out how common and serious allergic reactions come into existence following the consuming of food additives.

  1. Classification of additives for organic photovoltaic devices.

    PubMed

    Machui, Florian; Maisch, Philipp; Burgués-Ceballos, Ignasi; Langner, Stefan; Krantz, Johannes; Ameri, Tayebeh; Brabec, Christoph J

    2015-04-27

    The use of additives to improve the performance of organic photovoltaic cells has been intensely researched in recent years. However, so far, no system has been reported for the classification of additives and their functions. In this report, a system for classifying additives according to the fundamental mechanism by which they influence microstructure formation for P3HT:PCBM is suggested. The major parameters used for their classification are solubility and drying kinetics. Both are discussed in detail and their consequences on processing are analyzed. Furthermore, a general mechanism to classify the impact of additives on structure formation is suggested and discussed for different materials relevant to organic photovoltaic devices.

  2. 34 CFR 377.22 - What additional factors does the Secretary consider in making grants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PROJECTS TO INCREASE CLIENT CHOICE PROGRAM How Does the Secretary Make an Award? § 377.22 What additional factors does the Secretary consider in making grants? In addition to the criteria in § 377.21, the... strategies to increase client choice, in order to ensure that a variety of approaches are demonstrated...

  3. Are There Additional Benefits from Being in Small Classes for More than One Year?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konstantopoulos, Spyros; Li, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Evidence from Project STAR has suggested a considerable advantage of being in small classes in early grades. However, the extra benefits of additional years in small classes have not been discussed in detail. The present study examined the additional effects of being in small classes for more than 1 year. We find that once previous grade…

  4. Competency model for the project managers of technical projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, William R.

    1992-05-01

    Traditional job description techniques were developed to support compensation decisions for hourly wage earners in a manufacturing environment. Their resultant focus on activities performed on the job works well in this environment where the ability to perform the activity adequately is objectively verifiable by testing and observation. Although many organizations have adapted these techniques for salaried employees and service environments, the focus on activities performed has never been satisfactory. For example, stating that a project manager `prepares regular project status reports' tells us little about what to look for in a potential project manager or how to determine if a practicing project manager is ready for additional responsibilities. The concept of a `competency model' has been developed within the last decade to address this shortcoming. Competency models focus on what skills are needed to perform the tasks defined by the job description. For example, a project manager must be able to communicate well both orally and in writing in order to `prepare regular project status reports.'

  5. Advocating for Additional Aspects of Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbel-Eisenmann, Beth A.

    2016-01-01

    Across the set of articles in this Special Issue, various authors describe methodology and methodological decisions, illustrate analyses, and share emerging findings from The Evolution of the Discourse of School Mathematics (EDSM) project. In general, the investigators were interested in identifying "changes over time in the kind of…

  6. 33 CFR 203.83 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Public Law 84-99 assistance, but will not be “at no cost to the United States.” Use of another Federal... unusually high. Local sponsors should make provisions to establish and provide resources for a “Capital Improvement Fund” to meet future costs of capital improvement projects such as replacement of culverts...

  7. The Hairy Head Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallick, Barbara

    A class of 3- to 6-year-old children in a Midwestern child care center chose to study hair and hairstyling salons as a group project. This article discusses how the project evolved, describes the three phases of the project, and provides the teacher's reflections on the project. Photos taken during the project are included. (Author)

  8. Integrated Project Management System description. [UMTRAP Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-03-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project is a Department of Energy (DOE) designated Major System Acquisition (MSA). To execute and manage the Project mission successfully and to comply with the MSA requirements, the UMTRA Project Office ( Project Office'') has implemented and operates an Integrated Project Management System (IPMS). The Project Office is assisted by the Technical Assistance Contractor's (TAC) Project Integration and Control (PIC) Group in system operation. Each participant, in turn, provides critical input to system operation and reporting requirements. The IPMS provides a uniform structured approach for integrating the work of Project participants. It serves as a tool for planning and control, workload management, performance measurement, and specialized reporting within a standardized format. This system description presents the guidance for its operation. Appendices 1 and 2 contain definitions of commonly used terms and abbreviations and acronyms, respectively. 17 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. 10 CFR 810.14 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Additional information. 810.14 Section 810.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES § 810.14 Additional information. The Department of Energy may at any time require a person engaging in any generally or specifically...

  10. 10 CFR 810.14 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Additional information. 810.14 Section 810.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES § 810.14 Additional information. The Department of Energy may at any time require a person engaging in any generally or specifically...

  11. 10 CFR 810.14 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional information. 810.14 Section 810.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES § 810.14 Additional information. The Department of Energy may at any time require a person engaging in any generally or specifically...

  12. 10 CFR 810.14 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Additional information. 810.14 Section 810.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES § 810.14 Additional information. The Department of Energy may at any time require a person engaging in any generally or specifically...

  13. 77 FR 56813 - Procurement List, Proposed Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-14

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List, Proposed Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add a product and services to the Procurement List that will...

  14. 77 FR 49784 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-17

    ... FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Additions AGENCY: Committee... Procurement List. SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add services to the Procurement List that will be... connection with the services proposed for addition to the Procurement List. Comments on this...

  15. 77 FR 62220 - Procurement List; Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-12

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This action adds products and services to the Procurement List that will be furnished by nonprofit...

  16. 28 CFR 80.7 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Additional information. 80.7 Section 80.7... § 80.7 Additional information. If an issuer's or domestic concern's submission does not contain all of the information required by § 80.6, the Department of Justice may request whatever...

  17. 25 CFR 214.5 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional information. 214.5 Section 214.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.5 Additional information. The officer in...

  18. 25 CFR 214.5 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Additional information. 214.5 Section 214.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.5 Additional information. The officer in charge may, at...

  19. 25 CFR 214.5 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional information. 214.5 Section 214.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.5 Additional information. The officer in...

  20. 25 CFR 214.5 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional information. 214.5 Section 214.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.5 Additional information. The officer in...

  1. 25 CFR 214.5 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Additional information. 214.5 Section 214.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.5 Additional information. The officer in...

  2. 7 CFR 958.90 - Additional parties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional parties. 958.90 Section 958.90 Agriculture... Additional parties. After the effective date hereof, any handler may become a party to this agreement if a... contracting party at the time such counterpart is delivered to the Secretary, and the benefits,...

  3. 7 CFR 958.90 - Additional parties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Additional parties. 958.90 Section 958.90 Agriculture... Additional parties. After the effective date hereof, any handler may become a party to this agreement if a... contracting party at the time such counterpart is delivered to the Secretary, and the benefits,...

  4. 40 CFR 412.47 - Additional measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Additional measures. 412.47 Section 412.47 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND... Calves § 412.47 Additional measures. (a) Each CAFO subject to this subpart must implement...

  5. 40 CFR 412.47 - Additional measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Additional measures. 412.47 Section 412.47 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND... Calves § 412.47 Additional measures. (a) Each CAFO subject to this subpart must implement...

  6. 75 FR 51444 - Procurement List Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-20

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Additions On 6/4/2010 (75 FR 31768-31769); 6/11/2010 (75 FR 33270-33271); 6/ 18/2010 (75 FR 34701-34702); and 6/25/2010 (75 FR 36363-36371), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are... factors considered for this certification were: 1. The action will not result in any additional...

  7. 34 CFR 75.231 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DIRECT GRANT PROGRAMS How Grants Are Made Procedures to Make A Grant § 75.231 Additional information. After selecting an application for funding, the Secretary may require the applicant to submit additional information. (Authority: 20 U.S.C. 1221e-3 and 3474)...

  8. 34 CFR 75.231 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DIRECT GRANT PROGRAMS How Grants Are Made Procedures to Make A Grant § 75.231 Additional information. After selecting an application for funding, the Secretary may require the applicant to submit additional information. (Authority: 20 U.S.C. 1221e-3 and 3474)...

  9. 34 CFR 75.231 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DIRECT GRANT PROGRAMS How Grants Are Made Procedures to Make A Grant § 75.231 Additional information. After selecting an application for funding, the Secretary may require the applicant to submit additional information. (Authority: 20 U.S.C. 1221e-3 and 3474)...

  10. 34 CFR 75.231 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DIRECT GRANT PROGRAMS How Grants Are Made Procedures to Make A Grant § 75.231 Additional information. After selecting an application for funding, the Secretary may require the applicant to submit additional information. (Authority: 20 U.S.C. 1221e-3 and 3474)...

  11. 34 CFR 75.231 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DIRECT GRANT PROGRAMS How Grants Are Made Procedures to Make A Grant § 75.231 Additional information. After selecting an application for funding, the Secretary may require the applicant to submit additional information. (Authority: 20 U.S.C. 1221e-3 and 3474)...

  12. 7 CFR 1735.18 - Additional equity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Additional equity. 1735.18 Section 1735.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Basic Policies § 1735.18 Additional equity. If determined by the Administrator to be necessary for...

  13. 7 CFR 1735.18 - Additional equity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional equity. 1735.18 Section 1735.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Basic Policies § 1735.18 Additional equity. If determined by the Administrator to be necessary for...

  14. 28 CFR 80.7 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Additional information. 80.7 Section 80.7... § 80.7 Additional information. If an issuer's or domestic concern's submission does not contain all of the information required by § 80.6, the Department of Justice may request whatever...

  15. 76 FR 82279 - Procurement List; Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-30

    .../2011(76 FR 66913-66914), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY:...

  16. 76 FR 29210 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-20

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed additions to the Procurement List... furnished by nonprofit agencies employing persons who are blind or have other severe disabilities....

  17. 78 FR 14999 - Procurement List; Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ... 2378); and 1/18/2013 (78 FR 4133-4134), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY:...

  18. 77 FR 77038 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add products and a service to the Procurement List that will...

  19. 76 FR 34064 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-10

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed Additions to the Procurement List... nonprofit agencies employing persons who are blind or have other severe disabilities. Comments Must...

  20. 77 FR 29596 - Procurement List Proposed Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-18

    ... FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List Proposed Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed Additions to the... that will be furnished by nonprofit agencies employing persons who are blind or have other...