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Sample records for additional physical insight

  1. Attitude Towards Physics and Additional Mathematics Achievement Towards Physics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veloo, Arsaythamby; Nor, Rahimah; Khalid, Rozalina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to identify the difference in students' attitude towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement based on gender and relationship between attitudinal variables towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement with achievement in Physics. This research focused on six variables, which is attitude towards…

  2. Physics Insight into "The Canterbury Tales" Chronotope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogdanov, S. R.; Oversby, J.; Popov, O. A.; Teteleva, E. M.

    2015-01-01

    Many students regard physics as an isolated, sophisticated and perhaps a boring branch of science. Meanwhile, physics is embedded in most events and issues of society, culture and everyday life. To find and include such relevant contexts is one of the challenges for every physics teacher. Here we present our findings, which concern the classic…

  3. AGN Accretion Physics: Insights from K2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogeley, Michael

    We propose to use Kepler K2 mission observations of 1800 supermassive black holes at the centers of galaxies (Active Galactic Nuclei; AGN) to test models for accretion physics, to study the relationship between variability and other AGN properties such as accretion rate, and to guide methods for detecting and classifying AGN in future time-domain surveys. AGN exhibit optical brightness fluctuations on timescales from below an hour up to many years. These fluctuations are determined by the physics of accretion of matter onto black holes from their galactic environment. By observing variability on timescales down to below an hour, Kepler probes the accretion region on length scales that are too small to be directly imaged using conventional telescopes. These data allow us to test competing models for accretion physics that make different predictions for the statistics of variability. Our previous work provides strong evidence that models of AGN variability that work on long timescale data are not adequate to describe the full range of fluctuation timescales probed by Kepler. We will analyze the light curves of 1800 AGN that have been monitored by Kepler during recent and ongoing K2 campaigns. These objects span a large range of luminosity and AGN type, thus allowing study of the relationship between variability and other physical properties. We will characterize the statistics of AGN variability using state-of-the-art methods of time series analysis that are appropriate for quantifying the stochastic behavior of AGN. This analysis builds on our previous work in which we developed and tested new analysis software that extracts the full information content of these light curves and will enable several key outcomes: (1) Measurement of the relationship between types of AGN and their variability. (2) Tests for dependence of variability on accretion rate. (3) Investigation of changes in variability behavior that point to changes in the mode of accretion. (4) Correlations

  4. Teaching and Learning Physics: Performance Art Evoking Insight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommer, Wilfried

    2015-12-01

    Doing experiments in physics lessons can create a magical moment if students become really intrigued with the experimental progression. They add a new quality to what the experiment shows. Their attention and nature's revelations flow together: a performance is taking place. It's similar to a moment during a theatrical performance, when the spectators' and actors' energy flow together and their feeling of being separated from one another dissolves. Together with the atmosphere of the stage scenery they reform something new, unique, and volatile, and the fourth wall, that imaginary wall between actors and audience, breaks down. Erika Fischer-Lichte refers to such moments as "the transformative power of performance: a new aesthetics." Below, I will discuss what this transformative power with respect to teaching and learning physics can be, particularly how the involvement in experimental demonstrations develops deeper insights into the way in which the laws of physics are "prodigious."

  5. Physics of rare events: insights on Napoleon death

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorini, Ettore

    2009-03-01

    This unusual report tries to show that the high level of sophistication reached in the instrumentation in experiments on rare events can allow to investigate with unprecedented accuracy problems far from those of fundamental physics, but quite important in other fields of physics. The technique and the know-how on neutron activation developed to reduce the background due to spurious events in the CUORE detector to search for neutrinoless double beta decay has been applied to determine the arsenic contents in the hairs of Napoleon Bonaparte and of historical subjects of his time and to compare it with those of subjects living presently. This contents has been found to be about two orders of magnitude larger than the present ones. The As concentration in the hairs of the Emperor is large, but similar to those of the his contemporaries. In additions a comparison among fraction of one of his hairs allows to exclude a criminal act.

  6. Physics insight into ‘The Canterbury Tales’ chronotope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdanov, S. R.; Oversby, J.; Popov, O. A.; Teteleva, E. M.

    2015-07-01

    Many students regard physics as an isolated, sophisticated and perhaps a boring branch of science. Meanwhile, physics is embedded in most events and issues of society, culture and everyday life. To find and include such relevant contexts is one of the challenges for every physics teacher. Here we present our findings, which concern the classic The Canterbury Tales by Geoffrey Chaucer. Some important questions are still open and disputed, such as the dates of events in the story. In particular, physics can provide a method for an approximate estimation of the dates and places of the events in the tales. This paper provides some of the details.

  7. Additional applications of the Lambert W function in physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houari, Ahmed

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, using the Lambert W function, I derive closed-form analytical expressions for the decay constant of an exponentially decaying process and the time constant of a process subject to a linear resistive force. Similarly, I derive closed-form analytical formulae for the electrical resistivity of a metal and the temperature of a thermionic emitter material. Besides their theoretical importance, the results obtained will be of interest to teachers involved in undergraduate physics experiments.

  8. Teaching and Learning Physics: Performance Art Evoking Insight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommer, Wilfried

    2015-01-01

    Doing experiments in physics lessons can create a magical moment if students become really intrigued with the experimental progression. They add a new quality to what the experiment shows. Their attention and nature's revelations flow together: a performance is taking place. It's similar to a moment during a theatrical performance, when the…

  9. Insight into the interaction between layered lithium-rich oxide and additive-containing electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Wenqiang; Xia, Pan; Zheng, Xiongwen; Ye, Changchun; Xu, Mengqiang; Li, Weishan

    2017-02-01

    Electrolyte additives have been found to be effective for the cyclic stability improvement of layered lithium-rich oxide (LRO), which is ascribed to the formation of cathode films derived from the preferential oxidation of the electrolyte additives. However, the detailed mechanism on the formation of the cathode film is unclear. This paper uncovers the interaction between LRO and additive-containing electrolyte through theoretical calculations, electrochemical measurements and physical characterizations. A representative LRO, Li1.2Mn0.54Ni0.13Co0.13O2, is synthesized, and an electrolyte, 1 M LiPF6 in EC/DMC (1/2, in volume) using triethyl phosphite (TEP) as additive, is considered. Charge/discharge tests demonstrate that LRO suffers severe capacity fading and TEP can significantly improve the cyclic stability of LRO. Characterizations from SEM and TEM demonstrate that a cathode film exists on the LRO after cycling in the TEP-containing electrolyte. The theoretical calculations suggest that TEP traps the active oxygen and is then oxidized on LRO preferentially compared to the electrolyte, forming the cathode film. The further characterizations from FTIR and GC, confirm that the preferential combination of TEP with active oxygen is beneficial for the suppression of oxygen evolution, and that the resulting cathode film can suppress the electrolyte decomposition and protect LRO from destruction.

  10. Insight into hydroxides-activated coals: chemical or physical activation?

    SciTech Connect

    Alcaniz-Monge, J.; Illan-Gomez, M.J.

    2008-02-15

    The objective of this paper is to get an insight into the chemical activation mechanism using KOH and NaOH as activated agents. Three coals have been selected as carbon precursors. It was found that KOH and NaOH develop a similar narrow microporosity, independently of the coal rank, whereas only KOH generates supermicroporosity. Temperature-programmed desorption experiments, carried out with impregnated anthracite, show differences on the gas evolved during the activated carbon preparation using the two activating agents. Thus, whereas hydrogen profiles are quite similar for both activated agents, the CO and H{sub 2}O profiles are different. It is remarkable the high amount of H{sub 2}O evolved at the maximum treatment temperature for both activating agents. The results obtained to allow conclusion that the chemical activation is due to a combination of different process driving the development of material porosity.

  11. Time-Resolved In Situ Measurements During Rapid Alloy Solidification: Experimental Insight for Additive Manufacturing

    DOE PAGES

    McKeown, Joseph T.; Zweiacker, Kai; Liu, Can; ...

    2016-01-27

    In research and industrial environments, additive manufacturing (AM) of metals and alloys is becoming a pervasive technology, though significant challenges remain before widespread implementation of AM can be realized. In situ investigations of rapid alloy solidification with high spatial and temporal resolutions can provide unique experimental insight into microstructure evolution and kinetics that are relevant for AM processing. Hypoeutectic thin-film Al–Cu and Al–Si alloys were investigated using dynamic transmission electron microscopy to monitor pulsed-laser-induced rapid solidification across microsecond timescales. Solid–liquid interface velocities measured from time-resolved images revealed accelerating solidification fronts in both alloys. We observed microstructure evolution, solidification product, andmore » presence of a morphological instability at the solid–liquid interface in the Al–4 at.%Cu alloy are related to the measured interface velocities and small differences in composition that affect the thermophysical properties of the alloys. These time-resolved in situ measurements can inform and validate predictive modeling efforts for AM.« less

  12. Time-Resolved In Situ Measurements During Rapid Alloy Solidification: Experimental Insight for Additive Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    McKeown, Joseph T.; Zweiacker, Kai; Liu, Can; Coughlin, Daniel R.; Clarke, Amy J.; Baldwin, J. Kevin; Gibbs, John W.; Roehling, John D.; Imhoff, Seth D.; Gibbs, Paul J.; Tourret, Damien; Wiezorek, Jörg M. K.; Campbell, Geoffrey H.

    2016-01-27

    In research and industrial environments, additive manufacturing (AM) of metals and alloys is becoming a pervasive technology, though significant challenges remain before widespread implementation of AM can be realized. In situ investigations of rapid alloy solidification with high spatial and temporal resolutions can provide unique experimental insight into microstructure evolution and kinetics that are relevant for AM processing. Hypoeutectic thin-film Al–Cu and Al–Si alloys were investigated using dynamic transmission electron microscopy to monitor pulsed-laser-induced rapid solidification across microsecond timescales. Solid–liquid interface velocities measured from time-resolved images revealed accelerating solidification fronts in both alloys. We observed microstructure evolution, solidification product, and presence of a morphological instability at the solid–liquid interface in the Al–4 at.%Cu alloy are related to the measured interface velocities and small differences in composition that affect the thermophysical properties of the alloys. These time-resolved in situ measurements can inform and validate predictive modeling efforts for AM.

  13. Insights into Physics of Fluid Turbulence Using High Resolution Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, S.-Y.

    2001-06-01

    Turbulence is of universal importance in fluid flows. Its correct description thereby impacts such diverse fields as atmospheric pollutant dispersion, weather, commercial chemical processes, aircraft design, ship design, and ocean dynamics. The challenge of understanding turbulence, ``the last unsolved problem in classical statistical mechanics'' (according to Feynman), has been with us over 100 years. The difficulties in the physical understanding and modeling of fluid turbulence arise from the fundamental dynamical properties: strong nonlinearity; the simultaneous presence and interaction of a huge number of degrees of freedom, comprising a wide range of spatial scales; marked departure from statistical equilibrium. With emerging multi-teraflop computers, direct numerical simulation of fluid turbulence at high Reynolds numbers is becoming possible. In this talk, I will give an overview about the latest development of understanding fundamental physics of fluid turbulence, including two-D and three-D Navier-Stokes turbulence and passive scalar advection diffusion system, using high resolution numerical simulation.

  14. Insight into the physics of foam densification via numerical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardenhagen, S. G.; Brydon, A. D.; Guilkey, J. E.

    2005-03-01

    Foamed materials are increasingly finding application in engineering systems on account of their unique properties. The basic mechanics which gives rise to these properties is well established, they are the result of collapsing the foam microstructure. Despite a basic understanding, the relationship between the details of foam microstructure and foam bulk response is generally unknown. With continued advances in computational power, many researchers have turned to numerical simulation to gain insight into the relationship between foam microstructure and bulk properties. However, numerical simulation of foam microscale deformation is a very challenging computational task and, to date, simulations over the full range of bulk deformations in which these materials operate have not been reported. Here a particle technique is demonstrated to be well-suited for this computational challenge, permitting simulation of the compression of foam microstructures to full densification. Computations on idealized foam microstructures are in agreement with engineering guidelines and various experimental results. Dependencies on degree of microstructure regularity and material properties are demonstrated. A surprising amount of porosity is found in fully-densified foams. The presence of residual porosity can strongly influence dynamic material response and hence needs to be accounted for in bulk (average) constitutive models of these materials.

  15. Physical activity, stress reduction, and mood: insight into immunological mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Hamer, Mark; Endrighi, Romano; Poole, Lydia

    2012-01-01

    Psychosocial factors, such as chronic mental stress and mood, are recognized as an important predictor of longevity and wellbeing. In particular, depression is independently associated with cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality, and is often comorbid with chronic diseases that can worsen their associated health outcomes. Regular exercise is thought to be associated with stress reduction and better mood, which may partly mediate associations between depression, stress, and health outcomes. The underlying mechanisms for the positive effects of exercise on wellbeing remain poorly understood. In this overview we examine epidemiological evidence for an association between physical activity and mental health. We then describe the exercise withdrawal paradigm as an experimental protocol to study mechanisms linking exercise, mood, and stress. In particular we will discuss the potential role of the inflammatory response as a central mechanism.

  16. Is poker a skill game? New insights from statistical physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javarone, Marco Alberto

    2015-06-01

    During last years poker has gained a lot of prestige in several countries and, besides being one of the most famous card games, it represents a modern challenge for scientists belonging to different communities, spanning from artificial intelligence to physics and from psychology to mathematics. Unlike games like chess, the task of classifying the nature of poker (i.e., as “skill game” or gambling) seems really hard and it also constitutes a current problem, whose solution has several implications. In general, gambling offers equal winning probabilities both to rational players (i.e., those that use a strategy) and to irrational ones (i.e., those without a strategy). Therefore, in order to uncover the nature of poker, a viable way is comparing performances of rational vs. irrational players during a series of challenges. Recently, a work on this topic revealed that rationality is a fundamental ingredient to succeed in poker tournaments. In this study we analyze a simple model of poker challenges by a statistical physics approach, with the aim to uncover the nature of this game. As main result we found that, under particular conditions, few irrational players can turn poker into gambling. Therefore, although rationality is a key ingredient to succeed in poker, also the format of challenges has an important role in these dynamics, as it can strongly influence the underlying nature of the game. The importance of our results lies on the related implications, as for instance in identifying the limits within which poker can be considered as a “skill game” and, as a consequence, which kind of format must be chosen to devise algorithms able to face humans.

  17. Probing AGN Accretion Physics through AGN Variability: Insights from Kepler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasliwal, Vishal Pramod

    Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) exhibit large luminosity variations over the entire electromagnetic spectrum on timescales ranging from hours to years. The variations in luminosity are devoid of any periodic character and appear stochastic. While complex correlations exist between the variability observed in different parts of the electromagnetic spectrum, no frequency band appears to be completely dominant, suggesting that the physical processes producing the variability are exceedingly rich and complex. In the absence of a clear theoretical explanation of the variability, phenomenological models are used to study AGN variability. The stochastic behavior of AGN variability makes formulating such models difficult and connecting them to the underlying physics exceedingly hard. We study AGN light curves serendipitously observed by the NASA Kepler planet-finding mission. Compared to previous ground-based observations, Kepler offers higher precision and a smaller sampling interval resulting in potentially higher quality light curves. Using structure functions, we demonstrate that (1) the simplest statistical model of AGN variability, the damped random walk (DRW), is insufficient to characterize the observed behavior of AGN light curves; and (2) variability begins to occur in AGN on time-scales as short as hours. Of the 20 light curves studied by us, only 3-8 may be consistent with the DRW. The structure functions of the AGN in our sample exhibit complex behavior with pronounced dips on time-scales of 10-100 d suggesting that AGN variability can be very complex and merits further analysis. We examine the accuracy of the Kepler pipeline-generated light curves and find that the publicly available light curves may require re-processing to reduce contamination from field sources. We show that while the re-processing changes the exact PSD power law slopes inferred by us, it is unlikely to change the conclusion of our structure function study-Kepler AGN light curves indicate

  18. Plasma-produced nanocrystals enable new insights in semiconductor physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenberg, Benjamin; Robinson, Zachary; Gorynski, Claudia; Voigt, Bryan; Francis, Lorraine; Aydil, Eray; Kortshagen, Uwe

    2016-09-01

    The transition from semiconducting (insulating) to metallic behavior is a central problem of semiconductor physics. In bulk semiconductors, this insulator-to-metal transition is described by the well-known Mott criterion. However, in films of semiconductor nanocrystals the Mott criterion fails completely. Recent progress in the nonthermal plasma synthesis of films of highly doped silicon nanocrystals has contributed to the development of a new theory that presents a consistent analog to the Mott criterion for nanocrystal materials. Here, we study films of nonthermal plasma produced zinc oxide (ZnO) nanocrystals to in detail investigate the insulator-to-metal transition. We produce high-purity monodisperse ZnO nanocrystals in a nonthermal plasma and form dense films via supersonic impact deposition. We then modulate the free carrier density, n, and nanocrystal contact facet radius, ρ, via xenon-flashlamp intense pulsed light annealing, which induces necking between the clean surfaces of adjacent nanocrystals. Preliminary electrical measurements indicate that the electron mobility can be finely tuned and that the films cross the insulator-to-metal transition for sufficiently high n and ρ. This work was supported by the MRSEC program of the U.S. National Science Foundation under grant DMR-1420013.

  19. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  20. 10 CFR 73.60 - Additional requirements for physical protection at nonpower reactors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... nonpower reactors. 73.60 Section 73.60 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Physical Protection Requirements at Fixed Sites § 73.60 Additional... nuclear material from theft or diversion pursuant to the requirements of paragraphs 73.67 (a), (b),...

  1. 10 CFR 73.60 - Additional requirements for physical protection at nonpower reactors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... nonpower reactors. 73.60 Section 73.60 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Physical Protection Requirements at Fixed Sites § 73.60 Additional... nuclear material from theft or diversion pursuant to the requirements of paragraphs 73.67 (a), (b),...

  2. Effect of almond shell biochar addition on the hydro-physical properties of an arable Central Valley soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, V.; Ghezzehei, T. A.

    2014-12-01

    Biochar is composed of any carbonaceous matter pyrolyzed under low oxygen exposure. Its use as a soil amendment to address soil infertility has been accelerated by studies reporting positive effects of enhanced nutrient retention, cation exchange capacity, microbial activity, and vegetative growth over time. Biochar has also been considered as a carbon sequestration method because of its reported environmental persistence. While the aforementioned effects are positive benefits of biochar's use, its impact on soil physical properties and water flow are equally important in maintaining soil fertility. This study aims to show how soil physical and hydraulic properties change over time with biochar addition. To address these aims, we conducted a 9 week microcosm incubation experiment with local arable loamy sand soils amended with biochar. Biochar was created from locally collected almond shells and differs by pyrolysis temperatures (350°C, 700°C) and size (<250 μm, 1-2mm). Additionally, biochar was applied to soil at a low (10 t/ha) or high (60 t/ha) rates. Changes in soil water flow properties were analyzed by infiltration or pressure cell experiments immediately after creating our soil-biochar mixtures. These experiments were repeated during and after the incubation period to observe if and how flow is altered over time. Following incubation and hydraulic experiments, a water drop penetration time (WDPT) test was conducted to observe any alterations in surface hydrophobicity. Changes in soil physical properties were analyzed by determining content of water stable aggregates remaining after wet sieving. This series of experiments is expected to provide a greater understanding on the impact biochar addition on soil physical and hydraulic properties. Furthermore, it provides insight into whether or not converting local agricultural waste into biochar for soil use will be beneficial, especially in agricultural systems undergoing climate stress.

  3. Physical activity counseling in primary care: Insights from public health and behavioral economics.

    PubMed

    Shuval, Kerem; Leonard, Tammy; Drope, Jeffrey; Katz, David L; Patel, Alpa V; Maitin-Shepard, Melissa; Amir, On; Grinstein, Amir

    2017-02-15

    Physical inactivity has reached epidemic proportions in modern society. Abundant evidence points to a causal link between physical inactivity and increased risk for numerous noncommunicable diseases, such as some types of cancer and heart disease, as well as premature mortality. Yet, despite this overwhelming evidence, many individuals do not meet the recommended amount of physical activity required to achieve maximum health benefits. Because primary care physicians' advice is highly regarded, clinicians have the unique opportunity to play an important role in enabling patients to modify their behavior at the point of care with the goal of guiding patients to adopt and maintain an active lifestyle. In the current study, the authors evaluate pertinent literature from the fields of medicine/public health and economics/psychology to suggest a comprehensive approach to physical activity counseling at the primary care level. They first examine the public health approach to physical activity counseling, and then proceed to offer insights from behavioral economics, an emerging field that combines principles from psychology and economics. The application of key behavioral economics tools (eg, precommitment contracts, framing) to physical activity counseling in primary care is elaborated. CA Cancer J Clin 2017. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  4. Helical-Peptide-Catalyzed Enantioselective Michael Addition Reactions and Their Mechanistic Insights.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Atsushi; Umeno, Tomohiro; Doi, Mitsunobu; Akagawa, Kengo; Kudo, Kazuaki; Tanaka, Masakazu

    2016-08-05

    Helical peptide foldamer catalyzed Michael addition reactions of nitroalkane or dialkyl malonate to α,β-unsaturated ketones are reported along with the mechanistic considerations of the enantio-induction. A wide variety of α,β-unsaturated ketones, including β-aryl, β-alkyl enones, and cyclic enones, were found to be catalyzed by the helical peptide to give Michael adducts with high enantioselectivities (up to 99%). On the basis of X-ray crystallographic analysis and depsipeptide study, the amide protons, N(2)-H and N(3)-H, at the N terminus in the α-helical peptide catalyst were crucial for activating Michael donors, while the N-terminal primary amine activated Michael acceptors through the formation of iminium ion intermediates.

  5. New Insights on Tropical Ozone from SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes) Profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.

    2004-01-01

    The SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes) ozone sounding network was initiated in 1998 to improve the coverage of tropical in-situ ozone measurements for satellite validation, algorithm development and related process studies. Over 2000 soundings have been archived at the website, , for 12 stations: Ascension Island; Nairobi and Malindi, Kenya; Irene, South Africa; Reunion Island, Watukosek, Java; Fiji; Tahiti; American Samoa; San Cristobal, Galapagos; Natal, Brazil; Paramaribo, Surinam. Key results from SHADOZ will be described from among the following: 1) By using ECC sondes with similar procedures, 5-10% accuracy and precision (1-sigma) of the sonde total ozone measurement was achieved; 2) Week-to-week variability in tropospheric ozone is so great that statistics are frequently not Gaussian; most stations vary up to a factor of 3 in tropospheric column over the course of a year; 3) Longitudinal variability in tropospheric ozone profiles is a consistent feature, with a 10-15 DU column-integrated difference between Atlantic and Pacific sites; this causes a "zonal wave-one" feature in total ozone. 4) The ozone record from Paramaribo, Surinam (6N, 55W) is a marked contrast to southern tropical ozone because Surinam is often north of the Intertropical Convergence Zone; 5) Indian Ocean region pollution may contribute up to half of the excess ozone observed in the south tropical Atlantic paradox in the December-January-February period of the year.

  6. SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes): A Project Overview and New Insights on Tropical Tropospheric Ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Oltmans, S. J.; Schmidlin, F. J.

    2004-01-01

    The SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes) ozone sounding network was initiated in 1998 to improve the coverage of tropical in-situ ozone measurements for satellite validation, algorithm development and related process studies. Over 2000 soundings have been archived at the website, http://croc.gsfc.nasa.gov/shadoz, for 12 stations: Ascension Island; Nairobi and Malindi, Kenya; Irene, South Africa; Reunion Island; Watukosek, Java; Fiji; Tahiti; American Samoa; San Cristobal, Galapagos; Natal, Brazil; Paramaribo, Surinam. Key results from SHADOZ will be described from among the following: 1) By using ECC sondes with similar procedures, 5-10% accuracy and precision (1-sigma) of the sonde total ozone measurement is achieved; 2) Week-to-week variability in tropospheric ozone is so great that statistics are frequently not Gaussian; most stations vary up to a factor of 3 in tropospheric column over the course of a year; 3) Longitudinal variability in tropospheric ozone profiles is a consistent feature, with a 10-15 DU column-integrated difference between Atlantic and Pacific sites; this causes a "zonal wave-one" feature in total ozone; 4) The ozone record from Paramaribo, Surinam (6N, 55W) is a marked contrast to southern tropical ozone because Surinam is often north of the Intertropical Convergence Zone.

  7. Learning Additional Languages as Hierarchical Probabilistic Inference: Insights From First Language Processing.

    PubMed

    Pajak, Bozena; Fine, Alex B; Kleinschmidt, Dave F; Jaeger, T Florian

    2016-12-01

    We present a framework of second and additional language (L2/Ln) acquisition motivated by recent work on socio-indexical knowledge in first language (L1) processing. The distribution of linguistic categories covaries with socio-indexical variables (e.g., talker identity, gender, dialects). We summarize evidence that implicit probabilistic knowledge of this covariance is critical to L1 processing, and propose that L2/Ln learning uses the same type of socio-indexical information to probabilistically infer latent hierarchical structure over previously learned and new languages. This structure guides the acquisition of new languages based on their inferred place within that hierarchy, and is itself continuously revised based on new input from any language. This proposal unifies L1 processing and L2/Ln acquisition as probabilistic inference under uncertainty over socio-indexical structure. It also offers a new perspective on crosslinguistic influences during L2/Ln learning, accommodating gradient and continued transfer (both negative and positive) from previously learned to novel languages, and vice versa.

  8. What Can You Do with a Physics Education...in Addition to Becoming a Professor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dion-Schwarz, Cynthia

    2005-04-01

    Physics professors have often said that an education in physics will prepare you for just about anything. Certainly, the numerical and computer skills of physics students are widely known. The broad mathematical skills of physicists regularly lead to positions throughout the financial or engineering world, and the computer skills are a basis for employment in essentially all areas. However, these are features of all technical educations. What a physics curriculum provides as well, through the understanding of classical and quantum physics, is the basis for a quick understanding of the essential features of the world around us, and the devices we use to negotiate that world. This talk will discuss examples of how physics arguments have influenced a number of major government programs by providing decision makers with a simple and clear yet technically sound understanding of the underlying issues. In addition, examples of current problems in Defense that are subject to active research and debate will be discussed. The talk will conclude with a description of qualities and qualifications needed for a physicist to successfully transition to becoming an analyst. Cynthia Dion-Schwarz, Ph.D., (George Mason University, B.S. Physics and Mathematics, 1988, University of Maryland, Ph.D. Physics, 1995) is an Assistant Director in a technical studies and analysis research organization serving the Department of Defense. She has also worked in the Pentagon as a Science Advisor in the Office of the Secretary of Defense. Before transitioning to a career as a defense analyst and technical manager, she conducted Astrophysics research at Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Naval Research Laboratory. She has published over 50 articles in both physics- and defense-related venues, is an officer in the American Physical Society/Forum for Industrial and Applied Physics, and has won numerous awards for research and community service.

  9. Protein Fibrillar Nanopolymers: Molecular-Level Insights into Their Structural, Physical and Mechanical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trusova, Valeriya M.

    2015-09-01

    Amyloid fibrils represent a generic class of mechanically strong and stable biomaterials with extremely advantageous properties. Although amyloids were initially associated only with severe neurological disorders, the role of these structures nowadays is shifting from health debilitating to highly beneficial both in biomedical and technological aspects. Intensive involvement of fibrillar assemblies into the wide range of pathogenic and functional processes strongly necessitate the molecular level characterization of the structural, physical and elastic features of protein nanofibrils. In the present contribution, we made an attempt to highlight the up-to-date progress in the understanding of amyloid properties from the polymer physics standpoint. The fundamental insights into protein fibril behavior are essential not only for development of therapeutic strategies to combat the protein misfolding disorders but also for rational and precise design of novel biodegradable protein-based nanopolymers.

  10. 17 CFR 37.402 - Additional requirements for physical-delivery swaps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional requirements for physical-delivery swaps. 37.402 Section 37.402 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION SWAP EXECUTION FACILITIES Monitoring of Trading and Trade Processing § 37.402...

  11. Apatite (U-Th)/He thermochronology dataset interpretation: New insights from physical point of view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautheron, Cécile; Mbongo-Djimbi, Duval; Gerin, Chloé; Roques, Jérôme; Bachelet, Cyril; Oliviero, Erwan; Tassan-Got, Laurent

    2015-04-01

    The apatite (U-Th)/He (AHe) system has rapidly become a very popular thermochronometer to constrain burial and exhumation phases in a variety of geological contexts. However, the interpretation of AHe data depends on a precise knowledge of He diffusion in apatite. Several studies suggest that radiation damage generated by U and Th decay can create traps for He atoms, increasing He retention for irradiated minerals. The radiation damage also anneals with temperature and the amount of damage in an apatite crystal is at any time a balance between production and annealing, controlled by U-Th concentration, grain chemistry and thermal history (Flowers et al., 2009; Gautheron et al., 2009; 2013). However the models are not well constrained and do not fully explain the mechanism of He retention. In order to have a deeper insight on this issue, multidisciplinary studies on apatite combining diffusion experiments by Elastic Recoil Diffusion Analysis (ERDA) with a multi-scale theoretical diffusion calculation based on Density Functional Theory (DFT) and Kinetic Monte Carlo were performed. ERDA experiments were conducted on different macro-crystals, and we probed the shape of a He profile implanted into a planar and polished surface of the crystal. The helium profile evolves with temperature and allows quantifying the He diffusivity and damage impact. Additionally, DFT calculations of a damage-free crystal of apatite with different F and Cl compositions, in similar proportion as natural ones, have been run to find the favored paths of a helium atom between interstitial sites, leading to a computation of the activation energy and the diffusion coefficient. We show that damage free apatite crystals are characterized by low retention behavior and closure temperature range from 33-36°C for pure F-apatite to higher value for Cl riche apatite (up to 12°C higher), for typical grain size and cooling rate (Mbongo-Djimbi et al., in review). Using ERDA and DFT approaches, we

  12. Physical Behavior in Older Persons during Daily Life: Insights from Instrumented Shoes.

    PubMed

    Moufawad El Achkar, Christopher; Lenoble-Hoskovec, Constanze; Paraschiv-Ionescu, Anisoara; Major, Kristof; Büla, Christophe; Aminian, Kamiar

    2016-08-03

    Activity level and gait parameters during daily life are important indicators for clinicians because they can provide critical insights into modifications of mobility and function over time. Wearable activity monitoring has been gaining momentum in daily life health assessment. Consequently, this study seeks to validate an algorithm for the classification of daily life activities and to provide a detailed gait analysis in older adults. A system consisting of an inertial sensor combined with a pressure sensing insole has been developed. Using an algorithm that we previously validated during a semi structured protocol, activities in 10 healthy elderly participants were recorded and compared to a wearable reference system over a 4 h recording period at home. Detailed gait parameters were calculated from inertial sensors. Dynamics of physical behavior were characterized using barcodes that express the measure of behavioral complexity. Activity classification based on the algorithm led to a 93% accuracy in classifying basic activities of daily life, i.e., sitting, standing, and walking. Gait analysis emphasizes the importance of metrics such as foot clearance in daily life assessment. Results also underline that measures of physical behavior and gait performance are complementary, especially since gait parameters were not correlated to complexity. Participants gave positive feedback regarding the use of the instrumented shoes. These results extend previous observations in showing the concurrent validity of the instrumented shoes compared to a body-worn reference system for daily-life physical behavior monitoring in older adults.

  13. Physical Behavior in Older Persons during Daily Life: Insights from Instrumented Shoes

    PubMed Central

    Moufawad el Achkar, Christopher; Lenoble-Hoskovec, Constanze; Paraschiv-Ionescu, Anisoara; Major, Kristof; Büla, Christophe; Aminian, Kamiar

    2016-01-01

    Activity level and gait parameters during daily life are important indicators for clinicians because they can provide critical insights into modifications of mobility and function over time. Wearable activity monitoring has been gaining momentum in daily life health assessment. Consequently, this study seeks to validate an algorithm for the classification of daily life activities and to provide a detailed gait analysis in older adults. A system consisting of an inertial sensor combined with a pressure sensing insole has been developed. Using an algorithm that we previously validated during a semi structured protocol, activities in 10 healthy elderly participants were recorded and compared to a wearable reference system over a 4 h recording period at home. Detailed gait parameters were calculated from inertial sensors. Dynamics of physical behavior were characterized using barcodes that express the measure of behavioral complexity. Activity classification based on the algorithm led to a 93% accuracy in classifying basic activities of daily life, i.e., sitting, standing, and walking. Gait analysis emphasizes the importance of metrics such as foot clearance in daily life assessment. Results also underline that measures of physical behavior and gait performance are complementary, especially since gait parameters were not correlated to complexity. Participants gave positive feedback regarding the use of the instrumented shoes. These results extend previous observations in showing the concurrent validity of the instrumented shoes compared to a body-worn reference system for daily-life physical behavior monitoring in older adults. PMID:27527172

  14. Laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing of metals; physics, computational, and materials challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, W. E.; Anderson, A. T.; Ferencz, R. M.; Hodge, N. E.; Kamath, C.; Khairallah, S. A.; Rubenchik, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    The production of metal parts via laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing is growing exponentially. However, the transition of this technology from production of prototypes to production of critical parts is hindered by a lack of confidence in the quality of the part. Confidence can be established via a fundamental understanding of the physics of the process. It is generally accepted that this understanding will be increasingly achieved through modeling and simulation. However, there are significant physics, computational, and materials challenges stemming from the broad range of length and time scales and temperature ranges associated with the process. In this paper, we review the current state of the art and describe the challenges that need to be met to achieve the desired fundamental understanding of the physics of the process.

  15. Laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing of metals; physics, computational, and materials challenges

    SciTech Connect

    King, W. E.; Anderson, A. T.; Ferencz, R. M.; Hodge, N. E.; Kamath, C.; Khairallah, S. A.; Rubencik, A. M.

    2015-12-29

    The production of metal parts via laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing is growing exponentially. However, the transition of this technology from production of prototypes to production of critical parts is hindered by a lack of confidence in the quality of the part. Confidence can be established via a fundamental understanding of the physics of the process. It is generally accepted that this understanding will be increasingly achieved through modeling and simulation. However, there are significant physics, computational, and materials challenges stemming from the broad range of length and time scales and temperature ranges associated with the process. In this study, we review the current state of the art and describe the challenges that need to be met to achieve the desired fundamental understanding of the physics of the process.

  16. Laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing of metals; physics, computational, and materials challenges

    SciTech Connect

    King, W. E.; Anderson, A. T.; Ferencz, R. M.; Hodge, N. E.; Khairallah, S. A.; Kamath, C.; Rubenchik, A. M.

    2015-12-15

    The production of metal parts via laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing is growing exponentially. However, the transition of this technology from production of prototypes to production of critical parts is hindered by a lack of confidence in the quality of the part. Confidence can be established via a fundamental understanding of the physics of the process. It is generally accepted that this understanding will be increasingly achieved through modeling and simulation. However, there are significant physics, computational, and materials challenges stemming from the broad range of length and time scales and temperature ranges associated with the process. In this paper, we review the current state of the art and describe the challenges that need to be met to achieve the desired fundamental understanding of the physics of the process.

  17. Laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing of metals; physics, computational, and materials challenges

    DOE PAGES

    King, W. E.; Anderson, A. T.; Ferencz, R. M.; ...

    2015-12-29

    The production of metal parts via laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing is growing exponentially. However, the transition of this technology from production of prototypes to production of critical parts is hindered by a lack of confidence in the quality of the part. Confidence can be established via a fundamental understanding of the physics of the process. It is generally accepted that this understanding will be increasingly achieved through modeling and simulation. However, there are significant physics, computational, and materials challenges stemming from the broad range of length and time scales and temperature ranges associated with the process. In thismore » study, we review the current state of the art and describe the challenges that need to be met to achieve the desired fundamental understanding of the physics of the process.« less

  18. Solving Large-Scale Computational Problems Using Insights from Statistical Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Selman, Bart

    2012-02-29

    Many challenging problems in computer science and related fields can be formulated as constraint satisfaction problems. Such problems consist of a set of discrete variables and a set of constraints between those variables, and represent a general class of so-called NP-complete problems. The goal is to find a value assignment to the variables that satisfies all constraints, generally requiring a search through and exponentially large space of variable-value assignments. Models for disordered systems, as studied in statistical physics, can provide important new insights into the nature of constraint satisfaction problems. Recently, work in this area has resulted in the discovery of a new method for solving such problems, called the survey propagation (SP) method. With SP, we can solve problems with millions of variables and constraints, an improvement of two orders of magnitude over previous methods.

  19. Effect of PMMA filler particles addition on the physical properties of resin composite.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Yoshiko; Takagaki, Tomohiro; Okuda, Makoto; Ikeda, Masaomi; Kadoma, Yoshinori; Yamauchi, Junichi; Okada, Koichi; Sadr, Alireza; Nikaido, Toru; Tagami, Junji

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of additional polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) fillers on the physical properties of experimental resin composites. PMMA particles (d=30 µm) were added to an experimental methacrylate-based resin composite in five concentrations of 0, 2.0, 4.8, 9.1, and 23.1 wt%. Properties such as contact angle, water sorption and compressive strength were measured and the fractured specimens were observed with a scanning electron microscope. The results showed that a small amount (2 wt%) of additional PMMA fillers inhibited the crack propagation and enhanced compressive strengths of the resin composites, without a significant change in water contact angle of surface or increased water sorption. However, in higher portions, the mechanical properties were not improved as a debonding at the interface between untreated fillers and the matrix, or failure within the organic filler could reduce the compressive yield strength of the composite.

  20. Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bromley, D. Allan

    1980-01-01

    The author presents the argument that the past few years, in terms of new discoveries, insights, and questions raised, have been among the most productive in the history of physics. Selected for discussion are some of the most important new developments in physics research. (Author/SA)

  1. Physical insight into switchgrass dissolution in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hui; Gurau, Gabriela; Pingali, Sai Venkatesh; O'Neil, Hugh; Evans, Barbara R; Urban, Volker S; Heller, William T; Rogers, Robin D

    2014-01-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering was used to characterize solutions of switchgrass and the constituent biopolymers cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, as well as a physical mixture of them mimicking the composition of switchgrass, dissolved in the ionic liquid (IL) 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate. The results demonstrate that the IL dissolves the cellulose fibrils of switchgrass, although a supramolecular biopolymer network remains that is not present in solutions of the individual biopolymers and that does not self-assemble in a solution containing the physical mixture of the individual biopolymers. The persistence of a network-like structure indicates that dissolving switchgrass in the IL does not disrupt all of the physical entanglements and covalent linkages between the biopolymers created during plant growth. Reconstitution of the IL-dissolved switchgrass yields carbohydrate-rich material containing cellulose with a low degree of crystallinity, as determined by powder X-ray diffraction, which impacts potential down-stream uses of the biopolymers produced by the process. The data suggests that the use of chemical additives which would break bonds that exist between the lignin and hemicellulose might improve the purity of the resulting product, but may not be able to disrupt the highly physically-entangled biopolymer network sufficiently to facilitate their separation.

  2. Physical Functioning and Mortality among Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes: Insights from TRIAD

    PubMed Central

    Ylitalo, Kelly R.; McEwen, Laura N.; Karter, Andrew; Lee, Pearl; Herman, William H.

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes is a risk factor for mortality. Subjective health status, including self-reported physical functioning, may also be a marker for mortality. This study examined the association between self-reported physical functioning and mortality in people with diabetes, and determined if this association differed by race/ethnicity. We studied 7,894 type 2 diabetic patients who participated in Translating Research Into Action for Diabetes (TRIAD), a prospective study of diabetes care in managed care. At baseline in 2000, participants completed a questionnaire and had a medical record review. Physical functioning was assessed with the Short Form Health Survey (SF-12). The National Death Index was searched annually for deaths over 10 years of follow-up (2000-2009). At baseline, mean age was 61.7 years, 50% were non-Hispanic white, 22% were black, and 16% of participants reported “good physical functioning” (better than norms for U.S. adults). Over 10 years, 28% of participants died (2,111/7,894); 39% (856/2,111) due to cardiovascular disease. Relative to those reporting good functioning, those reporting poor physical functioning had a 37% higher all-cause death rate, after adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, income, body mass index, smoking, and comorbidities (Hazard Ratio (HR)=1.37; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.15, 1.63). Similarly, those reporting poor physical functioning had a 42% higher adjusted cardiovascular death rate compared to those reporting good functioning (HR= 1.42; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.90). Although blacks were less likely than whites to report good functioning (p<0.01), the association between functioning and mortality was consistent across race/ethnicity. In this managed care population with diabetes, self-reported physical functioning was a robust predictor of mortality, in addition to traditional biological risk factors, for all race/ethnic groups. Physical functioning assessments are easy to perform and may be useful benchmarks for

  3. Nuclear physics insights for new-physics searches using nuclei: Neutrinoless ββ decay and dark matter direct detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menéndez, Javier

    2017-03-01

    Experiments using nuclei to probe new physics beyond the Standard Model, such as neutrinoless ββ decay searches testing whether neutrinos are their own antiparticle, and direct detection experiments aiming to identify the nature of dark matter, require accurate nuclear physics input for optimizing their discovery potential and for a correct interpretation of their results. This demands a detailed knowledge of the nuclear structure relevant for these processes. For instance, neutrinoless ββ decay nuclear matrix elements are very sensitive to the nuclear correlations in the initial and final nuclei, and the spin-dependent nuclear structure factors of dark matter scattering depend on the subtle distribution of the nuclear spin among all nucleons. In addition, nucleons are composite and strongly interacting, which implies that many-nucleon processes are necessary for a correct description of nuclei and their interactions. It is thus crucial that theoretical studies and experimental analyses consider β decays and dark matter interactions with a coupling to two nucleons, called two-nucleon currents.

  4. Insights into the physical chemistry of materials from advances in HAADF-STEM

    DOE PAGES

    Sohlberg, Karl; Pennycook, Timothy J.; Zhou, Wu; ...

    2014-11-13

    The observation that, ‘‘New tools lead to new science’’[P. S. Weiss, ACS Nano., 2012, 6(3), 1877–1879], is perhaps nowhere more evident than in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Advances in STEM have endowed this technique with several powerful and complimentary capabilities. For example, the application of high-angle annular dark-field imaging has made possible real-space imaging at subangstrom resolution with Z-contrast (Z = atomic number). Further advances have wrought: simultaneous real-space imaging and elemental identification by using electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS); 3-dimensional (3D) mapping by depth sectioning; monitoring of surface diffusion by time-sequencing of images; reduced electron energy imaging formore » probing graphenes; etc. In this paper we review how these advances, often coupled with first-principles theory, have led to interesting and important new insights into the physical chemistry of materials. We then review in detail a few specific applications that highlight some of these STEM capabilities.« less

  5. Physical insights of body effect and charge degradation in floating-body DRAMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giusi, Gino

    2014-05-01

    Floating Body one transistor Dynamic Random Access Memories (FBRAMs) have been widely studied and proposed in the literature as an alternative for conventional one transistor/one capacitor DRAMs. FBRAM performance depends on charge degradation during READ and HOLD operations and on the body effect during READ operation, the first setting the amount of the residual non-equilibrium charge during READ operation, and the second setting the effectiveness of this residual charge to modulate the source-body barrier during READ operation. In this work it is proposed a simple analytical charge-based compact model for the body-effect in FBRAMs which is able to reproduce device performance in terms of READ Sense Margin and current ratio. Physical insights of the body effect and charge degradation mechanisms, with particular emphasis to their bias dependence, are discussed in detail. Conclusions can be useful for the choice and the optimization of the bias in FBRAMs. All the discussion is supported by two-dimensional drift-diffusion device simulation on a template double-gate MOSFET.

  6. Atomistic simulation for deforming complex alloys with application toward TWIP steel and associated physical insights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Peng; Xu, Shaofeng; Liu, Jiabin; Li, Xiaoyan; Wei, Yujie; Wang, Hongtao; Gao, Huajian; Yang, Wei

    2017-01-01

    The interest in promoting deformation twinning for plasticity is mounting for advanced materials. In contrast to disordered grain boundaries, highly organized twin boundaries are beneficial to promoting strength-ductility combination. Twinning deformation typically involves the kinetics of stacking faults, its interplay with dislocations, as well as the interactions between dislocations and twin boundaries. While the latter has been intensively studied, the dynamics of stacking faults has been rarely touched upon. In this work, we report new physical insights on the stacking fault dynamics in twin induced plasticity (TWIP) steels. The atomistic simulation is made possible by a newly introduced approach: meta-atom molecular dynamics simulation. The simulation suggests that the stacking fault interactions are dominated by dislocation reactions that take place spontaneously, different from the existing mechanisms. Whether to generate a single stacking fault, or a twinning partial and a trailing partial dislocation, depends upon a unique parameter, namely the stacking fault energy. The latter in turn determines the deformation twinning characteristics. The complex twin-slip and twin-dislocation interactions demonstrate the dual role of deformation twins as both the dislocation barrier and dislocation storage. This duality contributes to the high strength and high ductility of TWIP steels.

  7. Insights into the physical chemistry of materials from advances in HAADF-STEM

    SciTech Connect

    Sohlberg, Karl; Pennycook, Timothy J.; Zhou, Wu; Pennycook, Stephen J.

    2014-11-13

    The observation that, ‘‘New tools lead to new science’’[P. S. Weiss, ACS Nano., 2012, 6(3), 1877–1879], is perhaps nowhere more evident than in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Advances in STEM have endowed this technique with several powerful and complimentary capabilities. For example, the application of high-angle annular dark-field imaging has made possible real-space imaging at subangstrom resolution with Z-contrast (Z = atomic number). Further advances have wrought: simultaneous real-space imaging and elemental identification by using electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS); 3-dimensional (3D) mapping by depth sectioning; monitoring of surface diffusion by time-sequencing of images; reduced electron energy imaging for probing graphenes; etc. In this paper we review how these advances, often coupled with first-principles theory, have led to interesting and important new insights into the physical chemistry of materials. We then review in detail a few specific applications that highlight some of these STEM capabilities.

  8. Additions and improvements to the high energy density physics capabilities in the FLASH code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamb, D. Q.; Flocke, N.; Graziani, C.; Tzeferacos, P.; Weide, K.

    2016-10-01

    FLASH is an open source, finite-volume Eulerian, spatially adaptive radiation magnetohydrodynamics code that has the capabilities to treat a broad range of physical processes. FLASH performs well on a wide range of computer architectures, and has a broad user base. Extensive high energy density physics (HEDP) capabilities have been added to FLASH to make it an open toolset for the academic HEDP community. We summarize these capabilities, emphasizing recent additions and improvements. In particular, we showcase the ability of FLASH to simulate the Faraday Rotation Measure produced by the presence of magnetic fields; and proton radiography, proton self-emission, and Thomson scattering diagnostics with and without the presence of magnetic fields. We also describe several collaborations with the academic HEDP community in which FLASH simulations were used to design and interpret HEDP experiments. This work was supported in part at the University of Chicago by the DOE NNSA ASC through the Argonne Institute for Computing in Science under field work proposal 57789; and the NSF under Grant PHY-0903997.

  9. Additions and Improvements to the FLASH Code for Simulating High Energy Density Physics Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamb, D. Q.; Daley, C.; Dubey, A.; Fatenejad, M.; Flocke, N.; Graziani, C.; Lee, D.; Tzeferacos, P.; Weide, K.

    2015-11-01

    FLASH is an open source, finite-volume Eulerian, spatially adaptive radiation hydrodynamics and magnetohydrodynamics code that incorporates capabilities for a broad range of physical processes, performs well on a wide range of computer architectures, and has a broad user base. Extensive capabilities have been added to FLASH to make it an open toolset for the academic high energy density physics (HEDP) community. We summarize these capabilities, with particular emphasis on recent additions and improvements. These include advancements in the optical ray tracing laser package, with methods such as bi-cubic 2D and tri-cubic 3D interpolation of electron number density, adaptive stepping and 2nd-, 3rd-, and 4th-order Runge-Kutta integration methods. Moreover, we showcase the simulated magnetic field diagnostic capabilities of the code, including induction coils, Faraday rotation, and proton radiography. We also describe several collaborations with the National Laboratories and the academic community in which FLASH has been used to simulate HEDP experiments. This work was supported in part at the University of Chicago by the DOE NNSA ASC through the Argonne Institute for Computing in Science under field work proposal 57789; and the NSF under grant PHY-0903997.

  10. Effect of addition of Versagel on microbial, chemical, and physical properties of low-fat yogurt.

    PubMed

    Ramchandran, L; Shah, N P

    2008-09-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of Versagel on the growth and proteolytic activity of Streptococcus thermophilus 1275 and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus 1368 and angiotensin-I converting enzyme inhibitory activity of the peptides generated thereby as well as on the physical properties of low-fat yogurt during a storage period of 28 d at 4 degrees C. Three different types of low-fat yogurts, YV0, YV1, and YV2, were prepared using Versagel as a fat replacer. The fermentation time of the low-fat yogurts containing Versagel was less than that of the control yogurt (YV0). The starter cultures maintained their viability (8.68 to 8.81 log CFU/g of S. thermophilus and 8.51 to 8.81 log CFU/g of L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus) in all the yogurts throughout the storage period. There was some decrease in the pH of the yogurts during storage and an increase in the concentration of lactic acid. However, the proteolytic and ACE-inhibitory potential of the starter cultures was suppressed in the presence of Versagel. On the other hand, the addition of Versagel had a positive impact on the physical properties of the low-fat yogurt, namely, spontaneous whey separation, firmness, and pseudoplastic properties.

  11. Additive effects of physical stress and herbivores on intertidal seaweed biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Williams, Susan L; Bracken, Matthew E S; Jones, Emily

    2013-05-01

    Patterns in rocky intertidal seaweed biodiversity influence the resilience and functioning of these important primary producer communities. In turn, seaweed biodiversity patterns are the result of many ecological factors. We determined the influences of thermal and desiccation stress, herbivory, and nutrients on seaweed biodiversity on a northern California rocky shoreline. In a fully crossed design at two tidal heights at wave-protected and exposed sites, we deployed screens to reduce stress, removed herbivores, and added nutrients for 18 months. The treatments reduced temperature, increased relative humidity, decreased herbivore abundances, and increased nitrogen in both seawater and seaweeds. Seaweed abundance and biodiversity (cover, biomass, species richness, diversity, evenness, and community composition) were influenced by tidal height, physical stress, and herbivores. Wave exposure affected all response variables except biomass and evenness. Stress and herbivores had independent additive effects on seaweed abundance and diversity. Physical stress did not make the community as a whole more susceptible to herbivores, and screens had overarching positive effects on seaweed biodiversity even though they also had positive effects on herbivore abundance. Nutrients had virtually no effect on seaweed biodiversity, and we observed no bottom-up effects of nutrient addition on herbivore density or biomass. Small green algae and diatoms were important contributors to overall algal cover and to changes in composition across treatments, but larger macroalgae dominated the species richness response. The striking absence of interactions between stress and herbivory highlights how seaweed communities can respond independently to important drivers of biodiversity. Thus, nonadditive, potentially synergistic effects do not necessarily complicate the understanding of how seaweed biodiversity responds to environmental change.

  12. Nanoclay addition to a conventional glass ionomer cements: Influence on physical properties

    PubMed Central

    Fareed, Muhammad A.; Stamboulis, Artemis

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the present study is to investigate the reinforcement effect of polymer-grade montmorillonite (PGN nanoclay) on physical properties of glass ionomer cement (GIC). Materials and Methods: The PGN nanoclay was dispersed in the liquid portion of GIC (HiFi, Advanced Healthcare, Kent, UK) at 1%, 2% and 4% (w/w). Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to quantify the polymer liquid of GICs after dispersion of nanoclay. The molecular weight (Mw) of HiFi liquid was determined by gel permeation chromatography. The compressive strength (CS), diametral-tensile strength, flexural strength (FS) and flexural modulus (Ef) of cements (n = 20) were measured after storage for 1 day, 1 week and 1 month. Fractured surface was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. The working and setting time (WT and ST) of cements was measured by a modified Wilson's rheometer. Results: The FTIR results showed a new peak at 1041 cm−1 which increased in intensity with an increase in the nanoclay content and was related to the Si-O stretching mode in PGN nanoclay. The Mw of poly (acrylic acid) used to form cement was in the range of 53,000 g/mol. The nanoclay reinforced GICs containing <2% nanoclays exhibited higher CS and FS. The Ef cement with 1% nanoclays was significantly higher. The WT and ST of 1% nanoclay reinforced cement were similar to the control cement but were reduced with 2% and 4% nanoclay addition. Conclusion: The dispersion of nanoclays in GICs was achieved, and GIC containing 2 wt% nanoclay is a promising restorative materials with improved physical properties. PMID:25512724

  13. Using Community Insight to Understand Physical Activity Adoption in Overweight and Obese African American and Hispanic Women: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Mama, Scherezade K.; McCurdy, Sheryl A.; Evans, Alexandra E.; Thompson, Deborah I.; Diamond, Pamela M.; Lee, Rebecca E.

    2015-01-01

    Ecologic models suggest that multiple levels of influencing factors are important for determining physical activity participation and include individual, social, and environmental factors. The purpose of this qualitative study was to use an ecologic framework to gain a deeper understanding of the underlying behavioral mechanisms that influence physical activity adoption among ethnic minority women. Eighteen African American and Hispanic women completed a 1-hour in-depth interview. Verbatim interview transcripts were analyzed for emergent themes using a constant comparison approach. Women were middle-aged (age M = 43.9 ± 7.3 years), obese (body mass index M = 35.0 ± 8.9 kg/m2), and of high socioeconomic status (88.9% completed some college or more, 41.2% reported income >$82,600/year). Participants discussed individual factors, including the need for confidence, motivation and time, and emphasized the importance of environmental factors, including their physical neighborhood environments and safety of and accessibility to physical activity resources. Women talked about caretaking for others and social support and how these influenced physical activity behavior. The findings from this study highlight the multilevel, interactive complexities that influence physical activity, emphasizing the need for a more sophisticated, ecologic approach for increasing physical activity adoption and maintenance among ethnic minority women. Community insight gleaned from this study may be used to better understand determinants of physical activity and develop multilevel solutions and programs guided by an ecologic framework to increase physical activity in ethnic minority women. PMID:25504569

  14. Using community insight to understand physical activity adoption in overweight and obese African American and Hispanic women: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Mama, Scherezade K; McCurdy, Sheryl A; Evans, Alexandra E; Thompson, Deborah I; Diamond, Pamela M; Lee, Rebecca E

    2015-06-01

    Ecologic models suggest that multiple levels of influencing factors are important for determining physical activity participation and include individual, social, and environmental factors. The purpose of this qualitative study was to use an ecologic framework to gain a deeper understanding of the underlying behavioral mechanisms that influence physical activity adoption among ethnic minority women. Eighteen African American and Hispanic women completed a 1-hour in-depth interview. Verbatim interview transcripts were analyzed for emergent themes using a constant comparison approach. Women were middle-aged (age M = 43.9 ± 7.3 years), obese (body mass index M = 35.0 ± 8.9 kg/m(2)), and of high socioeconomic status (88.9% completed some college or more, 41.2% reported income >$82,600/year). Participants discussed individual factors, including the need for confidence, motivation and time, and emphasized the importance of environmental factors, including their physical neighborhood environments and safety of and accessibility to physical activity resources. Women talked about caretaking for others and social support and how these influenced physical activity behavior. The findings from this study highlight the multilevel, interactive complexities that influence physical activity, emphasizing the need for a more sophisticated, ecologic approach for increasing physical activity adoption and maintenance among ethnic minority women. Community insight gleaned from this study may be used to better understand determinants of physical activity and develop multilevel solutions and programs guided by an ecologic framework to increase physical activity in ethnic minority women.

  15. Chemical and Physical Reactions of Wellbore Cement under CO2 Storage Conditions: Effects of Cement Additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutchko, B. G.; Strazisar, B. R.; Huerta, N.; Lowry, G. V.; Dzombak, D. A.; Thaulow, N.

    2008-12-01

    Sequestration of CO2 into geologic formations requires long-term storage and low leakage rates to be effective. Active and abandoned wells in candidate storage formations must be evaluated as potential leakage points. Wellbore integrity is an important part of an overall integrated assessment program being developed at NETL to assess potential risks at CO2 storage sites. Such a program is needed for ongoing policy and regulatory decisions for geologic carbon sequestration. The permeability and integrity of the cement in the well is a primary factor affecting its ability to prevent leakage. Cement must be able to maintain low permeability over lengthy exposure to reservoir conditions in a CO2 injection and storage scenario. Although it is known that cement may be altered by exposure to CO2, the results of ongoing research indicate that cement curing conditions, fluid properties, and cement additives play a significant role in the rate of alteration and reaction. The objective of this study is to improve understanding of the factors affecting wellbore cement integrity for large-scale geologic carbon sequestration projects. Due to the high frequency use of additives (pozzolan) in wellbore cement, it is also essential to understand the reaction of these cement-pozzolan systems upon exposure to CO2 under sequestration conditions (15.5 MPa and 50°C). Laboratory experiments were performed to determine the physical and chemical changes, as well as the rate of alteration of commonly used pozzolan-cement systems under simulated sequestration reservoir conditions, including both supercritical CO2 and CO2-saturated brine. The rate of alteration of the cement-pozzolan systems is considerably faster than with neat cement. However, the alteration of physical properties is much less significant with the pozzolanic blends. Permeability of a carbonated pozzolanic cement paste remains sufficiently small to block significant vertical migration of CO2 in a wellbore. All of the

  16. Physical Insights, Steady Aerodynamic Effects, and a Design Tool for Low-Pressure Turbine Flutter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waite, Joshua Joseph

    The successful, efficient, and safe turbine design requires a thorough understanding of the underlying physical phenomena. This research investigates the physical understanding and parameters highly correlated to flutter, an aeroelastic instability prevalent among low pressure turbine (LPT) blades in both aircraft engines and power turbines. The modern way of determining whether a certain cascade of LPT blades is susceptible to flutter is through time-expensive computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes. These codes converge to solution satisfying the Eulerian conservation equations subject to the boundary conditions of a nodal domain consisting fluid and solid wall particles. Most detailed CFD codes are accompanied by cryptic turbulence models, meticulous grid constructions, and elegant boundary condition enforcements all with one goal in mind: determine the sign (and therefore stability) of the aerodynamic damping. The main question being asked by the aeroelastician, "is it positive or negative?'' This type of thought-process eventually gives rise to a black-box effect, leaving physical understanding behind. Therefore, the first part of this research aims to understand and reveal the physics behind LPT flutter in addition to several related topics including acoustic resonance effects. A percentage of this initial numerical investigation is completed using an influence coefficient approach to study the variation the work-per-cycle contributions of neighboring cascade blades to a reference airfoil. The second part of this research introduces new discoveries regarding the relationship between steady aerodynamic loading and negative aerodynamic damping. Using validated CFD codes as computational wind tunnels, a multitude of low-pressure turbine flutter parameters, such as reduced frequency, mode shape, and interblade phase angle, will be scrutinized across various airfoil geometries and steady operating conditions to reach new design guidelines regarding the influence

  17. Effect of tellurium addition on the physical properties of germanium selenide glassy semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Pankaj; Katyal, S. C.

    2008-10-01

    Effect of tellurium (Te) addition on the physical properties, density ( ρ), molar volume ( Vm), compactness ( δ), cohesive energy (CE), coordination number ( m), lone pair electrons ( L) and glass transition temperature ( Tg) of Ge 10Se 90-xTe x ( x=0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50) bulk glassy alloy has been investigated. The density of the glassy alloys has been found to increase with the increasing Te content. The molar volume and compactness of the structure of the glass, determined from measured density of the glass, have been found to increase with the increase of Te content. The CE of the investigated samples has been calculated using the chemical bond approach (CBA) and is correlated with decrease in optical band gap with the increase of Te content. The glass transition temperature has been estimated using Tichy-Ticha approach and found to increase with the increase of Te content. This has been observed that the estimated glass transition temperature using Tichy-Ticha approach is not consistent with experimental results.

  18. Magnetically actuated tissue engineered scaffold: insights into mechanism of physical stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapir-Lekhovitser, Yulia; Rotenberg, Menahem Y.; Jopp, Juergen; Friedman, Gary; Polyak, Boris; Cohen, Smadar

    2016-02-01

    Providing the right stimulatory conditions resulting in efficient tissue promoting microenvironment in vitro and in vivo is one of the ultimate goals in tissue development for regenerative medicine. It has been shown that in addition to molecular signals (e.g. growth factors) physical cues are also required for generation of functional cell constructs. These cues are particularly relevant to engineering of biological tissues, within which mechanical stress activates mechano-sensitive receptors, initiating biochemical pathways which lead to the production of functionally mature tissue. Uniform magnetic fields coupled with magnetizable nanoparticles embedded within three dimensional (3D) scaffold structures remotely create transient physical forces that can be transferrable to cells present in close proximity to the nanoparticles. This study investigated the hypothesis that magnetically responsive alginate scaffold can undergo reversible shape deformation due to alignment of scaffold's walls in a uniform magnetic field. Using custom made Helmholtz coil setup adapted to an Atomic Force Microscope we monitored changes in matrix dimensions in situ as a function of applied magnetic field, concentration of magnetic particles within the scaffold wall structure and rigidity of the matrix. Our results show that magnetically responsive scaffolds exposed to an externally applied time-varying uniform magnetic field undergo a reversible shape deformation. This indicates on possibility of generating bending/stretching forces that may exert a mechanical effect on cells due to alternating pattern of scaffold wall alignment and relaxation. We suggest that the matrix structure deformation is produced by immobilized magnetic nanoparticles within the matrix walls resulting in a collective alignment of scaffold walls upon magnetization. The estimated mechanical force that can be imparted on cells grown on the scaffold wall at experimental conditions is in the order of 1 pN, which

  19. Magnetically actuated tissue engineered scaffold: insights into mechanism of physical stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Sapir-Lekhovitser, Yulia; Rotenberg, Menahem Y.; Jopp, Juergen; Friedman, Gary; Polyak, Boris; Cohen, Smadar

    2016-01-01

    Providing the right stimulatory conditions resulting in efficient tissue promoting microenvironment in vitro and in vivo is one of the ultimate goals in tissue development for regenerative medicine. It has been shown that in addition to molecular signals (e.g. growth factors) physical cues are also required for generation of functional cell constructs. These cues are particularly relevant to engineering of biological tissues, within which mechanical stress activates mechano-sensitive receptors, initiating biochemical pathways which lead to the production of functionally mature tissue. Uniform magnetic fields coupled with magnetizable nanoparticles embedded within three dimensional (3D) scaffold structures remotely create transient physical forces that can be transferrable to cells present in close proximity to the nanoparticles. This study investigated the hypothesis that magnetically responsive alginate scaffold can undergo reversible shape deformation due to alignment of scaffold’s walls in a uniform magnetic field. Using custom made Helmholtz coil setup adapted to an Atomic Force Microscope we monitored changes in matrix dimensions in situ as a function of applied magnetic field, concentration of magnetic particles within the scaffold wall structure and rigidity of the matrix. Our results show that magnetically responsive scaffolds exposed to an externally applied time-varying uniform magnetic field undergo a reversible shape deformation. This indicates on possibility of generating bending/stretching forces that may exert a mechanical effect on cells due to alternating pattern of scaffold wall alignment and relaxation. We suggest that the matrix structure deformation is produced by immobilized magnetic nanoparticles within the matrix walls resulting in a collective alignment of scaffold walls upon magnetization. The estimated mechanical force that can be imparted on cells grown on the scaffold wall at experimental conditions is in the order of 1 pN, which

  20. New Insights into the Physical Nature of Coronal Mass Ejections within the Framework of the Three-dimensional Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Ryun Young; Zhang, Jie

    2014-06-01

    We present new insights into the physical nature of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) within the framework of the three-dimensional (3D) structures. We have developed a forward-fitting method in order to determine the three-dimensional structures of multiple fronts comprising a CME, using data sets taken from STEREO Behind, SOHO and SDO, and STEREO Ahead. We applied the method to time series observations of a CME on 7 March 2012 and the observations from the three different perspectives showed the whole structure of the CME from footprints, so-called EUV waves, to the top, so-called leading edges, through the lateral flanks. From the analyses, we revealed that a CME could consist of two different fronts in the 3D structures: the one is represented well with a shape of ellipsoid, implying that CMEs are bubble-like structure and the other is reproduced well with a shape of graduated cylindrical shell (GCS), indicating that CMEs are flux rope-like structure. The bubble structure is seen as the outermost edge of the CME and pass through coronal streamers (global magnetic separatrices). The footprint of the bubble is the EUV wave front propagating against the solar disk. In addition, the bubble is found to be the front comprising a halo CME in white light observations. On the other hand, the flux rope structure is seen as the three part morphology having fixed legs and cannot pass through coronal streamers. From our results, we concluded that (1) a CME could have both structures, bubble and flux rope-like structure, (2) the bubble is in fact fast magnetosonic wave/shock front while the flux rope structure is the mass carried outward by underlying magnetic structures, (3) EUV wave is the footprint of the wave bubble, and (4) the circular front of the halo CME is the wave bubble.

  1. Soil physical and hydrological properties as affected by long-term addition of various organic amendments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eden, Marie; Völkel, Jörg; Mercier, Vincent; Labat, Christophe; Houot, Sabine

    2014-05-01

    The use of organic residues as soil amendments in agriculture not only reduces the amount of waste needing to be disposed of; it may also lead to improvements in soil properties, including physical and hydrological ones. The present study examines a long-term experiment called "Qualiagro", run jointly by INRA and Veolia Environment in Feucherolles, France (near Paris). It was initiated in 1998 on a loess-derived silt loam (787 g/kg silt, 152 g/kg clay) and includes ten treatments: four types of organic amendments and a control (CNT) each at two levels of mineral nitrogen (N) addition: minimal (Nmin) and optimal (Nopt). The amendments include three types of compost and farmyard manure (FYM), which were applied every other year at a rate of ca. 4 t carbon ha-1. The composts include municipal solid waste compost (MSW), co-compost of green wastes and sewage sludge (GWS), and biowaste compost (BIO). The plots are arranged in a randomized block design and have a size of 450 m²; each treatment is replicated four times (total of 40 plots). Ca. 15 years after the start of the experiment soil organic carbon (OC) had continuously increased in the amended plots, while it remained stable or decreased in the control plots. This compost- or manure-induced increase in OC plays a key role, affecting numerous dependant soil properties like bulk density, porosity and water retention. The water holding capacity (WHC) of a soil is of particular interest to farmers in terms of water supply for plants, but also indicates soil quality and functionality. Addition of OC may affect WHC in different ways: carbon-induced aggregation may increase larger-pore volume and hence WHC at the wet end while increased surface areas may lead to an increased retention of water at the dry end. Consequently it is difficult to predict (e.g. with pedotransfer functions) the impact on the amount of water available for plants (PAW), which was experimentally determined for the soils, along with the entire range

  2. Structural, Thermal, Physical, Mechanical, and Barrier Properties of Chitosan Films with the Addition of Xanthan Gum.

    PubMed

    de Morais Lima, Maria; Carneiro, Lucia Cesar; Bianchini, Daniela; Dias, Alvaro Renato Guerra; Zavareze, Elessandra da Rosa; Prentice, Carlos; Moreira, Angelita da Silveira

    2017-03-01

    Films based on chitosan and xanthan gum were prepared using casting technique aiming to investigate the potential of these polymers as packaging materials. Six formulations of films were studied varying the proportion of chitosan and xanthan gum: 100:0 (chitosan:xanthan gum, w/w, C100XG0 film); 90:10 (chitosan:xanthan gum, w/w, C90XG10 film); 80:20 (chitosan:xanthan gum, w/w, C80XG20 film); 70:30 (chitosan:xanthan gum, w/w, C70XG30 film); 60:40 (chitosan:xanthan gum, w/w, C60XG40 film); and 50:50 (chitosan:xanthan gum, w/w, C50XG50 film). The total quantity of solids (chitosan and xanthan gum) in the filmogenic solution was 1.5 g per 100 mL of aqueous solution for all treatments, according to the proportion of each polymer. The films were evaluated by their functional groups, structural, thermal, morphological, physical, mechanical, and barrier properties. All films have presented endothermic peaks in the range of 122 to 175 °C and broad exothermic peaks above 200 °C, which were assigned to the melting temperature and thermal decomposition, respectively. These results demonstrated that films with xanthan gum have the highest Tm and Δm H. The films containing higher content of xanthan gum show also the highest tensile strength and the lowest elongation. Xanthan gum addition did not affect the water vapor permeability, solubility, and moisture of films. This set of data suggests the formation of chitosan-xanthan complexes in the films.

  3. Physical mechanism and statistics of occurrence of an additional layer in the equatorial ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balan, N.; Batista, I. S.; Abdu, M. A.; MacDougall, J.; Bailey, G. J.

    1998-12-01

    A physical mechanism and the location and latitudinal extent of an additional layer, called the F3 layer, that exists in the equatorial ionosphere are presented. A statistical analysis of the occurrence of the layer recorded at the equatorial station Fortaleza (4°S, 38°W dip 9°S) in Brazil is also presented. The F3 layer forms during the morning-noon period in that equatorial region where the combined effect of the upward E×B drift and neutral wind provides a vertically upward plasma drift velocity at altitudes near and above the F2 peak. This velocity causes the F2 peak to drift upward and form the F3 layer while the normal F2 layer develops at lower altitudes through the usual photochemical and dynamical effects of the equatorial region. The peak electron density of the F3 layer can exceed that of the F2 layer. The F3 layer is predicted to be distinct on the summer side of the geomagnetic equator during periods of low solar activity and to become less distinct as the solar activity increases. Ionograms recorded at Fortaleza in 1995 show the existence of an F3 layer on 49% of the days, with the occurrence being most frequent (75%) and distinct in summer, as expected. During summer the layer occurs earlier and lasts longer compared to the other seasons; on the average, the layer occurs at around 0930 LT and lasts for about 3 hours. The altitude of the layer is also high in summer, with the mean peak virtual height being about 570 km. However, the critical frequency of the layer (foF3) exceeds that of the F2 layer (foF2) by the largest amounts in winter and equinox; foF3 exceeds foF2 by a yearly average of about 1.3 MHz.

  4. Insights from a Subject Knowledge Enhancement Course for Preparing New Chemistry and Physics Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inglis, Michael; Mallaburn, Andrea; Tynan, Richard; Clays, Ken; Jones, Robert Bryn

    2013-01-01

    A recent Government response to shortages of new physics and chemistry teachers is the extended subject knowledge enhancement (SKE) course. Graduates without a physics or chemistry bachelor degree are prepared by an SKE course to enter a Postgraduate Certificate in Education (PGCE) programme to become science teachers with a physics or chemistry…

  5. Rock Abrasion as Seen by the MSL Curiosity Rover: Insights on Physical Weathering on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridges, N.; Day, M. D.; Le Mouelic, S.; Martin-Torres, F. J.; Newsom, H. E.; Sullivan, R. J., Jr.; Ullan, A.; Wiens, R. C.; Zorzano, M. P.

    2014-12-01

    Mars is a dry planet, with actively blowing sand in many regions. In the absence of stable liquid water and an active hydrosphere, rates of chemical weathering are slow, such that aeolian abrasion is a dominant agent of landscape modification where sand is present and winds above threshold occur at sufficient frequency. Reflecting this activity, ventifacts, rocks that have been abraded by windborne particles, and wind-eroded outcrops, are common. They provide invaluable markers of the Martian wind record and insight into climate and landscape modification. Ventifacts are distributed along the traverse of the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover. They contain one or more diagnostic features and textures: Facets, keels, basal sills, elongated pits, scallops/flutes, grooves, rock tails, and lineations. Keels at the junction of facets are sharp enough to pose a hazard MSL's wheels in some areas. Geomorphic and textural patterns on outcrops indicate retreat of windward faces. Moonlight Valley and other depressions are demarcated by undercut walls and scree boulders, with the valley interiors containing fewer rocks, most of which show evidence for significant abrasion. Together, this suggests widening and undercutting of the valley walls, and erosion of interior rocks, by windblown sand. HiRISE images do not show any dark sand dunes in the traverse so far, in contrast to the large dune field to the south that is migrating up to 2 m per year. In addition, ChemCam shows that the rock Bathurst has a rind rich in mobile elements that would be removed in an abrading environment. This indicates that rock abrasion was likely more dominant in the past, a hypothesis consistent with rapid scarp retreat as suggested by the cosmogenic noble gases in Yellowknife Bay. Ventifacts and evidence for bedrock abrasion have also been found at the Pathfinder, Spirit, and Opportunity sites, areas, like the Curiosity traverse so far, that lack evidence for current high sand fluxes. Yardangs

  6. Insights on how the activity of an endoglucanase is affected by physical properties of insoluble celluloses.

    PubMed

    Bragatto, Juliano; Segato, Fernando; Cota, Junio; Mello, Danilo B; Oliveira, Marcelo M; Buckeridge, Marcos S; Squina, Fabio M; Driemeier, Carlos

    2012-05-31

    Cellulose physical properties like crystallinity, porosity, and particle size are known to influence cellulase activity, but knowledge is still insufficient for activity prediction from such measurable substrate characteristics. With the aim of illuminating enzyme-substrate relationships, this work evaluates a purified hyperthermophilic endo-1,4-beta-glucanase (from Pyrococcus furiosus) acting on 13 celluloses characterized for crystallinity and crystal width (by X-ray diffraction), wet porosity (by thermoporometry), and particle size (by light scattering). Activities are analyzed by the Michaelis-Menten kinetic equation, which is justified by low enzyme-substrate affinity. Michaelis-Menten coefficients K(m) and k(cat) are reinterpreted in the context of heterogeneous cellulose hydrolysis. For a set of as-received and milled microcrystalline celluloses, activity is successfully described as a function of accessible substrate concentration, with accessibility proportional to K(m)(-1). Accessibility contribution from external particle areas, pore areas, and crystalline packing are discriminated to have comparable magnitudes, implying that activity prediction demands all these substrate properties to be considered. Results additionally suggest that looser crystalline packing increases the lengths of released cello-oligomers as well as the maximum endoglucanase specific activity (k(cat)).

  7. 10 CFR 73.60 - Additional requirements for physical protection at nonpower reactors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... nonpower reactors. 73.60 Section 73.60 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION... requirements for physical protection at nonpower reactors. Each nonpower reactor licensee who, pursuant to the... nonpower reactors licensed to operate at or above a power level of 2 megawatts thermal....

  8. 10 CFR 73.60 - Additional requirements for physical protection at nonpower reactors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... nonpower reactors. 73.60 Section 73.60 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION... requirements for physical protection at nonpower reactors. Each nonpower reactor licensee who, pursuant to the... nonpower reactors licensed to operate at or above a power level of 2 megawatts thermal....

  9. Physical activity, food intake, and body weight regulation: insights from doubly labeled water studies.

    PubMed

    Westerterp, Klaas R

    2010-03-01

    Body weight and energy balance can be maintained by adapting energy intake to changes in energy expenditure and vice versa, whereas short-term changes in energy expenditure are mainly caused by physical activity. This review investigates whether physical activity is affected by over- and undereating, whether intake is affected by an increase or a decrease in physical activity, and whether being overweight affects physical activity. The available evidence is based largely on studies that quantified physical activity with doubly labeled water. Overeating does not affect physical activity, while undereating decreases habitual or voluntary physical activity. Thus, it is easier to gain weight than to lose weight. An exercise-induced increase in energy requirement is typically compensated by increased energy intake, while a change to a more sedentary routine does not induce an equivalent reduction of intake and generally results in weight gain. Overweight and obese subjects tend to have similar activity energy expenditures to lean people despite being more sedentary. There are two ways in which the general population trend towards increasing body weight can be reversed: reduce intake or increase physical activity. The results of the present literature review indicate that eating less is the most effective method for preventing weight gain, despite the potential for a negative effect on physical activity when a negative energy balance is reached.

  10. Comparison of peanut gentics and physical maps provided insights on collinearity, reversions and translocations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic and physical maps are the valuable resources for peanut research community in understanding genome organization and serving as the basis for map-based cloning and marker-assisted selection. Physical maps of two diploid wild peanut progenitor species, Arachis duranensis (A genome) and A. ipae...

  11. Insights into the Electronic Structure of Ozone and Sulfur Dioxide from Generalized Valence Bond Theory: Addition of Hydrogen Atoms.

    PubMed

    Lindquist, Beth A; Takeshita, Tyler Y; Dunning, Thom H

    2016-05-05

    Ozone (O3) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) are valence isoelectronic species, yet their properties and reactivities differ dramatically. In particular, O3 is highly reactive, whereas SO2 is chemically relatively stable. In this paper, we investigate serial addition of hydrogen atoms to both the terminal atoms of O3 and SO2 and to the central atom of these species. It is well-known that the terminal atoms of O3 are much more amenable to bond formation than those of SO2. We show that the differences in the electronic structure of the π systems in the parent triatomic species account for the differences in the addition of hydrogen atoms to the terminal atoms of O3 and SO2. Further, we find that the π system in SO2, which is a recoupled pair bond dyad, facilitates the addition of hydrogen atoms to the sulfur atom, resulting in stable HSO2 and H2SO2 species.

  12. The Wacker process: inner- or outer-sphere nucleophilic addition? New insights from ab initio molecular dynamics.

    PubMed

    Comas-Vives, Aleix; Stirling, András; Lledós, Agustí; Ujaque, Gregori

    2010-08-02

    The Wacker process consists of the oxidation of ethylene catalyzed by a Pd(II) complex. The reaction mechanism has been largely debated in the literature; two modes for the nucleophilic addition of water to a Pd-coordinated alkene have been proposed: syn-inner- and anti-outer-sphere mechanisms. These reaction steps have been theoretically evaluated by means of ab initio molecular dynamics combined with metadynamics by placing the [Pd(C(2)H(4))Cl(2)(H(2)O)] complex in a box of water molecules, thereby resembling experimental conditions at low [Cl(-)]. The nucleophilic addition has also been evaluated for the [Pd(C(2)H(4))Cl(3)](-) complex, thus revealing that the water by chloride ligand substitution trans to ethene is kinetically favored over the generally assumed cis species in water. Hence, the resulting trans species can only directly undertake the outer-sphere nucleophilic addition, whereas the inner-sphere mechanism is hindered since the attacking water is located trans to ethene. In addition, all the simulations from the [Pd(C(2)H(4))Cl(2)(H(2)O)] species (either cis or trans) support an outer-sphere mechanism with a free-energy barrier compatible with that obtained experimentally, whereas that for the inner-sphere mechanism is significantly higher. Moreover, additional processes for a global understanding of the Wacker process in solution have also been identified, such as ligand substitutions, proton transfers that involve the aquo ligand, and the importance of the trans effect of the ethylene in the nucleophilic addition attack.

  13. Understanding the physics of kappa (κ): insights from a downhole array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ktenidou, Olga-Joan; Abrahamson, Norman A.; Drouet, Stéphane; Cotton, Fabrice

    2015-10-01

    At high frequencies, the acceleration spectral amplitude decreases rapidly; this has been modelled with the spectral decay factor κ. Its site component, κ0, is used widely today in ground motion prediction and simulation, and numerous approaches have been proposed to compute it. In this study, we estimate κ for the EUROSEISTEST valley, a geologically complex and seismically active region with a permanent strong motion array consisting of 14 surface and 6 downhole stations. Site conditions range from soft sediments to hard rock. First, we use the classical approach to separate local and regional attenuation and measure κ0. Second, we take advantage of the existing knowledge of the geological profile and material properties to examine the correlation of κ0 with different site characterization parameters. κ0 correlates well with Vs30, as expected, indicating a strong effect from the geological structure in the upper 30 m. But it correlates equally well with the resonant frequency and depth-to-bedrock of the stations, which indicates strong effects from the entire sedimentary column, down to 400 m. Third, we use our results to improve our physical understanding of κ0. We propose a conceptual model of κ0 with Vs, comprising two new notions. On the one hand, and contrary to existing correlations, we observe that κ0 stabilizes for high Vs values. This may indicate the existence of regional values for hard rock κ0. If so, we propose that borehole measurements (almost never used up to now for κ0) may be useful in determining these values. On the other hand, we find that material damping, as expressed through travel times, may not suffice to account for the total κ0 measured at the surface. We propose that, apart from material damping, additional site attenuation may be caused by scattering from small-scale variability in the profile. If this is so, then geotechnical damping measurements may not suffice to infer the overall crustal attenuation under a site; but

  14. Addition of a Project-Based Component to a Conventional Expository Physical Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsaparlis, Georgios; Gorezi, Marianna

    2007-01-01

    Students should enjoy their laboratory classes and for this purpose a project-based activity is added to a conventional physical chemistry laboratory. Students were given project work instead of conventional experiment and then they had to make progress in the project according to instructions and then carry out experiments related to the project.

  15. 10 CFR 73.60 - Additional requirements for physical protection at nonpower reactors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... vault-type room shall be controlled as a separate material access area. (4) Enriched uranium scrap in... perform their duties. (6) Prior to entry into a material access area, packages shall be searched for... OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Physical Protection Requirements at Fixed Sites § 73.60...

  16. Gaining insight into the physics of dynamic atomic force microscopy in complex environments using the VEDA simulator.

    PubMed

    Kiracofe, Daniel; Melcher, John; Raman, Arvind

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic atomic force microscopy (dAFM) continues to grow in popularity among scientists in many different fields, and research on new methods and operating modes continues to expand the resolution, capabilities, and types of samples that can be studied. But many promising increases in capability are accompanied by increases in complexity. Indeed, interpreting modern dAFM data can be challenging, especially on complicated material systems, or in liquid environments where the behavior is often contrary to what is known in air or vacuum environments. Mathematical simulations have proven to be an effective tool in providing physical insight into these non-intuitive systems. In this article we describe recent developments in the VEDA (virtual environment for dynamic AFM) simulator, which is a suite of freely available, open-source simulation tools that are delivered through the cloud computing cyber-infrastructure of nanoHUB (www.nanohub.org). Here we describe three major developments. First, simulations in liquid environments are improved by enhancements in the modeling of cantilever dynamics, excitation methods, and solvation shell forces. Second, VEDA is now able to simulate many new advanced modes of operation (bimodal, phase-modulation, frequency-modulation, etc.). Finally, nineteen different tip-sample models are available to simulate the surface physics of a wide variety different material systems including capillary, specific adhesion, van der Waals, electrostatic, viscoelasticity, and hydration forces. These features are demonstrated through example simulations and validated against experimental data, in order to provide insight into practical problems in dynamic AFM.

  17. Gaining insight into the physics of dynamic atomic force microscopy in complex environments using the VEDA simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiracofe, Daniel; Melcher, John; Raman, Arvind

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic atomic force microscopy (dAFM) continues to grow in popularity among scientists in many different fields, and research on new methods and operating modes continues to expand the resolution, capabilities, and types of samples that can be studied. But many promising increases in capability are accompanied by increases in complexity. Indeed, interpreting modern dAFM data can be challenging, especially on complicated material systems, or in liquid environments where the behavior is often contrary to what is known in air or vacuum environments. Mathematical simulations have proven to be an effective tool in providing physical insight into these non-intuitive systems. In this article we describe recent developments in the VEDA (virtual environment for dynamic AFM) simulator, which is a suite of freely available, open-source simulation tools that are delivered through the cloud computing cyber-infrastructure of nanoHUB (www.nanohub.org). Here we describe three major developments. First, simulations in liquid environments are improved by enhancements in the modeling of cantilever dynamics, excitation methods, and solvation shell forces. Second, VEDA is now able to simulate many new advanced modes of operation (bimodal, phase-modulation, frequency-modulation, etc.). Finally, nineteen different tip-sample models are available to simulate the surface physics of a wide variety different material systems including capillary, specific adhesion, van der Waals, electrostatic, viscoelasticity, and hydration forces. These features are demonstrated through example simulations and validated against experimental data, in order to provide insight into practical problems in dynamic AFM.

  18. Effect of Surface-active Additives on Physical Properties of Slurries of Vapor-process Magnesium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinns, Murray L

    1955-01-01

    The presence of 3 to 5 percent surface-active additive gave the lowest Brookfield apparent viscosity, plastic viscosity, and yield value that were obtained for slurry fuels containing approximately 50 percent vapor-process magnesium in JP-1 fuel. The slurries settled little and were easily remixed. A polyoxyethylene dodecyl alcohol was the most effective of 13 additives tested in reducing the Brookfield apparent viscosity and the yield value of the slurry. The seven most effective additives all had a hydroxyl group plus an ester or polyoxethylene group in the molecule. The densities of some of the slurries were measured.

  19. A Pilot Study to Examine the Effect of Additional Structured Outdoor Playtime on Preschoolers' Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alhassan, Sofiya; Nwaokelemeh, Ogechi; Lyden, Kate; Goldsby, TaShauna; Mendoza, Albert

    2013-01-01

    The impact of additional structured outdoor playtime on preschoolers'; physical activity (PA) level is unclear. The purpose of this pilot study was to explore the effects of increasing structured outdoor playtime on preschoolers'; PA levels. Eight full-day classrooms (n = 134 children) from two preschool programmes were randomised into a treatment…

  20. Effect of additives on isothermal crystallization kinetics and physical characteristics of coconut oil.

    PubMed

    Chaleepa, Kesarin; Szepes, Anikó; Ulrich, Joachim

    2010-05-01

    The effect of lauric acid and low-HLB sucrose esters (L-195, S170) on the isothermal crystallization of coconut oil was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry. The fundamental crystallization parameters, such as induction time of nucleation and crystallization rate, were obtained by using the Gompertz equation. The Gibb's free energy of nucleation was calculated via the Fisher-Turnbull equation based on the equilibrium melting temperature. All additives, investigated in this work, proved to have an inhibition effect on nucleation and crystallization kinetics of coconut oil. Our results revealed that the inhibition effect is related to the dissimilarity of the molecular characteristics between coconut oil and the additives. The equilibrium melting temperature (T(m) degrees ) of the coconut oil-additive mixtures estimated by the Hoffman-Weeks method was decreased with the addition of lauric acid and increased by using sucrose esters as additives. Micrographs showing simultaneous crystallization of coconut oil and lauric acid indicated that strong molecular interaction led to the increase in lamellar thickness resulting in the T(m) degrees depression of coconut oil. The addition of L-195 modified the crystal morphology of coconut oil into large, dense, non-porous crystals without altering the polymorphic occurrence of coconut oil. The enhancement in lamellar thickness and crystal perfection supported the T(m) degrees elevation of coconut oil.

  1. Additional Contributions to the Development of the New Snow-Physics Scheme for SSiB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mocko, David M.; Sud, Y. C.

    1999-01-01

    The Simplified Simple Biosphere Model (SSiB) had a well-documented problem with snowmelt timing and infiltration. A new snow-physics scheme was developed for use in SSIB. In this, the snow layer is separated from the soil, with its own energy budget and temperature. Solar energy reaching the top of the snowpack is divided into three parts: one, reflected by the snow; two, absorbed by the snow; and three, transmitted to the ground following a simple extinction relation. Heat is exchanged between the ground and snow by conduction and by radiation through an arbitrary air-gap between them. In the GSWP exercise using the GEWEX ISLSCP Initiative I forcing data (hereafter "offline"), it was found that the new snow scheme ameliorated a significant fraction of snowmelt time-delay as compared to observations from satellite. It also produced warmer ground temperatures under the snowpack, which allowed realistic meltwater infiltration, resulting in better simulated spring soil moisture recharge and peak runoff amount as compared to observations. An ensemble of six June-July-August (JJA) simulations for 1987 and 1988 were performed with the NASA Goddard GEOS II GCM coupled with the new snow-physics SSIB using new initial soil moisture (ISM) from the offline simulations. The GCM produced more realistic precipitation in northern regions that had large snowmelt and wetter ISM in response to better snow-physics, as compared to simulations with ISM without the new snow scheme. The new SSiB-GCM also increased the interannual precipitation signal in the Indian monsoon region, resulting from changes in ISM in the Himalayas and central Asia.

  2. Learners' Perceptions of Being Identified as Very Able: Insights from Modern Foreign Languages and Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Suzanne; Macfadyen, Tony; Richards, Brian

    2012-01-01

    While learners' attitudes to Modern Foreign Languages (MFL) and to Physical Education (PE) in the UK have been widely investigated in previous research, an under-explored area is learners' feelings about being highly able in these subjects. The present study explored this issue, among 78 learners (aged 12-13) from two schools in England, a…

  3. Waves in periodic media: Fourier analysis shortcuts and physical insights, case of 2D phononic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupont, S.; Gazalet, J.; Kastelik, J. C.

    2014-03-01

    Phononic crystal is a structured media with periodic modulation of its physical properties that influences the propagation of elastic waves and leads to a peculiar behaviour, for instance the phononic band gap effect by which elastic waves cannot propagate in certain frequency ranges. The formulation of the problem leads to a second order partial differential equation with periodic coefficients; different methods exist to determine the structure of the eigenmodes propagating in the material, both in the real or Fourier domain. Brillouin explains the periodicity of the band structure as a direct result of the discretization of the crystal in the real domain. Extending the Brillouin vision, we introduce digital signal processing tools developed in the frame of distribution functions theory. These tools associate physical meaning to mathematical expressions and reveal the correspondence between real and Fourier domains whatever is the physical domain under consideration. We present an illustrative practical example concerning two dimensions phononic crystals and highlight the appreciable shortcuts brought by the method and the benefits for physical interpretation.

  4. Moving Souls: History Offers Insights into Physical Activity that Go beyond Fitness and Fun

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sydnor, Synthia

    2005-01-01

    This article looks at four theoretical themes that scholars insist on when studying history. The themes--social memory, liminality, community, and critique--may be useful in stimulating the direction, planning, and practice of physical activity in young adults. These particular themes were chosen because they seem to match some of the…

  5. Inclusivity and Senior Physical Education: Insights from Queensland and Western Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penney, Dawn; Hay, Peter

    2008-01-01

    In the context of uncertainty and ongoing reform of senior secondary education in Australia, this paper addresses inclusivity in the design and implementation of senior physical education (PE) courses. Critical analysis of course developments in two states in Australia; Queensland and Western Australia, demonstrates ways in which course design,…

  6. Insights into Tropical Tropospheric Ozone from the 1998-2000 SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes) Data Record

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Oltmans, Samuel J.; Schmidlin, Francis J.; Volker, W.; Kirchhoff, J. H.; Posny, Franaoise; Gert, J.; Coetzee, R.; Hoegger, Bruno; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We describe the first overview of total, stratospheric and tropospheric ozone in the southern hemisphere tropics based on a three year, ten site record of ozone soundings from the Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) network. Observations covering 1998-2000 were made over Ascension Island; Nairobi, Kenya; Irene, South Africa; Reunion Island; Watukosek, Java; Fiji; Tahiti; American Samoa; San Cristobal, Galapagos; Natal, Brazil. The ozone data, with simultaneous temperature profiles to approximately 7 hPa and relative humidity to approximately 200 hPa, are at an archive: http://code9l6. gsfc.nasa.gov/Data_services/shadoz. Prominent features are highly variable tropospheric ozone, a zonal wave-one pattern in total (and tropospheric) column ozone, and signatures of the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO) in stratospheric ozone. Total, stratospheric and tropospheric column ozone amounts usually peak between August and November and are lowest in the first half of the year. Tropospheric ozone variability over the Indian and Pacific Ocean displays influences of the waning 1997-1998 Indian Ocean Dipole and ENSO (El Nino / Southern Oscillation), seasonal convection and pollution transport from Africa. Tropospheric ozone over the Atlantic Basin reflects regional subsidence and recirculation as well as pollution ozone from biomass burning.

  7. Insights Into Tropical Tropospheric Ozone From The 1998-2000 Shadoz (southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes) Data Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, A. M.; Witte, J. C.; Oltmans, S. J.; Schmidlin, F. J.; Kirchhoff, V. W. J. H.; Posny, F.; Coetzee, G. J. R.; Hoegger, B.; Kawakami, S.; Ogawa, T.

    We describe the first overview of total, stratospheric and tropospheric ozone in the southern hemisphere tropics based on a 3-year, 10-site record of ozone soundings from the Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes (SHADOZ) network. Ob- servations covering 1998-2000 were made over Ascension Island; Nairobi, Kenya; Irene, South Africa; Réunion Island; Watukosek, Java; Fiji; Tahiti; American Samoa; San Cristóbal, Galapagos; Natal, Brazil. The ozone data, with simultaneous tem- perature profiles to 7 hPa and relative humidity to 200 hPa, are at an archive: . Prominent features are highly variable tropospheric ozone, a zonal wave-one pattern in total (and tropospheric) col- umn ozone, and signatures of the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO) in stratospheric ozone. Total, stratospheric and tropospheric column ozone amounts usually peak be- tween August and November and are lowest in the first half of the year. Tropospheric ozone variability over the Indian and Pacific Ocean displays influences of the wan- ing 1997-1998 Indian Ocean Dipole and ENSO, seasonal convection and pollution transport from Africa. Tropospheric ozone over the Atlantic Basin reflects regional subsidence and recirculation as well as pollution ozone from biomass burning.

  8. Longitudinal functional additive model with continuous proportional outcomes for physical activity data.

    PubMed

    Li, Haocheng; Kozey-Keadle, Sarah; Kipnis, Victor; Carroll, Raymond J

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by physical activity data obtained from the BodyMedia FIT device (www.bodymedia.com), we take a functional data approach for longitudinal studies with continuous proportional outcomes. The functional structure depends on three factors. In our three-factor model, the regression structures are specified as curves measured at various factor-points with random effects that have a correlation structure. The random curve for the continuous factor is summarized using a few important principal components. The difficulties in handling the continuous proportion variables are solved by using a quasilikelihood type approximation. We develop an efficient algorithm to fit the model, which involves the selection of the number of principal components. The method is evaluated empirically by a simulation study. This approach is applied to the BodyMedia data with 935 males and 84 consecutive days of observation, for a total of 78, 540 observations. We show that sleep efficiency increases with increasing physical activity, while its variance decreases at the same time.

  9. Effect of addition of hydroxyapatite on the physical properties of IRM.

    PubMed

    Owadally, I D; Pitt Ford, T R

    1994-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of adding 10% and 20% hydroxyapatite (HAP) to Intermediate Restorative Material (IRM) on physical properties such as working time, setting time, compressive strength and disintegration rate. The working and setting times were determined by an indentation method. The ISO recommended method was used to determine compressive strength. The rate of disintegration in vitro was evaluated in buffered sodium citrate at pH 4.5, 5.8, buffered phosphate at pH 7.0 and in bovine serum (pH 6.8), and examined using a replica method and scanning electron microscopy. Kalzinol and EBA were used as control materials for the disintegration experiment. IRM had longer mean working (4 min 43.5 s) and mean setting (6 min 28.5 s) times than IRM + 10 or 20% HAP (P < 0.001), the mean reductions being 16% and 9% for IRM + 10% HAP, and 29% and 19% for IRM + 20% HAP, respectively. IRM had a greater compressive strength (68.5 MPa, P < 0.01) than IRM + 10% HAP (65.0 MPa) or IRM + 20% HAP (60.0 MPa, P < 0.001). Kalzinol, IRM + 10% HAP and IRM + 20% HAP were found to disintegrate after 8 weeks in buffered phosphate and in bovine serum. In contrast, IRM and EBA showed no noticeable signs of disintegration after 6 months in the same media. The physical properties of IRM + 10% HAP and IRM + 20% HAP were reduced compared with IRM but the reductions were not considered to be of clinical significance.

  10. A Pilot Test of the Additive Benefits of Physical Exercise to CBT for OCD.

    PubMed

    Rector, Neil A; Richter, Margaret A; Lerman, Bethany; Regev, Rotem

    2015-01-01

    The majority of "responders" to first-line cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) and pharmacological treatments for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are left with residual symptoms that are clinically relevant and disabling. Therefore, there is pressing need for widely accessible efficacious alternative and/or adjunctive treatments for OCD. Accumulating evidence suggests that physical exercise may be one such intervention in the mood and anxiety disorders broadly, although we are aware of only two positive small-scale pilot studies that have tested its clinical benefits in OCD. This pilot study aimed to test the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of adding a structured physical exercise programme to CBT for OCD. A standard CBT group was delivered concurrently with a 12-week customized exercise programme to 11 participants. The exercise regimen was individualized for each participant based on peak heart rate measured using an incremental maximal exercise test. Reports of exercise adherence across the 12-week regimen exceeded 80%. A paired-samples t-test indicated very large treatment effects in Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale scores from pre- to post-treatment in CBT group cohorts led by expert CBT OCD specialists (d = 2.55) and junior CBT clinician non-OCD specialists (d = 2.12). These treatment effects are very large and exceed effects typically observed with individual and group-based CBT for OCD based on leading meta-analytic reviews, as well as previously obtained treatment effects for CBT using the same recruitment protocol without exercise. As such, this pilot work demonstrates the feasibility and significant potential clinical utility of a 12-week aerobic exercise programme delivered in conjunction with CBT for OCD.

  11. Insight into the Physical and Dynamical Processes that Control Rapid Increases in Total Flash Rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, Christopher J.; Carey, Lawrence D.; Schultz, Elise V.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Goodman, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    Rapid increases in total lightning (also termed "lightning jumps") have been observed for many decades. Lightning jumps have been well correlated to severe and hazardous weather occurrence. The main focus of lightning jump work has been on the development of lightning algorithms to be used in real-time assessment of storm intensity. However, in these studies it is typically assumed that the updraft "increases" without direct measurements of the vertical motion, or specification of which updraft characteristic actually increases (e.g., average speed, maximum speed, or convective updraft volume). Therefore, an end-to-end physical and dynamical basis for coupling rapid increases in total flash rate to increases in updraft speed and volume must be understood in order to ultimately relate lightning occurrence to severe storm metrics. Herein, we use polarimetric, multi-Doppler, and lightning mapping array measurements to provide physical context as to why rapid increases in total lightning are closely tied to severe and hazardous weather.

  12. Effect of Fruit Pomace Addition on Shortbread Cookies to Improve Their Physical and Nutritional Values.

    PubMed

    Tańska, Małgorzata; Roszkowska, Beata; Czaplicki, Sylwester; Borowska, Eulalia Julitta; Bojarska, Justyna; Dąbrowska, Aneta

    2016-09-01

    Fruit pomace remaining after juice extraction is still a source of bioactive compounds. Especially rich in these compounds is the pomace from blackcurrant fruit and from fruits of little-known horticultural plants, like: rowan, rosehip and elderberry. The addition of fruit pomace to bakery and confectionery products, especially to those made of white flour, may significantly enrich their composition with dietary fiber, vitamins and phenolic compounds. This study was aimed at determining the effect of 20 % addition of fruit pomace from rosehip, rowan, blackcurrant and elderberry on the properties of shortbread cookies. The pomace-containing cookies, compared to those without additives, were characterized by a darker color with a higher contribution of yellowness, and by higher hardness. The overall organoleptic assessment was comparable for all types of cookies, however the cookies with pomace were characterized by more perceptible taste and aroma, and were sourer. The extracts from pomace-supplemented cookies had a significantly stronger antioxidant capacity than that from the cookies without pomace, but they were ineffective in inhibiting lipid oxidation. The study showed that fruit pomace could improve the nutritional value of shortbread cookies. Furthermore, non-typical color of such a new product may be attractive to consumers.

  13. Late Chondritic Additions and Planet and Planetesimal Growth: Evaluation of Physical and Chemical Mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Righter, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Studies of terrestrial peridotite and martian and achondritic meteorites have led to the conclusion that addition of chondritic material to growing planets or planetesimals, after core formation, occurred on Earth, Mars, asteroid 4 Vesta, and the parent body of the angritic meteorites [1-4]. One study even proposed that this was a common process in the final stages of growth [5]. These conclusions are based almost entirely on the highly siderophile elements (HSE; Re, Au, Pt, Pd, Rh, Ru, Ir, Os). The HSE are a group of eight elements that have been used to argue for late accretion of chondritic material to the Earth after core formation was complete (e.g., [6]). This idea was originally proposed because the D(metal/silicate) values for the HSE are so high, yet their concentration in the mantle is too high to be consistent with such high Ds. The HSE also are present in chondritic relative abundances and hence require similar Ds if this is the result of core-mantle equilibration. Since the work of [6] there has been a realization that core formation at high PT conditions can explain the abundances of many siderophile elements in the mantle (e.g., [7]), but such detailed high PT partitioning data are lacking for many of the HSE to evaluate whether such ideas are viable for all four bodies. Consideration of other chemical parameters reveals larger problems that are difficult to overcome, but must be addressed in any scenario which calls on the addition of chondritic material to a reduced mantle. Yet these problems are rarely discussed or emphasized, making the late chondritic (or late veneer) addition hypothesis suspect.

  14. Addition of silver nanoparticles to composite resin: effect on physical and bactericidal properties in vitro.

    PubMed

    das Neves, Patrícia Bolzan Agnelli; Agnelli, José Augusto Marcondes; Kurachi, Cristina; de Souza, Clovis Wesley Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate physical properties and antibacterial activity of a light-activated composite modified with silver nanoparticles. Discs were produced with unmodified resin (control group - CG) and modified resin with silver nanoparticles at two concentrations, 0.3% wt (MR03) and 0.6% wt (MR06). Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus biofilms were induced in vitro by incubation of discs in a 20% sucrose medium, followed by sonication and counting of viable cells after 1, 4 and 7 days (n=9). The arithmetic roughness of all three groups was evaluated by atomic force microscopy (n=9). Compression assay was conducted in all groups to measure the compressive strength at failure and elasticity modulus (n=5). Data were subjected to ANOVA and Tukey's tests (α=0.05%). At all three time points the number of viable cells was statistically lower for MR03 and MR06 compared with CG, for both specimens. MR03 and MR06 showed no significant differences. Microscopic analysis demonstrated no significant differences for roughness among the three groups (p>0.05). The MR03 was stronger to compression than CG, and MR06 was statistically lower than CG and MR03. It was concluded that the MR03 were less conducive to biofilm growth, without compromising the strength in compression and surface roughness.

  15. Coronal loop seismology using damping of standing kink oscillations by mode coupling. II. additional physical effects and Bayesian analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascoe, D. J.; Anfinogentov, S.; Nisticò, G.; Goddard, C. R.; Nakariakov, V. M.

    2017-04-01

    Context. The strong damping of kink oscillations of coronal loops can be explained by mode coupling. The damping envelope depends on the transverse density profile of the loop. Observational measurements of the damping envelope have been used to determine the transverse loop structure which is important for understanding other physical processes such as heating. Aims: The general damping envelope describing the mode coupling of kink waves consists of a Gaussian damping regime followed by an exponential damping regime. Recent observational detection of these damping regimes has been employed as a seismological tool. We extend the description of the damping behaviour to account for additional physical effects, namely a time-dependent period of oscillation, the presence of additional longitudinal harmonics, and the decayless regime of standing kink oscillations. Methods: We examine four examples of standing kink oscillations observed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). We use forward modelling of the loop position and investigate the dependence on the model parameters using Bayesian inference and Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling. Results: Our improvements to the physical model combined with the use of Bayesian inference and MCMC produce improved estimates of model parameters and their uncertainties. Calculation of the Bayes factor also allows us to compare the suitability of different physical models. We also use a new method based on spline interpolation of the zeroes of the oscillation to accurately describe the background trend of the oscillating loop. Conclusions: This powerful and robust method allows for accurate seismology of coronal loops, in particular the transverse density profile, and potentially reveals additional physical effects.

  16. Insights into plant consciousness from neuroscience, physics and mathematics: a role for quasicrystals?

    PubMed

    Gardiner, John

    2012-09-01

    There is considerable debate over whether plants are conscious and this, indeed, is an important question. Here I look at developments in neuroscience, physics and mathematics that may impact on this question. Two major concomitants of consciousness in animals are microtubule function and electrical gamma wave synchrony. Both these factors may also play a role in plant consciousness. I show that plants possess aperiodic quasicrystal structures composed of ribosomes that may enable quantum computing, which has been suggested to lie at the core of animal consciousness. Finally I look at whether a microtubule fractal suggests that electric current plays a part in conventional neurocomputing processes in plants.

  17. Insights into plant consciousness from neuroscience, physics and mathematics: A role for quasicrystals?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    There is considerable debate over whether plants are conscious and this, indeed, is an important question. Here I look at developments in neuroscience, physics and mathematics that may impact on this question. Two major concomitants of consciousness in animals are microtubule function and electrical gamma wave synchrony. Both these factors may also play a role in plant consciousness. I show that plants possess aperiodic quasicrystal structures composed of ribosomes that may enable quantum computing, which has been suggested to lie at the core of animal consciousness. Finally I look at whether a microtubule fractal suggests that electric current plays a part in conventional neurocomputing processes in plants. PMID:22899055

  18. Influence of an alloy addition on the physical and clinical behaviour of glass ionomer cement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abour, Mohamed Abour Bashir

    These in vitro studies compared the various properties of an experimental high powder liquid content glass ionomer cement (EXPT) with those of a metal addition GIC (Hi-Dense) and disperse phase amalgam (Dispersalloy). Bi-axial, four point flexural and compressive tests were used to evaluate strength. Six groups of ten specimens were constructed for each test for each material and allowed to set in an oven at 37°C for 60 minutes. Specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C until testing at one day, one week, one, three, six months and year. It was found that the strength of Hi-Dense increased and then maintained over extended time, whereas the strength of EXPT showed a declined at 3 months. The bond strengths of the materials to both enamel and dentine were also evaluated. Ten groups of ten teeth, five for each surface for each glass ionomer materials, were prepared. Teeth were aligned leaving the enamel and dentine surfaces exposed. The mixed material was condensed into a cylinder placed on the appropriate surface. These specimens were also stored in distilled water at 37°C. It was found that Hi-Dense had a higher bond strength to enamel that increased with time. The bond strength to dentine was maintained over the test period. The erosion rate of the materials was evaluated using the lactic acid erosion test. Three groups of six specimens for each material were constructed and tested after one hour, one day and at six months. Each specimen was subjected to an impinging jet of lactic acid solution. The erosion rate was determined by weight loss and dimensional change. It was found that Hi-Dense had a high erosion resistance which was slightly better than the experimental material. The microleakage, around restorations prepared, using the glass ionomer materials, was evaluated after cyclical loading the restoration-tooth complex. It was found that there was less leakage around Hi-Dense than EXPT at both the cervical and occlusal margins. In a clinical

  19. Novel insights from 3D models: the pivotal role of physical symmetry in epithelial organization

    PubMed Central

    Kurup, Abhishek; Ravindranath, Shreyas; Tran, Tim; Keating, Mark; Gascard, Philippe; Valdevit, Lorenzo; Tlsty, Thea D.; Botvinick, Elliot L.

    2015-01-01

    3D tissue culture models are utilized to study breast cancer and other pathologies because they better capture the complexity of in vivo tissue architecture compared to 2D models. However, to mimic the in vivo environment, the mechanics and geometry of the ECM must also be considered. Here, we studied the mechanical environment created in two 3D models, the overlay protocol (OP) and embedded protocol (EP). Mammary epithelial acini features were compared using OP or EP under conditions known to alter acinus organization, i.e. collagen crosslinking and/or ErbB2 receptor activation. Finite element analysis and active microrheology demonstrated that OP creates a physically asymmetric environment with non-uniform mechanical stresses in radial and circumferential directions. Further contrasting with EP, acini in OP displayed cooperation between ErbB2 signalling and matrix crosslinking. These differences in acini phenotype observed between OP and EP highlight the functional impact of physical symmetry in 3D tissue culture models. PMID:26472542

  20. Mitochondrial Aging and Physical Decline: Insights From Three Generations of Women

    PubMed Central

    Hebert, Sadie L.; Marquet-de Rougé, Perrine; Lanza, Ian R.; McCrady-Spitzer, Shelly K.; Levine, James A.; Middha, Sumit; Carter, Rickey E.; Klaus, Katherine A.; Therneau, Terry M.; Highsmith, Edward W.

    2015-01-01

    Decline in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number, function, and accumulation of mutations and deletions have been proposed to contribute to age-related physical decline, based on cross sectional studies in genetically unrelated individuals. There is wide variability of mtDNA and functional measurements in many population studies and therefore we assessed mitochondrial function and physical function in 18 families of grandmothers, mothers, and daughters who share the same maternally inherited mtDNA sequence. A significant age-related decline in mtDNA copy number, mitochondrial protein expression, citrate synthase activity, cytochrome c oxidase content, and VO2 peak were observed. Also, a lower abundance of SIRT3, accompanied by an increase in acetylated skeletal muscle proteins, was observed in grandmothers. Muscle tissue–based full sequencing of mtDNA showed greater than 5% change in minor allele frequency over a lifetime in two locations, position 189 and 408 in the noncoding D-loop region but no changes were noted in blood cells mtDNA. The decline in oxidative capacity and muscle function with age in three generations of women who share the same mtDNA sequence are associated with a decline in muscle mtDNA copy number and reduced protein deacetylase activity of SIRT3. PMID:26297939

  1. Physical Properties of Nanostructured CdO Films from Alkaline Baths Containing Saccharin as Additive

    PubMed Central

    Şahin, Bünyamin

    2013-01-01

    Nanostructured cadmium oxide (CdO) films were fabricated on glass substrates from alkaline baths containing saccharin as an additive by a successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The effects of saccharin concentration in the bath on the structural, morphological, and optical properties were studied by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence, and Raman spectroscopy. The analyses showed that the surface morphologies, XRD peak intensities, Raman spectroscopy, and photoluminescence properties of CdO films changed with saccharin concentration. From the results, it can be said that morphological characteristic and optical properties of the films could be calibrated by adding various saccharin percentages in the growth bath. PMID:23844379

  2. Physical properties of nanostructured CdO films from alkaline baths containing saccharin as additive.

    PubMed

    Şahin, Bünyamin

    2013-01-01

    Nanostructured cadmium oxide (CdO) films were fabricated on glass substrates from alkaline baths containing saccharin as an additive by a successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The effects of saccharin concentration in the bath on the structural, morphological, and optical properties were studied by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence, and Raman spectroscopy. The analyses showed that the surface morphologies, XRD peak intensities, Raman spectroscopy, and photoluminescence properties of CdO films changed with saccharin concentration. From the results, it can be said that morphological characteristic and optical properties of the films could be calibrated by adding various saccharin percentages in the growth bath.

  3. Effect of galactooligosaccharide addition on the physical, optical, and sensory acceptance of vanilla ice cream.

    PubMed

    Balthazar, C F; Silva, H L A; Celeguini, R M S; Santos, R; Pastore, G M; Junior, C A Conte; Freitas, M Q; Nogueira, L C; Silva, M C; Cruz, A G

    2015-07-01

    The effect of the addition of galactooligosaccharide (GOS) on the physicochemical, optical, and sensory characteristics of ice cream was investigated. Vanilla ice cream was supplemented with 0, 1.5, and 3.0% (wt/wt) GOS and characterized for pH, firmness, color, melting, overrun, as well as subjected to a discriminative sensory test (triangle test). For comparison purposes, ice creams containing fructooligosaccharide were also manufactured. The GOS ice creams were characterized by increased firmness and lower melting rates. Different perceptions were reported in the sensory evaluation for the 3.0% GOS ice cream when compared with the control, which was not observed for the fructooligosaccharide ice cream. Overall, the findings suggest it is possible to produce GOS ice cream with improved stability in relation to the physicochemical parameters and sensory perception.

  4. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy: A deeper and quantitative insight into the fingermarks physical modifications over time.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Roberto; Giovanardi, Roberto; Bozza, Andrea; Veronesi, Paolo; Leonelli, Cristina

    2017-02-24

    The present work is focused on a novel approach for the study and quantification of some of the physical changes to which a fingermark deposited on non-porous substrates is subjected as its ageing proceeds. Particularly, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique has been applied for the first time in order to monitor the electrochemical behaviour of the system constituted by the fingermark residue and the underlying substrate. The impedance spectra proved to be significantly affected by the presence of the mark residue as well as by its ageing process. Opportune fitting operations performed on the experimental data allowed obtaining quantitative electrochemical parameters used to reach useful information on the fingermarks ageing mechanism as well as to calculate the fingermark ageing curves from which fundamental information could be potentially extrapolated.

  5. New insights on laser-induced graphene electrodes for flexible supercapacitors: tunable morphology and physical properties.

    PubMed

    Lamberti, Andrea; Perrucci, Francesco; Caprioli, Matteo; Serrapede, Mara; Fontana, Marco; Bianco, Stefano; Ferrero, Sergio; Tresso, Elena

    2017-04-28

    In certain polymers the graphenization of carbon atoms can be obtained by laser writing owing to the easy absorption of long-wavelength radiation, which generates photo-thermal effects. On a polyimide surface this process allows the formation of a nanostructured and porous carbon network known as laser-induced graphene (LIG). Herein we report on the effect of the process parameters on the morphology and physical properties of LIG nanostructures. We show that the scan speed and the frequency of the incident radiation affect the gas evolution, inducing different structure rearrangements, an interesting nitrogen self-doping phenomenon and consequently different conduction properties. The materials were characterized by infrared and Raman spectroscopy, XPS elemental analysis, electron microscopy and electrical/electrochemical measurements. In particular the samples were tested as interdigitated electrodes into electrochemical supercapacitors and the optimized LIG arrangement was tested in parallel and series supercapacitor configurations to allow power exploitation.

  6. Physical experience leads to enhanced object perception in parietal cortex: insights from knot tying.

    PubMed

    Cross, Emily S; Cohen, Nichola Rice; Hamilton, Antonia F de C; Ramsey, Richard; Wolford, George; Grafton, Scott T

    2012-12-01

    What does it mean to "know" what an object is? Viewing objects from different categories (e.g., tools vs. animals) engages distinct brain regions, but it is unclear whether these differences reflect object categories themselves or the tendency to interact differently with objects from different categories (grasping tools, not animals). Here we test how the brain constructs representations of objects that one learns to name or physically manipulate. Participants learned to name or tie different knots and brain activity was measured whilst performing a perceptual discrimination task with these knots before and after training. Activation in anterior intraparietal sulcus, a region involved in object manipulation, was specifically engaged when participants viewed knots they learned to tie. This suggests that object knowledge is linked to sensorimotor experience and its associated neural systems for object manipulation. Findings are consistent with a theory of embodiment in which there can be clear overlap in brain systems that support conceptual knowledge and control of object manipulation.

  7. Physical experiments of land subsidence within a maar crater: insights for porosity variations and fracture localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerca, M.; Rocha, L.; Carreón-Freyre, D.; Aranda, J.

    2015-11-01

    We present the results of a series of physical models aiming to reproduce rapid subsidence (at least 25 m in 30 years) observed in the sediments of a maar crater caused by extraction of groundwater in the interconnected adjacent aquifer. The model considered plausible variations in the geometry of the crater basement and the measured rate of groundwater extraction (1 m per year in the time interval from 2005 to 2011) in 15 wells located around the structure. The experiments were built within a rigid plastic bowl in which the sediments and rocks of the maar sequence were modeled using different materials: (a) plasticine for the rigid country rock, (b) gravel for the fractured country rock forming the diatreme fill and, (c) water saturated hollow glass microbeads for the lacustrine sedimentary fill of the crater. Water table was maintained initially at the surface of the sediments and then was allowed to flow through a hole made at the base of the rigid bowl. Water extraction provoked a sequence of gentle deformation, fracturing, and faulting of the surface in all the experiments. Vertical as well as lateral displacements were observed in the surface of the experiments. We discuss the results of 2 representative models. The model results reproduced the main geometry of the ring faults affecting the crater sediments and helps to explain the diversity of structures observed in relation with the diatreme geometry. The surface of the models was monitored continuously with an optical interferometric technique called structured light projection. Images collected at nearly constant time intervals were analyzed using the ZEBRA software and the obtained interferometric pairs permitted to analyze the full field subsidence in the model (submilimetric vertical displacements). The experiments were conducted at a continuous flow rate extraction and show a also a linear subsidence rate. Comparison among the results of the physical models and the fault system associated to

  8. Influence of Alumina Additions on the Physical and Chemical Properties of Lithium-iron-phosphate Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Huali; Yang, Ruijuan; Wang, Yinghui; Liu, Shiquan

    Alumina improves the properties and depresses the devitrification of soda-lime-silicate glasses. Herein, the influence of alumina on the glass transition temperature, density, chemical durability, crystallization of lithium-iron-phosphate (LIP) glass has been investigated. As alumina was added to replace the iron oxide in a base LIP glass with the molar composition of Li2O:Fe2O3:P2O5=30:20:50, the alumina-containing glasses have increased Tg, densities and chemical stabilities than the base glass. When the amount of alumina is increased from 2 to 6 mol, the Tg value slightly increases, whereas the density decreases. However, the smallest weight loss is shown for the glass containing 3.2 mol of alumina. The variations of the properties with alumina are explained based on the infrared structure analysis results. In addition, it is found the either the base or the alumina-containing glasses have surface crystallization upon heat-treatments. Under the same treatment conditions, the base glass exhibits a thin layer of crystallization with LiFeP2O7 as the main phase. In contrast, alumina-containing glasses show much higher degree of crystallization, which is further increased with the amount of alumina. This trend is opposite to that of silicate glass. Besides the LiFeP2O7 main phase, Fe7(PO4) phase is also identified in the crystallized alumina-containing glasses.

  9. Dilatant normal faulting in jointed cohesive rocks: insights from physical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kettermann, Michael; von Hagke, Christoph; Urai, Janos

    2016-04-01

    Dilatant faults often form in rocks containing pre-existing joints, but the effects of joints on fault segment linkage and fracture connectivity is not well understood. Studying evolution of dilatancy and influence of fractures on fault development provides insights on geometry of fault zones in brittle rocks and eventually allows for predicting their subsurface appearance. We assess the evolution of dilatant faults in fractured rocks using analogue models with cohesive powder. The upper layer contains pre-formed joint sets, and we vary the angle between joints and a rigid basement fault in our experiments. Analogue models were carried out in a manually driven deformation box (30x28x20 cm) with a 60° dipping pre-defined basement fault and 4.5 cm of displacement. To produce open joints prior to faulting, sheets of paper were mounted in the box to a depth of 5 cm at a spacing of 2.5 cm. Powder was then sieved into the box, embedding the paper almost entirely (column height of 19 cm), and the paper was removed. We tested the influence of different angles between the strike of the basement fault and the joint set (joint fault (JF) angles of 0°, 4°, 8°, 12°, 16°, 20°, and 25°). During deformation we captured structural information by time-lapse photography that allows particle imaging velocimetry analyses (PIV) to detect localized deformation at every increment of displacement. Post-mortem photogrammetry preserves the final 3-dimensional structure of the fault zone. Results show robust structural features in models: damage zone width increases by about 50 % and the number of secondary fractures within this zone by more than 100 % with increasing JF-angle. Interestingly, the map-view area fraction of open gaps increases by only 3%. Secondary joints and fault step-overs are oriented at a high angle to the primary joint orientation. Due to the length of the pre-existing open joints, areas far beyond the fractured regions are connected to the system. In contrast

  10. The physics of non-volcanic tremor: insights from laboratory-scale earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Toro, G.; Meredith, P.

    2012-04-01

    Due to his extensive early experience in field structural geology, Luigi Burlini's experimental research was always aimed at using laboratory techniques and simulations to improve our understanding of the physics of natural rock deformation. Here we present an example of collaborative work from the later part of his scientific career in which the main goal was unravelling the physics of non-volcanic tremor in subduction zones. This was achieved by deforming typical source rocks (serpentinites) under conditions (300 MPa and 600oC) that approach those expected in nature (up to 1 GPa and 500oC). The main technical challenge was to capture deformation-induced microseismicity (in the form of acoustic emissions) released under such extreme conditions by means of in-situ transducers designed to work at only modest temperatures (up to 200oC). The main scientific challenges were (1) to link the acoustic emission output to specific physical processes, such as cracking, fluid flow or fluid-crack interactions, by means of waveform and microstructural analysis; and (2) to extrapolate the laboratory acoustic emission signals (kHz to MHz frequency) associated with mm to cm-scale processes, to natural seismicity (0.1-1 Hz frequency) associated with km-scale rock volumes by means of frequency scaling (Aki and Richards, 1980). Episodic tremor and slip (ETS) has been correlated with rupture phenomena in subducting oceanic lithosphere at 30 to 45 km depth, where high Vp/Vs ratios, suggestive of high-fluid pressure, have also been observed. ETS, by accommodating slip in the down-dip portion of the subduction zone, may trigger megathrust earthquakes up-dip in the locked section. In our experiments we measured the output of acoustic emissions during heating of serpentinite samples to beyond their equilibrium dehydration temperature. Experiments were performed on cores samples 15 mm in diameter by 30 mm long under hydrostatic stresses of 200 or 300 MPa in a Paterson high

  11. Modeling Physical Processes at the Nanoscale—Insight into Self-Organization of Small Systems (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proykova, Ana

    2009-04-01

    Essential contributions have been made in the field of finite-size systems of ingredients interacting with potentials of various ranges. Theoretical simulations have revealed peculiar size effects on stability, ground state structure, phases, and phase transformation of systems confined in space and time. Models developed in the field of pure physics (atomic and molecular clusters) have been extended and successfully transferred to finite-size systems that seem very different—small-scale financial markets, autoimmune reactions, and social group reactions to advertisements. The models show that small-scale markets diverge unexpectedly fast as a result of small fluctuations; autoimmune reactions are sequences of two discontinuous phase transitions; and social groups possess critical behavior (social percolation) under the influence of an external field (advertisement). Some predicted size-dependent properties have been experimentally observed. These findings lead to the hypothesis that restrictions on an object's size determine the object's total internal (configuration) and external (environmental) interactions. Since phases are emergent phenomena produced by self-organization of a large number of particles, the occurrence of a phase in a system containing a small number of ingredients is remarkable.

  12. Insight into self-discharge of layered lithium-rich oxide cathode in carbonate-based electrolytes with and without additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jianhui; Xing, Lidan; Zhang, Liping; Yu, Le; Fan, Weizhen; Xu, Mengqing; Li, Weishan

    2016-08-01

    Self-discharge behavior of layered lithium-rich oxide as cathode of lithium ion battery in a carbonated-based electrolyte is understood, and a simple boron-containing compound, trimethyl borate (TMB), is used as an electrolyte additive to suppress this self-discharge. It is found that layered lithium-rich oxide charged under 4.8 V in additive-free electrolyte suffers severe self-discharge and TMB is an effective electrolyte additive for self-discharge suppression. Physical characterizations from XRD, SEM, TEM, XPS and ICP-MS demonstrate that the crystal structure of the layered lithium-rich oxide collapses due to the chemical interaction between the charged oxide and electrolyte. When TMB is applied, the structural integrity of the oxide is maintained due to the protective cathode film generated from the preferential oxidation of TMB.

  13. Physical insights into the sonochemical degradation of recalcitrant organic pollutants with cavitation bubble dynamics.

    PubMed

    Sivasankar, Thirugnanasambandam; Moholkar, Vijayanand S

    2009-08-01

    This paper tries to discern the mechanistic features of sonochemical degradation of recalcitrant organic pollutants using five model compounds, viz. phenol (Ph), chlorobenzene (CB), nitrobenzene (NB), p-nitrophenol (PNP) and 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP). The sonochemical degradation of the pollutant can occur in three distinct pathways: hydroxylation by ()OH radicals produced from cavitation bubbles (either in the bubble-bulk interfacial region or in the bulk liquid medium), thermal decomposition in cavitation bubble and thermal decomposition at the bubble-liquid interfacial region. With the methodology of coupling experiments under different conditions (which alter the nature of the cavitation phenomena in the bulk liquid medium) with the simulations of radial motion of cavitation bubbles, we have tried to discern the relative contribution of each of the above pathway to overall degradation of the pollutant. Moreover, we have also tried to correlate the predominant degradation mechanism to the physico-chemical properties of the pollutant. The contribution of secondary factors such as probability of radical-pollutant interaction and extent of radical scavenging (or conservation) in the medium has also been identified. Simultaneous analysis of the trends in degradation with different experimental techniques and simulation results reveals interesting mechanistic features of sonochemical degradation of the model pollutants. The physical properties that determine the predominant degradation pathway are vapor pressure, solubility and hydrophobicity. Degradation of Ph occurs mainly by hydroxylation in bulk medium; degradation of CB occurs via thermal decomposition inside the bubble, degradation of PNP occurs via pyrolytic decomposition at bubble interface, while hydroxylation at bubble interface contributes to degradation of NB and 2,4-DCP.

  14. Extrinsic visual feedback and additional cognitive/physical demands affect single-limb balance control in individuals with ankle instability

    PubMed Central

    Hung, You-jou; Miller, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the impact of extrinsic visual feedback and additional cognitive/physical demands on single-limb balance in individuals with ankle instability. METHODS Sixteen subjects with ankle instability participated in the study. Ankle instability was identified using the Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool (CAIT). The subject’s unstable ankle was examined using the Athletic Single Leg Stability Test of the Biodex Balance System with 4 different protocols: (1) default setting with extrinsic visual feedback from the monitor; (2) no extrinsic visual feedback; (3) no extrinsic visual feedback with cognitive demands; and (4) no extrinsic visual feedback with physical demands. For the protocol with added cognitive demands, subjects were asked to continue subtracting 7 from a given number while performing the same test without extrinsic visual feedback. For the protocol with added physical demands, subjects were asked to pass and catch a basketball to and from the examiner while performing the same modified test. RESULTS The subject’s single-limb postural control varied significantly among different testing protocols (F = 103; P = 0.000). Subjects’ postural control was the worst with added physical demands and the best with the default condition with extrinsic visual feedback. Pairwise comparison shows subjects performed significantly worse in all modified protocols (P < 0.01 in all comparisons) compared to the default protocol. Results from all 4 protocols are significantly different from each other (P < 0.01) except for the comparison between the “no extrinsic visual feedback” and “no extrinsic visual feedback with cognitive demands” protocols. Comparing conditions without extrinsic visual feedback, adding a cognitive demand did not significantly compromise single-limb balance control but adding a physical demand did. Scores from the default protocol are significantly correlated with the results from all 3 modified protocols: No extrinsic visual

  15. Orbital and physical properties of planets and their hosts: new insights on planet formation and evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adibekyan, V. Zh.; Figueira, P.; Santos, N. C.; Mortier, A.; Mordasini, C.; Delgado Mena, E.; Sousa, S. G.; Correia, A. C. M.; Israelian, G.; Oshagh, M.

    2013-12-01

    Aims: We explore the relations between physical and orbital properties of planets and properties of their host stars to identify the main observable signatures of the formation and evolution processes of planetary systems. Methods: We used a large sample of FGK dwarf planet-hosting stars with stellar parameters derived in a homogeneous way from the SWEET-Cat database to study the relation between stellar metallicity and position of planets in the period-mass diagram. We then used all the radial-velocity-detected planets orbiting FGK stars to explore the role of planet-disk and planet-planet interaction on the evolution of orbital properties of planets with masses above 1 MJup. Results: Using a large sample of FGK dwarf hosts we show that planets orbiting metal-poor stars have longer periods than those in metal-rich systems. This trend is valid for masses at least from ≈10 M⊕ to ≈4 MJup. Earth-like planets orbiting metal-rich stars always show shorter periods (fewer than 20 days) than those orbiting metal-poor stars. However, in the short-period regime there are a similar number of planets orbiting metal-poor stars. We also found statistically significant evidence that very high mass giants (with a mass higher than 4 MJup) have on average more eccentric orbits than giant planets with lower mass. Finally, we show that the eccentricity of planets with masses higher than 4 MJup tends to be lower for planets with shorter periods. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the planets in the P - MP diagram are evolving differently because of a mechanism that operates over a wide range of planetary masses. This mechanism is stronger or weaker, depending on the metallicity of the respective system. One possibility is that planets in metal-poor disks form farther out from their central star and/or they form later and do not have time to migrate as far as the planets in metal-rich systems. The trends and dependencies obtained for very high mass planetary systems suggest

  16. Subglacial Meltwater Drainage at Paakitsoq, West Greenland: Insights from a Distributed, Physically Based Numerical Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banwell, Alison; Willis, Ian; Arnold, Neil; Ahlstrom, Andreas

    2010-05-01

    Recent studies indicate that surface meltwater is reaching the bed of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) and modulating glacier sliding rates at the ice sheet margin. However, the hydrological characteristics of this drainage system and the degree to which variations in subglacial water pressure enhance or impede ice flow remain uncertain. As the subglacial hydrological system beneath the GrIS is physically inaccessible and beyond the resolution of geophysical imaging techniques, numerical models are an important tool for investigating the stability of plausible hydrological systems. We present preliminary results of a numerical model that investigates theoretically-constructed hydrological systems of the Paakitsoq region of W. Greenland, north of Jakobshavn Isbrae. Subglacial drainage system structures (the location, alignment and interconnection of major drainage channels) are defined from patterns of subglacial hydrological potential derived from surface and bed DEMs. Discharge and hydraulic head within subglacial channels are modelled using a component of the US EPA Storm Water Management Model (SWMM), modified to allow for enlargement and closure of ice walled channels (Arnold et al., Hydrol. Processes, 12, 1998). We assess the model's ability to deal with two types of input: rapid lake drainage events; and diurnally varying melt inputs calculated from a degree-day model. We perform sensitivity tests to determine the effects of individual model parameters on modelled channel cross-sectional area, water pressure and subglacial flow. Finally, we simulate drainage beneath the ice sheet for a summer melt season and compare the results with measured proglacial stream discharges. Through a recent code modification allowing subglacial water pressures to reach values in excess of ice overburden pressures, we find that consistently high inland subglacial water pressures assist with keeping marginal conduits full and counteract the effects of creep closure, allowing

  17. [Effects of different perlite additions on physical and chemical properties of sewage sludge compost and growth of Tagetes patula].

    PubMed

    Hu, Yu-Tong; Shi, Lian-Hui; Liu, Deng-Min; Tong, Shao-Wei; Wei, Mei-Yan; Sun, Jie

    2014-07-01

    In order to resolve the problem of poor permeability of sewage sludge compost (SSC) which was used as the substitution of peat, perlite was used to regulate the permeability of the sewage. The pure SSC was used as control. The proportions of perlite in the mixtures with SSC were 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100% (V/V), respectively. The effects of different perlite ratios on the physical and chemical properties and the growth of Tagetes patula were studied. The bulk density, water holding porosity and water holding porosity to aeration porosity decreased, but the total porosity and aeration porosity increased with the increasing addition of perlite to the SSC. For the chemical properties, the pH increased, and the EC and nutrient contents decreased with the increasing addition of perlite to the SSC. The aboveground biomass and flowers of T. patula were the highest in the 60% perlite treatment, and the lowest in the pure SSC treatment. The root morphology and activity were the best in the 40%, 60% and 80% perlite treatments. Aeration was the strongest factor to impact the maximum root length and average root diameter. Perlite promoted the growth of T. patula mainly through impacting the physical properties of the SSC. The addition of 60% perlite to the SSC could significantly improve the poor aeration and decrease the high salinity greatly in the SSC and regulate the growth of the root and aboveground of T. patula.

  18. Modification of physical properties of poly(L-lactic acid) by addition of methyl-β-cyclodextrin.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Toshiyuki; Ei, Ayaka; Takada, Yoshihisa; Uehara, Hiroki; Yamanobe, Takeshi; Takahashi, Keiko

    2014-01-01

    Poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) is a biodegradable plastic and one of the most famous plastics made from biobased materials. However, its physical strength is insufficient compared to general-purpose plastics. In this study, the effect of methylcyclodextrin (MeCD) addition on the structure and physical properties, especially the drawing behavior, of PLLA was investigated. Through thermal analysis, it was found that MeCD addition lowers the crystallinity and enhances the mobility of PLLA. The sample containing approximately 17% MeCD was drawn to more than 1000% at 60 °C, although PLLA fractured at a strain of less than 100%. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)-Raman in situ measurements also revealed decreases in the glass transition temperature (T g), cold crystallization temperature (T c), and melting point (T m), and improvement in structural distribution with temperature. DSC-Raman measurements simultaneously supplied information about crystallinity and thermal properties. Thus, it was concluded that MeCD had high affinity for PLLA, and the addition of MeCD increased the amorphous component of PLLA and enhanced the drawability.

  19. Modification of physical properties of poly(L-lactic acid) by addition of methyl-β-cyclodextrin

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Toshiyuki; Ei, Ayaka; Takada, Yoshihisa; Uehara, Hiroki; Takahashi, Keiko

    2014-01-01

    Summary Poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) is a biodegradable plastic and one of the most famous plastics made from biobased materials. However, its physical strength is insufficient compared to general-purpose plastics. In this study, the effect of methylcyclodextrin (MeCD) addition on the structure and physical properties, especially the drawing behavior, of PLLA was investigated. Through thermal analysis, it was found that MeCD addition lowers the crystallinity and enhances the mobility of PLLA. The sample containing approximately 17% MeCD was drawn to more than 1000% at 60 °C, although PLLA fractured at a strain of less than 100%. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)-Raman in situ measurements also revealed decreases in the glass transition temperature (T g), cold crystallization temperature (T c), and melting point (T m), and improvement in structural distribution with temperature. DSC-Raman measurements simultaneously supplied information about crystallinity and thermal properties. Thus, it was concluded that MeCD had high affinity for PLLA, and the addition of MeCD increased the amorphous component of PLLA and enhanced the drawability. PMID:25670970

  20. Design of the SHAPE-2 study: the effect of physical activity, in addition to weight loss, on biomarkers of postmenopausal breast cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity and overweight are two known risk factors for postmenopausal breast cancer. Former exercise intervention studies showed that physical activity influences sex hormone levels, known to be related to postmenopausal breast cancer, mainly when concordant loss of body weight was achieved. The question remains whether there is an additional beneficial effect of physical activity when weight loss is reached. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect attributable to exercise on postmenopausal breast cancer risk biomarkers, when equivalent weight loss is achieved compared with diet-induced weight loss. Design The SHAPE-2 study is a three-armed, multicentre trial. 243 sedentary, postmenopausal women who are overweight or obese (BMI 25–35 kg/m2) are enrolled. After a 4-6 week run-in period, wherein a baseline diet is prescribed, women are randomly allocated to (1) a diet group, (2) an exercise group or (3) a control group. The aim of both intervention groups is to lose an amount of 5–6 kg body weight in 10–14 weeks. The diet group follows an energy restricted diet and maintains the habitual physical activity level. The exercise group participates in a 16-week endurance and strength training programme of 4 hours per week. Furthermore, they are prescribed a moderate caloric restriction. The control group is asked to maintain body weight and continue the run-in baseline diet. Measurements include blood sampling, questionnaires, anthropometrics (weight, height, waist and hip circumference), maximal cycle exercise test (VO2peak), DEXA-scan (body composition) and abdominal MRI (subcutaneous and visceral fat). Primary outcomes are serum levels of oestradiol, oestrone, testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). Discussion This study will give insight in the potential attributable effect of physical activity on breast cancer risk biomarkers and whether this effect is mediated by changes in body composition, in postmenopausal

  1. Effects of whey or maltodextrin addition during production on physical quality of white cheese powder during storage.

    PubMed

    Erbay, Zafer; Koca, Nurcan

    2015-12-01

    There is an increasing demand for cheese as a food ingredient, especially as a flavoring agent. One of the most important cheese flavoring agents is cheese powder. To obtain an intense cheese flavor, ripened cheese is used as a raw material in cheese powder but this increases production costs. Moreover, use of natural cheese decreases the physical quality of powder because of its high fat content. In this study, we evaluated opportunities to use whey or maltodextrin for improving the physical quality of powders in production of white cheese powder. We produced cheese powders with 3 different formulations-control (CON), whey-added (WACP), and maltodextrin-added (MACP)-and determined the effects of formulation on cheese powder quality. Physical quality parameters such as color, densities, reconstitution properties, free fat content, particle morphology, and sensory characteristics were investigated. The different cheese powders were stored for 12 mo at 20°C and we evaluated the effect of storage on powder quality. Addition of maltodextrin to cheese powder formulations significantly improved their physical quality. The densities and reconstitution properties of cheese powder were increased and free fat content was decreased by use of maltodextrin. The MACP particles were spherical with a uniform distribution and larger particle sizes, whereas CON and WACP particles were wrinkled, irregular shaped with deep surface dents, and variable in size. Although caking was observed in scanning electron micrographs after 12 mo of storage, it was not detected by sensory panelists. The color of cheese powders changed very slowly during storage but browning was detected. The results of this study show that it is possible to use maltodextrin or whey in production of white cheese powder to reduce production costs and improve the physical quality of powders.

  2. A Numerical Simulation of Cosmic Ray Modulation Near the Heliopause. II. Some Physical Insights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xi; Potgieter, Marius S.; Zhang, Ming; Pogorelov, Nikolai V.; Feng, Xueshang; Strauss, Du Toit R.

    2016-08-01

    Cosmic ray (CR) transport near the heliopause (HP) is studied using a hybrid transport model, with the parameters constrained by observations from the Voyager 1 spacecraft. We simulate the CR radial flux along different directions in the heliosphere. There is no well-defined thin layer between the solar wind region and the interstellar region along the tail and polar directions of the heliosphere. By analyzing the radial flux curve along the direction of Voyager 2, together with its trajectory information, the crossing time of the HP by Voyager 2 is predicted to be in 2017.14. We simulate the CR radial flux for different energy values along the direction of Voyager 1. We find that there is only a modest modulation region of about 10 au wide beyond the HP, so that Voyager 1 observing the Local Interstellar Spectra is justified in numerical modeling. We analyze the heliospheric exit information of pseudo-particles in our stochastic numerical (time-backward) method, conjecturing that they represent the behavior of CR particles, and we find that pseudo-particles that have been traced from the nose region exit in the tail region. This implies that many CR particles diffuse directly from the heliospheric tail region to the nose region near the HP. In addition, when pseudo-particles were traced from the Local Interstellar Medium (LISM), it is found that their exit location (entrance for real particles) from the simulation domain is along the prescribed Interstellar Magnetic Field direction. This indicates that parallel diffusion dominates CR particle transport in the LISM.

  3. Internal deformation within an unstable granular slope: insights from physical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z.; Koyi, H.; Nilfouroushan, F.; Swantesson, J.; Reshetyuk, Y.

    2012-04-01

    The collapses of granular materials frequently occur in nature in the form of, for example, rock avalanches, debris avalanches and debris flow. In previous studies of collapses of a granular material, most of the focus has been on the effect of initial geometry and mechanical properties of the granular materials, the run-out distance, and the topography of final deposit. In this study, results of analogue models and scanned natural failed slopes are used to outline the mode of failure of an unstable slope. Model results and field observations are used to argue that a granular mass moves downslope in a wavy pattern resulting in its intensive deformation. In the models, we mainly investigated the internal deformation of collapses of granular slopes in terms of their internal structures and the spatial and temporal distribution of the latter. Model results showed that a displaced mass of the granular slope has the following two features: (1) Initial collapse resulted in a series of normal faults, where hanging-wall blocks were slightly deformed, like the slump-shear structures in nature; (2) With further collapse, a set of secondary structures, such as deformed/folded fault surfaces, faulted folds, displaced inclined folds, and overturned folds formed near the slope surface. The occurrence of these structures reflects the failure process of the granular mass in space and time. In addition, our model results show that the nature of basal friction has a significant influence on the geometry and kinematics of these structures at the slope toe. Model results show also that the mass does not glide downslope along only one surface, but includes several gliding surfaces each of which take part of the sliding. These gliding surfaces become steeper deeper in the sliding mass. Some of these features observed in the models are also detected in the field. Scanned failed slope surfaces show a wavy pattern similar to that in the models, reflecting the presence of normal faults at

  4. The effects of a liquid dispersing agent and a microcrystalline additive on the physical properties of type IV gypsum.

    PubMed

    Zakaria, M R; Johnston, W M; Reisbick, M H; Campagni, W V

    1988-11-01

    This study evaluated the effects of a liquid dispersing agent (LDA) and a microcrystalline additive (MCA) on selected physical properties of type IV gypsum. Working consistency, setting time, setting expansion, and compressive strength (1 hour and 7 days) were determined, following ADA Specification No. 25, on a standard, LDA (0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 mL), MCA (21.1, 24.1, and 27.1 gm), and combination (LDA 0.75 mL + MCA 12.05 gm) mixes per 300 gm of gypsum. Results indicate that the additives affect the consistency of the mix, but consistency can be kept close to that of the standard by lowering the water/powder ratio. Statistical analysis of the data indicated that the additives significantly affected the setting time, setting expansion, and both the 1-hour and the 7-day compressive strengths. SEM examination of fractured surfaces of test mixes indicated improved crystal packing. The properties of type IV gypsum can be improved by optimizing the amount of LDA and MCA additives.

  5. Motor imagery of locomotion with an additional load: actual load experience does not affect differences between physical and mental durations.

    PubMed

    Munzert, Jörn; Blischke, Klaus; Krüger, Britta

    2015-03-01

    Motor imagery relies strongly on motor representations. Currently, it is widely accepted that both the imagery and execution of actions share the same neural representations (Jeannerod, Neuroimage 14:S103-S109, 2001). Comparing mental with actual movement durations opens a window through which to examine motor representations and how they relate to cognitive motor processes. The present experiment examined mental durations reported by participants standing upright who imagined walking either with or without an additional load while actually carrying or not carrying that same load. Results showed a robust effect of longer durations when imagining the additional load during mental walking, whereas physical walking with an additional load did not extend movement durations accordingly. However, experiencing an actual load during imagery did not influence mental durations substantially. This dissociation of load-related effects can be interpreted as being due to an interaction of motor processes and their cognitive representation along with a reduction in neural activity in vestibular and somatosensory areas during imagery of locomotion. It is argued that this effect might be specific to locomotion and not generalize to a broader range of movements.

  6. A Multi-Wavelength Approach to Quasar Variability: New Insights Into Their Physics, Evolution, and Selection Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djorgovski, Stanislav

    Quasars and other active galactic nuclei play a key role in our understanding of the physical universe and its major constituents. They are interesting astrophysical phenomena in their own right, and a probe of relativistic physics. They co-evolve with their host galaxies, and trace the evolution of cosmic structure. Our insights into their physics and evolution keep improving, thanks in large part to systematic surveys, spanning a broad range of wavelengths, both from the ground and from space. Variability of quasars is one of their key observable characteristics, and it is present at all wavelengths and at all time scales probed so far. It reflects directly the physics of their fueling and beaming, and can thus be used to provide unique observational constraints to theoretical models. The field is being transformed by the availability of massive data sets from synoptic sky surveys, both from the ground and space that cover a large portion of the sky repeatedly, over a broad range of time baselines. Some of the recent results include: "A discovery of a characteristic time scale for a stochastic variability of quasars that anticorrelates with their luminosity, and thus the physics of their accretion disks, which is still not fully understood. "A discovery of periodic variability in quasar light curves (for approx. 1 in 3,000 objects) as a likely signature of close binary supermassive black holes (SMBH) en route to a merger. With the estimated milliparsec separations, these binaries are spatially unresolvable by any anticipated technology, and variability represents the only way of probing this population. These are the progenitors of the expected sources of long-wavelength gravitational wave bursts that should result from such SMBH mergers, one of the key predictions of the models of their hierarchical assembly and evolution. The current sample favors a population of an uneven mass ratio (q=0.01) binaries, with the presence of gas which would speed up the final

  7. Physical origins of weak H2 binding on carbon nanostructures: Insight from ab initio studies of chemically functionalized graphene nanoribbons

    DOE PAGES

    Ulman, Kanchan; Bhaumik, Debarati; Wood, Brandon C.; ...

    2014-05-05

    Here, we have performed ab initio density functional theory calculations, incorporating London dispersion corrections, to study the absorption of molecular hydrogen on zigzag graphene nanoribbons whose edges have been functionalized by OH, NH2, COOH, NO2, or H2PO3. We find that hydrogen molecules always preferentially bind at or near the functionalized edge, and display induced dipole moments. Binding is generally enhanced by the presence of polar functional groups. Furthermore, the largest gains are observed for groups with oxygen lone pairs that can facilitate local charge reorganization, with the biggest single enhancement in adsorption energy found for “strong functionalization” by H2PO3 (115more » meV/H2 versus 52 meV/H2 on bare graphene). We show that for binding on the “outer edge” near the functional group, the presence of the group can introduce appreciable contributions from Debye interactions and higher-order multipole electrostatic terms, in addition to the dominant London dispersion interactions. For those functional groups that contain the OH moiety, the adsorption energy is linearly proportional to the number of lone pairs on oxygen atoms. Mixed functionalization with two different functional groups on a graphene edge can also have a synergistic effect, particularly when electron-donating and electron-withdrawing groups are combined. For binding on the “inner edge” somewhat farther from the functional group, most of the binding again arises from London interactions; however, there is also significant charge redistribution in the π manifold, which directly reflects the electron donating or withdrawing capacity of the functional group. These results offer insight into the specific origins of weak binding of gas molecules on graphene, and suggest that edge functionalization could perhaps be used in combination with other strategies to increase the uptake of hydrogen in graphene. They also have relevance for the storage of hydrogen in

  8. Analysis on Soil Seed Bank Diversity Characteristics and Its Relation with Soil Physical and Chemical Properties after Substrate Addition

    PubMed Central

    He, Mengxuan; Lv, Lingyue; Li, Hongyuan; Meng, Weiqing; Zhao, Na

    2016-01-01

    Aims Considered as an essential measure in the application of soil seed bank (SSB) projects, the mixing of substrate and surface soil can effectively improve soil condition. This research is aimed at exploring the diversity characteristics of SSBs and the relationships between SSBs and soil properties. Methods Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) was adopted to describe the ordination of SSBs on soil properties’ gradients; multiple linear regressions were adopted to analyze the relationship between average growth height and soil properties, density and soil properties. Results Experimental groups of mixed substrate (the mixture of organic and inorganic substrates) had high diversity indexes, especially the Shannon-Wiener Index compared with those of single substrate. Meanwhile, a higher number of species and increased density were also noted in those of mixed substrate. The best test group, No.16, had the highest diversity indexes with a Shannon-Wiener of 1.898, Simpson of 0.633 and Pielou of 0.717, and also showed the highest density of 14000 germinants /m2 and 21 species. In addition, an improvement of the soil’s chemical and physical properties was noted when the substrates were mixed. The mixed substrate of turfy soil and perlite could effectively enhance the soil moisture content, whilst a mixed substrate of rice husk carbon and vermiculite could improve the content of available potassium (AK) and phosphorus (AP) and strengthen soil fertility. The germinated plants also reflected obvious regularities of ordination on soil factor gradients. Three distinct cluster groups were presented, of which the first cluster was distributed in an area with a relatively higher content of AK and AP; the second cluster was distributed at places with relatively higher soil moisture content; and the third cluster of plants didn’t show any obvious relationship with soil physical and chemical properties. Through CCA analysis, AK and AP were considered the most important

  9. What's Going on in Physical Education Classes in Turkey? An Insight into Student Attitude towards Physical Education, Curricular Issues and School Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bozoglu, Oguzhan; Göktürk, Söheyda

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Delivering a quality PE class where factors leading to negative experiences are eliminated and student attitude is kept positive plays a crucial role in their involvement of physical activity. The purpose of this study is to understand what kind of experiences and feelings students have lived through in the physical education classes in…

  10. Children's Profiles of Addition and Subtraction Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canobi, Katherine H.

    2005-01-01

    The current research explored children's ability to recognize and explain different concepts both with and without reference to physical objects so as to provide insight into the development of children's addition and subtraction understanding. In Study 1, 72 7- to 9-year-olds judged and explained a puppet's activities involving three conceptual…

  11. Insights on the Application of the Retro Michael-Type Addition on Maleimide-Functionalized Gold Nanoparticles in Biology and Nanomedicine.

    PubMed

    Weissman, Max R; Winger, Kathleen T; Ghiassian, Sara; Gobbo, Pierangelo; Workentin, Mark S

    2016-03-16

    The glutathione-mediated retro Michael-type addition reaction is demonstrated to take place at the interface of small water-soluble maleimide-functionalized gold nanoparticles (Maleimide-AuNP). The retro Michael-type addition reaction can be blocked by hydrolyzing the Michael addition thioether adduct at the nanoparticle's interface under reaction conditions that do not cause AuNP decomposition. This procedure "locks" the molecule of interest onto the Maleimide-AuNP template for potential uses in medical imaging and bioconjugation, ensuring no loss of the molecular cargo from the nanocarrier. On the other hand, the glutathione-mediated retro Michael-type addition reaction can be exploited for delivering a molecular payload. As a proof of concept, a fluorogenic molecular cargo was incorporated onto a Maleimide-AuNP and delivered via the glutathione-mediated retro Michael-type addition reaction.

  12. Free Radical Addition Polymerization Kinetics without Steady-State Approximations: A Numerical Analysis for the Polymer, Physical, or Advanced Organic Chemistry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iler, H. Darrell; Brown, Amber; Landis, Amanda; Schimke, Greg; Peters, George

    2014-01-01

    A numerical analysis of the free radical addition polymerization system is described that provides those teaching polymer, physical, or advanced organic chemistry courses the opportunity to introduce students to numerical methods in the context of a simple but mathematically stiff chemical kinetic system. Numerical analysis can lead students to an…

  13. Non-innocent additives in a palladium(II)-catalyzed C-H bond activation reaction: insights into multimetallic active catalysts.

    PubMed

    Anand, Megha; Sunoj, Raghavan B; Schaefer, Henry F

    2014-04-16

    The role of a widely employed additive (AgOAc) in a palladium acetate-catalyzed ortho-C-H bond activation reaction has been examined using the M06 density functional theory. A new hetero-bimetallic Pd-(μ-OAc)3-Ag is identified as the most likely active species. This finding could have far-reaching implications with respect to the notion of the active species in palladium catalysis in the presence of other metal salt additives.

  14. Using Community Insight to Understand Physical Activity Adoption in Overweight and Obese African American and Hispanic Women: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mama, Scherezade K.; McCurdy, Sheryl A.; Evans, Alexandra E.; Thompson, Deborah I.; Diamond, Pamela M.; Lee, Rebecca E.

    2015-01-01

    Ecologic models suggest that multiple levels of influencing factors are important for determining physical activity participation and include individual, social, and environmental factors. The purpose of this qualitative study was to use an ecologic framework to gain a deeper understanding of the underlying behavioral mechanisms that influence…

  15. Validity of the Physical Activity Questionnaires IPAQ-SF and GPAQ for Cancer Survivors: Insights from a Spanish Cohort.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Casado, A; Alejo, L B; Santos-Lozano, A; Soria, A; Ortega, M J; Pagola, I; Fiuza-Luces, C; Palomo, I; Garatachea, N; Cebolla, H; Lucia, A

    2016-11-01

    Regular physical activity (PA) decreases mortality risk in survivors of breast and colorectal cancer. Such impacts of exercise have prompted initiatives designed both to promote and adequately monitor PA in cancer survivors. This study examines the validity of 2 widely used self-report methods for PA determination, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire short version (IPAQ-SF) and Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ). Both instruments were compared with the triaxial accelerometry (Actigraph) method as an objective reference standard. Study participants were 204 cancer survivors (both sexes, aged 18-79 years). Compared with accelerometry, both questionnaires significantly overestimated PA levels (across all intensities) and underestimated physical inactivity levels. No differences were detected between the 2 questionnaires except for a shorter inactivity time estimated by GPAQ (p=0.001). The Bland and Altman method confirmed that both questionnaires overestimated all PA levels. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis classified IPAQ and GPAQ as fair and poor predictors, respectively, of the proportions of survivors fulfilling international PA recommendations (≥150 min·week(-1) of moderate-vigorous PA). IPAQ-SF showed a higher sensitivity but lower specificity than GPAQ. Our data do not support the use of IPAQ-SF or GPAQ to determine PA or inactivity levels in cancer survivors.

  16. Using community insight to understand physical activity adoption in overweight and obese African American and Hispanic women: A qualitative study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ecologic models suggest that multiple levels of influencing factors are important for determining physical activity participation and include individual, social, and environmental factors. The purpose of this qualitative study was to use an ecologic framework to gain a deeper understanding of the un...

  17. A paradigm for discrete physics

    SciTech Connect

    Noyes, H.P.; McGoveran, D.; Etter, T.; Manthey, M.J.; Gefwert, C.

    1987-01-01

    An example is outlined for constructing a discrete physics using as a starting point the insight from quantum physics that events are discrete, indivisible and non-local. Initial postulates are finiteness, discreteness, finite computability, absolute nonuniqueness (i.e., homogeneity in the absence of specific cause) and additivity.

  18. Nutrient limitation in three lowland tropical forests in southern China receiving high nitrogen deposition: insights from fine root responses to nutrient additions.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Feifei; Yoh, Muneoki; Gilliam, Frank S; Lu, Xiankai; Mo, Jiangming

    2013-01-01

    Elevated nitrogen (N) deposition to tropical forests may accelerate ecosystem phosphorus (P) limitation. This study examined responses of fine root biomass, nutrient concentrations, and acid phosphatase activity (APA) of bulk soil to five years of N and P additions in one old-growth and two younger lowland tropical forests in southern China. The old-growth forest had higher N capital than the two younger forests from long-term N accumulation. From February 2007 to July 2012, four experimental treatments were established at the following levels: Control, N-addition (150 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1)), P-addition (150 kg P ha(-1) yr(-1)) and N+P-addition (150 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) plus 150 kg P ha(-1) yr(-1)). We hypothesized that fine root growth in the N-rich old-growth forest would be limited by P availability, and in the two younger forests would primarily respond to N additions due to large plant N demand. Results showed that five years of N addition significantly decreased live fine root biomass only in the old-growth forest (by 31%), but significantly elevated dead fine root biomass in all the three forests (by 64% to 101%), causing decreased live fine root proportion in the old-growth and the pine forests. P addition significantly increased live fine root biomass in all three forests (by 20% to 76%). The combined N and P treatment significantly increased live fine root biomass in the two younger forests but not in the old-growth forest. These results suggest that fine root growth in all three study forests appeared to be P-limited. This was further confirmed by current status of fine root N:P ratios, APA in bulk soil, and their responses to N and P treatments. Moreover, N addition significantly increased APA only in the old-growth forest, consistent with the conclusion that the old-growth forest was more P-limited than the younger forests.

  19. The physical map of wheat chromosome 1BS provides insights into its gene space organization and evolution

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The wheat genome sequence is an essential tool for advanced genomic research and improvements. The generation of a high-quality wheat genome sequence is challenging due to its complex 17 Gb polyploid genome. To overcome these difficulties, sequencing through the construction of BAC-based physical maps of individual chromosomes is employed by the wheat genomics community. Here, we present the construction of the first comprehensive physical map of chromosome 1BS, and illustrate its unique gene space organization and evolution. Results Fingerprinted BAC clones were assembled into 57 long scaffolds, anchored and ordered with 2,438 markers, covering 83% of chromosome 1BS. The BAC-based chromosome 1BS physical map and gene order of the orthologous regions of model grass species were consistent, providing strong support for the reliability of the chromosome 1BS assembly. The gene space for chromosome 1BS spans the entire length of the chromosome arm, with 76% of the genes organized in small gene islands, accompanied by a two-fold increase in gene density from the centromere to the telomere. Conclusions This study provides new evidence on common and chromosome-specific features in the organization and evolution of the wheat genome, including a non-uniform distribution of gene density along the centromere-telomere axis, abundance of non-syntenic genes, the degree of colinearity with other grass genomes and a non-uniform size expansion along the centromere-telomere axis compared with other model cereal genomes. The high-quality physical map constructed in this study provides a solid basis for the assembly of a reference sequence of chromosome 1BS and for breeding applications. PMID:24359668

  20. Preservation of physical properties of stochastic Maxwell equations with additive noise via stochastic multi-symplectic methods

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Chuchu Hong, Jialin Zhang, Liying

    2016-02-01

    Stochastic Maxwell equations with additive noise are a system of stochastic Hamiltonian partial differential equations intrinsically, possessing the stochastic multi-symplectic conservation law. It is shown that the averaged energy increases linearly with respect to the evolution of time and the flow of stochastic Maxwell equations with additive noise preserves the divergence in the sense of expectation. Moreover, we propose three novel stochastic multi-symplectic methods to discretize stochastic Maxwell equations in order to investigate the preservation of these properties numerically. We make theoretical discussions and comparisons on all of the three methods to observe that all of them preserve the corresponding discrete version of the averaged divergence. Meanwhile, we obtain the corresponding dissipative property of the discrete averaged energy satisfied by each method. Especially, the evolution rates of the averaged energies for all of the three methods are derived which are in accordance with the continuous case. Numerical experiments are performed to verify our theoretical results.

  1. IDEAL CURRENT PATTERNS YIELDING OPTIMAL SNR AND SAR IN MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING: COMPUTATIONAL METHODS AND PHYSICAL INSIGHTS

    PubMed Central

    Lattanzi, Riccardo; Sodickson, Daniel K.

    2011-01-01

    At high and ultra-high magnetic field strengths, understanding interactions between tissues and the electromagnetic fields generated by radiofrequency (RF) coils becomes crucial for safe and effective coil design, as well as for insight into limits of performance. In this work we present a rigorous electrodynamic modeling framework, using dyadic Green’s functions, to derive the electromagnetic field in homogeneous spherical and cylindrical samples resulting from arbitrary surface currents in the presence or absence of a surrounding RF shield. We show how to calculate ideal current patterns which result in the highest possible signal to noise ratio (“ultimate intrinsic signal to noise ratio (SNR)”) or the lowest possible RF power deposition (“ultimate intrinsic specific absorption rate (SAR)”) compatible with electrodynamic principles. We identify familiar coil designs within optimal current patterns at low to moderate field strength, thereby establishing and explaining graphically the near-optimality of traditional surface and volume quadrature designs. We also document the emergence of less familiar patterns, e.g. involving substantial electric as well as magnetic dipole contributions, at high field strength. Performance comparisons with particular coil array configurations demonstrate that optimal performance may be approached with finite arrays if ideal current patterns are used as a guide for coil design. PMID:22127735

  2. Genome-wide analysis of BMI in adolescents and young adults reveals additional insight into the effects of genetic loci over the life course.

    PubMed

    Graff, Mariaelisa; Ngwa, Julius S; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Homuth, Georg; Schipf, Sabine; Teumer, Alexander; Völzke, Henry; Wallaschofski, Henri; Abecasis, Goncalo R; Edward, Lakatta; Francesco, Cucca; Sanna, Serena; Scheet, Paul; Schlessinger, David; Sidore, Carlo; Xiao, Xiangjun; Wang, Zhaoming; Chanock, Stephen J; Jacobs, Kevin B; Hayes, Richard B; Hu, Frank; Van Dam, Rob M; Crout, Richard J; Marazita, Mary L; Shaffer, John R; Atwood, Larry D; Fox, Caroline S; Heard-Costa, Nancy L; White, Charles; Choh, Audrey C; Czerwinski, Stefan A; Demerath, Ellen W; Dyer, Thomas D; Towne, Bradford; Amin, Najaf; Oostra, Ben A; Van Duijn, Cornelia M; Zillikens, M Carola; Esko, Tõnu; Nelis, Mari; Nikopensius, Tit; Metspalu, Andres; Strachan, David P; Monda, Keri; Qi, Lu; North, Kari E; Cupples, L Adrienne; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Berndt, Sonja I

    2013-09-01

    Genetic loci for body mass index (BMI) in adolescence and young adulthood, a period of high risk for weight gain, are understudied, yet may yield important insight into the etiology of obesity and early intervention. To identify novel genetic loci and examine the influence of known loci on BMI during this critical time period in late adolescence and early adulthood, we performed a two-stage meta-analysis using 14 genome-wide association studies in populations of European ancestry with data on BMI between ages 16 and 25 in up to 29 880 individuals. We identified seven independent loci (P < 5.0 × 10⁻⁸) near FTO (P = 3.72 × 10⁻²³), TMEM18 (P = 3.24 × 10⁻¹⁷), MC4R (P = 4.41 × 10⁻¹⁷), TNNI3K (P = 4.32 × 10⁻¹¹), SEC16B (P = 6.24 × 10⁻⁹), GNPDA2 (P = 1.11 × 10⁻⁸) and POMC (P = 4.94 × 10⁻⁸) as well as a potential secondary signal at the POMC locus (rs2118404, P = 2.4 × 10⁻⁵ after conditioning on the established single-nucleotide polymorphism at this locus) in adolescents and young adults. To evaluate the impact of the established genetic loci on BMI at these young ages, we examined differences between the effect sizes of 32 published BMI loci in European adult populations (aged 18-90) and those observed in our adolescent and young adult meta-analysis. Four loci (near PRKD1, TNNI3K, SEC16B and CADM2) had larger effects and one locus (near SH2B1) had a smaller effect on BMI during adolescence and young adulthood compared with older adults (P < 0.05). These results suggest that genetic loci for BMI can vary in their effects across the life course, underlying the importance of evaluating BMI at different ages.

  3. Genome-wide analysis of BMI in adolescents and young adults reveals additional insight into the effects of genetic loci over the life course

    PubMed Central

    Graff, Mariaelisa; Ngwa, Julius S.; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Homuth, Georg; Schipf, Sabine; Teumer, Alexander; Völzke, Henry; Wallaschofski, Henri; Abecasis, Goncalo R.; Edward, Lakatta; Francesco, Cucca; Sanna, Serena; Scheet, Paul; Schlessinger, David; Sidore, Carlo; Xiao, Xiangjun; Wang, Zhaoming; Chanock, Stephen J.; Jacobs, Kevin B.; Hayes, Richard B.; Hu, Frank; Van Dam, Rob M.; Crout, Richard J.; Marazita, Mary L.; Shaffer, John R; Atwood, Larry D.; Fox, Caroline S.; Heard-Costa, Nancy L.; White, Charles; Choh, Audrey C.; Czerwinski, Stefan A.; Demerath, Ellen W.; Dyer, Thomas D.; Towne, Bradford; Amin, Najaf; Oostra, Ben A.; Van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Zillikens, M. Carola; Esko, Tõnu; Nelis, Mari; Nikopensius, Tit; Metspalu, Andres; Strachan, David P.; Monda, Keri; Qi, Lu; North, Kari E.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Berndt, Sonja I.

    2013-01-01

    Genetic loci for body mass index (BMI) in adolescence and young adulthood, a period of high risk for weight gain, are understudied, yet may yield important insight into the etiology of obesity and early intervention. To identify novel genetic loci and examine the influence of known loci on BMI during this critical time period in late adolescence and early adulthood, we performed a two-stage meta-analysis using 14 genome-wide association studies in populations of European ancestry with data on BMI between ages 16 and 25 in up to 29 880 individuals. We identified seven independent loci (P < 5.0 × 10−8) near FTO (P = 3.72 × 10−23), TMEM18 (P = 3.24 × 10−17), MC4R (P = 4.41 × 10−17), TNNI3K (P = 4.32 × 10−11), SEC16B (P = 6.24 × 10−9), GNPDA2 (P = 1.11 × 10−8) and POMC (P = 4.94 × 10−8) as well as a potential secondary signal at the POMC locus (rs2118404, P = 2.4 × 10−5 after conditioning on the established single-nucleotide polymorphism at this locus) in adolescents and young adults. To evaluate the impact of the established genetic loci on BMI at these young ages, we examined differences between the effect sizes of 32 published BMI loci in European adult populations (aged 18–90) and those observed in our adolescent and young adult meta-analysis. Four loci (near PRKD1, TNNI3K, SEC16B and CADM2) had larger effects and one locus (near SH2B1) had a smaller effect on BMI during adolescence and young adulthood compared with older adults (P < 0.05). These results suggest that genetic loci for BMI can vary in their effects across the life course, underlying the importance of evaluating BMI at different ages. PMID:23669352

  4. A fresh look at the Sun, from core to corona, illuminated by new insight on the physics of gravitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osmaston, M. F.

    2013-09-01

    The Sun is a testing ground for many kinds of physical understanding but an understanding of the physical mechanism of gravitation, the driver of all its machinery, has been lacking. Newton's work on gravitation astride the end of the 17th century concentrated on the behaviour of the force, not upon its origin. But he already endorsed the idea of an ubiquitously intervening aether to convey the force and, as Huygens had already reasoned, also to transmit light waves. Then, in the 1860s, Maxwell [1] and Thompson (Kelvin) [2] started to think of fundamental particles as being aether in a vortex-like motion which would, by mutual attraction, provide their mass property and gravitation. In such a set-up, not only will particles and the aether around them not be dynamically independent, as the Michelson-Morley experiment actually demonstrated 20 years later, but the aether will be in a related degree of random motion. Importantly, that motion will cause the scattering of transmitted radiation. But, in setting up Relativity (1905-1916), Einstein made further enquiry impossible. General Relativity treats particles as infinitesimal entities, and supposes, evasively, that the mass is 'intrinsic' to that specific infinitesimal point in space. This denies them any volume in which to develop their individual external mass property and has discouraged any attempt at physical understanding of its development. Nevertheless, there is now firm evidence that electrons, positrons and protons do have finite size. So, building on the original thinking of Maxwell and Thompson, supported later by [3], my inquiry as to the nature of the physical mechanism by which gravitational force is developed has led me to the surprising finding that the Newtonian potential is inevitably always accompanied by a corresponding positive-body-repelling radial electric field. I have called this the Gravity-Electric (G-E) field and have adduced evidence for its action at many astronomical scales [4 - 7]. So

  5. Precursory seismicity in regions of low strain rate: Insights from a physics-based earthquake23 simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christophersen, Annemarie; Rhoades, David A.; Colella, Harmony V.

    2017-03-01

    The well-established earthquake forecasting model 'Every Earthquake a Precursor According to Scale' (EEPAS) is based on the observation that the magnitude and rate of minor earthquakes increases prior to large earthquakes. The precursor time is measured between this increase and the mainshock and is in the order of months to decades. Fitting the EEPAS model to different regional earthquake catalogues has indicated that the precursor time is longer in more slowly deforming tectonic environments. Examples from the stable continental region of Australia confirm this. To overcome the challenge of limited earthquake records in the analysis of the precursor time for areas with low strain rate, we use the physics-based earthquake simulator, RSQSim to generate a series of synthetic earthquake catalogues. A fault network with realistic complexity, is employed, based on the Wellington, New Zealand, fault network. The slip rates on faults are systematically reduced by five successive factors of 1/4. Fitting the EEPAS model to these synthetic catalogues shows that the precursor time is inversely proportional to the reduction in slip rate. Results suggest that the expected precursor times for large earthquakes in stable continental regions far exceed the length of available catalogues. The expected precursor time for the 2010 M7.1 Darfield, New Zealand, earthquake, which apparently had no precursory seismicity in the instrumental catalogue, also exceeds the length of the available catalogue. Therefore, applying the EEPAS model to physics-based simulators allows us to start understanding the phenomenon of precursory seismicity.

  6. Comparison of strength training, aerobic training, and additional physical therapy as supplementary treatments for Parkinson’s disease: pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Alessandro; Barbirato, Dannyel; Araujo, Narahyana; Martins, Jose Vicente; Cavalcanti, Jose Luiz Sá; Santos, Tony Meireles; Coutinho, Evandro S; Laks, Jerson; Deslandes, Andrea C

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Physical rehabilitation is commonly used in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) to improve their health and alleviate the symptoms. Objective We compared the effects of three programs, strength training (ST), aerobic training (AT), and physiotherapy, on motor symptoms, functional capacity, and electroencephalographic (EEG) activity in PD patients. Methods Twenty-two patients were recruited and randomized into three groups: AT (70% of maximum heart rate), ST (80% of one repetition maximum), and physiotherapy (in groups). Subjects participated in their respective interventions twice a week for 12 weeks. The assessments included measures of disease symptoms (Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale [UPDRS]), functional capacity (Senior Fitness Test), and EEG before and after 12 weeks of intervention. Results The PD motor symptoms (UPDRS-III) in the group of patients who performed ST and AT improved by 27.5% (effect size [ES]=1.25, confidence interval [CI]=−0.11, 2.25) and 35% (ES=1.34, CI=−0.16, 2.58), respectively, in contrast to the physiotherapy group, which showed a 2.9% improvement (ES=0.07, CI=−0.85, 0.99). Furthermore, the functional capacity of all three groups improved after the intervention. The mean frequency of the EEG analysis mainly showed the effect of the interventions on the groups (F=11.50, P=0.0001). Conclusion ST and AT in patients with PD are associated with improved outcomes in disease symptoms and functional capacity. PMID:25609935

  7. Exploring the physical controls of regional patterns of flow duration curves - Part 1: Insights from statistical analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, L.; Yaeger, M.; Viglione, A.; Coopersmith, E.; Ye, S.; Sivapalan, M.

    2012-11-01

    The flow duration curve (FDC) is a classical method used to graphically represent the relationship between the frequency and magnitude of streamflow. In this sense it represents a compact signature of temporal runoff variability that can also be used to diagnose catchment rainfall-runoff responses, including similarity and differences between catchments. This paper is aimed at extracting regional patterns of the FDCs from observed daily flow data and elucidating the physical controls underlying these patterns, as a way to aid towards their regionalization and predictions in ungauged basins. The FDCs of total runoff (TFDC) using multi-decadal streamflow records for 197 catchments across the continental United States are separated into the FDCs of two runoff components, i.e., fast flow (FFDC) and slow flow (SFDC). In order to compactly display these regional patterns, the 3-parameter mixed gamma distribution is employed to characterize the shapes of the normalized FDCs (i.e., TFDC, FFDC and SFDC) over the entire data record. This is repeated to also characterize the between-year variability of "annual" FDCs for 8 representative catchments chosen across a climate gradient. Results show that the mixed gamma distribution can adequately capture the shapes of the FDCs and their variation between catchments and also between years. Comparison between the between-catchment and between-year variability of the FDCs revealed significant space-time symmetry. Possible relationships between the parameters of the fitted mixed gamma distribution and catchment climatic and physiographic characteristics are explored in order to decipher and point to the underlying physical controls. The baseflow index (a surrogate for the collective impact of geology, soils, topography and vegetation, as well as climate) is found to be the dominant control on the shapes of the normalized TFDC and SFDC, whereas the product of maximum daily precipitation and the fraction of non-rainy days was found to

  8. Exploring the physical controls of regional patterns of flow duration curves - Part 1: Insights from statistical analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, L.; Yaeger, M.; Viglione, A.; Coopersmith, E.; Ye, S.; Sivapalan, M.

    2012-06-01

    The Flow Duration Curve (FDC) is a classical method used to graphically represent the relationship between the frequency and magnitude of streamflow. In this sense it represents a compact signature of temporal runoff variability that can also be used to diagnose catchment rainfall-runoff responses, including similarity and differences between catchments. This paper is aimed at extracting regional patterns of the FDCs from observed daily flow data and elucidating the physical controls underlying these patterns, as a way to aid towards their regionalization and predictions in ungauged basins. The FDCs of total runoff (TFDC) using multi-decadal streamflow records for 197 catchments across the continental United States are separated into the FDCs of two runoff components, i.e., fast flow (FFDC) and slow flow (SFDC). In order to compactly display these regional patterns the 3-parameter mixed gamma distribution is employed to characterize the shapes of the normalized FDCs (i.e., TFDC, FFDC and SFDC) over the entire data record. This is repeated to also characterize the between-year variability of "annual" FDCs for 8 representative catchments chosen across a climate gradient. Results show that the mixed gamma distribution can adequately capture the shapes of the FDCs and their variation between catchments and also between years. Comparison between the between-catchment and between-year variability of the FDCs revealed significant space-time symmetry. Possible relationships between the parameters of the fitted mixed gamma distribution and catchment climatic and physiographic characteristics are explored in order to decipher and point to the underlying physical controls. The baseflow index (a surrogate for the collective impact of geology, soils, topology and vegetation, as well as climate) is found to be the dominant control on the shapes of the normalized TFDC and SFDC, whereas the product of maximum daily precipitation and the fraction of non-rainy days was found to

  9. Modeling the optical-X-ray accretion lag in LMC X-3: Insights into black-hole accretion physics

    SciTech Connect

    Steiner, James F.; McClintock, Jeffrey E.; Orosz, Jerome A.; Buxton, Michelle M.; Bailyn, Charles D.; Remillard, Ronald A.; Kara, Erin

    2014-03-10

    The X-ray persistence and characteristically soft spectrum of the black hole X-ray binary LMC X-3 make this source a touchstone for penetrating studies of accretion physics. We analyze a rich, ten-year collection of optical/infrared (OIR) time-series data in conjunction with all available contemporaneous X-ray data collected by the All-Sky Monitor and Proportional Counter Array detectors aboard the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer. A cross-correlation analysis reveals an X-ray lag of ≈2 weeks. Motivated by this result, we develop a model that reproduces the complex OIR light curves of LMC X-3. The model is comprised of three components of emission: stellar light, accretion luminosity from the outer disk inferred from the time-lagged X-ray emission, and light from the X-ray-heated star and outer disk. Using the model, we filter a strong noise component out of the ellipsoidal light curves and derive an improved orbital period for the system. Concerning accretion physics, we find that the local viscous timescale in the disk increases with the local mass accretion rate; this in turn implies that the viscosity parameter α decreases with increasing luminosity. Finally, we find that X-ray heating is a strong function of X-ray luminosity below ≈50% of the Eddington limit, while above this limit X-ray heating is heavily suppressed. We ascribe this behavior to the strong dependence of the flaring in the disk upon X-ray luminosity, concluding that for luminosities above ≈50% of Eddington, the star lies fully in the shadow of the disk.

  10. Effect of amino acid additives on the growth and physical properties of potassium acid phthalate (KAP) crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumaran, A. Elakkina; Kanchana, P.; Sekar, C.

    2012-06-01

    Single crystals of potassium acid phthalate (KAP) have been grown from aqueous solution by slow evaporation technique by adding L-alanine (LA), glycine (Gly) and L-tyrosine (LT) as additives. Powder X-ray diffraction studies confirmed the phase formation and amino acids doping into KAP crystals. The optical absorption studies reveal that the LA doped crystals possess less absorption of visible ray than the pristine, Gly and LT doped KAP crystals. Optical transmission is found to be low in LT doped KAP than in all the other crystals. TG-DTA studies show the decomposition temperatures to be 255 °C, 232 °C, 258 °C and 264 °C for pure, LA, Gly and LT doped KAP crystals respectively. SHG efficiency of LA doped KAP crystal was found to be 1.1 times (31 mV for KDP and 34 mV for LA doped KAP) that of potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystal. This is much higher when compared to that of undoped KAP crystal (12 mV). The grown crystals were also subjected to FTIR, microhardness and dielectric studies.

  11. New insights into the electroreduction of ethylene sulfite as an electrolyte additive for facilitating solid electrolyte interphase formation in lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Sun, Youmin; Wang, Yixuan

    2017-03-01

    To help understand the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation facilitated by electrolyte additives of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) the supermolecular clusters [(ES)Li(+)(PC)m](PC)n (m = 1-2; n = 0, 6 and 9) were used to investigate the electroreductive decompositions of the electrolyte additive ethylene sulfite (ES) as well as the solvent propylene carbonate (PC) with density functional theory. The results show that ES can be reduced prior to PC, resulting in a reduction precursor that will then undergo a ring opening decomposition to yield a radical anion. A new concerted pathway (path B) was located for the ring opening of the reduced ES, which has a much lower energy barrier than the previously reported stepwise pathway (path A). The transition state for the ring opening of PC induced by the reduced ES (path C, indirect path) is closer to that of path A than path B in energy. The direct ring opening of the reduced PC (path D) has a lower energy barrier than paths A, B and C, yet it is less favorable than the latter paths in terms of thermodynamics (vertical electron affinity or reduction potential and dissociation energy). The overall rate constant including the initial reduction and the subsequent ring opening for path B is the largest among the four paths, followed by paths A > C > D, which further signifies the importance of the concerted new path in facilitating the SEI formation. The hybrid models, the supermolecular clusters augmented by a polarized continuum model, PCM-[(ES)Li(+)(PC)2](PC)n (n = 0, 6 and 9), were used to further estimate the reduction potential by taking into account both explicit and implicit solvent effects. The second solvation shell of Li(+) in [(ES)Li(+)(PC)2](PC)n (n = 6 and 9) partially compensates the overestimation of solvent effects arising from the PCM for the naked (ES)Li(+)(PC)2, and the theoretical reduction potential of PCM-[(ES)Li(+)(PC)2](PC)6 (1.90-1.93 V) agrees very well with the experimental one (1.8-2.0 V).

  12. Physical and Transport Properties of the carbonate-bearing faults: experimental insights from the Monte Maggio Fault zone (Central Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trippetta, Fabio; Scuderi, Marco Maria; Collettini, Cristiano

    2015-04-01

    Physical properties of fault zones vary with time and space and in particular, fluid flow and permeability variations are strictly related to fault zone processes. Here we investigate the physical properties of carbonate samples collected along the Monte Maggio normal Fault (MMF), a regional structure (length ~10 km and displacement ~500 m) located within the active system of the Apennines. In particular we have studied an exceptionally exposed outcrop of the fault within the Calcare Massiccio formation (massive limestone) that has been recently exposed by new roadworks. Large cores (100 mm in diameter and up to 20 cm long) drilled perpendicular to the fault plane have been used to: 1) characterize the damage zone adjacent to the fault plane and 2) to obtain smaller cores, 38 mm in diameter both parallel and perpendicular to the fault plane, for rock deformation experiments. At the mesoscale two types of cataclastic damage zones can be identified in the footwall block (i) a Cemented Cataclasite (CC) and (ii), a Fault Breccia (FB). Since in some portions of the fault the hangingwall (HW) is still preserved we also collected HW samples. After preliminary porosity measurements at ambient pressure, we performed laboratory measurements of Vp, Vs, and permeability at effective confining pressures up to 100 MPa in order to simulate crustal conditions. The protolith has a primary porosity of about 7 %, formed predominantly by isolated pores since the connected porosity is only 1%. FB samples are characterized by 10% and 5% of bulk and connected porosity respectively, whilst CC samples show lower bulk porosity (7%) and a connected porosity of 2%. From ambient pressure to 100 MPa, P-wave velocity is about 5,9-6,0 km/s for the protolith, ranges from 4,9 km/s to 5,9 km/s for FB samples, whereas it is constant at 5,9 km/s for CC samples and ranges from 5,4 to 5,7 for HW sample. Vs shows the same behaviour resulting in a constant Vp/Vs ratio from 0 to 100 MPa that ranges from 1

  13. Insight into the electrochemical behaviors of 5V-class high-voltage batteries composed of lithium-rich layered oxide with multifunctional additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Sang Hoo; Cho, Woosuk; Kim, Young-Jun; Yim, Taeeun

    2016-12-01

    (Trimethylsilyl)methanesulfonate (TMSOMs), functionalized with task-specific chemical moieties, is proposed as an interface-stabilizing additive to improve the electrochemical performance of 5V-class layered over-lithiated oxides (OLOs). TMSOMs offers a great opportunity to enhance the interfacial stability of an OLO material by providing an effective protective layer composed of sbnd SO3sbnd and sbnd Osbnd Sisbnd functional groups after its electrochemical oxidation over 4.0 V (vs. Li/Li+), which remarkably reduces the internal pressure of the cell associated with electrolyte decomposition. As a result, the cell employing TMSOMs affords excellent capacity retention (92.8% at 100 cycles) together with considerable rate performance, negligible transition metal dissolution, and stable high temperature performance based on its enhanced interfacial stability. These results are attributed to the synergistic effects of the sbnd SO3sbnd and sbnd Osbnd Sisbnd functional groups that once the sulfonic ester-based protective layer is developed on the electrode surface, it effectively mitigates decomposition of the electrolyte, while the sbnd Osbnd Sisbnd functional groups readily scavenge fluoride species in the electrolyte, leading to outstanding interfacial stability for the OLO material. On the basis of spectroscopic evidence, a comprehensive mechanism for the action of TMSOMs is suggested considering the specific role of each functional group.

  14. To be or not to be butterfly: New mechanistic insights in the Aza-Michael asymmetric addition of lithium (R)-N-benzyl-N-(α-methylbenzyl)amide.

    PubMed

    Nieto, Carlos T; Díez, David; Garrido, Narciso M

    2014-09-30

    The asymmetric Aza-Michael addition of homochiral lithium benzylamides to α,β-unsaturated esters represents an extended protocol to obtain enantioenriched β-amino esters. An exhaustive mechanistic revision of the originally proposed mechanism is reported, developing a quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics protocol for the asymmetric Aza-Michael reaction of homochiral lithium benzylamides. Explicit and implicit solvent schemes were considered, together with a proper account of long-range dispersion forces, evaluated through a density functional theory benchmark of different functionals. Theoretical results showed that the diastereoselectivity is mainly controlled by the N-α-methylbenzyl moiety placing, deriving a Si/Re 99:1 diastereoselective ratio, in good agreement with reported experimental results. The main transition state geometries are two transition state conformers in a "V-stacked" orientation of the amide's phenyl rings, differing in the tetrahydrofuran molecule arrangement coordinated to the metal center. Extensive conformational sampling and quantum-level refinement give reasonable good speed/accuracy results, allowing this protocol to be extended to other similar Aza-Michael reaction systems.

  15. An enhanced plant lipidomics method based on multiplexed liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry reveals additional insights into cold- and drought-induced membrane remodeling.

    PubMed

    Tarazona, Pablo; Feussner, Kirstin; Feussner, Ivo

    2015-11-01

    Within the lipidome of plants a few bulk molecular species hamper the detection of the rest, which are present at relatively low levels. In addition, low-abundance species are often masked by numerous isobaric interferences, such as those caused by isoelemental species and isotopologues. This scenario not only means that minor species are underrepresented, but also leads to potential misidentifications and limits the structural information gathered by lipidomics approaches. In order to overcome these limitations we have developed a multiplexed liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry lipidomics platform able to achieve an enhanced coverage of plant lipidomes. The platform is based on a single extraction step followed by a series of ultra-performance liquid chromatography separations. Post-column flow is then directed to both a triple quadrupole analyzer for targeted profiling and a time-of-flight analyzer for accurate mass analysis. As a proof of concept, plants were subjected to cold or drought, which are known to trigger widespread remodeling events in plant cell membranes. Analysis of the leaf lipidome yielded 393 molecular species within 23 different lipid classes. This enhanced coverage allowed us to identify lipid molecular species and even classes that are altered upon stress, allowing hypotheses on role of glycosylinositolphosphoceramides (GIPC), steryl glycosides (SG) and acylated steryl glycosides (ASG) in drought stress to be addressed and confirming the findings from numerous previous studies with a single, wide-ranging lipidomics approach. This extended our knowledge on membrane remodeling during the drought response, integrating sphingolipids and sterol lipids into the current glycerolipid-based model.

  16. Addition of telephone coaching to a physiotherapist-delivered physical activity program in people with knee osteoarthritis: A randomised controlled trial protocol

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    -up assessments will also occur at 12 and 18 months. Discussion The findings will help determine whether the addition of telephone coaching sessions can improve sustainability of outcomes from a physiotherapist-delivered physical activity intervention in people with knee OA. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry reference: ACTRN12612000308897 PMID:23231928

  17. The effect of terebinth (Pistacia terebinthus L.) coffee addition on the chemical and physical characteristics, colour values, organic acid profiles, mineral compositions and sensory properties of ice creams.

    PubMed

    Yüksel, Arzu Kavaz; Şat, Ihsan Güngör; Yüksel, Mehmet

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of terebinth (Pistacia terebinthus L.) coffee addition (0.5, 1 and 2 %) on the chemical and physical properties, colour values, organic acid profiles, mineral contents and sensory characteristics of ice creams. The total solids, fat, titratable acidity, viscosity, first dripping time and complete melting time values, a (*) and b (*) colour properties, citric, lactic, acetic and butyric acid levels and Ca, Cu, Mg, Fe, K, Zn and Na concentrations of ice creams showed an increase with the increment of terebinth coffee amount, while protein, pH, L (*), propionic acid and orotic acid values decreased. However, Al and malic acid were not detected in any of the samples. The overall acceptability scores of the sensory properties showed that the addition of 1 % terebinth coffee to the ice cream was more appreciated by the panellists.

  18. Exercise training alone or with the addition of activity counseling improves physical activity levels in COPD: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Lahham, Aroub; McDonald, Christine F; Holland, Anne E

    2016-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity is associated with poor outcomes in COPD, and as a result, interventions to improve physical activity (PA) are a current research focus. However, many trials have been small and inconclusive. Objective The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to study the effects of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) targeting PA in COPD. Methods Databases (Physiotherapy Evidence Database [PEDro], Embase, MEDLINE, CINAHL and the Cochrane Central Register for Controlled Trials) were searched using the following keywords: “COPD”, “intervention” and “physical activity” from inception to May 20, 2016; published RCTs that aimed to increase PA in individuals with COPD were included. The PEDro scale was used to rate study quality. Standardized mean differences (effect sizes, ESs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were determined. Effects of included interventions were also measured according to the minimal important difference (MID) in daily steps for COPD (599 daily steps). Results A total of 37 RCTs with 4,314 participants (mean forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) % predicted 50.5 [SD=10.4]) were identified. Interventions including exercise training (ET; n=3 studies, 103 participants) significantly increased PA levels in COPD compared to standard care (ES [95% CI]; 0.84 [0.44–1.25]). The addition of activity counseling to pulmonary rehabilitation (PR; n=4 studies, 140 participants) showed important effects on PA levels compared to PR alone (0.47 [0.02–0.92]), achieving significant increases that exceeded the MID for daily steps in COPD (mean difference [95% CI], 1,452 daily steps [549–2,356]). Reporting of methodological quality was poor in most included RCTs. Conclusion Interventions that included ET and PA counseling during PR were effective strategies to improve PA in COPD. PMID:27994451

  19. Radiological, physical, and chemical characterization of additional alpha contaminated and mixed low-level waste for treatment at the advanced mixed waste treatment project

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, D.P.

    1995-07-01

    This document provides physical, chemical, and radiological descriptive information for a portion of mixed waste that is potentially available for private sector treatment. The format and contents are designed to provide treatment vendors with preliminary information on the characteristics and properties for additional candidate portions of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and offsite mixed wastes not covered in the two previous characterization reports for the INEL-stored low-level alpha-contaminated and transuranic wastes. This report defines the waste, provides background information, briefly reviews the requirements of the Federal Facility Compliance Act (P.L. 102-386), and relates the Site Treatment Plans developed under the Federal Facility Compliance Act to the waste streams described herein. Each waste is summarized in a Waste Profile Sheet with text, charts, and tables of waste descriptive information for a particular waste stream. A discussion of the availability and uncertainty of data for these waste streams precedes the characterization descriptions.

  20. Reinforcement of acrylic resins for provisional fixed restorations. Part III: effects of addition of titania and zirconia mixtures on some mechanical and physical properties.

    PubMed

    Panyayong, W; Oshida, Y; Andres, C J; Barco, T M; Brown, D T; Hovijitra, S

    2002-01-01

    Acrylic resins have been used in many different applications in dentistry, especially in the fabrication of provisional fixed partial dentures. Ideally, a provisional crown and bridge material should be easy to handle and should protect teeth against physical, chemical, and thermal injuries. Some of the problems associated with this use are related to the material's poor mechanical properties. It has been demonstrated that acrylic resin can be strengthened through the addition of structural component of different size distributed in the acrylic matrix, thus forming a composite structure. The purpose of this study was to investigate the addition effects of mixtures of titania (titanium dioxide, TiO(2)) powder and zirconia (zirconium dioxide, ZrO(2)) powder being incorporated with pre-polymerized beads mixed in monomer liquid, on some mechanical and physical properties of PMMA resin. The pre-polymerized powder poly(methyl methacrylate) resin was admixed with titania and zirconia powder. A mixing ratio was controlled by volume % of 0, 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 (samples with 0 v/o served as control groups). For using mixture of titania and zirconia, total amount of the mixture was controlled by volume % of 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0, in which titania and zirconia were mixed at the ratio 1 :1, 1 :2 and 2 :1. Prior to mechanical tests, all rectangular-shaped samples (25 mm x 2 mm x 5 mm) were stored in 37 degrees C distilled water for 7 days after polishing all six sides of samples. Samples were then subjected to the three-point bending flexion test to evaluate the bending strength as well as the modulus of elasticity. Weight gain and exothermic reaction survey were investigated as well. All data were collected and analyzed with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Sidak method (p=0.05). It was found that the addition of particles generally decreased the water absorbed by the composite system. Only 1 percent by volume concentration of 1 :1 ratio and 2 percent by volume concentration

  1. Blooming gelatin: an individual additive for enhancing nanoapatite precipitation, physical properties, and osteoblastic responses of nanostructured macroporous calcium phosphate bone cements

    PubMed Central

    Orshesh, Ziba; Hesaraki, Saeed; Khanlarkhani, Ali

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a great interest in using natural polymers in the composition of calcium phosphate bone cements to enhance their physical, mechanical, and biological performance. Gelatin is a partially hydrolyzed form of collagen, a natural component of bone matrix. In this study, the effect of blooming gelatin on the nanohydroxyapatite precipitation, physical and mechanical properties, and cellular responses of a calcium phosphate bone cement (CPC) was investigated. Various concentrations of blooming gelatin (2, 5, and 8 wt.%) were used as the cement liquid and an equimolar mixture of tetracalcium phosphate and dicalcium phosphate was used as solid phase. The CPC without any gelatin additive was also evaluated as a control group. The results showed that gelatin accelerated hydraulic reactions of the cement paste, in which the reactants were immediately converted into nanostructured apatite precipitates after hardening. Gelatin molecules induced 4%–10% macropores (10–300 μm) into the cement structure, decreased initial setting time by ~190%, and improved mechanical strength of the as-set cement. Variation in the above-mentioned properties was influenced by the gelatin concentration and progressed with increasing the gelatin content. The numbers of the G-292 osteoblastic cells on gelatin-containing CPCs were higher than the control group at entire culture times (1–14 days), meanwhile better alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was determined using blooming gelatin additive. The observation of cell morphologies on the cement surfaces revealed an appropriate cell attachment with extended cell membranes on the cements. Overall, adding gelatin to the composition of CPC improved the handling characteristics such as setting time and mechanical properties, enhanced nanoapatite precipitation, and augmented the early cell proliferation rate and ALP activity. PMID:28176961

  2. Blooming gelatin: an individual additive for enhancing nanoapatite precipitation, physical properties, and osteoblastic responses of nanostructured macroporous calcium phosphate bone cements.

    PubMed

    Orshesh, Ziba; Hesaraki, Saeed; Khanlarkhani, Ali

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a great interest in using natural polymers in the composition of calcium phosphate bone cements to enhance their physical, mechanical, and biological performance. Gelatin is a partially hydrolyzed form of collagen, a natural component of bone matrix. In this study, the effect of blooming gelatin on the nanohydroxyapatite precipitation, physical and mechanical properties, and cellular responses of a calcium phosphate bone cement (CPC) was investigated. Various concentrations of blooming gelatin (2, 5, and 8 wt.%) were used as the cement liquid and an equimolar mixture of tetracalcium phosphate and dicalcium phosphate was used as solid phase. The CPC without any gelatin additive was also evaluated as a control group. The results showed that gelatin accelerated hydraulic reactions of the cement paste, in which the reactants were immediately converted into nanostructured apatite precipitates after hardening. Gelatin molecules induced 4%-10% macropores (10-300 μm) into the cement structure, decreased initial setting time by ~190%, and improved mechanical strength of the as-set cement. Variation in the above-mentioned properties was influenced by the gelatin concentration and progressed with increasing the gelatin content. The numbers of the G-292 osteoblastic cells on gelatin-containing CPCs were higher than the control group at entire culture times (1-14 days), meanwhile better alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was determined using blooming gelatin additive. The observation of cell morphologies on the cement surfaces revealed an appropriate cell attachment with extended cell membranes on the cements. Overall, adding gelatin to the composition of CPC improved the handling characteristics such as setting time and mechanical properties, enhanced nanoapatite precipitation, and augmented the early cell proliferation rate and ALP activity.

  3. New insights into the physical nature of coronal mass ejections and associated shock waves within the framework of the three-dimensional structure

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Ryun-Young; Zhang, Jie; Olmedo, Oscar

    2014-10-20

    We present new insights into the physical nature of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and associated shock waves within the framework of the three-dimensional (3D) structure. We have developed a compound model in order to determine the 3D structure of multiple fronts composing a CME, using data sets taken from STEREO, SDO, and SOHO. We applied the method to time series observations of a CME on 2012 March 7. From the analyses, we revealed that a CME could consist of two different fronts: one is represented well with the ellipsoid model, implying that CMEs are bubble-shaped structures, and the other is reproduced well with the graduated cylindrical shell model, indicating that CMEs are flux rope-shaped structures. The bubble-shaped structure is seen as the outermost front of the CME, and the flux rope-shaped structure is seen as the bright frontal loop or three-part morphology. From our results, we conclude that (1) a CME could consist of two distinct structures, a bubble-shaped structure and a flux rope-shaped structure, (2) the bubble-shaped structure is a fast magnetosonic shock wave, while the flux rope-shaped structure is the mass carried outward by the underlying magnetic structure, (3) the driven shock front could be either a piston-shock type or a bow-shock type, (4) the observed EUV wave in the low corona is the footprint of the bubble-shaped wave, and (5) the halo CME is primarily the projection of the bubble-shaped shock wave but not the underlying flux rope.

  4. THE DISCOVERY OF THE FIRST “CHANGING LOOK” QUASAR: NEW INSIGHTS INTO THE PHYSICS AND PHENOMENOLOGY OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    LaMassa, Stephanie M.; Cales, Sabrina; Urry, C. Megan; Moran, Edward C.; Myers, Adam D.; Richards, Gordon T.; Eracleous, Michael; Heckman, Timothy M.; Gallo, Luigi

    2015-02-20

    SDSS J015957.64+003310.5 is an X-ray selected, z = 0.31 active galactic nucleus (AGN) from the Stripe 82X survey that transitioned from a Type 1 quasar to a Type 1.9 AGN between 2000 and 2010. This is the most distant AGN, and first quasar, yet observed to have undergone such a dramatic change. We re-observed the source with the double spectrograph on the Palomar 5 m telescope in 2014 July and found that the spectrum is unchanged since 2010. From fitting the optical spectra, we find that the AGN flux dropped by a factor of 6 between 2000 and 2010 while the broad Hα emission faded and broadened. Serendipitous X-ray observations caught the source in both the bright and dim state, showing a similar 2–10 keV flux diminution as the optical while lacking signatures of obscuration. The optical and X-ray changes coincide with g-band magnitude variations over multiple epochs of Stripe 82 observations. We demonstrate that variable absorption, as might be expected from the simplest AGN unification paradigm, does not explain the observed photometric or spectral properties. We interpret the changing state of J0159+0033 to be caused by dimming of the AGN continuum, reducing the supply of ionizing photons available to excite gas in the immediate vicinity around the black hole. J0159+0033 provides insight into the intermittency of black hole growth in quasars, as well as an unprecedented opportunity to study quasar physics (in the bright state) and the host galaxy (in the dim state), which has been impossible to do in a single sources until now.

  5. The Discovery of the First “Changing Look” Quasar: New Insights Into the Physics and Phenomenology of Active Galactic Nucleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaMassa, Stephanie M.; Cales, Sabrina; Moran, Edward C.; Myers, Adam D.; Richards, Gordon T.; Eracleous, Michael; Heckman, Timothy M.; Gallo, Luigi; Urry, C. Megan

    2015-02-01

    SDSS J015957.64+003310.5 is an X-ray selected, z = 0.31 active galactic nucleus (AGN) from the Stripe 82X survey that transitioned from a Type 1 quasar to a Type 1.9 AGN between 2000 and 2010. This is the most distant AGN, and first quasar, yet observed to have undergone such a dramatic change. We re-observed the source with the double spectrograph on the Palomar 5 m telescope in 2014 July and found that the spectrum is unchanged since 2010. From fitting the optical spectra, we find that the AGN flux dropped by a factor of 6 between 2000 and 2010 while the broad Hα emission faded and broadened. Serendipitous X-ray observations caught the source in both the bright and dim state, showing a similar 2-10 keV flux diminution as the optical while lacking signatures of obscuration. The optical and X-ray changes coincide with g-band magnitude variations over multiple epochs of Stripe 82 observations. We demonstrate that variable absorption, as might be expected from the simplest AGN unification paradigm, does not explain the observed photometric or spectral properties. We interpret the changing state of J0159+0033 to be caused by dimming of the AGN continuum, reducing the supply of ionizing photons available to excite gas in the immediate vicinity around the black hole. J0159+0033 provides insight into the intermittency of black hole growth in quasars, as well as an unprecedented opportunity to study quasar physics (in the bright state) and the host galaxy (in the dim state), which has been impossible to do in a single sources until now.

  6. Coupled physical and digital cadaver dissection followed by a visual test protocol provides insights into the nature of anatomical knowledge and its evaluation.

    PubMed

    Hisley, Kenneth C; Anderson, Larry D; Smith, Stacy E; Kavic, Stephen M; Tracy, J Kathleen

    2008-01-01

    This research effort compared and contrasted two conceptually different methods for the exploration of human anatomy in the first-year dissection laboratory by accomplished students: "physical" dissection using an embalmed cadaver and "digital" dissection using three-dimensional volume modeling of whole-body CT and MRI image sets acquired using the same cadaver. The goal was to understand the relative contributions each method makes toward student acquisition of intuitive sense of practical anatomical knowledge gained during "hands-on" structural exploration tasks. The main instruments for measuring anatomical knowledge under this conceptual model were questions generated using a classification system designed to assess both visual presentation manner and the corresponding response information required. Students were randomly divided into groups based on exploration method (physical or digital dissection) and then anatomical region. The physical dissectors proceeded with their direct methods, whereas the digital dissectors generated and manipulated indirect 3D digital models. After 6 weeks, corresponding student anatomical assignment teams compared their results using photography and animated digital visualizations. Finally, to see whether each method provided unique advantages, a visual test protocol of new visualizations based on the classification schema was administered. Results indicated that all students, regardless of gender, dissection method, and anatomical region dissected performed significantly better on questions presented as rotating models requiring spatial ordering or viewpoint determination responses in contrast to requests for specific lexical feature identifications. Additional results provided evidence of trends showing significant differences in gender and dissection method scores. These trends will be explored with further trials with larger populations.

  7. Physical origins of weak H{sub 2} binding on carbon nanostructures: Insight from ab initio studies of chemically functionalized graphene nanoribbons

    SciTech Connect

    Ulman, Kanchan; Bhaumik, Debarati; Wood, Brandon C.; Narasimhan, Shobhana

    2014-05-07

    We have performed ab initio density functional theory calculations, incorporating London dispersion corrections, to study the absorption of molecular hydrogen on zigzag graphene nanoribbons whose edges have been functionalized by OH, NH{sub 2}, COOH, NO{sub 2}, or H{sub 2}PO{sub 3}. We find that hydrogen molecules always preferentially bind at or near the functionalized edge, and display induced dipole moments. Binding is generally enhanced by the presence of polar functional groups. The largest gains are observed for groups with oxygen lone pairs that can facilitate local charge reorganization, with the biggest single enhancement in adsorption energy found for “strong functionalization” by H{sub 2}PO{sub 3} (115 meV/H{sub 2} versus 52 meV/H{sub 2} on bare graphene). We show that for binding on the “outer edge” near the functional group, the presence of the group can introduce appreciable contributions from Debye interactions and higher-order multipole electrostatic terms, in addition to the dominant London dispersion interactions. For those functional groups that contain the OH moiety, the adsorption energy is linearly proportional to the number of lone pairs on oxygen atoms. Mixed functionalization with two different functional groups on a graphene edge can also have a synergistic effect, particularly when electron-donating and electron-withdrawing groups are combined. For binding on the “inner edge” somewhat farther from the functional group, most of the binding again arises from London interactions; however, there is also significant charge redistribution in the π manifold, which directly reflects the electron donating or withdrawing capacity of the functional group. Our results offer insight into the specific origins of weak binding of gas molecules on graphene, and suggest that edge functionalization could perhaps be used in combination with other strategies to increase the uptake of hydrogen in graphene. They also have relevance for the storage

  8. Effect of chromium additions on the mechanical and physical properties and microstructure of Fe-Co-Ni-Cr-Mo-C ultra-high strength steel: Part I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machmeier, P.; Matuszewski, T.; Jones, R.; Ayer, R.

    1997-06-01

    The effect of chromium additions to an Fe-14Co-10Ni-0.1Mo-0.16C (AF1410 based) secondary hardening steel was evaluated by mechanical and physical properties and by microstructural examination. This unique behavior was extended to encompass a large range of aging temperatures and times that may be encountered during commercial thermal treatment and/or welding. In the aging range of 482 to 550 °C, an increase in chromium from 2 to 3% in the AF1410 based steel resulted in a substantial strength decrease concomitant with an increase in toughness. This behavior is related to a peak hardening shift, early M2C carbide coarsening, and an increase in reverted austenite for the 1 wt% Cr increase. The increased aging kinetics resulting from the 3Cr steel caused a faster dissolution of Fe3C and rapid changes in chromium partitioning in the (Mo,Cr)2C carbide resulting in a coherency loss with a corresponding decrease in lattice parameter. The kinetics of the secondary hardening reaction, for the two steels, was determined by resistivity data for changes in aging parameters (time/temperature).

  9. Remnants of the Legume Ancestral Genome Preserved in Gene-Rich Regions: Insights from Lupinus angustifolius Physical, Genetic, and Comparative Mapping.

    PubMed

    Książkiewicz, Michał; Zielezinski, Andrzej; Wyrwa, Katarzyna; Szczepaniak, Anna; Rychel, Sandra; Karlowski, Wojciech; Wolko, Bogdan; Naganowska, Barbara

    The narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) was recently considered as a legume reference species. Genetic resources have been developed, including a draft genome sequence, linkage maps, nuclear DNA libraries, and cytogenetic chromosome-specific landmarks. Here, we used a complex approach, involving DNA fingerprinting, sequencing, genetic mapping, and molecular cytogenetics, to localize and analyze L. angustifolius gene-rich regions (GRRs). A L. angustifolius genomic bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library was screened with short sequence repeat (SSR)-based probes. Selected BACs were fingerprinted and assembled into contigs. BAC-end sequence (BES) annotation allowed us to choose clones for sequencing, targeting GRRs. Additionally, BESs were aligned to the scaffolds of the genome sequence. The genetic map was supplemented with 35 BES-derived markers, distributed in 14 linkage groups and tagging 37 scaffolds. The identified GRRs had an average gene density of 19.6 genes/100 kb and physical-to-genetic distance ratios of 11 to 109 kb/cM. Physical and genetic mapping was supported by multi-BAC-fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and five new linkage groups were assigned to the chromosomes. Syntenic links to the genome sequences of five legume species (Medicago truncatula, Glycine max, Lotus japonicus, Phaseolus vulgaris, and Cajanus cajan) were identified. The comparative mapping of the two largest lupin GRRs provides novel evidence for ancient duplications in all of the studied species. These regions are conserved among representatives of the main clades of Papilionoideae. Furthermore, despite the complex evolution of legumes, some segments of the nuclear genome were not substantially modified and retained their quasi-ancestral structures. Cytogenetic markers anchored in these regions constitute a platform for heterologous mapping of legume genomes.

  10. Lethal effects of treatment with a special dimeticone formula on head lice and house crickets (Orthoptera, Ensifera: Acheta domestica and Anoplura, phthiraptera: Pediculus humanus). Insights into physical mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Richling, Ira; Böckeler, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    The present study provides the first convincing explanation of the mode of action of the medical device NYDA, a special dimeticone (CAS 9006-65-9) formula containing 92% of two dimeticones with different viscosities specifically designed for the physical treatment of head lice infestations (pediculosis capitis) by suffocation. Both, lice (Pediculus humanus) and house crickets (Acheta domestica) treated with this anti-head lice product are knocked out to the status "of no major vital signs" within less than 1 min that in consequence is accompanied irreversibly with the death of the respective insects. Scanning electron microscopical investigations have revealed that the cuticle is coated by a thin closed layer of the dimeticone formula that also enters the stigmata. In vivo observations and dissections of Acheta domestica have shown that application of the medical device to the thoracic stigmata invariably leads to rapid death; this is strongly correlated with the influx of the special dimeticone formula into the head trachea, whereby the solution effectively blocks the oxygen supply of the central nervous system. Dissections after application of the stained product show that it also enters the finest tracheal branches. Analogous in vivo observations in Pediculus humanus have confirmed the correlation between the disappearance of major vital signs and the displacement of air by the dimeticone formula in the tracheal system of the head. For both insect species, statistical data are provided for the chronological sequence of the filling of the tracheal system in relation to the respective vitality conditions of the Insects. On average, the special dimeticone formula reaches the insect's head tracheae within 0.5 min in house crickets and in less than 1 min in lice with a complete filling of the entire head tracheal system of lice within 3.5 min. In addition, a timed sequence of images illustrates this process for lice. The experiments clearly reveal the exclusive and

  11. A physical mechanism to explain the delivery of chemical penetration enhancers into skin during transdermal sonophoresis - Insight into the observed synergism.

    PubMed

    Polat, Baris E; Deen, William M; Langer, Robert; Blankschtein, Daniel

    2012-03-10

    The synergism between low-frequency sonophoresis (LFS) and chemical penetration enhancers (CPEs), especially surfactants, in transdermal enhancement has been investigated extensively since this phenomenon was first observed over a decade ago. In spite of the identifying that the origin of this synergism is the increased penetration and subsequent dispersion of CPEs in the skin in response to LFS treatment, to date, no mechanism has been directly proposed to explain how LFS induces the observed increased transport of CPEs. In this study, we propose a plausible physical mechanism by which the transport of all CPEs is expected to have significantly increased flux into the localized-transport regions (LTRs) of LFS-treated skin. Specifically, the collapse of acoustic cavitation microjets within LTRs induces a convective flux. In addition, because amphiphilic molecules preferentially adsorb onto the gas/water interface of cavitation bubbles, amphiphiles have an additional adsorptive flux. In this sense, the cavitation bubbles effectively act as carriers for amphiphilic molecules, delivering surfactants directly into the skin when they collapse at the skin surface as cavitation microjets. The flux equations derived for CPE delivery into the LTRs and non-LTRs during LFS treatment, compared to that for untreated skin, explain why the transport of all CPEs, and to an even greater extent amphiphilic CPEs, is increased during LFS treatment. The flux model is tested with a non-amphiphilic CPE (propylene glycol) and both nonionic and ionic amphiphilic CPEs (octyl glucoside and sodium lauryl sulfate, respectively), by measuring the flux of each CPE into untreated skin and the LTRs and non-LTRs of LFS-treated skin. The resulting data shows very good agreement with the proposed flux model.

  12. Physical origins of weak H2 binding on carbon nanostructures: Insight from ab initio studies of chemically functionalized graphene nanoribbons

    SciTech Connect

    Ulman, Kanchan; Bhaumik, Debarati; Wood, Brandon C.; Narasimhan, Shobhana

    2014-05-05

    Here, we have performed ab initio density functional theory calculations, incorporating London dispersion corrections, to study the absorption of molecular hydrogen on zigzag graphene nanoribbons whose edges have been functionalized by OH, NH2, COOH, NO2, or H2PO3. We find that hydrogen molecules always preferentially bind at or near the functionalized edge, and display induced dipole moments. Binding is generally enhanced by the presence of polar functional groups. Furthermore, the largest gains are observed for groups with oxygen lone pairs that can facilitate local charge reorganization, with the biggest single enhancement in adsorption energy found for “strong functionalization” by H2PO3 (115 meV/H2 versus 52 meV/H2 on bare graphene). We show that for binding on the “outer edge” near the functional group, the presence of the group can introduce appreciable contributions from Debye interactions and higher-order multipole electrostatic terms, in addition to the dominant London dispersion interactions. For those functional groups that contain the OH moiety, the adsorption energy is linearly proportional to the number of lone pairs on oxygen atoms. Mixed functionalization with two different functional groups on a graphene edge can also have a synergistic effect, particularly when electron-donating and electron-withdrawing groups are combined. For binding on the “inner edge” somewhat farther from the functional group, most of the binding again arises from London interactions; however, there is also significant charge redistribution in the π manifold, which directly reflects the electron donating or withdrawing capacity of the functional group. These results offer insight into the specific origins of weak binding of gas molecules on graphene, and suggest that edge functionalization could perhaps be used in combination with other strategies to increase the uptake of

  13. The addition of functional task-oriented mental practice to conventional physical therapy improves motor skills in daily functions after stroke*

    PubMed Central

    Santos-Couto-Paz, Clarissa C.; Teixeira-Salmela, Luci F.; Tierra-Criollo, Carlos J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Mental practice (MP) is a cognitive strategy which may improve the acquisition of motor skills and functional performance of athletes and individuals with neurological injuries. Objective To determine whether an individualized, specific functional task-oriented MP, when added to conventional physical therapy (PT), promoted better learning of motor skills in daily functions in individuals with chronic stroke (13±6.5 months post-stroke). Method Nine individuals with stable mild and moderate upper limb impairments participated, by employing an A1-B-A2 single-case design. Phases A1 and A2 included one month of conventional PT, and phase B the addition of MP training to PT. The motor activity log (MAL-Brazil) was used to assess the amount of use (AOU) and quality of movement (QOM) of the paretic upper limb; the revised motor imagery questionnaire (MIQ-RS) to assess the abilities in kinesthetic and visual motor imagery; the Minnesota manual dexterity test to assess manual dexterity; and gait speed to assess mobility. Results After phase A1, no significant changes were observed for any of the outcome measures. However, after phase B, significant improvements were observed for the MAL, AOU and QOM scores (p<0.0001), and MIQ-RS kinesthetic and visual scores (p=0.003; p=0.007, respectively). The significant gains in manual dexterity (p=0.002) and gait speed (p=0.019) were maintained after phase A2. Conclusions Specific functional task-oriented MP, when added to conventional PT, led to improvements in motor imagery abilities combined with increases in the AOU and QOM in daily functions, manual dexterity, and gait speed. PMID:24271094

  14. A Meta-Analytic Review of the Theories of Reasoned Action and Planned Behavior in Physical Activity: Predictive Validity and the Contribution of Additional Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagger, Martin S.; Chatzisarantis, Nikos L. D.; Biddle, Stuart J. H.

    2002-01-01

    Examined relations between behavior, intentions, attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, self-efficacy, and past behaviors using the Theories of Reasoned Action (TRA) and Planned Behavior (TPB) in physical activity. This quantitative integration of the physical activity literature supported the major relationships of the…

  15. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 1 and 2: Dimensions and Vector Addition; Rectilinear Motion; plus a Trigonometry and Calculus Review].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  16. Day-to-day co-variations of psychological and physical symptoms of the menstrual cycle: insights to individual differences in steroid reactivity.

    PubMed

    Kiesner, Jeff; Pastore, Massimiliano

    2010-04-01

    The associations between physical and psychological symptoms of the menstrual cycle have not been carefully studied in past research, but may lead to a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms of these symptoms. The present study examines the day-to-day co-variations among physical and psychological symptoms of the menstrual cycle. These symptoms were evaluated on a daily basis across one entire menstrual cycle, with a non-clinical sample of 92 university students. Results showed that headaches, gastrointestinal problems, lower abdominal bloating, skin changes, and breast changes, were all significantly associated with higher levels of psychological symptoms; whereas back and joint pain, lower abdominal cramps, cervical mucous, and menstrual flow, were not associated with psychological symptoms. However, significant differences in these associations were observed across individuals for back and joint pain, headaches, lower abdominal cramps, skin changes, and menstrual flow: Whereas some women demonstrated higher levels of psychological symptoms associated with these physical symptoms, other women demonstrated lower levels of psychological symptoms. Finally, correlations among the associations between physical and psychological symptoms (slopes) demonstrated clear differences across the different physical symptoms. These results indicate that, although higher levels of some physical symptoms are associated with higher levels of psychological symptoms, there are significant differences in the magnitude and direction of these relations across individuals. Further consideration of physical symptoms may provide useful information for understanding individual differences in symptom profiles and response to steroid fluctuations, and for improving differential diagnosis and treatment planning and evaluation.

  17. Physical, chemical and mineralogical evolution of the Tolhuaca geothermal system, southern Andes, Chile: Insights into the interplay between hydrothermal alteration and brittle deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Alfaro, Pablo; Reich, Martin; Arancibia, Gloria; Pérez-Flores, Pamela; Cembrano, José; Driesner, Thomas; Lizama, Martin; Rowland, Julie; Morata, Diego; Heinrich, Christoph A.; Tardani, Daniele; Campos, Eduardo

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we unravel the physical, chemical and mineralogical evolution of the active Tolhuaca geothermal system in the Andes of southern Chile. We used temperature measurements in the deep wells and geochemical analyses of borehole fluid samples to constrain present-day fluid conditions. In addition, we reconstructed the paleo-fluid temperatures and chemistry from microthermometry and LA-ICP-MS analysis of fluid inclusions taken from well-constrained parageneses in vein samples retrieved from a ~ 1000 m borehole core. Based on core logging, mineralogical observations and fluid inclusions data we identify four stages (S1-S4) of progressive hydrothermal alteration. An early heating event (S1) was followed by the formation of a clay-rich cap in the upper zone (< 670 m) and the development of a propylitic alteration assemblage at greater depth (S2). Boiling, flashing and brecciation occurred later (S3), followed by a final phase of fluid mixing and boiling (S4). The evolution of hydrothermal alteration at Tolhuaca has produced a mineralogical, hydrological and structural vertical segmentation of the system through the development of a low-permeability, low-cohesion clay-rich cap at shallow depth. The quantitative chemical analyses of fluid inclusions and borehole fluids reveal a significant change in chemical conditions during the evolution of Tolhuaca. Whereas borehole (present-day) fluids are rich in Au, B and As, but Cu-poor (B/Na ~ 100.5, As/Na ~ 10- 1.1, Cu/Na ~ 10- 4.2), the paleofluids trapped in fluid inclusions are Cu-rich but poor in B and As (B/Na ~ 10- 1, As/Na ~ 10- 2.5, Cu/Na ~ 10- 2.5 in average). We interpret the fluctuations in fluid chemistry at Tolhuaca as the result of transient supply of metal-rich, magmatically derived fluids where As, Au and Cu are geochemically decoupled. Since these fluctuating physical and chemical conditions at the reservoir produced a mineralogical vertical segmentation of the system that affects the mechanical and

  18. Which older people decline participation in a primary care trial of physical activity and why: insights from a mixed methods approach

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Physical activity is of vital importance to older peoples’ health. Physical activity intervention studies with older people often have low recruitment, yet little is known about non-participants. Methods Patients aged 60–74 years from three UK general practices were invited to participate in a nurse-supported pedometer-based walking intervention. Demographic characteristics of 298 participants and 690 non-participants were compared. Health status and physical activity of 298 participants and 183 non-participants who completed a survey were compared using age, sex adjusted odds ratios (OR) (95% confidence intervals). 15 non-participants were interviewed to explore perceived barriers to participation. Results Recruitment was 30% (298/988). Participants were more likely than non-participants to be female (54% v 47%; p = 0.04) and to live in affluent postcodes (73% v 62% in top quintile; p < 0.001). Participants were more likely than non-participants who completed the survey to have an occupational pension OR 2.06 (1.35-3.13), a limiting longstanding illness OR 1.72 (1.05-2.79) and less likely to report being active OR 0.55 (0.33-0.93) or walking fast OR 0.56 (0.37-0.84). Interviewees supported general practice-based physical activity studies, particularly walking, but barriers to participation included: already sufficiently active, reluctance to walk alone or at night, physical symptoms, depression, time constraints, trial equipment and duration. Conclusion Gender and deprivation differences suggest some selection bias. However, trial participants reported more health problems and lower activity than non-participants who completed the survey, suggesting appropriate trial selection in a general practice population. Non-participant interviewees indicated that shorter interventions, addressing physical symptoms and promoting confidence in pursuing physical activity, might increase trial recruitment and uptake of practice-based physical activity

  19. Reviews Book: Enjoyable Physics Equipment: SEP Colorimeter Box Book: Pursuing Power and Light Equipment: SEP Bottle Rocket Launcher Equipment: Sciencescope GLE Datalogger Equipment: EDU Logger Book: Physics of Sailing Book: The Lightness of Being Software: Logotron Insight iLog Studio iPhone Apps Lecture: 2010 IOP Schools and Colleges Lecture Web Watch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-09-01

    WE RECOMMEND Enjoyable Physics Mechanics book makes learning more fun SEP Colorimeter Box A useful and inexpensive colorimeter for the classroom Pursuing Power and Light Account of the development of science in the 19th centuary SEP Bottle Rocket Launcher An excellent resource for teaching about projectiles GLE Datalogger GPS software is combined with a datalogger EDU Logger Remote datalogger has greater sensing abilities Logotron Insight iLog Studio Software enables datlogging, data analysis and modelling iPhone Apps Mobile phone games aid study of gravity WORTH A LOOK Physics of Sailing Book journeys through the importance of physics in sailing The Lightness of Being Study of what the world is made from LECTURE The 2010 IOP Schools and Colleges Lecture presents the physics of fusion WEB WATCH Planet Scicast pushes boundaries of pupil creativity

  20. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  1. Why Does Ga Addition to CIS Limit Its Cell Performance: The Amazing Physics of Grain-Boundaries and Killer-Defects in Chalcopyrites

    SciTech Connect

    Zunger, A.

    2005-11-01

    New theoretical studies reveal the way that grain boundaries lead to a reduction in electron-hole recombination in CIS, and how Ga addition leads to cell deterioration largely because of grain-interior (not boundary) effects.

  2. Bouncing Continents: Insights into the Physics of the Polar Regions of the Earth from the POLENET Project in the International Polar Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reading, Anya M.

    2008-01-01

    When ice sheets melt, and reduce the load on the surface of the Earth, the land areas beneath them bounce back up. New, accurate observations are needed to investigate this uplift and its implications effectively. This article provides a topical starting point for investigating some applications of physics applied to the polar regions of the…

  3. Coupled Physical and Digital Cadaver Dissection Followed by a Visual Test Protocol Provides Insights into the Nature of Anatomical Knowledge and Its Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hisley, Kenneth C.; Anderson, Larry D.; Smith, Stacy E.; Kavic, Stephen M.; Tracy, J. Kathleen

    2008-01-01

    This research effort compared and contrasted two conceptually different methods for the exploration of human anatomy in the first-year dissection laboratory by accomplished students: "physical" dissection using an embalmed cadaver and "digital" dissection using three-dimensional volume modeling of whole-body CT and MRI image sets acquired using…

  4. Should the Curricular Time Allocated to School Physical Education Be Increased? Insights from Participants in a Follow-up of the Trois-Rivières Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larouche, Richard; Laurencelle, Louis; Shephard, Roy J.; Trudeau, François

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we explored the effects of exposure to an experimental program of daily physical education (PE) during primary school on adult attitudes toward school PE. In 2008, 86 original participants in the Trois-Rivières study (44 women and 42 men aged 44.0 ± 1.2 years) underwent a semistructured interview in which their attitudes toward PE,…

  5. Ideal current patterns yielding optimal signal-to-noise ratio and specific absorption rate in magnetic resonance imaging: computational methods and physical insights.

    PubMed

    Lattanzi, Riccardo; Sodickson, Daniel K

    2012-07-01

    At high and ultra-high magnetic field strengths, understanding interactions between tissues and the electromagnetic fields generated by radiofrequency coils becomes crucial for safe and effective coil design as well as for insight into limits of performance. In this work, we present a rigorous electrodynamic modeling framework, using dyadic Green's functions, to derive the electromagnetic field in homogeneous spherical and cylindrical samples resulting from arbitrary surface currents in the presence or absence of a surrounding radiofrequency shield. We show how to calculate ideal current patterns that result in the highest possible signal-to-noise ratio (ultimate intrinsic signal-to-noise ratio) or the lowest possible radiofrequency power deposition (ultimate intrinsic specific absorption rate) compatible with electrodynamic principles. We identify familiar coil designs within optimal current patterns at low to moderate field strength, thereby establishing and explaining graphically the near-optimality of traditional surface and volume quadrature designs. We also document the emergence of less familiar patterns, e.g., involving substantial electric--as well as magnetic-dipole contributions, at high field strength. Performance comparisons with particular coil array configurations demonstrate that optimal performance may be approached with finite arrays if ideal current patterns are used as a guide for coil design.

  6. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    ... or natural. Natural food additives include: Herbs or spices to add flavor to foods Vinegar for pickling ... Certain colors improve the appearance of foods. Many spices, as well as natural and man-made flavors, ...

  7. Physical maturation, life-history classes and age estimates of free-ranging western gorillas--insights from Mbeli Bai, Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Breuer, Thomas; Hockemba, Mireille Breuer-Ndoundou; Olejniczak, Claudia; Parnell, Richard J; Stokes, Emma J

    2009-02-01

    Physical maturation and life-history parameters are seen as evolutionary adaptations to different ecological and social conditions. Comparison of life-history patterns of closely related species living in diverse environments helps to evaluate the validity of these assumptions but empirical data are lacking. The two gorilla species exhibit substantial differences in their environment, which allows investigation into the role of increased frugivory in shaping western gorilla life histories. We present behavioral and morphological data on western gorilla physical maturation and life-history parameters from a 12.5-year study at Mbeli Bai, a forest clearing in the Nouabalé-Ndoki National Park in northern Congo. We assign photographs of known individuals to different life-history classes and propose new age boundaries for life-history classes in western gorillas, which can be used and tested at other western gorilla research sites. Our results show that western gorillas are weaned at a later age compared with mountain gorillas and indicate slower physical maturation of immatures. These findings support the risk-aversion hypothesis for more frugivorous species. However, our methods need to be applied and tested with other gorilla populations. The slow life histories of western gorillas could have major consequences for social structure, mortality patterns and population growth rates that will affect recovery from population crashes of this critically endangered species. We emphasize that long-term studies can provide crucial demographic and life-history data that improve our understanding of life-history evolution and adaptation and help to refine conservation strategies.

  8. Physics' insights into pedestrian motion and crowd dynamics: reply to comments on "The emergence of design in pedestrian dynamic: locomotion, self-organization, walking paths and constructal law".

    PubMed

    Miguel, Antonio F

    2013-06-01

    Pedestrians' world is not a static one, but rather one which is constantly in flux. The pedestrian dynamics is subject to a wide range of influences and displays an interesting phenomenology. Along with collective self-organization phenomena (e.g., streams of people, rivers of people, collective synchronization), there are also a multitude of applications in the context of crowd management, design of pedestrian facilities and urban planning. Here, I address comments from the discussants of my review paper from the viewpoint of elementary physics laws paying particular attention to the self-organization phenomena in crowds.

  9. Bilirubin Oxidase from Myrothecium verrucaria Physically Absorbed on Graphite Electrodes. Insights into the Alternative Resting Form and the Sources of Activity Loss

    PubMed Central

    Tasca, Federico; Farias, Diego; Castro, Carmen; Acuna-Rougier, Cristina; Antiochia, Riccarda

    2015-01-01

    The oxygen reduction reaction is one of the most important chemical processes in energy converting systems and living organisms. Mediator-less, direct electro-catalytic reduction of oxygen to water was achieved on spectrographite electrodes modified by physical adsorption of bilirubin oxidases from Myrothecium verrucaria. The existence of an alternative resting form of the enzyme is validated. The effect on the catalytic cycle of temperature, pH and the presence of halogens in the buffer was investigated. Previous results on the electrochemistry of bilirubin oxidase and on the impact of the presence of halogens are reviewed and reinterpreted. PMID:26196288

  10. Perceptual Experience of Visual Motion Activates hMT+ Independently From the Physical Reality: fMRI Insights From the Looming Pinna Figure.

    PubMed

    Budnik, U; Hindi-Attar, C; Hamburger, K; Pinna, B; Hennig, J; Speck, O

    2016-06-03

    The human motion processing area, hMT+, has been labeled the critical neural area for processing of real and illusory visual motion in radial 2D patterns. However, the activation in hMT+ during perception of illusory rotation in the looming double-circular Pinna Figure (PF) generated in 3D space has not been observed yet. To do so, an optic-flow like motion of rings (looming) in PF was generated on a computer screen. A psychophysically precise nulling procedure allowed quantifying the individual amount of the perceived illusory rotation in PF (PI) for each participant. The interpolation of the individual illusory motion parameters created a subjectively non-rotating PF and a physically rotating control stimulus of identical rotary strength as the PI. The physically rotating control was a double-circular figure which diverged from PF only in its arrangement of luminance gradients. In a 3-Tesla scanner, participants were presented with a random order of rotating and non-rotating figures (illusory, real, no rotation, and nulled PI). Both types, illusory and real rotation, when equal in perceptual strength for the observer, were found to be processed by hMT+.

  11. Joint analysis of phenotypic and molecular diversity provides new insights on the genetic variability of the Brazilian physic nut germplasm bank.

    PubMed

    Alves, Alexandre Alonso; Bhering, Leonardo Lopes; Rosado, Tatiana Barbosa; Laviola, Bruno Galvêas; Formighieri, Eduardo Fernandes; Cruz, Cosme Damião

    2013-09-01

    The genetic variability of the Brazilian physic nut (Jatropha curcas) germplasm bank (117 accessions) was assessed using a combination of phenotypic and molecular data. The joint dissimilarity matrix showed moderate correlation with the original matrices of phenotypic and molecular data. However, the correlation between the phenotypic dissimilarity matrix and the genotypic dissimilarity matrix was low. This finding indicated that molecular markers (RAPD and SSR) did not adequately sample the genomic regions that were relevant for phenotypic differentiation of the accessions. The dissimilarity values of the joint dissimilarity matrix were used to measure phenotypic + molecular diversity. This diversity varied from 0 to 1.29 among the 117 accessions, with an average dissimilarity among genotypes of 0.51. Joint analysis of phenotypic and molecular diversity indicated that the genetic diversity of the physic nut germplasm was 156% and 64% higher than the diversity estimated from phenotypic and molecular data, respectively. These results show that Jatropha genetic variability in Brazil is not as limited as previously thought.

  12. Laser powder-bed fusion additive manufacturing: Physics of complex melt flow and formation mechanisms of pores, spatter, and denudation zones

    DOE PAGES

    Khairallah, Saad A.; Anderson, Andrew T.; Rubenchik, Alexander; ...

    2016-02-23

    Our study demonstrates the significant effect of the recoil pressure and Marangoni convection in laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF) of 316L stainless steel. A three-dimensional high fidelity powder-scale model reveals how the strong dynamical melt flow generates pore defects, material spattering (sparking), and denudation zones. The melt track is divided into three sections: a topological depression, a transition and a tail region, each being the location of specific physical effects. The inclusion of laser ray-tracing energy deposition in the powder-scale model improves over traditional volumetric energy deposition. It enables partial particle melting, which impacts pore defects in the denudation zone.more » Different pore formation mechanisms are observed at the edge of a scan track, at the melt pool bottom (during collapse of the pool depression), and at the end of the melt track (during laser power ramp down). Finally, we discuss remedies to these undesirable pores are discussed. The results are validated against the experiments and the sensitivity to laser absorptivity.« less

  13. Laser powder-bed fusion additive manufacturing: Physics of complex melt flow and formation mechanisms of pores, spatter, and denudation zones

    SciTech Connect

    Khairallah, Saad A.; Anderson, Andrew T.; Rubenchik, Alexander; King, Wayne E.

    2016-02-23

    Our study demonstrates the significant effect of the recoil pressure and Marangoni convection in laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF) of 316L stainless steel. A three-dimensional high fidelity powder-scale model reveals how the strong dynamical melt flow generates pore defects, material spattering (sparking), and denudation zones. The melt track is divided into three sections: a topological depression, a transition and a tail region, each being the location of specific physical effects. The inclusion of laser ray-tracing energy deposition in the powder-scale model improves over traditional volumetric energy deposition. It enables partial particle melting, which impacts pore defects in the denudation zone. Different pore formation mechanisms are observed at the edge of a scan track, at the melt pool bottom (during collapse of the pool depression), and at the end of the melt track (during laser power ramp down). Finally, we discuss remedies to these undesirable pores are discussed. The results are validated against the experiments and the sensitivity to laser absorptivity.

  14. Effects of chemical, biological, and physical aging as well as soil addition on the sorption of pyrene to activated carbon and biochar.

    PubMed

    Hale, Sarah E; Hanley, Kelly; Lehmann, Johannes; Zimmerman, Andrewr; Cornelissen, Gerard

    2011-12-15

    In this study, the suitability of biochar and activated carbon (AC) for contaminated soil remediation is investigated by determining the sorption of pyrene to both materials in the presence and absence of soil and before as well as after aging. Biochar and AC were aged either alone or mixed with soil via exposure to (a) nutrients and microorganisms (biological), (b) 60 and 110 °C (chemical), and (c) freeze-thaw cycles (physical). Before and after aging, the pH, elemental composition, cation exchange capacity (CEC), microporous SA, and sorption isotherms of pyrene were quantified. Aging at 110 °C altered the physicochemical properties of all materials to the greatest extent (for example, pH increased by up to three units and CEC by up to 50% for biochar). Logarithmic K(Fr) values ranged from 7.80 to 8.21 (ng kg(-1))(ng L(-1))(-nF) for AC and 5.22 to 6.21 (ng kg(-1))(ng L(-1))(-nF) for biochar after the various aging regimes. Grinding biochar to a smaller particle size did not significantly affect the sorption of d(10) pyrene, implying that sorption processes operate on the subparticle scale. Chemical aging decreased the sorption of pyrene to the greatest extent (up to 1.8 log unit for the biochar+soil). The sorption to AC was affected more by the presence of soil than the sorption to biochar was. Our results suggest that AC and biochar have a high sorption capacity for pyrene that is maintained both in the presence of soil and during harsh aging. Both materials could therefore be considered in contaminated land remediation.

  15. The effect of nickel addition on antimicrobial, physical, and mechanical properties of copper-nickel alloy against suspensions of Escherichia coli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurhayani, Dinni; Korda, Akhmad A.

    2015-09-01

    Escherichia coli (E. coli) infection can cause serious illness. Humans can be infected by E. coli via contact with the contaminated food and water. Copper and copper alloys were known for their antimicrobial properties and were applied in several healthcare setting as antimicrobial material. However, the people preference in the appearance of stainless steel and aluminum contribute to the low application of copper and its alloy. In this study, the mechanical, physical, and antibacterial properties of copper and copper-nickel alloy compared with stainless steel 304 were tested. The antibacterial activity of stainless steel, copper, and copper-nickel alloy was evaluated by inoculating 7.5 × 106 - 2.5 × 107 CFU/ml suspensions of E. coli. The bacterial colonies were investigated after 0-4 hour incubation at 37°C. The result showed that on the observation time, copper and copper-nickel (Cu-Ni) alloys have antibacterial activity while the bacteria in stainless steel remain existed. The appearance (color / shade) of Cu-Ni alloys in some composition is silvery which is stainless steel-like. For the mechanical properties, copper-nickel alloys have lower hardness than stainless steel (SS 304). This research proved that copper-nickel alloys have the ability to reduce the amount of E. col colonies. The copper content may affect the antibacterial activity but not directly linked. Cu-Ni alloys also have the appearance and mechanical properties that quite similar compared to SS304. Therefore, Cu-Ni alloys have the potential to be applied as substitution or complementary material of SS304 in various applications for preventing the bacterial contamination especially E. coli.

  16. Physical characteristics of LWRs and SCLWRs loaded by ({sup 233}U-Th-{sup 238}U) oxide fuel with small additions of {sup 231}Pa

    SciTech Connect

    Kulikov, E.G.; Shmelev, A.N.; Apse, V.A.; Kulikov, G.G.

    2007-07-01

    The paper investigates the possibility and attractiveness of using (U-Th) fuel in light-water reactors (LWRs) and in light-water reactors with super-critical coolant parameters (SCLWRs). It is proposed to dilute {sup 233}U with {sup 238}U to enhance the proliferation resistance of this fissionable isotope. If is noteworthy that she idea was put forward for the first time by she well known American physicist and participant of the Manhattan Project Dr. T. Taylor. Various fuel compositions are analyzed and compared on fuel breeding, achievable values of fuel burn-up and cross-sections of parasitic neutron absorption. It is also demonstrated that small {sup 231}Pa additions (several percent) into the fuel allows: to increase fuel burn-up, to achieve more negative temperature reactivity coefficient of coolant and to enhance nonproliferation of the fuel. (authors)

  17. Insight into the structure and physics of M dwarf stars through determination of the rotation, metallicities, and radii of the nearby population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newton, Elisabeth R.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of M dwarfs, their fundamental properties--their sizes, compositions, and ages--are not well-constrained. Empirical determination of these properties is important for gaining insight into their stellar structure, magnetic field generation, and angular momentum evolution. Knowledge of the stellar parameters is also key to characterizing planetary systems. I used observations to empirically constrain the properties of nearby, mid-to-late M dwarfs targeted by the MEarth transiting planet survey. I obtained low-resolution (R=2000) NIR spectra of 450 M dwarfs using SpeX on IRTF. I measured their absolute radial velocities with an accuracy of 4 km/s by exploiting telluric lines to establish an absolute wavelength calibration, and developed techniques to estimate M dwarf metallicities from K-band spectral line equivalent widths (EWs) or 2MASS colors to 0.15 dex. Using stars with interferometric radii, I showed that H-band EWs can be used to infer K and M dwarf temperatures to 69K, and radii to 0.027Rsun. I applied these relations to planet-hosting stars from Kepler, showing that the typical planet is 15% larger than is inferred if adopting other stellar parameters. Using photometry from the MEarth-North Observatory, I measured rotation periods from 0.1 to 150 days for 350 M dwarfs. There is a prevalence of stable spot patterns, and no correlation between period and amplitude for fully-convective stars. Using galactic kinematics as a proxy for age, I demonstrated a smooth age-rotation relation. I found that rapid rotators (P<10 days) are <2 Gyr, and that the slowest are on average 5+-3 Gyr old. I will discuss the extension of this work to the southern hemisphere, which utilizes FIRE on Magellan and the MEarth-South Observatory. MEarth acknowledges funding from the NSF, the David and Lucile Packard Foundation and the John Templeton Foundation. ERN was supported by the NSF GRFP. This work includes observations obtained at the Infrared Telescope

  18. Seismic Absorption and Modulus Measurements in Porous Rocks in Lab and Field: Physical, Chemical, and Biological Effects of Fluids (Detecting a Biosurfactant Additive in a Field Irrigation Experiment)

    SciTech Connect

    Spetzler, Hartmut

    2006-05-01

    We have been exploring a new technology that is based on using low-frequency seismic attenuation data to monitor changes in fluid saturation conditions in two-fluid phase porous materials. The seismic attenuation mechanism is related to the loss of energy due to the hysteresis of resistance to meniscus movement (changes in surface tension, wettability) when a pore containing two fluids is stressed at very low frequencies (< 10 Hz). This technology has potential applications to monitoring changes in (1) leakage at buried waste sites, (2) contaminant remediation, and (3) flooding during enhanced petroleum recovery. We have concluded a three year field study at the Maricopa Agricultural Center site of the University of Arizona. Three sets of instruments were installed along an East-West line perpendicular to the 50m by 50m inigation site. Each set of instruments consisted of one three component seismometer and one tiltmeter. Microseisms and solid Earth-tides served as strain sources. The former have a power peak at a period of about 6 seconds and the tides have about two cycles per day. Installation of instruments commenced in late summer of 2002. The instruments operated nearly continuously until April 2005. During the fall of 2003 the site was irrigated with water and one year later with water containing 150 ppm of a biosurfactant additive. This biodegradable additive served to mimic a class of contaminants that change the surface tension of the inigation fluid. Tilt data clearly show tidal tilts superimposed on local tilts due to agricultural irrigation and field work. When the observed signals were correlated with site specific theoretical tilt signals we saw no anomalies for the water irrigation in 2003, but large anomalies on two stations for the surfactant irrigation in 2004. Occasional failures of seismometers as well as data acquisition systems contributed to less than continuous coverage. These data are noisier than the tilt data, but do also show possible

  19. Salt Tectonics of the Abenaki Graben and Central Sable Subbasin: Insights from Regional Seismic Interpretation and Four-Dimensional Scaled Physical Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Clarke

    The tectono-stratigraphic evolution of the Abenaki graben and central Sable Subbasin of the north-central Scotian margin has been highly influenced by salt deformation. Shimeld (2004) has identified five salt subprovinces defined by varying salt structural styles across the margin. Although it has been hypothesized these varying structural styles are the result of complex salt basin morphologies and variable Mesozoic post-rift sedimentation patterns, there is still a lack of understanding of how these first order controlling factors specifically controlled the tectono-stratigraphic evolution across the margin. Disappointing petroleum exploration results from the last round of deepwater drilling supports the further need to investigate how variable salt basin morphologies, and depositional rates and patterns controlled salt deformation as well as the evolution of the margin. The purpose of this project is to integrate regional 2D seismic reflection data including the ION-GXT NovaSPAN dataset, with 4D scaled physical experiments to better understand the tectono-stratigraphic evolution of the Abenaki Graben and central Sable Subbasin. The study area is located in Shimeld's salt Subprovince III that comprises an extensive salt tongue-canopy system that has spread upwards of 80 km on the secondary detachment level. Seismic interpretation indicates an original salt basin characterized by a landward tapering wedge representing the Abenaki Graben, an intermediate high referred to as the North Sable High (NSH), and a symmetric graben with basin step representing the Sable Subbasin. The geometry of the salt basin floor is composed of rifted basement blocks and syn-rift fill that was originally been infilled with upwards of 2 km of Argo salt. Scaled 4D physical experiments simulating the study area indicate the presence of 4 kinematic domains from the shelf to slope including a: (1) Salt Weld and Pillow, (2) Normal Fault and Reactive Diapir, (3) Passive Diapir and Expulsion

  20. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  1. Phosphazene additives

    DOEpatents

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  2. Did Secret, Sacred Science: ``Kokopelli/Pamola,'' Motivate the Tarratines' Assassination of the Penobscots' Bashaba ca 1615, and Does ``Orono'' Yield Direct Physics Insights?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ataide, Italani; de Souza, Beatriz; Pawa Matagamon, Sagamo

    2007-04-01

    ``Tarratine'' may share cognate phonetics with Tatoosh, (Makah, Pacific NE), Tuitan, Totonac, (coastal ``neighbors'' of the Aztec), Teedyuscung/Tatiuskundt, (Penn.), Teotihuacan, Tomtomhegan, (``ME'' ca 1781-2), Titikaka/Titicaca, and Tantaquidgeon, (Conn.); the military action that led to the assassination of the Penobscots' Bashaba has explanatory roots tying it to the last raid involving `Indian' military action of the Revolutionary War. ``Turf'' rights influenced conflict imperatives. Preserved linguistic roots have it best: Ñari Huallac, coupled with Arizona, Allagash, Allahpatah, and Orono/Orinoco, indicate traditionalists' information, by recognizing Kokopelli/Pamola/Pele/electromagnetics/EMF, says how nature behaves. Penobscots and modern Peruvian descendants of the Incas have it right: the concealed ``Serpent God'' of their EMF alter ego(s), says their science, (applied physics) is sacred because it ``predicts'' nature, even tinnitus, via ``Rawandagon''! To cite this abstract, use the following reference: http://meetings.aps.org/link/BAPS.2007.NES07.C2.8

  3. Mechanistic Insight in the Function of Phosphite Additives for Protection of LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2 Cathode in High Voltage Li-Ion Cells.

    PubMed

    He, Meinan; Su, Chi-Cheung; Peebles, Cameron; Feng, Zhenxing; Connell, Justin G; Liao, Chen; Wang, Yan; Shkrob, Ilya A; Zhang, Zhengcheng

    2016-05-11

    Triethlylphosphite (TEP) and tris(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl) phosphite (TTFP) have been evaluated as electrolyte additives for high-voltage Li-ion battery cells using a Ni-rich layered cathode material LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2 (NCM523) and the conventional carbonate electrolyte. The repeated charge/discharge cycling for cells containing 1 wt % of these additives was performed using an NCM523/graphite full cell operated at the voltage window from 3.0-4.6 V. During the initial charge process, these additives decompose on the cathode surface at a lower oxidation potential than the baseline electrolyte. Impedance spectroscopy and post-test analyses indicate the formation of protective coatings by both additives on the cathode surface that prevent oxidative breakdown of the electrolyte. However, only TTFP containing cells demonstrate the improved capacity retention and Coulombic efficiency. For TEP, the protective coating is also formed, but low Li(+) ion mobility through the interphase layer results in inferior performance. These observations are rationalized through the inhibition of electrocatalytic centers present on the cathode surface and the formation of organophosphate deposits isolating the cathode surface from the electrolyte. The difference between the two phosphites clearly originates in the different properties of the resulting phosphate coatings, which may be in Li(+) ion conductivity through such materials.

  4. Roles of biological and physical processes in driving seasonal air-sea CO2 flux in the Southern Ocean: New insights from CARIOCA pCO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merlivat, L.; Boutin, J.; Antoine, D.

    2015-07-01

    On a mean annual basis, the Southern Ocean is a sink for atmospheric CO2. However the seasonality of the air-sea CO2 flux in this region is poorly documented. We investigate processes regulating air-sea CO2 flux in a large area of the Southern Ocean (38°S-55°S, 60°W-60°E) that represents nearly one third of the subantarctic zone. A seasonal budget of CO2 partial pressure, pCO2 and of dissolved inorganic carbon, DIC in the mixed layer is assessed by quantifying the impacts of biology, physics and thermodynamical effect on seawater pCO2. A focus is made on the quantification at a monthly scale of the biological consumption as it is the dominant process removing carbon from surface waters. In situ biological carbon production rates are estimated from high frequency estimates of DIC along the trajectories of CARIOCA drifters in the Atlantic and Indian sector of the Southern Ocean during four spring-summer seasons over the 2006-2009 period. Net community production (NCP) integrated over the mixed layer is derived from the daily change of DIC, and mixed layer depth estimated from Argo profiles. Eleven values of NCP are estimated and range from 30 to 130 mmol C m- 2 d- 1. They are used as a constraint for validating satellite net primary production (NPP). A satellite data-based global model is used to compute depth integrated net primary production, NPP, for the same periods along the trajectories of the buoys. Realistic NCP/NPP ratios are obtained under the condition that the SeaWiFS chlorophyll are corrected by a factor of ≈ 2-3, which is an underestimation previously reported for the Southern Ocean. Monthly satellite based NPP are computed over the 38°S-55°S, 60°W-60°E area. pCO2 derived from these NPP combined with an export ratio, and taking into account the impact of physics and thermodynamics is in good agreement with the pCO2 seasonal climatology of Takahashi (2009). On an annual timescale, mean NCP values, 4.4 to 4.9 mol C m- 2 yr- 1 are ≈ 4-5 times

  5. Bio-physical model provides insight into dispersal of plaice (Pleuronectes platessa L.) from putative spawning grounds to nursery areas on the west coast of Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zölck, Melanie; Brophy, Deirdre; Mohn, Christian; Minto, Cóilín; McGrath, David

    2015-05-01

    In this study we use an individual-based coupled physical biological model (ICPBM) to reconstruct the dispersal pathways of 0-group juveniles (young of the year) collected from nursery grounds in Galway Bay and to identify probable spawning ground locations for plaice on the west coast of Ireland. The relative importance of passive transport, behaviour and individual growth rates on successful larval delivery, from three putative spawning grounds to suitable nursery areas, was also investigated. Using a hydrodynamic Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS), combined with a particle tracking model, three model scenarios were tested: a passive tracer scenario (PTS), a linear growth scenario (LGS) and a temperature-dependent growth scenario (TDS). Hydrodynamic conditions were modelled and biological information (pelagic larval durations and size at settlement) incorporated. The LGS and TDS included vertical migration and tidally synchronised behaviour. Generalized Linear Model (GLM) comparisons showed that incorporation of behaviour and temperature-dependent growth, resulted in approximately two to three times more particles being delivered to sites of suitable depth for settlement (≤ 10 m), compared to passive transport alone (p < 0.001, LGS 19-78%; TDS 40-81%). The probability of successful delivery also varied significantly depending on the location, year and week of release (p < 0.05). A comparison of temperature histories between particles that were delivered to shallow inshore areas and those that failed to reach depths suitable for settlement indicated that dispersal to coastal nursery areas is facilitated by entrainment into a cool coastal current system. This study identifies a probable plaice spawning area in western Ireland and reconfirms the importance of including behaviour and growth in dispersal simulations. The model results suggest that differences in growth can influence larval delivery to potentially suitable nursery areas.

  6. Eutrophication-induced acidification of coastal waters in the northern Gulf of Mexico: Insights into origin and processes from a coupled physical-biogeochemical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurent, Arnaud; Fennel, Katja; Cai, Wei-Jun; Huang, Wei-Jen; Barbero, Leticia; Wanninkhof, Rik

    2017-01-01

    Nutrient inputs from the Mississippi/Atchafalaya River system into the northern Gulf of Mexico promote high phytoplankton production and lead to high respiration rates. Respiration coupled with water column stratification results in seasonal summer hypoxia in bottom waters on the shelf. In addition to consuming oxygen, respiration produces carbon dioxide (CO2), thus lowering the pH and acidifying bottom waters. Here we present a high-resolution biogeochemical model simulating this eutrophication-driven acidification and investigate the dominant underlying processes. The model shows the recurring development of an extended area of acidified bottom waters in summer on the northern Gulf of Mexico shelf that coincides with hypoxic waters. Not reported before, acidified waters are confined to a thin bottom boundary layer where the production of CO2 by benthic metabolic processes is dominant. Despite a reduced saturation state, acidified waters remain supersaturated with respect to aragonite.

  7. Additional insights. Commentary on “the musical stroop effect: opening a new avenue to research on automatisms” by l. Grégoire, P. Perruchet, and B. Poulin-Charronnat (Experimental Psychology, 2013, vol. 60, pp. 269–278).

    PubMed

    Akiva-Kabiri, Lilach; Henik, Avishai

    2014-01-01

    In their paper "The Musical Stroop Effect: Opening a New Avenue to Research on Automatisms," Grégoire, Perruchet, and Poulin-Charronnat (2013) use a musical Stroop-like task to demonstrate the automaticity of musical note naming in musicians. In addition, the authors suggest that music training can serve as a tool in order to study the acquisition of automaticity. In the following commentary, we aim to address three main issues concerning the paper by Grégoire et al. (2013). First, we will suggest some additional interpretations of the results; specifically, we will relate to the association between music and space. Second, we will discuss a methodological issue dealing with interference, facilitation, and the role of the neutral condition. We suggest that the study by Grégoire et al. (2013) lacks a proper neutral condition and thus it is impossible to assert that the congruency effect is interference based. Third, we will discuss the authors' suggestion of using the musical Stroop effect as a tool for studying automatism. We consider the practical relevance of music training as a tool for studying the acquisition of automaticity by pointing out that music training is highly heterogeneous.

  8. The Additive Property of Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsaoussis, Dimitris S.

    1995-01-01

    Presents exercises that analyze the additive property of energy. Concludes that if a body has more than one component of energy depending on the same physical quantity, the body's total energy will be the algebraic sum of the components if a linear relationship exists between the energy components and that physical quantity. (JRH)

  9. Nuclear physics and cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Coc, Alain

    2014-05-09

    There are important aspects of Cosmology, the scientific study of the large scale properties of the universe as a whole, for which nuclear physics can provide insights. Here, we will focus on Standard Big-Bang Nucleosynthesis and we refer to the previous edition of the School [1] for the aspects concerning the variations of constants in nuclear cosmo-physics.

  10. Embracing Physical Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roetert, E. Paul; Jefferies, Stephen C.

    2014-01-01

    At the most recent SHAPE America National Convention held in St. Louis, MO, an international perspective of the term "physical literacy" was introduced. Experts representing North America, Europe, and Asia provided insight into the increased acceptance and implementation of the term. Since the terms "physical education" and…

  11. A novel high-efficiency methodology for metal additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Jun; Wei, Zhengying; Wang, Xin; Fang, Xuewei; Zhao, Guangxi

    2016-11-01

    Metal additive manufacturing (AM) offers unrivalled design freedom with the ability to manufacture complex parts. However, the high capital costs and slow throughput printing have severely restricted its application. In this paper, a new metal AM process, referred to as the "metal fused-coating additive manufacturing (MFCAM)", was developed for highly efficient metal parts production. This new process is the combination of metal fused-coating process and laser surface melting process. A two-dimensional numerical model was established to provide an insight into the primary thermo-physical phenomena occurring in the MFCAM process. Experiments of single-track formation were conducted using MFCAM to validate the feasibility of the proposed process. The good agreement between experimental and simulated results demonstrated the reasonableness of the established models.

  12. Huygens provides insights about Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2005-01-01

    Huygens provides insights about Titan Following the Huygens probe's successful 14 January soft landing on Titan, Saturn's largest moon, scientists at a 21 January European Space Agency (ESA) news briefing announced that the moon has Earth-like meteorology and geology, and that there is evidence for liquid methane. Martin Tomasko, principal investigator for the Huygens Descent Imager-Spectral Radiometer, said, ``Geological evidence for precipitation, erosion, mechanical abrasion and other fluvial activity says that the physical processes shaping Titan are much the same as those shaping Earth.''

  13. Physics Phridays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falbo, Maria

    2007-12-01

    Teaching high school physics involves cheerleading, coaching, and acting (in addition to course preparation, equipment maintenance/construction, and grading). One is like a performer that has to be "on" all the time to keep the attention and interest of students in order to engage them in the content. But what happens once the course is over? We hope that we have sparked some interest in physics that will continue and that our students take what they've learned with them, but the reality is often disappointing. Can we do better than hope? "Physics Phridays" might be a starting point.

  14. Building Dynamic Conceptual Physics Understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trout, Charlotte; Sinex, Scott A.; Ragan, Susan

    2011-09-01

    Models are essential to the learning and doing of science, and systems thinking is key to appreciating many environmental issues. The National Science Education Standards2 include models and systems in their unifying concepts and processes standard, while the AAAS Benchmarks3 include them in their common themes chapter. Hyerle4 and Marzano5,6 argue for the importance of graphic organizers to student learning. In addition, there is a growing national interest in defining and implementing computational thinking for students.7 In the past 15 years, we have presented dozens of workshops to teachers who are interested in using the computational power of their computers in their classrooms.8-9 In addition to other programs, we use systems dynamics programs to encourage modeling in secondary science classrooms. The interface for these packages is a graphic organizer. In this article we will share some of our insights into the advantages of using such systems dynamics software with high school physics students.

  15. Types of Insight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stadler, Holly

    1984-01-01

    Presents a conceptual model of insight that is distinct from any theory or philosophy. Six types of insight are described: associative, aggregate, discrete process, ontogenetic process, phylogenetic process, and transcendent process. The model offers counselors a method for the enhancement of empathy and the development of client insight…

  16. FSU High Energy Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Prosper, Harrison B.; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Berg, Bernd; Blessing, Susan K.; Okui, Takemichi; Owens, Joseph F.; Reina, Laura; Wahl, Horst D.

    2014-12-01

    The High Energy Physics group at Florida State University (FSU), which was established in 1958, is engaged in the study of the fundamental constituents of matter and the laws by which they interact. The group comprises theoretical and experimental physicists, who sometimes collaborate on projects of mutual interest. The report highlights the main recent achievements of the group. Significant, recent, achievements of the group’s theoretical physicists include progress in making precise predictions in the theory of the Higgs boson and its associated processes, and in the theoretical understanding of mathematical quantities called parton distribution functions that are related to the structure of composite particles such as the proton. These functions are needed to compare data from particle collisions, such as the proton-proton collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), with theoretical predictions. The report also describes the progress in providing analogous functions for heavy nuclei, which find application in neutrino physics. The report highlights progress in understanding quantum field theory on a lattice of points in space and time (an area of study called lattice field theory), the progress in constructing several theories of potential new physics that can be tested at the LHC, and interesting new ideas in the theory of the inflationary expansion of the very early universe. The focus of the experimental physicists is the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at CERN. The report, however, also includes results from the D0 experiment at Fermilab to which the group made numerous contributions over a period of many years. The experimental group is particularly interested in looking for new physics at the LHC that may provide the necessary insight to extend the standard model (SM) of particle physics. Indeed, the search for new physics is the primary task of contemporary particle physics, one motivated by the need to explain certain facts, such as the

  17. Drug Insight: appetite suppressants.

    PubMed

    Bray, George A

    2005-02-01

    The term 'appetite suppressant' is used to denote drugs that act primarily on the neurochemical transmitters of the central nervous system to reduce food intake. In addition to drugs that release or mimic the effect of norepinephrine (noradrenaline), this could include drugs that inhibit: reuptake of norepinephrine or 5-hydroxytryptamine (also known as serotonin); bind to the gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors or the cannabinoid receptors; and some peptides that reduce food intake. The sympathomimetic drugs phentermine, diethylpropion, benzphetamine, and phendimetrazine--so named because they mimic many effects of norepinephrine--are only approved in a few countries, and then only for short-term use. Sibutramine, a norepinephrine-5-hydroxytryptamine reuptake inhibitor, is approved for long-term use. Several new mechanisms for drug action are under investigation. Appetite suppressants should be viewed as useful adjuncts to diet and physical activity and might help selected patients to achieve and maintain weight loss.

  18. An integrated perspective on insight.

    PubMed

    Martinsen, Øyvind L; Furnham, Adrian; Hærem, Thorvald

    2016-10-01

    The present study on insight is based on an integration of Kaplan and Simon's (1990) information processing theory of insight, a cognitive style theory, and achievement motivation theory. The style theory is the Assimilator (rule oriented, familiarity seeking)-Explorer (novelty seeking, explorative) styles (Kaufmann, 1979). Our hypothesis is that the effectiveness of 2 types of search constraints (prior experience and solution hints) for solving insight problems is moderated by both cognitive style and achievement needs, and depending on optimal levels of achievement motivation for different task conditions. We tested the hypothesis in a randomized experiment in which 3 levels of achievement needs and 1 type of search constraint (solution hints were available or not available) were experimentally manipulated. In addition, participants completed a cognitive style test, a measure of prior problem-solving experience (the second type of search constraint), and controls for intelligence. There were 476 participants (the mean age was 18.4 years). Results revealed 2 similar and significant 3-way interactions between styles, achievement needs, and the 2 types of search constraints. The pattern of interaction supported the idea that stylistic competence for the task characteristics (with and without search constraints available), when combined with manipulated achievement needs, predicted performance in counterintuitive ways but in line with the classic achievement motivation theory. With appropriate stylistic competence for the task characteristics elevated achievement needs led to poorer performance. With less appropriate stylistic competence, performance improved with increasing motivation. Implications for information processing theory are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  19. Toys and Physical Principles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Both, Roger

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the use of toys to teach physics. Potential advantages and disadvantages of using toys in the physics classroom or laboratory in addition to some demonstrations and experiments that use balls, cars, and musical toys are also presented. (HM)

  20. "Structure and dynamics in complex chemical systems: Gaining new insights through recent advances in time-resolved spectroscopies.” ACS Division of Physical Chemistry Symposium presented at the Fall National ACS Meeting in Boston, MA, August 2015

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, Daniel

    2016-09-26

    8-Session Symposium on STRUCTURE AND DYNAMICS IN COMPLEX CHEMICAL SYSTEMS: GAINING NEW INSIGHTS THROUGH RECENT ADVANCES IN TIME-RESOLVED SPECTROSCOPIES. The intricacy of most chemical, biochemical, and material processes and their applications are underscored by the complex nature of the environments in which they occur. Substantial challenges for building a global understanding of a heterogeneous system include (1) identifying unique signatures associated with specific structural motifs within the heterogeneous distribution, and (2) resolving the significance of each of multiple time scales involved in both small- and large-scale nuclear reorganization. This symposium focuses on the progress in our understanding of dynamics in complex systems driven by recent innovations in time-resolved spectroscopies and theoretical developments. Such advancement is critical for driving discovery at the molecular level facilitating new applications. Broad areas of interest include: Structural relaxation and the impact of structure on dynamics in liquids, interfaces, biochemical systems, materials, and other heterogeneous environments.

  1. Dreaming and insight.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Christopher L; Ruby, Perrine M; Malinowski, Josie E; Bennett, Paul D; Blagrove, Mark T

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses claims that dreams can be a source of personal insight. Whereas there has been anecdotal backing for such claims, there is now tangential support from findings of the facilitative effect of sleep on cognitive insight, and of REM sleep in particular on emotional memory consolidation. Furthermore, the presence in dreams of metaphorical representations of waking life indicates the possibility of novel insight as an emergent feature of such metaphorical mappings. In order to assess whether personal insight can occur as a result of the consideration of dream content, 11 dream group discussion sessions were conducted which followed the Ullman Dream Appreciation technique, one session for each of 11 participants (10 females, 1 male; mean age = 19.2 years). Self-ratings of deepened self-perception and personal gains from participation in the group sessions showed that the Ullman technique is an effective procedure for establishing connections between dream content and recent waking life experiences, although wake life sources were found for only 14% of dream report text. The mean Exploration-Insight score on the Gains from Dream Interpretation questionnaire was very high and comparable to outcomes from the well-established Hill (1996) therapist-led dream interpretation method. This score was associated between-subjects with pre-group positive Attitude Toward Dreams (ATD). The need to distinguish "aha" experiences as a result of discovering a waking life source for part of a dream, from "aha" experiences of personal insight as a result of considering dream content, is discussed. Difficulties are described in designing a control condition to which the dream report condition can be compared.

  2. Dreaming and insight

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Christopher L.; Ruby, Perrine M.; Malinowski, Josie E.; Bennett, Paul D.; Blagrove, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses claims that dreams can be a source of personal insight. Whereas there has been anecdotal backing for such claims, there is now tangential support from findings of the facilitative effect of sleep on cognitive insight, and of REM sleep in particular on emotional memory consolidation. Furthermore, the presence in dreams of metaphorical representations of waking life indicates the possibility of novel insight as an emergent feature of such metaphorical mappings. In order to assess whether personal insight can occur as a result of the consideration of dream content, 11 dream group discussion sessions were conducted which followed the Ullman Dream Appreciation technique, one session for each of 11 participants (10 females, 1 male; mean age = 19.2 years). Self-ratings of deepened self-perception and personal gains from participation in the group sessions showed that the Ullman technique is an effective procedure for establishing connections between dream content and recent waking life experiences, although wake life sources were found for only 14% of dream report text. The mean Exploration-Insight score on the Gains from Dream Interpretation questionnaire was very high and comparable to outcomes from the well-established Hill (1996) therapist-led dream interpretation method. This score was associated between-subjects with pre-group positive Attitude Toward Dreams (ATD). The need to distinguish “aha” experiences as a result of discovering a waking life source for part of a dream, from “aha” experiences of personal insight as a result of considering dream content, is discussed. Difficulties are described in designing a control condition to which the dream report condition can be compared. PMID:24550849

  3. Creativity and Insight in Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golnabi, Laura

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes the thought process involved in problem solving and its categorization as creative thinking as defined by psychologist R. Weisberg (2006). Additionally, the notion of insight, sometimes present in unconscious creative thinking and often leading to creative ideas, is discussed in the context of geometry problem solving. In…

  4. Insights into Our Understandings of Large Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kastberg, Signe E.; Walker, Vicki

    2008-01-01

    This article explores prospective teachers' understandings of one million to gain insights into the development of adult understanding of large numbers. Themes in the prospective teachers' work included number associated with a quantity of objects, number as an abstraction, and additive and multiplicative approaches. The authors suggest that the…

  5. Physical Education: Foundations, Practices, Principles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, Reuben B.

    This book offers a cross-section of the concepts and subject-matter areas which form the theoretical framework for physical education. Its stated purpose is to provide a source of information, insight, and inspiration to those who comtemplate physical education as a career. Chapters include the following: (a) "Education for a Better World;" (b)…

  6. Characterization of Metal Powders Used for Additive Manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Slotwinski, JA; Garboczi, EJ; Stutzman, PE; Ferraris, CF; Watson, SS; Peltz, MA

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) techniques1 can produce complex, high-value metal parts, with potential applications as critical parts, such as those found in aerospace components. The production of AM parts with consistent and predictable properties requires input materials (e.g., metal powders) with known and repeatable characteristics, which in turn requires standardized measurement methods for powder properties. First, based on our previous work, we assess the applicability of current standardized methods for powder characterization for metal AM powders. Then we present the results of systematic studies carried out on two different powder materials used for additive manufacturing: stainless steel and cobalt-chrome. The characterization of these powders is important in NIST efforts to develop appropriate measurements and standards for additive materials and to document the property of powders used in a NIST-led additive manufacturing material round robin. An extensive array of characterization techniques was applied to these two powders, in both virgin and recycled states. The physical techniques included laser diffraction particle size analysis, X-ray computed tomography for size and shape analysis, and optical and scanning electron microscopy. Techniques sensitive to structure and chemistry, including X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive analytical X-ray analysis using the X-rays generated during scanning electron microscopy, and X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy were also employed. The results of these analyses show how virgin powder changes after being exposed to and recycled from one or more Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) additive manufacturing build cycles. In addition, these findings can give insight into the actual additive manufacturing process. PMID:26601040

  7. Characterization of Metal Powders Used for Additive Manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Slotwinski, J A; Garboczi, E J; Stutzman, P E; Ferraris, C F; Watson, S S; Peltz, M A

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) techniques can produce complex, high-value metal parts, with potential applications as critical parts, such as those found in aerospace components. The production of AM parts with consistent and predictable properties requires input materials (e.g., metal powders) with known and repeatable characteristics, which in turn requires standardized measurement methods for powder properties. First, based on our previous work, we assess the applicability of current standardized methods for powder characterization for metal AM powders. Then we present the results of systematic studies carried out on two different powder materials used for additive manufacturing: stainless steel and cobalt-chrome. The characterization of these powders is important in NIST efforts to develop appropriate measurements and standards for additive materials and to document the property of powders used in a NIST-led additive manufacturing material round robin. An extensive array of characterization techniques was applied to these two powders, in both virgin and recycled states. The physical techniques included laser diffraction particle size analysis, X-ray computed tomography for size and shape analysis, and optical and scanning electron microscopy. Techniques sensitive to structure and chemistry, including X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive analytical X-ray analysis using the X-rays generated during scanning electron microscopy, and X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy were also employed. The results of these analyses show how virgin powder changes after being exposed to and recycled from one or more Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) additive manufacturing build cycles. In addition, these findings can give insight into the actual additive manufacturing process.

  8. Views about Learning Physics Held by Physics Teachers with Differing Approaches to Teaching Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulhall, Pamela; Gunstone, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Research into teacher thinking offers potential insights into ways of promoting better teaching. A recent qualitative study explored the views about physics, and learning and teaching physics of a group of teachers whose classroom practice was "traditional" and a group who used conceptual change teaching approaches. This paper focuses on the views…

  9. Changing Schools: Insights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Policy and Planning (ED), Washington, DC.

    Over 1,000 communities in 45 states, territories, and the District of Columbia, are mobilized under the AMERICA 2000 banner to reach the 6 National Education Goals. This collection of papers, written by those who have wrestled with the process of school reform, offers useful insights to communities as they begin their process of transforming…

  10. New Insights into Evolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stronck, David R.

    1992-01-01

    Presents insights on the controversial issues regarding evolution. This article partitions into the following sections: (1) Mechanisms explaining how evolution happened; (2) Creationist Confusion; (3) Literal Interpretation of the Bible; (4) Public demand for Creationism; (5) No Basis for Debating; and (6) Scientific Creationism is Bible Study.…

  11. Physical Development: Thinking Physically

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, Erik

    2005-01-01

    Children grow and develop physically according to their own experiences, characteristics, and abilities. Physical development is so important and the environment should allow each child to find her space in the sunshine. This can be done by: (1) creating the right outdoor environment; (2) allowing children time to use it; (3) encouraging movement…

  12. Development of Ag-Pd-Au-Cu alloy for multiple dental applications. Part 1. Effects of Pd and Cu contents, and addition of Ga or Sn on physical properties and bond with ultra-low fusing ceramic.

    PubMed

    Goto, S; Miyagawa, Y; Ogura, H

    2000-09-01

    Ag-Pd-Au-Cu quaternary alloys consisting of 30-50% Ag, 20-40% Pd, 10-20% Cu and 20% Au (mother alloys) were prepared. Then 5% Sn or 5% Ga was added to the mother alloy compositions, and another two alloy systems (Sn-added alloys and Ga-added alloys) were also prepared. The bond between the prepared alloys and an ultra-low fusing ceramic as well as their physical properties such as the solidus point, liquidus point and the coefficient of thermal expansion were evaluated. The solidus point and liquidus point of the prepared alloys ranged from 802 degrees C to 1142 degrees C and from 931 degrees C to 1223 degrees C, respectively. The coefficient of thermal expansion ranged from 14.6 to 17.1 x 10(-6)/degrees C for the Sn- and Ga-added alloys. In most cases, the Pd and Cu contents significantly influenced the solidus point, liquidus point and coefficient of thermal expansion. All Sn- and Ga-added alloys showed high area fractions of retained ceramic (92.1-100%), while the mother alloy showed relatively low area fractions (82.3%) with a high standard deviation (20.5%). Based on the evaluated properties, six Sn-added alloys and four Ga-added alloys among the prepared alloys were suitable for the application of the tested ultra-low fusing ceramic.

  13. Additive Similarity Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sattath, Shmuel; Tversky, Amos

    1977-01-01

    Tree representations of similarity data are investigated. Hierarchical clustering is critically examined, and a more general procedure, called the additive tree, is presented. The additive tree representation is then compared to multidimensional scaling. (Author/JKS)

  14. CROSS-DISCIPLINARY PHYSICS AND RELATED AREAS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Simulation of SET Operation in Phase-Change Random Access Memories with Heater Addition and Ring-Type Contactor for Low-Power Consumption by Finite Element Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Yue-Feng; Song, Zhi-Tang; Ling, Yun; Liu, Yan; Feng, Song-Lin

    2009-11-01

    A three-dimensional finite element model for phase change random access memory (PCRAM) is established for comprehensive electrical and thermal analysis during SET operation. The SET behaviours of the heater addition structure (HS) and the ring-type contact in bottom electrode (RIB) structure are compared with each other. There are two ways to reduce the RESET current, applying a high resistivity interfacial layer and building a new device structure. The simulation results indicate that the variation of SET current with different power reduction ways is little. This study takes the RESET and SET operation current into consideration, showing that the RIB structure PCRAM cell is suitable for future devices with high heat efficiency and high-density, due to its high heat efficiency in RESET operation.

  15. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. R.; St. Clair, T. L.; Burks, H. D.; Stoakley, D. M.

    1987-01-01

    A method has been found for enhancing the melt flow of thermoplastic polyimides during processing. A high molecular weight 422 copoly(amic acid) or copolyimide was fused with approximately 0.05 to 5 pct by weight of a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive, and this melt was studied by capillary rheometry. Excellent flow and improved composite properties on graphite resulted from the addition of a PMDA-aniline additive to LARC-TPI. Solution viscosity studies imply that amic acid additives temporarily lower molecular weight and, hence, enlarge the processing window. Thus, compositions containing the additive have a lower melt viscosity for a longer time than those unmodified.

  16. [Food additives and healthiness].

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects.

  17. Psychosomatic pain: new insights and management strategies.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Jay J

    2005-11-01

    At least 40 to 60 percent of women and at least 20 percent of men with chronic pain disorders report a history of being abused during childhood and/or adulthood. This incidence of abuse is two to four times higher than in the general population. Patients with more severe or frequent abuse, usually during childhood and worse if sexual in nature. often develop specific syndromes or combinations of syndromes. These syndromes include posttraumatic stress disorder, fibromyalgia, and other conditions characterized by repression, somatization, and increased utilization of medical care. Psychosomatic symptoms and dysfunctional behaviors may emerge as these patients seek attention and validation of their suffering, while paradoxically repressing painful memories of trauma. Behavioral observations and key features of the physical examination may greatly help the clinician identify both the presence and severity of psychosomatic disease. In addition, it is very interesting that various studies document physiologic changes in the brains of patients with a history of abuse and in patients with a diagnosis of fibromyalgia. These studies suggest that abuse may physiologically and developmentally increase a person's susceptibility to pain and that some organic changes may be associated with psychogenic disease. Diagnosis and treatment of even the most challenging patients with chronic pain is much more effective if it includes (a) careful inquiry about any history of past or present abuse or other severe trauma, (b) empathy and constructive validation of disease and suffering, (c) recognition of dysfunctional pain behaviors and personality traits, (d) documentation of nonanatomic as well as anatomic features on examination, (e) multidisciplinary treatments including psychotherapy whenever indicated, and (f) noninvasive procedures and alternatives to potentially habit-forming medications whenever possible and appropriate. Furthermore, it has been shown that helping patients gain

  18. Genetic insights in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Bettens, Karolien; Sleegers, Kristel; Van Broeckhoven, Christine

    2013-01-01

    In the search for new genes in Alzheimer's disease, classic linkage-based and candidate-gene-based association studies have been supplanted by exome sequencing, genome-wide sequencing (for mendelian forms of Alzheimer's disease), and genome-wide association studies (for non-mendelian forms). The identification of new susceptibility genes has opened new avenues for exploration of the underlying disease mechanisms. In addition to detecting novel risk factors in large samples, next-generation sequencing approaches can deliver novel insights with even small numbers of patients. The shift in focus towards translational studies and sequencing of individual patients places each patient's biomaterials as the central unit of genetic studies. The notional shift needed to make the patient central to genetic studies will necessitate strong collaboration and input from clinical neurologists.

  19. Death: 'nothing' gives insight.

    PubMed

    Ettema, Eric J

    2013-08-01

    According to a widely accepted belief, we cannot know our own death--death means 'nothing' to us. At first sight, the meaning of 'nothing' just implies the negation or absence of 'something'. Death then simply refers to the negation or absence of life. As a consequence, however, death has no meaning of itself. This leads to an ontological paradox in which death is both acknowledged and denied: death is … nothing. In this article, I investigate whether insight into the ontological paradox of the nothingness of death can contribute to a good end-of-life. By analysing Aquinas', Heidegger's and Derrida's understanding of death as nothingness, I explore how giving meaning to death on different ontological levels connects to, and at the same time provides resistance against, the harsh reality of death. By doing so, I intend to demonstrate that insight into the nothingness of death can count as a framework for a meaningful dealing with death.

  20. Update on INSIGHTS Development

    SciTech Connect

    Not Listed; Eric Burgett

    2011-09-01

    INSIGHTS is a transformational separate effects testing capability to perform in situ irradiation studies and characterization of the microscale behavior of nuclear fuel materials under a wide variety of in-pile conditions. Separate effects testing including growth, irradiation, and monitoring of these materials, and encompasses the full science based approach for fuels development from the nanoscale to the mesoscale behavior of the sample material and other defects driven by the modeling and simulation efforts of INL.

  1. The politics of insight

    PubMed Central

    Salvi, Carola; Cristofori, Irene; Grafman, Jordan; Beeman, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies showed that liberals and conservatives differ in cognitive style. Liberals are more flexible, and tolerant of complexity and novelty, whereas conservatives are more rigid, are more resistant to change, and prefer clear answers. We administered a set of compound remote associate problems, a task extensively used to differentiate problem-solving styles (via insight or analysis). Using this task, several researches have proven that self-reports, which differentiate between insight and analytic problem-solving, are reliable and are associated with two different neural circuits. In our research we found that participants self-identifying with distinct political orientations demonstrated differences in problem-solving strategy. Liberals solved significantly more problems via insight instead of in a step-by-step analytic fashion. Our findings extend previous observations that self-identified political orientations reflect differences in cognitive styles. More specifically, we show that type of political orientation is associated with problem-solving strategy. The data converge with previous neurobehavioural and cognitive studies indicating a link between cognitive style and the psychological mechanisms that mediate political beliefs. PMID:26810954

  2. Hadron physics

    SciTech Connect

    Bunce, G.

    1984-05-30

    Is all hadronic physics ultimately describable by QCD. Certainly, many disparate phenomena can be understood within the QCD framework. Also certainly, there are important questions which are open, both theoretically (little guidance, as yet) and experimentally, regarding confinement. Are there dibaryons, baryonium, glueballs. In addition, there are experimental results which at present do not have an explanation. This talk, after a short section on QCD successes and difficulties, will emphasize two experimental topics which have recent results - glueball spectroscopy and exclusive reactions at large momentum transfer. Both are experimentally accessible in the AGS/LAMPF II/AGS II/TRIUMF II/SIN II energy domain.

  3. Density, temperature, and composition of the North American lithosphere—New insights from a joint analysis of seismic, gravity, and mineral physics data: 1. Density structure of the crust and upper mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaban, Mikhail K.; Tesauro, Magdala; Mooney, Walter D.; Cloetingh, Sierd A. P. L.

    2014-12-01

    introduce a new method to construct integrated 3-D models of density, temperature, and compositional variations of the crust and upper mantle based on a combined analysis of gravity, seismic, and tomography data with mineral physics constraints. The new technique is applied to North America. In the first stage, we remove the effect of the crust from the observed gravity field and topography, using a new crustal model (NACr2014). In the second step, the residual mantle gravity field and residual topography are inverted to obtain a 3-D density model of the upper mantle. The inversion technique accounts for the notion that these fields are controlled by the same factors but in a different way, e.g., depending on depth and horizontal dimension. This enables us to locate the position of principal density anomalies in the upper mantle. Afterward, we estimate the thermal contribution to the density structure by inverting two tomography models for temperature (NA07 and SL2013sv), assuming a laterally and vertically uniform "fertile" mantle composition. Both models show the cold internal part and the hot western margin of the continent, while in some Proterozoic regions (e.g., Grenville province) NA07 at a depth of 100 km is >200°C colder than SL2013sv. After removing this effect from the total mantle anomalies, the residual "compositional" fields are obtained. Some features of the composition density distribution, which are invisible in the seismic tomography data, are detected for the first time in the upper mantle. These results serve as a basis for the second part of the study, in which we improve the thermal and compositional models by applying an iterative approach to account for the effect of composition on the thermal model.

  4. The Frontiers of Additive Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Grote, Christopher John

    2016-03-03

    Additive manufacturing, more commonly known as 3-D printing, has become a ubiquitous tool in science for its precise control over mechanical design. For additive manufacturing to work, a 3-D structure is split into thin 2D slices, and then different physical properties, such as photo-polymerization or melting, are used to grow the sequential layers. The level of control allows not only for devices to be made with a variety of materials: e.g. plastics, metals, and quantum dots, but to also have finely controlled structures leading to other novel properties. While 3-D printing is widely used by hobbyists for making models, it also has industrial applications in structural engineering, biological tissue scaffolding, customized electric circuitry, fuel cells, security, and more.

  5. Polylactides in additive biomanufacturing.

    PubMed

    Poh, Patrina S P; Chhaya, Mohit P; Wunner, Felix M; De-Juan-Pardo, Elena M; Schilling, Arndt F; Schantz, Jan-Thorsten; van Griensven, Martijn; Hutmacher, Dietmar W

    2016-12-15

    New advanced manufacturing technologies under the alias of additive biomanufacturing allow the design and fabrication of a range of products from pre-operative models, cutting guides and medical devices to scaffolds. The process of printing in 3 dimensions of cells, extracellular matrix (ECM) and biomaterials (bioinks, powders, etc.) to generate in vitro and/or in vivo tissue analogue structures has been termed bioprinting. To further advance in additive biomanufacturing, there are many aspects that we can learn from the wider additive manufacturing (AM) industry, which have progressed tremendously since its introduction into the manufacturing sector. First, this review gives an overview of additive manufacturing and both industry and academia efforts in addressing specific challenges in the AM technologies to drive toward AM-enabled industrial revolution. After which, considerations of poly(lactides) as a biomaterial in additive biomanufacturing are discussed. Challenges in wider additive biomanufacturing field are discussed in terms of (a) biomaterials; (b) computer-aided design, engineering and manufacturing; (c) AM and additive biomanufacturing printers hardware; and (d) system integration. Finally, the outlook for additive biomanufacturing was discussed.

  6. Additive Manufactured Product Integrity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waller, Jess; Wells, Doug; James, Steve; Nichols, Charles

    2017-01-01

    NASA is providing key leadership in an international effort linking NASA and non-NASA resources to speed adoption of additive manufacturing (AM) to meet NASA's mission goals. Participants include industry, NASA's space partners, other government agencies, standards organizations and academia. Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) is identified as a universal need for all aspects of additive manufacturing.

  7. The Physics of Osmos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanden Heuvel, Andrew

    2016-03-01

    We describe an analysis of the conservation of momentum in the video game Osmos, which demonstrates that the potential of video game analysis extends far beyond kinematics. This analysis can serve as the basis of an inquiry momentum lab that combines interesting derivations, video-based data collection, and insights into the subtle decisions that game developers must make to balance realistic physics and enjoyable gameplay.

  8. EDITORIAL: Physics competitions Physics competitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordens, H.; Mathelitsch, L.

    2009-11-01

    1. Physics competitions: aims and realizations One aim of physics competitions is to increase the interest of young students, primarily at upper secondary level, to physics and natural sciences in general. A competition has motivational aspects known usually from sports events or games—comparing one's own ability with others, of course with the desire to be better and to win. If competitions reach nationwide and even international levels, additional stimulation is created. Competitions provide greatest attraction to possible winners, to the group of gifted people in a particular field. This implies that science contests are excellent tools for the promotion of talented students. Traditional teaching has been shown to have problems in supporting this group of students. Very often teachers are overstretched with the demands of teaching both low- and high-level students. Extracurricular activities are therefore a good chance to relieve the teacher, and to give talented students the opportunity for appropriate training and challenge. The competitions, however, have a broader impact and address more young people than one might guess from the statements above. Training courses and selection at school level give a larger group of students extra and, to some extent, complimentary education in physics. The degree of complexity of the tasks corresponds very often to the standards of the next level of education in the school system. Interestingly, many physics competitions have their origin in countries beyond the former Iron Curtain. They started as regional and national tournaments, were joined by neighbouring countries and have grown, in some cases, to events with participants from more than 80 countries. Although the features mentioned above are common to the different competitions, there are distinct differences between them [1]. The International Physics Olympiad (IPhO) is the oldest international physics competition for students at upper secondary level [2]. It dates

  9. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, James C. (Inventor); Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  10. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of the additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  11. Fluorescence spectroscopy of rhodopsins: Insights and approaches

    PubMed Central

    Alexiev, Ulrike; Farrens, David L.

    2014-01-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy has become an established tool at the interface of biology, chemistry and physics because of its exquisite sensitivity and recent technical advancements. However, rhodopsin proteins present the fluorescence spectroscopist with a unique set of challenges and opportunities due to the presence of the light-sensitive retinal chromophore. This review briefly summarizes some approaches that have successfully met these challenges and the novel insights they have yielded about rhodopsin structure and function. We start with a brief overview of fluorescence fundamentals and experimental methodologies, followed by more specific discussions of technical challenges rhodopsin proteins present to fluorescence studies. Finally, we end by discussing some of the unique insights that have been gained specifically about visual rhodopsin and its interactions with affiliate proteins through the use of fluorescence spectroscopy. PMID:24183695

  12. Evolving magnitude-frequency distributions during the Guy-Greenbrier (2010-11) induced earthquake sequence: Insights into the physical mechanisms of b-value shifts and large-magnitude curvature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dempsey, D.; Suckale, J.; Huang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    In 2010-11, a sequence of earthquakes occurred on an unmapped basement fault near Guy, Arkansas. The events are likely to have been triggered by a nine month period of wastewater disposal during which 4.5x105 m2 of water was injected at two nearby wells. Magnitude-frequency distributions (MFD) for the induced sequence show two interesting properties: (i) a low Gutenberg-Richter (GR) b-value of ~0.8 during injection, increasing to 1.0 post-injection (ii) and downward curvature of the MFD at the upper magnitude limit. We use a coupled model of injection-triggering and earthquake rupture to show how the evolving MFD can be understood in terms of an effective stress increase on the fault, which arises from overpressuring and strength reduction. Reservoir simulation is used to model injection into a horizontally extensive aquifer that overlies an impermeable basement containing a single permeable fault. Earthquake triggering occurs when the static strength, reduced by the modeled pressure increase, satisfies a Mohr-Coulomb criterion. Pressure evolution is also incorporated in a model of fault rupture, which is based on an expanding bilateral crack approximation to quasidynamic rupture propagation and static/dynamic friction evolution. An earthquake sequence is constructed as an ensemble of triggered ruptures for many realizations of a heterogeneous fractal stress distribution. During injection, there is a steady rise in fluid pressure on the fault. In addition to its role in triggering earthquakes, rising pressure affects the rupture process by reducing the dynamic strength relative to fault shear stress; this is equivalent to tectonic stress increase in natural seismicity. As mean stress increases, larger events are more frequent and this is reflected in a lower b-value. The largest events, however, occur late in the loading cycle at very high stress; their absence in the early stages of injection manifests as downward curvature in the MFD at large magnitudes.

  13. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wender, Ester H.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that food additives are causally associated with hyperkinesis and learning disabilities in children is reviewed, and available data are summarized. Available from: American Medical Association 535 North Dearborn Street Chicago, Illinois 60610. (JG)

  14. Smog control fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Lundby, W.

    1993-06-29

    A method is described of controlling, reducing or eliminating, ozone and related smog resulting from photochemical reactions between ozone and automotive or industrial gases comprising the addition of iodine or compounds of iodine to hydrocarbon-base fuels prior to or during combustion in an amount of about 1 part iodine per 240 to 10,000,000 parts fuel, by weight, to be accomplished by: (a) the addition of these inhibitors during or after the refining or manufacturing process of liquid fuels; (b) the production of these inhibitors for addition into fuel tanks, such as automotive or industrial tanks; or (c) the addition of these inhibitors into combustion chambers of equipment utilizing solid fuels for the purpose of reducing ozone.

  15. Physical therapy in Parkinson's disease: evolution and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Keus, Samyra H J; Munneke, Marten; Nijkrake, Maarten J; Kwakkel, Gert; Bloem, Bastiaan R

    2009-01-15

    Even with optimal medical management using drugs or neurosurgery, patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) are faced with progressively increasing mobility problems. For this reason, many patients require additional physical therapy. Here, we review the professional evolution and scientific validation of physical therapy in PD, and highlight several future challenges. To gain insight in ongoing, recently completed or published trials and systematic reviews, we performed a structured literature review and contacted experts in the field of physical therapy in PD. Following publication of the first controlled clinical trial in 1981, the quantity and quality of clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of physical therapy in PD has evolved rapidly. In 2004 the first guideline on physical therapy in PD was published, providing recommendations for evidence-based interventions. Current research is aiming to gather additional evidence to support specific intervention strategies such as the prevention of falls, and to evaluate the implementation of evidence into clinical practice. Although research focused on physical therapy for PD is a relatively young field, high-quality supportive evidence is emerging for specific therapeutic strategies. We provide some recommendations for future research, and discuss innovative strategies to improve the organization of allied health care in PD, making evidence-based care available to all PD patients.

  16. Modeling for Insights

    SciTech Connect

    Jacob J. Jacobson; Gretchen Matthern

    2007-04-01

    System Dynamics is a computer-aided approach to evaluating the interrelationships of different components and activities within complex systems. Recently, System Dynamics models have been developed in areas such as policy design, biological and medical modeling, energy and the environmental analysis, and in various other areas in the natural and social sciences. The real power of System Dynamic modeling is gaining insights into total system behavior as time, and system parameters are adjusted and the effects are visualized in real time. System Dynamic models allow decision makers and stakeholders to explore long-term behavior and performance of complex systems, especially in the context of dynamic processes and changing scenarios without having to wait decades to obtain field data or risk failure if a poor management or design approach is used. The Idaho National Laboratory recently has been developing a System Dynamic model of the US Nuclear Fuel Cycle. The model is intended to be used to identify and understand interactions throughout the entire nuclear fuel cycle and suggest sustainable development strategies. This paper describes the basic framework of the current model and presents examples of useful insights gained from the model thus far with respect to sustainable development of nuclear power.

  17. EDITORIAL: Physics competitions Physics competitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordens, H.; Mathelitsch, L.

    2011-07-01

    International tests on competences, such as TIMSS or PISA, and knowledge of young students have revealed low average scores in many countries, often unexpectedly. One effective measure to increase the average standard of a population is to bring the last third of the group to a higher level. Therefore, many nations put some effort into this activity. This brings the danger that not enough attention is paid to students at the other end, those who are talented. Indeed, it is a very difficult task for a teacher to support the less able and at the same time challenge the gifted students, to lead them to the limits of their abilities and provide for a smooth transition to university study. Physics competitions have been proven to fulfil these last demands to a large degree, and therefore are an important additional and, to some extent, complementary tool for the promotion of talented students. This third special section on physics competitions in European Journal of Physics contains three papers, each dealing with a different form of science contest. The first continues the series of presentations of tasks performed at the International Young Physicists' Tournament, which was held in Vienna in 2011. First place went to the team from Singapore, and they have put their investigation on vertical oscillations of coupled magnets into written form (not required by the tournament, where an oral presentation and a defence and discussion are the central aspects). Their paper shows how rich in physics this problem is, and what level of solutions high-school students can already achieve. Sadly, those responsible for the organization of last year's International Physics Olympiad did not provide us with a report on this competition. This is unfortunate, since the Olympiad in Zagreb was very successful and, in particular, the experimental tasks were creative and demanding. Very similar to the aims and the execution of the Physics Olympiad is the International Olympiad on Astronomy

  18. Neurorestoration by physical exercise: moving forward.

    PubMed

    Zigmond, Michael J; Cameron, Judy L; Hoffer, Barry J; Smeyne, Richard J

    2012-01-01

    Although a good deal is known about the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease and information is emerging about its cause, there are no pharmacological treatments shown to have a significant, sustained capacity to prevent or attenuate the condition. However, accumulating clinical evidence suggests that physical exercise can provide this much needed treatment, and studies of animal models of the dopamine deficiency associated with the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease further support this hypothesis. Thus, in our collaborative research efforts, we seek to understand the biological basis for exercise-induced protection in order to assist in the development of a safe and clinically effective intervention based on increased physical activity. In addition, we recognize that some individuals cannot or will not engage in physical exercise, and believe that mechanistic studies of exercise-induced protection will provide insights into the development of drugs that could emulate its effects. Using toxins that induce a deficiency of dopamine, we have affirmed that physical exercise can reduce behavioral and neurobiological deficits induced by such toxins, and suggest that these neuroprotective effects are likely to involve the activation of signaling cascades by neurotrophic factors such as glial cell line derived neurotrophic factor.

  19. Group Sparse Additive Models

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Junming; Chen, Xi; Xing, Eric P.

    2016-01-01

    We consider the problem of sparse variable selection in nonparametric additive models, with the prior knowledge of the structure among the covariates to encourage those variables within a group to be selected jointly. Previous works either study the group sparsity in the parametric setting (e.g., group lasso), or address the problem in the nonparametric setting without exploiting the structural information (e.g., sparse additive models). In this paper, we present a new method, called group sparse additive models (GroupSpAM), which can handle group sparsity in additive models. We generalize the ℓ1/ℓ2 norm to Hilbert spaces as the sparsity-inducing penalty in GroupSpAM. Moreover, we derive a novel thresholding condition for identifying the functional sparsity at the group level, and propose an efficient block coordinate descent algorithm for constructing the estimate. We demonstrate by simulation that GroupSpAM substantially outperforms the competing methods in terms of support recovery and prediction accuracy in additive models, and also conduct a comparative experiment on a real breast cancer dataset.

  20. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapid prototyping technology that allows parts to be built in a series of thin layers from plastic, ceramics, and metallics. Metallic additive manufacturing is an emerging form of rapid prototyping that allows complex structures to be built using various metallic powders. Significant time and cost savings have also been observed using the metallic additive manufacturing compared with traditional techniques. Development of the metallic additive manufacturing technology has advanced significantly over the last decade, although many of the techniques to inspect parts made from these processes have not advanced significantly or have limitations. Several external geometry inspection techniques exist such as Coordinate Measurement Machines (CMM), Laser Scanners, Structured Light Scanning Systems, or even traditional calipers and gages. All of the aforementioned techniques are limited to external geometry and contours or must use a contact probe to inspect limited internal dimensions. This presentation will document the development of a process for real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record of the additive manufacturing process using Infrared camera imaging and processing techniques.

  1. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamine, containing phenylethvnvl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynviphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pvrrolidinone to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  2. Fused Lasso Additive Model

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Ashley; Witten, Daniela; Simon, Noah

    2016-01-01

    We consider the problem of predicting an outcome variable using p covariates that are measured on n independent observations, in a setting in which additive, flexible, and interpretable fits are desired. We propose the fused lasso additive model (FLAM), in which each additive function is estimated to be piecewise constant with a small number of adaptively-chosen knots. FLAM is the solution to a convex optimization problem, for which a simple algorithm with guaranteed convergence to a global optimum is provided. FLAM is shown to be consistent in high dimensions, and an unbiased estimator of its degrees of freedom is proposed. We evaluate the performance of FLAM in a simulation study and on two data sets. Supplemental materials are available online, and the R package flam is available on CRAN. PMID:28239246

  3. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamines containing phenylethynyl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynylphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidi none to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  4. Additives in plastics.

    PubMed Central

    Deanin, R D

    1975-01-01

    The polymers used in plastics are generally harmless. However, they are rarely used in pure form. In almost all commercial plastics, they are "compounded" with monomeric ingredients to improve their processing and end-use performance. In order of total volume used, these monomeric additives may be classified as follows: reinforcing fibers, fillers, and coupling agents; plasticizers; colorants; stabilizers (halogen stabilizers, antioxidants, ultraviolet absorbers, and biological preservatives); processing aids (lubricants, others, and flow controls); flame retardants, peroxides; and antistats. Some information is already available, and much more is needed, on potential toxicity and safe handling of these additives during processing and manufacture of plastics products. PMID:1175566

  5. Additives in plastics.

    PubMed

    Deanin, R D

    1975-06-01

    The polymers used in plastics are generally harmless. However, they are rarely used in pure form. In almost all commercial plastics, they are "compounded" with monomeric ingredients to improve their processing and end-use performance. In order of total volume used, these monomeric additives may be classified as follows: reinforcing fibers, fillers, and coupling agents; plasticizers; colorants; stabilizers (halogen stabilizers, antioxidants, ultraviolet absorbers, and biological preservatives); processing aids (lubricants, others, and flow controls); flame retardants, peroxides; and antistats. Some information is already available, and much more is needed, on potential toxicity and safe handling of these additives during processing and manufacture of plastics products.

  6. Osho - Insights on sex

    PubMed Central

    Nagaraj, Anil Kumar Mysore

    2013-01-01

    Sex is a mysterious phenomenon, which has puzzled even great sages. Human beings have researched and mastered the biology of sex. But that is not all. Sex needs to be understood from the spiritual perspective too. The vision of Osho is an enlightening experience in this regard. Out of the thousands of lectures, five lectures on sex made Osho most notorious. Born into a Jain family of Madhya Pradesh, Rajneesh, who later wanted himself to be called Osho, is a great master. He has spoken volumes on a wide range of topics ranging from sex to super-consciousness. His contributions in the area of sex are based on the principles of “Tantra” which has its origin from Buddhism. This article focuses on his life and insights on sex, which if understood properly, can be a stepping stone for enlightenment. PMID:23858266

  7. Insights on STEM Careers

    SciTech Connect

    Wendelberger, Joanne Roth

    2014-11-05

    This presentation will provide career advice for individuals seeking to go beyond just having a job to building a successful career in the areas of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics. Careful planning can be used to turn a job into a springboard for professional advancement and personal satisfaction. Topics to be addressed include setting priorities, understanding career ladders, making tough choices, overcoming stereotypes and assumptions by others, networking, developing a professional identify, and balancing a career with family and other personal responsibilities. Insights on the transition from individual technical work to leadership will also be provided. The author will draw upon experiences gained in academic, industrial, and government laboratory settings, as well as extensive professional service and community involvement.

  8. InSight Planetary Protection Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benardini, James; Vaishampayan, Parag; Chen, Fei; Kazarians, Gayane; Willis, Jason; Witte, Joe; Hendrickson, Ryan

    2016-07-01

    The InSight Project is a Discovery mission that consists of a single spacecraft with an overarching mission goal of illuminating the fundamentals of formation and evolution of terrestrial planets by investigating the interior structure and processes of Mars. The flight system is comprised of a 2008 Phoenix mission heritage cruise stage, aeroshell (heatshield and backshell), and lander. The lander payload contains cameras, a seismometer, a mole to penetrate the regolith (≤5 meters) to measure the geothermal gradient of Mars, and an auxiliary payload sensor suite to measure wind, temperature, and pressure. As a Mars lander mission without life detection instruments, the InSight mission has been designated PP Category IVa. Therefore, planetary protection bioburden requirements are applicable to this mission and require microbial reduction procedures and biological burden reports. Due to primary payload technical issues, InSight's 2016 launch has been delayed by NASA. The mission is currently under a re-planning phase. InSight has completed an approved Planetary Protection Plan, Subsidiary PP Plans, PP Implementation Documentation, and ~50% of the PPO verification biological assays. The flight system and additional payloads were assembled and being readied for launch at the launch site at the time of the project stand-down and has since been secured for storage. The status of the PP activities will be reported.

  9. Biobased lubricant additives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fully biobased lubricants are those formulated using all biobased ingredients, i.e. biobased base oils and biobased additives. Such formulations provide the maximum environmental, safety, and economic benefits expected from a biobased product. Currently, there are a number of biobased base oils that...

  10. More Than Additional Space...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CEFP Journal, 1973

    1973-01-01

    A much needed addition to the Jamestown Elementary School turned out to be more than an expansion of walls for more space. A new educational program, a limited budget, and a short time line were tackled on a team approach basis and were successfully resolved. (Author)

  11. Sports physical

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000673.htm Sports physical To use the sharing features on this ... or routine checkups. Why do you Need a Sports Physical? The sports physical is done to: Find ...

  12. Vinyl capped addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D. (Inventor); Malarik, Diane C. (Inventor); Delvigs, Peter (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Polyimide resins (PMR) are generally useful where high strength and temperature capabilities are required (at temperatures up to about 700 F). Polyimide resins are particularly useful in applications such as jet engine compressor components, for example, blades, vanes, air seals, air splitters, and engine casing parts. Aromatic vinyl capped addition polyimides are obtained by reacting a diamine, an ester of tetracarboxylic acid, and an aromatic vinyl compound. Low void materials with improved oxidative stability when exposed to 700 F air may be fabricated as fiber reinforced high molecular weight capped polyimide composites. The aromatic vinyl capped polyimides are provided with a more aromatic nature and are more thermally stable than highly aliphatic, norbornenyl-type end-capped polyimides employed in PMR resins. The substitution of aromatic vinyl end-caps for norbornenyl end-caps in addition polyimides results in polymers with improved oxidative stability.

  13. Electrophilic addition of astatine

    SciTech Connect

    Norseev, Yu.V.; Vasaros, L.; Nhan, D.D.; Huan, N.K.

    1988-03-01

    It has been shown for the first time that astatine is capable of undergoing addition reactions to unsaturated hydrocarbons. A new compound of astatine, viz., ethylene astatohydrin, has been obtained, and its retention numbers of squalane, Apiezon, and tricresyl phosphate have been found. The influence of various factors on the formation of ethylene astatohydrin has been studied. It has been concluded on the basis of the results obtained that the univalent cations of astatine in an acidic medium is protonated hypoastatous acid.

  14. Functional Generalized Additive Models.

    PubMed

    McLean, Mathew W; Hooker, Giles; Staicu, Ana-Maria; Scheipl, Fabian; Ruppert, David

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the functional generalized additive model (FGAM), a novel regression model for association studies between a scalar response and a functional predictor. We model the link-transformed mean response as the integral with respect to t of F{X(t), t} where F(·,·) is an unknown regression function and X(t) is a functional covariate. Rather than having an additive model in a finite number of principal components as in Müller and Yao (2008), our model incorporates the functional predictor directly and thus our model can be viewed as the natural functional extension of generalized additive models. We estimate F(·,·) using tensor-product B-splines with roughness penalties. A pointwise quantile transformation of the functional predictor is also considered to ensure each tensor-product B-spline has observed data on its support. The methods are evaluated using simulated data and their predictive performance is compared with other competing scalar-on-function regression alternatives. We illustrate the usefulness of our approach through an application to brain tractography, where X(t) is a signal from diffusion tensor imaging at position, t, along a tract in the brain. In one example, the response is disease-status (case or control) and in a second example, it is the score on a cognitive test. R code for performing the simulations and fitting the FGAM can be found in supplemental materials available online.

  15. Deception Detection: An Educator's Guide to the Art of Insight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrank, Jeffrey

    This book argues that developing insight into the ordinary is a major part of education. Each of the five chapters contains ideas and activities designed to help students and teachers sharpen their perception of their day-to-day physical and social environment. "Survival Skills in a Consumer Society" examines the way people are persuaded to…

  16. Insights from laboratory experiments into the physics of pyroclastic flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girolami, L.; Druitt, T. H.; Roche, O.

    2009-12-01

    We studied the transport and sedimentation behavior of rapid shear flows of gas-fluidized volcanic ash in a laboratory flume in order to better understand the kinematics of pyroclastic flows. The work was based on a previous study in which we explored the fluidization and settling behaviour of ash under quasi-static conditions in a 1-D high-temperature fluidization rig. Provided that temperature is high enough (>150 °C) to significantly reduce cohesion, ash fractions of pyroclastic flow deposits fluidize in the manner of Geldart group-A powders, with large expansions in the non-bubbling regime. When the flux of fluidizing gas is removed, the ash re-sediments by hindered settling at rates which, for a given material, are independent of temperature up to 550 °C. Armed with this knowledge, we built a 3-m-long lock-exchange flume in which we generated horizontal flows of fluidized ash. The ash was first placed in the flume reservoir, heated to 180 °C and expanded by gas flow up to 45 % above loose packing. It was then released down the flume and allowed to defluidize freely. The resulting flows were filmed at high speed, and the films were then analyzed visually and using a particle-tracking algorithm. The flows were typically several cm thick, had frontal speeds of up to ~2 m s-1, and were non-turbulent on scales larger than the constituent particles. Since the settling behavior of quasi-static ash is temperature independent, we expect the same to be true for flowing ash. Deposition took place progressively during transport until the flow was entirely consumed and motion ceased. It commenced 5-20 cm rearward of the leading edge and (for a given expansion) proceeded at a rate independent of distance from the lock gate. Deposit aggradation velocities were equal to those inferred beneath quasi-static bed collapse tests of the same ash at the same initial expansions, showing that shear rates of up to ~300 s-1 have no measurable effect on aggradation rate. Initially non-expanded (but just fluidized) ash deposited progressively at a rate indicative of an expansion of a few percent, perhaps due to Reynolds dilation during initial slumping. These behaviors have subsequently been confirmed by similar experiments using industrial group-A cracking catalyst powders instead of ash, and the combined results collapse to reveal a very simple scaling for the runout durations of the flows. Velocity profiles in the ash flows reveal that the frontal regions slid across the flume floor on very thin basal shear layers, implying high basal stresses, but that once sedimentation commenced, a no-slip condition was established at the depositional interface. The experiments show that even cm-thin, non-turbulent and poorly expanded flows of ash deposit progressively, as inferred for many pyroclastic flows. This raises the possibility that deposit aggradation rates in mathematical models of dense pyroclastic flows could be parameterized using values measured using 1D rigs. High frontal stresses are consistent with the occurrence of scour surfaces at the bases of some pyroclastic flow deposits.

  17. Jet-Supercavity Interaction: Insights from Physics Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirschner, I. N.; Moeny, M. J.; Krane, M. H.; Kinzel, M. P.

    2015-12-01

    Various closure conditions of a ventilated cavity enveloping all or part of a high-speed underwater body are introduced, including those involving a propulsion jet. The flow regimes for the latter are described based on Efros-Paryshev theory, which is extended to estimate the efficiency and fundamental limitations of a rocket-type propulsor.

  18. A periodically active pulsar giving insight into magnetospheric physics.

    PubMed

    Kramer, M; Lyne, A G; O'Brien, J T; Jordan, C A; Lorimer, D R

    2006-04-28

    PSR B1931+24 (J1933+2421) behaves as an ordinary isolated radio pulsar during active phases that are 5 to 10 days long. However, when the radio emission ceases, it switches off in less than 10 seconds and remains undetectable for the next 25 to 35 days, then switches on again. This pattern repeats quasi-periodically. The origin of this behavior is unclear. Even more remarkably, the pulsar rotation slows down 50% faster when it is on than when it is off. This indicates a massive increase in magnetospheric currents when the pulsar switches on, proving that pulsar wind plays a substantial role in pulsar spin-down. This allows us, for the first time, to estimate the magnetospheric currents in a pulsar magnetosphere during the occurrence of radio emission.

  19. Mechanistic Insight in the Function of Phosphite Additives for Protection of LiNi 0.5 Co 0.2 Mn 0.3 O 2 Cathode in High Voltage Li-Ion Cells

    SciTech Connect

    He, Meinan; Su, Chi-Cheung; Peebles, Cameron; Feng, Zhenxing; Connell, Justin G.; Liao, Chen; Wang, Yan; Shkrob, Ilya A.; Zhang, Zhengcheng

    2016-05-11

    Triethlylphosphite (TEP) and tris(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl) phosphite (TTFP) have been evaluated as electrolyte additives for high-voltage Li-ion battery cells using a Ni-rich layered cathode material LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2 (NCM523) and the conventional carbonate electrolyte. The repeated charge/discharge cycling for cells containing 1 wt% of these additives was performed using an NCM523/graphite full cell operated at the voltage window from 3.0 to 4.6 V. During the initial charge process, these additives decompose on the cathode surface at a lower oxidation potential than the baseline electrolyte. Impedance spectroscopy and post-test analyses indicate the formation of protective coatings by both additives on the cathode surface that prevent oxidative breakdown of the electrolyte. However, only TTFP containing cells demonstrate the improved capacity retention and Coulombic efficiency. For TEP, the protective coating is also formed, but low Li+ ion mobility through the interphase layer results in inferior performance. These observations are rationalized through the inhibition of electrocatalytic centers present on the cathode surface and the formation of organophosphate deposits isolating the cathode surface from the electrolyte. The difference between the two phosphites clearly originates in the different properties of the resulting phosphate coatings, which may be in Li+ ion conductivity through such materials.

  20. Fick's Insights on Liquid Diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Narasimhan, T.N.

    2004-10-07

    In 1855, Adolph Fick published ''On Liquid Diffusion'', mathematically treating salt movements in liquids as a diffusion process, analogous to heat diffusion. Less recognized is the fact that Fick also provided a detailed account of the implications of salt diffusion to transport through membranes. A careful look at Fick (1855) shows that his conceptualization of molecular diffusion was more comprehensive than could be captured with the mathematical methods available to him, and therefore his expression, referred to as Fick's Law, dealt only with salt flux. He viewed salt diffusion in liquids as a binary process, with salt moving in one way and water moving in the other. Fick's analysis of the consequences of such a binary process operating in a hydrophilic pore in a membrane offers insights that are relevant to earth systems. This paper draws attention to Fick's rationale, and its implications to hydrogeological systems. Fick (1829-1901; Figure 1), a gifted scientist, published the first book on medical physics (Fick, 1858), discussing the application of optics, solid mechanics, gas diffusion, and heat budget to biological systems. Fick's paper is divisible into two parts. The first describes his experimental verification of the applicability of Fourier's equation to liquid diffusion. The second is a detailed discussion of diffusion through a membrane. Although Fick's Law specifically quantifies solute flux, Fick visualized a simultaneous movement of water and stated, ''It is evident that a volume of water equal to that of the salt passes simultaneously out of the upper stratum into the lower.'' (Fick, 1855, p.30). Fick drew upon Fourier's model purely by analogy. He assumed that concentration gradient impelled salt movement, without inquiring why concentration gradient should constitute a driving force. As for water movement, he stated intuitively, ''a force of suction comes into play on each side of the membrane, proportional to the difference of concentration

  1. Grigor Narekatsi's astronomical insights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poghosyan, Samvel

    2015-07-01

    What stand out in the solid system of Gr. Narekatsi's naturalistic views are his astronomical insights on the material nature of light, its high speed and the Sun being composed of "material air". Especially surprising and fascinating are his views on stars and their clusters. What astronomers, including great Armenian academician V. Ambartsumian (scattering of stellar associations), would understand and prove with much difficulty thousand years later, Narekatsi predicted in the 10th century: "Stars appear and disappear untimely", "You who gather and scatter the speechless constellations, like a flock of sheep". Gr. Narekatsti's reformative views were manifested in all the spheres of the 10th century social life; he is a reformer of church life, great language constructor, innovator in literature and music, freethinker in philosophy and science. His ideology is the reflection of the 10th century Armenian Renaissance. During the 9th-10th centuries, great masses of Armenians, forced to migrate to the Balkans, took with them and spread reformative ideas. The forefather of the western science, which originated in the period of Reformation, is considered to be the great philosopher Nicholas of Cusa. The study of Gr. Narekatsti's logic and naturalistic views enables us to claim that Gr. Narekatsti is the great grandfather of European science.

  2. Siloxane containing addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maudgal, S.; St. Clair, T. L.

    1984-01-01

    Addition polyimide oligomers have been synthesized from bis(gamma-aminopropyl) tetramethyldisiloxane and 3, 3', 4, 4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride using a variety of latent crosslinking groups as endcappers. The prepolymers were isolated and characterized for solubility (in amide, chlorinated and ether solvents), melt flow and cure properties. The most promising systems, maleimide and acetylene terminated prepolymers, were selected for detailed study. Graphite cloth reinforced composites were prepared and properties compared with those of graphite/Kerimid 601, a commercially available bismaleimide. Mixtures of the maleimide terminated system with Kerimid 601, in varying proportions, were also studied.

  3. Insights from Human/Mouse genome comparisons

    SciTech Connect

    Pennacchio, Len A.

    2003-03-30

    Large-scale public genomic sequencing efforts have provided a wealth of vertebrate sequence data poised to provide insights into mammalian biology. These include deep genomic sequence coverage of human, mouse, rat, zebrafish, and two pufferfish (Fugu rubripes and Tetraodon nigroviridis) (Aparicio et al. 2002; Lander et al. 2001; Venter et al. 2001; Waterston et al. 2002). In addition, a high-priority has been placed on determining the genomic sequence of chimpanzee, dog, cow, frog, and chicken (Boguski 2002). While only recently available, whole genome sequence data have provided the unique opportunity to globally compare complete genome contents. Furthermore, the shared evolutionary ancestry of vertebrate species has allowed the development of comparative genomic approaches to identify ancient conserved sequences with functionality. Accordingly, this review focuses on the initial comparison of available mammalian genomes and describes various insights derived from such analysis.

  4. Platelet additive solution - electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Azuma, Hiroshi; Hirayama, Junichi; Akino, Mitsuaki; Ikeda, Hisami

    2011-06-01

    Recent attention to solutions that replace most or all plasma in platelet concentrates, while maintaining satisfactory platelet function, is motivated by the potential of plasma reduction or depletion to mitigate various transfusion-related adverse events. This report considers the electrolytic composition of previously described platelet additive solutions, in order to draw general conclusions about what is required for platelet function and longevity. The optimal concentrations of Na(+) and Cl(-) are 69-115 mM. The presence of both K(+) and Mg(2+) in platelet suspension at nearly physiological concentrations (3-5mM and 1.5-3mM, respectively) is indispensable for good preservation capacity because both electrolytes are required to prevent platelet activation. In contrast to K(+) and Mg(2+), Ca(2+) may not be important because no free Ca(2+) is available in M-sol, which showed excellent platelet preservation capacity at less than 5% plasma concentration. The importance of bicarbonate (approximately 40 mM) can be recognized when the platelets are suspended in additive solution under less than 5% residual plasma concentration.

  5. Introduction: Cardiovascular physics.

    PubMed

    Wessel, Niels; Kurths, Jürgen; Ditto, William; Bauernschmitt, Robert

    2007-03-01

    The number of patients suffering from cardiovascular diseases increases unproportionally high with the increase of the human population and aging, leading to very high expenses in the public health system. Therefore, the challenge of cardiovascular physics is to develop high-sophisticated methods which are able to, on the one hand, supplement and replace expensive medical devices and, on the other hand, improve the medical diagnostics with decreasing the patient's risk. Cardiovascular physics-which interconnects medicine, physics, biology, engineering, and mathematics-is based on interdisciplinary collaboration of specialists from the above scientific fields and attempts to gain deeper insights into pathophysiology and treatment options. This paper summarizes advances in cardiovascular physics with emphasis on a workshop held in Bad Honnef, Germany, in May 2005. The meeting attracted an interdisciplinary audience and led to a number of papers covering the main research fields of cardiovascular physics, including data analysis, modeling, and medical application. The variety of problems addressed by this issue underlines the complexity of the cardiovascular system. It could be demonstrated in this Focus Issue, that data analyses and modeling methods from cardiovascular physics have the ability to lead to significant improvements in different medical fields. Consequently, this Focus Issue of Chaos is a status report that may invite all interested readers to join the community and find competent discussion and cooperation partners.

  6. Introduction: Cardiovascular physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wessel, Niels; Kurths, Jürgen; Ditto, William; Bauernschmitt, Robert

    2007-03-01

    The number of patients suffering from cardiovascular diseases increases unproportionally high with the increase of the human population and aging, leading to very high expenses in the public health system. Therefore, the challenge of cardiovascular physics is to develop high-sophisticated methods which are able to, on the one hand, supplement and replace expensive medical devices and, on the other hand, improve the medical diagnostics with decreasing the patient's risk. Cardiovascular physics-which interconnects medicine, physics, biology, engineering, and mathematics-is based on interdisciplinary collaboration of specialists from the above scientific fields and attempts to gain deeper insights into pathophysiology and treatment options. This paper summarizes advances in cardiovascular physics with emphasis on a workshop held in Bad Honnef, Germany, in May 2005. The meeting attracted an interdisciplinary audience and led to a number of papers covering the main research fields of cardiovascular physics, including data analysis, modeling, and medical application. The variety of problems addressed by this issue underlines the complexity of the cardiovascular system. It could be demonstrated in this Focus Issue, that data analyses and modeling methods from cardiovascular physics have the ability to lead to significant improvements in different medical fields. Consequently, this Focus Issue of Chaos is a status report that may invite all interested readers to join the community and find competent discussion and cooperation partners.

  7. Fire-Retardant Polymeric Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Martha K.; Smith, Trent M.

    2011-01-01

    Polyhydroxyamide (PHA) and polymethoxyamide (PMeOA) are fire-retardant (FR) thermoplastic polymers and have been found to be useful as an additive for imparting fire retardant properties to other compatible, thermoplastic polymers (including some elastomers). Examples of compatible flammable polymers include nylons, polyesters, and acrylics. Unlike most prior additives, PHA and PMeOA do not appreciably degrade the mechanical properties of the matrix polymer; indeed, in some cases, mechanical properties are enhanced. Also, unlike some prior additives, PHA and PMeOA do not decompose into large amounts of corrosive or toxic compounds during combustion and can be processed at elevated temperatures. PMeOA derivative formulations were synthesized and used as an FR additive in the fabrication of polyamide (PA) and polystyrene (PS) composites with notable reduction (>30 percent for PS) in peak heat release rates compared to the neat polymer as measured by a Cone Calorimeter (ASTM E1354). Synergistic effects were noted with nanosilica composites. These nanosilica composites had more than 50-percent reduction in peak heat release rates. In a typical application, a flammable thermoplastic, thermoplastic blend, or elastomer that one seeks to render flame-retardant is first dry-mixed with PHA or PMeOA or derivative thereof. The proportion of PHA or PMeOA or derivative in the mixture is typically chosen to lie between 1 and 20 weight percent. The dry blend can then be melt-extruded. The extruded polymer blend can further be extruded and/or molded into fibers, pipes, or any other of a variety of objects that may be required to be fire-retardant. The physical and chemical mechanisms which impart flame retardancy of the additive include inhibiting free-radical oxidation in the vapor phase, preventing vaporization of fuel (the polymer), and cooling through the formation of chemical bonds in either the vapor or the condensed phase. Under thermal stress, the cyclic hydroxyl/ methoxy

  8. Additive composition, for gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Vataru, M.

    1989-01-10

    An admixture is described that comprises Diesel fuel and an additive composition added thereto which is between about 0.05 to about 2.0 percent by weight of the fuel, the composition comprising: (a) between about 0.05 and 25% relative weight parts of an organic peroxide, and (b) between about 0.1 and 25% relative weight parts of detergent selected from the component group that consists of: (i) fatty amines; (ii) ethoxylated and propoxylated derivatives of fatty amines; (iii) fatty diamines; (iv) fatty imidazlines; (v) polymeric amines and derivatives thereof; (vi) combination of one or more of the (i) through (v) components with carboxylic acid or acids having from three to forth carbon atoms, (c) from about 99.0 to about 50% by weight of a hydrocarbon solvent.

  9. Teardrop bladder: additional considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Wechsler, R.J.; Brennan, R.E.

    1982-07-01

    Nine cases of teardrop bladder (TDB) seen at excretory urography are presented. In some of these patients, the iliopsoas muscles were at the upper limit of normal in size, and additional evaluation of the perivesical structures with computed tomography (CT) was necessary. CT demonstrated only hypertrophied muscles with or without perivesical fat. The psoas muscles and pelvic width were measured in 8 patients and compared with the measurements of a control group of males without TDB. Patients with TDB had large iliopsoas muscles and narrow pelves compared with the control group. The psoas muscle width/pelvic width ratio was significantly greater (p < 0.0005) in patients with TDB than in the control group, with values of 1.04 + 0.05 and 0.82 + 0.09, respectively. It is concluded that TDB is not an uncommon normal variant in black males. Both iliopsoas muscle hypertrophy and a narrow pelvis are factors that predispose a patient to TDB.

  10. New addition curing polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frimer, Aryeh A.; Cavano, Paul

    1991-01-01

    In an attempt to improve the thermal-oxidative stability (TOS) of PMR-type polymers, the use of 1,4-phenylenebis (phenylmaleic anhydride) PPMA, was evaluated. Two series of nadic end-capped addition curing polyimides were prepared by imidizing PPMA with either 4,4'-methylene dianiline or p-phenylenediamine. The first resulted in improved solubility and increased resin flow while the latter yielded a compression molded neat resin sample with a T(sub g) of 408 C, close to 70 C higher than PME-15. The performance of these materials in long term weight loss studies was below that of PMR-15, independent of post-cure conditions. These results can be rationalized in terms of the thermal lability of the pendant phenyl groups and the incomplete imidization of the sterically congested PPMA. The preparation of model compounds as well as future research directions are discussed.

  11. Perspectives on Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourell, David L.

    2016-07-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has skyrocketed in visibility commercially and in the public sector. This article describes the development of this field from early layered manufacturing approaches of photosculpture, topography, and material deposition. Certain precursors to modern AM processes are also briefly described. The growth of the field over the last 30 years is presented. Included is the standard delineation of AM technologies into seven broad categories. The economics of AM part generation is considered, and the impacts of the economics on application sectors are described. On the basis of current trends, the future outlook will include a convergence of AM fabricators, mass-produced AM fabricators, enabling of topology optimization designs, and specialization in the AM legal arena. Long-term developments with huge impact are organ printing and volume-based printing.

  12. Sewage sludge additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

  13. HPC Insights, Fall 2011

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    applications (32 cores and 256 GB per node), and the remaining 22 nodes are used for graphics or general-purpose computing on GPU-based (NVIDIA Tesla ...started posing technical challenges and additional costs. MG Nikolas Justice, Command General of the Research Development and Engineering Command

  14. Physics gains attraction?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-01-01

    A recent report from the American Institute of Physics has indicated that high school enrolments in physics in the USA have reached their highest level since World War II. Figures for the last decade show an increase in the proportion of high school students taking physics from 20 to 28% (800Â 000 students now), according to Physics Today (October 1999, p 68). The report, Maintaining Momentum: High School Physics for a New Millennium , was based on a 1997 survey of high school physics teachers, the fourth such since the mid-1980s. One conclusion drawn by the report's authors was that a broader range of physics courses is now offered, with increased popularity of `conceptual' physics courses using little algebra or trigonometry over the last ten years. The proportion of students with the strongest maths abilities now taking advanced placement or second-year physics has doubled since 1987. In addition the physics appeal has been noted among high school girls, where the percentage taking physics has risen from 39 to 47% in the ten years to 1997. These female students do not, however, seem to extend their studies into advanced placements or even into teaching physics (women constitute just a quarter of high school teachers of the subject). Sadly the good news is outweighed by the fact that physics still registers the lowest enrolments of all the high school sciences - about half those in chemistry for example. Indeed only around 1% of high school students have taken two years of physics before they graduate, which represents a much lower proportion than in many European and Asian countries. The full report can be viewed at the AIP's statistics division's homepage: www.aip.org/statistics/trends/hstrends.htm whilst summaries of the document are available free from the AIP, Education and Employment Statistics Division, One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA.

  15. Landau and Lifshitz' formulation of Le Chatelier's principle: an insight into symbiosis?

    PubMed

    Halabi, T

    2013-12-01

    A correspondence allows application of Landau and Lifshitz' formulation of Le Chatelier's principle from statistical physics to a simple 2-D model of biological symbiosis. The insight: symbionts stabilize the occupation of narrow peaks on fitness landscape.

  16. Physics, Laboratory Manual-Student Version , 6th Edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutnell, John D.; Johnson, Kenneth W.

    2004-01-01

    This Sixth Edition helps readers understand the interrelationships among basic physics concepts and how they fit together to describe our physical world. Throughout the book, the authors emphasize the relevance of physics to our everyday lives. Real-world physics applications, including many biomedical applications, show how physics principles come into play over and over again in our lives. Problem Solving Insights explain each calculation in detail, guiding readers through the quantitative process Includes a CD containing physics simulations

  17. Physics, AP Student Study Guide, 6th Edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutnell, John D.; Johnson, Kenneth W.

    2003-11-01

    This Sixth Edition helps readers understand the interrelationships among basic physics concepts and how they fit together to describe our physical world. Throughout the book, the authors emphasize the relevance of physics to our everyday lives. Real-world physics applications, including many biomedical applications, show how physics principles come into play over and over again in our lives. Problem Solving Insights explain each calculation in detail, guiding readers through the quantitative process Includes a CD containing physics simulations

  18. Physical Activity among Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Sarah J.; Sturts, Jill R.; Ross, Craig M.

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study provides insight into the perceived physical activity levels of students attending a Midwestern 2-year community college. Over 60% of respondents were classified as overweight or obese based on a BMI measurement. The majority of respondents were not participating regularly in physical activity to gain any health benefits,…

  19. Career Exploration in the Physical Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    The purpose of the teacher's guide is to acquaint ninth grade students with the areas of physical science and the possible occupations within those areas. By exploring some of the basic concepts of chemistry, physics, metallurgy, and geology, students gain insight into the knowledge and skill required by those in occupations related to these…

  20. Pierre Duhem, the History and Philosophy of Physics, and the Teaching of Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowe, M. J.

    1999-03-01

    The distinguished physicist and historian and philosopher of science Pierre Duhem (1861-1916) not only taught physics, but also worked out in his Aim and Structure of Physical Theory a philosophical analysis of physics. Duhem's analysis offers important suggestions about how physics progresses and also how physics should be taught. This essay suggests what advice Duhem would give persons involved in physics teaching about how physics should be presented. In particular, it discusses Duhem's insightful critique of what he called the Newtonian method.

  1. Recent Neurobiological Insights into the Concept of Insight in Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Mythri, Starlin Vijay; Sanjay, Y

    2016-01-01

    The concept of insight in psychosis has been an interesting area in clinical psychiatry for well over a century with a surge in research interest over the past 25 years. Moreover, the past 5 years have been particularly fruitful in deciphering its neurobiological underpinnings. This article presents the development of the concept of insight in psychosis and reviews the current neurobiological research findings in this area. PMID:27335512

  2. Additive lattice kirigami.

    PubMed

    Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D

    2016-09-01

    Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes.

  3. Ceramics with Different Additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Juanjuan; Feng, Lajun; Lei, Ali; Zhao, Kang; Yan, Aijun

    2014-09-01

    Li2CO3, MgCO3, BaCO3, and Bi2O3 dopants were introduced into CaCu3Ti4O12 (CCTO) ceramics in order to improve the dielectric properties. The CCTO ceramics were prepared by conventional solid-state reaction method. The phase structure, microstructure, and dielectric behavior were carefully investigated. The pure structure without any impurity phases can be confirmed by the x-ray diffraction patterns. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis illuminated that the grains of Ca0.90Li0.20Cu3Ti4O12 ceramics were greater than that of pure CCTO. It was important for the properties of the CCTO ceramics to study the additives in complex impedance spectroscopy. It was found that the Ca0.90Li0.20Cu3Ti4O12 ceramics had the higher permittivity (>45000), the lower dielectric loss (<0.025) than those of CCTO at 1 kHz at room temperature and good temperature stability from -30 to 75 °C.

  4. Additive lattice kirigami

    PubMed Central

    Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M.; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D.

    2016-01-01

    Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes. PMID:27679822

  5. 21 CFR 570.18 - Tolerances for related food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... for related food additives. (a) Food additives that cause similar or related pharmacological effects... effects and will be considered as related food additives. (b) Tolerances established for such related food... accomplish the physical or technical effect for which such combined additives are intended and that...

  6. Modern Physics Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Jorge; Correa, Jose

    1999-10-01

    Due to the lack of laboratories for introductory modern physics classes, Dr. Jorge A. Lopez and Mr. Jose Ricardo Correa from the UTEP Physics Department work in the development of computer simulations of important modern physics experiments for the aforementioned physics classes. The presentation will inform the audience about this resource in the instruction of introductory modern physics as well as the success it has had. Introductory modern physics classes expose students to radically new concepts that defy common sense. As if this was not hard enough, students encounter a lack of hands-on activities due to the lack of lab equipment for their modern physics class. This is to be understood since most of the experiments cannot be performed in the conditions university laboratories provide and at the undergraduate level organization. Therefore, much time and effort have been devoted to the development of computer simulations of key modern physics experiments. These virtual experiments are a great alternative that will alleviate the limitations physics professors face when teaching introductory modern physics courses in addition to enchance student understanding.

  7. Tevatron physics

    SciTech Connect

    John Womersley

    2003-01-03

    These lectures form a personal, and not necessarily comprehensive, survey of physics at the Fermilab Tevatron proton-antiproton collider. They cover detectors, analysis issues, and physics prospects for the current Tevatron run.

  8. Physical Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... physical stimulus. Physical stimuli include the following: Cold Sunlight Heat or other stimuli that cause sweating (such ... a foreign substance and attacks it. Sensitivity to sunlight (photosensitivity) is an example. Ultraviolet light changes proteins ...

  9. Physics Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Seventeen experiments in physics are described to demonstrate various physical phenomena. These include the areas of velocity of sound, damped oscillations, plastic deformation of wires, materials, testing, air resistance, spectrum optical filtering, and some new improvised apparatus. (PS)

  10. Physical Therapists

    MedlinePlus

    ... specific educational prerequisites, such as classes in anatomy, physiology, biology, chemistry, and physics. Some programs admit college ... therapist programs often include courses in biomechanics, anatomy, physiology, neuroscience, and pharmacology. Physical therapist students also complete ...

  11. Sports Physicals

    MedlinePlus

    ... season. What Is a Sports Physical? In the sports medicine field, the sports physical exam is known as ... to consider possible conditions you may have. Most sports medicine doctors believe the medical history is the most ...

  12. Physics Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Described are 13 physics experiments/demonstrations applicable to introductory physics courses. Activities include: improved current balance, division circuits, liquid pressure, convection, siphons, oscillators and modulation, electrical resistance, soap films, Helmholtz coils, radioactive decay, and springs. (SL)

  13. On the physical nature of halogen bonds: a QTAIM study.

    PubMed

    Syzgantseva, Olga A; Tognetti, Vincent; Joubert, Laurent

    2013-09-12

    In this article, we report a detailed study on halogen bonds in complexes of CHCBr, CHCCl, CH2CHBr, FBr, FCl, and ClBr with a set of Lewis bases (NH3, OH2, SH2, OCH2, OH(-), Br(-)). To obtain insight into the physical nature of these bonds, we extensively used Bader's Quantum Theory of Atoms-in-Molecules (QTAIM). With this aim, in addition to the examination of the bond critical points properties, we apply Pendás' Interacting Quantum Atoms (IQA) scheme, which enables rigorous and physical study of each interaction at work in the formation of the halogen-bonded complexes. In particular, the influence of primary and secondary interactions on the stability of the complexes is analyzed, and the roles of electrostatics and exchange are notably discussed and compared. Finally, relationships between QTAIM descriptors and binding energies are inspected.

  14. Insights in Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Donohoe Mather, Carolyn M; McGurk, Meghan D

    2014-01-01

    Over half of the adults in Hawai‘i are overweight or obese, exposing them to increased risk for chronic diseases and resulting in higher health care expenses. Poor dietary habits and physical inactivity are important contributors to obesity and overweight. Because adults spend most of their waking hours at work, the workplace is an important setting for interventions to solve this growing problem. Changing the nutrition environment to support healthy eating is a recommended practice for worksite wellness interventions. Following this recommendation, the Hawai‘i State Department of Health (DOH) launched the Choose Healthy Now! Healthy Vending Pilot Project to increase access to healthy options in worksites. Choose Healthy Now! utilized an education campaign and a traffic light nutrition coding system (green = go, yellow = slow, red = uh-oh), based on federal nutrition guidelines, to help employees identify the healthier options in their worksite snack shops. Inventory of healthy items was increased and product placement techniques were used to help make the healthy choice the easy choice. DOH partnered with the Department of Human Services' Ho‘opono Vending Program to pilot the project in six government buildings on O‘ahu between May and September of 2014. Vendors added new green (healthy) and yellow (intermediate) options to their snack shop and cafeteria inventories, and labeled their snacks and beverages with green and yellow point-of-decision stickers. The following article outlines background and preliminary findings from the Choose Healthy Now! pilot. PMID:25414808

  15. Sports Physicals

    MedlinePlus

    ... stronger athlete. previous continue When & Where Should I Go for a Sports Physical? Some people go to their own doctor for a sports physical; ... one at school. During school physicals, you may go to half a dozen or so "stations" set ...

  16. Insights in Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Choy, Lehua B; Smith, Heidi Hansen; Espiritu, Justine; Higa, Earl; Lee, Thomas; Maddock, Jay

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In 2011, a small pilot bike share program was established in the town core of Kailua, Hawai‘i, with funding from the Hawai‘i State Department of Health. The Kailua system consisted of two stations with 12 bicycles, and the goal was to secure additional funding to expand the station network in the future. Community feedback consistently indicated support for the bike share program. However, system metrics showed low levels of usage, averaging 41.5 rides per month (2011–2014). From observational data, users were primarily tourists. With minimal local staff, the bike share program had limited resources for promotion and education, which may have hindered potential use by local residents. Management of station operations and bike maintenance were additional, ongoing barriers to success. Despite the challenges, the pilot bike share program was valuable in several ways. It introduced the bike share concept to Hawai‘i, thereby helping to build awareness and connect an initial network of stakeholders. Furthermore, the pilot bike share program informed the development of a larger bike share program for urban Honolulu. As limited information exists in the literature about the experiences of smaller bike share programs and their unique considerations, this article shares lessons learned for other communities interested in starting similar bike share programs. PMID:26535166

  17. Insights in Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Oshiro, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Reducing the occurrence of and influencing the rapid correction of food illness risk factors is a common goal for all governmental food regulatory programs nationwide. Foodborne illness in the United States is a major cause of personal distress, preventable illness, and death. To improve public health outcomes, additional workforce was required due to long standing staffing shortages and was obtained partially through consolidation of the Hawai‘i Department of Health's (HDOH) two food safety programs, the Sanitation Branch, and the Food & Drug Branch in July 2012, and through legislation that amended existing statutes governing the use of food establishment permit fees. Additionally, a more transparent food establishment grading system was developed after extensive work with industry partners based on three possible placards issued after routine inspections: green, yellow, and red. From late July 2014 to May 2015, there were 6,559 food establishments inspected statewide using the placard system with 79% receiving a green, 21% receiving a yellow, and no red placards issued. Sufficient workforce to allow timely inspections, continued governmental transparency, and use of new technologies are important to improve food safety for the public. PMID:26279966

  18. Insights into sleep's role for insight: Studies with the number reduction task.

    PubMed

    Verleger, Rolf; Rose, Michael; Wagner, Ullrich; Yordanova, Juliana; Kolev, Vasil

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, vibrant research has developed on "consolidation" during sleep: To what extent are newly experienced impressions reprocessed or even restructured during sleep? We used the number reduction task (NRT) to study if and how sleep does not only reiterate new experiences but may even lead to new insights. In the NRT, covert regularities may speed responses. This implicit acquisition of regularities may become explicitly conscious at some point, leading to a qualitative change in behavior which reflects this insight. By applying the NRT at two consecutive sessions separated by an interval, we investigated the role of sleep in this interval for attaining insight at the second session. In the first study, a night of sleep was shown to triple the number of participants attaining insight above the base rate of about 20%. In the second study, this hard core of 20% discoverers differed from other participants in their task-related EEG potentials from the very beginning already. In the third study, the additional role of sleep was specified as an effect of the deep-sleep phase of slow-wave sleep on participants who had implicitly acquired the covert regularity before sleep. It was in these participants that a specific increase of EEG during slow-wave sleep in the 10-12 Hz band was obtained. These results support the view that neuronal memory reprocessing during slow-wave sleep restructures task-related representations in the brain, and that such restructuring promotes the gain of explicit knowledge.

  19. Mechanistic insights into hydroacylation with non-chelating aldehydes†Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Materials and methods, reaction procedures, characterization data. CCDC 1012849. For ESI and crystallographic data in CIF or other electronic format see DOI: 10.1039/c4sc02026jClick here for additional data file.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Stephen K; Bruch, Achim; Dong, Vy M

    2015-01-01

    The combination of a small-bite-angle diphosphine bis(dicyclohexylphosphino)methane (dcpm) and [Rh(cod)OMe]2 catalyses the hydroacylation of 2-vinylphenols with a wide range of non-chelating aldehydes. Here we present a detailed experimental study that elucidates the factors contributing to the broad aldehyde scope and high reactivity. A variety of catalytically relevant intermediates were isolated and a [Rh(dcpm)(vinylphenolate)] complex was identified as the major catalytically relevant species. A variety of off-cycle intermediates were also identified that can re-enter the catalytic cycle by substrate- or 1,5-cyclooctadiene-mediated pathways. Saturation kinetics with respect to the 2-vinylphenol were observed, and this may contribute to the high selectivity for hydroacylation over aldehyde decarbonylation. A series of deuterium labelling experiments and Hammett studies support the oxidative addition of Rh to the aldehyde C-H bond as an irreversible and turnover-limiting step. The small bite angle of dcpm is crucial for lowering the barrier of this step and providing excellent reactivity with a variety of aldehydes.

  20. Biophysical insight into mechanisms of sonoporation

    PubMed Central

    Helfield, Brandon; Chen, Xucai; Watkins, Simon C.; Villanueva, Flordeliza S.

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a unique approach to understanding the biophysical mechanisms of ultrasound-triggered cell membrane disruption (i.e., sonoporation). We report direct correlations between ultrasound-stimulated encapsulated microbubble oscillation physics and the resulting cellular membrane permeability by simultaneous microscopy of these two processes over their intrinsic physical timescales (microseconds for microbubble dynamics and seconds to minutes for local macromolecule uptake and cell membrane reorganization). We show that there exists a microbubble oscillation-induced shear-stress threshold, on the order of kilopascals, beyond which endothelial cellular membrane permeability increases. The shear-stress threshold exhibits an inverse square-root relation to the number of oscillation cycles and an approximately linear dependence on ultrasound frequency from 0.5 to 2 MHz. Further, via real-time 3D confocal microscopy measurements, our data provide evidence that a sonoporation event directly results in the immediate generation of membrane pores through both apical and basal cell membrane layers that reseal along their lateral area (resealing time of ∼<2 min). Finally, we demonstrate the potential for sonoporation to indirectly initiate prolonged, intercellular gaps between adjacent, confluent cells (∼>30–60 min). This real-time microscopic approach has provided insight into both the physical, cavitation-based mechanisms of sonoporation and the biophysical, cell-membrane–based mechanisms by which microbubble acoustic behaviors cause acute and sustained enhancement of cellular and vascular permeability. PMID:27551081

  1. Physics of the Mind.

    PubMed

    Perlovsky, Leonid I

    2016-01-01

    Is it possible to turn psychology into "hard science"? Physics of the mind follows the fundamental methodology of physics in all areas where physics have been developed. What is common among Newtonian mechanics, statistical physics, quantum physics, thermodynamics, theory of relativity, astrophysics… and a theory of superstrings? The common among all areas of physics is a methodology of physics discussed in the first few lines of the paper. Is physics of the mind possible? Is it possible to describe the mind based on the few first principles as physics does? The mind with its variabilities and uncertainties, the mind from perception and elementary cognition to emotions and abstract ideas, to high cognition. Is it possible to turn psychology and neuroscience into "hard" sciences? The paper discusses established first principles of the mind, their mathematical formulations, and a mathematical model of the mind derived from these first principles, mechanisms of concepts, emotions, instincts, behavior, language, cognition, intuitions, conscious and unconscious, abilities for symbols, functions of the beautiful and musical emotions in cognition and evolution. Some of the theoretical predictions have been experimentally confirmed. This research won national and international awards. In addition to summarizing existing results the paper describes new development theoretical and experimental. The paper discusses unsolved theoretical problems as well as experimental challenges for future research.

  2. Physics of the Mind

    PubMed Central

    Perlovsky, Leonid I.

    2016-01-01

    Is it possible to turn psychology into “hard science”? Physics of the mind follows the fundamental methodology of physics in all areas where physics have been developed. What is common among Newtonian mechanics, statistical physics, quantum physics, thermodynamics, theory of relativity, astrophysics… and a theory of superstrings? The common among all areas of physics is a methodology of physics discussed in the first few lines of the paper. Is physics of the mind possible? Is it possible to describe the mind based on the few first principles as physics does? The mind with its variabilities and uncertainties, the mind from perception and elementary cognition to emotions and abstract ideas, to high cognition. Is it possible to turn psychology and neuroscience into “hard” sciences? The paper discusses established first principles of the mind, their mathematical formulations, and a mathematical model of the mind derived from these first principles, mechanisms of concepts, emotions, instincts, behavior, language, cognition, intuitions, conscious and unconscious, abilities for symbols, functions of the beautiful and musical emotions in cognition and evolution. Some of the theoretical predictions have been experimentally confirmed. This research won national and international awards. In addition to summarizing existing results the paper describes new development theoretical and experimental. The paper discusses unsolved theoretical problems as well as experimental challenges for future research. PMID:27895558

  3. The Psychology of Physical Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feist, Gregory J.

    2006-12-01

    Who becomes a physical scientist is not completely a coincidence. People with spatial talent and who are thing-oriented are most likely to be attracted to physical science, including astronomy. Additional lessons from the psychology of science suggest that compared with non-scientists and social scientists, physical scientists are most likely to be introverted, independent, self-confident, and yet somewhat arrogant. Understanding the physical and inanimate world is part of what physical scientists do, and understanding those who understand the physical world is part of what psychologists of science do.

  4. Insights in Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Chock, Linda R; Hayes, Donald K; Tomiyasu, Danette Wong

    2014-01-01

    The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) is a proven, cost-effective investment in strengthening families. As part of the United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA) 15 federal nutrition assistance programs for the past 40 years, WIC has grown to be the nation's leading public health nutrition program. WIC serves as an important first access point to health care and social service systems for many limited resource families, serving approximately half the births in the nation as well as locally. By providing nutrition education, breastfeeding promotion and foods in addition to referrals, WIC plays a crucial role in promoting lifetime health for women, infants and children. WIC helps achieve national public health goals such as reducing premature births and infant mortality, increasing breastfeeding, and reducing maternal and childhood overweight. Though individuals and families can self-refer into WIC, physicians and allied health professionals have the opportunity and are encouraged to promote awareness of WIC and refer families in their care. PMID:25285258

  5. Behavioral and mechanistic insight into rodent empathy.

    PubMed

    Sivaselvachandran, Sivaani; Acland, Erinn L; Abdallah, Salsabil; Martin, Loren J

    2016-06-14

    Empathy is a psychological construct that allows individuals to understand and share the emotions of others. The ability to share emotional states relies on basic social mechanisms, such as mimicry and emotional contagion, which are considered building blocks for empathy. Mimicking another's emotional or physical state is essential for successful social interactions and is found in a number of animal species. For the current review we focus on emotional state sharing in rodents, a core feature of empathy that is often measured using pain and fear as proxies; we also discuss prosociality in rodents. The evidence for empathy in rodents shows that rats and mice consistently imitate arousal states and behaviors of conspecifics and will even sacrifice personal gain to relieve the distress of a conspecific. These behaviors support basic processes that are crucial for the survival of individual animals and give us insight into the neural mechanisms that govern empathy-related behaviors.

  6. Human Outreach through Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kant Shukla, Padma

    2006-10-01

    In this talk unique methods for human outreach through physics are described. The focus is on identifying young talented researchers and colleagues around the globe and nourish them for the purpose of diffusing physics knowledge. The goal can be achieved through the organization of international conferences, workshops, seminars, and colleagues, at different locations, invite young and experienced researchers to those meetings, invite them to your home institution, in addition to visiting their universities/laboratories for mentoring and exchanging physics knowledge. The scientific part shall deal with collective processes and coherent nonlinear effects in space and laboratory plasmas.

  7. Additional Crime Scenes for Projectile Motion Unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fullerton, Dan; Bonner, David

    2011-12-01

    Building students' ability to transfer physics fundamentals to real-world applications establishes a deeper understanding of underlying concepts while enhancing student interest. Forensic science offers a great opportunity for students to apply physics to highly engaging, real-world contexts. Integrating these opportunities into inquiry-based problem solving in a team environment provides a terrific backdrop for fostering communication, analysis, and critical thinking skills. One such activity, inspired jointly by the museum exhibit "CSI: The Experience"2 and David Bonner's TPT article "Increasing Student Engagement and Enthusiasm: A Projectile Motion Crime Scene,"3 provides students with three different crime scenes, each requiring an analysis of projectile motion. In this lesson students socially engage in higher-order analysis of two-dimensional projectile motion problems by collecting information from 3-D scale models and collaborating with one another on its interpretation, in addition to diagramming and mathematical analysis typical to problem solving in physics.

  8. Muscle dysmorphia: current insights

    PubMed Central

    Tod, David; Edwards, Christian; Cranswick, Ieuan

    2016-01-01

    Since 1997, there has been increasing research focusing on muscle dysmorphia, a condition underpinned by people’s beliefs that they have insufficient muscularity, in both the Western and non-Western medical and scientific communities. Much of this empirical interest has surveyed nonclinical samples, and there is limited understanding of people with the condition beyond knowledge about their characteristics. Much of the existing knowledge about people with the condition is unsurprising and inherent in the definition of the disorder, such as dissatisfaction with muscularity and adherence to muscle-building activities. Only recently have investigators started to explore questions beyond these limited tautological findings that may give rise to substantial knowledge advances, such as the examination of masculine and feminine norms. There is limited understanding of additional topics such as etiology, prevalence, nosology, prognosis, and treatment. Further, the evidence is largely based on a small number of unstandardized case reports and descriptive studies (involving small samples), which are largely confined to Western (North American, British, and Australian) males. Although much research has been undertaken since the term “muscle dysmorphia” entered the psychiatric lexicon in 1997, there remains tremendous scope for knowledge advancement. A primary task in the short term is for investigators to examine the extent to which the condition exists among well-defined populations to help determine the justification for research funding relative to other public health issues. A greater variety of research questions and designs may contribute to a broader and more robust knowledge base than currently exists. Future work will help clinicians assist a group of people whose quality of life and health are placed at risk by their muscular preoccupation. PMID:27536165

  9. Understanding Insight in the Context of Q

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coghlan, David

    2012-01-01

    In Revans' learning formula, L = P + Q, Q represents "questioning insight", by which Revans means that insight comes out of the process of questioning programmed knowledge (P) in the light of experience. We typically focus on the content of an insight rather than on the act of insight. Drawing primarily on the work of Bernard Lonergan this paper…

  10. Neutrino physics

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, Deborah A.; /Fermilab

    2008-09-01

    The field of neutrino physics has expanded greatly in recent years with the discovery that neutrinos change flavor and therefore have mass. Although there are many neutrino physics results since the last DIS workshop, these proceedings concentrate on recent neutrino physics results that either add to or depend on the understanding of Deep Inelastic Scattering. They also describe the short and longer term future of neutrino DIS experiments.

  11. Action physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGinness, Lachlan P.; Savage, C. M.

    2016-09-01

    More than a decade ago, Edwin Taylor issued a "call to action" that presented the case for basing introductory university mechanics teaching around the principle of stationary action [E. F. Taylor, Am. J. Phys. 71, 423-425 (2003)]. We report on our response to that call in the form of an investigation of the teaching and learning of the stationary action formulation of physics in a first-year university course. Our action physics instruction proceeded from the many-paths approach to quantum physics to ray optics, classical mechanics, and relativity. Despite the challenges presented by action physics, students reported it to be accessible, interesting, motivational, and valuable.

  12. Physical composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Healey, Richard

    2013-02-01

    Atomistic metaphysics motivated an explanatory strategy which science has pursued with great success since the scientific revolution. By decomposing matter into its atomic and subatomic parts physics gave us powerful explanations and accurate predictions as well as providing a unifying framework for the rest of science. The success of the decompositional strategy has encouraged a widespread conviction that the physical world forms a compositional hierarchy that physics and other sciences are progressively articulating. But this conviction does not stand up to a closer examination of how physics has treated composition, as a variety of case studies will show.

  13. Insights in Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimoto, D Kaulana; Robertson, N Tod; Hayes, Donald K

    2014-01-01

    Home visiting services are cost-effective and improve the health of children and families among those at increased risk. From 1985–2008, home visiting services in Hawai‘i were provided primarily through state funding of the Hawai‘i Healthy Start Program, but the program was severely reduced due to the economy and state budget changes over the past decade. The Maternal and Child Health Branch (MCHB) in the Family Health Services Division responded to these changes by seeking out competitive grant opportunities and collaborations in order to continue to promote home visiting services to those children and families in need. In 2010, the MCHB was awarded a federally funded Maternal, Infant and Early Childhood Home Visiting (MIECHV) grant for home visiting services to promote maternal, infant, and early childhood health, safety and development, strong parent-child relationships, and responsible parenting. In 2011, the MCHB was also awarded a competitive MIECHV development grant that funded the re-establishment of the hospital Early Identification program. Families in need of additional support identified through this program are referred for family strengthening services to a network of existing home visiting programs called the Hawai‘i Home Visiting Network (HHVN). The HHVN is supported by MIECHV and a small amount of state funds to assist programs with capacity building, training, professional development, quality assurance, and accreditation/certification support. The MIECHV grant requires that programs are evidence-based and address specific outcome measures and benchmarks. The HHVN provides home visiting services to families prenatally through 5 years of age that reside in specific at-risk communities, and is aimed at fostering positive parenting and reducing child maltreatment using a strength-based approach by targeting six protective factors: (1) social connections, (2) nurturing and attachment, (3) knowledge of parenting and child development, (4

  14. Shedding light on insight: Priming bright ideas

    PubMed Central

    Slepian, Michael L.; Weisbuch, Max; Rutchick, Abraham M.; Newman, Leonard S.; Ambady, Nalini

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has characterized insight as the product of internal processes, and has thus investigated the cognitive and motivational processes that immediately precede it. In this research, however, we investigate whether insight can be catalyzed by a cultural artifact, an external object imbued with learned meaning. Specifically, we exposed participants to an illuminating lightbulb – an iconic image of insight – prior to or during insight problem-solving. Across four studies, exposing participants to an illuminating lightbulb primed concepts associated with achieving an insight, and enhanced insight problem-solving in three different domains (spatial, verbal, and mathematical), but did not enhance general (non-insight) problem-solving. PMID:20652087

  15. Shedding light on insight: Priming bright ideas.

    PubMed

    Slepian, Michael L; Weisbuch, Max; Rutchick, Abraham M; Newman, Leonard S; Ambady, Nalini

    2010-07-01

    Previous research has characterized insight as the product of internal processes, and has thus investigated the cognitive and motivational processes that immediately precede it. In this research, however, we investigate whether insight can be catalyzed by a cultural artifact, an external object imbued with learned meaning. Specifically, we exposed participants to an illuminating lightbulb - an iconic image of insight - prior to or during insight problem-solving. Across four studies, exposing participants to an illuminating lightbulb primed concepts associated with achieving an insight, and enhanced insight problem-solving in three different domains (spatial, verbal, and mathematical), but did not enhance general (non-insight) problem-solving.

  16. Foreword: Additive Manufacturing: Interrelationships of Fabrication, Constitutive Relationships Targeting Performance, and Feedback to Process Control

    DOE PAGES

    Carpenter, John S.; Beese, Allison M.; Bourell, David L.; ...

    2015-06-26

    Additive manufacturing (AM) offers distinct advantages over conventional manufacturing processes including the capability to both build and repair complex part shapes; to integrate and consolidate parts and thus overcome joining concerns; and to locally tailor material compositions as well as properties. Moreover, a variety of fields such as aerospace, military, automotive, and biomedical are employing this manufacturing technique as a way to decrease costs, increase manufacturing agility, and explore novel geometry/functionalities. In order to increase acceptance of AM as a viable processing method, pathways for qualifying both the material and the process need to be developed and, perhaps, standardized. Thismore » symposium was designed to serve as a venue for the international AM community—including government, academia, and industry—to define the fundamental interrelationships between feedstock, processing, microstructure, shape, mechanical behavior/materials properties, and function/performance. Eventually, insight into the connections between processing, microstructure, property, and performance will be achieved through experimental observations, theoretical advances, and computational modeling of physical processes. Finally, once this insight matures, AM will be able to move from the realm of making parts to making qualified materials that are certified for use with minimal need for post-fabrication characterization.« less

  17. Foreword: Additive Manufacturing: Interrelationships of Fabrication, Constitutive Relationships Targeting Performance, and Feedback to Process Control

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, John S.; Beese, Allison M.; Bourell, David L.; Hamilton, Reginald F.; Mishra, Rajiv; Sears, James

    2015-06-26

    Additive manufacturing (AM) offers distinct advantages over conventional manufacturing processes including the capability to both build and repair complex part shapes; to integrate and consolidate parts and thus overcome joining concerns; and to locally tailor material compositions as well as properties. Moreover, a variety of fields such as aerospace, military, automotive, and biomedical are employing this manufacturing technique as a way to decrease costs, increase manufacturing agility, and explore novel geometry/functionalities. In order to increase acceptance of AM as a viable processing method, pathways for qualifying both the material and the process need to be developed and, perhaps, standardized. This symposium was designed to serve as a venue for the international AM community—including government, academia, and industry—to define the fundamental interrelationships between feedstock, processing, microstructure, shape, mechanical behavior/materials properties, and function/performance. Eventually, insight into the connections between processing, microstructure, property, and performance will be achieved through experimental observations, theoretical advances, and computational modeling of physical processes. Finally, once this insight matures, AM will be able to move from the realm of making parts to making qualified materials that are certified for use with minimal need for post-fabrication characterization.

  18. [Cannabis in France, new insights].

    PubMed

    Costentin, Jean

    2014-03-01

    France holds the record for cannabis use in Europe, especially among adolescents. This drug of abuse is thus mainly used during a very sensitive period of brain development, education, vehicle driving and development of life projects. In addition, synthetic derivatives of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which are more noxious than cannabis itself are now appearing on the market. Traficking and cultivation for personnal use have intensified; products proposed for sale are richer in THC; and some methods of consumption (e-cigarettes, vaporizers, water pipes) increase the supply of THC to the lungs and thence to the body and brain. It is in this context that attempts are being made to legalize this drug of abuse. Other attempts are made to disguise it as a medication. Meanwhile, the list of its psychic as well as physical damages grows longer, with some very severe cases of major injuries. This evolution takes place in spite of numerous warnings expressed by the French Academy of Medicine. Subsequently, it is prompted to carefully and vigorously denounce these events. This will be the aim of this thematic session.

  19. Cratering at the Icy Satellites: Experimental Insights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruck Syal, M.; Schultz, P. H.

    2013-12-01

    calculate that 0.6% of the initial kinetic energy of the impactor is partitioned into the internal energy of the vapor plume. This is slightly higher than values determined in prior studies for non-porous CO2 ice (0.2%) [Schultz, 1996]. As CO2 ice possesses a lower vaporization temperature than water ice, this effect strongly suggests a role for porosity in enhancing vaporization. This is expected, as the compaction of porous materials performs additional, irreversible PdV work on the target, causing enhanced partitioning of kinetic energy into internal energy. At oblique impact angles, plume morphology changes dramatically while vaporization is enhanced. Comparing shock wave velocity attenuation in porous materials, including mixes of materials (e.g., quartz sand and porous ice), to numerical results obtained from shock physics codes such as CTH, provides insight into how impacts into porous ice-rich materials can be most accurately numerically modeled.

  20. Climate Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Space, William

    2007-01-01

    Numerous connections exist between climate science and topics normally covered in physics and physical science courses. For instance, lessons on heat and light can be used to introduce basic climate science, and the study of electric circuits provides a context for studying the relationship between electricity consumption and carbon pollution. To…

  1. Playful Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, David

    2008-01-01

    Effectively communicate qualitative and quantitative information orally and in writing. Explain the application of fundamental physical principles to various physical phenomena. Apply appropriate problem-solving techniques to practical and meaningful problems using graphical, mathematical, and written modeling tools. Work effectively in collaborative groups.

  2. Physics Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Describes equipment, activities, and experiments useful in physics instruction, including among others, a list of articles relating to physics topics, computer interface that makes a computer cost effective, use of a guitar in vibrating string experiments, and photoelectric aids to the measurement of distance, speed, velocity, and acceleration.…

  3. Getting Physical.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Erin

    1998-01-01

    Discusses how high schools are responding to the decline in student physical fitness with new facilities that attract students to fitness. Use of alternative sports, e.g., hiking, climbing, and in-line skating is discussed; as are creating new facilities that encourage student use through technology; and integrating physical education with other…

  4. Bayesian Inference of Giant Exoplanet Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorngren, Daniel; Fortney, Jonathan J.

    2017-01-01

    The physical processes within a giant planet directly set its observed radius for a given mass, age, and insolation. The important aspects are the planet’s bulk composition and its interior thermal evolution. By studying many giant planets as an ensemble, we can gain insight into this physics. We demonstrate two novel examples here. We examine 50 cooler transiting giant planets, whose insolation is sufficiently low (T_eff < 1000 K) that they are not affected by the hot Jupiter radius inflation effect. For these planets, the thermal evolution is relatively well understood, and we show that the bulk planet metallicity increases with the total planet mass, which directly impacts plans for future atmospheric studies. We also examine the relation with stellar metallicity and discuss how these relations place new constraints on the core accretion model of planet formation. Our newest work seeks to quantify the flow of energy into hot Jupiters needed to explain their enlarged radii, in addition to their bulk composition. Because the former is related to stellar insolation and the latter is related to mass, we are able to create a hierarchical Bayesian model to disentangle the two effects in our sample of ~300 transiting giant planets. Our results show conclusively that the inflation power is not a simple fraction of stellar insolation: instead, the power increases with incident flux at a much higher rate. We use these results to test published models of giant planet inflation and to provide accurate empirical mass-radius relations for giant planets.

  5. New Insight into Cataract Formation: Enhanced Stability through Mutual Attraction

    SciTech Connect

    Stradner, A.; Schurtenberger, P.; Foffi, G.; Dorsaz, N.; Thurston, G.

    2007-11-09

    Small-angle neutron scattering experiments and molecular dynamics simulations combined with an application of concepts from soft matter physics to complex protein mixtures provide new insight into the stability of eye lens protein mixtures. Exploring this colloid-protein analogy we demonstrate that weak attractions between unlike proteins help to maintain lens transparency in an extremely sensitive and nonmonotonic manner. These results not only represent an important step towards a better understanding of protein condensation diseases such as cataract formation, but provide general guidelines for tuning the stability of colloid mixtures, a topic relevant for soft matter physics and industrial applications.

  6. Additional stories of microRNAs.

    PubMed

    Lee, Heon-Jin

    2014-10-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to be major regulators of eukaryotic gene expression. Traditionally, miRNAs were thought to control highly complex signal transduction and other biological pathways by targeting coding transcripts, accounting for their important role in cellular events. Traditional miRNA biogenesis and function focused on several key enzymes that functioned in miRNA maturation and miRNA inhibitory function upon binding to 3'-untranslated region of target transcripts. However, recent studies have revealed that miRNA biosynthesis and function is complicated, with many exceptions to conventional miRNA mechanisms. In addition to those noncanonical miRNA functions, this review introduces newly discovered biogenesis and regulatory mechanisms, as well as a new class of miRNA-sized small RNA and miRNA methylation. miRNA inhibition and intercellular miRNA signaling are also discussed. Taken together, these insights extend current understanding of miRNAs.

  7. The physical nature of information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landauer, Rolf

    1996-07-01

    Information is inevitably tied to a physical representation and therefore to restrictions and possibilities related to the laws of physics and the parts available in the universe. Quantum mechanical superpositions of information bearing states can be used, and the real utility of that needs to be understood. Quantum parallelism in computation is one possibility and will be assessed pessimistically. The energy dissipation requirements of computation, of measurement and of the communications link are discussed. The insights gained from the analysis of computation has caused a reappraisal of the perceived wisdom in the other two fields. A concluding section speculates about the nature of the laws of physics, which are algorithms for the handling of information, and must be executable in our real physical universe.

  8. New insights into Drosophila vision.

    PubMed

    Dolph, Patrick

    2008-01-10

    Studies of the Drosophila visual system have provided valuable insights into the function and regulation of phototransduction signaling pathways. Much of this work has stemmed from or relied upon the genetic tools offered by the Drosophila system. In this issue of Neuron, Wang and colleagues and Acharya and colleagues have further exploited the Drosophila genetic system to characterize two new phototransduction players.

  9. Psychology of Sport. Issues & Insights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, A. Craig, Ed.

    This book is designed to provide instructors and students in sport psychology courses with a learning instrument that combines the continuity of a textbook with the range of opinion, in-depth treatment of selected issues, and insight into research methods of a book of readings. The subject is divided into four topical categories. Under the heading…

  10. Investigating Insight as Sudden Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ash, Ivan K.; Jee, Benjamin D.; Wiley, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Gestalt psychologists proposed two distinct learning mechanisms. Associative learning occurs gradually through the repeated co-occurrence of external stimuli or memories. Insight learning occurs suddenly when people discover new relationships within their prior knowledge as a result of reasoning or problem solving processes that re-organize or…

  11. Insights from a Math Phobic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodd, Anne Wescott

    1992-01-01

    The author's personal experiences in overcoming mathematics anxiety provide insights into how teachers can create a classroom environment to help students develop self-confidence by assessing students' feelings, using cooperative-learning techniques, showing more patience, and having students write about their experiences. (MDH)

  12. Further Insight and Additional Inference Methods for Polynomial Regression Applied to the Analysis of Congruence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Ayala; Nahum-Shani, Inbal; Doveh, Etti

    2010-01-01

    In their seminal paper, Edwards and Parry (1993) presented the polynomial regression as a better alternative to applying difference score in the study of congruence. Although this method is increasingly applied in congruence research, its complexity relative to other methods for assessing congruence (e.g., difference score methods) was one of the…

  13. Precise control of polymer coated nanopores by nanoparticle additives: Insights from computational modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eskandari Nasrabad, Afshin; Jasnow, David; Zilman, Anton; Coalson, Rob D.

    2016-08-01

    Polymer-nanoparticle composites are a promising new class of materials for creation of controllable nano-patterned surfaces and nanopores. We use coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations augmented with analytical theory to study the structural transitions of surface grafted polymer layers (brushes) induced by infiltration of nanoparticles that are attracted to the polymers in the layer. We systematically compare two different polymer brush geometries: one where the polymer chains are grafted to a planar surface and the other where the chains are grafted to the inside of a cylindrical nanochannel. We perform a comprehensive study of the effects of the material parameters such as the polymer chain length, chain grafting density, nanoparticle size, strength of attraction between nanoparticles and polymer monomers, and, in the case of the cylindrically grafted brush, the radius of the cylinder. We find a very general behavioral motif for all geometries and parameter values: the height of the polymer brush is non-monotonic in the nanoparticle concentration in solution. As the nanoparticle concentration increases, the brush height first decreases and after passing through a minimum value begins to increase, resulting in the swelling of the nanoparticle infused brush. These morphological features may be useful for devising tunable "smart" nano-devices whose effective dimensions can be reversibly and precisely adjusted by changing the nanoparticle concentration in solution. The results of approximate Self-Consistent Field Theory (SCFT) calculations, applicable in the regime of strong brush stretching, are compared to the simulation results. The SCFT calculations are found to be qualitatively, even semi-quantitatively, accurate when applied within their intended regime of validity, and provide a useful and efficient tool for modeling such materials.

  14. Female Employment and Reduced Family Size: Some Additional Insight on the Direction of the Relationship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houseknecht, Sharon K.

    Results of a study of the relationship between female employment and reduced family size are reported. Specifically, the study sought to determine whether career involvement precedes the final family size decision or whether the family size decision precedes career involvement. Thirty-two voluntarily childless women constituted the sample. The…

  15. A multi-gene phylogeny provides additional insight into the relationships between several Ascosphaera species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ascosphaera fungi are highly associated with social and solitary bees. This genus includes an important group of bee pathogens, the chalkbrood fungi, and thus proper identification of species and an understanding of their relationships are important. However, Ascosphaera spp. are often unculturable...

  16. The Physics Force presents The Physics Circus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlberg, E. Dan

    2015-03-01

    The Physics Force of the University of Minnesota is an outreach program developed with the goal to show students and the public Science is Fun, Science is Interesting, and Science is Understandable. The program grew from a rather small effort by three high school physics teachers and two University of Minnesota staff members. In the almost three decades since its humble beginnings of 100 attendees in a year, it has grown to an average attendance of over 36,000 annually. In the last three years alone, about 110,000 Minnesotans have seen a performance of The Physics Circus which is roughly 2% of the population of the state. In addition to the performances in Minnesota, The Force performed two years at Disney's Epcot Center, was featured on Newton's Apple, and made appearances on the very successful German TV science show, the Knoff-Hoff Show. I will begin the talk with some of our motivation to develop The Physics Force arising from the current ``scientific state'' of our society and then provide more information on The Force including both some history and examples taken from our Physics Circus.

  17. Insights into large-scale cell-culture reactors: I. Liquid mixing and oxygen supply.

    PubMed

    Sieblist, Christian; Jenzsch, Marco; Pohlscheidt, Michael; Lübbert, Andreas

    2011-12-01

    In the pharmaceutical industry, it is state of the art to produce recombinant proteins and antibodies with animal-cell cultures using bioreactors with volumes of up to 20 m(3) . Recent guidelines and position papers for the industry by the US FDA and the European Medicines Agency stress the necessity of mechanistic insights into large-scale bioreactors. A detailed mechanistic view of their practically relevant subsystems is required as well as their mutual interactions, i.e., mixing or homogenization of the culture broth and sufficient mass and heat transfer. In large-scale bioreactors for animal-cell cultures, different agitation systems are employed. Here, we discuss details of the flows induced in stirred tank reactors relevant for animal-cell cultures. In addition, solutions of the governing fluid dynamic equations obtained with the so-called computational fluid dynamics are presented. Experimental data obtained with improved measurement techniques are shown. The results are compared to previous studies and it is found that they support current hypotheses or models. Progress in improving insights requires continuous interactions between more accurate measurements and physical models. The paper aims at promoting the basic mechanistic understanding of transport phenomena that are crucial for large-scale animal-cell culture reactors.

  18. Millikan Award Lecture (1998): Building a Science of Teaching Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redish, Edward F.

    Individual teachers of college level physics sometimes develop deep insights into how their students learn and what elements of classroom instruction are valuable in facilitating the learning process. Yet, these insights rarely persist beyond the individual instructor. Educational methods seem to cycle from one fad to another, rarely cumulating…

  19. Benefits of Implementing a Dance Unit in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bajek, Mary; Richards, K. Andrew R.; Ressler, James

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the benefits of participating in a dance curriculum, as well as how dance relates to the National Standards. It also provides insight into how physical educators can overcome the barriers to teaching dance in their programs.

  20. Theoretical plasma physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boozer, A. H.; Vahala, G. M.

    1992-05-01

    Work during the past year in the areas of classical and anomalous transport, three-dimensional equilibria, divertor physics, and diagnostic techniques using waves is reported. Although much work was done on classical transport, the validity of the guiding-center drift equations, which are the basis of much of the theory, has received little attention. The limitations of the drift approximation are being studied. Work on three-dimensional equilibria, which shows that quasi-helical symmetry is broken in third order in the inverse aspect ratio, on the modification of the current profile due to tearing modes was completed. This work is relevant to the maintenance of a steady-state tokamak by the bootstrap current. Divertor physics is a primary area that required development for ITER. One of the few methods by which the physics of the divertor can be modified or controlled is magnetic perturbations. The effect of magnetic perturbations on the divertor scrapeoff layer in collaboration with Hampton University is being studied. The evolution of magnetic field embedded in a moving plasma is a dynamics problem of potential importance. Renormalization techniques gave important insights first in the theory of phase transitions. The applications of these techniques has extended to many areas of physics, including turbulence in fluids and plasmas. Essentially no diagnostics for magnetic fluctuations inside a fusion-grade plasma exist. A collaborative program with Old Dominion University and the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory to develop such a diagnostic based on the conversion of electromagnetic waves from the ordinary to the extraordinary mode is underway.

  1. Application of physical and chemical characterization techniques to metallic powders

    SciTech Connect

    Slotwinski, J. A.; Watson, S. S.; Stutzman, P. E.; Ferraris, C. F.; Peltz, M. A.; Garboczi, E. J.

    2014-02-18

    Systematic studies have been carried out on two different powder materials used for additive manufacturing: stainless steel and cobalt-chrome. The characterization of these powders is important in NIST efforts to develop appropriate measurements and standards for additive materials and to document the property of powders used in a NIST-led additive manufacturing material round robin. An extensive array of characterization techniques was applied to these two powders, in both virgin and recycled states. The physical techniques included laser diffraction particle size analysis, X-ray computed tomography for size and shape analysis, and optical and scanning electron microscopy. Techniques sensitive to chemistry, including X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive analytical X-ray analysis using the X-rays generated during scanning electron microscopy, were also employed. Results of these analyses will be used to shed light on the question: how does virgin powder change after being exposed to and recycled from one or more additive manufacturing build cycles? In addition, these findings can give insight into the actual additive manufacturing process.

  2. Analyzing the effects of excess rainfall properties on the scaling structure of peak discharges: Insights from a mesoscale river basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayalew, Tibebu B.; Krajewski, Witold F.; Mantilla, Ricardo

    2015-06-01

    Key theoretical and empirical results from the past two decades have established that peak discharges resulting from a single rainfall-runoff event in a nested watershed exhibit a power law, or scaling, relation to drainage area and that the parameters of the power law relation, henceforth referred to as the flood scaling exponent and intercept, change from event to event. To date, only two studies have been conducted using empirical data, both using data from the 21 km2 Goodwin Creek Experimental Watershed that is located in Mississippi, in an effort to uncover the physical processes that control the event-to-event variability of the flood scaling parameters. Our study expands the analysis to the mesoscale Iowa River basin (A = 32,400 km2), which is located in eastern Iowa, and provides additional insights into the physical processes that control the flood scaling parameters. Using 51 rainfall-runoff events that we identified over the 12 year period since 2002, we show how the duration and depth of excess rainfall, which is the portion of rainfall that contributes to direct runoff, control the flood scaling exponent and intercept. Moreover, using a diagnostic simulation study that is guided by evidence found in empirical data, we show that the temporal structure of excess rainfall has a significant effect on the scaling structure of peak discharges. These insights will contribute toward ongoing efforts to provide a framework for flood prediction in ungauged basins.

  3. Physics Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Presents activities, experiments, demonstrations, and equipment for physics instruction, including computer applications of sports biomechanics, vibrating magnetometer, alternative uses for an environmental comparator, CMOS integrated circuit logic tutor, and an activity demonstrating positive and negative leakage. (JN)

  4. Physics Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Twelve ideas are presented for physics teachers to implement in the laboratory or classroom. Topics covered include electromagnetic induction, microbalance, capacitors, determination of light velocity, and the compound pendulum. Information regarding laboratory equipment is also provided. (PS)

  5. Physics olympiad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Five high school physics students will represent the U.S. at the 20th International Physics Olympiad, July 14-25 in Warsaw, Poland. The Olympiad has been held annually since 1967; this is the fourth year the U.S. will compete. The American Association of Physics Teachers administers the U.S. program; AGU is a principal sponsoring organization of the Olympiad, as is the American Institute of Physics.The students are Derrick Bass, North Miami Beach High School, Miami Beach, Fla.; Steven Gubser, Cherry Creek High School, Englewood, Colo.; Jason Jacobs, Baldwin Senior High School, Baldwin, N.Y.; Jessica Millar, West High School, Madison, Wise; and James Sarvis, Thomas Jefferson High School, Alexandria, Va.

  6. Physics Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Ideas are proposed for physics teachers to use in their classrooms. Subjects include: alpha particles, spectrometer experiments, refractive index of glass, measurement of surface tension, projectile motion, and radiant heat. (PS)

  7. Contest Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moehnke, Randy

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the use of contests to keep physics interesting and exciting for the students. Includes: balloon car, egg drop, tennis ball catapult, bridge building, mousetrap vehicle, musical instrument, slide photo, electric junk dissection, windmill generator, and solar heater. (MVL)

  8. Supercollider physics

    SciTech Connect

    Quigg, C.

    1985-03-01

    The physics that can be explored with multi-TeV supercolliders is reviewed, including parton distributions, hadron jet production, the standard electroweak theory and minimal extensions to it, technicolor, supersymmetry, and compositeness. 19 refs., 11 figs. (LEW)

  9. Environmental Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saperstein, Alvin M.

    1976-01-01

    Describes a one quarter introductory college physics course for nonscience majors which concentrates upon energy, energy systems, and relevant practical situations exemplifying energy laws. Results indicate the course is also suitable as a preparatory course for preprofessional students. (SL)

  10. Physical Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... seniors who are not abused. What are the indicators? Indicators are signs or clues that abuse has ... clusters of indicators that suggest a problem. Physical indicators Sprains, dislocations, fractures, or broken bones Burns from ...

  11. Magic Physics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Featonby, David

    2010-01-01

    This article examines several readily available "magic tricks" which base their "trickery" on physics principles, and questions the use of the word "magic" in the 21st century, both in popular children's science and in everyday language. (Contains 18 figures.)

  12. Physics Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Describes physics experiments and apparatus construction for studies in astronomy, electricity, wave measurement and speed, the behavior of steel, and intermolecular forces. Includes a detailed description of how to simulate apparent trajectories of the moon and sun. (CS)

  13. How Safe Are Color Additives?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home For Consumers Consumer Updates How Safe are Color Additives? Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Consumer Updates RSS Feed Download PDF (380 K) Color additives give the red tint to your fruit ...

  14. Charm physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Tilburg, J.

    2013-11-01

    Charm physics is an active and productive field at hadron colliders. In these proceedings an overview of recent results in charm physics from the Tevatron and LHC experiments is given. Highlighted are the measurements of open charm production and production asymmetries, the recent precision measurements of the D masses, the confirmation of mixing in the D0 system, the searches for CP violation in the charm system and the searches for rare charm decays.

  15. Ultrasound physics.

    PubMed

    Shriki, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    Bedside ultrasound has become an important modality for obtaining critical information in the acute care of patients. It is important to understand the physics of ultrasound in order to perform and interpret images at the bedside. The physics of both continuous wave and pulsed wave sound underlies diagnostic ultrasound. The instrumentation, including transducers and image processing, is important in the acquisition of appropriate sonographic images. Understanding how these concepts interplay with each other enables practitioners to obtain the best possible images.

  16. Insights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogner, Donna, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Describes two methods to teach radioactive decay to secondary students with wide ranging abilities. Activities are designed to follow classroom discussions of atomic structure, transmutation, half life, and nuclear decay. Includes "The Tasmanian Empire: A Radioactive Dating Activity" and an exercise to teach concepts of half life without…

  17. Insights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogner, Donna, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Presented is an approach to solving oxidation-reduction reactions. The advantage of this procedure for both acidic and basic equations is stressed and emphasizes the electrical nature of redox equations. (KR)

  18. Insights into sleep's role for insight: Studies with the number reduction task

    PubMed Central

    Verleger, Rolf; Rose, Michael; Wagner, Ullrich; Yordanova, Juliana; Kolev, Vasil

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, vibrant research has developed on “consolidation” during sleep: To what extent are newly experienced impressions reprocessed or even restructured during sleep? We used the number reduction task (NRT) to study if and how sleep does not only reiterate new experiences but may even lead to new insights. In the NRT, covert regularities may speed responses. This implicit acquisition of regularities may become explicitly conscious at some point, leading to a qualitative change in behavior which reflects this insight. By applying the NRT at two consecutive sessions separated by an interval, we investigated the role of sleep in this interval for attaining insight at the second session. In the first study, a night of sleep was shown to triple the number of participants attaining insight above the base rate of about 20%. In the second study, this hard core of 20% discoverers differed from other participants in their task-related EEG potentials from the very beginning already. In the third study, the additional role of sleep was specified as an effect of the deep-sleep phase of slow-wave sleep on participants who had implicitly acquired the covert regularity before sleep. It was in these participants that a specific increase of EEG during slow-wave sleep in the 10-12 Hz band was obtained. These results support the view that neuronal memory reprocessing during slow-wave sleep restructures task-related representations in the brain, and that such restructuring promotes the gain of explicit knowledge. PMID:24605175

  19. Detergent Additive for Lubricating Oils,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The Russian patent pertains to a method of producing additives for lubricating oils . A method is known for producing an antiwear additive for... lubricating oils by processing phenols with phosphorus oxychloride, phosphoric acid esters are obtained. In order to give the additive detergent properties

  20. Insights into the evolution of lanthipeptide biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yi; Zhang, Qi; van der Donk, Wilfred A

    2013-01-01

    Lanthipeptides are a group of posttranslationally modified peptide natural products that contain multiple thioether crosslinks. These crosslinks are formed by dehydration of Ser/Thr residues followed by addition of the thiols of Cys residues to the resulting dehydroamino acids. At least four different pathways to these polycyclic natural products have evolved, reflecting the high efficiency and evolvability of a posttranslational modification route to generate conformationally constrained peptides. The wealth of genomic information that has been made available in recent years has started to provide insights into how these remarkable pathways and their posttranslational modification machineries may have evolved. In this review, we discuss a model for the evolution of the lanthipeptide biosynthetic enzymes that has recently been developed based on the currently available data. PMID:24038659

  1. Incorporation of additives into polymers

    DOEpatents

    McCleskey, T. Mark; Yates, Matthew Z.

    2003-07-29

    There has been invented a method for incorporating additives into polymers comprising: (a) forming an aqueous or alcohol-based colloidal system of the polymer; (b) emulsifying the colloidal system with a compressed fluid; and (c) contacting the colloidal polymer with the additive in the presence of the compressed fluid. The colloidal polymer can be contacted with the additive by having the additive in the compressed fluid used for emulsification or by adding the additive to the colloidal system before or after emulsification with the compressed fluid. The invention process can be carried out either as a batch process or as a continuous on-line process.

  2. Biological Physics Program at the University of Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visscher, Koen; Brown, Michael F.

    2011-10-01

    Biological Physics studies the physics of life processes by applying the quantitative physical sciences approach to outstanding problems in Biology while also feeding crucial insights back into Physics. The Biological Physics Program is a graduate program with a broad scope, involving Physics, Chemistry and Biochemistry, and Molecular and Cellular Biology faculty members. Graduate work in involves teamwork and collaboration that cuts across the traditional boundaries of academic departments and includes the areas of single molecule biophysics, molecular simulations, and membrane biophysics. The Biological Physics Program offers laboratory rotations and research opportunities in multiple departments and opportunities for research fellowships and awards.

  3. Theoretical Insight into Shocked Gases

    SciTech Connect

    Leiding, Jeffery Allen

    2016-09-29

    I present the results of statistical mechanical calculations on shocked molecular gases. This work provides insight into the general behavior of shock Hugoniots of gas phase molecular targets with varying initial pressures. The dissociation behavior of the molecules is emphasized. Impedance matching calculations are performed to determine the maximum degree of dissociation accessible for a given flyer velocity as a function of initial gas pressure.

  4. Additive manufacturing of optical components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, Andreas; Rank, Manuel; Maillard, Philippe; Suckow, Anne; Bauckhage, Yannick; Rößler, Patrick; Lang, Johannes; Shariff, Fatin; Pekrul, Sven

    2016-08-01

    The development of additive manufacturing methods has enlarged rapidly in recent years. Thereby, the work mainly focuses on the realization of mechanical components, but the additive manufacturing technology offers a high potential in the field of optics as well. Owing to new design possibilities, completely new solutions are possible. This article briefly reviews and compares the most important additive manufacturing methods for polymer optics. Additionally, it points out the characteristics of additive manufactured polymer optics. Thereby, surface quality is of crucial importance. In order to improve it, appropriate post-processing steps are necessary (e.g. robot polishing or coating), which will be discussed. An essential part of this paper deals with various additive manufactured optical components and their use, especially in optical systems for shape metrology (e.g. borehole sensor, tilt sensor, freeform surface sensor, fisheye lens). The examples should demonstrate the potentials and limitations of optical components produced by additive manufacturing.

  5. Physical properties and moisture

    SciTech Connect

    Hauserman, W.B.

    1984-05-01

    This is an interim report of work done to identify and define numerically a group of coal properties relating the structural integrity and intrinsic moisture content of coals. It represents work for the first time approaching a possibility of correlating properties formerly considered as completely unrelated subject areas. The data are still preliminary but demonstrate productive experimental techniques for further insight into the physical and molecular structure of coals. The only firm conclusion to be drawn from the friability and dielectric data together is that both are simple, numerical techniques to characterize and compare coals with respect to their mechanical structure and mode of intrinsic moisture attachment. Each provides sets of several variables, whose full significance can only be established after expanding the data base to include more coals, with more replications for statistical validity. The accomplishment to date consists of demonstrating that such data are possible. 10 references, 16 figures.

  6. Insights into phase transitions and entanglement from density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Bo-Bo

    2016-11-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) has met great success in solid state physics, quantum chemistry and in computational material sciences. In this work we show that DFT could shed light on phase transitions and entanglement at finite temperatures. Specifically, we show that the equilibrium state of an interacting quantum many-body system which is in thermal equilibrium with a heat bath at a fixed temperature is a universal functional of the first derivatives of the free energy with respect to temperature and other control parameters respectively. This insight from DFT enables us to express the average value of any physical observable and any entanglement measure as a universal functional of the first derivatives of the free energy with respect to temperature and other control parameters. Since phase transitions are marked by the nonanalytic behavior of free energy with respect to control parameters, the physical quantities and entanglement measures may present nonanalytic behavior at critical point inherited from their dependence on the first derivative of free energy. We use two solvable models to demonstrate these ideas. These results give new insights for phase transitions and provide new profound connections between entanglement and phase transitions in interacting quantum many-body physics.

  7. Overview of Icing Physics Relevant to Scaling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, David N.; Tsao, Jen-Ching

    2005-01-01

    An understanding of icing physics is required for the development of both scaling methods and ice-accretion prediction codes. This paper gives an overview of our present understanding of the important physical processes and the associated similarity parameters that determine the shape of Appendix C ice accretions. For many years it has been recognized that ice accretion processes depend on flow effects over the model, on droplet trajectories, on the rate of water collection and time of exposure, and, for glaze ice, on a heat balance. For scaling applications, equations describing these events have been based on analyses at the stagnation line of the model and have resulted in the identification of several non-dimensional similarity parameters. The parameters include the modified inertia parameter of the water drop, the accumulation parameter and the freezing fraction. Other parameters dealing with the leading edge heat balance have also been used for convenience. By equating scale expressions for these parameters to the values to be simulated a set of equations is produced which can be solved for the scale test conditions. Studies in the past few years have shown that at least one parameter in addition to those mentioned above is needed to describe surface-water effects, and some of the traditional parameters may not be as significant as once thought. Insight into the importance of each parameter, and the physical processes it represents, can be made by viewing whether ice shapes change, and the extent of the change, when each parameter is varied. Experimental evidence is presented to establish the importance of each of the traditionally used parameters and to identify the possible form of a new similarity parameter to be used for scaling.

  8. [Physical urticarias].

    PubMed

    Barbaud, A

    2003-05-01

    Ten percent of chronic urticarias are physical urticarias. Patients suffering from physical urticaria all have a suggestive history with specific eliciting stimuli (cold, heat, water, sun.) and wheals in the areas where the stimulus acts. The involved pathomechanisms are not well known. An unknown allergen (related to a cold or a heat injury, a polar molecule contained in the stratum corneum and soluble into water, a photoallergen) could induce a mast cell mediator release, followed by an infiltration by eosinophil then neutrophils polymorphonuclears. T-cells are not highly involved. Dermographism, the most frequent can be cured by anti-H1. In diagnosing cholinergic urticaria physical exercise has to be done by the patient (jogging, running, riding), anti-H1 are efficient. In other physical urticarias (delayed-pressure, cold, solar, heat, vibratory urticarias) as to be managed as follows: (1) to perform specific tests with respectively (weights; ice cube; UVA, UVB and visible light exposure; hot water contained in a tube; a vortex mixer); (2) to avoid eliciting stimuli; (3) to treat the associated diseases e.g. in secondary cold urticaria; (4) to try to induce a physical tolerance, a review is enclosed concerning cold, solar, heat and aquagenic urticarias; (5) to associate or not non sedative 2(nd) generation antihistamines. All the other alternative treatments are discussed but none of them has been evaluated.

  9. Value addition to bamboo shoots: a review.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Debangana; Sahu, Jatindra K; Sharma, G D

    2012-08-01

    Bamboo shoot forms a traditional delicacy in many countries. Being low in fat content and high in potassium, carbohydrate, dietary fibres, Vitamins and active materials, bamboo shoots are consumed in raw, canned, boiled, marinated, fermented, frozen, liquid and medicinal forms. Although the fresh bamboo shoots of species like Dendraocalamus giganteus are healthier and nutritionally rich, the young shoots, after fortification, can be consumed by processing into a wide range of food products with longer shelf-life and better organoleptic qualities. However, the consumption pattern of bamboo shoots in most of the countries is traditional, non-standardized, seasonal and region-specific with little value addition. Therefore, there exists a great opportunity, especially for the organized food processing sectors to take up the processing of bamboo shoot-based food products in an organized manner. The present article gives an insight into the global scenario of bamboo shoot-based food products and their consumption pattern, the quality attributes, and the opportunities for value addition along with future prospects in view of international food safety, security and nutrition.

  10. Quantifying the Qualitative: Measuring the Insight Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarman, Matthew S.

    2014-01-01

    No scales currently exist that measure variability in the insight experience. Two scales were created to measure two factors hypothesized to be key drivers of the insight experience: insight radicality (i.e., perceived deviation between previous and new problem representations) and restructuring experience (i.e., the subjective experience of the…

  11. Physics Olympics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, Susan M.

    Academics, not athletics, were the game in the 1988 International Physics Olympiad held in Bad Ischl, Austria, June 23 to July 1. AGU was one of about 20 principal sponsoring organizations that helped send 135 students from 27 countries to compete; the American Institute of Physics was another. The U.S. team brought home three of the 22 silver medals for 12th, 17th, 26th, 79th, and 90th places.The 20 members ot the U.S. Physics Olympiad Team attended a week-long training camp at the University of Maryland, College Park. University professors, high school teachers, and physicists from private industry coached the students through intensive problem solving, laboratory investigation, and testing. Students heard guest lecturers and constantly supplied one another with problem challenges for practice.

  12. PHYSICS TODAY--INTRODUCTORY PHYSICS EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1967

    THIS SPECIAL ISSUE OF "PHYSICS TODAY" REVIEWS THE STATUS OF SECONDARY SCHOOL PHYSICS, AS WELL AS COLLEGE PHYSICS AND PHYSICAL SCIENCE. SECONDARY LEVEL PROJECTS INCLUDE PHYSICAL SCIENCE STUDY COMMITTEE PHYSICS, HARVARD PROJECT PHYSICS, THE ENGINEERING CONCEPTS CURRICULUM PROJECT, AND THE NUFFIELD PROJECT. THOSE AT THE COLLEGE LEVEL…

  13. Enantioselective Michael addition of water.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bi-Shuang; Resch, Verena; Otten, Linda G; Hanefeld, Ulf

    2015-02-09

    The enantioselective Michael addition using water as both nucleophile and solvent has to date proved beyond the ability of synthetic chemists. Herein, the direct, enantioselective Michael addition of water in water to prepare important β-hydroxy carbonyl compounds using whole cells of Rhodococcus strains is described. Good yields and excellent enantioselectivities were achieved with this method. Deuterium labeling studies demonstrate that a Michael hydratase catalyzes the water addition exclusively with anti-stereochemistry.

  14. Enantioselective Michael Addition of Water

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bi-Shuang; Resch, Verena; Otten, Linda G; Hanefeld, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    The enantioselective Michael addition using water as both nucleophile and solvent has to date proved beyond the ability of synthetic chemists. Herein, the direct, enantioselective Michael addition of water in water to prepare important β-hydroxy carbonyl compounds using whole cells of Rhodococcus strains is described. Good yields and excellent enantioselectivities were achieved with this method. Deuterium labeling studies demonstrate that a Michael hydratase catalyzes the water addition exclusively with anti-stereochemistry. PMID:25529526

  15. Magnetotail physics

    SciTech Connect

    Lui, A.T.Y.

    1987-01-01

    Recent theoretical and experimental investigations of magnetotails (MTs) are examined in reviews and reports based on papers presented at the Chapman Conference on Magnetotail Physics, held at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory in October 1985. Topics addressed include the MT configuration, fluid and kinetic aspects of MT dynamics, active diagnosis of the earth MT, and the MTs of celestial objects. Also provided are an overview of the conference findings and summaries of panel discussions on injection-layer and Alfven-layer models, reconnection and viscous-interaction models of solar-wind/magnetosphere energy transfer, and phenomenological models of MT substorms.

  16. Polymer Photooxidation: An Experiment to Demonstrate the Effect of Additives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Norman S.; McKellar, John F.

    1979-01-01

    This undergraduate experiment shows that the inclusion of an appropriate additive can have a very marked effect on the physical properties of a polymer. The polymer used is polypropylene and the additives are 2-hydroxy-4-octyloxy-benzophenone and benzophenone. (BB)

  17. Children, Additive Change, and Calculus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nemirovsky, Ricardo; And Others

    Students can learn to solve problems of qualitative integration and differentiation independently of their study of formal calculus or algebra. This exploratory study investigated the basic intuitions that elementary school children construct in their daily experience with physical and symbolic change. Elementary school children (n=18) were…

  18. Lipoate ester multifunctional lubricant additives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seven lipoate esters were synthesized by esterification of lipoic acid with different structures of alcohols in the presence of a solid acid catalyst and without solvent. The esters were obtained in good yield, characterized using 1H NMR and GPC; and their physical properties investigated. Four of t...

  19. Complex systems: physics beyond physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holovatch, Yurij; Kenna, Ralph; Thurner, Stefan

    2017-03-01

    Complex systems are characterised by specific time-dependent interactions among their many constituents. As a consequence they often manifest rich, non-trivial and unexpected behaviour. Examples arise both in the physical and non-physical worlds. The study of complex systems forms a new interdisciplinary research area that cuts across physics, biology, ecology, economics, sociology, and the humanities. In this paper we review the essence of complex systems from a physicists' point of view, and try to clarify what makes them conceptually different from systems that are traditionally studied in physics. Our goal is to demonstrate how the dynamics of such systems may be conceptualised in quantitative and predictive terms by extending notions from statistical physics and how they can often be captured in a framework of co-evolving multiplex network structures. We mention three areas of complex-systems science that are currently studied extensively, the science of cities, dynamics of societies, and the representation of texts as evolutionary objects. We discuss why these areas form complex systems in the above sense. We argue that there exists plenty of new ground for physicists to explore and that methodical and conceptual progress is needed most.

  20. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step…

  1. Additive Effects on Asymmetric Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Hong, Liang; Sun, Wangsheng; Yang, Dongxu; Li, Guofeng; Wang, Rui

    2016-03-23

    This review highlights a number of additives that can be used to make asymmetric reactions perfect. Without changing other reaction conditions, simply adding additives can lead to improved asymmetric catalysis, such as reduced reaction time, improved yield, or/and increased selectivity.

  2. Physics Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Demonstrations, procedures, games, teaching suggestions and information on a variety of physics topics are presented, including hydraulic rams, units and formulae, static electric motors, a computer graphics program, diffraction, adaptation of a basic meter, photoelasticity, photo-diodes, radioactive decay, and analog-digital conversions. (DC)

  3. DOING Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwicker, Earl, Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Several good features of a projectile motion experiment (students fire their own rockets) are described, including accuracy achieved, low cost and relative safety. Also described is a simple novelty toy (originally distributed by McDonalds foods) illustrating physics concepts. Blowing on this toy pipe propels a thread around in a loop. (JN)

  4. Flipped Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kettle, Maria

    2013-01-01

    This paper defines flipped learning and then examines its practical implementation in AS and A2 level physics classes, that is, classes for 16-18 year olds. The effect of this teaching style on student learning behaviour and its impact on test results are evaluated. The paper recounts the difficulties of implementing it and evaluates student…

  5. Physical Security

    SciTech Connect

    2008-01-01

    The future of physical security at government facilities and national laboratories is rapidly progressing beyond the cliché of gates, guns and guards, and is quickly being replaced by radars, sensors and cameras. Learn more about INL's security research at http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  6. Reliability physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuddihy, E. F.; Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Speakers whose topics relate to the reliability physics of solar arrays are listed and their topics briefly reviewed. Nine reports are reviewed ranging in subjects from studies of photothermal degradation in encapsulants and polymerizable ultraviolet stabilizers to interface bonding stability to electrochemical degradation of photovoltaic modules.

  7. "Explosive" Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kienzynski, Mark J.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a physics demonstration in which two-liter plastic bottles can be used to show how force relates to pressure and area. Identical drinking straws are launched out of similar plastic bottles with different-sized openings. This demonstration proves qualitatively that pressure is inversely proportional to the area exposed to an object when a…

  8. Computational Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borcherds, P. H.

    1986-01-01

    Describes an optional course in "computational physics" offered at the University of Birmingham. Includes an introduction to numerical methods and presents exercises involving fast-Fourier transforms, non-linear least-squares, Monte Carlo methods, and the three-body problem. Recommends adding laboratory work into the course in the…

  9. Physics Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Laboratory procedures, equipment, teaching ideas, and resource materials related to physics are discussed. Topics include the construction of a liquid-metal pump, a hydraulic jack, and an apparatus which helps teach time/velocity graphs; current/voltage characteristics of a tungsten filament lamp; and an electric circuit game. (DC)

  10. Physics Portfolios

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitworth, Brooke A.; Bell, Randy L.

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, teachers assess students' physics understanding through lab activities, responses to open-ended word problems, and tests. But there is another way to measure student understanding, one in which students apply their learning to the world around them. This article shows how to implement student portfolios, which allow students to…

  11. Zombie physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ornes, Stephen

    2016-05-01

    What makes for a fun student project that provides useful results, a journal publication and a high-profile conference talk? Stephen Ornes describes how Alex Alemi and Matt Bierbaum spiced up their learning by mixing statistical physics with their love of zombie tales.

  12. Physical Linguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tice, Bradley S.

    Physical linguistics is defined as the use of treatments from the field of speech pathology to enhance first and second language production in healthy individuals, resulting in increased quality and strength of phonation and articulation. A series of exercises for treating dysarthria (weakness, paralysis, discoordination, primary and secondary…

  13. Polymethylmethacrylate bone cements and additives: A review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Manit; Chan, Edward KS; Gupta, Sunil; Diwan, Ashish D

    2013-01-01

    Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement technology has progressed from industrial Plexiglass administration in the 1950s to the recent advent of nanoparticle additives. Additives have been trialed to address problems with modern bone cements such as the loosening of prosthesis, high post-operative infection rates, and inflammatory reduction in interface integrity. This review aims to assess current additives used in PMMA bone cements and offer an insight regarding future directions for this biomaterial. Low index (< 15%) vitamin E and low index (< 5 g) antibiotic impregnated additives significantly address infection and inflammatory problems, with only modest reductions in mechanical strength. Chitosan (15% w/w PMMA) and silver (1% w/w PMMA) nanoparticles have strong antibacterial activity with no significant reduction in mechanical strength. Future work on PMMA bone cements should focus on trialing combinations of these additives as this may enhance favourable properties. PMID:23610754

  14. Physics Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Short articles describe the demonstration of Brownian motion in a bubble included in a quartz crystal, an inexpensive technique for investigating conservation of momentum, a method of teaching vector addition, and ideas for inexpensive substitutes for heavy masses and for additional laboratory bench space. (AL)

  15. Theoretical insights into interprofessional education.

    PubMed

    Hean, Sarah; Craddock, Deborah; Hammick, Marilyn

    2012-01-01

    This article argues for the need for theory in the practice of interprofessional education. It highlights the range of theories available to interprofessional educators and promotes the practical application of these to interprofessional learning and teaching. It summarises the AMEE Guides in Medical Education publication entitled Theoretical Insights into Interprofessional Education: AMEE Guide No. 62, where the practical application of three theories, social capital, social constructivism and a sociological perspective of interprofessional education are discussed in-depth through the lens of a case study. The key conclusions of these discussions are presented in this article.

  16. New research developments and insights from Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Farr, Olivia M.; Camp, Michelle; Mantzoros, Christos S.

    2015-01-01

    In a field of great importance to daily life and clinical care, metabolic-related research covers a wealth of information and knowledge. This broad field encompasses a number of physical states that are increasingly critical to study, including obesity, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease. Additionally, the impacts of diet, nutrition, and exercise on these physical states are an area of ever-important and expanding research. With the latest advances in metabolic research, much knowledge has been gained. Here, we present the newest findings from research published in Metabolism. We hope that these results provide not only critical knowledge needed for clinical care and daily life, but also a platform for the continuing expansion of research into metabolic-related issues. PMID:25549908

  17. Taking a Swat at Physics with a Ping-Pong Paddle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graney, Chris M.

    1994-01-01

    A professor of physics discusses ideas on how to use physics to improve your ping-pong game. Describes how basic physics was used to analyze a simple ball-paddle collision problem and provide students with insight on the application of physics to a fun and real life situation. (ZWH)

  18. Physical Parameter Eclipse Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrielmann, S.

    The tomographic method Physical Parameter Eclipse Mapping is a tool to reconstruct spatial distributions of physical parameters (like temperatures and surface densities) in accretion discs of cataclysmic variables. After summarizing the method, we apply it to multi-colour eclipse light curves of various dwarf novae and nova-likes like VZ Scl, IP Peg in outburst, UU Aqr, V2051 Oph and HT Cas in order to derive the temperatures (and surface densities) in the disc, the white dwarf temperature, the disc size, the effective temperatures and the viscosities. The results allows us to establish or refine a physical model for the accretion disc. Our maps of HT Cas and V 2051Oph, for example, indicate that the (quiescent) disc must be structured into a cool, optically thick inner disc sandwiched by hot, optically thin chromospheres. In addition, the disc of HT Cas must be patchy with a covering factor of about 40% caused by magnetic activity in the disc.

  19. Learning Pedagogy in Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harlow, Danielle B.; Swanson, Lauren H.; Dwyer, Hilary A.; Bianchini, Julie A.

    2010-10-01

    We report on an adapted version of the Physics and Everyday Thinking (PET) curriculum. A unique aspect of PET is its inclusion of special activities that focus on Learning about Learning (LAL) in which undergraduates analyze videos of children talking about science and explicitly consider the nature of science. To create a course that intentionally linked science content, children's ideas, and strategies for science instruction, we augmented the existing LAL activities with discussions about teaching, and added activities focused on LAL from companion curricula such as Physical Science and Everyday Thinking (PSET) and Learning Physical Science (LEPS). To compensate for the additional time on LAL, we reduced the content activities to only those that directly supported LAL activities. We found that students made significant gains on the CLASS and expressed beliefs about teaching consistent with the PET pedagogy.

  20. B Physics in CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Irene Fiori

    2003-08-12

    The upgraded CDF detector is now collecting data with the aim of integrating 2 fb{sup -1} by year 2006. The pursued B physics program is very appealing. CDF will provide measurements of various CP violating and B mixing parameters which both complement and extend B-factories measurements. In addition there is a variety of spectroscopy measurements on B{sub s} and heavier B hadrons which are currently accessible only at the Tevatron. In this talk we give a description of the new CDF tools available for B physics, we discuss the preliminary results obtained with the first 70 pb{sup -1} of data, and we highlight Run II B physics prospects.

  1. InSight Mission Education and Communication: Powerhouse partners leverage global networks to put authentic planetary science into the hands and minds of students of all ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerdt, W. B.; Jones, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    InSight Mission Education and Communication: Powerhouse Partners Leverage Global Networks To Put Authentic Planetary Science into the Hands and Minds of Students. NASA's InSight (Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport) is a NASA Discovery Program mission that will place a single geophysical lander on Mars to study its deep interior. InSight will launch in March 2016 aboard an Atlas V 401 rocket from Space Launch Complex 3E at Vandenberg Air Force Base in California, and land on Mars in September 2016, beginning science return in October 2016.By using sophisticated geophysical instruments, InSight will delve deep beneath the surface of Mars, detecting the fingerprints of the processes of terrestrial planet formation, as well as measuring the planet's "vital signs": Its "pulse" (seismology), "temperature" (heat flow probe), and "reflexes" (precision tracking). InSight's E/PO Partners all of which already work with NSF, Department of Education and NASA will put authentic Mars data and analysis tools in the hands of educators, students and the public. IRIS - Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology provides lessons, seismograph software, animations, videos, and will use InSight data to focus on how students can compare seismic data from Mars and Earth. SCEC - Southern California Earthquake Center's "Vital Signs of the Planet" professional development program for science teachers is creating, and test teaching standards-aligned STEM materials to help additional teachers work with comparative planetary concepts. They are also installinglow cost strong motion research accelerometers in all participating schools. ASP - Astronomical Society of the Pacific will deliver Planet Core Outreach toolkits with an InSight focus to 380 amateur astronomy clubs engaged in Informal Education. Space Math - delivered twenty standards based mathematics lessons using InSight and Mars physical and science data which enable students to acquire

  2. Toward Co-Design of Autonomous Aerospace Cyber-Physical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, Justin M.

    Modern vehicles are equipped with a complex suite of computing (cyber) and electromechanical (physical) systems. Holistic design, modeling, and optimization of such Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) requires new techniques capable of integrated analysis across the full CPS. This dissertations introduces two methods for balancing cyber and physical resources in a step toward holistic co-design of CPS. First, an ordinary differential equation model abstraction of controller sampling rate is developed and added to the equations of motion of a physical system to form a holistic discrete-time-varying linear system representing the CPS controller. Using feedback control, this cyber effector, sampling rate, is then co-regulated alongside physical effectors in response to physical system tracking error. This technique is applied to a spring-mass-damper, inverted pendulum, and finally to attitude control of a small satellite (CubeSat). Additionally, two new controllers for discrete-time-varying systems are introduced; a gain-scheduled discrete-time linear regulator (DLQR) in which DLQR gains are scheduled over time-varying sampling rates, and a forward-propagation Riccati-based (FPRB) controller. The FPRB CPS controller shows promise in balancing cyber and physical resources. Second, we propose a cost function of cyber and physical parameters to optimize an Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) trajectory for a pipeline surveillance mission. Optimization parameters are UAV velocity and mission-critical surveillance task execution rate. Metrics for pipeline image information, energy, cyber utilization, and time comprise the cost function and Pareto fronts are analyzed to gain insight into cyber and physical tradeoffs for mission success. Finally, the cost function is optimized using numerical methods, and results from several cost weightings and Pareto front analyses are tabulated. We show that increased mission success can be achieved by considering both cyber and physical parameters

  3. Thermodynamics Insights for the Redshift Drift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ming-Jian; Liu, Wen-Biao

    2015-01-01

    The secular redshift drift is a potential measurement to directly probe the cosmic expansion. Previous study on the redshift drift mainly focused on the model-dependent simulation. Apparently, the physical insights on the redshift drift are very necessary. So in this paper, it is investigated using thermodynamics on the apparent, Hubble and event horizons. Thermodynamics could analytically present the model-independent upper bounds of redshift drift. For specific assumption on the cosmological parameters, we find that the thermodynamics bounds are nearly one order of magnitude larger than the expectation in standard ΛCDM model. We then examine ten observed redshift drift from Green Bank Telescope at redshift 0.09 < z < 0.69, and find that these observational results are inconsistent with the thermodynamics. The size of the errorbars on these measurements is about three orders of magnitude larger than the effect of thermodynamical bounds for the redshift drift. Obviously, we have not yet hit any instrumental systematics at the shift level of 1m s-1 yr-1.

  4. The Intervention Nurses Start Infants Growing on Healthy Trajectories (INSIGHT) study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Because early life growth has long-lasting metabolic and behavioral consequences, intervention during this period of developmental plasticity may alter long-term obesity risk. While modifiable factors during infancy have been identified, until recently, preventive interventions had not been tested. The Intervention Nurses Starting Infants Growing on Healthy Trajectories (INSIGHT). Study is a longitudinal, randomized, controlled trial evaluating a responsive parenting intervention designed for the primary prevention of obesity. This “parenting” intervention is being compared with a home safety control among first-born infants and their parents. INSIGHT’s central hypothesis is that responsive parenting and specifically responsive feeding promotes self-regulation and shared parent–child responsibility for feeding, reducing subsequent risk for overeating and overweight. Methods/Design 316 first-time mothers and their full-term newborns were enrolled from one maternity ward. Two weeks following delivery, dyads were randomly assigned to the “parenting” or “safety” groups. Subsequently, research nurses conduct study visits for both groups consisting of home visits at infant age 3–4, 16, 28, and 40 weeks, followed by annual clinic-based visits at 1, 2, and 3 years. Both groups receive intervention components framed around four behavior states: Sleeping, Fussy, Alert and Calm, and Drowsy. The main study outcome is BMI z-score at age 3 years; additional outcomes include those related to patterns of infant weight gain, infant sleep hygiene and duration, maternal responsiveness and soothing strategies for infant/toddler distress and fussiness, maternal feeding style and infant dietary content and physical activity. Maternal outcomes related to weight status, diet, mental health, and parenting sense of competence are being collected. Infant temperament will be explored as a moderator of parenting effects, and blood is collected to obtain genetic

  5. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-10-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step in understanding mathematical representations of RGB color. Finally, color addition and subtraction are presented for the X11 colors from web design to illustrate yet another real-life application of color mixing.

  6. Remarkable stereospecific conjugate additions to the Hsp90 inhibitor celastrol

    PubMed Central

    Klaic, Lada; Trippier, Paul C.; Mishra, Rama K.; Morimoto, Richard I.; Silverman, Richard B.

    2011-01-01

    Celastrol, an important natural product and Hsp90 inhibitor with a wide range of biological and medical activities and broad use as a biological probe, acts by an as yet undetermined mode of action. It is known to undergo Michael additions with biological sulfur nucleophiles. Here it is demonstrated that nucleophiles add to the pharmacophore of celastrol in a remarkable stereospecific manner. Extensive characterization of the addition products have been obtained using NMR spectrometry, nuclear Overhauser effects, and density functional theory to determine facial selectivity and gain insight into the orbital interactions of the reactive centers. This stereospecificity of celastrol may be important to its protein target selectivity. PMID:22087583

  7. Insight with hands and things.

    PubMed

    Vallée-Tourangeau, Frédéric; Steffensen, Sune Vork; Vallée-Tourangeau, Gaëlle; Sirota, Miroslav

    2016-10-01

    Two experiments examined whether different task ecologies influenced insight problem solving. The 17 animals problem was employed, a pure insight problem. Its initial formulation encourages the application of a direct arithmetic solution, but its solution requires the spatial arrangement of sets involving some degree of overlap. Participants were randomly allocated to either a tablet condition where they could use a stylus and an electronic tablet to sketch a solution or a model building condition where participants were given material with which to build enclosures and figurines. In both experiments, participants were much more likely to develop a working solution in the model building condition. The difference in performance elicited by different task ecologies was unrelated to individual differences in working memory, actively open-minded thinking, or need for cognition (Experiment 1), although individual differences in creativity were correlated with problem solving success in Experiment 2. The discussion focuses on the implications of these findings for the prevailing metatheoretical commitment to methodological individualism that places the individual as the ontological locus of cognition.

  8. Insights into electromagnetic interaction mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Reba; Blank, Martin

    2002-07-01

    Low frequency (< 300 Hz) electromagnetic (EM) fields induce biological changes that include effects ranging from increased enzyme reaction rates to increased transcript levels for specific genes. The induction of stress gene HSP70 expression by exposure to EM fields provides insight into how EM fields interact with cells and tissues. Insights into the mechanism(s) are also provided by examination of the interaction of EM fields with moving charges and their influence on enzyme reaction rates in cell-free systems. Biological studies with in vitro model systems have focused, in general, on the nature of the signal transduction pathways involved in response to EM fields. It is likely, however, that EM fields also interact directly with electrons in DNA to stimulate biosynthesis. Identification of an EM field-sensitive DNA sequence in the heat shock 70 (HSP70) promoter, points to the application of EM fields in two biomedical applications: cytoprotection and gene therapy. EM field induction of the stress protein hsp70 may also provide a useful biomarker for establishing a science-based safety standard for the design of cell phones and their transmission towers.

  9. GOES-R: Satellite Insight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzpatrick, Austin J.; Leon, Nancy J.; Novati, Alexander; Lincoln, Laura K.; Fisher, Diane K.

    2012-01-01

    GOES-R: Satellite Insight seeks to bring awareness of the GOES-R (Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite -- R Series) satellite currently in development to an audience of all ages on the emerging medium of mobile games. The iPhone app (Satellite Insight) was created for the GOES-R Program. The app describes in simple terms the types of data products that can be produced from GOES-R measurements. The game is easy to learn, yet challenging for all audiences. It includes educational content and a path to further information about GOESR, its technology, and the benefits of the data it collects. The game features action-puzzle game play in which the player must prevent an overflow of data by matching falling blocks that represent different types of GOES-R data. The game adds more different types of data blocks over time, as long as the player can prevent a data overflow condition. Points are awarded for matches, and players can compete with themselves to beat their highest score.

  10. Higgs physics at CMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzner, André G.

    2016-12-01

    This article reviews recent measurements of the properties of the standard model (SM) Higgs boson using data recorded with the CMS detector at the LHC: its mass, width and couplings to other SM particles. We also summarise highlights from searches for new physical phenomena in the Higgs sector as they are proposed in many extensions of the SM: flavour violating and invisible decay modes, resonances decaying into Higgs bosons and searches for additional Higgs bosons.

  11. Theory to Strategy: War Insight for the Strategic Soldier

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-22

    Library Typography , New York, 1993, 162. 3 Additionally, these models may provide insights as to what an adversary may do depending on the nature of...11. 7 Carl Von Clausewitz, On War (edited and translated by Michael Howard and Peter Paret), Everyman’s Library Typography , New York, 1993, 73...Paret), Everyman’s Library Typography , New York, 1993, 88. 8 common enemy. Minimizing the amount of allies an adversary has may also limit its

  12. Adverse reactions to drug additives.

    PubMed

    Simon, R A

    1984-10-01

    There is a long list of additives used by the pharmaceutical industry. Most of the agents used have not been implicated in hypersensitivity reactions. Among those that have, only reactions to parabens and sulfites have been well established. Parabens have been shown to be responsible for rare immunoglobulin E-mediated reactions that occur after the use of local anesthetics. Sulfites, which are present in many drugs, including agents commonly used to treat asthma, have been shown to provoke severe asthmatic attacks in sensitive individuals. Recent studies indicate that additives do not play a significant role in "hyperactivity." The role of additives in urticaria is not well established and therefore the incidence of adverse reactions in this patient population is simply not known. In double-blind, placebo-controlled studies, reactions to tartrazine or additives other than sulfites, if they occur at all, are indeed quite rare for the asthmatic population, even for the aspirin-sensitive subpopulation.

  13. Radiation Therapy: Additional Treatment Options

    MedlinePlus

    ... SNIPEND SNIPSTART Find A Radiation Oncologist SNIPEND Additional Treatment Options SNIPSTART A A SNIPEND Chemotherapy Medicines prescribed ... such as antibodies, to fight cancer. Novel Targeted Therapies Cancer doctors now know much more about how ...

  14. Calculators and Computers: Graphical Addition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spero, Samuel W.

    1978-01-01

    A computer program is presented that generates problem sets involving sketching graphs of trigonometric functions using graphical addition. The students use calculators to sketch the graphs and a computer solution is used to check it. (MP)

  15. Positron Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drachman, Richard J.

    2003-01-01

    I will give a review of the history of low-energy positron physics, experimental and theoretical, concentrating on the type of work pioneered by John Humberston and the positronics group at University College. This subject became a legitimate subfield of atomic physics under the enthusiastic direction of the late Sir Harrie Massey, and it attracted a diverse following throughout the world. At first purely theoretical, the subject has now expanded to include high brightness beams of low-energy positrons, positronium beams, and, lately, experiments involving anti-hydrogen atoms. The theory requires a certain type of persistence in its practitioners, as well as an eagerness to try new mathematical and numerical techniques. I will conclude with a short summary of some of the most interesting recent advances.

  16. Physical Impairment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trewin, Shari

    Many health conditions can lead to physical impairments that impact computer and Web access. Musculoskeletal conditions such as arthritis and cumulative trauma disorders can make movement stiff and painful. Movement disorders such as tremor, Parkinsonism and dystonia affect the ability to control movement, or to prevent unwanted movements. Often, the same underlying health condition also has sensory or cognitive effects. People with dexterity impairments may use a standard keyboard and mouse, or any of a wide range of alternative input mechanisms. Examples are given of the diverse ways that specific dexterity impairments and input mechanisms affect the fundamental actions of Web browsing. As the Web becomes increasingly sophisticated, and physically demanding, new access features at the Web browser and page level will be necessary.

  17. Astroparticle physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ong, Rene A.

    2013-12-01

    Astroparticle physics is a rapidly developing field that has a high degree of overlap with particle physics and astronomy. This paper summarizes recent results and leading experiments in two selected areas: very high energy astrophysics and dark matter. Both areas have made great progress in the last 5 years due to improved instrumentation and a growing community. In very high energy astrophysics, many sources of GeV and TeV radiation have been detected and the challenge now is to fully understand the processes involved at these sites of extreme particle acceleration. In the area of dark matter, there is a close scientific connection between astroparticle experiments and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The combination of the LHC, direct-detection and indirect-detection experiments provide critical complementarity and unprecedented sensitivity in the quest to understand this deep mystery.

  18. Youtube Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riendeau, Diane

    2012-02-01

    Through the use of YouTube, we can show our students demos that we do not have the capability of doing in class. We can use these videos to inspire them and show them some of the cutting-edge discoveries in our field. We can also show them videos from around the world. Students need to realize that the physics community is global, not just national. They should learn to marvel in the discoveries made by physicists from all nations.

  19. b Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Perret, Pascal

    1998-10-19

    A summary of the most recent and important measurements in b physics is presented. The production of beauty particles in Z decays, b quark couplings, lifetimes, B{sup 0}-B{sup 0} oscillations, semileptonic b decays and studies of the number of charm quarks produced in b decays are reviewed. Extraction of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix elements |V{sub td}|, |V{sub cb}|, |V{sub ub}| and implication for |V{sub ts}| are discussed.

  20. Food additives and preschool children.

    PubMed

    Martyn, Danika M; McNulty, Breige A; Nugent, Anne P; Gibney, Michael J

    2013-02-01

    Food additives have been used throughout history to perform specific functions in foods. A comprehensive framework of legislation is in place within Europe to control the use of additives in the food supply and ensure they pose no risk to human health. Further to this, exposure assessments are regularly carried out to monitor population intakes and verify that intakes are not above acceptable levels (acceptable daily intakes). Young children may have a higher dietary exposure to chemicals than adults due to a combination of rapid growth rates and distinct food intake patterns. For this reason, exposure assessments are particularly important in this age group. The paper will review the use of additives and exposure assessment methods and examine factors that affect dietary exposure by young children. One of the most widely investigated unfavourable health effects associated with food additive intake in preschool-aged children are suggested adverse behavioural effects. Research that has examined this relationship has reported a variety of responses, with many noting an increase in hyperactivity as reported by parents but not when assessed using objective examiners. This review has examined the experimental approaches used in such studies and suggests that efforts are needed to standardise objective methods of measuring behaviour in preschool children. Further to this, a more holistic approach to examining food additive intakes by preschool children is advisable, where overall exposure is considered rather than focusing solely on behavioural effects and possibly examining intakes of food additives other than food colours.

  1. Solar Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. T.

    2000-01-01

    The areas of emphasis are: (1) develop theoretical models of the transient release of magnetic energy in the solar atmosphere, e.g., in solar flares, eruptive prominences, coronal mass ejections, etc.; (2) investigate the role of the Sun's magnetic field in the structuring of solar corona by the development of three-dimensional numerical models that describe the field configuration at various heights in the solar atmosphere by extrapolating the field at the photospheric level; (3) develop numerical models to investigate the physical parameters obtained by the ULYSSES mission; (4) develop numerical and theoretical models to investigate solar activity effects on the solar wind characteristics for the establishment of the solar-interplanetary transmission line; and (5) develop new instruments to measure solar magnetic fields and other features in the photosphere, chromosphere transition region and corona. We focused our investigation on the fundamental physical processes in solar atmosphere which directly effect our Planet Earth. The overall goal is to establish the physical process for the Sun-Earth connections.

  2. Constituting objectivity: Transcendental perspectives on modern physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everett, Jonathan

    2012-05-01

    There is increasing interest in exploring Kantian approaches in the study of the history and philosophy of physics. The most well-known examples of this trend-Friedman's (2001), Ryckman's (2005) and DiSalle's (2006)-focus on Kantianism in the context of the development of the general theory of relativity. The edited collection Constituting Objectivity seeks to develop key Kantian insights-in the most part-in the context of later developments in physics: as well as discussing relativity the volume also provides Kantian interpretations of Bohr's development of quantum theory and continues to provide Kantian insight from later interpretations of quantum mechanics all the way through to considering noncommutative geometry and loop quantum gravity. The volume contains papers on a wide variety of subjects and offers an essential introduction to the breadth of Kantian trends in modern physics.

  3. Physical Activity in the Mass Media: An Audience Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ben J.; Bonfiglioli, Catriona M. F.

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity's role in promoting health is highlighted in public health campaigns, news and current affairs, reality television and other programs. An investigation of audience exposure, beliefs and reactions to media portrayals of physical activity offers insights into the salience and influence of this communication. An audience reception…

  4. Physical Education and Sport at School in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerpanova, Viera; Borodankova, Olga

    2013-01-01

    "Physical Education and Sport at School in Europe" maps the state of play of physical education and sport activities at school in 30 European countries. The report covers primary and lower secondary education and provides an insight into the following topics: national strategies and large-scale initiatives where they exist, the status of…

  5. Instructional Framework for Fitness Education in Physical Education. Guidance Document

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for Sport and Physical Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The National Association for Sport and Physical Education's (NASPE) Fitness Education Project team gathered insights from professionals across the country who have worked on national and state physical education standards and district curriculum materials; from content and pedagogy specialists; and from current literature to provide what follows:…

  6. Statewide Physical Fitness Testing: Perspectives from the Gym

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Scott B.; Ede, Alison; Morrow, James R., Jr.; Jackson, Allen W.

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides observations of physical fitness testing in Texas schools and physical education teachers' insights about large-scale testing using the FITNESSGRAM[R] assessment (Cooper Institute, 2007) as mandated by Texas Senate Bill 530. In the first study, undergraduate and graduate students who were trained to observe and assess student…

  7. Optimizing Nuclear Physics Codes on the XT5

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman-Baker, Rebecca J; Nam, Hai Ah

    2011-01-01

    Scientists studying the structure and behavior of the atomic nucleus require immense high-performance computing resources to gain scientific insights. Several nuclear physics codes are capable of scaling to more than 100,000 cores on Oak Ridge National Laboratory's petaflop Cray XT5 system, Jaguar. In this paper, we present our work on optimizing codes in the nuclear physics domain.

  8. OPERATOR BURDEN IN METAL ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Amy M; Love, Lonnie J

    2016-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) is an emerging manufacturing process that creates usable machine parts via layer-by-layer joining of a stock material. With this layer-wise approach, high-performance geometries can be created which are impossible with traditional manufacturing methods. Metal AM technology has the potential to significantly reduce the manufacturing burden of developing custom hardware; however, a major consideration in choosing a metal AM system is the required amount of operator involvement (i.e., operator burden) in the manufacturing process. The operator burden not only determines the amount of operator training and specialization required but also the usability of the system in a facility. As operators of several metal AM processes, the Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) at Oak Ridge National Labs is uniquely poised to provide insight into requirements for operator involvement in each of the three major metal AM processes. The paper covers an overview of each of the three metal AM technologies, focusing on the burden on the operator to complete the build cycle, process the part for final use, and reset the AM equipment for future builds.

  9. Physical methods for evaluating the nutrition status of hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Marcelli, Daniele; Wabel, Peter; Wieskotten, Sebastian; Ciotola, Annalisa; Grassmann, Aileen; Di Benedetto, Attilio; Canaud, Bernard

    2015-10-01

    This article aims to provide an overview of the different nutritional markers and the available methodologies for the physical assessment of nutrition status in hemodialysis patients, with special emphasis on early detection of protein energy wasting (PEW). Nutrition status assessment is made on the basis of anamnesis, physical examination, evaluation of nutrient intake, and on a selection of various screening/diagnostic methodologies. These methodologies can be subjective, e.g. the Subjective Global Assessment score (SGA), or objective in nature (e.g. bioimpedance analysis). In addition, certain biochemical tests may be employed (e.g. albumin, pre-albumin). The various subjective-based and objective methodologies provide different insights for the assessment of PEW, particularly regarding their propensity to differentiate between the important body composition compartments-fluid overload, fat mass and muscle mass. This review of currently available methods showed that no single approach and no single marker is able to detect alterations in nutrition status in a timely fashion and to follow such changes over time. The most clinically relevant approach presently appears to be the combination of the SGA method with the bioimpedance spectroscopy technique with physiological model and, additionally, laboratory tests for the detection of micro-nutrient deficiency.

  10. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, and to prepare specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives, including flavouring agents. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for eight food additives (Benzoe tonkinensis; carrageenan; citric and fatty acid esters of glycerol; gardenia yellow; lutein esters from Tagetes erecta; octenyl succinic acid-modified gum arabic; octenyl succinic acid-modified starch; paprika extract; and pectin) and eight groups of flavouring agents (aliphatic and alicyclic hydrocarbons; aliphatic and aromatic ethers; ionones and structurally related substances; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; monocyclic and bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; phenol and phenol derivatives; phenyl-substituted aliphatic alcohols and related aldehydes and esters; and sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: citric acid; gellan gum; polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monostearate; potassium aluminium silicate; and Quillaia extract (Type 2). Annexed to the report are tables summarizing the Committee's recommendations for dietary exposures to and toxicological evaluations of all of the food additives and flavouring agents considered at this meeting.

  11. [INVITED] Lasers in additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinkerton, Andrew J.

    2016-04-01

    Additive manufacturing is a topic of considerable ongoing interest, with forecasts predicting it to have major impact on industry in the future. This paper focusses on the current status and potential future development of the technology, with particular reference to the role of lasers within it. It begins by making clear the types and roles of lasers in the different categories of additive manufacturing. This is followed by concise reviews of the economic benefits and disadvantages of the technology, current state of the market and use of additive manufacturing in different industries. Details of these fields are referenced rather than expanded in detail. The paper continues, focusing on current indicators to the future of additive manufacturing. Barriers to its development, trends and opportunities in major industrial sectors, and wider opportunities for its development are covered. Evidence indicates that additive manufacturing may not become the dominant manufacturing technology in all industries, but represents an excellent opportunity for lasers to increase their influence in manufacturing as a whole.

  12. Physical virology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roos, W. H.; Bruinsma, R.; Wuite, G. J. L.

    2010-10-01

    Viruses are nanosized, genome-filled protein containers with remarkable thermodynamic and mechanical properties. They form by spontaneous self-assembly inside the crowded, heterogeneous cytoplasm of infected cells. Self-assembly of viruses seems to obey the principles of thermodynamically reversible self-assembly but assembled shells (`capsids') strongly resist disassembly. Following assembly, some viral shells pass through a sequence of coordinated maturation steps that progressively strengthen the capsid. Nanoindentation measurements by atomic force microscopy enable tests of the strength of individual viral capsids. They show that concepts borrowed from macroscopic materials science are surprisingly relevant to viral shells. For example, viral shells exhibit `materials fatigue' and the theory of thin-shell elasticity can account - in part - for atomic-force-microscopy-measured force-deformation curves. Viral shells have effective Young's moduli ranging from that of polyethylene to that of plexiglas. Some of them can withstand internal osmotic pressures that are tens of atmospheres. Comparisons with thin-shell theory also shed light on nonlinear irreversible processes such as plastic deformation and failure. Finally, atomic force microscopy experiments can quantify the mechanical effects of genome encapsidation and capsid protein mutations on viral shells, providing virological insight and suggesting new biotechnological applications.

  13. Solar Physics - Plasma Physics Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baum, P. J.; Beckers, J. M.; Newman, C. E.; Priest, E. R.; Rosenberg, H.; Smith, D. F.; Sturrock, P. A.; Wentzel, D. G.

    1974-01-01

    A summary of the proceedings of a conference whose purpose was to explore plasma physics problems which arise in the study of solar physics is provided. Sessions were concerned with specific questions including the following: (1) whether the solar plasma is thermal or non-themal; (2) what spectroscopic data is required; (3) what types of magnetic field structures exist; (4) whether magnetohydrodynamic instabilities occur; (5) whether resistive or non-magnetohydrodynamic instabilities occur; (6) what mechanisms of particle acceleration have been proposed; and (7) what information is available concerning shock waves. Very few questions were answered categorically but, for each question, there was discussion concerning the observational evidence, theoretical analyses, and existing or potential laboratory and numerical experiments.

  14. New insights into the molecular mechanisms of general anaesthetics

    PubMed Central

    Chau, P-L

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides new insights of how general anaesthetic research should be carried out in the future by an analysis of what we know, what we do not know and what we would like to know. I describe previous hypotheses on the mechanism of action of general anaesthetics (GAs) involving membranes and protein receptors. I provide the reasons why the GABA type A receptor, the NMDA receptor and the glycine receptor are strong candidates for the sites of action of GAs. I follow with a review on attempts to provide a mechanism of action, and how future research should be conducted with the help of physical and chemical methods. PMID:20735416

  15. Additive manufacturing of hybrid circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, Nelson S.; Sarobol, Pylin; Cook, Adam; Clem, Paul G.; Keicher, David M.; Hirschfeld, Deidre; Hall, Aaron Christopher

    2016-03-26

    There is a rising interest in developing functional electronics using additively manufactured components. Considerations in materials selection and pathways to forming hybrid circuits and devices must demonstrate useful electronic function; must enable integration; and must complement the complex shape, low cost, high volume, and high functionality of structural but generally electronically passive additively manufactured components. This article reviews several emerging technologies being used in industry and research/development to provide integration advantages of fabricating multilayer hybrid circuits or devices. First, we review a maskless, noncontact, direct write (DW) technology that excels in the deposition of metallic colloid inks for electrical interconnects. Second, we review a complementary technology, aerosol deposition (AD), which excels in the deposition of metallic and ceramic powder as consolidated, thick conformal coatings and is additionally patternable through masking. As a result, we show examples of hybrid circuits/devices integrated beyond 2-D planes, using combinations of DW or AD processes and conventional, established processes.

  16. Solar and Space Physics: A Science for a Technological Society

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2013-01-01

    From the interior of the Sun, to the upper atmosphere and near-space environment of Earth, and outward to a region far beyond Pluto where the Sun's influence wanes, advances during the past decade in space physics and solar physics the disciplines NASA refers to as heliophysics have yielded spectacular insights into the phenomena that affect our home in space. This report, from the National Research Council's (NRC's) Committee for a Decadal Strategy in Solar and Space Physics, is the second NRC decadal survey in heliophysics. Building on the research accomplishments realized over the past decade, the report presents a program of basic and applied research for the period 2013-2022 that will improve scientific understanding of the mechanisms that drive the Sun's activity and the fundamental physical processes underlying near-Earth plasma dynamics, determine the physical interactions of Earth's atmospheric layers in the context of the connected Sun-Earth system, and enhance greatly the capability to provide realistic and specific forecasts of Earth's space environment that will better serve the needs of society. Although the recommended program is directed primarily to NASA (Science Mission Directorate -- Heliophysics Division) and the National Science Foundation (NSF) (Directorate for Geosciences -- Atmospheric and Geospace Sciences) for action, the report also recommends actions by other federal agencies, especially the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) those parts of NOAA charged with the day-to-day (operational) forecast of space weather. In addition to the recommendations included in this summary, related recommendations are presented in the main text of the report.

  17. Women in Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Laura M.; O'Fallon, Nancy M.

    This booklet presents information about career opportunities for women in physics. Included are summaries of research areas in physics (optical physics, solid-state physics, materials science, nuclear physics, high-energy physics, astrophysics, cryogenics, plasma physics, biophysics, atmospheric physics) and differences between theory and…

  18. [Laser physics].

    PubMed

    Banús Gassol, J M

    2008-11-01

    The commission of this article plunged me into doubt. First I should confess that I don't find excuse to escape this part if somebody wants to minimally deepen in the knowledge of the biological effects of this energy source. Secondly, when we talk about results, we use terms made and defined by Physics. Often we have polemics about results, and what really happens is that we don't reach agreements because we refer to different terms to explain the same observation; in conclusion we cannot understand each other because we do not know the adequate terms; for example, hypoxemia as oxygen deficit, which is true in an anemic patient as well as in a low oxygen saturation rate. In consequence, a good review of these concepts seems necessary to me. The third reason is the confusion that exists in our environment, I think sometimes of interest, about properties and effects of different types of laser. Only a minimal knowledge of physics will help us to state the scientific basis for understanding. The problems, nevertheless, accumulate due to the fact that the universe to which this article is directed is formed by urologists. What Physics education should we suppose they have? Superficial? Medium? Is it a collective with a uniform knowledge, being it whatever it is? The implication is clear. The article depth will depend on the answers to these questions. Nevertheless, the aim of the authors is to give a base enough to know what the laser is and how it acts. For that, the answer I gave to my questions is that the reader should understand the article and have enough base for, at least, reading critically the articles about laser published in urological journals.

  19. Tougher Addition Polyimides Containing Siloxane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St. Clair, T. L.; Maudgal, S.

    1986-01-01

    Laminates show increased impact resistances and other desirable mechanical properties. Bismaleamic acid extended by reaction of diaminosiloxane with maleic anhydride in 1:1 molar ratio, followed by reaction with half this molar ratio of aromatic dianhydride. Bismaleamic acid also extended by reaction of diaminosiloxane with maleic anhydride in 1:2 molar ratio, followed by reaction with half this molar ratio of aromatic diamine (Michael-addition reaction). Impact resistances improved over those of unmodified bismaleimide, showing significant increase in toughness. Aromatic addition polyimides developed as both matrix and adhesive resins for applications on future aircraft and spacecraft.

  20. On insight and psychosis: discussion paper.

    PubMed Central

    David, A S

    1990-01-01

    The concept of insight into psychosis has received scant attention in the psychiatric literature. Various types of insight are described after drawing on such sources as phenomenology, clinical observation and experimental psychology. It is proposed that insight is far from an all or none phenomenon but comprises three overlapping dimensions, namely, the recognition that one has a mental illness, compliance with treatment and the ability to re-label unusual mental events (delusions and hallucinations) as pathological. PMID:2199672

  1. EDITORIAL: Physics competitions Physics competitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordens, H.; Mathelitsch, L.

    2010-07-01

    This editorial opens the second special section on physics competitions in European Journal of Physics. In the first section last year, we asked for feedback on the idea of such a section and on the content of the articles. We received no answer whatsoever, which can be interpreted in two ways: the section is not interesting enough to raise motivation for feedback, or the reader is satisfied. Having no indication which scenario is the correct one, we are optimistic and favour the second. The section at hand contains three articles. Again, as last year, the organizer of the annual Olympiad reports on tasks and outcomes of this competition. The Olympiad took place in Merida, Mexico, and was by far the largest event with 316 contestants from 68 countries. Again, the predominance of Asian/Chinese students was manifest, showing how serious the training is taken by both their authorities and students. Unfortunately, the winners of the last International Young Physicists' Tournament (IYPT), the team from Korea, did not accept the offer to report on their prize-winning contribution. We are thankful that two students from Austria, who achieved second place with their team, took over and reported on the task which they presented in the finals of the competition. It connects the fields of sport and physics and explains a special move in skateboarding. The third contribution introduces a different competition, 'International Conference of Young Scientists'. On one hand, as in the Olympiad, it addresses individuals, not teams. On the other, as in the IYPT, students have several months to prepare and also the quality of the presentation is an important element of the judgment. In fact, this competition comes closer to real scientific research compared to the other events. Finally and again, we hope that this section will serve several purposes: To show the competitions as a very important tool in the support of gifted students. To raise awareness amongst university teachers, and

  2. Physical Activity (Exercise)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physical activity (exercise) fact sheet ePublications Physical activity (exercise) fact sheet How can physical activity improve my ... recent hip surgery More information on physical activity (exercise) For more information about physical activity (exercise), call ...

  3. Otherness within: aspects of insight in psychoanalysis.

    PubMed

    Wilson, M

    1998-01-01

    In this paper I consider moments of insight in which the subject consciously experiences the emergence of something alien within the self, usually of a drive-related, affective, and at times uncanny nature. These are crucial, yet neglected, experiences of insight within the therapeutic process. Such experiences do not fit easily into our theory, because usual descriptions of insight stress the ego's integrative capacities. I attempt to demonstrate how aspects of our theory that emphasize rational, narrative explanations, or the social construction of clinical facts, as well as those that emphasize the ego's integrative functions, may prevent our fully appreciating these experiences of insight in our patients.

  4. Comprehensive School-Based Physical Activity Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heidorn, Brent D.; Hall, Tina J.; Carson, Russell L.

    2010-01-01

    A Comprehensive School-based Physical Activity Program (CSPAP) represents a commitment to support the health and well-being of students, faculty, staff, and the community. A CSPAP is a similar approach that specifically focuses on incorporating additional physical activity opportunities for youth within the school day and beyond physical education…

  5. Elementary Physical Education and Math Skill Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeFrancesco, Charmaine; Casas, Betty

    2004-01-01

    Physical education programs are essential to holistic development of children, because learning occurs within several domains. In addition to addressing the psychomotor objectives related to physical development, many physical education curriculums include learning objectives geared toward facilitating the cognitive development of children. One…

  6. Tetrasulfide extreme pressure lubricant additives

    SciTech Connect

    Gast, L.E.; Kenney, H.E.; Schwab, A.W.

    1980-08-19

    A novel class of compounds has been prepared comprising the tetrasulfides of /sup 18/C hydrocarbons, /sup 18/C fatty acids, and /sup 18/C fatty and alkyl and triglyceride esters. These tetrasulfides are useful as extreme pressure lubricant additives and show potential as replacements for sulfurized sperm whale oil.

  7. Out of bounds additive manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Holshouser, Chris; Newell, Clint; Palas, Sid; Love, Lonnie J.; Kunc, Vlastimil; Lind, Randall F.; Lloyd, Peter D.; Rowe, John C.; Blue, Craig A.; Duty, Chad E.; Peter, William H.; Dehoff, Ryan R.

    2013-03-01

    Lockheed Martin and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are working on an additive manufacturing system capable of manufacturing components measured not in terms of inches or feet, but multiple yards in all dimensions with the potential to manufacture parts that are completely unbounded in size.

  8. Bringing physics to life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-01-01

    `I'm doing a physics that is pulling me towards it.' `I like the course being more up to date.' `You learn the physics but you also think ``well I actually see a point in knowing this physics''.' `This course presents physics in a more interesting way as it focuses on practical activity and applications of physics.' `The industrial visit gives students the opportunity to look for science in action.' These are just some of the comments from students and teachers piloting the new Salters Horners Advanced Physics course (SHAP). Contexts and applications drive the course, providing interest and motivation for students and alerting them to some of the many career areas that involve physics. For example, the operation of a CD player leads to a study of waves and superposition; archaeological surveying and analysis brings in d.c. circuitry and x-ray diffraction; consideration of safety in rail transport involves learning about mechanics and electromagnetism. The course is produced by a team directed from the University of York and funded by a consortium of industrial and charitable sponsors. It is examined by Edexcel and support materials are published by Heinemann. The pilot, involving some 50 centres, began in September 1998 with the new subject core and the AS qualification intermediate between GCSE and the full A-level standard. The course has been fully approved by QCA, and from September 2000 it will be open to all. For comprehensive information about SHAP, visit the project's website: www.york.ac.uk/org/seg/salters/physics . Pilot materials for students, teachers and technicians are available from Heinemann. They will be re-edited and published in full colour for September 2000. Members of the team will attend the annual ASE meeting in Leeds this month; there will be a talk and a hands-on workshop where student activities can be sampled. Materials will be on view at the University of York stand. In addition, Edexcel and the York team are running a series of

  9. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, with a view to concluding as to safety concerns and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives, including flavouring agents. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for five food additives (magnesium dihydrogen diphosphate; mineral oil (medium and low viscosity) classes II and III; 3-phytase from Aspergillus niger expressed in Aspergillus niger; serine protease (chymotrypsin) from Nocardiopsis prasina expressed in Bacillus licheniformis; and serine protease (trypsin) from Fusarium oxysporum expressed in Fusarium venenatum) and 16 groups of flavouring agents (aliphatic and aromatic amines and amides; aliphatic and aromatic ethers; aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and related esters, sulfides, disulfides and ethers containing furan substitution; aliphatic linear alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, acids and related alcohols, acetals and esters; amino acids and related substances; epoxides; furfuryl alcohol and related substances; linear and branched-chain aliphatic, unsaturated, unconjugated alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; phenol and phenol derivatives; pyrazine derivatives; pyridine, pyrrole and quinoline derivatives; saturated aliphatic acyclic branched-chain primary alcohols, aldehydes and acids; simple aliphatic and aromatic sulfides and thiols; sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds; and sulfur-substituted furan derivatives). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: ethyl cellulose, mineral oil (medium viscosity), modified starches and titanium

  10. Characterizing the epistemological development of physics majors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gire, Elizabeth; Jones, Barbara; Price, Edward

    2009-06-01

    Students in introductory physics courses are likely to have views about physics that differ from those of experts. However, students who continue to study physics eventually become experts themselves. Presumably these students either possess or develop more expertlike views. To investigate this process, the views of introductory physics students majoring in physics are compared with the views of introductory physics students majoring in engineering. In addition, the views of physics majors are assessed at various stages of degree progress. The Colorado learning attitudes about science survey is used to evaluate students’ views about physics, and students’ overall survey scores and responses to individual survey items are analyzed. Beginning physics majors are significantly more expertlike than nonmajors in introductory physics courses, and this high level of sophistication is consistent for most of undergraduate study.

  11. Reimagining professional competence in physical education

    PubMed Central

    Ennis, Catherine D.

    2015-01-01

    Physical educators have critical roles to play in assisting communities and schools to increase physical activity for all citizens. They can assist classroom teachers in increasing physical activity in the academic school day and can serve as school wellness directors to increase the amount of physical activity students and school staff members receive during the day. Additionally, physical educators can implement innovative approaches to physical education curricula to enhance students’ opportunities to be active and to learn concepts to assist them to be physically active now and for a lifetime. When implementing evidence-based approaches to physical education, teachers need to teach the curriculum coherently and with fidelity. New programs such as Science, PE, & Me! and the Science of Healthful Living provide opportunities for students to examine the effects of exercise on their bodies in a physically active, learning-oriented approach to physical education. PMID:26617976

  12. Consultation-liaison service in the general hospital: effects of cognitive-behavioral therapy in patients with physical nonspecific symptoms.

    PubMed

    Ehlert, U; Wagner, D; Lupke, U

    1999-11-01

    Nearly 15% of patients referred to a general hospital psychological medicine consultation service met DSM criteria for somatoform disorders or showed psychological factors affecting physical conditions. In a case-control control study of patients meeting these diagnostic criteria. outcomes were compared of 21 consecutively referred patients who received a course of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in addition to standard hospital treatment (SHT) and another 21 patients who received SHT alone. Compared with the SHT group, those who received CBT treatment showed significantly decreased bodily complaints and negative mood, better insight into the psychosomatic causes of their complaints, and a high motivation for subsequent psychotherapy.

  13. The physics of lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwyer, Joseph R.; Uman, Martin A.

    2014-01-01

    Despite being one of the most familiar and widely recognized natural phenomena, lightning remains relatively poorly understood. Even the most basic questions of how lightning is initiated inside thunderclouds and how it then propagates for many tens of kilometers have only begun to be addressed. In the past, progress was hampered by the unpredictable and transient nature of lightning and the difficulties in making direct measurements inside thunderstorms, but advances in instrumentation, remote sensing methods, and rocket-triggered lightning experiments are now providing new insights into the physics of lightning. Furthermore, the recent discoveries of intense bursts of X-rays and gamma-rays associated with thunderstorms and lightning illustrate that new and interesting physics is still being discovered in our atmosphere. The study of lightning and related phenomena involves the synthesis of many branches of physics, from atmospheric physics to plasma physics to quantum electrodynamics, and provides a plethora of challenging unsolved problems. In this review, we provide an introduction to the physics of lightning with the goal of providing interested researchers a useful resource for starting work in this fascinating field. By what physical mechanism or mechanisms is lightning initiated in the thundercloud? What is the maximum cloud electric field magnitude and over what volume of the cloud? What, if any, high energy processes (runaway electrons, X-rays, gamma rays) are involved in lightning initiation and how? What is the role of various forms of ice and water in lightning initiation? What physical mechanisms govern the propagation of the different types of lightning leaders (negative stepped, first positive, negative dart, negative dart-stepped, negative dart-chaotic) between cloud and ground and the leaders inside the cloud? What is the physical mechanism of leader attachment to elevated objects on the ground and to the flat ground? What are the characteristics

  14. Testing energy non-additivity in white dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmona, J. M.; Cortés, J. L.; Gracia-Ruiz, R.; Loret, N.

    2014-03-01

    We consider a particular effect which can be expected in scenarios of deviations from special relativity induced by Planckian physics: the loss of additivity in the total energy of a system of particles. We argue about the necessity to introduce a length scale to control the effects of non-additivity for macroscopic objects and consider white dwarfs as an appropriate laboratory to test this kind of new physics. We study the sensitivity of the mass-radius relation of the Chandrasekhar model to these corrections by comparing the output of a simple phenomenological model to observational data of white dwarfs.

  15. Video motion analysis with automated tracking: an insight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aftab Usman, Bilal; Alam, Junaid; Sabieh Anwar, Muhammad

    2015-11-01

    The article describes the use of elementary techniques in computer vision and motion photography for the analysis of well known experiments in interactive instructional physics laboratories. We describe a method for the automated tracking of the kinematics of physical objects which involves the subtraction of orthogonal colors in color space. The aim is to expose undergraduate students to image processing and its applications in video motion analysis. The straightforward technique is simple, results in computational speedup compared to an existing method, removes the need for a laborious repetitive and manual tagging of frames and is generally robust against color variations. Insight is also presented into the process of thresholding and selecting the correct region out of the several choice presented in the post-threshold frames. Finally, the approach is illustrated through a selection of well known mechanics experiments.

  16. The effects of exergaming on physical activity in a third-grade physical education class.

    PubMed

    Shayne, Rachel K; Fogel, Victoria A; Miltenberger, Raymond G; Koehler, Shannon

    2012-01-01

    We compared the effects of exergaming and traditional physical education on physical activity among 4 active children who were not overweight and who had experience with the exergaming activities prior to the study. Results showed that exergaming produced substantially higher percentages of physical activity and opportunity to engage in physical activity. In addition, an evaluation of the exergaming equipment showed that exergaming stations were associated with differential levels of physical activity across participants.

  17. Decontamination formulation with sorbent additive

    DOEpatents

    Tucker; Mark D. , Comstock; Robert H.

    2007-10-16

    A decontamination formulation and method of making that neutralizes the adverse health effects of both chemical and biological compounds, especially chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The formulation provides solubilizing compounds that serve to effectively render the chemical and biological compounds, particularly CW and BW compounds, susceptible to attack, and at least one reactive compound that serves to attack (and detoxify or kill) the compound. The formulation includes at least one solubilizing agent, a reactive compound, a bleaching activator, a sorbent additive, and water. The highly adsorbent, water-soluble sorbent additive (e.g., sorbitol or mannitol) is used to "dry out" one or more liquid ingredients, such as the liquid bleaching activator (e.g., propylene glycol diacetate or glycerol diacetate) and convert the activator into a dry, free-flowing powder that has an extended shelf life, and is more convenient to handle and mix in the field.

  18. First insights into disassembled "evapotranspiration"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chormański, Jarosław; Kleniewska, Małgorzata; Berezowski, Tomasz; Szporak-Wasilewska, Sylwia; Okruszko, Tomasz; Szatyłowicz, Jan; Batelaan, Okke

    2015-04-01

    In this work we present an initial data analysis obtained from a complex tool for measuring water fluxes in wetland ecosystems. The tool was designed to quantify processes related to interception storage on plants leafs. The measurements are conducted by combining readings from various instruments, including: eddy covariance tower (EC), field spectrometer, SapFlow system, rain gauges above and under canopy, soil moisture probes and other. The idea of this set-up is to provide continuous measurement of overall water flux from the ecosystem (EC tower), intercepted water volume and timing (field spectrometers), through-fall (rain gauges above and under canopy), transpiration (SapFlow), evaporation and soil moisture (soil moisture probes). Disassembling the water flux to the above components allows giving more insight to the interception related processes and differentiates them fromthe total evapotranspiration. The measurements are conducted in the Upper Biebrza Basin (NE Poland). The study area is part of the valley and is covered by peat soils (mainly peat moss with the exception of areas near the river) and receives no inundations waters of the Biebrza. The plant community of Agrostietum-Carici caninae has a dominant share here creating an up to 0.6 km wide belt along the river. The area is covered also by Caricion lasiocarpae as well as meadows and pastures Molinio-Arrhenatheretea, Phragmitetum communis. Sedges form a hummock pattern characteristic for the sedge communities in natural river valleys with wetland vegetation. The main result of the measurement set-up will be the analyzed characteristics and dynamics of interception storage for sedge ecosystems and a developed methodology for interception monitoring by use spectral reflectance technique. This will give a new insight to processes of evapotranspiration in wetlands and its component transpiration, evaporation from interception and evaporation from soil. Moreover, other important results of this project

  19. Additive Manufacturing Integrated Energy Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Roderick; Lee, Brian; Love, Lonnie; Mabe, Gavin; Keller, Martin; Curran, Scott; Chinthavali, Madhu; Green, Johney; Sawyer, Karma; Enquist, Phil

    2016-02-05

    Meet AMIE - the Additive Manufacturing Integrated Energy demonstration project. Led by Oak Ridge National Laboratory and many industry partners, the AMIE project changes the way we think about generating, storing, and using electrical power. AMIE uses an integrated energy system that shares energy between a building and a vehicle. And, utilizing advanced manufacturing and rapid innovation, it only took one year from concept to launch.

  20. Robust stability under additive perturbations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhaya, A.; Desoer, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    A MIMO linear time-invariant feedback system 1S(P,C) is considered which is assumed to be U-stable. The plant P is subjected to an additive perturbation Delta P which is proper but not necessarily stable. It is proved that the perturbed system is U-stable if and only if Delta P(I + Q x Delta P) exp -1 is U-stable.

  1. Additive Manufacturing Integrated Energy Demonstration

    ScienceCinema

    Jackson, Roderick; Lee, Brian; Love, Lonnie; Mabe, Gavin; Keller, Martin; Curran, Scott; Chinthavali, Madhu; Green, Johney; Sawyer, Karma; Enquist, Phil

    2016-07-12

    Meet AMIE - the Additive Manufacturing Integrated Energy demonstration project. Led by Oak Ridge National Laboratory and many industry partners, the AMIE project changes the way we think about generating, storing, and using electrical power. AMIE uses an integrated energy system that shares energy between a building and a vehicle. And, utilizing advanced manufacturing and rapid innovation, it only took one year from concept to launch.

  2. Nanoengineered Additives for Active Coatings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    commercial ad bial activ component from the coating, leading to eventual depletion of the film. Small TPU samples were evaluated using a Kirby - Bauer ...7 Table 5. Summary of 24-hr ASTM E 2180 tests with 1 weight-percent additive in PUr (solvent dispersible) based on 6-log loading of...Noveon X-1150). The ASTM E 2180 test is run in triplicate (Note that alternative ro 1° amines) was suspended in dry tetrahydrofuran (THF) (150 mL) in

  3. Tumour physics.

    PubMed

    Drechsel, Willy Dieter

    2008-06-01

    During the cell division dynamic processes take place, the origin of which are to find in the physical characteristics of cell components. The most important characteristics are the electrical charge and the energy of the moving base components in a viscous cytoplasm. The interactions between the components lead as well known, to the emergence of hydrogen bonds between two DNA strands. The computations show that the strength of these bindings depends on three factors: first it is dependent on the length of a monotonous sequence, second it is dependent on the viscosity of the cytoplasm, and third it is dependent on the replication speed. In the study in detail is stated, how it affects the effectiveness of the DNA repair mechanism, mutation susceptibility, and thus also affects the cancer susceptibility.

  4. DUNE Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Strait, James

    2015-08-01

    The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment is a worldwide effort to build a next-generation long-baseline neutrino experiment with a neutrino beam and near detector at Fermilab and a far detector at the Sanford Underground Research Facility 1,300 km from Fermilab. It is a merger of previous efforts and other interested parties to build, operate and exploit a staged 40-kt liquid argon detector and a high precision near detector exposed to a high-power, broad-band neutrino beam. The goals of the experiment are precision oscillation measurements, including CP violation and neutrino mass hierarchy determination, search for nucleon decay, and neutrino astrophysics, as well as precision neutrino physics at the near site.

  5. Genetic Insights into Sporadic Parkinson's Disease Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Chou; Lim, Kah-Leong

    2013-01-01

    Intensive research over the last 15 years has led to the identification of several autosomal recessive and dominant genes that cause familial Parkinson’s disease (PD). Importantly, the functional characterization of these genes has shed considerable insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the etiology and pathogenesis of PD. Collectively; these studies implicate aberrant protein and mitochondrial homeostasis as key contributors to the development of PD, with oxidative stress likely acting as an important nexus between the two pathogenic events. Interestingly, recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have revealed variations in at least two of the identified familial PD genes (i.e. α-synuclein and LRRK2) as significant risk factors for the development of sporadic PD. At the same time, the studies also uncovered variability in novel alleles that is associated with increased risk for the disease. Additionally, in-silico meta-analyses of GWAS data have allowed major steps into the investigation of the roles of gene-gene and gene-environment interactions in sporadic PD. The emergent picture from the progress made thus far is that the etiology of sporadic PD is multi-factorial and presumably involves a complex interplay between a multitude of gene networks and the environment. Nonetheless, the biochemical pathways underlying familial and sporadic forms of PD are likely to be shared. PMID:24532982

  6. Palmitoylation in plants: new insights through proteomics.

    PubMed

    Hemsley, Piers A; Weimar, Thilo; Lilley, Kathryn; Dupree, Paul; Grierson, Claire

    2013-08-01

    Palmitoylation is the post-translational addition of lipids to proteins though thioester bonds and acts to promote association with membranes. Palmitoylation also acts to target proteins to specific membrane compartments, control residence in and movement between membrane microdomains and regulate protein conformation and activity. Palmitoylation is unique among lipid modifications of proteins as it is reversible, allowing for dynamic control over all palmitoylation dependent processes. Palmitoylation cannot be predicted from protein sequence and as a result is understudied when compared with other post-translational modifications. We recently published a proteomic analysis of palmitoylation in plants and increased the number of proposed palmitoylated proteins in plants from ~30 to over 500. The wide range of identified proteins indicates that palmitoylation is likely important for a variety of different functions in plants. Many supposedly well characterized proteins were identified as palmitoylated and our new data provides novel insight into regulatory mechanisms and potential explanations for observed phenomena. These data represent a new resource for plant biologist and will allow the study of palmitoylated proteins in plants to expand and move forward.

  7. Understanding cochleate formation: insights into structural development.

    PubMed

    Nagarsekar, Kalpa; Ashtikar, Mukul; Steiniger, Frank; Thamm, Jana; Schacher, Felix; Fahr, Alfred

    2016-04-20

    Understanding the structure and the self-assembly process of cochleates has become increasingly necessary considering the advances of this drug delivery system towards the pharmaceutical industry. It is well known that the addition of cations like calcium to a dispersion of anionic lipids such as phosphatidylserines results in stable, multilamellar cochleates through a spontaneous assembly. In the current investigation we have studied the intermediate structures generated during this self-assembly of cochleates. To achieve this, we have varied the process temperature for altering the rate of cochleate formation. Our findings from electron microscopy studies showed the formation of ribbonlike structures, which with proceeding interaction associate to form lipid stacks, networks and eventually cochleates. We also observed that the variation in lipid acyl chains did not make a remarkable difference to the type of structure evolved during the formation of cochleates. More generally, our observations provide a new insight into the self-assembly process of cochleates based on which we have proposed a pathway for cochleate formation from phosphatidylserine and calcium. This knowledge could be employed in using cochleates for a variety of possible biomedical applications in the future.

  8. Reversible Oxidative Addition at Carbon.

    PubMed

    Eichhorn, Antonius F; Fuchs, Sonja; Flock, Marco; Marder, Todd B; Radius, Udo

    2017-04-07

    The reactivity of N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) and cyclic alkyl amino carbenes (cAACs) with arylboronate esters is reported. The reaction with NHCs leads to the reversible formation of thermally stable Lewis acid/base adducts Ar-B(OR)2 ⋅NHC (Add1-Add6). Addition of cAAC(Me) to the catecholboronate esters 4-R-C6 H4 -Bcat (R=Me, OMe) also afforded the adducts 4-R-C6 H4 Bcat⋅cAAC(Me) (Add7, R=Me and Add8, R=OMe), which react further at room temperature to give the cAAC(Me) ring-expanded products RER1 and RER2. The boronate esters Ar-B(OR)2 of pinacol, neopentylglycol, and ethyleneglycol react with cAAC at RT via reversible B-C oxidative addition to the carbene carbon atom to afford cAAC(Me) (B{OR}2 )(Ar) (BCA1-BCA6). NMR studies of cAAC(Me) (Bneop)(4-Me-C6 H4 ) (BCA4) demonstrate the reversible nature of this oxidative addition process.

  9. Additive manufacturing of hybrid circuits

    DOE PAGES

    Bell, Nelson S.; Sarobol, Pylin; Cook, Adam; ...

    2016-03-26

    There is a rising interest in developing functional electronics using additively manufactured components. Considerations in materials selection and pathways to forming hybrid circuits and devices must demonstrate useful electronic function; must enable integration; and must complement the complex shape, low cost, high volume, and high functionality of structural but generally electronically passive additively manufactured components. This article reviews several emerging technologies being used in industry and research/development to provide integration advantages of fabricating multilayer hybrid circuits or devices. First, we review a maskless, noncontact, direct write (DW) technology that excels in the deposition of metallic colloid inks for electrical interconnects.more » Second, we review a complementary technology, aerosol deposition (AD), which excels in the deposition of metallic and ceramic powder as consolidated, thick conformal coatings and is additionally patternable through masking. As a result, we show examples of hybrid circuits/devices integrated beyond 2-D planes, using combinations of DW or AD processes and conventional, established processes.« less

  10. Atomic physics

    SciTech Connect

    Livingston, A.E.; Kukla, K.; Cheng, S.

    1995-08-01

    In a collaboration with the Atomic Physics group at Argonne and the University of Toledo, the Atomic Physics group at the University of Notre Dame is measuring the fine structure transition energies in highly-charged lithium-like and helium-like ions using beam-foil spectroscopy. Precise measurements of 2s-2p transition energies in simple (few-electron) atomic systems provide stringent tests of several classes of current atomic- structure calculations. Analyses of measurements in helium-like Ar{sup 16+} have been completed, and the results submitted for publication. A current goal is to measure the 1s2s{sup 3}S{sub 1} - 1s2p{sup 3}P{sub 0} transition wavelength in helium-like Ni{sup 26+}. Measurements of the 1s2s{sup 2}S{sub 1/2} - 1s2p{sup 2}P{sub 1/2,3/2} transition wavelengths in lithium-like Kr{sup 33+} is planned. Wavelength and lifetime measurements in copper-like U{sup 63+} are also expected to be initiated. The group is also participating in measurements of forbidden transitions in helium-like ions. A measurement of the lifetime of the 1s2s{sup 3}S{sub 1} state in Kr{sup 34+} was published recently. In a collaboration including P. Mokler of GSI, Darmstadt, measurements have been made of the spectral distribution of the 2E1 decay continuum in helium-like Kr{sup 34+}. Initial results have been reported and further measurements are planned.

  11. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2009-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, with a view to recommending acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation and assessment of intake of food additives (in particular, flavouring agents). A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and intake data for certain food additives (asparaginase from Aspergillus niger expressed in A. niger, calcium lignosulfonate (40-65), ethyl lauroyl arginate, paprika extract, phospholipase C expressed in Pichia pastoris, phytosterols, phytostanols and their esters, polydimethylsiloxane, steviol glycosides and sulfites [assessment of dietary exposure]) and 10 groups of related flavouring agents (aliphatic branched-chain saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters; aliphatic linear alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, acids and related alcohols, acetals and esters; aliphatic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; alkoxy-substituted allylbenzenes present in foods and essential oils and used as flavouring agents; esters of aliphatic acyclic primary alcohols with aliphatic linear saturated carboxylic acids; furan-substituted aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and related esters, sulfides, disulfides and ethers; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; monocyclic and bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; hydroxy- and alkoxy-substituted benzyl derivatives; and substances structurally related to menthol). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: canthaxanthin; carob bean gum and carob bean gum (clarified); chlorophyllin copper complexes, sodium and potassium salts; Fast Green FCF; guar gum and guar gum (clarified

  12. Mining Login Data for Actionable Student Insight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agnihotri, Lalitha; Aghababyan, Ani; Mojarad, Shirin; Riedesel, Mark; Essa, Alfred

    2015-01-01

    Student login data is a key resource for gaining insight into their learning experience. However, the scale and the complexity of this data necessitate a thorough exploration to identify potential actionable insights, thus rendering it less valuable compared to student achievement data. To compensate for the underestimation of login data…

  13. Working wonders? investigating insight with magic tricks.

    PubMed

    Danek, Amory H; Fraps, Thomas; von Müller, Albrecht; Grothe, Benedikt; Ollinger, Michael

    2014-02-01

    We propose a new approach to differentiate between insight and noninsight problem solving, by introducing magic tricks as problem solving domain. We argue that magic tricks are ideally suited to investigate representational change, the key mechanism that yields sudden insight into the solution of a problem, because in order to gain insight into the magicians' secret method, observers must overcome implicit constraints and thus change their problem representation. In Experiment 1, 50 participants were exposed to 34 different magic tricks, asking them to find out how the trick was accomplished. Upon solving a trick, participants indicated if they had reached the solution either with or without insight. Insight was reported in 41.1% of solutions. The new task domain revealed differences in solution accuracy, time course and solution confidence with insight solutions being more likely to be true, reached earlier, and obtaining higher confidence ratings. In Experiment 2, we explored which role self-imposed constraints actually play in magic tricks. 62 participants were presented with 12 magic tricks. One group received verbal cues, providing solution relevant information without giving the solution away. The control group received no informative cue. Experiment 2 showed that participants' constraints were suggestible to verbal cues, resulting in higher solution rates. Thus, magic tricks provide more detailed information about the differences between insightful and noninsightful problem solving, and the underlying mechanisms that are necessary to have an insight.

  14. Insight Into Neurocognitive Dysfunction in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Medalia, Alice; Thysen, Julie

    2008-01-01

    Insight into psychotic symptoms is typically poor in schizophrenia; however, it is not known whether insight into neurocognitive impairment is similarly impaired. Most people with schizophrenia experience cognitive dysfunction, and the deficits in attention, memory, and critical thinking have been associated with poor functional outcome. As new treatments are developed for the cognitive impairments, it will be important to know whether patients will be receptive to yet another therapy. Insight is an important factor in treatment compliance and treatment outcome; however, it is not known if patients have insight into their cognitive dysfunction. In order to assess insight into neuro cognitive dysfunction, 75 subjects were administered the Measure of Insight into Cognition–Clinician Rated, a newly created measure based on the Scale to Access the Unawareness of Mental Disorder, that assesses insight into cognitive impairment. Subjects were also administered the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia and Independent Living Scale–Problem Solving to objectively assess neuropsychological status and problem-solving skills needed for independent living. Results demonstrated that virtually all subjects had cognitive impairment, yet insight into their neuro cognitive symptoms was limited. This finding has potential implications for treatment programs seeking to improve cognitive functioning in schizophrenia PMID:18199632

  15. NVP melt/magma viscosity: insight on Mercury lava flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Stefano; Morgavi, Daniele; Namur, Olivier; Vetere, Francesco; Perugini, Diego; Mancinelli, Paolo; Pauselli, Cristina

    2016-04-01

    After more than four years of orbiting Mercury, NASA's MESSENGER spacecraft came to an end in late April 2015. MESSENGER has provided many new and surprising results. This session will again highlight the latest results on Mercury based on MESSENGER observations or updated modelling. The session will further address instrument calibration and science performance both retrospective on MESSENGER and on the ESA/JAXA BepiColombo mission. Papers covering additional themes related to Mercury are also welcomed. Please be aware that this session will be held as a PICO session. This will allow an intensive exchange of expertise and experience between the individual instruments and mission. NVP melt/magma viscosity: insight on Mercury lava flows S. Rossi1, D. Morgavi1, O. Namur2, D. Perugini1, F.Vetere1, P. Mancinelli1 and C. Pauselli1 1 Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia, Università di Perugia, piazza Università 1, 06123 Perugia, Italy 2 Uni Hannover Institut für Mineralogie, Leibniz Universität Hannover, Callinstraβe 3, 30167 Hannover, Germany In this contribution we report new measurements of viscosity of synthetic komatitic melts, used the behaviour of silicate melts erupted at the surface of Mercury. Composition of Mercurian surface magmas was calculated using the most recent maps produced from MESSENGER XRS data (Weider et al., 2015). We focused on the northern hemisphere (Northern Volcanic Province, NVP, the largest lava flow on Mercury and possibly in the Solar System) for which the spatial resolution of MESSENGER measurements is high and individual maps of Mg/Si, Ca/Si, Al/Si and S/Si were combined. The experimental starting material contains high Na2O content (≈7 wt.%) that strongly influences viscosity. High temperature viscosity measurements were carried out at 1 atm using a concentric cylinder apparatus equipped with an Anton Paar RheolabQC viscometer head at the Department of Physics and Geology (PVRG_lab) at the University of Perugia (Perugia, Italy

  16. Iron and cancer: recent insights.

    PubMed

    Manz, David H; Blanchette, Nicole L; Paul, Bibbin T; Torti, Frank M; Torti, Suzy V

    2016-03-01

    Iron is an essential dietary element. However, the ability of iron to cycle between oxidized and reduced forms also renders it capable of contributing to free radical formation, which can have deleterious effects, including promutagenic effects that can potentiate tumor formation. Dysregulation of iron metabolism can increase cancer risk and promote tumor growth. Cancer cells exhibit an enhanced dependence on iron relative to their normal counterparts, a phenomenon we have termed iron addiction. Work conducted in the past few years has revealed new cellular processes and mechanisms that deepen our understanding of the link between iron and cancer. Control of iron efflux through the combined action of ferroportin, an iron efflux pump, and its regulator hepcidin appears to play an important role in tumorigenesis. Ferroptosis is a form of iron-dependent cell death involving the production of reactive oxygen species. Specific mechanisms involved in ferroptosis, including depletion of glutathione and inhibition of glutathione peroxidase 4, have been uncovered. Ferritinophagy is a newly identified mechanism for degradation of the iron storage protein ferritin. Perturbations of mechanisms that control transcripts encoding proteins that regulate iron have been observed in cancer cells, including differences in miRNA, methylation, and acetylation. These new insights may ultimately provide new therapeutic opportunities for treating cancer.

  17. Tinker, Thinker, Maker and CEO: Reimagining the Physics Student as Engineer, Inventor, and Entrepreneur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Crystal

    Physics degree holders are among the most employable in the world, often doing everything from managing a research lab at a multi-million dollar corporation, to developing solutions to global problems in their own small startups. Employers know that with a physics training, a potential hire has acquired a broad problem-solving skill set that translates to almost any environment, as well as an ability to be self-guided and -motivated so that they can learn whatever skills are needed to successfully achieve their goals. Therefore it's no surprise that the majority of physics graduates find employment in private sector, industrial settings. Yet at the same time, only about 25% of graduating PhDs will take a permanent faculty position-while academic careers are usually the only track to which students are exposed while earning their degrees. In this talk, I will examine the role of physicist as innovator and how this role intersects with other similar STEM disciplines (such as engineering), and provide some insight into how implementing physics innovation and entrepreneurship (PIE) education will benefit both physics departments and the students they serve, regardless of students' eventual career choices. Additionally, I will provide resources to help faculty mentors give their students better information and training for a broader scope of career possibilities, and information about how educators can get involved in the growing community of PIE educators.

  18. Acute Modulation of Cortical Glutamate and GABA Content by Physical Activity.

    PubMed

    Maddock, Richard J; Casazza, Gretchen A; Fernandez, Dione H; Maddock, Michael I

    2016-02-24

    Converging evidence demonstrates that physical activity evokes a brain state characterized by distinctive changes in brain metabolism and cortical function. Human studies have shown that physical activity leads to a generalized increase in electroencephalography power across regions and frequencies, and a global increase in brain nonoxidative metabolism of carbohydrate substrates. This nonoxidative consumption of carbohydrate has been hypothesized to include increased de novo synthesis of amino acid neurotransmitters, especially glutamate and GABA. Here, we conducted a series of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies in human volunteers before and after vigorous exercise (≥80% of predicted maximal heart rate). Results showed that the resonance signals of both glutamate and GABA increased significantly in the visual cortex following exercise. We further demonstrated a similar increase in glutamate following exercise in an executive region, the anterior cingulate cortex. The increase in glutamate was similar when using echo times of 30 and 144 ms, indicating that exercise-related T2 relaxation effects across this range of relaxation times did not account for the findings. In addition, we found preliminary evidence that more physical activity during the preceding week predicts higher resting glutamate levels. Overall, the results are consistent with an exercise-induced expansion of the cortical pools of glutamate and GABA, and add to a growing understanding of the distinctive brain state associated with physical activity. A more complete understanding of this brain state may reveal important insights into mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of physical exercise in neuropsychiatric disorders, neurorehabilitation, aging, and cognition.

  19. Quantum Concepts in Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longair, Malcolm

    2013-01-01

    Part I. The Discovery of Quanta: 1. Physics and theoretical physics in 1895; 2. Planck and black-body radiation; 3. Einstein and quanta, 1900-1911; Part II. The Old Quantum Theory: 4. The Bohr model of the hydrogen atom; 5. Sommerfield and Ehrenfest - generalising the Bohr model; 6. Einstein coefficients, Bohr's correspondence principle and the first selection rules; 7. Understanding atomic spectra - additional quantum numbers; 8. Bohr's model of the periodic table and the origin of spin; 9. The wave-particle duality; Part III. The Discovery of Quantum Mechanics; 10. The collapse of the old quantum theory and the seeds of its regeneration; 11. The Heisenberg breakthrough; 12. Matrix mechanics; 13. Dirac's quantum mechanics; 14. Schrödinger and wave mechanics; 15. Reconciling matrix and wave mechanics; 16. Spin and quantum statistics; 17. The interpretation of quantum mechanics; 18. The aftermath; 19. Epilogue; Indices.

  20. High-throughput physically based approach for mammalian cell encapsulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jiashing; Wu, Po-Chen; Huang, Chi-Hui; Yang, Chung-Yao; Cheng, Chao-Min

    2013-10-01

    Herein, we wish to tear down the traditional boundaries between physics and life sciences by demonstrating a physically based, flow-focusing method to encapsulate mammalian cells into alginate-based microspheres in a very short period of time. We paid particular attention to the physical properties of the alginate solution as it was critical to create a physiologically relevant environment within the alginate microspheres. The cells we cultured when re-culturing them on Petri dishes could still be maintained for at least 4 days after microsphere encapsulation. We believe that this study would provide interesting insight in biophysics, polymer physics, and applied physics.