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Sample records for additional physiological parameters

  1. Telemetry methods for monitoring physiological parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fryer, T. B.; Sandler, H.

    1982-01-01

    The use of telemetry to monitor various physiological functions is discussed. The advantages of the technique and the parameters that it can monitor are assessed, and the main telemetry systems, including pressure telemetry, flow telemetry, and multichannel telemetry, are detailed. Human applications of implanted flow transducers, total implant versus backpack telemetry, the use of power sources and integrated circuits in telemetry, and the future prospects of the technique in hypertension treatment and research are discussed.

  2. Estimating physiological skin parameters from hyperspectral signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyas, Saurabh; Banerjee, Amit; Burlina, Philippe

    2013-05-01

    We describe an approach for estimating human skin parameters, such as melanosome concentration, collagen concentration, oxygen saturation, and blood volume, using hyperspectral radiometric measurements (signatures) obtained from in vivo skin. We use a computational model based on Kubelka-Munk theory and the Fresnel equations. This model forward maps the skin parameters to a corresponding multiband reflectance spectra. Machine-learning-based regression is used to generate the inverse map, and hence estimate skin parameters from hyperspectral signatures. We test our methods using synthetic and in vivo skin signatures obtained in the visible through the short wave infrared domains from 24 patients of both genders and Caucasian, Asian, and African American ethnicities. Performance validation shows promising results: good agreement with the ground truth and well-established physiological precepts. These methods have potential use in the characterization of skin abnormalities and in minimally-invasive prescreening of malignant skin cancers.

  3. Model parameters for simulation of physiological lipids

    PubMed Central

    McGlinchey, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Coarse grain simulation of proteins in their physiological membrane environment can offer insight across timescales, but requires a comprehensive force field. Parameters are explored for multicomponent bilayers composed of unsaturated lipids DOPC and DOPE, mixed‐chain saturation POPC and POPE, and anionic lipids found in bacteria: POPG and cardiolipin. A nonbond representation obtained from multiscale force matching is adapted for these lipids and combined with an improved bonding description of cholesterol. Equilibrating the area per lipid yields robust bilayer simulations and properties for common lipid mixtures with the exception of pure DOPE, which has a known tendency to form nonlamellar phase. The models maintain consistency with an existing lipid–protein interaction model, making the force field of general utility for studying membrane proteins in physiologically representative bilayers. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Computational Chemistry Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26864972

  4. A Fibre Optic Sensor Of Physiological Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legendre, J. P.; Forester, G. V.

    1986-11-01

    This paper presents an ultraminiature fibre optic probe capable of physiological monitoring in situ. The system has been described previously where a fibre optic reflectometer was configured as a temperature sensor and as a refractometer. For the present experiments a bare fibre tip was used as sensing element. We show that we have been able to monitor cyclic physiological parameters such as heart and respiratory rates in various animal preparations. The probe has been used to obtain signals from the oesophagus, the lower gastro-intestinal tract, the abdominal cavity and from blood vessels (arteries and veins). The probe has also measured phasic activity coincident with mechanical activity of isolated heart muscle. The small physical size of the sensor (125 µm diameter), its flexibility and the fact that it is biologically inert are all very important characteristics for medical and biological considerations. Most recently, the probe has been used to monitor cardiac and respiratory rates while obtaining NMR spectra assessing metabolic activity. This was possible only because the probe is magnetically transparent.

  5. Investigation on Cardiovascular Risk Prediction Using Physiological Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wan-Hua; Zhang, Heye; Zhang, Yuan-Ting

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. Early prediction of CVD is urgently important for timely prevention and treatment. Incorporation or modification of new risk factors that have an additional independent prognostic value of existing prediction models is widely used for improving the performance of the prediction models. This paper is to investigate the physiological parameters that are used as risk factors for the prediction of cardiovascular events, as well as summarizing the current status on the medical devices for physiological tests and discuss the potential implications for promoting CVD prevention and treatment in the future. The results show that measures extracted from blood pressure, electrocardiogram, arterial stiffness, ankle-brachial blood pressure index (ABI), and blood glucose carry valuable information for the prediction of both long-term and near-term cardiovascular risk. However, the predictive values should be further validated by more comprehensive measures. Meanwhile, advancing unobtrusive technologies and wireless communication technologies allow on-site detection of the physiological information remotely in an out-of-hospital setting in real-time. In addition with computer modeling technologies and information fusion. It may allow for personalized, quantitative, and real-time assessment of sudden CVD events. PMID:24489599

  6. Smart Vest: wearable multi-parameter remote physiological monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Pandian, P S; Mohanavelu, K; Safeer, K P; Kotresh, T M; Shakunthala, D T; Gopal, Parvati; Padaki, V C

    2008-05-01

    The wearable physiological monitoring system is a washable shirt, which uses an array of sensors connected to a central processing unit with firmware for continuously monitoring physiological signals. The data collected can be correlated to produce an overall picture of the wearer's health. In this paper, we discuss the wearable physiological monitoring system called 'Smart Vest'. The Smart Vest consists of a comfortable to wear vest with sensors integrated for monitoring physiological parameters, wearable data acquisition and processing hardware and remote monitoring station. The wearable data acquisition system is designed using microcontroller and interfaced with wireless communication and global positioning system (GPS) modules. The physiological signals monitored are electrocardiogram (ECG), photoplethysmogram (PPG), body temperature, blood pressure, galvanic skin response (GSR) and heart rate. The acquired physiological signals are sampled at 250samples/s, digitized at 12-bit resolution and transmitted wireless to a remote physiological monitoring station along with the geo-location of the wearer. The paper describes a prototype Smart Vest system used for remote monitoring of physiological parameters and the clinical validation of the data are also presented.

  7. Smart Vest: wearable multi-parameter remote physiological monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Pandian, P S; Mohanavelu, K; Safeer, K P; Kotresh, T M; Shakunthala, D T; Gopal, Parvati; Padaki, V C

    2008-05-01

    The wearable physiological monitoring system is a washable shirt, which uses an array of sensors connected to a central processing unit with firmware for continuously monitoring physiological signals. The data collected can be correlated to produce an overall picture of the wearer's health. In this paper, we discuss the wearable physiological monitoring system called 'Smart Vest'. The Smart Vest consists of a comfortable to wear vest with sensors integrated for monitoring physiological parameters, wearable data acquisition and processing hardware and remote monitoring station. The wearable data acquisition system is designed using microcontroller and interfaced with wireless communication and global positioning system (GPS) modules. The physiological signals monitored are electrocardiogram (ECG), photoplethysmogram (PPG), body temperature, blood pressure, galvanic skin response (GSR) and heart rate. The acquired physiological signals are sampled at 250samples/s, digitized at 12-bit resolution and transmitted wireless to a remote physiological monitoring station along with the geo-location of the wearer. The paper describes a prototype Smart Vest system used for remote monitoring of physiological parameters and the clinical validation of the data are also presented. PMID:17869159

  8. Relationship of Physiological Parameters and Achievement in Wheelchair Athletics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Judith A.

    The relationship between achievement in track and field events (60, 100, 200, 400 meter runs and shotput, discus, and javelin throws) and selected physiological parameters (grip strength, body fat, vital lung capacity, and cardiovascular efficiency) of 20 wheelchair athletes was investigated. Results of track and field events were obtained from…

  9. Bio-logging of physiological parameters in higher marine vertebrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponganis, Paul J.

    2007-02-01

    Bio-logging of physiological parameters in higher marine vertebrates had its origins in the field of bio-telemetry in the 1960s and 1970s. The development of microprocessor technology allowed its first application to bio-logging investigations of Weddell seal diving physiology in the early 1980s. Since that time, with the use of increased memory capacity, new sensor technology, and novel data processing techniques, investigators have examined heart rate, temperature, swim speed, stroke frequency, stomach function (gastric pH and motility), heat flux, muscle oxygenation, respiratory rate, diving air volume, and oxygen partial pressure (P) during diving. Swim speed, heart rate, and body temperature have been the most commonly studied parameters. Bio-logging investigation of pressure effects has only been conducted with the use of blood samplers and nitrogen analyses on animals diving at isolated dive holes. The advantages/disadvantages and limitations of recording techniques, probe placement, calibration techniques, and study conditions are reviewed.

  10. Real time reconstruction of quasiperiodic multi parameter physiological signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganeshapillai, Gartheeban; Guttag, John

    2012-12-01

    A modern intensive care unit (ICU) has automated analysis systems that depend on continuous uninterrupted real time monitoring of physiological signals such as electrocardiogram (ECG), arterial blood pressure (ABP), and photo-plethysmogram (PPG). These signals are often corrupted by noise, artifacts, and missing data. We present an automated learning framework for real time reconstruction of corrupted multi-parameter nonstationary quasiperiodic physiological signals. The key idea is to learn a patient-specific model of the relationships between signals, and then reconstruct corrupted segments using the information available in correlated signals. We evaluated our method on MIT-BIH arrhythmia data, a two-channel ECG dataset with many clinically significant arrhythmias, and on the CinC challenge 2010 data, a multi-parameter dataset containing ECG, ABP, and PPG. For each, we evaluated both the residual distance between the original signals and the reconstructed signals, and the performance of a heartbeat classifier on a reconstructed ECG signal. At an SNR of 0 dB, the average residual distance on the CinC data was roughly 3% of the energy in the signal, and on the arrhythmia database it was roughly 16%. The difference is attributable to the large amount of diversity in the arrhythmia database. Remarkably, despite the relatively high residual difference, the classification accuracy on the arrhythmia database was still 98%, indicating that our method restored the physiologically important aspects of the signal.

  11. An instrument to monitor physiological and environmental parameters associated with heat stress on an ambulatory subject.

    PubMed

    Cassels, B M

    1991-06-01

    This paper outlines the development and construction of an instrument for use on an ambulatory subject which monitors selected physiological and environmental parameters that are a reflection of the degree of physiological strain associated with heat stress. The resulting instrument is rugged, reliable, and uses existing practical technology for in-the-field ambulatory monitoring, and provides minimal restriction to subject movement. The physiological parameters monitored (heart rate and skin temperature) were selected following examination of systemic, skin, and psychoneurotic heat disorders, with the environmental parameters (wind velocity, ambient temperature and relative humidity) based on existing heat stress indices' correlation with physiological parameters. A microprocessor is utilized for data acquisition, mathematical computation and long term storage, and software for downloading the data to a large mainframe computer is provided. Following calibration of the transduction circuits, the instrument was assembled and tested. Improvements are required to obtain the reliability originally envisaged. Additional field trials would see the collection of data to establish criteria to determine the values of the parameters monitored enabling prediction of the onset of heat stress in hot, humid environments.

  12. Mobimed: a telemedicine system for mobile monitoring of physiological parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorborg, Sten; Sjoqvist, Bengt A.

    1990-06-01

    The project Mobimed started in 1988. The purpose of the project was to develop a telemedicine system where patient information text as well as data reflecting the status of various physiological parameters could be transmitted from a mobile terminal to a resident terminal at a hospital or similar place. The information transmitted was to be so comprehensive that a physician at the hospital together with the personnel attending the patient could make a diagnosis and suggest therapy. At the hospital all transmitted data should be stored automatically. Since September 1989 a prototype system is running in Sweden with one ambulance connected to two hospitals. This system is using the Mobitex* and speech transmission system for data transmission. As a first step the project is oriented towards ECG-monitoring. Mobimed has also been developed for laptop computers using the ordinary telephone network. In this case Mobimed can be used at home or anyplace where wireless transmission is not required. 1.

  13. Physiological parameters controlling plant-atmosphere ammonia exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schjoerring, Jan K.; Husted, Søren; Mattsson, Marie

    Recent advances in characterizing the influence of different physiological and environmental parameters on NH 3 exchange between plants and the atmosphere are presented. A central parameter in controlling the rate and direction of NH 3 fluxes is the NH 3 compensation point. It may vary from below 1 to over 20 nmol NH 3 mol -1 air. High compensation points seem to be a result of high tissue N status, rapid absorption of NH +4 from the root medium and/or low activity of glutamine synthetase, a key enzyme in NH +4 assimilation. These conditions cause the NH +4 concentration in leaf apoplast and leaf cells to increase. The NH 3 compensation point also depends on plant developmental stage with peaks in NH 3 emission related to leaf senescence and N remobilization. The leaf temperature has a profound influence on the NH 3 compensation point: an increase in temperature from 15 to 30°C may cause a plant to switch from being a strong sink for atmospheric NH 3 to being a significant NH 3 source. Stomatal conductance for NH 3 relative to that of water vapour increases with tissue N status and with leaf senescence. At a given leaf temperature, the NH 3 compensation point can be successfully predicted on basis of the pH and NH +4 concentration in the apoplast of the mesophyll cells.

  14. Apparent water permeability as a physiological parameter in crustaceans

    PubMed

    Rasmussen; Andersen

    1996-01-01

    This article reviews the use of apparent water permeability (AWP) calculated from measurements of isotope-labelled water flux as a physiological estimate of whole-body water permeability in aquatic invertebrates. The rationale and practices of AWP calculations are described in an Appendix. AWP calculations have provided a wealth of information. However, the validity of the method and therefore also of the information obtained have been questioned. Consequently, the use of AWP data in discussions of osmotic and fluid homeostatic questions in aquatic invertebrates is limited. This article reviews three decades of published experiments in which measurements of isotope-labelled water fluxes were used to estimate water permeability in aquatic invertebrates. Data on 24 species of arthropod, most of them decapod crustaceans, are presented. The combined data indicate that the results obtained by different investigators on the same species show good agreement, even though different tracers and experimental methods have been applied. When available, results from other kinds of studies were used to evaluate the results obtained using the AWP measurements. The various results demonstrate that AWP is influenced not only by natural environmental factors, such as salinity and temperature, and by anthropogenic factors, such as potentially toxic trace metals, but that it is also regulated by intrinsic factors, such as ecdysis and life cycle stage. The results obtained can often be explained as effects of components of the habitat of the animal. Accordingly, studies on variations in AWP contribute to our understanding of the different physiological strategies used by species living in a changing environment. We conclude that calculations of AWP offer reliable, relevant physiological data in a range of crustacean species, as long as methodological limitations and uncertainties are kept in mind. In addition, we propose some possible new ways of applying AWP calculations to marine

  15. Physiological description of multivariate interdependencies between process parameters, morphology and physiology during fed-batch penicillin production.

    PubMed

    Posch, Andreas E; Herwig, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Optimization of productivity and economics of industrial bioprocesses requires characterization of interdependencies between process parameters and process performance. In the case of penicillin production, as in other processes, process performance is often closely interlinked with the physiology and morphology of the organism used for production. This study presents a systematic approach to efficiently characterize the physiological effects of multivariate interdependencies between bioprocess design parameters (spore inoculum concentration, pO2 control level and substrate feed rate), morphology, and physiology. Method development and application was performed using the industrial model process of penicillin production. Applying traditional, statistical bioprocess analysis, multivariate correlations of raw bioprocess design parameters (high spore inoculum concentration, low pO2 control as well as reduced glucose feeding) and pellet morphology were identified. A major drawback of raw design parameter correlation models; however, is the lack of transferability across different process scales and regimes. In this context, morphological and physiological bioprocess modeling based on scalable physiological parameters is introduced. In this study, raw parameter effects on pellet morphology were efficiently summarized by the physiological parameter of the biomass yield per substrate. Finally, for the first time to our knowledge, the specific growth rate per spore was described as time-independent determinant for switching from pellet to disperse growth during penicillin production and thus introduced as a novel, scalable key process parameter for pellet morphology and process performance.

  16. [Effects of selenite addition on selenium absorption, root morphology and physiological characteristics of rape seedlings].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin-wei; Wang, Qiao-lan; Duan, Bi-hui; Lin, Ya-meng; Zhao, Xiao-hu; Hu, Cheng-xiao; Zhao, Zhu-qing

    2015-07-01

    Abstract: The rape (Brassica napus L. cv. Xiangnongyou 571) was chosen as the experimental material to undergo solution cultivation at seedling stage to investigate the effects of selenite addition on the selenium (Se) absorption and distribution, root morphology and physiological characteristics of rape seedlings. The results showed that the bioaccumulation ability of Se decreased significantly with increasing the Se application rate, but the Se distribution coefficient remained around 0.9 with no significant influence. The application of 10 µmol . L-1 selenite stimulated the growth of rape seedlings through improving the root physiological characteristics and root morphology significantly, including significantly increasing the production of superoxide radical (O2∙-) rate and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and fungal catalase (CAT) in the root system, which resulted in a reduction of the lipids peroxidation (MDA) content as much as 26.0%, consequently increasing the root activity as much as 17.4%. The promoting degrees of selenite on root morphological parameters were from strong to weak in such a tendency: root volume > total surface area > number of root forks > total root length > number of root tips > average diameter. However, such positive effects had no significant difference with those in treatment with 1 µmol . L-1 selenite, indicating that small amounts (≤ 10 Lmol . L-1) of selenite were able to increase the activity of antioxidant enzymes and reduce the content of MDA in root system, which could increase root activity and improve root morphology, hence increased the biomass of rape seedlings.

  17. Physiological Parameters for Oral Delivery and In vitro Testing

    PubMed Central

    Mudie, Deanna M.; Amidon, Gordon L.; Amidon, Gregory E.

    2010-01-01

    Pharmaceutical solid oral dosage forms must undergo dissolution in the intestinal fluids of the gastrointestinal tract before they can be absorbed and reach the systemic circulation. Therefore, dissolution is a critical part of the drug-delivery process. The rate and extent of drug dissolution and absorption depend on the characteristics of the active ingredient as well as properties of the dosage form. Just as importantly, characteristics of the physiological environment such as buffer species, pH, bile salts, gastric emptying rate, intestinal motility, and hydrodynamics can significantly impact dissolution and absorption. While significant progress has been made since 1970 when the first compendial dissolution test was introduced (USP Apparatus 1), current dissolution testing does not take full advantage of the extensive physiologic information that is available. For quality control purposes, where the question is one of lot-to-lot consistency in performance, using nonphysiologic test conditions that match drug and dosage form properties with practical dissolution media and apparatus may be appropriate. However, where in vitro – in vivo correlations are desired, it is logical to consider and utilize knowledge of the in vivo condition. This publication critically reviews the literature that is relevant to oral human drug delivery. Physiologically relevant information must serve as a basis for the design of dissolution test methods and systems that are more representative of the human condition. As in vitro methods advance in their physiological relevance, better in vitro - in vivo correlations will be possible. This will, in turn, lead to in vitro systems that can be utilized to more effectively design dosage forms that have improved and more consistent oral bioperformance. PMID:20822152

  18. Prediction of outcome utilizing both physiological and biochemical parameters in severe head injury.

    PubMed

    Low, David; Kuralmani, Vellaisamy; Ng, See Kiong; Lee, Kah Keow; Ng, Ivan; Ang, Beng Ti

    2009-08-01

    Traumatic brain injury is a major socioeconomic burden, and the use of statistical models to predict outcomes after head injury can help to allocate limited health resources. Earlier prediction models analyzing admission data have been used to achieve prediction accuracies of up to 80%. Our aim was to design statistical models utilizing a combination of both physiological and biochemical variables obtained from multimodal monitoring in the neurocritical care setting as a complement to earlier models. We used decision tree and logistic regression analysis on variables including intracranial pressure (ICP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), and pressure reactivity index (PRx), as well as multimodal monitoring parameters to assess brain tissue oxygenation (PbtO(2)), and microdialysis parameters to predict outcomes based on a dichotomized Glasgow Outcome Score. Further analysis was carried out on various subgroup combinations of physiological and biochemical parameters. The reliability of the head injury models was assessed using a 10-fold cross-validation technique. In addition, the confusion matrix was also used to assess the sensitivity, specificity, and the F-ratio. In all, 2,413 time series records were extracted from 26 patients treated at our neurocritical care unit over a 1-year period. Decision tree analysis was found to be superior to logistic regression analysis in predictive accuracy of outcome. The combined use of microdialysis variables and PbtO(2), in addition to ICP, MAP, and CPP was found have the best predictive accuracy. The use of physiological and biochemical variables based on a decision tree analysis model has shown to provide an improvement in predictive accuracy compared with other previous models. The potential application is for outcome prediction in the multivariate setting of advanced multimodality monitoring, and validates the use of multimodal monitoring in the neurocritical care setting to have a potential

  19. Some blood parameters of water buffalo in different physiological conditions.

    PubMed

    Pizzuti, G P; Salvatori, G C

    1993-10-01

    The Authors have studied the changes of GOT, GPT, ALP, CPK and Se in buffaloes under different physiological conditions (age, diet, different pre and post partum times). 99 adult buffaloes were classified in 8 groups on the basis of different pre, post partum time intervals. Moreover, other 39 animals were divided into 4 groups: A = 60-90 day old animals, fed with reconstituted milk supplemented with Vit E; B = same age, fed with maternal milk; C = 6-8 month old animals; D = 12-18 month old animals. In the various classes of animals blood ALP, GPT, GOT, CPK and Se were monitored. Results showed that the high variability in blood activity of the studied enzymes suggest that in establishing their reference values the physiological condition of the subject and the time interval from the parturition must be taken into account. The fact that Se was not detectable in many pregnant animals suggests that the prevention of myodistrophy in buffalo calves must be effected in prenatal epoch.

  20. [Effects of selenite addition on selenium absorption, root morphology and physiological characteristics of rape seedlings].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin-wei; Wang, Qiao-lan; Duan, Bi-hui; Lin, Ya-meng; Zhao, Xiao-hu; Hu, Cheng-xiao; Zhao, Zhu-qing

    2015-07-01

    Abstract: The rape (Brassica napus L. cv. Xiangnongyou 571) was chosen as the experimental material to undergo solution cultivation at seedling stage to investigate the effects of selenite addition on the selenium (Se) absorption and distribution, root morphology and physiological characteristics of rape seedlings. The results showed that the bioaccumulation ability of Se decreased significantly with increasing the Se application rate, but the Se distribution coefficient remained around 0.9 with no significant influence. The application of 10 µmol . L-1 selenite stimulated the growth of rape seedlings through improving the root physiological characteristics and root morphology significantly, including significantly increasing the production of superoxide radical (O2∙-) rate and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and fungal catalase (CAT) in the root system, which resulted in a reduction of the lipids peroxidation (MDA) content as much as 26.0%, consequently increasing the root activity as much as 17.4%. The promoting degrees of selenite on root morphological parameters were from strong to weak in such a tendency: root volume > total surface area > number of root forks > total root length > number of root tips > average diameter. However, such positive effects had no significant difference with those in treatment with 1 µmol . L-1 selenite, indicating that small amounts (≤ 10 Lmol . L-1) of selenite were able to increase the activity of antioxidant enzymes and reduce the content of MDA in root system, which could increase root activity and improve root morphology, hence increased the biomass of rape seedlings. PMID:26710631

  1. Analytic calculation of physiological acid-base parameters in plasma.

    PubMed

    Wooten, E W

    1999-01-01

    Analytic expressions for plasma total titratable base, base excess (DeltaCB), strong-ion difference, change in strong-ion difference (DeltaSID), change in Van Slyke standard bicarbonate (DeltaVSSB), anion gap, and change in anion gap are derived as a function of pH, total buffer ion concentration, and conditional molar equilibrium constants. The behavior of these various parameters under respiratory and metabolic acid-base disturbances for constant and variable buffer ion concentrations is considered. For constant noncarbonate buffer concentrations, DeltaSID = DeltaCB = DeltaVSSB, whereas these equalities no longer hold under changes in noncarbonate buffer concentration. The equivalence is restored if the reference state is changed to include the new buffer concentrations.

  2. Reproducibility of physiologic parameters obtained using functional computed tomography in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnamurthi, Ganapathy; Stantz, Keith M.; Steinmetz, Rosemary; Hutchins, Gary D.; Liang, Yun

    2004-04-01

    High-speed X-ray computed tomography (CT) has the potential to observe the transport of iodinated radio-opaque contrast agent (CA) through tissue enabling the quantification of tissue physiology in organs and tumors. The concentration of Iodine in the tissue and in the left ventricle is extracted as a function of time and is fit to a compartmental model for physiologic parameter estimation. The reproducibility of the physiologic parameters depend on the (1) The image-sampling rate. According to our simulations 5-second sampling is required for CA injection rates of 1.0ml/min (2) the compartmental model should reflect the real tissue function to give meaning results. In order to verify these limits a functional CT study was carried out in a group of 3 mice. Dynamic CT scans were performed on all the mice with 0.5ml/min, 1ml/min and 2ml/min CA injection rates. The physiologic parameters were extracted using 4 parameter and 6 parameter two compartmental models (2CM). Single factor ANOVA did not indicate a significant difference in the perfusion, in the kidneys for the different injection rates. The physiologic parameter obtained using the 6-parameter 2CM model was in line with literature values and the 6-parameter significantly improves chi-square goodness of fits for two cases.

  3. Integrated system for remotely monitoring critical physiological parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexakis, S.; Karalis, S.; Asvestas, P.

    2015-09-01

    Monitoring several human parameters (temperature, heart rate, blood pressure etc.) is an essential task in health care in hospitals as well as in home care. This paper presents the design and implementation of an integrated, embedded system that includes an electrocardiograph of nine leads and two channels, a digital thermometer for measuring the body temperature and a power supply. The system provides networking capabilities (wired or wireless) and is accessible by means of a web interface that allows the user to select the leads, as well as to review the values of heart rate (beats per minute) and body temperature. Furthermore, there is the option of saving all the data in a Micro SD memory card or in a Google Spreadsheet. The necessary analog circuits for signal conditioning (amplification and filtering) were manufactured on printed circuit boards (PCB). The system was built around Arduino Yun, which is a platform that contains a microcontroller and a microprocessor running a special LINUX distribution. Furthermore, the Arduino Yun provides the necessary network connectivity capabilities by means of the integrated Wi-Fi and Ethernet interfaces. The web interface was developed using HTML pages with JavaScript support. The system was tested on simulated data as well as real data, providing satisfactory accuracy regarding the measurement of the heart rate (±3 bpm error) and the temperature (±0.3°C error).

  4. [Effects of nighttime snacking in students on their physiological parameters].

    PubMed

    Budkevich, R O; Bakumenko, O E; Evdokimov, I A; Budkevich, E V

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the research was a comparative assessment of the level of diet nutrients, characteristics of higher nervous activity, specificity of chronobiological changes of the sleep-wake cycle, the daily dynamics of cortisol level and total antioxidant activity in saliva in students with the presence of night eating compared with students who do not eat at night. The participants were 72 university students aged 17-22 years (59 females and 13 males), a self-administered diet diary for a week was used to acquire dietary pattern and nutrient content. All participants were divided into two groups: group 1--students with food consumption from 06.00 am to 10.00 pm without night meals (n = 34), and group 2--students, whose food consumption include all day period and night snaking from 10.00 pm to 06.00 am (n = 38). High nervous activity parameters were detected according to the Eysenck questionnaire, Spielberg and Taylor anxiety tests, the test "Stress", the three-factor eating questionnaire; chronobiological state was evaluated according to sleep quality, sleep hygiene, daily sleepiness, chronotype. Levels of cortisol and total antioxidant activity were estimated in saliva twice a day: in the morning and in the evening. In both groups, the majority of students (97%) have reduced consumption of vitamins and minerals such as biotin, vitamin D, choline, iodine, cobalt, manganese, sulfur, fluorine and zinc. Deficit of carbohydrates was found in 93% of respondents. The number of students with calcium deficiency was increased in the group 2 compared to the group 1 and reached 27.8% vs 3% (p < 0.05), niacin insufficiency was revealed in 41.7% vs 18.2% (p < 0.05) and proteins insufficiency frequency reached 30.6% vs 0% (p < 0.05). The students from the group 2 had a significantly lower (p < 0.05) intake of vitamins A, B6 and C. In the group 2 it was detected the time shift of food consumption acrophase (15.1 h vs. 13.8 h; p < 0.05), decrease of persons with morning

  5. Dependence of Nociceptive Detection Thresholds on Physiological Parameters and Capsaicin-Induced Neuroplasticity: A Computational Study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Huan; Meijer, Hil G. E.; Doll, Robert J.; Buitenweg, Jan R.; van Gils, Stephan A.

    2016-01-01

    Physiological properties of peripheral and central nociceptive subsystems can be altered over time due to medical interventions. The effective change for the whole nociceptive system can be reflected in changes of psychophysical characteristics, e.g., detection thresholds. However, it is challenging to separate contributions of distinct altered mechanisms with measurements of thresholds only. Here, we aim to understand how these alterations affect Aδ-fiber-mediated nociceptive detection of electrocutaneous stimuli. First, with a neurophysiology-based model, we study the effects of single-model parameters on detection thresholds. Second, we derive an expression of model parameters determining the functional relationship between detection thresholds and the interpulse interval for double-pulse stimuli. Third, in a case study with topical capsaicin treatment, we translate neuroplasticity into plausible changes of model parameters. Model simulations qualitatively agree with changes in experimental detection thresholds. The simulations with individual forms of neuroplasticity confirm that nerve degeneration is the dominant mechanism for capsaicin-induced increases in detection thresholds. In addition, our study suggests that capsaicin-induced central plasticity may last at least 1 month. PMID:27252644

  6. Effect of 7-nitroindazole, a neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, on behavioral and physiological parameters.

    PubMed

    Brožíčková, C; Mikulecká, A; Otáhal, J

    2014-01-01

    The role of brain derived nitric oxide in the physiology and behavior remains disputable. One of the reasons of the controversies might be systemic side effects of nitric oxide synthase inhibitors. Therefore, under nNOS inhibition by 7-nitroindazole (7-NI) we carried out recordings of blood gasses, blood pressure and spontaneous EEG in conscious adult rats. Locomotion and spontaneous behavior were assessed in an open field. In addition skilled walking and limb coordination were evaluated using a ladder rung walking test. The blood gas analysis revealed a significant increase in pCO(2) 180 min and 240 min after the application of 7-NI. The power and entropy decreased simultaneously with a shift of the mean frequency of the spontaneous EEG toward slow oscillations after 7-NI treatment. The thresholds of evoked potentials underwent a significant drop and a trend towards a slight increase in the I-O curve slope was observed. 7-NI significantly suppressed open field behavior expressed as distance moved, exploratory rearing and grooming. As for the ladder rung walking test the 7-NI treated animals had more errors in foot placement indicating impairment in limb coordination. Therefore our findings suggest that 7-NI increased cortical excitability and altered some physiological and behavioral parameters. PMID:24908089

  7. Effects of restricted feeding on physiological stress parameters in growing broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    de Jong, I C; van Voorst, S; Ehlhardt, D A; Blokhuis, H J

    2002-05-01

    1. In previous studies, a lack of agreement in measurements of plasma corticosterone concentrations and heterophil:lymphocyte (H/L) ratio as physiological indices of stress, caused by hunger and frustration in restricted-fed broiler breeders, was observed. It could be suggested that the differences between previous studies were caused by differences in duration of restriction and time of the day of the measurements. Therefore, in the present study the plasma corticosterone concentration and the H/L ratio were again determined in restricted- and ad libitum-fed growing broiler breeders, taking possible causes of disagreement between previous studies into account. In addition, we measured the daily rhythm in body temperature and heart rate, and the corticosterone responses to an acute stressor as physiological indices of stress. 2. Female broiler breeders (64 per treatment, housed in groups of 4 birds) were used in the experiment. Behaviour, baseline plasma corticosterone concentrations and H/L ratio were determined at 21 d of age (immediately after the start of food restriction), and at 42 and 63 d of age. Body temperature, heart rate and activity were measured by radiotelemetry for 36 h at 49 and 70 d of age. In addition, the plasma corticosterone response to acute stress (5 min manual restraint) was measured at 77 or 78 d of age. 3. Restricted broiler breeders had higher plasma corticosterone concentrations at 42 and 63 d of age, but no differences in H/L. ratio were found between restricted birds and unrestricted control birds. Restricted broiler breeders had a higher corticosterone response to 5 min manual restraint than unrestricted birds. Restricted birds displayed a clear day-night rhythm in body temperature, heart rate and activity whereas such a rhythm was blunted in ad libitum-fed birds. 4. It is discussed that some physiological differences (plasma corticosterone concentrations, body temperature and heart rate) between ad libitum-fed and restricted broiler

  8. Additional Investigations of Ice Shape Sensitivity to Parameter Variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Dean R.; Potapczuk, Mark G.; Langhals, Tammy J.

    2006-01-01

    A second parameter sensitivity study was conducted at the NASA Glenn Research Center's Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) using a 36 in. chord (0.91 m) NACA-0012 airfoil. The objective of this work was to further investigate the feasibility of using ice shape feature changes to define requirements for the simulation and measurement of SLD and appendix C icing conditions. A previous study concluded that it was feasible to use changes in ice shape features (e.g., ice horn angle, ice horn thickness, and ice shape mass) to detect relatively small variations in icing spray condition parameters (LWC, MVD, and temperature). The subject of this current investigation extends the scope of this previous work, by also examining the effect of icing tunnel spray-bar parameter variations (water pressure, air pressure) on ice shape feature changes. The approach was to vary spray-bar water pressure and air pressure, and then evaluate the effects of these parameter changes on the resulting ice shapes. This paper will provide a description of the experimental method, present selected experimental results, and conclude with an evaluation of these results.

  9. Effect of jumping interval training on neuromuscular and physiological parameters: a randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Ache-Dias, Jonathan; Dellagrana, Rodolfo A; Teixeira, Anderson S; Dal Pupo, Juliano; Moro, Antônio R P

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzed the effect of 4 weeks of jumping interval training (JIT), included in endurance training, on neuromuscular and physiological parameters. Eighteen recreational runners, randomized in control and experimental groups, performed 40 min of running at 70% of velocity at peak oxygen uptake, for 3 times per week. Additionally, the experimental group performed the JIT twice per week, which consisted of 4 to 6 bouts of continuous vertical jumps (30 s) with 5-min intervals. Three days before and after the training period, the countermovement (CMJ) and continuous jump (CJ30), isokinetic and isometric evaluation of knee extensors/flexors, progressive maximal exercise, and submaximal constant-load exercise were performed. The JIT provoked improvement in neuromuscular performance, indicated by (i) increased jump height (4.7%; effect size (ES) = 0.99) and power output (≈ 3.7%; ES ≈ 0.82) of CMJ and rate of torque development of knee extensors in isometric contraction (29.5%; ES = 1.02); (ii) anaerobic power and capacity, represented by the mean of jump height (7.4%; ES = 0.8), and peak power output (PPO) (5.6%; ES = 0.73) of the first jumps of CJ30 and the mean of jump height (10.2%, ES = 1.04) and PPO (9.5%, ES = 1.1), considering all jumps of CJ30; and (iii) aerobic power and capacity, represented by peak oxygen uptake (9.1%, ES = 1.28), velocity at peak oxygen uptake (2.7%, ES = 1.11), and velocity corresponding to the onset of blood lactate accumulation (9.7%, ES = 1.23). These results suggest that the JIT included in traditional endurance training induces moderate to large effects on neuromuscular and physiological parameters.

  10. Assessment of immune parameters of manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum in different physiological conditions using flow cytometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Kyung-Il; Donaghy, Ludovic; Kang, Hyun-Sil; Hong, Hyun-Ki; Kim, Young-Ok; Choi, Kwang-Sik

    2012-03-01

    Cellular and humoral immune parameters are often used as biomarkers to trace environmental and physiological stresses in marine bivalves. In this study, we compared various immune parameters of Manila clams ( Ruditapes philippinarum) under normal conditions and under a high level of desiccation, using flow cytometry. The immune parameters analyzed included, total hemocyte count, hemocyte mortality, hemocyte DNA damage, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and phagocytosis activity. Total hemocyte count, hemocyte DNA damage, and hemocyte mortality were significantly elevated among clams under high desiccation stress, while phagocytosis activity and spontaneous ROS production were significantly lower compared to those parameters of the control clams ( p<0.05). These data suggest that the immune parameters analyzed in this study well reflect the physiological status of clams.

  11. The effect of two sock fabrics on physiological parameters associated with blister incidence: a laboratory study.

    PubMed

    Bogerd, Cornelis Peter; Rechsteiner, Ivo; Wüst, Benno; Rossi, René M; Brühwiler, Paul A

    2011-06-01

    The goal of the present study was to investigate physiological effects, mainly at the level of the foot, of two sock fabrics with distinct moisture properties. Twelve participants wore two different socks, one on each foot. The following two sock types were used: PP: 99.6% polypropylene and 0.4% elastane and BLEND: 50% Merino wool, 33% polypropylene, and 17% polyamide. The participants walked three times on a treadmill at 5 km h(-1), with no gradient for the first and third phase and a 10% upward inclination for the second walking phase. The microclimate temperature between the boot and foot was measured during walking. Preceding and following the walking phases, additional measurements were carried out at the level of the foot, i.e. skin temperature and skin hydration on three locations and skin friction between the posterior surface of the calcaneus and a glass plate. In addition, the moisture absorption of boots and socks was determined. Differences between the sock fabrics were found for weight gain and microclimate temperature: (i) PP tended to hold less water compared to BLEND, (ii) the boot's microclimate temperature resulted in larger values for BLEND measured at the dorsal surface at the level of the third metatarsal, and (iii) warmer microclimates of the boot were measured for PP compared to BLEND at the distal anterior end of the tibia. The established differences in moisture behavior of both socks did not result in detectable differences in parameters measured on the skin of the foot.

  12. Research on human physiological parameters intelligent clothing based on distributed Fiber Bragg Grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Changyun; Shi, Boya; Li, Hongqiang

    2008-12-01

    A human physiological parameters intelligent clothing is researched with FBG sensor technology. In this paper, the principles and methods of measuring human physiological parameters including body temperature and heart rate in intelligent clothing with distributed FBG are studied, the mathematical models of human physiological parameters measurement are built; the processing method of body temperature and heart rate detection signals is presented; human physiological parameters detection module is designed, the interference signals are filtered out, and the measurement accuracy is improved; the integration of the intelligent clothing is given. The intelligent clothing can implement real-time measurement, processing, storage and output of body temperature and heart rate. It has accurate measurement, portability, low cost, real-time monitoring, and other advantages. The intelligent clothing can realize the non-contact monitoring between doctors and patients, timely find the diseases such as cancer and infectious diseases, and make patients get timely treatment. It has great significance and value for ensuring the health of the elders and the children with language dysfunction.

  13. Important Physiological Parameters and Physical Activity Data for Evaluating Exposure Modeling Performance: a Synthesis

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this report is to develop a database of physiological parameters needed for understanding and evaluating performance of the APEX and SHEDS exposure/intake dose rate model used by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as part of its regulatory activities. The A...

  14. A dynamic control algorithm based on physiological parameters and wearable interfaces for adaptive ventricular assist devices.

    PubMed

    Tortora, G; Fontana, R; Argiolas, S; Vatteroni, M; Dario, P; Trivella, M G

    2015-08-01

    In this work we present an innovative algorithm for the dynamic control of ventricular assist devices (VADs), based on the acquisition of continuous physiological and functional parameters such as heart rate, blood oxygenation, temperature, and patient movements. Such parameters are acquired by wearable devices (MagIC & Winpack) and sensors implanted close to the VAD. The aim of the proposed algorithm is to dynamically control the hydraulic power of the VAD as a function of the detected parameters, patient's activity and emotional status. In this way, the cardiac dynamics regulated by the proposed autoregulation control algorithm for sensorized VADs, thus providing new therapy approaches for heart failure. PMID:26737403

  15. A dynamic control algorithm based on physiological parameters and wearable interfaces for adaptive ventricular assist devices.

    PubMed

    Tortora, G; Fontana, R; Argiolas, S; Vatteroni, M; Dario, P; Trivella, M G

    2015-08-01

    In this work we present an innovative algorithm for the dynamic control of ventricular assist devices (VADs), based on the acquisition of continuous physiological and functional parameters such as heart rate, blood oxygenation, temperature, and patient movements. Such parameters are acquired by wearable devices (MagIC & Winpack) and sensors implanted close to the VAD. The aim of the proposed algorithm is to dynamically control the hydraulic power of the VAD as a function of the detected parameters, patient's activity and emotional status. In this way, the cardiac dynamics regulated by the proposed autoregulation control algorithm for sensorized VADs, thus providing new therapy approaches for heart failure.

  16. Association Between Body Weight Growth and Selected Physiological Parameters in Male Japanese Quail (Coturnrix japonica).

    PubMed

    Vatsalya, Vatsalya; Arora, Kashmiri L

    2011-09-01

    Japanese quail is very popular research animal model. Its continued characterization for various norms is highly desirable for obtaining accurate and reliable results. This study was designed to assess various physiological parameters which are associated with body growth and development. Among various physiological parameters, blood constituents and hormones are commonly used as diagnostic tools in both physiological and pathological evaluations of humans and animals. Japanese quail hatchlings were housed in the temperature controlled brooders up to 3 weeks of age and then shifted to hanging cages in air conditioned room at ~74 F under 14L:10D lighting system and free access to feed and fresh water. Starting d8, a group of birds of uniform size and weight were selected randomly and euthanized at 4-day intervals up to d52 of age. The birds were weighed and blood sampled from the brachial vein for measuring Blood Glucose (BGL), Total Plasma Proteins (PP) and Packed Cell Volume (PCV). It was found that starting d36 all the three physiological parameters altered with approaching sexual maturity (d48-52): BGL decreased (252 vrs. 182 mg/dl, p<0.05), PCV% increased (43.6 vrs. 49.6%, p<0.05) and PP also increased (2.7 vrs. 3.2 gm/dl, p>0.05). Accordingly, BGL, PCV and PP values demonstrated significant potential to predict approaching sexual maturity in male Japanese quail.

  17. Ingestive behavior and physiological parameters of goats fed diets containing peanut cake from biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Silva, Thadeu Mariniello; Oliveira, Ronaldo Lopes; do Nascimento Júnior, Nilton Guedes; de Pellegrini, Caius Barcellos; Trajano, Jaqueline da Silva; Rocha, Tiago Cunha; Bezerra, Leilson Rocha; Borja, Máikal Souza

    2016-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to evaluate the ingestive behavior and physiological parameters of confined goats fed peanut cake instead of soybean meal in their feed. We used 40 goats that were ¾ Boer, uncastrated, and 5 months of age on average, with an average initial weight of 15.6 ± 2.7 kg. The treatments consisted of diets with different levels of peanut cake replacing soybean meal in the concentrate (0.0, 33.33, 66.67, and 100%). The experimental design was completely randomized, with four treatments and ten repetitions. For the evaluation of feeding behavior, single animals were observed every 5 min for 24 h on 3 days. The physiological responses (respiratory rate; heart rate; rectal temperature, obtained with a rectal thermometer; and surface temperature) of the animals were evaluated at 09:00 and 15:00 h. The replacement of soybean meal with peanut cake did not change (P > 0.05) feeding behavior. The physiological parameters of the animals (P < 0.05) were altered; however, the changes appeared to be unrelated to the diet and to be due to the weather conditions. Peanut cake can replace soybean meal at 100% without causing negative effects on the feeding behavior or physiological parameters of confined ¾ Boer goats.

  18. Ride comfort analysis with physiological parameters for an e-health train.

    PubMed

    Lee, Youngbum; Shin, Kwangsoo; Lee, Sangjoon; Song, Yongsoo; Han, Sungho; Lee, Myoungho

    2009-12-01

    Transportation by train has numerous advantages over road transportation, especially with regard to energy efficiency, ecological features, safety, and punctuality. However, the contrast in ride comfort between standard road transportation and train travel has become a competitive issue. The ride comfort enhancement technology of tilting trains (TTX) is a particularly important issue in the development of the Korean high-speed railroad business. Ride comfort is now defined in international standards such as UIC13 and ISO2631. The Korean standards such as KSR9216 mainly address physical parameters such as vibration and noise. In the area of ride comfort, living quality parameter techniques have recently been considered in Korea, Japan, and Europe. This study introduces biological parameters, particularly variations in heart rate, as a more direct measure of comfort. Biological parameters are based on physiological responses rather than on purely external mechanical parameters. Variability of heart rate and other physiological parameters of passengers are measured in a simulation involving changes in the tilting angle of the TTX. This research is a preliminary study for the implementation of an e-health train, which would provide passengers with optimized ride comfort. The e-health train would also provide feedback on altered ride comfort situations that can improve a passenger's experience and provide a healthcare service on the train. The aim of this research was to develop a ride comfort evaluation system for the railway industry, the automobile industry, and the air industry. The degree of tilt correlated with heart rate, fatigue, and unrelieved alertness.

  19. Physiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Ian

    2008-01-01

    Underlying recent developments in health care and new treatments for disease are advances in basic medical sciences. This edition of "Webwatch" focuses on sites dealing with basic medical sciences, with particular attention given to physiology. There is a vast amount of information on the web related to physiology. The sites that are included here…

  20. Capture of farmed Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus): comparison of physiological parameters after manual capture and after capture with electrical stunning.

    PubMed

    Pfitzer, S; Ganswindt, A; Fosgate, G T; Botha, P J; Myburgh, J G

    2014-09-27

    The electric stunner (e-stunner) is commonly used to handle Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) on commercial farms in South Africa, but while it seems to improve handling and safety for the keepers, no information regarding physiological reactions to e-stunning is currently available. The aim of this study was therefore to compare various physiological parameters in farmed C niloticus captured either manually (noosing) or by using an e-stunner. A total of 45 crocodiles were captured at a South African farm by either e-stunning or noosing, and blood samples were taken immediately as well as four hours after capture. Parameters monitored were serum corticosterone, lactate, glucose, as well as alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase and creatine kinase. Lactate concentrations were significantly higher in noosed compared with e-stunned animals (P<0.001). No other blood parameter differed significantly between the two methods of capture. In addition, recorded capture time confirmed that noosing takes significantly longer time compared with e-stunning (P<0.001), overall indicating that e-stunning seems to be the better option for restraint of especially large numbers of crocodiles in a commercial setup because it is quicker, safer and did not cause a significant increase in any of the parameters measured.

  1. Selection of physiological parameters for optoelectronic system supporting behavioral therapy of autistic children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landowska, A.; Karpienko, K.; Wróbel, M.; Jedrzejewska-Szczerska, M.

    2014-11-01

    In this article the procedure of selection of physiological parameters for optoelectronic system supporting behavioral therapy of autistic children is proposed. Authors designed and conducted an experiment in which a group of 30 health volunteers (16 females and 14 males) were examined. Under controlled conditions people were exposed to a stressful situation caused by the picture or sound (1kHz constant sound, which was gradually silenced and finished with a shot sound). For each of volunteers, a set of physiological parameters were recorded, including: skin conductance, heart rate, peripheral temperature, respiration rate and electromyography. The selected characteristics were measured in different locations in order to choose the most suitable one for the designed therapy supporting system. The bio-statistical analysis allowed us to discern the proper physiological parameters that are most associated to changes due to emotional state of a patient, such as: skin conductance, temperatures and respiration rate. This allowed us to design optoelectronic sensors network for supporting behavioral therapy of children with autism.

  2. The impact of transportation on physiological and behavioral parameters in Wistar rats: implications for acclimatization periods.

    PubMed

    Arts, Johanna W M; Kramer, Klaas; Arndt, Saskia S; Ohl, Frauke

    2012-01-01

    Transportation of laboratory rodents unavoidably causes stress. Nevertheless, very little is known about the effects of transportation and how long it takes for the animal to recuperate. In the present study, we investigated physiological and behavioral parameters before and after transportation in both transported and nontransported animals. We took blood samples to analyze plasma corticosterone and creatine kinase, and performed physiological measurements by means of telemetry, measuring heart rate, blood pressure, and activity. Behavior was measured by means of home cage observations. This study revealed that plasma corticosterone levels increased at least up to 16 days after transportation, blood pressure and heart rate showed a lasting decrease after transportation, grooming increased, and social interactions and locomotor activity decreased after transportation. With these data we demonstrate that there is a long-lasting effect of transportation on physiological and behavioral parameters. Our results show that the stressful impact of transportation embraces all parts of the procedure, including for example the packing of the animals. Researchers must be aware of this impact and provide a sufficient acclimatization period to allow for the (re-)stabilization of parameters. Insufficient acclimatization periods endanger not only the reliability of research results but also the welfare of the animal used.

  3. Physiological parameters of Macaca fascicularis immunized with anti-rubella vaccine with germanium-based adjuvants.

    PubMed

    Karal-Ogly, D D; Agrba, V Z; Lavrent'eva, I N; Ambrosov, I V; Matelo, S K; Chuguev, Yu P; Gvaramiya, I A; Gvozdik, T E; Mukhametzyanova, E I

    2014-05-01

    Clinical status, hematological and biochemical parameters, and allergenic activity of organogermanium compounds used as adjuvants in complex with preparation from Orlov rubella virus vaccine strain and reference commercial anti-rubella vaccine based on Wistar RA 27/3 strain were studied on Macaca fascilcularis of both genders. Physiological parameters of monkeys immunized with the Russian and foreign rubella virus vaccine strains with and without adjuvants did not differ. The adjuvants were inessential for the safety of vaccines (absence of toxicity, reactogenic activity, or allergenic activity) in preclinical studies on lower primates.

  4. Relationship between human physiological parameters and geomagnetic variations of solar origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrova, S.

    Results presented concern influence of increased geomagnetic activity on some human physiological parameters. The blood pressure and heart rate of 86 volunteers were measured on working days in autumn 2001 (01/10 09/11) and in spring 2002 (08/04 28/05). These periods were chosen because of maximal expected geomagnetic activity. Altogether 2799 recordings were obtained and analysed. Questionnaire information about subjective psycho-physiological complaints was also gathered. MANOVA was employed to check the significance of the influence of three factors on the physiological parameters under consideration. The factors were the following: (1) planetary geomagnetic activity level estimated by Ap-index and divided into five levels; (2) gender males and females; (3) blood pressure degree persons in the group examined were divided into hypotensive, normotensive and hypertensive. Post hoc analysis was performed to elicit the significance of differences in the factors’ levels. The average arterial blood pressure of the group was found to increase significantly with the increase of geomagnetic activity level. The average increment of systolic and diastolic blood pressure of the group examined reached 9%. This effect was present irrespectively of gender. Results obtained suppose that hypertensive persons have the highest sensitivity and the hypotensive persons have the lowest sensitivity of the arterial blood pressure to increase of geomagnetic activity. The results did not show significant changes in the heart rate. The percentage of the persons who reported subjective psycho-physiological complaints was also found to increase significantly with the geomagnetic activity increase and the highest sensitivity was revealed for the hypertensive females.

  5. [Research on the performance comparing and building of affective computing database based on physiological parameters].

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Du, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Yunpeng; Ying, Lijuan; Li, Changwuz

    2014-08-01

    The validity and reasonableness of emotional data are the key issues in the cognitive affective computing research. Effects of the emotion recognition are decided by the quality of selected data directly. Therefore, it is an important part of affective computing research to build affective computing database with good performance, so that it is the hot spot of research in this field. In this paper, the performance of two classical cognitive affective computing databases, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) cognitive affective computing database and Germany Augsburg University emotion recognition database were compared, their data structure and data types were compared respectively, and emotional recognition effect based on the data were studied comparatively. The results indicated that the analysis based on the physical parameters could get the effective emotional recognition, and would be a feasible method of pressure emotional evaluation. Because of the lack of stress emotional evaluation data based on the physiological parameters domestically, there is not a public stress emotional database. We hereby built a dataset for the stress evaluation towards the high stress group in colleges, candidates of postgraduates of Ph. D and master as the subjects. We then acquired their physiological parameters, and performed the pressure analysis based on this database. The results indicated that this dataset had a certain reference value for the stress evaluation, and we hope this research can provide a reference and support for emotion evaluation and analysis.

  6. Effect of geomagnetic disturbances on physiological parameters: An investigation on aviators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papailiou, M.; Mavromichalaki, H.; Kudela, K.; Stetiarova, J.; Dimitrova, S.

    2011-11-01

    Over the last years the potential effect that the geomagnetic activity may have on human physiological parameters (such as heart rate, arterial diastolic and systolic pressure) is being widely investigated with irrefutable results. As it is suggested, human health can be affected by solar activity and related geophysical changes. In this study a group of 4018 Slovak aviators was examined from January 1, 1994 to December 31, 2002, covering periods with high solar and geomagnetic activity. Specifically, medical data of mean values of arterial diastolic and systolic blood pressure, which were registered during the medical examinations of the Slovak aviators, were related to daily variations of Dst and Ap geomagnetic indices. All subjects were men (from 18 to 60 years old) in good health. Statistical significance levels (p-values) of the effect of geomagnetic activity on the aforementioned parameters up to three days before and three days after the geomagnetic event were established using the statistical method ANalysis Of VAriance (ANOVA). Statistical analysis of the arterial blood pressure variations for different levels of geomagnetic activity revealed that geomagnetic changes are connected to variations of the human physiological parameters.

  7. [Photosynthetic parameters and physiological indexes of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis influenced by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi].

    PubMed

    Wei, Zheng-xin; Guo, Dong-qin; Li, Hai-feng; Ding, Bo; Zhang, Jie; Zhou, Nong; Yu, Jie

    2015-10-01

    Through potted inoculation test at room temperature and indoor analysis, the photosynthetic parameters and physiological and biochemical indexes of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis were observed after 28 arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi were injected into the P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis growing in a sterile soil environment. The results showed that AM fungi established a good symbiosis with P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. The AM fungi influenced the photosynthetic parameters and physiological and biochemical indexes of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. And the influences were varied depending on different AM fungi. The application of AM fungi improved photosynthesis intensity of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis mesophyll cells, the contents of soluble protein and soluble sugar, protective enzyme activity of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis leaf, which was beneficial to resist the adverse environment and promote the growth of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. Otherwise, there was a certain mutual selectivity between P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis and AM fungi. From the comprehensive effect of inoculation, Racocetra coralloidea, Scutellospora calospora, Claroideoglomus claroideum, S. pellucida and Rhizophagus clarus were the most suitable AM fungi to P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis when P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis was planted in the field.

  8. Effects of post-exercise recovery interventions on physiological, psychological, and performance parameters.

    PubMed

    Cortis, C; Tessitore, A; D'Artibale, E; Meeusen, R; Capranica, L

    2010-05-01

    At present, there is no consensus on the effectiveness of post-exercise recovery interventions on subsequent daily performances. The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of 20 min low-intensity water exercises, supine electrostimulation, and passive (sitting rest) recovery modalities on physiological (oxygen consumption, blood lactate concentration, and percentage of hemoglobin saturation in the muscles), psychological (subjective ratings of perceived exertion, muscle pain, and feeling of recovery), and performance (countermovement, bouncing jumping) parameters. During three experimental sessions, 8 men (age: 21.9+/-1.3 yrs; height: 175.8+/-10.7 cm; body mass: 71.2+/-9.8 kg; VO(2max): 57.9+/-5.1 ml x kg x min(-1)) performed a morning and an afternoon submaximal running test. The recovery interventions were randomly administered after the first morning tests. Activity and dietary intake were replicated on each occasion. ANOVA for repeated measures (p<0.05) showed no difference between the morning and afternoon physiological (ratios: range 0.90-1.18) and performance parameters (ratios: range 0.80-1.24), demonstrating that post-exercise recovery interventions do not provide significant beneficial effects over a limited time period. Conversely, subjects perceived water exercises (60%) and electrostimulation (40%) as the most effective interventions, indicating that these recovery strategies might improve the subjective feelings of wellbeing of the individual. PMID:20180177

  9. Mixed venous oxygen saturation as a promising parameter for physiologic control of total artificial heart.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, M; Homma, A; Tatsumi, E; Uesho, K; Taenaka, Y; Masuzawa, T; Nakamura, T; Zhang, B; Kakuta, Y; Imada, K; Nakatani, T; Takano, H

    2000-01-01

    Mixed venous oxygen saturation (SvO2) has been proposed as one of the suitable parameters for physiologic control of a total artificial heart (TAH). To establish the practical application of SvO2, we investigated the response of cardiac output (CO) and SvO2 to step-loaded exercise. A normal calf was surgically equipped with an ultrasonic flowmeter probe and an oximetry catheter in the pulmonary artery to measure CO and SvO2, respectively. Three stage step treadmill exercise tests (1, 2, and 4 km/h) were performed three times. While CO increased from 8.9 L/min at preexercise level to 9.7, 10.2 and 11.4 L/min at 1, 2, and 4 km/h, respectively, SvO2 decreased from 59.6% to 56.8, 55.3, and 52.2%, respectively. There existed a linear correlation between the magnitude of changes in CO and SvO2. CO and SvO2 exhibited a similar course of change, expressing an inverted exponential curve. The time constant of SvO2 was from 19 to 35 seconds, whereas that of CO was from 21 to 39 seconds. We conclude that SvO2 changes in close association with CO during exercise and has good potential to be a parameter for physiologic control of a TAH, by reflecting the recipient's CO demand without conspicuous time delay.

  10. Combined effects of noise, vibration, and low temperature on the physiological parameters of labor employees.

    PubMed

    Chao, Pao-Chiang; Juang, Yow-Jer; Chen, Chiou-Jong; Dai, Yu-Tung; Yeh, Ching-Ying; Hu, Ching-Yao

    2013-10-01

    Noise, vibration, and low temperature render specific occupational hazards to labor employees. The purpose of this research was to investigate the combined effects of these three physical hazards on employees' physiological parameters. The Taguchi experimental method was used to simulate different exposure conditions caused by noise, vibration, and low temperature, and their effects on the physiological parameters of the test takers were measured. The data were then analyzed using statistical methods to evaluate the combined effects of these three factors on human health. Results showed that the factor that influenced the finger skin temperature, manual dexterity, and mean artery pressure (MAP) most was air temperature, and exposure time was the second most influential factor. Noise was found to be the major factor responsible for hearing loss; in this case, hand-arm vibration and temperature had no effect at all. During the study, the temperature was confined in the 5-25°C range (which was not sufficient to study the effects at extremely high- and low-temperature working conditions) because the combined effects of even two factors were very complicated. For example, the combined effects of hand-arm vibration and low temperature might lead to occupational hazards such as vibration-induced white finger syndrome in working labors. Further studies concerning the occupational damage caused by the combined effects of hazardous factors need to be conducted in the future.

  11. [Photosynthetic parameters and physiological indexes of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis influenced by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi].

    PubMed

    Wei, Zheng-xin; Guo, Dong-qin; Li, Hai-feng; Ding, Bo; Zhang, Jie; Zhou, Nong; Yu, Jie

    2015-10-01

    Through potted inoculation test at room temperature and indoor analysis, the photosynthetic parameters and physiological and biochemical indexes of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis were observed after 28 arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi were injected into the P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis growing in a sterile soil environment. The results showed that AM fungi established a good symbiosis with P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. The AM fungi influenced the photosynthetic parameters and physiological and biochemical indexes of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. And the influences were varied depending on different AM fungi. The application of AM fungi improved photosynthesis intensity of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis mesophyll cells, the contents of soluble protein and soluble sugar, protective enzyme activity of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis leaf, which was beneficial to resist the adverse environment and promote the growth of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. Otherwise, there was a certain mutual selectivity between P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis and AM fungi. From the comprehensive effect of inoculation, Racocetra coralloidea, Scutellospora calospora, Claroideoglomus claroideum, S. pellucida and Rhizophagus clarus were the most suitable AM fungi to P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis when P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis was planted in the field. PMID:27062807

  12. Suction prevention and physiologic control of continuous flow left ventricular assist devices using intrinsic pump parameters.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Koenig, Steven C; Slaughter, Mark S; Giridharan, Guruprasad A

    2015-01-01

    The risk for left ventricular (LV) suction during left ventricular assist devices (LVAD) support has been a clinical concern. Current development efforts suggest LVAD suction prevention and physiologic control algorithms may require chronic implantation of pressure or flow sensors, which can be unreliable because of baseline drift and short lifespan. To overcome this limitation, we designed a sensorless suction prevention and physiologic control (eSPPC) algorithm that only requires LVAD intrinsic parameters (pump speed and power). Two gain-scheduled, proportional-integral controllers maintain a differential pump speed (ΔRPM) above a user-defined threshold to prevent LV suction while maintaining an average reference differential pressure (ΔP) between the LV and aorta. ΔRPM is calculated from noisy pump speed measurements that are low-pass filtered, and ΔP is estimated using an extended Kalman filter. Efficacy and robustness of the eSPPC algorithm were evaluated in silico during simulated rest and exercise test conditions for 1) excessive ΔP setpoint (ES); 2) rapid eightfold increase in pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR); and 3) ES and PVR. Simulated hemodynamic waveforms (LV pressure and volume; aortic pressure and flow) using only intrinsic pump parameters showed the feasibility of our proposed eSPPC algorithm in preventing LV suction for all test conditions. PMID:25396276

  13. Effects of Anesthesia with Isoflurane, Ketamine, or Propofol on Physiologic Parameters in Neonatal Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Lauren D; Dissen, Gregory A; McPike, Matthew J; Brambrink, Ansgar M

    2014-01-01

    Isoflurane, ketamine, and propofol are common anesthetics in human and nonhuman primate medicine. However, scant normative data exist regarding the response of neonatal macaques to these anesthetics. We compared the effects of isoflurane, ketamine, and propofol anesthesia on physiologic parameters in neonatal rhesus macaques. Neonatal rhesus macaques (age, 5 to 7 d) were exposed to isoflurane (n = 5), ketamine (n = 4), propofol (n = 4) or no anesthesia (n = 5) for 5 h. The anesthetics were titrated to achieve a moderate anesthetic plane, and heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate, end tidal carbon dioxide, oxygen saturation, and temperature were measured every 15 min. Venous blood samples were collected to determine blood gases and metabolic status at baseline, 0.5, 2.5, and 4.5 h after induction and at 3 h after the end of anesthesia. Compared with ketamine, isoflurane caused more hypotensive events and necessitated the administration of increased volumes of intravenous fluids to support blood pressure throughout anesthesia; no significant differences were observed between the isoflurane and propofol groups for these parameters. In addition, isoflurane resulted in a significantly shorter average time to extubation, compared with both ketamine and propofol. Due to supportive care, other physiologic variables remained stable between anesthetic regimens and throughout the 5-h exposure. These data improve our understanding of the effects of these 3 anesthetics in neonatal rhesus macaques and will aid veterinarians and researchers as they consider the risks and benefits of and resources required during general anesthesia in these animals. PMID:24827572

  14. Relationship Between Human Physiological Parameters And Geomagnetic Variations Of Solar Origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrova, S.

    This study attempts to assess the influence of increased geomagnetic activity on some human physiological parameters. The blood pressure, heart rate and general well-being of 86 volunteers were measured (the latter by means of a standardized questionnaire) on work days in autumn 2001 (01/10 to 09/11) and in spring 2002 (08/04 to 28/05). These periods were chosen because of maximal expected geomagnetic activity. Altogether, 2799 recordings were obtained and analysed. MANOVA was employed to check the significance of the influence of three factors on the physiological parameters under consideration. The three factors were the following: 1) planetary geomagnetic activity level estimated by Ap-index and divided into five levels; 2) gender - males and females; 3) blood pressure degree - persons in the group examined were divided into hypotensive, normotensive and hypertensive. Post hoc analysis was performed to elicit the significance of differences in the factors' levels. The average arterial blood pressure of the group was found to increase significantly with the increase of geomagnetic activity level. The average increment of systolic and diastolic blood pressure reached 9%, which deserves attention from a medical point of view. This effect was present irrespectively of gender. Results obtained suppose that hypertensive persons have the highest sensitivity and the hypotensive persons have the lowest sensitivity of the arterial blood pressure to increase of geomagnetic activity. The results did not show significant changes in the heart rate. The percentage of the persons who reported subjective psycho-physiological complaints was also found to increase significantly with the geomagnetic activity increase. During severe geomagnetic storms 30% of the persons examined reported subjective complaints and the highest sensitivity was revealed for the hypertensive females. The results obtained add further evidence that blood pressure seems to be affected by geomagnetic

  15. A new approach to NMR chemical shift additivity parameters using simultaneous linear equation method.

    PubMed

    Shahab, Yosif A; Khalil, Rabah A

    2006-10-01

    A new approach to NMR chemical shift additivity parameters using simultaneous linear equation method has been introduced. Three general nitrogen-15 NMR chemical shift additivity parameters with physical significance for aliphatic amines in methanol and cyclohexane and their hydrochlorides in methanol have been derived. A characteristic feature of these additivity parameters is the individual equation can be applied to both open-chain and rigid systems. The factors that influence the (15)N chemical shift of these substances have been determined. A new method for evaluating conformational equilibria at nitrogen in these compounds using the derived additivity parameters has been developed. Conformational analyses of these substances have been worked out. In general, the results indicate that there are four factors affecting the (15)N chemical shift of aliphatic amines; paramagnetic term (p-character), lone pair-proton interactions, proton-proton interactions, symmetry of alkyl substituents and molecular association.

  16. Additional field verification of convective scaling for the lateral dispersion parameter

    SciTech Connect

    Sakiyama, S.K.; Davis, P.A.

    1988-07-01

    The results of a series of diffusion trials over the heterogeneous surface of the Canadian Precambrian Shield provide additional support for the convective scaling of the lateral dispersion parameter. The data indicate that under convective conditions, the lateral dispersion parameter can be scaled with the convective velocity scale and the mixing depth. 10 references.

  17. Additive effects of enhanced ambient ultraviolet B radiation and increased temperature on immune function, growth and physiological condition of juvenile (parr) Atlantic Salmon, Salmo salar.

    PubMed

    Jokinen, Ilmari E; Salo, Harri M; Markkula, Eveliina; Rikalainen, Kaisa; Arts, Michael T; Browman, Howard I

    2011-01-01

    Climate change models predict increased ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation levels due to stratospheric ozone depletion and global warming. In order to study the impact of these two environmental stressors acting simultaneously on the physiology of fish, Atlantic salmon parr were exposed, for 8 weeks in outdoor tanks, to different combinations of UVB radiation (depleted and enhanced) and temperature (standard rearing temperature of 14 °C or 19 °C). The immune function (plasma IgM, lysozyme activity and complement bacteriolytic activity), growth (body weight) and physiological condition (haematocrit and plasma protein concentration) of the fish were determined. Increased UVB level, regardless of water temperature, had a negative effect on immune function parameters, growth and physiological condition. Higher temperature increased plasma IgM concentration but had a negative effect on complement bacteriolytic activity under both spectral treatments. Increased temperature, irrespective of UVB level, increased fish growth but negatively affected haematocrit and plasma protein. Exposing the fish to enhanced UVB at elevated temperature increased plasma IgM concentration and slightly improved growth. However, complement activity and physiological condition parameters decreased more than when the fish were exposed to each stressor separately. The changes were mainly additive; no interactive or synergistic effects were observed. The negative impact of multiple stressors on immune function, together with predicted increases in pathogen load in warmer waters resulting from global climate change, suggest an increased risk to diseases in fishes.

  18. Comparison of physiologic and pharmacologic parameters in Asian and mauritius cynomolgus macaques.

    PubMed

    Kozlosky, John C; Mysore, Jagannatha; Clark, Shawn P; Burr, Holly N; Li, Jinze; Aranibar, Nelly; Vuppugalla, Ragini; West, Ronald C; Mangipudy, Raja S; Graziano, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    This comparative study was conducted to assess background physiologic and pharmacologic parameters of cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) from Cambodia, from a mixed Asian source (Cambodia, Vietnam and Indonesia), and from Mauritius. This evaluation provides a comprehensive assessment of several of these parameters in a single study. Ten male and 10 female captive-bred, age-matched macaques from each source were evaluated. Criteria for evaluation included weight gain, assessment of drug metabolizing enzyme activity, metabolomic analysis, immunologic assessments (lymphocyte subsets, TDAR, and serum Ig isotyping), clinical pathology evaluations, physical (respiratory, neurologic, cardiovascular, and ophthalmologic) examinations, pathogen screening, organ weights, and gross and microscopic pathology analyses. The results of this evaluation indicate that, compared to macaques of Asian origin, macaques from Mauritius had the lowest incidence and/or severity of spontaneous pathologic findings in several organs and tissues (lymphoid organs, stomach, kidney, urothelium, heart, arteries and lung) and better testicular maturity at a given age with minimal variability in organ weights. Although slight differences were observed in other parameters, none were considered detrimental to the use of macaques of Asian or Mauritius origin in pharmaceutical candidate safety studies with the use of a consistent source, concomitant controls, and appropriate background knowledge and screening.

  19. Assessment of sensing fire fighters uniforms for physiological parameter measurement in harsh environment.

    PubMed

    Curone, Davide; Secco, Emanuele Lindo; Caldani, Laura; Lanatà, Antonio; Paradiso, Rita; Tognetti, Alessandro; Magenes, Giovanni

    2012-05-01

    In the last few years, much effort has been devoted to the development of wearable sensing systems able to monitor physiological, behavioral, and environmental parameters. Less has been done on the accurate testing and assessment of this instrumentation, especially when considering devices thought to be used in harsh environments by subjects or operators performing intense physical activities. This paper presents methodology and results of the evaluation of wearable physiological sensors under these conditions. The methodology has been applied to a specific textile-based prototype, aimed at the real-time monitoring of rescuers in emergency contexts, which has been developed within a European funded project called ProeTEX. Wearable sensor measurements have been compared with the ones of suitable gold standards through Bland-Altman statistical analysis; tests were realized in controlled environments simulating typical intervention conditions, with temperatures ranging from 20 °C to 45 °C and subjects performing mild to very intense activities. This evaluation methodology demonstrated to be effective for the definition of the limits of use of wearable sensors. Furthermore, the ProeTEX prototype demonstrated to be reliable, since it produced negligible errors when used for up to 1 h in normal environmental temperature (20 °C and 35 °C) and up to 30 min in harsher environment (45 °C).

  20. Physiological parameters monitoring of fire-fighters by means of a wearable wireless sensor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potirakis, Stelios M.; Mitilineos, Stelios A.; Chatzistamatis, Panagiotis; Vassiliadis, Savvas; Primentas, Antonios; Kogias, Dimitris; Michailidis, Emmanouel T.; Rangoussi, Maria; Kurşun Bahadir, Senem; Atalay, Özgür; Kalaoğlu, Fatma; Sağlam, Yusuf

    2016-03-01

    Physiological parameter monitoring may be useful in many different groups of the population, such as infants, elderly people, athletes, soldiers, drivers, fire-fighters, police etc. This can provide a variety of information ranging from health status to operational readiness. In this article, we focus on the case of first responders and specifically fire-fighters. Firefighters can benefit from a physiological monitoring system that is used to extract multiple indications such as the present position, the possible life risk level, the stress level etc. This work presents a wearable wireless sensor network node, based on low cost, commercial-off- the-self (COTS) electronic modules, which can be easily attached on a standard fire-fighters’ uniform. Due to the low frequency wired interface between the selected electronic components, the proposed solution can be used as a basis for a textile system where all wired connections will be implemented by means of conductive yarn routing in the textile structure, while some of the standard sensors can be replaced by textile ones. System architecture is described in detail, while indicative samples of acquired signals are also presented.

  1. Assessment of sensing fire fighters uniforms for physiological parameter measurement in harsh environment.

    PubMed

    Curone, Davide; Secco, Emanuele Lindo; Caldani, Laura; Lanatà, Antonio; Paradiso, Rita; Tognetti, Alessandro; Magenes, Giovanni

    2012-05-01

    In the last few years, much effort has been devoted to the development of wearable sensing systems able to monitor physiological, behavioral, and environmental parameters. Less has been done on the accurate testing and assessment of this instrumentation, especially when considering devices thought to be used in harsh environments by subjects or operators performing intense physical activities. This paper presents methodology and results of the evaluation of wearable physiological sensors under these conditions. The methodology has been applied to a specific textile-based prototype, aimed at the real-time monitoring of rescuers in emergency contexts, which has been developed within a European funded project called ProeTEX. Wearable sensor measurements have been compared with the ones of suitable gold standards through Bland-Altman statistical analysis; tests were realized in controlled environments simulating typical intervention conditions, with temperatures ranging from 20 °C to 45 °C and subjects performing mild to very intense activities. This evaluation methodology demonstrated to be effective for the definition of the limits of use of wearable sensors. Furthermore, the ProeTEX prototype demonstrated to be reliable, since it produced negligible errors when used for up to 1 h in normal environmental temperature (20 °C and 35 °C) and up to 30 min in harsher environment (45 °C). PMID:22231710

  2. Correlations between the behavior of recreational horses, the physiological parameters and summer atmospheric conditions.

    PubMed

    Janczarek, Iwona; Wilk, Izabela; Zalewska, Edyta; Bocian, Krzysztof

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this paper was to select atmospheric factors and their values, which may disrupt the correct behavior and physiological condition of recreational horses. The studies were carried out from 1 July until 1 September on 16 Anglo-Arabian geldings. Each day, from 09.00 to 10.00 hours, the horses worked under saddle. The riders and the authors gave a qualitative behavioral assessment for each horse. Mood and willingness to work were evaluated. The quantitative assessment was called 'incorrect behavior of the horse while riding' (IBHR). The percentage time of duration and the number of occurrences of the features while riding were calculated. Heart rate, body temperature and respiratory rate were taken at 08.00 hours (resting measurement) and at 10.05 hours (post-exercise measurement). Air temperature, relative air humidity, wind speed and atmospheric pressure were measured at 08.00 and 10.00 hours. The results showed that adverse changes in the behavior of recreational horses can occur if the horse is ridden when the air temperature is above 26°C and when wind speeds exceed 5.5 m/s. Such conditions may cause a reduction in the mood and willingness to work in horses. Physiological parameters like heart rate and body temperature seem to be more sensitive indicators of the horse body reaction to the weather than behavioral reactions. PMID:25488802

  3. Correlations between the behavior of recreational horses, the physiological parameters and summer atmospheric conditions.

    PubMed

    Janczarek, Iwona; Wilk, Izabela; Zalewska, Edyta; Bocian, Krzysztof

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this paper was to select atmospheric factors and their values, which may disrupt the correct behavior and physiological condition of recreational horses. The studies were carried out from 1 July until 1 September on 16 Anglo-Arabian geldings. Each day, from 09.00 to 10.00 hours, the horses worked under saddle. The riders and the authors gave a qualitative behavioral assessment for each horse. Mood and willingness to work were evaluated. The quantitative assessment was called 'incorrect behavior of the horse while riding' (IBHR). The percentage time of duration and the number of occurrences of the features while riding were calculated. Heart rate, body temperature and respiratory rate were taken at 08.00 hours (resting measurement) and at 10.05 hours (post-exercise measurement). Air temperature, relative air humidity, wind speed and atmospheric pressure were measured at 08.00 and 10.00 hours. The results showed that adverse changes in the behavior of recreational horses can occur if the horse is ridden when the air temperature is above 26°C and when wind speeds exceed 5.5 m/s. Such conditions may cause a reduction in the mood and willingness to work in horses. Physiological parameters like heart rate and body temperature seem to be more sensitive indicators of the horse body reaction to the weather than behavioral reactions.

  4. Changes in the Physiological Parameters of SbPIP1-Transformed Wheat Plants under Salt Stress

    PubMed Central

    Yu, G. H.; Zhang, X.; Ma, H. X.

    2015-01-01

    The SbPIP1 gene is a new member of the plasma membrane major intrinsic gene family cloned from the euhalophyte Salicornia bigelovii Torr. In order to understand the physiological responses in plants that are mediated by the SbPIP1 gene, SbPIP1-overexpressing wheat lines and WT plants of the wheat cv. Ningmai 13 were treated with salt stress. Several physiological parameters, such as the proline content, the malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and the content of soluble sugars and proteins, were compared between SbPIP1-transformed lines and WT plants under normal growth or salt stress conditions. The results indicate that overexpression of the SbPIP1 gene can increase the accumulation of the osmolyte proline, decrease the MDA content, and enhance the soluble sugar biosynthesis in the early period but has no influence on the regulation of soluble protein biosynthesis in wheat. The results suggest that SbPIP1 contributes to salt tolerance by facilitating the accumulation of the osmolyte proline, increasing the antioxidant response, and increasing the biosynthesis of soluble sugar in the early period. These results indicate SbPIP1 plays an important role in the salt stress response. Overexpression of SbPIP1 might be used to improve the salt tolerance of important crop plants. PMID:26495278

  5. [Construction and analysis of a monitoring system with remote real-time multiple physiological parameters based on cloud computing].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lingyun; Li, Lianjie; Meng, Chunyan

    2014-12-01

    There have been problems in the existing multiple physiological parameter real-time monitoring system, such as insufficient server capacity for physiological data storage and analysis so that data consistency can not be guaranteed, poor performance in real-time, and other issues caused by the growing scale of data. We therefore pro posed a new solution which was with multiple physiological parameters and could calculate clustered background data storage and processing based on cloud computing. Through our studies, a batch processing for longitudinal analysis of patients' historical data was introduced. The process included the resource virtualization of IaaS layer for cloud platform, the construction of real-time computing platform of PaaS layer, the reception and analysis of data stream of SaaS layer, and the bottleneck problem of multi-parameter data transmission, etc. The results were to achieve in real-time physiological information transmission, storage and analysis of a large amount of data. The simulation test results showed that the remote multiple physiological parameter monitoring system based on cloud platform had obvious advantages in processing time and load balancing over the traditional server model. This architecture solved the problems including long turnaround time, poor performance of real-time analysis, lack of extensibility and other issues, which exist in the traditional remote medical services. Technical support was provided in order to facilitate a "wearable wireless sensor plus mobile wireless transmission plus cloud computing service" mode moving towards home health monitoring for multiple physiological parameter wireless monitoring.

  6. Parameters of the meal pattern in rats: their assessment and physiological significance.

    PubMed

    Le Magnen, J; Devos, M

    1980-01-01

    Parameters of the meal pattern in rats were assessed and their physiological significance investigated through a detailed study of continuous graphic recordings over 20 consecutive days in ten rats. Both prandial and diurnal periodicities were examined. The definition of meals, by a criterion of 40 min of non-eating before and after a feeding episode, was validated statistically. The two superimposed periodicities were substantiated by studying night and daytime differences in meal sizes, meal-to-meal intervals, meal size/interval ratios, and post prandial correlations. The results provide new evidence for the role of metabolic and neuroendocrine factors in determining the relationships between meal size and post-meal intervals and their differences during the two parts of the diurnal cycle.

  7. Intermittent prenatal MDMA exposure alters physiological but not mood related parameters in adult rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Adori, Csaba; Zelena, Dóra; Tímár, Júlia; Gyarmati, Zsuzsa; Domokos, Agnes; Sobor, Melinda; Fürst, Zsuzsanna; Makara, Gábor; Bagdy, György

    2010-01-20

    The recreational party drug "ecstasy" (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine MDMA) is particularly popular among young adults who are in the childbearing age and thus there is a substantial risk of prenatal MDMA exposure. We applied an intermittent treatment protocol with an early first injection on pregnant Wistar rats (15 mg/kg MDMA s.c. on the E4, E11 and E18 days of gestation) to examine the potential physiological, endocrine and behavioral effects on adult male and female offspring. Prenatal MDMA-treatment provoked reduced body weight of offspring from the birth as far as the adulthood. Adult MDMA-offspring had a reduced blood-glucose concentration and hematocrit, altered relative spleen and thymus weight, had lower performance on wire suspension test and on the first trial of rotarod test. In contrast, no alteration in the locomotor activity was found. Anxiety and depression related behavioral parameters in elevated plus maze, sucrose preference or forced swimming tests were normal. MDMA-offspring had elevated concentration of the ACTH-precursor proopiomelanocortin and male MDMA-offspring exhibited elevated blood corticosterone concentration. No significant alteration was detected in the serotonergic marker tryptophan-hydroxylase and the catcholaminergic marker tyrosine-hydroxylase immunoreactive fiber densities in MDMA-offspring. The mothers exhibited reduced densities of serotonergic but not catecholaminergic fibers after the MDMA treatment. Our findings suggest that an intermittent prenatal MDMA exposure with an early first injection and a relatively low cumulative dose provokes mild but significant alterations in physical-physiological parameters and reduces motor skill learning in adulthood. In contrast, these adult offspring do not produce anxiety or depression like behavior. PMID:19782105

  8. Rheological parameters of dough with inulin addition and its effect on bread quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bojnanska, T.; Tokar, M.; Vollmannova, A.

    2015-04-01

    The rheological properties of enriched flour prepared with an addition of inulin were studied. The addition of inulin caused changes of the rheological parameters of the recorder curve. 10% and more addition significantly extended development time and on the farinogram were two peaks of consistency, what is a non-standard shape. With increasing addition of inulin resistance to deformation grows and dough is difficult to process, over 15% addition make dough short and unsuitable for making bread. Bread volume, the most important parameter, significantly decreased with inulin addition. Our results suggest a level of 5% inulin to produce a functional bread of high sensory acceptance and a level of 10% inulin produce a bread of satisfactory sensory acceptance. Bread with a level over 10% of inulin was unsatisfactory.

  9. The Circadian Timing System: A Recent Addition in the Physiological Mechanisms Underlying Pathological and Aging Processes

    PubMed Central

    Arellanes-Licea, Elvira; Caldelas, Ivette; De Ita-Pérez, Dalia; Díaz-Muñoz, Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    Experimental findings and clinical observations have strengthened the association between physio-pathologic aspects of several diseases, as well as aging process, with the occurrence and control of circadian rhythms. The circadian system is composed by a principal pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SNC) which is in coordination with a number of peripheral circadian oscillators. Many pathological entities such as metabolic syndrome, cancer and cardiovascular events are strongly connected with a disruptive condition of the circadian cycle. Inadequate circadian physiology can be elicited by genetic defects (mutations in clock genes or circadian control genes) or physiological deficiencies (desynchronization between SCN and peripheral oscillators). In this review, we focus on the most recent experimental findings regarding molecular defects in the molecular circadian clock and the altered coordination in the circadian system that are related with clinical conditions such as metabolic diseases, cancer predisposition and physiological deficiencies associated to jet-lag and shiftwork schedules. Implications in the aging process will be also reviewed. PMID:25489492

  10. Influence of electrically assisted cycling on physiological parameters in untrained subjects.

    PubMed

    de Geus, Bas; Kempenaers, Farid; Lataire, Philippe; Meeusen, Romain

    2013-01-01

    Electrically assisted bicycles (EAB) as a form of transport not only offer the potential to reduce energy use and environmental impact but could also be an effective way of encouraging active living. The purpose of this study is to assess the influence of physical active commuting to work using an EAB, on physiological parameters in 20 untrained men and women. Tests were performed at three different time points over a 10-week period, including four weeks of passive (control period) and six weeks of active commuting (intervention period). ANOVA for repeated measures was used to test differences between the testing series for the most important physiological parameters: Pmax·kg(-1), V˙O2peak·kg(-1), fixed blood lactate concentration (2, 4 mmol·l(-1)). The subjects performed over a 6-week period a mean total cycling distance of 405.1±156.0 km with a weekly frequency of 4.1±1.7 days·week(-1) for men and 246.0±116.3 km with a frequency of 2.9±1.0 days·week(-1) for women. Pmax·kg(-1) significantly increased in men and women after 6 weeks of active commuting. Power output at 2 mmol·l(-1) significantly increased in women (P=0.001) but not in men (P=0.0604). Power output at 4 mmol·l(-1) significantly increased for men and women. V˙O2peak·kg(-1) did not differ. With respect to the study limitations, it is concluded that cycling to work on an EAB was effective in increasing the maximal power output and power output at 4 mmol·l(-1) in these untrained subjects. Cycling on an EAB seems to be a promising tool as a health enhancing physical activity, for those who will benefit the most in terms of health related fitness, namely the physically inactive, unfit and older people.

  11. Influence of electrically assisted cycling on physiological parameters in untrained subjects.

    PubMed

    de Geus, Bas; Kempenaers, Farid; Lataire, Philippe; Meeusen, Romain

    2013-01-01

    Electrically assisted bicycles (EAB) as a form of transport not only offer the potential to reduce energy use and environmental impact but could also be an effective way of encouraging active living. The purpose of this study is to assess the influence of physical active commuting to work using an EAB, on physiological parameters in 20 untrained men and women. Tests were performed at three different time points over a 10-week period, including four weeks of passive (control period) and six weeks of active commuting (intervention period). ANOVA for repeated measures was used to test differences between the testing series for the most important physiological parameters: Pmax·kg(-1), V˙O2peak·kg(-1), fixed blood lactate concentration (2, 4 mmol·l(-1)). The subjects performed over a 6-week period a mean total cycling distance of 405.1±156.0 km with a weekly frequency of 4.1±1.7 days·week(-1) for men and 246.0±116.3 km with a frequency of 2.9±1.0 days·week(-1) for women. Pmax·kg(-1) significantly increased in men and women after 6 weeks of active commuting. Power output at 2 mmol·l(-1) significantly increased in women (P=0.001) but not in men (P=0.0604). Power output at 4 mmol·l(-1) significantly increased for men and women. V˙O2peak·kg(-1) did not differ. With respect to the study limitations, it is concluded that cycling to work on an EAB was effective in increasing the maximal power output and power output at 4 mmol·l(-1) in these untrained subjects. Cycling on an EAB seems to be a promising tool as a health enhancing physical activity, for those who will benefit the most in terms of health related fitness, namely the physically inactive, unfit and older people. PMID:23679145

  12. Design of a telemetry system based on wireless power transmission for physiological parameter monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Jia, Zhiwei; Yan, Guozheng; Zhu, Bingquan

    2015-04-15

    An implanted telemetry system for experimental animals with or without anaesthesia can be used to continuously monitor physiological parameters. This system is significant not only in the study of organisms but also in the evaluation of drug efficacy, artificial organs, and auxiliary devices. The system is composed of a miniature electronic capsule, a wireless power transmission module, a data-recording device, and a processing module. An electrocardiograph, a temperature sensor, and a pressure sensor are integrated in the miniature electronic capsule, in which the signals are transmitted in vitro by wireless communication after filtering, amplification, and A/D sampling. To overcome the power shortage of batteries, a wireless power transmission module based on electromagnetic induction was designed. The transmitting coil of a rectangular-section solenoid and a 3D receiving coil are proposed according to stability and safety constraints. Experiments show that at least 150 mW of power could pick up on the load in a volume of Φ10.5 mm × 11 mm, with a transmission efficiency of 2.56%. Vivisection experiments verified the feasibility of the integrated radio-telemetry system.

  13. Design of a telemetry system based on wireless power transmission for physiological parameter monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Zhiwei; Yan, Guozheng; Zhu, Bingquan

    2015-04-01

    An implanted telemetry system for experimental animals with or without anaesthesia can be used to continuously monitor physiological parameters. This system is significant not only in the study of organisms but also in the evaluation of drug efficacy, artificial organs, and auxiliary devices. The system is composed of a miniature electronic capsule, a wireless power transmission module, a data-recording device, and a processing module. An electrocardiograph, a temperature sensor, and a pressure sensor are integrated in the miniature electronic capsule, in which the signals are transmitted in vitro by wireless communication after filtering, amplification, and A/D sampling. To overcome the power shortage of batteries, a wireless power transmission module based on electromagnetic induction was designed. The transmitting coil of a rectangular-section solenoid and a 3D receiving coil are proposed according to stability and safety constraints. Experiments show that at least 150 mW of power could pick up on the load in a volume of Φ10.5 mm × 11 mm, with a transmission efficiency of 2.56%. Vivisection experiments verified the feasibility of the integrated radio-telemetry system.

  14. [Correlations between leaf delta13C and physiological parameters of desert plant Reaumuria soongorica].

    PubMed

    Ma, Jian-Ying; Chen, Fa-Hu; Xia, Dun-Sheng; Sun, Hui-Ling; Duan, Zheng-Hu; Wang, Gang

    2008-05-01

    Reaumuria soongorica is a dominant species in the desert shrubbery vegetation in arid regions of northwestern China, playing an important role in the maintenance of the stability and continuity of desert ecosystem. In this paper, a total of 407 individuals in 21 natural populations of R. soongorica were selected from its main distribution areas to measure the leaf stable carbon isotope composition (delta13C) and nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, water, proline and chlorophyll contents, with the correlations between the delta13C value and the test physiological parameters analyzed. The results showed that leaf delta13C value was significantly correlated with the contents of leaf potassium, water, and proline (P <0.001), and the correlation with leaf potassium content was most profound (r = 0.793), followed by that with leaf water content (r = -0.786), indicating that the variation of leaf delta13C value could reflect the nutritional status of the plants, and also, their water-deficient degree. The different distribution trends in leaf delta13C value of R. soongorica were likely caused by stomatal conductance, rather than by nutrient-related changes in photosynthetic efficiency under extremely low available water conditions.

  15. Cognitive Behavior Evaluation Based on Physiological Parameters among Young Healthy Subjects with Yoga as Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Nagendra, H.; Kumar, Vinod; Mukherjee, S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the effect of yoga practice on cognitive skills, autonomic nervous system, and heart rate variability by analyzing physiological parameters. Methods. The study was conducted on 30 normal young healthy engineering students. They were randomly selected into two groups: yoga group and control group. The yoga group practiced yoga one and half hour per day for six days in a week, for a period of five months. Results. The yoga practising group showed increased α, β, and δ EEG band powers and significant reduction in θ and γ band powers. The increased α and β power can represent enhanced cognitive functions such as memory and concentration, and that of δ signifies synchronization of brain activity. The heart rate index θ/α decreased, neural activity β/θ increased, attention resource index β/(α + θ) increased, executive load index (δ + θ)/α decreased, and the ratio (δ + θ)/(α + β) decreased. The yoga practice group showed improvement in heart rate variability, increased SDNN/RMSSD, and reduction in LF/HF ratio. Conclusion. Yoga practising group showed significant improvement in various cognitive functions, such as performance enhancement, neural activity, attention, and executive function. It also resulted in increase in the heart rate variability, parasympathetic nervous system activity, and balanced autonomic nervous system reactivity. PMID:25759746

  16. [Construction and analysis of a monitoring system with remote real-time multiple physiological parameters based on cloud computing].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lingyun; Li, Lianjie; Meng, Chunyan

    2014-12-01

    There have been problems in the existing multiple physiological parameter real-time monitoring system, such as insufficient server capacity for physiological data storage and analysis so that data consistency can not be guaranteed, poor performance in real-time, and other issues caused by the growing scale of data. We therefore pro posed a new solution which was with multiple physiological parameters and could calculate clustered background data storage and processing based on cloud computing. Through our studies, a batch processing for longitudinal analysis of patients' historical data was introduced. The process included the resource virtualization of IaaS layer for cloud platform, the construction of real-time computing platform of PaaS layer, the reception and analysis of data stream of SaaS layer, and the bottleneck problem of multi-parameter data transmission, etc. The results were to achieve in real-time physiological information transmission, storage and analysis of a large amount of data. The simulation test results showed that the remote multiple physiological parameter monitoring system based on cloud platform had obvious advantages in processing time and load balancing over the traditional server model. This architecture solved the problems including long turnaround time, poor performance of real-time analysis, lack of extensibility and other issues, which exist in the traditional remote medical services. Technical support was provided in order to facilitate a "wearable wireless sensor plus mobile wireless transmission plus cloud computing service" mode moving towards home health monitoring for multiple physiological parameter wireless monitoring. PMID:25868263

  17. A comprehensive study of physical and physiological parameters that affect bio-sorption of metal pollutants from aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fosso-Kankeu, E.; Mulaba-Bafubiandi, A. F.; Mamba, B. B.; Marjanovic, L.; Barnard, T. G.

    An attempt was made to remove silver (I), chromium (III), and lead (II) from aqueous solutions. To optimize the bio-sorption capacity of microorganisms ( Bacillus subtilis and Bacillaceae bacterium), the effect of process parameters such as pH, temperature, metal load and culture age on the metal uptake was investigated. Indigenous strains of B. subtilis and Bacillaceae bacterium found in gold and copper mines in South Africa were exposed to silver (I), chromium (III), and lead (II) solutions under different physico-chemical and physiological conditions. Optimum conditions for the uptake of silver (I), chromium (III) and lead (II) by microorganisms used in this study were determined. The pH range 7-8, higher temperature (45 °C) and stationary growth phase, were observed as being suitable physical and physiological conditions for optimum removal of metals (Ag-87.2%; Cr-94% and Pb-98.5%). On the other hand very low pH (3) adversely affected the metal removal ability of bacteria. Silver (I) was the most poorly uptaken metal. It was also found that silver inhibited bacteria growth. Attempt to elute metal from the above cell biomass showed that 56.6% silver (I) and 88.3% lead (II) could effectively be desorbed at pH 5. It was additionally observed that optimum conditions for metal removal were specific to microbial bio-sorbent and the targeted metal. Design and implementation of bioremediation processes therefore require thorough study of specific interactions among metals and bio-sorbents involved.

  18. Relationship of psychological and physiological parameters during an arctic ski expedition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, Sheryl L.; Grobler, Lukas C.; SchjØll, Olaf

    2001-08-01

    Considerable data (primarily physiological) have been collected during expeditions in extreme environments over the last century. Physiological measurements have only recently been examined in association with the emotional or behavioral state of the subject. Establishing this psychophysiological relationship is essential to understanding fully the adaptation of humans to the stresses of extreme environments. This pilot study investigated the simultaneous collection of physiological, psychological and behavioral data from a two-man Greenland expedition in order to model how specific relationships between physiological and psychological adaptation to a polar environment may be identified. The data collected describes changes in adrenal and other hormonal activity and psychological functioning. Levels of cortisol and testosterone were calculated. Factors influencing the plasma profiles of the aforementioned included 24-hour sunlight, high calorific intake of more than 28 000 kJ/day and extreme physical exercise. There was a difference between individual psychological profiles as well as self-report stress and physiological stress.

  19. Evaluation of immunological and physiological parameters associated with an infectious bovine rhinotracheitis viral challenge in beef steers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To evaluate the effects infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBRV) has on immunological and physiological parameters of cattle; 12 Angus crossbred steers (228.82 ± 22.15 kg) were randomly assigned to either a Control group or an IBRV challenged group. Prior to the challenge, steers were fitted w...

  20. Influence of two different doses of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBRV) on immune and physiological parameters in steers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To evaluate the effects different doses of IBRV and the impact they have on immunological and physiological parameters of cattle, 18 Holstein steers (450.11 ± 75.70 kg) were randomly assigned to either a control group or 1 of 2 IBRV challenged groups. Prior to the challenge, steers were fitted with ...

  1. Effect of wood ash application on the morphological, physiological and biochemical parameters of Brassica napus L.

    PubMed

    Nabeela, Farhat; Murad, Waheed; Khan, Imran; Mian, Ishaq Ahmad; Rehman, Hazir; Adnan, Muhammad; Azizullah, Azizullah

    2015-10-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the effect of wood ash application on different parameters of Brassica napus L. including seed germination, seedling growth, fresh and dry biomass, water content in seedlings, photosynthetic pigments, soluble sugars, total protein and cell viability. In addition, the effect of wood ash on soil microflora and accumulation of trace elements in seedlings were determined. The seeds of B. napus were grown at different doses of wood ash (0, 1, 10, 25, 50 and 100 g (wood ash)/kg (soil)) and the effect on various parameters was determined. Wood ash significantly inhibited seed germination at doses above 25 g/kg and there was no germination at 100 g/kg of wood ash. At lower concentrations of wood ash, most of the growth parameters of seedlings were stimulated, but at higher concentrations of wood ash most of the studied parameters were adversely affected. Wood ash was found to be very detrimental to B. napus when applied above 25 g/kg. Wood ash application resulted in an increased bioaccumulation of trace elements in seedlings of B. napus. Almost all trace elements were significantly higher in seedlings grown in wood ash above 10 g/kg as compared to the control. An increase in total microbial count was observed with wood ash treatment which was statistically significant at 1 and 10 g/kg of wood ash. It is concluded that at very high concentration, wood ash can be detrimental to plants; however, its application at lower application rate can be recommended.

  2. Effect of wood ash application on the morphological, physiological and biochemical parameters of Brassica napus L.

    PubMed

    Nabeela, Farhat; Murad, Waheed; Khan, Imran; Mian, Ishaq Ahmad; Rehman, Hazir; Adnan, Muhammad; Azizullah, Azizullah

    2015-10-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the effect of wood ash application on different parameters of Brassica napus L. including seed germination, seedling growth, fresh and dry biomass, water content in seedlings, photosynthetic pigments, soluble sugars, total protein and cell viability. In addition, the effect of wood ash on soil microflora and accumulation of trace elements in seedlings were determined. The seeds of B. napus were grown at different doses of wood ash (0, 1, 10, 25, 50 and 100 g (wood ash)/kg (soil)) and the effect on various parameters was determined. Wood ash significantly inhibited seed germination at doses above 25 g/kg and there was no germination at 100 g/kg of wood ash. At lower concentrations of wood ash, most of the growth parameters of seedlings were stimulated, but at higher concentrations of wood ash most of the studied parameters were adversely affected. Wood ash was found to be very detrimental to B. napus when applied above 25 g/kg. Wood ash application resulted in an increased bioaccumulation of trace elements in seedlings of B. napus. Almost all trace elements were significantly higher in seedlings grown in wood ash above 10 g/kg as compared to the control. An increase in total microbial count was observed with wood ash treatment which was statistically significant at 1 and 10 g/kg of wood ash. It is concluded that at very high concentration, wood ash can be detrimental to plants; however, its application at lower application rate can be recommended. PMID:26163419

  3. Effects of ectoine on behavioural, physiological and biochemical parameters of Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Bownik, Adam; Stępniewska, Zofia; Skowroński, Tadeusz

    2015-02-01

    Ectoine (ECT) is a compatible solute produced by soil, marine and freshwater bacteria in response to stressful factors. The purpose of our study was to determine the possible toxic influence of ECT on Daphnia magna. We determined the following endpoints: survival rate during exposure and recovery, swimming performance, heart rate, thoracic limb movement determined by image analysis, haemoglobin level by ELISA assay, catalase and nitric oxide species (NOx) by spectrophotometric methods. The results showed 80% survival of daphnids exposed to 50mg/L of ECT after 24h and 10% after 90h, however lower concentrations of ECT were well tolerated. A concentration-dependent reduction of swimming velocity was noted at 24 and 48h of the exposure. ECT (at 2.5 and 4mg/L) induced an increase of heart rate and thoracic limb movement (at 2.5, 4 and 20mg/L) after 24h. After 10h of the exposure to ECT daphnids showed a concentration-dependent increase of haemoglobin level synthesized and accumulated in the epipodite epithelia. After 24h we noted a concentration-dependent decrease of haemoglobin level and its lowest value was found after 48h of the exposure. ECT at a concentration of 20 and 25mg/L slightly stimulated catalase activity after 24h. NOx level was also increased after 10h of the exposure to 20 and 25mg/L of ECT reaching maximal activity after 24h. Our results suggest that ECT possesses some modulatory potential on the behaviour, physiology and biochemical parameters in daphnids.

  4. Biochemical and physiological parameters and estimated work output in draught horses pulling loads for long periods.

    PubMed

    Perez, R; Recabarren, S E; Valdes, P; Hetz, E

    1992-01-01

    A study was undertaken in five draught horses of 648 +/- 33 kg body weight to find the effects of continuously pulling loads on their cardiovascular, respiratory and metabolic responses. A cart equipped with an odometer, for measuring distance, and a hydraulic dynamometer, for measuring draught force, was used. Heart and respiration rates and rectal temperatures were recorded. Blood samples for measuring arterial and venous pH and blood gases, haemoglobin, glucose and lactic acid concentrations and the serum activity of the enzymes creatine phosphokinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase were taken before exercise and immediately after each journey (morning and afternoon) of the daily work. Draught exercise, with loads which generated forces of between 0.57 and 0.59 kN, at speeds of 1.60 to 2.11 m/s, for 8 h daily for five consecutive days, with resting intervals of 10 min each hour, was well tolerated. Exercise tolerance was evaluated from the recovery from the changes observed in the biochemical and physiological parameters induced by the work. The analysis of these showed that, when the horses were subjected to prolonged periods of resting, their loss of fitness for work was shown by significant increases in the serum activity of muscle-derived enzymes and in blood lactate concentrations during the first day of work. However, over the following days the horses adapted to the work, so that the decreases in serum enzyme activities and blood lactate concentrations were reduced. Since similar observations have been described for racehorses, the determination of blood lactate concentrations and the serum activities of muscle-derived enzymes, specifically CK, seem to be good indicators of fitness in draught horses.

  5. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  6. Effects of Dietary Energy Levels on the Physiological Parameters and Reproductive Performance of Gestating Gilts.

    PubMed

    Jin, S S; Jung, S W; Jang, J C; Chung, W L; Jeong, J H; Kim, Y Y

    2016-07-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary energy levels on the physiological parameters and reproductive performance of gestating first parity sows. A total of 52 F1 gilts (Yorkshire×Landrace) were allocated to 4 dietary treatments using a completely randomized design. Each treatment contained diets with 3,100, 3,200, 3,300, or 3,400 kcal of metabolizable energy (ME)/kg, and the daily energy intake of the gestating gilts in each treatment were 6,200, 6,400, 6,600, and 6,800 kcal of ME, respectively. During gestation, the body weight (p = 0.04) and weight gain (p = 0.01) of gilts linearly increased with increasing dietary energy levels. Backfat thickness was not affected at d110 of gestation by dietary treatments, but increased linearly (p = 0.05) from breeding to d 110 of gestation. There were no significant differences on the litter size or litter birth weight. During lactation, the voluntary feed intake of sows tended to decrease when the dietary energy levels increased (p = 0.08). No difference was observed in backfat thickness of the sows within treatments; increasing energy levels linearly decreased the body weight of sows (p<0.05) at d 21 of lactation and body weight gain during lactation (p<0.01). No significant differences were observed in the chemical compositions of colostrum and milk. Therefore, these results indicated that high-energy diets influenced the bodyweight and backfat thickness of sows during gestation and lactation. NRC (2012) suggested that the energy requirement of the gestation gilt should be between 6,678 and 7,932 kcal of ME/d. Similarly, our results suggested that 3,100 kcal of ME/kg is not enough to maintain the reproductive performance for gilts during gestation with 2 kg feed daily. Gilts in the treatment 3,400 kcal of ME/kg have a higher weaning number of piglets, but bodyweight and backfat loss were higher than other treatments during lactation. But bodyweight and backfat loss were higher than other

  7. Effects of Dietary Energy Levels on the Physiological Parameters and Reproductive Performance of Gestating Gilts

    PubMed Central

    Jin, S. S.; Jung, S. W.; Jang, J. C.; Chung, W. L.; Jeong, J. H.; Kim, Y. Y.

    2016-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary energy levels on the physiological parameters and reproductive performance of gestating first parity sows. A total of 52 F1 gilts (Yorkshire×Landrace) were allocated to 4 dietary treatments using a completely randomized design. Each treatment contained diets with 3,100, 3,200, 3,300, or 3,400 kcal of metabolizable energy (ME)/kg, and the daily energy intake of the gestating gilts in each treatment were 6,200, 6,400, 6,600, and 6,800 kcal of ME, respectively. During gestation, the body weight (p = 0.04) and weight gain (p = 0.01) of gilts linearly increased with increasing dietary energy levels. Backfat thickness was not affected at d110 of gestation by dietary treatments, but increased linearly (p = 0.05) from breeding to d 110 of gestation. There were no significant differences on the litter size or litter birth weight. During lactation, the voluntary feed intake of sows tended to decrease when the dietary energy levels increased (p = 0.08). No difference was observed in backfat thickness of the sows within treatments; increasing energy levels linearly decreased the body weight of sows (p<0.05) at d 21 of lactation and body weight gain during lactation (p<0.01). No significant differences were observed in the chemical compositions of colostrum and milk. Therefore, these results indicated that high-energy diets influenced the bodyweight and backfat thickness of sows during gestation and lactation. NRC (2012) suggested that the energy requirement of the gestation gilt should be between 6,678 and 7,932 kcal of ME/d. Similarly, our results suggested that 3,100 kcal of ME/kg is not enough to maintain the reproductive performance for gilts during gestation with 2 kg feed daily. Gilts in the treatment 3,400 kcal of ME/kg have a higher weaning number of piglets, but bodyweight and backfat loss were higher than other treatments during lactation. But bodyweight and backfat loss were higher than other

  8. Effects of gender and game type on autonomic nervous system physiological parameters in long-hour online game players.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tung-Cheng

    2013-11-01

    Online game playing may induce physiological effects. However, the physical mechanisms that cause these effects remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine the physiological effects of long-hour online gaming from an autonomic nervous system (ANS) perspective. Heart rate variability (HRV), a valid and noninvasive electrocardiographic method widely used to investigate ANS balance, was used to measure physiological effect parameters. This study used a five-time, repeated measures, mixed factorial design. Results found that playing violent games causes significantly higher sympathetic activity and diastolic blood pressure than playing nonviolent games. Long-hour online game playing resulted in the gradual dominance of the parasympathetic nervous system due to physical exhaustion. Gaming workload was found to modulate the gender effects, with males registering significantly higher sympathetic activity and females significantly higher parasympathetic activity in the higher gaming workload group. PMID:23992474

  9. Effects of gender and game type on autonomic nervous system physiological parameters in long-hour online game players.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tung-Cheng

    2013-11-01

    Online game playing may induce physiological effects. However, the physical mechanisms that cause these effects remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine the physiological effects of long-hour online gaming from an autonomic nervous system (ANS) perspective. Heart rate variability (HRV), a valid and noninvasive electrocardiographic method widely used to investigate ANS balance, was used to measure physiological effect parameters. This study used a five-time, repeated measures, mixed factorial design. Results found that playing violent games causes significantly higher sympathetic activity and diastolic blood pressure than playing nonviolent games. Long-hour online game playing resulted in the gradual dominance of the parasympathetic nervous system due to physical exhaustion. Gaming workload was found to modulate the gender effects, with males registering significantly higher sympathetic activity and females significantly higher parasympathetic activity in the higher gaming workload group.

  10. Physiological Responses of Two Epiphytic Bryophytes to Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Sulfur Addition in a Subtropical Montane Cloud Forest.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Liu, Wen-Yao; Song, Liang; Li, Su; Wu, Yi; Shi, Xian-Meng; Huang, Jun-Biao; Wu, Chuan-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric depositions pose significant threats to biodiversity and ecosystem function. However, the underlying physiological mechanisms are not well understood, and few studies have considered the combined effects and interactions of multiple pollutants. This in situ study explored the physiological responses of two epiphytic bryophytes to combined addition of nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur. We investigated the electrical conductivity (EC), total chlorophyll concentration (Chl), nutrient stoichiometry and chlorophyll fluorescence signals in a subtropical montane cloud forest in south-west China. The results showed that enhanced fertilizer additions imposed detrimental effects on bryophytes, and the combined enrichment of simulated fertilization exerted limited synergistic effects in their natural environments. On the whole, EC, Chl, the effective quantum yield of photosystem II (ΦPSII) and photochemical quenching (qP) were the more reliable indicators of increased artificial fertilization. However, conclusions on nutrient stoichiometry should be drawn cautiously concerning the saturation uptake and nutrient interactions in bryophytes. Finally, we discuss the limitations of prevailing fertilization experiments and emphasize the importance of long-term data available for future investigations. PMID:27560190

  11. Physiological Responses of Two Epiphytic Bryophytes to Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Sulfur Addition in a Subtropical Montane Cloud Forest.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Liu, Wen-Yao; Song, Liang; Li, Su; Wu, Yi; Shi, Xian-Meng; Huang, Jun-Biao; Wu, Chuan-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric depositions pose significant threats to biodiversity and ecosystem function. However, the underlying physiological mechanisms are not well understood, and few studies have considered the combined effects and interactions of multiple pollutants. This in situ study explored the physiological responses of two epiphytic bryophytes to combined addition of nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur. We investigated the electrical conductivity (EC), total chlorophyll concentration (Chl), nutrient stoichiometry and chlorophyll fluorescence signals in a subtropical montane cloud forest in south-west China. The results showed that enhanced fertilizer additions imposed detrimental effects on bryophytes, and the combined enrichment of simulated fertilization exerted limited synergistic effects in their natural environments. On the whole, EC, Chl, the effective quantum yield of photosystem II (ΦPSII) and photochemical quenching (qP) were the more reliable indicators of increased artificial fertilization. However, conclusions on nutrient stoichiometry should be drawn cautiously concerning the saturation uptake and nutrient interactions in bryophytes. Finally, we discuss the limitations of prevailing fertilization experiments and emphasize the importance of long-term data available for future investigations.

  12. Physiological Responses of Two Epiphytic Bryophytes to Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Sulfur Addition in a Subtropical Montane Cloud Forest

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xi; Liu, Wen-yao; Song, Liang; Li, Su; Wu, Yi; Shi, Xian-meng; Huang, Jun-biao; Wu, Chuan-sheng

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric depositions pose significant threats to biodiversity and ecosystem function. However, the underlying physiological mechanisms are not well understood, and few studies have considered the combined effects and interactions of multiple pollutants. This in situ study explored the physiological responses of two epiphytic bryophytes to combined addition of nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur. We investigated the electrical conductivity (EC), total chlorophyll concentration (Chl), nutrient stoichiometry and chlorophyll fluorescence signals in a subtropical montane cloud forest in south-west China. The results showed that enhanced fertilizer additions imposed detrimental effects on bryophytes, and the combined enrichment of simulated fertilization exerted limited synergistic effects in their natural environments. On the whole, EC, Chl, the effective quantum yield of photosystem II (ΦPSII) and photochemical quenching (qP) were the more reliable indicators of increased artificial fertilization. However, conclusions on nutrient stoichiometry should be drawn cautiously concerning the saturation uptake and nutrient interactions in bryophytes. Finally, we discuss the limitations of prevailing fertilization experiments and emphasize the importance of long-term data available for future investigations. PMID:27560190

  13. Growth and some physiological parameters of four sugar beet (Beta vulgaris l.) cultivars as affected by salinity.

    PubMed

    Khavari-Nejad, R A; Najafi, F; Khavari-Nejad, S

    2008-05-15

    The comparative responses of certain biochemical and physiological characteristics to salinity were studied in 4 cultivars of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) plants. Eight weeks old plants were treated with NaCl at 0, 25 and 50 mM in nutrient solutions. Plants were grown under controlled environment and harvested after 3 weeks for measurements of biochemical and physiological parameters. Results showed that in 25 mM NaCl for cultivars of ET5 and C3-3, soluble sugars in leaves, photosynthetic rate and growth parameters were significantly increased as compared to those of other cultivars. In 50 mM NaCl photosynthetic rate and soluble sugars were significantly increased only in ET5 cultivar as compared with those of others. Results indicated that in 25 mM NaCl, ET5 cultivar showed high growth responses and tolerated to 50 mM NaCl.

  14. The Investigation of Some Physical, Physiological and Anthropometric Parameters of Visually Impaired and Non-Impaired a National Male Judoka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayda, Muhammet Hakan; Karakoc, Onder; Ozdal, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    It was pointed to analyze some physical, physiological and anthropometric parameters of visually impaired and non-impaired A National male judoka in this study. A total of 14 volunteer A National male judoka, of which 8 were visually impaired (age: 25.12 ± 3.75, disability status: 20-200) and 6 were not visually impaired (age: 21.50 ± 1.51),…

  15. An intensive combined training program modulates physical, physiological, biomotoric, and technical parameters in women basketball players.

    PubMed

    Kilinç, Fatih

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of this study was the investigation of the effects of an intensive combined training program based on the pretest scores of a university women's basketball team on their physical, physiological, biomotoric, and technical features. Twenty-four university volunteers were equally divided into two groups: an experiment group (intensive combined training group) and a control (technical training) group. The 10-week intensive combined training program was performed on the experiment group according to their pretest outcomes. Before and at the end of each period of training, which was scheduled four times a week, the physical, physiological, biomotoric, and technical performance of each subject were determined. With respect to the pre- and posttest measurements, the basketball group showed significant differences (p < 0.05) in girth measurements (shoulder, waist, hip, arm, thigh, and calf), in skinfold measurements (percent body fat), in physiological measurements (vital capacity and forced vital capacity), in biomotoric tests (right-left hand grip, dynamic and countermovement jump, sit-up, push-up, 1500-m endurance), and in technique tests (free and inside shooting). It can be concluded that a 10-week intensive combined training program performed on university women basketball players had a significant effect on improving their physical, physiological, biomotoric, and technical features. It proved to be highly recommendable for female basketball players who are preparing for short-term tournaments; the basketball group in this study won a championship.

  16. Additional deleterious effects of alcohol consumption on sperm parameters and DNA integrity in diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Pourentezari, M; Talebi, A R; Mangoli, E; Anvari, M; Rahimipour, M

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to survey the impact of alcohol consumption on sperm parameters and DNA integrity in experimentally induced diabetic mice. A total of 32 adult male mice were divided into four groups: mice of group 1 served as control fed on basal diet, group 2 received streptozotocin (STZ) (200 mg kg(-1) , single dose, intraperitoneal) and basal diet, group 3 received alcohol (10 mg kg(-1) , water soluble) and basal diet, and group 4 received STZ and alcohol for 35 days. The cauda epididymidis of each mouse was dissected and placed in 1 ml of pre-warm Ham's F10 culture medium for 30 min. The swim-out spermatozoa were analysed for count, motility, morphology and viability. Sperm chromatin quality was evaluated with aniline blue, toluidine blue, acridine orange and chromomycin A3 staining. The results showed that all sperm parameters had significant differences (P < 0.05), also when sperm chromatin was assessed with cytochemical tests. There were significant differences (P < 0.001) between the groups. According to our results, alcohol and diabetes can cause abnormalities in sperm parameters and chromatin quality. In addition, alcohol consumption in diabetic mice can intensify sperm chromatin/DNA damage. PMID:26358836

  17. Transferability and additivity of dihedral parameters in polarizable and nonpolarizable empirical force fields.

    PubMed

    Zgarbová, Marie; Rosnik, Andreana M; Luque, F Javier; Curutchet, Carles; Jurečka, Petr

    2015-09-30

    Recent advances in polarizable force fields have revealed that major reparameterization is necessary when the polarization energy is treated explicitly. This study is focused on the torsional parameters, which are crucial for the accurate description of conformational equilibria in biomolecules. In particular, attention is paid to the influence of polarization on the (i) transferability of dihedral terms between molecules, (ii) transferability between different environments, and (iii) additivity of dihedral energies. To this end, three polarizable force fields based on the induced point dipole model designed for use in AMBER are tested, including two recent ff02 reparameterizations. Attention is paid to the contributions due to short range interactions (1-2, 1-3, and 1-4) within the four atoms defining the dihedral angle. The results show that when short range 1-2 and 1-3 polarization interactions are omitted, as for instance in ff02, the 1-4 polarization contribution is rather small and unlikely to improve the description of the torsional energy. Conversely, when screened 1-2 and 1-3 interactions are included, the polarization contribution is sizeable and shows potential to improve the transferability of parameters between different molecules and environments as well as the additivity of dihedral terms. However, to reproduce intramolecular polarization effects accurately, further fine-tuning of the short range damping of polarization is necessary.

  18. Transferability and additivity of dihedral parameters in polarizable and nonpolarizable empirical force fields.

    PubMed

    Zgarbová, Marie; Rosnik, Andreana M; Luque, F Javier; Curutchet, Carles; Jurečka, Petr

    2015-09-30

    Recent advances in polarizable force fields have revealed that major reparameterization is necessary when the polarization energy is treated explicitly. This study is focused on the torsional parameters, which are crucial for the accurate description of conformational equilibria in biomolecules. In particular, attention is paid to the influence of polarization on the (i) transferability of dihedral terms between molecules, (ii) transferability between different environments, and (iii) additivity of dihedral energies. To this end, three polarizable force fields based on the induced point dipole model designed for use in AMBER are tested, including two recent ff02 reparameterizations. Attention is paid to the contributions due to short range interactions (1-2, 1-3, and 1-4) within the four atoms defining the dihedral angle. The results show that when short range 1-2 and 1-3 polarization interactions are omitted, as for instance in ff02, the 1-4 polarization contribution is rather small and unlikely to improve the description of the torsional energy. Conversely, when screened 1-2 and 1-3 interactions are included, the polarization contribution is sizeable and shows potential to improve the transferability of parameters between different molecules and environments as well as the additivity of dihedral terms. However, to reproduce intramolecular polarization effects accurately, further fine-tuning of the short range damping of polarization is necessary. PMID:26224547

  19. Temperature and CO(2) additively regulate physiology, morphology and genomic responses of larval sea urchins, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus.

    PubMed

    Padilla-Gamiño, Jacqueline L; Kelly, Morgan W; Evans, Tyler G; Hofmann, Gretchen E

    2013-05-22

    Ocean warming and ocean acidification, both consequences of anthropogenic production of CO2, will combine to influence the physiological performance of many species in the marine environment. In this study, we used an integrative approach to forecast the impact of future ocean conditions on larval purple sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) from the northeast Pacific Ocean. In laboratory experiments that simulated ocean warming and ocean acidification, we examined larval development, skeletal growth, metabolism and patterns of gene expression using an orthogonal comparison of two temperature (13°C and 18°C) and pCO2 (400 and 1100 μatm) conditions. Simultaneous exposure to increased temperature and pCO2 significantly reduced larval metabolism and triggered a widespread downregulation of histone encoding genes. pCO2 but not temperature impaired skeletal growth and reduced the expression of a major spicule matrix protein, suggesting that skeletal growth will not be further inhibited by ocean warming. Importantly, shifts in skeletal growth were not associated with developmental delay. Collectively, our results indicate that global change variables will have additive effects that exceed thresholds for optimized physiological performance in this keystone marine species.

  20. Temperature and CO2 additively regulate physiology, morphology and genomic responses of larval sea urchins, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus

    PubMed Central

    Padilla-Gamiño, Jacqueline L.; Kelly, Morgan W.; Evans, Tyler G.; Hofmann, Gretchen E.

    2013-01-01

    Ocean warming and ocean acidification, both consequences of anthropogenic production of CO2, will combine to influence the physiological performance of many species in the marine environment. In this study, we used an integrative approach to forecast the impact of future ocean conditions on larval purple sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) from the northeast Pacific Ocean. In laboratory experiments that simulated ocean warming and ocean acidification, we examined larval development, skeletal growth, metabolism and patterns of gene expression using an orthogonal comparison of two temperature (13°C and 18°C) and pCO2 (400 and 1100 μatm) conditions. Simultaneous exposure to increased temperature and pCO2 significantly reduced larval metabolism and triggered a widespread downregulation of histone encoding genes. pCO2 but not temperature impaired skeletal growth and reduced the expression of a major spicule matrix protein, suggesting that skeletal growth will not be further inhibited by ocean warming. Importantly, shifts in skeletal growth were not associated with developmental delay. Collectively, our results indicate that global change variables will have additive effects that exceed thresholds for optimized physiological performance in this keystone marine species. PMID:23536595

  1. The effect of differential growth rates across plants on spectral predictions of physiological parameters.

    PubMed

    Rapaport, Tal; Hochberg, Uri; Rachmilevitch, Shimon; Karnieli, Arnon

    2014-01-01

    Leaves of various ages and positions in a plant's canopy can present distinct physiological, morphological and anatomical characteristics, leading to complexities in selecting a single leaf for spectral representation of an entire plant. A fortiori, as growth rates between canopies differ, spectral-based comparisons across multiple plants--often based on leaves' position but not age--becomes an even more challenging mission. This study explores the effect of differential growth rates on the reflectance variability between leaves of different canopies, and its implication on physiological predictions made by widely-used spectral indices. Two distinct irrigation treatments were applied for one month, in order to trigger the formation of different growth rates between two groups of grapevines. Throughout the experiment, the plants were physiologically and morphologically monitored, while leaves from every part of their canopies were spectrally and histologically sampled. As the control vines were constantly developing new leaves, the water deficit plants were experiencing growth inhibition, resulting in leaves of different age at similar nodal position across the treatments. This modification of the age-position correlation was characterized by a near infrared reflectance difference between younger and older leaves, which was found to be exponentially correlated (R(2) = 0.98) to the age-dependent area of intercellular air spaces within the spongy parenchyma. Overall, the foliage of the control plant became more spectrally variable, creating complications for intra- and inter-treatment leaf-based comparisons. Of the derived indices, the Structure-Insensitive Pigment Index (SIPI) was found indifferent to the age-position effect, allowing the treatments to be compared at any nodal position, while a Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)-based stomatal conductance prediction was substantially affected by differential growth rates. As various biotic and abiotic

  2. The Effect of Differential Growth Rates across Plants on Spectral Predictions of Physiological Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Rapaport, Tal; Hochberg, Uri; Rachmilevitch, Shimon; Karnieli, Arnon

    2014-01-01

    Leaves of various ages and positions in a plant's canopy can present distinct physiological, morphological and anatomical characteristics, leading to complexities in selecting a single leaf for spectral representation of an entire plant. A fortiori, as growth rates between canopies differ, spectral-based comparisons across multiple plants – often based on leaves' position but not age – becomes an even more challenging mission. This study explores the effect of differential growth rates on the reflectance variability between leaves of different canopies, and its implication on physiological predictions made by widely-used spectral indices. Two distinct irrigation treatments were applied for one month, in order to trigger the formation of different growth rates between two groups of grapevines. Throughout the experiment, the plants were physiologically and morphologically monitored, while leaves from every part of their canopies were spectrally and histologically sampled. As the control vines were constantly developing new leaves, the water deficit plants were experiencing growth inhibition, resulting in leaves of different age at similar nodal position across the treatments. This modification of the age-position correlation was characterized by a near infrared reflectance difference between younger and older leaves, which was found to be exponentially correlated (R2 = 0.98) to the age-dependent area of intercellular air spaces within the spongy parenchyma. Overall, the foliage of the control plant became more spectrally variable, creating complications for intra- and inter-treatment leaf-based comparisons. Of the derived indices, the Structure-Insensitive Pigment Index (SIPI) was found indifferent to the age-position effect, allowing the treatments to be compared at any nodal position, while a Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)-based stomatal conductance prediction was substantially affected by differential growth rates. As various biotic and

  3. Daily rhythms of physiological parameters in the dromedary camel under natural and laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Al-Haidary, Ahmed A; Abdoun, Khalid A; Samara, Emad M; Okab, Aly B; Sani, Mamane; Refinetti, Roberto

    2016-08-01

    Camels are well adapted to hot arid environments and can contribute significantly to the economy of developing countries in arid regions of the world. Full understanding of the physiology of camels requires understanding of the internal temporal order of the body, as reflected in daily or circadian rhythms. In the current study, we investigated the daily rhythmicity of 20 physiological variables in camels exposed to natural oscillations of ambient temperature in a desert environment and compared the daily temporal courses of the variables. We also studied the rhythm of core body temperature under experimental conditions with constant ambient temperature in the presence and absence of a light-dark cycle. The obtained results indicated that different physiological variables exhibit different degrees of daily rhythmicity and reach their daily peaks at different times of the day, starting with plasma cholesterol, which peaks 24min after midnight, and ending with plasma calcium, which peaks 3h before midnight. Furthermore, the rhythm of core body temperature persisted in the absence of environmental rhythmicity, thus confirming its endogenous nature. The observed delay in the acrophase of core body temperature rhythm under constant conditions suggests that the circadian period is longer than 24h. Further studies with more refined experimental manipulation of different variables are needed to fully elucidate the causal network of circadian rhythms in dromedary camels. PMID:27474007

  4. Transportation of young beef bulls alters circulating physiological parameters that may be effective biomarkers of stress.

    PubMed

    Buckham Sporer, K R; Weber, P S D; Burton, J L; Earley, B; Crowe, M A

    2008-06-01

    Transportation causes stress in cattle that may alter numerous physiological variables with a negative impact on production and health. The objectives of the current study were to investigate the physiological effects of truck transportation and to characterize a pattern of phenotypes in the circulation that may aid in the early identification of stress-susceptible animals that often succumb to severe respiratory disease. Thirty-six young beef bulls (Aberdeen Angus, n = 12; Friesian, n = 12; and Belgian Blue x Friesian, n = 12) were subjected to a 9-h truck transportation by road. Blood (10 mL) was collected at -24, 0, 4.5, 9.75, 14.25, 24, and 48 h relative to the initiation of transportation (0 h). Plasma was collected for the assay of various metabolic, inflammatory, and steroid variables, and total leukocyte counts were determined in whole blood at each time point. Body weight and rectal temperature were recorded at -24, 9.75, and 48 h. Transportation decreased measures of protein metabolism in the plasma, including albumin (P = 0.002), globulin (P < 0.001), urea (P = 0.006), and total protein (P < 0.001), and increased creatine kinase (P < 0.001). The energy substrate beta-hydroxybutyrate was not changed (P = 0.27). Acute phase proteins haptoglobin and fibrinogen were both decreased (P < 0.001), whereas total leukocyte counts were elevated (P = 0.002). Circulating steroid concentrations were altered, because a classical acute increase in plasma cortisol was observed with the onset of transit (P < 0.001), in association with a decrease in dehydroepiandrosterone (P = 0.07), resulting in a profound increase in cortisol:dehydroepiandrosterone ratio (P < 0.001). Plasma testosterone was decreased, whereas plasma progesterone was increased (P < 0.001) in association with the increase in cortisol (P < 0.001). There was also an effect of breed for all variables except plasma urea, creatine kinase, and testosterone, perhaps indicating that a genetic component

  5. Evaluating the impact of handling and logger attachment on foraging parameters and physiology in southern rockhopper penguins.

    PubMed

    Ludynia, Katrin; Dehnhard, Nina; Poisbleau, Maud; Demongin, Laurent; Masello, Juan F; Quillfeldt, Petra

    2012-01-01

    Logger technology has revolutionised our knowledge of the behaviour and physiology of free-living animals but handling and logger attachments may have negative effects on the behaviour of the animals and their welfare. We studied southern rockhopper penguin (Eudyptes chrysocome) females during the guard stage in three consecutive breeding seasons (2008/09-2010/11) to evaluate the effects of handling and logger attachment on foraging trip duration, dive behaviour and physiological parameters. Smaller dive loggers (TDRs) were used in 2010/11 for comparison to larger GPS data loggers used in all three seasons and we included two categories of control birds: handled controls and PIT control birds that were previously marked with passive integrative transponders (PITs), but which had not been handled during this study. Increased foraging trip duration was only observed in GPS birds during 2010/11, the breeding season in which we also found GPS birds foraging further away from the colony and travelling longer distances. Compared to previous breeding seasons, 2010/11 may have been a period with less favourable environmental conditions, which would enhance the impact of logger attachments. A comparison between GPS and TDR birds showed a significant difference in dive depth frequencies with birds carrying larger GPS data loggers diving shallower. Mean and maximum dive depths were similar between GPS and TDR birds. We measured little impact of logger attachments on physiological parameters (corticosterone, protein, triglyceride levels and leucocyte counts). Overall, handling and short-term logger attachments (1-3 days) showed limited impact on the behaviour and physiology of the birds but care must be taken with the size of data loggers on diving seabirds. Increased drag may alter their diving behaviour substantially, thus constraining them in their ability to catch prey. Results obtained in this study indicate that data recorded may also not represent their normal dive

  6. Evaluating the Impact of Handling and Logger Attachment on Foraging Parameters and Physiology in Southern Rockhopper Penguins

    PubMed Central

    Ludynia, Katrin; Dehnhard, Nina; Poisbleau, Maud; Demongin, Laurent; Masello, Juan F.; Quillfeldt, Petra

    2012-01-01

    Logger technology has revolutionised our knowledge of the behaviour and physiology of free-living animals but handling and logger attachments may have negative effects on the behaviour of the animals and their welfare. We studied southern rockhopper penguin (Eudyptes chrysocome) females during the guard stage in three consecutive breeding seasons (2008/09−2010/11) to evaluate the effects of handling and logger attachment on foraging trip duration, dive behaviour and physiological parameters. Smaller dive loggers (TDRs) were used in 2010/11 for comparison to larger GPS data loggers used in all three seasons and we included two categories of control birds: handled controls and PIT control birds that were previously marked with passive integrative transponders (PITs), but which had not been handled during this study. Increased foraging trip duration was only observed in GPS birds during 2010/11, the breeding season in which we also found GPS birds foraging further away from the colony and travelling longer distances. Compared to previous breeding seasons, 2010/11 may have been a period with less favourable environmental conditions, which would enhance the impact of logger attachments. A comparison between GPS and TDR birds showed a significant difference in dive depth frequencies with birds carrying larger GPS data loggers diving shallower. Mean and maximum dive depths were similar between GPS and TDR birds. We measured little impact of logger attachments on physiological parameters (corticosterone, protein, triglyceride levels and leucocyte counts). Overall, handling and short-term logger attachments (1–3 days) showed limited impact on the behaviour and physiology of the birds but care must be taken with the size of data loggers on diving seabirds. Increased drag may alter their diving behaviour substantially, thus constraining them in their ability to catch prey. Results obtained in this study indicate that data recorded may also not represent their normal dive

  7. The biological properties of aspartame. V. Effects on a variety of physiological parameters related to inflammation and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Aspinall, R L; Saunders, R N; Pautsch, W F; Nutting, E F

    1980-01-01

    Aspartame (APM), L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester, is a low calorie sweetening agent 180 times sweeter than sucrose. As part of a series of studies designed to determine the potential effects of ingestion of excesses of APM on a wide spectrum of physiological processes, experiments were conducted in which high multiples (mg/kg basis) of the projected maximum daily human intake (20 mg/kg) were administered intragastrically to laboratory rats. Doses up to 16 times the maximum intake had no effect on inflammation parameters including carrageenin-induced paw edema, connective tissue formation and adjuvant arthritis. APM, likewise, showed no antihistamine activity in vitro. Even higher multiples (up to 103 times) of the maximum intake had no effect on various parameters of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. These results indicate that APM ingested in great excess would not be expected to significantly impair inflammatory processes nor influence carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.

  8. Effect of different stress factors on some physiological parameters of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    PubMed Central

    EL-Khaldi, Aziza T.F.

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of different stress factors on some physiological measurements of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). A total number of 160 Nile tilapia, the body weight ranging between 100 and 120 g, were exposed to three stress factors of hypoxia, overcrowding and starvation for different periods 24, 72 and 144 h. The results of cortisol level were 134.15, 144.27, 154.12 ng/ml and 140.18 ng/ml for control, hypoxia, overcrowding and starvation, respectively, while after 144 h did not show significant difference among treatments compared with control group. In contrast, the values of T3 and T4 observed reduction with significant difference that T3 ranged between the highest value 122.12 ng/ml for control group to lowest value of starvation group 94.35, 93.81 and 88.46 ng/ml after 24, 72 and 144 h. Also, similar trend of results observed in T4 and blood glucose among treatments. And the enzymatic activity of lactate dehydrogenise (LDH) increased in hypoxic group, while a significant reduction appeared in overcrowding and starved fish compared to control group. The pyruvate kinase (PK) activity decreased in hypoxic group but increased in other group. PMID:23961085

  9. Physiological parameters of gravitaxis in the flagellate Euglena gracilis obtained during a parabolic flight campaign.

    PubMed

    Richter, Peter R; Schuster, Martin; Wagner, Helmut; Lebert, Michael; Hader, Donat-P

    2002-02-01

    The unicellular freshwater flagellate Euglena gracilis and its close relative Astasia longa show a pronounced negative gravitaxis. Previous experiments revealed that gravitaxis is most likely mediated by an active physiological mechanism in which changes of the internal calcium concentration and the membrane potential play an important role. In a recent parabolic flight experiment on board an aircraft (ESA 29th parabolic flight campaign), changes of graviorientation, membrane potential and the cytosolic calcium concentration upon changes of the acceleration (between 1 x g(n), 1.8 x g(n), microgravity) were monitored by image analysis and photometric methods using Oxonol VI (membrane potential) and Calcium Crimson (cytosolic calcium concentration). The parabolic flight maneuvers performed by the aircraft resulted in transient phases of 1.8 x g(n) (about 20 s), microgravity (about 22 s) followed by 1.8 x g(n) (about 20 s). A transient increase in the intracellular calcium concentration was detected from lower to higher accelerations (1 x g(n) to 1.8 x g(n) or microgravity to 1.8 x g(n)). Oxonol VI-labeled cells showed a signal, which indicates a depolarization during the transition from 1 x g(n) to 1.8 x g(n), a weak repolarization in microgravity followed by a rapid repolarization in the subsequent 1 x g(n) phase. The results show good coincidence with observations of recent terrestrial and space experiments.

  10. [Effects of drought stress on physiological and biochemical parameters of Dahlia pinnata].

    PubMed

    Fan, Su-lu; Yuan, Zhao-he; Feng, Li-juan; Wang, Xiao-hui; Ding, Xue-mei; Zhen, Hong-li

    2011-03-01

    Taking Dahlia pinnata 'Fenxishi' as test material, this paper studied its leaf physiological and biochemical responses to different degrees of drought stress and re-watering. With the increasing extent and duration of drought stress, the leaf relative water content, water potential, and chlorophyll content of D. pinnata 'Fenxishi' decreased significantly, leaf relative electric conductivity and malondialdehyde (MDA) content had a significant increase, plasma membrane was damaged, and massive ions were leaked out. The damage of plasma membrane was most serious under severe stress, and could not recover to the control level after re-watering. The leaf soluble sugar and proline contents also increased significantly with increasing extent and duration of drought stress. Especially for proline content, it was increased significantly in the later period of moderate and severe stresses, suggesting its lower sensitivity to water deficit. The leaf soluble protein content had a trend of down-up-down, while the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) decreased after an initial increase. There were some differences in the responses of the three enzymes to drought stress and reactive oxygen, exhibiting their coordinating role. PMID:21657020

  11. Psychological profiles of gender and personality traces of Brazilian professional athletes of futsal, and their influence on physiological parameters

    PubMed Central

    do Nascimento, Marcelo Guimarães Boia; Gomes, Sérgio Adriano; Mota, Márcio Rabelo; Aparecida, Renata; de Melo, Gislane Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to identify the psychological profiles of professional futsal players in terms of the gender schema and to evaluate the physiological parameters (speed, acceleration, strength, and power) and fatigue index of these athletes according to their gender profiles and relative to their positions on the court. The Masculine Inventory of the Self-concept Gender Schemas was used to classify the sample into typological groups, and the Running Anaerobic Sprint Test was used to measure the physiological parameters (speed, acceleration, strength, and power) and the fatigue index. The study sample was composed of 64 male professional futsal players who competed in the National Indoor Soccer league in 2013; the subjects had an average weight of 76.00±6.7 kg. Among the athletes studied, 23 (35.9%) were classified as heteroschematic female, 22 (34.4%) as heteroschematic male, and 19 (29.7%) as isoschematic. Regarding their positions on the court, eleven were goalkeepers (17.2%), 13 (20.3%) were defenders, 28 (43.8%) were midfielders, and 12 (18.8%) were attackers. The players had similar weights even when belonging to different typological groups and having different positions in the court. However, it is worth noting that male heteroschematic players had a greater mean weight (77.11±5.93 kg) and that the goalkeeper was, on average, the heaviest player (79.36±8.14 kg). The results of the physiological parameter analysis relative to typological group showed that, on average, high-level soccer players presented similar performance profiles in different rounds, as statistically significant differences were not found in any of the studied physiological variables (weight, distance, speed, acceleration, strength, power, and fatigue index). Although the results of this research did not reveal statistically significant differences between the groups in terms of the assessed variables, we observed that some results related to personality traits associated with

  12. Psychological profiles of gender and personality traces of Brazilian professional athletes of futsal, and their influence on physiological parameters.

    PubMed

    do Nascimento, Marcelo Guimarães Boia; Gomes, Sérgio Adriano; Mota, Márcio Rabelo; Aparecida, Renata; de Melo, Gislane Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to identify the psychological profiles of professional futsal players in terms of the gender schema and to evaluate the physiological parameters (speed, acceleration, strength, and power) and fatigue index of these athletes according to their gender profiles and relative to their positions on the court. The Masculine Inventory of the Self-concept Gender Schemas was used to classify the sample into typological groups, and the Running Anaerobic Sprint Test was used to measure the physiological parameters (speed, acceleration, strength, and power) and the fatigue index. The study sample was composed of 64 male professional futsal players who competed in the National Indoor Soccer league in 2013; the subjects had an average weight of 76.00±6.7 kg. Among the athletes studied, 23 (35.9%) were classified as heteroschematic female, 22 (34.4%) as heteroschematic male, and 19 (29.7%) as isoschematic. Regarding their positions on the court, eleven were goalkeepers (17.2%), 13 (20.3%) were defenders, 28 (43.8%) were midfielders, and 12 (18.8%) were attackers. The players had similar weights even when belonging to different typological groups and having different positions in the court. However, it is worth noting that male heteroschematic players had a greater mean weight (77.11±5.93 kg) and that the goalkeeper was, on average, the heaviest player (79.36±8.14 kg). The results of the physiological parameter analysis relative to typological group showed that, on average, high-level soccer players presented similar performance profiles in different rounds, as statistically significant differences were not found in any of the studied physiological variables (weight, distance, speed, acceleration, strength, power, and fatigue index). Although the results of this research did not reveal statistically significant differences between the groups in terms of the assessed variables, we observed that some results related to personality traits associated with

  13. From the Arctic to fetal life: physiological importance and structural basis of an 'additional' chloride-binding site in haemoglobin.

    PubMed Central

    De Rosa, M Cristina; Castagnola, Massimo; Bertonati, Claudia; Galtieri, Antonio; Giardina, Bruno

    2004-01-01

    Haemoglobins from mammals of sub-Arctic and Arctic species, as well as fetal human Hb, are all characterized by a significantly lower Delta H of oxygenation compared with the majority of mammalian haemoglobins from temperate species (exceptions are represented by some cold-resistant species, such as cow, horse and pig). This has been interpreted as an adaptive mechanism of great importance from a physiological point of view. To date, the molecular basis of this thermodynamic characteristic is still not known. In the present study, we show that binding of extra chloride (with respect to adult human Hb) ions to Hb would significantly contribute to lowering the overall heat of oxygenation, thus providing a molecular basis for the low effect of temperature on the oxygenation-deoxygenation cycle. To this aim, the oxygen binding properties of bovine Hb, bear (Ursus arctos) Hb and horse Hb, which are representative of this series of haemoglobins, have been studied with special regard to the effect of heterotropic ligands, such as organic phosphates (namely 2,3-diphosphoglycerate) and chloride. Functional results are consistent with a mechanism for ligand binding that involves an additional binding site for chloride ion. Analysis of computational chemistry results, obtained by the GRID program, further confirm the hypothesis that the reason for the lower Delta H of oxygenation is mainly due to an increase in the number of the oxygen-linked chloride-binding sites. PMID:14979874

  14. Effects of waterborne nickel on the physiological and immunological parameters of the Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai during thermal stress.

    PubMed

    Min, Eun Young; Cha, Yong-Joo; Kang, Ju-Chan

    2015-09-01

    In this study, the 96-h LC50 at 22 and 26 °C values was 28.591 and 11.761 mg/L, respectively, for NiCl2 exposure in the abalone. The alteration of physiological and immune-toxicological parameters such as the total hemocyte count (THC), lysozyme, phenoloxidase (PO), and phagocytosis activity was measured in the abalone exposed to nickel (200 and 400 μg/L) under thermal stress for 96 h. In this study, Mg and THC decreased, while Ca, lysozyme, PO, and phagocytosis activity increased in the hemolymph of Pacific abalone exposed to NiCl2 when compared to a control at both 22 and 26 °C. However, these parameters were not affected by a rise in temperature from 22 to 26 °C in non-exposed groups. Our results showed that NiCl2 below 400 μg/L was able to stimulate immune responses in abalone. However, complex stressors, thermal changes, or NiCl2 can modify the immunological response and lead to changes in the physiology of host-pollutant interactions in the abalone. PMID:25943513

  15. Effects of waterborne nickel on the physiological and immunological parameters of the Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai during thermal stress.

    PubMed

    Min, Eun Young; Cha, Yong-Joo; Kang, Ju-Chan

    2015-09-01

    In this study, the 96-h LC50 at 22 and 26 °C values was 28.591 and 11.761 mg/L, respectively, for NiCl2 exposure in the abalone. The alteration of physiological and immune-toxicological parameters such as the total hemocyte count (THC), lysozyme, phenoloxidase (PO), and phagocytosis activity was measured in the abalone exposed to nickel (200 and 400 μg/L) under thermal stress for 96 h. In this study, Mg and THC decreased, while Ca, lysozyme, PO, and phagocytosis activity increased in the hemolymph of Pacific abalone exposed to NiCl2 when compared to a control at both 22 and 26 °C. However, these parameters were not affected by a rise in temperature from 22 to 26 °C in non-exposed groups. Our results showed that NiCl2 below 400 μg/L was able to stimulate immune responses in abalone. However, complex stressors, thermal changes, or NiCl2 can modify the immunological response and lead to changes in the physiology of host-pollutant interactions in the abalone.

  16. Analysis of physiological and behavioural parameters in mice after toe clipping as newborns.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Dagmar C; Asner, Igor N; Seifert, Burkhardt; Bürki, Kurt; Cinelli, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we have investigated the short- and long-term impact of toe clipping, a commonly used method for marking and simultaneously taking biopsies of pups, which is controversially discussed because of its potentially negative impact on animals. Furthermore, we have analysed animal welfare aspects such as health, behaviour, development, stress and detrimental effects in young animals and in adults after toe clipping at postnatal days 3 (P3) and 7 (P7). Our findings indicate that for both P3 and P7 pups amputations at the second phalange of one toe of each paw do not have any negative effects on growth and physical development and that the clipped pups do not suffer from rejection by their mother. Our data indicate that even though at both ages no abnormalities have been detected in histology, clipping at P7 is the preferable age for an adequate marking mostly because of the small size of the toes at P3. This was also confirmed by grip tests at the age of 12 weeks where P3 animals had lower grip strength than control animals, whereas P7 pups did not show any impairment. Hotplate tests indicated that toe clipping performed at P3 and P7 did not cause hyperalgesia at the amputation stump. Serum corticosterone analysis directly performed on P7 pups after clipping indicated that major stress was provoked mainly through the handling and not because of the clipping itself. Taken together, these data lead to the conclusion that toe clipping is from a morphological, physiological and welfare point of view an acceptable method for marking and genotyping newborn mice.

  17. Relationship between physiological parameters and performance during a half-ironman triathlon in the heat.

    PubMed

    Del Coso, Juan; González, Cristina; Abian-Vicen, Javier; Salinero Martín, Juan José; Soriano, Lidon; Areces, Francisco; Ruiz, Diana; Gallo, Cesar; Lara, Beatriz; Calleja-González, Julio

    2014-01-01

    Triathlon is a popular outdoor endurance sport performed under a variety of environmental conditions. The aim of this study was to assess physiological variables before and after a half-ironman triathlon in the heat and to analyse their relationship with performance. Thirty-four well-trained triathletes completed a half-ironman triathlon in a mean dry temperature of 29 ± 3ºC. Before and within 1 min after the end of the race, body mass, core temperature, maximal jump height and venous blood samples were obtained. Mean race time was 315 ± 40 min, with swimming (11 ± 1%), cycling (49 ± 2%) and running (40 ± 3%) representing different amounts of the total race time. At the end of the competition, body mass changed by -3.8 ± 1.6% and the change in body mass correlated positively with race time (r = 0.64; P < 0.001). Core temperature increased from 37.5 ± 0.6ºC to 38.8 ± 0.7ºC (P < 0.001) and post-race core temperature correlated negatively with race time (r = -0.47; P = 0.007). Race time correlated positively with the decrease in jump height (r = 0.38; P = 0.043), post-race serum creatine kinase (r = 0.55; P = 0.001) and myoglobin concentrations (r = 0.39; P = 0.022). In a half-ironman triathlon in the heat, greater reductions in body mass and higher post-competition core temperatures were present in faster triathletes. In contrast, slower triathletes presented higher levels of muscle damage and decreased muscle performance.

  18. Selection and collection of multi parameter physiological data for cardiac rhythm diagnostic algorithm development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bostock, J.; Weller, P.; Cooklin, M.

    2010-07-01

    Automated diagnostic algorithms are used in implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICD's) to detect abnormal heart rhythms. Algorithms misdiagnose and improved specificity is needed to prevent inappropriate therapy. Knowledge engineering (KE) and artificial intelligence (AI) could improve this. A pilot study of KE was performed with artificial neural network (ANN) as AI system. A case note review analysed arrhythmic events stored in patients ICD memory. 13.2% patients received inappropriate therapy. The best ICD algorithm had sensitivity 1.00, specificity 0.69 (p<0.001 different to gold standard). A subset of data was used to train and test an ANN. A feed-forward, back-propagation network with 7 inputs, a 4 node hidden layer and 1 output had sensitivity 1.00, specificity 0.71 (p<0.001). A prospective study was performed using KE to list arrhythmias, factors and indicators for which measurable parameters were evaluated and results reviewed by a domain expert. Waveforms from electrodes in the heart and thoracic bio-impedance; temperature and motion data were collected from 65 patients during cardiac electrophysiological studies. 5 incomplete datasets were due to technical failures. We concluded that KE successfully guided selection of parameters and ANN produced a usable system and that complex data collection carries greater risk of technical failure, leading to data loss.

  19. An analysis of the physiologic parameters of intraoral wear: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Nathaniel C.; Janyavula, Sridhar; Cakir, Deniz; Burgess, John O.

    2013-10-01

    This paper reviews the conditions of in vivo mastication and describes a novel method of measuring in vitro wear. Methods: parameters of intraoral wear are reviewed in this analysis, including chewing force, tooth sliding distance, food abrasivity, saliva lubrication, and antagonist properties. Results: clinical measurement of mastication forces indicates a range of normal forces between 20 and 140 N for a single molar. During the sliding phase of mastication, horizontal movement has been measured between 0.9 and 2.86 mm. In vivo wear occurs by three-body abrasion when food particles are interposed between teeth and by two-body abrasion after food clearance. Analysis of food particles used in wear testing reveals that food particles are softer than enamel and large enough to separate enamel and restoration surfaces and act as a solid lubricant. In two-body wear, saliva acts as a boundary lubricant with a viscosity of 3 cP. Enamel is the most relevant antagonist material for wear testing. The shape of a palatal cusp has been estimated as a 0.6 mm diameter ball and the hardest region of a tooth is its enamel surface. pH values and temperatures have been shown to range between 2-7 and 5-55 °C in intraoral fluids, respectively. These intraoral parameters have been used to modify the Alabama wear testing method.

  20. Physiological and endrocine parameters in beef cattle: breed, sex and year differences.

    PubMed Central

    Doornenbal, H

    1977-01-01

    Plasma corticoids, potassium and sodium, thyroid activity and hemoglobin and hematocrit values were determined at slaughter over a period of four years in 1612 animals representing the following sire groups: Short-horn, Charolais, Simmental, Limousin, Red Angus, Beefmaster, Brown Swiss, Chianina and Jersey. Differences among years and among breeds of sire were significant for all the parameters studied. Hematocrit values were the highest in females and the lowest for entire males, while hemoglobin levels were the lowest in females and the highest for bulls. Plasma corticoid levels were lower for entire males as compared to steers and heifers. Plasma sodium and potassium levels were the highest for females and the lowest entire males. The values reported in this study for several blood components, based on a large number of animals, could serve as clinical guides and as a basis for further research. PMID:832185

  1. Bioaccumulation of algal toxins and changes in physiological parameters in Mediterranean mussels from the North Adriatic Sea (Italy).

    PubMed

    Buratti, Sara; Franzellitti, Silvia; Poletti, Roberto; Ceredi, Alfiero; Montanari, Giuseppe; Capuzzo, Antonio; Fabbri, Elena

    2013-08-01

    The Northwestern Adriatic Sea is a commercially important area in aquaculture, accounting for about 90% of the Italian mussel production, and it was subjected to recurring cases of mussel farm closures due to toxic algae poisoning. A spatial and temporal survey of four sites along the North Adriatic Sea coasts of Emilia Romagna (Italy) was undertaken to study the possible impairments of physiological parameters in Mytilus galloprovincialis naturally exposed to algal toxins. The sites were selected as part of the monitoring network for the assessment of algal toxins bioaccumulation by the competent Authority. Samples positive to paralytic shellfish toxins and to lipophilic toxins were detected through the mouse bioassay. Lipophilic toxins were assessed by HPLC. Decreasing yessotoxins (YTX) levels were observed in mussels from June to December, while homo-YTX contents increased concomitantly. Lysosome membrane stability (LMS), glutathione S-transferase and catalase activities, and multixenobiotic resistance (MXR)-related gene expressions were assessed as parameters related to the mussel health status and widely utilized in environmental biomonitoring. Levels of cAMP were also measured, as possibly involved in the algal toxin mechanisms of action. Low LMS values were observed in hemocytes from mussels positive to the mouse bioassay. MXR-related gene expressions were greatly inhibited in mussels positive to the mouse bioassay. Clear correlations were established between increasing homo-YTX contents (and decreasing YTX) and increasing cAMP levels in the tissues. Similarly, significant correlations were established between the increase of homo-YTX and cAMP levels, and the expressions of three MXR-related genes at submaximal toxin concentrations. In conclusion, YTXs may affect mussel physiological parameters, including hemocyte functionality, gene expression and cell signaling.

  2. Drivers of spatial patterns of physiological and soil parameters at micro- and field scale in a Hungarian sandy grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fóti, Szilvia; Balogh, János; Papp, Marianna; Zimmermann, Zita; Szabó, Gábor; Herbst, Michael; Biró, Marianna; Bartha, Sándor; Horváth, László; Nagy, Zoltán

    2014-05-01

    Plant physiological and soil parameters were sampled at two spatial scales on mowed and grazed sites of a semiarid sandy grassland in Hungary. Samples from 80×60 m grids of 10 m resolution with additional random points represented the field scale (78 positions), while measurements along every 20 cm of circular transects of 15 m length represented the micro-scale (75 positions). 22 transects were measured between 2004 and 2012 at micro-scale, and 6 grids in 2012-2013 at field scale. At the micro-scale, there was no apparent elevation (E) difference, nor any other spatial non-stationarity. Contrarily, apparent micro-relief and above-ground biomass (AGB) differences emerged at the field scale. Sampled variables were soil water content (SWC), soil temperature (Ts) and soil CO2 efflux (Rs) at the micro-scale, and these were complemented with E and AGB at the field scale. N2O was sampled spatially once at both sites, in autumn 2012. Spatial patterns of the variables were investigated by variograms and cross-variograms. Autocorrelation lengths of the measured variables varied between 0-3.5 m at the micro scale. SWC was the main determinant of both the spatial variability and patch size of Rs, because dry conditions increased variability of the measured flux together with the characteristic patch size of Rs. Furthermore, optimal sample size and adequate sampling scheme could be estimated on the basis of actual SWC. Ts proved to negatively co-vary with SWC, which resulted in negative spatial dependency between Ts and Rs, contrary to the expectations. Effect of SWC was of two different sorts in this respect, in dry patches it directly limited Rs, while in wet patches it had a cooling effect, leading to the confounding response of Rs to Ts. These observations pointed to the relevance of SWC in model approaches. At field scale, deviations in E and AGB produced a different setting for spatial correlation. In case of the mowed site, we found a coherent patch structure of about

  3. Effects of GSM-Frequency Electromagnetic Radiation on Some Physiological and Biochemical Parameters in Rats.

    PubMed

    Khirazova, E E; Baizhumanov, A A; Trofimova, L K; Deev, L I; Maslova, M V; Sokolova, N A; Kudryashova, N Yu

    2012-10-01

    Single exposure of white outbred rats to electromagnetic radiation with a frequency 905 MHz (GSM frequency) for 2 h increased anxiety, reduced locomotor, orientation, and exploration activities in females and orientation and exploration activities in males. Glucocorticoid levels and antioxidant system activity increased in both males and females. In addition to acute effects, delayed effects of radiation were observed in both males and females 1 day after the exposure. These results demonstrated significant effect of GSM-range radiation on the behavior and activity of stress-realizing and stress-limiting systems of the body.

  4. Influence of Physiological Gastrointestinal Parameters on the Bioaccessibility of Mercury and Selenium from Swordfish.

    PubMed

    Jadán-Piedra, Carlos; Clemente, María Jesús; Devesa, Vicenta; Vélez, Dinoraz

    2016-01-27

    Swordfish tend to accumulate mercury (Hg), but they are rich in selenium (Se), an element that can counteract the toxic effects of Hg. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the concentrations and bioaccessibility of Hg and Se in cooked swordfish and to identify the digestion parameters (pH, residence time, and enzyme concentrations) that may influence their bioaccessibility. The Hg concentrations ranged between 0.17 and 2.82 mg/kg wet weight (ww) and the bioaccessibility between 14 and 92%. The range for Se concentrations was narrower (0.29-1.17 mg/kg ww), with a bioaccessibility that was generally greater than that of Hg (59-103%). Most of the solubilization took place in the gastric step, where acidic pH and the increase in the pepsin concentration led to greater bioaccessibility, especially for Hg. In the intestinal stage, the most notable effect was the decrease in the bioaccessibility of Hg in the presence of bile salts.

  5. Calcification and associated physiological parameters during a stress event in the scleractinian coral Stylophora pistillata.

    PubMed

    Moya, Aurélie; Ferrier-Pagès, Christine; Furla, Paola; Richier, Sophie; Tambutté, Eric; Allemand, Denis; Tambutté, Sylvie

    2008-09-01

    High calcification rates observed in reef coral organisms are due to the symbiotic relationship established between scleractinian corals and their photosynthetic dinoflagellates, commonly called zooxanthellae. Zooxanthellae are known to enhance calcification in the light, a process referred as "light-enhanced calcification". The disruption of the relationship between corals and their zooxanthellae leads to bleaching. Bleaching is one of the major causes of the present decline of coral reefs related to climate change and anthropogenic activities. In our aquaria, corals experienced a chemical pollution leading to bleaching and ending with the death of corals. During the time course of this bleaching event, we measured multiple parameters and could evidence four major consecutive steps: 1) at month 1 (January 2005), the stress affected primarily the photosystem II machinery of zooxanthellae resulting in an immediate decrease of photosystem II efficiency, 2) at month 2, the stress affected the photosynthetic production of O2 by zooxanthellae and the rate of light calcification, 3) at month 3, there was a decrease in both light and dark calcification rates, the appearance of the first oxidative damage in the zooxanthellae, the disruption of symbiosis, 4) and finally the death of corals at month 6.

  6. Relationship of pre-surgery metabolic and physiological MR imaging parameters to survival for patients with untreated GBM

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, Forrest W.; Khayal, Inas S.; McGue, Colleen; Saraswathy, Suja; Pirzkall, Andrea; Cha, Soonmee; Lamborn, Kathleen R.; Chang, Susan M.; Berger, Mitchel S.

    2010-01-01

    Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) are heterogeneous lesions, both in terms of their appearance on anatomic images and their response to therapy. The goal of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of parameters derived from physiological and metabolic images of these lesions. Fifty-six patients with GBM were scanned immediately before surgical resection using conventional anatomical MR imaging and, where possible, perfusion-weighted imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging, and proton MR spectroscopic imaging. The median survival time was 517 days, with 15 patients censored. Absolute anatomic lesion volumes were not associated with survival but patients for whom the combined volume of contrast enhancement and necrosis was a large percentage of the T2 hyperintense lesion had relatively poor survival. Other volumetric parameters linked with less favorable survival were the volume of the region with elevated choline to N-acetylaspartate index (CNI) and the volume within the T2 lesion that had apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) less than 1.5 times that in white matter. Intensity parameters associated with survival were the maximum and the sum of levels of lactate and of lipid within the CNI lesion, as well as the magnitude of the 10th percentile of the normalized ADC within the contrast-enhancing lesion. Patients whose imaging parameters indicating that lesions with a relatively large percentage with breakdown of the blood brain barrier or necrosis, large regions with abnormal metabolism or areas with restricted diffusion have relatively poor survival. These parameters may provide useful information for predicting outcome and for the stratification of patients into high or low risk groups for clinical trials. PMID:19009235

  7. Data on how several physiological parameters of stored red blood cells are similar in glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient and sufficient donors.

    PubMed

    Tzounakas, Vassilis L; Kriebardis, Anastasios G; Georgatzakou, Hara T; Foudoulaki-Paparizos, Leontini E; Dzieciatkowska, Monika; Wither, Matthew J; Nemkov, Travis; Hansen, Kirk C; Papassideri, Issidora S; D'Alessandro, Angelo; Antonelou, Marianna H

    2016-09-01

    This article contains data on the variation in several physiological parameters of red blood cells (RBCs) donated by eligible glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficient donors during storage in standard blood bank conditions compared to control, G6PD sufficient (G6PD(+)) cells. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, cell fragility and membrane exovesiculation were measured in RBCs throughout the storage period, with or without stimulation by oxidants, supplementation of N-acetylcysteine and energy depletion, following incubation of stored cells for 24 h at 37 °C. Apart from cell characteristics, the total or uric acid-dependent antioxidant capacity of the supernatant in addition to extracellular potassium concentration was determined in RBC units. Finally, procoagulant activity and protein carbonylation levels were measured in the microparticles population. Further information can be found in "Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient subjects may be better "storers" than donors of red blood cells" [1]. PMID:27437434

  8. Novel Sensor-Enabled Ex Vivo Bioreactor: A New Approach towards Physiological Parameters and Porcine Artery Viability

    PubMed Central

    Mundargi, Raghavendra; Venkataraman, Divya; Kumar, Saranya; Mogal, Vishal; Ortiz, Raphael; Loo, Joachim; Venkatraman, Subbu; Steele, Terry

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to design and construct an ex vivo bioreactor system to assess the real time viability of vascular tissue. Porcine carotid artery as a model tissue was used in the ex vivo bioreactor setup to monitor its viability under physiological conditions such as oxygen, pressure, temperature, and flow. The real time tissue viability was evaluated by monitoring tissue metabolism through a fluorescent indicator “resorufin.” Our ex vivo bioreactor allows real time monitoring of tissue responses along with physiological conditions. These ex vivo parameters were vital in determining the tissue viability in sensor-enabled bioreactor and our initial investigations suggest that, porcine tissue viability is considerably affected by high shear forces and low oxygen levels. Histological evaluations with hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome staining show intact endothelium with fresh porcine tissue whereas tissues after incubation in ex vivo bioreactor studies indicate denuded endothelium supporting the viability results from real time measurements. Hence, this novel viability sensor-enabled ex vivo bioreactor acts as model to mimic in vivo system and record vascular responses to biopharmaceutical molecules and biomedical devices. PMID:26609536

  9. Changes in Physiologic Parameters and Effects of Hooding in Red-tailed Hawks ( Buteo jamaicensis ) During Manual Restraint.

    PubMed

    Doss, Grayson A; Mans, Christoph

    2016-06-01

    Manual restraint in birds of prey is required for many veterinary and research procedures. To investigate the effects of handling stress on physiologic parameters in raptorial birds, 8 red-tailed hawks ( Buteo jamaicensis ) were manually restrained over a 15-minute period. Respiratory rate (RR), heart rate (HR), and cloacal temperature were monitored over time and recorded at defined intervals during the experiment. The effect of hooding on physiologic variables was also evaluated in a complete crossover design. Both RR and HR decreased significantly during the 15-minute restraint period (HR, -80 ± 101.4 beats/min [bpm], [P < .01]; RR, -17.5 ± 22.6 breaths/min, [P < .05]). Hooded birds had significantly lower HRs and RRs at 15 minutes of restraint (HR: 232.5 ± 26 bpm, [P < .037]; RR: 33.1 ± 6.7 breaths/min, [P < .05]) compared to birds restrained without a hood (HR: 280 ± 74.1 bpm; RR: 51.5 ± 28.8 breaths/min). Cloacal temperature increased significantly in all manually restrained birds (+2.2 ± 0.7°C, [P < .01]), with a comparable increase in hooded and nonhooded birds. In this study of the effects of manual restraint on red-tailed hawks, hooding versus nonhooding amplified the decrease in HR and RR but had no effect on stress-induced hyperthermia. PMID:27315379

  10. Changes in Physiologic Parameters and Effects of Hooding in Red-tailed Hawks ( Buteo jamaicensis ) During Manual Restraint.

    PubMed

    Doss, Grayson A; Mans, Christoph

    2016-06-01

    Manual restraint in birds of prey is required for many veterinary and research procedures. To investigate the effects of handling stress on physiologic parameters in raptorial birds, 8 red-tailed hawks ( Buteo jamaicensis ) were manually restrained over a 15-minute period. Respiratory rate (RR), heart rate (HR), and cloacal temperature were monitored over time and recorded at defined intervals during the experiment. The effect of hooding on physiologic variables was also evaluated in a complete crossover design. Both RR and HR decreased significantly during the 15-minute restraint period (HR, -80 ± 101.4 beats/min [bpm], [P < .01]; RR, -17.5 ± 22.6 breaths/min, [P < .05]). Hooded birds had significantly lower HRs and RRs at 15 minutes of restraint (HR: 232.5 ± 26 bpm, [P < .037]; RR: 33.1 ± 6.7 breaths/min, [P < .05]) compared to birds restrained without a hood (HR: 280 ± 74.1 bpm; RR: 51.5 ± 28.8 breaths/min). Cloacal temperature increased significantly in all manually restrained birds (+2.2 ± 0.7°C, [P < .01]), with a comparable increase in hooded and nonhooded birds. In this study of the effects of manual restraint on red-tailed hawks, hooding versus nonhooding amplified the decrease in HR and RR but had no effect on stress-induced hyperthermia.

  11. Modifications of Morphometrical and Physiological Parameters of Pepper Plants Grown on Artificial Nutrient Medium for Experiments in Spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nechitailo, Galina S.

    2016-07-01

    MODIFICATIONS OF MORPHOMETRICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF PEPPER PLANTS GROWN ON ARTIFICIAL NUTRIENT MEDIUM FOR EXPERIMENTS IN SPACEFLIGHT Lui Min*, Zhao Hui*, Chen Yu*, Lu Jinying*, Li Huasheng*, Sun Qiao*, Nechitajlo G.S.**, Glushchenko N.N.*** *Shenzhou Space Biotechnology Group, China Academy of Space Technology (CAST), **Emanuel Institute of Biochemical Physics of Russian Academy of Sciences (IBCP RAS) mail: spacemal@mail.ru ***V.L. Talrose Institute for Energy Problems of Chemical Physics of Russian Academy of Science (INEPCP RAS) mail: nnglu@ mail.ru In circumstances of space flights, long residence of the staff at space stations and space settlements an optimal engineering system of the life-support allowing to solve a number of technical and psychological problems for successful work and a life of cosmonauts, researchers, etc. is important and prime. In this respect it is necessary to consider growing plants on board of spacecraft as one of the units in a life-support system. It is feasible due to modern development of biotechnologies in growing plants allowing us to receive materials with new improved properties. Thus, a composition and ratio of components of nutrient medium can considerably influence on plants properties. We have developed the nutrient medium in which essential metals such as iron, zinc, copper were added in an electroneutral state in the form of nanoparticles instead of sulfates or other salts of the same metals. Such replacement is appropriate through unique nanoparticles properties: metal nanoparticles are less toxic than their corresponding ionic forms; nanoparticles produce a prolonged effect, serving as a depot for elements in an organism; nanoparticles introduced in biotic doses stimulate the metabolic processes of the organism; nanoparticles effect is multifunctional. Pepper strain LJ-king was used for growing on a nutrient medium with ferrous, zinc, copper nanoparticles in different concentrations. Pepper plants grown on

  12. Hormonal profiles, physiological parameters, and productive and reproductive performances of Girolando cows in the state of Ceará-Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Costa, Antônio Nélson Lima; Feitosa, José Valmir; Júnior, Péricles Afonso Montezuma; de Souza, Priscila Teixeira; de Araújo, Airton Alencar

    2015-02-01

    This study compared two breed groups of Girolando (½ Holstein ½ Gyr vs. ¾ Holstein ¼ Gyr) through analysis of physiological, productive, and reproductive parameters to determine the group best suited to rearing in a semiarid tropical climate. The experiment was conducted at the Companhia de Alimentos do Nordeste (CIALNE) farm, in the municipality of Umirim, State of Ceará, Brazil. Eighty cows were used in a 2 × 2 factorial study; 40 of each breed group were kept under an extensive system during the wet season and an intensive system during the dry season. The collection of physiological data and blood samples were obtained in the afternoon after milking. Rectal temperature (RT), surface temperature (ST), and respiratory rate (RR) were obtained for each cow after milking. Blood samples were obtained by tail vein puncture and were determined triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) and cortisol. The environmental parameters obtained were relative humidity (RH) and air temperature (AT), and from these, a temperature and humidity index (THI) was calculated. Pregnancy diagnosis (PD) was determined by ultrasonography 30 days after artificial insemination (AI). The milk production of each cow was recorded with automated milkings in the farm. The variables were expressed as mean and standard error, evaluated by ANOVA at 5 % probability using the Proc GLM of SAS. Chi-square test at 5 % probability was applied to data of pregnancy rate (PR) and the number of AI's to obtain pregnancy. It can be concluded that the breed group ½ Holstein ½ Gyr is most suited for farming under conditions of thermal stress.

  13. Copper nanoparticles/compounds impact agronomic and physiological parameters in cilantro (Coriandrum sativum).

    PubMed

    Zuverza-Mena, Nubia; Medina-Velo, Illya A; Barrios, Ana C; Tan, Wenjuan; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2015-10-01

    The environmental impacts of Cu-based nanoparticles (NPs) are not well understood. In this study, cilantro (Coriandrum sativum) was germinated and grown in commercial potting mix soil amended with Cu(OH)2 (Kocide and CuPRO), nano-copper (nCu), micro-copper (μCu), nano-copper oxide (nCuO), micro-copper oxide (μCuO) and ionic Cu (CuCl2) at either 20 or 80 mg Cu per kg. In addition to seed germination and plant elongation, relative chlorophyll content and micro and macroelement concentrations were determined. At both concentrations, only nCuO, μCuO, and ionic Cu, showed statistically significant reductions in germination. Although compared with control, the relative germination was reduced by ∼50% with nCuO at both concentrations, and by ∼40% with μCuO, also at both concentrations, the difference among compounds was not statistically significant. Exposure to μCuO at both concentrations and nCu at 80 mg kg(-1) significantly reduced (p≤ 0.05) shoot elongation by 11% and 12.4%, respectively, compared with control. Only μCuO at 20 mg kg(-1) significantly reduced (26%) the relative chlorophyll content, compared with control. None of the treatments increased root Cu, but all of them, except μCuO at 20 mg kg(-1), significantly increased shoot Cu (p≤ 0.05). Micro and macro elements B, Zn, Mn, Ca, Mg, P, and S were significantly reduced in shoots (p≤ 0.05). Similar results were observed in roots. These results showed that Cu-based NPs/compounds depress nutrient element accumulation in cilantro, which could impact human nutrition.

  14. Copper nanoparticles/compounds impact agronomic and physiological parameters in cilantro (Coriandrum sativum).

    PubMed

    Zuverza-Mena, Nubia; Medina-Velo, Illya A; Barrios, Ana C; Tan, Wenjuan; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2015-10-01

    The environmental impacts of Cu-based nanoparticles (NPs) are not well understood. In this study, cilantro (Coriandrum sativum) was germinated and grown in commercial potting mix soil amended with Cu(OH)2 (Kocide and CuPRO), nano-copper (nCu), micro-copper (μCu), nano-copper oxide (nCuO), micro-copper oxide (μCuO) and ionic Cu (CuCl2) at either 20 or 80 mg Cu per kg. In addition to seed germination and plant elongation, relative chlorophyll content and micro and macroelement concentrations were determined. At both concentrations, only nCuO, μCuO, and ionic Cu, showed statistically significant reductions in germination. Although compared with control, the relative germination was reduced by ∼50% with nCuO at both concentrations, and by ∼40% with μCuO, also at both concentrations, the difference among compounds was not statistically significant. Exposure to μCuO at both concentrations and nCu at 80 mg kg(-1) significantly reduced (p≤ 0.05) shoot elongation by 11% and 12.4%, respectively, compared with control. Only μCuO at 20 mg kg(-1) significantly reduced (26%) the relative chlorophyll content, compared with control. None of the treatments increased root Cu, but all of them, except μCuO at 20 mg kg(-1), significantly increased shoot Cu (p≤ 0.05). Micro and macro elements B, Zn, Mn, Ca, Mg, P, and S were significantly reduced in shoots (p≤ 0.05). Similar results were observed in roots. These results showed that Cu-based NPs/compounds depress nutrient element accumulation in cilantro, which could impact human nutrition. PMID:26311125

  15. Intrinsic viscosity and conformational parameters of xanthan in aqueous solutions: salt addition effect.

    PubMed

    Brunchi, Cristina-Eliza; Morariu, Simona; Bercea, Maria

    2014-10-01

    The intrinsic viscosity and conformational parameters of xanthan in aqueous solutions were investigated at 25°C as a function of salt nature (NaCl and KCl) and concentration (up to 3×10(-1)mol/L). The viscometric parameters were evaluated by applying semi-empirical equations proposed by Rao and Wolf. The results show that the new model proposed by Wolf provides accurate intrinsic viscosity values comparable with those obtained by using traditional methods. The experimental data were modeled with Boltzmann sigmoidal equation. The stiffness parameter, hydrodynamic volume and viscometric expansion factor were determined and discussed. With increasing salt concentration, the hydrodynamic volume and the viscometric expansion factor decrease and the critical overlap concentration increases, reaching limiting values above a given salt concentration. The high Huggins constant values suggest the existence of aggregates for salt concentrations above 5×10(-2) and 3×10(-3)mol/L for NaCl and KCl, respectively. Stiffness parameter was determined by Smidsrød and Haug method as being 5.45×10(-3), indicating a rigid conformation for xanthan macromolecules in solution.

  16. The Effects of an Olive Fruit Polyphenol-Enriched Yogurt on Body Composition, Blood Redox Status, Physiological and Metabolic Parameters and Yogurt Microflora.

    PubMed

    Georgakouli, Kalliopi; Mpesios, Anastasios; Kouretas, Demetrios; Petrotos, Konstantinos; Mitsagga, Chrysanthi; Giavasis, Ioannis; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z

    2016-01-01

    In the present study we investigated the effects of an olive polyphenol-enriched yogurt on yogurt microflora, as well as hematological, physiological and metabolic parameters, blood redox status and body composition. In a randomized double-blind, crossover design, 16 (6 men, 10 women) nonsmoking volunteers with non-declared pathology consumed either 400 g of olive fruit polyphenol-enriched yogurt with 50 mg of encapsulated olive polyphenols (experimental condition-EC) or 400 g of plain yogurt (control condition-CC) every day for two weeks. Physiological measurements and blood collection were performed before and after two weeks of each condition. The results showed that body weight, body mass index, hip circumference and systolic blood pressure decreased significantly (p < 0.05) following the two-week consumption of yogurt regardless of condition. A tendency towards significance for decreased levels of low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (p = 0.06) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (p < 0.05) following two weeks of polyphenol-enriched yogurt consumption was observed. The population of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and production of lactate in yogurt were significantly enhanced after addition of olive polyphenols, contrary to the population of yeasts and molds. The results indicate that consumption of the polyphenol-enriched yogurt may help individuals with non-declared pathology reduce body weight, blood pressure, LDL cholesterol levels and lipid peroxidation, and promote growth of beneficial LAB. PMID:27271664

  17. The Effects of an Olive Fruit Polyphenol-Enriched Yogurt on Body Composition, Blood Redox Status, Physiological and Metabolic Parameters and Yogurt Microflora

    PubMed Central

    Georgakouli, Kalliopi; Mpesios, Anastasios; Kouretas, Demetrios; Petrotos, Konstantinos; Mitsagga, Chrysanthi; Giavasis, Ioannis; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study we investigated the effects of an olive polyphenol-enriched yogurt on yogurt microflora, as well as hematological, physiological and metabolic parameters, blood redox status and body composition. In a randomized double-blind, crossover design, 16 (6 men, 10 women) nonsmoking volunteers with non-declared pathology consumed either 400 g of olive fruit polyphenol-enriched yogurt with 50 mg of encapsulated olive polyphenols (experimental condition—EC) or 400 g of plain yogurt (control condition—CC) every day for two weeks. Physiological measurements and blood collection were performed before and after two weeks of each condition. The results showed that body weight, body mass index, hip circumference and systolic blood pressure decreased significantly (p < 0.05) following the two-week consumption of yogurt regardless of condition. A tendency towards significance for decreased levels of low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (p = 0.06) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (p < 0.05) following two weeks of polyphenol-enriched yogurt consumption was observed. The population of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and production of lactate in yogurt were significantly enhanced after addition of olive polyphenols, contrary to the population of yeasts and molds. The results indicate that consumption of the polyphenol-enriched yogurt may help individuals with non-declared pathology reduce body weight, blood pressure, LDL cholesterol levels and lipid peroxidation, and promote growth of beneficial LAB. PMID:27271664

  18. The Effects of an Olive Fruit Polyphenol-Enriched Yogurt on Body Composition, Blood Redox Status, Physiological and Metabolic Parameters and Yogurt Microflora.

    PubMed

    Georgakouli, Kalliopi; Mpesios, Anastasios; Kouretas, Demetrios; Petrotos, Konstantinos; Mitsagga, Chrysanthi; Giavasis, Ioannis; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z

    2016-01-01

    In the present study we investigated the effects of an olive polyphenol-enriched yogurt on yogurt microflora, as well as hematological, physiological and metabolic parameters, blood redox status and body composition. In a randomized double-blind, crossover design, 16 (6 men, 10 women) nonsmoking volunteers with non-declared pathology consumed either 400 g of olive fruit polyphenol-enriched yogurt with 50 mg of encapsulated olive polyphenols (experimental condition-EC) or 400 g of plain yogurt (control condition-CC) every day for two weeks. Physiological measurements and blood collection were performed before and after two weeks of each condition. The results showed that body weight, body mass index, hip circumference and systolic blood pressure decreased significantly (p < 0.05) following the two-week consumption of yogurt regardless of condition. A tendency towards significance for decreased levels of low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (p = 0.06) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (p < 0.05) following two weeks of polyphenol-enriched yogurt consumption was observed. The population of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and production of lactate in yogurt were significantly enhanced after addition of olive polyphenols, contrary to the population of yeasts and molds. The results indicate that consumption of the polyphenol-enriched yogurt may help individuals with non-declared pathology reduce body weight, blood pressure, LDL cholesterol levels and lipid peroxidation, and promote growth of beneficial LAB.

  19. Comparative toxicity of physiological and biochemical parameters in Euglena gracilis to short-term exposure to potassium sorbate.

    PubMed

    Engel, Fernanda; Pinto, Luciano Henrique; Del Ciampo, Lineu Fernando; Lorenzi, Luciano; Heyder, Carmen Diamantina Teixeira; Häder, Donat Peter; Erzinger, Gilmar Sidnei

    2015-01-01

    Potassium sorbate is the potassium salt of sorbic acid, is a widespread and efficient antioxidant that has multiple functions in plants, traditionally associated with the reactions of photosynthesis; however, it has moderate toxicity to various species including rat, fish, bacteria and human health. The effects of potassium sorbate on the movement and photosynthetic parameters of Euglena gracilis were studied during short-term exposure. Potassium sorbate showed acute toxicity to the green flagellate E. gracilis affecting different physiological parameters used as endpoints in an automatic bioassay such as motility, precision of gravitational orientation (r-value), upward movement and alignment, with mean EC50 values of 2867.2 mg L(-1). The concentrations above 625 mg L(-1) of potassium sorbate induce an inhibition of the photosynthetic efficiency and electron transport rate and, in concentrations more than 2500.0 mg L(-1), the Euglena cells undergo a complete inhibition of photosynthesis even at low light irradiation. PMID:25314908

  20. Effect of a phytogenic feed additive on performance, ovarian morphology, serum lipid parameters and egg sensory quality in laying hen

    PubMed Central

    Saki, Ali Asghar; Aliarabi, Hassan; Hosseini Siyar, Sayed Ali; Salari, Jalal; Hashemi, Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    This present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary inclusion of 4, 8 and 12 g kg-1 phytogenic feed additives mixture on performance, egg quality, ovary parameters, serum biochemical parameters and yolk trimethylamine level in laying hens. The results of experiment have shown that egg weight was increased by supplementation of 12 g kg-1 feed additive whereas egg production, feed intake and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were not significantly affected. There were no significant differences in egg quality parameters by supplementation of phytogenic feed additive, whereas yolk trimethylamine level was decreased as the feed additive level increased. The sensory evaluation parameters did not differ significantly. No significant differences were found in serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels between the treatments but low- and high-density lipoprotein were significantly increased. Number of small follicles and ovary weight were significantly increased by supplementation of 12 g kg-1 feed additive. Overall, dietary supplementation of polyherbal additive increased egg weigh, improved ovary characteristics and declined yolk trimethylamine level. PMID:25610580

  1. Effect of argon addition on plasma parameters and dust charging in hydrogen plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Kakati, B. Kausik, S. S.; Saikia, B. K.; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Saxena, Y. C.

    2014-10-28

    Experimental results on effect of adding argon gas to hydrogen plasma in a multi-cusp dusty plasma device are reported. Addition of argon modifies plasma density, electron temperature, degree of hydrogen dissociation, dust current as well as dust charge. From the dust charging profile, it is observed that the dust current and dust charge decrease significantly up to 40% addition of argon flow rate in hydrogen plasma. But beyond 40% of argon flow rate, the changes in dust current and dust charge are insignificant. Results show that the addition of argon to hydrogen plasma in a dusty plasma device can be used as a tool to control the dust charging in a low pressure dusty plasma.

  2. Physiological, physical and behavioural changes in dogs (Canis familiaris) when kennelled: testing the validity of stress parameters.

    PubMed

    Part, C E; Kiddie, J L; Hayes, W A; Mills, D S; Neville, R F; Morton, D B; Collins, L M

    2014-06-22

    Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) housed in kennelling establishments are considered at risk of suffering poor welfare. Previous research supporting this hypothesis has typically used cortisol:creatinine ratios (C/Cr) to measure acute and chronic stress in kennelled dogs. However, the value of C/Cr as a welfare indicator has been questioned. This study aimed to test the validity of a range of physiological, physical and behavioural welfare indicators and to establish baseline values reflecting good dog welfare. Measurements were taken from 29 privately-owned dogs (14 males, 15 females), ranging in age and breed, in their own home and in a boarding kennel environment, following a within-subjects, counterbalanced design. Pairwise comparisons revealed that C/Cr and vanillylmandelic acid:creatinine ratios (VMA/Cr) were higher in the kennel than home environment (P=0.003; P=0.01, respectively) and were not associated with differences in movement/exercise between environments. Dogs' surface temperature was lower in kennels (P=0.001) and was not associated with ambient temperature. No association with age, or effects of kennel establishment, kennelling experience, sex or source were found. Dogs were generally more active in kennels, but showed considerable individual variability. C/Cr and 5-HIAA:creatinine ratios (5-HIAA/Cr) were negatively correlated with lip licking in kennels. Baseline values for each parameter are presented. The emotional valence of responses was ambiguous and no definitive evidence was found to suggest that dogs were negatively stressed by kennelling. It was concluded that C/Cr and, particularly, VMA/Cr and surface temperature provide robust indicators of psychological arousal in dogs, while spontaneous behaviour might be better used to facilitate interpretation of physiological and physical data on an individual level.

  3. Physiological, physical and behavioural changes in dogs (Canis familiaris) when kennelled: testing the validity of stress parameters.

    PubMed

    Part, C E; Kiddie, J L; Hayes, W A; Mills, D S; Neville, R F; Morton, D B; Collins, L M

    2014-06-22

    Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) housed in kennelling establishments are considered at risk of suffering poor welfare. Previous research supporting this hypothesis has typically used cortisol:creatinine ratios (C/Cr) to measure acute and chronic stress in kennelled dogs. However, the value of C/Cr as a welfare indicator has been questioned. This study aimed to test the validity of a range of physiological, physical and behavioural welfare indicators and to establish baseline values reflecting good dog welfare. Measurements were taken from 29 privately-owned dogs (14 males, 15 females), ranging in age and breed, in their own home and in a boarding kennel environment, following a within-subjects, counterbalanced design. Pairwise comparisons revealed that C/Cr and vanillylmandelic acid:creatinine ratios (VMA/Cr) were higher in the kennel than home environment (P=0.003; P=0.01, respectively) and were not associated with differences in movement/exercise between environments. Dogs' surface temperature was lower in kennels (P=0.001) and was not associated with ambient temperature. No association with age, or effects of kennel establishment, kennelling experience, sex or source were found. Dogs were generally more active in kennels, but showed considerable individual variability. C/Cr and 5-HIAA:creatinine ratios (5-HIAA/Cr) were negatively correlated with lip licking in kennels. Baseline values for each parameter are presented. The emotional valence of responses was ambiguous and no definitive evidence was found to suggest that dogs were negatively stressed by kennelling. It was concluded that C/Cr and, particularly, VMA/Cr and surface temperature provide robust indicators of psychological arousal in dogs, while spontaneous behaviour might be better used to facilitate interpretation of physiological and physical data on an individual level. PMID:24866912

  4. Radiation processing of thermoplastic starch by blending aromatic additives: Effect of blend composition and radiation parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khandal, Dhriti; Mikus, Pierre-Yves; Dole, Patrice; Coqueret, Xavier

    2013-03-01

    This paper reports on the effects of electron beam (EB) irradiation on poly α-1,4-glucose oligomers (maltodextrins) in the presence of water and of various aromatic additives, as model blends for gaining a better understanding at a molecular level the modifications occurring in amorphous starch-lignin blends submitted to ionizing irradiation for improving the properties of this type of bio-based thermoplastic material. A series of aromatic compounds, namely p-methoxy benzyl alcohol, benzene dimethanol, cinnamyl alcohol and some related carboxylic acids namely cinnamic acid, coumaric acid, and ferulic acid, was thus studied for assessing the ability of each additive to counteract chain scission of the polysaccharide and induce interchain covalent linkages. Gel formation in EB-irradiated blends comprising of maltodextrin was shown to be dependent on three main factors: the type of aromatic additive, presence of glycerol, and irradiation dose. The chain scission versus grafting phenomenon as a function of blend composition and dose were studied using Size Exclusion Chromatography by determining the changes in molecular weight distribution (MWD) from Refractive Index (RI) chromatograms and the presence of aromatic grafts onto the maltodextrin chains from UV chromatograms. The occurrence of crosslinking was quantified by gel fraction measurements allowing for ranking the cross-linking efficiency of the additives. When applying the method to destructurized starch blends, gel formation was also shown to be strongly affected by the moisture content of the sample submitted to irradiation. The results demonstrate the possibility to tune the reactivity of tailored blend for minimizing chain degradation and control the degree of cross-linking.

  5. Investigating endocrine and physiological parameters of captive American kestrels exposed by diet to selected organophosphate flame retardants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fernie, KJ; Palace, V; Peters, L.; Basu, Niladri; Letcher, R.J.; Karouna, Natalie; Schultz, Sandra; Lazarus, Rebecca; Rattner, Barnett A.

    2015-01-01

    Organophosphate triesters are high production volume additive flame retardants (OPFRs) and plasticizers. Shown to accumulate in abiotic and biotic environmental compartments, little is known about the risks they pose. Captive adult male American kestrels (Falco sparverius) were fed the same dose (22 ng OPFR/g kestrel/d) daily (21 d) of tris(2- butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP), tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCIPP), or tris(1,2-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP). Concentrations were undetected in tissues (renal, hepatic), suggesting rapid metabolism. There were no changes in glutathione status, indicators of hepatic oxidative status, or the cholinergic system (i.e., cerebrum, plasma cholinesterases; cerebrum muscarinic, nicotinic receptors). Modest changes occurred in hepatocyte integrity and function (clinical chemistry). Significant effects on plasma free triiodothyronine (FT3) concentrations occurred with exposure to TBOEP, TCEP, TCIPP, and TDCIPP; TBOEP and TCEP had additional overall effects on free thyroxine (FT4), whereas TDCIPP also influenced total thyroxine (TT4). Relative increases (32%−96%) in circulating FT3, TT3, FT4, and/or TT4 were variable with each OPFR at 7 d exposure, but limited thereafter, which was likely maintained through decreased thyroid gland activity and increased hepatic deiodinase activity. The observed physiological and endocrine effects occurred at environmentally relevant concentrations and suggest parent OPFRs or metabolites may have been present despite rapid degradation.

  6. Effects of Aqueous Extract of Berberis integerrima Root on Some Physiological Parameters in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Hossein; Heidari, Reza; Nejati, Vahid; Ilkhanipoor, Minoo

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a common endocrine disorder. Anti-diabetic agents from natural and synthetic sources are available for the treatment of this disease. Berberis integerrima is a medicinal shrub used in conventional therapy for a number of diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of aqueous extract of Berberis integerrima root (AEBI) on some physiological parameters in normal and streptozotocin-induced (STZ-induced) diabetic male Wistar rats. STZ-induced diabetic rats showed significant increases in the levels of blood glucose, triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), creatinine (Cr), urea, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin while body weight, high density lipoprotein HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) and total protein levels were significantly decreased compared to normal rats. Treatment of diabetic rats with different doses of aqueous extract of Berberis integerrima root (250 and 500 mg/Kg bw) resulted in a significant decrease in blood glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, ALT, AST, ALP, total bilirubin, creatinine and urea while HDL-cholesterol and total protein levels were markedly increased after six weeks compared to untreated diabetic rats. The effects of the AEBI at dose of 500 mg/Kg in all parameters except blood glucose (similar) is more than to the standard drug, glibenclamide (0.6 mg/Kg, p.o.). The results of this study indicate that the tested aqueous extract of Berberis integerrima root possesses hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

  7. Effects of Aqueous Extract of Berberis integerrima Root on Some Physiological Parameters in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ashraf, Hossein; Heidari, Reza; Nejati, Vahid; Ilkhanipoor, Minoo

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a common endocrine disorder. Anti-diabetic agents from natural and synthetic sources are available for the treatment of this disease. Berberis integerrima is a medicinal shrub used in conventional therapy for a number of diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of aqueous extract of Berberis integerrima root (AEBI) on some physiological parameters in normal and streptozotocin-induced (STZ-induced) diabetic male Wistar rats. STZ-induced diabetic rats showed significant increases in the levels of blood glucose, triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), creatinine (Cr), urea, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin while body weight, high density lipoprotein HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) and total protein levels were significantly decreased compared to normal rats. Treatment of diabetic rats with different doses of aqueous extract of Berberis integerrima root (250 and 500 mg/Kg bw) resulted in a significant decrease in blood glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, ALT, AST, ALP, total bilirubin, creatinine and urea while HDL-cholesterol and total protein levels were markedly increased after six weeks compared to untreated diabetic rats. The effects of the AEBI at dose of 500 mg/Kg in all parameters except blood glucose (similar) is more than to the standard drug, glibenclamide (0.6 mg/Kg, p.o.). The results of this study indicate that the tested aqueous extract of Berberis integerrima root possesses hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects in STZ-induced diabetic rats. PMID:24250618

  8. Physiological parameters of salt tolerance during germination and seedling growth of Sorghum bicolor cultivars of the same subtropical origin

    PubMed Central

    Bafeel, Sameera Omar

    2014-01-01

    Salt-tolerant ecotypes (or cultivars, varieties, etc.) of different plant species have been long known to evolve in nature. In the past few years, plant breeders have made significant achievements regarding salt tolerance in a number of potential crops using artificial selection. The aim of this work was to evaluate and screening of the natural sea water (Red sea) tolerance of 7 Saudi local (Baish, Jazan; 17.388086, 42.524070) cultivars of sorghum (Sorghumbicolor L., Moench; Poaceae) with respect to the performance of some physiological parameters such as germination, shoot and root development which could be recommended to local farmers and plant breeders. The shoot growth of the studied sorghum cultivars were significantly affected by the exposure to sea water. Root growth was different among cultivars even when treated with normal water. The cultivar C3 (mix white and red seeds) was observed as more salt tolerant and cultivar C4 (whitish seeds) was more salt sensitive on the basis of the germination-ability and shoot development. Cultivar C3 was also observed to produce better seeds compared with the other cultivars. Results of this experiment can be useful to the local sorghum growing farmers or as a genetic resource for the development of sorghum cultivars with improved germination under salt stress. PMID:25183939

  9. Physiological parameters of salt tolerance during germination and seedling growth of Sorghum bicolor cultivars of the same subtropical origin.

    PubMed

    Bafeel, Sameera Omar

    2014-09-01

    Salt-tolerant ecotypes (or cultivars, varieties, etc.) of different plant species have been long known to evolve in nature. In the past few years, plant breeders have made significant achievements regarding salt tolerance in a number of potential crops using artificial selection. The aim of this work was to evaluate and screening of the natural sea water (Red sea) tolerance of 7 Saudi local (Baish, Jazan; 17.388086, 42.524070) cultivars of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L., Moench; Poaceae) with respect to the performance of some physiological parameters such as germination, shoot and root development which could be recommended to local farmers and plant breeders. The shoot growth of the studied sorghum cultivars were significantly affected by the exposure to sea water. Root growth was different among cultivars even when treated with normal water. The cultivar C3 (mix white and red seeds) was observed as more salt tolerant and cultivar C4 (whitish seeds) was more salt sensitive on the basis of the germination-ability and shoot development. Cultivar C3 was also observed to produce better seeds compared with the other cultivars. Results of this experiment can be useful to the local sorghum growing farmers or as a genetic resource for the development of sorghum cultivars with improved germination under salt stress. PMID:25183939

  10. Physiological and biochemical parameters in response to electroejaculation in adult and yearling anesthetized pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus) males.

    PubMed

    Fumagalli, F; Villagrán, M; Damián, J P; Ungerfeld, R

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize changes in physiological and biochemical parameters during electroejaculation (EE) under general anaesthesia in adult and yearling pampas deer males (Ozotoceros bezoarticus). The relation between heart rate, pulse rate, respiratory rate and oximetry with EE voltages was studied. The changes in cortisol, alkaline phosphatase, creatine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase and rectal temperature were determined before and after electroejaculation (BEE and AEE). Heart rate and pulse rate values increased during EE, with a greater increase in heart rate in adults (p < 0.01). Respiratory rate and SpO(2) were not affected by EE or category. The rectal temperature decreased in adults and yearlings during EE (p = 0.0001). Alkaline phosphatase, creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase concentrations increased AEE (p < 0.001, p < 0.01 and p < 0.05, respectively). Alkaline phosphatase and creatine kinase concentrations were greater in young than in adult males (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the EE under general anaesthesia in the pampas deer provoked increases in heart and pulse rates, as well as in creatine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase concentrations, and a decrease in rectal temperature in both categories. Oximetry values were especially low during the procedure. Heart rate increase was greater in adult males, and alkaline phosphatase and creatine kinase concentrations were greater in yearlings.

  11. Influence of Bacillus spp. strains on seedling growth and physiological parameters of sorghum under moisture stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Grover, Minakshi; Madhubala, R; Ali, Sk Z; Yadav, S K; Venkateswarlu, B

    2014-09-01

    Microorganisms isolated from stressed ecosystem may prove as ideal candidates for development of bio-inoculants for stressed agricultural production systems. In the present study, moisture stress tolerant rhizobacteria were isolated from the rhizosphere of sorghum, pigeonpea, and cowpea grown under semiarid conditions in India. Four isolates KB122, KB129, KB133, and KB142 from sorghum rhizosphere exhibited plant growth promoting traits and tolerance to salinity, high temperature, and moisture stress. These isolates were identified as Bacillus spp. by 16S rDNA sequence analysis. The strains were evaluated for growth promotion of sorghum seedlings under two different moisture stress conditions (set-I, continuous 50% soil water holding capacity (WHC) throughout the experiment and set-II, 75% soil WHC for 27 days followed by no irrigation for 5 days) under greenhouse conditions. Plate count and scanning electron microscope studies indicated successful root surface colonization by inoculated bacteria. Plants inoculated with Bacillus spp. strains showed better growth in terms of shoot length and root biomass with dark greenish leaves due to high chlorophyll content while un-inoculated plants showed rolling of the leaves, stunted appearance, and wilting under both stress conditions. Inoculation also improved leaf relative water content and soil moisture content. However, variation in proline and sugar content in the different treatments under two stress conditions indicated differential effect of microbial treatments on plant physiological parameters under stress conditions.

  12. Effects of oral administration of caffeine on some physiological parameters and maternal behaviour of sows at farrowing.

    PubMed

    Superchi, Paola; Saleri, Roberta; Farina, Elena; Cavalli, Valeria; Riccardi, Enzo; Sabbioni, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    Caffeine has been demonstrated to have a protective effect on neonatal viability of piglets. In order to assess whether caffeine, administered to parturient sows, also affects maternal behaviour, respiratory rate, and dopamine, nitric oxide and serotonin plasma levels, 20 sows, with induced parturition, received orally 27 mg/kg of body weight of caffeine (T group; n=10) or not (NT group; n=10), on day 113 of gestation. Treatment did not affect the farrowing length. There were less stillborn piglets in T group than NT group (0.67 vs 2.44; P<0.05), whereas no differences in dead piglets at 24h from birth was observed. Caffeine did not affect physiological parameters of sows, as the behaviour score of sows laying on belly was reduced (P<0.05). In conclusion, although the present study was carried out with a limited number of sows, administration of caffeine to parturient sows has the potential for reducing the number of stillborn. PMID:27033919

  13. Variation in antioxidant enzyme activities, growth and some physiological parameters of bitter melon (Momordica charantia) under salinity and chromium stress.

    PubMed

    Bahrami, Mahsa; Heidari, Mostafa; Ghorbani, Hadi

    2016-07-01

    In general, salinity and heavy metals interfere with several physiological processes and reduce plant growth. In order to evaluate of three levels of salinity (0, 4 and 8 ds m(-1)) and three concentration of chromium (0, 10 and 20 mg kg(-1) soil) in bitter melon (Momordica charantia), a plot experiment was conducted in greenhouse at university of Shahrood, Iran. The results revealed that chromium treatment had no significant affect on fresh and dry weight, but salinity caused reduction of fresh and dry weight in growth parameter. Salinity and chromium enhanced antioxidant enzymes activities like catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) and sodium content in leaves. However salinity and chromium treatments had no effect on potassium, phosphorus in leaves, soluble carbohydrate concentration in leaves and root, but decreased the carotenoid content in leaves. On increasing salinity from control to 8 ds m(-1) chlorophyll a, b and anthocyanin content decreased by 41.6%, 61.1% and 26.5% respectively but chromium treatments had no significant effect on these photosynthetic pigments.

  14. Protective effects of ectoine on behavioral, physiological and biochemical parameters of Daphnia magna subjected to hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Bownik, Adam; Stępniewska, Zofia

    2015-04-01

    Ectoine (ECT) is an osmoprotectant produced by halophilic microorganisms inducing protective effects against various stressful factors. However, little is known about its influence on aquatic invertebrates subjected to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-a commonly used oxidative disinfectant. Therefore, the aim of our study was to determine the effects of H2O2 alone (at 5 and 10 mg/L) and in the combination with various concentrations of ECT (5, 10 and 25 mg/L) on behavioral, physiological and biochemical parameters of Daphnia magna. The following endpoints were determined: mortality, heart rate, thoracic limb movement, total glutathione (GSH)/oxidized glutathione (GSSG) ratio, catalase (CAT) activity and nitric oxide (NOx) level. The study showed that daphnids exposed to the combination of H2O2+ECT showed decreased mortality, attenuated inhibition of heart rate and thoracic limb activity, less decreased GSH/GSSG ratio, lower stimulation of CAT activity and NOx level when compared to the crustaceans exposed to H2O2 alone. The most pronounced alleviation of toxic effects was observed in the combination of 5 mg/L H2O2+25 mg/L ECT. The results suggest that protective effects of ECT in D. magna subjected to H2O2 may be related to antioxidative properties of the osmoprotectant.

  15. Variation in antioxidant enzyme activities, growth and some physiological parameters of bitter melon (Momordica charantia) under salinity and chromium stress.

    PubMed

    Bahrami, Mahsa; Heidari, Mostafa; Ghorbani, Hadi

    2016-07-01

    In general, salinity and heavy metals interfere with several physiological processes and reduce plant growth. In order to evaluate of three levels of salinity (0, 4 and 8 ds m(-1)) and three concentration of chromium (0, 10 and 20 mg kg(-1) soil) in bitter melon (Momordica charantia), a plot experiment was conducted in greenhouse at university of Shahrood, Iran. The results revealed that chromium treatment had no significant affect on fresh and dry weight, but salinity caused reduction of fresh and dry weight in growth parameter. Salinity and chromium enhanced antioxidant enzymes activities like catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) and sodium content in leaves. However salinity and chromium treatments had no effect on potassium, phosphorus in leaves, soluble carbohydrate concentration in leaves and root, but decreased the carotenoid content in leaves. On increasing salinity from control to 8 ds m(-1) chlorophyll a, b and anthocyanin content decreased by 41.6%, 61.1% and 26.5% respectively but chromium treatments had no significant effect on these photosynthetic pigments. PMID:27498497

  16. Effect of cadmium on the physiological parameters and the subcellular cadmium localization in the potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    PubMed

    Xu, Dongyu; Chen, Zhifan; Sun, Ke; Yan, Dong; Kang, Mingjie; Zhao, Ye

    2013-11-01

    The pollution of agricultural soils with cadmium (Cd) has become a serious problem worldwide. The potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) was used to investigate how different concentrations of Cd (1, 5, and 25mgkg(-1)) affected the physiological parameters and the subcellular distribution of Cd in the potato. The analyses were conducted using scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX). The results suggest that the leaf is the organ with the highest accumulation of Cd. The malondialdehyde (MDA) content increased and the chlorophyll content decreased in response to high level of Cd. The SEM-EDX microanalysis revealed that Cd was primarily deposited in the spongy and palisade tissues of the leaf. Furthermore, Cd was also detected in the cortex and the adjacent phloem and was observed inside the intercellular space, the interior surface of the plasma membrane, and on the surface of the elliptical starch granules in the tubers of the potato. Although low concentrations of Cd migrated from the root to the tuber, the accumulation of Cd in the tuber exceeded the standard for food security. Therefore, the planting of potato plants in farmland containing Cd should be seriously evaluated because Cd-containing potatoes might present high health risk to humans.

  17. Monitoring Subsurface Microbial Biomass, Community Composition and Physiological Status during Biological Uranium Reduction with Acetate Addition using Lipid Analysis, DNA Arrays and q-PCR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peacock, A. D.; Long, P. E.; N'Guessan, L.; Williams, K. H.; Chandler, D.

    2011-12-01

    Our objectives for this effort were to investigate microbial community dynamics during each of the distinct terminal electron accepting phases that occur during long-term acetate addition for the immobilization of Uranium. Groundwater was collected from four wells (one up gradient and three down gradient) at three different depths and at four different times (pre-acetate injection, peak iron reduction, iron/sulfate reduction transition and during heavy sulfate reduction). Phospholipid fatty acid analysis (PLFA) results from ground water showed that microbial biomass was highest during Iron reduction and then lower during the transition from Iron reduction to Sulfate reduction and lowest during Sulfate reduction. Microbial community composition parameters as measured by PLFA showed distinct differences with terminal electron accepting status. Monounsaturated PLFA that have been shown to correspond with Gram-negative bacteria and Geobacteracea increased markedly with Iron reduction and then decreased with the onset of sulfate reduction. Bacterial physiological stress levels as measured by PLFA fluctuated with terminal electron acceptor status. Low bacterial stress levels coincided with pre-donor addition and Iron reduction but were much higher during Iron to Sulfate transition and during Sulfate reduction. Microarray results showed the expected progression of microbial signatures from Iron to Sulfate -reducers with changes in acetate amendment and in situ field conditions. The microarray response for Geobacter was highly correlated with qPCR for the same target gene (R2 = 0.84). Probes targeting Desulfobacter and Desulfitobacterium were the most reactive during the Iron to Sulfate transition and into Sulfate reduction, with a consistent Desulfotomaculum signature throughout the field experiment and a general decrease in Geobacter signal to noise ratios during the onset of Sulfate reducing conditions. Nitrate reducers represented by Dechloromonas and Dechlorosoma

  18. Growth performance and physiological parameters of conventional and specified pathogen-free rats fed autoclaved diets with different protein sources.

    PubMed

    Barszcz, M; Paradziej-Łukowicz, J; Taciak, M; Tuśnio, A; Staśkiewicz, Ł; Muszyńska-Furas, B; Lewandowska, A; Pastuszewska, B; Skomiał, J

    2015-12-01

    The effects of feeding autoclaved commercial SSNIFF (SN) diet and diets containing soya bean (S) and casein (C) to growing conventional (CON) and specified pathogen-free (SPF) rats were determined. Diets S, C and SN, autoclaved at 121 °C during 20 min (T1), at 134 °C during 10 min (T2) and non-autoclaved (T0), were fed during four weeks, each to 8 CON males and 8 females of mean initial body weight 56 g, kept individually. Diets S, C and SN, autoclaved at T1, were fed during two months, each to 20 SPF males and 20 females of mean initial body weight 58 g, kept in group of 5 animals per cage. In CON rats, autoclaving did not affect feed intake and weight gain, decreased thyroid and stomach weight, increased caecal tissue and digesta weight, and concentrations of isobutyric, isovaleric and valeric acid in caecal digesta. Among biochemical blood parameters, autoclaving decreased only total protein concentration and aspartate aminotransferase activity. Feeding C diet resulted in lower feed intake and weight gain in CON and SPF males. Diet affected organ weights and the greatest differences were found in rats on SN diet for weights of stomach, caecum and female reproductive organs. Diet affected concentration of all short-chain fatty acids, pH and weight of caecal digesta, the most important being the greatest butyric acid concentration on SN diet and isoacids on C diet. It is concluded that autoclaving of both soya-containing and soya-free diets does not affect negatively animal performance and physiology.

  19. Mechanical cavopulmonary assistance of a patient-specific Fontan physiology: numerical simulations, lumped parameter modeling, and suction experiments.

    PubMed

    Throckmorton, Amy L; Carr, James P; Tahir, Sharjeel A; Tate, Ryan; Downs, Emily A; Bhavsar, Sonya S; Wu, Yi; Grizzard, John D; Moskowitz, William B

    2011-11-01

    This study investigated the performance of a magnetically levitated, intravascular axial flow blood pump for mechanical circulatory support of the thousands of Fontan patients in desperate need of a therapeutic alternative. Four models of the extracardiac, total cavopulmonary connection (TCPC) Fontan configuration were evaluated to formulate numerical predictions: an idealized TCPC, a patient-specific TCPC per magnetic resonance imaging data, and each of these two models having a blood pump in the inferior vena cava (IVC). A lumped parameter model of the Fontan physiology was used to specify boundary conditions. Pressure-flow characteristics, energy gain calculations, scalar stress levels, and blood damage estimations were executed for each model. Suction limitation experiments using the Sylgard elastomer tubing were also conducted. The pump produced pressures of 1-16 mm Hg for 2000-6000 rpm and flow rates of 0.5-4.5 L/min. The pump inlet or IVC pressure was found to decrease at higher rotational speeds. Maximum scalar stress estimations were 3 Pa for the nonpump models and 290 Pa for the pump-supported cases. The blood residence times for the pump-supported cases were shorter (0.9 s) as compared with the nonsupported configurations (2.5 s). However, the blood damage indices were higher (1.5%) for the anatomic model with pump support. The pump successfully augmented pressure in the TCPC junction and increased the hydraulic energy of the TCPC as a function of flow rate and rotational speed. The suction experiments revealed minimal deformation (<3%) at 9000 rpm. The findings of this study support the continued design and development of this blood pump.

  20. Effect of Operating Parameters and Chemical Additives on Crystal Habit and Specific Cake Resistance of Zinc Hydroxide Precipitates

    SciTech Connect

    Alwin, Jennifer Louise

    1999-08-01

    The effect of process parameters and chemical additives on the specific cake resistance of zinc hydroxide precipitates was investigated. The ability of a slurry to be filtered is dependent upon the particle habit of the solid and the particle habit is influenced by certain process variables. The process variables studied include neutralization temperature, agitation type, and alkalinity source used for neutralization. Several commercially available chemical additives advertised to aid in solid/liquid separation were also examined in conjunction with hydroxide precipitation. A statistical analysis revealed that the neutralization temperature and the source of alkalinity were statistically significant in influencing the specific cake resistance of zinc hydroxide precipitates in this study. The type of agitation did not significantly effect the specific cake resistance of zinc hydroxide precipitates. The use of chemical additives in conjunction with hydroxide precipitation had a favorable effect on the filterability. The morphology of the hydroxide precipitates was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy.

  1. Analysis of the influence of climatic and physiological parameters on the net ecosystem carbon exchange of an apple orchard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanotelli, Damiano; Montagnani, Leonardo; Scandellari, Francesca; Tagliavini, Massimo

    2013-04-01

    Net ecosystem carbon exchange (NEE) of an apple orchard located in South Tyrol (Caldaro, Bolzano, Italy) was monitored continuously since March 2009 via eddy covariance technique. Contemporary measurements of the main environmental parameters (temperature, photosynthetic active photon flux density, soil water content, vapor pressure deficit) were taken at the same field site. Leaf Area Index was also determined biometrically starting from spring 2010. Objectives of this work were (i) to assess the influence of these environmental and physiological parameters on NEE, (ii) to set up a model capable to fill large gap occurring in the dataset and (iii) predict inter-annual variability of fluxes based on the measurements of the selected explanatory variables. Daily cumulated values of the response variable (NEE, g C d-1) and mean daily value of the five explanatory variables considered (air T, ° C; SWC, m3m-3; PPFD, μmol m-2s-1; VPD, hPa, LAI m2m-2) were used in this analysis. The complex interactions between the explanatory variables and NEE were analyzed with the tree model approach which draws a picture of the complexity of data structure and highlights the explanatory variable that explain the greater amount of deviance of the response variable. NEE variability was mostly explained by LAI and PPFD. The most positive values of NEE occurred below the LAI threshold of 1.16 m2m-2 while above that LAI threshold and with an average daily PPFD above 13.2 μmol m-2s-1, the orchard resulted always a sink of carbon (negative daily NEE). On half of the available data (only alternate months of the considered period were considered), a stepwise multiple regression approach was used to model NEE using the variables indicated above. Simplification by deletion of the non-significant terms was carried out until all parameters where highly significant (p < 0.05) and a significant increase in deviance was observed when deleting further variables. Since heteroscedasticity and non

  2. Carbon and water flux responses to physiology by environment interactions: a sensitivity analysis of variation in climate on photosynthetic and stomatal parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauerle, William L.; Daniels, Alex B.; Barnard, David M.

    2014-05-01

    Sensitivity of carbon uptake and water use estimates to changes in physiology was determined with a coupled photosynthesis and stomatal conductance ( g s) model, linked to canopy microclimate with a spatially explicit scheme (MAESTRA). The sensitivity analyses were conducted over the range of intraspecific physiology parameter variation observed for Acer rubrum L. and temperate hardwood C3 (C3) vegetation across the following climate conditions: carbon dioxide concentration 200-700 ppm, photosynthetically active radiation 50-2,000 μmol m-2 s-1, air temperature 5-40 °C, relative humidity 5-95 %, and wind speed at the top of the canopy 1-10 m s-1. Five key physiological inputs [quantum yield of electron transport ( α), minimum stomatal conductance ( g 0), stomatal sensitivity to the marginal water cost of carbon gain ( g 1), maximum rate of electron transport ( J max), and maximum carboxylation rate of Rubisco ( V cmax)] changed carbon and water flux estimates ≥15 % in response to climate gradients; variation in α, J max, and V cmax input resulted in up to ~50 and 82 % intraspecific and C3 photosynthesis estimate output differences respectively. Transpiration estimates were affected up to ~46 and 147 % by differences in intraspecific and C3 g 1 and g 0 values—two parameters previously overlooked in modeling land-atmosphere carbon and water exchange. We show that a variable environment, within a canopy or along a climate gradient, changes the spatial parameter effects of g 0, g 1, α, J max, and V cmax in photosynthesis- g s models. Since variation in physiology parameter input effects are dependent on climate, this approach can be used to assess the geographical importance of key physiology model inputs when estimating large scale carbon and water exchange.

  3. The influence of non-solvent addition on the independent and dependent parameters in roller electrospinning of polyurethane.

    PubMed

    Cengiz-Callioglu, Funda; Jirsak, Oldrich; Dayik, Mehmet

    2013-07-01

    This paper discusses the effects of 1,1,2,2 tetrachlorethylen (TCE) non-solvent addition on the independent (electrical conductivity, dielectric constant, surface tension and the theological properties of the solution etc.) and dependent parameters (number of Taylor cones per square meter (NTC/m2), spinning performance for one Taylor cone (SP/TC), total spinning performance (SP), fiber properties such as diameter, diameter uniformity, non-fibrous area) in roller electrospinning of polyurethane (PU). The same process parameters (voltage, distance of the electrodes, humidity, etc.) were applied for all solutions during the spinning process. According to the results, the effect of TCE non-solvent concentration on the dielectric constant, surface tension, rheological properties of the solution and also spinning performance was important statistically. Beside these results, TCE non-solvent concentration effects quality of fiber and nano web structure. Generally high fiber density, low non-fibrous percentage and uniform nanofibers were obtained from fiber morphology analyses.

  4. Effect on supplementation of Spirulina maxima enriched with Cu on production performance, metabolical and physiological parameters in fattening pigs.

    PubMed

    Saeid, A; Chojnacka, K; Korczyński, M; Korniewicz, D; Dobrzański, Z

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of addition of the biomass of Spirulina maxima enriched with copper (Sm-Cu) to the animal feed is discussed. The biomass was cultivated in the photobioreactor with the capacity of 10 m(3). After the biosorption process, the enriched biomass was investigated as the source of valuable nutrients. The feeding experiment was conducted for 87 days. The study was performed in individual rearing pens, with controlled microclimate, feed and water were available semi-ad libitum. Piglets (24) were divided into two groups (control and experimental). The experimental group was fed with addition of the biomass of Sm-Cu instead of inorganic salts. There were no statistically significant differences between the average daily and periodic weight gain, daily and periodic feed collection, as well as feed conversion ratio. There were no statistically significant differences between the amount of N excreted in faeces and urine, when considering the retention of N, both in relation to the consumed N, and relative N digested which was at a similar level. In the experimental group in comparison to the control group, the lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol by 17.05 % (P < 0.05) and total cholesterol by 9.43 % (P < 0.05) were observed. Additionally, the increase of parameter a* of 13 % (P < 0.05) and the reduction of the natural leakage by 34 % (P < 0.05) were found. PMID:24027355

  5. Ultrasonic degradation of polymers: effect of operating parameters and intensification using additives for carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA).

    PubMed

    Mohod, Ashish V; Gogate, Parag R

    2011-05-01

    Use of ultrasound can yield polymer degradation as reflected by a significant reduction in the intrinsic viscosity or the molecular weight. The ultrasonic degradation of two water soluble polymers viz. carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) has been studied in the present work. The effect of different operating parameters such as time of irradiation, immersion depth of horn and solution concentration has been investigated initially using laboratory scale operation followed by intensification studies using different additives such as air, sodium chloride and surfactant. Effect of scale of operation has been investigated with experiments in the available different capacity reactors with an objective of recommending a suitable type of configuration for large scale operation. The experimental results show that the viscosity of polymer solution decreased with an increase in the ultrasonic irradiation time and approached a limiting value. Use of additives such as air, sodium chloride and surfactant helps in increasing the extent of viscosity reduction. At higher frequency operation the viscosity reduction has been found to be negligible possibly attributed to less contribution of the physical effects. The viscosity reduction in the case of ultrasonic horn has been observed to be more as compared to other large capacity reactors. Kinetic analysis of the polymer degradation process has also been performed. The present work has enabled us to understand the role of the different operating parameters in deciding the extent of viscosity reduction in polymer systems and also the controlling effects of low frequency high power ultrasound with experiments on different scales of operation.

  6. Support vector machine to predict diesel engine performance and emission parameters fueled with nano-particles additive to diesel fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanbari, M.; Najafi, G.; Ghobadian, B.; Mamat, R.; Noor, M. M.; Moosavian, A.

    2015-12-01

    This paper studies the use of adaptive Support Vector Machine (SVM) to predict the performance parameters and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine operating on nanodiesel blended fuels. In order to predict the engine parameters, the whole experimental data were randomly divided into training and testing data. For SVM modelling, different values for radial basis function (RBF) kernel width and penalty parameters (C) were considered and the optimum values were then found. The results demonstrate that SVM is capable of predicting the diesel engine performance and emissions. In the experimental step, Carbon nano tubes (CNT) (40, 80 and 120 ppm) and nano silver particles (40, 80 and 120 ppm) with nanostructure were prepared and added as additive to the diesel fuel. Six cylinders, four-stroke diesel engine was fuelled with these new blended fuels and operated at different engine speeds. Experimental test results indicated the fact that adding nano particles to diesel fuel, increased diesel engine power and torque output. For nano-diesel it was found that the brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) was decreased compared to the net diesel fuel. The results proved that with increase of nano particles concentrations (from 40 ppm to 120 ppm) in diesel fuel, CO2 emission increased. CO emission in diesel fuel with nano-particles was lower significantly compared to pure diesel fuel. UHC emission with silver nano-diesel blended fuel decreased while with fuels that contains CNT nano particles increased. The trend of NOx emission was inverse compared to the UHC emission. With adding nano particles to the blended fuels, NOx increased compared to the net diesel fuel. The tests revealed that silver & CNT nano particles can be used as additive in diesel fuel to improve complete combustion of the fuel and reduce the exhaust emissions significantly.

  7. Physiological basis of tolerance to complete submergence in rice involves genetic factors in addition to the SUB1 gene.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sudhanshu; Mackill, David J; Ismail, Abdelbagi M

    2014-01-01

    1 lines. This suggests the possibility of further improvements in submergence tolerance by incorporating additional traits present in FR13A or other similar landraces. PMID:25281725

  8. SPECIFYING PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS FOR THE KINETICS OF INHALED TOLUENE IN RATS PERFORMING THE VISUAL SIGNAL DETECTION TASK (SDT).

    EPA Science Inventory

    A physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model is being developed to estimate the dosimetry of toluene in rats inhaling the VOC under various experimental conditions. The effects of physical activity are currently being estimated utilizing a three-step process. First, we d...

  9. Comparing the effects of minimal handling protocols on the physiological parameters of preterm infants receiving exogenous surfactant therapy

    PubMed Central

    Cabral, Laura A.; Velloso, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    Background The practice of minimal handling is recommended for preterm infants (PTIs). However, few studies have investigated the effects of this practice among these infants or the time needed to ensure greater physiological stability, especially after exogenous surfactant treatments. Objective The current study compared the effects of two protocols of minimal handling on the physiological variables of PTIs after surfactant therapy. Method An exploratory prospective observational study was performed with 40 PTIs weighing less than 1,500 g. The infants were divided into two groups and monitored for 72 hours. One group received the standard minimal handling procedure during the first 12 hours after surfactant therapy; the other group (i.e., the modified group) received minimal handling within 72 hours after surfactant therapy. Infant heart rate (HR), oxygen saturation, body temperature, and the adverse events associated with changes to these variables were monitored every 10 minutes. Results Significant between-group differences were not found with regard to the occurrence of the adverse events associated with physiological changes (p>0.05). Conclusion The practice of minimal handling among very low birth weight infants did not alter their physiological stability when performed either 12 or 72 hours after surfactant therapy. PMID:24839044

  10. Effects of anodizing parameters and heat treatment on nanotopographical features, bioactivity, and cell culture response of additively manufactured porous titanium.

    PubMed

    Amin Yavari, S; Chai, Y C; Böttger, A J; Wauthle, R; Schrooten, J; Weinans, H; Zadpoor, A A

    2015-06-01

    Anodizing could be used for bio-functionalization of the surfaces of titanium alloys. In this study, we use anodizing for creating nanotubes on the surface of porous titanium alloy bone substitutes manufactured using selective laser melting. Different sets of anodizing parameters (voltage: 10 or 20V anodizing time: 30min to 3h) are used for anodizing porous titanium structures that were later heat treated at 500°C. The nanotopographical features are examined using electron microscopy while the bioactivity of anodized surfaces is measured using immersion tests in the simulated body fluid (SBF). Moreover, the effects of anodizing and heat treatment on the performance of one representative anodized porous titanium structures are evaluated using in vitro cell culture assays using human periosteum-derived cells (hPDCs). It has been shown that while anodizing with different anodizing parameters results in very different nanotopographical features, i.e. nanotubes in the range of 20 to 55nm, anodized surfaces have limited apatite-forming ability regardless of the applied anodizing parameters. The results of in vitro cell culture show that both anodizing, and thus generation of regular nanotopographical feature, and heat treatment improve the cell culture response of porous titanium. In particular, cell proliferation measured using metabolic activity and DNA content was improved for anodized and heat treated as well as for anodized but not heat-treated specimens. Heat treatment additionally improved the cell attachment of porous titanium surfaces and upregulated expression of osteogenic markers. Anodized but not heat-treated specimens showed some limited signs of upregulated expression of osteogenic markers. In conclusion, while varying the anodizing parameters creates different nanotube structure, it does not improve apatite-forming ability of porous titanium. However, both anodizing and heat treatment at 500°C improve the cell culture response of porous titanium.

  11. Effects of anodizing parameters and heat treatment on nanotopographical features, bioactivity, and cell culture response of additively manufactured porous titanium.

    PubMed

    Amin Yavari, S; Chai, Y C; Böttger, A J; Wauthle, R; Schrooten, J; Weinans, H; Zadpoor, A A

    2015-06-01

    Anodizing could be used for bio-functionalization of the surfaces of titanium alloys. In this study, we use anodizing for creating nanotubes on the surface of porous titanium alloy bone substitutes manufactured using selective laser melting. Different sets of anodizing parameters (voltage: 10 or 20V anodizing time: 30min to 3h) are used for anodizing porous titanium structures that were later heat treated at 500°C. The nanotopographical features are examined using electron microscopy while the bioactivity of anodized surfaces is measured using immersion tests in the simulated body fluid (SBF). Moreover, the effects of anodizing and heat treatment on the performance of one representative anodized porous titanium structures are evaluated using in vitro cell culture assays using human periosteum-derived cells (hPDCs). It has been shown that while anodizing with different anodizing parameters results in very different nanotopographical features, i.e. nanotubes in the range of 20 to 55nm, anodized surfaces have limited apatite-forming ability regardless of the applied anodizing parameters. The results of in vitro cell culture show that both anodizing, and thus generation of regular nanotopographical feature, and heat treatment improve the cell culture response of porous titanium. In particular, cell proliferation measured using metabolic activity and DNA content was improved for anodized and heat treated as well as for anodized but not heat-treated specimens. Heat treatment additionally improved the cell attachment of porous titanium surfaces and upregulated expression of osteogenic markers. Anodized but not heat-treated specimens showed some limited signs of upregulated expression of osteogenic markers. In conclusion, while varying the anodizing parameters creates different nanotube structure, it does not improve apatite-forming ability of porous titanium. However, both anodizing and heat treatment at 500°C improve the cell culture response of porous titanium. PMID

  12. Effect of Inhalation of Aroma of Geranium Essence on Anxiety and Physiological Parameters during First Stage of Labor in Nulliparous Women: a Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Rashidi Fakari, Fahimeh; Tabatabaeichehr, Mahbubeh; Kamali, Hossian; Rashidi Fakari, Farzaneh; Naseri, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Anxiety increases significantly during labor, especially among nulliparous women. Such anxiety may affect the progress of labor and physiological parameters. The use of essential oils of aromatic plants, or aromatherapy, is a non-invasive procedure that can decrease childbirth anxiety. This study examined the effect of inhalation of the aroma of geranium essential oil on the level of anxiety and physiological parameters of nulliparous women in the first stage of labor. Methods: In study, was carried out on 100 nulliparous women admitted to Bent al-Hoda Hospital in the city of Bojnord in North Khorasan province of Iran during 2012-2013. The women were randomly assigned to two groups of equal size, one experimental group (geranium essential oil) and one control (placebo) group. Anxiety levels were measured using Spielberger' questionnaire before and after intervention. Physiological parameters (systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respiratory rate, pulse rate) were also measured before and after intervention in both groups. Data analysis was conducted using the x2 test, paired t-test, Mann-Whitney U test, and Wilcox on test on SPSS 11.5. Results: The mean anxiety score decreased significantly after inhalation of the aroma of geranium essential oil. There was also a significant decrease in diastolic blood pressure. Conclusion: Aroma of essential oil of geraniums can effectively reduce anxiety during labor and can be recommended as a non-invasive anti-anxiety aid during childbirth. PMID:26161367

  13. Calculating slope and ED50 of additive dose-response curves, and application of these tabulated parameter values.

    PubMed

    Pöch, G; Pancheva, S N

    1995-06-01

    Comparing dose-response curves (DRCs) of a compound A in the absence and presence of a fixed dose of an antagonist B is standard in pharmacology and toxicology. When B qualitatively resembles A in its action, it is often useful to construct theoretical DRCs of additive and independent combinations. Theoretical curves are calculated from experimental values by the program ALLFIT, which uses the four parameter logistic equation. DRCs of theoretical, additive DRCs are obtained by using the respective values for slope and ED50, which were taken from tables presented here compiled on the basis of the slope of the DRC of A alone (0.6-14) and of the effect of B alone (1-75%). These tables are unnecessary for the construction of theoretical curves if A acts by an independent mechanism, giving values for slope and ED50 identical to those of the DRC of A alone. Experimental DRCs of antiviral and other effects (the latter taken from data in the literature) are compared with theoretical curves by an F-test analysis provided by ALLFIT. The method can be used successfully for the construction of theoretical curves for additive and independent DRCs and comparison with experimental curves. This comparison may help clarify the mode of interaction of A with B. PMID:7640393

  14. Hematological parameters in Polish mixed breed rabbits with addition of meat breed blood in the annual cycle.

    PubMed

    Tokarz-Deptuła, B; Niedźwiedzka-Rystwej, P; Adamiak, M; Hukowska-Szematowicz, B; Trzeciak-Ryczek, A; Deptuła, W

    2015-01-01

    In the paper we studied haematologic values, such as haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit value, thrombocytes, leucocytes: lymphocytes, neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils and monocytes in the pheral blood in Polish mixed-breeds with addition of meat breed blood in order to obtain the reference values which are until now not available for this animals. In studying this indices we took into consideration the impact of the season (spring, summer, autumn, winter), and sex of the animals. The studies have shown a high impact of the season of the year on those rabbits, but only in spring and summer. Moreover we observed that the sex has mean impact on the studied values of haematological parameters in those rabbits. According to our knowledge, this is the first paper on haematologic values in this widely used group of rabbits, so they may serve as reference values. PMID:26812808

  15. Optimal welding parameters for very high power ultrasonic additive manufacturing of smart structures with aluminum 6061 matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolcott, Paul J.; Hehr, Adam; Dapino, Marcelo J.

    2014-03-01

    Ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM) is a recent solid state manufacturing process that combines ad- ditive joining of thin metal tapes with subtractive milling operations to generate near net shape metallic parts. Due to the minimal heating during the process, UAM is a proven method of embedding Ni-Ti, Fe-Ga, and PVDF to create active metal matrix composites. Recently, advances in the UAM process utilizing 9 kW very high power (VHP) welding has improved bonding properties, enabling joining of high strength materials previously unweldable with 1 kW low power UAM. Consequently, a design of experiments study was conducted to optimize welding conditions for aluminum 6061 components. This understanding is critical in the design of UAM parts containing smart materials. Build parameters, including weld force, weld speed, amplitude, and temperature were varied based on a Taguchi experimental design matrix and tested for me- chanical strength. Optimal weld parameters were identi ed with statistical methods including a generalized linear model for analysis of variance (ANOVA), mean e ects plots, and interaction e ects plots.

  16. Effect of concentrate level on feeding behavior and rumen and blood parameters in dairy goats: relationships between behavioral and physiological parameters and effect of between-animal variability.

    PubMed

    Giger-Reverdin, S; Rigalma, K; Desnoyers, M; Sauvant, D; Duvaux-Ponter, C

    2014-07-01

    This work aimed first to compare 2 diets differing in their percentage of concentrate [low (LO): 30% concentrate vs. High (HI): 60% concentrate] by measuring simultaneously feeding behavior, rumen parameters, blood and plasma parameters, and milk yield and composition in 8 mid-lactation goats. The second aim was to study the interrelationships between these variables and to analyze the between-animal variability to better understand the between-animal differences in acidosis susceptibility. All of the animals received the 2 diets ad libitum as total mixed ration according to a crossover design of two 4-wk periods. Mean daily DMI was similar between the 2 diets but the variability was higher for the HI than for the LO diet. Goats produced more milk when fed the HI diet compared with the LO diet but with a lower fat:protein ratio (0.81 vs. 0.99). They ate more rapidly the HI than the LO diet but stopped eating sooner after the afternoon feed allowance, and spent less time chewing. The increase in concentrate percentage modified rumen parameters: the pH and acetate:propionate ratio decreased and total VFA, ammonia, and soluble carbohydrate concentrations increased. Hematocrit, plasma NEFA, and blood K and Ca concentrations decreased but glycemia and uremia increased. Other parameters were not modified: milk fat content, blood pH, and bicarbonate and Na concentrations. A large between-animal variability was detected for all the measured parameters, especially for feeding behavior, with important consequences on rumen and blood parameters. This work confirmed the effects of a high percentage of concentrate on feeding behavior, rumen and blood parameters, and milk production, and some known relationships such as the positive link between rumen pH and chewing index. It also pointed out other relationships between parameters seldom measured at the same time, such as rumen redox potential or blood pH and chewing index, or the negative link between blood and rumen pH. When

  17. Fiber-optic sensors for monitoring patient physiological parameters: a review of applicable technologies and relevance to use during magnetic resonance imaging procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dziuda, Łukasz

    2015-01-01

    The issues involved with recording vital functions in the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) environment using fiber-optic sensors are considered in this paper. Basic physiological parameters, such as respiration and heart rate, are fundamental for predicting the risk of anxiety, panic, and claustrophobic episodes in patients undergoing MRI examinations. Electronic transducers are generally hazardous to the patient and are prone to erroneous operation in heavily electromagnetically penetrated MRI environments; however, nonmetallic fiber-optic sensors are inherently immune to electromagnetic effects and will be crucial for acquiring the above-mentioned physiological parameters. Forty-seven MRI-tested or potentially MRI-compatible sensors have appeared in the literature over the last 20 years. The author classifies these sensors into several categories and subcategories, depending on the sensing element placement, method of application, and measurand type. The author includes five in-house-designed fiber Bragg grating based sensors and shares experience in acquiring physiological measurements during MRI scans. This paper aims to systematize the knowledge of fiber-optic techniques for recording life functions and to indicate the current directions of development in this area.

  18. Fiber-optic sensors for monitoring patient physiological parameters: a review of applicable technologies and relevance to use during magnetic resonance imaging procedures.

    PubMed

    Dziuda, Łukasz

    2015-01-01

    The issues involved with recording vital functions in the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) environment using fiber-optic sensors are considered in this paper. Basic physiological parameters, such as respiration and heart rate, are fundamental for predicting the risk of anxiety, panic, and claustrophobic episodes in patients undergoing MRI examinations. Electronic transducers are generally hazardous to the patient and are prone to erroneous operation in heavily electromagnetically penetrated MRI environments; however, nonmetallic fiber-optic sensors are inherently immune to electromagnetic effects and will be crucial for acquiring the above-mentioned physiological parameters. Forty-seven MRI-tested or potentially MRI-compatible sensors have appeared in the literature over the last 20 years. The author classifies these sensors into several categories and subcategories, depending on the sensing element placement, method of application, and measure and type. The author includes five in-house-designed fiber Bragg grating based sensors and shares experience in acquiring physiological measurements during MRI scans. This paper aims to systematize the knowledge of fiber-optic techniques for recording life functions and to indicate the current directions of development in this area. PMID:25594625

  19. [Influence Additional Cognitive Tasks on EEG Beta Rhythm Parameters during Forming and Testing Set to Perception of the Facial Expression].

    PubMed

    Yakovenko, I A; Cheremushkin, E A; Kozlov, M K

    2015-01-01

    The research of changes of a beta rhythm parameters on condition of working memory loading by extension of a interstimuli interval between the target and triggering stimuli to 16 sec is investigated on 70 healthy adults in two series of experiments with set to a facial expression. In the second series at the middle of this interval for strengthening of the load was entered the additional cognitive task in the form of conditioning stimuli like Go/NoGo--circles of blue or green color. Data analysis of the research was carried out by means of continuous wavelet-transformation on the basis of "mather" complex Morlet-wavelet in the range of 1-35 Hz. Beta rhythm power was characterized by the mean level, maxima of wavelet-transformation coefficient (WLC) and latent periods of maxima. Introduction of additional cognitive task to pause between the target and triggering stimuli led to essential increase in absolute values of the mean level of beta rhythm WLC and relative sizes of maxima of beta rhythm WLC. In the series of experiments without conditioning stimulus subjects with large number of mistakes (from 6 to 40), i.e. rigid set, in comparison with subjects with small number of mistakes (to 5), i.e. plastic set, at the forming stage were characterized by higher values of the mean level of beta rhythm WLC. Introduction of the conditioning stimuli led to smoothing of intergroup distinctions throughout the experiment. PMID:26601500

  20. Effect of Three Different Grip Angles on Physiological Parameters During Laboratory Handcycling Test in Able-Bodied Participants

    PubMed Central

    Abel, Thomas; Burkett, Brendan; Thees, Barbara; Schneider, Stefan; Askew, Christopher D.; Strüder, Heiko K.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Handcycling is a relatively new wheelchair sport that has gained increased popularity for people with lower limb disabilities. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of three different grip positions on physical parameters during handcycling in a laboratory setting. Methods: Twenty one able-bodied participants performed three maximum incremental handcycling tests until exhaustion, each with a different grip angle. The angle between the grip and the crank was randomly set at 90° (horizontal), 0° (vertical), or 10° (diagonal). The initial load was 20 W and increased by 20 W each 5 min. In addition, participants performed a 20 s maximum effort. Results: The relative peak functional performance (W/kg), peak heart rate (bpm), associated lactate concentrations (mmol/l) and peak oxygen uptake per kilogram body weight (ml.min−1.kg−1) for the different grip positions during the stage test were: (a) Horizontal: 1.43 ± 0.21 W/kg, 170.14 ± 12.81 bpm, 9.54 ± 1.93 mmol/l, 30.86 ± 4.57 ml/kg; (b) Vertical: 1.38 ± 0.20 W/kg, 171.81 ± 13.87 bpm, 9.91 ± 2.29 mmol/l, 29.75 ± 5.13 ml/kg; (c) Diagonal: 1.40 ± 0.22 W/kg, 169.19 ± 13.31 bpm, 9.34 ± 2.36 mmol/l, 29.39 ± 4.70 ml/kg. Statistically significant (p < 0.05) differences could only be found for lactate concentration between the vertical grip position and the other grips during submaximal handcycling. Conclusion: The orientation of three different grip angles made no difference to the peak load achieved during an incremental handcycling test and a 20 s maximum effort. At submaximal load, higher lactate concentrations were found when the vertical grip position was used, suggesting that this position may be less efficient than the alternative diagonal or horizontal grip positions. PMID:26635617

  1. Exploration of PBPK Model-Calculation of Drug Time Course in Tissue Using IV Bolus Drug Plasma Concentration-Time Profile and the Physiological Parameters of the Organ.

    PubMed

    Berezhkovskiy, Leonid M

    2016-08-01

    An uncommon innovative consideration of the well-stirred linear physiologically based pharmacokinetic model and the drug plasma concentration-time profile, which is measured in routine intravenous bolus pharmacokinetic study, was applied for the calculation of the drug time course in human tissues. This cannot be obtained in the in vivo pharmacokinetic study. The physiological parameters of the organ such as organ tissue volume, organ blood flow rate, and its vascular volume were used in the calculation. The considered method was applied to calculate the time course of midazolam, alprazolam, quinidine, and diclofenac in human organs or tissues. The suggested method might be applied for the prediction of drug concentration-time profile in tissues and consequently the drug concentration level in the targeted tissue, as well as the possible undesirable toxic levels in other tissues. PMID:27290628

  2. Physiological and biochemical parameters for evaluation and clustering of rice cultivars differing in salt tolerance at seedling stage.

    PubMed

    Chunthaburee, Sumitahnun; Dongsansuk, Anoma; Sanitchon, Jirawat; Pattanagul, Wattana; Theerakulpisut, Piyada

    2016-07-01

    Salinity tolerance levels and physiological changes were evaluated for twelve rice cultivars, including four white rice and eight black glutinous rice cultivars, during their seedling stage in response to salinity stress at 100 mM NaCl. All the rice cultivars evaluated showed an apparent decrease in growth characteristics and chlorophyll accumulation under salinity stress. By contrast an increase in proline, hydrogen peroxide, peroxidase (POX) activity and anthocyanins were observed for all cultivars. The K(+)/Na(+) ratios evaluated for all rice cultivars were noted to be highly correlated with the salinity scores thus indicating that the K(+)/Na(+) ratio serves as a reliable indicator of salt stress tolerance in rice. Principal component analysis (PCA) based on physiological salt tolerance indexes could clearly distinguish rice cultivars into 4 salt tolerance clusters. Noteworthy, in comparison to the salt-sensitive ones, rice cultivars that possessed higher degrees of salt tolerance displayed more enhanced activity of catalase (CAT), a smaller increase in anthocyanin, hydrogen peroxide and proline content but a smaller drop in the K(+)/Na(+) ratio and chlorophyll accumulation. PMID:27298579

  3. Simultaneous measurement of the silicon content and physiological parameters by FTIR spectroscopy in diatoms with siliceous cell walls.

    PubMed

    Jungandreas, Anne; Wagner, Heiko; Wilhelm, Christian

    2012-12-01

    Diatoms are the most successful biomass producers worldwide. Therefore, physiological and chemical methods to measure the cell response to a variety of abiotic factors are the focus of recent research. We used the two model diatoms Cyclotella meneghiniana and Skeletonema costatum for the development of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy-based methods to measure simultaneously the elemental composition of the cells and their cell-specific physiological properties. The cells were grown in chemostat cultures to study the response of Si limitation. The model organisms showed different reactions in terms of their cell properties. Si limitation was accompanied by a drop in the growth rate, a reduced content in Si per cell and a decreased Si : C ratio. Furthermore, the C allocation pattern was changed in both diatoms under Si limitation, as shown by FTIR spectroscopy. Moreover, we used FTIR spectra to develop PLS (partial least square) regression methods to predict the Si content and the Si : C ratio for single as well as multiple species. All PLS regression models were validated by standard chemical methods and showed good prediction accuracy, with the coefficient of determination R(2) being ≥0.93. We could show that it is possible to monitor phytoplankton properties such as C allocation, the Si content and the Si : C ratio at the same time via FTIR spectroscopy. PMID:23104763

  4. Inversion analysis of estimating interannual variability and its uncertainties in biotic and abiotic parameters of a parsimonious physiologically based model after wind disturbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toda, M.; Yokozawa, M.; Richardson, A. D.; Kohyama, T.

    2011-12-01

    The effects of wind disturbance on interannual variability in ecosystem CO2 exchange have been assessed in two forests in northern Japan, i.e., a young, even-aged, monocultured, deciduous forest and an uneven-aged mixed forest of evergreen and deciduous trees, including some over 200 years old using eddy covariance (EC) measurements during 2004-2008. The EC measurements have indicated that photosynthetic recovery of trees after a huge typhoon occurred during early September in 2004 activated annual carbon uptake of both forests due to changes in physiological response of tree leaves during their growth stages. However, little have been resolved about what biotic and abiotic factors regulated interannual variability in heat, water and carbon exchange between an atmosphere and forests. In recent years, an inverse modeling analysis has been utilized as a powerful tool to estimate biotic and abiotic parameters that might affect heat, water and CO2 exchange between the atmosphere and forest of a parsimonious physiologically based model. We conducted the Bayesian inverse model analysis for the model with the EC measurements. The preliminary result showed that the above model-derived NEE values were consistent with observed ones on the hourly basis with optimized parameters by Baysian inversion. In the presentation, we would examine interannual variability in biotic and abiotic parameters related to heat, water and carbon exchange between the atmosphere and forests after disturbance by typhoon.

  5. Growth enhancement of Picea abies trees under long-term, low-dose N addition is due to morphological more than to physiological changes.

    PubMed

    Krause, Kim; Cherubini, Paolo; Bugmann, Harald; Schleppi, Patrick

    2012-12-01

    Human activities have drastically increased nitrogen (N) inputs into natural and near-natural terrestrial ecosystems such that critical loads are now being exceeded in many regions of the world. This implies that these ecosystems are shifting from natural N limitation to eutrophication or even N saturation. This process is expected to modify the growth of forests and thus, along with management, to affect their carbon (C) sequestration. However, knowledge of the physiological mechanisms underlying tree response to N inputs, especially in the long term, is still lacking. In this study, we used tree-ring patterns and a dual stable isotope approach (δ(13)C and δ(18)O) to investigate tree growth responses and the underlying physiological reactions in a long-term, low-dose N addition experiment (+23 kg N ha(-1) a(-1)). This experiment has been conducted for 14 years in a mountain Picea abies (L.) Karst. forest in Alptal, Switzerland, using a paired-catchment design. Tree stem C sequestration increased by ∼22%, with an N use efficiency (NUE) of ca. 8 kg additional C in tree stems per kg of N added. Neither earlywood nor latewood δ(13)C values changed significantly compared with the control, indicating that the intrinsic water use efficiency (WUE(i)) (A/g(s)) did not change due to N addition. Further, the isotopic signal of δ(18)O in early- and latewood showed no significant response to the treatment, indicating that neither stomatal conductance nor leaf-level photosynthesis changed significantly. Foliar analyses showed that needle N concentration significantly increased in the fourth to seventh treatment year, accompanied by increased dry mass and area per needle, and by increased tree height growth. Later, N concentration and height growth returned to nearly background values, while dry mass and area per needle remained high. Our results support the hypothesis that enhanced stem growth caused by N addition is mainly due to an increased leaf area index (LAI

  6. Nano-Fe as feed additive improves the hematological and immunological parameters of fish, Labeo rohita H.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behera, T.; Swain, P.; Rangacharulu, P. V.; Samanta, M.

    2014-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to compare the effects of iron oxide nanoparticles ( T 1) and ferrous sulfate ( T 2) on Indian major carp, Labeo rohita H. There were significant differences ( P < 0.05) in the final weight of T 1 and T 2 compared with the control. Survival rates were not affected by the dietary treatments. Fish fed a basal diet (control) showed lower ( P < 0.05) iron content in muscle compared to T 1 and T 2. Furthermore, the highest value ( P < 0.05) of iron content was observed in T 1. In addition, RBCs and hemoglobin levels were significantly higher in T 1 as compared to other treated groups. Different innate immune parameters such as respiratory burst activity, bactericidal activity and myeloperoxidase activity were higher in nano-Fe-treated diet ( T 1) as compared to other iron source ( T 2) and control in 30 days post-feeding. Moreover, nano-Fe appeared to be more effective ( P < 0.05) than ferrous sulfate in increasing muscle iron and hemoglobin contents. Dietary administration of nano-Fe did not cause any oxidative damage, but improved antioxidant enzymatic activities (SOD and GSH level) irrespective of different iron sources in the basal diet.

  7. Sonochemical degradation of the pharmaceutical fluoxetine: Effect of parameters, organic and inorganic additives and combination with a biological system.

    PubMed

    Serna-Galvis, Efraím A; Silva-Agredo, Javier; Giraldo-Aguirre, Ana L; Torres-Palma, Ricardo A

    2015-08-15

    Fluoxetine (FLX), one of the most widely used antidepressants in the world, is an emergent pollutant found in natural waters that causes disrupting effects on the endocrine systems of some aquatic species. This work explores the total elimination of FLX by sonochemical treatment coupled to a biological system. The biological process acting alone was shown to be unable to remove the pollutant, even under favourable conditions of pH and temperature. However, sonochemical treatment (600 kHz) was shown to be able to remove the pharmaceutical. Several parameters were evaluated for the ultrasound application: the applied power (20-60 W), dissolved gas (air, Ar and He), pH (3-11) and initial concentration of fluoxetine (2.9-162.0 μmol L(-1)). Additionally, the presence of organic (1-hexanol and 2-propanol) and inorganic (Fe(2+)) compounds in the water matrix and the degradation of FLX in a natural mineral water were evaluated. The sonochemical treatment readily eliminates FLX following a kinetic Langmuir. After 360 min of ultrasonic irradiation, 15% mineralization was achieved. Analysis of the biodegradability provided evidence that the sonochemical process transforms the pollutant into biodegradable substances, which can then be mineralized in a subsequent biological treatment.

  8. Effect of porous media of the stenosed artery wall to the coronary physiological diagnostic parameter: a computational fluid dynamic analysis.

    PubMed

    Govindaraju, Kalimuthu; Kamangar, Sarfaraz; Badruddin, Irfan Anjum; Viswanathan, Girish N; Badarudin, A; Salman Ahmed, N J

    2014-04-01

    Functional assessment of a coronary artery stenosis severity is generally assessed by fractional flow reserve (FFR), which is calculated from pressure measurements across the stenosis. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of porous media of the stenosed arterial wall on this diagnostic parameter. To understand the role of porous media on the diagnostic parameter FFR, a 3D computational simulations of the blood flow in rigid and porous stenotic artery wall models are carried out under steady state and transient conditions for three different percentage area stenoses (AS) corresponding to 70% (moderate), 80% (intermediate), and 90% (severe). Blood was modeled as a non Newtonian fluid. The variations of pressure drop across the stenosis and diagnostic parameter were studied in both models. The FFR decreased in proportion to the increase in the severity of the stenosis. The relationship between the percentage AS and the FFR was non linear and inversely related in both the models. The cut-off value of 0.75 for FFR was observed at 81.89% AS for the rigid artery model whereas 83.61% AS for the porous artery wall model. This study demonstrates that the porous media consideration on the stenotic arterial wall plays a substantial role in defining the cut-off value of FFR. We conclude that the effect of porous media on FFR, could lead to misinterpretation of the functional severity of the stenosis in the region of 81.89 %-83.61% AS. PMID:24549189

  9. Changes in Physiological and Agronomical Parameters of Barley (Hordeum vulgare) Exposed to Cerium and Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Marchiol, Luca; Mattiello, Alessandro; Pošćić, Filip; Fellet, Guido; Zavalloni, Costanza; Carlino, Elvio; Musetti, Rita

    2016-01-01

    The aims of our experiment were to evaluate the uptake and translocation of cerium and titanium oxide nanoparticles and to verify their effects on the growth cycle of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Barley plants were grown to physiological maturity in soil enriched with either 0, 500 or 1000 mg·kg−1 cerium oxide nanoparticles (nCeO2) or titanium oxide nanoparticles (nTiO2) and their combination. The growth cycle of nCeO2 and nTiO2 treated plants was about 10 days longer than the controls. In nCeO2 treated plants the number of tillers, leaf area and the number of spikes per plant were reduced respectively by 35.5%, 28.3% and 30% (p ≤ 0.05). nTiO2 stimulated plant growth and compensated for the adverse effects of nCeO2. Concentrations of Ce and Ti in aboveground plant fractions were minute. The fate of nanomaterials within the plant tissues was different. Crystalline nTiO2 aggregates were detected within the leaf tissues of barley, whereas nCeO2 was not present in the form of nanoclusters. PMID:26999181

  10. Changes in Physiological and Agronomical Parameters of Barley (Hordeum vulgare) Exposed to Cerium and Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Marchiol, Luca; Mattiello, Alessandro; Pošćić, Filip; Fellet, Guido; Zavalloni, Costanza; Carlino, Elvio; Musetti, Rita

    2016-03-17

    The aims of our experiment were to evaluate the uptake and translocation of cerium and titanium oxide nanoparticles and to verify their effects on the growth cycle of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Barley plants were grown to physiological maturity in soil enriched with either 0, 500 or 1000 mg · kg(-1) cerium oxide nanoparticles (nCeO₂) or titanium oxide nanoparticles (nTiO₂) and their combination. The growth cycle of nCeO₂ and nTiO₂ treated plants was about 10 days longer than the controls. In nCeO₂ treated plants the number of tillers, leaf area and the number of spikes per plant were reduced respectively by 35.5%, 28.3% and 30% (p ≤ 0.05). nTiO₂ stimulated plant growth and compensated for the adverse effects of nCeO₂. Concentrations of Ce and Ti in aboveground plant fractions were minute. The fate of nanomaterials within the plant tissues was different. Crystalline nTiO₂ aggregates were detected within the leaf tissues of barley, whereas nCeO₂ was not present in the form of nanoclusters.

  11. Short-term effects of benzalkonium chloride and atrazine on Elodea canadensis using a miniaturised microbioreactor system for an online monitoring of physiologic parameters.

    PubMed

    Vervliet-Scheebaum, Marco; Ritzenthaler, Raphael; Normann, Johannes; Wagner, Edgar

    2008-02-01

    The study evaluated the effects of benzalkonium chloride (BAC) and atrazine on the macrophyte Elodea canadensis (Michaux) using a miniaturised monitoring test system consisting of a microbioreactor of reduced volume and integrated sensors for the online measurement of physiologic parameters, like oxygen production and different parameters of fluorescence. Different concentrations of both chemicals were applied to leaves of E. canadensis and the physiologic endpoints evaluated after 1h. A concentration-dependent reduction of the oxygen production and of the effective quantum yield of energy conversion was recorded. The mini-PAM technique implemented in the presented system allowed for a clear monitoring of the kinetic of BAC and atrazine, showing their distinct mode of action. No observable adverse effects were recorded up to concentrations of 2.5 mg/L and 10 microg/L, for BAC and atrazine, respectively. These values are in accordance with available results in the literature, hence indicating that the microbioreactor test system might be suitable, on the one hand, for the laboratory screening of potential short-term toxicity of contaminants on aquatic plants, and on the other hand, serve as an in situ field biomonitoring system for the rapid detection of pollutants in water.

  12. Effects of an essential fatty acid deficiency, pair-feeding and level of dietary corn oil on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and other physiological parameters in the male chicken.

    PubMed

    Engster, H M; Carew, L B; Cunningham, F J

    1978-06-01

    Two studies were conducted to observe the effects of an essential fatty acid (EFA) deficiency, added dietary corn oil and pair-feeding on growth, reproduction and other physiological parameters in the mature cockerel. A purified, linoleic acid (LA)-deficient diet (0.01% LA), or additions of 5% (3.01% LA) or 15% (9.04% LA) corn oil, were fed ad libitum from hatching through 24 weeks of age. Reductions in growth, feed consumption, and comb, and testes size, incomplete spermatogenesis, increased tissue eicosatrienoic acid (20: 3 omega 9) and changes in weights of selected internal organs were observed in deficient cockerels. Total pituitary gonadotropic activity was measured by two bioassay procedures and blood luteinizing hormone was measured by radioimmunoassay. By maturity both of these parameters were significantly reduced in deficient chickens. When these chickens were fed diets with 5% or 15% corn oil under pair-feeding or ad libitum conditions from 20 to 24 weeks, the reduced growth, comb and testes size and gonadotropin metabolism appeared to be caused by depressions in appetite and energy intake rather than EFA per se. The degenerate testicular histology of the 20-week old deficient cockerels, while responding fully to the ad libitum intake of the diets containing corn oil, showed only partial rehabilitation of spermatogenesis when diets with either 5% or 15% corn oil were pair-fed. In general, increasing the level of dietary fat from 5% to 15% did not cause many physiological changes.

  13. Effect of the addition of conventional additives and whey proteins concentrates on technological parameters, physicochemical properties, microstructure and sensory attributes of sous vide cooked beef muscles.

    PubMed

    Szerman, N; Gonzalez, C B; Sancho, A M; Grigioni, G; Carduza, F; Vaudagna, S R

    2012-03-01

    Beef muscles submitted to four enhancement treatments (1.88% whey protein concentrate (WPC)+1.25% sodium chloride (NaCl); 1.88% modified whey protein concentrate (MWPC)+1.25%NaCl; 0.25% sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP)+1.25%NaCl; 1.25%NaCl) and a control treatment (non-injected muscles) were sous vide cooked. Muscles with STPP+NaCl presented a significantly higher total yield (106.5%) in comparison to those with WPC/MWPC+NaCl (94.7% and 92.9%, respectively), NaCl alone (84.8%) or controls (72.1%). Muscles with STPP+NaCl presented significantly lower shear force values than control ones; also, WPC/MWPC+NaCl added muscles presented similar values than those from the other treatments. After cooking, muscles with STPP+NaCl or WPC/MWPC+NaCl depicted compacted and uniform microstructures. Muscles with STPP+NaCl showed a pink colour, meanwhile other treatment muscles presented colours between pinkish-grey and grey-brown. STPP+NaCl added samples presented the highest values of global tenderness and juiciness. The addition of STPP+NaCl had a better performance than WPC/MWPC+NaCl. However, the addition of WPC/MWPC+NaCl improved total yield in comparison to NaCl added or control ones. PMID:22112522

  14. Effect of the addition of conventional additives and whey proteins concentrates on technological parameters, physicochemical properties, microstructure and sensory attributes of sous vide cooked beef muscles.

    PubMed

    Szerman, N; Gonzalez, C B; Sancho, A M; Grigioni, G; Carduza, F; Vaudagna, S R

    2012-03-01

    Beef muscles submitted to four enhancement treatments (1.88% whey protein concentrate (WPC)+1.25% sodium chloride (NaCl); 1.88% modified whey protein concentrate (MWPC)+1.25%NaCl; 0.25% sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP)+1.25%NaCl; 1.25%NaCl) and a control treatment (non-injected muscles) were sous vide cooked. Muscles with STPP+NaCl presented a significantly higher total yield (106.5%) in comparison to those with WPC/MWPC+NaCl (94.7% and 92.9%, respectively), NaCl alone (84.8%) or controls (72.1%). Muscles with STPP+NaCl presented significantly lower shear force values than control ones; also, WPC/MWPC+NaCl added muscles presented similar values than those from the other treatments. After cooking, muscles with STPP+NaCl or WPC/MWPC+NaCl depicted compacted and uniform microstructures. Muscles with STPP+NaCl showed a pink colour, meanwhile other treatment muscles presented colours between pinkish-grey and grey-brown. STPP+NaCl added samples presented the highest values of global tenderness and juiciness. The addition of STPP+NaCl had a better performance than WPC/MWPC+NaCl. However, the addition of WPC/MWPC+NaCl improved total yield in comparison to NaCl added or control ones.

  15. Response of the physiological parameters of mango fruit (transpiration, water relations and antioxidant system) to its light and temperature environment.

    PubMed

    Léchaudel, Mathieu; Lopez-Lauri, Félicie; Vidal, Véronique; Sallanon, Huguette; Joas, Jacques

    2013-04-15

    Depending on the position of the fruit in the tree, mango fruit may be exposed to high temperature and intense light conditions that may lead to metabolic and physiological disorders and affect yield and quality. The present study aimed to determine how mango fruit adapted its functioning in terms of fruit water relations, epicarp characteristics and the antioxidant defence system in peel, to environmental conditions. The effect of contrasted temperature and light conditions was evaluated under natural solar radiation and temperature by comparing well-exposed and shaded fruit at three stages of fruit development. The sun-exposed and shaded peels of the two sides of the well-exposed fruit were also compared. Depending on fruit position within the canopy and on the side of a well-exposed fruit, the temperature gradient over a day affected fruit characteristics such as transpiration, as revealed by the water potential gradient as a function of the treatments, and led to a significant decrease in water conductance for well-exposed fruits compared to fruits within the canopy. Changes in cuticle thickness according to fruit position were consistent with those of fruit water conductance. Osmotic potential was also affected by climatic environment and harvest stage. Environmental conditions that induced water stress and greater light exposure, like on the sunny side of well-exposed fruit, increased the hydrogen peroxide, malondialdehyde and total and reduced ascorbate contents, as well as SOD, APX and MDHAR activities, regardless of the maturity stage. The lowest values were measured in the peel of the shaded fruit, that of the shaded side of well-exposed fruit being intermediate. Mango fruits exposed to water-stress-induced conditions during growth adapt their functioning by reducing their transpiration. Moreover, oxidative stress was limited as a consequence of the increase in antioxidant content and enzyme activities. This adaptive response of mango fruit to its

  16. Response of the physiological parameters of mango fruit (transpiration, water relations and antioxidant system) to its light and temperature environment.

    PubMed

    Léchaudel, Mathieu; Lopez-Lauri, Félicie; Vidal, Véronique; Sallanon, Huguette; Joas, Jacques

    2013-04-15

    Depending on the position of the fruit in the tree, mango fruit may be exposed to high temperature and intense light conditions that may lead to metabolic and physiological disorders and affect yield and quality. The present study aimed to determine how mango fruit adapted its functioning in terms of fruit water relations, epicarp characteristics and the antioxidant defence system in peel, to environmental conditions. The effect of contrasted temperature and light conditions was evaluated under natural solar radiation and temperature by comparing well-exposed and shaded fruit at three stages of fruit development. The sun-exposed and shaded peels of the two sides of the well-exposed fruit were also compared. Depending on fruit position within the canopy and on the side of a well-exposed fruit, the temperature gradient over a day affected fruit characteristics such as transpiration, as revealed by the water potential gradient as a function of the treatments, and led to a significant decrease in water conductance for well-exposed fruits compared to fruits within the canopy. Changes in cuticle thickness according to fruit position were consistent with those of fruit water conductance. Osmotic potential was also affected by climatic environment and harvest stage. Environmental conditions that induced water stress and greater light exposure, like on the sunny side of well-exposed fruit, increased the hydrogen peroxide, malondialdehyde and total and reduced ascorbate contents, as well as SOD, APX and MDHAR activities, regardless of the maturity stage. The lowest values were measured in the peel of the shaded fruit, that of the shaded side of well-exposed fruit being intermediate. Mango fruits exposed to water-stress-induced conditions during growth adapt their functioning by reducing their transpiration. Moreover, oxidative stress was limited as a consequence of the increase in antioxidant content and enzyme activities. This adaptive response of mango fruit to its

  17. Selecting and optimizing eco-physiological parameters of Biome-BGC to reproduce observed woody and leaf biomass growth of Eucommia ulmoides plantation in China using Dakota optimizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyauchi, T.; Machimura, T.

    2013-12-01

    In the simulation using an ecosystem process model, the adjustment of parameters is indispensable for improving the accuracy of prediction. This procedure, however, requires much time and effort for approaching the simulation results to the measurements on models consisting of various ecosystem processes. In this study, we tried to apply a general purpose optimization tool in the parameter optimization of an ecosystem model, and examined its validity by comparing the simulated and measured biomass growth of a woody plantation. A biometric survey of tree biomass growth was performed in 2009 in an 11-year old Eucommia ulmoides plantation in Henan Province, China. Climate of the site was dry temperate. Leaf, above- and below-ground woody biomass were measured from three cut trees and converted into carbon mass per area by measured carbon contents and stem density. Yearly woody biomass growth of the plantation was calculated according to allometric relationships determined by tree ring analysis of seven cut trees. We used Biome-BGC (Thornton, 2002) to reproduce biomass growth of the plantation. Air temperature and humidity from 1981 to 2010 was used as input climate condition. The plant functional type was deciduous broadleaf, and non-optimizing parameters were left default. 11-year long normal simulations were performed following a spin-up run. In order to select optimizing parameters, we analyzed the sensitivity of leaf, above- and below-ground woody biomass to eco-physiological parameters. Following the selection, optimization of parameters was performed by using the Dakota optimizer. Dakota is an optimizer developed by Sandia National Laboratories for providing a systematic and rapid means to obtain optimal designs using simulation based models. As the object function, we calculated the sum of relative errors between simulated and measured leaf, above- and below-ground woody carbon at each of eleven years. In an alternative run, errors at the last year (at the

  18. Physiological Information Database (PID)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has developed a physiological information database (created using Microsoft ACCESS) intended to be used in PBPK modeling. The database contains physiological parameter values for humans from early childhood through senescence as well as similar data for laboratory animal spec...

  19. Effect of cadmium on selected physiological and morphological parameters in metallicolous and non-metallicolous populations of Echium vulgare L.

    PubMed

    Dresler, Sławomir; Bednarek, Wiesław; Wójcik, Małgorzata

    2014-06-01

    Cadmium tolerance of three populations of Echium vulgare L., naturally occurring on two Zn-Pb waste deposits (metallicolous populations M1, M2) and on an uncontaminated site (non-metallicolous population, NM) was investigated. The plants were cultivated in hydroponics at 0, 5, 15, 30, or 50μM Cd for 14 days. Although Cd reduced the content of photosynthetic pigments indifferently in the three populations, plant growth parameters and root viability analyses confirmed different Cd tolerances decreasing in the order M1>M2>NM in the populations studied. Organic acids (tartrate, malate, citrate, succinate) were not responsible for the elevated Cd tolerance of the metallicolous populations, although malate and citrate might participate in Cd detoxification in the roots of the M1 and M2. Phytochelatin concentrations were higher in the roots of M1 and M2 populations of E. vulgare, suggesting their role in Cd detoxification and different Cd tolerances.

  20. [Complex study of various pathogenetic and physiologic parameters of the health status of watchmen in the oil industry].

    PubMed

    Il'inskikh, N N; Medvedev, M A; Potapova, G V; Perepechaev, L Ia; Urazaev, A M; Kudriavtseva, D P

    1989-12-01

    Complex examination of oil industry workers and those engaged in nonproductive area (control group) was undertaken. It was established that in both groups there were persons with a high level of cells with cytogenetic disturbances (micronuclear test). However, as opposed to control group, oil industry workers had higher levels of systolic and pulse pressure. Besides it was shown that after 12 hours of work at an oil field under winter conditions in the north area of the Tomsk Region they had higher body temperature. It appeared that these persons primarily had the longest term of professional service. Further examination of persons with especially high level of micronuclei cells showed that they had elevated lymphocyte amount with chromosome impairments and some parameters of T- and B-immunoreactivity, phagocytosis and activity of normal killer cells were changed.

  1. The effects of CO₂ addition along a pH gradient on wastewater microalgal photo-physiology, biomass production and nutrient removal.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Donna L; Howard-Williams, Clive; Turnbull, Matthew H; Broady, Paul A; Craggs, Rupert J

    2015-03-01

    Carbon limitation in domestic wastewater high rate algal ponds is thought to constrain microalgal photo-physiology and productivity, particularly in summer. This paper investigates the effects of CO₂ addition along a pH gradient on the performance of wastewater microalgae in high rate algal mesocosms. Performance was measured in terms of light absorption, electron transport rate, photosynthetic efficiency, biomass production and nutrient removal efficiency. Light absorption by the microalgae increased by up to 128% with increasing CO₂ supply, while a reduction in the package effect meant that there was less internal self-shading thereby increasing the efficiency of light absorption. CO₂ augmentation increased the maximum rate of both electron transport and photosynthesis by up to 256%. This led to increased biomass, with the highest yield occurring at the highest dissolved inorganic carbon/lowest pH combination tested (pH 6.5), with a doubling of chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) biomass while total microalgal biovolume increased by 660% in Micractinium bornhemiense and by 260% in Pediastrum boryanum dominated cultures. Increased microalgal biomass did not off-set the reduction in ammonia volatilisation in the control and overall nutrient removal was lower with CO₂ than without. Microalgal nutrient removal efficiency decreased as pH decreased and may have been related to decreased Chl-a per cell. This experiment demonstrated that CO₂ augmentation increased microalgal biomass in two distinct communities, however, care must be taken when interpreting results from standard biomass measurements with respect to CO₂ augmentation.

  2. The cumulative cost of additional wakefulness: dose-response effects on neurobehavioral functions and sleep physiology from chronic sleep restriction and total sleep deprivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Dongen, Hans P A.; Maislin, Greg; Mullington, Janet M.; Dinges, David F.

    2003-01-01

    were near-linearly related to the cumulative duration of wakefulness in excess of 15.84 h (s.e. 0.73 h). CONCLUSIONS: Since chronic restriction of sleep to 6 h or less per night produced cognitive performance deficits equivalent to up to 2 nights of total sleep deprivation, it appears that even relatively moderate sleep restriction can seriously impair waking neurobehavioral functions in healthy adults. Sleepiness ratings suggest that subjects were largely unaware of these increasing cognitive deficits, which may explain why the impact of chronic sleep restriction on waking cognitive functions is often assumed to be benign. Physiological sleep responses to chronic restriction did not mirror waking neurobehavioral responses, but cumulative wakefulness in excess of a 15.84 h predicted performance lapses across all four experimental conditions. This suggests that sleep debt is perhaps best understood as resulting in additional wakefulness that has a neurobiological "cost" which accumulates over time.

  3. Spatial, temporal, molecular, and intraspecific differences of haemoparasite infection and relevant selected physiological parameters of wild birds in Georgia, USA☆

    PubMed Central

    Astudillo, Viviana González; Hernández, Sonia M.; Kistler, Whitney M.; Boone, Shaun L.; Lipp, Erin K.; Shrestha, Sudip; Yabsley, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of five avian haemoparasite groups was examined for effects on health and associations with extrinsic factors. Overall, 786 samples were examined from six sites in two Georgia (USA) watersheds, during breeding and non-breeding periods in 2010 and 2011. Among the four most commonly infected species, Haemoproteus prevalence was significantly higher in Northern Cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis) compared to Indigo Buntings (Passerina cyanea) and Tufted Titmice (Baeolophus bicolor) while prevalence in White-throated Sparrows (Zonotrichia albicollis) was significantly higher than in Indigo Buntings. Higher prevalence of Plasmodium was noted in Tufted Titmice and Northern Cardinals. While Leucocytozoon prevalence was highest in White-throated Sparrows, Trypanosoma prevalence was highest in Tufted Titmice. Interesting differences in infection probabilities were noted between foraging guilds with Haemoproteus associated with low-middle level strata and birds in the middle-upper strata were more likely to be infected with Plasmodium and Trypanosoma. In contrast, ground-foraging birds were more likely to be infected with Leucocytozoon. Breeding season was correlated with higher polychromasia counts and higher prevalence of Haemoproteus, Plasmodium and Trypanosoma. In addition, prevalence of infection with certain haemoparasite genera and packed cell volume (PCV) were different among host species. Body mass index was inversely correlated with prevalence of microfilaria infection but positively related to Haemoproteus infection. However, we found no relationship between PCV or polychromasia levels with haemoparasite infection. Molecular characterization of 61 samples revealed 19 unique Haemoproteus (n = 7) and Plasmodium (n = 12) haplotypes with numerous new host records. No differences were noted in haplotype diversity among birds with different migratory behaviors or foraging heights, thus additional studies are needed that incorporate molecular analysis

  4. Assessment of DCE-MRI parameters for brain tumors through implementation of physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model approaches for Gd-DOTA.

    PubMed

    Spanakis, Marios; Kontopodis, Eleftherios; Van Cauter, Sophie; Sakkalis, Vangelis; Marias, Kostas

    2016-10-01

    Dynamic-contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) is used for detailed characterization of pathology of lesions sites, such as brain tumors, by quantitative analysis of tracer's data through the use of pharmacokinetic (PK) models. A key component for PK models in DCE-MRI is the estimation of the concentration-time profile of the tracer in a nearby vessel, referred as Arterial Input Function (AIF). The aim of this work was to assess through full body physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model approaches the PK profile of gadoteric acid (Gd-DOTA) and explore potential application for parameter estimation in DCE-MRI based on PBPK-derived AIFs. The PBPK simulations were generated through Simcyp(®) platform and the predicted PK parameters for Gd-DOTA were compared with available clinical data regarding healthy volunteers and renal impairment patients. The assessment of DCE-MRI parameters was implemented by utilizing similar virtual profiles based on gender, age and weight to clinical profiles of patients diagnosed with glioblastoma multiforme. The PBPK-derived AIFs were then used to compute DCE-MRI parameters through the Extended Tofts Model and compared with the corresponding ones derived from image-based AIF computation. The comparison involved: (i) image measured AIF of patients vs AIF of in silico profile, and, (ii) population average AIF vs in silico mean AIFs. The results indicate that PBPK-derived AIFs allowed the estimation of comparable imaging biomarkers with those calculated from typical DCE-MRI image analysis. The incorporation of PBPK models and potential utilization of in silico profiles to real patient data, can provide new perspectives in DCE-MRI parameter estimation and data analysis. PMID:27647272

  5. Assessment of DCE-MRI parameters for brain tumors through implementation of physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model approaches for Gd-DOTA.

    PubMed

    Spanakis, Marios; Kontopodis, Eleftherios; Van Cauter, Sophie; Sakkalis, Vangelis; Marias, Kostas

    2016-10-01

    Dynamic-contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) is used for detailed characterization of pathology of lesions sites, such as brain tumors, by quantitative analysis of tracer's data through the use of pharmacokinetic (PK) models. A key component for PK models in DCE-MRI is the estimation of the concentration-time profile of the tracer in a nearby vessel, referred as Arterial Input Function (AIF). The aim of this work was to assess through full body physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model approaches the PK profile of gadoteric acid (Gd-DOTA) and explore potential application for parameter estimation in DCE-MRI based on PBPK-derived AIFs. The PBPK simulations were generated through Simcyp(®) platform and the predicted PK parameters for Gd-DOTA were compared with available clinical data regarding healthy volunteers and renal impairment patients. The assessment of DCE-MRI parameters was implemented by utilizing similar virtual profiles based on gender, age and weight to clinical profiles of patients diagnosed with glioblastoma multiforme. The PBPK-derived AIFs were then used to compute DCE-MRI parameters through the Extended Tofts Model and compared with the corresponding ones derived from image-based AIF computation. The comparison involved: (i) image measured AIF of patients vs AIF of in silico profile, and, (ii) population average AIF vs in silico mean AIFs. The results indicate that PBPK-derived AIFs allowed the estimation of comparable imaging biomarkers with those calculated from typical DCE-MRI image analysis. The incorporation of PBPK models and potential utilization of in silico profiles to real patient data, can provide new perspectives in DCE-MRI parameter estimation and data analysis.

  6. Pulsed addition of HMF and furfural to batch-grown xylose-utilizing Saccharomyces cerevisiae results in different physiological responses in glucose and xylose consumption phase

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass generates a number of undesired degradation products that can inhibit microbial metabolism. Two of these compounds, the furan aldehydes 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and 2-furaldehyde (furfural), have been shown to be an impediment for viable ethanol production. In the present study, HMF and furfural were pulse-added during either the glucose or the xylose consumption phase in order to dissect the effects of these inhibitors on energy state, redox metabolism, and gene expression of xylose-consuming Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Results Pulsed addition of 3.9 g L-1 HMF and 1.2 g L-1 furfural during either the glucose or the xylose consumption phase resulted in distinct physiological responses. Addition of furan aldehydes in the glucose consumption phase was followed by a decrease in the specific growth rate and the glycerol yield, whereas the acetate yield increased 7.3-fold, suggesting that NAD(P)H for furan aldehyde conversion was generated by acetate synthesis. No change in the intracellular levels of NAD(P)H was observed 1 hour after pulsing, whereas the intracellular concentration of ATP increased by 58%. An investigation of the response at transcriptional level revealed changes known to be correlated with perturbations in the specific growth rate, such as protein and nucleotide biosynthesis. Addition of furan aldehydes during the xylose consumption phase brought about an increase in the glycerol and acetate yields, whereas the xylitol yield was severely reduced. The intracellular concentrations of NADH and NADPH decreased by 58 and 85%, respectively, hence suggesting that HMF and furfural drained the cells of reducing power. The intracellular concentration of ATP was reduced by 42% 1 hour after pulsing of inhibitors, suggesting that energy-requiring repair or maintenance processes were activated. Transcriptome profiling showed that NADPH-requiring processes such as amino acid biosynthesis and sulfate and

  7. The Effect of Different Types of Physical Exercise on the Behavioural and Physiological Parameters of Standardbred Horses Housed in Single Stalls

    PubMed Central

    Padalino, Barbara; Zaccagnino, Paola

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impacts of three different physical exercises on the physiological and behavioural patterns of Standardbred trotters housed in single stalls. Twelve racing mares were observed twice during each different exercise: daily training (DT) consisted of forty minutes at slow trot (4-5 m/s) in a small track; maximal exercise (ME) consisted of 1600 m run at maximal velocity; race (R) was a real race of 1600 m. The mares were examined at rest in their stall (Time I), soon after the completion of the exercise (Time II), one hour (Time III), and two hours (Time IV) after the exercise. Their heart rate, respiratory rate, and rectal temperature were recorded and they were videotaped in order to complete a focal animal sampling ethogram. All physiological parameters increased after exercise, in accordance with its intensity. After R and ME horses spent more time drinking, eating, and standing. The incidence of abnormal behaviours was very low and it was not affected by the different types of exercise. Overall, the assessment of horse behaviour after physical exercise by means of a focal animal sampling ethogram represents a useful tool to monitor equine welfare. PMID:24587940

  8. Pharmacologic Parameters of MS222 and Physiologic Changes in Frogs (Xenopus laevis) After Immersion at Anesthetic Doses

    PubMed Central

    Lalonde-Robert, Vanessa; Beaudry, Francis; Vachon, Pascal

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the anesthetic efficacy of MS222 (dose, 1 or 2 g/L; pH 7) administered as an immersion bath (duration, 20 min) for nonbreeding female Xenopus leavis frogs (n = 33; average body weight, 103 ± 16 g). The acid acetic test, the withdrawal reflex, righting behavior, heart rate, respiratory frequency, and blood oxygen saturation were used to evaluate the level of anesthesia. Acetic acid and withdrawal reflex responses were present at 30 and 60 min following immersion for the 1- and 2-g/L doses, respectively. MS222 had no effect on heart rate or oxygen saturation, but caused pronounced respiratory depression, as expected. Microscopic observations of selected tissues (heart, lung, liver, kidneys, and skin) showed no evidence of lesions at 24 h after immersion. In addition, we calculated the pharmacokinetics of MS222 in plasma and analyzed the drug by HPLC–tandem mass spectrometry. The calculated half-life of MS222 is 3.2 h. We conclude that MS222 administered at 1 or 2 g/mL via immersion bath for 20 min is an effective anesthetic that can be used for surgical procedures of less than 30 or 60 min, respectively, in Xenopus leavis. PMID:23043812

  9. The fatty acid profiles in a drop of blood from a fingertip correlate with physiological, dietary and lifestyle parameters in volunteers.

    PubMed

    Marangoni, F; Colombo, C; Martiello, A; Negri, E; Galli, C

    2007-02-01

    Limited data are available on the fatty acid (FA) composition of circulating lipids and the associations with diet, physiological and pathological conditions, due to the complexity and costs of the analytical process. The aim of our study was to evaluate the FA composition in 108 healthy subjects and to correlate the data with gender, pregnancy, dietary habits, lifestyle, and short-term controlled intake of n-3 FA, using an innovative analytical approach for the collection and processing of blood samples. Ten subjects were also supplemented with n-3 polyunsaturated FA as smoked salmon or capsules for 3 weeks. The resulting blood FA composition was affected by gender, pregnancy, diet and smoking. The data indicate that this new analytical methodology is suitable for assessing associations between circulating FA and various parameters in large population groups, and is applicable to epidemiological studies and in the assessment of the effects of controlled FA supplementation in clinical studies.

  10. Parameters and pitfalls to consider in the conduct of food additive research, Carrageenan as a case study.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Myra L

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides guidance on the conduct of new in vivo and in vitro studies on high molecular weight food additives, with carrageenan, the widely used food additive, as a case study. It is important to understand the physical/chemical properties and to verify the identity/purity, molecular weight and homogeneity/stability of the additive in the vehicle for oral delivery. The strong binding of CGN to protein in rodent chow or infant formula results in no gastrointestinal tract exposure to free CGN. It is recommended that doses of high Mw non-caloric, non-nutritive additives not exceed 5% by weight of total solid diet to avoid potential nutritional effects. Addition of some high Mw additives at high concentrations to liquid nutritional supplements increases viscosity and may affect palatability, caloric intake and body weight gain. In in vitro studies, the use of well-characterized, relevant cell types and the appropriate composition of the culture media are necessary for proper conduct and interpretation. CGN is bound to media protein and not freely accessible to cells in vitro. Interpretation of new studies on food additives should consider the interaction of food additives with the vehicle components and the appropriateness of the animal or cell model and dose-response.

  11. Parameters and pitfalls to consider in the conduct of food additive research, Carrageenan as a case study.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Myra L

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides guidance on the conduct of new in vivo and in vitro studies on high molecular weight food additives, with carrageenan, the widely used food additive, as a case study. It is important to understand the physical/chemical properties and to verify the identity/purity, molecular weight and homogeneity/stability of the additive in the vehicle for oral delivery. The strong binding of CGN to protein in rodent chow or infant formula results in no gastrointestinal tract exposure to free CGN. It is recommended that doses of high Mw non-caloric, non-nutritive additives not exceed 5% by weight of total solid diet to avoid potential nutritional effects. Addition of some high Mw additives at high concentrations to liquid nutritional supplements increases viscosity and may affect palatability, caloric intake and body weight gain. In in vitro studies, the use of well-characterized, relevant cell types and the appropriate composition of the culture media are necessary for proper conduct and interpretation. CGN is bound to media protein and not freely accessible to cells in vitro. Interpretation of new studies on food additives should consider the interaction of food additives with the vehicle components and the appropriateness of the animal or cell model and dose-response. PMID:26615870

  12. A basic study on molecular hydrogen (H2) inhalation in acute cerebral ischemia patients for safety check with physiological parameters and measurement of blood H2 level

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In animal experiments, use of molecular hydrogen ( H2) has been regarded as quite safe and effective, showing benefits in multiple pathological conditions such as ischemia-reperfusion injury of the brain, heart, kidney and transplanted tissues, traumatic and surgical injury of the brain and spinal cord, inflammation of intestine and lung , degenerative striatonigral tissue and also in many other situations. However, since cerebral ischemia patients are in old age group, the safety information needs to be confirmed. For the feasibility of H2 treatment in these patients, delivery of H2 by inhalation method needs to be checked for consistency. Methods Hydrogen concentration (HC) in the arterial and venous blood was measured by gas chromatography on 3 patients, before, during and after 4% (case 1) and 3% (case2,3) H2 gas inhalation with simultaneous monitoring of physiological parameters. For a consistency study, HC in the venous blood of 10 patients were obtained on multiple occasions at the end of 30-min H2 inhalation treatment. Results The HC gradually reached a plateau level in 20 min after H2 inhalation in the blood, which was equivalent to the level reported by animal experiments. The HC rapidly decreased to 10% of the plateau level in about 6 min and 18 min in arterial and venous blood, respectively after H2 inhalation was discontinued. Physiological parameters on these 3 patients were essentially unchanged by use of hydrogen. The consistency study of 10 patients showed the HC at the end of 30-min inhalation treatment was quite variable but the inconsistency improved with more attention and encouragement. Conclusion H2 inhalation of at least 3% concentration for 30 min delivered enough HC, equivalent to the animal experiment levels, in the blood without compromising the safety. However, the consistency of H2 delivery by inhalation needs to be improved. PMID:22916706

  13. Inter-Individual Responses to Experimental Muscle Pain: Baseline Physiological Parameters Do Not Determine Whether Muscle Sympathetic Nerve Activity Increases or Decreases During Pain

    PubMed Central

    Kobuch, Sophie; Fazalbhoy, Azharuddin; Brown, Rachael; Macefield, Vaughan G.

    2015-01-01

    We have previously reported that there are inter-individual differences in the cardiovascular responses to experimental muscle pain, which are consistent over time: intramuscular infusion of hypertonic saline, causing pain lasting ~60 min, increases muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA)—as well as blood pressure and heart rate—in certain subjects, but decrease it in others. Here, we tested the hypothesis that baseline physiological parameters (resting MSNA, heart rate, blood pressure, heart rate variability) determine the cardiovascular responses to long-lasting muscle pain. MSNA was recorded from the common peroneal nerve, together with heart rate and blood pressure, during a 45-min intramuscular infusion of hypertonic saline solution into the tibialis anterior of 50 awake human subjects (25 females and 25 males). Twenty-four subjects showed a sustained increase in mean amplitude of MSNA (160.9 ± 7.3%), while 26 showed a sustained decrease (55.1 ± 3.5%). Between the increasing and decreasing groups there were no differences in baseline MSNA (19.0 ± 1.5 vs. 18.9 ± 1.2 bursts/min), mean BP (88.1 ± 5.2 vs. 88.0 ± 3.8 mmHg), HR (74.7 ± 2.0 vs. 72.8 ± 1.8 beats/min) or heart rate variability (LF/HF 1.8 ± 0.2 vs. 2.2 ± 0.3). Furthermore, neither sex nor body mass index had any effect on whether MSNA increased or decreased during tonic muscle pain. We conclude that the measured baseline physiological parameters cannot account for the divergent sympathetic responses during tonic muscle pain. PMID:26733786

  14. Inter-Individual Responses to Experimental Muscle Pain: Baseline Physiological Parameters Do Not Determine Whether Muscle Sympathetic Nerve Activity Increases or Decreases During Pain.

    PubMed

    Kobuch, Sophie; Fazalbhoy, Azharuddin; Brown, Rachael; Macefield, Vaughan G

    2015-01-01

    We have previously reported that there are inter-individual differences in the cardiovascular responses to experimental muscle pain, which are consistent over time: intramuscular infusion of hypertonic saline, causing pain lasting ~60 min, increases muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA)-as well as blood pressure and heart rate-in certain subjects, but decrease it in others. Here, we tested the hypothesis that baseline physiological parameters (resting MSNA, heart rate, blood pressure, heart rate variability) determine the cardiovascular responses to long-lasting muscle pain. MSNA was recorded from the common peroneal nerve, together with heart rate and blood pressure, during a 45-min intramuscular infusion of hypertonic saline solution into the tibialis anterior of 50 awake human subjects (25 females and 25 males). Twenty-four subjects showed a sustained increase in mean amplitude of MSNA (160.9 ± 7.3%), while 26 showed a sustained decrease (55.1 ± 3.5%). Between the increasing and decreasing groups there were no differences in baseline MSNA (19.0 ± 1.5 vs. 18.9 ± 1.2 bursts/min), mean BP (88.1 ± 5.2 vs. 88.0 ± 3.8 mmHg), HR (74.7 ± 2.0 vs. 72.8 ± 1.8 beats/min) or heart rate variability (LF/HF 1.8 ± 0.2 vs. 2.2 ± 0.3). Furthermore, neither sex nor body mass index had any effect on whether MSNA increased or decreased during tonic muscle pain. We conclude that the measured baseline physiological parameters cannot account for the divergent sympathetic responses during tonic muscle pain. PMID:26733786

  15. Effect of addition of a probiotic micro-organism to broiler diet on intestinal mucosal architecture and electrophysiological parameters.

    PubMed

    Awad, W A; Ghareeb, K; Böhm, J

    2010-08-01

    Probiotics might be one of the solutions to reduce the effects of the recent ban on antimicrobial growth promoters in feed. However, the mode of action of probiotics still not fully understood. Therefore, evaluating probiotics (microbial feed additives) is essential. Thus the objective of this work was to investigate the efficacy of a new microbial feed additive (Lactobacillus salivarius and Lactobacillus reuteri) in broiler nutrition. The body weight (BW), average daily weight gain was relatively increased by the dietary inclusion of Lactobacillus sp. in broiler diets. Furthermore, the Lactobacillus feed additive influenced the histomorphological measurements of small intestinal villi. The addition of Lactobacillus sp. increased (p < 0.05) the villus height (VH)/crypt depth ratio and the VH was numerically increased in duodenum. The duodenal crypt depth remained unaffected (p > 0.05), while the ileal crypt depth was decreased by dietary supplementation of Lactobacillus sp. compared with the control. At the end of the feeding period, the basal and glucose stimulated short-circuit current (Isc) and electrical tissue conductivity were measured in the isolated gut mucosa to characterize the electrical properties of the gut. The addition of glucose on the mucosal side in Ussing chamber produced a significant increase (p = 0.001) in Isc in both jejunum and colon relative to the basal values in Lactobacillus probiotic group. This increase in Isc for probiotic group in jejunum is equivalent to an increase of about two times that for the basal values, while in the control group is about half fold that for the basal value. In addition, the DeltaIsc after glucose addition to the large intestine was greater than the DeltaIsc in the small intestine in both control and probiotic group. Moreover in both jejunum and colon, the increase in Isc for birds fed Lactobacillus was higher than their control counterparts (p < or = 0.1). This result suggests that the addition of

  16. Population risk and physiological rate parameters for colon cancer. The union of an explicit model for carcinogenesis with the public health records of the United States.

    PubMed

    Herrero-Jimenez, P; Tomita-Mitchell, A; Furth, E E; Morgenthaler, S; Thilly, W G

    2000-01-17

    The relationship between the molecular mechanisms of mutagenesis and the actual processes by which most people get cancer is still poorly understood. One missing link is a physiologically based but quantitative model uniting the processes of mutation, cell growth and turnover. Any useful model must also account for human heterogeneity for inherited traits and environmental experiences. Such a coherent algebraic model for the age-specific incidence of cancer has been developing over the past 50 years. This development has been spurred primarily by the efforts of Nordling [N.O. Nordling, A new theory on the cancer-inducing mechanism, Br. J. Cancer 7 (1953) 68-72], Armitage and Doll [P. Armitage, R. Doll, The age distribution of cancer and a multi-stage theory of carcinogenesis, Br. J. Cancer 8 (1) (1954) 1-12; P. Armitage, R. Doll, A two-stage theory of carcinogenesis in relation to the age distribution of human cancer, Br. J. Cancer 9 (2) (1957) 161-169], and Moolgavkar and Knudson [S.H. Moolgavkar, A.G. Knudson Jr., Mutation and cancer: a model for human carcinogenesis. JNCI 66 (6) (1981) 1037-1052], whose work defined two rate-limiting stages identified with initiation and promotion stages in experimental carcinogenesis. Unfinished in these efforts was an accounting of population heterogeneity and a complete description of growth and genetic change during the growth of adenomas. In an attempt to complete a unified model, we present herein the first means to explicitly compute the essential parameters of the two-stage initiation-promotion model using colon cancer as an example. With public records from the 1930s to the present day, we first calculate the fraction at primary risk for each birth year cohort and note historical changes. We then calculate the product of rates for n initiation-mutations, the product of rates for m promotion-mutations and the average growth rate of the intermediate adenomatous colonies from which colon carcinomas arise. We find that the

  17. Separating response-execution bias from decision bias: arguments for an additional parameter in Ratcliff's diffusion model.

    PubMed

    Voss, Andreas; Voss, Jochen; Klauer, Karl Christoph

    2010-11-01

    Diffusion model data analysis permits the disentangling of different processes underlying the effects of experimental manipulations. Estimates can be provided for the speed of information accumulation, for the amount of information used to draw conclusions, and for a decision bias. One parameter describes the duration of non-decisional processes including the duration of motor-response execution. In the default diffusion model, it is implicitly assumed that both responses are executed with the same speed. In some applications of the diffusion model, this assumption will be violated. This will lead to biased parameter estimates. Consequently, we suggest accounting explicitly for differences in the speed of response execution for both responses. Results from a simulation study illustrate that parameter estimates from the default model are biased if the speed of response execution differs between responses. A second simulation study shows that large trial numbers (N>1,000) are needed to detect whether differences in response-execution times are based on different execution times.

  18. Effects of environmental parameters, leaf physiological properties and leaf water relations on leaf water delta18O enrichment in different Eucalyptus species.

    PubMed

    Kahmen, Ansgar; Simonin, Kevin; Tu, Kevin P; Merchant, Andrew; Callister, Andrew; Siegwolf, Rolf; Dawson, Todd E; Arndt, Stefan K

    2008-06-01

    Stable oxygen isotope ratios (delta18O) have become a valuable tool in the plant and ecosystem sciences. The interpretation of delta18O values in plant material is, however, still complicated owing to the complex interactions among factors that influence leaf water enrichment. This study investigated the interplay among environmental parameters, leaf physiological properties and leaf water relations as drivers of the isotopic enrichment of leaf water across 17 Eucalyptus species growing in a common garden. We observed large differences in maximum daily leaf water delta18O across the 17 species. By fitting different leaf water models to these empirical data, we determined that differences in leaf water delta18O across species are largely explained by variation in the Péclet effect across species. Our analyses also revealed that species-specific differences in transpiration do not explain the observed differences in delta18O while the unconstrained fitting parameter 'effective path length' (L) was highly correlated with delta18O. None of the leaf morphological or leaf water related parameters we quantified in this study correlated with the L values we determined even though L was typically interpreted as a leaf morphological/anatomical property. A sensitivity analysis supported the importance of L for explaining the variability in leaf water delta18O across different species. Our investigation highlighted the importance of future studies to quantify the leaf properties that influence L. Obtaining such information will significantly improve our understanding of what ultimately determines the delta18O values of leaf water across different plant species. PMID:18208514

  19. Effect of crop protection and fertilization regimes used in organic and conventional production systems on feed composition and physiological parameters in rats.

    PubMed

    Srednicka-Tober, Dominika; Barański, Marcin; Gromadzka-Ostrowska, Joanna; Skwarło-Sońta, Krystyna; Rembiałkowska, Ewa; Hajslova, Jana; Schulzova, Vera; Cakmak, Ismail; Öztürk, Levent; Królikowski, Tomasz; Wiśniewska, Katarzyna; Hallmann, Ewelina; Baca, Elżbieta; Eyre, Mick; Steinshamn, Håvard; Jordon, Teresa; Leifert, Carlo

    2013-02-01

    Very little is known about the effects of an organic or conventional diet on animal physiology and health. Here, we report the effect of contrasting crop protection (with or without chemosynthetic pesticides) and fertilization (manure or mineral fertilizers) regimes on feed composition and growth and the physiological parameters of rats. The use of manure instead of mineral fertilizers in feed production resulted in lower concentrations of protein (18.8 vs 20.6%) and cadmium (3.33 vs 4.92 μg/100 g) but higher concentrations of polyphenols (1.46 vs 0.89 g/100 g) in feeds and higher body protein (22.0 vs 21.5%), body ash (3.59 vs 3.51%), white blood cell count (10.86 vs 8.19 × 10³/mm³), plasma glucose (7.23 vs 6.22 mmol/L), leptin (3.56 vs 2.78 ng/mL), insulin-like growth factor 1 (1.87 vs 1.28 μg/mL), corticosterone (247 vs 209 ng/mL), and spontaneous lymphocyte proliferation (11.14 vs 5.03 × 10³ cpm) but lower plasma testosterone (1.07 vs 1.97 ng/mL) and mitogen stimulated proliferation of lymphocytes (182 vs 278 × 10³ cpm) in rats. There were no main effects of crop protection, but a range of significant interactions between fertilization and crop protection occurred.

  20. Capability of different non-nutritive feed additives on improving productive and physiological traits of broiler chicks fed diets with or without aflatoxin during the first 3 weeks of life.

    PubMed

    Attia, Y A; Allakany, H F; Abd Al-Hamid, A E; Al-Saffar, A A; Hassan, R A; Mohamed, N A

    2013-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine whether some non-nutritive feed additives (NNFA) could block the adverse effects of aflatoxin (AF) on growth performance and physiological parameters of Cobb broilers throughout the period from 1 to 21 day of age. There were eight treatments consisting of two levels of AF at 0 and 200 ppb and four NNFA within each AF level. These additives included mannan oligosaccharides (MOS) at 2 g/kg diet, hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (HSCAS) at 2 g/kg diet and Lactobacillus acidophilus (Lac) at 2 g/kg diet. At 21 day of age, five chickens of each treatment were slaughtered to study dressing percentage and relative weight of inner organs and glands. AF had a significant negative effect on body weight gain (BWG), and feed intake, while impairing feed conversion ratio (FCR). Aflatoxin significantly increased percentage liver, lymphocyte (%), monocyte (%), serum triglyceride level, and the aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), concentrations while decreasing dressing percentage, intestinal percentage, white blood cells (WBCs), red blood cells (RBCs), haemoglobin (Hgb), packed cell volume (PCV), heterophil (%), heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, total serum protein and serum albumin. Aflatoxin adversely affected the morphology of the liver, bursa and the thymus. There was a significant interaction between AF and NNFA on the relative weights of liver, heart and intestine. Lac completely blocked the negative effects of AF on the percentage liver and the heart and partially on the intestine. In conclusion, Lac was most effective in reversing the adverse effects of AF on growth and FCR and on the percentage, functions and morphology of the liver. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate also improved the economic traits of broilers but was less effective than Lac and more effective than MOS.

  1. Effect of the cigarette smoke component, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), on physiological and molecular parameters of thiamin uptake by pancreatic acinar cells.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Padmanabhan; Subramanian, Veedamali S; Said, Hamid M

    2013-01-01

    Thiamin is indispensable for the normal function of pancreatic acinar cells. These cells take up thiamin via specific carrier-mediated process that involves thiamin transporter-1 and -2 (THTR-1 and THTR-2; products of SLC19A2 and SLC19A3 genes, respectively). In this study we examined the effect of chronic exposure of pancreatic acinar cells in vitro (pancreatic acinar 266-6 cells) and in vivo (wild-type and transgenic mice carrying the SLC19A2 and SLC19A3 promoters) to the cigarette smoke component 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) on physiological and molecular parameters of the thiamin uptake process. The results show that chronic exposure of 266-6 cells to NNK (3 µM, 24 h) leads to a significant inhibition in thiamin uptake. The inhibition was associated with a significant decrease in the level of expression of THTR-1 and -2 at the protein and mRNA levels as well as in the activity of SLC19A2 and SLC19A3 promoters. Similarly chronic exposure of mice to NNK (IP 10 mg/100 g body weight, three times/week for 2 weeks) leads to a significant inhibition in thiamin uptake by freshly isolated pancreatic acinar cells, as well as in the level of expression of THTR-1 and -2 protein and mRNA. Furthermore, activity of the SLC19A2 and SLC19A3 promoters expressed in transgenic mice were significantly suppressed by chronic exposure to NNK. The effect of NNK on the activity of the SLC19A2 and SLC19A3 promoters was not mediated via changes in their methylation profile, rather it appears to be exerted via an SP1/GG and SP1/GC cis-regulatory elements in these promoters, respectively. These results demonstrate, for the first time, that chronic exposure of pancreatic acinar cells to NNK negatively impacts the physiological and molecular parameters of thiamin uptake by pancreatic acinar cells and that this effect is exerted, at least in part, at the level of transcription of the SLC19A2 and SLC19A3 genes.

  2. Spatial variation of eco-physiological parameters in the lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea transplanted in an area surrounding a cement plant (S Italy).

    PubMed

    Lucadamo, Lucio; Corapi, Anna; Loppi, Stefano; Paoli, Luca; Gallo, Luana

    2015-08-01

    Thalli of the lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea were transplanted for 3 months (November 2010-January 2011) at 61 monitoring sites around a cement plant near Castrovillari (Calabria, southern Italy). NH3, NO x and SO2 concentrations were monitored monthly in a subarea of 10 sites (SA10) where the cement plant was located. At the end of the exposure period, the integrity of cell membranes; membrane lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS level); vitality (cell respiration); chlorophyll a; chlorophyll b; carotenoids; phaeophytization quotient; photosynthetic efficiency and thalli concentrations of Al, Ca, Mg, V and Fe were measured. NO x concentrations correlated with the site distance from the cement plant while NH3 concentrations correlated with lichen vitality within SA10. For the monitoring area as a whole, only Fe and Mg concentrations correlated with membrane lipid peroxidation, while TBARS levels showed a significant increase and chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoids a significant decrease with respect to the lichen origin area. Multivariate analysis (detrended correspondence analysis, cluster analysis and multi-response permutation procedure) of the eco-physiological parameters × monitoring sites data set resulted in four clusters termed C1, C2, C3 and C4. The eco-physiological parameters were compared among the four clusters and lichen origin area by one-way ANOVA. An index of environmental favourableness (IEF) to lichens was calculated to evaluate the spatial recovery of impaired values of TBARS, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, xanthophylls + carotenoids and phaeophytization quotient. The results indicate that there is no clear spatial trend in mycobiont impairment even though the IEF values suggest a higher number of sites with low levels of membrane lipid peroxidation in the 2--3-km distance band from the cement plant (the outermost) than in the two other distance bands (0-1 and 1-2 km). The photobiont seems to be

  3. Growth and parameters of microflora in intestinal and faecal samples of piglets due to application of a phytogenic feed additive.

    PubMed

    Muhl, A; Liebert, F

    2007-10-01

    A commercial phytogenic feed additive (PFA), containing the fructopolysaccharide inulin, an essential oil mix (carvacrol, thymol), chestnut meal (tannins) and cellulose powder as carrier substance, was examined for effects on growth and faecal and intestinal microflora of piglets. Two experiments (35 days) were conducted, each with 40 male castrated weaned piglets. In experiment 1, graded levels of the PFA were supplied (A1: control; B1: 0.05% PFA; C1: 0.1% PFA; D1: 0.15% PFA) in diets based on wheat, barley, soybean meal and fish meal with lysine as the limiting amino acid. In experiment 2, a similar diet with 0.1% of the PFA (A2: control; B2: 0.1% PFA; C2: +0.35% lysine; D2: 0.1% PFA + 0.35% lysine) and lysine supplementation was utilized. During experiment 1, no significant effect of the PFA on growth, feed intake and feed conversion rate was observed (p > 0.05). Lysine supplementation in experiment 2 improved growth performance significantly, but no significant effect of the PFA was detected. Microbial counts in faeces (aerobes, Gram negatives, anaerobes and lactobacilli) during the first and fifth week did not indicate any significant PFA effect (p > 0.05). In addition, microflora in intestinal samples was not significantly modified by supplementing the PFA (p > 0.05). Lysine supplementation indicated lysine as limiting amino acid in the basal diet, but did not influence the microbial counts in faeces and small intestine respectively.

  4. [Immunobiological blood parameters in rabbits after addition to the diet suspensions of chlorella, sodium sulfate, citrate and chromium chloride].

    PubMed

    Lesyk, Ia V; Fedoruk, R S; Dolaĭchuk, O P

    2013-01-01

    We studied the content of glycoproteins and their individual carbohydrate components, the phagocyte activity of neutrophils, phagocyte index, phagocyte number lizotsym and bactericidal activity of the serum concentration of circulating immune complexes and middle mass molecules in the blood of rabbits following administration into the diet chlorella suspension, sodium sulfate, chromium citrate and chromium chloride. The studies were conducted on rabbits weighing 3.7-3.9 kg with altered diet from the first day of life to 118 days old. Rabbits were divided into five groups: the control one and four experimental groups. We found that in the blood of rabbits of experimental groups recieved sodium sulphate, chromium chloride and chromium citrate, the content of glycoprotein's and their carbohydrate components was significantly higher during the 118 days of the study compared with the control group. Feeding rabbits with mineral supplements likely reflected the differences compared with the control parameters of nonspecific resistance in the blood for the study period, which was more pronounced in the first two months of life.

  5. Immobilization of free-ranging Hoffmann's two-toed and brown-throated three-toed sloths using ketamine and medetomidine: a comparison of physiologic parameters.

    PubMed

    Hanley, Christopher S; Siudak-Campfield, Joanna; Paul-Murphy, Joanne; Vaughan, Christopher; Ramirez, Oscar; Keuler, Nicholas S; Sladky, Kurt K

    2008-10-01

    Free-ranging Hoffmann's two-toed sloths (Choloepus hoffmanni; n=26) and brown-throated three-toed sloths (Bradypus variegatus; n=15) were manually captured and immobilized with 2.5 mg/kg ketamine + 0.02 mg/kg medetomidine administered intramuscularly. Physical examinations were conducted on each sloth 10 min after initial injection, and blood, fecal, and ectoparasite samples were collected. Heart rate, respiratory rate, body temperature, indirect systolic blood pressure, and indirect peripheral oxygen saturation were monitored every 5 min for the duration of anesthesia. After 45 min, atipamazole (0.1 mg/kg) was administered intramuscularly, as an antagonist to medetomidine, in order to facilitate recovery. All recoveries were smooth, rapid, and uneventful. Physiologic parameters were compared across time, gender, and species. All sloths, regardless of species and gender, demonstrated a time-dependent decrease in heart rate and blood pressure, and an increase in respiratory rate, during the course of anesthesia. Peripheral oxygen saturation was similar for all sloths over time. There were significant species differences for heart rate (Choloepus > Bradypus), respiratory rate (Choloepus > Bradypus), and systolic blood pressure (Bradypus > Choloepus), while there were significant gender differences for body temperature (males > females) and blood pressure (males > females). Results of this study suggest that the ketamine-medetomidine mixture, as described above, is a safe and effective anesthetic combination in free-ranging two- and three-toed sloths, although peripheral blood pressure should be monitored during anesthesia.

  6. High efficiency cell-recycle continuous sodium gluconate production by Aspergillus niger using on-line physiological parameters association analysis to regulate feed rate rationally.

    PubMed

    Lu, Fei; Li, Chao; Wang, Zejian; Zhao, Wei; Chu, Ju; Zhuang, Yingping; Zhang, Siliang

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, a system of cell-recycle continuous fermentation for sodium gluconate (SG) production by Aspergillus niger (A. niger) was established. Based on initial continuous fermentation result (100.0h) with constant feed rate, an automatic feedback strategy to regulate feed rate using on-line physiological parameters (OUR and DO) was proposed and applied successfully for the first time in the improved continuous fermentation (240.5h). Due to less auxiliary time, highest SG production rate (31.05±0.29gL(-1)h(-1)) and highest yield (0.984±0.067molmol(-1)), overall SG production capacity (975.8±5.8gh(-1)) in 50-L fermentor of improved continuous fermentation increased more than 300.0% compared to that of batch fermentation. Improvement of mass transfer and dispersed mycelia morphology were the two major reasons responsible for the high SG production rate. This system had been successfully applied to industrial fermentation and SG production was greatly improved. PMID:27611026

  7. Integrated spatial health assessment of yellow perch (Perca flavescens) populations from the St. Lawrence River, Quebec, Canada) part A: physiological parameters and pathogen assessment.

    PubMed

    Giraudo, Maeva; Bruneau, Audrey; Gendron, Andrée D; Brodeur, Philippe; Pilote, Martin; Marcogliese, David J; Gagnon, Christian; Houde, Magali

    2016-09-01

    A multi-disciplinary approach was used to evaluate the health of yellow perch (Perca flavescens) in the St. Lawrence River (Quebec, Canada), which is experiencing a severe population decline in the downstream portion of the river. Physiological parameters, liver alterations, trace metal concentrations, parasite prevalence and abundance, stable isotope composition, and the presence/absence of the viral hemorragic septicemia virus (VHSV) were evaluated in perch collected at six sites along the river: Lake St. François, Lake St. Louis (north and south), Beauregard Island, and Lake St. Pierre (north and south). Trace metal concentrations in surface water were higher in Lake St. Louis and downstream of a major urban wastewater treatment plant discharge, indicating that this effluent was a significant source of Cu, As, Ag, Zn, and Cd. Levels of Pb in surface water exceeded thresholds for the protection of aquatic life in Lake St. Louis and were negatively correlated with body condition index in this lake. In Lake St. Pierre, Cu, Ag, and Cd bioaccumulated significantly in perch liver and lower body condition index and greater liver damage were observed compared to upstream sites. Parasite analyses indicated a higher abundance of metacercariae of the trematodes Apophallus brevis and Diplostomum spp. in Lake St. Louis, and VHSV was not detected in the liver of yellow perch for all studied sites. Overall, results suggested that the global health of yellow perch from Lake St. Pierre is lower compared to upstream studied sites, which could contribute to the documented population collapse at this site.

  8. High efficiency cell-recycle continuous sodium gluconate production by Aspergillus niger using on-line physiological parameters association analysis to regulate feed rate rationally.

    PubMed

    Lu, Fei; Li, Chao; Wang, Zejian; Zhao, Wei; Chu, Ju; Zhuang, Yingping; Zhang, Siliang

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, a system of cell-recycle continuous fermentation for sodium gluconate (SG) production by Aspergillus niger (A. niger) was established. Based on initial continuous fermentation result (100.0h) with constant feed rate, an automatic feedback strategy to regulate feed rate using on-line physiological parameters (OUR and DO) was proposed and applied successfully for the first time in the improved continuous fermentation (240.5h). Due to less auxiliary time, highest SG production rate (31.05±0.29gL(-1)h(-1)) and highest yield (0.984±0.067molmol(-1)), overall SG production capacity (975.8±5.8gh(-1)) in 50-L fermentor of improved continuous fermentation increased more than 300.0% compared to that of batch fermentation. Improvement of mass transfer and dispersed mycelia morphology were the two major reasons responsible for the high SG production rate. This system had been successfully applied to industrial fermentation and SG production was greatly improved.

  9. Immobilization of free-ranging Hoffmann's two-toed and brown-throated three-toed sloths using ketamine and medetomidine: a comparison of physiologic parameters.

    PubMed

    Hanley, Christopher S; Siudak-Campfield, Joanna; Paul-Murphy, Joanne; Vaughan, Christopher; Ramirez, Oscar; Keuler, Nicholas S; Sladky, Kurt K

    2008-10-01

    Free-ranging Hoffmann's two-toed sloths (Choloepus hoffmanni; n=26) and brown-throated three-toed sloths (Bradypus variegatus; n=15) were manually captured and immobilized with 2.5 mg/kg ketamine + 0.02 mg/kg medetomidine administered intramuscularly. Physical examinations were conducted on each sloth 10 min after initial injection, and blood, fecal, and ectoparasite samples were collected. Heart rate, respiratory rate, body temperature, indirect systolic blood pressure, and indirect peripheral oxygen saturation were monitored every 5 min for the duration of anesthesia. After 45 min, atipamazole (0.1 mg/kg) was administered intramuscularly, as an antagonist to medetomidine, in order to facilitate recovery. All recoveries were smooth, rapid, and uneventful. Physiologic parameters were compared across time, gender, and species. All sloths, regardless of species and gender, demonstrated a time-dependent decrease in heart rate and blood pressure, and an increase in respiratory rate, during the course of anesthesia. Peripheral oxygen saturation was similar for all sloths over time. There were significant species differences for heart rate (Choloepus > Bradypus), respiratory rate (Choloepus > Bradypus), and systolic blood pressure (Bradypus > Choloepus), while there were significant gender differences for body temperature (males > females) and blood pressure (males > females). Results of this study suggest that the ketamine-medetomidine mixture, as described above, is a safe and effective anesthetic combination in free-ranging two- and three-toed sloths, although peripheral blood pressure should be monitored during anesthesia. PMID:18957650

  10. Study on the effect of hydrogen addition on the variation of plasma parameters of argon-oxygen magnetron glow discharge for synthesis of TiO2 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saikia, Partha; Saikia, Bipul Kumar; Bhuyan, Heman

    2016-04-01

    We report the effect of hydrogen addition on plasma parameters of argon-oxygen magnetron glow discharge plasma in the synthesis of H-doped TiO2 films. The parameters of the hydrogen-added Ar/O2 plasma influence the properties and the structural phases of the deposited TiO2 film. Therefore, the variation of plasma parameters such as electron temperature (Te), electron density (ne), ion density (ni), degree of ionization of Ar and degree of dissociation of H2 as a function of hydrogen content in the discharge is studied. Langmuir probe and Optical emission spectroscopy are used to characterize the plasma. On the basis of the different reactions in the gas phase of the magnetron discharge, the variation of plasma parameters and sputtering rate are explained. It is observed that the electron and heavy ion density decline with gradual addition of hydrogen in the discharge. Hydrogen addition significantly changes the degree of ionization of Ar which influences the structural phases of the TiO2 film.

  11. Reproductive physiology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gee, G.F.; Russman, S.E.; Ellis, David H.; Gee, George F.; Mirande, Claire M.

    1996-01-01

    Conclusions: Although the general pattern of avian physiology applies to cranes, we have identified many physiological mechanisms (e.g., effects of disturbance) that need further study. Studies with cranes are expensive compared to those done with domestic fowl because of the crane's larger size, low reproductive rate, and delayed sexual maturity. To summarize, the crane reproductive system is composed of physiological and anatomical elements whose function is controlled by an integrated neural-endocrine system. Males generally produce semen at a younger age than when females lay eggs. Eggs are laid in clutches of two (1 to 3), and females will lay additional clutches if the preceding clutches are removed. Both sexes build nests and incubate the eggs. Molt begins during incubation and body molt may be completed annually in breeding pairs. However, remiges are replaced sequentially over 2 to 3 years, or abruptly every 2 to 3 years in other species. Most immature birds replace their juvenal remiges over a 2 to 3 year period. Stress interferes with reproduction in cranes by reducing egg production or terminating the reproductive effort. In other birds, stress elevates corticosterone levels and decreases LHRH release. We know little about the physiological response of cranes to stress.

  12. Albumin and Uptake of Drugs in Cells: Additional Validation Exercises of a Recently Published Equation that Quantifies the Albumin-Facilitated Uptake Mechanism(s) in Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Modeling Research.

    PubMed

    Poulin, Patrick; Haddad, Sami

    2015-12-01

    The impact of albumin concentration on the uptake of drugs in cells might involve mechanisms going beyond the free drug concentration hypothesis. Proceeding from the assumption that both the unbound and protein-bound drug fractions can be available for uptake, several authors have argued that the uptake of highly bound drugs in cells might be driven mainly by the albumin-facilitated uptake mechanism(s). Hence, a novel approach quantifying the additional contribution of the protein-bound drug complex and pH gradient effect in diverse in vitro-to-in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) procedures of drug uptake and clearance has been proposed and extensively validated by Poulin et al. (2015. J Pharm Sci. Epub ahead of print); this approach consisted of replacing the unbound fraction in plasma (fup ) with an adjusted fup value (fup-adjusted ). After a second review of literature, the objective of the present study was to perform further validation exercises of the concept of fup-adjusted by using additional case examples of IVIVEs that covered diverse drug properties and experimental settings with varied albumin concentrations (e.g., perfused liver, isolated and suspended hepatocytes, and cultured cells overexpressing transporters). Again, the novel IVIVE method based on fup-adjusted was the best-performing prediction method of the uptake rate (or clearance) as a function of protein binding compared with the conventional method based on the fup theory (absolute average fold error of 1.4 vs. 7.4). Therefore, the present study confirms the utility of fup-adjusted compared with fup in IVIVE procedures for drugs highly bound to albumin, and the improvement was observed particularly in the higher range of albumin concentrations. From these findings, we may conclude that uptake of these drugs in cells is primarily driven by the albumin-bound form. Consequently, it is suggested to estimate the uptake kinetic parameters with cell-based assays incubated in 100% human serum or to make a

  13. Comparison of Physiological Parameters and Anaesthesia Specific Observations during Isoflurane, Ketamine-Xylazine or Medetomidine-Midazolam-Fentanyl Anaesthesia in Male Guinea Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Tacke, Sabine; Guth, Brian; Henke, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Guinea pigs (GPs) are difficult to anaesthetize successfully, the choices for anaesthesia are limited and physiological parameters are likely to be influenced substantially under anaesthesia. We implanted blood pressure radio-telemetry devices into 16 male GPs and subjected them to anaesthesia with ketamine-xylazine (KX), medetomidine-midazolam-fentanyl (MMF) or isoflurane (Iso, plus atropine premedication) in a randomized order with a 7 day interval between anaesthesias. Each anaesthesia lasted 40min, after which Iso was discontinued, MMF was fully antagonized with atipamezole-flumazenil-naloxone and KX was partially antagonized with atipamezole. Hemodynamics were recorded continuously for at least 240min after induction and the GPs were monitored for respiratory rate, reflex responses and specific observations until regaining of their righting reflex (RR). Blood for glucose testing was taken from the ear at 7.5, 20 and 40min during anaesthesia. Recovery time was short with MMF and Iso but long for KX. MMF induced only a transient blood pressure drop after antagonization, whereas Iso caused a marked hypotension during maintenance and KX led to moderate hypotension after antagonization. MMF and Iso produced tolerable heart rate changes, but KX led to long term post-anaesthetic bradycardia. Hypothermia occurred with all anaesthesias, but the GPs returned to normothermia the fastest under MMF, followed shortly by Iso. KX, however, caused a profound and prolonged hypothermia. The respiration was depressed with all anaesthesias, substantially with MMF (-41%) and KX (-52%) and severe during Iso maintenance (-71%). Blood glucose with MMF and KX increased throughout the anaesthesia, but the values remained within reference values with all anaesthetics. The reflex responses character and strength varied between the anaesthetics. In conclusion, MMF is the anaesthetic of choice and Iso may be used for short, non-painful procedures. We advise against the use of KX in GPs

  14. Comparison of thermoregulatory devices used during anesthesia of C57BL/6 mice and correlations between body temperature and physiologic parameters.

    PubMed

    Caro, Adam C; Hankenson, F Claire; Marx, James O

    2013-09-01

    General anesthesia affects several body systems, including thermoregulation. Decreased body temperature during anesthesia has potential negative effects, including delayed recovery to consciousness. Thermoregulatory support devices are used to maintain temperature in anesthetized rodents. We analyzed 2 novel thermoregulatory devices, thermogenic gel packs and reflective foils, to compare their effectiveness in maintaining temperatures with that of a standard circulating-warm-water blanket (CWWB) in C57BL/6 mice. Mice were grouped randomly: control (no thermal support), reflective foil, gel pack, gel pack plus reflective foil, CWWB on medium setting, CWWB on high setting, and CWWB on high setting plus reflective foil. Mice were anesthetized with isoflurane for 30 min, and temperature and heart and respiratory rates were monitored. Results indicated that the temperatures of mice with reflective foil only (start temperature, 36.2 ± 0.38 °C; end temperature, 28.8 ± 0.78 °C) did not differ significantly from those of control mice; however, the inclusion of foil heightened thermogenic properties when combined with other devices. Thermogenic gel packs and CWWB on high setting, both with and without reflective foil, caused significant temperature increases (that is, 1.6 °C to 4.4 °C) in mice. CWWB on medium setting (blanket temperature, 37.5 °C) maintained mice at temperatures within 1 °C of the 36.1 °C baseline. Strong correlations existed between temperature, heart and respiratory rates, and recovery time to consciousness. This information provides guidance regarding the use of thermoregulatory devices in anesthetized rodents and demonstrates the effect of maintaining a consistent core temperature on physiologic parameters.

  15. Numerical modeling of heat-transfer and the influence of process parameters on tailoring the grain morphology of IN718 in electron beam additive manufacturing

    DOE PAGES

    Raghavan, Narendran; Dehoff, Ryan; Pannala, Sreekanth; Simunovic, Srdjan; Kirka, Michael; Turner, John; Carlson, Neil; Babu, Sudarsanam S.

    2016-04-26

    The fabrication of 3-D parts from CAD models by additive manufacturing (AM) is a disruptive technology that is transforming the metal manufacturing industry. The correlation between solidification microstructure and mechanical properties has been well understood in the casting and welding processes over the years. This paper focuses on extending these principles to additive manufacturing to understand the transient phenomena of repeated melting and solidification during electron beam powder melting process to achieve site-specific microstructure control within a fabricated component. In this paper, we have developed a novel melt scan strategy for electron beam melting of nickel-base superalloy (Inconel 718) andmore » also analyzed 3-D heat transfer conditions using a parallel numerical solidification code (Truchas) developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The spatial and temporal variations of temperature gradient (G) and growth velocity (R) at the liquid-solid interface of the melt pool were calculated as a function of electron beam parameters. By manipulating the relative number of voxels that lie in the columnar or equiaxed region, the crystallographic texture of the components can be controlled to an extent. The analysis of the parameters provided optimum processing conditions that will result in columnar to equiaxed transition (CET) during the solidification. Furthermore, the results from the numerical simulations were validated by experimental processing and characterization thereby proving the potential of additive manufacturing process to achieve site-specific crystallographic texture control within a fabricated component.« less

  16. Response of soybean rhizosphere communities to human hygiene water addition as determined by community level physiological profiling (CLPP) and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerkhof, L.; Santoro, M.; Garland, J.

    2000-01-01

    In this report, we describe an experiment conducted at Kennedy Space Center in the biomass production chamber (BPC) using soybean plants for purification and processing of human hygiene water. Specifically, we tested whether it was possible to detect changes in the root-associated bacterial assemblage of the plants and ultimately to identify the specific microorganism(s) which differed when plants were exposed to hygiene water and other hydroponic media. Plants were grown in hydroponics media corresponding to four different treatments: control (Hoagland's solution), artificial gray water (Hoagland's+surfactant), filtered gray water collected from human subjects on site, and unfiltered gray water. Differences in rhizosphere microbial populations in all experimental treatments were observed when compared to the control treatment using both community level physiological profiles (BIOLOG) and molecular fingerprinting of 16S rRNA genes by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (TRFLP). Furthermore, screening of a clonal library of 16S rRNA genes by TRFLP yielded nearly full length SSU genes associated with the various treatments. Most 16S rRNA genes were affiliated with the Klebsiella, Pseudomonas, Variovorax, Burkholderia, Bordetella and Isosphaera groups. This molecular approach demonstrated the ability to rapidly detect and identify microorganisms unique to experimental treatments and provides a means to fingerprint microbial communities in the biosystems being developed at NASA for optimizing advanced life support operations.

  17. Comparison of embryo physiological parameters during incubation, chick quality, and growth performance of three lines of broiler breeders differing in genetic composition and growth rate.

    PubMed

    Tona, K; Onagbesan, O M; Jego, Y; Kamers, B; Decuypere, E; Bruggeman, V

    2004-03-01

    In broiler breeder management, stringent feed restriction is practiced to reduce body size in order to improve egg production and meet broiler production demand, but this practice has raised welfare issues. The potential for the dwarfing (dw) gene to reduce feed intake and body size of breeders under ad libitum feeding or less stringent restriction while maintaining improved egg production has been reported. In this study, we compared embryo physiology, quality of chicks, and performance of broilers from eggs of dwarf breeders with those from a standard broiler breeder. Hatching eggs from 3 commercial lines of broiler breeders were compared for incubation parameters, 1-d-old chick weight, chick quality, and broiler growth to 41 d of age. The lines included a standard heavy (S) line, an experimental (E) line, and a label-type (L) line. The E and L line breeders carry the sex-linked dw gene and are being used to assess the potential for dw to reduce feed intake or lower feed restriction and improve reproductive performance in heavy female broiler parent stock. Two separate experiments were conducted. All female parent stocks were mated to Cornish males, and fertile eggs were collected. In the first experiment, eggs were incubated for 21 d under standard conditions to determine, during final stages of incubation, corticosterone and thyroid hormone levels (triiodothyronine, T3; thyroxine, T4) in embryos and hatchlings, CO2 partial pressure (pCO2), and O2 partial pressure (pO2) in air cells, heat production by eggs and 1-d-old weights. In the second experiment, eggs were incubated for 21 d to compare chick quality, chick weights at 1 d of age, and broiler growth to 7 and 41 d. Average egg weights were higher for the S and L lines than the E line, but weight loss during incubation was lowest for the E line. Plasma T3 and T3/T4 ratio was similar between lines at IP, but corticosterone was higher in the S line. At hatch, T3/T4 ratio was higher in the S line compared with

  18. In vivo assessment of an industrial waste product as a feed additive in dairy cows: Effects of larch (Larix decidua L.) sawdust on blood parameters and milk composition.

    PubMed

    Tedesco, D; Garavaglia, L; Spagnuolo, M S; Pferschy-Wenzig, E M; Bauer, R; Franz, C

    2015-12-01

    When larch (Larix spp.) is processed in the wood industry, the sawdust is currently disposed of as waste or used as combustible material, even though it is rich in biologically active compounds. In this study the effect of larch sawdust supplementation on blood parameters as well as milk composition was examined in healthy mid-lactating dairy cows. Twenty-four multiparous Italian Friesian dairy cows were assigned to groups receiving either 300 g/day/cow of larch sawdust or a control diet, and treatments were continued for a 20 day period. Milk parameters were unaffected by treatment. A lower plasma total protein concentration was observed and can be attributed to a decrease in globulin concentration. A lower plasma urea concentration was also detected in the larch group. Moreover, biomarkers of liver function were influenced by the treatment. Total bilirubin was lower in larch-treated animals, and cholesterol tended to be lower. In addition, an interaction between day and treatment was observed for very low density lipoprotein. The concentration of other parameters, including reactive oxygen metabolites, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and nitrotyrosine, did not differ between treatments. The observed benefits, together with the good palatability, make larch sawdust a promising candidate for the development of beneficial feed supplements for livestock. Further studies will be useful, particularly to evaluate its efficacy in different health conditions. PMID:26526868

  19. Effect of whey protein concentrate and sodium chloride addition plus tumbling procedures on technological parameters, physical properties and visual appearance of sous vide cooked beef.

    PubMed

    Szerman, N; Gonzalez, C B; Sancho, A M; Grigioni, G; Carduza, F; Vaudagna, S R

    2007-07-01

    Beef muscles cooked by the sous vide system were evaluated for the effects of pre-injection tumbling, brine addition and post-injection tumbling on technological parameters, physical properties, visual appearance and tissue microstructure. The muscles were injected at 120% (over original weight) with a brine formulated to give a concentration of 3.5% whey protein concentrate and 0.7% sodium chloride on an injected raw product basis. Pre-injection tumbling did not affect most of the evaluated parameters. Brine addition reduced significantly the cooking and total weight losses. Total weight loss was 7.2% for injected muscles, and significantly higher (28.2%) for non-injected ones. Brine incorporation increased pH and reduced shear force values of cooked muscles. Extended post-injection tumbling (5rpm-10h) improved brine distribution and visual appearance, and also diminished the shear force values of cooked muscles. However, this treatment increased the weight losses of post-injection tumbling and cooking-pasteurization stages. PMID:22060988

  20. Effect of whey protein concentrate and sodium chloride addition plus tumbling procedures on technological parameters, physical properties and visual appearance of sous vide cooked beef.

    PubMed

    Szerman, N; Gonzalez, C B; Sancho, A M; Grigioni, G; Carduza, F; Vaudagna, S R

    2007-07-01

    Beef muscles cooked by the sous vide system were evaluated for the effects of pre-injection tumbling, brine addition and post-injection tumbling on technological parameters, physical properties, visual appearance and tissue microstructure. The muscles were injected at 120% (over original weight) with a brine formulated to give a concentration of 3.5% whey protein concentrate and 0.7% sodium chloride on an injected raw product basis. Pre-injection tumbling did not affect most of the evaluated parameters. Brine addition reduced significantly the cooking and total weight losses. Total weight loss was 7.2% for injected muscles, and significantly higher (28.2%) for non-injected ones. Brine incorporation increased pH and reduced shear force values of cooked muscles. Extended post-injection tumbling (5rpm-10h) improved brine distribution and visual appearance, and also diminished the shear force values of cooked muscles. However, this treatment increased the weight losses of post-injection tumbling and cooking-pasteurization stages.

  1. Carbon isotopic fractionation in lipids from methanotrophic bacteria II: the effects of physiology and environmental parameters on the biosynthesis and isotopic signatures of biomarkers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahnke, Linda L.; Summons, Roger E.; Hope, Janet M.; Des Marais, David J.

    1999-01-01

    Controls on the carbon isotopic signatures of methanotroph biomarkers have been further explored using cultured organisms. Growth under conditions which select for the membrane-bound particulate form of the methane monooxygenase enzyme (pMMO) leads to a significantly higher isotopic fractionation than does growth based on the soluble isozyme in both RuMP and serine pathway methanotrophs; in an RuMP type the Δδ 13C biomass equaled -23.9‰ for pMMO and -12.6‰ for sMMO. The distribution of biomarker lipids does not appear to be significantly affected by the dominance of one or the other MMO type and their isotopic compositions generally track those of the parent biomass. The 13C fractionation behaviour of serine pathway methanotrophs is very complex, reflecting the assimilation of both methane and carbon dioxide and concomitant dissimilation of methane-derived carbon. A limitation in CH 4 availability leads to the production of biomass which is 13C-enriched with respect to both carbon substrates and this occurs irrespective of MMO type. This startling result indicates that there must be an additional fractionation step downstream from the MMO reaction which leads to incorporation of 13C-enriched carbon at the expense of dissimilation of 13C-depleted CO 2. In these organisms, polyisoprenoid lipids are 13C-enriched compared to polymethylenic lipid which is the reverse of that found in the RuMP types. Serine cycle hopanoids, for example, can vary anywhere from 12‰ depleted to 10‰ enriched with respect to the CH 4 substrate depending on its concentration. Decrease in growth temperature caused an overall increase in isotopic fractionation. In the total biomass, this effect tended to be masked by physiological factors associated with the type of organism and variation in the bulk composition. The effect was, however, clearly evident when monitoring the 13C signature of total lipid and individual biomarkers. Our results demonstrate that extreme carbon isotopic

  2. Effects of low-density lipoproteins as additive on quality parameters and oxidative stress following cryopreservation of mithun (Bos frontalis) spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Perumal, P; Srivastava, S K; Ghosh, S K; Baruah, K K; Bag, S; Rajoria, J S; Kumar, K; Rajkhowa, C; Pande, M; Srivastava, N

    2016-10-01

    Artificial breeding of mithun poses several challenges including lack of standard protocol for cryopreservation of spermatozoa. This is further complicated by harmful effects of hen's egg yolk (EY) as additive in extender. Purified low-density lipoproteins (LDL) extracted from EY have been shown as beneficial over EY extender for long-term semen storage in several species. This investigation explored use of LDL versus EY on semen quality and oxidative stress following freezing-thawing of spermatozoa. A total of 25 of 50 ejaculates based on biophysical parameters were selected for the experiment. After diluting with the Tris-citrate-glycerol (TCG) extender, each sample was split into three equal aliquots: Group I, control, EY; Group II and Group III contained 8% and 10% purified LDL, respectively. Frozen-thawed samples were evaluated for motility parameters (progressive, and in the bovine cervical mucus penetration test [BCMPT]), viability, sperm and nuclear abnormality, acrosome integrity, and enzymatic (leakage of intracellular contents) and biochemical (oxidative stress) profiles and in vitro fertility (IVF) assay. Study revealed a significant (p < .05) improvement in viability, sperm and nuclear abnormality, acrosome integrity, motility (progressive and in cervical mucus), cholesterol content, and reduction in the leakage of intracellular enzymes in Group II. Moreover, intactness of acrosome and biochemical membranes was protected significantly (p < .05) in addition to significant (p < .05) improvement in binding per cent and binding index in IVF assay in extender containing 8% LDL. These results demonstrate that although cryopreservation of mithun's spermatozoa in EY was comparable with other species, addition of 8% LDL holds a clear advantage over EY or 10% LDL. PMID:27418332

  3. Effectiveness of Phytogenic Feed Additive as Alternative to Bacitracin Methylene Disalicylate on Hematological Parameters, Intestinal Histomorphology and Microbial Population and Production Performance of Japanese Quails.

    PubMed

    Manafi, M; Hedayati, M; Khalaji, S

    2016-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of phytogenic additive and antibiotic growth promoter in laying Japanese quails. One hundred and sixty five quails were divided into three groups of 5 replicates and 11 quails (8 females and 3 males) in each replicate. Treatment 1 was fed control diet, treatment 2 was fed control diet supplemented with 0.05% bacitracin methylene disalicylate as antibiotic growth promoter and treatment 3 was fed control diet supplemented with 0.1% phytogenic feed additive (PFA) for two periods of 3 weeks each from 37 to 42 weeks of age. Results showed that egg production, eggshell strength, eggshell weight, villus height and villus height to crypt depth ratio were significantly (p≤0.05) increased and feed consumption, feed conversion ratio, albumen, Haugh unit, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, alanine transaminase, gamma glutamyltransferase, alkaline phosphatase, high-density lipoprotein, triglyceride, number of goblet cell, crypt depth and intestinal bacterial population of Coliforms, Salmonella and E. coli were significantly (p≤0.05) decreased in PFA fed group. It is concluded that addition of PFA containing phytomolecules and organic acids as main ingredients could significantly improve the production parameters and the general health of laying quails as an alternative to antibiotic growth promoters. PMID:27189636

  4. COOH-terminal processing of nascent polypeptides by the glycosylphosphatidylinositol transamidase in the presence of hydrazine is governed by the same parameters as glycosylphosphatidylinositol addition.

    PubMed

    Ramalingam, S; Maxwell, S E; Medof, M E; Chen, R; Gerber, L D; Udenfriend, S

    1996-07-23

    Proteins anchored to the cell membrane via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) moiety are found in all eukaryotes. After NH2-terminal peptide cleavage of the nascent protein by the signal peptidase, a second COOH-terminal signal peptide is cleaved with the concomitant addition of the GPI unit. The proposed mechanism of the GPI transfer is a transamidation reaction that involves the formation of an activated carbonyl intermediate (enzyme-substrate complex) with the ethanolamine moiety of the preassembled GPI unit serving as a nucleophile. Other nucleophilic acceptors like hydrazine (HDZ) and hydroxylamine have been shown to be possible alternate substrates for GPI. Since GPI has yet to be purified, the use of readily available nucleophilic substitutes such as HDZ and hydroxylamine is a viable alternative to study COOH-terminal processing by the putative transamidase. As a first step in developing a soluble system to study this process, we have examined the amino acid requirements at the COOH terminus for the transamidation reaction using HDZ as the nucleophilic acceptor instead of GPI. The hydrazide-forming reaction shows identical amino acid requirement profiles to that of GPI anchor addition. Additionally, we have studied other parameters relating to the kinetics of the transamidation reaction in the context of rough microsomal membranes. The findings with HDZ provide further evidence for the transamidase nature of the enzyme and also provide a starting point for development of a soluble assay.

  5. Effectiveness of Phytogenic Feed Additive as Alternative to Bacitracin Methylene Disalicylate on Hematological Parameters, Intestinal Histomorphology and Microbial Population and Production Performance of Japanese Quails

    PubMed Central

    Manafi, M.; Hedayati, M.; Khalaji, S.

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of phytogenic additive and antibiotic growth promoter in laying Japanese quails. One hundred and sixty five quails were divided into three groups of 5 replicates and 11 quails (8 females and 3 males) in each replicate. Treatment 1 was fed control diet, treatment 2 was fed control diet supplemented with 0.05% bacitracin methylene disalicylate as antibiotic growth promoter and treatment 3 was fed control diet supplemented with 0.1% phytogenic feed additive (PFA) for two periods of 3 weeks each from 37 to 42 weeks of age. Results showed that egg production, eggshell strength, eggshell weight, villus height and villus height to crypt depth ratio were significantly (p≤0.05) increased and feed consumption, feed conversion ratio, albumen, Haugh unit, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, alanine transaminase, gamma glutamyltransferase, alkaline phosphatase, high-density lipoprotein, triglyceride, number of goblet cell, crypt depth and intestinal bacterial population of Coliforms, Salmonella and E. coli were significantly (p≤0.05) decreased in PFA fed group. It is concluded that addition of PFA containing phytomolecules and organic acids as main ingredients could significantly improve the production parameters and the general health of laying quails as an alternative to antibiotic growth promoters. PMID:27189636

  6. COOH-terminal processing of nascent polypeptides by the glycosylphosphatidylinositol transamidase in the presence of hydrazine is governed by the same parameters as glycosylphosphatidylinositol addition.

    PubMed Central

    Ramalingam, S; Maxwell, S E; Medof, M E; Chen, R; Gerber, L D; Udenfriend, S

    1996-01-01

    Proteins anchored to the cell membrane via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) moiety are found in all eukaryotes. After NH2-terminal peptide cleavage of the nascent protein by the signal peptidase, a second COOH-terminal signal peptide is cleaved with the concomitant addition of the GPI unit. The proposed mechanism of the GPI transfer is a transamidation reaction that involves the formation of an activated carbonyl intermediate (enzyme-substrate complex) with the ethanolamine moiety of the preassembled GPI unit serving as a nucleophile. Other nucleophilic acceptors like hydrazine (HDZ) and hydroxylamine have been shown to be possible alternate substrates for GPI. Since GPI has yet to be purified, the use of readily available nucleophilic substitutes such as HDZ and hydroxylamine is a viable alternative to study COOH-terminal processing by the putative transamidase. As a first step in developing a soluble system to study this process, we have examined the amino acid requirements at the COOH terminus for the transamidation reaction using HDZ as the nucleophilic acceptor instead of GPI. The hydrazide-forming reaction shows identical amino acid requirement profiles to that of GPI anchor addition. Additionally, we have studied other parameters relating to the kinetics of the transamidation reaction in the context of rough microsomal membranes. The findings with HDZ provide further evidence for the transamidase nature of the enzyme and also provide a starting point for development of a soluble assay. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:8755508

  7. Effect of Mn and Cr additions on kinetics of recrystallization and parameters of grain-boundary relaxation of Al-4.9Mg alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailovskaya, A. V.; Golovin, I. S.; Zaitseva, A. A.; Portnoi, V. K.; Dröttboom, P.; Cifre, J.

    2013-03-01

    Methods of microstructural analysis, measurements of hardness, and temperature and time dependences of internal friction (TDIF and TDIF(iso), respectively) have been used to study recrystallization in cold-rolled alloys and grain-boundary relaxation in annealed alloys. A complex analysis of the effect of additions of transition metals (Mn, Cr) on the magnitude of the activation energy of the background of the internal friction in deformed and annealed states and on the activation parameters of grain-boundary relaxation has been performed. Methods of amplitude dependences of internal friction (ADIF) have been used to determine the critical amplitude that corresponds to the beginning of microplastic deformation in the alloys at different temperatures.

  8. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) to predict CI engine parameters fueled with nano-particles additive to diesel fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanbari, M.; Najafi, G.; Ghobadian, B.; Mamat, R.; Noor, M. M.; Moosavian, A.

    2015-12-01

    This paper studies the use of adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) to predict the performance parameters and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine operating on nanodiesel blended fuels. In order to predict the engine parameters, the whole experimental data were randomly divided into training and testing data. For ANFIS modelling, Gaussian curve membership function (gaussmf) and 200 training epochs (iteration) were found to be optimum choices for training process. The results demonstrate that ANFIS is capable of predicting the diesel engine performance and emissions. In the experimental step, Carbon nano tubes (CNT) (40, 80 and 120 ppm) and nano silver particles (40, 80 and 120 ppm) with nanostructure were prepared and added as additive to the diesel fuel. Six cylinders, four-stroke diesel engine was fuelled with these new blended fuels and operated at different engine speeds. Experimental test results indicated the fact that adding nano particles to diesel fuel, increased diesel engine power and torque output. For nano-diesel it was found that the brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) was decreased compared to the net diesel fuel. The results proved that with increase of nano particles concentrations (from 40 ppm to 120 ppm) in diesel fuel, CO2 emission increased. CO emission in diesel fuel with nano-particles was lower significantly compared to pure diesel fuel. UHC emission with silver nano-diesel blended fuel decreased while with fuels that contains CNT nano particles increased. The trend of NOx emission was inverse compared to the UHC emission. With adding nano particles to the blended fuels, NOx increased compared to the net diesel fuel. The tests revealed that silver & CNT nano particles can be used as additive in diesel fuel to improve combustion of the fuel and reduce the exhaust emissions significantly.

  9. Investigation on the effect of different levels of dried sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) pulp on performance, carcass characteristics and physiological and biochemical parameters in broiler chicken.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Hossein; Seidavi, Alireza; Liu, Wuyi; Asadpour, Leila

    2015-03-01

    Utilization of agricultural by-products in animal nutrition is a matter of great concern. Dried sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) pulp (DCSP) is a potential source of valuable nutrients and natural antioxidants for poultry feed. In the experiment, a feeding trial was conducted in order to investigate the effect of different levels of dried orange residues in diet on broiler growth performance, carcass characteristics, blood metabolites, humoral immunity, and cecum microbial population. A total of 200 one day experimental broiler chicks were distributed into a completely randomized design (CRD) which included 5 dietary treatments with 4 replicates per each treatment and 10 birds fed in each replicate. The experimental treatments consist of a control group (without additive), 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, and 2% of DCSP (residue) in diet. Weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were measured. Blood parameters and carcass traits were measured in the postnatal 35th day. The highest level of dried orange residues in treatment 5 (T5) had significantly increased the feed intake and body weight of broilers in groups and overall during the rearing period (P > 0.05). Different levels of dried orange residues had no significant effect on chicken FCR. Using of dried orange residues significantly decreased the liver and abdominal fat of broilers (P < 0.05). T5 has also significantly lower level of triglyceride than the control (T1) and treatment 2 (T2) (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the use of dried orange residues improved some performance (e.g. feed intake and body weight gain), decreased liver and abdominal fat and also serum triglyceride level in broiler chicken. PMID:25737644

  10. Investigation on the effect of different levels of dried sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) pulp on performance, carcass characteristics and physiological and biochemical parameters in broiler chicken

    PubMed Central

    Abbasi, Hossein; Seidavi, Alireza; Liu, Wuyi; Asadpour, Leila

    2014-01-01

    Utilization of agricultural by-products in animal nutrition is a matter of great concern. Dried sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) pulp (DCSP) is a potential source of valuable nutrients and natural antioxidants for poultry feed. In the experiment, a feeding trial was conducted in order to investigate the effect of different levels of dried orange residues in diet on broiler growth performance, carcass characteristics, blood metabolites, humoral immunity, and cecum microbial population. A total of 200 one day experimental broiler chicks were distributed into a completely randomized design (CRD) which included 5 dietary treatments with 4 replicates per each treatment and 10 birds fed in each replicate. The experimental treatments consist of a control group (without additive), 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, and 2% of DCSP (residue) in diet. Weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were measured. Blood parameters and carcass traits were measured in the postnatal 35th day. The highest level of dried orange residues in treatment 5 (T5) had significantly increased the feed intake and body weight of broilers in groups and overall during the rearing period (P > 0.05). Different levels of dried orange residues had no significant effect on chicken FCR. Using of dried orange residues significantly decreased the liver and abdominal fat of broilers (P < 0.05). T5 has also significantly lower level of triglyceride than the control (T1) and treatment 2 (T2) (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the use of dried orange residues improved some performance (e.g. feed intake and body weight gain), decreased liver and abdominal fat and also serum triglyceride level in broiler chicken. PMID:25737644

  11. Investigation on the effect of different levels of dried sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) pulp on performance, carcass characteristics and physiological and biochemical parameters in broiler chicken.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Hossein; Seidavi, Alireza; Liu, Wuyi; Asadpour, Leila

    2015-03-01

    Utilization of agricultural by-products in animal nutrition is a matter of great concern. Dried sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) pulp (DCSP) is a potential source of valuable nutrients and natural antioxidants for poultry feed. In the experiment, a feeding trial was conducted in order to investigate the effect of different levels of dried orange residues in diet on broiler growth performance, carcass characteristics, blood metabolites, humoral immunity, and cecum microbial population. A total of 200 one day experimental broiler chicks were distributed into a completely randomized design (CRD) which included 5 dietary treatments with 4 replicates per each treatment and 10 birds fed in each replicate. The experimental treatments consist of a control group (without additive), 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, and 2% of DCSP (residue) in diet. Weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were measured. Blood parameters and carcass traits were measured in the postnatal 35th day. The highest level of dried orange residues in treatment 5 (T5) had significantly increased the feed intake and body weight of broilers in groups and overall during the rearing period (P > 0.05). Different levels of dried orange residues had no significant effect on chicken FCR. Using of dried orange residues significantly decreased the liver and abdominal fat of broilers (P < 0.05). T5 has also significantly lower level of triglyceride than the control (T1) and treatment 2 (T2) (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the use of dried orange residues improved some performance (e.g. feed intake and body weight gain), decreased liver and abdominal fat and also serum triglyceride level in broiler chicken.

  12. Effects of zinc addition to a copper-contaminated vineyard soil on sorption of Zn by soil and plant physiological responses.

    PubMed

    Tiecher, Tadeu L; Ceretta, Carlos A; Tiecher, Tales; Ferreira, Paulo A A; Nicoloso, Fernando T; Soriani, Hilda H; Rossato, Liana V; Mimmo, Tanja; Cesco, Stefano; Lourenzi, Cledimar R; Giachini, Admir J; Brunetto, Gustavo

    2016-07-01

    The occurrence of high levels of Cu in vineyard soils is often the result of intensive use of fungicides for the preventive control of foliar diseases and can cause toxicity to plants. Nowadays many grape growers in Southern Brazil have replaced Cu-based with Zn-based products. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether the increase in Zn concentration in a soil with high Cu contents can interfere with the dynamics of these elements, and if this increase in Zn may cause toxicity to maize (Zea mays L.). Soil samples were collected in two areas, one in a vineyard with more than 30 years of cultivation and high concentration of Cu and the other on a natural grassland area adjacent to the vineyard. Different doses of Cu and Zn were added to the soil, and the adsorption isotherms were built following the Langmuir's model. In a second experiment, the vineyard soil was spiked with different Zn concentrations (0, 30, 60, 90, 180, and 270mg Zn kg(-1)) in 3kg pots where maize was grown in a greenhouse for 35 days. When Cu and Zn were added together, there was a reduction in the quantities adsorbed, especially for Zn. Zn addition decreased the total plant dry matter and specific leaf mass. Furthermore, with the increase in the activity of catalase, an activation of the antioxidant system was observed. However, the system was not sufficiently effective to reverse the stress levels imposed on soil, especially in plants grown in the highest doses of Zn. At doses higher than 90Znmgkg(-1) in the Cu-contaminated vineyard soil, maize plants were no longer able to activate the protection mechanism and suffered from metal stress, resulting in suppressed dry matter yields due to impaired functioning of the photosynthetic apparatus and changes in the enzymatic activity of plants. Replacement of Cu- by Zn-based fungicides to avoid Cu toxicity has resulted in soil vineyards contaminated with these metals and damaging of plant photosynthetic apparatus and enzyme activity. PMID:27011111

  13. Phun Week: Understanding Physiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Limson, Mel; Matyas, Marsha Lakes

    2009-01-01

    Topics such as sports, exercise, health, and nutrition can make the science of physiology relevant and engaging for students. In addition, many lessons on these topics, such as those on the cardiovascular, respiratory, and digestive systems, align with national and state life science education standards. Physiology Understanding Week (PhUn…

  14. Additive Manufacturing of Single-Crystal Superalloy CMSX-4 Through Scanning Laser Epitaxy: Computational Modeling, Experimental Process Development, and Process Parameter Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basak, Amrita; Acharya, Ranadip; Das, Suman

    2016-08-01

    This paper focuses on additive manufacturing (AM) of single-crystal (SX) nickel-based superalloy CMSX-4 through scanning laser epitaxy (SLE). SLE, a powder bed fusion-based AM process was explored for the purpose of producing crack-free, dense deposits of CMSX-4 on top of similar chemistry investment-cast substrates. Optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) investigations revealed the presence of dendritic microstructures that consisted of fine γ' precipitates within the γ matrix in the deposit region. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-based process modeling, statistical design of experiments (DoE), and microstructural characterization techniques were combined to produce metallurgically bonded single-crystal deposits of more than 500 μm height in a single pass along the entire length of the substrate. A customized quantitative metallography based image analysis technique was employed for automatic extraction of various deposit quality metrics from the digital cross-sectional micrographs. The processing parameters were varied, and optimal processing windows were identified to obtain good quality deposits. The results reported here represent one of the few successes obtained in producing single-crystal epitaxial deposits through a powder bed fusion-based metal AM process and thus demonstrate the potential of SLE to repair and manufacture single-crystal hot section components of gas turbine systems from nickel-based superalloy powders.

  15. The influence of anatomical and physiological parameters on the interference voltage at the input of unipolar cardiac pacemakers in low frequency electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joosten, S.; Pammler, K.; Silny, J.

    2009-02-01

    The problem of electromagnetic interference of electronic implants such as cardiac pacemakers has been well known for many years. An increasing number of field sources in everyday life and occupational environment leads unavoidably to an increased risk for patients with electronic implants. However, no obligatory national or international safety regulations exist for the protection of this patient group. The aim of this study is to find out the anatomical and physiological worst-case conditions for patients with an implanted pacemaker adjusted to unipolar sensing in external time-varying electric fields. The results of this study with 15 volunteers show that, in electric fields, variation of the interference voltage at the input of a cardiac pacemaker adds up to 200% only because of individual factors. These factors should be considered in human studies and in the setting of safety regulations.

  16. Physiological Waterfalls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leith, David E.

    1976-01-01

    Provides background information, defining areas within organ systems where physiological waterfalls exist. Describes pressure-flow relationships of elastic tubes (blood vessels, airways, renal tubules, various ducts). (CS)

  17. Rowing Physiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spinks, W. L.

    This review of the literature discusses and examines the methods used in physiological assessment of rowers, results of such assessments, and future directions emanating from research in the physiology of rowing. The first section discusses the energy demands of rowing, including the contribution of the energy system, anaerobic metabolism, and the…

  18. Effect of flunixin meglumine on selected physiologic and performance parameters of athletically conditioned thoroughbred horses subjected to an incremental exercise stress test.

    PubMed

    Colahan, Patrick T; Bailey, James E; Chou, Chi-Chung; Johnson, Martha; Rice, Brett L; Jones, Galin L; Cheeks, Joseph P

    2002-01-01

    Twelve clinically sound, healthy, athletically conditioned Thoroughbred horses were subjected to an incremental exercise stress test to determine the effects and period of detection of a single dose of flunixin meglumine (1.1 mg/kg by intravenous injection) in serum and urine by ELISA. Flunixin concentrations, performance, and hematologic and clinical chemical parameters were measured. All horses were rotated through four treatment groups of a Latin-square design providing for each horse to serve as its own control. Flunixin meglumine reduced prostaglandin F(1alpha) and thromboxane concentrations that had been increased by intense exercise. Performance parameters did not improve and prostaglandin concentrations did not significantly correlate with total run time. Exercise did not change the flunixin elimination profile in either serum or urine, and concentrations were found to be below the detection limit of the ELISA test within 36 hours in serum and 120 hours in urine. PMID:12050827

  19. He-Ne laser-induced changes in germination, thermodynamic parameters, internal energy, enzyme activities and physiological attributes of wheat during germination and early growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamil, Yasir; Perveen, Rashida; Ashraf, Muhammad; Ali, Qasim; Iqbal, Munawar; Ahmad, Muhammad Raza

    2013-04-01

    Using low power continuous wave He-Ne laser irradiation of seeds, the germination characteristics, thermodynamic changes and enzyme activities as well as changes in morphological attributes were explored for wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. S-24) cultivar. The changes in thermodynamic properties such as change in enthalpy (ΔH), entropy generation [(ΔSe)], entropy flux [(ΔSc)], entropy generation ratio [(ΔS)e/Δt], and entropy flux ratio [(ΔS)c/Δt] showed significant (P < 0.05) changes at an energy level of 500 mJ. The germination energy (GE), germination percentage (G%), germination index (GI) as well as α-amylase and protease activities was also found to be higher at 500 mJ, while the mean emergence time (MET) and time for 50% germination (E50) decreased for 300 mJ irradiance. The internal energy of the seeds increased significantly at all laser energy levels, but was highest for 500 mJ 72 h after sowing. The enzyme activities increased up to 24 h after sowing and then declined. The activities of α-amylase and protease were found to be positively correlated with the plant physiological attributes. These results indicate that low power continuous wave He-Ne laser (632 nm) treatment has considerable biological effects on seed metabolism during germination as well as on later vegetative growth.

  20. Salicylic acid-induced changes in physiological parameters and genes of the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway in Artemisia vulgaris and Dendranthema nankingense during aphid feeding.

    PubMed

    Sun, Y; Xia, X L; Jiang, J F; Chen, S M; Chen, F D; Lv, G S

    2016-01-01

    Phloem-feeding aphids cause serious damage to plants. The mechanisms of plant-aphid interactions are only partially understood and involve multiple pathways, including phytohormones. In order to investigate whether salicylic acid (SA) is involved and how it plays a part in the defense response to the aphid Macrosiphoniella sanbourni, physiological changes and gene expression profiles in response to aphid inoculation with or without SA pretreatment were compared between the aphid-resistant Artemisia vulgaris 'Variegata' and the susceptible chrysanthemum, Dendranthema nankingense. Changes in levels of reactive oxygen species, malondialdehyde (MDA), and flavonoids, and in the expression of genes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis, including PAL (phenylalanine ammonia-lyase), CHS (chalcone synthase), CHI (chalcone isomerase), F3H (flavanone 3-hydroxylase), F3'H (flavanone 3'-hydroxylase), and DFR (dihydroflavonol reductase), were investigated. Levels of hydrogen peroxide, superoxide anions, MDA, and flavonoids, and their related gene expression, increased after aphid infestation and SA pretreatment followed by aphid infestation; the aphid-resistant A. vulgaris exhibited a more rapid response than the aphid-susceptible D. nankingense to SA treatment and aphid infestation. Taken together, our results suggest that SA could be used to increase aphid resistance in the chrysanthemum. PMID:26909993

  1. Physiology in conservation translocations.

    PubMed

    Tarszisz, Esther; Dickman, Christopher R; Munn, Adam J

    2014-01-01

    Conservation translocations aim to restore species to their indigenous ranges, protect populations from threats and/or reinstate ecosystem functions. They are particularly important for the conservation and management of rare and threatened species. Despite tremendous efforts and advancement in recent years, animal conservation translocations generally have variable success, and the reasons for this are often uncertain. We suggest that when little is known about the physiology and wellbeing of individuals either before or after release, it will be difficult to determine their likelihood of survival, and this could limit advancements in the science of translocations for conservation. In this regard, we argue that physiology offers novel approaches that could substantially improve translocations and associated practices. As a discipline, it is apparent that physiology may be undervalued, perhaps because of the invasive nature of some physiological measurement techniques (e.g. sampling body fluids, surgical implantation). We examined 232 publications that dealt with translocations of terrestrial vertebrates and aquatic mammals and, defining 'success' as high or low, determined how many of these studies explicitly incorporated physiological aspects into their protocols and monitoring. From this review, it is apparent that physiological evaluation before and after animal releases could progress and improve translocation/reintroduction successes. We propose a suite of physiological measures, in addition to animal health indices, for assisting conservation translocations over the short term and also for longer term post-release monitoring. Perhaps most importantly, we argue that the incorporation of physiological assessments of animals at all stages of translocation can have important welfare implications by helping to reduce the total number of animals used. Physiological indicators can also help to refine conservation translocation methods. These approaches fall under a

  2. Effect of thermal stress on physiological parameters, feed intake and plasma thyroid hormones concentration in Alentejana, Mertolenga, Frisian and Limousine cattle breeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Alfredo M. F.; Baccari, Flávio; Titto, Evaldo A. L.; Almeida, J. A. Afonso

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the heat tolerance of animals of two Portuguese (Alentejana and Mertolenga) and two exotic (Frisian and Limousine) cattle breeds, through the monitoring of physiological acclimatization reactions in different thermal situations characterized by alternate periods of thermoneutrality and heat stress simulated in climatic chambers. In the experiment, six heifers of the Alentejana, Frisian and Mertolenga breeds and four heifers of the Limousine breed were used. The increase in chamber temperatures had different consequences on the animals of each breed. When submitted to heat stress, the Frisian animals developed high thermal polypnea (more than 105 breath movements per minute), which did not prevent an increase in the rectal temperature (from 38.7°C to 40.0°C). However, only a slight depression in food intake and in blood thyroid hormone concentrations was observed under thermal stressful conditions. Under the thermal stressful conditions, Limousine animals decreased food intake by 11.4% and blood triiodothyronine (T3) hormone concentration decreased to 76% of the level observed in thermoneutral conditions. Alentejana animals had similar reactions. The Mertolenga cattle exhibited the highest capacity for maintaining homeothermy: under heat stressful conditions, the mean thermal polypnea increased twofold, but mean rectal temperature did not increase. Mean food intake decreased by only 2% and mean T3 blood concentration was lowered to 85,6% of the concentration observed under thermoneutral conditions. These results lead to the conclusion that the Frisian animals had more difficulty in tolerating high temperatures, the Limousine and Alentejana ones had an intermediate difficulty, and the Mertolenga animals were by far the most heat tolerant.

  3. Assessing quality of Medicago sativa silage by monitoring bacterial composition with single molecule, real-time sequencing technology and various physiological parameters.

    PubMed

    Bao, Weichen; Mi, Zhihui; Xu, Haiyan; Zheng, Yi; Kwok, Lai Yu; Zhang, Heping; Zhang, Wenyi

    2016-01-01

    The present study applied the PacBio single molecule, real-time sequencing technology (SMRT) in evaluating the quality of silage production. Specifically, we produced four types of Medicago sativa silages by using four different lactic acid bacteria-based additives (AD-I, AD-II, AD-III and AD-IV). We monitored the changes in pH, organic acids (including butyric acid, the ratio of acetic acid/lactic acid, γ-aminobutyric acid, 4-hyroxy benzoic acid and phenyl lactic acid), mycotoxins, and bacterial microbiota during silage fermentation. Our results showed that the use of the additives was beneficial to the silage fermentation by enhancing a general pH and mycotoxin reduction, while increasing the organic acids content. By SMRT analysis of the microbial composition in eight silage samples, we found that the bacterial species number and relative abundances shifted apparently after fermentation. Such changes were specific to the LAB species in the additives. Particularly, Bacillus megaterium was the initial dominant species in the raw materials; and after the fermentation process, Pediococcus acidilactici and Lactobacillus plantarum became the most prevalent species, both of which were intrinsically present in the LAB additives. Our data have demonstrated that the SMRT sequencing platform is applicable in assessing the quality of silage. PMID:27340760

  4. Assessing quality of Medicago sativa silage by monitoring bacterial composition with single molecule, real-time sequencing technology and various physiological parameters.

    PubMed

    Bao, Weichen; Mi, Zhihui; Xu, Haiyan; Zheng, Yi; Kwok, Lai Yu; Zhang, Heping; Zhang, Wenyi

    2016-06-24

    The present study applied the PacBio single molecule, real-time sequencing technology (SMRT) in evaluating the quality of silage production. Specifically, we produced four types of Medicago sativa silages by using four different lactic acid bacteria-based additives (AD-I, AD-II, AD-III and AD-IV). We monitored the changes in pH, organic acids (including butyric acid, the ratio of acetic acid/lactic acid, γ-aminobutyric acid, 4-hyroxy benzoic acid and phenyl lactic acid), mycotoxins, and bacterial microbiota during silage fermentation. Our results showed that the use of the additives was beneficial to the silage fermentation by enhancing a general pH and mycotoxin reduction, while increasing the organic acids content. By SMRT analysis of the microbial composition in eight silage samples, we found that the bacterial species number and relative abundances shifted apparently after fermentation. Such changes were specific to the LAB species in the additives. Particularly, Bacillus megaterium was the initial dominant species in the raw materials; and after the fermentation process, Pediococcus acidilactici and Lactobacillus plantarum became the most prevalent species, both of which were intrinsically present in the LAB additives. Our data have demonstrated that the SMRT sequencing platform is applicable in assessing the quality of silage.

  5. Assessing quality of Medicago sativa silage by monitoring bacterial composition with single molecule, real-time sequencing technology and various physiological parameters

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Weichen; Mi, Zhihui; Xu, Haiyan; Zheng, Yi; Kwok, Lai Yu; Zhang, Heping; Zhang, Wenyi

    2016-01-01

    The present study applied the PacBio single molecule, real-time sequencing technology (SMRT) in evaluating the quality of silage production. Specifically, we produced four types of Medicago sativa silages by using four different lactic acid bacteria-based additives (AD-I, AD-II, AD-III and AD-IV). We monitored the changes in pH, organic acids (including butyric acid, the ratio of acetic acid/lactic acid, γ-aminobutyric acid, 4-hyroxy benzoic acid and phenyl lactic acid), mycotoxins, and bacterial microbiota during silage fermentation. Our results showed that the use of the additives was beneficial to the silage fermentation by enhancing a general pH and mycotoxin reduction, while increasing the organic acids content. By SMRT analysis of the microbial composition in eight silage samples, we found that the bacterial species number and relative abundances shifted apparently after fermentation. Such changes were specific to the LAB species in the additives. Particularly, Bacillus megaterium was the initial dominant species in the raw materials; and after the fermentation process, Pediococcus acidilactici and Lactobacillus plantarum became the most prevalent species, both of which were intrinsically present in the LAB additives. Our data have demonstrated that the SMRT sequencing platform is applicable in assessing the quality of silage. PMID:27340760

  6. Intratumor distribution and test-retest comparisons of physiological parameters quantified by dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI in rat U251 glioma.

    PubMed

    Aryal, Madhava P; Nagaraja, Tavarekere N; Brown, Stephen L; Lu, Mei; Bagher-Ebadian, Hassan; Ding, Guangliang; Panda, Swayamprava; Keenan, Kelly; Cabral, Glauber; Mikkelsen, Tom; Ewing, James R

    2014-10-01

    The distribution of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) parametric estimates in a rat U251 glioma model was analyzed. Using Magnevist as contrast agent (CA), 17 nude rats implanted with U251 cerebral glioma were studied by DCE-MRI twice in a 24 h interval. A data-driven analysis selected one of three models to estimate either (1) plasma volume (vp), (2) vp and forward volume transfer constant (K(trans)) or (3) vp, K(trans) and interstitial volume fraction (ve), constituting Models 1, 2 and 3, respectively. CA distribution volume (VD) was estimated in Model 3 regions by Logan plots. Regions of interest (ROIs) were selected by model. In the Model 3 ROI, descriptors of parameter distributions--mean, median, variance and skewness--were calculated and compared between the two time points for repeatability. All distributions of parametric estimates in Model 3 ROIs were positively skewed. Test-retest differences between population summaries for any parameter were not significant (p ≥ 0.10; Wilcoxon signed-rank and paired t tests). These and similar measures of parametric distribution and test-retest variance from other tumor models can be used to inform the choice of biomarkers that best summarize tumor status and treatment effects. PMID:25125367

  7. Intratumor distribution and test-retest comparisons of physiological parameters quantified by dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI in rat U251 glioma.

    PubMed

    Aryal, Madhava P; Nagaraja, Tavarekere N; Brown, Stephen L; Lu, Mei; Bagher-Ebadian, Hassan; Ding, Guangliang; Panda, Swayamprava; Keenan, Kelly; Cabral, Glauber; Mikkelsen, Tom; Ewing, James R

    2014-10-01

    The distribution of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) parametric estimates in a rat U251 glioma model was analyzed. Using Magnevist as contrast agent (CA), 17 nude rats implanted with U251 cerebral glioma were studied by DCE-MRI twice in a 24 h interval. A data-driven analysis selected one of three models to estimate either (1) plasma volume (vp), (2) vp and forward volume transfer constant (K(trans)) or (3) vp, K(trans) and interstitial volume fraction (ve), constituting Models 1, 2 and 3, respectively. CA distribution volume (VD) was estimated in Model 3 regions by Logan plots. Regions of interest (ROIs) were selected by model. In the Model 3 ROI, descriptors of parameter distributions--mean, median, variance and skewness--were calculated and compared between the two time points for repeatability. All distributions of parametric estimates in Model 3 ROIs were positively skewed. Test-retest differences between population summaries for any parameter were not significant (p ≥ 0.10; Wilcoxon signed-rank and paired t tests). These and similar measures of parametric distribution and test-retest variance from other tumor models can be used to inform the choice of biomarkers that best summarize tumor status and treatment effects.

  8. Intra-Tumor Distribution and Test-Retest Comparisons of Physiological Parameters quantified by Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI in Rat U251 Glioma

    PubMed Central

    Aryal, Madhava P.; Nagaraja, Tavarekere N.; Brown, Stephen L.; Lu, Mei; Bagher-Ebadian, Hassan; Ding, Guangliang; Panda, Swayamprava; Keenan, Kelly; Cabral, Glauber; Mikkelsen, Tom; Ewing, James R.

    2014-01-01

    The distribution of dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) parametric estimates in a rat U251 glioma model was analyzed. Using Magnevist as contrast agent (CA), 17 nude rats implanted with U251 cerebral glioma were studied by DCE-MRI twice in a 24 h interval. A data-driven analysis selected one of three models to estimate either: 1) CA plasma volume (vp), 2) vp and forward volume transfer constant (Ktrans; or 3) vp, Ktrans, and interstitial volume fraction (ve), constituting Models 1, 2 and 3, respectively. CA interstitial distribution volume (VD) was estimated in Model 3 regions by Logan plots. Regions of interest (ROIs) were selected by model. In the Model 3 ROI, descriptors of parameter distributions – mean, median, variance and skewness – were calculated and compared between the two time points for repeatability. All distributions of parametric estimates in Model 3 ROIs were positively skewed. Test-retest differences between population summaries for any parameter were not significant (p≥0.10; Wilcoxon signed-rank and paired t tests). This and similar measures of parametric distribution and test-retest variance from other tumor models can be used to inform the choice of biomarkers that best summarize tumor status and treatment effects. PMID:25125367

  9. [Is body surface area (BSA) suitable for indexing renal and dialysis clearances and other physiological parameters? A theoretical approach and a critical analysis (Part 2)].

    PubMed

    Ruggieri, G

    2009-01-01

    Many parameters of biological functions, interesting different branches of medicine, have to be indexed by the same value for each other comparison between single individuals or between-within groups.Body Surface Area (BSA) and 1.73 m2 reference value are probably the most used tools for indexation, but a growing number of scientific papers emphasize the risk of under or over estimates of data by BSA indexation in overweight-obese or on the contrary underweight individuals. This study has been planned to evaluate such a problem: a) by a theoretical approach, indexing to 1.73 m2 the creatinine clearance(CtCl) in an ideal population, and b) analysing and debating the doubts and problems about the indexation by BSA in many fields, the possibilities of indexation by other methods, or to use BSA with different approach, to reduce the risk of bias, evaluating the possibility of this target in a real population of 45 men and 84 women undergoing Peritoneal Dialysis (PD) - II - The feasibility to agree to an identical value of normal or abnormal renal function for every age or, on the contrary, to have a normal range for each age, are analysed and discussed.About BSA as indexing tool, it is pointed out: a) the lack of significative correlation between BSA and GFR and other parameters b) the increasing gap during years between 1.73 m2 BSA and the average BSA.

  10. Effect of genetic and physiological manipulations onthe kinetic and binding parameters of the adenine nucleotide translocator in Saccharomyces cervisiae and Candida utilis.

    PubMed

    Lauquin, G; Lunardi, J; Vignais, P V

    1976-01-01

    1. Ghe kinetic and binding parameters of adenine-nucleotide transport have been studied in mitochondria isolated from yeast cells in which the mitochondrial protein-synthetizing system had been inhibited by growth in the presence of erythromycin. These parameters have also been studied in promitochondria isolated from yeast grown in anaerobiosis aesence of ethidium bromide results in a loss of cytochromes b, alpha and alpha 3, but it does not affect the rate constant of ADP transport in isolated mitochondria, nor the number of binding sites for atractyloside, bongkrekic acid and ADP. 3. Promitochondria from S. cerevisiae grown in anaerobiosis, mitochondria from a qo mutant (qo mitochondria) and mitochondria from S. cerevisiae grown in the presence of erythromycin (ERY-mitochondria) are able to transport ADP by the same exchange-diffusion mechanism, sensitive to carboxy-atractyloside, and with the same rate constant as the wild type mitochondria. Promitochondria, qo mitochondria and ERY-mitochondria bind atractyloside, bongkrekic acid and ADP with the same high affinity as the wild type mitochondria. They only differ from the wild type mitochondria by a lower number of binding sites for ADP and for specific inhibitors of ADP transport. 4. Mitochondria isolated from the nuclear mutant p9 of S. cerevisae, called also op1, are characterized by a much lower affinity for bongkrekic acid than mitochondria from the wild type (20 times less). 5. Manipulation of the fatty acid composition of the mitochondrial membranes in the desaturase auxotroph mutant KD115 does not modify the number of sites, no their affinity of bongkrekic acid. 6. The above results are interpreted to mean that the structure and function of the mitochondrial adN translocator are not affected by any change in the mitochondrial protein synthetizing system. PMID:795470

  11. Prediction of drug terminal half-life and terminal volume of distribution after intravenous dosing based on drug clearance, steady-state volume of distribution, and physiological parameters of the body.

    PubMed

    Berezhkovskiy, Leonid M

    2013-02-01

    The steady state, V(ss), terminal volume of distribution, V(β), and the terminal half-life, t(1/2), are commonly obtained from the drug plasma concentration-time profile, C(p)(t), following intravenous dosing. Unlike V(ss) that can be calculated based on the physicochemical properties of drugs considering the equilibrium partitioning between plasma and organ tissues, t(1/2) and V(β) cannot be calculated that way because they depend on the rates of drug transfer between blood and tissues. Considering the physiological pharmacokinetic model pertinent to the terminal phase of drug elimination, a novel equation that calculates t(1/2) (and consequently V(β)) was derived. It turns out that V(ss), the total body clearance, Cl, equilibrium blood-plasma concentration ratio, r; and the physiological parameters of the body such as cardiac output, and blood and tissue volumes are sufficient for determination of terminal kinetics. Calculation of t(1/2) by the obtained equation appears to be in good agreement with the experimentally observed vales of this parameter in pharmacokinetic studies in rat, monkey, dog, and human. The equation for the determination of the pre-exponent of the terminal phase of C(p)(t) is also found. The obtained equation allows to predict t(1/2) in human assuming that V(ss) and Cl were either obtained by allometric scaling or, respectively, calculated in silico or based on in vitro drug stability measurements. For compounds that have high clearance, the derived equation may be applied to calculate r just using the routine data on Cl, V(ss), and t(1/2), rather than doing the in vitro assay to measure this parameter.

  12. Anatomy & Physiology

    MedlinePlus

    ... Central Nervous System Peripheral Nervous System Review Quiz Endocrine System Characteristics of Hormones Endocrine Glands & Their Hormones Pituitary & ... Thyroid & Parathyroid Glands Adrenal Gland Pancreas Gonads Other Endocrine Glands ... Cardiovascular System Heart Structure of the Heart Physiology of the ...

  13. Physiology in conservation translocations

    PubMed Central

    Tarszisz, Esther; Dickman, Christopher R.; Munn, Adam J.

    2014-01-01

    Conservation translocations aim to restore species to their indigenous ranges, protect populations from threats and/or reinstate ecosystem functions. They are particularly important for the conservation and management of rare and threatened species. Despite tremendous efforts and advancement in recent years, animal conservation translocations generally have variable success, and the reasons for this are often uncertain. We suggest that when little is known about the physiology and wellbeing of individuals either before or after release, it will be difficult to determine their likelihood of survival, and this could limit advancements in the science of translocations for conservation. In this regard, we argue that physiology offers novel approaches that could substantially improve translocations and associated practices. As a discipline, it is apparent that physiology may be undervalued, perhaps because of the invasive nature of some physiological measurement techniques (e.g. sampling body fluids, surgical implantation). We examined 232 publications that dealt with translocations of terrestrial vertebrates and aquatic mammals and, defining ‘success’ as high or low, determined how many of these studies explicitly incorporated physiological aspects into their protocols and monitoring. From this review, it is apparent that physiological evaluation before and after animal releases could progress and improve translocation/reintroduction successes. We propose a suite of physiological measures, in addition to animal health indices, for assisting conservation translocations over the short term and also for longer term post-release monitoring. Perhaps most importantly, we argue that the incorporation of physiological assessments of animals at all stages of translocation can have important welfare implications by helping to reduce the total number of animals used. Physiological indicators can also help to refine conservation translocation methods. These approaches fall

  14. Physiological parameters and protective energy dissipation mechanisms expressed in the leaves of two Vitis vinifera L. genotypes under multiple summer stresses.

    PubMed

    Palliotti, Alberto; Tombesi, Sergio; Frioni, Tommaso; Silvestroni, Oriana; Lanari, Vania; D'Onofrio, Claudio; Matarese, Fabiola; Bellincontro, Andrea; Poni, Stefano

    2015-08-01

    Photosynthetic performances and energy dissipation mechanisms were evaluated on the anisohydric cv. Sangiovese and on the isohydric cv. Montepulciano (Vitis vinifera L.) under conditions of multiple summer stresses. Potted vines of both cultivars were maintained at 90% and 40% of maximum water availability from fruit-set to veraison. One week before veraison, at predawn and midday, main gas-exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, chlorophyll content, xanthophyll pool and cycle and catalase activity were evaluated. Under water deficit and elevated irradiance and temperature, contrary to cv. Montepulciano and despite a significant leaf water potential decrease, Sangiovese's leaves kept their stomata more open and continued to assimilate CO2 while also showing higher water use efficiency. Under these environmental conditions, in comparison with the isohydric cv. Montepulciano, the protective mechanisms of energy dissipation exerted by the anisohydric cv. Sangiovese were: (i) higher stomatal conductance and thermoregulation linked to higher transpiration rate; (ii) greater ability at dissipating more efficiently the excess energy via the xanthophylls cycle activity (thermal dissipation) due to higher VAZ pool and greater increase of de-epoxidation activity. PMID:26310367

  15. Seasonal variation in coat characteristics, tick loads, cortisol levels, some physiological parameters and temperature humidity index on Nguni cows raised in low- and high-input farms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katiyatiya, C. L. F.; Muchenje, V.; Mushunje, A.

    2014-08-01

    Seasonal variations in hair length, tick loads, cortisol levels, haematological parameters (HP) and temperature humidity index (THI) in Nguni cows of different colours raised in two low-input farms, and a commercial stud was determined. The sites were chosen based on their production systems, climatic characteristics and geographical locations. Zazulwana and Komga are low-input, humid-coastal areas, while Honeydale is a high-input, dry-inland Nguni stud farm. A total of 103 cows, grouped according to parity, location and coat colour, were used in the study. The effects of location, coat colour, hair length and season were used to determine tick loads on different body parts, cortisol levels and HP in blood from Nguni cows. Highest tick loads were recorded under the tail and the lowest on the head of each of the animals (P < 0.05). Zazulwana cows recorded the highest tick loads under the tails of all the cows used in the study from the three farms (P < 0.05). High tick loads were recorded for cows with long hairs. Hair lengths were longest during the winter season in the coastal areas of Zazulwana and Honeydale (P < 0.05). White and brown-white patched cows had significantly longer (P < 0.05) hair strands than those having a combination of red, black and white colour. Cortisol and THI were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in summer season. Red blood cells, haematoglobin, haematocrit, mean cell volumes, white blood cells, neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils and basophils were significantly different (P < 0.05) as some associated with age across all seasons and correlated to THI. It was concluded that the location, coat colour and season had effects on hair length, cortisol levels, THI, HP and tick loads on different body parts and heat stress in Nguni cows.

  16. Seasonal variation in coat characteristics, tick loads, cortisol levels, some physiological parameters and temperature humidity index on Nguni cows raised in low- and high-input farms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katiyatiya, C. L. F.; Muchenje, V.; Mushunje, A.

    2015-06-01

    Seasonal variations in hair length, tick loads, cortisol levels, haematological parameters (HP) and temperature humidity index (THI) in Nguni cows of different colours raised in two low-input farms, and a commercial stud was determined. The sites were chosen based on their production systems, climatic characteristics and geographical locations. Zazulwana and Komga are low-input, humid-coastal areas, while Honeydale is a high-input, dry-inland Nguni stud farm. A total of 103 cows, grouped according to parity, location and coat colour, were used in the study. The effects of location, coat colour, hair length and season were used to determine tick loads on different body parts, cortisol levels and HP in blood from Nguni cows. Highest tick loads were recorded under the tail and the lowest on the head of each of the animals ( P < 0.05). Zazulwana cows recorded the highest tick loads under the tails of all the cows used in the study from the three farms ( P < 0.05). High tick loads were recorded for cows with long hairs. Hair lengths were longest during the winter season in the coastal areas of Zazulwana and Honeydale ( P < 0.05). White and brown-white patched cows had significantly longer ( P < 0.05) hair strands than those having a combination of red, black and white colour. Cortisol and THI were significantly lower ( P < 0.05) in summer season. Red blood cells, haematoglobin, haematocrit, mean cell volumes, white blood cells, neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils and basophils were significantly different ( P < 0.05) as some associated with age across all seasons and correlated to THI. It was concluded that the location, coat colour and season had effects on hair length, cortisol levels, THI, HP and tick loads on different body parts and heat stress in Nguni cows.

  17. Physiological breeding.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Matthew; Langridge, Peter

    2016-06-01

    Physiological breeding crosses parents with different complex but complementary traits to achieve cumulative gene action for yield, while selecting progeny using remote sensing, possibly in combination with genomic selection. Physiological approaches have already demonstrated significant genetic gains in Australia and several developing countries of the International Wheat Improvement Network. The techniques involved (see Graphical Abstract) also provide platforms for research and refinement of breeding methodologies. Recent examples of these include screening genetic resources for novel expression of Calvin cycle enzymes, identification of common genetic bases for heat and drought adaptation, and genetic dissection of trade-offs among yield components. Such information, combined with results from physiological crosses designed to test novel trait combinations, lead to more precise breeding strategies, and feed models of genotype-by-environment interaction to help build new plant types and experimental environments for future climates. PMID:27161822

  18. Regulatory Physiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen W.; Whitson, Peggy A.; Putcha, Lakshmi; Baker, Ellen; Smith, Scott M.; Stewart, Karen; Gretebeck, Randall; Nimmagudda, R. R.; Schoeller, Dale A.; Davis-Street, Janis

    1999-01-01

    As noted elsewhere in this report, a central goal of the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP) was to ensure that cardiovascular and muscle function were adequate to perform an emergency egress after 16 days of spaceflight. The goals of the Regulatory Physiology component of the EDOMP were to identify and subsequently ameliorate those biochemical and nutritional factors that deplete physiological reserves or increase risk for disease, and to facilitate the development of effective muscle, exercise, and cardiovascular countermeasures. The component investigations designed to meet these goals focused on biochemical and physiological aspects of nutrition and metabolism, the risk of renal (kidney) stone formation, gastrointestinal function, and sleep in space. Investigations involved both ground-based protocols to validate proposed methods and flight studies to test those methods. Two hardware tests were also completed.

  19. Atlas of relations between climatic parameters and distributions of important trees and shrubs in North America; additional conifers, hardwoods, and monocots

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, Robert S.; Anderson, Katherine H.; Bartlein, Patrick J.; Smith, Sharon A.

    2000-01-01

    This volume explores the continental-scale relations between climate and the geographic ranges of woody plant species in North America. A 25-km equal-area grid of modern climatic and bioclimatic parameters for North America was constructed from instrumental weather records. The geographic distributions of selected tree and shrub species were digitized, and the presence or absence of each species was determined for each cell on the 25-km grid, thus providing a basis for comparing climatic data and species' distribution.

  20. Parallel inhibition of active force and relaxed fiber stiffness by caldesmon fragments at physiological ionic strength and temperature conditions: additional evidence that weak cross-bridge binding to actin is an essential intermediate for force generation.

    PubMed Central

    Kraft, T; Chalovich, J M; Yu, L C; Brenner, B

    1995-01-01

    Previously we showed that stiffness of relaxed fibers and active force generated in single skinned fibers of rabbit psoas muscle are inhibited in parallel by actin-binding fragments of caldesmon, an actin-associated protein of smooth muscle, under conditions in which a large fraction of cross-bridges is weakly attached to actin (ionic strength of 50 mM and temperature of 5 degrees C). These results suggested that weak cross-bridge attachment to actin is essential for force generation. The present study provides evidence that this is also true for physiological ionic strength (170 mM) at temperatures up to 30 degrees C, suggesting that weak cross-bridge binding to actin is generally required for force generation. In addition, we show that the inhibition of active force is not a result of changes in cross-bridge cycling kinetics but apparently results from selective inhibition of weak cross-bridge binding to actin. Together with our previous biochemical, mechanical, and structural studies, these findings support the proposal that weak cross-bridge attachment to actin is an essential intermediate on the path to force generation and are consistent with the concept that isometric force mainly results from an increase in strain of the attached cross-bridge as a result of a structural change associated with the transition from a weakly bound to a strongly bound actomyosin complex. This mechanism is different from the processes responsible for quick tension recovery that were proposed by Huxley and Simmons (Proposed mechanism of force generation in striated muscle. Nature. 233:533-538.) to represent the elementary mechanism of force generation. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:7647245

  1. Comparison of the Effects of Ketamine, Ketamine–Medetomidine, and Ketamine–Midazolam on Physiologic Parameters and Anesthesia-Induced Stress in Rhesus (Macaca mulatta) and Cynomolgus (Macaca fascicularis) Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Vanessa K; Flynt, Kendall S; Haag, Lauren M; Taylor, Douglas K

    2010-01-01

    This study compared the cardiovascular, respiratory, anesthetic, and glucocorticoid effects of ketamine alone with ketamine–medetomidine and ketamine–midazolam in rhesus and cynomolgus macaques. Macaques were given either intramuscular ketamine (10 mg/kg), intramuscular ketamine–medetomidine (3 mg/kg; 0.15 mg/kg), or oral midazolam (1 mg/kg) followed by intramuscular ketamine (8 mg/kg). The addition of medetomidine, but not midazolam, provided muscle relaxation and abolishment of reflexes that was superior to ketamine alone. In addition, medetomidine did not cause clinically relevant effects on cardiovascular and respiratory parameters when compared with ketamine. These 3 protocols did not have significantly different effects on fecal glucocorticoid metabolites. These results suggest that medetomidine can be a valuable addition to ketamine for healthy patients, whereas oral midazolam at the tested dose does not provide additional benefits. PMID:20122318

  2. Detection and characterisation of frauds in bovine meat in natura by non-meat ingredient additions using data fusion of chemical parameters and ATR-FTIR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Karen M; Andrade, Marcus Vinícius O; Santos Filho, Antônio M P; Lasmar, Marcelo C; Sena, Marcelo M

    2016-08-15

    Concerns about meat authenticity are increasing recently, due to great fraud scandals. This paper analysed real samples (43 adulterated and 12 controls) originated from criminal networks dismantled by the Brazilian Police. This fraud consisted of injecting solutions of non-meat ingredients (NaCl, phosphates, carrageenan, maltodextrin) in bovine meat, aiming to increase its water holding capacity. Five physico-chemical variables were determined, protein, ash, chloride, sodium, phosphate. Additionally, infrared spectra were recorded. Supervised classification PLS-DA models were built with each data set individually, but the best model was obtained with data fusion, correctly detecting 91% of the adulterated samples. From this model, a variable selection based on the highest VIPscores was performed and a new data fusion model was built with only one chemical variable, providing slightly lower predictions, but a good cost/performance ratio. Finally, some of the selected infrared bands were specifically associated to the presence of adulterants NaCl, tripolyphosphate and carrageenan.

  3. Addition of superoxide dismutase mimics during cooling process prevents oxidative stress and improves semen quality parameters in frozen/thawed ram spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Santiani, Alexei; Evangelista, Shirley; Sepúlveda, Néstor; Risopatrón, Jennie; Villegas, Juana; Sánchez, Raúl

    2014-10-01

    High levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which may be related to reduced semen quality, are detected during semen cryopreservation in some species. The objectives of this study were to measure the oxidative stress during ram semen cryopreservation and to evaluate the effect of adding 2 antioxidant mimics of superoxide dismutase (Tempo and Tempol) during the cooling process on sperm motility, viability, acrosomal integrity, capacitation status, ROS levels, and lipid peroxidation in frozen and/or thawed ram spermatozoa. Measuring of ROS levels during the cooling process at 35, 25, 15, and 5 °C and after freezing and/or thawing showed a directly proportional increase (P < 0.05) when temperatures were lowering. Adding antioxidants at 10 °C confered a higher motility and sperm viability after cryopreservation in comparison with adding at 35 °C or at 35 °C/5 °C. After freezing and/or thawing, sperm motility was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in Tempo and Tempol 1 mM than that in control group. Percentage of capacitated spermatozoa was lower (P < 0.05) in Tempo and Tempol 1 mM in comparison with that in control group. In addition, ROS levels and lipid peroxidation in group Tempo 1 mM were lower (P < 0.05) than those in control group. These results demonstrate that ram spermatozoa are exposed to oxidative stress during the cooling process, specifically when maintained at 5 °C and that lipid peroxidation induced by high levels of ROS decreases sperm motility and induces premature sperm capacitation. In contrast, the addition of Tempo or Tempol at 0.5 to 1 mM during the cooling process (10 °C) protects ram spermatozoa from oxidative stress.

  4. Uptake of copper and cerium by alfalfa, lettuce and cucumber exposed to nCeO2 and nCuO through the foliage or the roots: Impacts on food quality, physiological and agronomical parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Jie

    Nanotechnology is increasingly attracting attention not only for its variety of applications in modern life, but for the potential negative effects that nanomaterials (NMs) can cause in the environment and human health. Studies have shown varied effects of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) on plants; however, most of these studies focused on the interaction of NPs with plants at root level. The increasing production and use of NPs have also increased the atmospheric amounts of NPs, which could be taken up by plants through their leaves. Cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L.) are broad leaf plants commonly grown both commercially and in home vegetable gardens that can be easily impacted by atmospheric NPs. However, there is limited information about the potential effects of these atmospheric NPs on cucumber. This research was aimed to determine (I) the possible uptake and translocation of cerium (Ce) by cucumber plants exposed to nCeO 2 (cerium dioxide nanoparticles, nanoceria) through the foliage, (II) the impacts of the NPs on physiological parameters of the plants and the effects on the nutritional value and quality of the fruits, and (III) the effects of seven copper compounds/nanoparticles applied to the growth medium of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa). For aim I, 15 day-old hydroponically grown cucumber plants were exposed to nCeO2, either as powder at 0.98 and 2.94 g/m3 or suspensions at 20, 40, 80, 160, 320 mg/l. Ce uptake was analyzed by using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The activity of three stress enzymes was measured by UV/Vis. Ce was detected in all cucumber tissues and TEM images showed the presence of Ce in roots. Results suggested nCeO2 penetrated plants through leaves and moved to other plant parts. The biochemical assays showed nCeO2 also modified stress enzyme activities. For aim II, 15 day-old soil grown cucumber plants were foliar treated, separately

  5. Uptake of copper and cerium by alfalfa, lettuce and cucumber exposed to nCeO2 and nCuO through the foliage or the roots: Impacts on food quality, physiological and agronomical parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Jie

    Nanotechnology is increasingly attracting attention not only for its variety of applications in modern life, but for the potential negative effects that nanomaterials (NMs) can cause in the environment and human health. Studies have shown varied effects of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) on plants; however, most of these studies focused on the interaction of NPs with plants at root level. The increasing production and use of NPs have also increased the atmospheric amounts of NPs, which could be taken up by plants through their leaves. Cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L.) are broad leaf plants commonly grown both commercially and in home vegetable gardens that can be easily impacted by atmospheric NPs. However, there is limited information about the potential effects of these atmospheric NPs on cucumber. This research was aimed to determine (I) the possible uptake and translocation of cerium (Ce) by cucumber plants exposed to nCeO 2 (cerium dioxide nanoparticles, nanoceria) through the foliage, (II) the impacts of the NPs on physiological parameters of the plants and the effects on the nutritional value and quality of the fruits, and (III) the effects of seven copper compounds/nanoparticles applied to the growth medium of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa). For aim I, 15 day-old hydroponically grown cucumber plants were exposed to nCeO2, either as powder at 0.98 and 2.94 g/m3 or suspensions at 20, 40, 80, 160, 320 mg/l. Ce uptake was analyzed by using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The activity of three stress enzymes was measured by UV/Vis. Ce was detected in all cucumber tissues and TEM images showed the presence of Ce in roots. Results suggested nCeO2 penetrated plants through leaves and moved to other plant parts. The biochemical assays showed nCeO2 also modified stress enzyme activities. For aim II, 15 day-old soil grown cucumber plants were foliar treated, separately

  6. Detection and characterisation of frauds in bovine meat in natura by non-meat ingredient additions using data fusion of chemical parameters and ATR-FTIR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Karen M; Andrade, Marcus Vinícius O; Santos Filho, Antônio M P; Lasmar, Marcelo C; Sena, Marcelo M

    2016-08-15

    Concerns about meat authenticity are increasing recently, due to great fraud scandals. This paper analysed real samples (43 adulterated and 12 controls) originated from criminal networks dismantled by the Brazilian Police. This fraud consisted of injecting solutions of non-meat ingredients (NaCl, phosphates, carrageenan, maltodextrin) in bovine meat, aiming to increase its water holding capacity. Five physico-chemical variables were determined, protein, ash, chloride, sodium, phosphate. Additionally, infrared spectra were recorded. Supervised classification PLS-DA models were built with each data set individually, but the best model was obtained with data fusion, correctly detecting 91% of the adulterated samples. From this model, a variable selection based on the highest VIPscores was performed and a new data fusion model was built with only one chemical variable, providing slightly lower predictions, but a good cost/performance ratio. Finally, some of the selected infrared bands were specifically associated to the presence of adulterants NaCl, tripolyphosphate and carrageenan. PMID:27006208

  7. [Aviation physiology].

    PubMed

    Frank, P W

    1999-10-01

    Aviation physiology should be known at least in parts by the physicians advising air travellers. Due to reducing atmospheric pressure at altitude gas volume in body cavities expands (Boyle's law). This might not be a problem during ascend since air can disappear easily through natural ways. However, air must return to body cavities during descend and a person with a cold may suffer from painful barotitis. Hypoxia is mostly due to a reduced pO2 in high altitude (Daltons's Law). This may be prevented by an aircraft cabin or supplemented oxygen. Decompression sickness is very rare in aviation but divers should comply to a dive free interval before flying. PMID:10568247

  8. MEGen: A Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Model Generator

    PubMed Central

    Loizou, George; Hogg, Alex

    2011-01-01

    Physiologically based pharmacokinetic models are being used in an increasing number of different areas. However, they are perceived as complex, data hungry, resource intensive, and time consuming. In addition, model validation and verification are hindered by the relative complexity of the equations. To begin to address these issues a web application called MEGen for the rapid construction and documentation of bespoke deterministic PBPK model code is under development. MEGen comprises a parameter database and a model code generator that produces code for use in several commercial software packages and one that is freely available. Here we present an overview of the current capabilities of MEGen, and discuss future developments. PMID:22084631

  9. Physiological Acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Eric D.

    The analysis of physiological sound in the peripheral auditory system solves three important problems. First, sound energy impinging on the head must be captured and presented to the transduction apparatus in the ear as a suitable mechanical signal; second, this mechanical signal needs to be transduced into a neural representation that can be used by the brain; third, the resulting neural representation needs to be analyzed by central neurons to extract information useful to the animal. This chapter provides an overview of some aspects of the first two of these processes. The description is entirely focused on the mammalian auditory system, primarily on human hearing and on the hearing of a few commonly used laboratory animals (mainly rodents and carnivores). Useful summaries of non-mammalian hearing are available [1]. Because of the large size of the literature, review papers are referenced wherever possible.

  10. HumMod: A Modeling Environment for the Simulation of Integrative Human Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Hester, Robert L.; Brown, Alison J.; Husband, Leland; Iliescu, Radu; Pruett, Drew; Summers, Richard; Coleman, Thomas G.

    2011-01-01

    Mathematical models and simulations are important tools in discovering key causal relationships governing physiological processes. Simulations guide and improve outcomes of medical interventions involving complex physiology. We developed HumMod, a Windows-based model of integrative human physiology. HumMod consists of 5000 variables describing cardiovascular, respiratory, renal, neural, endocrine, skeletal muscle, and metabolic physiology. The model is constructed from empirical data obtained from peer-reviewed physiological literature. All model details, including variables, parameters, and quantitative relationships, are described in Extensible Markup Language (XML) files. The executable (HumMod.exe) parses the XML and displays the results of the physiological simulations. The XML description of physiology in HumMod's modeling environment allows investigators to add detailed descriptions of human physiology to test new concepts. Additional or revised XML content is parsed and incorporated into the model. The model accurately predicts both qualitative and quantitative changes in clinical and experimental responses. The model is useful in understanding proposed physiological mechanisms and physiological interactions that are not evident, allowing one to observe higher level emergent properties of the complex physiological systems. HumMod has many uses, for instance, analysis of renal control of blood pressure, central role of the liver in creating and maintaining insulin resistance, and mechanisms causing orthostatic hypotension in astronauts. Users simulate different physiological and pathophysiological situations by interactively altering numerical parameters and viewing time-dependent responses. HumMod provides a modeling environment to understand the complex interactions of integrative physiology. HumMod can be downloaded at http://hummod.org PMID:21647209

  11. Space Physiology within an Exercise Physiology Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Jason R.; West, John B.

    2013-01-01

    Compare and contrast strategies remain common pedagogical practices within physiological education. With the support of an American Physiological Society Teaching Career Enhancement Award, we have developed a junior- or senior-level undergraduate curriculum for exercise physiology that compares and contrasts the physiological adaptations of…

  12. Swimming physiology.

    PubMed

    Holmér, I

    1992-05-01

    Swimming takes place in a medium, that presents different gravitational and resistive forces, respiratory conditions and thermal stress compared to air. The energy cost of propulsion in swimming is high, but a considerable reduction occurs at a given velocity as result of regular swim training. In medley swimmers the energy cost is lowest for front crawl, followed by backstroke, butterfly and breast-stroke. Cardiac output is probably not limiting for performance since swimmers easily achieve higher values during running. Maximal heart rate, however, is lowered by approx. 10 beats/min during swimming compared to running. Most likely active muscle mass is smaller and rate of power production lesser in swimming. Local factors, such as peripheral circulation, capillary density, perfusion pressure and metabolic capacity of active muscles, are important determinants of the power production capacity and emphasize the role of swim specific training movements. Improved swimming technique and efficiency are likely to explain much of the continuous progress in performance. Rational principles based on improved understanding of the biomechanics and physiology of swimming should be guidelines for swimmers and coaches in their efforts to explore the limits of human performance. PMID:1642724

  13. Cosmic Rays Variations and Human Physiological State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrova, S.

    2009-12-01

    It was obtained in our previous investigations that geomagnetic activity as an indirect indicator of solar activity correlates with some human physiological and psycho-physiological parameters. A lot of studies indicate that other parameters of space weather like cosmic rays Forbush decreases affect myocardial infarction, brain stroke, car accidents, etc. The purpose of that work was to study the effect of cosmic rays variations on human physiological status. It was established that the decrease in cosmic rays intensity was related to an increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressure and reported subjective psycho-physiological complaints in healthy volunteers.

  14. Cardiac Physiology for Radiologists: Review of Relevant Physiology for Interpretation of Cardiac MR Imaging and CT.

    PubMed

    Sheth, Pooja J; Danton, Gary H; Siegel, Yoel; Kardon, Richard E; Infante, Juan C; Ghersin, Eduard; Fishman, Joel E

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging provide clinicians with important insights into cardiac physiology and pathology. However, not all radiologists understand the language and concepts of cardiac physiology that are used daily by cardiologists. This review article covers basic cardiac physiology as it relates to cardiac CT and MR imaging. Topics include a review of the cardiac cycle and left ventricular pressure-volume loops as they relate to different pathologic states, evaluation of cardiac function, and calculation of key parameters such as left ventricular volumes and the ejection fraction. The hemodynamics of cardiac shunts are covered, with an emphasis on factors important to cardiologists, including the ratio of pulmonary flow to systemic flow. Additionally, valvular physiologic function is reexamined, with a focus on understanding pressure gradients within the heart and also the changes associated with valvular pathologic conditions, including measurement of regurgitant fractions in patients with valvular insufficiency. Understanding these basic concepts will help radiologists tailor the reporting of cardiac studies to clinically relevant information.

  15. Cardiac Physiology of Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    May, Linda

    2015-07-01

    Although the physiology of the heart and vascular system has not changed, there are many things we have learned and are still learning today. Research related to heart adaptations during pregnancy has been performed since the 1930s. Since the mid-1950s, researchers began to look at changes in the maternal cardiovascular system during exercise while pregnant. Research related to exercise during pregnancy and offspring heart development began and has continued since the 1970s. We will review the normal female cardiovascular system adaptations to pregnancy in general. Additionally, topics related to maternal cardiac adaptations to pregnancy during acute exercise, as well as the chronic conditioning response from exercise training will be explored. Since physical activity during pregnancy influences fetal development, the fetal cardiac development will be discussed in regards to acute and chronic maternal exercise. Similarly, the influence of various types of maternal exercise on acute and chronic fetal heart responses will be described. Briefly, the topics related to how and if there is maternal-fetal synchrony will be explained. Lastly, the developmental changes of the fetal cardiovascular system that persist after birth will be explored. Overall, the article will discuss maternal cardiac physiology related to changes with normal pregnancy, and exercise during pregnancy, as well as fetal cardiac physiology related to changes with normal development, and exercise during pregnancy as well as developmental changes in offspring after birth.

  16. Neonatal cardiovascular physiology.

    PubMed

    Hines, Michael H

    2013-11-01

    The pediatric surgeon deals with a large number and variety of congenital defects in neonates that frequently involve early surgical intervention and care. Because the neonatal cardiac physiology is unique, starting with the transition from fetal circulation and including differences in calcium metabolism and myocardial microscopic structure and function, it serves the pediatric surgeon well to have a sound understanding of these principles and how they directly and indirectly affect their plans and treatments. In addition, many patients will have associated congenital heart disease that can also dramatically influence not only the surgical and anesthetic care but also the timing and planning of procedures. Finally, the pediatric surgeon is often called upon to treat conditions and complications associated with complex congenital heart disease such as feeding difficulties, bowel perforations, and malrotation in heterotaxy syndromes. In this article, we will review several unique aspects of neonatal cardiac physiology along with the basic physiology of the major groups of congenital heart disease to better prepare the training and practicing pediatric surgeon for care of these complex and often fragile patients.

  17. DigitalHuman (DH): An Integrative Mathematical Model ofHuman Physiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hester, Robert L.; Summers, Richard L.; lIescu, Radu; Esters, Joyee; Coleman, Thomas G.

    2010-01-01

    Mathematical models and simulation are important tools in discovering the key causal relationships governing physiological processes and improving medical intervention when physiological complexity is a central issue. We have developed a model of integrative human physiology called DigitalHuman (DH) consisting of -5000 variables modeling human physiology describing cardiovascular, renal, respiratory, endocrine, neural and metabolic physiology. Users can view time-dependent solutions and interactively introduce perturbations by altering numerical parameters to investigate new hypotheses. The variables, parameters and quantitative relationships as well as all other model details are described in XML text files. All aspects of the model, including the mathematical equations describing the physiological processes are written in XML open source, text-readable files. Model structure is based upon empirical data of physiological responses documented within the peer-reviewed literature. The model can be used to understand proposed physiological mechanisms and physiological interactions that may not be otherwise intUitively evident. Some of the current uses of this model include the analyses of renal control of blood pressure, the central role of the liver in creating and maintaining insulin resistance, and the mechanisms causing orthostatic hypotension in astronauts. Additionally the open source aspect of the modeling environment allows any investigator to add detailed descriptions of human physiology to test new concepts. The model accurately predicts both qualitative and more importantly quantitative changes in clinically and experimentally observed responses. DigitalHuman provides scientists a modeling environment to understand the complex interactions of integrative physiology. This research was supported by.NIH HL 51971, NSF EPSCoR, and NASA

  18. Physiological responses to environmental factors related to space flight. [hemodynamic and metabolic responses to weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, N.

    1973-01-01

    Physiological base line data are established, and physiological procedures and instrumentation necessary for the automatic measurement of hemodynamic and metabolic parameters during prolonged periods of weightlessness are developed.

  19. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  20. Comparison of bipyridyl, maltol and kojic acid action as organic vanadium ligands on activity of galactosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.38), some physiological parameters and ultrastructure of Golgi complexes in rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Dabros, Wojciech; Kordowiak, Anna

    2007-01-01

    The biochemical activity and morphology of control and streptozotocin-diabetic rat liver Golgi complexes were previously investigated by us under influence of some vanadium [V(IV)] compounds. The effectiveness of these derivatives depends on the kind of complexing ligands. This paper presents the investigation of the effect of bipyridyl, the ligand of a new vanadium compound, tested by us with maltol and kojic acid (two ligands studied by the present and other authors). The three ligands alone action was tested under the same experimental conditions as in the case of whole compounds with vanadium and applied to liver Golgi complexes of control rats. A preliminary study for maltol and kojic acid had been previously carried out by us parallel with tests of whole vanadium complexes, but valuable differences in biological action found in our condition of experiments suggested the extension of studies to include the two above-mentioned ligands and to compare the effects of the three investigated ligands. The supplementary part of the experiment focused mainly on the ultrastructure of Golgi complexes in hepatocytes. Four groups of animals were used: C - control rats, C + M (maltol), C + (ka)2 (kojic acid) and C + (bpy)2 (bipyridyl). The control rats received 0.09M NaCl as drinking liquid; all the other animals were given 3.6 mmol/L of appropriate ligand solution in 0.09M NaCl during 7 days. All the animals survived the experiments. Only in group C + (bpy)2 did the authors observe statistically significant differences as compared with the controls (group C). The differences were detected in physiological studies and manifested as body weight decreased by approximately 20% during the experiment, lower liquid (p<0.001) and food (p<0.01) intake and increase of free blood sugar level (p<0.01). The yield of Golgi membrane isolation decreased in this group (p<0.01). The main investigated biochemical parameter, i.e. the activity of liver Golgi marker enzyme

  1. PHYSIOLOGICAL ONTOGENY

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Henry A.

    1925-01-01

    As this paper goes to press a complete review of the chemistry of the fertile egg will be appearing (19). The author, Mr. J. Needham, was kind enough to allow me to inspect his manuscript and thus avail myself of the comprehensive bibliography and discussion. It is surprising that no biochemists have estimated the changing water content of the egg during incubation. Many of the analyses reported in Needham's review were expressed in per cent of total weight or per cent of dry solid, and consequently are of questionable value, since these latter functions are themselves changing; the former due to water evaporation and the latter through the addition of shell constituents and the burning of oxidizable organic compounds. Moreover, there has been no statistical treatment of the results, and the reliability of the average, figures obtained has consequently been difficult to estimate. Tangl's work, quoted throughout this paper, except for its lack of statistical treatment is more enlightening. However, his concept of the so called "Energy of Embryogenesis" which he propounds, seems to me misleading and unwarranted. What Tangl measured was the amount and the caloric value of the solid material burned and thus the quantity of energy lost during the embryonic period. The latter is equivalent to the usual measurements of catabolism. In the case of the embryo it is not basal metabolism which is being estimated, since the conditions are not basal. The embryo is absorbing and assimilating nutriment all the while at a relatively rapid rate. The calorific value of the oxidized solid, which is in truth the amount of energy lost during a certain chosen interval, in Tangl's judgment stands for the energy of embryogenesis; i.e., the energy of development (growth + differentiation). We believe that this conception is erroneous. The two processes, anabolism and catabolism, occur together and undoubtedly have some relationship, but surely one is not a measure of the other. In a

  2. Physiologic monitoring systems.

    PubMed

    2005-01-01

    Physiologic monitoring systems monitor vital physiologic parameters so that clinicians can be informed of changes in a patient's condition. For this study, we evaluated systems from six monitoring suppliers--Dräger Medical, GE Healthcare, Nihon Kohden, Philips Medical Systems, Spacelabs Medical, and Welch Allyn. The intent of this study is to help facilities choose not just the most appropriate system, but also the most appropriate version of that system--the combination of components that will best suit the facility's needs. Our testing focused primarily on adaptability, alarm implementation, and human factors design. We rated the systems based on their capabilities and performance for each of seven care settings: critical care unit, emergency department, intermediate care unit and general medical/surgical floor, operating room (with separate ratings for use during conscious sedation and general anesthesia), postanesthesia care unit, and transport. The systems performed well against the majority of our criteria. Nevertheless, we found notable differences in specific features and performance areas. These differences will have varying levels of significance for different hospitals. PMID:15794523

  3. Natural selection and glucocorticoid physiology.

    PubMed

    Patterson, S H; Hahn, T P; Cornelius, J M; Breuner, C W

    2014-02-01

    Glucocorticoid hormones are considered potent modulators of trade-offs between reproduction and survival. As such, selection should affect glucocorticoid physiology, although relatively little is known about how selection may act on glucocorticoid profiles. In general, the evolution of physiology is less studied and less well understood than morphological or life history traits. Here, we used a long-term data set from a population of mountain white-crowned sparrows to estimate natural selection on glucocorticoid profiles. Our study suggests that survival selection favours higher hormone concentrations for multiple components of glucocorticoid physiology (both baseline and stress-induced glucocorticoid levels). Fecundity selection varies depending on the component of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal physiology; greater reproductive output was associated with higher baseline glucocorticoid levels, but lower stress-induced glucocorticoid levels. Additionally, the selection gradient was greater for glucocorticoids than for a morphological trait (wing length). These results support the hypothesis that stress-induced glucocorticoids increase survival over reproduction within a wild population (the CORT-trade-off hypothesis). Taken together, these results add to our knowledge of how selection operates on physiological traits and also provide an evolutionary and ecological perspective on several key open issues in the field of glucocorticoid physiology.

  4. Synergistic and Antagonistic Effects of Thermal Shock, Air Exposure, and Fishing Capture on the Physiological Stress of Squilla mantis (Stomatopoda)

    PubMed Central

    Raicevich, Saša; Minute, Fabrizio; Finoia, Maria Grazia; Caranfa, Francesca; Di Muro, Paolo; Scapolan, Lucia; Beltramini, Mariano

    2014-01-01

    This study is aimed at assessing the effects of multiple stressors (thermal shock, fishing capture, and exposure to air) on the benthic stomatopod Squilla mantis, a burrowing crustacean quite widespread in the Mediterranean Sea. Laboratory analyses were carried out to explore the physiological impairment onset over time, based on emersion and thermal shocks, on farmed individuals. Parallel field-based studies were carried out to also investigate the role of fishing (i.e., otter trawling) in inducing physiological imbalance in different seasonal conditions. The dynamics of physiological recovery from physiological disruption were also studied. Physiological stress was assessed by analysing hemolymph metabolites (L-Lactate, D-glucose, ammonia, and H+), as well as glycogen concentration in muscle tissues. The experiments were carried out according to a factorial scheme considering the three factors (thermal shock, fishing capture, and exposure to air) at two fixed levels in order to explore possible synergistic, additive, or antagonistic effects among factors. Additive effects on physiological parameters were mainly detected when the three factors interacted together while synergistic effects were found as effect of the combination of two factors. This finding highlights that the physiological adaptive and maladaptive processes induced by the stressors result in a dynamic response that may encounter physiological limits when high stress levels are sustained. Thus, a further increase in the physiological parameters due to synergies cannot be reached. Moreover, when critical limits are encountered, mortality occurs and physiological parameters reflect the response of the last survivors. In the light of our mortality studies, thermal shock and exposure to air have the main effect on the survival of S. mantis only on trawled individuals, while lab-farmed individuals did not show any mortality during exposure to air until after 2 hours. PMID:25133593

  5. Autonomic physiological data associated with simulator discomfort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, James C.; Sharkey, Thomas J.; Graham, Glenna A.; Mccauley, Michael E.

    1993-01-01

    The development of a physiological monitoring capability for the Army's advanced helicopter simulator facility is reported. Additionally, preliminary physiological data is presented. Our objective was to demonstrate the sensitivity of physiological measures in this simulator to self-reported simulator sickness. The data suggested that heart period, hypergastria, and skin conductance level were more sensitive to simulator sickness than were vagal tone and normal electrogastric activity.

  6. Phosphazene additives

    DOEpatents

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  7. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  8. Chewing Over Physiology Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdulkader, Fernando; Azevedo-Martins, Anna Karenina; de Arcisio Miranda, Manoel; Brunaldi, Kellen

    2005-01-01

    An important challenge for both students and teachers of physiology is to integrate the differentareas in which physiological knowledge is didactically divided. In developing countries, such an issue is even more demanding, because budget restrictions often affect the physiology program with laboratory classes being the first on the list when it…

  9. Conservation physiology of animal migration.

    PubMed

    Lennox, Robert J; Chapman, Jacqueline M; Souliere, Christopher M; Tudorache, Christian; Wikelski, Martin; Metcalfe, Julian D; Cooke, Steven J

    2016-01-01

    Migration is a widespread phenomenon among many taxa. This complex behaviour enables animals to exploit many temporally productive and spatially discrete habitats to accrue various fitness benefits (e.g. growth, reproduction, predator avoidance). Human activities and global environmental change represent potential threats to migrating animals (from individuals to species), and research is underway to understand mechanisms that control migration and how migration responds to modern challenges. Focusing on behavioural and physiological aspects of migration can help to provide better understanding, management and conservation of migratory populations. Here, we highlight different physiological, behavioural and biomechanical aspects of animal migration that will help us to understand how migratory animals interact with current and future anthropogenic threats. We are in the early stages of a changing planet, and our understanding of how physiology is linked to the persistence of migratory animals is still developing; therefore, we regard the following questions as being central to the conservation physiology of animal migrations. Will climate change influence the energetic costs of migration? Will shifting temperatures change the annual clocks of migrating animals? Will anthropogenic influences have an effect on orientation during migration? Will increased anthropogenic alteration of migration stopover sites/migration corridors affect the stress physiology of migrating animals? Can physiological knowledge be used to identify strategies for facilitating the movement of animals? Our synthesis reveals that given the inherent challenges of migration, additional stressors derived from altered environments (e.g. climate change, physical habitat alteration, light pollution) or interaction with human infrastructure (e.g. wind or hydrokinetic turbines, dams) or activities (e.g. fisheries) could lead to long-term changes to migratory phenotypes. However, uncertainty remains

  10. Conservation physiology of animal migration

    PubMed Central

    Lennox, Robert J.; Chapman, Jacqueline M.; Souliere, Christopher M.; Tudorache, Christian; Wikelski, Martin; Metcalfe, Julian D.; Cooke, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    Migration is a widespread phenomenon among many taxa. This complex behaviour enables animals to exploit many temporally productive and spatially discrete habitats to accrue various fitness benefits (e.g. growth, reproduction, predator avoidance). Human activities and global environmental change represent potential threats to migrating animals (from individuals to species), and research is underway to understand mechanisms that control migration and how migration responds to modern challenges. Focusing on behavioural and physiological aspects of migration can help to provide better understanding, management and conservation of migratory populations. Here, we highlight different physiological, behavioural and biomechanical aspects of animal migration that will help us to understand how migratory animals interact with current and future anthropogenic threats. We are in the early stages of a changing planet, and our understanding of how physiology is linked to the persistence of migratory animals is still developing; therefore, we regard the following questions as being central to the conservation physiology of animal migrations. Will climate change influence the energetic costs of migration? Will shifting temperatures change the annual clocks of migrating animals? Will anthropogenic influences have an effect on orientation during migration? Will increased anthropogenic alteration of migration stopover sites/migration corridors affect the stress physiology of migrating animals? Can physiological knowledge be used to identify strategies for facilitating the movement of animals? Our synthesis reveals that given the inherent challenges of migration, additional stressors derived from altered environments (e.g. climate change, physical habitat alteration, light pollution) or interaction with human infrastructure (e.g. wind or hydrokinetic turbines, dams) or activities (e.g. fisheries) could lead to long-term changes to migratory phenotypes. However, uncertainty remains

  11. Conservation physiology of animal migration.

    PubMed

    Lennox, Robert J; Chapman, Jacqueline M; Souliere, Christopher M; Tudorache, Christian; Wikelski, Martin; Metcalfe, Julian D; Cooke, Steven J

    2016-01-01

    Migration is a widespread phenomenon among many taxa. This complex behaviour enables animals to exploit many temporally productive and spatially discrete habitats to accrue various fitness benefits (e.g. growth, reproduction, predator avoidance). Human activities and global environmental change represent potential threats to migrating animals (from individuals to species), and research is underway to understand mechanisms that control migration and how migration responds to modern challenges. Focusing on behavioural and physiological aspects of migration can help to provide better understanding, management and conservation of migratory populations. Here, we highlight different physiological, behavioural and biomechanical aspects of animal migration that will help us to understand how migratory animals interact with current and future anthropogenic threats. We are in the early stages of a changing planet, and our understanding of how physiology is linked to the persistence of migratory animals is still developing; therefore, we regard the following questions as being central to the conservation physiology of animal migrations. Will climate change influence the energetic costs of migration? Will shifting temperatures change the annual clocks of migrating animals? Will anthropogenic influences have an effect on orientation during migration? Will increased anthropogenic alteration of migration stopover sites/migration corridors affect the stress physiology of migrating animals? Can physiological knowledge be used to identify strategies for facilitating the movement of animals? Our synthesis reveals that given the inherent challenges of migration, additional stressors derived from altered environments (e.g. climate change, physical habitat alteration, light pollution) or interaction with human infrastructure (e.g. wind or hydrokinetic turbines, dams) or activities (e.g. fisheries) could lead to long-term changes to migratory phenotypes. However, uncertainty remains

  12. [Evolution of evolutionary physiology].

    PubMed

    Natochin, Iu V

    2008-09-01

    In 19th century and at the beginning 20th century, reports appeared in the field of comparative and ontogenetic physiology and the value of these methods for understanding of evolution of functions. The term "evolutionary physiology" was suggested by A. N. Severtsov in 1914. In the beginning of 30s, in the USSR, laboratories for researches in problems of evolutionary physiology were created, the results of these researches having been published. In 1956 in Leningrad, the Institute of Evolutionary Physiology was founded by L. A. Orbeli. He formulates the goals and methods of evolutionary physiology. In the following half a century, the evolutionary physiology was actively developed. The evolutionary physiology solves problems of evolution of function of functions evolution, often involving methods of adjacent sciences, including biochemistry, morphology, molecular biology.

  13. Physiological, Psychological, and Social Effects of Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kryter, K. D.

    1984-01-01

    The physiological, and behavioral effects of noise on man are investigated. Basic parameters such as definitions of noise, measuring techniques of noise, and the physiology of the ear are presented prior to the development of topics on hearing loss, speech communication in noise, social effects of noise, and the health effects of noise pollution. Recommendations for the assessment and subsequent control of noise is included.

  14. Chewing over physiology integration.

    PubMed

    Abdulkader, Fernando; Azevedo-Martins, Anna Karenina; Miranda, Manoel de Arcisio; Brunaldi, Kellen

    2005-03-01

    An important challenge for both students and teachers of physiology is to integrate the different areas in which physiological knowledge is didactically divided. In developing countries, such an issue is even more demanding, because budget restrictions often affect the physiology program with laboratory classes being the first on the list when it comes to cuts in expenses. With the aim of addressing this kind of problem, the graduate students of our department organized a physiology summer course offered to undergraduate students. The objective was to present the different physiological systems in an integrated fashion. The strategy pursued was to plan laboratory classes whose experimental results were the basis for the relevant theoretical discussions. The subject we developed to illustrate physiology integration was the study of factors influencing salivary secretion.

  15. Chewing over physiology integration.

    PubMed

    Abdulkader, Fernando; Azevedo-Martins, Anna Karenina; Miranda, Manoel de Arcisio; Brunaldi, Kellen

    2005-03-01

    An important challenge for both students and teachers of physiology is to integrate the different areas in which physiological knowledge is didactically divided. In developing countries, such an issue is even more demanding, because budget restrictions often affect the physiology program with laboratory classes being the first on the list when it comes to cuts in expenses. With the aim of addressing this kind of problem, the graduate students of our department organized a physiology summer course offered to undergraduate students. The objective was to present the different physiological systems in an integrated fashion. The strategy pursued was to plan laboratory classes whose experimental results were the basis for the relevant theoretical discussions. The subject we developed to illustrate physiology integration was the study of factors influencing salivary secretion. PMID:15718383

  16. Physiologic tremor and microsurgery.

    PubMed

    Harwell, R C; Ferguson, R L

    1983-01-01

    Physiologic tremor hampers the ability of students to learn microsurgical technique. An understanding of normal tremor both as to origin and methods of control would be of help. Physiological tremor arises from both mechanical and neuromuscular sources and is made worse by a number of factors. The "size principle of motoneuron recruitment" is an important physiologic consideration, and the use of biofeedback techniques enables the student to confirm his understanding of the principle. Knowledge of the factors which aggravate physiological tremor allows the microsurgeon to control his own tremor both in the laboratory and in the operating room.

  17. Hyperspectral signature analysis of skin parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyas, Saurabh; Banerjee, Amit; Garza, Luis; Kang, Sewon; Burlina, Philippe

    2013-02-01

    The temporal analysis of changes in biological skin parameters, including melanosome concentration, collagen concentration and blood oxygenation, may serve as a valuable tool in diagnosing the progression of malignant skin cancers and in understanding the pathophysiology of cancerous tumors. Quantitative knowledge of these parameters can also be useful in applications such as wound assessment, and point-of-care diagnostics, amongst others. We propose an approach to estimate in vivo skin parameters using a forward computational model based on Kubelka-Munk theory and the Fresnel Equations. We use this model to map the skin parameters to their corresponding hyperspectral signature. We then use machine learning based regression to develop an inverse map from hyperspectral signatures to skin parameters. In particular, we employ support vector machine based regression to estimate the in vivo skin parameters given their corresponding hyperspectral signature. We build on our work from SPIE 2012, and validate our methodology on an in vivo dataset. This dataset consists of 241 signatures collected from in vivo hyperspectral imaging of patients of both genders and Caucasian, Asian and African American ethnicities. In addition, we also extend our methodology past the visible region and through the short-wave infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum. We find promising results when comparing the estimated skin parameters to the ground truth, demonstrating good agreement with well-established physiological precepts. This methodology can have potential use in non-invasive skin anomaly detection and for developing minimally invasive pre-screening tools.

  18. Physiology of Oil Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Ketring, D. L.; Morgan, P. W.

    1971-01-01

    Germination, ethylene production, and carbon dioxide production by dormant Virginia-type peanuts were determined during treatments with plant growth regulators. Kinetin, benzylaminopurine, and 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid induced extensive germination above the water controls. Benzylaminopurine and 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid increased the germination of the more dormant basal seeds to a larger extent above the controls than the less dormant apical seeds. Coumarin induced a slight stimulation of germination while abscisic acid, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, and succinic acid 2,2-dimethylhydrazide did not stimulate germination above the controls. In addition to stimulating germination, the cytokinins also stimulated ethylene production by the seeds. In the case of benzylaminopurine, where the more dormant basal seeds were stimulated to germinate above the control to a larger extent than the less dormant apical seeds, correspondingly more ethylene production was induced in the basal seeds. However, the opposite was true of kinetin for both germination and ethylene production. When germination was extensively stimulated by the cytokinins, maximal ethylene and carbon dioxide evolution occurred at 24 and 72 hours, respectively. Abscisic acid inhibited ethylene production and germinaton of the seeds while carbon dioxide evolution was comparatively high. The crucial physiological event for germination of dormant peanut seeds was enhancement of ethylene production by the seeds. PMID:16657647

  19. Microbial physiology vol. 29

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, A.H. ); Tempest, D.W. )

    1988-01-01

    This book contains the following chapters: Hydrogen metabolism in Rhizobium: energetics, regulation, enzymology and genetics; The physiology and biochemistry of pili; Carboxysomes and ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase; Archaebacteria: the comparative enzymology of their central metabolic pathways; and Physiology of lipoteichoic acids in bacteria.

  20. Physiology of vitreous surgery.

    PubMed

    Stefánsson, Einar

    2009-02-01

    Vitreous surgery has various physiological and clinical consequences, both beneficial and harmful. Vitrectomy reduces the risk of retinal neovascularization, while increasing the risk of iris neovascularization, reduces macular edema and stimulates cataract formation. These clinical consequences may be understood with the help of classical laws of physics and physiology. The laws of Fick, Stokes-Einstein and Hagen-Poiseuille state that molecular transport by diffusion or convection is inversely related to the viscosity of the medium. When the vitreous gel is replaced with less viscous saline, the transport of all molecules, including oxygen and cytokines, is facilitated. Oxygen transport to ischemic retinal areas is improved, as is clearance of VEGF and other cytokines from these areas, thus reducing edema and neovascularization. At the same time, oxygen is transported faster down a concentration gradient from the anterior to the posterior segment, while VEGF moves in the opposite direction, making the anterior segment less oxygenated and with more VEGF, stimulating iris neovascularization. Silicone oil is the exception that proves the rule: it is more viscous than vitreous humour, re-establishes the transport barrier to oxygen and VEGF, and reduces the risk for iris neovascularization in the vitrectomized-lentectomized eye. Modern vitreous surgery involves a variety of treatment options in addition to vitrectomy itself, such as photocoagulation, anti-VEGF drugs, intravitreal steroids and release of vitreoretinal traction. A full understanding of these treatment modalities allows sensible combination of treatment options. Retinal photocoagulation has repeatedly been shown to improve retinal oxygenation, as does vitrectomy. Oxygen naturally reduces VEGF production and improves retinal hemodynamics. The VEGF-lowering effect of photocoagulation and vitrectomy can be augmented with anti-VEGF drugs and the permeability effect of VEGF reduced with corticosteroids

  1. Anthropometric, physiological and maturational characteristics in selected elite and non-elite male adolescent basketball players.

    PubMed

    Torres-Unda, Jon; Zarrazquin, Idoia; Gil, Javier; Ruiz, Fátima; Irazusta, Amaia; Kortajarena, Maider; Seco, Jesus; Irazusta, Jon

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the anthropometric, physiological and maturation characteristics of young players (13-14 years old) associated with being successful in basketball. Body parameters were measured (stature, total body mass, skinfolds and lengths) and physiological capacities were assessed by endurance, sprint (20 m), jump and dribbling tests. Chronological age (CA) was recorded and maturity estimated using predicted age at peak height velocity (APHV). Anthropometric analysis indicated that elite players were taller, heavier and had a higher percentage of muscle. Further, physiological testing showed that these elite players perform better in jump, endurance, speed and agility tests (especially in the agility and ball tests). In addition, these skills are correlated with point average during the regular season. More basketball players born in the first semester of the year are selected and there is a predominance of early-maturing boys among those selected for the elite team. Those who are more mature have advantages in anthropometric characteristics and physiological test results. In conclusion, around puberty, physical and physiological parameters associated with maturity and CA are important in determining the success of basketball players. These findings should be taken into account by trainers and coaches, to avoid artificial bias in their selection choices.

  2. Monitoring Physiological Variables with Membrane Probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janle, Elsa M.

    1997-01-01

    This project has demonstrated the possibility of using membrane probes in rodents to monitor physiological variables for extended periods of time. The utility of these probes in physiological studies of microgravity has been demonstrated. The feasibility of developing on-line sensors has also been demonstrated and allows for the possibility of developing real-time automated monitoring systems which can be used in ground-base physiological research as well as in research and medical monitoring in space. In addition to space applications these techniques can be extended to medical monitoring in critical care situations on earth as well as facilitating research in many human and animal diseases.

  3. Fetal cardiovascular physiology.

    PubMed

    Rychik, J

    2004-01-01

    The cardiovascular system of the fetus is physiologically different than the adult, mature system. Unique characteristics of the myocardium and specific channels of blood flow differentitate the physiology of the fetus from the newborn. Conditions of increased preload and afterload in the fetus, such as sacrococcygeal teratoma and twin-twin transfusion syndrome, result in unique and complex pathophysiological states. Echocardiography has improved our understanding of human fetal cadiovasvular physiology in the normal and diseased states, and has expanded our capability to more effectively treat these disease processes.

  4. Curriculum Guidelines for Physiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Guidelines developed by the Section on Physiology of the American Association of Dental Schools for use by educational institutions as curriculum development aids are presented. Primary educational goals, prerequisites, core content, and specific behavioral objectives are discussed. (MLW)

  5. Reproduction, physiology and biochemistry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter summarizes fundamental knowledge and recent discoveries about the reproduction, physiology and biochemistry of plant-parasitic nematodes. Various types of reproduction are reviewed, including sexual reproduction and mitotic and meiotic parthenogenesis. Although much is known about the p...

  6. From inverse problems in mathematical physiology to quantitative differential diagnoses.

    PubMed

    Zenker, Sven; Rubin, Jonathan; Clermont, Gilles

    2007-11-01

    The improved capacity to acquire quantitative data in a clinical setting has generally failed to improve outcomes in acutely ill patients, suggesting a need for advances in computer-supported data interpretation and decision making. In particular, the application of mathematical models of experimentally elucidated physiological mechanisms could augment the interpretation of quantitative, patient-specific information and help to better target therapy. Yet, such models are typically complex and nonlinear, a reality that often precludes the identification of unique parameters and states of the model that best represent available data. Hypothesizing that this non-uniqueness can convey useful information, we implemented a simplified simulation of a common differential diagnostic process (hypotension in an acute care setting), using a combination of a mathematical model of the cardiovascular system, a stochastic measurement model, and Bayesian inference techniques to quantify parameter and state uncertainty. The output of this procedure is a probability density function on the space of model parameters and initial conditions for a particular patient, based on prior population information together with patient-specific clinical observations. We show that multimodal posterior probability density functions arise naturally, even when unimodal and uninformative priors are used. The peaks of these densities correspond to clinically relevant differential diagnoses and can, in the simplified simulation setting, be constrained to a single diagnosis by assimilating additional observations from dynamical interventions (e.g., fluid challenge). We conclude that the ill-posedness of the inverse problem in quantitative physiology is not merely a technical obstacle, but rather reflects clinical reality and, when addressed adequately in the solution process, provides a novel link between mathematically described physiological knowledge and the clinical concept of differential diagnoses

  7. Metabolic Physiology in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Meo, Sultan Ayoub; Hassain, Asim

    2016-09-01

    The metabolic physiology during pregnancy is unique in the life of women. This change is a normal physiological adaptation to better accommodate the foetal growth and provides adequate blood, nutrition and oxygen. The metabolic changes prepare the mother\\'s body for pregnancy, childbirth and lactation. Early gestational period is considered as an anabolic phase, in which female body stores nutrients, enhance insulin sensitivity to encounter the maternal and feto-placental demands of late gestation and lactation. However, late gestational period is better named as a catabolic phase with reduced insulin sensitivity. The placenta plays a role as a sensor between mother and foetus physiology and acclimatizes the needs of the foetus to adequate growth and development. During pregnancy the female body changes its physiological and homeostatic mechanisms to meet the physiological needs of the foetus. However, if the maternal metabolic physiology during pregnancy is disturbed, it can cause hormonal imbalance, fat accumulation, decreased insulin sensitivity, increased insulin resistance and even gestational diabetes mellitus. PMID:27582161

  8. Metabolic Physiology in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Meo, Sultan Ayoub; Hassain, Asim

    2016-09-01

    The metabolic physiology during pregnancy is unique in the life of women. This change is a normal physiological adaptation to better accommodate the foetal growth and provides adequate blood, nutrition and oxygen. The metabolic changes prepare the mother\\'s body for pregnancy, childbirth and lactation. Early gestational period is considered as an anabolic phase, in which female body stores nutrients, enhance insulin sensitivity to encounter the maternal and feto-placental demands of late gestation and lactation. However, late gestational period is better named as a catabolic phase with reduced insulin sensitivity. The placenta plays a role as a sensor between mother and foetus physiology and acclimatizes the needs of the foetus to adequate growth and development. During pregnancy the female body changes its physiological and homeostatic mechanisms to meet the physiological needs of the foetus. However, if the maternal metabolic physiology during pregnancy is disturbed, it can cause hormonal imbalance, fat accumulation, decreased insulin sensitivity, increased insulin resistance and even gestational diabetes mellitus.

  9. Conceptual Learning: Enhancing Student Understanding of Physiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waltz, Micah J.

    Students are leaving undergraduate science programs without the knowledge and skills they are expected to have. This is apparent in professional programs, such as medical and veterinary school, where students do not possess the critical thinking skills necessary to be successful. Physiology is a required discipline for these professional programs and often before, as a pre-requisite. Physiology classrooms are an excellent place to teach critical thinking skills because the content consists of integrated processes. Therefore, in one study, it was investigated whether focusing on physiological concepts improved student understanding of physiology in both a non-physiological science course, Invertebrate Zoology, and in an undergraduate physiology course. An educational intervention was used in Invertebrate Zoology, where students were exposed to human physiology concepts that were similar to comparative physiology concepts they had learned during the semester. A pre-/post-test was used to assess learning gains. In a second study, the use of multimedia file usage was correlated to student exam scores in a physiology course. This was done to see if providing additional study materials that focused on specific concepts improved student understanding, as assessed using exam scores. Overall these studies indicate that encouraging assimilation of new concepts that expand upon material from lecture may help students gain a more complete understanding of a concept. The integration of these concepts into pre-existing conceptual frameworks may serve to teach students valuable critical thinking skills such as evaluation of new ideas within their current understanding and synthesizing the new content with the existing information. Focusing on this type of conceptual learning may enable students to apply content knowledge and think through problems. Additionally, focusing on concepts may enable students to improve their understanding of material without being overwhelmed by

  10. Neuropeptide physiology in helminths.

    PubMed

    Mousley, Angela; Novozhilova, Ekaterina; Kimber, Michael J; Day, Tim A

    2010-01-01

    Parasitic worms come from two distinct, distant phyla, Nematoda (roundworms) and Platyhelminthes (flatworms). The nervous systems of worms from both phyla are replete with neuropeptides and there is ample physiological evidence that these neuropeptides control vital aspects of worm biology. In each phyla, the physiological evidence for critical roles for helminth neuropeptides is derived from both parasitic and free-living members. In the nematodes, the intestinal parasite Ascaris suum and the free-living Caenorhabditis elegans have yielded most of the data; in the platyhelminths, the most physiological data has come from the blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni. FMRFamide-like peptides (FLPs) have many varied effects (excitation, relaxation, or a combination) on somatic musculature, reproductive musculature, the pharynx and motor neurons in nematodes. Insulin-like peptides (INSs) play an essential role in nematode dauer formation and other developmental processes. There is also some evidence for a role in somatic muscle control for the somewhat heterogeneous grouping ofpeptides known as neuropeptide-like proteins (NLPs). In platyhelminths, as in nematodes, FLPs have a central role in somatic muscle function. Reports of FLP physiological action in platyhelminths are limited to a potent excitation of the somatic musculature. Platyhelminths are also abundantly endowed with neuropeptide Fs (NPFs), which appear absent from nematodes. There is not yet any data linking platyhelminth NPF to any particular physiological outcome, but this neuropeptide does potently and specifically inhibit cAMP accumulation in schistosomes. In nematodes and platyhelminths, there is an abundance of physiological evidence demonstrating that neuropeptides play critical roles in the biology of both free-living and parasitic helminths. While it is certainly true that there remains a great deal to learn about the biology of neuropeptides in both phyla, physiological evidence presently available points

  11. Physiological responses to daily light exposure

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yefeng; Yu, Yonghua; Yang, Bo; Zhou, Hong; Pan, Jinming

    2016-01-01

    Long daylength artificial light exposure associates with disorders, and a potential physiological mechanism has been proposed. However, previous studies have examined no more than three artificial light treatments and limited metabolic parameters, which have been insufficient to demonstrate mechanical responses. Here, comprehensive physiological response curves were established and the physiological mechanism was strengthened. Chicks were illuminated for 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, or 22 h periods each day. A quadratic relationship between abdominal adipose weight (AAW) and light period suggested that long-term or short-term light exposure could decrease the amount of AAW. Quantitative relationships between physiological parameters and daily light period were also established in this study. The relationships between triglycerides (TG), cholesterol (TC), glucose (GLU), phosphorus (P) levels and daily light period could be described by quadratic regression models. TG levels, AAW, and BW positively correlated with each other, suggesting long-term light exposure significantly increased AAW by increasing TG thus resulting in greater BW. A positive correlation between blood triiodothyronine (T3) levels and BW suggested that daily long-term light exposure increased BW by thyroid hormone secretion. Though the molecular pathway remains unknown, these results suggest a comprehensive physiological mechanism through which light exposure affects growth. PMID:27098210

  12. Physiological responses to daily light exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yefeng; Yu, Yonghua; Yang, Bo; Zhou, Hong; Pan, Jinming

    2016-04-01

    Long daylength artificial light exposure associates with disorders, and a potential physiological mechanism has been proposed. However, previous studies have examined no more than three artificial light treatments and limited metabolic parameters, which have been insufficient to demonstrate mechanical responses. Here, comprehensive physiological response curves were established and the physiological mechanism was strengthened. Chicks were illuminated for 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, or 22 h periods each day. A quadratic relationship between abdominal adipose weight (AAW) and light period suggested that long-term or short-term light exposure could decrease the amount of AAW. Quantitative relationships between physiological parameters and daily light period were also established in this study. The relationships between triglycerides (TG), cholesterol (TC), glucose (GLU), phosphorus (P) levels and daily light period could be described by quadratic regression models. TG levels, AAW, and BW positively correlated with each other, suggesting long-term light exposure significantly increased AAW by increasing TG thus resulting in greater BW. A positive correlation between blood triiodothyronine (T3) levels and BW suggested that daily long-term light exposure increased BW by thyroid hormone secretion. Though the molecular pathway remains unknown, these results suggest a comprehensive physiological mechanism through which light exposure affects growth.

  13. Physiology course for secondary school biology teachers.

    PubMed

    Poland, J L

    1992-06-01

    The Department of Physiology at the Medical College of Virginia/Virginia Commonwealth University offered a human physiology course to middle school and high school science teachers in the Richmond, VA, area. It was a three-credit course, team taught, and given at a location convenient to many area teachers. This course served the community by contributing to the continuing education efforts of teachers and concurrently enhanced our recruitment program by advertising "physiology" to teachers who will influence college-bound students for years to come. In addition, we established ties between teachers and physiology faculty such that continuing interactions (e.g., collaborative research during the summer) should be facilitated. The success of the course suggests that this is an effective way to serve local communities, enhance efforts to recruit graduate students into the basic sciences, and at the same time help reverse the educational crisis in the US by bolstering the backgrounds of secondary school teachers.

  14. Human physiology in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernikos, J.

    1996-01-01

    The universality of gravity (1 g) in our daily lives makes it difficult to appreciate its importance in morphology and physiology. Bone and muscle support systems were created, cellular pumps developed, neurons organised and receptors and transducers of gravitational force to biologically relevant signals evolved under 1g gravity. Spaceflight provides the only microgravity environment where systematic experimentation can expand our basic understanding of gravitational physiology and perhaps provide new insights into normal physiology and disease processes. These include the surprising extent of our body's dependence on perceptual information, and understanding the effect and importance of forces generated within the body's weightbearing structures such as muscle and bones. Beyond this exciting prospect is the importance of this work towards opening the solar system for human exploration. Although both appear promising, we are only just beginning to taste what lies ahead.

  15. Human physiology in space.

    PubMed

    Vernikos, J

    1996-12-01

    The universality of gravity (1 g) in our daily lives makes it difficult to appreciate its importance in morphology and physiology. Bone and muscle support systems were created, cellular pumps developed, neurons organised and receptors and transducers of gravitational force to biologically relevant signals evolved under 1g gravity. Spaceflight provides the only microgravity environment where systematic experimentation can expand our basic understanding of gravitational physiology and perhaps provide new insights into normal physiology and disease processes. These include the surprising extent of our body's dependence on perceptual information, and understanding the effect and importance of forces generated within the body's weightbearing structures such as muscle and bones. Beyond this exciting prospect is the importance of this work towards opening the solar system for human exploration. Although both appear promising, we are only just beginning to taste what lies ahead.

  16. Physiological responses to environmental factors related to space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, N.; Grunbaum, B. W.; Kodama, A. M.; Mains, R. C.; Rahlmann, D. F.

    1975-01-01

    Physiological procedures and instrumentation developed for the measurement of hemodynamic and metabolic parameters during prolonged periods of weightlessness are described along with the physiological response of monkeys to weightlessness. Specific areas examined include: cardiovascular studies; thyroid function; blood oxygen transport; growth and reproduction; excreta analysis for metabolic balance studies; and electrophoretic separation of creatine phosphokinase isoenzymes in human blood.

  17. Physiological responses to environmental factors related to space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, N.

    1972-01-01

    The research is reported for establishing physiological base line data, and for developing procedures and instrumentation necessary for the automatic measurement of hemodynamic and metabolic parameters. The work in the following areas is discussed: biochemistry, bioinstrumentation, nutrition, physiology, experimental surgery, and animal colony.

  18. A PHYSIOLOGICALLY BASED TOXICOKINETIC MODEL FOR LAKE TROUT (SALVELINUS NAMAYCUSH)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A physiologically based toxicokinetic (PB-TK) model for fish, incorporating chemical exchange at the gill and accumulation in five tissue compartments, was used to examine the effect of natural variability in physiological, morphological, and physico-chemical parameters on model ...

  19. A Multi-Scale Sampling Strategy for Detecting Physiologically Significant Signals in AVIRIS Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamon, John A.; Lee, Lai-Fun; Qiu, Hong-Lie; Davis, Stephen; Roberts, Dar A.; Ustin, Susan L.

    1998-01-01

    Models of photosynthetic production at ecosystem and global scales require multiple input parameters specifying physical and physiological surface features. While certain physical parameters (e.g., absorbed photosynthetically active radiation) can be derived from current satellite sensors, other physiologically relevant measures (e.g., vegetation type, water status, carboxylation capacity, or photosynthetic light-use efficiency), are not generally directly available from current satellite sensors at the appropriate geographic scale. Consequently, many model parameters must be assumed or derived from independent sources, often at an inappropriate scale. An abundance of ecophysiological studies at the leaf and canopy scales suggests strong physiological control of vegetation-atmosphere CO2 and water vapor fluxes, particularly in evergreen vegetation subjected to diurnal or seasonal stresses. For example hot, dry conditions can lead to stomatal closure, and associated "downregulation" of photosynthetic biochemical processes, a phenomenon often manifested as a "midday photosynthetic depression". A recent study with the revised simple biosphere (SiB2) model demonstrated that photosynthetic downregulation can significantly impact global climate. However, at the global scale, the exact significance of downregulation remains unclear, largely because appropriate physiological measures are generally unavailable at this scale. Clearly, there is a need to develop reliable ways of extracting physiologically relevant information from remote sensing. Narrow-band spectrometers offer many opportunities for deriving physiological parameters needed for ecosystem and global scale photosynthetic models. Experimental studies on the ground at the leaf- to stand-scale have indicated that several narrow-band features can be used to detect plant physiological status. One physiological signal is caused by xanthophyll cycle pigment activity, and is often expressed as the Photochemical

  20. FT-Raman and chemometric tools for rapid determination of quality parameters in milk powder: Classification of samples for the presence of lactose and fraud detection by addition of maltodextrin.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues Júnior, Paulo Henrique; de Sá Oliveira, Kamila; de Almeida, Carlos Eduardo Rocha; De Oliveira, Luiz Fernando Cappa; Stephani, Rodrigo; Pinto, Michele da Silva; de Carvalho, Antônio Fernandes; Perrone, Ítalo Tuler

    2016-04-01

    FT-Raman spectroscopy has been explored as a quick screening method to evaluate the presence of lactose and identify milk powder samples adulterated with maltodextrin (2.5-50% w/w). Raman measurements can easily differentiate samples of milk powder, without the need for sample preparation, while traditional quality control methods, including high performance liquid chromatography, are cumbersome and slow. FT-Raman spectra were obtained from samples of whole lactose and low-lactose milk powder, both without and with addition of maltodextrin. Differences were observed between the spectra involved in identifying samples with low lactose content, as well as adulterated samples. Exploratory data analysis using Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis was also developed to classify samples with PCA and PLS-DA. The PLS-DA models obtained allowed to correctly classify all samples. These results demonstrate the utility of FT-Raman spectroscopy in combination with chemometrics to infer about the quality of milk powder.

  1. Effects of black pepper (piper nigrum), turmeric powder (curcuma longa) and coriander seeds (coriandrum sativum) and their combinations as feed additives on growth performance, carcass traits, some blood parameters and humoral immune response of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Abou-Elkhair, R; Ahmed, H A; Selim, S

    2014-06-01

    Different herbs and spices have been used as feed additives for various purposes in poultry production. This study was conducted to assess the effect of feed supplemented with black pepper (Piper nigrum), turmeric powder (Curcuma longa), coriander seeds (Coriandrum sativum) and their combinations on the performance of broilers. A total of 210 (Cobb) one-d-old chicks were divided into seven groups of 30 birds each. The treatments were: a control group received no supplement, 0.5% black pepper (T1), 0.5% turmeric powder (T2), 2% coriander seeds (T3), a mixture of 0.5% black pepper and 0.5% turmeric powder (T4), a mixture of 0.5% black pepper and 2% coriander seed (T5), and a mixture of 0.5% black pepper, 0.5% turmeric powder and 2% coriander seeds (T6). Higher significant values of body weight gain during the whole period of 5 weeks (p<0.001) were observed in broilers on T1, T3, T5, and T6 compared to control. Dietary supplements with T1, T2, T3, and T6 improved the cumulative G:F of broilers during the whole period of 5 weeks (p<0.001) compared with control. The dressing percentage and edible giblets were not influenced by dietary supplements, while higher values of relative weight of the liver (p<0.05) were obtained in T5 and T6 compared to control. The addition of feed supplements in T5 and T6 significantly increased serum total protein and decreased serum glucose, triglycerides and alkaline phosphatase concentrations compared with the control group (p<0.05). Broilers on T6 showed significant decrease in the serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase concentration (p<0.05) compared to control. The broilers having T5 and T6 supplemented feed had relatively greater antibody titre (p<0.001) at 35 d of age than control. It is concluded that dietary supplements with black pepper or coriander seeds or their combinations enhanced the performance and health status of broiler chickens.

  2. Effects of Black Pepper (Piper Nigrum), Turmeric Powder (Curcuma Longa) and Coriander Seeds (Coriandrum Sativum) and Their Combinations as Feed Additives on Growth Performance, Carcass Traits, Some Blood Parameters and Humoral Immune Response of Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Abou-Elkhair, R.; Ahmed, H. A.; Selim, S.

    2014-01-01

    Different herbs and spices have been used as feed additives for various purposes in poultry production. This study was conducted to assess the effect of feed supplemented with black pepper (Piper nigrum), turmeric powder (Curcuma longa), coriander seeds (Coriandrum sativum) and their combinations on the performance of broilers. A total of 210 (Cobb) one-d-old chicks were divided into seven groups of 30 birds each. The treatments were: a control group received no supplement, 0.5% black pepper (T1), 0.5% turmeric powder (T2), 2% coriander seeds (T3), a mixture of 0.5% black pepper and 0.5% turmeric powder (T4), a mixture of 0.5% black pepper and 2% coriander seed (T5), and a mixture of 0.5% black pepper, 0.5% turmeric powder and 2% coriander seeds (T6). Higher significant values of body weight gain during the whole period of 5 weeks (p<0.001) were observed in broilers on T1, T3, T5, and T6 compared to control. Dietary supplements with T1, T2, T3, and T6 improved the cumulative G:F of broilers during the whole period of 5 weeks (p<0.001) compared with control. The dressing percentage and edible giblets were not influenced by dietary supplements, while higher values of relative weight of the liver (p<0.05) were obtained in T5 and T6 compared to control. The addition of feed supplements in T5 and T6 significantly increased serum total protein and decreased serum glucose, triglycerides and alkaline phosphatase concentrations compared with the control group (p<0.05). Broilers on T6 showed significant decrease in the serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase concentration (p<0.05) compared to control. The broilers having T5 and T6 supplemented feed had relatively greater antibody titre (p<0.001) at 35 d of age than control. It is concluded that dietary supplements with black pepper or coriander seeds or their combinations enhanced the performance and health status of broiler chickens. PMID:25050023

  3. Physiology in microgravity.

    PubMed

    West, J B

    2000-07-01

    Studies of physiology in microgravity are remarkably recent, with almost all the data being obtained in the past 40 years. The first human spaceflight did not take place until 1961. Physiological measurements in connection with the early flights were crude, but, in the past 10 years, an enormous amount of new information has been obtained from experiments on Spacelab. The United States and Soviet/Russian programs have pursued different routes. The US has mainly concentrated on relatively short flights but with highly sophisticated equipment such as is available in Spacelab. In contrast, the Soviet/Russian program concentrated on first the Salyut and then the Mir space stations. These had the advantage of providing information about long-term exposure to microgravity, but the degree of sophistication of the measurements in space was less. It is hoped that the International Space Station will combine the best of both approaches. The most important physiological changes caused by microgravity include bone demineralization, skeletal muscle atrophy, vestibular problems causing space motion sickness, cardiovascular problems resulting in postflight orthostatic intolerance, and reductions in plasma volume and red cell mass. Pulmonary function is greatly altered but apparently not seriously impaired. Space exploration is a new frontier with long-term missions to the moon and Mars not far away. Understanding the physiological changes caused by long-duration microgravity remains a daunting challenge.

  4. Research on gravitational physiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, A. H.; Dahl, A. O.

    1974-01-01

    The topic of gravitational plant physiology was studied through aspects of plant development (in ARABIDOPSIS) and of behavior (in HELIANTHUS) as these were affected by altered g experience. The effect of increased g levels on stem polarity (in COLEUS) was also examined.

  5. Physiology of lactation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The breast changes in size, shape, and function during puberty, pregnancy, and lactation. The physiology of lactation is reviewed here. The breast is composed of fat and connective tissue that supports a tubuloalveolar structure. During development, anatomic changes involving new lobule formation an...

  6. Simulated Exercise Physiology Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, James R., Jr.; Pivarnik, James M.

    This book consists of a lab manual and computer disks for either Apple or IBM hardware. The lab manual serves as "tour guide" for the learner going through the various lab experiences. The manual contains definitions, proper terminology, and other basic information about physiological principles. It is organized so a step-by-step procedure may be…

  7. Physiology of Breastfeeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This powerpoint presentation summaries physiology of lactation and the impact of a variety of clinical practices on lactation from delivery through weaning. Factors that inhibit lactogenesis stage II are explained, including retained placenta, excess blood loss during delivery, and hypoplastic brea...

  8. Starting Physiology: Bioelectrogenesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baptista, Vander

    2015-01-01

    From a Cartesian perspective of rational analysis, the electric potential difference across the cell membrane is one of the fundamental concepts for the study of physiology. Unfortunately, undergraduate students often struggle to understand the genesis of this energy gradient, which makes the teaching activity a hard task for the instructor. The…

  9. The Physiology of Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stellar, Eliot

    1994-01-01

    A theory of the physiology of motivation is presented. The basic assumption is that the amount of motivated behavior is a direct function of the amount of activity in certain excitatory centers of the hypothalamus. Activities of these centers are determined by factors in four general classes. (SLD)

  10. Programmable physiological infusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, W. H.; Young, D. R.; Adachi, R. R. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A programmable physiological infusion device and method are provided wherein a program source, such as a paper tape, is used to actuate an infusion pump in accordance with a desired program. The system is particularly applicable for dispensing calcium in a variety of waveforms.

  11. Validation of a semi-physiological model for caffeine in healthy subjects and cirrhotic patients.

    PubMed

    Cuesta-Gragera, Ana; Navarro-Fontestad, Carmen; Mangas-Sanjuan, Victor; González-Álvarez, Isabel; García-Arieta, Alfredo; Trocóniz, Iñaki F; Casabó, Vicente G; Bermejo, Marival

    2015-06-20

    The objective of this paper was to validate a previously developed semi physiological model to simulate bioequivalence trials of drug products. The aim of the model was to ascertain whether the measurement of the metabolite concentration-time profiles would provide any additional information in bioequivalence studies (Fernandez-Teruel et al., 2009a,b; Navarro-Fontestad et al., 2010). The semi-physiological model implemented in NONMEM VI was used to simulate caffeine and its main metabolite plasma levels using caffeine parameters from bibliography. Data from 3 bioequivalence studies in healthy subjects at 3 different doses (100, 175 and 400mg of caffeine) and one study in cirrhotic patients (200 or 250mg) were used. The first aim was to adapt the previous semi-physiological model for caffeine, showing the hepatic metabolism with one main metabolite, paraxanthine. The second aim was to validate the model by comparison of the simulated plasma levels of parent drug and metabolite to the experimental data. The simulations have shown that the proposed semi-physiological model was able to reproduce adequately the pharmacokinetic behavior of caffeine and paraxanthine in both healthy subjects and cirrhotic patients at all the assayed doses. Therefore, the model could be used to simulate plasma concentrations vs. time of drugs with the same pharmacokinetic scheme as caffeine, as long as their population parameters are known, and it could be useful for bioequivalence trial simulation of drugs that undergo hepatic metabolism with a single main metabolite.

  12. Comparing the Effects of Isoflurane and Alpha Chloralose upon Mouse Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Lucy C.; Klaunberg, Brenda A.

    2016-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging of mice requires that the physiology of the mouse (body temperature, respiration and heart rates, blood pH level) be maintained in order to prevent changes affecting the outcomes of functional scanning, namely blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) measures and cerebral blood flow (CBF). The anesthetic used to sedate mice for scanning can have major effects on physiology. While alpha chloralose has been commonly used for functional imaging of rats, its effects on physiology are not well characterized in the literature for any species. In this study, we anesthetized or sedated mice with isoflurane or alpha chloralose for up to two hours, and monitored physiological parameters and arterial blood gasses. We found that, when normal body temperature is maintained, breathing rates for both drugs decrease over the course of two hours. In addition, alpha chloralose causes a substantial drop in heart rate and blood pH with severe hypercapnia (elevated blood CO2) that is not seen in isoflurane-treated animals. We suggest that alpha chloralose does not maintain normal mouse physiology adequately for functional brain imaging outcome measures. PMID:27148970

  13. Comparing the Effects of Isoflurane and Alpha Chloralose upon Mouse Physiology.

    PubMed

    Low, Lucie A; Bauer, Lucy C; Klaunberg, Brenda A

    2016-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging of mice requires that the physiology of the mouse (body temperature, respiration and heart rates, blood pH level) be maintained in order to prevent changes affecting the outcomes of functional scanning, namely blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) measures and cerebral blood flow (CBF). The anesthetic used to sedate mice for scanning can have major effects on physiology. While alpha chloralose has been commonly used for functional imaging of rats, its effects on physiology are not well characterized in the literature for any species. In this study, we anesthetized or sedated mice with isoflurane or alpha chloralose for up to two hours, and monitored physiological parameters and arterial blood gasses. We found that, when normal body temperature is maintained, breathing rates for both drugs decrease over the course of two hours. In addition, alpha chloralose causes a substantial drop in heart rate and blood pH with severe hypercapnia (elevated blood CO2) that is not seen in isoflurane-treated animals. We suggest that alpha chloralose does not maintain normal mouse physiology adequately for functional brain imaging outcome measures. PMID:27148970

  14. Applied physiology of diving.

    PubMed

    Lin, Y C

    1988-01-01

    Recreational diving is a popular sport, although human ability to stay in and under water is severely limited physiologically. An understanding of these limitations enhances safety and enjoyment of sports diving. Breath-hold diving involves head-out water immersion, apnoea and submersion, exercise, cold stress, and pressure exposure. Each of these components, by itself, elicits prominent and specific physiological effects. Combination of these factors produces a unique and interesting physiological response generally known as diving reflex. Humans display weak diving responses, but exhibit no oxygen conservation function. Nevertheless, application of diving-induced physiological changes is now finding its way into clinical practice. Apnoea, face immersion, and head-out water immersion all show promise of clinical application. There are several spin-offs from diving research worth noting. Diuresis, enhancement of cardiac performance, and redistribution of blood flow, all produced by head-out water immersion, have been shown to be clinically useful, besides providing physiological data useful to space travel. Results from investigations on apnoea have been shown to be relevant to the following: treating some forms of cardiac arrhythmias; understanding drowning, sudden infant death syndrome and sleep apnoea; and confirming hyperventilation as the major cause of drowning. In comparison to marine mammals, humans are poor divers because of severe physiological constraints which limit their breath-hold time, diving depth, and ability to conserve body heat. Although under special circumstances humans can achieve unusually long breath-hold time and reach exceptional depth with a single breath, the sustainable working time and depth are only about 1 minute and 5 metres, respectively. Hypothermia inevitably results in divers working in the ocean. Without thermal protection, the intolerable limit of 35 degrees C is reached within 30 minutes in winter (10 degrees C) water and

  15. Pathologic and physiologic phimosis

    PubMed Central

    McGregor, Thomas B.; Pike, John G.; Leonard, Michael P.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To review the differences between physiologic and pathologic phimosis, review proper foreskin care, and discuss when it is appropriate to seek consultation regarding a phimotic foreskin. SOURCES OF INFORMATION This paper is based on selected findings from a MEDLINE search for literature on phimosis and circumcision referrals and on our experience at the Children’s Hospital of Eastern Ontario Urology Clinic. MeSH headings used in our MEDLINE search included “phimosis,” “referral and consultation,” and “circumcision.” Most of the available articles about phimosis and foreskin referrals were retrospective reviews and cohort studies (levels II and III evidence). MAIN MESSAGE Phimosis is defined as the inability to retract the foreskin. Differentiating between physiologic and pathologic phimosis is important, as the former is managed conservatively and the latter requires surgical intervention. Great anxiety exists among patients and parentsregarding non-retractile foreskins. Most phimosis referrals seen in pediatric urology clinics are normal physiologically phimotic foreskins. Referrals of patients with physiologic phimosis to urology clinics can create anxiety about the need for surgery among patients and parents, while unnecessarily expanding the waiting list for specialty assessment. Uncircumcised penises require no special care. With normal washing, using soap and water, and gentle retraction during urination and bathing, most foreskins will become retractile over time. CONCLUSION Physiologic phimosis is often seen by family physicians. These patients and their parents require reassurance of normalcy and reinforcement of proper preputial hygiene. Consultation should be sought when evidence of pathologic phimosis is present, as this requires surgical management. PMID:17872680

  16. Avian reproductive physiology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gee, G.F.; Gibbons, Edward F.; Durrant, Barbara S.; Demarest, Jack

    1995-01-01

    Knowledge of the many physiological factors associated with egg production , fertility, incubation, and brooding in nondomestic birds is limited. Science knows even less about reproduction in most of the 238 endangered or threatened birds. This discussion uses studies of nondomestic and, when necessary, domestic birds to describe physiological control of reproduction. Studies of the few nondomestic avian species show large variation in physiological control of reproduction. Aviculturists, in order to successfully propagate an endangered bird, must understand the bird's reproductive peculiarities. First, investigators can do studies with carefully chosen surrogate species, but eventually they need to confirm the results in the target endangered bird. Studies of reproduction in nondomestic birds increased in the last decade. Still, scientists need to do more comparative studies to understand the mechanisms that control reproduction in birds. New technologies are making it possible to study reproductive physiology of nondomestic species in less limiting ways. These technologies include telemetry to collect information without inducing stress on captives (Howey et al., 1987; Klugman, 1987), new tests for most of the humoral factors associated with reproduction, and the skill to collect small samples and manipulate birds without disrupting the physiological mechanisms (Bercovitz et al., 1985). Managers are using knowledge from these studies to improve propagation in zoological parks, private and public propagation facilities, and research institutions. Researchers need to study the control of ovulation, egg formation, and oviposition in the species of nondomestic birds that lay very few eggs in a season, hold eggs in the oviduct for longer intervals, or differ in other ways from the more thoroughly studied domestic birds. Other techniques that would enhance propagation for nondomestlc birds include tissue culture of cloned embryonic cells, cryopreservation of embryos

  17. Physiologic Measures of Sexual Function in Women: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Woodard, Terri L.; Diamond, Michael P.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To review and describe physiologic measures of assessing sexual function in women Design Literature review Setting Studies that utilize instruments designed to measure female sexual function Patients Women participating in studies of female sexual function Interventions Various instruments that measure physiologic features of female sexual function Main Outcome Measures Appraisal of the various instruments, including their advantages and disadvantages. Results Many unique physiologic methods of evaluating female sexual function have been developed over the last four decades. Each method has its benefits and limitations. Conclusions Many physiologic methods exist, but most are not well-validated. Additionally, there has been an inability to correlate most physiologic measures with subjective measures of sexual arousal. Furthermore, given the complex nature of the sexual response in women, physiologic measures should be considered in context of other data, including the history, physical exam, and validated questionnaires. Nonetheless, the existence of appropriate physiologic measures is vital to our understanding of female sexual function and dysfunction. PMID:19046582

  18. [Physiology in Relation to Anesthesia Practice: Preface and Comments].

    PubMed

    Yamada, Yoshitsugu

    2016-05-01

    It has been long recognized that anesthesia practice is profoundly based in physiology. With the advance of the technology of imaging, measurement and information, a serious gap has emerged between anesthesia mainly handling gross systemic parameters and molecular physiology. One of the main reasons is the lack of establishment of integration approach. This special series of reviews deals with systems physiology covering respiratory, cardiovascular, and nervous systems. It also includes metabolism, and fluid, acid-base, and electrolyte balance. Each review focuses on several physiological concepts in each area, explaining current understanding and limits of the concepts based on the new findings. They reaffirm the importance of applying physiological inference in anesthesia practice and underscore the needs of advancement of systems physiology. PMID:27319087

  19. Integrative Physiology of Fasting.

    PubMed

    Secor, Stephen M; Carey, Hannah V

    2016-04-01

    Extended bouts of fasting are ingrained in the ecology of many organisms, characterizing aspects of reproduction, development, hibernation, estivation, migration, and infrequent feeding habits. The challenge of long fasting episodes is the need to maintain physiological homeostasis while relying solely on endogenous resources. To meet that challenge, animals utilize an integrated repertoire of behavioral, physiological, and biochemical responses that reduce metabolic rates, maintain tissue structure and function, and thus enhance survival. We have synthesized in this review the integrative physiological, morphological, and biochemical responses, and their stages, that characterize natural fasting bouts. Underlying the capacity to survive extended fasts are behaviors and mechanisms that reduce metabolic expenditure and shift the dependency to lipid utilization. Hormonal regulation and immune capacity are altered by fasting; hormones that trigger digestion, elevate metabolism, and support immune performance become depressed, whereas hormones that enhance the utilization of endogenous substrates are elevated. The negative energy budget that accompanies fasting leads to the loss of body mass as fat stores are depleted and tissues undergo atrophy (i.e., loss of mass). Absolute rates of body mass loss scale allometrically among vertebrates. Tissues and organs vary in the degree of atrophy and downregulation of function, depending on the degree to which they are used during the fast. Fasting affects the population dynamics and activities of the gut microbiota, an interplay that impacts the host's fasting biology. Fasting-induced gene expression programs underlie the broad spectrum of integrated physiological mechanisms responsible for an animal's ability to survive long episodes of natural fasting. PMID:27065168

  20. Neuronal Responses to Physiological Stress

    PubMed Central

    Kagias, Konstantinos; Nehammer, Camilla; Pocock, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Physiological stress can be defined as any external or internal condition that challenges the homeostasis of a cell or an organism. It can be divided into three different aspects: environmental stress, intrinsic developmental stress, and aging. Throughout life all living organisms are challenged by changes in the environment. Fluctuations in oxygen levels, temperature, and redox state for example, trigger molecular events that enable an organism to adapt, survive, and reproduce. In addition to external stressors, organisms experience stress associated with morphogenesis and changes in inner chemistry during normal development. For example, conditions such as intrinsic hypoxia and oxidative stress, due to an increase in tissue mass, have to be confronted by developing embryos in order to complete their development. Finally, organisms face the challenge of stochastic accumulation of molecular damage during aging that results in decline and eventual death. Studies have shown that the nervous system plays a pivotal role in responding to stress. Neurons not only receive and process information from the environment but also actively respond to various stresses to promote survival. These responses include changes in the expression of molecules such as transcription factors and microRNAs that regulate stress resistance and adaptation. Moreover, both intrinsic and extrinsic stresses have a tremendous impact on neuronal development and maintenance with implications in many diseases. Here, we review the responses of neurons to various physiological stressors at the molecular and cellular level. PMID:23112806

  1. The glycemic index: physiological significance.

    PubMed

    Esfahani, Amin; Wong, Julia M W; Mirrahimi, Arash; Srichaikul, Korbua; Jenkins, David J A; Kendall, Cyril W C

    2009-08-01

    The glycemic index (GI) is a physiological assessment of a food's carbohydrate content through its effect on postprandial blood glucose concentrations. Evidence from trials and observational studies suggests that this physiological classification may have relevance to those chronic Western diseases associated with overconsumption and inactivity leading to central obesity and insulin resistance. The glycemic index classification of foods has been used as a tool to assess potential prevention and treatment strategies for diseases where glycemic control is of importance, such as diabetes. Low GI diets have also been reported to improve the serum lipid profile, reduce C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations, and aid in weight control. In cross-sectional studies, low GI or glycemic load diets (mean GI multiplied by total carbohydrate) have been associated with higher levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), with reduced CRP concentrations, and, in cohort studies, with decreased risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular disease. In addition, some case-control and cohort studies have found positive associations between dietary GI and risk of various cancers, including those of the colon, breast, and prostate. Although inconsistencies in the current findings still need to be resolved, sufficient positive evidence, especially with respect to renewed interest in postprandial events, suggests that the glycemic index may have a role to play in the treatment and prevention of chronic diseases.

  2. Physiological effects of intermittent hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Powell, F L; Garcia, N

    2000-01-01

    Intermittent hypoxia (IH), or periodic exposure to hypoxia interrupted by return to normoxia or less hypoxic conditions, occurs in many circumstances. In high altitude mountaineering, IH is used to optimize acclimatization although laboratory studies have not generally revealed physiologically significant benefits. IH enhances athletic performance at sea level if blood oxygen capacity increases and the usual level of training is not decreased significantly. IH for high altitude workers who commute from low altitude homes is of considerable practical interest and the ideal commuting schedule for physical and mental performance is being studied. The effect of oxygen enrichment at altitude (i.e., intermittent normoxia on a background of chronic hypoxia) on human performance is under study also. Physiological mechanisms of IH, and specifically the differences between effects of IH and acute or chronic continuous hypoxia remains to be determined. Biomedical researchers are defining the molecular and cellular mechanisms for effects of hypoxia on the body in health and disease. A comparative approach may provide additional insight about the biological significance of these effects.

  3. Pavlov and integrative physiology.

    PubMed

    Smith, G P

    2000-09-01

    Ivan Petrovich Pavlov was the first physiologist to win the Nobel Prize. The Prize was given in 1904 for his research on the neural control of salivary, gastric, and pancreatic secretion. A major reason for the success and novelty of his research was the use of unanesthetized dogs surgically prepared with chronic fistulas or gastric pouches that permitted repeated experiments in the same animal for months. Pavlov invented this chronic method because of the limitations he perceived in the use of acute anesthetized animals for investigating physiological systems. By introducing the chronic method and by showing its experimental advantages, Pavlov founded modern integrative physiology. This paper reviews Pavlov's journey from his birthplace in a provincial village in Russia to Stockholm to receive the Prize. It begins with childhood influences, describes his training and mentors, summarizes the major points of his research by reviewing his book Lectures on the Work of the Digestive Glands, and discusses his views on the relationship between physiology and medicine.

  4. Pavlov and integrative physiology.

    PubMed

    Smith, G P

    2000-09-01

    Ivan Petrovich Pavlov was the first physiologist to win the Nobel Prize. The Prize was given in 1904 for his research on the neural control of salivary, gastric, and pancreatic secretion. A major reason for the success and novelty of his research was the use of unanesthetized dogs surgically prepared with chronic fistulas or gastric pouches that permitted repeated experiments in the same animal for months. Pavlov invented this chronic method because of the limitations he perceived in the use of acute anesthetized animals for investigating physiological systems. By introducing the chronic method and by showing its experimental advantages, Pavlov founded modern integrative physiology. This paper reviews Pavlov's journey from his birthplace in a provincial village in Russia to Stockholm to receive the Prize. It begins with childhood influences, describes his training and mentors, summarizes the major points of his research by reviewing his book Lectures on the Work of the Digestive Glands, and discusses his views on the relationship between physiology and medicine. PMID:10956230

  5. [Physiological responses of different peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) varieties to cadmium stress].

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen-Long; Wang, Kai-Rong; Wang, Ming-Lun

    2009-02-01

    To have a deep understanding on the mechanisms of cadmium (Cd) toxicity on peanut plants is of theoretical and practical significances for the selection and utilization of Cd-resistant peanut germ plasm resources. With fourteen peanut varieties as test materials and taking the chlorophyll content of functional leaves, malondialdehyde (MDA) content and cell membrane permeability of roots and leaves, and oxidative vitality of roots at flowering stage as test physiological parameters, a sand culture experiment was conducted in an artificial climate chamber to investigate the physiological responses of different peanut varieties to six levels of Cd stress. The results showed that within the range of 0-60 mg Cd x L(-1) addition, the chlorophyll content of functional leaves and the oxidative vitality of roots decreased significantly with increasing Cd addition, while the MDA content and cell membrane permeability of leaves and roots were in adverse. The cell membrane permeability of roots and leaves was the most sensitive physiological parameter, while the chlorophyll content of functional leaves was the least sensitive one in the responses of peanut plant to Cd stress. In the linear regression equations describing the relationships between test physiological parameters and Cd concentrations in nutrient solution, the absolute value of slope (b)/intercept (a) ratio, /b/a/, could better describe the sensitivity of peanut plants to Cd stress. It was known from the integrative evaluation of /b/a/ values and the cluster analysis of sensitivity that among the fourteen peanut varieties, "Zhonghua-4", "Xiangnong-55" and "Xiangnong-3010-w" were highly sensitive to Cd stress (first grade), "Lainong-29", "Xiangnongxiaoguo-w2-7", "Fenghua-2", "Lainong-13", "Yuhua-15" and "Fenghua-3" were sensitive (second grade), "Xiangnong-312", "Qiyangxiaozi" and "Pingdu-01" were less sensitive (third grade), while "Huayu-20" and "Huayu-23" were insensitive (forth grade).

  6. Wearable Environmental and Physiological Sensing Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spremo, Stevan; Ahlman, Jim; Stricker, Ed; Santos, Elmer

    2007-01-01

    The wearable environmental and physiological sensing unit (WEPS) is a prototype of systems to be worn by emergency workers (e.g., firefighters and members of hazardous-material response teams) to increase their level of safety. The WEPS includes sensors that measure a few key physiological and environmental parameters, a microcontroller unit that processes the digitized outputs of the sensors, and a radio transmitter that sends the processed sensor signals to a computer in a mobile command center for monitoring by a supervisor. The monitored parameters serve as real-time indications of the wearer s physical condition and level of activity, and of the degree and type of danger posed by the wearer s environment. The supervisor could use these indications to determine, for example, whether the wearer should withdraw in the face of an increasing hazard or whether the wearer should be rescued.

  7. Applied physiology of triathlon.

    PubMed

    O'Toole, M L; Douglas, P S

    1995-04-01

    The triathlon is a 3-event endurance sport in which athletes compete sequentially in swimming, cycling and running. The primary determinant of success is the ability to sustain a high rate of energy expenditure for prolonged periods of time. Exercise training-induced physiological adaptations in virtually all systems of the body allow the athlete to accomplish this. Aerobic capacity (measured as maximal oxygen uptake, VO2max), economy of motion (submaximal VO2) and fractional utilisation of maximal capacity (%VO2max) reflect the integrated responses of these physiological adaptations. Numerous studies have reported relatively high mean VO2max values for various groups of triathletes that are comparable to those reported for athletes in single-event endurance sports and clearly above those reported for untrained individuals. In shorter distance triathlons and in studies using recreational (rather than elite) triathletes, VO2max is related to performance in the corresponding event of the triathlon (e.g. tethered swimming VO2max with swim time). In longer events and with more elite triathletes, VO2max correlates less well with performance. The physiological adaptations that correspond to and facilitate improved VO2max occur centrally in the cardiovascular system, centred on increased maximal cardiac output, and peripherally in the metabolic systems, centred around increased arterio-venous O2 (a-v O2) difference. While a high VO2max in individuals is clearly of importance to triathlon performance, energy output must be sustained for long periods of time, making economy of motion also very important. Studies suggests that competitive swimmers have better swimming economy than triathletes. However, since many triathletes have previously been competitive swimmers this finding is questionable. The finding suggests that triathletes from nonswimming backgrounds would benefit from improving swimming technique rather than concentrating training workouts solely on distance. In

  8. Physiology of the Autonomic Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    This manuscript discusses the physiology of the autonomic nervous system (ANS). The following topics are presented: regulation of activity; efferent pathways; sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions; neurotransmitters, their receptors and the termination of their activity; functions of the ANS; and the adrenal medullae. In addition, the application of this material to the practice of pharmacy is of special interest. Two case studies regarding insecticide poisoning and pheochromocytoma are included. The ANS and the accompanying case studies are discussed over 5 lectures and 2 recitation sections during a 2-semester course in Human Physiology. The students are in the first-professional year of the doctor of pharmacy program. PMID:17786266

  9. Cardiovascular physiology and diseases of amphibians.

    PubMed

    Heinz-Taheny, Kathleen M

    2009-01-01

    The class Amphibia includes three orders of amphibians: the anurans (frogs and toads), urodeles (salamanders, axolotls, and newts), and caecilians. The diversity of lifestyles across these three orders has accompanying differences in the cardiovascular anatomy and physiology allowing for adaptations to aquatic or terrestrial habitats, pulmonic or gill respiration, hibernation, and body elongation (in the caecilian). This article provides a review of amphibian cardiovascular anatomy and physiology with discussion of unique species adaptations. In addition, amphibians as cardiovascular animal models and commonly encountered natural diseases are covered.

  10. Cardiovascular physiology and diseases of amphibians.

    PubMed

    Heinz-Taheny, Kathleen M

    2009-01-01

    The class Amphibia includes three orders of amphibians: the anurans (frogs and toads), urodeles (salamanders, axolotls, and newts), and caecilians. The diversity of lifestyles across these three orders has accompanying differences in the cardiovascular anatomy and physiology allowing for adaptations to aquatic or terrestrial habitats, pulmonic or gill respiration, hibernation, and body elongation (in the caecilian). This article provides a review of amphibian cardiovascular anatomy and physiology with discussion of unique species adaptations. In addition, amphibians as cardiovascular animal models and commonly encountered natural diseases are covered. PMID:19131029

  11. Gasoline additives, emissions, and performance

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The papers included in this publication deal with the influence of fuel, additive, and hardware changes on a variety of vehicle performance characteristics. Advanced techniques for measuring these performance parameters are also described. Contents include: Fleet test evaluation of gasoline additives for intake valve and combustion chamber deposit clean up; A technique for evaluating octane requirement additives in modern engines on dynamometer test stands; A fleet test of two additive technologies comparing their effects on tailpipe emissions; Investigation into the vehicle exhaust emissions of high percentage ethanol blends; Variability in hydrocarbon speciation measurements at low emission (ULEV) levels; and more.

  12. Effects on Diagnostic Parameters After Removing Additional Synchronous Gear Meshes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, Harry J.

    2003-01-01

    Gear cracks are typically difficult to diagnose with sufficient time before catastrophic damage occurs. Significant damage must be present before algorithms appear to be able to detect the damage. Frequently there are multiple gear meshes on a single shaft. Since they are all synchronous with the shaft frequency, the commonly used synchronous averaging technique is ineffective in removing other gear mesh effects. Carefully applying a filter to these extraneous gear mesh frequencies can reduce the overall vibration signal and increase the accuracy of commonly used vibration metrics. The vibration signals from three seeded fault tests were analyzed using this filtering procedure. Both the filtered and unfiltered vibration signals were then analyzed using commonly used fault detection metrics and compared. The tests were conducted on aerospace quality spur gears in a test rig. The tests were conducted at speeds ranging from 2500 to 5000 revolutions per minute and torques from 184 to 228 percent of design load. The inability to detect these cracks with high confidence results from the high loading which is causing fast fracture as opposed to stable crack growth. The results indicate that these techniques do not currently produce an indication of damage that significantly exceeds experimental scatter.

  13. Frontiers in the Teaching of Physiology. Computer Literacy and Simulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tidball, Charles S., Ed.; Shelesnyak, M. C., Ed.

    Provided is a collection of papers on computer literacy and simulation originally published in The Physiology Teacher, supplemented by additional papers and a glossary of terms relevant to the field. The 12 papers are presented in five sections. An affirmation of conventional physiology laboratory exercises, coping with computer terminology, and…

  14. Effects of membrane physical parameters on hematoporphyrin-derivative binding to liposomes: a spectroscopic study

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, E.; Malik, Z.; Ehrenberg, B.

    1987-01-01

    Physical parameters of membrane bilayers were studied for their effect on the binding of hematoporphyrin derivative (Hpd), which is used as a sensitizer in photodynamic therapy of cancerous tissues. The purpose of this study was to clarify which parameters were relevant, under physiological conditions, to the selectivity of Hpd binding to cancer cells. Fluorescence spectroscopy was used to measure the relative partitioning of the dye between the lipid and aqueous media. Increasing the microviscosity of the liposomes' membranes by various bilayer additives results in a strong reduction of Hpd binding, to an extent independent of the specific additive. The effect of temperature near the physiological value as well as the effect of cross membrane potential are small. Surface potential does not affect the binding constant, indicating that the binding species does not carry a net electric charge.

  15. Asthma Outcomes: Pulmonary Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Tepper, Robert S.; Wise, Robert S.; Covar, Ronina; Irvin, Charles G.; Kercsmar, Carolyn M.; Kraft, Monica; Liu, Mark C.; O’Connor, George T.; Peters, Stephen P.; Sorkness, Ronald; Togias, Alkis

    2014-01-01

    Background Outcomes of pulmonary physiology have a central place in asthma clinical research. Objective At the request of National Institutes of Health (NIH) institutes and other federal agencies, an expert group was convened to provide recommendations on the use of pulmonary function measures as asthma outcomes that should be assessed in a standardized fashion in future asthma clinical trials and studies to allow for cross-study comparisons. Methods Our subcommittee conducted a comprehensive search of PubMed to identify studies that focused on the validation of various airway response tests used in asthma clinical research. The subcommittee classified the instruments as core (to be required in future studies), supplemental (to be used according to study aims and in a standardized fashion), or emerging (requiring validation and standardization). This work was discussed at an NIH-organized workshop in March 2010 and finalized in September 2011. Results A list of pulmonary physiology outcomes that applies to both adults and children older than 6 years was created. These outcomes were then categorized into core, supplemental, and emerging. Spirometric outcomes (forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1], forced vital capacity [FVC], and FEV1/FVC) are proposed as core outcomes for study population characterization, for observational studies, and for prospective clinical trials. Bronchodilator reversibility and pre- and post-bronchodilator FEV1 also are core outcomes for study population characterization and observational studies. Conclusions The subcommittee considers pulmonary physiology outcomes of central importance in asthma and proposes spirometric outcomes as core outcomes for all future NIH-initiated asthma clinical research. PMID:22386510

  16. Physiology of Iron Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Waldvogel-Abramowski, Sophie; Waeber, Gérard; Gassner, Christoph; Buser, Andreas; Frey, Beat M.; Favrat, Bernard; Tissot, Jean-Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Summary A revolution occurred during the last decade in the comprehension of the physiology as well as in the physiopathology of iron metabolism. The purpose of this review is to summarize the recent knowledge that has accumulated, allowing a better comprehension of the mechanisms implicated in iron homeostasis. Iron metabolism is very fine tuned. The free molecule is very toxic; therefore, complex regulatory mechanisms have been developed in mammalian to insure adequate intestinal absorption, transportation, utilization, and elimination. ‘Ironomics’ certainly will be the future of the understanding of genes as well as of the protein-protein interactions involved in iron metabolism. PMID:25053935

  17. A modular, programmable measurement system for physiological and spaceflight applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hines, John W.; Ricks, Robert D.; Miles, Christopher J.

    1993-02-01

    The NASA-Ames Sensors 2000] Program has developed a small, compact, modular, programmable, sensor signal conditioning and measurement system, initially targeted for Life Sciences Spaceflight Programs. The system consists of a twelve-slot, multi-layer, distributed function backplane, a digital microcontroller/memory subsystem, conditioned and isolated power supplies, and six application-specific, physiological signal conditioners. Each signal condition is capable of being programmed for gains, offsets, calibration and operate modes, and, in some cases, selectable outputs and functional modes. Presently, the system has the capability for measuring ECG, EMG, EEG, Temperature, Respiration, Pressure, Force, and Acceleration parameters, in physiological ranges. The measurement system makes heavy use of surface-mount packaging technology, resulting in plug in modules sized 125x55 mm. The complete 12-slot system is contained within a volume of 220x150x70mm. The system's capabilities extend well beyond the specific objectives of NASA programs. Indeed, the potential commercial uses of the technology are virtually limitless. In addition to applications in medical and biomedical sensing, the system might also be used in process control situations, in clinical or research environments, in general instrumentation systems, factory processing, or any other applications where high quality measurements are required.

  18. A modular, programmable measurement system for physiological and spaceflight applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, John W.; Ricks, Robert D.; Miles, Christopher J.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA-Ames Sensors 2000! Program has developed a small, compact, modular, programmable, sensor signal conditioning and measurement system, initially targeted for Life Sciences Spaceflight Programs. The system consists of a twelve-slot, multi-layer, distributed function backplane, a digital microcontroller/memory subsystem, conditioned and isolated power supplies, and six application-specific, physiological signal conditioners. Each signal condition is capable of being programmed for gains, offsets, calibration and operate modes, and, in some cases, selectable outputs and functional modes. Presently, the system has the capability for measuring ECG, EMG, EEG, Temperature, Respiration, Pressure, Force, and Acceleration parameters, in physiological ranges. The measurement system makes heavy use of surface-mount packaging technology, resulting in plug in modules sized 125x55 mm. The complete 12-slot system is contained within a volume of 220x150x70mm. The system's capabilities extend well beyond the specific objectives of NASA programs. Indeed, the potential commercial uses of the technology are virtually limitless. In addition to applications in medical and biomedical sensing, the system might also be used in process control situations, in clinical or research environments, in general instrumentation systems, factory processing, or any other applications where high quality measurements are required.

  19. Photrodes for physiological sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kingsley, Stuart A.; Sriram, Sriram; Pollick, Andrea; Marsh, John

    2004-06-01

    This paper describes a paradigm shift in the technology for sensing electro-physiological signals. In recent years, SRICO has been developing small lithium niobate photonic electrodes, otherwise called "Photrodes" for measuring EEG and ECG signals. These extrinsic fiber-optic sensing devices exploit the extremely high electrical input impedance of Mach-Zehnder Intensity (MZI) electro-optic modulators to detect microvolt and millivolt physiological signals. Voltage levels associated with electrocardiograms are typically on the order of several millivolts, and such signals can be detected by capacitive pickup through clothing, i.e., the Photrode may be used in a non-contact mode. Electroencephalogram signals, which typically have an amplitude of several microvolts, require direct contact with the skin. However, this contact may be dry, eliminating the need for conductive gels. The electrical bandwidth of this photonic electrode system stretches from below 0.1 Hz to many tens of kHz and is constrained mainly by the signal processing electronics, not by the Photrode itself. The paper will describe the design and performance of Photrode systems and the challenging aspects of this new technology.

  20. Physiological characteristics of well-trained junior sprint kayak athletes.

    PubMed

    Borges, Thiago Oliveira; Dascombe, Ben; Bullock, Nicola; Coutts, Aaron J

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed to profile the physiological characteristics of junior sprint kayak athletes (n=21, VO2max 4.1±0.7 L/min, training experience 2.7±1.2 y) and to establish the relationship between physiological variables (VO2max, VO2 kinetics, muscle-oxygen kinetics, paddling efficiency) and sprint kayak performance. VO2max, power at VO2max, power:weight ratio, paddling efficiency, VO2 at lactate threshold, and whole-body and muscle oxygen kinetics were determined on a kayak ergometer in the laboratory. Separately, on-water time trials (TT) were completed over 200 m and 1000 m. Large to nearly perfect (-.5 to -.9) inverse relationships were found between the physiological variables and on-water TT performance across both distances. Paddling efficiency and lactate threshold shared moderate to very large correlations (-.4 to -.7) with 200- and 1000-m performance. In addition, trivial to large correlations (-.11 to -.5) were observed between muscle-oxygenation parameters, muscle and whole-body oxygen kinetics, and performance. Multiple regression showed that 88% of the unadjusted variance for the 200-m TT performance was explained by VO2max, peripheral muscle deoxygenation, and maximal aerobic power (P<.001), whereas 85% of the unadjusted variance in 1000-m TT performance was explained by VO2max and deoxyhemoglobin (P<.001). The current findings show that well-trained junior sprint kayak athletes possess a high level of relative aerobic fitness and highlight the importance of the peripheral muscle metabolism for sprint kayak performance, particularly in 200-m races, where finalists and nonfinalists are separated by very small margins. Such data highlight the relative aerobic-fitness variables that can be used as benchmarks for talent-identification programs or monitoring longitudinal athlete development. However, such approaches need further investigation.

  1. Rapid Sensitization of Physiological, Neuronal, and Locomotor Effects of Nicotine: Critical Role of Peripheral Drug Actions

    PubMed Central

    Lenoir, Magalie; Tang, Jeremy S.; Woods, Amina S.

    2013-01-01

    Repeated exposure to nicotine and other psychostimulant drugs produces persistent increases in their psychomotor and physiological effects (sensitization), a phenomenon related to the drugs' reinforcing properties and abuse potential. Here we examined the role of peripheral actions of nicotine in nicotine-induced sensitization of centrally mediated physiological parameters (brain, muscle, and skin temperatures), cortical and VTA EEG, neck EMG activity, and locomotion in freely moving rats. Repeated injections of intravenous nicotine (30 μg/kg) induced sensitization of the drug's effects on all these measures. In contrast, repeated injections of the peripherally acting analog of nicotine, nicotine pyrrolidine methiodide (nicotinePM, 30 μg/kg, i.v.) resulted in habituation (tolerance) of the same physiological, neuronal, and behavioral measures. However, after repeated nicotine exposure, acute nicotinePM injections induced nicotine-like physiological responses: powerful cortical and VTA EEG desynchronization, EMG activation, a large brain temperature increase, but weaker hyperlocomotion. Additionally, both the acute locomotor response to nicotine and nicotine-induced locomotor sensitization were attenuated by blockade of peripheral nicotinic receptors by hexamethonium (3 mg/kg, i.v.). These data suggest that the peripheral actions of nicotine, which precede its direct central actions, serve as a conditioned interoceptive cue capable of eliciting nicotine-like physiological and neural responses after repeated nicotine exposure. Thus, by providing a neural signal to the CNS that is repeatedly paired with the direct central effects of nicotine, the drug's peripheral actions play a critical role in the development of nicotine-induced physiological, neural, and behavioral sensitization. PMID:23761889

  2. Physiology of Mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Gregory M.; Berney, Michael; Gebhard, Susanne; Heinemann, Matthias; Cox, Robert A.; Danilchanka, Olga; Niederweis, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a prototrophic, metabolically flexible bacterium that has achieved a spread in the human population that is unmatched by any other bacterial pathogen. The success of M. tuberculosis as a pathogen can be attributed to its extraordinary stealth and capacity to adapt to environmental changes throughout the course of infection. These changes include: nutrient deprivation, hypoxia, various exogenous stress conditions and, in the case of the pathogenic species, the intraphagosomal environment. Knowledge of the physiology of M. tuberculosis during this process has been limited by the slow growth of the bacterium in the laboratory and other technical problems such as cell aggregation. Advances in genomics and molecular methods to analyse the M. tuberculosis genome have revealed that adaptive changes are mediated by complex regulatory networks and signals, resulting in temporal gene expression coupled to metabolic and energetic changes. An important goal for bacterial physiologists will be to elucidate the physiology of M. tuberculosis during the transition between the diverse conditions encountered by M. tuberculosis. This review covers the growth of the mycobacterial cell and how environmental stimuli are sensed by this bacterium. Adaptation to different environments is described from the viewpoint of nutrient acquisition, energy generation and regulation. To gain quantitative understanding of mycobacterial physiology will require a systems biology approach and recent efforts in this area are discussed. “It is now 100 years since the first mycobacterium was isolated by Hansen (1874). Somewhat ironically, this was the leprosy bacillus, Mycobacterium leprae, which even today is still resisting all attempts to cultivate it in the laboratory. The tubercle bacillus, M. tuberculosis was not discovered until eight years later (Koch, 1882) and this has remained an object of intensive investigation ever since. The widespread interest in the

  3. Ventricular hypertrophy--physiological mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Vaughan Williams, E M

    1986-01-01

    Adult cardiac myocytes are incapable of mitosis. Dead cells are replaced by connective tissue so that after myocardial infarction (MI), function can only be restored by compensatory hypertrophy of the surviving myocardium. In physiological hypertrophy in response to exercise, high altitude, or mild hypertension, additional myoplasm expands cell diameter in an orderly fashion; Z-lines are in register and the normal ratio of volume densities of contractile elements, mitochondria, and capillaries is conserved. In hypertrophy induced by aortic or pulmonary artery banding or by experimental or congenital hypertension, the borderline between physiological and pathological hypertrophy may be crossed, causing disorganization of fibers and an unfavourable contractile element to capillary ratio. There was, therefore, a need for a graded model of hypertrophy, which involves simulating an altitude of 6,000 m at sea level by supplying rabbits with appropriate nitrogen/oxygen mixtures. In this environment, 50% right ventricular hypertrophy can be achieved without alteration of left ventricular weight or hematocrit. Longer exposures produced 100% right ventricular hypertrophy, with only moderate increases in hematocrit and left ventricular weight. It is well known that adrenergic stimulation causes cardiac hypertrophy, and it has been suggested that release of a trophic factor from sympathetic nerves, either noradrenaline or a protein, might be a necessary stimulus for growth. If so, long-term treatment of post-MI patients with beta-adrenergic blocking agents could inhibit a desirable compensatory hypertrophy of the surviving myocardium. In the above model it has been found, however, that neither beta-blockade nor chemical sympathectomy with guanethidine or 6-hydroxydopamine had any effect on the hypertrophy, nor did treatment with verapamil or nifedipine.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Physiological optics and physical geometry.

    PubMed

    Hyder, D J

    2001-09-01

    Hermann von Helmholtz's distinction between "pure intuitive" and "physical" geometry must be counted as the most influential of his many contributions to the philosophy of science. In a series of papers from the 1860s and 70s, Helmholtz argued against Kant's claim that our knowledge of Euclidean geometry was an a priori condition for empirical knowledge. He claimed that geometrical propositions could be meaningful only if they were taken to concern the behaviors of physical bodies used in measurement, from which it followed that it was posterior to our acquaintance with this behavior. This paper argues that Helmholtz's understanding of geometry was fundamentally shaped by his work in sense-physiology, above all on the continuum of colors. For in the course of that research, Helmholtz was forced to realize that the color-space had no inherent metrical structure. The latter was a product of axiomatic definitions of color-addition and the empirical results of such additions. Helmholtz's development of these views is explained with detailed reference to the competing work of the mathematician Hermann Grassmann and that of the young James Clerk Maxwell. It is this separation between 1) essential properties of a continuum, 2) supplementary axioms concerning distance-measurement, and 3) the behaviors of the physical apparatus used to realize the axioms, which is definitive of Helmholtz's arguments concerning geometry.

  5. Variability of coordination parameters at 400-m front crawl swimming pace.

    PubMed

    Schnitzler, Christophe; Seifert, Ludovic; Chollet, Didier

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the variability of physiological, perceptual, stroke and coordination parameters in both genders during several swim trials at the 400-m pace speed. Twelve national level competitors (6 men, 6 women) swam 400-m at maximal speed. They then swam three additional trials (100, 200 and 300-m) at the pace (speed) of the previous 400-m. Three cameras were used to determine stroke cycle [speed (V), stroke length (SL), stroke rate (SR)] and coordination [index of coordination (IdC), stroke phases] parameters. Physiological [heart rate (HR) and lactate [La-] and perceptual [subjective workload (TWL)] parameters were assessed after each swim trial. Inter-trial data indicated that HR, [La-] and TWL increased significantly with the distance swum (p < 0.05). Inter-trial comparison did not show significant variation of stroke cycle and coordination parameters. Inter-lap data were examined within the 400-m and showed that V and SL decreased significantly at the beginning of the trial (p < 0.05), but IdC and SR remained unchanged (p > 0.05). Thus, despite changes in both physiological and perceptual responses consecutive to increasing fatigue, coordination parameters remained stable during an all-out 400-m freestyle swim. The examination of these parameters based on short-distance trials appears then to be valid, which offers interesting perspectives for swim testing. Key points"During a maximal 400-m, fatigue led to an increase in both physiological (heart rate and blood lactate) and perceptual (subjective workload) parameters.The consequence was a decrease in stroke length and therefore in the swimming speed.However, inter-arm coordination did not change during this aerobic task.This indicates that inter-arm coordination can be examined on the basis of short-distance trials rather than on the full distance. PMID:24149527

  6. Variability of Coordination Parameters at 400-M Front Crawl Swimming Pace

    PubMed Central

    Schnitzler, Christophe; Seifert, Ludovic; Chollet, Didier

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the variability of physiological, perceptual, stroke and coordination parameters in both genders during several swim trials at the 400-m pace speed. Twelve national level competitors (6 men, 6 women) swam 400-m at maximal speed. They then swam three additional trials (100, 200 and 300-m) at the pace (speed) of the previous 400-m. Three cameras were used to determine stroke cycle [speed (V), stroke length (SL), stroke rate (SR)] and coordination [index of coordination (IdC), stroke phases] parameters. Physiological [heart rate (HR) and lactate [La-] and perceptual [subjective workload (TWL)] parameters were assessed after each swim trial. Inter-trial data indicated that HR, [La-] and TWL increased significantly with the distance swum (p < 0.05). Inter-trial comparison did not show significant variation of stroke cycle and coordination parameters. Inter-lap data were examined within the 400-m and showed that V and SL decreased significantly at the beginning of the trial (p < 0.05), but IdC and SR remained unchanged (p > 0.05). Thus, despite changes in both physiological and perceptual responses consecutive to increasing fatigue, coordination parameters remained stable during an all-out 400-m freestyle swim. The examination of these parameters based on short-distance trials appears then to be valid, which offers interesting perspectives for swim testing. Key points “During a maximal 400-m, fatigue led to an increase in both physiological (heart rate and blood lactate) and perceptual (subjective workload) parameters. The consequence was a decrease in stroke length and therefore in the swimming speed. However, inter-arm coordination did not change during this aerobic task. This indicates that inter-arm coordination can be examined on the basis of short-distance trials rather than on the full distance. PMID:24149527

  7. USE OF A PHYSIOLOGICALLY-BASED PHARMACOKINETIC MODEL TO ESTIMATE ABSORBED CARBARYL DOSE IN CHILDREN AFTER TURF APPLICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed to investigate exposure scenarios of children to carbaryl following turf application. Physiological, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters describing the fate and effects of carbaryl in rats were scaled ...

  8. [Physiological behavior of Cantilever].

    PubMed

    Feeldman, I; Frugone, R; Vládilo, N T

    1990-11-01

    The prosthetic rehabilitation is common of the integral treatment of patients that integral treatment of patients that have lost one or several dental pieces as a consequence of periodontal diseases. It has been demonstrated that plural fixed prothesis to extention, plovide a distribution pattern and magnitude of favourable forces to the periodontal during the different functions of the stomathologic apparatus, that justify rehabilitation based to it patients periodontically affected. The physiological behaviour of cantilever was basically analized on report on different investigation studies performed on patients periodontically diminis hed treated with plural fixed prothesis of crossed are with two unit or bilateral vear cantilever units, dento supported or fixed in place on implants. It is important to emphasize that favourable results previously analized in base to this type of rehabilitation in its different varieties have been obtained through record done on patients in which considerations of indications, design and occlusion stability have been optimized. PMID:2075270

  9. Newborn Physiological Immaturity

    PubMed Central

    Fabrellas-Padrés, Núria; Delgado-Hito, Pilar; Hurtado-Pardos, Bárbara; Martí-Cavallé, Montserrat; Gironès-Nogué, Marta; García-Berman, Rosa-Maria; Alonso-Fernandez, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Background: Most standardized nursing care plans for healthy neonates include multiple nursing diagnoses to reflect nurses' judgments on the infant's status; however scientific literature concerning this issue is scarce. Newborn physiological immaturity is a concept in the ATIC terminology (architecture, terminology, interface, information, nursing [infermeria], and knowledge [coneixement]) to represent the natural status of vulnerability of the healthy neonate. Purpose: To identify the essential attributes of the concept and provide its conceptual and operational definition, using the Wilsonian approach. Findings: The concept under analysis embeds a natural cluster of vulnerabilities and environmental interactions that enhance the evolving maturation process. Implications for Practice: The use of this diagnosis may simplify the process of charting the nursing care plans and reduce time needed for documentation while maintaining the integrity of the information. Implications for Research: Consistent development and use of nursing concepts is essential for knowledge building. Studies on the actual use of nursing diagnoses are needed to inform decision making. PMID:25822514

  10. Physiological training in Jordan.

    PubMed

    al-Wedyan, I A; Shahin, B H; Abu Ghosh, H M; al-Aqqad, S S; al-Qura'an, M S

    1996-09-01

    The hypobaric chamber is designed as a teaching aid in providing orientation for some of the physiological stresses in flight. Reactions during chamber training vary from mild ear block to neurocirculatory collapse. This is a retrospective study on reactions from 1986-94 in the hypobaric chamber training unit at King Hussien Medical Centre in Jordan; 39 cases were reported among 705 trainees in a 12-person rectangular hypobaric chamber. We analyzed the various reactions according to type, severity and altitude of occurrence. The most common reactions were found to be ear block (65%) and sinus block (25%). These were treated on the spot and followed for 48 h without sequelae. We did not have any moderate or severe reaction; we found that all reactions were minor, which reflects the efficacy of safety measures taken prior to and during training.

  11. [Physiological function of osteocytes].

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Kyoji

    2007-10-01

    Osteocytes produce DMP1 (dentin matrix protein 1), FGF23 (fibroblast growth factor 23) and sclerostin. FGF23 is a phosphate-regulating hormone that links bone to kidney. DMP1 is a matrix protein that is involved in mineralization. Patients with DMP1 mutations exhibit increased FGF23 and hypophosphatemia, suggesting that DMP1 negatively regulates FGF23 in osteocytes. Sclerostin is secreted by osteocytes and negatively regulates osteoblastic function, and its neutralizing antibody is being developed as a new treatment for osteoporosis. A mouse model that enables targeted ablation of osteocytes tells us about the physiologic and pathologic functions of osteocytes in regulating bone remodeling in response to mechanical environment. PMID:17906408

  12. Single Cell Physiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neveu, Pierre; Sinha, Deepak Kumar; Kettunen, Petronella; Vriz, Sophie; Jullien, Ludovic; Bensimon, David

    The possibility to control at specific times and specific places the activity of biomolecules (enzymes, transcription factors, RNA, hormones, etc.) is opening up new opportunities in the study of physiological processes at the single cell level in a live organism. Most existing gene expression systems allow for tissue specific induction upon feeding the organism with exogenous inducers (e.g., tetracycline). Local genetic control has earlier been achieved by micro-injection of the relevant inducer/repressor molecule, but this is an invasive and possibly traumatic technique. In this chapter, we present the requirements for a noninvasive optical control of the activity of biomolecules and review the recent advances in this new field of research.

  13. [Physiology of the neuropeptides].

    PubMed

    García-López, M J; Martínez-Martos, J M; Mayas, M D; Carrera, M P; Ramírez- Expósito, M J

    In the present review, the characteristics of mammalian neuropeptides have been studied. Neuropeptides are widely distributed not only in the nervous system but also in the periphery. They are synthesised by neurons as large precursor molecules (pre propeptides) which have to be cleaved and modified in order to form the mature neuropeptides. Neuropeptides may exert actions as neurotransmitters, neuromodulators and/or neurohormones. In the neurons, they coexist with classic transmitters and often with other peptides. After their releasing, they bind to especific receptors to exert their action in the target cell. Most of these receptors belongs to a family of G protein coupled receptors. Finally, peptidases are the enzymes involved in the degradation of neuropeptides. Conclusions. In the last years, the number of known neuropeptides and the understanding of their functions have been increased. With these data, present investigations are looking for the treatment of different pathologies associated with alterations in the physiology of neuropeptides.

  14. Multiple regression for physiological data analysis: the problem of multicollinearity.

    PubMed

    Slinker, B K; Glantz, S A

    1985-07-01

    Multiple linear regression, in which several predictor variables are related to a response variable, is a powerful statistical tool for gaining quantitative insight into complex in vivo physiological systems. For these insights to be correct, all predictor variables must be uncorrelated. However, in many physiological experiments the predictor variables cannot be precisely controlled and thus change in parallel (i.e., they are highly correlated). There is a redundancy of information about the response, a situation called multicollinearity, that leads to numerical problems in estimating the parameters in regression equations; the parameters are often of incorrect magnitude or sign or have large standard errors. Although multicollinearity can be avoided with good experimental design, not all interesting physiological questions can be studied without encountering multicollinearity. In these cases various ad hoc procedures have been proposed to mitigate multicollinearity. Although many of these procedures are controversial, they can be helpful in applying multiple linear regression to some physiological problems.

  15. Everest Physiology Pre-2008.

    PubMed

    West, John B

    2016-01-01

    When Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay reached the summit of Mt. Everest in 1953, it was the culmination of many attempts beginning in 1921. Alexander Kellas had actually predicted as early as 1920 that the mountain could be climbed, but the extreme altitude of 8848 m with the consequent oxygen deprivation had foiled previous attempts. One reason for the success of the 1953 expedition was the work done by the British physiologist Griffith Pugh in 1952 when he studied many of the physiological factors at high altitude including the oxygen requirements. Seven years later, Pugh and Hillary teamed up again for the Silver Hut Expedition in 1960-1961 that elucidated many of the problems of very high altitude. A group of physiologists spent several months at an altitude of 5800 m in a prefabricated hut and studied many aspects of exercise, pulmonary gas exchange, control of ventilation, and blood changes. Maximal exercise was measured as high as 7440 m and raised anew the question of whether Everest could ever be climbed without supplementary oxygen. The answer was shown to be yes in 1978 by Messner and Habeler, and 3 years later the American Medical Research Expedition to Everest clarified the physiological adaptations that allow humans to reach the highest point on earth. Five people reached the summit, the barometric pressure there was measured for the first time, and alveolar gas samples from the summit showed the critical importance of the extreme hyperventilation. However, the maximal oxygen consumption for the summit inspired PO2 of 43 mmHg was shown to be only about 1 l min(-1). In other words, the highest point on earth is very close to the limit of human tolerance to oxygen deprivation. As we celebrate the anniversary of Charles Darwin, it would be nice to have an evolutionary explanation for this, but in fact it is a cosmic coincidence.

  16. Everest Physiology Pre-2008.

    PubMed

    West, John B

    2016-01-01

    When Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay reached the summit of Mt. Everest in 1953, it was the culmination of many attempts beginning in 1921. Alexander Kellas had actually predicted as early as 1920 that the mountain could be climbed, but the extreme altitude of 8848 m with the consequent oxygen deprivation had foiled previous attempts. One reason for the success of the 1953 expedition was the work done by the British physiologist Griffith Pugh in 1952 when he studied many of the physiological factors at high altitude including the oxygen requirements. Seven years later, Pugh and Hillary teamed up again for the Silver Hut Expedition in 1960-1961 that elucidated many of the problems of very high altitude. A group of physiologists spent several months at an altitude of 5800 m in a prefabricated hut and studied many aspects of exercise, pulmonary gas exchange, control of ventilation, and blood changes. Maximal exercise was measured as high as 7440 m and raised anew the question of whether Everest could ever be climbed without supplementary oxygen. The answer was shown to be yes in 1978 by Messner and Habeler, and 3 years later the American Medical Research Expedition to Everest clarified the physiological adaptations that allow humans to reach the highest point on earth. Five people reached the summit, the barometric pressure there was measured for the first time, and alveolar gas samples from the summit showed the critical importance of the extreme hyperventilation. However, the maximal oxygen consumption for the summit inspired PO2 of 43 mmHg was shown to be only about 1 l min(-1). In other words, the highest point on earth is very close to the limit of human tolerance to oxygen deprivation. As we celebrate the anniversary of Charles Darwin, it would be nice to have an evolutionary explanation for this, but in fact it is a cosmic coincidence. PMID:27343114

  17. Bayesian evaluation of a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model of long-term kinetics of metal nanoparticles in rats.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Lisa M; MacCalman, Laura; Haber, Lynne T; Kuempel, Eileen D; Tran, C Lang

    2015-10-01

    Biomathematical modeling quantitatively describes the disposition of metal nanoparticles in lungs and other organs of rats. In a preliminary model, adjustable parameters were calibrated to each of three data sets using a deterministic approach, with optimal values varying among the different data sets. In the current effort, Bayesian population analysis using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation was used to recalibrate the model while improving assessments of parameter variability and uncertainty. The previously-developed model structure and some physiological parameter values were modified to improve physiological realism. The data from one of the three previously-identified studies and from two other studies were used for model calibration. The data from the one study that adequately characterized mass balance were used to generate parameter distributions. When data from a second study of the same nanomaterial (iridium) were added, the level of agreement was still acceptable. Addition of another data set (for silver nanoparticles) led to substantially lower precision in parameter estimates and large discrepancies between the model predictions and experimental data for silver nanoparticles. Additional toxicokinetic data are needed to further evaluate the model structure and performance and to reduce uncertainty in the kinetic processes governing in vivo disposition of metal nanoparticles. PMID:26145831

  18. Respirator physiological effects under simulated work conditions.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Siddharth; Harber, Philip; Yun, David; Liu, David; Liu, Yihang; Wu, Samantha; Ng, David; Santiago, Silverio

    2009-04-01

    This study compared the physiological impacts of two respirator types in simulated work conditions. Fifty-six subjects included normal volunteers and persons with mild respiratory impairments (chronic rhinitis, mild COPD, and mild asthma). Respiratory parameters and electrocardiogram were measured using respiratory inductive plethysmography while performing eight work tasks involving low to moderate exertion using two respirators: (1) a dual cartridge half face mask (HFM) respirator, and (2) the N95. Mixed model regression analyses evaluating the effect of task and respirator type showed that task affected tidal volume, minute ventilation, breathing frequency and heart rate; all were greater in heavier tasks. Although respirator type did not affect respiratory volume parameters and flow rates, the HFM led to increase in the inspiratory time, reduction of the expiratory time, and increase in the duty cycle in comparison with the N95. The magnitude of differences was relatively small. The results suggest that most individuals, including persons with mild respiratory impairments, will physiologically tolerate either type of respirator at low to moderate exertion tasks. However, because effective protection depends on proper use, differences in subjective effect may have greater impact than physiological differences. Using respirators may be feasible on a widespread basis if necessary for maintaining essential services in the face of widespread concern about an infectious or terrorist threat. PMID:19180375

  19. Physiologic and subjective effects of respirator mask type.

    PubMed

    Harber, P; Beck, J; Brown, C; Luo, J

    1991-09-01

    The effect of alternate airflow path designs on full-face mask air-purifying respirators was assessed in 14 healthy volunteers during submaximal exercise. Respirator designs included no respirator (N), full-face mask, dual-cartridge with no nasal deflector (FN), full-face mask respirator with nasal deflector (FD), and a powered air-purifying respirator (PA). Physiologic effects were measured by using respiratory inductive plethysmography and subjective responses by two visual analog scales. There were significant effects of airflow path design upon the physiologic parameters of ventilation, tidal volume, and mean flow rate. There were no significant physiologic or subjective differences between the full-face mask respirators with and without the nasal deflector in place. The PA had less physiologic impact than the nonpowered models but did not show significant subjective benefit. The study suggests that both subjective and objective physiologic responses must be utilized in assessing respirator design. PMID:1781441

  20. Supergranular Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udayashankar, Paniveni

    2016-07-01

    I study the complexity of supergranular cells using intensity patterns from Kodaikanal solar observatory. The chaotic and turbulent aspect of the solar supergranulation can be studied by examining the interrelationships amongst the parameters characterizing supergranular cells namely size, horizontal flow field, lifetime and physical dimensions of the cells and the fractal dimension deduced from the size data. The findings are supportive of Kolmogorov's theory of turbulence. The Data consists of visually identified supergranular cells, from which a fractal dimension 'D' for supergranulation is obtained according to the relation P α AD/2 where 'A' is the area and 'P' is the perimeter of the supergranular cells. I find a fractal dimension close to about 1.3 which is consistent with that for isobars and suggests a possible turbulent origin. The cell circularity shows a dependence on the perimeter with a peak around (1.1-1.2) x 105 m. The findings are supportive of Kolmogorov's theory of turbulence.

  1. Geomagnetic Indices Variations And Human Physiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrova, S.

    2007-12-01

    A group of 86 volunteers was examined on each working day in autumn 2001 and in spring 2002. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and heart rate (HR) were registered. Pulse pressure (PP) was calculated. Data about subjective psycho-physiological complaints (SPPC) were also gathered. Altogether 2799 recordings were obtained. ANOVA was employed to check the significance of influence of daily amplitude of H-component of local geomagnetic field, daily planetary Ap-index and hourly planetary Dst-index on the physiological parameters examined. Post hoc analysis was performed to elicit the significance of differences in the factors levels. Average values of SBP, DBP, PP and SPPC of the group were found to increase statistically significantly and biologically considerably with the increase of geomagnetic indices.

  2. Acoustic sensor array extracts physiology during movement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scanlon, Michael V.

    2001-08-01

    An acoustic sensor attached to a person's neck can extract heart and breath sounds, as well as voice and other physiology related to their health and performance. Soldiers, firefighters, law enforcement, and rescue personnel, as well as people at home or in health care facilities, can benefit form being remotely monitored. ARLs acoustic sensor, when worn around a person's neck, picks up the carotid artery and breath sounds very well by matching the sensor's acoustic impedance to that of the body via a gel pad, while airborne noise is minimized by an impedance mismatch. Although the physiological sounds have high SNR, the acoustic sensor also responds to motion-induced artifacts that obscure the meaningful physiology. To exacerbate signal extraction, these interfering signals are usually covariant with the heart sounds, in that as a person walks faster the heart tends to beat faster, and motion noises tend to contain low frequency component similar to the heart sounds. A noise-canceling configuration developed by ARL uses two acoustic sensor on the front sides of the neck as physiology sensors, and two additional acoustic sensor on the back sides of the neck as noise references. Breath and heart sounds, which occur with near symmetry and simultaneously at the two front sensor, will correlate well. The motion noise present on all four sensor will be used to cancel the noise on the two physiology sensors. This report will compare heart rate variability derived from both the acoustic array and from ECG data taken simultaneously on a treadmill test. Acoustically derived breath rate and volume approximations will be introduced as well. A miniature 3- axis accelerometer on the same neckband provides additional noise references to validate footfall and motion activity.

  3. Measuring dynamic kidney function in an undergraduate physiology laboratory.

    PubMed

    Medler, Scott; Harrington, Frederick

    2013-12-01

    Most undergraduate physiology laboratories are very limited in how they treat renal physiology. It is common to find teaching laboratories equipped with the capability for high-resolution digital recordings of physiological functions (muscle twitches, ECG, action potentials, respiratory responses, etc.), but most urinary laboratories still rely on a "dipstick" approach of urinalysis. Although this technique can provide some basic insights into the functioning of the kidneys, it overlooks the dynamic processes of filtration, reabsorption, and secretion. In the present article, we provide a straightforward approach of using renal clearance measurements to estimate glomerular filtration rate, fractional water reabsorption, glucose clearance, and other physiologically relevant parameters. The estimated values from our measurements in laboratory are in close agreement with those anticipated based on textbook parameters. For example, we found glomerular filtration rate to average 124 ± 45 ml/min, serum creatinine to be 1.23 ± 0.4 mg/dl, and fractional water reabsorption to be ∼96.8%. Furthermore, analyses for the class data revealed significant correlations between parameters like fractional water reabsorption and urine concentration, providing opportunities to discuss urine concentrating mechanisms and other physiological processes. The procedures outlined here are general enough that most undergraduate physiology laboratory courses should be able to implement them without difficulty. PMID:24292917

  4. Procedures of Exercise Physiology Laboratories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Phillip A.; Fortney, Suzanne; Greenisen, Michael; Siconolfi, Steven F.; Bamman, Marcas M.; Moore, Alan D., Jr.; Squires, William

    1998-01-01

    This manual describes the laboratory methods used to collect flight crew physiological performance data at the Johnson Space Center. The Exercise Countermeasures Project Laboratory is a standard physiology laboratory; only the application to the study of human physiological adaptations to spaceflight is unique. In the absence of any other recently published laboratory manual, this manual should be a useful document staffs and students of other laboratories.

  5. Cardiovascular physiology and sleep.

    PubMed

    Murali, Narayana S; Svatikova, Anna; Somers, Virend K

    2003-05-01

    Sleep is a natural periodic suspension of consciousness during which processes of rest and restoration occur. The cognitive, reparative and regenerative accompaniments of sleep appear to be essential for maintenance of health and homeostasis. This brief overview will examine the cardiovascular responses to normal and disordered sleep, and their physiologic and pathologic implications. In the past, sleep was believed to be a passive state. The tableau of sleep as it unfolds is anything but a passive process. The brain's activity is as complex as wakefulness, never "resting" during sleep. Following the demise of the 'passive theory of sleep' (the reticular activating system is fatigued during the waking day and hence becomes inactive), there arose the 'active theory of sleep' (sleep is due to an active general inhibition of the brain) (1). Hess demonstrated the active nature of sleep in cats, inducing "physiological sleep" with electrical stimulation of the diencephalon (2). Classical experiments of transection of the cat brainstem (3) at midpontine level inhibited sleep completely, implying that centers below this level were involved in the induction of sleep (1, 4). For the first time, measurement of sleep depth without awakening the sleeper using the electroencephalogram (EEG) was demonstrated in animals by Caton and in humans, by Berger (1). This was soon followed by discovery of the rapid eye movement sleep periods (REM) by Aserinski and Kleitman (5), demonstration of periodical sleep cycles and their association with REM sleep (6, 7). Multiple studies and steady discoveries (4) made polysomnography, with its ability to perform simultaneous whole night recordings of EEG, electromyogram (EMG), and electrooculogram (EOC), a major diagnostic tool in study of sleep disorders. This facility has been of further critical importance in allowing evaluation of the interaction between sleep and changes in hemodynamics and autonomic cardiovascular control. Consequently the

  6. Brain Physiology: Research and Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esler, William K.

    1982-01-01

    Indicates how research about the physiology and chemistry of the brain verifies the educational applications of Piaget's theory. Discusses maturation, experience, social transmission, and equilibration. (Author/DC)

  7. Physiology Considerations in Geriatric Patients.

    PubMed

    Alvis, Bret D; Hughes, Christopher G

    2015-09-01

    Physiology changes at the structural, functional, and molecular levels as people age, and every major organ system experiences physiologic change with time. The changes to the nervous system result mostly in cognitive impairments, the cardiovascular system develops higher blood pressures with lower cardiac output, the respiratory system undergoes a reduction of arterial oxyhemoglobin levels, the gastrointestinal system experiences delayed gastric emptying and reduction of hepatic metabolism, and the renal system experiences a diminished glomerular filtration rate. Combined, these changes create a complex physiologic condition. This unique physiology must be taken into consideration for geriatric patients undergoing general anesthesia. PMID:26315630

  8. Lactobacillus casei stimulates phase-II detoxification system and rescues malathion-induced physiological impairments in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Kamaladevi, Arumugam; Ganguli, Abhijit; Balamurugan, Krishnaswamy

    2016-01-01

    Malathion, an organophosphorus insecticide, is renowned for its inhibitory action on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme that eventually leads to widespread disturbance in the normal physiological and behavioral activities of any organism. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are still an underexploited and inexhaustible source of significant pharmaceutical thrust. In the present study, Caenorhabditis elegans was employed to identify and characterize the indigenous LAB isolated from different traditional food against malathion-induced toxicity. The results demonstrated that malathion at its LD50 concentration decreased various C. elegans physiological parameters such as survival, feeding, and locomotion. Among the screened isolates, L. casei exhibited an excellent protective efficacy against malathion-induced toxicity by increasing the level of AChE and thereby rescued all physiological parameters of C. elegans. In addition, short-term exposure and food choice assay divulged that L. casei could serve as a better food to protect C. elegans from noxious environment. The expression analysis unveiled that L. casei gavage upregulated the phase-II detoxification enzymes coding genes metallothioneins (mtl-1 and mtl-2) and glutathione-S-transferase (gst-8) and thereby eliminated malathion from the host system. Furthermore, the upregulation of ace-3 along with down-regulation of cyp35a in the nematodes supplemented with L. casei could be attributed to attenuate the malathion-induced physiological defects in C. elegans. Thus, the present study reports that an indigenous LAB-L. casei could serve as a promising protective agent against the harmful effects of pesticide.

  9. Altered physiological conditions of the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber as a measure of subchronic TiO2 effects.

    PubMed

    Srpčič, Anja Menard; Drobne, Damjana; Novak, Sara

    2015-03-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO2) show low toxic potential against a variety of environmental organisms when measured by conventional toxicity endpoints. However, the question is whether the conventional measures of toxicity can define the adverse effects of nanoparticles. The aim of this study was to asses the potential toxic and cytotoxic effects of the ingested nano-TiO2 (anatase, <25 nm) on a terrestrial isopod, Porcellio scaber. In addition to conventional toxicity parameters, the physiological condition of the animals was assessed. Following 28-day feeding exposure to nano-TiO2 at concentrations up to 5,000 μg nano-TiO2/g leaf dry weight, no toxic or cytotoxic effects were demonstrated. However, the physiological condition of the animals was affected in a dose-dependent manner. The physiological state of organisms is an important parameter to assess the potential population implications due to the exposure to nanomaterials. Therefore, we suggest that only if both, the physiological state of the animals exposed to nano-TiO2 and the conventional toxicity markers show no effects, the exposure dose can be interpreted as non-hazardous.

  10. The Physiology Teacher: Abstracts of Educational Materials in Physiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physiologist, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Presents the third annual collection of abstracts of educational materials presented by the Educational Materials Review Board of the American Physiological Society. Board members have submitted abstracts of review articles, papers, textbooks, books, manuals, handbooks and symposia which they have found valuable in teaching physiology. (Author/CP)

  11. Polyamines in plant physiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galston, A. W.; Sawhney, R. K.

    1990-01-01

    The diamine putrescine, the triamine spermidine, and the tetramine spermine are ubiquitous in plant cells, while other polyamines are of more limited occurrence. Their chemistry and pathways of biosynthesis and metabolism are well characterized. They occur in the free form as cations, but are often conjugated to small molecules like phenolic acids and also to various macromolecules. Their titer varies from approximately micromolar to more than millimolar, and depends greatly on environmental conditions, especially stress. In cereals, the activity of one of the major polyamine biosynthetic enzymes, arginine decarboxylase, is rapidly and dramatically increased by almost every studied external stress, leading to 50-fold or greater increases in putrescine titer within a few hours. The physiological significance of this increase is not yet clear, although most recent work suggests an adaptive, protective role. Polyamines produced through the action of ornithine decarboxylase, by contrast, seem essential for DNA replication and cell division. The application of exogenous polyamines produces effects on patterns of senescence and morphogenesis, suggesting but not proving a regulatory role for polyamines in these processes. The evidence for such a regulatory role is growing.

  12. Starting physiology: bioelectrogenesis.

    PubMed

    Baptista, Vander

    2015-12-01

    From a Cartesian perspective of rational analysis, the electric potential difference across the cell membrane is one of the fundamental concepts for the study of physiology. Unfortunately, undergraduate students often struggle to understand the genesis of this energy gradient, which makes the teaching activity a hard task for the instructor. The topic of bioelectrogenesis encompasses multidisciplinary concepts, involves several mechanisms, and is a dynamic process, i.e., it never turns off during the lifetime of the cell. Therefore, to improve the transmission and acquisition of knowledge in this field, I present an alternative didactic model. The design of the model assumes that it is possible to build, in a series of sequential steps, an assembly of proteins within the membrane of an isolated cell in a simulated electrophysiology experiment. Initially, no proteins are inserted in the membrane and the cell is at a baseline energy state; the extracellular and intracellular fluids are at thermodynamic equilibrium. Students are guided through a sequence of four steps that add key membrane transport proteins to the model cell. The model is simple at the start and becomes progressively more complex, finally producing transmembrane chemical and electrical gradients. I believe that this didactic approach helps instructors with a more efficient tool for the teaching of the mechanisms of resting membrane potential while helping students avoid common difficulties that may be encountered when learning this topic.

  13. Physiology of circadian entrainment.

    PubMed

    Golombek, Diego A; Rosenstein, Ruth E

    2010-07-01

    Mammalian circadian rhythms are controlled by endogenous biological oscillators, including a master clock located in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN). Since the period of this oscillation is of approximately 24 h, to keep synchrony with the environment, circadian rhythms need to be entrained daily by means of Zeitgeber ("time giver") signals, such as the light-dark cycle. Recent advances in the neurophysiology and molecular biology of circadian rhythmicity allow a better understanding of synchronization. In this review we cover several aspects of the mechanisms for photic entrainment of mammalian circadian rhythms, including retinal sensitivity to light by means of novel photopigments as well as circadian variations in the retina that contribute to the regulation of retinal physiology. Downstream from the retina, we examine retinohypothalamic communication through neurotransmitter (glutamate, aspartate, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide) interaction with SCN receptors and the resulting signal transduction pathways in suprachiasmatic neurons, as well as putative neuron-glia interactions. Finally, we describe and analyze clock gene expression and its importance in entrainment mechanisms, as well as circadian disorders or retinal diseases related to entrainment deficits, including experimental and clinical treatments. PMID:20664079

  14. Smolt physiology and endocrinology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCormick, Stephen D.; McCormick, Stephen D.; Farrell, Anthony Peter; Brauner, Colin J.

    2013-01-01

    Hormones play a critical role in maintaining body fluid balance in euryhaline fishes during changes in environmental salinity. The neuroendocrine axis senses osmotic and ionic changes, then signals and coordinates tissue-specific responses to regulate water and ion fluxes. Rapid-acting hormones, e.g. angiotensins, cope with immediate challenges by controlling drinking rate and the activity of ion transporters in the gill, gut, and kidney. Slow-acting hormones, e.g. prolactin and growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1, reorganize the body for long-term acclimation by altering the abundance of ion transporters and through cell proliferation and differentiation of ionocytes and other osmoregulatory cells. Euryhaline species exist in all groups of fish, including cyclostomes, and cartilaginous and teleost fishes. The diverse strategies for responding to changes in salinity have led to differential regulation and tissue-specific effects of hormones. Combining traditional physiological approaches with genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic analyses will elucidate the patterns and diversity of the endocrine control of euryhalinity.

  15. Physiology of Volition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallett, Mark

    The idea of free will is a conscious awareness of the brain concerning the nature of the movement that it produces. There is no evidence for it to be a driving force in movement generation. This review considers the physiology of movement generation and how the concepts of willing and agency might arise. Both the anatomical substrates and the timing of events are considered. Movement initiation and volition are not necessarily linked, and one line of evidence comes from consideration of patients with disorders of volition. Movement is generated subconsciously, and the conscious sense of willing the movement comes later, but the exact time of this event is difficult to assess because of the potentially illusory nature of introspection. The evidence suggests that movement is initiated in frontal lobe, particularly the mesial areas, and the sense of volition arises as the result of a corollary discharge from premotor and motor areas likely involving the parietal lobe. Agency probably involves a similar region in the parietal lobe and requires both the sense of volition and movement feedback.

  16. Polyamines in plant physiology.

    PubMed Central

    Galston, A W; Sawhney, R K

    1990-01-01

    The diamine putrescine, the triamine spermidine, and the tetramine spermine are ubiquitous in plant cells, while other polyamines are of more limited occurrence. Their chemistry and pathways of biosynthesis and metabolism are well characterized. They occur in the free form as cations, but are often conjugated to small molecules like phenolic acids and also to various macromolecules. Their titer varies from approximately micromolar to more than millimolar, and depends greatly on environmental conditions, especially stress. In cereals, the activity of one of the major polyamine biosynthetic enzymes, arginine decarboxylase, is rapidly and dramatically increased by almost every studied external stress, leading to 50-fold or greater increases in putrescine titer within a few hours. The physiological significance of this increase is not yet clear, although most recent work suggests an adaptive, protective role. Polyamines produced through the action of ornithine decarboxylase, by contrast, seem essential for DNA replication and cell division. The application of exogenous polyamines produces effects on patterns of senescence and morphogenesis, suggesting but not proving a regulatory role for polyamines in these processes. The evidence for such a regulatory role is growing. PMID:11537482

  17. Starting physiology: bioelectrogenesis.

    PubMed

    Baptista, Vander

    2015-12-01

    From a Cartesian perspective of rational analysis, the electric potential difference across the cell membrane is one of the fundamental concepts for the study of physiology. Unfortunately, undergraduate students often struggle to understand the genesis of this energy gradient, which makes the teaching activity a hard task for the instructor. The topic of bioelectrogenesis encompasses multidisciplinary concepts, involves several mechanisms, and is a dynamic process, i.e., it never turns off during the lifetime of the cell. Therefore, to improve the transmission and acquisition of knowledge in this field, I present an alternative didactic model. The design of the model assumes that it is possible to build, in a series of sequential steps, an assembly of proteins within the membrane of an isolated cell in a simulated electrophysiology experiment. Initially, no proteins are inserted in the membrane and the cell is at a baseline energy state; the extracellular and intracellular fluids are at thermodynamic equilibrium. Students are guided through a sequence of four steps that add key membrane transport proteins to the model cell. The model is simple at the start and becomes progressively more complex, finally producing transmembrane chemical and electrical gradients. I believe that this didactic approach helps instructors with a more efficient tool for the teaching of the mechanisms of resting membrane potential while helping students avoid common difficulties that may be encountered when learning this topic. PMID:26628666

  18. Auditory pathways: anatomy and physiology.

    PubMed

    Pickles, James O

    2015-01-01

    This chapter outlines the anatomy and physiology of the auditory pathways. After a brief analysis of the external, middle ears, and cochlea, the responses of auditory nerve fibers are described. The central nervous system is analyzed in more detail. A scheme is provided to help understand the complex and multiple auditory pathways running through the brainstem. The multiple pathways are based on the need to preserve accurate timing while extracting complex spectral patterns in the auditory input. The auditory nerve fibers branch to give two pathways, a ventral sound-localizing stream, and a dorsal mainly pattern recognition stream, which innervate the different divisions of the cochlear nucleus. The outputs of the two streams, with their two types of analysis, are progressively combined in the inferior colliculus and onwards, to produce the representation of what can be called the "auditory objects" in the external world. The progressive extraction of critical features in the auditory stimulus in the different levels of the central auditory system, from cochlear nucleus to auditory cortex, is described. In addition, the auditory centrifugal system, running from cortex in multiple stages to the organ of Corti of the cochlea, is described.

  19. Clinical physiology of bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    1993-01-01

    Maintenance of optimal health in humans requires the proper balance between exercise, rest, and sleep as well as time in the upright position. About one-third of a lifetime is spent sleeping; and it is no coincidence that sleeping is performed in the horizontal position, the position in which gravitational influence on the body is minimal. Although enforced bed rest is necessary for the treatment of some ailments, in some cases it has probably been used unwisely. In addition to the lower hydrostatic pressure with the normally dependent regions of the cardiovascular system, body fuid compartments during bed rest in the horizontal body position, and virtual elimination of compression on the long bones of the skeletal system during bed rest (hypogravia), there is often reduction in energy metabolism due to the relative confinement (hypodynamia) and alteration of ambulatory circadian variations in metabolism, body temperature, and many hormonal systems. If patients are also moved to unfamiliar surroundings, they probably experience some feelings of anxiety and some sociopsychological problems. Adaptive physiological responses during bed rest are normal for that environment. They are attempts by the body to reduce unnecessary energy expenditure, to optimize its function, and to enhance its survival potential. Many of the deconditioning responses begin within the first day or two of bed rest; these early responses have prompted physicians to insist upon early resumption of the upright posture and ambulation of bedridden patients.

  20. Novel physiological function of fructooligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Tokunaga, Takahisa

    2004-01-01

    Two key properties of short chain fructooligosaccharides (sc-FOS) which lead to physiological functions are indigestibility in the small intestine and fermentability in the colon. Sc-FOS is converted into short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) by intestinal bacteria in the colon and absorbed. Through the metabolic pathway, sc-FOS improves gastrointestinal (GI) condition such as relief from constipation, formation of preferable intestinal microflora and intestinal immunomodulation those are known as prebiotics' function. Besides improvement of GI condition, dietary sc-FOS influences on calcium and magnesium absorption in the colon. A major mineral absorption site is the small intestine, but the colon also works as a Ca and Mg absorption site with an aid of SCFAs made from sc-FOS. Furthermore dietary sc-FOS influences on bioavailability of soy-isoflavones. Plasma and urinal concentration of Genistein and Daidzein, aglycones of Daidzin and Genistin, are higher in the rat fed with sc-FOS than the control rat. An additive effect of dietary isoflavone and sc-FOS was observed on the bone mineral density in OVX mice and moreover sc-FOS increased ceacal beta-glycosidase activity and equol production. These results suggest that FOS increase the bioavailability of isoflavones.

  1. A computational model of cardiovascular physiology and heart sound generation.

    PubMed

    Watrous, Raymond L

    2009-01-01

    A computational model of the cardiovascular system is described which provides a framework for implementing and testing quantitative physiological models of heart sound generation. The lumped-parameter cardiovascular model can be solved for the hemodynamic variables on which the heart sound generation process is built. Parameters of the cardiovascular model can be adjusted to represent various normal and pathological conditions, and the acoustic consequences of those adjustments can be explored. The combined model of the physiology of cardiovascular circulation and heart sound generation has promise for application in teaching, training and algorithm development in computer-aided auscultation of the heart.

  2. Causality in physiological signals.

    PubMed

    Müller, Andreas; Kraemer, Jan F; Penzel, Thomas; Bonnemeier, Hendrik; Kurths, Jürgen; Wessel, Niels

    2016-05-01

    Health is one of the most important non-material assets and thus also has an enormous influence on material values, since treating and preventing diseases is expensive. The number one cause of death worldwide today originates in cardiovascular diseases. For these reasons the aim of understanding the functions and the interactions of the cardiovascular system is and has been a major research topic throughout various disciplines for more than a hundred years. The purpose of most of today's research is to get as much information as possible with the lowest possible effort and the least discomfort for the subject or patient, e.g. via non-invasive measurements. A family of tools whose importance has been growing during the last years is known under the headline of coupling measures. The rationale for this kind of analysis is to identify the structure of interactions in a system of multiple components. Important information lies for example in the coupling direction, the coupling strength, and occurring time lags. In this work, we will, after a brief general introduction covering the development of cardiovascular time series analysis, introduce, explain and review some of the most important coupling measures and classify them according to their origin and capabilities in the light of physiological analyses. We will begin with classical correlation measures, go via Granger-causality-based tools, entropy-based techniques (e.g. momentary information transfer), nonlinear prediction measures (e.g. mutual prediction) to symbolic dynamics (e.g. symbolic coupling traces). All these methods have contributed important insights into physiological interactions like cardiorespiratory coupling, neuro-cardio-coupling and many more. Furthermore, we will cover tools to detect and analyze synchronization and coordination (e.g. synchrogram and coordigram). As a last point we will address time dependent couplings as identified using a recent approach employing ensembles of time series. The

  3. Physiological differentiation of viridans streptococci.

    PubMed Central

    Facklam, R R

    1977-01-01

    Twelve hundred and twenty-seven clinical isolates and eighty stock strains of viridans streptococci were tested for serological and physiological characteristics. Because the serological reactions of these strains varied, a differentiation scheme could not be based on these reactions. For the same reason, there could be no correlation of serological characteristics with physiological characteristics. Nearly 97% of the clinical isolates were speciated by differences in physiological characteristics. Ten different physiological species were recognized. The physiological speciation scheme was based on stable enzymatic reactions rather than on results of tolerance tests. The study included air-tolerant anaerobic streptococcal strains as well as viridans streptococcal strains not normally found in humans. The differentiation scheme and nomenclature of the author are related to those of other investigators. Differences in the distribution of species isolated from different clinical sources and human infections were also noted. A key for the differentiation of human isolates of viridans streptococci is proposed. PMID:845245

  4. Physiological correlates of mental workload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zacharias, G. L.

    1980-01-01

    A literature review was conducted to assess the basis of and techniques for physiological assessment of mental workload. The study findings reviewed had shortcomings involving one or more of the following basic problems: (1) physiologic arousal can be easily driven by nonworkload factors, confounding any proposed metric; (2) the profound absence of underlying physiologic models has promulgated a multiplicity of seemingly arbitrary signal processing techniques; (3) the unspecified multidimensional nature of physiological "state" has given rise to a broad spectrum of competing noncommensurate metrics; and (4) the lack of an adequate definition of workload compels physiologic correlations to suffer either from the vagueness of implicit workload measures or from the variance of explicit subjective assessments. Using specific studies as examples, two basic signal processing/data reduction techniques in current use, time and ensemble averaging are discussed.

  5. Regulation and function of AMPK in physiology and diseases

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Sang-Min

    2016-01-01

    5′-adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an evolutionarily conserved serine/threonine kinase that was originally identified as the key player in maintaining cellular energy homeostasis. Intensive research over the last decade has identified diverse molecular mechanisms and physiological conditions that regulate the AMPK activity. AMPK regulates diverse metabolic and physiological processes and is dysregulated in major chronic diseases, such as obesity, inflammation, diabetes and cancer. On the basis of its critical roles in physiology and pathology, AMPK is emerging as one of the most promising targets for both the prevention and treatment of these diseases. In this review, we discuss the current understanding of the molecular and physiological regulation of AMPK and its metabolic and physiological functions. In addition, we discuss the mechanisms underlying the versatile roles of AMPK in diabetes and cancer. PMID:27416781

  6. A Study on the Effects of Sympathetic Skin Response Parameters in Diagnosis of Fibromyalgia Using Artificial Neural Networks.

    PubMed

    Ozkan, Ozhan; Yildiz, Murat; Arslan, Evren; Yildiz, Sedat; Bilgin, Suleyman; Akkus, Selami; Koyuncuoglu, Hasan R; Koklukaya, Etem

    2016-03-01

    Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS), usually observed commonly in females over age 30, is a rheumatic disease accompanied by extensive chronic pain. In the diagnosis of the disease non-objective psychological tests and physiological tests and laboratory test results are evaluated and clinical experiences stand out. However, these tests are insufficient in differentiating FMS with similar diseases that demonstrate symptoms of extensive pain. Thus, objective tests that would help the diagnosis are needed. This study analyzes the effect of sympathetic skin response (SSR) parameters on the auxiliary tests used in FMS diagnosis, the laboratory tests and physiological tests. The study was conducted in Suleyman Demirel University, Faculty of Medicine, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinic in Turkey with 60 patients diagnosed with FMS for the first time and a control group of 30 healthy individuals. In the study all participants underwent laboratory tests (blood tests), certain physiological tests (pulsation, skin temperature, respiration) and SSR measurements. The test data and SSR parameters obtained were classified using artificial neural network (ANN). Finally, in the ANN framework, where only laboratory and physiological test results were used as input, a simulation result of 96.51 % was obtained, which demonstrated diagnostic accuracy. This data, with the addition of SSR parameter values obtained increased to 97.67 %. This result including SSR parameters - meaning a higher diagnostic accuracy - demonstrated that SSR could be a new auxillary diagnostic method that could be used in the diagnosis of FMS.

  7. Biomechanical and Physiological Response to a Contemporary Soccer Match-Play Simulation.

    PubMed

    Page, Richard M; Marrin, Kelly; Brogden, Chris M; Greig, Matt

    2015-10-01

    The intermittent activity profile of soccer match play increases the complexity of the physical demands. Laboratory models of soccer match play have value in controlled intervention studies, developed around manipulations of the activity profile to elicit a desired physiological or biomechanical response. Contemporary notational analyses suggest a profile comprising clusters of repeat sprint efforts, with implications for both biomechanical and physiological load. Eighteen male soccer players completed a 90-minute treadmill protocol based on clusters of repeat sprint efforts. Each 15-minute bout of exercise was quantified for uniaxial (medial-lateral [PLML], anterior-posterior [PLAP], and vertical [PLV]) and triaxial PlayerLoad (PLTotal). The relative contributions of the uniaxial PlayerLoad vectors (PLML%, PLAP%, and PLV%) were also examined. In addition to rating of perceived exertion, the physiological response comprised heart rate, blood lactate concentration, and both peak and average oxygen consumption. Triaxial PlayerLoad increased (p = 0.02) with exercise duration (T0-15 = 206.26 ± 14.37 a.u. and T45-60 = 214.51 ± 14.97 a.u.) and remained elevated throughout the second half. This fatigue effect was evident in both the PLML and PLAP movement planes. The mean relative contributions of PLV%:PLAP%:PLML% were consistent at ∼48:28:23. The physiological response was comparable with match play, and a similar magnitude of increase at ∼5% was observed in physiological parameters. Changes in PlayerLoad might reflect a change in movement quality with fatigue, with implications for both performance and injury risk, reflecting observations of match play. The high frequency of speed change elicits a 23% contribution from mediolateral load, negating the criticism of treadmill protocols as "linear."

  8. Biomechanical and Physiological Response to a Contemporary Soccer Match-Play Simulation.

    PubMed

    Page, Richard M; Marrin, Kelly; Brogden, Chris M; Greig, Matt

    2015-10-01

    The intermittent activity profile of soccer match play increases the complexity of the physical demands. Laboratory models of soccer match play have value in controlled intervention studies, developed around manipulations of the activity profile to elicit a desired physiological or biomechanical response. Contemporary notational analyses suggest a profile comprising clusters of repeat sprint efforts, with implications for both biomechanical and physiological load. Eighteen male soccer players completed a 90-minute treadmill protocol based on clusters of repeat sprint efforts. Each 15-minute bout of exercise was quantified for uniaxial (medial-lateral [PLML], anterior-posterior [PLAP], and vertical [PLV]) and triaxial PlayerLoad (PLTotal). The relative contributions of the uniaxial PlayerLoad vectors (PLML%, PLAP%, and PLV%) were also examined. In addition to rating of perceived exertion, the physiological response comprised heart rate, blood lactate concentration, and both peak and average oxygen consumption. Triaxial PlayerLoad increased (p = 0.02) with exercise duration (T0-15 = 206.26 ± 14.37 a.u. and T45-60 = 214.51 ± 14.97 a.u.) and remained elevated throughout the second half. This fatigue effect was evident in both the PLML and PLAP movement planes. The mean relative contributions of PLV%:PLAP%:PLML% were consistent at ∼48:28:23. The physiological response was comparable with match play, and a similar magnitude of increase at ∼5% was observed in physiological parameters. Changes in PlayerLoad might reflect a change in movement quality with fatigue, with implications for both performance and injury risk, reflecting observations of match play. The high frequency of speed change elicits a 23% contribution from mediolateral load, negating the criticism of treadmill protocols as "linear." PMID:25875368

  9. Applied physiology of swimming.

    PubMed

    Lavoie, J M; Montpetit, R R

    1986-01-01

    Scientific research in swimming over the past 10 to 15 years has been oriented toward multiple aspects that relate to applied and basic physiology, metabolism, biochemistry, and endocrinology. This review considers recent findings on: 1) specific physical characteristics of swimmers; 2) the energetics of swimming; 3) the evaluation of aerobic fitness in swimming; and 4) some metabolic and hormonal aspects related to swimmers. Firstly, the age of finalists in Olympic swimming is not much different from that of the participants from other sports. They are taller and heavier than a reference population of the same age. The height bias in swimming may be the reason for lack of success from some Asian and African countries. Experimental data point toward greater leanness, particularly in female swimmers, than was seen 10 years ago. Overall, female swimmers present a range of 14 to 19% body fat whereas males are much lower (5 to 10%). Secondly, the relationship between O2 uptake and crawl swimming velocity (at training and competitive speeds) is thought to be linear. The energy cost varies between strokes with a dichotomy between the 2 symmetrical and the 2 asymmetrical strokes. Energy expenditure in swimming is represented by the sum of the cost of translational motion (drag) and maintenance of horizontal motion (gravity). The cost of the latter decreases as speed increases. Examination of the question of size-associated effects on the cost of swimming using Huxley's allometric equation (Y = axb) shows an almost direct relationship with passive drag. Expressing energy cost in litres of O2/m/kg is proposed as a better index of technical swimming ability than the traditional expression of VO2/distance in L/km. Thirdly, maximal direct conventional techniques used to evaluate maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max) in swimming include free swimming, tethered swimming, and flume swimming. Despite the individual peculiarities of each method, with similar experimental conditions

  10. Cassava biology and physiology.

    PubMed

    El-Sharkawy, Mabrouk A

    2004-11-01

    Cassava or manioc (Manihot esculenta Crantz), a perennial shrub of the New World, currently is the sixth world food crop for more than 500 million people in tropical and sub-tropical Africa, Asia and Latin America. It is cultivated mainly by resource-limited small farmers for its starchy roots, which are used as human food either fresh when low in cyanogens or in many processed forms and products, mostly starch, flour, and for animal feed. Because of its inherent tolerance to stressful environments, where other food crops would fail, it is often considered a food-security source against famine, requiring minimal care. Under optimal environmental conditions, it compares favorably in production of energy with most other major staple food crops due to its high yield potential. Recent research at the Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT) in Colombia has demonstrated the ability of cassava to assimilate carbon at very high rates under high levels of humidity, temperature and solar radiation,which correlates with productivity across all environments whether dry or humid. When grown on very poor soils under prolonged drought for more than 6 months, the crop reduce both its leaf canopy and transpiration water loss, but its attached leaves remain photosynthetically active, though at greatly reduced rates. The main physiological mechanism underlying such a remarkable tolerance to drought was rapid stomatal closure under both atmospheric and edaphic water stress, protecting the leaf against dehydration while the plant depletes available soil water slowly during long dry periods. This drought tolerance mechanism leads to high crop water use efficiency values. Although the cassava fine root system is sparse, compared to other crops, it can penetrate below 2 m soil,thus enabling the crop to exploit deep water if available. Leaves of cassava and wild Manihot possess elevated activities of the C4 enzyme PEP carboxylase but lack the leaf Kranz anatomy typical of C4

  11. Applied physiology of swimming.

    PubMed

    Lavoie, J M; Montpetit, R R

    1986-01-01

    Scientific research in swimming over the past 10 to 15 years has been oriented toward multiple aspects that relate to applied and basic physiology, metabolism, biochemistry, and endocrinology. This review considers recent findings on: 1) specific physical characteristics of swimmers; 2) the energetics of swimming; 3) the evaluation of aerobic fitness in swimming; and 4) some metabolic and hormonal aspects related to swimmers. Firstly, the age of finalists in Olympic swimming is not much different from that of the participants from other sports. They are taller and heavier than a reference population of the same age. The height bias in swimming may be the reason for lack of success from some Asian and African countries. Experimental data point toward greater leanness, particularly in female swimmers, than was seen 10 years ago. Overall, female swimmers present a range of 14 to 19% body fat whereas males are much lower (5 to 10%). Secondly, the relationship between O2 uptake and crawl swimming velocity (at training and competitive speeds) is thought to be linear. The energy cost varies between strokes with a dichotomy between the 2 symmetrical and the 2 asymmetrical strokes. Energy expenditure in swimming is represented by the sum of the cost of translational motion (drag) and maintenance of horizontal motion (gravity). The cost of the latter decreases as speed increases. Examination of the question of size-associated effects on the cost of swimming using Huxley's allometric equation (Y = axb) shows an almost direct relationship with passive drag. Expressing energy cost in litres of O2/m/kg is proposed as a better index of technical swimming ability than the traditional expression of VO2/distance in L/km. Thirdly, maximal direct conventional techniques used to evaluate maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max) in swimming include free swimming, tethered swimming, and flume swimming. Despite the individual peculiarities of each method, with similar experimental conditions

  12. Physiological evaluation of a newly designed lever mechanism for wheelchairs.

    PubMed

    van der Woude, L H; Veeger, H E; de Boer, Y; Rozendal, R H

    1993-01-01

    Lever-propelled wheelchairs have been described as more efficient and less physically demanding than hand-rim-propelled wheelchairs. To evaluate a newly designed lever mechanism (MARC) in both one- and two-arm use, a series of wheelchair exercise tests were performed on a motor-driven treadmill. Eight able-bodied male subjects performed a standard exercise test in the prototype MARC, both in an asynchronic and a synchronic bimanual propelling mode and in an unilateral (left-sided) mode. Subsequently the subjects performed additional exercise tests in a conventional crank-to-rod lever mechanism with unilateral and bimanual propulsion and in a conventional hand rim wheelchair. Analysis of variance was used to study the effect of the different work modes upon power output and cardiorespiratory parameters statistically (p < 0.05). The MARC stood out well in comparison with the conventional lever design. The additional design features which are to be implemented (variable gearing, reverse gear) will make the MARC a useful wheelchair. One-arm wheelchair propulsion is a very strenuous form of locomotion, requiring careful consideration in terms of provision. Mechanical and ergonomic improvements are quite feasible in lever propulsion and may to a certain extent reduce this problem. To improve overall mobility of wheelchair-dependent subjects further, ergonomic and mechanical design improvements are very necessary in lever as well as hand-rim wheelchairs. A combined biomechanical and physiological research approach will help in the definition of design criteria and fitting guidelines. PMID:8169940

  13. Physiologic regulation in electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Michaelson, S M

    1982-01-01

    Electromagnetic fields have been demonstrated to elicit thermoregulatory responses, neuroendocrine, neurochemical modulations, and behavioral reactions. These physiologic regulatory processes are exquisitely tuned, interrelated functions that constitute sensitive indicators of organismic responses to radiofrequency energy absorption (the radiofrequency portion of the electromagnetic spectrum includes as one part microwaves). Assessment of the integration and correlation of these functions relative to the thermal inputs and homeokinetic reactions of the individual subjected to radiofrequency energy should permit differentiation between potential hazards that might compromise the individual's ability to maintain normal physiologic function and effects that are compensated by physiologic redundancy.

  14. Physiologic regulation in electromagnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Michaelson, S.M.

    1982-01-01

    Electromagnetic fields have been demonstrated to elicit thermoregulatory responses, neuroendocrine, neurochemical modulations, and behavioral reactions. These physiologic regulatory processes are exquisitely tuned, interrelated functions that constitute sensitive indicators of organismic responses to radiofrequency energy absorption (the radiofrequency portion of the electromagnetic spectrum includes as one part microwaves). Assessment of the integration and correlation of these functions relative to the thermal inputs and homeokinetic reactions of the individual subjected to radiofrequency energy should permit differentiation between potential hazards that might compromise the individual's ability to maintain normal physiologic function and effects that are compensated by physiologic redundancy.

  15. [Physiology in XXI century: natural science and medicine].

    PubMed

    Natochin, Iu V

    2010-09-01

    Progress of physiology is closely connected with achievements of the adjacent sciences that developed particularly intensively at the end of the XX century. The key role in strategy of physiological investigations is played by study of the nature of regulation of individual processes providing activity of the organism as a whole. By the example of study of renal function there are discussed the issue of integration of its incretory and secretory functions, elucidation of the mechanism of activity of regulatory systems with taking into account the wide diversity of types and subtypes of receptors, interaction of numerous variants of cotransporters, pumps, water and ion channels, which eventually provides the amazing efficiency of the coordinated work of several organs and systems for stabilization of physical-chemical parameters of the internal environment. Development of physiology is of importance for progress of natural science and clinical medicine, as its achievements facilitate discovery of mechanisms of physiological functions, elucidation of defect of the locus underlying dysfunction.

  16. Integrating oxidative ecology into conservation physiology

    PubMed Central

    Beaulieu, Michaël; Thierry, Anne-Mathilde; González-Acuña, Daniel; Polito, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Ecologists have recently shown great interest in using physiological markers as indicators of the health of animal populations. In this context, the measurement of markers of oxidative balance, such as antioxidant defences and oxidative damage, may be a valuable tool. Indeed, at the individual level, antioxidant defences are positively associated with fertility and survival probability, while elevated oxidative damage during reproduction or growth may negatively affect recruitment and survival. Therefore, variation in oxidative balance is likely to influence demographic processes. This suggests that conservationists may be able to use oxidative markers to monitor population health. Yet, the connection between these markers and demographic parameters first needs to be established. We present here preliminary results obtained in colonies of breeding Gentoo (Pygoscelis papua) and Adélie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae), showing that antioxidant defences strongly reflect population trends. However, population trend was not related to oxidative damage. This suggests that in the context of the emerging field of conservation physiology, antioxidant defences may represent a key parameter to monitor population health. We therefore exhort other research teams to assess the generality of this finding in other biological models, especially in species of conservation concern. PMID:27293588

  17. Physiological and psychological assessment of sound.

    PubMed

    Yanagihashi, R; Ohira, M; Kimura, T; Fujiwara, T

    1997-05-01

    The psycho-physiological effects of several sound stimulations were investigated to evaluate the relationship between a psychological parameter, such as subjective perception, and a physiological parameter, such as the heart rate variability (HRV). Eight female students aged 21-22 years old were tested. Electrocardiogram (ECG) and the movement of the chest-wall for estimating respiratory rate were recorded during three different sound stimulations; (1) music provided by a synethesizer (condition A); (2) birds twitters (condition B); and (3) mechanical sounds (condition C). The percentage power of the low-frequency (LF; 0.05 < or = 0.15 Hz) and high-frequency (HF; 0.15 < or = 0.40 Hz) components in the HRV (LF%, HF%) were assessed by a frequency analysis of time-series data for 5 min obtained from R-R intervals in the ECG. Quantitative assessment of subjective perception was also described by a visual analog scale (VAS). The HF% and VAS value for comfort in C were significantly lower than in either A and/or B. The respiratory rate and VAS value for awakening in C were significantly higher than in A and/or B. There was a significant correlation between the HF% and the value of the VAS, and between the respiratory rate and the value of the VAS. These results indicate that mechanical sounds similar to C inhibit the para-sympathetic nervous system and promote a feeling that is unpleasant but alert, also suggesting that the HRV reflects subjective perception.

  18. Physiological and psychological assessment of sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagihashi, R.; Ohira, Masayoshi; Kimura, Teiji; Fujiwara, Takayuki

    The psycho-physiological effects of several sound stimulations were investigated to evaluate the relationship between a psychological parameter, such as subjective perception, and a physiological parameter, such as the heart rate variability (HRV). Eight female students aged 21-22 years old were tested. Electrocardiogram (ECG) and the movement of the chest-wall for estimating respiratory rate were recorded during three different sound stimulations; (1) music provided by a synthesizer (condition A); (2) birds twitters (condition B); and (3) mechanical sounds (condition C). The percentage power of the low-frequency (LF; 0.05<=0.15 Hz) and high-frequency (HF; 0.15<=0.40 Hz) components in the HRV (LF%, HF%) were assessed by a frequency analysis of time-series data for 5 min obtained from R-R intervals in the ECG. Quantitative assessment of subjective perception was also described by a visual analog scale (VAS). The HF% and VAS value for comfort in C were significantly lower than in either A and/or B. The respiratory rate and VAS value for awakening in C were significantly higher than in A and/or B. There was a significant correlation between the HF% and the value of the VAS, and between the respiratory rate and the value of the VAS. These results indicate that mechanical sounds similar to C inhibit the para-sympathetic nervous system and promote a feeling that is unpleasant but alert, also suggesting that the HRV reflects subjective perception.

  19. Physiological anthropology and the Internet.

    PubMed

    Karelović, D; Ognjenović, M; Cekić-Arambasin, A; Tadin, I

    1998-12-01

    The Internet is the greatest computer network with many services like Web, FTP, Gopher, E-mail Discussion Groups, and Usenet Discussion Groups, that provides a rapid and the cheapest exchange of information. The benefits to anthropologists of using the Internet are growing rapidly, as the Internet becomes easier to use and ever more anthropological resources become available on line. Physiological anthropology is concerned with the evolution and biological features of human population and it's sources on the Internet are growing continuously. However, in that enormous number of data, is not easy to find a needed information. Currently, number of indexed physiological anthropology related sites on Web only is 233990 (October 98). This paper provides informations about Internet and needed hardware and software for using it. It also describes and lists the most important physiological anthropology addresses, together with physiological anthropology-related journals on the Internet, as well as the ways of searching them. PMID:9951133

  20. A continuous physiological data collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bush, J. C.

    1972-01-01

    COP-DAC system utilizes oxygen and carbon dioxide analyzers, gas-flow meter, gas breathe-through system, analog computer, and data storage system to provide actual rather than average measurements of physiological and metabolic functions.

  1. Survey of Departments of Physiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganong, William F.

    1977-01-01

    Presents data of the 1976 survey of departments of physiology. Includes comparison to 1974 and 1975 data for number of academic positions available, department budgets, graduate students and post doctoral fellows, and salaries. (SL)

  2. Physiological anthropology and the Internet.

    PubMed

    Karelović, D; Ognjenović, M; Cekić-Arambasin, A; Tadin, I

    1998-12-01

    The Internet is the greatest computer network with many services like Web, FTP, Gopher, E-mail Discussion Groups, and Usenet Discussion Groups, that provides a rapid and the cheapest exchange of information. The benefits to anthropologists of using the Internet are growing rapidly, as the Internet becomes easier to use and ever more anthropological resources become available on line. Physiological anthropology is concerned with the evolution and biological features of human population and it's sources on the Internet are growing continuously. However, in that enormous number of data, is not easy to find a needed information. Currently, number of indexed physiological anthropology related sites on Web only is 233990 (October 98). This paper provides informations about Internet and needed hardware and software for using it. It also describes and lists the most important physiological anthropology addresses, together with physiological anthropology-related journals on the Internet, as well as the ways of searching them.

  3. Physiological Feedback Method and System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pope, Alan T. (Inventor); Severance, Kurt E. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A method and system provide physiological feedback for a patient and/or physician. At least one physiological effect experienced by a body part of a patient is measured noninvasively. A three-dimensional graphics model serving as an analogous representation of the body part is altered in accordance with the measurements. A binocular image signal representative of the three-dimensional graphics model so-altered is displayed for the patient and/or physician in a virtual reality environment.

  4. The physiologic climate of Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Eludoyin, Oyenike Mary; Adelekan, Ibidun Onikepo

    2013-03-01

    This study describes the spatial and temporal variations in the physiologic climate of Nigeria for 1951-2009 in terms of effective temperature (ET), temperature-humidity index (THI), relative strain index (RSI) and perception of 3,600 sampled populations. The main hypotheses are that (i) the existing vegetation-based ecological region could adequately elucidate the physiologic climate of the country, and (ii) physiologic stress has significantly increased over the years (1951-2009). Trends and changes in the selected indices (ET, THI and RSI) were examined over two time slices: 1951-1980 and 1981-2009. The results show that (1) the montane region was the most comfortable physiologic climate in Nigeria, and the regions around the Rivers Niger and Benue troughs were the most uncomfortable in most parts of the year, (2) physiologic stress in most parts of Nigeria has significantly increased in 1981-2009 over 1951-1980 (p ≤ 0.05), (3) coping strategies to the uncomfortably hot and cold climate in Nigeria are limited to dressing mode, clothing materials and use of air conditioners or fan, (4) ET, THI and RSI results could be similar, and complementary; but each is with its strengths and weaknesses for annual or seasonal representations, which the others complemented for the interpretation of the physiologic climate of Nigeria. The study concluded that the relationship between the ecological classification of Nigeria and physiologic climate is rather complex, and the former could not elucidate the latter. The study cited inadequate meteorological data, especially on wind chill, and health records as limiting factors of studies on the Nigerian physiologic climates and the effect of extreme thermal conditions on the people. PMID:22610082

  5. The physiologic climate of Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Eludoyin, Oyenike Mary; Adelekan, Ibidun Onikepo

    2013-03-01

    This study describes the spatial and temporal variations in the physiologic climate of Nigeria for 1951-2009 in terms of effective temperature (ET), temperature-humidity index (THI), relative strain index (RSI) and perception of 3,600 sampled populations. The main hypotheses are that (i) the existing vegetation-based ecological region could adequately elucidate the physiologic climate of the country, and (ii) physiologic stress has significantly increased over the years (1951-2009). Trends and changes in the selected indices (ET, THI and RSI) were examined over two time slices: 1951-1980 and 1981-2009. The results show that (1) the montane region was the most comfortable physiologic climate in Nigeria, and the regions around the Rivers Niger and Benue troughs were the most uncomfortable in most parts of the year, (2) physiologic stress in most parts of Nigeria has significantly increased in 1981-2009 over 1951-1980 (p ≤ 0.05), (3) coping strategies to the uncomfortably hot and cold climate in Nigeria are limited to dressing mode, clothing materials and use of air conditioners or fan, (4) ET, THI and RSI results could be similar, and complementary; but each is with its strengths and weaknesses for annual or seasonal representations, which the others complemented for the interpretation of the physiologic climate of Nigeria. The study concluded that the relationship between the ecological classification of Nigeria and physiologic climate is rather complex, and the former could not elucidate the latter. The study cited inadequate meteorological data, especially on wind chill, and health records as limiting factors of studies on the Nigerian physiologic climates and the effect of extreme thermal conditions on the people.

  6. The physiologic climate of Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eludoyin, Oyenike Mary; Adelekan, Ibidun Onikepo

    2013-03-01

    This study describes the spatial and temporal variations in the physiologic climate of Nigeria for 1951-2009 in terms of effective temperature (ET), temperature-humidity index (THI), relative strain index (RSI) and perception of 3,600 sampled populations. The main hypotheses are that (i) the existing vegetation-based ecological region could adequately elucidate the physiologic climate of the country, and (ii) physiologic stress has significantly increased over the years (1951-2009). Trends and changes in the selected indices (ET, THI and RSI) were examined over two time slices: 1951-1980 and 1981-2009. The results show that (1) the montane region was the most comfortable physiologic climate in Nigeria, and the regions around the Rivers Niger and Benue troughs were the most uncomfortable in most parts of the year, (2) physiologic stress in most parts of Nigeria has significantly increased in 1981-2009 over 1951-1980 ( p ≤ 0.05), (3) coping strategies to the uncomfortably hot and cold climate in Nigeria are limited to dressing mode, clothing materials and use of air conditioners or fan, (4) ET, THI and RSI results could be similar, and complementary; but each is with its strengths and weaknesses for annual or seasonal representations, which the others complemented for the interpretation of the physiologic climate of Nigeria. The study concluded that the relationship between the ecological classification of Nigeria and physiologic climate is rather complex, and the former could not elucidate the latter. The study cited inadequate meteorological data, especially on wind chill, and health records as limiting factors of studies on the Nigerian physiologic climates and the effect of extreme thermal conditions on the people.

  7. [Food additives and healthiness].

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects.

  8. Regulatory physiology discipline science plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The focus of the Regulatory Physiology discipline of the Space Physiology and Countermeasures Program is twofold. First, to determine and study how microgravity and associated factors of space flight affect the regulatory mechanisms by which humans adapt and achieve homeostasis and thereby regulate their ability to respond to internal and external signals; and, second, to study selected physiological systems that have been demonstrated to be influenced by gravity. The Regulatory Physiology discipline, as defined here, is composed of seven subdisciplines: (1) Circadian Rhythms, (2) Endocrinology, (3) Fluid and Electrolyte Regulation, (4) Hematology, (5) Immunology, (6) Metabolism and Nutrition, and (7) Temperature Regulation. The purpose of this Discipline Science Plan is to provide a conceptual strategy for NASA's Life Sciences Division research and development activities in the area of regulatory physiology. It covers the research areas critical to NASA's programmatic requirements for the Extended-Duration Orbiter, Space Station Freedom, and exploration mission science activities. These science activities include ground-based and flight; basic, applied, and operational; and animal and human research and development. This document summarizes the current status of the program, outlines available knowledge, establishes goals and objectives, identifies science priorities, and defines critical questions in regulatory physiology. It contains a general plan that will be used by both NASA Headquarters Program Offices and the field centers to review and plan basic, applied, and operational intramural and extramural research and development activities in this area.

  9. Physiologically relevant organs on chips.

    PubMed

    Yum, Kyungsuk; Hong, Soon Gweon; Healy, Kevin E; Lee, Luke P

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in integrating microengineering and tissue engineering have generated promising microengineered physiological models for experimental medicine and pharmaceutical research. Here we review the recent development of microengineered physiological systems, or also known as "ogans-on-chips", that reconstitute the physiologically critical features of specific human tissues and organs and their interactions. This technology uses microengineering approaches to construct organ-specific microenvironments, reconstituting tissue structures, tissue-tissue interactions and interfaces, and dynamic mechanical and biochemical stimuli found in specific organs, to direct cells to assemble into functional tissues. We first discuss microengineering approaches to reproduce the key elements of physiologically important, dynamic mechanical microenvironments, biochemical microenvironments, and microarchitectures of specific tissues and organs in microfluidic cell culture systems. This is followed by examples of microengineered individual organ models that incorporate the key elements of physiological microenvironments into single microfluidic cell culture systems to reproduce organ-level functions. Finally, microengineered multiple organ systems that simulate multiple organ interactions to better represent human physiology, including human responses to drugs, is covered in this review. This emerging organs-on-chips technology has the potential to become an alternative to 2D and 3D cell culture and animal models for experimental medicine, human disease modeling, drug development, and toxicology.

  10. Biochemical and physiological consequences of the Apollo flight diet.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hander, E. W.; Leach, C. S.; Fischer, C. L.; Rummel, J.; Rambaut, P.; Johnson, P. C.

    1971-01-01

    Six male subjects subsisting on a typical Apollo flight diet for five consecutive days were evaluated for changes in biochemical and physiological status. Laboratory examinations failed to demonstrate any significant changes of the kind previously attributed to weightlessness, such as in serum electrolytes, endocrine values, body fluid, or hematologic parameters.

  11. New concepts in white adipose tissue physiology.

    PubMed

    Proença, A R G; Sertié, R A L; Oliveira, A C; Campaña, A B; Caminhotto, R O; Chimin, P; Lima, F B

    2014-02-01

    Numerous studies address the physiology of adipose tissue (AT). The interest surrounding the physiology of AT is primarily the result of the epidemic outburst of obesity in various contemporary societies. Briefly, the two primary metabolic activities of white AT include lipogenesis and lipolysis. Throughout the last two decades, a new model of AT physiology has emerged. Although AT was considered to be primarily an abundant energy source, it is currently considered to be a prolific producer of biologically active substances, and, consequently, is now recognized as an endocrine organ. In addition to leptin, other biologically active substances secreted by AT, generally classified as cytokines, include adiponectin, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, resistin, vaspin, visfatin, and many others now collectively referred to as adipokines. The secretion of such biologically active substances by AT indicates its importance as a metabolic regulator. Cell turnover of AT has also recently been investigated in terms of its biological role in adipogenesis. Consequently, the objective of this review is to provide a comprehensive critical review of the current literature concerning the metabolic (lipolysis, lipogenesis) and endocrine actions of AT.

  12. Sleep and Rest Requirements: Physiological Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neri, David F.; Rosekind, Mark R. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Sleep is a vital physiological need which must be met to insure optimal functioning. A single night of significantly shortened sleep negatively impacts performance, alertness, and mood. Restricted sleep studies have shown that even a relatively small amount of sleep loss over several consecutive days can be additive and result in a cumulative sleep debt with similar detrimental effects. Compounding the problem of sleep loss in the operational environment is the poor correlation between subjective reports of sleepiness and objective measures of physiological sleep need. Some of the factors determining how sleepy an individual is at a given point in time are: (1) individual characteristics (e.g., amount of prior sleep and wakefulness, circadian phase, age), (2) environmental conditions (e.g., noise, temperature, amount of social interaction), and (3) task variables (e.g., signal rate, workload). Although sleep need can be masked with medications, the only way to reduce it is with sleep itself. The timing of the sleep period can affect sleep duration and quality and thus its restorative strength. The data are clear that increasing sleep time results in improved alertness. This paper will briefly review the scientific findings on sleep need, the effects of sleep loss, napping strategies, and the implications of incorporating physiologically sound sleep and rest strategies into the operational aviation environment.

  13. Production and Physiological Effects of Hydrogen Sulfide

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been recognized as a physiological mediator with a variety of functions. It regulates synaptic transmission, vascular tone, inflammation, transcription, and angiogenesis; protects cells from oxidative stress and ischemia-reperfusion injury; and promotes healing of ulcers. Recent Advances: In addition to cystathionine β-synthase and cystathionine γ-lyase, 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase along with cysteine aminotransferase was recently demonstrated to produce H2S. Even in bacteria, H2S produced by these enzymes functions as a defense against antibiotics, suggesting that the cytoprotective effect of H2S is a universal defense mechanism in organisms from bacteria to mammals. Critical Issues: The functional form of H2S—undissociated H2S gas, dissociated HS ion, or some other form of sulfur—has not been identified. Future Directions: The regulation of H2S production by three enzymes may lead to the identification of the physiological signals that are required to release H2S. The identification of the physiological functions of other forms of sulfur may also help understand the biological significance of H2S. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 783–793. PMID:23581969

  14. Physiology of central pathways.

    PubMed

    Cullen, K E

    2016-01-01

    The relative simplicity of the neural circuits that mediate vestibular reflexes is well suited for linking systems and cellular levels of analyses. Notably, a distinctive feature of the vestibular system is that neurons at the first central stage of sensory processing in the vestibular nuclei are premotor neurons; the same neurons that receive vestibular-nerve input also send direct projections to motor pathways. For example, the simplicity of the three-neuron pathway that mediates the vestibulo-ocular reflex leads to the generation of compensatory eye movements within ~5ms of a head movement. Similarly, relatively direct pathways between the labyrinth and spinal cord control vestibulospinal reflexes. A second distinctive feature of the vestibular system is that the first stage of central processing is strongly multimodal. This is because the vestibular nuclei receive inputs from a wide range of cortical, cerebellar, and other brainstem structures in addition to direct inputs from the vestibular nerve. Recent studies in alert animals have established how extravestibular signals shape these "simple" reflexes to meet the needs of current behavioral goal. Moreover, multimodal interactions at higher levels, such as the vestibular cerebellum, thalamus, and cortex, play a vital role in ensuring accurate self-motion and spatial orientation perception. PMID:27638060

  15. Rho kinases in cardiovascular physiology and pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Loirand, Gervaise; Guérin, Patrice; Pacaud, Pierre

    2006-02-17

    Rho kinases (ROCKs) are the first and the best-characterized effectors of the small G-protein RhoA. In addition to their effect on actin organization, or through this effect, ROCKs have been found to regulate a wide range of fundamental cell functions such as contraction, motility, proliferation, and apoptosis. Abnormal activation of the RhoA/ROCK pathway has been observed in major cardiovascular disorders such as atherosclerosis, restenosis, hypertension, pulmonary hypertension, and cardiac hypertrophy. This review, based on recent molecular, cellular, and animal studies, focuses on the current understanding of ROCK signaling and its roles in cardiovascular physiology and pathophysiology.

  16. Morpho-physiological characterization of glyphosate-resistant and -susceptible horseweed (Conyza canadensis) biotypes of US Midsouth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Growth chamber and greenhouse experiments were conducted to compare selected biological and physiological parameters of glyphosate-resistant (GR) and -susceptible (GS) horseweed biotypes from Mississippi with a broader goal of fitness characterization in these biotypes. Vegetative growth parameters ...

  17. [Physiological processes in organism: nanomechanism].

    PubMed

    Chekman, I S

    2010-01-01

    Physiologically active substances by nanosizes are divided into 4 groups. The first group includes substances up to 100 nm: leukocytes, erythrocytes, cell components (nucleus, mitochondria), cancer cells, bacteria and bacteriophages. The second group consists of nanoparticles with size from 10 to 100 nm. These are antibody, ribosomes, glycogen granules, liposomes, and others. The third group of substances has sizes from 10 to 1 nm. This group includes: albumin, hemoglobin, membrane cells, fibrixogen, receptors (serotonin, beta-adrenergic receptor and others), insulin, fat soluble vitamins (ergocalciferol, retinol), folic acid, drugs (digoxin, quetcitin), chlorophyll plants, fullerenes. The fourth group consists of matter smaller than 1 nm, in particular: ATP, fructose, mediators (acetyl-choline, adrenaline, noradrenaline), phenylephrine, amino acids, water molecules, CO2, NO, oxygen atoms, hydrogen. The existence in the body of physiological processes based on natural nanotechnology may be proved by the following facts. 1. Physiologically active substances have nanosizes. 2. Cell membranes, the capillary wall have also nanosizes, promoting effective physiological processes involving biologically active substances with nanosizes. 3. Due to the small size of nanoparticles can penetrate through cell membranes and be distributed in the body. 4. From the position of modern nanoscience functioning organs, cells, subcellular structures, calcium channels, sodium-potassium pump is under the laws of natural nanomechanisms. 5. Summarising the literature data and own research, we can argue that the body's physiological processes based on natural nanomechanisms require more detailed, in-depth research. Nanophysiology studies peculiarities of the physiological processes in the body from the position of nanoscience and the impact of nanoparticles on the function of cells and organs. The author accepts the fact that not all ideas reported in this article have experimental

  18. Physiological Demands of Flat Horse Racing Jockeys.

    PubMed

    Cullen, SarahJane; OʼLoughlin, Gillian; McGoldrick, Adrian; Smyth, Barry; May, Gregory; Warrington, Giles D

    2015-11-01

    The physiological demands of jockeys during competition remain largely unknown, thereby creating challenges when attempting to prescribe sport-specific nutrition and training guidelines. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physiological demands and energy requirements of jockeys during flat racing. Oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2) and heart rate (HR) were assessed in 18 male trainee jockeys during a race simulation trial on a mechanical horse racing simulator for the typical time duration to cover a common flat race distance of 1,400 m. In addition, 8 male apprentice jockeys participated in a competitive race, over distances ranging from 1,200 to 1,600 m, during which HR and respiratory rate (RR) were assessed. All participants performed a maximal incremental cycle ergometer test. During the simulated race, peak V[Combining Dot Above]O2 was 42.74 ± 5.6 ml·kg·min (75 ± 11% of V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak) and below the mean ventilatory threshold (81 ± 5% of V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak) reported in the maximal incremental cycle test. Peak HR was 161 ± 16 b·min (86 ± 7% of HRpeak). Energy expenditure was estimated as 92.5 ± 18.8 kJ with an associated value of 9.4 metabolic equivalents. During the competitive race trial, peak HR reached 189 ± 5 b·min (103 ± 4% of HRpeak) and peak RR was 50 ± 7 breaths per minute. Results suggest that horse racing is a physically demanding sport, requiring jockeys to perform close to their physiological limit to be successful. These findings may provide a useful insight when developing sport-specific nutrition and training strategies to optimally equip and prepare jockeys physically for the physiological demands of horse racing. PMID:25932980

  19. NOTE: A haemodynamic model for the physiological interpretation of in vivo measurements of the concentration and oxygen saturation of haemoglobin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fantini, Sergio

    2002-09-01

    We present a model that describes the effect of physiological parameters such as the speed of blood flow, local oxygen consumption, capillary recruitment, and vascular dilation/constriction on the concentration and oxygen saturation of haemoglobin in tissue. This model can be used to guide the physiological interpretation of haemodynamic and oximetric data collected in vivo with techniques such as optical imaging, near-infrared spectroscopy and functional magnetic resonance imaging. In addition to providing a formal description of well-established results (exercise-induced hyperemia, reperfusion hyperoxia, decrease in the concentration of deoxyhaemoglobin induced by brain activity, measurement of arterial saturation by pulse oximetry, etc.), this model suggests that the superposition of asynchronous contributions from the arterial, capillary and venous haemoglobin compartments may be at the origin of observed out-of-phase oscillations of the oxyhaemoglobin and deoxyhaemoglobin concentrations in tissue.

  20. Tools for Physiology Labs: Inexpensive Equipment for Physiological Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Land, Bruce R.; Johnson, Bruce R.; Wyttenbach, Robert A.; Hoy, Ronald R.

    2004-01-01

    We describe the design of inexpensive equipment and software for physiological stimulation in the neurobiology teaching laboratory. The core component is a stimulus isolation unit (SIU) that uses DC-DC converters, rather than expensive high-voltage batteries, to generate isolated power at high voltage. The SIU has no offset when inactive and produces pulses up to 100 V with moderately fast (50 μs) rise times. We also describe two methods of stimulus timing control. The first is a simplified conventional, stand-alone analog pulse generator. The second uses a digital microcontroller interfaced with a personal computer. The SIU has performed well and withstood intensive use in our undergraduate physiology laboratory. This project is part of our ongoing effort to make reliable low-cost physiology equipment available for both student teaching and faculty research laboratories. PMID:23493817

  1. Using what you get: dynamic physiologic signatures of critical illness

    PubMed Central

    Holder, Andre L.; Clermont, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    A physiologic signature can be defined as a consistent and robust collection of physiologic measurements characterizing a disease process and its temporal evolution. If a library of physiologic signatures of impending cardiopulmonary instability were available to clinicians caring for inpatients, many episodes of clinical decompensation and their downstream effects could potentially be averted. The development and resolution of cardiopulmonary instability are processes that take time to become clinically apparent, and the treatments provided take time to have an impact. The characterization of dynamic changes in hemodynamic and metabolic variables is implicit in the concept of physiologic signatures. Changes in vital signs such as blood pressure and heart rate, as well as measures of flow such as cardiac output are some of the standard variables used by clinicians to determine cardiopulmonary instability. When these primary variables are collected with high enough frequency to derive new variables, this data hierarchy can be used to development physiologic signatures. The construction of new variables from primary variables, and therefore the creation of physiologic signatures requires no new information; additional knowledge is extracted from data that already exists. It is possible to create physiologic signatures for each stage in the process of clinical decompensation and recovery to improve patient outcomes. PMID:25435482

  2. Physiological water model development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doty, Susan

    1993-01-01

    The water of the human body can be categorized as existing in two main compartments: intracellular water and extracellular water. The intracellular water consists of all the water within the cells and constitutes over half of the total body water. Since red blood cells are surrounded by plasma, and all other cells are surrounded by interstitial fluid, the intracellular compartment has been subdivided to represent these two cell types. The extracellular water, which includes all of the fluid outside of the cells, can be further subdivided into compartments which represent the interstitial fluid, circulating blood plasma, lymph, and transcellular water. The interstitial fluid surrounds cells outside of the vascular system whereas plasma is contained within the blood vessels. Avascular tissues such as dense connective tissue and cartilage contain interstitial water which slowly equilibrates with tracers used to determine extracellular fluid volume. For this reason, additional compartments are sometimes used to represent these avascular tissues. The average size of each compartment, in terms of percent body weight, has been determined for adult males and females. These compartments and the forces which cause flow between them are presented. The kidneys, a main compartment, receive about 25 percent of the cardiac output and filters out a fluid similar to plasma. The composition of this filtered fluid changes as it flows through the kidney tubules since compounds are continually being secreted and reabsorbed. Through this mechanism, the kidneys eliminate wastes while conserving body water, electrolytes, and metabolites. Since sodium accounts for over 90 percent of the cations in the extracellular fluid, and the number of cations is balanced by the number of anions, considering the renal handling sodium and water only should sufficiently describe the relationship between the plasma compartment and kidneys. A kidney function model is presented which has been adapted from a

  3. Perceiving blocks of emotional pictures and sounds: effects on physiological variables

    PubMed Central

    Brouwer, Anne-Marie; van Wouwe, Nelleke; Mühl, Christian; van Erp, Jan; Toet, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Most studies on physiological effects of emotion-inducing images and sounds examine stimulus locked variables reflecting a state of at most a few seconds. We here aimed to induce longer lasting emotional states using blocks of repetitive visual, auditory, and bimodal stimuli corresponding to specific valence and arousal levels. The duration of these blocks enabled us to reliably measure heart rate variability as a possible indicator of arousal. In addition, heart rate and skin conductance were determined without taking stimulus timing into account. Heart rate was higher for pleasant and low arousal stimuli compared to unpleasant and high arousal stimuli. Heart rate variability and skin conductance increased with arousal. Effects of valence and arousal on cardiovascular measures habituated or remained the same over 2-min intervals whereas the arousal effect on skin conductance increased. We did not find any effect of stimulus modality. Our results indicate that blocks of images and sounds of specific valence and arousal levels consistently influence different physiological parameters. These parameters need not be stimulus locked. We found no evidence for differences in emotion induction between visual and auditory stimuli, nor did we find bimodal stimuli to be more potent than unimodal stimuli. The latter could be (partly) due to the fact that our bimodal stimuli were not optimally congruent. PMID:23801957

  4. Physiological and proteomic responses of cotton (Gossypium herbaceum L.) to drought stress.

    PubMed

    Deeba, Farah; Pandey, Ashutosh K; Ranjan, Sanjay; Mishra, Ashwarya; Singh, Ruchi; Sharma, Y K; Shirke, Pramod A; Pandey, Vivek

    2012-04-01

    Cotton genotype RAHS 187 was analyzed for changes in physiology, biochemistry and proteome due to drought stress. The deleterious effect of drought in cotton plants was mainly targeted towards photosynthesis. The gas-exchange parameters of net photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance (g(s)) and transpiration (E) showed a decreasing trend as the drought intensity increased. The fluorescence parameters of, effective quantum yield of PSII (Φ(PSII)), and electron transport rates (ETR), also showed a declining trend. As the intensity of drought increased, both H(2)O(2) and MDA levels increased indicating oxidative stress. Anthocyanin levels were increased by more than four folds in the droughted plants. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis detected more than 550 protein spots. Significantly expressed proteins were analyzed by peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF) using MALDI-TOF-TOF. The number of up-regulated spots was found to be 16 while 6 spots were down-regulated. The reasonable implications in drought response of the identified proteins vis-à-vis physiological changes are discussed. Results provide some additional information that can lead to a better understanding of the molecular basis of drought-sensitivity in cotton plants.

  5. Tracer experiment design for unique identification of nonlinear physiological systems.

    PubMed

    DiStefano, J J

    1976-02-01

    The design of tracer kinetic experiments, the purpose of which is to elucidate uniquely the internal couplings of a nonlinear dynamic system, is considered for a practical class of models of physiological systems. The extent of information about the real system contained in tracer kinetic data is a central issue. Criteria for determining whether nonlinear model parameters can be estimated from small-signal, "linearizing" tracer experiments are developed and illustrated by examples. The concept of "structural identifiability" is employed in this analysis to determine which model parameters can be and which cannot be determined "uniquely" from given input-output data; a step-by-step procedure based on an extension of this concept is presented for adapting the overall approach to the experimental design problem. Estimation of unmeasurable endogenous inputs and system state variables, problems that are intimately related to parameter estimation for physiological systems, are also considered. PMID:1259027

  6. Centrifuges in gravitational physiology research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballard, Rodney W.; Davies, Phil; Fuller, Charles A.

    1993-01-01

    Data from space flight and ground based experiments have clearly demonstrated the importance of Earth gravity for normal physiological function in man and animals. Gravitational Physiology is concerned with the role and influence of gravity on physiological systems. Research in this field examines how we perceive and respond to gravity and the mechanisms underlying these responses. Inherent in our search for answers to these questions is the ability to alter gravity, which is not physically possible without leaving Earth. However, useful experimental paradigms have been to modify the perceived force of gravity by changing either the orientation of subjects to the gravity vector (i.e., postural changes) or by applying inertial forces to augment the magnitude of the gravity vector. The later technique has commonly been used by applying centripetal force via centrifugation.

  7. Stimulating Student Interest in Physiology: The Intermedical School Physiology Quiz

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Hwee-Ming

    2010-01-01

    The Intermedical School Physiology Quiz (IMSPQ) was initiated in 2003 during the author's last sabbatical from the University of Malaya. At this inaugural event, there were just seven competing teams from Malaysian medical schools. The challenge trophy for the IMSPQ is named in honor of Prof. A. Raman, who was the first Malaysian Professor of…

  8. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, James C. (Inventor); Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  9. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of the additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  10. Journal of Gravitational Physiology, Volume 13, No. 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, Charles A. (Editor); Cogoli, Augusto (Editor); Hargens, Alan R. (Editor); Smith, Arthur H. (Editor)

    2006-01-01

    At the outset, the Journal published one issue in 1994. The first number comprised the Proceedings of the 15th Annual International Gravitational Physiology Meeting, held in Barcelona, Spain in October 1993. The Proceedings of the previous 14 Annual Meetings appeared as supplements to The Physiologist from 1979 to 1993. Each year, one issue of the Journal is devoted to the Annual Meeting Proceedings, and up to four more issues are comprised of full-length research papers. Additionally, Supplement Issues are considered by the Editorial Board as they are submitted. The Journal is published for the International Society for Gravitational Physiology by the Galileo Foundation, a 501(c)(3) nonprofit public benefit corporation. This issue, the first number of 2006, comprises the Proceedings of the joint meeting of the International Society for Gravitational Physiology s 27th Annual International Gravitational Physiology Meeting, held in Osaka, Japan 23- 28 April, 2006. The Journal of Gravitational Physiology invites the submission of original experimental or observational papers on subjects in the field of gravitational physiology. Review articles, theoretical papers and historical or biographical articles will also be solicited by the Editor for publication. The wide scientific span of the Journal rests on physiology as its keystone. Gravitational physiology is considered to include the effects of changes in the magnitude and directions of the gravitational force environment on cells and physiological systems and behavior of humans, animals and plants. The effects of weightlessness during space flight, high sustained G forces and chronic acceleration, vibration, impact and the various forms of simulated weightlessness are also included, as well as is consideration of the evolutionary consequences of gravity and the role of gravity in the manifestation of scale effects in animals and plants.

  11. From the "physiologus" to physiology.

    PubMed

    Karasszon, Dénes

    2013-06-01

    The roots of physiology - on the basis of anatomical thinking and mind, which is fundamental idea of the European medicine - go back to Reformation. The following short data from the abundant history of physiology from the ancient speculative natural philosophers to the modern experimental science of our days shows that the history of Reformation and Protestantism on the one side, and the significance of Protestant physicians in the history of Reformation and Protestantism on the other side, deserve our special attention in the history of medicine.

  12. Fractals in physiology and medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberger, Ary L.; West, Bruce J.

    1987-01-01

    The paper demonstrates how the nonlinear concepts of fractals, as applied in physiology and medicine, can provide an insight into the organization of such complex structures as the tracheobronchial tree and heart, as well as into the dynamics of healthy physiological variability. Particular attention is given to the characteristics of computer-generated fractal lungs and heart and to fractal pathologies in these organs. It is shown that alterations in fractal scaling may underlie a number of pathophysiological disturbances, including sudden cardiac death syndromes.

  13. Applied physiology of tennis performance

    PubMed Central

    Kovacs, M S

    2006-01-01

    Competitive tennis play requires a combination of the major physiological variables; however, the specifics of these variables have yet to be determined appropriately. General strength and flexibility training have been suggested as being beneficial for performance and injury prevention, yet specific guidelines are lacking. This paper provides a review of specific studies that relate to competitive tennis, and highlights the need for tennis‐specific training as opposed to generalised physical training. It identifies specific studies that support the premise that tennis has physiological requirements which need to be understood when designing training and research programmes. PMID:16632565

  14. Stretching skin: The physiological limit and beyond

    PubMed Central

    Tepole, Adrián Buganza; Gosain, Arun K.; Kuhl, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this manuscript is to establish a novel computational model for skin to characterize its constitutive behavior when stretched within and beyond its physiological limits. Within the physiological regime, skin displays a reversible, highly nonlinear, stretch locking, and anisotropic behavior. We model these characteristics using a transversely isotropic chain network model composed of eight wormlike chains. Beyond the physiological limit, skin undergoes an irreversible area growth triggered through mechanical stretch. We model skin growth as a transversely isotropic process characterized through a single internal variable, the scalar-valued growth multiplier. To discretize the evolution of growth in time, we apply an unconditionally stable, implicit Euler backward scheme. To discretize it in space, we utilize the finite element method. For maximum algorithmic efficiency and optimal convergence, we suggest an inner Newton iteration to locally update the growth multiplier at each integration point. This iteration is embedded within an outer Newton iteration to globally update the deformation at each finite element node. To illustrate the characteristic features of skin growth, we first compare the two simple model problems of displacement- and force-driven growth. Then, we model the process of stretch-induced skin growth during tissue expansion. In particular, we compare the spatio-temporal evolution of stress, strain, and area gain for four commonly available tissue expander geometries. We believe that the proposed model has the potential to open new avenues in reconstructive surgery and rationalize critical process parameters in tissue expansion, such as expander geometry, expander size, expander placement, and inflation timing. PMID:23459410

  15. Physiological strain and countermeasures with firefighting.

    PubMed

    Cheung, S S; Petersen, S R; McLellan, T M

    2010-10-01

    Protective clothing is integral to the task of firefighting, but at the same time can increase physiological strain and impair work capacity. Encapsulation of the head and the high thermal resistance and/or low water vapor permeability of the clothing ensemble impede evaporative heat dissipation, thus elevating the rate of heat storage and creating a state of uncompensable heat stress (UHS). In addition, the additional weight from carrying a supplemental air supply and the greater respiratory work of breathing through a regulator can create a negative spiral of thermal hyperpnea from greater respiratory demands and metabolic heat production. The elevated respiratory demands also increase cardiac strain and potentially the risk for myocardial events. Tolerance time during UHS is determined by three factors: the core temperature at the beginning of the heat stress exposure, the core temperature that can be tolerated before exhaustion or collapse ensues, and the rate of increase in core temperature from the beginning to end of the heat stress exposure. Protective clothing is often employed in highly dynamic environments, making portability, longevity and integration with the task requirements and clothing critical design characteristics for countermeasures. To date, most countermeasures have been relatively indirect in nature, primarily with alterations in work scheduling along with physiological manipulations such as cooling manipulations during recovery periods. Advances are required in materials science to develop lighter and less restrictive protective equipment, concurrent with cooling strategies that target specific regions or which can be effectively implemented during exercise.

  16. The Physiology of Protein S-acylation

    PubMed Central

    Chamberlain, Luke H.; Shipston, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Protein S-acylation, the only fully reversible posttranslational lipid modification of proteins, is emerging as a ubiquitous mechanism to control the properties and function of a diverse array of proteins and consequently physiological processes. S-acylation results from the enzymatic addition of long-chain lipids, most typically palmitate, onto intracellular cysteine residues of soluble and transmembrane proteins via a labile thioester linkage. Addition of lipid results in increases in protein hydrophobicity that can impact on protein structure, assembly, maturation, trafficking, and function. The recent explosion in global S-acylation (palmitoyl) proteomic profiling as a result of improved biochemical tools to assay S-acylation, in conjunction with the recent identification of enzymes that control protein S-acylation and de-acylation, has opened a new vista into the physiological function of S-acylation. This review introduces key features of S-acylation and tools to interrogate this process, and highlights the eclectic array of proteins regulated including membrane receptors, ion channels and transporters, enzymes and kinases, signaling adapters and chaperones, cell adhesion, and structural proteins. We highlight recent findings correlating disruption of S-acylation to pathophysiology and disease and discuss some of the major challenges and opportunities in this rapidly expanding field. PMID:25834228

  17. Physiological correlates to 800 meter running performance.

    PubMed

    Deason, J; Powers, S K; Lawler, J; Ayers, D; Stuart, M K

    1991-12-01

    Much of the previous research efforts aimed at determining those physiological characteristics that contribute to distance running success have centered around distances greater than 1500 meters with little attention to events such as the 800 meter run. Therefore, this investigation examined the relationship between selected physiological and body composition, characteristics and performance in an 800 meter run. Measurements of body composition, VO2max, running economy, and performance times for 100 and 300 meter dashes were obtained on 11 male track athletes. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed using 800 meter race time as the dependent variable. Although the combination of 300 and 100 meter run times, percent body fat, running economy and VO2 max as independent variables accounted for the greatest amount of total variance (r2 = .89), the additional variance explained by the model did not increase significantly (p greater than 0.05), when VO2max, percent body fat, and running economy were added to a model which contained 300 and 100 meter run time (r2 = .85) as the explanatory variables. These data offer additional support for the notion that much of the intramuscular ATP produce and utilized during an 800 meter run comes from anaerobic metabolic pathway.

  18. Additional Types of Neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... A A Listen En Español Additional Types of Neuropathy Charcot's Joint Charcot's Joint, also called neuropathic arthropathy, ... can stop bone destruction and aid healing. Cranial Neuropathy Cranial neuropathy affects the 12 pairs of nerves ...

  19. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wender, Ester H.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that food additives are causally associated with hyperkinesis and learning disabilities in children is reviewed, and available data are summarized. Available from: American Medical Association 535 North Dearborn Street Chicago, Illinois 60610. (JG)

  20. Smog control fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Lundby, W.

    1993-06-29

    A method is described of controlling, reducing or eliminating, ozone and related smog resulting from photochemical reactions between ozone and automotive or industrial gases comprising the addition of iodine or compounds of iodine to hydrocarbon-base fuels prior to or during combustion in an amount of about 1 part iodine per 240 to 10,000,000 parts fuel, by weight, to be accomplished by: (a) the addition of these inhibitors during or after the refining or manufacturing process of liquid fuels; (b) the production of these inhibitors for addition into fuel tanks, such as automotive or industrial tanks; or (c) the addition of these inhibitors into combustion chambers of equipment utilizing solid fuels for the purpose of reducing ozone.

  1. Developing a Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Model Knowledgebase in Support of Provisional Model Construction

    EPA Science Inventory

    Developing physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models for chemicals can be resource-intensive, as neither chemical-specific parameters nor in vivo pharmacokinetic data are easily available for model construction. Previously developed, well-parameterized, and thoroughly-v...

  2. A population model of integrative cardiovascular physiology.

    PubMed

    Pruett, William A; Husband, Leland D; Husband, Graham; Dakhlalla, Muhammad; Bellamy, Kyle; Coleman, Thomas G; Hester, Robert L

    2013-01-01

    We present a small integrative model of human cardiovascular physiology. The model is population-based; rather than using best fit parameter values, we used a variant of the Metropolis algorithm to produce distributions for the parameters most associated with model sensitivity. The population is built by sampling from these distributions to create the model coefficients. The resulting models were then subjected to a hemorrhage. The population was separated into those that lost less than 15 mmHg arterial pressure (compensators), and those that lost more (decompensators). The populations were parametrically analyzed to determine baseline conditions correlating with compensation and decompensation. Analysis included single variable correlation, graphical time series analysis, and support vector machine (SVM) classification. Most variables were seen to correlate with propensity for circulatory collapse, but not sufficiently to effect reasonable classification by any single variable. Time series analysis indicated a single significant measure, the stressed blood volume, as predicting collapse in situ, but measurement of this quantity is clinically impossible. SVM uncovered a collection of variables and parameters that, when taken together, provided useful rubrics for classification. Due to the probabilistic origins of the method, multiple classifications were attempted, resulting in an average of 3.5 variables necessary to construct classification. The most common variables used were systemic compliance, baseline baroreceptor signal strength and total peripheral resistance, providing predictive ability exceeding 90%. The methods presented are suitable for use in any deterministic mathematical model. PMID:24058546

  3. A Population Model of Integrative Cardiovascular Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Pruett, William A.; Husband, Leland D.; Husband, Graham; Dakhlalla, Muhammad; Bellamy, Kyle; Coleman, Thomas G.; Hester, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    We present a small integrative model of human cardiovascular physiology. The model is population-based; rather than using best fit parameter values, we used a variant of the Metropolis algorithm to produce distributions for the parameters most associated with model sensitivity. The population is built by sampling from these distributions to create the model coefficients. The resulting models were then subjected to a hemorrhage. The population was separated into those that lost less than 15 mmHg arterial pressure (compensators), and those that lost more (decompensators). The populations were parametrically analyzed to determine baseline conditions correlating with compensation and decompensation. Analysis included single variable correlation, graphical time series analysis, and support vector machine (SVM) classification. Most variables were seen to correlate with propensity for circulatory collapse, but not sufficiently to effect reasonable classification by any single variable. Time series analysis indicated a single significant measure, the stressed blood volume, as predicting collapse in situ, but measurement of this quantity is clinically impossible. SVM uncovered a collection of variables and parameters that, when taken together, provided useful rubrics for classification. Due to the probabilistic origins of the method, multiple classifications were attempted, resulting in an average of 3.5 variables necessary to construct classification. The most common variables used were systemic compliance, baseline baroreceptor signal strength and total peripheral resistance, providing predictive ability exceeding 90%. The methods presented are suitable for use in any deterministic mathematical model. PMID:24058546

  4. A population model of integrative cardiovascular physiology.

    PubMed

    Pruett, William A; Husband, Leland D; Husband, Graham; Dakhlalla, Muhammad; Bellamy, Kyle; Coleman, Thomas G; Hester, Robert L

    2013-01-01

    We present a small integrative model of human cardiovascular physiology. The model is population-based; rather than using best fit parameter values, we used a variant of the Metropolis algorithm to produce distributions for the parameters most associated with model sensitivity. The population is built by sampling from these distributions to create the model coefficients. The resulting models were then subjected to a hemorrhage. The population was separated into those that lost less than 15 mmHg arterial pressure (compensators), and those that lost more (decompensators). The populations were parametrically analyzed to determine baseline conditions correlating with compensation and decompensation. Analysis included single variable correlation, graphical time series analysis, and support vector machine (SVM) classification. Most variables were seen to correlate with propensity for circulatory collapse, but not sufficiently to effect reasonable classification by any single variable. Time series analysis indicated a single significant measure, the stressed blood volume, as predicting collapse in situ, but measurement of this quantity is clinically impossible. SVM uncovered a collection of variables and parameters that, when taken together, provided useful rubrics for classification. Due to the probabilistic origins of the method, multiple classifications were attempted, resulting in an average of 3.5 variables necessary to construct classification. The most common variables used were systemic compliance, baseline baroreceptor signal strength and total peripheral resistance, providing predictive ability exceeding 90%. The methods presented are suitable for use in any deterministic mathematical model.

  5. Toward a general physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model for intravenously injected nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Carlander, Ulrika; Li, Dingsheng; Jolliet, Olivier; Emond, Claude; Johanson, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    To assess the potential toxicity of nanoparticles (NPs), information concerning their uptake and disposition (biokinetics) is essential. Experience with industrial chemicals and pharmaceutical drugs reveals that biokinetics can be described and predicted accurately by physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling. The nano PBPK models developed to date all concern a single type of NP. Our aim here was to extend a recent model for pegylated polyacrylamide NP in order to develop a more general PBPK model for nondegradable NPs injected intravenously into rats. The same model and physiological parameters were applied to pegylated polyacrylamide, uncoated polyacrylamide, gold, and titanium dioxide NPs, whereas NP-specific parameters were chosen on the basis of the best fit to the experimental time-courses of NP accumulation in various tissues. Our model describes the biokinetic behavior of all four types of NPs adequately, despite extensive differences in this behavior as well as in their physicochemical properties. In addition, this simulation demonstrated that the dose exerts a profound impact on the biokinetics, since saturation of the phagocytic cells at higher doses becomes a major limiting step. The fitted model parameters that were most dependent on NP type included the blood:tissue coefficients of permeability and the rate constant for phagocytic uptake. Since only four types of NPs with several differences in characteristics (dose, size, charge, shape, and surface properties) were used, the relationship between these characteristics and the NP-dependent model parameters could not be elucidated and more experimental data are required in this context. In this connection, intravenous biodistribution studies with associated PBPK analyses would provide the most insight.

  6. Toward a general physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model for intravenously injected nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Carlander, Ulrika; Li, Dingsheng; Jolliet, Olivier; Emond, Claude; Johanson, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    To assess the potential toxicity of nanoparticles (NPs), information concerning their uptake and disposition (biokinetics) is essential. Experience with industrial chemicals and pharmaceutical drugs reveals that biokinetics can be described and predicted accurately by physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling. The nano PBPK models developed to date all concern a single type of NP. Our aim here was to extend a recent model for pegylated polyacrylamide NP in order to develop a more general PBPK model for nondegradable NPs injected intravenously into rats. The same model and physiological parameters were applied to pegylated polyacrylamide, uncoated polyacrylamide, gold, and titanium dioxide NPs, whereas NP-specific parameters were chosen on the basis of the best fit to the experimental time-courses of NP accumulation in various tissues. Our model describes the biokinetic behavior of all four types of NPs adequately, despite extensive differences in this behavior as well as in their physicochemical properties. In addition, this simulation demonstrated that the dose exerts a profound impact on the biokinetics, since saturation of the phagocytic cells at higher doses becomes a major limiting step. The fitted model parameters that were most dependent on NP type included the blood:tissue coefficients of permeability and the rate constant for phagocytic uptake. Since only four types of NPs with several differences in characteristics (dose, size, charge, shape, and surface properties) were used, the relationship between these characteristics and the NP-dependent model parameters could not be elucidated and more experimental data are required in this context. In this connection, intravenous biodistribution studies with associated PBPK analyses would provide the most insight. PMID:26929620

  7. Toward a general physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model for intravenously injected nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Carlander, Ulrika; Li, Dingsheng; Jolliet, Olivier; Emond, Claude; Johanson, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    To assess the potential toxicity of nanoparticles (NPs), information concerning their uptake and disposition (biokinetics) is essential. Experience with industrial chemicals and pharmaceutical drugs reveals that biokinetics can be described and predicted accurately by physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling. The nano PBPK models developed to date all concern a single type of NP. Our aim here was to extend a recent model for pegylated polyacrylamide NP in order to develop a more general PBPK model for nondegradable NPs injected intravenously into rats. The same model and physiological parameters were applied to pegylated polyacrylamide, uncoated polyacrylamide, gold, and titanium dioxide NPs, whereas NP-specific parameters were chosen on the basis of the best fit to the experimental time-courses of NP accumulation in various tissues. Our model describes the biokinetic behavior of all four types of NPs adequately, despite extensive differences in this behavior as well as in their physicochemical properties. In addition, this simulation demonstrated that the dose exerts a profound impact on the biokinetics, since saturation of the phagocytic cells at higher doses becomes a major limiting step. The fitted model parameters that were most dependent on NP type included the blood:tissue coefficients of permeability and the rate constant for phagocytic uptake. Since only four types of NPs with several differences in characteristics (dose, size, charge, shape, and surface properties) were used, the relationship between these characteristics and the NP-dependent model parameters could not be elucidated and more experimental data are required in this context. In this connection, intravenous biodistribution studies with associated PBPK analyses would provide the most insight. PMID:26929620

  8. Spatiotemporal hemodynamic response functions derived from physiology.

    PubMed

    Aquino, K M; Robinson, P A; Drysdale, P M

    2014-04-21

    Probing neural activity with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) relies upon understanding the hemodynamic response to changes in neural activity. Although existing studies have extensively characterized the temporal hemodynamic response, less is understood about the spatial and spatiotemporal hemodynamic responses. This study systematically characterizes the spatiotemporal response by deriving the hemodynamic response due to a short localized neural drive, i.e., the spatiotemporal hemodynamic response function (stHRF) from a physiological model of hemodynamics based on a poroelastic model of cortical tissue. In this study, the model's boundary conditions are clarified and a resulting nonlinear hemodynamic wave equation is derived. From this wave equation, damped linear hemodynamic waves are predicted from the stHRF. The main features of these waves depend on two physiological parameters: wave propagation speed, which depends on mean cortical stiffness, and damping which depends on effective viscosity. Some of these predictions were applied and validated in a companion study (Aquino et al., 2012). The advantages of having such a theory for the stHRF include improving the interpretation of spatiotemporal dynamics in fMRI data; improving estimates of neural activity with fMRI spatiotemporal deconvolution; and enabling wave interactions between hemodynamic waves to be predicted and exploited to improve the signal to noise ratio of fMRI. PMID:24398024

  9. Auxin physiology of the tomato mutant diageotropical

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, S.G.; Rayle, D.L. ); Cleland, R.E. )

    1989-11-01

    The tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill.) mutant diageotropica (dgt) exhibits biochemical, physiological, and morphological abnormalities that suggest the mutation may have affected a primary site of auxin perception or action. We have compared two aspects of the auxin physiology of dgt and wild-type (VFN8) seedlings: auxin transport and cellular growth parameters. The rates of basipetal indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) polar transport are identical in hypocotyl sections of the two genotypes, but dgt sections have a slightly greater capacity for IAA transport. 2,3,5-Triiodobenzoic acid and ethylene reduce transport in both mutant and wild-type sections. The kinetics of auxin uptake into VFN8 and dgt sections are nearly identical. These results make it unlikely that an altered IAA efflux carrier or IAA uptake symport are responsible for the pleiotropic effects resulting from the dgt mutation. The lack of auxin-induced cell elongation in dgt plants is not due to insufficient turgor, as the osmotic potential of dgt cell sap is less (more negative) than that of VFN8. An auxin-induced increase in wall extensibility, as measured by the Instron technique, only occurs in the VFN8 plants. These data suggest dgt hypocotyls suffer a defect in the sequence of events culminating in auxin-induced cell wall loosening.

  10. Auxin physiology of the tomato mutant diageotropica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniel, S. G.; Rayle, D. L.; Cleland, R. E.

    1989-01-01

    The tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill.) mutant diageotropica (dgt) exhibits biochemical, physiological, and morphological abnormalities that suggest the mutation may have affected a primary site of auxin perception or action. We have compared two aspects of the auxin physiology of dgt and wild-type (VFN8) seedlings: auxin transport and cellular growth parameters. The rates of basipetal indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) polar transport are identical in hypocotyl sections of the two genotypes, but dgt sections have a slightly greater capacity for IAA transport. 2,3,5-Triiodobenzoic acid and ethylene reduce transport in both mutant and wild-type sections. The kinetics of auxin uptake into VFN8 and dgt sections are nearly identical. These results make it unlikely that an altered IAA efflux carrier or IAA uptake symport are