Science.gov

Sample records for additional positive results

  1. 20 CFR 655.154 - Additional positive recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional positive recruitment. 655.154... Employment in the United States (H-2A Workers) Post-Acceptance Requirements § 655.154 Additional positive recruitment. (a) Where to conduct additional positive recruitment. The employer must conduct...

  2. 20 CFR 655.154 - Additional positive recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Additional positive recruitment. 655.154... Employment in the United States (H-2A Workers) Post-Acceptance Requirements § 655.154 Additional positive recruitment. (a) Where to conduct additional positive recruitment. The employer must conduct...

  3. 20 CFR 655.154 - Additional positive recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional positive recruitment. 655.154... Employment in the United States (H-2A Workers) Post-Acceptance Requirements § 655.154 Additional positive recruitment. (a) Where to conduct additional positive recruitment. The employer must conduct...

  4. 20 CFR 655.154 - Additional positive recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Additional positive recruitment. 655.154... Employment in the United States (H-2A Workers) Post-Acceptance Requirements § 655.154 Additional positive recruitment. (a) Where to conduct additional positive recruitment. The employer must conduct...

  5. Notification following new positive HIV test results.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ya-Lin A; Hutchinson, Angela B; Hollis, NaTasha D; Sansom, Stephanie L

    2016-09-01

    Client notification of a new HIV diagnosis is critical for timely access to treatment and reduction in behaviours associated with HIV infection. It is also an important input in HIV transmission and disease progression models. We used national, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-funded HIV testing events data collected through the National HIV Prevention Program Monitoring and Evaluation system to update estimates of the proportion of newly identified HIV-positives notified of their status. We compared estimates from 2008 to 2010 across test technologies, settings, and HIV risk groups. In 2010, notification following a positive rapid test was 99.6% compared with 99.3% in 2008. Notification following a positive conventional test was 81.5% in 2010 compared with 80.8% in 2008. To realise the full promise of early HIV diagnosis and treatment for the prevention of additional HIV cases, efforts to ensure prompt notification following a new HIV diagnosis will be crucial. PMID:26378191

  6. The Distinction between Positive and Negative Reinforcement: Some Additional Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidman, Murray

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the distinction between positive and negative reinforcement and some additional considerations. He states that the concept of negative reinforcement has caused confusion, and he believes that the difficulty stems from conventions of ordinary speech, in which the term "negative" usually denotes the opposite of…

  7. Global Positioning System receiver evaluation results

    SciTech Connect

    Byrne, R.H.

    1993-09-01

    A Sandia project currently uses an outdated Magnavox 6400 Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver as the core of its navigation system. The goal of this study was to analyze the performance of the current GPS receiver compared to newer, less expensive models and to make recommendations on how to improve the performance of the overall navigation system. This paper discusses the test methodology used to experimentally analyze the performance of different GPS receivers, the test results, and recommendations on how an upgrade should proceed. Appendices contain detailed information regarding the raw data, test hardware, and test software.

  8. Interpreting in vitro micronucleus positive results: simple biomarker matrix discriminates clastogens, aneugens, and misleading positive agents.

    PubMed

    Bryce, Steven M; Bemis, Jeffrey C; Mereness, Jared A; Spellman, Richard A; Moss, Jocelyn; Dickinson, Donna; Schuler, Maik J; Dertinger, Stephen D

    2014-08-01

    The specificity of in vitro mammalian cell genotoxicity assays is low, as they yield a high incidence of positive results that are not observed in animal genotoxicity and carcinogenicity tests, that is, "misleading" or "irrelevant" positives. We set out to develop a rapid and effective follow-up testing strategy that would predict whether apparent in vitro micronucleus-inducing effects are due to a clastogenic, aneugenic, or secondary irrelevant mode(s) of action. Priority was given to biomarkers that could be multiplexed onto flow cytometric acquisition of micronucleus frequencies, or that could be accomplished in parallel using a homogeneous-type assay. A training set of 30 chemicals comprised of clastogens, aneugens, and misleading positive chemicals was studied. These experiments were conducted with human TK6 cells over a range of closely spaced concentrations in a continuous exposure design. In addition to micronucleus frequency, the following endpoints were investigated, most often at time of harvest: cleaved Parp-positive chromatin, cleaved caspase 3-positive chromatin, ethidium monoazide bromide-positive chromatin, polyploid nuclei, phospho-histone H3-positive (metaphase) cells, tetramethylrhodamine ethyl ester-negative cells, cellular ATP levels, cell cycle perturbation, and shift in γ-H2AX fluorescence relative to solvent control. Logistic regression was used to identify endpoints that effectively predict chemicals' a priori classification. Cross validation using a leave-one-out approach indicated that a promising base model includes γ-H2AX shift and change in phospho-histone H3-positive events (25/30 correct calls). Improvements were realized when one or two additional endpoints were included (26-30/30 correct calls). These models were further evaluated with a test set of 10 chemicals, and also by evaluating 3 chemicals at a collaborating laboratory. The resulting data support the hypothesis that a matrix of high throughput-compatible biomarkers can

  9. 49 CFR 219.605 - Positive drug test results; procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Positive drug test results; procedures. 219.605... Programs § 219.605 Positive drug test results; procedures. (a) (b) Procedures for administrative handling by the railroad in the event a specimen provided under this subpart is reported as positive by...

  10. 49 CFR 219.605 - Positive drug test results; procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Positive drug test results; procedures. 219.605... Programs § 219.605 Positive drug test results; procedures. (a) (b) Procedures for administrative handling by the railroad in the event a specimen provided under this subpart is reported as positive by...

  11. 49 CFR 219.605 - Positive drug test results; procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Positive drug test results; procedures. 219.605... Programs § 219.605 Positive drug test results; procedures. (a) (b) Procedures for administrative handling by the railroad in the event a specimen provided under this subpart is reported as positive by...

  12. 49 CFR 219.605 - Positive drug test results; procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Positive drug test results; procedures. 219.605... Programs § 219.605 Positive drug test results; procedures. (a) (b) Procedures for administrative handling by the railroad in the event a specimen provided under this subpart is reported as positive by...

  13. 49 CFR 219.605 - Positive drug test results; procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Positive drug test results; procedures. 219.605... Programs § 219.605 Positive drug test results; procedures. (a) [Reserved] (b) Procedures for administrative handling by the railroad in the event a specimen provided under this subpart is reported as positive by...

  14. Microwave coupling into a slotted cavity. Additional results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baeckstroem, M.; Loren, J.

    1994-12-01

    Further evaluation of simple formulas for shielding effectiveness and for absorption cross section of a wire inside a shielded structure have been made. The results give further support to the expressions, derived earlier in FOA report C 30712-8.3,3.2 (PB94-123742). The main objective of the work has been to find and evaluate simple expressions for microwave coupling into electronic compartments. The expressions are intended to be used for bounding calculations in design and analysis of system hardness against intense microwave radiation, e.g. HPM (High Power Microwaves). It is shown that introduction of microwave absorbing material into the cavity gives an expected increase in shielding effectiveness. It is also shown that shielding effectiveness depends only to a little extent on the position and length of the wire. The total transmission area for multiple apertures can be expressed as the sum of the areas of the individual apertures. The absorption cross section for a wire inside the cavity is shown to depend only slightly on wire position and length, even when the wire is located very close to a wall. The results lead to further improvement of the methodology for analysis of system hardness against HPM radiation. It also lays a foundation for a more scientific approach in the design of shielded structures. Such an approach would result in an increased reliability and also in a reduction of costs due to a reduced need for (large) safety margins and fewer late design modifications. The report also proposes a new method to measure shielding effectiveness of apertures.

  15. The positive effects of waste leachate addition on methane fermentation from food waste in batch trials.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wanli; Zhang, Lei; Li, Aimin

    2015-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to investigate the effect of waste leachate (WL) addition on batch anaerobic digestion of food waste (FW), and to examine the influence of mixture ratio on the co-digestion process. The results showed that anaerobic digestion of FW was greatly enhanced by WL addition, as indicated by the higher methane yield, higher methane content, more volatile solids (VS) destruction, and higher stability. Although WL was rich in volatile fatty acids (VFA), its addition did not cause VFA inhibition. It was found that WL addition was beneficial to accelerate the start-up and shorten the long reaction time of the batch anaerobic process. The time to reach the peak methane yield was reduced by 1, 2, and 4 days with WL addition. The optimum FW to WL ratio was 77.9:22.1 with the highest methane yield (416 mL/g VS), the highest methane content (64.3%), the greatest VS removal (77.6%), and stable performance. These results confirmed the positive effects of WL addition on methane fermentation from FW.

  16. Mars-GRAM 2010: Additions and Resulting Improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justh, Hilary L.; Burns, K. Lee

    2013-01-01

    factors. The adjustment factors generated by this process had to satisfy the gas law as well as the hydrostatic relation and are expressed as a function of height (z), Latitude (Lat) and areocentric solar longitude (Ls). The greatest adjustments are made at large optical depths such as tau greater than 1. The addition of the adjustment factors has led to better correspondence to TES Limb data from 0-60 km altitude as well as better agreement with MGS, ODY and MRO data at approximately 90-130 km altitude. Improved Mars-GRAM atmospheric simulations for various locations, times and dust conditions on Mars will be presented at the workshop session. The latest results validating Mars-GRAM 2010 versus Mars Climate Sounder data will also be presented. Mars-GRAM 2010 updates have resulted in improved atmospheric simulations which will be very important when beginning systems design, performance analysis, and operations planning for future aerocapture, aerobraking or landed missions to Mars.

  17. Additional Results of Ice-Accretion Scaling at SLD Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, Thomas H. (Technical Monitor); Anderson, David N.; Tsao, Jen-Ching

    2005-01-01

    To determine scale velocity an additional similarity parameter is needed to supplement the Ruff scaling method. A Weber number based on water droplet MVD has been included in several studies because the effect of droplet splashing on ice accretion was believed to be important, particularly for SLD conditions. In the present study, ice shapes recorded at Appendix-C conditions and recent results at SLD conditions are reviewed to show that droplet diameter cannot be important to main ice shape, and for low airspeeds splashing does not appear to affect SLD ice shapes. Evidence is presented to show that while a supplementary similarity parameter probably has the form of a Weber number, it must be based on a length proportional to model size rather than MVD. Scaling comparisons were made between SLD reference conditions and Appendix-C scale conditions using this Weber number. Scale-to-reference model size ratios were 1:1.7 and 1:3.4. The reference tests used a 91-cm-chord NACA 0012 model with a velocity of approximately 50 m/s and an MVD of 160 m. Freezing fractions of 0.3, 0.4, and 0.5 were included in the study.

  18. Prediction of additional lymph node involvement in breast cancer patients with positive sentinel lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Pohlodek, K; Bozikova, S; Meciarova, I; Mucha, V; Bartova, M; Ondrias, F

    2016-01-01

    Axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) has traditionally been the principal method for evaluating axillary lymph node status in breast cancer patients. In the past decades sentinel lymph nodes biopsy after lymphatic mapping has been used to stage the disease. The majority of sentinel lymph nodes (SLN) positive patients do not have additional metastases in non-sentinel nodes (non-SLN) after additional ALND. These patients are exposed to the morbidity of ALND without any benefit from additional axillary clearence. In the present study we would like to asses the criteria for selecting those patients, who have high risk for non-SLN metastases in the axilla in cases of positive SLN. In this retrospective analysis, clinical and pathologic data from 163 patients who underwent SLN biopsy followed by ALND were collected. Following clinical and pathological characteristics were analyzed to predict the likehood of non-SLN metastases: age, staging, histologic type and grading of the tumors, hormonal receptor status, HER-2 receptor status and Ki-67 protein, angioinvasion, metastases in SLN and non-SLN. Relative frequencies of individual characteristics between sample groups were statistically tested by Chi-square test at significance level p=0.5, when sample sizes in groups were small (≤5) by Fisher´s exact test. Metastasis in SLN were present in 67 (41%) of patients, 48 patients (29,4%) had metastasis also in non-SLN. The ratio between non-SLN positive / non-SLN negative lymph nodes in patients with positive SLN increases with the stage of the disease, the difference between values for the pT1c and pT2 stadium was statistically significant (p = 0.0296). The same applies to grading, but the differences were not significant (p>0.05). We could not find significant differences for angioinvasion of the tumor, probably for small number of patients with angioinvasion (p>0.05).Only the stage of the tumor was shown to be significant in predicting the metastasis in non-SLN in our

  19. 44 CFR 402.3 - Addition of commodities to the Positive List.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Addition of commodities to the Positive List. 402.3 Section 402.3 Emergency Management and Assistance DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AND... commodities to the Positive List. Order T-1 applies to the transportation or discharge of commodities...

  20. 44 CFR 402.3 - Addition of commodities to the Positive List.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Addition of commodities to the Positive List. 402.3 Section 402.3 Emergency Management and Assistance DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AND... commodities to the Positive List. Order T-1 applies to the transportation or discharge of commodities...

  1. Large-Scale Spray Releases: Additional Aerosol Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, Richard C.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Fountain, Matthew S.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Billing, Justin M.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Kurath, Dean E.; Jenks, Jeromy WJ; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Mahoney, Lenna A.

    2013-08-01

    One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis for the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak event involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids that behave as a Newtonian fluid. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and in processing facilities across the DOE complex. To expand the data set upon which the WTP accident and safety analyses were based, an aerosol spray leak testing program was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL’s test program addressed two key technical areas to improve the WTP methodology (Larson and Allen 2010). The first technical area was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where slurry particles may plug the hole and prevent high-pressure sprays. The results from an effort to address this first technical area can be found in Mahoney et al. (2012a). The second technical area was to determine aerosol droplet size distribution and total droplet volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, including sprays from larger breaches and sprays of slurries for which literature data are mostly absent. To address the second technical area, the testing program collected aerosol generation data at two scales, commonly referred to as small-scale and large-scale testing. The small-scale testing and resultant data are described in Mahoney et al. (2012b), and the large-scale testing and resultant data are presented in Schonewill et al. (2012). In tests at both scales, simulants were used

  2. Small-Scale Spray Releases: Additional Aerosol Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Schonewill, Philip P.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Brown, G. N.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Tran, Diana N.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Kurath, Dean E.

    2013-08-01

    One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. To expand the data set upon which the WTP accident and safety analyses were based, an aerosol spray leak testing program was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL’s test program addressed two key technical areas to improve the WTP methodology (Larson and Allen 2010). The first technical area was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where slurry particles may plug the hole and prevent high-pressure sprays. The results from an effort to address this first technical area can be found in Mahoney et al. (2012a). The second technical area was to determine aerosol droplet size distribution and total droplet volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, including sprays from larger breaches and sprays of slurries for which literature data are largely absent. To address the second technical area, the testing program collected aerosol generation data at two scales, commonly referred to as small-scale and large-scale. The small-scale testing and resultant data are described in Mahoney et al. (2012b) and the large-scale testing and resultant data are presented in Schonewill et al. (2012). In tests at both scales, simulants were used to mimic the

  3. Additional Results of Glaze Icing Scaling in SLD Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsao, Jen-Ching

    2016-01-01

    New guidance of acceptable means of compliance with the super-cooled large drops (SLD) conditions has been issued by the U.S. Department of Transportation's Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in its Advisory Circular AC 25-28 in November 2014. The Part 25, Appendix O is developed to define a representative icing environment for super-cooled large drops. Super-cooled large drops, which include freezing drizzle and freezing rain conditions, are not included in Appendix C. This paper reports results from recent glaze icing scaling tests conducted in NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) to evaluate how well the scaling methods recommended for Appendix C conditions might apply to SLD conditions. The models were straight NACA 0012 wing sections. The reference model had a chord of 72 in. and the scale model had a chord of 21 in. Reference tests were run with airspeeds of 100 and 130.3 kn and with MVD's of 85 and 170 micron. Two scaling methods were considered. One was based on the modified Ruff method with scale velocity found by matching the Weber number WeL. The other was proposed and developed by Feo specifically for strong glaze icing conditions, in which the scale liquid water content and velocity were found by matching reference and scale values of the nondimensional water-film thickness expression and the film Weber number Wef. All tests were conducted at 0 deg AOA. Results will be presented for stagnation freezing fractions of 0.2 and 0.3. For nondimensional reference and scale ice shape comparison, a new post-scanning ice shape digitization procedure was developed for extracting 2-D ice shape profiles at any selected span-wise location from the high fidelity 3-D scanned ice shapes obtained in the IRT.

  4. Emerging Trends in Contextual Learning Show Positive Results for Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WorkAmerica, 2001

    2001-01-01

    This issue focuses on contextual learning (CL), in which students master rigorous academic content in real-world or work-based learning experiences. "Emerging Trends in CL Show Positive Results for Students" discusses CL as an important strategy for improving student achievement. It describes: how CL raises the bar for all students, challenging…

  5. Effect of a mineral additive on the electrical performances of the positive plate of lead acid battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foudia, M.; Matrakova, M.; Zerroual, L.

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this work is to improve the performance of the positive electrode of lead-acid battery. The use of the additive in the positive paste is to increase the capacity and cycle life of the positive active material. Mineral porous additives, dispersed uniformly in the PAM, may act as acid reservoirs and favor the ionic diffusion. The results show that the addition of mineral additive in the paste before oxidation influences the composition and the crystal size of the PAM after oxidation. We observe a remarkable improvement of the discharge capacity of the PAM for an amount of additive ranging between 1 and 5%. Nano-sized particles of PbO2 with amorphous character are obtained. XRD, TG and DSC, SEM, and galvanostatic discharge were used as techniques of investigation.

  6. Vector Addition: Effect of the Context and Position of the Vectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barniol, Pablo; Zavala, Genaro

    2010-10-01

    In this article we investigate the effect of: 1) the context, and 2) the position of the vectors, on 2D vector addition tasks. We administered a test to 512 students completing introductory physics courses at a private Mexican university. In the first part, we analyze students' responses in three isomorphic problems: displacements, forces, and no physical context. Students were asked to draw two vectors and the vector sum. We analyzed students' procedures detecting the difficulties when drawing the vector addition and proved that the context matters, not only compared to the context-free case but also between the contexts. In the second part, we analyze students' responses with three different arrangements of the sum of two vectors: tail-to-tail, head-to-tail and separated vectors. We compared the frequencies of the errors in the three different positions to deduce students' conceptions in the addition of vectors.

  7. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  8. "Positive" results increase down the Hierarchy of the Sciences.

    PubMed

    Fanelli, Daniele

    2010-01-01

    The hypothesis of a Hierarchy of the Sciences with physical sciences at the top, social sciences at the bottom, and biological sciences in-between is nearly 200 years old. This order is intuitive and reflected in many features of academic life, but whether it reflects the "hardness" of scientific research--i.e., the extent to which research questions and results are determined by data and theories as opposed to non-cognitive factors--is controversial. This study analysed 2434 papers published in all disciplines and that declared to have tested a hypothesis. It was determined how many papers reported a "positive" (full or partial) or "negative" support for the tested hypothesis. If the hierarchy hypothesis is correct, then researchers in "softer" sciences should have fewer constraints to their conscious and unconscious biases, and therefore report more positive outcomes. Results confirmed the predictions at all levels considered: discipline, domain and methodology broadly defined. Controlling for observed differences between pure and applied disciplines, and between papers testing one or several hypotheses, the odds of reporting a positive result were around 5 times higher among papers in the disciplines of Psychology and Psychiatry and Economics and Business compared to Space Science, 2.3 times higher in the domain of social sciences compared to the physical sciences, and 3.4 times higher in studies applying behavioural and social methodologies on people compared to physical and chemical studies on non-biological material. In all comparisons, biological studies had intermediate values. These results suggest that the nature of hypotheses tested and the logical and methodological rigour employed to test them vary systematically across disciplines and fields, depending on the complexity of the subject matter and possibly other factors (e.g., a field's level of historical and/or intellectual development). On the other hand, these results support the scientific status

  9. Elimination of false-positive polymerase chain reaction results resulting from hole punch carryover contamination.

    PubMed

    Bonne, Nicolai; Clark, Phillip; Shearer, Patrick; Raidal, Shane

    2008-01-01

    The collection of biological material (e.g., blood) directly onto filter paper for subsequent use in laboratory assays such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), has become a common practice. Dried cells or fluid on the paper can be readily rehydrated and retrieved into a standard volume of an appropriate elution buffer but introduces a dilution factor to the sample. The use of a common cutting instrument for excising a standard-sized piece of paper that contains the material also introduces the potential for transferring biological material from one sample to subsequent samples, causing false-positive results by PCR. In the present study, filter-paper-collected blood that contained beak and feather disease virus was used to determine if viral DNA could be transferred between samples by a hole punch used to excise sequential filter papers. It was determined that false-positive results could be obtained at least 13 times after a positive sample. Subsequently, the efficacy of 4 methods of hole punch disinfection, flaming, VirkonS, bleach, and a bleach-ethanol combination, was assessed. The only effective and practical method to destroy DNA was a method where the hole punch was agitated in commercial bleach, rinsed in water, the water was displaced with 100% ethanol and air-dried. This method was simple, cheap, and relatively rapid, and allowed for the use of a single hole punch for a series of samples, without carryover contamination and consequent false-positive results.

  10. Mechanism of the positive effect of poly(ethylene glycol) addition in enzymatic hydrolysis of steam pretreated lignocelluloses.

    PubMed

    Sipos, Bálint; Szilágyi, Mátyás; Sebestyén, Zoltán; Perazzini, Raffaella; Dienes, Dóra; Jakab, Emma; Crestini, Claudia; Réczey, Kati

    2011-11-01

    The efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulses can be increased by addition of surfactants and polymers, such as poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). The effect of PEG addition on the cellulase adsorption was tested on various steam pretreated lignocellulose substrates (spruce, willow, hemp, corn stover, wheat straw, sweet sorghum bagasse). A positive effect of PEG addition was observed, as protein adsorption has decreased and free enzyme activities (FP, β-glucosidase) have increased due to the additive. However, the degree of enhancement differed among the substrates, being highest on steam pretreated spruce. Results of lignin analysis (pyrolysis-GC/MS, (31)P NMR) suggest that the effect of PEG addition is in connection with the amount of unsubstituted phenolic hydroxyl groups of lignin in the substrate. Adsorption experiments using two commercial enzyme preparations, Celluclast 1.5L (Trichoderma reesei cellulase) and Novozym 188 (Aspergillus niger β-glucosidase) suggested that enzyme origins affected on the adsorptivity of β-glucosidases.

  11. Positive contrast in the rat: a test of the additivity theory.

    PubMed

    Nallan, G B; McCoy, D F

    1979-09-01

    Rats were trained to lever press for food on a multiple variable-interval variable-interval schedule, then shifted to a multiple variable-interval extinction schedule. For six subjects (group L), schedule components were signalled by the presence or absence of a flashing light emitted from an alternate, "signal" lever. For four subjects (group T), schedule components were signalled by two distinct auditory tones. Contrary to the predictions of an additivity theory based on the summation of response classes, contacts on the signal lever did not increase after the schedule shift in group L. However, nine of the ten subjects in the study demonstrated positive contrast effects on the operant lever. In a subsequent test for stimulus control, enhancement and suppression by the discriminative stimuli were found in these same nine subjects. An additivity theory based on the summation of excitatory processes, rather than response classes, appears to account for these data.

  12. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS FROM A MICROWAVE CAVITY BEAM POSITION MONITOR.

    SciTech Connect

    BALAKIN,V.; BAZHAN,A.; LUNEV,P.; SOLYAK,N.; VOGEL,V.; ZHOGOLEV,P.; LISITSYN,A.; YAKIMENKO,V.

    1999-03-29

    Future Linear Colliders have hard requirements for the beam transverse position stability in the accelerator. A beam Position Monitor (BPM) with the resolution better than 0.1 micron in the single bunch regime is needed to control the stability of the beam position along the linac. Proposed BPM is based on the measurement of the asymmetrical mode excited by single bunch in the cavity. Four stages of signal processing (space-, time-, frequency- and phase-filtering providing the required signal-to-noise ratio) are used to obtain extremely high resolution. The measurement set-up was designed by BINP and installed at ATF/BNL to test experimentally this concept. The set-up includes three two-coordinates BPM's at the frequency of 13.566 GHz, and reference intensity/phase cavity. BPM's were mounted on support table. The two-coordinates movers allow to move and align BPM's along the straight line, using the signals from the beam. The position of each monitor is controlled by the sensors with the accuracy 0.03 micron. The information from three monitors allows to exclude angle and position jitter of the beam and measure BPM resolution. In the experiments the resolution of about 0.15 micron for 0.25 nC beam intensity was obtained, that is close to the value required.

  13. The Development and Resulting Performance Impact of Positive Psychological Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luthans, Fred; Avey, James B.; Avolio, Bruce J.; Peterson, Suzanne J.

    2010-01-01

    Recently, theory and research have supported psychological capital (PsyCap) as an emerging core construct linked to positive outcomes at the individual and organizational level. However, to date, little attention has been given to PsyCap development through training interventions; nor have there been attempts to determine empirically if such…

  14. Court revises suit arising from false-positive test result.

    PubMed

    1999-02-19

    The Texas Court of Appeals reinstated a portion of a lawsuit filed by [name removed], who was denied life insurance coverage following a false-positive HIV test. [Name removed] was denied coverage without explanation and was notified by the Houston Health Department a few weeks later that he was HIV-positive. He was retested several times, with each test being negative. A Harris County (TX) trial court had ruled a summary judgement against all claims, but the appeals court held that he might have a case based on the State's Deceptive Trade Practices Act. The appeals court did not allow him to recover damages based on negligence, but said that he could proceed with his claim of intentional infliction of emotional distress.

  15. Screening for antibodies against Aleutian disease virus (ADV) in mink. Elucidation of dubious results by additive counterimmunoelectrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Uttenthal, A

    1992-01-01

    In order to distinguish true positive results in counterimmunoelectrophoresis from false positive ones an additive counterimmunoelectrophoresis was developed. The method was tested on selected mink serum samples as part of a routine testing for antibodies towards Aleutian disease virus on 3 million blood samples. The procedure of the method is, that a known positive serum sample is mixed with the patient serum to be tested. The result from a false positive sample will be one precipitin line towards virus and one nonspecific line. If the serum sample is a true positive one, the antibodies originating from the patient serum will be added to the antibodies in the standard positive serum giving only one precipitin line. The system is further extended by testing the serum samples towards an antigen preparation containing all the cellular components but free from virus. PMID:1335756

  16. Red Cross only positive result of horrifying 1859 bloodbath.

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, J

    1996-01-01

    Haunted by the suffering and human devastation he witnessed after the 1859 Battle of Solferino in Italy, Swiss banker Henry Dunant wrote a book that galvanized European governments and resulted in the first international agreement that established rules for the conduct of war. The Geneva Convention also resulted in the formation of the Red Cross. PMID:8873648

  17. 49 CFR 40.155 - What does the MRO do when a negative or positive test result is also dilute?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What does the MRO do when a negative or positive... and the Verification Process § 40.155 What does the MRO do when a negative or positive test result is... the DER that the specimen, in addition to being negative or positive, is dilute. (b) You must...

  18. Evaluating the addition of positive reinforcement for learning a frightening task: a pilot study with horses.

    PubMed

    Heleski, Camie; Bauson, Laura; Bello, Nora

    2008-01-01

    Horse training often relies upon negative reinforcement (NR). This study tested the hypothesis that adding positive reinforcement (PR) to NR would enhance learning in horses (n = 34) being taught to walk over a tarp (novel/typically frightening task). Subjects were Arabians, and the same person handled all of them. This person handled half "traditionally" (NR only)--that is, halter/lead were pulled; when horse stepped forward, pressure was released; process repeated until criterion met (horse crossed the tarp with little/no obvious anxiety). The same person handled the other half traditionally--but with addition of PR < food + verbal praise > (NR + PR). Subjects "failed" the task if they refused to walk onto the tarp after 10 min. Nine horses failed; 6 of 9 failures were from NR only--no significant difference detected (p = .41). The study detected no difference in time to first crossing of the tarp (p = .30) or total time to achieve calmness criterion (p = .67). Overall, adding PR did not significantly enhance learning this task. However, there were practical implications--adding PR made the task safer/less fatiguing for the handler. PMID:18569217

  19. Evaluating the addition of positive reinforcement for learning a frightening task: a pilot study with horses.

    PubMed

    Heleski, Camie; Bauson, Laura; Bello, Nora

    2008-01-01

    Horse training often relies upon negative reinforcement (NR). This study tested the hypothesis that adding positive reinforcement (PR) to NR would enhance learning in horses (n = 34) being taught to walk over a tarp (novel/typically frightening task). Subjects were Arabians, and the same person handled all of them. This person handled half "traditionally" (NR only)--that is, halter/lead were pulled; when horse stepped forward, pressure was released; process repeated until criterion met (horse crossed the tarp with little/no obvious anxiety). The same person handled the other half traditionally--but with addition of PR < food + verbal praise > (NR + PR). Subjects "failed" the task if they refused to walk onto the tarp after 10 min. Nine horses failed; 6 of 9 failures were from NR only--no significant difference detected (p = .41). The study detected no difference in time to first crossing of the tarp (p = .30) or total time to achieve calmness criterion (p = .67). Overall, adding PR did not significantly enhance learning this task. However, there were practical implications--adding PR made the task safer/less fatiguing for the handler.

  20. Fenofibric Acid Can Cause False-Positive Urine Methylenedioxymethamphetamine Immunoassay Results.

    PubMed

    Quesada, Loreto; Gomila, Isabel; Fe, Antonia; Servera, Miguel A; Yates, Christopher; Morell-Garcia, Daniel; Castanyer, Bartomeu; Barceló, Bernardino

    2015-01-01

    We present a false-positive result of ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxy-NN-methylamphetamine) screening due to the therapeutic use of fenofibrate, an antihyperlipidemic drug. Our hypothesis was that the main metabolite of fenofibrate, fenofibric acid, was responsible for this cross-reactivity on a DRI(®) Ecstasy Assay, using a cut-off of 500 ng/mL. We estimated that the addition of 225 µg/mL pure fenofibric acid to blank urine would be sufficient to result in a positive DRI(®) Ecstasy Assay. The results obtained on the urine samples analyses of the patient show that the DRI(®) Ecstasy Assay resulted negative 2 days after discontinuing fenofibrate treatment, when the urine fenofibric acid concentration corrected by creatinine and determinated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was 20.3 µg/mg creatinine. The cross-reactivity data for fenofibric acid would seem to indicate that there was insufficient concentration of measured compound to account for the positive immunochemical results for ecstasy. This apparent discrepancy can be explained in several ways, one of them is that the β-glucuronidase-resistent fenofibric acid isomers are responsible. This process could explain the low recovery of free fenofibric acid when we use the developed method for its quantification in urine samples. Positive results on immunoassay screening must be considered presumptive until confirmation with another method based on a different principle, preferably gas chromatography-mass spectrometry or liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

  1. The use of nanometer tetrabasic lead sulfate as positive active material additive for valve regulated lead-acid battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Xiaoshi; Wang, Dianlong; Hu, Chiyu; Tang, Shenzhi; Zhu, Junsheng; Guo, Chenfeng

    2014-12-01

    Conventional tetrabasic lead sulfate used as positive active material additive shows the results of the low effective lead dioxide conversion rate due to the large grain size and crossed the crystal structure. In this paper, we study on a type of nanometer tetrabasic lead sulfate. Through the XRD and SEM test and Material Studio software calculation, the purity of tetrabasic lead sulfate is very high, the grain size of the nanometer 4BS is almost unanimous, and can be controlled below 200 nm. When charged and discharged in 1.75 V-2.42 V with the current density of 40 mA g-1, 80 mA g-1 and 160 mA g-1, the effective lead dioxide conversion rate of nanometer 4BS after formation can achieve to 83.48%, 71.42%, and 66.96%. Subsequently, the nanometer 4BS as additive is added to positive paste of lead-acid battery. When the batteries are tested galvanostatically between 1.75 V and 2.42 V at 0.25 C charge and 0.5 C discharge rates at room temperature. The ratio of adding nanometer 4BS is 0%, 1% and 4% and the initial discharge specific capacities are 60 mAh g-1, 65 mAh g-1 and 68 mAh g-1. After 80 cycles, the initial discharge capacity of positive active material with 1% nanometer 4BS decreased less than 10%, while adding 4% nanometer 4BS, the initial discharge capacity doesn't decrease obviously.

  2. Metallic sulfide additives for positive electrode material within a secondary electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Walsh, William J.; McPheeters, Charles C.; Yao, Neng-ping; Koura, Kobuyuki

    1976-01-01

    An improved active material for use within the positive electrode of a secondary electrochemical cell includes a mixture of iron disulfide and a sulfide of a polyvalent metal. Various metal sulfides, particularly sulfides of cobalt, nickel, copper, cerium and manganese, are added in minor weight proportion in respect to iron disulfide for improving the electrode performance and reducing current collector requirements.

  3. Way forward in case of a false positive in vitro genotoxicity result for a cosmetic substance?

    PubMed

    Doktorova, Tatyana Y; Ates, Gamze; Vinken, Mathieu; Vanhaecke, Tamara; Rogiers, Vera

    2014-02-01

    The currently used regulatory in vitro mutagenicity/genotoxicity test battery has a high sensitivity for detecting genotoxicants, but it suffers from a large number of irrelevant positive results (i.e. low specificity) thereby imposing the need for additional follow-up by in vitro and/or in vivo genotoxicity tests. This could have a major impact on the cosmetic industry in Europe, seen the imposed animal testing and marketing bans on cosmetics and their ingredients. Afflicted, but safe substances could therefore be lost. Using the example of triclosan, a cosmetic preservative, we describe here the potential applicability of a human toxicogenomics-based in vitro assay as a potential mechanistically based follow-up test for positive in vitro genotoxicity results. Triclosan shows a positive in vitro chromosomal aberration test, but is negative during in vivo follow-up tests. Toxicogenomics analysis unequivocally shows that triclosan is identified as a compound acting through non-DNA reactive mechanisms. This proof-of-principle study illustrates the potential of genome-wide transcriptomics data in combination with in vitro experimentation as a possible weight-of-evidence follow-up approach for de-risking a positive outcome in a standard mutagenicity/genotoxicity battery. As such a substantial number of cosmetic compounds wrongly identified as genotoxicants could be saved for the future. PMID:24095862

  4. Way forward in case of a false positive in vitro genotoxicity result for a cosmetic substance?

    PubMed

    Doktorova, Tatyana Y; Ates, Gamze; Vinken, Mathieu; Vanhaecke, Tamara; Rogiers, Vera

    2014-02-01

    The currently used regulatory in vitro mutagenicity/genotoxicity test battery has a high sensitivity for detecting genotoxicants, but it suffers from a large number of irrelevant positive results (i.e. low specificity) thereby imposing the need for additional follow-up by in vitro and/or in vivo genotoxicity tests. This could have a major impact on the cosmetic industry in Europe, seen the imposed animal testing and marketing bans on cosmetics and their ingredients. Afflicted, but safe substances could therefore be lost. Using the example of triclosan, a cosmetic preservative, we describe here the potential applicability of a human toxicogenomics-based in vitro assay as a potential mechanistically based follow-up test for positive in vitro genotoxicity results. Triclosan shows a positive in vitro chromosomal aberration test, but is negative during in vivo follow-up tests. Toxicogenomics analysis unequivocally shows that triclosan is identified as a compound acting through non-DNA reactive mechanisms. This proof-of-principle study illustrates the potential of genome-wide transcriptomics data in combination with in vitro experimentation as a possible weight-of-evidence follow-up approach for de-risking a positive outcome in a standard mutagenicity/genotoxicity battery. As such a substantial number of cosmetic compounds wrongly identified as genotoxicants could be saved for the future.

  5. Ammonia-oxidizing archaea respond positively to inorganic nitrogen addition in desert soils.

    PubMed

    Marusenko, Yevgeniy; Garcia-Pichel, Ferran; Hall, Sharon J

    2015-02-01

    In soils, nitrogen (N) addition typically enhances ammonia oxidation (AO) rates and increases the population density of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), but not that of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA). We asked if long-term inorganic N addition also has similar consequences in arid land soils, an understudied yet spatially ubiquitous ecosystem type. Using Sonoran Desert top soils from between and under shrubs within a long-term N-enrichment experiment, we determined community concentration-response kinetics of AO and measured the total and relative abundance of AOA and AOB based on amoA gene abundance. As expected, N addition increased maximum AO rates and the abundance of bacterial amoA genes compared to the controls. Surprisingly, N addition also increased the abundance of archaeal amoA genes. We did not detect any major effects of N addition on ammonia-oxidizing community composition. The ammonia-oxidizing communities in these desert soils were dominated by AOA as expected (78% of amoA gene copies were related to Nitrososphaera), but contained unusually high contributions of Nitrosomonas (18%) and unusually low numbers of Nitrosospira (2%). This study highlights unique traits of ammonia oxidizers in arid lands, which should be considered globally in predictions of AO responses to changes in N availability.

  6. Amisulpride augmentation for clozapine-refractory positive symptoms: additional benefit in reducing hypersialorrhea.

    PubMed

    Bogorni, Fabiani; Moreira, Frederico Fernandes; Pimentel, Eduardo Mylius; Grohs, Géder Evandro Motta; Diaz, Alexandre Paim

    2015-01-01

    One-third to half of patients taking clozapine suffer from refractory symptoms despite adequate treatment. Among other adverse effects, clozapine-induced hypersalivation (CIH) occurs in approximately half of all patients. This is a case of a 30-year-old male with refractory schizophrenia; in this patient, the remission of residual positive symptoms, as well as the reduction of CIH, was achieved by treatment with clozapine augmented with amisulpride.

  7. HIV-Positive–to–HIV-Positive Kidney Transplantation — Results at 3 to 5 Years

    PubMed Central

    Muller, Elmi; Barday, Zunaid; Mendelson, Marc; Kahn, Delawir

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The outcome of kidney transplantation in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–positive patients who receive organs from HIV-negative donors has been reported to be similar to the outcome in HIV-negative recipients. We report the outcomes at 3 to 5 years in HIV-positive patients who received kidneys from HIV-positive deceased donors. METHODS We conducted a prospective, nonrandomized study of kidney transplantation in HIV-infected patients who had a CD4 T-cell count of 200 per cubic millimeter or higher and an undetectable plasma HIV RNA level. All the patients were receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). The patients received kidneys from deceased donors who tested positive for HIV with the use of fourth-generation enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay at the time of referral. All the donors either had received no ART previously or had received only first-line ART. RESULTS From September 2008 through February 2014, a total of 27 HIV-positive patients underwent kidney transplantation. Survivors were followed for a median of 2.4 years. The rate of survival among the patients was 84% at 1 year, 84% at 3 years, and 74% at 5 years. The corresponding rates of graft survival were 93%, 84%, and 84%. (If a patient died with a functioning graft, the calculation was performed as if the graft had survived.) Rejection rates were 8% at 1 year and 22% at 3 years. HIV infection remained well controlled, with undetectable virus in blood after the transplantation. CONCLUSIONS Kidney transplantation from an HIV-positive donor appears to be an additional treatment option for HIV-infected patients requiring renal-replacement therapy. PMID:25671253

  8. The Modern U.S. High School Astronomy Course, Its Status and Makeup II: Additional Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krumenaker, Larry

    2009-01-01

    A postal survey of high school astronomy teachers strongly confirms many results of an earlier electronic survey. Additional and new results include a measure of the level of inquiry (more structured inquiry and teacher-led) in the classroom as well as data showing that more emphasis is given to traditional topics than to contemporary astronomy…

  9. The oblique supine decubitus position: technical description and comparison of results with the prone decubitus and dorsal supine decubitus positions.

    PubMed

    Arrabal-Martin, Miguel; Arrabal-Polo, Miguel A; Lopez-Leon, Victor; Merino-Salas, Sergio; Palao-Yago, Francisco; Cámara-Ortega, Manuel; Zuluaga-Gomez, Armando

    2012-10-01

    Our objective was to analyze the advantages of the percutaneous nephrolithotomy in oblique supine decubitus compared to the prone and dorsal supine position. In 87 patients diagnosed with urolithiasis (495.5-530.8 mm(2)), percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) was performed from 2000 to 2011. The patients were divided into three groups: Group A, 32 patients, PNL in the prone decubitus position; Group B, 24 patients, PNL in the dorsal supine position; Group C, 31 patients, PNL in the oblique supine position. We analyzed intraoperative parameters, complications, and results among the three groups. The three procedures were performed with a single access, 24-30 Ch. No statistically significant differences were found among the three groups regarding the patients' characteristics, or the morphology or size of the kidney stone treated. The operation time was shorter in the cases of PNL in dorsal supine and oblique supine compared to the prone position. The complication rate was very similar in the three groups. The main advantage of the PNL in oblique supine compared to the dorsal supine was that the puncture could in all cases be directed by ultrasonography, with greater precision, more safety, and more control of the percutaneous renal access. The oblique supine decubitus position is a safe position for the percutaneous treatment of urolithiasis and it becomes easier when the puncture is guided by ultrasound.

  10. Green Positive Guidance and Green Positive Life Counseling for Decent Work and Decent Lives: Some Empirical Results.

    PubMed

    Di Fabio, Annamaria; Bucci, Ornella

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses green positive guidance and green positive life counseling for decent work and decent lives. From a green guidance perspective, the connectedness to nature construct is important both in terms of the meaning of work and life construction. The study discussed in this article analyzed the relationship between empathy and connectedness to nature, controlling for the effects of fluid intelligence and personality traits. In this connection, the Advanced Progressive Matrices, the Big Five Questionnaire, and the Interpersonal Reactivity Index were administered to 144 Italian high school students. The study revealed that connecteness to nature was not associated with fluid intelligence and was only moderately associated with personality traits. It was empathy that showed the highest association with connectedness to nature. The results open new opportunities for future research and interventions in green positive guidance/life counseling and green positive decent work. PMID:26973563

  11. Green Positive Guidance and Green Positive Life Counseling for Decent Work and Decent Lives: Some Empirical Results

    PubMed Central

    Di Fabio, Annamaria; Bucci, Ornella

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses green positive guidance and green positive life counseling for decent work and decent lives. From a green guidance perspective, the connectedness to nature construct is important both in terms of the meaning of work and life construction. The study discussed in this article analyzed the relationship between empathy and connectedness to nature, controlling for the effects of fluid intelligence and personality traits. In this connection, the Advanced Progressive Matrices, the Big Five Questionnaire, and the Interpersonal Reactivity Index were administered to 144 Italian high school students. The study revealed that connecteness to nature was not associated with fluid intelligence and was only moderately associated with personality traits. It was empathy that showed the highest association with connectedness to nature. The results open new opportunities for future research and interventions in green positive guidance/life counseling and green positive decent work. PMID:26973563

  12. Green Positive Guidance and Green Positive Life Counseling for Decent Work and Decent Lives: Some Empirical Results.

    PubMed

    Di Fabio, Annamaria; Bucci, Ornella

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses green positive guidance and green positive life counseling for decent work and decent lives. From a green guidance perspective, the connectedness to nature construct is important both in terms of the meaning of work and life construction. The study discussed in this article analyzed the relationship between empathy and connectedness to nature, controlling for the effects of fluid intelligence and personality traits. In this connection, the Advanced Progressive Matrices, the Big Five Questionnaire, and the Interpersonal Reactivity Index were administered to 144 Italian high school students. The study revealed that connecteness to nature was not associated with fluid intelligence and was only moderately associated with personality traits. It was empathy that showed the highest association with connectedness to nature. The results open new opportunities for future research and interventions in green positive guidance/life counseling and green positive decent work.

  13. Additional results on 'Reducing geometric dilution of precision using ridge regression'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Robert J.

    1990-07-01

    Kelly (1990) presented preliminary results on the feasibility of using ridge regression (RR) to reduce the effects of geometric dilution of precision (GDOP) error inflation in position-fix navigation systems. Recent results indicate that RR will not reduce GDOP bias inflation when biaslike measurement errors last much longer than the aircraft guidance-loop response time. This conclusion precludes the use of RR on navigation systems whose dominant error sources are biaslike; e.g., the GPS selective-availability error source. The simulation results given by Kelly are, however, valid for the conditions defined. Although RR has not yielded a satisfactory solution to the general GDOP problem, it has illuminated the role that multicollinearity plays in navigation signal processors such as the Kalman filter. Bias inflation, initial position guess errors, ridge-parameter selection methodology, and the recursive ridge filter are discussed.

  14. False-positive results after environmental pinworm PCR testing due to Rhabditid nematodes in Corncob bedding.

    PubMed

    Leblanc, Mathias; Berry, Kristina; Graciano, Sandy; Becker, Brandon; Reuter, Jon D

    2014-11-01

    Modern rodent colonies are housed in individually ventilated cages to protect the animals from contamination with adventitious pathogens. Standard health monitoring through soiled-bedding sentinels does not always detect infections, especially in the context of low pathogen prevalence. Recently proposed alternatives include analyzing environmental samples from the cages or rack exhaust by PCR to improve the detection of rodent pathogens but optimal sampling strategies have not yet been established for different microorganisms. Although generally very sensitive and specific, these molecular assays are not foolproof and subject to false-positive and -negative results and should always be interpreted cautiously with an overall understanding of the intrinsic controls and all the variables that may affect the results. Here, we report a limited Aspiculuris tetraptera outbreak in a mouse barrier facility that was detected by fecal PCR in sentinels and confirmed by fecal flotation and direct cecal examination of both sentinels and colony animals. The outbreak led to a widespread survey of all facilities for pinworms by using environmental PCR from ventilated rack exhaust plenums. Environmental PCR suggested an unexpected widespread contamination of all ventilated racks holding nonautoclaved cages, but results could not be confirmed in sentinel or colony animals by fecal flotation, cecal and colonic examination, or cage PCR testing. After additional investigation, the unexpected environmental PCR results were confirmed as false-positive findings due to the nonspecificity of the assay, leading to the amplification of rhabditid nematodes, which are not infectious in rodents but which contaminated the corncob bedding.

  15. False-Positive Results after Environmental Pinworm PCR Testing due to Rhabditid Nematodes in Corncob Bedding

    PubMed Central

    Leblanc, Mathias; Berry, Kristina; Graciano, Sandy; Becker, Brandon; Reuter, Jon D

    2014-01-01

    Modern rodent colonies are housed in individually ventilated cages to protect the animals from contamination with adventitious pathogens. Standard health monitoring through soiled-bedding sentinels does not always detect infections, especially in the context of low pathogen prevalence. Recently proposed alternatives include analyzing environmental samples from the cages or rack exhaust by PCR to improve the detection of rodent pathogens but optimal sampling strategies have not yet been established for different microorganisms. Although generally very sensitive and specific, these molecular assays are not foolproof and subject to false-positive and –negative results and should always be interpreted cautiously with an overall understanding of the intrinsic controls and all the variables that may affect the results. Here, we report a limited Aspiculuris tetraptera outbreak in a mouse barrier facility that was detected by fecal PCR in sentinels and confirmed by fecal flotation and direct cecal examination of both sentinels and colony animals. The outbreak led to a widespread survey of all facilities for pinworms by using environmental PCR from ventilated rack exhaust plenums. Environmental PCR suggested an unexpected widespread contamination of all ventilated racks holding nonautoclaved cages, but results could not be confirmed in sentinel or colony animals by fecal flotation, cecal and colonic examination, or cage PCR testing. After additional investigation, the unexpected environmental PCR results were confirmed as false-positive findings due to the nonspecificity of the assay, leading to the amplification of rhabditid nematodes, which are not infectious in rodents but which contaminated the corncob bedding. PMID:25650980

  16. Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive for Enhanced Mercury Control - Pilot-Scale Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Gary M. Blythe

    2006-03-01

    Texas Lignite Flue Gas; Task 3 - Full-scale FGD Additive Testing in High Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Flue Gas; Task 4 - Pilot Wet Scrubber Additive Tests at Yates; and Task 5 - Full-scale Additive Tests at Plant Yates. This topical report presents the results from the Task 2 and Task 4 pilot-scale additive tests. The Task 3 and Task 5 full-scale additive tests will be conducted later in calendar year 2006.

  17. [Extracorporeal shockwave therapy in orthopedics. Positive results in tennis elbow and tendinosis calcarea of the shoulder].

    PubMed

    Rompe, J D; Eysel, P; Hopf, C; Krischek, O; Vogel, J; Bürger, R; Jage, J; Heine, J

    1997-06-30

    Since the beginning of the 1990s scientific investigations on the use of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) in the field of orthopedics have been carried out at the Orthopedic Department of the University of Mainz. Prospective studies demonstrated beneficial effects in chronic lateral humeral epicondylitis (tennis elbow), and in calcifying tendinitis of the shoulder in more than 50% of the cases. Additional indications for which positive results of prospective studies have been published during the past 2 years are plantar calcaneodynea and pseudoarthrosis. On the basis of the results achieved, it may be concluded that, for specific indications, extracorporeal shock wave therapy may now be taken out of the clinical testing stage and introduced into routine practice.

  18. Screening of fruit products for norovirus and the difficulty of interpreting positive PCR results.

    PubMed

    Stals, Ambroos; Baert, Leen; Jasson, Vicky; Van Coillie, Els; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2011-03-01

    Despite recent norovirus (NoV) outbreaks related to consumption of fruit products, little is known regarding the NoV load on these foods. Therefore, 75 fruit products were screened for NoV presence by using an evaluated in-house NoV detection methodology consisting of a NoV extraction method and a reverse transcription quantitative PCR assay. Additionally, the fruit samples were screened for bacterial pathogens and bacterial hygiene indicators. Results of the NoV screening showed that 18 of 75 samples tested positive for GI and/or GII NoV despite a good bacteriological quality. The recovery of murine norovirus 1 virus particles acting as process control was successful in 31 of 75 samples with a mean recovery efficiency of 11.32% ± 6.08%. The level of detected NoV genomic copies ranged between 2.5 and 5.0 log per 10 g. NoV GI and/or GII were found in 4 of 10, 7 of 30, 6 of 20, and 1 of 15 of the tested raspberries, cherry tomatoes, strawberries, and fruit salad samples, respectively. However, confirmation of the positive quantitative PCR results by sequencing genotyping regions in the NoV genome was not possible. Due to the nature of the method used (reverse transcription quantitative PCR) for detection of genomic material, no differentiation was possible between infectious and noninfectious viral particles. No NoV outbreaks related to the tested fruit product types were reported during the screening period, which hampers a conclusion as to whether these unexpected high numbers of NoV-positive results should be perceived as a public health threat. These results, however, may indicate a prior NoV contamination of the tested food samples throughout the fresh produce chain. PMID:21375879

  19. The use of EMDR in positive verbal material: results from a patient study

    PubMed Central

    Matthijssen, Suzy Johanna Martina Adriana; van den Hout, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Background According to the working memory (WM) theory of eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing (EMDR), dual tasks that tax WM during memory recall reduce image vividness and emotionality of memory during future recalls when no dual task is carried out. There is some evidence that WM taxing also reduces vividness and emotionality of auditory or verbal imagery. Objective The present study tests the effect of eye movements (EM) on positive verbal material (verbal imagery), which is used in different parts of the EMDR protocol. In the Dutch version of the standard EMDR protocol, a procedure “Positive Closure” (PC) is performed, which uses verbal imagery under dual task condition (EM). The value of EM in this procedure has not been established and according to the WM account would be counterproductive. Two earlier studies with undergraduates, with a set-up comparable to the present one, showed no additive value of the EM in the procedure, but no counterproductive effect either. Method Thirty-six patients rated the belief in possessing two positive personality traits and emotionality of the traits. They then had an EMDR session targeting a negative memory and recalled and re-rated the belief and emotionality of the traits afterward. Subsequently, they recalled one trait while dual tasking (EM) and the other trait without dual tasking. Afterward, they re-rated the belief and emotionality. Results EM did not affect the belief in possessing the trait or the emotionality. Secondary analysis shows an effective EMDR session itself enhances the belief in the traits, compared to a less or non-effective EMDR session. Conclusions EM are not effective in enhancing the belief in possessing a personality trait or the emotionality. If replicated by other patient studies, this suggests elimination of the PC procedure. Highlights of the article In this study the additive value of EM on verbal material (in the procedure Positive Closure) is not found. No effect of the

  20. Risk for Neurobehavioral Disinhibition in Prenatal Methamphetamine-Exposed Young Children with Positive Hair Toxicology Results

    PubMed Central

    Himes, Sarah K.; LaGasse, Linda L.; Derauf, Chris; Newman, Elana; Smith, Lynne M.; Arria, Amelia M.; Grotta, Sheri A. Della; Dansereau, Lynne M.; Abar, Beau; Neal, Charles R.; Lester, Barry M.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The objective was to evaluate effects of prenatal methamphetamine exposure (PME) and postnatal drug exposures identified by child hair analysis on neurobehavioral disinhibition at 6.5 years of age. Methods Mother-infant pairs were enrolled in the Infant Development, Environment, and Lifestyle (IDEAL) Study in Los Angeles, Honolulu, Tulsa and Des Moines. PME was determined by maternal self-report and/or positive meconium results. At the 6.5-year follow-up visit, hair was collected and analyzed for methamphetamine, tobacco, cocaine, and cannabinoid markers. Child behavioral and executive function test scores were aggregated to evaluate child neurobehavioral disinhibition. Hierarchical linear regression models assessed the impact of PME, postnatal substances, and combined PME with postnatal drug exposures on the child’s neurobehavioral disinhibition aggregate score. Past year caregiver substance use was compared to child hair results. Results A total of 264 children were evaluated. Significantly more PME children (n=133) had hair positive for methamphetamine/amphetamine (27.1% versus 8.4%) and nicotine/cotinine (38.3% versus 25.2%) than children without PME (n=131). Overall, no significant differences in analyte hair concentrations were noted between groups. Significant differences in behavioral and executive function were observed between children with and without PME. No independent effects of postnatal methamphetamine or tobacco exposure, identified by positive hair test, were noted and no additional neurobehavioral disinhibition was observed in PME children with postnatal drug exposures, as compared to PME children without postnatal exposure. Conclusions Child hair testing offered a non-invasive means to evaluate postnatal environmental drug exposure, although no effects from postnatal drug exposure alone were seen. PME, alone and in combination with postnatal drug exposures, was associated with behavioral and executive function deficits at 6.5 years

  1. Major histocompatibility complex class II molecules can protect from diabetes by positively selecting T cells with additional specificities.

    PubMed

    Lühder, F; Katz, J; Benoist, C; Mathis, D

    1998-02-01

    Insulin-dependent diabetes is heavily influenced by genes encoded within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), positively by some class II alleles and negatively by others. We have explored the mechanism of MHC class II-mediated protection from diabetes using a mouse model carrying the rearranged T cell receptor (TCR) transgenes from a diabetogenic T cell clone derived from a nonobese diabetic mouse. BDC2.5 TCR transgenics with C57Bl/6 background genes and two doses of the H-2(g7) allele exhibited strong insulitis at approximately 3 wk of age and most developed diabetes a few weeks later. When one of the H-2(g7) alleles was replaced by H-2(b), insulitis was still severe and only slightly delayed, but diabetes was markedly inhibited in both its penetrance and time of onset. The protective effect was mediated by the Abetab gene, and did not merely reflect haplozygosity of the Abetag7 gene. The only differences we observed in the T cell compartments of g7/g7 and g7/b mice were a decrease in CD4(+) cells displaying the transgene-encoded TCR and an increase in cells expressing endogenously encoded TCR alpha-chains. When the synthesis of endogenously encoded alpha-chains was prevented, the g7/b animals were no longer protected from diabetes. g7/b mice did not have a general defect in the production of Ag7-restricted T cells, and antigen-presenting cells from g7/b animals were as effective as those from g7/g7 mice in stimulating Ag7-restricted T cell hybridomas. These results argue against mechanisms of protection involving clonal deletion or anergization of diabetogenic T cells, or one depending on capture of potentially pathogenic Ag7-restricted epitopes by Ab molecules. Rather, they support a mechanism based on MHC class II-mediated positive selection of T cells expressing additional specificities. PMID:9449718

  2. CT colonography with computer-aided detection: recognizing the causes of false-positive reader results.

    PubMed

    Trilisky, Igor; Wroblewski, Kristen; Vannier, Michael W; Horne, John M; Dachman, Abraham H

    2014-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) colonography is a screening modality used to detect colonic polyps before they progress to colorectal cancer. Computer-aided detection (CAD) is designed to decrease errors of detection by finding and displaying polyp candidates for evaluation by the reader. CT colonography CAD false-positive results are common and have numerous causes. The relative frequency of CAD false-positive results and their effect on reader performance on the basis of a 19-reader, 100-case trial shows that the vast majority of CAD false-positive results were dismissed by readers. Many CAD false-positive results are easily disregarded, including those that result from coarse mucosa, reconstruction, peristalsis, motion, streak artifacts, diverticulum, rectal tubes, and lipomas. CAD false-positive results caused by haustral folds, extracolonic candidates, diminutive lesions (<6 mm), anal papillae, internal hemorrhoids, varices, extrinsic compression, and flexural pseudotumors are almost always recognized and disregarded. The ileocecal valve and tagged stool are common sources of CAD false-positive results associated with reader false-positive results. Nondismissable CAD soft-tissue polyp candidates larger than 6 mm are another common cause of reader false-positive results that may lead to further evaluation with follow-up CT colonography or optical colonoscopy. Strategies for correctly evaluating CAD polyp candidates are important to avoid pitfalls from common sources of CAD false-positive results.

  3. Surface porosity of stone casts resulting from immersion of addition silicone rubber impressions in disinfectant solutions.

    PubMed

    Hiraguchi, Hisako; Kaketani, Masahiro; Hirose, Hideharu; Kikuchi, Hisaji; Yoneyama, Takayuki

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of immersion of addition silicone rubber impressions in disinfectant solutions on the surface porosity of the resulting stone casts. Five brands of type 2 and 3 addition silicone rubber impression materials and one brand of type 4 dental stone were used. Impressions of a master die designed to simulate an abutment tooth were immersed in disinfectant for 30 minutes. The disinfectants used were 2% glutaraldehyde solution and 0.55% ortho-phthalaldehyde solution. The surface porosities of stone casts obtained from two brands of impression materials immersed in disinfectant for 30 minutes were determined. Results suggest that impression materials immersed in disinfectant solutions need sufficient time before pouring into dental stone.

  4. Additional road markings as an indication of speed limits: results of a field experiment and a driving simulator study.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Stijn; Vanrie, Jan; Dreesen, An; Brijs, Tom

    2010-05-01

    Although speed limits are indicated by road signs, road users are not always aware, while driving, of the actual speed limit on a given road segment. The Roads and Traffic Agency developed additional road markings in order to support driver decisions on speed on 70 km/h roads in Flanders-Belgium. In this paper the results are presented of two evaluation studies, both a field study and a simulator study, on the effects of the additional road markings on speed behaviour. The results of the field study showed no substantial effect of the markings on speed behaviour. Neither did the simulator study, with slightly different stimuli. Nevertheless an effect on lateral position was noticed in the simulator study, showing at least some effect of the markings. The role of conspicuity of design elements and expectations towards traffic environments is discussed. Both studies illustrate well some strengths and weaknesses of observational field studies compared to experimental simulator studies.

  5. A radio/optical reference frame. 5: Additional source positions in the mid-latitude southern hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, J. L.; Reynolds, J. E.; Jauncey, D. L.; De Vegt, C.; Zacharias, N.; Ma, C.; Fey, A. L.; Johnston, K. J.; Hindsley, R.; Hughes, J. A.

    1994-01-01

    We report new accurate radio position measurements for 30 sources, preliminary positions for two sources, improved radio postions for nine additional sources which had limited previous observations, and optical positions and optical-radio differences for six of the radio sources. The Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations are part of the continuing effort to establish a global radio reference frame of about 400 compact, flat spectrum sources, which are evenly distributed across the sky. The observations were made using Mark III data format in four separate sessions in 1988-89 with radio telescopes at Tidbinbilla, Australia, Kauai, USA, and Kashima, Japan. We observed a total of 54 sources, including ten calibrators and three which were undetected. The 32 new source positions bring the total number in the radio reference frame catalog to 319 (172 northern and 147 southern) and fill in the zone -25 deg greater than delta greater than -45 deg which, prior to this list, had the lowest source density. The VLBI positions have an average formal precision of less than 1 mas, although unknown radio structure effects of about 1-2 mas may be present. The six new optical postion measurements are part of the program to obtain positions of the optical counterparts of the radio reference frame source and to map accurately the optical on to the radio reference frames. The optical measurements were obtained from United States Naval Observatory (USNO) Black Birch astrograph plates and source plates from the AAT, and Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) 4 m, and the European Southern Observatory (ESO) Schmidt. The optical positions have an average precision of 0.07 sec, mostly due to the zero point error when adjusted to the FK5 optical frame using the IRS catalog. To date we have measured optical positions for 46 sources.

  6. What Lies beneath Seemingly Positive Campus Climate Results: Institutional Sexism, Racism, and Male Hostility toward Equity Initiatives and Liberal Bias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaccaro, Annemarie

    2010-01-01

    This article presents qualitative results from a campus climate study at one predominately white university. Data analysis uncovered "what lies beneath" a seemingly positive campus climate. Gender differences in survey responses suggest that men and women experienced the climate in vastly different ways. Additionally, lack of deep diversity…

  7. Potential for false positive HIV test results with the serial rapid HIV testing algorithm

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Rapid HIV tests provide same-day results and are widely used in HIV testing programs in areas with limited personnel and laboratory infrastructure. The Uganda Ministry of Health currently recommends the serial rapid testing algorithm with Determine, STAT-PAK, and Uni-Gold for diagnosis of HIV infection. Using this algorithm, individuals who test positive on Determine, negative to STAT-PAK and positive to Uni-Gold are reported as HIV positive. We conducted further testing on this subgroup of samples using qualitative DNA PCR to assess the potential for false positive tests in this situation. Results Of the 3388 individuals who were tested, 984 were HIV positive on two consecutive tests, and 29 were considered positive by a tiebreaker (positive on Determine, negative on STAT-PAK, and positive on Uni-Gold). However, when the 29 samples were further tested using qualitative DNA PCR, 14 (48.2%) were HIV negative. Conclusion Although this study was not primarily designed to assess the validity of rapid HIV tests and thus only a subset of the samples were retested, the findings show a potential for false positive HIV results in the subset of individuals who test positive when a tiebreaker test is used in serial testing. These findings highlight a need for confirmatory testing for this category of individuals. PMID:22429706

  8. Relationships between changes in sustained fronto-striatal connectivity and positive affect in major depression resulting from antidepressant treatment.

    PubMed

    Heller, Aaron S; Johnstone, Tom; Light, Sharee N; Peterson, Michael J; Kolden, Gregory G; Kalin, Ned H; Davidson, Richard J

    2013-02-01

    OBJECTIVE Deficits in positive affect and their neural bases have been associated with major depression. However, whether reductions in positive affect result solely from an overall reduction in nucleus accumbens activity and fronto-striatal connectivity or the additional inability to sustain engagement of this network over time is unknown. The authors sought to determine whether treatment-induced changes in the ability to sustain nucleus accumbens activity and fronto-striatal connectivity during the regulation of positive affect are associated with gains in positive affect. METHOD Using fMRI, the authors assessed the ability to sustain activity in reward-related networks when attempting to increase positive emotion during performance of an emotion regulation paradigm in 21 depressed patients before and after 2 months of antidepressant treatment. Over the same interval, 14 healthy comparison subjects underwent scanning as well. RESULTS After 2 months of treatment, self-reported positive affect increased. The patients who demonstrated the largest increases in sustained nucleus accumbens activity over the 2 months were those who demonstrated the largest increases in positive affect. In addition, the patients who demonstrated the largest increases in sustained fronto-striatal connectivity were also those who demonstrated the largest increases in positive affect when controlling for negative affect. None of these associations were observed in healthy comparison subjects. CONCLUSIONS Treatment-induced change in the sustained engagement of fronto-striatal circuitry tracks the experience of positive emotion in daily life. Studies examining reduced positive affect in a variety of psychiatric disorders might benefit from examining the temporal dynamics of brain activity when attempting to understand changes in daily positive affect.

  9. Delays in antiretroviral therapy initiation among HIV-positive individuals: results of the positive living with HIV study

    PubMed Central

    Poudel, Krishna C.; Buchanan, David R.; Poudel-Tandukar, Kalpana

    2016-01-01

    Background Lack of early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) remains a major health concern due to increased risk of premature mortality and further HIV transmission. This study explored CD4+ cell count monitoring in relation to delays in ART initiation among HIV-positive individuals in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal, where ART coverage was only 23.7% in 2011. Design We recruited a total of 87 ART-naïve, HIV-positive individuals aged 18 to 60 years through the networks of five non-government organizations working with HIV-positive individuals. We collected data on the history of ART initiation, CD4+ cell count monitoring, socio-demographic variables, perceived family support (measured with 10-item Nepali Family Support and Difficulty Scale), depression, and HIV symptom burden. Correlates of ART eligibility were examined using multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results A total of 72 of the 87 ART-naïve participants (82.8%) had monitored their CD4+ cell count in the past 6 months. Of these, 36 (50%) participants were eligible for ART initiation with CD4+ cell count <350 cells/mm3. A total of 12 participants had CD4+ cell count <200 cells/mm3. Lower level of perceived family support was associated with 6.05-fold higher odds (95% confidence interval =1.95 to 18.73) of being ART eligible with a CD4+ cell count <350 cells/mm3. Conclusions High rate of delays in ART initiation and the strong association of low perceived family support with ART eligibility in our study participants suggest that HIV service providers should consider the role and impact of family support in influencing individual decisions to initiate ART among eligible HIV-positive individuals. PMID:27369221

  10. PMA treatment is an effective means to reduce false positive PCR testing results

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traditional and real time PCR are widely used in detecting bacterial pathogens in various food matrix and environmental samples. Sometimes a positive detection using PCR can not be confirmed by subsequent culture isolation of the targeted pathogen, resulting in a potential “false positive.” False po...

  11. The post-embryonic development of Remipedia (Crustacea)--additional results and new insights.

    PubMed

    Koenemann, Stefan; Olesen, Jørgen; Alwes, Frederike; Iliffe, Thomas M; Hoenemann, Mario; Ungerer, Petra; Wolff, Carsten; Scholtz, Gerhard

    2009-03-01

    The post-embryonic development of a species of the enigmatic crustacean group Remipedia is described in detail for the first time under various aspects. Applying a molecular approach, we can clearly prove the species identity of the larvae as belonging to Pleomothra apletocheles. We document the cellular level of several larval stages and the differentiation of segments, limbs, and the general body morphology applying the techniques of confocal laser scanning microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. In addition, we document the swimming behavior and the peculiar movements of the naupliar appendages. A comparison of our results with published data on other Crustacea and their larval development tentatively supports ideas about phylogenetic affinities of the Remipedia to the Malacostraca.

  12. The test and treatment methods of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo and an addition to the management of vertigo due to the superior vestibular canal (BPPV-SC).

    PubMed

    Rahko, T

    2002-10-01

    A review of the tests and treatment manoeuvres for benign paroxysmal positional vertigo of the posterior, horizontal and superior vestibular canals is presented. Additionally, a new way to test and treat positional vertigo of the superior vestibular canal is presented. In a prospective study, 57 out of 305 patients' visits are reported. They had residual symptoms and dizziness after the test and the treatment of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo of the horizontal canal (BPPV-HC) and posterior canal (PC). They were tested with a new test and treated with a new manoeuvre for superior canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV-SC). Results for vertigo in 53 patients were good; motion sickness and acrophobia disappeared. Reactive neck tension to BPPV was relieved. Older people were numerous among patients and their quality of life (QOL) improved.

  13. False-positive Chlamydiazyme results during urine sediment analysis due to bacterial urinary tract infections.

    PubMed Central

    Demaio, J; Boyd, R S; Rensi, R; Clark, A

    1991-01-01

    Our study examined whether urinary tract infections (UTIs) would cause false-positive results when urine sediment was tested with the Chlamydiazyme (CZ) system. Thirty-six infected urine samples and fifteen controls were studied. All controls were negative. Forty-seven percent of Escherichia coli UTIs (n = 30) and 100% of Klebsiella pneumoniae UTIs (n = 4) were positive on CZ testing of urine sediment. Nine E. coli UTIs positive by CZ were negative by direct fluorescent-antibody staining. When suspensions of the pure cultures were analyzed, 47% of E. coli and 100% of K. pneumoniae samples were CZ positive. False-positive results were not related to organism biotype or urine characteristics, including pH, specific gravity, and leukocyte count. We conclude that the presence of a UTI and also bacterial contamination must be ruled out prior to urine sediment testing. PMID:1885739

  14. Phosphorus addition reverses the positive effect of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) on the toxic cyanobacterium, Microcystis aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Sarnelle, Orlando; White, Jeffrey D; Horst, Geoffrey P; Hamilton, Stephen K

    2012-07-01

    We tested the hypothesis that zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) have positive effects on the toxin-producing cyanobacterium, Microcystis aeruginosa, at low phosphorus (P) concentrations, but negative effects on M. aeruginosa at high P, with a large-scale enclosure experiment in an oligotrophic lake. After three weeks, mussels had a significantly positive effect on M. aeruginosa at ambient P (total phosphorus, TP ∼10 μg L⁻¹), and a significantly negative effect at high P (simulating a TP of ∼40 μg L⁻¹ in lakes). Positive and negative effects were strong and very similar in magnitude. Thus, we were able to ameliorate a negative effect of Dreissena invasion on water quality (i.e., promotion of Microcystis) by adding P to water from an oligotrophic lake. Our results are congruent with many field observations of Microcystis response to Dreissena invasion across ecosystems of varying P availability. PMID:22507249

  15. Phosphorus addition reverses the positive effect of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) on the toxic cyanobacterium, Microcystis aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Sarnelle, Orlando; White, Jeffrey D; Horst, Geoffrey P; Hamilton, Stephen K

    2012-07-01

    We tested the hypothesis that zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) have positive effects on the toxin-producing cyanobacterium, Microcystis aeruginosa, at low phosphorus (P) concentrations, but negative effects on M. aeruginosa at high P, with a large-scale enclosure experiment in an oligotrophic lake. After three weeks, mussels had a significantly positive effect on M. aeruginosa at ambient P (total phosphorus, TP ∼10 μg L⁻¹), and a significantly negative effect at high P (simulating a TP of ∼40 μg L⁻¹ in lakes). Positive and negative effects were strong and very similar in magnitude. Thus, we were able to ameliorate a negative effect of Dreissena invasion on water quality (i.e., promotion of Microcystis) by adding P to water from an oligotrophic lake. Our results are congruent with many field observations of Microcystis response to Dreissena invasion across ecosystems of varying P availability.

  16. False positive results for antibody to HIV in two men with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed Central

    Esteva, M H; Blasini, A M; Ogly, D; Rodríguez, M A

    1992-01-01

    False positive results were obtained for HIV tests in two men with active systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) who were suspected of being infected with HIV because of fever, weight loss, lymphadenopathy, and inflammatory myopathy. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for HIV were twice positive when tested three times over a period of six months. Western blot analysis showed reactivity against the gp41 band in patient 1. False positive results for HIV tests can occur in patients with SLE, potentially leading to an erroneous diagnosis of HIV infection. PMID:1417140

  17. Further results on delay-range-dependent stability with additive time-varying delay systems.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pin-Lin

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, new conditions for the delay-range-dependent stability analysis of time-varying delay systems are proposed in a Lyapunov-Krasovskii framework. Time delay is considered to be time-varying and has lower and upper bounds. A new method is first presented for a system with two time delays, integral inequality approach (IIA) used to express relationships among terms of Leibniz-Newton formula. Constructing a novel Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional includes information belonging to a given range; new delay-range-dependent criterion is established in term of linear matrix inequality (LMI). The advantage of that criterion lies in its simplicity and less conservative. This paper also presents a new result of stability analysis for continuous systems with two additive time-variant components representing a general class of delay with strong application background in network-based control systems. Resulting criteria are then expressed in terms of convex optimization with LMI constraints, allowing for use of efficient solvers. Finally, three numerical examples show these methods reducing conservatism and improving maximal allowable delay.

  18. Additive effects of pollinators and herbivores result in both conflicting and reinforcing selection on floral traits.

    PubMed

    Sletvold, Nina; Moritz, Kim K; Agren, Jon

    2015-01-01

    Mutualists and antagonists are known to respond to similar floral cues, and may thus cause opposing selection on floral traits. However, we lack a quantitative understanding of their independent and interactive effects. In a population of the orchid Gymnadenia conopsea, we manipulated the intensity of pollination and herbivory in a factorial design to examine whether both interactions influence selection on flowering phenology, floral display, and morphology. Supplemental hand-pollination increased female fitness by 31% and one-quarter of all plants were damaged by herbivores. Both interactions contributed to selection. Pollinators mediated selection for later flowering and herbivores for earlier flowering, while both selected for longer spurs. The strength of selection was similar for both agents, and their effects were additive. As a consequence, there was no. net selection on phenology, whereas selection on spur length was strong. The experimental results demonstrate that both pollinators and herbivores can markedly influence the strength of selection on flowering phenology and floral morphology, and cause both conflicting and reinforcing selection. They also indicate that the direction of selection on phenology will vary with the relative intensity of the mutualistic and antagonistic interaction, potentially resulting in both temporal and among-population variation in optimal flowering time.

  19. Methods used by accredited dental specialty programs to advertise faculty positions: results of a national survey.

    PubMed

    Ballard, Richard W; Hagan, Joseph L; Armbruster, Paul C; Gallo, John R

    2011-01-01

    The various reasons for the current and projected shortages of dental faculty members in the United States have received much attention. Dental school deans have reported that the top three factors impacting their ability to fill faculty positions are meeting the requirements of the position, lack of response to position announcement, and salary/budget limitations. An electronic survey sent to program directors of specialty programs at all accredited U.S. dental schools inquired about the number of vacant positions, advertised vacant positions, reasons for not advertising, selection of advertising medium, results of advertising, and assistance from professional dental organizations. A total of seventy-three permanently funded full-time faculty positions were reported vacant, with 89.0 percent of these positions having been advertised in nationally recognized professional journals and newsletters. Networking or word-of-mouth was reported as the most successful method for advertising. The majority of those responding reported that professional dental organizations did not help with filling vacant faculty positions, but that they would utilize the American Dental Association's website or their specialty organization's website to post faculty positions if they were easy to use and update. PMID:21205727

  20. Risk of breast cancer after false-positive results in mammographic screening.

    PubMed

    Román, Marta; Castells, Xavier; Hofvind, Solveig; von Euler-Chelpin, My

    2016-06-01

    Women with false-positive results are commonly referred back to routine screening. Questions remain regarding their long-term outcome of breast cancer. We assessed the risk of screen-detected breast cancer in women with false-positive results. We conducted a joint analysis using individual level data from the population-based screening programs in Copenhagen and Funen in Denmark, Norway, and Spain. Overall, 150,383 screened women from Denmark (1991-2008), 612,138 from Norway (1996-2010), and 1,172,572 from Spain (1990-2006) were included. Poisson regression was used to estimate the relative risk (RR) of screen-detected cancer for women with false-positive versus negative results. We analyzed information from 1,935,093 women 50-69 years who underwent 6,094,515 screening exams. During an average 5.8 years of follow-up, 230,609 (11.9%) women received a false-positive result and 27,849 (1.4%) were diagnosed with screen-detected cancer. The adjusted RR of screen-detected cancer after a false-positive result was 2.01 (95% CI: 1.93-2.09). Women who tested false-positive at first screen had a RR of 1.86 (95% CI: 1.77-1.96), whereas those who tested false-positive at third screening had a RR of 2.42 (95% CI: 2.21-2.64). The RR of breast cancer at the screening test after the false-positive result was 3.95 (95% CI: 3.71-4.21), whereas it decreased to 1.25 (95% CI: 1.17-1.34) three or more screens after the false-positive result. Women with false-positive results had a twofold risk of screen-detected breast cancer compared to women with negative tests. The risk remained significantly higher three or more screens after the false-positive result. The increased risk should be considered when discussing stratified screening strategies.

  1. Positive reinforcement training in rhesus macaques-training progress as a result of training frequency.

    PubMed

    Fernström, A-L; Fredlund, H; Spångberg, M; Westlund, K

    2009-05-01

    Positive reinforcement training (PRT) efficiency was examined as a function of training frequency in 33 pair- or triple-housed female rhesus macaques. The animals were trained three times a week, once a day or twice a day, using PRT and a clicker as a secondary reinforcer. All animals were trained on 30 sessions, with an average of 5 min per training session per animal. The behaviors, trained in succession, were Targeting (reliably touching and following a Target); Collaborating (dominant animals allowing subordinates to train while stationing); Box-training (accepting being enclosed in a small compartment while responding to Target training) and initial Injection training.Fulfilled criteria for Targeting were obtained in 32/33 animals in a median of nine training sessions. Collaboration was obtained in 27/33 animals in a median of 15 training sessions. However, only four animals completed Box-training during the 30 training sessions and started Injection training. When comparing training success in terms of number of training sessions, training twice a day was less efficient than the other two treatments. In terms of daily progress, our results suggest that from a management perspective, daily training is more conducive to quick training success than thrice weekly training. In addition, in this study no further advantages could be gained from training twice a day.

  2. Consequences of a false-positive mammography result: drug consumption before and after screening.

    PubMed

    von Euler-Chelpin, My; Bæksted, Christina; Vejborg, Ilse; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2016-05-01

    Background Previous research showed women experiencing false-positive mammograms to have greater anxiety about breast cancer than women with normal mammograms. To elucidate psychological effects of false-positive mammograms, we studied impact on drug intake. Methods We calculated the ratio of drug use for women with false-positive versus women with normal mammograms, before and after the event, using population-based registers, 1997-2006. The ratio of the ratios (RRR) assessed the impact. Results Before the test, 40.3% of women from the false-positive group versus 36.2% from the normal group used anxiolytic and antidepressant drugs. There was no difference in use of beta blockers. Hormone therapy was used more frequently by the false-positive, 36.6% versus 28.7%. The proportion of women using anxiolytic and antidepressant drugs increased with 19% from the before to the after period in the false-positive group, and with 16% in the normal group, resulting in an RRR of 1.02 (95% CI 0.92-1.14). RRR was 1.03 for beta blockers, 0.97 for hormone therapy. Conclusion(s) Drugs used to mitigate mood disorders were used more frequently by women with false-positive than by women with normal mammograms already before the screening event, while the changes from before to after screening were similar for both groups. The results point to the importance of control for potential selection in studies of screening effects.

  3. Investigation of False Positive Results with an Oral Fluid Rapid HIV-1/2 Antibody Test

    PubMed Central

    Jafa, Krishna; Patel, Pragna; MacKellar, Duncan A.; Sullivan, Patrick S.; Delaney, Kevin P.; Sides, Tracy L.; Newman, Alexandra P.; Paul, Sindy M.; Cadoff, Evan M.; Martin, Eugene G.; Keenan, Patrick A.; Branson, Bernard M.

    2007-01-01

    Background In March 2004, the OraQuick® rapid HIV antibody test became the first rapid HIV test approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for use on oral fluid specimens. Test results are available in 20 minutes, and the oral fluid test is non-invasive. From August 2004–June 2005, we investigated a sudden increase in false-positive results occurring in a performance study of OraQuick® oral-fluid rapid HIV tests in Minnesota. Methodology/Principal Findings In a field investigation, we reviewed performance study data on oral-fluid and whole-blood OraQuick® rapid HIV test device lots and expiration dates and assessed test performance and interpretation with oral-fluid and whole-blood specimens by operators who reported false-positive results. We used multivariate logistic regression to evaluate client demographic and risk characteristics associated with false-positive results. Next, we conducted an incidence study of false-positive OraQuick rapid HIV tests in nine US cities and tested both oral-fluid and finger-stick whole-blood specimens from clients; reactive tests were confirmed with Western blot. Sixteen (4.1%) false-positive oral-fluid results occurred in the performance study from April 15, 2004 through August 31, 2004 with unexpired devices from six test lots among 388 HIV-uninfected clients (specificity, 95.9%; 95% CI: 93.4–97.6). Three test operators who had reported false-positive results performed and interpreted the test according to package-insert instructions. In multivariate analysis, only older age was significantly associated with false-positive results (adjusted odds ratio = 4.5, 95% CI: 1.2–25.7). In the incidence study, all valid oral-fluid and whole-blood results from 2,268 clients were concordant and no false-positive results occurred (100% specificity). Conclusions/Significance The field investigation did not identify a cause for the increase in false-positive oral-fluid results, and the incidence study detected no false-positive

  4. Indium-111 labeled leukocyte uptake: false-positive results in noninfected pseudoaneurysms

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, B.R.; Cerqueira, M.D.; Vea, H.W.; Nelp, W.B.

    1986-03-01

    Indium-111 (In-111) leukocyte scintigraphy was performed in two patients with postsurgical pseudoaneurysms as part of preoperative evaluation for evidence of graft infection. Despite positive In-111 uptake by the pseudoaneurysms, surgical and pathologic examinations failed to reveal any evidence of infection. The most likely explanation for the false-positive results is the labeling of contaminating platelets and erythrocytes in the leukocyte mixture. Caution must be exercised in interpretation of In-111 leukocyte scans in patients with postsurgical pseudoaneurysms.

  5. The management of isolated positive syphilis enzyme immunoassay results in HIV-negative patients attending a sexual health clinic.

    PubMed

    Thorley, Nicola; Adebayo, Michael; Smit, Erasmus; Radcliffe, Keith

    2016-08-01

    An unconfirmed positive treponemal enzyme immunoassay (enzyme immunoassay positive, Treponema pallidum particle agglutination negative and rapid plasma reagin negative) presents a clinical challenge to distinguish early syphilis infection from false-positive results. These cases are referred for syphilis line assay (INNO-LIA) and recalled for repeat syphilis serology. We performed a retrospective audit to establish the proportion of HIV-negative cases with unconfirmed positive enzyme immunoassay results, the proportion of these cases that received an INNO-LIA test and repeat syphilis serology testing and reviewed the clinical outcomes; 0.35% (80/22687) cases had an unconfirmed positive treponemal enzyme immunoassay result. Repeat syphilis serology was performed in 80% (64/80) cases, but no additional cases of syphilis were identified. Eighty-eight per cent (70/80) received an INNO-LIA test; 14% (5/37) unconfirmed enzyme immunoassay-positive cases with no prior history of syphilis were confirmed on INNO-LIA assay, supporting a diagnosis of latent syphilis. As a confirmatory treponemal test, the INNO-LIA assay may be more useful than repeat syphilis serological testing. PMID:26637236

  6. Estimated results analysis and application of the precise point positioning based high-accuracy ionosphere delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shi-tai; Peng, Jun-huan

    2015-12-01

    The characterization of ionosphere delay estimated with precise point positioning is analyzed in this paper. The estimation, interpolation and application of the ionosphere delay are studied based on the processing of 24-h data from 5 observation stations. The results show that the estimated ionosphere delay is affected by the hardware delay bias from receiver so that there is a difference between the estimated and interpolated results. The results also show that the RMSs (root mean squares) are bigger, while the STDs (standard deviations) are better than 0.11 m. When the satellite difference is used, the hardware delay bias can be canceled. The interpolated satellite-differenced ionosphere delay is better than 0.11 m. Although there is a difference between the between the estimated and interpolated ionosphere delay results it cannot affect its application in single-frequency positioning and the positioning accuracy can reach cm level.

  7. Plant interspecific differences in arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization as a result of soil carbon addition.

    PubMed

    Eschen, René; Müller-Schärer, Heinz; Schaffner, Urs

    2013-01-01

    Soil nutrient availability and colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi are important and potentially interacting factors shaping vegetation composition and succession. We investigated the effect of carbon (C) addition, aimed at reducing soil nutrient availability, on arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization. Seedlings of 27 plant species with different sets of life-history traits (functional group affiliation, life history strategy and nitrophilic status) were grown in pots filled with soil from a nutrient-rich set-aside field and amended with different amounts of C. Mycorrhizal colonization was progressively reduced along the gradient of increasing C addition in 17 out of 27 species, but not in the remaining species. Grasses had lower colonization levels than forbs and legumes and the decline in AM fungal colonization was more pronounced in legumes than in other forbs and grasses. Mycorrhizal colonization did not differ between annual and perennial species, but decreased more rapidly along the gradient of increasing C addition in plants with high Ellenberg N values than in plants with low Ellenberg N values. Soil C addition not only limits plant growth through a reduction in available nutrients, but also reduces mycorrhizal colonization of plant roots. The effect of C addition on mycorrhizal colonization varies among plant functional groups, with legumes experiencing an overproportional reduction in AM fungal colonization along the gradient of increasing C addition. We therefore propose that for a better understanding of vegetation succession on set-aside fields one may consider the interrelationship between plant growth, soil nutrient availability and mycorrhizal colonization of plant roots.

  8. TANK 40 FINAL SB5 CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION RESULTS PRIOR TO NP ADDITION

    SciTech Connect

    Bannochie, C.; Click, D.

    2010-01-06

    A sample of Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) was pulled from Tank 40 in order to obtain radionuclide inventory analyses necessary for compliance with the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS). This sample was also analyzed for chemical composition including noble metals. Prior to radionuclide inventory analyses, a final sample of the H-canyon Np stream will be added to bound the Np addition anticipated for Tank 40. These analyses along with the WAPS radionuclide analyses will help define the composition of the sludge in Tank 40 that is currently being fed to DWPF as SB5. At the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) the 3-L Tank 40 SB5 sample was transferred from the shipping container into a 4-L high density polyethylene vessel and solids allowed to settle overnight. Supernate was then siphoned off and circulated through the shipping container to complete the transfer of the sample. Following thorough mixing of the 3-L sample, a 239 g sub-sample was removed. This sub-sample was then utilized for all subsequent analytical samples. Eight separate aliquots of the slurry were digested, four with HNO{sub 3}/HCl (aqua regia) in sealed Teflon{reg_sign} vessels and four in Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} (alkali or peroxide fusion) using Zr crucibles. Due to the use of Zr crucibles and Na in the peroxide fusions, Na and Zr cannot be determined from this preparation. Additionally, other alkali metals, such as Li and K that may be contaminants in the Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} are not determined from this preparation. Three Analytical Reference Glass - 14 (ARG-1) standards were digested along with a blank for each preparation. The ARG-1 glass allows for an assessment of the completeness of each digestion. Each aqua regia digestion and blank was diluted to 1:100 mL with deionized water and submitted to Analytical Development (AD) for inductively coupled plasma - atomic emission spectroscopy (ICPAES) analysis, inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis of masses 81-209 and 230

  9. TANK 40 FINAL SB5 CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION RESULTS PRIOR TO NP ADDITION

    SciTech Connect

    Bannochie, C; Damon Click, D

    2009-02-26

    A sample of Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) was pulled from Tank 40 in order to obtain radionuclide inventory analyses necessary for compliance with the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS). This sample was also analyzed for chemical composition including noble metals. Prior to radionuclide inventory analyses, a final sample of the H-canyon Np stream will be added to bound the Np addition anticipated for Tank 40. These analyses along with the WAPS radionuclide analyses will help define the composition of the sludge in Tank 40 that is currently being fed to DWPF as SB5. At the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) the 3-L Tank 40 SB5 sample was transferred from the shipping container into a 4-L high density polyethylene vessel and solids allowed to settle overnight. Supernate was then siphoned off and circulated through the shipping container to complete the transfer of the sample. Following thorough mixing of the 3-L sample, a 239 g sub-sample was removed. This sub-sample was then utilized for all subsequent analytical samples. Eight separate aliquots of the slurry were digested, four with HNO{sub 3}/HCl (aqua regia) in sealed Teflon{reg_sign} vessels and four in Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} (alkali or peroxide fusion) using Zr crucibles. Due to the use of Zr crucibles and Na in the peroxide fusions, Na and Zr cannot be determined from this preparation. Additionally, other alkali metals, such as Li and K that may be contaminants in the Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} are not determined from this preparation. Three Analytical Reference Glass-1 (ARG-1) standards were digested along with a blank for each preparation. The ARG-1 glass allows for an assessment of the completeness of each digestion. Each aqua regia digestion and blank was diluted to 1:100 mL with deionized water and submitted to Analytical Development (AD) for inductively coupled plasma--atomic emission spectroscopy (ICPAES) analysis, inductively coupled plasma--mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis of masses 81-209 and 230

  10. False-positive urine phencyclidine immunoassay screen result caused by interference by tramadol and its metabolites.

    PubMed

    Ly, Binh T; Thornton, Stephen L; Buono, Colleen; Stone, Judith A; Wu, Alan H B

    2012-06-01

    Phencyclidine is one of the drugs of abuse included in qualitative urine drug screens that are frequently ordered in the emergency department despite concerns about specificity and clinical utility. Many drugs have been described to cause false-positive results for phencyclidine. We present 2 cases of false-positive phencyclidine qualitative urine drug screen results in patients with seizures from tramadol misuse or abuse. The involvement of tramadol and its active metabolite, N-desmethyltramadol, was confirmed by in vitro testing. These cases illustrate that tramadol and its metabolites can trigger a false-positive phencyclidine urine drug screen result in nonfatal cases and highlight the lack of specificity of the phencyclidine qualitative urine drug screen.

  11. 21 CFR 570.14 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and pet food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.14 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed...

  12. 21 CFR 570.14 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and pet food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.14 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed...

  13. 21 CFR 570.13 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and pet food. 570.13 Section 570.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.13 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging...

  14. 21 CFR 570.14 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and pet food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.14 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed...

  15. 21 CFR 570.13 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and pet food. 570.13 Section 570.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.13 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging...

  16. 21 CFR 570.14 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and pet food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.14 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed...

  17. 21 CFR 570.13 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and pet food. 570.13 Section 570.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.13 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging...

  18. 21 CFR 570.13 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and pet food. 570.13 Section 570.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.13 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging...

  19. Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen PET/CT: False-Positive Results due to Sarcoidosis?

    PubMed Central

    Hermann, Robert M.; Djannatian, Manoutschehr; Czech, Norbert; Nitsche, Mirko

    2016-01-01

    We report on a 72-year-old male patient who developed sarcoidosis of the mediastinal lymph nodes, the liver, and the prostate 11 years ago. Seven years later, he underwent transurethral resection of the prostate by laser due to hematuria. Pathology of the resected chips showed a ‘granulomatous prostatitis with epitheloid cells’. Malignancy was histologically excluded at that time. Four years later, he was diagnosed with an undifferentiated prostate carcinoma, with a Gleason score of 5 + 4 = 9. After initiation of antihormonal therapy, he underwent radical prostatectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy, which revealed a pT3b pN1 carcinoma with infiltrated resection margins. Three months later, the prostate-specific antigen level was 1.4 ng/ml, and a local recurrence was suspected by ultrasound; consequently, a 68Ga-prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) PET/CT was performed. This examination seemed to confirm the local recurrence, a right pelvic lymph node metastasis, and a hepatic metastasis. However, ultrasound with contrast medium could not confirm the metastatic spread to the liver. In palliative intention, radiotherapy of the pelvis was done. After 50 Gy, the supposed recurrence had markedly shrunk, and an additional boost dose with 16.2 Gy was applied. Two years later, the patient is still free of disease. Due to this clinical development, we doubt the diagnosis of a fulminant progression of the prostate cancer as suspected by PSMA-PET/CT. Instead, we suspect a recurrence of the previously proven sarcoidosis leading to false-positive results. Our focus in this report is on the interaction between PSMA-PET/CT and sarcoidosis. Another report on a case of sarcoidosis of the spleen seems to confirm this possibility [Kobe et al: Clin Nucl Med 2015;40: 897–898]. PMID:27721768

  20. Speech Perception Results for Children Using Cochlear Implants Who Have Additional Special Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dettman, Shani J.; Fiket, Hayley; Dowell, Richard C.; Charlton, Margaret; Williams, Sarah S.; Tomov, Alexandra M.; Barker, Elizabeth J.

    2004-01-01

    Speech perception outcomes in young children with cochlear implants are affected by a number of variables including the age of implantation, duration of implantation, mode of communication, and the presence of a developmental delay or additional disability. The aim of this study is to examine the association between degree of developmental delay…

  1. False-positive buprenorphine EIA urine toxicology results due to high dose morphine: a case report.

    PubMed

    Tenore, Peter L

    2012-01-01

    In monitoring a patient with chronic pain who was taking high-dose morphine and oxycodone with weekly urine enzymatic immunoassay (EIA) toxicology testing, the authors noted consistent positives for buprenorphine. The patient was not taking buprenorphine, and gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GCMS) testing on multiple samples revealed no buprenorphine, indicating a case of false-positive buprenorphine EIAs in a high-dose opiate case. The authors discontinued oxycodone for a period of time and then discontinued morphine. Urine monitoring with EIAs and GCMS revealed false-positive buprenorphine EIAs, which remained only when the patient was taking morphine. When taking only oxycodone and no morphine, urine samples became buprenorphine negative. When morphine was reintroduced, false-positive buprenorphine results resumed. Medical practitioners should be aware that high-dose morphine (with morphine urine levels turning positive within the 15,000 to 28,000 mg/mL range) may produce false-positive buprenorphine EIAs with standard urine EIA toxicology testing.

  2. Follow-up actions from positive results of in vitro genetic toxicity testing

    EPA Science Inventory

    Appropriate follow-up actions and decisions are needed when evaluating and interpreting clear positive results obtained in the in vitro assays used in the initial genotoxicity screening battery (i.e., the battery of tests generally required by regulatory authorities) to assist in...

  3. 10 CFR 26.103 - Determining a confirmed positive test result for alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determining a confirmed positive test result for alcohol. 26.103 Section 26.103 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting... fitness indicates that the donor is fit to safely and competently perform his or her duties....

  4. 10 CFR 26.103 - Determining a confirmed positive test result for alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Determining a confirmed positive test result for alcohol. 26.103 Section 26.103 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting... fitness indicates that the donor is fit to safely and competently perform his or her duties....

  5. 10 CFR 26.103 - Determining a confirmed positive test result for alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Determining a confirmed positive test result for alcohol. 26.103 Section 26.103 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting... fitness indicates that the donor is fit to safely and competently perform his or her duties....

  6. 10 CFR 26.103 - Determining a confirmed positive test result for alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Determining a confirmed positive test result for alcohol. 26.103 Section 26.103 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting... fitness indicates that the donor is fit to safely and competently perform his or her duties....

  7. 10 CFR 26.103 - Determining a confirmed positive test result for alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Determining a confirmed positive test result for alcohol. 26.103 Section 26.103 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting... fitness indicates that the donor is fit to safely and competently perform his or her duties....

  8. Spinel dissolution via addition of glass forming chemicals. Results of preliminary experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K. M.; Johnson, F. C.

    2015-11-01

    Increased loading of high level waste in glass can lead to crystallization within the glass. Some crystalline species, such as spinel, have no practical impact on the chemical durability of the glass, and therefore may be acceptable from both a processing and a product performance standpoint. In order to operate a melter with a controlled amount of crystallization, options must be developed for remediating an unacceptable accumulation of crystals. This report describes preliminary experiments designed to evaluate the ability to dissolve spinel crystals in simulated waste glass melts via the addition of glass forming chemicals (GFCs).

  9. Marijuana-positive urine test results from consumption of hemp seeds in food products.

    PubMed

    Fortner, N; Fogerson, R; Lindman, D; Iversen, T; Armbruster, D

    1997-10-01

    Commercially available snack bars and other foodstuffs prepared from pressed hemp seeds were ingested by volunteers. Urine specimens were collected for 24 h after ingestion of the foodstuffs containing hemp seeds and tested for marijuana using an EMIT immunoassay and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Specimens from individuals who ate one hemp seed bar demonstrated little marijuana immunoreactivity, and only one specimen screened positive at a 20-ng/mL cutoff. Specimens from individuals who ate two hemp seed bars showed increased immunoreactivity, and five specimens screened positive at a 20-ng/mL cutoff. A single specimen yielded a quantitative GC-MS value (0.6 ng/mL), but it failed to meet reporting criteria. Several specimens from individuals who ate three cookies made from hemp seed flour and butter screened positive at both 50- and 20-ng/mL cutoffs. Two specimens produced quantitative GC-MS values (0.7 and 3.1 ng/mL), but they failed to meet reporting criteria. Several specimens also tested positive with an FDA-approved on-site marijuana-screening device. Hemp seeds similar to those used in the foodstuffs did not demonstrate the presence of marijuana when tested by GC-MS. In this study, ingestion of hemp seed food products resulted in urine specimens that screened positive for marijuana. No specimens gave a GC-MS quantitative value above the limit of detection for marijuana.

  10. Cumulative Incidence of False-Positive Results in Repeated, Multimodal Cancer Screening

    PubMed Central

    Croswell, Jennifer Miller; Kramer, Barnett S.; Kreimer, Aimee R.; Prorok, Phil C.; Xu, Jian-Lun; Baker, Stuart G.; Fagerstrom, Richard; Riley, Thomas L.; Clapp, Jonathan D.; Berg, Christine D.; Gohagan, John K.; Andriole, Gerald L.; Chia, David; Church, Timothy R.; Crawford, E. David; Fouad, Mona N.; Gelmann, Edward P.; Lamerato, Lois; Reding, Douglas J.; Schoen, Robert E.

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE Multiple cancer screening tests have been advocated for the general population; however, clinicians and patients are not always well-informed of screening burdens. We sought to determine the cumulative risk of a false-positive screening result and the resulting risk of a diagnostic procedure for an individual participating in a multimodal cancer screening program. METHODS Data were analyzed from the intervention arm of the ongoing Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial, a randomized controlled trial to determine the effects of prostate, lung, colorectal, and ovarian cancer screening on disease-specific mortality. The 68,436 participants, aged 55 to 74 years, were randomized to screening or usual care. Women received serial serum tests to detect cancer antigen 125 (CA-125), transvaginal sonograms, posteroanterior-view chest radiographs, and flexible sigmoidoscopies. Men received serial chest radiographs, flexible sigmoidoscopies, digital rectal examinations, and serum prostate-specific antigen tests. Fourteen screening examinations for each sex were possible during the 3-year screening period. RESULTS After 14 tests, the cumulative risk of having at least 1 false-positive screening test is 60.4% (95% CI, 59.8%–61.0%) for men, and 48.8% (95% CI, 48.1%–49.4%) for women. The cumulative risk after 14 tests of undergoing an invasive diagnostic procedure prompted by a false-positive test is 28.5% (CI, 27.8%–29.3%) for men and 22.1% (95% CI, 21.4%–22.7%) for women. CONCLUSIONS For an individual in a multimodal cancer screening trial, the risk of a false-positive finding is about 50% or greater by the 14th test. Physicians should educate patients about the likelihood of false positives and resulting diagnostic interventions when counseling about cancer screening. PMID:19433838

  11. The trazodone metabolite meta-chlorophenylpiperazine can cause false-positive urine amphetamine immunoassay results.

    PubMed

    Baron, Jason M; Griggs, David A; Nixon, Andrea L; Long, William H; Flood, James G

    2011-07-01

    Amphetamines and methamphetamines are part of an important class of drugs included in most urine drugs of abuse screening panels, and a common assay to detect these drugs is the Amphetamines II immunoassay (Roche Diagnostics). To demonstrate that meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (m-CPP), a trazodone metabolite, cross-reacts in the Amphetamines II assay, we tested reference standards of m-CPP at various concentrations (200 to 20,000 g/L). We also tested real patient urine samples containing m-CPP (detected and quantified by HPLC) with no detectable amphetamine, methamphetamine, or MDMA (demonstrated by GC MS). In both the m-CPP standards and the patient urine samples, we found a strong association between m-CPP concentration and Amphetamines II immunoreactivity (r = 0.990 for the urine samples). Further, we found that patients taking trazodone can produce urine with sufficient m-CPP to result in false-positive Amphetamines II results. At our institution, false-positive amphetamine results occur not infrequently in patients taking trazodone with at least 8 trazodone-associated false-positive results during a single 26-day period. Laboratories should remain cognizant of this interference when interpreting results of this assay.

  12. Additional evidence for the cyclic GMP signaling pathway resulting in the photophobic behavior of Stentor coeruleus.

    PubMed

    Walerczyk, M; Fabczak, S

    2001-12-01

    We report that exo- and endogenous guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP) specifically influenced the photophobic response. In behavioral experiments the slowly hydrolyzable and membrane-permeable analogs of cGMP (8-bromo-cGMP [Br-cGMP] and N6,2'-o-dibutyryl-cGMP) dramatically prolonged the time for ciliary stop response and decreased the duration of ciliary reversal in a dose-dependent manner. When analogs of adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) (8-bromo-cAMP or N6,2'-o-dibutyryl-cAMP) were used, no essential effects were detected on the kinetics of the photophobic response. Both nonspecific cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE) activity inhibitors (3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine [IBMX] and 1,3-dimethylxanthine [theophylline]) and the highly specific cGMP-PDE activity inhibitor 1,4-dihydro-5-[2-propoxyphenyl]-7H-1,2,3-triazolo[4,5-d]pyrimidine-7-one (zaprinast) mimicked the effects of cGMP analogs. Treatment of cells with an inhibitor of guanylate cyclase activity (6-anilino-5,8-quinolinedione [LY 83583]) exerted an effect opposite to that of cGMP analogs and PDE activity inhibitors. The positive physiological effect of LY 83583 was significantly diminished in ciliates that were treated simultaneously with Br-cGMP. In an assay of cell cyclic nucleotide content, the exposure of dark-adapted Stentor to light evoked a transient decrease in the basal level of intracellular cGMP. Alterations in internal cGMP levels were more distinct when the intensity of applied illumination was increased. In the presence of IBMX or theophylline the basal content of cGMP was markedly enhanced, and the photoinduced changes in cGMP level were less pronounced. In this paper the possible whole molecular mechanism by which the ciliary orientation in Stentor is controlled by light is presented. PMID:11783940

  13. Risk of Breast Cancer in Women with False-Positive Results according to Mammographic Features.

    PubMed

    Castells, Xavier; Torá-Rocamora, Isabel; Posso, Margarita; Román, Marta; Vernet-Tomas, Maria; Rodríguez-Arana, Ana; Domingo, Laia; Vidal, Carmen; Baré, Marisa; Ferrer, Joana; Quintana, María Jesús; Sánchez, Mar; Natal, Carmen; Espinàs, Josep A; Saladié, Francina; Sala, María

    2016-08-01

    Purpose To assess the risk of breast cancer in women with false-positive screening results according to radiologic classification of mammographic features. Materials and Methods Review board approval was obtained, with waiver of informed consent. This retrospective cohort study included 521 200 women aged 50-69 years who underwent screening as part of the Spanish Breast Cancer Screening Program between 1994 and 2010 and who were observed until December 2012. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to estimate the age-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of breast cancer and the 95% confidence interval (CI) in women with false-positive mammograms as compared with women with negative mammograms. Separate models were adjusted for screen-detected and interval cancers and for screen-film and digital mammography. Time without a breast cancer diagnosis was plotted by using Kaplan-Meier curves. Results When compared with women with negative mammograms, the age-adjusted HR of cancer in women with false-positive results was 1.84 (95% CI: 1.73, 1.95; P < .001). The risk was higher in women who had calcifications, whether they were (HR, 2.73; 95% CI: 2.28, 3.28; P < .001) or were not (HR, 2.24; 95% CI: 2.02, 2.48; P < .001) associated with masses. Women in whom mammographic features showed changes in subsequent false-positive results were those who had the highest risk (HR, 9.13; 95% CI: 8.28, 10.07; P < .001). Conclusion Women with false-positive results had an increased risk of breast cancer, particularly women who had calcifications at mammography. Women who had more than one examination with false-positive findings and in whom the mammographic features changed over time had a highly increased risk of breast cancer. Previous mammographic features might yield useful information for further risk-prediction models and personalized follow-up screening protocols. (©) RSNA, 2016 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  14. Polio vaccines, SV40 and human tumours, an update on false positive and false negative results.

    PubMed

    Elmishad, A G; Bocchetta, M; Pass, H I; Carbone, M

    2006-01-01

    Simian virus 40 (SV40) has been detected in different human tumours in numerous laboratories. The detection of SV40 in human tumours has been linked to the administration of SV40-contaminated polio vaccines from 1954 until 1963. Many of these reports linked SV40 to human mesothelioma. Some studies have failed to detect SV40 in human tumours and this has caused a controversy. Here we review the current literature. Moreover, we present evidence showing how differences in the sensitivities of methodologies can lead to a very different interpretation of the same study. The same 20 mesothelioma specimens all tested negative, 2/20 tested positive or 7/20 tested positive for SV40 Tag by simply changing the detection method on the same immuno-precipitation/western blot membranes. These results provide a simple explanation for some of the apparent discordant results reported in the literature.

  15. Reporting of Positive Results in Randomized Controlled Trials of Mindfulness-Based Mental Health Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Coronado-Montoya, Stephanie; Levis, Alexander W.; Kwakkenbos, Linda; Steele, Russell J.; Turner, Erick H.; Thombs, Brett D.

    2016-01-01

    Background A large proportion of mindfulness-based therapy trials report statistically significant results, even in the context of very low statistical power. The objective of the present study was to characterize the reporting of “positive” results in randomized controlled trials of mindfulness-based therapy. We also assessed mindfulness-based therapy trial registrations for indications of possible reporting bias and reviewed recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses to determine whether reporting biases were identified. Methods CINAHL, Cochrane CENTRAL, EMBASE, ISI, MEDLINE, PsycInfo, and SCOPUS databases were searched for randomized controlled trials of mindfulness-based therapy. The number of positive trials was described and compared to the number that might be expected if mindfulness-based therapy were similarly effective compared to individual therapy for depression. Trial registries were searched for mindfulness-based therapy registrations. CINAHL, Cochrane CENTRAL, EMBASE, ISI, MEDLINE, PsycInfo, and SCOPUS were also searched for mindfulness-based therapy systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Results 108 (87%) of 124 published trials reported ≥1 positive outcome in the abstract, and 109 (88%) concluded that mindfulness-based therapy was effective, 1.6 times greater than the expected number of positive trials based on effect size d = 0.55 (expected number positive trials = 65.7). Of 21 trial registrations, 13 (62%) remained unpublished 30 months post-trial completion. No trial registrations adequately specified a single primary outcome measure with time of assessment. None of 36 systematic reviews and meta-analyses concluded that effect estimates were overestimated due to reporting biases. Conclusions The proportion of mindfulness-based therapy trials with statistically significant results may overstate what would occur in practice. PMID:27058355

  16. Synchronized Nasal Intermittent Positive Pressure Ventilation of the Newborn: Technical Issues and Clinical Results.

    PubMed

    Moretti, Corrado; Gizzi, Camilla; Montecchia, Francesco; Barbàra, Caterina Silvia; Midulla, Fabio; Sanchez-Luna, Manuel; Papoff, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Although mechanical ventilation via an endotracheal tube has undoubtedly led to improvement in neonatal survival in the last 40 years, the prolonged use of this technique may predispose the infant to development of many possible complications including bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Avoiding mechanical ventilation is thought to be a critical goal, and different modes of noninvasive respiratory support beyond nasal continuous positive airway pressure, such as nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation and synchronized nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation, are also available and may reduce intubation rate. Several trials have demonstrated that the newer modes of noninvasive ventilation are more effective than nasal continuous positive airway pressure in reducing extubation failure and may also be more helpful as modes of primary support to treat respiratory distress syndrome after surfactant and for treatment of apnea of prematurity. With synchronized noninvasive ventilation, these benefits are more consistent, and different modes of synchronization have been reported. Although flow-triggering is the most common mode of synchronization, this technique is not reliable for noninvasive ventilation in neonates because it is affected by variable leaks at the mouth and nose. This review discusses the mechanisms of action, benefits and limitations of noninvasive ventilation, describes the different modes of synchronization and analyzes the technical characteristics, properties and clinical results of a flow-sensor expressly developed for synchronized noninvasive ventilation. PMID:27251453

  17. XLF deficiency results in reduced N-nucleotide addition during V(D)J recombination

    PubMed Central

    IJspeert, Hanna; Rozmus, Jacob; Schwarz, Klaus; Warren, René L.; van Zessen, David; Holt, Robert A.; Pico-Knijnenburg, Ingrid; Simons, Erik; Jerchel, Isabel; Wawer, Angela; Lorenz, Myriam; Patıroğlu, Turkan; Akar, Himmet Haluk; Leite, Ricardo; Verkaik, Nicole S.; Stubbs, Andrew P.; van Gent, Dik C.; van Dongen, Jacques J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) by the nonhomologous end-joining pathway (NHEJ) is important not only for repair of spontaneous breaks but also for breaks induced in developing lymphocytes during V(D)J (variable [V], diversity [D], and joining [J] genes) recombination of their antigen receptor loci to create a diverse repertoire. Mutations in the NHEJ factor XLF result in extreme sensitivity for ionizing radiation, microcephaly, and growth retardation comparable to mutations in LIG4 and XRCC4, which together form the NHEJ ligation complex. However, the effect on the immune system is variable (mild to severe immunodeficiency) and less prominent than that seen in deficiencies of NHEJ factors ARTEMIS and DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit, with defects in the hairpin opening step, which is crucial and unique for V(D)J recombination. Therefore, we aimed to study the role of XLF during V(D)J recombination. We obtained clinical data from 9 XLF-deficient patients and performed immune phenotyping and antigen receptor repertoire analysis of immunoglobulin (Ig) and T-cell receptor (TR) rearrangements, using next-generation sequencing in 6 patients. The results were compared with XRCC4 and LIG4 deficiency. Both Ig and TR rearrangements showed a significant decrease in the number of nontemplated (N) nucleotides inserted by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase, which resulted in a decrease of 2 to 3 amino acids in the CDR3. Such a reduction in the number of N-nucleotides has a great effect on the junctional diversity, and thereby on the total diversity of the Ig and TR repertoire. This shows that XLF has an important role during V(D)J recombination in creating diversity of the repertoire by stimulating N-nucleotide insertion. PMID:27281794

  18. XLF deficiency results in reduced N-nucleotide addition during V(D)J recombination.

    PubMed

    IJspeert, Hanna; Rozmus, Jacob; Schwarz, Klaus; Warren, René L; van Zessen, David; Holt, Robert A; Pico-Knijnenburg, Ingrid; Simons, Erik; Jerchel, Isabel; Wawer, Angela; Lorenz, Myriam; Patıroğlu, Turkan; Akar, Himmet Haluk; Leite, Ricardo; Verkaik, Nicole S; Stubbs, Andrew P; van Gent, Dik C; van Dongen, Jacques J M; van der Burg, Mirjam

    2016-08-01

    Repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) by the nonhomologous end-joining pathway (NHEJ) is important not only for repair of spontaneous breaks but also for breaks induced in developing lymphocytes during V(D)J (variable [V], diversity [D], and joining [J] genes) recombination of their antigen receptor loci to create a diverse repertoire. Mutations in the NHEJ factor XLF result in extreme sensitivity for ionizing radiation, microcephaly, and growth retardation comparable to mutations in LIG4 and XRCC4, which together form the NHEJ ligation complex. However, the effect on the immune system is variable (mild to severe immunodeficiency) and less prominent than that seen in deficiencies of NHEJ factors ARTEMIS and DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit, with defects in the hairpin opening step, which is crucial and unique for V(D)J recombination. Therefore, we aimed to study the role of XLF during V(D)J recombination. We obtained clinical data from 9 XLF-deficient patients and performed immune phenotyping and antigen receptor repertoire analysis of immunoglobulin (Ig) and T-cell receptor (TR) rearrangements, using next-generation sequencing in 6 patients. The results were compared with XRCC4 and LIG4 deficiency. Both Ig and TR rearrangements showed a significant decrease in the number of nontemplated (N) nucleotides inserted by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase, which resulted in a decrease of 2 to 3 amino acids in the CDR3. Such a reduction in the number of N-nucleotides has a great effect on the junctional diversity, and thereby on the total diversity of the Ig and TR repertoire. This shows that XLF has an important role during V(D)J recombination in creating diversity of the repertoire by stimulating N-nucleotide insertion.

  19. Aircraft-Produced Ice Particles (APIPs): Additional Results and Further Insights.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodley, William L.; Gordon, Glenn; Henderson, Thomas J.; Vonnegut, Bernard; Rosenfeld, Daniel; Detwiler, Andrew

    2003-05-01

    This paper presents new results from studies of aircraft-produced ice particles (APIPs) in supercooled fog and clouds. Nine aircraft, including a Beech King Air 200T cloud physics aircraft, a Piper Aztec, a Cessna 421-C, two North American T-28s, an Aero Commander, a Piper Navajo, a Beech Turbo Baron, and a second four-bladed King Air were involved in the tests. The instrumented King Air served as the monitoring aircraft for trails of ice particles created, or not created, when the other aircraft were flown through clouds at various temperatures and served as both the test and monitoring aircraft when it itself was tested. In some cases sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) gas was released by the test aircraft during its test run and was detected by the King Air during its monitoring passes to confirm the location of the test aircraft wake. Ambient temperatures for the tests ranged between 5° and 12°C. The results confirm earlier published results and provide further insights into the APIPs phenomenon. The King Air at ambient temperatures less than 8°C can produce APIPs readily. The Piper Aztec and the Aero Commander also produced APIPs under the test conditions in which they were flown. The Cessna 421, Piper Navajo, and Beech Turbo Baron did not. The APIPs production potential of a T-28 is still indeterminate because a limited range of conditions was tested. Homogeneous nucleation in the adiabatically cooled regions where air is expanding around the rapidly rotating propeller tips is the cause of APIPs. An equation involving the propeller efficiency, engine thrust, and true airspeed of the aircraft is used along with the published thrust characteristics of the propellers to predict when the aircraft will produce APIPs. In most cases the predictions agree well with the field tests. Of all of the aircraft tested, the Piper Aztec, despite its small size and low horsepower, was predicted to be the most prolific producer of APIPs, and this was confirmed in field tests. The

  20. Accuracy of relative positioning by interferometry with GPS Double-blind test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Counselman, C. C., III; Gourevitch, S. A.; Herring, T. A.; King, B. W.; Shapiro, I. I.; Cappallo, R. J.; Rogers, A. E. E.; Whitney, A. R.; Greenspan, R. L.; Snyder, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    MITES (Miniature Interferometer Terminals for Earth Surveying) observations conducted on December 17 and 29, 1980, are analyzed. It is noted that the time span of the observations used on each day was 78 minutes, during which five satellites were always above 20 deg elevation. The observations are analyzed to determine the intersite position vectors by means of the algorithm described by Couselman and Gourevitch (1981). The average of the MITES results from the two days is presented. The rms differences between the two determinations of the components of the three vectors, which were about 65, 92, and 124 m long, were 8 mm for the north, 3 mm for the east, and 6 mm for the vertical. It is concluded that, at least for short distances, relative positioning by interferometry with GPS can be done reliably with subcentimeter accuracy.

  1. MC2AQ: Preliminary Results With the Addition of a Bulk Model of Particulate Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neary, L.; Kaminski, J.; Yang, R.; Michelangeli, D. V.; McConnell, J.

    2001-12-01

    MC2 (Mesoscale Compressible Community model) is a mesoscale model developed by collaborators at the University of Quebec at Montreal and the Meteorological Service of Canada. MC2AQ is an on-line air quality version of MC2 that was developed at York University. The AQ part of the model includes complex oxidant gas-phase chemistry, deposition, anthropogenic and on-line biogenic emissions. MC2AQ has been used successfully to calculate ozone concentrations in Eastern Canada and the United States and also for Europe. The model can be run down to urban scales of a kilometer or less. The long-term goal of this project is to modify MC2AQ to include aerosol and aqueous chemistry, and the detailed microphysics of the formation and evolution of size distributed particles in an on-line fashion. As a first step, the model has recently been updated to include a new Canadian emissions inventory that includes bulk primary sources of PM2.5 and PM10. Secondary sulphate and nitrate chemical production mechanisms have also been included. In this first phase of the work bulk aerosols were included along with dry deposition for aerosols and rain out in MC2AQ. Results of this first phase showing ozone and PM concentrations and 24 hour accumulated depositions of total PM will be presented, and compared to some field observations in Southern Ontario.

  2. Flue gas conditioning for improved particle collection in electrostatic precipitators. First topical report, Results of laboratory screening of additives

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, M.D.

    1993-04-16

    Several tasks have been completed in a program to evaluate additives to improve fine particle collection in electrostatic precipitators. Screening tests and laboratory evaluations of additives are summarized in this report. Over 20 additives were evaluated; four were found to improve flyash precipitation rates. The Insitec particle analyzer was also evaluated; test results show that the analyzer will provide accurate sizing and counting information for particles in the size range of {le} 10 {mu}m dia.

  3. Case Report: Direct Access Genetic Testing and A False-Positive Result For Long QT Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Predham, Sarah; Hamilton, Sara; Elliott, Alison M; T Gibson, William

    2016-02-01

    We report the case of a woman who pursued direct access genetic testing and then presented with concerns regarding a positive test result for Long-QT syndrome. Although the result ultimately proved to be a false positive, this case illustrates that costs associated with follow-up of direct access genetic testing results can be non-trivial for both the patient and for health care systems. Here we raise policy questions regarding the appropriate distribution of these costs. We also discuss the possibility that, when confronted by a direct access genetic test result that reports high risk for one or more actionable diseases, a family physician might feel compelled to act out of a desire to avoid liability, even when information regarding the accuracy and validity of the testing were not easily accessible. This case outlines lessons that can easily be translated into clinical practice, not only by genetic counselors, but also by family physicians, medical specialists and members of the public.

  4. [Unexpected Diseases in Two Patients with False-Positive Dengue Immunoglobulin M Antibody Test Results].

    PubMed

    Matono, Takashi; Kutsuna, Satoshi; Kato, Yasuyuki; Takeshita, Nozomi; Hayakawa, Kayoko; Kanagawa, Shuzo; Ohmagari, Norio

    2016-03-01

    In 2014, an outbreak of 162 domestic dengue fever infections occurred in Tokyo, Japan; the first outbreak of its kind in 70 years. Nineteen of these cases were confirmed in our center. Advancements in diagnostic methods have enabled an earlier diagnosis of dengue fever; however, unfamiliarity with the clinical course and characteristics of diagnostic tests for dengue fever can lead to misdiagnosis. We herein describe 2 cases of Japanese patients with false-positive dengue immunoglobulin M antibody test results, who were finally diagnosed as having dermatomyositis and acute hepatitis A infection, respectively. PMID:27197439

  5. Investor Outlook: Significance of the Positive LCA2 Gene Therapy Phase III Results.

    PubMed

    Schimmer, Joshua; Breazzano, Steven

    2015-12-01

    Spark Therapeutics recently reported positive phase III results for SPK-RPE65 targeting the treatment of visual impairment caused by RPE65 gene mutations (often referred to as Leber congenital amaurosis type 2, or LCA2, but may include other retinal disorders), marking an important inflection point for the field of gene therapy. The results highlight the ability to successfully design and execute a randomized trial of a gene therapy and also reinforce the potentially predictive nature of early preclinical and clinical data. The results are expected to pave the way for the first approved gene therapy product in the United States and should sustain investor interest and confidence in gene therapy for many approaches, including retina targeting and beyond.

  6. Addition of Carboplatin to Neoadjuvant Therapy for Triple-negative and HER2-positive Early Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-12

    Tubular Breast Cancer Stage II; Mucinous Breast Cancer Stage II; Breast Cancer Female NOS; Invasive Ductal Breast Cancer; Tubular Breast Cancer Stage III; HER-2 Positive Breast Cancer; Inflammatory Breast Cancer Stage IV; Inflammatory Breast Cancer

  7. OBRA '87: has it resulted in positive change in nursing homes?

    PubMed

    Marek, K D; Rantz, M J; Fagin, C M; Krejci, J W

    1996-12-01

    This study examines perspectives of a broad group of nursing home employees, regulators, advocates, and professional associations to describe progress made since the 1990 implementation of the Nursing Home Reform legislation (OBRA '87) and to determine whether the legislation is perceived as effecting positive change for nursing home residents. Interviews were conducted with 132 professional and non-professional staff in six states and 56 residents. Important issues about nursing home staffing and quality of care are explored. In general, OBRA '87 is viewed as positive, with all groups of respondents indicating that nursing staff or quality have not deteriorated; administrators, licensed nurses, and certified nursing assistants indicate the quality of nursing care provided and the nursing staff levels have improved since OBRA '87 implementation. Regulators agree that quality of nursing care has improved, but nursing home advocates, regulators, and professional association staff indicate mostly no change or no opinion. There is a danger in interpreting that quality and staffing are adequate from these results. While both may have improved, they may not be adequate.

  8. Pulmonary sequestration: a (131)I whole body scintigraphy false-positive result.

    PubMed

    Spinapolice, Elena Giulia; Chytiris, S; Fuccio, C; Leporati, P; Volpato, G; Villani, L; Trifirò, G; Chiovato, L

    2014-08-01

    A 35-year-old woman affected by a well-differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma was referred to our hospital to perform a (131)Iodine ((131)I) whole body scintigraphy for restaging purpose. The patient had been previously treated with total thyroidectomy and three subsequent doses of (131)I for the ablation of a remnant jugular tissue and a suspected metastatic focus at the superior left hemi-thorax. In spite of the previous treatments with (131)I, planar and tomographic images showed the persistence of an area of increased uptake at the superior left hemi-thorax. This finding prompted the surgical resection of the lesion. Histological examination of the surgical specimen showed the presence of a pulmonary tissue consistent with pulmonary sequestration. Even though rare, pulmonary sequestration should be included in the potential causes of false-positive results of radioiodine scans.

  9. TOPEX/POSEIDON operational orbit determination results using global positioning satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guinn, J.; Jee, J.; Wolff, P.; Lagattuta, F.; Drain, T.; Sierra, V.

    1994-01-01

    Results of operational orbit determination, performed as part of the TOPEX/POSEIDON (T/P) Global Positioning System (GPS) demonstration experiment, are presented in this article. Elements of this experiment include the GPS satellite constellation, the GPS demonstration receiver on board T/P, six ground GPS receivers, the GPS Data Handling Facility, and the GPS Data Processing Facility (GDPF). Carrier phase and P-code pseudorange measurements from up to 24 GPS satellites to the seven GPS receivers are processed simultaneously with the GDPF software MIRAGE to produce orbit solutions of T/P and the GPS satellites. Daily solutions yield subdecimeter radial accuracies compared to other GPS, LASER, and DORIS precision orbit solutions.

  10. Can handling E85 motor fuel cause positive breath alcohol test results?

    PubMed

    Ran, Ran; Mullins, Michael E

    2013-09-01

    Hand-held breath alcohol analyzers are widely used by police in traffic stops of drivers suspected of driving while intoxicated (DWI). E85 is a motor fuel consisting of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline or other hydrocarbons, and is available at nearly 2,600 stations in the USA. We sought to determine whether handling E85 fuel could produce measurable breath alcohol results using a hand-held analyzer and to see if this would be a plausible explanation for a positive breath alcohol test. Five healthy adult subjects dispensed or transferred 8 US gallons of E85 fuel in each of four scenarios. We measured breath alcohol concentration in g/210 L of exhaled breath using the BACTrack S50 at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 15 and 20 min after each fuel-handling scenario. Most of the subjects had no detectable breath alcohol after handling E85 motor fuel. Transient elevations (0.02-0.04 g/210 L) in breath alcohol measurement occurred up to 6 min after handling E85 in a minority of subjects. We conclude that it is unlikely that handling E85 motor fuel would result in erroneous prosecution for DWI. PMID:23843422

  11. Flight Test Results from Real-Time Relative Global Positioning System Flight Experiment on STS-69

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Young W.; Brazzel, Jack P., Jr.; Carpenter, J. Russell; Hinkel, Heather D.; Newman, James H.

    1996-01-01

    A real-time global positioning system (GPS) Kalman filter has been developed to support automated rendezvous with the International Space Station (ISS). The filter is integrated with existing Shuttle rendezvous software running on a 486 laptop computer under Windows. In this work, we present real-time and postflight results achieved with the filter on STS-69. The experiment used GPS data from an Osborne/Jet propulsion Laboratory TurboRouge receiver carried on the Wake Shield Facility (WSF) free flyer and a Rockwell Collins 3M receiver carried on the Orbiter. Real time filter results, processed onboard the Shuttle and replayed in near-time on the ground, are based on single vehicle mode operation and on 5 to 20 minute snapshots of telemetry provided by WSF for dual-vehicle mode operation. The Orbiter and WSF state vectors calculated using our filter compare favorably with precise reference orbits determined by the University of Texas Center for Space Research. The lessons learned from this experiment will be used in conjunction with future experiments to mitigate the technology risk posed by automated rendezvous and docking to the ISS.

  12. Can handling E85 motor fuel cause positive breath alcohol test results?

    PubMed

    Ran, Ran; Mullins, Michael E

    2013-09-01

    Hand-held breath alcohol analyzers are widely used by police in traffic stops of drivers suspected of driving while intoxicated (DWI). E85 is a motor fuel consisting of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline or other hydrocarbons, and is available at nearly 2,600 stations in the USA. We sought to determine whether handling E85 fuel could produce measurable breath alcohol results using a hand-held analyzer and to see if this would be a plausible explanation for a positive breath alcohol test. Five healthy adult subjects dispensed or transferred 8 US gallons of E85 fuel in each of four scenarios. We measured breath alcohol concentration in g/210 L of exhaled breath using the BACTrack S50 at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 15 and 20 min after each fuel-handling scenario. Most of the subjects had no detectable breath alcohol after handling E85 motor fuel. Transient elevations (0.02-0.04 g/210 L) in breath alcohol measurement occurred up to 6 min after handling E85 in a minority of subjects. We conclude that it is unlikely that handling E85 motor fuel would result in erroneous prosecution for DWI.

  13. Positive EtG findings in hair as a result of a cosmetic treatment.

    PubMed

    Sporkert, Frank; Kharbouche, Hicham; Augsburger, Marc P; Klemm, Clementine; Baumgartner, Markus R

    2012-05-10

    In a case of a driving ability assessment, hair analysis for ethyl glucuronide (EtG) was requested by the authorities. The person concerned denied alcohol consumption and did not present any clinical sign of alcoholism. However, EtG was found in concentrations of up to 910pg/mg in hair from different sampling dates suggesting an excessive drinking behavior. The person declared to use a hair lotion on a regularly base. To evaluate a possible effect of the hair lotion, prospective blood and urine controls as well as hair sampling of scalp and pubic hair were performed. The traditional clinical biomarkers of ethanol consumption, CDT and GGT, were inconspicuous in three blood samples taken. EtG was not detected in all collected urine samples. The hair lotion was transmitted to our laboratory. The ethanol concentration in this lotion was determined with 35g/L. The EtG immunoassay gave a positive result indicating EtG, which could be confirmed by GC-MS/MS-NCI. In a follow-up experiment the lotion was applied to the hair of a volunteer over a period of six weeks. After this treatment, EtG could be measured in the hair at a concentration of 72pg/mg suggesting chronic and excessive alcohol consumption. Overnight incubation of EtG free hair in the lotion yielded an EtG concentration of 140pg/mg. In the present case, the positive EtG hair findings could be interpreted as the result of an EtG containing hair care product. To our knowledge, the existence of such a product has not yet been reported, and it is exceptionally unusual to find EtG in cosmetics. Therefore, external sources for hair contamination should always be taken into account when unusual cosmetic treatment is mentioned. In those cases, it is recommended to analyze the hair product for a possible contamination with EtG. The analysis of body hair can help to reveal problems occurring from cosmetic treatment of head hair. As a consequence, the assessment of drinking behavior should be based on more than one

  14. Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive for Enhanced Mercury Control - Task 3 Full-scale Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Gary Blythe

    2007-05-01

    in Texas Lignite Flue Gas; Task 3 - Full-scale FGD Additive Testing in High-sulfur Eastern Bituminous Flue Gas; Task 4 - Pilot Wet Scrubber Additive Tests at Plant Yates; and Task 5 - Full-scale Additive Tests at Plant Yates. The pilot-scale tests were completed in 2005 and have been previously reported. This topical report presents the results from the Task 3 full-scale additive tests, conducted at IPL's Petersburg Station Unit 2. The Task 5 full-scale additive tests will be conducted later in calendar year 2007.

  15. Predictors of Pertussis Polymerase Chain Reaction Positive Results in Minnesota, 2005-2009.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Melissa; Kulasingam, Shalini; Kenyon, Cynthia; Miller, Claudia; Ehresmann, Kristen

    2015-11-01

    Predictors of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) positivity for pertussis were assessed using Minnesota active surveillance data. Report of an exposure to pertussis and testing within the optimal time frame of ≤2 weeks were significantly associated with testing PCR positive, emphasizing the importance of asking about epidemiological factors when assessing patients for pertussis, and timely PCR testing.

  16. Results of the long range position-determining system tests. [Field Army system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhode, F. W.

    1973-01-01

    The long range position-determining system (LRPDS) has been developed by the Corps of Engineers to provide the Field Army with a rapid and accurate positioning capability. The LRPDS consists of an airborne reference position set (RPS), up to 30 ground based positioning sets (PS), and a position computing central (PCC). The PCC calculates the position of each PS based on the range change information provided by each Set. The positions can be relayed back to the PS again via RPS. Each PS unit contains a double oven precise crystal oscillator. The RPS contains a Hewlett-Packard cesium beam standard. Frequency drifts and off-sets of the crystal oscillators are taken in account in the data reduction process. A field test program was initiated in November 1972. A total of 54 flights were made which included six flights for equipment testing and 48 flights utilizing the field test data reduction program. The four general types of PS layouts used were: short range; medium range; long range; tactical configuration. The overall RMS radial error of the unknown positions varied from about 2.3 meters for the short range to about 15 meters for the long range. The corresponding elevation RMS errors vary from about 12 meters to 37 meters.

  17. 21 CFR 570.13 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and pet food. 570.13 Section 570.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED...

  18. 21 CFR 570.14 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and pet food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and pet food. 570.14 Section 570.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD...

  19. Otic Barotrauma Resulting from Continuous Positive Airway Pressure: Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    McCormick, Justin P.; Hildrew, Douglas M.; Lawlor, Claire M.; Guittard, Jesse A.; Worley, N. Knight

    2016-01-01

    Background: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a growing problem affecting millions of people in the United States. The prevalence of OSA has risen drastically in the past few decades concurrently with the increasing prevalence of obesity. Subsequently, there has been an ever-increasing rise in the use of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) devices. While using CPAP devices may lead to many adverse effects, the majority of these effects are described as relatively benign. Case Report: We describe the detailed clinical course and outcome for a patient with otic barotrauma as a result of excessive self-titration of CPAP therapy in an in-home setting. We also discuss the pathophysiology of otic barotrauma and present a review of current literature on the topic. Conclusion: While the benefits of CPAP are clear, we must take into account the rare but possible effects on ear structure and function. Many studies describe an increase in middle ear pressure with the use of CPAP, but few describe the effects of this increased pressure on the middle ear, such as the otic barotrauma described in this case. Given the increased prevalence of OSA, it is important to understand the risks associated with CPAP therapy. PMID:27303224

  20. Screening pharmaceuticals for possible carcinogenic effects: initial positive results for drugs not previously screened

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Gary D.; Udaltsova, Natalia; Chan, James; Quesenberry, Charles P; Habel, Laurel A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective We screened commonly used prescription drugs for possible carcinogenic effects. Methods In a large health care program we identified 105 commonly used drugs, not previously screened. Recipients were followed for up to 12½ years for incident cancer. Nested case-control analyses of 55 cancer sites and all combined included up to ten matched controls per case, with lag of at least two years between drug dispensing and cancer. Positive associations entailed a relative risk (RR) of 1.50, with p≤ 0.01 and higher risk for three or more, than for one prescription. Evaluation included further analyses, searches of the literature, and clinical judgment. Results There were 101 associations of interest for 61 drugs. Sixty-six associations were judged to have involved substantial confounding. We found evidence that of the remaining 35, the following associations may not be due to chance: sulindac with gallbladder cancer and leukemia, hyoscyamine with non-Hodgkin lymphoma, nortriptyline with esophageal and hepatic cancer, oxazepam with lung cancer, both fluoxetine and paroxetine with testicular cancer, hydrochlorothiazide with renal and lip cancer, and nifedipine with lip cancer. Conclusions These preliminary findings suggest that further studies are indicated regarding sulindac, hyoscyamine, nortriptyline, oxazepam, fluoxetine, paroxetine, hydrochlorothiazide and nifedipine. PMID:19582585

  1. APIC: Absolute Position Interfero Coronagraph for direct exoplanet detection: first laboratory results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allouche, Fatmé; Glindemann, Andreas; Aristidi, Eric; Vakili, Farrokh

    2010-07-01

    For the detection and direct imaging of exoplanets, when the intensity ratio between a star and its orbiting planet can largely exceed 106, coronagraphic methods are mandatory. In 1996, a concept of achromatic interferocoronagraph (AIC) was presented by J. Gay and Y. Rabbia for the detection of very faint stellar companions, such as exoplanets. In an earlier paper, we presented a modified version of the AIC permitting to determine the relative position of these faint companions with respect to the parent star, a problem unsolved in the original design of the AIC. Our modification lied in the use of cylindrical lens doublets as field rotator. By placing two of them in one arm of the interferometric set-up of AIC, we destroyed the axis of symmetry induced by the AIC's original design. Our theoretical study, along with the numerical computations, presented then, and the preliminary test bench results aiming at validating the cylindrical lens doublet field rotation capability, presented in this paper, show that the axis of symmetry is destroyed when one of the cylindrical doublets is rotated around the optic axis.

  2. College football, elections, and false-positive results in observational research

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, Anthony; Montagnes, B. Pablo

    2015-01-01

    A recent, widely cited study [Healy AJ, Malhotra N, Mo CH (2010) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107(29):12804–12809] finds that college football games influence voting behavior. Victories within 2 weeks of an election reportedly increase the success of the incumbent party in presidential, senatorial, and gubernatorial elections in the home county of the team. We reassess the evidence and conclude that there is likely no such effect, despite the fact that Healy et al. followed the best practices in social science and used a credible research design. Multiple independent sources of evidence suggest that the original finding was spurious—reflecting bad luck for researchers rather than a shortcoming of American voters. We fail to estimate the same effect when we leverage situations where multiple elections with differing incumbent parties occur in the same county and year. We also find that the purported effect of college football games is stronger in counties where people are less interested in college football, just as strong when the incumbent candidate does not run for reelection, and just as strong in other parts of the state outside the home county of the team. Lastly, we detect no effect of National Football League games on elections, despite their greater popularity. We conclude with recommendations for evaluating surprising research findings and avoiding similar false-positive results. PMID:26504202

  3. College football, elections, and false-positive results in observational research.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Anthony; Montagnes, B Pablo

    2015-11-10

    A recent, widely cited study [Healy AJ, Malhotra N, Mo CH (2010) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107(29):12804-12809] finds that college football games influence voting behavior. Victories within 2 weeks of an election reportedly increase the success of the incumbent party in presidential, senatorial, and gubernatorial elections in the home county of the team. We reassess the evidence and conclude that there is likely no such effect, despite the fact that Healy et al. followed the best practices in social science and used a credible research design. Multiple independent sources of evidence suggest that the original finding was spurious-reflecting bad luck for researchers rather than a shortcoming of American voters. We fail to estimate the same effect when we leverage situations where multiple elections with differing incumbent parties occur in the same county and year. We also find that the purported effect of college football games is stronger in counties where people are less interested in college football, just as strong when the incumbent candidate does not run for reelection, and just as strong in other parts of the state outside the home county of the team. Lastly, we detect no effect of National Football League games on elections, despite their greater popularity. We conclude with recommendations for evaluating surprising research findings and avoiding similar false-positive results.

  4. Epidemiological analysis of the significance of low-positive test results for antibody to hepatitis B surface and core antigens.

    PubMed Central

    Hadler, S C; Murphy, B L; Schable, C A; Heyward, W L; Francis, D P; Kane, M A

    1984-01-01

    To determine the significance of certain serological test results commonly encountered in hepatitis B virus testing, we reviewed serological test data from nine studies of hepatitis B conducted between 1980 and 1982. Three tests, for hepatitis B surface antigen and for antibodies to hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBs and anti-HBc), were used to measure hepatitis B virus infection risk in various populations. Two results, low levels of anti-HBs alone and low levels of anti-HBc alone, occurred at constant frequencies (2.72 and 0.4%, respectively), regardless of the prevalence of HBV infection in the population. Positivity for low levels of anti-HBs alone persisted for 1 year in less than one-half of those studied; in addition, response to hepatitis B virus vaccine was augmented in only one-third of this group. Positivity for low levels of anti-HBc alone did not persist in any of 11 persons studied. These findings indicate that presently available tests for anti-HBs and anti-HBc at low levels are often nonspecific and should be interpreted with caution. PMID:6715519

  5. Real Time Precise Point Positioning: Preliminary Results for the Brazilian Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, Haroldo; Monico, João.; Hirokazu Shimabukuro, Milton; Aquino, Marcio

    2010-05-01

    GNSS positioning can be carried out in relative or absolute approach. In the last years, more attention has been driven to the real time precise point positioning (PPP). To achieve centimeter accuracy with this method in real time it is necessary to have available the satellites precise coordinates as well as satellites clocks corrections. The coordinates can be used from the predicted IGU ephemeris, but the satellites clocks must be estimated in a real time. It can be made from a GNSS network as can be seen from EUREF Permanent Network. The infra-structure to realize the PPP in real time is being available in Brazil through the Brazilian Continuous Monitoring Network (RBMC) together with the Sao Paulo State GNSS network which are transmitting GNSS data using NTRIP (Networked Transport of RTCM via Internet Protocol) caster. Based on this information it was proposed a PhD thesis in the Univ. Estadual Paulista (UNESP) aiming to investigate and develop the methodology to estimate the satellites clocks and realize PPP in real time. Then, software is being developed to process GNSS data in the real time PPP mode. A preliminary version of the software was called PPP_RT and is able to process GNSS code and phase data using precise ephemeris and satellites clocks. The PPP processing can be accomplished considering the absolute satellite antenna Phase Center Variation (PCV), Ocean Tide Loading (OTL), Earth Body Tide, among others. The first order ionospheric effects can be eliminated or minimized by ion-free combination or parameterized in the receiver-satellite direction using a stochastic process, e.g. random walk or white noise. In the case of ionosphere estimation, a pseudo-observable is introduced in the mathematical model for each satellite and the initial value can be computed from Klobuchar model or from Global Ionospheric Map (GIM). The adjustment is realized in the recursive mode and the DIA (Detection Identification and Adaptation) is used for quality control. In

  6. Flue gas conditioning for improved particle collection in electrostatic precipitators. Second topical report, Results of bench-scale screening of additives

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, M.D.

    1993-08-13

    ADA Technologies, Inc. (ADA) has completed the bench-scale testing phase of a program to evaluate additives that will improve the collection of fine particles in electrostatic precipitators (ESPs). A bench-scale ESP was installed at the Consolidation Coal Company (CONSOL) combustion research and development facility in Library, PA in order to conduct the evaluation. During a two-week test, four candidate additives were injected into the flue gas ahead of a 100 acfm ESP to determine the effect on fly ash collectability. Two additives were found to reduce the emissions from the ESP. Additives ``C`` and ``D`` performed better than initially anticipated -- reducing emissions initially by 17%. Emissions were reduced by 27% after the ESP was modified by the installation of baffles to minimize sneakage. In addition to the measured improvements in performance, no detrimental effects (i.e., electrode fouling) were observed in the operation of the ESP during the testing. The measures of success identified for the bench-scale phase of the program have been surpassed. Since the additives will affect only non-rapping reentrainment particle losses, it is expected that an even greater improvement in particle collection will be observed in larger-scale ESPs. Therefore, positive results are anticipated during the pilot-scale phase of the program and during a future full-scale demonstration test. A preliminary economic analysis was performed to evaluate the cost of the additive process and to compare its costs against alternative means for reducing emissions from ESPs. The results show that conditioning with additive C at a rate of 0.05% (wt. additive to wt. fly ash) is much less expensive than adding new ESP capacity, and more cost competitive than existing chemical conditioning processes. Preliminary chemical analysis of conditioned fly ash shows that it passes the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure criteria.

  7. False-positive results in ELISA-based anti FVIII antibody assay may occur with lupus anticoagulant and phospholipid antibodies.

    PubMed

    Sahud, M; Zhukov, O; Mo, K; Popov, J; Dlott, J

    2012-09-01

    The evaluation of a prolonged aPTT often includes Lupus Anticoagulant, Antiphospholipid Antibodies, and Factor VIII (FVIII) inhibitors. We have noticed that patient samples positive for lupus antibody (LA) are frequently also positive for FVIII IgG antibodies in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), indicating the need for follow-up testing with a more labour-intensive functional assay for FVIII inhibition. This study evaluates the potential for a FVIII IgG ELISA to yield false-positive results in patient samples positive for LA or other antiphospholipid antibodies. A total of 289 residual de-identified patient samples positive for LA (n = 143), anti-cardiolipin IgG (n = 84), or beta2-glycoprotein antibody (n = 62) were tested for FVIII IgG using a commercial ELISA. Samples with positive FVIII IgG ELISA results were further tested for FVIII activity using a clot-based FVIII inhibitor assay. The FVIII IgG ELISA yielded positive results in 39 (13%) of the samples tested, including 13/143 (13%) LA-positive, 15/85 (18%) aCL IgG-positive and 6/62 (10%) β2-glycoprotein IgG-positive samples. The clot-based FVIII inhibitor assay yielded negative results in all 39 FVIII IgG-positive specimens tested, indicating discrepancy with the FVIII IgG ELISA results. Patient specimens positive for LA, aCL IgG, or β2-glycoprotein IgG may yield false-positive results for FVIII antibodies. Caution is warranted in interpreting FVIII antibody results in these cases.

  8. Effect of poppy seed consummation on the positive results of opiates screening in biological samples.

    PubMed

    Jankovicová, Katarína; Ulbrich, Pavol; Fuknová, Mária

    2009-04-01

    Poppy seed is a popular substance of many traditional Slovak cakes. We can eat quite great amount of it, sometimes more than 50 g. Existing problem in interpreting the results of opiate urine analysis in case of drug abuse arises from the natural occurrence of opiate alkaloids in poppy seed. Interpretation of morphine presence in urine sample is in some cases a problem because morphine present in the urine sample may come from different "sources". The presence of additional, respectively, other opiate in urine sample is significant help when interpreting the presence of morphine. We used poppy seed bought in supermarket for our experiment. Presence of morphine and codeine was determined in poppy seed extracts, whereas the concentration of majority opiate-morphine was 0.9 mg/100 g (9 ppm). This poppy seed was used for two series of experiment-poppy seed consummation, where four persons consumed 100g of poppy seed in the first series and 50 g in the second series. Urine samples were taken in regular 1h intervals where first urine sample was given for testing 3 h after consummation. Concentrations of total opiates were determined in each urine sample by screening examination. Morphine concentrations were determined in selected urine samples using GC/MS with internal standard.

  9. Sofosbuvir Inhibits Hepatitis E Virus Replication In Vitro and Results in an Additive Effect When Combined With Ribavirin.

    PubMed

    Dao Thi, Viet Loan; Debing, Yannick; Wu, Xianfang; Rice, Charles M; Neyts, Johan; Moradpour, Darius; Gouttenoire, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    Infection with hepatitis E virus genotype 3 may result in chronic hepatitis in immunocompromised patients. Reduction of immunosuppression or treatment with ribavirin or pegylated interferon-α can result in viral clearance. However, safer and more effective treatment options are needed. Here, we show that sofosbuvir inhibits the replication of hepatitis E virus genotype 3 both in subgenomic replicon systems as well as a full-length infectious clone. Moreover, the combination of sofosbuvir and ribavirin results in an additive antiviral effect. Sofosbuvir may be considered as an add-on therapy to ribavirin for the treatment of chronic hepatitis E in immunocompromised patients.

  10. The two-step positive temperature coefficient in resistance characteristics of n-(Ba, Pb)? ceramics created through inclusion of grain boundary modifier additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutty, T. R. N.; Hari, N. S.

    1997-12-01

    Donor-doped n-0022-3727/30/24/015/img2 polycrystalline ceramics exhibit distinctly two-step positive temperature coefficient of resistance (PTCR) characteristics when formulated with suitable combinations of 0022-3727/30/24/015/img3 and 0022-3727/30/24/015/img4 as grain boundary modifiers by heterogeneous addition. 0022-3727/30/24/015/img3 or 0022-3727/30/24/015/img4 when added singularly resulted in either steep or broad PTCR jumps respectively across the phase transition. The two-step PTCR is attributed to the activation of the acceptor states, created through 0022-3727/30/24/015/img3 and 0022-3727/30/24/015/img4, for various temperature regimes above the Curie point 0022-3727/30/24/015/img9. The changing pattern of trap states is evident from the presence of 0022-3727/30/24/015/img10 - 0022-3727/30/24/015/img11 - 0022-3727/30/24/015/img12 type hole centres in the grain boundary layer regions, identified in the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra. That charge redistribution occurs among the inter-band gap defect states on crossing the Curie temperature is substantiated by the temperature coefficient in the EPR results. Capacitance - voltage results clearly show that there is an increase in the density of trap states with the addition of 0022-3727/30/24/015/img3 and 0022-3727/30/24/015/img4. The spread in energy values of these trap states is evident from the large change in barrier height (0022-3727/30/24/015/img15 - 0.6 eV) between 500 and 650 K.

  11. Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive for Enhanced Mercury Control - Task 5 Full-Scale Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Gary Blythe; MariJon Owens

    2007-12-01

    and reporting. The other four tasks involve field testing on FGD systems, either at pilot or full scale. The four tasks include: Task 2 - Pilot Additive Testing in Texas Lignite Flue Gas; Task 3 - Full-scale FGD Additive Testing in High-sulfur Eastern Bituminous Flue Gas; Task 4 - Pilot Wet Scrubber Additive Tests at Plant Yates; and Task 5 - Full-scale Additive Tests at Plant Yates. The pilot-scale tests and the full-scale test using high-sulfur coal were completed in 2005 and 2006 and have been previously reported. This topical report presents the results from the Task 5 full-scale additive tests, conducted at Southern Company's Plant Yates Unit 1. Both additives were tested there.

  12. Comparison of length of stay and outcomes of patients with positive versus negative blood culture results.

    PubMed

    Armstrong-Briley, Danielle; Hozhabri, Neda S T; Armstrong, Kris; Puthottile, Jason; Benavides, Raul; Beal, Stacy

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, sepsis is the leading cause of death in critically ill patients. The fatality rate for severe sepsis is about 40%, and treatment costs over $16 billion annually. It is critical to identify and treat the source of sepsis. While there are varying guidelines determining when to draw blood for culture, at Baylor University Medical Center at Dallas, blood cultures are ordered for patients with new onset of fever, immunosuppression, or a suspicion of an underlying infectious etiology. We conducted a retrospective study of patients who had blood cultures after hospital admission or in the emergency department in December 2013. We compared length of stay and outcomes of patients with positive versus negative blood cultures. There was no significant difference for length of stay or outcomes among patients with positive and negative blood cultures. For patients admitted from the emergency department, there was a longer length of stay for patients with positive cultures; however, the overall prognosis was not worse.

  13. Trastuzumab or lapatinib with standard chemotherapy for HER2-positive breast cancer: results from the GEICAM/2006-14 trial

    PubMed Central

    Alba, E; Albanell, J; de la Haba, J; Barnadas, A; Calvo, L; Sánchez-Rovira, P; Ramos, M; Rojo, F; Burgués, O; Carrasco, E; Caballero, R; Porras, I; Tibau, A; Cámara, M C; Lluch, A

    2014-01-01

    Background: The addition of trastuzumab (T) and lapatinib (L) to neoadjuvant chemotherapy increases the pathological complete response (pCR) rate in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive early breast cancer. We investigated the efficacy of T or L with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and specific efficacy biomarkers. Methods: Patients with stages I–III (including inflammatory) HER2-positive breast cancer were randomised to receive epirubicin (E) plus cyclophosphamide (C) × 4 cycles followed by docetaxel (D) plus either T (EC-DT) or L (EC-DL). End points included pCR (primary), clinical response, toxicity, and pCR-predictive biomarkers. Results: We randomised 102 patients to EC-DT (50) and EC-DL (52). Median age was 48, 56% were premenopausal and 58% had oestrogen receptor (ER)-positive tumours. Pathological complete response in breast was 52.1% (95% CI:38.0–66.2%) for EC-DT and 25.5% (95% CI:13.5–37.5%) for EC-DL (P=0.0065). Pathological complete response in breast and axilla was 47.9% for EC-DT and 23.5% for EC-DL (P=0.011). Grade 3–4 toxicity did not differ across treatments, except for diarrhoea (2% in EC-DT vs 13.5% in EC-DL, P=0.030). Multivariate analyses showed that treatment (P=0.036) and ER (P=0.014) were the only predictors of pCR in both groups. Conclusion: EC-DT exhibited higher efficacy and lower toxicity than EC-DL. Of the different biomarkers studied, only the absence of ER expression was associated with increased pCR. PMID:24457911

  14. Disseminating the Positively Aging[R] Teaching Materials: Results of a Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtenstein, Michael J.; Pruski, Linda A.; Marshall, Carolyn E.; Blalock, Cheryl L.; Liu, Yan; Plaetke, Rosemarie

    2005-01-01

    This study tested the effectiveness of 2 dissemination methods for the Positively Aging teaching materials. In San Antonio, Texas, 4 middle schools participated in a 3-year controlled trial of dissemination via distance electronic support alone (control) compared to distance electronic support plus in-school support from study staff…

  15. Positive and negative placebo effects resulting from the deceptive administration of an ergogenic aid.

    PubMed

    Beedie, Christopher J; Coleman, Damian A; Foad, Abigail J

    2007-06-01

    The article describes a study examining placebo effects associated with the administration of a hypothetical ergogenic aid in sport. Forty-two team-sport athletes were randomly assigned to 2 groups. All subjects completed 3 x 30-m baseline sprint trials after which they were administered what was described to them as an ergogenic aid but was in fact 200 mg of cornstarch in a gelatin capsule. Group 1 was provided with positive information about the likely effects on performance of the substance, whereas Group 2 was provided with negative information about the same substance. The sprint protocol was repeated 20 min later. Although for Group 1 mean speed did not differ significantly between baseline and experimental trials, a significant linear trend of greater speed with successive experimental trials suggested that positive belief exerted a positive effect on performance (P < 0.01). Group 2 ran 1.57% slower than at baseline (P < 0.01, 95% confidence intervals 0.32-2.82%), suggesting that negative belief exerted a negative effect on performance. Collectively, data suggest that subjects' belief in the efficacy or otherwise of a placebo treatment might significantly influence findings in experimental research. PMID:17693687

  16. A re-examination of paleomagnetic results from NA Jurassic sedimentary rocks: Additional evidence for proposed Jurassic MUTO?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Housen, B. A.

    2015-12-01

    Kent and Irving, 2010; and Kent et al, 2015 propose a monster shift in the position of Jurassic (160 to 145 Ma) paleopoles for North America- defined by results from igneous rocks. This monster shift is likely an unrecognized true polar wander occurrence. Although subject to inclination error, results from sedimentary rocks from North America, if corrected for these effects, can be used to supplement the available data for this time period. Steiner (2003) reported results from 48 stratigraphic horizons sampled from the Callovian Summerville Fm, from NE New Mexico. A recalculated mean of these results yields a mean direction of D = 332, I = 39, n=48, k = 15, α95 = 5.4°. These data were analyzed for possible inclination error-although the dataset is small, the E-I results yielded a corrected I = 53. This yields a corrected paleopole for NA at ~165 Ma located at 67° N and 168° E.Paleomagnetic results from the Black Hills- Kilanowski (2002) for the Callovian Hulett Mbr of the Sundance Fm, and Gregiore (2001) the Oxfordian-Tithonian Morrison Fm (Gregiore, 2001) have previously been interpreted to represent Eocene-aged remagnetizations- due to the nearly exact coincidence between the in-situ pole positions of these Jurassic units with the Eocene pole for NA. Both of the tilt-corrected results for these units have high latitude poles (Sundance Fm: 79° N, 146° E; Morrison Fm: 89° N, 165° E). An E-I analysis of these data will be presented- using a provisional inclination error of 10°, corrected paleopoles are: (Sundance Fm: 76° N, 220° E; Morrison Fm: 77° N, 266° E). The Black Hills 165 Ma (Sundance Fm) and 145 Ma (Morrison Fm) poles, provisionally corrected for 10° inclination error- occur fairly close to the NA APWP proposed by Kent et al, 2015- using an updated set of results from kimberlites- the agreement between the Sundance Fm and the Triple-B (158 Ma) pole would be nearly exact with a slightly lesser inclination error. The Summerville Fm- which is

  17. Influence of Errors in Patient Positioning on Resulting Dose Distribution during IMRT Treatment for Head and Neck Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navrátil, Matěj

    2010-01-01

    Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) irradiation technique uses steep dose gradients to protect organs at risk (OAR) during treatment course. Therefore even small mistakes in patient positioning during treatment course may lead to significant changes in dose distribution. The influence of small errors (order of millimeters) in patient's positioning on resulting dose absorbed in OARs and target volume (PTV, GTV) was simulated in this work.

  18. The prevalence and correlates of receiving confirmatory HIV test results among newly diagnosed HIV-positive individuals at a community-based testing center.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Matthew; Wu, Elwin; Mendoza, Moira; Lowry, Blakely; Ford, Lynnette; Holloway, Ian

    2012-10-01

    This study examined the prevalence and correlates of completing the HIV testing process-specifically receiving a confirmatory HIV test and returning for the results-in a sample of newly diagnosed HIV-positive individuals at an HIV testing center in New York City. Of the 213 individuals who received a reactive rapid HIV test result, 82% received a confirmatory HIV test. Of the 236 individuals who received a positive result on a rapid or traditional HIV test that was validated by a positive confirmatory HIV test, 65% returned for the confirmatory test results. Multivariate analyses revealed that being a non-U.S. citizen, homeless/living in transitional housing, being uninsured, and testing off-site were significantly associated with completing the HIV testing process. The findings indicate the need to explore strategies that address obstacles to receiving confirmatory HIV testing and returning for the results, in addition to the feasibility of a rapid confirmatory HIV test. PMID:23016505

  19. Factors to predict positive results of gonadotropin releasing hormone stimulation test in girls with suspected precocious puberty.

    PubMed

    Nam, Hyo-Kyoung; Rhie, Young Jun; Son, Chang Sung; Park, Sang Hee; Lee, Kee-Hyoung

    2012-02-01

    Sometimes, the clinical findings and the results of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) stimulation test are inconsistent in girls with early breast development and bone age advancement. We aimed to investigate the factors predicting positive results of the GnRH stimulation test in girls with suspected central precocious puberty (CPP). We reviewed the records of 574 girls who developed breast budding before the age of 8 yr and underwent the GnRH stimulation test under the age of 9 yr. Positive results of the GnRH stimulated peak luteinizing hormone (LH) level were defined as 5 IU/L and over. Girls with the initial positive results (n = 375) showed accelerated growth, advanced bone age and higher serum basal LH, follicle-stimulating hormone, and estradiol levels, compared to those with the initial negative results (n = 199). Girls with the follow-up positive results (n = 64) showed accelerated growth and advanced bone age, compared to those with the follow-up negative results. In the binary logistic regression, the growth velocity ratio was the most significant predictive factor of positive results. We suggest that the rapid growth velocity is the most useful predictive factor for positive results in the GnRH stimulation test in girls with suspected precocious puberty.

  20. [False-positive results obtained on examining slaughtered animals for the presence of antibiotic residues (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Nouws, J F

    1975-06-15

    As part of the examination of emergency-slaughtered animals for the presence of antibiotic residues, studies were done to see whether false-positive results would be obtained when the Sarcina lutea kidney test and Bacillus subtilis BGA test were performed. When the S. lutea kidney test was positive in cattle, calves and swine, penicillin was invariably found to be present in those animals, the histories of which showed that they had not been given antibiotics. A syringe and an injected fluid containing penicillin residues are regarded as possible causes of these positive results. When the S. lutea kidney test was performed in horses which had been in a state of stress prior to slaughter, false-positive results were occasionally observed. When the German B. subtilis BGA test was used, a large number of false-positive results were recorded, among others in equine kidneys. This shows that the use of this test in examining the kidney is a highly controversial matter. A number of drugs used in veterinary medicine may have an inhibitory effect on the growth of S. lutea and B. subtilis BGA test organisms in vitro. When these drugs were used therapeutically (in vivo), the result of the S. lutea kidney test was not positive in any of the cases studied. On the other hand, false-positive results were obtained when the B. subtilis BGA renal medullary test was performed in those animals in which lidocaine and calcium borogluconate had also been injected.

  1. Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 positive (HER2+) metastatic breast cancer: how the latest results are improving therapeutic options

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hanfang; Rugo, Hope S.

    2015-01-01

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 positive (HER2+) metastatic breast cancer (MBC) remains an incurable disease, and approximately 25% of patients with HER2+ early breast cancer still relapse after adjuvant trastuzumab-based treatment. HER2 is a validated therapeutic target that remains relevant throughout the disease process. Recently, a number of novel HER2 targeted agents have become available, including lapatinib (a small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor of both HER2 and the epidermal growth factor receptor), pertuzumab (a new anti-HER2 monoclonal antibody) and ado-trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1, a novel antibody–drug conjugate), which provide additional treatment options for patients with HER2+ MBC. The latest clinical trials have demonstrated improved outcome with treatment including pertuzumab or T-DM1 compared with standard HER2 targeted therapy. Here we review the clinical development of approved and investigational targeted agents for the treatment of HER2+ MBC, summarize the latest results of important clinical trials supporting use of these agents in the treatment of HER2+ MBC, and discuss how these results impact therapeutic options in clinical practice. PMID:26557900

  2. [Sports correlate with positive living habits. Results from the population survey the Swiss MONICA project].

    PubMed

    Dai, S F; Marti, B; Rickenbach, M; Gutzwiller, F

    1990-09-01

    Exercise is associated with positive health habits: Findings from the populations survey of the Swiss MONICA-project. Relatively little is known on population-wide relations of habitual exercise to relevant health factors such as diet, cigarette smoking and overweight. Data from a population-based sample of approximately 800 men and women each, aged 25-64, collected in western Switzerland as a part of an international WHO-project, were used to examine cross-sectionally the interrelationships between different lifestyle factors. Men and women training regularly (i.e. greater than or equal to 2 times/wk) exhibited consistently and highly significantly more favourable health habits, regarding diet (i.e. trimming visible fat, higher intake of fruits, salad and vegetables, yogurt and cottage cheese), nonsmoking, and weight control. Men and women with at least some regular physical activity during leisure-time had in turn more favourable health habits than their sedentary counterparts. In both sexes, educational level was directly related to exercise and a healthy diet, and inversely related to smoking and relative weight. Regularly training men and women also had a significantly improved lipid profile compared to inactive ones. It is concluded from this study that leisure-time physical activity and exercise are related to a positive health behaviour including diet, nonsmoking and efficient weight control. This may suggest that exercise should possibly be integrated into any population-wide attempts and efforts to promote health to enhance primary prevention.

  3. High-rate dischargeability enhancement of Ni/MH rechargeable batteries by addition of nanoscale CoO to positive electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, J. B.; Tu, J. P.; Han, T. A.; Yang, Y. Z.; Zhang, W. K.; Zhao, X. B.

    Nanoscale cobalt oxide (CoO) particles were synthesized by analysis of CoCO 3 in vacuum. Four groups of sealed Ni/MH batteries with different ratio of nanoscale CoO in the positive electrodes were assembled. The overall characteristics of Ni/MH batteries were investigated at different discharge rates at room temperature. The high-rate discharge performance of the Ni/MH batteries was improved by the addition of nanoscale CoO in positive electrode as compared with the addition of normal CoO. Under high-rate discharge conditions, the batteries with sufficient nanoscale CoO in positive electrodes presented much better cycling stability, higher discharge mean voltage, lower internal resistance and higher high-rate capacity. The addition of 8 wt.% nanoscale CoO was proved a desired amount to modify the battery performance at high discharge rates. Too much nanoscale CoO contributed no effect on the improvement of overall performance of Ni/MH batteries.

  4. Initial results of radio occultation observations of Earth`s atmosphere using the Global Positioning System

    SciTech Connect

    Kursinski, E.R.; Hajj, G.A.; Bertiger, W.I.; Leroy, S.S.

    1996-02-23

    Recent radio occultation measurements using Global Positioning System satellite transmitters and an orbiting receiver have provided a globally distributed set of high-resolution atmospheric profiles, suggesting that the technique may may a significant contribution to global change and weather prediction programs. Biases in occultation temperatures relative to radiosonde and model data are about 1 kelvin or less in the tropics and are generally less than 0.5 kelvin at higher latitudes. Data quality is sufficient to quantify significant model errors in remote regions. Temperature profiles also reveal either an equatorial Rossby-gravity or an inertio-gravity wave. Such waves provide a fundamental source of momentum for the stratospheric circulation. 25 refs., 5 figs.

  5. Neratinib in HER-2-positive breast cancer: results to date and clinical usefulness

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Arlene

    2016-01-01

    The management of HER-2-positive breast cancer has improved significantly with the use of targeted agents to the HER-2 signaling pathway. Despite the improved survival achieved with the use of trastuzumab and chemotherapy in both the adjuvant and metastatic setting, patients may still recur or progress; whilst preclinical data demonstrate that these cancer cells remain addicted to the HER-2 oncogene. Neratinib, an oral small molecule tyrosine-kinase inhibitor has efficacy in the metastatic and adjuvant setting of patients who have previously received trastuzumab-based treatment. Diarrhea, being a class effect of tyrosine-kinase inhibitor, is the most common side effect seen following neratinib administration, but recent data suggests that a prophylactic loperamide regimen can reduce the incidence of grade 3 diarrhea. Phase I through to III clinical trials of neratinib will be reviewed, with discussion of the postulated mechanism underlying diarrheal events and its management. PMID:27583026

  6. Demonstration of precise estimation of polar motion parameters with the global positioning system: Initial results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lichten, S. M.

    1991-01-01

    Data from the Global Positioning System (GPS) were used to determine precise polar motion estimates. Conservatively calculated formal errors of the GPS least squares solution are approx. 10 cm. The GPS estimates agree with independently determined polar motion values from very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) at the 5 cm level. The data were obtained from a partial constellation of GPS satellites and from a sparse worldwide distribution of ground stations. The accuracy of the GPS estimates should continue to improve as more satellites and ground receivers become operational, and eventually a near real time GPS capability should be available. Because the GPS data are obtained and processed independently from the large radio antennas at the Deep Space Network (DSN), GPS estimation could provide very precise measurements of Earth orientation for calibration of deep space tracking data and could significantly relieve the ever growing burden on the DSN radio telescopes to provide Earth platform calibrations.

  7. Neratinib in HER-2-positive breast cancer: results to date and clinical usefulness.

    PubMed

    Chan, Arlene

    2016-09-01

    The management of HER-2-positive breast cancer has improved significantly with the use of targeted agents to the HER-2 signaling pathway. Despite the improved survival achieved with the use of trastuzumab and chemotherapy in both the adjuvant and metastatic setting, patients may still recur or progress; whilst preclinical data demonstrate that these cancer cells remain addicted to the HER-2 oncogene. Neratinib, an oral small molecule tyrosine-kinase inhibitor has efficacy in the metastatic and adjuvant setting of patients who have previously received trastuzumab-based treatment. Diarrhea, being a class effect of tyrosine-kinase inhibitor, is the most common side effect seen following neratinib administration, but recent data suggests that a prophylactic loperamide regimen can reduce the incidence of grade 3 diarrhea. Phase I through to III clinical trials of neratinib will be reviewed, with discussion of the postulated mechanism underlying diarrheal events and its management. PMID:27583026

  8. Accuracy of navigation-assisted acetabular component positioning studied by computed tomography measurements: methods and results.

    PubMed

    Ybinger, Thomas; Kumpan, W; Hoffart, H E; Muschalik, B; Bullmann, W; Zweymüller, K

    2007-09-01

    The postoperative position of the acetabular component is key for the outcome of total hip arthroplasty. Various aids have been developed to support the surgeon during implant placement. In a prospective study involving 4 centers, the computer-recorded cup alignment of 37 hip systems at the end of navigation-assisted surgery was compared with the cup angles measured on postoperative computerized tomograms. This comparison showed an average difference of 3.5 degrees (SD, 4.4 degrees ) for inclination and 6.5 degrees (SD, 7.3 degrees ) for anteversion angles. The differences in inclination correlated with the thickness of the soft tissue overlying the anterior superior iliac spine (r = 0.44; P = .007), whereas the differences in anteversion showed a correlation with the thickness of the soft tissue overlying the pubic tubercles (r = 0.52; P = .001). In centers experienced in the use of navigational tools, deviations were smaller than in units with little experience in their use. PMID:17826270

  9. Lanthanum Tricyanide-Catalyzed Acyl Silane-Ketone Benzoin Additions and Kinetic Resolution of Resultant α-Silyloxyketones

    PubMed Central

    Tarr, James C.

    2010-01-01

    We report the full account of our efforts on the lanthanum tricyanide-catalyzed acyl silane-ketone benzoin reaction. The reaction exhibits a wide scope in both acyl silane (aryl, alkyl) and ketone (aryl-alkyl, alkyl-alkyl, aryl-aryl, alkenyl-alkyl, alkynyl-alkyl) coupling partners. The diastereoselectivity of the reaction has been examined in both cyclic and acyclic systems. Cyclohexanones give products arising from equatorial attack by the acyl silane. The diastereoselectivity of acyl silane addition to acyclic α-hydroxy ketones can be controlled by varying the protecting group to obtain either Felkin-Ahn or chelation control. The resultant α-silyloxyketone products can be resolved with selectivity factors from 10 to 15 by subjecting racemic ketone benzoin products to CBS reduction. PMID:20392127

  10. Divergent targets of glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation result in additive effects of metformin and starvation in colon and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Marini, Cecilia; Bianchi, Giovanna; Buschiazzo, Ambra; Ravera, Silvia; Martella, Roberto; Bottoni, Gianluca; Petretto, Andrea; Emionite, Laura; Monteverde, Elena; Capitanio, Selene; Inglese, Elvira; Fabbi, Marina; Bongioanni, Francesca; Garaboldi, Lucia; Bruzzi, Paolo; Orengo, Anna Maria; Raffaghello, Lizzia; Sambuceti, Gianmario

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidence demonstrates that targeting energy metabolism is a promising strategy to fight cancer. Here we show that combining metformin and short-term starvation markedly impairs metabolism and growth of colon and breast cancer. The impairment in glycolytic flux caused by starvation is enhanced by metformin through its interference with hexokinase II activity, as documented by measurement of 18F-fluorodeoxyglycose uptake. Oxidative phosphorylation is additively compromised by combined treatment: metformin virtually abolishes Complex I function; starvation determines an uncoupled status of OXPHOS and amplifies the activity of respiratory Complexes II and IV thus combining a massive ATP depletion with a significant increase in reactive oxygen species. More importantly, the combined treatment profoundly impairs cancer glucose metabolism and virtually abolishes lesion growth in experimental models of breast and colon carcinoma. Our results strongly suggest that energy metabolism is a promising target to reduce cancer progression. PMID:26794854

  11. Prospective Associations of Low Positive Emotionality with First Onsets of Depressive and Anxiety Disorders: Results from a 10-Wave Latent Trait-State Modeling Study

    PubMed Central

    Kendall, Ashley D.; Zinbarg, Richard E.; Mineka, Susan; Bobova, Lyuba; Prenoveau, Jason M.; Revelle, William; Craske, Michelle G.

    2015-01-01

    Unipolar depressive disorders (DDs) and anxiety disorders (ADs) co-occur at high rates and can be difficult to distinguish from one another. Cross-sectional evidence has demonstrated that whereas all these disorders are characterized by high negative emotion, low positive emotion shows specificity in its associations with DDs, social anxiety disorder (SAD), and possibly generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). However, it remains unknown whether low positive emotionality, a personality trait characterized by the tendency to experience low positive emotion over time, prospectively marks risk for the initial development of these disorders. We aimed to help address this gap. Each year for up to 10 waves, participants (n = 627, mean age = 17 years at baseline) completed self-report measures of mood and personality, and a structured clinical interview. A latent trait-state decomposition technique was used to model positive emotionality and related personality traits over the first three years of the study. Survival analyses were used to test the prospective associations of low positive emotionality with first onsets of disorders over the subsequent six-year follow-up among participants with no relevant disorder history. The results showed that low positive emotionality was a risk marker for DDs, SAD, and GAD, although evidence for its specificity to these disorders versus the remaining ADs was inconclusive. Additional analyses revealed that the risk effects were largely accounted for by the overlap of low positive emotionality with neuroticism. The implications for understanding the role of positive emotionality in DDs and ADs are discussed. PMID:26372005

  12. Positive results for drug combo in I-SPY 2 trial.

    PubMed

    2014-02-01

    In results from one part of the I-SPY 2 trial announced at the 2013 San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium, neoadjuvant veliparib plus carboplatin improved outcomes for women with triple-negative breast cancer.

  13. [Afatinib as first-line therapy in mutation-positive EGFR. Results by type of mutation].

    PubMed

    Vidal, Óscar Juan

    2016-04-01

    The discovery of endothelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations has laid the foundations for personalized medicine in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). In phase III trials, the first-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI), gefitinib and erlotinib, demonstrated greater efficacy compared with chemotherapy in patients with EGFR mutations, achieving progression-free survival of 8-13.5 months. Afatinib, a second-generation irreversible pan-ErbB inhibitor, is the first TKI that has shown a benefit in overall survival (OS) compared with chemotherapy in EGFR mutation-positive NSCLC when used as first-line treatment. Exon 19 deletion (Del19) and the single-point substitution mutation (L858R) in exon 21, called activating mutations due to their ability to confer sensitivity to TKI, represent approximately 90% of the EGFR mutations in NSCLC. Distinct sensitivity to TKI has been observed depending on the type of mutation, with greater progression-free survival in patients with the Del19 mutation. The analysis of OS in the LUX-Lung 3 and LUX-Lung 6 trials showed a statistically significant increase in survival in afatinib-treated patients with the Del 19 mutation, but no significant increase in that of patients with the L858R mutation. Direct comparison of afatinib and gefitinib as first-line therapy (LUX-Lung 7 trial) showed a statistically-significant increase in progression-free survival (hazard ratio: 0.73; 95% confidence interval, 0.57-0.95; p=0.0165) with afatinib. In the analysis by type of mutation, this benefit was observed for both the Del19 and the L858R mutations. PMID:27426243

  14. [Afatinib as first-line therapy in mutation-positive EGFR. Results by type of mutation].

    PubMed

    Vidal, Óscar Juan

    2016-04-01

    The discovery of endothelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations has laid the foundations for personalized medicine in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). In phase III trials, the first-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI), gefitinib and erlotinib, demonstrated greater efficacy compared with chemotherapy in patients with EGFR mutations, achieving progression-free survival of 8-13.5 months. Afatinib, a second-generation irreversible pan-ErbB inhibitor, is the first TKI that has shown a benefit in overall survival (OS) compared with chemotherapy in EGFR mutation-positive NSCLC when used as first-line treatment. Exon 19 deletion (Del19) and the single-point substitution mutation (L858R) in exon 21, called activating mutations due to their ability to confer sensitivity to TKI, represent approximately 90% of the EGFR mutations in NSCLC. Distinct sensitivity to TKI has been observed depending on the type of mutation, with greater progression-free survival in patients with the Del19 mutation. The analysis of OS in the LUX-Lung 3 and LUX-Lung 6 trials showed a statistically significant increase in survival in afatinib-treated patients with the Del 19 mutation, but no significant increase in that of patients with the L858R mutation. Direct comparison of afatinib and gefitinib as first-line therapy (LUX-Lung 7 trial) showed a statistically-significant increase in progression-free survival (hazard ratio: 0.73; 95% confidence interval, 0.57-0.95; p=0.0165) with afatinib. In the analysis by type of mutation, this benefit was observed for both the Del19 and the L858R mutations.

  15. Racial Differences in False-Positive Mammogram Rates: Results from the ACRIN Digital Mammographic Imaging Screening Trial (DMIST)

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Anne Marie; Yamartino, Philip; Yang, Jianing; Bristol, Mirar; Conant, Emily; Armstrong, Katrina

    2015-01-01

    Background Mammography screening reduces breast cancer mortality, but false-positive tests are common. Few studies have assessed racial differences in false-positive rates. Objectives We compared false-positive mammography rates for black and white women, and the effect of patient and facility characteristics on false-positives. Research Design and Subjects Prospective cohort study. From a sample of the American College of Radiology Imaging Network (ACRIN) Digital Mammographic Imaging Screening Trial (DMIST), we identified black/African American (N=3176) or white (N=26,446) women with no prior breast surgery or breast cancer. Measures Race, demographics, and breast cancer risk factors were self-reported. Results of initial digital and film mammograms were assessed. False-positives were defined as a positive mammogram (Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System [BIRADS] category 0, 4, 5) with no cancer diagnosis within 15 months. Results The false-positive rate for digital mammograms was 9.2% for black women compared to 7.8% for white women (p=0.009). After adjusting for age, black women had 17% increased odds of false-positive digital mammogram compared to whites (OR=1.17, 95% CI 1.01-1.35, p=0.033). This association was attenuated after adjusting for patient factors, prior films and study site (OR=1.04, 95% CI 0.91-1.20, p=0.561). There was no difference in the occurrence of false-positives by race for film mammography. Conclusion Black women had higher frequency of false-positive digital mammograms explained by lack of prior films and study site.The variation in the disparity between the established technique (film) and the new technology (digital) raises the possibility that racial differences in screening quality may be greatest for new technologies. PMID:26125419

  16. False Positive Functional Analysis Results as a Contributor of Treatment Failure during Functional Communication Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Amanda J.; Mueller, Michael M.

    2009-01-01

    Research has shown that functional analysis results are beneficial for treatment selection because they identify reinforcers for severe behavior that can then be used to reinforce replacement behaviors either differentially or noncontingently. Theoretically then, if a reinforcer is identified in a functional analysis erroneously, a well researched…

  17. The Position of Turkey among OECD Member and Candidate Countries According to PISA 2009 Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acar, Tulin

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the status of Turkey among OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) members and candidate countries through cluster and discriminant analyses according to PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment) 2009 results. The study includes 475460 fifteen year-old students from 65…

  18. Model assessment of additional contamination of water bodies as a result of wildfires in the Chernobyl exclusion zone.

    PubMed

    Bondar, Yu I; Navumau, A D; Nikitin, A N; Brown, J; Dowdall, M

    2014-12-01

    Forest fires and wild fires are recognized as a possible cause of resuspension and redistribution of radioactive substances when occurring on lands contaminated with such materials, and as such are a matter of concern within the regions of Belarus and the Ukraine which were contaminated by the Chernobyl accident in 1986. Modelling the effects of such fires on radioactive contaminants is a complex matter given the number of variables involved. In this paper, a probabilistic model was developed using empirical data drawn from the Polessie State Radiation-Ecological Reserve (PSRER), Belarus, and the Maximum Entropy Method. Using the model, it was possible to derive estimates of the contribution of fire events to overall variability in the levels of (137)Cs and (239,240)Pu in ground air as well as estimates of the deposition of these radionuclides to specific water bodies within the contaminated areas of Belarus. Results indicate that fire events are potentially significant redistributors of radioactive contaminants within the study area and may result in additional contamination being introduced to water bodies.

  19. Bose-Einstein correlation of positive kaon pairs in E859--Extended results and model comparisons

    SciTech Connect

    Cianciolo, V.

    1995-12-31

    Results are presented for multidimensional Bose-Einstein Correlation analyses of {pi}{sup +} and K{sup +} mid-rapidity pairs collected by BNL-AGS experiment E859 in 14.6 A{center_dot}GeV/c Si + Au central collisions. Comparisons are made to the cascade codes ARC (v. 1.9.5) and RQMD (v. 1.08). 14 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. The withholding of test results as a means of assessing the effectiveness of treatment in test-positive persons.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Noel S

    2013-04-01

    In recent years, a number of studies have achieved randomization of patients to alternative management strategies by blinding some patients (and their providers of medical care) to the results of tests that guide such strategies. Although this research approach has the potential to be a powerful means of measuring treatment effectiveness, the interpretation of the results may not be straightforward if the treatment received by test-positive persons is variable or not well documented, or if the analysis is not restricted to outcomes in test-positive persons. Studies in which the test results are withheld at random may face ethical issues that, to date, have received little discussion.

  1. Suppression of behavior by timeout punishment when suppression results in loss of positive reinforcement1

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, Arnold; Baron, Alan

    1968-01-01

    This investigation, using rats as subjects and punishment by timeout for responses maintained on a ratio schedule, sought to determine whether behavior would be suppressed by timeout punishment when such suppression also reduced reinforcement density or frequency. A series of experiments indicated that timeout punishment suppressed responding, with the degree of suppression increasing as a function of the duration of the timeout period. Suppressive effects were found to decrease as a function of increases in deprivation (body weight) and were eliminated when the punished response also was reinforced. It was concluded that timeout can produce aversive effects even when loss of reinforcement results. An alternative interpretation of the findings, based on the effects of extinction periods and delay of reinforcement on chained behavior, was discussed. PMID:5722425

  2. Suppression of behavior by timeout punishment when suppression results in loss of positive reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, A; Baron, A

    1968-09-01

    This investigation, using rats as subjects and punishment by timeout for responses maintained on a ratio schedule, sought to determine whether behavior would be suppressed by timeout punishment when such suppression also reduced reinforcement density or frequency. A series of experiments indicated that timeout punishment suppressed responding, with the degree of suppression increasing as a function of the duration of the timeout period. Suppressive effects were found to decrease as a function of increases in deprivation (body weight) and were eliminated when the punished response also was reinforced. It was concluded that timeout can produce aversive effects even when loss of reinforcement results. An alternative interpretation of the findings, based on the effects of extinction periods and delay of reinforcement on chained behavior, was discussed.

  3. [Bifurcated prosthesis in infrarenal aortic position in stenosing lesions. Functional results].

    PubMed

    Illuminati, G; Bertagni, A; Caliò, F G; Antonaci, A; Vietri, F

    1997-06-01

    Fifty-eight patients operated upon of infrarenal aortic bifurcated grafts for occlusive disease, in a 6-year period, have been followed-up with a minimum interval of 2 years. The patients were in claudication stage in 63% of the cases and in critical limb threat ischemia in 37% Bypass consisted always in a bifurcated knitted dacron graft either pre-coagulated or sealed. Infrarenal aorta has always been the donor axis, whereas distal anastomosis has been performed on both common femoral in 80% of the cases, on at least one external iliac in 20%. In 5% of the cases a femoro-popliteal bypass has been associated to the main procedure. Postoperative mortality was 3.5%. The occlusion of a prosthetic branch in the postoperative period occurred in one case, requiring a major amputation. Seven patients (12%) presented 11 late thrombosis of one prosthetic branch or both on an interval varying from 4 to 62 months. Eight occlusions required reintervention. Only one, lethal, late prosthetic sepsis was recorded. In a mean interval of 54 months, a good or fair functional result was achieved in 93% of the patients. Out of 22 patients specifically questioned upon, 82% returned to their normal work activity, whereas 18% retired but had a fully normal everyday's life. Sexual function was ameliorated or unchanged in 67% of the cases, while it was impaired in 33%. Eighty-seven percent of the followed-up patients did not require any further hospitalisation for atherosclerotic disease, while 13% of them experienced subsequent hospitalisation or reintervention for progression of the disease either at the same or at different arterial sites. Overall good results support an aggressive attitude towards aorto-iliac-femoral grafting for occlusive disease.

  4. Accuracy and Precision in the Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) Dataset in Light of the JOSIE-2000 Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Thompson, Anne M.; Schmidlin, F. J.; Oltmans, S. J.; Smit, H. G. J.

    2004-01-01

    Since 1998 the Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes (SHADOZ) project has provided over 2000 ozone profiles over eleven southern hemisphere tropical and subtropical stations. Balloon-borne electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozonesondes are used to measure ozone. The data are archived at: &ttp://croc.gsfc.nasa.gov/shadoz>. In analysis of ozonesonde imprecision within the SHADOZ dataset, Thompson et al. [JGR, 108,8238,20031 we pointed out that variations in ozonesonde technique (sensor solution strength, instrument manufacturer, data processing) could lead to station-to-station biases within the SHADOZ dataset. Imprecisions and accuracy in the SHADOZ dataset are examined in light of new data. First, SHADOZ total ozone column amounts are compared to version 8 TOMS (2004 release). As for TOMS version 7, satellite total ozone is usually higher than the integrated column amount from the sounding. Discrepancies between the sonde and satellite datasets decline two percentage points on average, compared to version 7 TOMS offsets. Second, the SHADOZ station data are compared to results of chamber simulations (JOSE-2000, Juelich Ozonesonde Intercomparison Experiment) in which the various SHADOZ techniques were evaluated. The range of JOSE column deviations from a standard instrument (-10%) in the chamber resembles that of the SHADOZ station data. It appears that some systematic variations in the SHADOZ ozone record are accounted for by differences in solution strength, data processing and instrument type (manufacturer).

  5. Detection of oxygen addition peaks for terpendole E and related indole–diterpene alkaloids in a positive-mode ESI-MS

    PubMed Central

    Hongo, Yayoi; Nakamura, Takemichi; Takahashi, Shunya; Motoyama, Takayuki; Hayashi, Toshiaki; Hirota, Hiroshi; Osada, Hiroyuki; Koshino, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    This report describes that a regular positive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (MS) analysis of terpendoles often causes unexpected oxygen additions to form [M + H + O]+ and [M + H + 2O]+, which might be a troublesome in the characterization of new natural analogues. The intensities of [M + H + O]+ and [M + H + 2O]+ among terpendoles were unpredictable and fluctuated largely. Simple electrochemical oxidation in electrospray ionization was insufficient to explain the phenomenon. So we studied factors to form [M + H + O]+ and [M + H + 2O]+ using terpendole E and natural terpendoles together with some model indole alkaloids. Similar oxygen addition was observed for 1,2,3,4-tetrahydrocyclopent[b]indole, which is corresponding to the substructure of terpendole E. In tandem MS experiments, a major fragment ion at m/z 130 from protonated terpendole E was assigned to the substructure containing indole. When the [M + H + O]+ was selected as a precursor ion, the ion shifted to m/z 146. The same 16 Da shift of fragments was also observed for 1,2,3,4-tetrahydrocyclopent[b]indole, indicating that the oxygen addition of terpendole E took place at the indole portion. However, the oxygen addition was absent for some terpendoles, even whose structure resembles terpendole E. The breakdown curves characterized the tandem MS features of terpendoles. Preferential dissociation into m/z 130 suggested the protonation tendency at the indole site. Terpendoles that are preferentially protonated at indole tend to form oxygen addition peaks, suggesting that the protonation feature contributes to the oxygen additions in some degrees. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Mass Spectrometry published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24913406

  6. Amino acid addition to Vibrio cholerae LPS establishes a link between surface remodeling in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Hankins, Jessica V.; Madsen, James A.; Giles, David K.; Brodbelt, Jennifer S.; Trent, M. Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Historically, the O1 El Tor and classical biotypes of Vibrio cholerae have been differentiated by their resistance to the antimicrobial peptide polymyxin B. However, the molecular mechanisms associated with this phenotypic distinction have remained a mystery for 50 y. Both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria modify their cell wall components with amine-containing substituents to reduce the net negative charge of the bacterial surface, thereby promoting cationic antimicrobial peptide resistance. In the present study, we demonstrate that V. cholerae modify the lipid A anchor of LPS with glycine and diglycine residues. This previously uncharacterized lipid A modification confers polymyxin resistance in V. cholerae El Tor, requiring three V. cholerae proteins: Vc1577 (AlmG), Vc1578 (AlmF), and Vc1579 (AlmE). Interestingly, the protein machinery required for glycine addition is reminiscent of the Gram-positive system responsible for d-alanylation of teichoic acids. Such machinery was not thought to be used by Gram-negative organisms. V. cholerae O1 El Tor mutants lacking genes involved in transferring glycine to LPS showed a 100-fold increase in sensitivity to polymyxin B. This work reveals a unique lipid A modification and demonstrates a charge-based remodeling strategy shared between Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms. PMID:22589301

  7. PR Means Positive Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foree, Marilyn

    1992-01-01

    Describes the advantages of public relations to a school music program. Suggests that, to succeed, a music program must have the support of school administrators, teachers, parents, and students alike. Recommends means of attracting support from the four groups. Stresses the importance of effective local publicity. (SG)

  8. Area-Based Socioeconomic Position and Adult Glioma: A Hierarchical Analysis of Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results Data

    PubMed Central

    Plascak, Jesse J.; Fisher, James L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Glioma rates vary by demographic factors and geo-political boundaries and this variation suggests higher glioma rates in groups of higher socioeconomic position. The primary goal of this analysis is to investigate the relationship between glioma and county socioeconomic position using U.S. Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) data. Methods Cases were individuals 25+ years diagnosed with glioma between 2000 and 2006 and residing within the SEER-17 catchment area. County-, sex-, race-, age-specific rates were created in order to investigate individual-level associations (population data from U.S. Census 2000). A Bayesian hierarchical Poisson spatial conditionally autoregressive (CAR) model was utilized to simultaneously estimate individual- and county-level associations while controlling for county spatial dependence. Results Those residing in counties of the second, third, and fourth highest quartiles of socioeconomic position have glioma incidence rates that are 1.10 (95% CI: 1.02,1.19), 1.11 (95% CI: 1.02,1.20), 1.14 (95% CI: 1.05,1.23) times that of the first quartile, respectively. A CAR model properly controlled for error spatial dependence. Investigated lag times suggest year 2000 census data yields superior model fit. Conclusion Demographically adjusted rates of glioma are elevated in counties of higher socioeconomic position. More well-grounded theory concerning the glioma-socioeconomic position association along with socioeconomic data collected at multiple levels is recommended for future studies investigating this relationship. PMID:23585860

  9. Does Gender Influence Emotions Resulting from Positive Applause Feedback in Self-Assessment Testing? Evidence from Neuroscience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Chia-Ju; Huang, Chin-Fei; Liu, Ming-Chi; Chien, Yu-Cheng; Lai, Chia-Hung; Huang, Yueh-Min

    2015-01-01

    Computerized self-assessment testing can help learners reflect on learning content and can also promote their motivation toward learning. However, a positive affective state is the key to achieving these learning goals. This study aims to examine learning gains and emotional reactions resulting from receiving emotional feedback in the form of…

  10. Anticipated and Actual Reactions to Receiving HIV Positive Results Through Self-Testing Among Gay and Bisexual Men

    PubMed Central

    Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Ibitoye, Mobolaji; Frasca, Timothy; Brown, William; Balan, Iván

    2014-01-01

    We explored anticipated and actual reactions to receiving HIV positive results through self-testing with a diverse group of 84 gay and bisexual men in New York City. Grounded Theory was used to investigate these reactions in a two-phase study, one hypothetical, followed by a practical phase in which self-tests were distributed and used. Three major themes emerged when participants were asked about their anticipated reactions to an HIV positive self-test result: managing emotional distress, obtaining HIV medical care, and postponing sexual activity. When participants were asked about their anticipated reactions to a partner’s HIV positive self-test result, five themes emerged: provide emotional support; refrain from engaging in sex with casual partner; avoid high-risk sexual activity with both main and casual partners; seek medical services; and obtain a confirmatory test result. Although none of the participants tested positive, seven of their partners did. Participants provided emotional support and linked their partners to support services. The availability of HIV self-testing kits offers potential opportunities to tackle HIV infection among individuals with high-risk practices. PMID:24858480

  11. Experimental evidence of false-positive Comet test results due to TiO2 particle--assay interactions.

    PubMed

    Rajapakse, Katarina; Drobne, Damjana; Kastelec, Damijana; Marinsek-Logar, Romana

    2013-08-01

    We have studied the genotoxicity of TiO2 particles with a Comet assay on a unicellular organism, Tetrahymena thermophila. Exposure to bulk- or nano-TiO2 of free cells, cells embedded in gel or nuclei embedded in gel, all resulted in a positive Comet assay result but this outcome could not be confirmed by cytotoxicity measures such as lipid peroxidation, elevated reactive oxygen species or cell membrane composition. Published reports state that in the absence of cytotoxicity, nano- and bulk-TiO2 genotoxicity do not occur directly, and a possible explanation of our Comet assay results is that they are false positives resulting from post festum exposure interactions between particles and DNA. We suggest that before Comet assay is used for nanoparticle genotoxicity testing, evidence for the possibility of post festum exposure interactions should be considered. The acellular Comet test described in this report can be used for this purpose.

  12. Importance of Local Control in Early-Stage Prostate Cancer: Outcomes of Patients With Positive Post-Radiation Therapy Biopsy Results Treated in RTOG 9408

    SciTech Connect

    Krauss, Daniel J.; Hu, Chen; Bahary, Jean-Paul; Souhami, Luis; Gore, Elizabeth M.; Chafe, Susan Maria Jacinta; Leibenhaut, Mark H.; Narayan, Samir; Torres-Roca, Javier; Michalski, Jeff; Zeitzer, Kenneth L.; Donavanik, Viroon; Sandler, Howard; McGowan, David G.; Jones, Christopher U.; Shipley, William U.

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the association between positive post-radiation therapy (RT) biopsy results and subsequent clinical outcomes in males with localized prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group study 94-08 analyzed 1979 males with prostate cancer, stage T1b-T2b and prostate-specific antigen concentrations of ≤20 ng/dL, to investigate whether 4 months of total androgen suppression (TAS) added to RT improved survival compared to RT alone. Patients randomized to receive TAS received flutamide with luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) agonist. According to protocol, patients without evidence of clinical recurrence or initiation of additional endocrine therapy underwent repeat prostate biopsy 2 years after RT completion. Statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the impact of positive post-RT biopsy results on clinical outcomes. Results: A total of 831 patients underwent post-RT biopsy, 398 were treated with RT alone and 433 with RT plus TAS. Patients with positive post-RT biopsy results had higher rates of biochemical failure (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.7; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.3-2.1) and distant metastasis (HR = 2.4; 95% CI = 1.3-4.4) and inferior disease-specific survival (HR = 3.8; 95% CI = 1.9-7.5). Positive biopsy results remained predictive of such outcomes after correction for potential confounders such as Gleason score, tumor stage, and TAS administration. Prior TAS therapy did not prevent elevated risk of adverse outcome in the setting of post-RT positive biopsy results. Patients with Gleason score ≥7 with a positive biopsy result additionally had inferior overall survival compared to those with a negative biopsy result (HR = 1.56; 95% CI = 1.04-2.35). Conclusions: Positive post-RT biopsy is associated with increased rates of distant metastases and inferior disease-specific survival in patients treated with definitive RT and was associated with inferior overall

  13. Can in vitro mammalian cell genotoxicity test results be used to complement positive results in the Ames test and help predict carcinogenic or in vivo genotoxic activity? I. Reports of individual databases presented at an EURL ECVAM Workshop.

    PubMed

    Kirkland, David; Zeiger, Errol; Madia, Federica; Gooderham, Nigel; Kasper, Peter; Lynch, Anthony; Morita, Takeshi; Ouedraogo, Gladys; Parra Morte, Juan Manuel; Pfuhler, Stefan; Rogiers, Vera; Schulz, Markus; Thybaud, Veronique; van Benthem, Jan; Vanparys, Philippe; Worth, Andrew; Corvi, Raffaella

    2014-12-01

    Positive results in the Ames test correlate well with carcinogenic potential in rodents. This correlation is not perfect because mutations are only one of many stages in tumour development. Also, situations can be envisaged where the mutagenic response may be specific to the bacteria or the test protocol, e.g., bacterial-specific metabolism, exceeding a detoxification threshold, or the induction of oxidative damage to which bacteria may be more sensitive than mammalian cells in vitro or tissues in vivo. Since most chemicals are also tested for genotoxicity in mammalian cells, the pattern of mammalian cell results may help identify whether Ames-positive results predict carcinogenic or in vivo mutagenic activity. A workshop was therefore organised and sponsored by the EU Reference Laboratory for Alternatives to Animal Testing (EURL ECVAM) to investigate this further. Participants presented results from other genotoxicity tests with Ames-positive compounds. Data came from published, regulatory agency, and industry sources. The question was posed whether negative results in mammalian cell tests were associated with absence of carcinogenic or in vivo genotoxic activity despite a positive Ames test. In the limited time available, the presented data were combined and an initial analysis suggested that the association of negative in vitro mammalian cell test results with lack of in vivo genotoxic or carcinogenic activity could have some significance. Possible reasons why a positive Ames test may not be associated with in vivo activity and what additional investigations/tests might contribute to a more robust evaluation were discussed. Because a considerable overlap was identified among the different databases presented, it was recommended that a consolidated database be built, with overlapping chemicals removed, so that a more robust analysis of the predictive capacity for potential carcinogenic and in vivo genotoxic activity could be derived from the patterns of mammalian

  14. 49 CFR 1155.23 - Additional requirements when filing after an unsatisfactory result from a State, local, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... required in 49 CFR 1155.23(b). The petition shall be filed simultaneously with the land-use-exemption... Procedures Governing Applications for a Land-Use-Exemption Permit § 1155.23 Additional requirements when... siting of the facility, the applicant may petition the Board to accept an application for a...

  15. Effects of Additional Elements on the Evolution of Second Phases in 9-12% cr Steel and Resulting Mechanical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Jiling; Yu, Hui; Yoo, Dae-Hwang; Huynh, Quocbao; Shin, Keesam; Kim, Minsoo; Kang, Sungtae

    Investigated in this study are precipitate evolution with and without addition of W, Co, and B in two kinds of 9-12% Cr steels (named as A and B) used for power plants after various aging time and temperature using OM, SEM, TEM, etc. Three kinds of precipitates (Cr-rich M23C6, Nb-rich and V-rich MX, W-rich and Mo-rich Laves phase) were observed and investigated in the two alloys. Upon aging, the area fraction of M23C6 increased whereas that of Laves phases decreased despite of increase in size. The area fraction of W-rich Laves phase was much higher than that of Mo-rich Laves phase, indicating that W addition, compared to that of Mo addition, is more powerful in the formation of Laves phase precipitation (specimen A). The martensitic microstructure of specimen B was more stable than that of specimen A due to the addition of cobalt and boron. The tensile test and impact test were measured and studied in relation to the long term aging effect.

  16. Evidence for false-positive results for boldenone testing of veal urine due to faecal cross-contamination during sampling.

    PubMed

    Sgoifo Rossi, C A; Arioli, F; Bassini, A; Chiesa, L M; Dell'Orto, V; Montana, M; Pompa, G

    2004-08-01

    European Directive 96/22/EC, which controls veterinary residues in animals, does not permit the presence of synthetic growth promoters in products of animal origin or in livestock. Boldenone is categorized in class A3 (growth promoters -- steroids) and is thus a banned substance. Testing of veal urine for banned substances is part of the European Union statutory programme for animals going into the food chain. In relation to this monitoring, three studies were conducted to investigate the apparent presence of the banned growth promoter boldenone in veal urine, which was suspected as being caused by interference from faecal contamination of the sample. In the first study, urine samples were collected at different times (time 0 and after 30 min) using (1) a conventional zoonotechnical apron and (2) a technique designed specifically to avoid faecal contamination ('kettle'). This resulted in samples that were, respectively, positive and negative for the presence of alpha-boldenone (alpha-BOL). In a second study, urine samples negative to alpha-BOL were collected from eight veal calves, but became positive after deliberate faecal contamination. In a third study, data obtained from the Italian RNP (Residual National Program) indicated that 18.1% of 3295 urine samples collected using the zootechnical apron were positive for alpha-BOL and 2.1% for beta-boldenone (beta-BOL), whilst of 902 samples collected using the kettle, beta-BOL was not detected in any samples and only 0.2% were positive to alpha-BOL, in concentrations lower than 2 ng ml(-1). These results further support the supposition that faecal contamination of the urine during sample collection can lead to false-positive results during boldenone analysis.

  17. ERβ overexpression results in endocrine therapy resistance and poor prognosis in postmenopausal ERα-positive breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    GUO, LIYING; ZHANG, YU; YILAMU, DILIMINA; LIU, SHA; GUO, CHENMING

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of estrogen receptor (ER) β in the prognosis of ERα-positive breast cancer in postmenopausal women, and its effect on the efficacy of endocrine therapy. Tissue specimens from 195 patients with postmenopausal breast cancer were analyzed. ERβ expression levels were detected using immunohistochemical staining. Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed to assess patient survival, and the difference in survival was analyzed using the log-rank test. Cox regression was utilized to evaluate prognostic factors. The results revealed that the disease-free survival rate decreased dramatically as ERβ expression levels increased in all postmenopausal ERα-positive breast cancer patients, and ERβ expression was identified to be an indicator of poor prognosis in cases of this disease. Similarly, in postmenopausal ERα-positive breast cancer patients undergoing endocrine therapy, high ERβ expression levels reduced the disease-free survival rate and were correlated with poor patient prognosis. However, in such patients who were not treated with endocrine therapy, disease-free survival rate and prognosis were not significantly affected by ERβ expression. In conclusion, ERβ overexpression led to endocrine therapy resistance and poor prognosis in postmenopausal ERα-positive breast cancer patients, suggesting that ERβ may affect breast cancer prognosis via an increase in endocrine therapy resistance. PMID:26893775

  18. USING A MULTIFACETED APPROACH TO IMPROVE THE FOLLOW-UP OF POSITIVE FECAL OCCULT BLOOD TEST RESULTS

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Hardeep; Kadiyala, Himabindu; Bhagwath, Gayathri; Shethia, Anila; El-Serag, Hashem; Walder, Annette; Velez, Maria; Petersen, Laura A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Inadequate follow-up of abnormal fecal occult blood test (FOBT) results occurs in several types of practice settings. Our institution implemented multifaceted quality improvement (QI) activities in 2004–2005 to improve follow-up of FOBT positive results. Activities addressed pre-colonoscopy referral processes and system-level factors such as electronic communication and provider education and feedback. We evaluated their effects on timeliness and appropriateness of positive FOBT follow-up and identified factors that affect colonoscopy performance. Methods Retrospective electronic medical record (EMR) review was used to determine outcomes pre- and post-QI activities in a multi-specialty ambulatory clinic of a tertiary care Veterans Affairs facility and its affiliated satellite clinics. From 1869 FOBT positive cases, 800 were randomly selected from time periods before and after QI activities. Two reviewers used a pretested standardized data collection form to determine whether colonoscopy was appropriate or indicated based on pre-determined criteria and if so, the timeliness of colonoscopy referral and performance pre- and post-QI activities. Results In cases where a colonoscopy was indicated, the proportion of patients who received a timely colonoscopy referral and performance were significantly higher post implementation (60.5% vs. 31.7%, p<0.0001 and 11.4% vs. 3.4%, p =0.0005 respectively). A significant decrease also resulted in median times to referral and performance (6 vs. 19 days p<0.0001 and 96.5 vs. 190 days p<0.0001 respectively) and in the proportion of positive FOBT test results that had received no follow-up by the time of chart review (24.3%vs. 35.9%; p=0.0045). Significant predictors of absence of the performance of an indicated colonoscopy included performance of a non-colonoscopy procedure such as barium enema or flexible sigmoidoscopy (OR=16.9; 95% CI 1.9–145.1), patient non-adherence (OR=33.9; 95% CI 17.3–66.6), not providing an

  19. Differential Global Positioning System for the Surface-Towed Ordnance Locating System: Testing, results, and user`s guide

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, T.L.; Hubbard, C.W.

    1993-10-01

    Researchers at Pacific Northwest Laboratory integrated and tested a Global Positioning System (GPS) for use with the Naval Explosive Ordnance Disposal Technology Center`s (NEODTC) Surface-Towed Ordnance Locating System (STOLS). The GPS automatically and continuously provides latitude, longitude, and elevation information at the mobile GPS unit. The results of testing the GPS are shown in this report. The results reveal accuracies in the submeter range in real time and within a few centimeters using post-processing software. A description of hardware and software components is also included, along with system drawings and parts lists.

  20. Additional results on palaeomagnetic stratigraphy of the Koobi Fora Formation, east of Lake Turkana (Lake Rudolf), Kenya

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hillhouse, J.W.; Ndombi, J.W.M.; Cox, A.; Brock, A.

    1977-01-01

    The magnetostratigraphy of the hominid-bearing sediments exposed east of Lake Turkana has been strengthened by new palaeomagnetic results. Ages obtained from several tuffs by the 40Ar/39Ar method suggest an approxmate match between the observed magnetozones and the geomagnetic polarity time scale; however, the palaeomagnetic results are also compatible with a younger chronology suggested by conventional K-Ar dating of the KBS Tuff. ?? 1977 Nature Publishing Group.

  1. Estimation of daily aluminum intake in Japan based on food consumption inspection results: impact of food additives

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Kyoko; Suzuki, Ippei; Kubota, Hiroki; Furusho, Noriko; Inoue, Tomoyuki; Yasukouchi, Yoshikazu; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Dietary aluminum (Al) intake by young children, children, youths, and adults in Japan was estimated using the market basket method. The Al content of food category (I–VII) samples for each age group was determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The Al content in processed foods and unprocessed foods ranged from 0.40 to 21.7 mg/kg and from 0.32 to 0.54 mg/kg, respectively. For processed foods in all age groups, the Al content in food category VI samples, sugar and confections/savories, was the highest, followed by those in category II, cereals. The daily dietary Al intake from processed foods was much larger than that from unprocessed foods. The mean weekly percentages of the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI, established by the joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives in 2011) from processed foods for all age groups are 43.1, 22.4, 17.6 and 15.1%, respectively. Only the highest consumer Al exposure value (>P95) of the young children group exceeded the PTWI. PMID:25473496

  2. Estimation of daily aluminum intake in Japan based on food consumption inspection results: impact of food additives.

    PubMed

    Sato, Kyoko; Suzuki, Ippei; Kubota, Hiroki; Furusho, Noriko; Inoue, Tomoyuki; Yasukouchi, Yoshikazu; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2014-07-01

    Dietary aluminum (Al) intake by young children, children, youths, and adults in Japan was estimated using the market basket method. The Al content of food category (I-VII) samples for each age group was determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The Al content in processed foods and unprocessed foods ranged from 0.40 to 21.7 mg/kg and from 0.32 to 0.54 mg/kg, respectively. For processed foods in all age groups, the Al content in food category VI samples, sugar and confections/savories, was the highest, followed by those in category II, cereals. The daily dietary Al intake from processed foods was much larger than that from unprocessed foods. The mean weekly percentages of the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI, established by the joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives in 2011) from processed foods for all age groups are 43.1, 22.4, 17.6 and 15.1%, respectively. Only the highest consumer Al exposure value (>P 95) of the young children group exceeded the PTWI.

  3. Public health consequences of a false-positive laboratory test result for Brucella--Florida, Georgia, and Michigan, 2005.

    PubMed

    2008-06-01

    Human brucellosis, a nationally notifiable disease, is uncommon in the United States. Most human cases have occurred in returned travelers or immigrants from regions where brucellosis is endemic, or were acquired domestically from eating illegally imported, unpasteurized fresh cheeses. In January 2005, a woman aged 35 years who lived in Nassau County, Florida, received a diagnosis of brucellosis, based on results of a Brucella immunoglobulin M (IgM) enzyme immunoassay (EIA) performed in a commercial laboratory using analyte specific reagents (ASRs); this diagnosis prompted an investigation of dairy products in two other states. Subsequent confirmatory antibody testing by Brucella microagglutination test (BMAT) performed at CDC on the patient's serum was negative. The case did not meet the CDC/Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists' (CSTE) definition for a probable or confirmed brucellosis case, and the initial EIA result was determined to be a false positive. This report summarizes the case history, laboratory findings, and public health investigations. CDC recommends that Brucella serology testing only be performed using tests cleared or approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) or validated under the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) and shown to reliably detect the presence of Brucella infection. Results from these tests should be considered supportive evidence for recent infection only and interpreted in the context of a clinically compatible illness and exposure history. EIA is not considered a confirmatory Brucella antibody test; positive screening test results should be confirmed by Brucella-specific agglutination (i.e., BMAT or standard tube agglutination test) methods.

  4. One-year results from cryopreserved mitral allograft transplantation into the tricuspid position in a sheep experimental model.

    PubMed

    Mokracek, A; Canadyova, J; Simunkova, Z; Fiala, R; Hmirak, M; Sulda, M; Burkert, J; Tintera, J; Kobylka, P; Spatenka, J

    2015-01-01

    Mitral allografts are still used only exceptionally in the mitral or tricuspid position. The main indication remains infectious endocarditis of atrioventricular valves for its flexibility and low risk of infection. The aim of our study was to evaluate 1-year results of mitral allografts transplantation into the tricuspid position in a sheep model. Mitral allografts were processed, cryopreserved, and transplanted into the tricuspid position anatomically (Group I - 11 animals) or antianatomically (Group II - 8 animals). All survivors (4 from Group I, and 3 from Group II) were checked at 3, 6, and 12 months by echocardiography with the exception of one survivor from Group II (which was examinated only visually). Examination throughout follow-up included for mitral allograft regurgitation and annuli dilatation. At postmortem, the papillary muscles were healed and firmly anchored to the right ventricular wall in all subjects. Transventricular fixation of the papillary muscles with buttressed sutures was proven to be a stable, reproducible, and safe method for anchoring mitral allograft leaflets. There were no significant differences between the two implantation methods. Annulus support of mitral allografts might be very useful in this type of operation and could prevent annular dilatation.

  5. The application of Co-Al-hydrotalcite as a novel additive of positive material for nickel-metal hydride secondary cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Zhaobin; Yang, Zhanhong; Yang, Bin; Zhang, Zheng; Xie, Xiaoe

    2014-11-01

    Co-Al-CO3 layered double hydroxide (LDH) with the different Co/Al molar ration is synthesized by hydrothermal method and investigated as an additive for positive material of the Ni-MH cells. The Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) show the Co-Al-LDH with Co/Al = 4:1 (molar ration) is well-crystallized and hexagon structure. The electrochemical performances of the nickel electrode added with different Co/Al molar ration Co-Al-LDH, the pure nickel electrode and the nickel electrode added with CoO are investigated by the cyclic voltammograms (CV), galvanostatic charge-discharge measurements, and AC electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Compared with the pure nickel electrode and the nickel electrode added with CoO, the nickel electrode added with Co/Al = 4:1 (molar ration) Co-Al-LDH has higher discharge capacity and more stable cycling performances. This cell can undergo at least 400 charge-discharge cycles at constant current of 1 C. The discharge capacity of this cell remains about 287 mAh g-1 after the 400th cycle. Meanwhile, compared with the pure electrode, the nickel electrode added with Co/Al = 4:1 (molar ration) Co-Al-LDH possess a higher rate capability to meet the needs of high-storage applications.

  6. Positive skin and serologic test results of diagnostic assays for bovine tuberculosis and subsequent isolation of Mycobacterium interjectum in a pygmy hippopotamus (Hexaprotodon liberiensis).

    PubMed

    Bouts, Tim; Vordermeier, Martin; Flach, Edmund; Routh, Andrew

    2009-09-01

    A 20-yr-old male pygmy hippopotamus (Hexaprotodon liberiensis), weighing 250 kg, arrived at Zoological Society London Whipsnade Zoo (United Kingdom) from a captive collection in Portugal. A quarantine health check was performed including a comparative intradermal tuberculosis (IDTB) test. Assessment of the comparative IDTB test at 72 hr revealed a strong positive reaction at the bovine site. Serum was tested with a rapid immunochromatographic assay (TB STAT-PAK) and was positive for tuberculosis antibodies. The tuberculosis tests were repeated 6 wk later with the same positive test outcome. In addition, a broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) was submitted for mycobacterial culture. The positive IDTB test and TB STAT-PAK results were supported by multiantigen print immunoassay (MAPIA). Based on these results, the animal was suspected to be infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex organisms and was euthanized. No gross or histologic signs of tuberculosis were found at postmortem examination. Mycobacterium interjectum was cultured from the BAL but not from necropsy samples. The antigens used in the TB STAT-PAK and MAPIA tests are reportedly specific for the M. tuberculosis complex, and so it is possible this animal presented with a latent case of tuberculosis or had a previous tuberculosis infection that resolved prior to testing. Cross-reactions with nontuberculous mycobacteria have been described with TB STAT-PAK and MAPIA tests. However, Western blotting analysis using serum from this animal did not recognize M. interjectum proteins of equivalent size to the M. tuberculosis-Mycobacterium bovis proteins recognized in the MAPIA. Thus, antigenic cross-reactivity with M. interjectum can be deemed less likely, but other nontuberculous mycobacterial proteins cannot be ruled out. It is therefore possible that false-positive reactions were obtained. These results highlight the difficulty of diagnosing tuberculosis in the absence of pathology and the presence of

  7. Positive skin and serologic test results of diagnostic assays for bovine tuberculosis and subsequent isolation of Mycobacterium interjectum in a pygmy hippopotamus (Hexaprotodon liberiensis).

    PubMed

    Bouts, Tim; Vordermeier, Martin; Flach, Edmund; Routh, Andrew

    2009-09-01

    A 20-yr-old male pygmy hippopotamus (Hexaprotodon liberiensis), weighing 250 kg, arrived at Zoological Society London Whipsnade Zoo (United Kingdom) from a captive collection in Portugal. A quarantine health check was performed including a comparative intradermal tuberculosis (IDTB) test. Assessment of the comparative IDTB test at 72 hr revealed a strong positive reaction at the bovine site. Serum was tested with a rapid immunochromatographic assay (TB STAT-PAK) and was positive for tuberculosis antibodies. The tuberculosis tests were repeated 6 wk later with the same positive test outcome. In addition, a broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) was submitted for mycobacterial culture. The positive IDTB test and TB STAT-PAK results were supported by multiantigen print immunoassay (MAPIA). Based on these results, the animal was suspected to be infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex organisms and was euthanized. No gross or histologic signs of tuberculosis were found at postmortem examination. Mycobacterium interjectum was cultured from the BAL but not from necropsy samples. The antigens used in the TB STAT-PAK and MAPIA tests are reportedly specific for the M. tuberculosis complex, and so it is possible this animal presented with a latent case of tuberculosis or had a previous tuberculosis infection that resolved prior to testing. Cross-reactions with nontuberculous mycobacteria have been described with TB STAT-PAK and MAPIA tests. However, Western blotting analysis using serum from this animal did not recognize M. interjectum proteins of equivalent size to the M. tuberculosis-Mycobacterium bovis proteins recognized in the MAPIA. Thus, antigenic cross-reactivity with M. interjectum can be deemed less likely, but other nontuberculous mycobacterial proteins cannot be ruled out. It is therefore possible that false-positive reactions were obtained. These results highlight the difficulty of diagnosing tuberculosis in the absence of pathology and the presence of

  8. p53 Expression in Node Positive Breast Cancer Patients: Results from the Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) 9344 Trial (159905)

    PubMed Central

    Lara, Jonathan F.; Thor, Ann D.; Dressler, Lynn G.; Broadwater, Gloria; Bleiweiss, Ira J.; Edgerton, Susan; Cowan, David; Goldstein, Lori J.; Martino, Silvana; Ingle, James N.; Henderson, I. Craig; Norton, Larry; Winer, Eric P.; Hudis, Clifford A.; Ellis, Matthew J.; Berry, Donald A.; Hayes, Daniel F.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose p53 as a prognostic and predictive factor in early stage breast cancer, has had mixed results. We studied p53 protein expression, by immunohistochemistry, in a randomized clinical trial of stage II patients treated with adjuvant doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide with or without paclitaxel (CALGB 9344, INT0148). Patients and Methods Epithelial p53 expression was evaluated using two immunohistochemical antibodies (DO7 and 1801) in formalin fixed, paraffin embedded tissue from patients with node positive breast cancer who were randomized to four cycles of cyclophosphamide and one of three doses of doxorubicin (60, 75, or 90 mg/m2) (AC) and to receive four subsequent cycles of paclitaxel (T) or not. Prognostic and predictive value of p53 protein expression was assessed, independent of treatment assignment, for escalating doses of doxorubicin or addition of T with endpoints of RFS and OS. Results 1887 of 3121 patient specimens treated on C9344 were obtained, passed quality control and evaluated for p53 expression. Expression was 23% and 27% for mAbs 1801 and D07 respectively, with 92% concordance. In univariate analysis, p53 positivity was associated with worse OS with either antibody, but only p53 staining with monoclonal antibody1801 had significantly worse RFS. In multivariate analysis, p53 was not predictive of RFS or OS from either doxorubicin dose escalation or addition of paclitaxel regardless of the antibody. Conclusion Nuclear staining of p53 by immunohistochemistry is associated with worse prognosis in node positive patients treated with adjuvant doxorubicin-based chemotherapy, but is not a useful predictor of benefit from doxorubicin dose escalation or the addition of paclitaxel. PMID:21693655

  9. Additive reductions in zebrafish PRPS1 activity result in a spectrum of deficiencies modeling several human PRPS1-associated diseases

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Wuhong; Xu, Lisha; Varshney, Gaurav K.; Carrington, Blake; Bishop, Kevin; Jones, MaryPat; Huang, Sunny C.; Idol, Jennifer; Pretorius, Pamela R.; Beirl, Alisha; Schimmenti, Lisa A.; Kindt, Katie S.; Sood, Raman; Burgess, Shawn M.

    2016-01-01

    Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthetase-1 (PRPS1) is a key enzyme in nucleotide biosynthesis, and mutations in PRPS1 are found in several human diseases including nonsyndromic sensorineural deafness, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease-5, and Arts Syndrome. We utilized zebrafish as a model to confirm that mutations in PRPS1 result in phenotypic deficiencies in zebrafish similar to those in the associated human diseases. We found two paralogs in zebrafish, prps1a and prps1b and characterized each paralogous mutant individually as well as the double mutant fish. Zebrafish prps1a mutants and prps1a;prps1b double mutants showed similar morphological phenotypes with increasingly severe phenotypes as the number of mutant alleles increased. Phenotypes included smaller eyes and reduced hair cell numbers, consistent with the optic atrophy and hearing impairment observed in human patients. The double mutant also showed abnormal development of primary motor neurons, hair cell innervation, and reduced leukocytes, consistent with the neuropathy and recurrent infection of the human patients possessing the most severe reductions of PRPS1 activity. Further analyses indicated the phenotypes were associated with a prolonged cell cycle likely resulting from reduced nucleotide synthesis and energy production in the mutant embryos. We further demonstrated the phenotypes were caused by delays in the tissues most highly expressing the prps1 genes. PMID:27425195

  10. Lattice strain measurements of deuteride (hydride) formation in epitaxial Nb: Additional results and further insights into past measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Allain, Monica M.C.; Heuser, Brent J.

    2005-08-01

    The evolution of lattice strain during in situ gas-phase deuterium loading of epitaxial (110) Nb films on the (1120) sapphire was measured with x-ray diffraction. Two samples with film thicknesses 208 and 1102 A were driven through the miscibility gap. Strains in three orthogonal directions were recorded, permitting the complete set of unit cell parameters to be determined for both the solid solution and deuteride phases. The overall film thickness was simultaneously measured by recording the glancing angle reflectivity response. The behavior of the two films was markedly different, with the thicker film exhibiting a much more compliant behavior and concomitant irreversible plastic deformation. The correlation between out-of-plane lattice and film expansion for both films is also consistent with this observation. These results help explain past inconsistencies observed by others.

  11. SU-E-J-94: Positioning Errors Resulting From Using Bony Anatomy Alignment for Treating SBRT Lung Tumor

    SciTech Connect

    Frame, C; Ding, G

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To quantify patient setups errors based on bony anatomy registration rather than 3D tumor alignment for SBRT lung treatments. Method: A retrospective study was performed for patients treated with lung SBRT and imaged with kV cone beam computed tomography (kV-CBCT) image-guidance. Daily CBCT images were registered to treatment planning CTs based on bony anatomy alignment and then inter-fraction tumor movement was evaluated by comparing shift in the tumor center in the medial-lateral, anterior-posterior, and superior-inferior directions. The PTV V100% was evaluated for each patient based on the average daily tumor displacement to assess the impact of the positioning error on the target coverage when the registrations were based on bony anatomy. Of the 35 patients studied, 15 were free-breathing treatments, 10 used abdominal compression with a stereotactic body frame, and the remaining 10 were performed with BodyFIX vacuum bags. Results: For free-breathing treatments, the range of tumor displacement error is between 1–6 mm in the medial-lateral, 1–13 mm in the anterior-posterior, and 1–7 mm in the superior-inferior directions. These positioning errors lead to 6–22% underdose coverage for PTV - V100% . Patients treated with abdominal compression immobilization showed positional errors of 0–4mm mediallaterally, 0–3mm anterior-posteriorly, and 0–2 mm inferior-superiorly with PTV - V100% underdose ranging between 6–17%. For patients immobilized with the vacuum bags, the positional errors were found to be 0–1 mm medial-laterally, 0–1mm anterior-posteriorly, and 0–2 mm inferior-superiorly with PTV - V100% under dose ranging between 5–6% only. Conclusion: It is necessary to align the tumor target by using 3D image guidance to ensure adequate tumor coverage before performing SBRT lung treatments. The BodyFIX vacuum bag immobilization method has the least positioning errors among the three methods studied when bony anatomy is used for

  12. SU-C-210-06: Quantitative Evaluation of Dosimetric Effects Resulting From Positional Variations of Pancreatic Tumor Volumes

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, S; Sehgal, V; Wei, R; Lawrenson, L; Kuo, J; Hanna, N; Ramsinghani, N; Daroui, P; Al-Ghazi, M

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to quantify dosimetric effects resulting from variation in pancreatic tumor position assessed by bony anatomy and implanted fiducial markers Methods: Twelve pancreatic cancer patients were retrospectively analyzed for this study. All patients received modulated arc therapy (VMAT) treatment using fiducial-based Image Guided Radiation Therapy (IGRT) to the intact pancreas. Using daily orthogonal kV and/or Cone beam CT images, the shift needed to co-register the daily pre-treatment images to reference CT from fiducial to bone (Fid-Bone) were recorded as Left-Right (LR), Anterior-Posterior (AP) and Superior-Inferior (SI). The original VMAT plan iso-center was shifted based on KV bone matching positions at 5 evenly spaced fractions. Dose coverage of the planning target volumes (PTVs) (V100%), mean dose to liver, kidney and stomach/duodenum were assessed in the modified plans. Results: A total of 306 fractions were analyzed. The absolute fiducial-bone positional shifts were greatest in the SI direction, (AP = 2.7 ± 3.0, LR = 2.8 ± 2.8, and SI 6.3 ± 7.9 mm, mean ± SD). The V100% was significantly reduced by 13.5%, (Fid-Bone = 95.3 ± 2.0 vs. 82.3 ± 11.8%, p=0.02). This varied widely among patients (Fid-Bone V100% Range = 2–60%), where 33% of patients had a reduction in V100% of more than 10%. The impact on OARs was greatest to the liver (Fid-Bone= 14.6 vs. 16.1 Gy, 10%), and stomach, (Fid-Bone = 23.9 vx. 25.5 Gy, 7%), however was not statistically significant (p=0.10 both). Conclusion: Compared to matching by fiducial markers, matching by bony anatomy would have substantially reduced the PTV coverage by 13.5%. This reinforces the importance of online position verification based on fiducial markers. Hence, implantation of fiducial markers is strongly recommended for pancreatic cancer patients undergoing intensity modulated radiation therapy treatments.

  13. Phenotypic Consequences Resulting from a Methionine-to-Valine Substitution at Position 48 in the HPr Protein of Streptococcus salivarius

    PubMed Central

    Plamondon, Pascale; Brochu, Denis; Thomas, Suzanne; Fradette, Julie; Gauthier, Lucie; Vaillancourt, Katy; Buckley, Nicole; Frenette, Michel; Vadeboncoeur, Christian

    1999-01-01

    In gram-positive bacteria, the HPr protein of the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) can be phosphorylated on a histidine residue at position 15 (His15) by enzyme I (EI) of the PTS and on a serine residue at position 46 (Ser46) by an ATP-dependent protein kinase (His∼P and Ser-P, respectively). We have isolated from Streptococcus salivarius ATCC 25975, by independent selection from separate cultures, two spontaneous mutants (Ga3.78 and Ga3.14) that possess a missense mutation in ptsH (the gene encoding HPr) replacing the methionine at position 48 by a valine. The mutation did not prevent the phosphorylation of HPr at His15 by EI nor the phosphorylation at Ser46 by the ATP-dependent HPr kinase. The levels of HPr(Ser-P) in glucose-grown cells of the parental and mutant Ga3.78 were virtually the same. However, mutant cells growing on glucose produced two- to threefold less HPr(Ser-P)(His∼P) than the wild-type strain, while the levels of free HPr and HPr(His∼P) were increased 18- and 3-fold, respectively. The mutants grew as well as the wild-type strain on PTS sugars (glucose, fructose, and mannose) and on the non-PTS sugars lactose and melibiose. However, the growth rate of both mutants on galactose, also a non-PTS sugar, decreased rapidly with time. The M48V substitution had only a minor effect on the repression of α-galactosidase, β-galactosidase, and galactokinase by glucose, but this mutation abolished diauxie by rendering cells unable to prevent the catabolism of a non-PTS sugar (lactose, galactose, and melibiose) when glucose was available. The results suggested that the capacity of the wild-type cells to preferentially metabolize glucose over non-PTS sugars resulted mainly from inhibition of the catabolism of these secondary energy sources via a HPr-dependent mechanism. This mechanism was activated following glucose but not lactose metabolism, and it did not involve HPr(Ser-P) as the only regulatory molecule. PMID:10559156

  14. Anti-NMDAR antibodies in new-onset psychosis. Positive results in an HIV-infected patient.

    PubMed

    Arboleya, Susana; Clemente, Antonio; Deng, Savannah; Bedmar, Marta; Salvador, Isabel; Herbera, Patricia; Cunill, Vanessa; Vives-Bauza, Cristòfol; Haro, Josep Maria; Canellas, Francesca; Julià, Maria Rosa

    2016-08-01

    The role of neuronal surface autoantibodies (NSAs) in non-encephalitic psychosis is of recent and controversial interest. Most of the studies relating NSAs with psychosis are retrospective and only focused on the N-methyl-d-aspartate glutamate receptor (NMDAR). Our goal was to evaluate the prevalence of IgG antibodies against the NMDAR NR1 subunit (NMDAR-Abs) along with five additional NSAs in 61 first psychotic episode patients and 47 matched controls. We found two patients positive for NMDAR-Abs (3.3%). One of them was eventually considered to have been misdiagnosed and reclassified as encephalitis. The other met the criteria for bipolar I disorder, presented no neurological symptoms and had a comorbid HIV infection of vertical transmission. This is the first reported case of an HIV-infected patient with psychosis associated with NSAs. This study shows that patients presenting with clinically incomplete forms of anti-NMDAR encephalitis, with predominant or isolated psychiatric symptoms, can remain undetected if no ancillary tests are performed. To improve patient diagnosis and treatment of individuals with a first psychotic episode, more detailed neurological examinations might be needed. Further studies are required to better clarify the role of NSAs in the neuropsychiatric effects of HIV infection.

  15. Application of the Global Positioning System to crustal deformation measurements. 3: Result from the southern California borderlands

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, K.M.

    1993-12-01

    Five years of measurements from the Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites collected between 1986 and 1991 are used to investigate deformation in the offshore regions of southern California. GPS provides the first practical technique to make precise geodetic measurements in the region. The geodetic network is situated along the California coastline from Vandenberg (120.6 deg W, 34.6 deg N) to San Diego, with additional sites on Santa Cruz, San Nicolas, Santa Catalina, Santa Rosa, and San Clemente Islands. The precision of horizontal interstation vectors is subcentimeter, and the interstation vector rate between Owens Valley Radio Observatory (OVRO) and Vandenberg agrees with the very long baseline interferometry derived rate to within one standard deviation. No significant motion is observed in th e western Santa Barbara Channel between Vandenberg and Santa Rosa Island, 0.5 +/- 1.6 mm/yr, where the quoted uncertainties are one standard deviation. Motions in the eastern Santa Barbara Channel are consistent with compressional deformation of 6 +/- 1 mm/yr at N16 +/- 3 deg E. This motion is in agreement with seismicity and an independent geodetic analysis for the period 1971-1987 (Larsen, 1991). San Clemente Island is moving relative to San Diego at the rate of 5.9 +/- 1.8/yr at a direction of N38 +/- 20 deg W. The motion between San Nicolas Island and San Clemente Island, 0.8 +/- 1.5 mm/yr, is insignificant.

  16. The catecholamine biosynthetic enzyme dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH): first genome-wide search positions trait-determining variants acting additively in the proximal promoter

    PubMed Central

    Mustapic, Maja; Maihofer, Adam X.; Mahata, Manjula; Chen, Yuqing; Baker, Dewleen G.; O'Connor, Daniel T.; Nievergelt, Caroline M.

    2014-01-01

    Dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) is the biosynthetic enzyme catalyzing formation of norepinephrine. Changes in DBH expression or activity have been implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular and neuropsychiatric disorders. Genetic determination of DBH enzymatic activity and its secretion are only incompletely understood. We began with a genome-wide association search for loci contributing to DBH activity in human plasma. Initially, in a population sample of European ancestry, we identified the proximal DBH promoter as a region harboring three common trait-determining variants (top hit rs1611115, P = 7.2 × 10−51). We confirmed their effects on transcription and showed that the three variants each acted additively on gene expression. Results were replicated in a population sample of Native American descent (top hit rs1611115, P = 4.1 × 10−15). Jointly, DBH variants accounted for 57% of DBH trait variation. We further identified a genome-wide significant SNP at the LOC338797 locus on chromosome 12 as trans-quantitative trait locus (QTL) (rs4255618, P = 4.62 × 10−8). Conditional analyses on DBH identified a third genomic region contributing to DBH variation: a likely cis-QTL adjacent to DBH in SARDH (rs7040170, P = 1.31 × 10−14) on chromosome 9q. We conclude that three common SNPs in the DBH promoter act additively to control phenotypic variation in DBH levels, and that two additional novel loci (SARDH and LOC338797) may also contribute to the expression of this catecholamine biosynthetic trait. Identification of DBH variants with strong effects makes it possible to take advantage of Mendelian randomization approaches to test causal effects of this intermediate trait on disease. PMID:24986918

  17. Effect of oxyfluorinated multi-walled carbon nanotube additives on positive temperature coefficient/negative temperature coefficient behavior in high-density polyethylene polymeric switches

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, Byong Chol; Kang, Seok Chang; Im, Ji Sun; Lee, Se Hyun; Lee, Young-Seak

    2011-09-15

    Graphical abstract: The electrical properties of MWCNT-filled HDPE polymeric switches and their effect on oxyfluorination. Highlights: {yields} Oxyfluorinated MWCNTs were used to reduce the PTC/NTC phenomenon in MWCNT-filled HDPE polymeric switches. {yields} Electron mobility is difficult in MWCNT particles when the number of oxygen functional groups (C-O, C=O) increases by oxyfluorination. {yields} A mechanism of improved electrical properties of oxyfluorinated MWCNT-filled HDPE polymeric switches was suggested. -- Abstract: Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were embedded into high-density polyethylene (HDPE) to improve the electrical properties of HDPE polymeric switches. The MWCNT surfaces were modified by oxyfluorination to improve their positive temperature coefficient (PTC) and negative temperature coefficient (NTC) behaviors in HDPE polymeric switches. HDPE polymeric switches exhibit poor electron mobility between MWCNT particles when the number of oxygen functional groups is increased by oxyfluorination. Thus, the PTC intensity of HDPE polymeric switches was increased by the destruction of the electrical conductivity network. The oxyfluorination of MWCNTs also leads to weak NTC behavior in the MWCNT-filled HDPE polymeric switches. This result is attributed to the reduction of the mutual attraction between the MWCNT particles at the melting temperature of HDPE, which results from a decrease in the surface free energy of the C-F bond in MWCNT particles.

  18. Sunflower Oil but Not Fish Oil Resembles Positive Effects of Virgin Olive Oil on Aged Pancreas after Life-Long Coenzyme Q Addition.

    PubMed

    González-Alonso, Adrián; Ramírez-Tortosa, César L; Varela-López, Alfonso; Roche, Enrique; Arribas, María I; Ramírez-Tortosa, M Carmen; Giampieri, Francesca; Ochoa, Julio J; Quiles, José L

    2015-09-29

    An adequate pancreatic structure is necessary for optimal organ function. Structural changes are critical in the development of age-related pancreatic disorders. In this context, it has been reported that different pancreatic compartments from rats were affected according to the fat composition consumed. Since there is a close relationship between mitochondria, oxidative stress and aging, an experimental approach has been developed to gain more insight into this process in the pancreas. A low dosage of coenzyme Q was administered life-long in rats in order to try to prevent pancreatic aging-related alterations associated to some dietary fat sources. According to that, three groups of rats were fed normocaloric diets containing Coenzyme Q (CoQ) for two years, where virgin olive, sunflower, or fish oil was included as unique fat source. Pancreatic samples for microscopy and blood samples were collected at the moment of euthanasia. The main finding is that CoQ supplementation gives different results according to fat used in diet. When sunflower oil was the main fat in the diet, CoQ supplementation seems to improve endocrine pancreas structure and in particular β-cell mass resembling positive effects of virgin olive oil. Conversely, CoQ intake does not seem to improve the structural alterations of exocrine compartment previously observed in fish oil fed rats. Therefore CoQ may improve pancreatic alterations associated to the chronic intake of some dietary fat sources.

  19. Sunflower Oil but Not Fish Oil Resembles Positive Effects of Virgin Olive Oil on Aged Pancreas after Life-Long Coenzyme Q Addition

    PubMed Central

    González-Alonso, Adrián; Ramírez-Tortosa, César L.; Varela-López, Alfonso; Roche, Enrique; Arribas, María I.; Ramírez-Tortosa, M. Carmen; Giampieri, Francesca; Ochoa, Julio J.; Quiles, José L.

    2015-01-01

    An adequate pancreatic structure is necessary for optimal organ function. Structural changes are critical in the development of age-related pancreatic disorders. In this context, it has been reported that different pancreatic compartments from rats were affected according to the fat composition consumed. Since there is a close relationship between mitochondria, oxidative stress and aging, an experimental approach has been developed to gain more insight into this process in the pancreas. A low dosage of coenzyme Q was administered life-long in rats in order to try to prevent pancreatic aging-related alterations associated to some dietary fat sources. According to that, three groups of rats were fed normocaloric diets containing Coenzyme Q (CoQ) for two years, where virgin olive, sunflower, or fish oil was included as unique fat source. Pancreatic samples for microscopy and blood samples were collected at the moment of euthanasia. The main finding is that CoQ supplementation gives different results according to fat used in diet. When sunflower oil was the main fat in the diet, CoQ supplementation seems to improve endocrine pancreas structure and in particular β-cell mass resembling positive effects of virgin olive oil. Conversely, CoQ intake does not seem to improve the structural alterations of exocrine compartment previously observed in fish oil fed rats. Therefore CoQ may improve pancreatic alterations associated to the chronic intake of some dietary fat sources. PMID:26426013

  20. Food insufficiency, housing and health-related quality of life: results from the Positive Spaces, Healthy Places study.

    PubMed

    Choi, Stephanie K Y; Fielden, Sarah; Globerman, Jason; Koornstra, J J Jay; Hambly, Keith; Walker, Glen; Sobota, Michael; O'Brien-Teengs, Doe; Watson, James; Bekele, Tsegaye; Greene, Saara; Tucker, Ruthann; Hwang, Stephen W; Rourke, Sean B; Healthy Places Team, The Positive Spaces

    2015-01-01

    Studies of people living with HIV who are homeless or unstably housed show a high prevalence of food insufficiency (>50%) and associated poor health outcomes; however, most evidence is in the form of cross-sectional studies. To better understand this issue, we conducted a longitudinal study to examine the impact of food insufficiency and housing instability on overall physical and mental health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among people living with HIV in Ontario. Six hundred and two adults living with HIV were enrolled in the Positive Spaces, Healthy Places study and followed from 2006 to 2009. Interviewer-administered questionnaires were used, and generalized linear mixed-effects models constructed to examine longitudinal associations between food insufficiency, housing instability and physical and mental HRQoL. At baseline, 57% of participants were classified as food insufficient. After adjusting for potential confounders, longitudinal analyses revealed a significant, negative association between food insufficiency and physical and mental HRQoL outcomes, respectively [effect size (ES) with 95% confidence interval (CI): (ES = -2.1, CI = -3.9,-0.3); (ES = -3.5, CI = -6.1,-1.5)]. Furthermore, difficulties meeting housing costs were shown to have additional negative impacts on mental HRQoL. Food insufficiency is highly prevalent among people living with HIV in Ontario, particularly for those with unstable housing. This vulnerable group of individuals is in urgent need of changes to current housing programmes, services and policies, as well as careful consideration of their unmet nutritional needs. PMID:25964996

  1. The Application of Voltammetric Analysis of Δ(9) -THC for the Reduction of False Positive Results in the Analysis of Suspected Marijuana Plant Matter.

    PubMed

    Balbino, Marco A; de Oliveira, Laura S; Eleotério, Izabel C; Oiye, Erica N; Ribeiro, Maria F M; McCord, Bruce R; Ipolito, Antonio J; de Oliveira, Marcelo F

    2016-07-01

    The development of methodologies using inexpensive, fast, and reliable instrumention is desirable in illicit drug analysis. The purpose of this study was based on cyclic voltammetry technique to differentiate the electrochemical behavior of ∆(9) -THC, the psychoactive substance in marijuana, and five different extract plants to yield false positive results after analysis protocol for cannabinoids using thin-layer chromatography and Fast Blue B salt. After applying a deposition potential of -0.5 V in a glassy carbon working electrode, the results indicated an anodic peak current at 0.0 V versus Ag/AgCl after addition of ∆(9) -THC solution in the electrochemical cell, and limits of detection and quantification were 1.0 ng mL(-1) and 3.5 ng mL(-1) , respectively. Other interfering plants showed distinct amperometric responses. This methodology was useful to detect ∆(9) -THC even in the presence of the Fast Blue B salt, which avoided false positive results for all the studied extract plants. PMID:27364289

  2. The Application of Voltammetric Analysis of Δ(9) -THC for the Reduction of False Positive Results in the Analysis of Suspected Marijuana Plant Matter.

    PubMed

    Balbino, Marco A; de Oliveira, Laura S; Eleotério, Izabel C; Oiye, Erica N; Ribeiro, Maria F M; McCord, Bruce R; Ipolito, Antonio J; de Oliveira, Marcelo F

    2016-07-01

    The development of methodologies using inexpensive, fast, and reliable instrumention is desirable in illicit drug analysis. The purpose of this study was based on cyclic voltammetry technique to differentiate the electrochemical behavior of ∆(9) -THC, the psychoactive substance in marijuana, and five different extract plants to yield false positive results after analysis protocol for cannabinoids using thin-layer chromatography and Fast Blue B salt. After applying a deposition potential of -0.5 V in a glassy carbon working electrode, the results indicated an anodic peak current at 0.0 V versus Ag/AgCl after addition of ∆(9) -THC solution in the electrochemical cell, and limits of detection and quantification were 1.0 ng mL(-1) and 3.5 ng mL(-1) , respectively. Other interfering plants showed distinct amperometric responses. This methodology was useful to detect ∆(9) -THC even in the presence of the Fast Blue B salt, which avoided false positive results for all the studied extract plants.

  3. Disclosure of HIV positive result to a sexual partner among adult clinical service users in Kemissie district, northeast Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Seid, Mohammed; Wasie, Belaynew; Admassu, Mengesha

    2012-03-01

    HIV Status disclosure is vital for HIV prevention efforts and the couple's health in the context of accelerated highly active antiretroviral therapy. This study aimed to identify factors associated with disclosure of HIV Status to a sexual partner and its outcomes. A facility based cross-sectional study was conducted at Kemissie Health center on 360 HIV positive individuals selected by systematic random sampling. Data were collected using a structured, interviewer administered questionnaire. The level of disclosure to a sexual partner was 93.1%. Among those who disclosed, 74.5% were accepted, 10.8% minor challenges or suspicion of result and the last 7.8% faced physical abuse and blame. The main reasons for not disclosing were fear of divorce [32%], fear of stigma and discrimination [32%] and fear of physical abuse [16%]. Prior discussion, disclosure to family, smooth relationship and knowing partner status were significantly associated with disclosure. HIV prevention programs and counseling efforts should focus on mutual disclosure of HIV test results, by encouraging discussion, reduction of stigma, for better disclosure and continuing care.

  4. Guidelines for interpretation of 16S rRNA gene sequence-based results for identification of medically important aerobic Gram-positive bacteria.

    PubMed

    Woo, Patrick C Y; Teng, Jade L L; Wu, Jeff K L; Leung, Fion P S; Tse, Herman; Fung, Ami M Y; Lau, Susanna K P; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2009-08-01

    This study is believed to be the first to provide guidelines for facilitating interpretation of results based on full and 527 bp 16S rRNA gene sequencing and MicroSeq databases used for identifying medically important aerobic Gram-positive bacteria. Overall, full and 527 bp 16S rRNA gene sequencing can identify 24 and 40 % of medically important Gram-positive cocci (GPC), and 21 and 34 % of medically important Gram-positive rods (GPR) confidently to the species level, whereas the full-MicroSeq and 500-MicroSeq databases can identify 15 and 34 % of medically important GPC and 14 and 25 % of medically important GPR confidently to the species level. Among staphylococci, streptococci, enterococci, mycobacteria, corynebacteria, nocardia and members of Bacillus and related taxa (Paenibacillus, Brevibacillus, Geobacillus and Virgibacillus), the methods and databases are least useful for identification of staphylococci and nocardia. Only 0-2 and 2-13 % of staphylococci, and 0 and 0-10 % of nocardia, can be confidently and doubtfully identified, respectively. However, these methods and databases are most useful for identification of Bacillus and related taxa, with 36-56 and 11-14 % of Bacillus and related taxa confidently and doubtfully identified, respectively. A total of 15 medically important GPC and 18 medically important GPR that should be confidently identified by full 16S rRNA gene sequencing are not included in the full-MicroSeq database. A total of 9 medically important GPC and 21 medically important GPR that should be confidently identified by 527 bp 16S rRNA gene sequencing are not included in the 500-MicroSeq database. 16S rRNA gene sequence results of Gram-positive bacteria should be interpreted with basic phenotypic tests results. Additional biochemical tests or sequencing of additional gene loci are often required for definitive identification. To improve the usefulness of the MicroSeq databases, bacterial species that can be confidently identified by 16S r

  5. The combination of compost addition and arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation produced positive and synergistic effects on the phytomanagement of a semiarid mine tailing.

    PubMed

    Kohler, J; Caravaca, F; Azcón, R; Díaz, G; Roldán, A

    2015-05-01

    A field experiment was carried out to assess the effectiveness of combining mycorrhizal inoculation with a native AM fungus (Glomus sp.) and the addition of an urban organic waste compost (OWC) applied at two rates (0.5 and 2.0% (w:w)), with regard to promoting the establishment of Anthyllis cytisoides L. seedlings in a heavy metal polluted mine tailing, as well as stimulating soil microbial functions. The results showed that the combined use of the highest dose of OWC and AM inoculation significantly increased shoot biomass - by 64% - compared to the control value. However, the separate use of each treatment had no effect on the shoot biomass of this shrub species. At the 2% rate, OWC enhanced root colonisation by the introduced fungus as well as soil nutrient content and soil dehydrogenase and ß-glucosidase activities. The combined treatment increased the uptake of Zn and Mn in shoots, although only Zn reached excessive or potentially toxic levels. This study demonstrates that the combination of organic amendment and an AM fungus is a suitable tool for the phytomanagement of degraded mine tailings, although its effectiveness is dependent on the dose of the amendment.

  6. Ways to Promote the Positive Development of Children and Youth. Research-to-Results Brief. Publication #2008-11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarrett, Nicole; Lerner, Richard M.

    2008-01-01

    This brief discusses the elements and features that define positive youth development and highlights some ways to support the positive development of children and youth. Specifically, this brief addresses the critical role that particular out-of-school time settings (regular family dinners and organized activity programs) can play in supporting…

  7. Multiple diagnostic tests to identify cattle with Bovine viral diarrhea virus and duration of positive test results in persistently infected cattle.

    PubMed

    Fulton, Robert W; Hessman, Bill E; Ridpath, Julia F; Johnson, Bill J; Burge, Lurinda J; Kapil, Sanjay; Braziel, Barbara; Kautz, Kira; Reck, Amy

    2009-04-01

    Several tests for Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) were applied to samples collected monthly from December 20, 2005, through November 27, 2006 (day 0 to day 342) from 12 persistently infected (PI) cattle with BVDV subtypes found in US cattle: BVDV-1a, BVDV-1b, and BVDV-2a. The samples included clotted blood for serum, nasal swabs, and fresh and formalin-fixed ear notches. The tests were as follows: titration of infectious virus in serum and nasal swabs; antigen-capture (AC) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), or ACE, on serum, nasal swabs, and fresh ear notches; gel-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing of serum, nasal swabs, and fresh ear notches; immunohistochemical (IHC) testing of formalin-fixed ear notches; and serologic testing for BVDV antibodies in serum. Of the 12 animals starting the study, 3 died with mucosal disease. The ACE and IHC tests on ear notches had positive results throughout the study, as did the ACE and PCR tests on serum. There was detectable virus in nasal swabs from all the cattle throughout the study except for a few samples that were toxic to cell cultures. The serum had a virus titer > or = log(10) 1.60 in all samples from all the cattle except for 3 collections from 1 animal. Although there were several equivocal results, the PCR test most often had positive results. The BVDV antibodies were due to vaccination or exposure to heterologous strains and did not appear to interfere with any BVDV test. These findings illustrate that PI cattle may be identified by several tests, but differentiation of PI cattle from cattle with acute BVDV infection requires additional testing, especially of blood samples and nasal swabs positive on initial testing. Also, calves PI with BVDV are continual shedders of infectious virus, as shown by the infectivity of nasal swabs over the 11-mo study.

  8. Multiple diagnostic tests to identify cattle with Bovine viral diarrhea virus and duration of positive test results in persistently infected cattle.

    PubMed

    Fulton, Robert W; Hessman, Bill E; Ridpath, Julia F; Johnson, Bill J; Burge, Lurinda J; Kapil, Sanjay; Braziel, Barbara; Kautz, Kira; Reck, Amy

    2009-04-01

    Several tests for Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) were applied to samples collected monthly from December 20, 2005, through November 27, 2006 (day 0 to day 342) from 12 persistently infected (PI) cattle with BVDV subtypes found in US cattle: BVDV-1a, BVDV-1b, and BVDV-2a. The samples included clotted blood for serum, nasal swabs, and fresh and formalin-fixed ear notches. The tests were as follows: titration of infectious virus in serum and nasal swabs; antigen-capture (AC) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), or ACE, on serum, nasal swabs, and fresh ear notches; gel-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing of serum, nasal swabs, and fresh ear notches; immunohistochemical (IHC) testing of formalin-fixed ear notches; and serologic testing for BVDV antibodies in serum. Of the 12 animals starting the study, 3 died with mucosal disease. The ACE and IHC tests on ear notches had positive results throughout the study, as did the ACE and PCR tests on serum. There was detectable virus in nasal swabs from all the cattle throughout the study except for a few samples that were toxic to cell cultures. The serum had a virus titer > or = log(10) 1.60 in all samples from all the cattle except for 3 collections from 1 animal. Although there were several equivocal results, the PCR test most often had positive results. The BVDV antibodies were due to vaccination or exposure to heterologous strains and did not appear to interfere with any BVDV test. These findings illustrate that PI cattle may be identified by several tests, but differentiation of PI cattle from cattle with acute BVDV infection requires additional testing, especially of blood samples and nasal swabs positive on initial testing. Also, calves PI with BVDV are continual shedders of infectious virus, as shown by the infectivity of nasal swabs over the 11-mo study. PMID:19436580

  9. 49 CFR 655.61 - Action when an employee has a verified positive drug test result or has a confirmed alcohol test...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Action when an employee has a verified positive... DRUG USE IN TRANSIT OPERATIONS Consequences § 655.61 Action when an employee has a verified positive.../third party administrator (C/TPA) that a covered employee has a verified positive drug test result,...

  10. How to reduce false positive results when undertaking in vitro genotoxicity testing and thus avoid unnecessary follow-up animal tests: Report of an ECVAM Workshop.

    PubMed

    Kirkland, David; Pfuhler, Stefan; Tweats, David; Aardema, Marilyn; Corvi, Raffaella; Darroudi, Firouz; Elhajouji, Azeddine; Glatt, Hansruedi; Hastwell, Paul; Hayashi, Makoto; Kasper, Peter; Kirchner, Stephan; Lynch, Anthony; Marzin, Daniel; Maurici, Daniela; Meunier, Jean-Roc; Müller, Lutz; Nohynek, Gerhard; Parry, James; Parry, Elizabeth; Thybaud, Veronique; Tice, Ray; van Benthem, Jan; Vanparys, Philippe; White, Paul

    2007-03-30

    Workshop participants agreed that genotoxicity tests in mammalian cells in vitro produce a remarkably high and unacceptable occurrence of irrelevant positive results (e.g. when compared with rodent carcinogenicity). As reported in several recent reviews, the rate of irrelevant positives (i.e. low specificity) for some studies using in vitro methods (when compared to this "gold standard") means that an increased number of test articles are subjected to additional in vivo genotoxicity testing, in many cases before, e.g. the efficacy (in the case of pharmaceuticals) of the compound has been evaluated. If in vitro tests were more predictive for in vivo genotoxicity and carcinogenicity (i.e. fewer false positives) then there would be a significant reduction in the number of animals used. Beyond animal (or human) carcinogenicity as the "gold standard", it is acknowledged that genotoxicity tests provide much information about cellular behaviour, cell division processes and cellular fate to a (geno)toxic insult. Since the disease impact of these effects is seldom known, and a verification of relevant toxicity is normally also the subject of (sub)chronic animal studies, the prediction of in vivo relevant results from in vitro genotoxicity tests is also important for aspects that may not have a direct impact on carcinogenesis as the ultimate endpoint of concern. In order to address the high rate of in vitro false positive results, a 2-day workshop was held at the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM), Ispra, Italy in April 2006. More than 20 genotoxicity experts from academia, government and industry were invited to review data from the currently available cell systems, to discuss whether there exist cells and test systems that have a reduced tendency to false positive results, to review potential modifications to existing protocols and cell systems that might result in improved specificity, and to review the performance of some new test systems

  11. A grounded theory of positive youth development through sport based on results from a qualitative meta-study

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Nicholas L.; Neely, Kacey C.; Slater, Linda G.; Camiré, Martin; Côté, Jean; Fraser-Thomas, Jessica; MacDonald, Dany; Strachan, Leisha; Tamminen, Katherine A.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The overall purpose of this study was to create a model of positive youth development (PYD) through sport grounded in the extant qualitative literature. More specifically, the first objective was to review and evaluate qualitative studies of PYD in sport. The second objective was to analyze and synthesize findings from these studies. Following record identification and screening, 63 articles were retained for analysis. Meta-method analysis revealed strengths of studies were the use of multiple data collection and validity techniques, which produced high-quality data. Weaknesses were limited use of ‘named’ methodologies and inadequate reporting of sampling procedures. Philosophical perspectives were rarely reported, and theory was used sparingly. Results of an inductive meta-data analysis produced three categories: PYD climate (adult relationships, peer relationships, and parental involvement), life skills program focus (life skill building activities and transfer activities), and PYD outcomes (in personal, social, and physical domains). A model that distinguishes between implicit and explicit processes to PYD is presented. PMID:27695511

  12. A grounded theory of positive youth development through sport based on results from a qualitative meta-study

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Nicholas L.; Neely, Kacey C.; Slater, Linda G.; Camiré, Martin; Côté, Jean; Fraser-Thomas, Jessica; MacDonald, Dany; Strachan, Leisha; Tamminen, Katherine A.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The overall purpose of this study was to create a model of positive youth development (PYD) through sport grounded in the extant qualitative literature. More specifically, the first objective was to review and evaluate qualitative studies of PYD in sport. The second objective was to analyze and synthesize findings from these studies. Following record identification and screening, 63 articles were retained for analysis. Meta-method analysis revealed strengths of studies were the use of multiple data collection and validity techniques, which produced high-quality data. Weaknesses were limited use of ‘named’ methodologies and inadequate reporting of sampling procedures. Philosophical perspectives were rarely reported, and theory was used sparingly. Results of an inductive meta-data analysis produced three categories: PYD climate (adult relationships, peer relationships, and parental involvement), life skills program focus (life skill building activities and transfer activities), and PYD outcomes (in personal, social, and physical domains). A model that distinguishes between implicit and explicit processes to PYD is presented.

  13. Assessment of Parental Understanding of Positive Newborn Screening Results and Carrier Status for Cystic Fibrosis with the use of a Short Educational Video.

    PubMed

    Temme, R; Gruber, A; Johnson, M; Read, L; Lu, Y; McNamara, J

    2015-06-01

    Many children are identified as unaffected carriers for cystic fibrosis (CF) through newborn screening (NBS) programs. The aim of this study was to improve parental understanding of positive NBS results using an educational video in addition to genetic counseling. One hundred parents of infants identified as CF carriers through NBS were randomly assigned by household to either a genetic counseling only group or a genetic counseling and video group. All participants completed a knowledge-based questionnaire before, immediately after, and six weeks following genetic counseling. This included questions about resources accessed before and after the appointment. Seventy-two percent of participants accessed resources on their own prior to genetic counseling; these participants scored significantly higher on the pre-counseling questionnaire (p = 0.03). Post-counseling knowledge scores for both groups significantly improved after genetic counseling (p < 0.001). Post-counseling scores were significantly higher in the video group compared to the non-video group (p = 0.02). Knowledge was retained six weeks following genetic counseling. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of an educational video and reinforces the importance of genetic counseling following positive NBS results for CF.

  14. Comparison of ENDF/B-VII.1 and ENDF/B-VII.0 Results for the Expanded Criticality Validation Suite for MCNP and for Selected Additional Criticality Benchmarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosteller, R.

    2014-04-01

    Results obtained with the MCNP5 Monte Carlo code and the ENDF/B-VII.1 and ENDF/B-VII.0 nuclear data libraries have been compared for the 119 benchmarks in the expanded criticality validation suite for MCNP and for 23 additional benchmarks. ENDF/B-VII.1 was found to produce improvements relative to ENDF/B-VII.0 for benchmarks that contain significant amounts of tungsten, zirconium, cadmium, or beryllium, although the results for the benchmarks with beryllium suggest that further improvement still may be needed. In addition, a number of deficiencies previously identified for ENDF/B-VII.0 still remain in ENDF/B-VII.1.

  15. Prevalence, Predictors, and Same Day Treatment of Positive VIA Enhanced by Digital Cervicography and Histopathology Results in a Cervical Cancer Prevention Program in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    DeGregorio, Geneva A.; Bradford, Leslie S.; Manga, Simon; Tih, Pius M.; Wamai, Richard; Ogembo, Rebecca; Sando, Zacharie; Liu, Yuxin; Schwaiger, Constance; Rao, Sowmya R.; Kalmakis, Karen; Kennedy Sheldon, Lisa; Nulah, Kathleen; Welty, Edith; Welty, Thomas; Ogembo, Javier Gordon

    2016-01-01

    Background In 2007, the Cameroon Baptist Convention Health Services (CBCHS) implemented a screen-and-treat cervical cancer prevention program using visual inspection with acetic acid enhanced by digital cervicography (VIA-DC). Methods We retrospectively analyzed 46,048 medical records of women who received care through the CBCHS Women’s Health Program from 2007 through 2014 to determine the prevalence and predictors of positive VIA-DC, rates of same day treatment, and cohort prevalence of invasive cervical cancer (ICC). Results Of the 44,979 women who were screened for cervical cancer, 9.0% were VIA-DC-positive, 66.8% were VIA-DC-negative, 22.0% were VIA-DC-inadequate (normal ectocervix, but portions of the transformation zone were obscured), and 2.2% were VIA-DC-uncertain (cervical abnormalities confounding VIA-DC interpretation). Risk factors significantly associated with VIA-DC-positive screen were HIV-positivity, young age at sexual debut, higher lifetime number of sexual partners, low education status and higher gravidity. In 2014, 31.1% of women eligible for cryotherapy underwent same day treatment. Among the 32,788 women screened from 2007 through 2013, 201 cases of ICC were identified corresponding to a cohort prevalence of 613 per 100,000. Conclusions High rate of VIA-DC-positive screens suggests a significant burden of potential cervical cancer cases and highlights the need for expansion of cervical cancer screening and prevention throughout the 10 regions of Cameroon. VIA-DC-inadequate rates were also high, especially in older women, and additional screening methods are needed to confirm whether these results are truly negative. In comparison to similar screening programs in sub-Saharan Africa there was low utilization of same day cryotherapy treatment. Further studies are required to characterize possible program specific barriers to treatment, for example cultural demands, health system challenges and cost of procedure. The prevalence of ICC among

  16. Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zemsky, Robert; Shaman, Susan; Shapiro, Daniel B.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the Collegiate Results Instrument (CRI), which measures a range of collegiate outcomes for alumni 6 years after graduation. The CRI was designed to target alumni from institutions across market segments and assess their values, abilities, work skills, occupations, and pursuit of lifelong learning. (EV)

  17. Increasing Elementary School Students' Subjective Well-Being through a Classwide Positive Psychology Intervention: Results of a Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suldo, Shannon M.; Hearon, Brittany V.; Bander, Bryan; McCullough, Mollie; Garofano, Jeffrey; Roth, Rachel A.; Tan, Sim Yin

    2015-01-01

    There is growing interest in school-based programs to promote students' subjective well-being (SWB). Students with greater SWB tend to have stronger relationships with their teachers and classmates, as well as behave in more positive ways. Drawing from theory and research pertinent to promoting children's SWB, we developed an 11-session classwide…

  18. Follow-Up Study of Tuberculosis-Exposed Supermarket Customers with Negative Tuberculin Skin Test Results in Association with Positive Gamma Interferon Release Assay Results▿

    PubMed Central

    Franken, Willeke P. J.; Koster, Ben F. P. J.; Bossink, Ailko W. J.; Thijsen, Steven F. T.; Bouwman, John J. M.; van Dissel, Jaap T.; Arend, Sandra M.

    2007-01-01

    We report a follow-up study of 29 subjects with negative tuberculin skin test (TST) results in association with positive gamma interferon release assay (IGRA) results, mainly due to responses to CFP-10 in the T-SPOT.TB assay, during a contact investigation. One year later, 12/29 subjects (41%) had converted to positive TST results in association with negative IGRA results. PMID:17626157

  19. Preliminary results of real-time PPP-RTK positioning algorithm development for moving platforms and its performance validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Won, Jihye; Park, Kwan-Dong

    2015-04-01

    Real-time PPP-RTK positioning algorithms were developed for the purpose of getting precise coordinates of moving platforms. In this implementation, corrections for the satellite orbit and satellite clock were taken from the IGS-RTS products while the ionospheric delay was removed through ionosphere-free combination and the tropospheric delay was either taken care of using the Global Pressure and Temperature (GPT) model or estimated as a stochastic parameter. To improve the convergence speed, all the available GPS and GLONASS measurements were used and Extended Kalman Filter parameters were optimized. To validate our algorithms, we collected the GPS and GLONASS data from a geodetic-quality receiver installed on a roof of a moving vehicle in an open-sky environment and used IGS final products of satellite orbits and clock offsets. The horizontal positioning error got less than 10 cm within 5 minutes, and the error stayed below 10 cm even after the vehicle start moving. When the IGS-RTS product and the GPT model were used instead of the IGS precise product, the positioning accuracy of the moving vehicle was maintained at better than 20 cm once convergence was achieved at around 6 minutes.

  20. Can in vitro mammalian cell genotoxicity test results be used to complement positive results in the Ames test and help predict carcinogenic or in vivo genotoxic activity? II. Construction and analysis of a consolidated database.

    PubMed

    Kirkland, David; Zeiger, Errol; Madia, Federica; Corvi, Raffaella

    2014-12-01

    A Workshop sponsored by EURL ECVAM was held in Ispra, Italy in 2013 to consider whether the in vitro mammalian cell genotoxicity test results could complement and mitigate the implications of a positive Ames test response for the prediction of in vivo genotoxicity and carcinogenicity, and if patterns of results could be identified. Databases of Ames-positive chemicals that were tested for in vivo genotoxicity and/or carcinogenicity were collected from different sources and analysed individually (Kirkland et al., in this issue). Because there were overlaps and inconsistent test results among chemicals in the different databases, a combined database which eliminated the overlaps and evaluated the inconsistencies was considered preferable for addressing the above question. A database of >700 Ames-positive chemicals also tested in vivo was compiled, and the results in in vitro mammalian cell tests were analysed. Because the database was limited to Ames-positive chemicals, the majority (>85%) of carcinogens (103/119) and in vivo genotoxins (83/88) were positive when tested in both in vitro gene mutation and aneugenicity/clastogenicity tests. However, about half (>45%) of chemicals that were not carcinogenic (19/28) or genotoxic in vivo (33/73) also gave the same patterns of positive mammalian cell results. Although the different frequencies were statistically significant, positive results in 2 in vitro mammalian cell tests did not, per se, add to the predictivity of the positive Ames test. By contrast, negative results for both in vitro mammalian cell endpoints were rare for Ames-positive carcinogens (3/119) and in vivo genotoxins (2/88) but, were significantly more frequent for Ames-positive chemicals that are not carcinogenic (4/28) or genotoxic in vivo (14/73). Thus, in the case of an Ames-positive chemical, negative results in 2 in vitro mammalian cell tests covering both mutation and clastogenicity/aneugenicity endpoints should be considered as indicative of

  1. Structure of transition-metal cluster compounds: Use of an additional orbital resulting from the f, g character of spd bond orbitals*

    PubMed Central

    Pauling, Linus

    1977-01-01

    A general theory of the structure of complexes of the transition metals is developed on the basis of the enneacovalence of the metals and the requirements of the electroneutrality principle. An extra orbital may be provided through the small but not negligible amount of f and g character of spd bond orbitals, and an extra electron or electron pair may be accepted in this orbital for a single metal or a cluster to neutralize the positive electric charge resulting from the partial ionic character of the bonds with ligands, such as the carbonyl group. Examples of cluster compounds of cobalt, ruthenium, rhodium, osmium, and gold are discussed. PMID:16592470

  2. Controlling false-positive results obtained with the Hodge and Masuda assays for detection of class a carbapenemase in species of enterobacteriaceae by incorporating boronic Acid.

    PubMed

    Pasteran, Fernando; Mendez, Tania; Rapoport, Melina; Guerriero, Leonor; Corso, Alejandra

    2010-04-01

    The modified Hodge method (MHT) has been recommended by the CLSI for confirmation of suspected class A carbapenemase production in species of Enterobacteriaceae. This test and the Masuda method (MAS) have advantages over traditional phenotypic methods in that they directly analyze carbapenemase activity. In order to identify the potential interferences of these tests, we designed a panel composed of diverse bacterial genera with distinct carbapenem susceptibility patterns (42 carbapenemase producers and 48 nonproducers). About 25% of results among carbapenemase nonproducers, mainly strains harboring CTX-M and AmpC hyperproducers, were observed to be false positive. Subsequently, we developed an optimized approach for more-accurate detection of suspicious isolates of carbapenemase by addition of boronic acid (BA) derivatives (reversible inhibitor of class A carbapenemases and AmpC cephalosporinases) and oxacillin (inhibitor of AmpCs enzymes). The use of the modified BA- and oxacillin-based MHT and MAS resulted in high sensitivity (>90%) and specificity (100%) for class A carbapenemase detection. By use of these methodologies, isolates producing KPCs and GES, Sme, IMI, and NMC-A carbapenemases were successfully distinguished from those producing other classes of ss-lactamases (extended-spectrum beta-lactamases [ESBLs], AmpC beta-lactamases, metallo-beta-lactamases [MBLs], etc.). These methods will provide the fast and useful information needed for targeting of antimicrobial therapy and appropriate infection control.

  3. A false positive newborn screening result due to a complex allele carrying two frequent CF-causing variants.

    PubMed

    Bergougnoux, Anne; Boureau-Wirth, Amandine; Rouzier, Cécile; Altieri, Jean-Pierre; Verneau, Fanny; Larrieu, Lise; Koenig, Michel; Claustres, Mireille; Raynal, Caroline

    2016-05-01

    The detection of two frequent CFTR disease-causing variations in the context of a newborn screening program (NBS) usually leads to the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis (CF) and a relevant genetic counseling in the family. In the present study, CF-causing variants p.Phe508del (F508del) and c.3140-26A>G (3272-26A>G) were identified on a neonate with positive ImmunoReactive Trypsinogen test by the Elucigene™ CF30 kit. The CF diagnosis initially suggested, despite three inconclusive Sweat Chloride Tests (SCT), was finally ruled out after the familial segregation study combined with a negative SCT. Haplotype studies, based on the comparison of 80 p.Phe508del haplotypes, suggested a probable de novo occurrence of c.3140-26A>G on the p.Phe508del ancestral allele in this family. This false positive case emphasizes the importance of SCT in the NBS strategy. Moreover, it raises the need for familial segregation studies in CF and in overall molecular diagnosis strategy of autosomal recessive diseases. PMID:27117206

  4. Pathways That Affect Wives' HIV Risk Among Serodiscordant Couples in India: Results From the Positive Jeevan Saathi Study.

    PubMed

    Patel, Shilpa N; Hennink, Monique M; Hynes, Michelle E; Yount, Kathryn M; Kosambiya, Jayesh K; Wingood, Gina M; Sutton-Brown-Fox, Camille; McCarty, Frances; Windle, Michael

    2016-09-01

    This study examined factors that mitigate or heighten HIV risk among HIV-negative wives in serodiscordant relationships in Gujarat, India. Grounded theory was used to analyze 46 interviews (23 couples) where husbands were HIV-positive and wives were HIV-negative. A conceptual framework emerged from analysis from which we identified five pathways and four key behaviors: (a) safer sex, (b) no sex, (c) coercive sex, and (d) unprotected sex. Most couples either practiced safe sex or abstained from sex. Factors such as wives' assertiveness, a wife's fear of acquiring HIV, mutual understanding, positive sex communication, and a husband's desire to protect wife influenced safe sex/sexual abstinence. Factors such as desire for children, a husband's alcohol use, and intimate partner violence influenced coercive and unprotected sex. Counseling topics on sex communication, verbal and non-verbal safer sex strategies, as well as addressing intimate partner violence and alcohol use may be important in preventing risk to HIV-negative wives. PMID:26848084

  5. CD90-positive cells, an additional cell population, produce laminin {alpha}2 upon transplantation to dy{sup 3k}/dy{sup 3k} mice

    SciTech Connect

    Fukada, So-ichiro Yamamoto, Yukiko; Segawa, Masashi; Sakamoto, Kenta; Nakajima, Mari; Sato, Masaki; Morikawa, Daisuke; Uezumi, Akiyoshi; Miyagoe-Suzuki, Yuko; Takeda, Shin'ichi; Tsujikawa, Kazutake; Yamamoto, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    Laminin {alpha}2 is a component of skeletal and cardiac muscle basal lamina. A defect of the laminin {alpha}2 chain leads to severe congenital muscular dystrophy (MDC1A) in humans and dy/dy mice. Myogenic cells including myoblasts, myotubes, and myofibers in skeletal muscle are a possible source of the laminin {alpha}2 chain, and myogenic cells are thus proposed as a cell source for congenital muscular dystrophy therapy. However, we observed production of laminin {alpha}2 in non-myogenic cells of normal mice, and we could enrich these laminin {alpha}2-producing cells in CD90{sup +} cell fractions. Intriguingly, the number of CD90{sup +} cells increased dramatically during skeletal muscle regeneration in mice. This fraction did not include myogenic cells but exhibited a fibroblast-like phenotype. Moreover, these cells were resident in skeletal muscle, not derived from bone marrow. Finally, the production of laminin {alpha}2 in CD90{sup +} cells was not dependent on fusion with myogenic cells. Thus, CD90{sup +} cells are a newly identified additional cell fraction that increased during skeletal muscle regeneration in vivo and could be another cell source for therapy for lama2-deficient muscular dystrophy.

  6. 49 CFR 655.46 - Return to duty following refusal to submit to a test, verified positive drug test result and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...-sensitive function, shall follow the procedures outlined in 49 CFR Part 40. ... test, verified positive drug test result and/or breath alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater. 655.46... drug test result and/or breath alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater. Where a covered employee...

  7. 49 CFR 655.46 - Return to duty following refusal to submit to a test, verified positive drug test result and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-sensitive function, shall follow the procedures outlined in 49 CFR Part 40. ... test, verified positive drug test result and/or breath alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater. 655.46... drug test result and/or breath alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater. Where a covered employee...

  8. 49 CFR 655.46 - Return to duty following refusal to submit to a test, verified positive drug test result and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-sensitive function, shall follow the procedures outlined in 49 CFR Part 40. ... test, verified positive drug test result and/or breath alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater. 655.46... drug test result and/or breath alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater. Where a covered employee...

  9. 49 CFR 655.46 - Return to duty following refusal to submit to a test, verified positive drug test result and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...-sensitive function, shall follow the procedures outlined in 49 CFR Part 40. ... test, verified positive drug test result and/or breath alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater. 655.46... drug test result and/or breath alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater. Where a covered employee...

  10. Freedom From Local and Regional Failure of Contralateral Neck With Ipsilateral Neck Radiotherapy for Node-Positive Tonsil Cancer: Results of a Prospective Management Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Rusthoven, Kyle E. Raben, David; Schneider, Charles; Witt, Robert; Sammons, Sarah; Raben, Adam

    2009-08-01

    Purpose: To review the outcomes of a prospective management approach using ipsilateral neck radiotherapy in the treatment of node-positive squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil with a well-lateralized primary lesion. Methods and Materials: Between August 2003 and June 2007, 20 patients who presented with squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil, without involvement of the base of the tongue or midline soft palate, and with Stage N1-N2b disease were prospectively treated with radiotherapy to the primary site and ipsilateral neck. In addition, 18 patients received concurrent chemotherapy. The actuarial freedom from contralateral nodal and in-field progression was determined. Acute and late toxicity were prospectively evaluated using the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3, and Radiation Therapy Oncology Group criteria. Results: The nodal disease was Stage N1 in 4 patients, N2a in 3 patients, and N2b in 13 patients. At a median follow-up 19 months (range, 12-40), no in-field or contralateral nodal recurrences had been observed. The 2-year freedom from distant metastasis rate was 87.4%. The actuarial 2-year disease-free and overall survival rates were both 79.5%. Late Radiation Therapy Oncology Group grade 2 xerostomia occurred in 1 patient (5%). No late Grade 3 or greater toxicity was observed. No patient was feeding tube dependent at their last follow-up visit. Conclusion: In carefully selected patients with node-positive, lateralized tonsillar cancer, treatment of the ipsilateral neck and primary site does not appear to increase the risk of contralateral nodal failure and reduces late morbidity compared with historical controls. Although the outcomes with ipsilateral radiotherapy in the present series were promising, these findings require longer follow-up and validation in a larger patient cohort.

  11. Development and application of a method for predicting rotor free wake positions and resulting rotor blade air loads. Volume 1: Model and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadler, S. G.

    1971-01-01

    Rotor wake geometries are predicted by a process similar to the startup of a rotor in a free stream. An array of discrete trailing and shed vortices is generated with vortex strengths corresponding to stepwise radial and azimuthal blade circulations. The array of shed and trailing vortices is limited to an arbitrary number of azimuthal steps behind each blade. The remainder of the wake model of each blade is an arbitrary number of trailing vortices. Vortex element end points were allowed to be transported by the resultant velocity of the free stream and vortex-induced velocities. Wake geometry, wake flow, and wake-induced velocity influence coefficients are generated by this program for use in the blade loads portion of the calculations. Blade loads computations include the effects of nonuniform inflow due to a free wake, nonlinear airfoil characteristics, and response of flexible blades to the applied loads. Computed wake flows and blade loads are compared with experimentally measured data. Predicted blade loads, response and shears and moments are obtained for a model rotor system having two independent rotors. The effects of advance ratio, vertical separation of rotors, different blade radius ratios, and different azimuthal spacing of the blades of one rotor with respect to the other are investigated.

  12. High-performance liquid chromatography of governing liquid to detect illegal bovine milk's addition in water buffalo Mozzarella: comparison with results from raw milk and cheese matrix.

    PubMed

    Enne, Giuseppe; Elez, Danijela; Fondrini, Fabio; Bonizzi, Ivan; Feligini, Maria; Aleandri, Riccardo

    2005-11-11

    A method to detect fraudulent addition of bovine milk in water buffalo Mozzarella cheese by gradient high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), relying on the measurement of quantity ratios within beta-lactoglobulin protein family, is described. Analyses were performed on raw milk, cheese matrix and cheese governing liquid using a C4 column and UV detection. This work demonstrated that bovine milk addition during cheesemaking can be detected in governing liquid of Mozzarella down to the EU law limit of 1% as well as in raw milk and cheese matrix. A significant lowering of peaks' areas and heights was observed in cheese matrix and governing liquid samples in comparison with the corresponding milk ones, possibly due to proteins' degradation during the cheesemaking process. The results show that, unlike previous works reported, the use of a matrix-specific calibration curve is essential in order to achieve a proper quantitation of beta-lactoglobulin proteins, thus allowing a reliable estimation of bovine milk addition.

  13. Clinical Spectrum Time Course in Anti Jo-1 Positive Antisynthetase Syndrome: Results From an International Retrospective Multicenter Study.

    PubMed

    Cavagna, Lorenzo; Nuño, Laura; Scirè, Carlo Alberto; Govoni, Marcello; Longo, Francisco Javier Lopez; Franceschini, Franco; Neri, Rossella; Castañeda, Santos; Sifuentes Giraldo, Walter Alberto; Caporali, Roberto; Iannone, Florenzo; Fusaro, Enrico; Paolazzi, Giuseppe; Pellerito, Raffaele; Schwarting, Andreas; Saketkoo, Lesley Ann; Ortego-Centeno, Norberto; Quartuccio, Luca; Bartoloni, Elena; Specker, Christof; Murcia, Trinitario Pina; La Corte, Renato; Furini, Federica; Foschi, Valentina; Corral, Javier Bachiller; Airò, Paolo; Cavazzana, Ilaria; Martínez-Barrio, Julia; Hinojosa, Michelle; Giannini, Margherita; Barsotti, Simone; Menke, Julia; Triantafyllias, Kostantinos; Vitetta, Rosetta; Russo, Alessandra; Bajocchi, Gianluigi; Bravi, Elena; Barausse, Giovanni; Bortolotti, Roberto; Selmi, Carlo; Parisi, Simone; Montecucco, Carlomaurizio; González-Gay, Miguel Angel

    2015-08-01

    Anti Jo-1 antibodies are the main markers of the antisynthetase syndrome (ASSD), an autoimmune disease clinically characterized by the occurrence of arthritis, myositis, and interstitial lung disease (ILD). These manifestations usually co-occur (for practical purpose complete forms) in the same patient, but cases with only 1 or 2 of these findings (for practical purpose incomplete forms) have been described. In incomplete forms, the ex novo occurrence of further manifestations is possible, although with frequencies and timing not still defined. The aim of this international, multicenter, retrospective study was to characterize the clinical time course of anti Jo-1 positive ASSD in a large cohort of patients. Included patients should be anti Jo-1 positive and with at least 1 feature between arthritis, myositis, and ILD. We evaluated the differences between complete and incomplete forms, timing of clinical picture appearance and analyzed factors predicting the appearance of further manifestations in incomplete ASSD. Finally, we collected 225 patients (58 males and 167 females) with a median follow-up of 80 months. At the onset, complete ASSD were 44 and incomplete 181. Patients with incomplete ASSD had frequently only 1 of the classic triad findings (110 cases), in particular, isolated arthritis in 54 cases, isolated myositis in 28 cases, and isolated ILD in 28 cases. At the end of follow-up, complete ASSD were 113, incomplete 112. Only 5 patients had an isolated arthritis, only 5 an isolated myositis, and 15 an isolated ILD. During the follow-up, 108 patients with incomplete forms developed further manifestations. Single main feature onset was the main risk factor for the ex novo appearance of further manifestation. ILD was the prevalent ex novo manifestation (74 cases). In conclusion, ASSD is a condition that should be carefully considered in all patients presenting with arthritis, myositis, and ILD, even when isolated. The ex novo appearance of further

  14. Predictive Factors of Lapatinib and Capecitabine Activity in Patients with HER2-Positive, Trastuzumab-Resistant Metastatic Breast Cancer: Results from the Italian Retrospective Multicenter HERLAPAC Study

    PubMed Central

    Gori, Stefania; Inno, Alessandro; Rossi, Valentina; Turazza, Monica; Fiorio, Elena; Fabi, Alessandra; Bisagni, Giancarlo; Foglietta, Jennifer; Santini, Daniele; Pavese, Ida; Pellegrino, Arianna; Zambelli, Alberto; Vici, Patrizia; Leonardi, Vita; Barni, Sandro; Saracchini, Silvana; Bogina, Giuseppe; Marchetti, Fabiana; Duranti, Simona; Lunardi, Gianluigi; Montemurro, Filippo

    2016-01-01

    Background There are no validated predictive markers for lapatinib and capecitabine in patients with trastuzumab-resistant HER2 positive metastatic breast cancer. Methods Data of 148 consecutive patients treated with lapatinib and capecitabine from March 2007 to December 2013 were collected from 13 Italian institutions. Estimates of progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were obtained with the Kaplan-Meier method and compared with logrank test. The association of clinicopathological variables and the outcome was studied by binary logistic regression analysis and Cox proportional hazard analysis. Results At a median follow-up of 41 months, median PFS and OS were 7 and 21 months, respectively. Patents with a PFS longer than 7 months had a significantly longer OS, compared with patients with a PFS equal to or shorter than 7 months (36 vs 15 months; p<0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed the benefit of lapatinib-based therapy in terms of PFS and OS was significantly associated with time-to-progression (TTP) on prior first-line trastuzumab-based therapy. In particular, each additional month on first-line trastuzumab based therapy was associated with a reduction in hazard of progression and death after the initiation of lapatinib-based therapy of 2% and 4%, respectively. Conclusions A longer TTP to first line trastuzumab seems to predict a prolonged PFS and OS with subsequent lapatinib and capecitabine. PMID:27224517

  15. Allergic contact stomatitis to dodecyl gallate? A review of the relevance of positive patch test results to gallates.

    PubMed

    Gamboni, Sarah E; Palmer, Amanda M; Nixon, Rosemary L

    2013-08-01

    Gallic acid esters or gallates are antioxidants used as preservatives in food and cosmetics. Few cases of gallates causing allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) have been reported in the literature. We present a case report of a 42-year-old beauty therapist who presented with a swollen tongue. Patch testing was positive to dodecyl gallate, commonly reported as being present in edible oil and oily foods such as margarine. Our patient avoided foods presumed to contain gallates and at the 6-week review reported a substantial improvement in her tongue symptoms. We reviewed our database and found 16 (7%) definitely or possibly relevant reactions to dodecyl gallate, seven (15%) definitely or possibly relevant reactions to propyl gallate and six (3%) definitely or possibly relevant reactions to octyl gallate. Most reactions were attributed to margarine, moisturising cream and lipstick. These products are often mentioned in the literature as containing gallates; however, ingredient labelling and discussions with manufacturers made it difficult to establish whether they are currently present in foods. Ascertaining relevance for these reactions is not always possible. PMID:22943875

  16. Results of using the global positioning system to maintain the time and frequency synchronization in the Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clements, P. A.; Kirk, A.; Unglaub, R.

    1987-01-01

    There are two hydrogen maser clocks located at each signal processing center (SPC) in the DSN. Close coordination of the time and frequency of the SPC clocks is needed to navigate spacecraft to the outer planets. A recent example was the Voyager spacecraft's encounter with Uranus in January 1986. The clocks were adjusted with the goal of minimizing time and frequency offsets between the SPCs at encounter. How time and frequency at each SPC is estimated using data acquired from the Global Positioning System Timing Receivers operating on the NBS-BIH (National Bureau of Standards-Bureau International de l'Heure) tracking schedule is described. These data are combined with other available timing receiver data to calculate the time offset estimates. The adjustment of the clocks is described. It was determined that long range hydrogen maser drift is quite predictable and adjustable within limits. This enables one to minimize time and frequency differences between the three SPCs for many months by matching the drift rates of the three standards. Data acquisition and processing techniques using a Kalman filter to make estimates of time and frequency offsets between the clocks at the SPCs and UTC(NBS) (Coordinated Universal Time realized at NBS) are described.

  17. The impact of extracellular matrix on the chemoresistance of solid tumors--experimental and clinical results of hyaluronidase as additive to cytostatic chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, G; Gomar-Höss, C; Sakr, L; Ulsperger, E; Wogritsch, C

    1998-09-11

    Chemoresistance is of outstanding importance for the limited results of chemotherapy in solid tumors. Chemoresistance of multicellular tumor tissues is more pronounced than that of single cells in vivo and in vitro. The enzyme hyaluronidase is able to loosen the cell-cell contact and the interstitial connective tissue and as such, in a number of preclinical and clinical trials, was shown to enhance the efficacy of cytostatic agents. Although proven to be very effective as additive to local chemotherapy, the systemic efficacy is not documented as well. We present a randomized trial done in high-grade astrocytomas with combined chemotherapy and radiation therapy with and without hyaluronidase. After very promising pilot results with systemic hyaluronidase in various tumor entities and also astrocytomas, this randomized study failed to show synergy to chemotherapy and radiation therapy in high-grade astrocytomas concerning survival. The promising preclinical data and the rather well documented activity in therapeutic use as additive to local chemotherapy seem to be an adequate motive to further elucidate the complex manner in which hyaluronidase is active in the interstitial tumor matrix and to obtain more information concerning the optimal route of application, the optimal dosage and the spectrum of tumor entities where it is synergistic with cytostatic chemotherapy and perhaps even radiation therapy.

  18. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  19. How the Body Position Can Influence High-resolution Manometry Results in the Study of Esophageal Dysphagia and Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ciriza-de-los-Ríos, Constanza; Canga-Rodríguez-Valcárcel, Fernando; Lora-Pablos, David; De-La-Cruz-Bértolo, Javier; Castel-de-Lucas, Isabel; Castellano-Tortajada, Gregorio

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims The body position can influence esophageal motility data obtained with high-resolution manometry (HRM). To examine whether the body position influences HRM diagnoses in patients with esophageal dysphagia and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Methods HRM (Manoscan) was performed in 99 patients in the sitting and supine positions; 49 had dysphagia and 50 had GERD assessed by 24-hour pH monitoring. HRM plots were analyzed according to the Chicago classification. Results HRM results varied in the final diagnoses of the esophageal body (EB) in patients with dysphagia (P = 0.024), the result being more distal spasm and weak peristalsis while sitting. In patients with GERD, the HRM diagnoses of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES), the esophagogastric junction (EGJ) morphology, and EB varied depending on the position; (P = 0.063, P = 0.017, P = 0.041 respectively). Hypotensive LES, EGJ type III (hiatal hernia), and weak peristalsis were more frequently identified in the sitting position. The reliability (kappa) of the position influencing HRM diagnoses was similar in dysphagia and GERD (“LES diagnosis”: dysphagia 0.32 [0.14–0.49] and GERD 0.31 [0.10–0.52], P = 0.960; “EB diagnosis”: dysphagia 0.49 [0.30–0.69] and GERD 0.39 [0.20–0.59], P = 0.480). The reliability in “EGJ morphology” studies was higher in dysphagia 0.81 (0.68–0.94) than in GERD 0.55 (0.37–0.73), P = 0.020. Conclusions HRM results varied according to the position in patients with dysphagia and GERD. Weak peristalsis was more frequently diagnosed while sitting in dysphagia and GERD. Hypotensive LES and EGJ type III (hiatal hernia) were also more frequently diagnosed in the sitting position in patients with GERD. PMID:26130633

  20. Pulsed addition of HMF and furfural to batch-grown xylose-utilizing Saccharomyces cerevisiae results in different physiological responses in glucose and xylose consumption phase

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass generates a number of undesired degradation products that can inhibit microbial metabolism. Two of these compounds, the furan aldehydes 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and 2-furaldehyde (furfural), have been shown to be an impediment for viable ethanol production. In the present study, HMF and furfural were pulse-added during either the glucose or the xylose consumption phase in order to dissect the effects of these inhibitors on energy state, redox metabolism, and gene expression of xylose-consuming Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Results Pulsed addition of 3.9 g L-1 HMF and 1.2 g L-1 furfural during either the glucose or the xylose consumption phase resulted in distinct physiological responses. Addition of furan aldehydes in the glucose consumption phase was followed by a decrease in the specific growth rate and the glycerol yield, whereas the acetate yield increased 7.3-fold, suggesting that NAD(P)H for furan aldehyde conversion was generated by acetate synthesis. No change in the intracellular levels of NAD(P)H was observed 1 hour after pulsing, whereas the intracellular concentration of ATP increased by 58%. An investigation of the response at transcriptional level revealed changes known to be correlated with perturbations in the specific growth rate, such as protein and nucleotide biosynthesis. Addition of furan aldehydes during the xylose consumption phase brought about an increase in the glycerol and acetate yields, whereas the xylitol yield was severely reduced. The intracellular concentrations of NADH and NADPH decreased by 58 and 85%, respectively, hence suggesting that HMF and furfural drained the cells of reducing power. The intracellular concentration of ATP was reduced by 42% 1 hour after pulsing of inhibitors, suggesting that energy-requiring repair or maintenance processes were activated. Transcriptome profiling showed that NADPH-requiring processes such as amino acid biosynthesis and sulfate and

  1. Starch plus sunflower oil addition to the diet of dry dairy cows results in a trans-11 to trans-10 shift of biohydrogenation.

    PubMed

    Zened, A; Enjalbert, F; Nicot, M C; Troegeler-Meynadier, A

    2013-01-01

    Trans fatty acids (FA), exhibit different biological properties. Among them, cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid has some interesting putative health properties, whereas trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid has negative effects on cow milk fat production and would negatively affect human health. In high-yielding dairy cows, a shift from trans-11 to trans-10 pathway of biohydrogenation (BH) can occur in the rumen of cows receiving high-concentrate diets, especially when the diet is supplemented with unsaturated fat sources. To study this shift, 4 rumen-fistulated nonlactating Holstein cows were assigned to a 4×4 Latin square design with 4 different diets during 4 periods. Cows received 12 kg of dry matter per day of 4 diets based on corn silage during 4 successive periods: a control diet (22% starch, <3% crude fat on DM basis), a high-starch diet supplemented with wheat plus barley (35% starch, <3% crude fat), a sunflower oil diet supplemented with 5% of sunflower oil (20% starch, 7.6% crude fat), and a high-starch plus sunflower oil diet (33% starch, 7.3% crude fat). Five hours after feeding, proportions of trans-11 BH isomers greatly increased in the rumen content with the addition of sunflower oil, without change in ruminal pH compared with the control diet. Addition of starch to the control diet had no effect on BH pathways but decreased ruminal pH. The addition of a large amount of starch in association with sunflower oil increased trans-10 FA at the expense of trans-11 FA in the rumen content, revealing a trans-11 to trans-10 shift. Interestingly, with this latter diet, ruminal pH did not change compared with a single addition of starch. This trans-11 to trans-10 shift occurred progressively, after a decrease in the proportion of trans-11 FA in the rumen, suggesting that this shift could result from a dysbiosis in the rumen in favor of trans-10-producing bacteria at the expense of those producing trans-11 or a modification of bacterial activities.

  2. 49 CFR 655.46 - Return to duty following refusal to submit to a test, verified positive drug test result and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Return to duty following refusal to submit to a test, verified positive drug test result and/or breath alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater. 655.46... OPERATIONS Types of Testing § 655.46 Return to duty following refusal to submit to a test, verified...

  3. High SO{sub 2} removal efficiency testing: Results of DBA and sodium formate additive tests at Southwestern Electric Power company`s Pirkey Station

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-30

    Tests were conducted at Southwestern Electric Power Company`s (SWEPCo) Henry W. Pirkey Station wet limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system to evaluate options for achieving high sulfur dioxide removal efficiency. The Pirkey FGD system includes four absorber modules, each with dual slurry recirculation loops and with a perforated plate tray in the upper loop. The options tested involved the use of dibasic acid (DBA) or sodium formate as a performance additive. The effectiveness of other potential options was simulated with the Electric Power Research Institute`s (EPRI) FGD PRocess Integration and Simulation Model (FGDPRISM) after it was calibrated to the system. An economic analysis was done to determine the cost effectiveness of the high-efficiency options. Results are-summarized below.

  4. The reliability analysis of Xpert-positive result for smear-negative and culture-negative specimen collected from bone and joint tuberculosis suspects

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Guomei; Mu, Jing; Wang, Guirong; Huo, Fengmin; Dong, Lingling; Li, Yunxu

    2016-01-01

    Background The Xpert MTB/RIF assay (Xpert; Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) has been widely used for pulmonary and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis. In clinical practice, specimen yielding smear-negative, culture-negative but Xpert-positive results is frequently confronted. Due to the notorious possibility of contamination that molecular tests always been thought of, Xpert-positive results without bacteriological supporting evidence arouse great confusions to clinicians. Methods A retrospective study was performed. From April 2014 to February 2015, 852 clinical specimens were Xpert-positive. The results of Xpert assay, bacteriological and pathological examinations from either the same specimens or from the specimens collected during same clinical operations were investigated. Results A total of 90 specimens with Xpert-positive but smear-negative and culture-negative results were recruited, and 81 of them were pus specimens collected from Bone and Joint Tuberculosis (BJTB) patients. According to the pathological examination results, 77 of the 81 pus specimens, 8 of 9 other types of specimens were confirmed as either TB or strongly suggestive of TB; three pus specimens and one biopsy tissue were also suggested TB but with less stronger evidence; only one pus specimen was not TB suggestive. Conclusions Our study demonstrated that Xpert could be trusted for BJTB diagnosis even when no supporting bacteriological evidence is available in high TB prevalence settings. Our results will alleviate the confusion among clinicians in such scenarios. PMID:27293838

  5. Standardization of Estrogen Receptor Measurement in Breast Cancer Suggests False-Negative Results Are a Function of Threshold Intensity Rather Than Percentage of Positive Cells

    PubMed Central

    Welsh, Allison W.; Moeder, Christopher B.; Kumar, Sudha; Gershkovich, Peter; Alarid, Elaine T.; Harigopal, Malini; Haffty, Bruce G.; Rimm, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Recent misclassification (false negative) incidents have raised awareness concerning limitations of immunohistochemistry (IHC) in assessment of estrogen receptor (ER) in breast cancer. Here we define a new method for standardization of ER measurement and then examine both change in percentage and threshold of intensity (immunoreactivity) to assess sources for test discordance. Methods An assay was developed to quantify ER by using a control tissue microarray (TMA) and a series of cell lines in which ER immunoreactivity was analyzed by quantitative immunoblotting in parallel with the automated quantitative analysis (AQUA) method of quantitative immunofluorescence (QIF). The assay was used to assess the ER protein expression threshold in two independent retrospective cohorts from Yale and was compared with traditional methods. Results Two methods of analysis showed that change in percentage of positive cells from 10% to 1% did not significantly affect the overall number of ER-positive patients. The standardized assay for ER on two Yale TMA cohorts showed that 67.9% and 82.5% of the patients were above the 2-pg/μg immunoreactivity threshold. We found 9.1% and 19.7% of the patients to be QIF-positive/IHC-negative, and 4.0% and 0.4% to be QIF-negative/IHC-positive for a total of 13.1% and 20.1% discrepant cases when compared with pathologists' judgment of threshold. Assessment of survival for both cohorts showed that patients who were QIF-positive/pathologist-negative had outcomes similar to those of patients who had positive results for both assays. Conclusion Assessment of intensity threshold by using a quantitative, standardized assay on two independent cohorts suggests discordance in the 10% to 20% range with current IHC methods, in which patients with discrepant results have prognostic outcomes similar to ER-positive patients with concordant results. PMID:21709197

  6. Change in cardio-protective medication and health-related quality of life after diagnosis of screen-detected diabetes: Results from the ADDITION-Cambridge cohort

    PubMed Central

    Black, J.A.; Long, G.H.; Sharp, S.J.; Kuznetsov, L.; Boothby, C.E.; Griffin, S.J.; Simmons, R.K.

    2015-01-01

    Aims Establishing a balance between the benefits and harms of treatment is important among individuals with screen-detected diabetes, for whom the burden of treatment might be higher than the burden of the disease. We described the association between cardio-protective medication and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among individuals with screen-detected diabetes. Methods 867 participants with screen-detected diabetes underwent clinical measurements at diagnosis, one and five years. General HRQoL (EQ5D) was measured at baseline, one- and five-years, and diabetes-specific HRQoL (ADDQoL-AWI) and health status (SF-36) at one and five years. Multivariable linear regression was used to quantify the association between change in HRQoL and change in cardio-protective medication. Results The median (IQR) number of prescribed cardio-protective agents was 2 (1 to 3) at diagnosis, 3 (2 to 4) at one year and 4 (3 to 5) at five years. Change in cardio-protective medication was not associated with change in HRQoL from diagnosis to one year. From one year to five years, change in cardio-protective agents was not associated with change in the SF-36 mental health score. One additional agent was associated with an increase in the SF-36 physical health score (2.1; 95%CI 0.4, 3.8) and an increase in the EQ-5D (0.05; 95%CI 0.02, 0.08). Conversely, one additional agent was associated with a decrease in the ADDQoL-AWI (−0.32; 95%CI −0.51, −0.13), compared to no change. Conclusions We found little evidence that increases in the number of cardio-protective medications impacted negatively on HRQoL among individuals with screen-detected diabetes over five years. PMID:25937542

  7. SU-E-J-06: Additional Imaging Guidance Dose to Patient Organs Resulting From X-Ray Tubes Used in CyberKnife Image Guidance System

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, A; Ding, G

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The use of image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) has become increasingly common, but the additional radiation exposure resulting from repeated image guidance procedures raises concerns. Although there are many studies reporting imaging dose from different image guidance devices, imaging dose for the CyberKnife Robotic Radiosurgery System is not available. This study provides estimated organ doses resulting from image guidance procedures on the CyberKnife system. Methods: Commercially available Monte Carlo software, PCXMC, was used to calculate average organ doses resulting from x-ray tubes used in the CyberKnife system. There are seven imaging protocols with kVp ranging from 60 – 120 kV and 15 mAs for treatment sites in the Cranium, Head and Neck, Thorax, and Abdomen. The output of each image protocol was measured at treatment isocenter. For each site and protocol, Adult body sizes ranging from anorexic to extremely obese were simulated since organ dose depends on patient size. Doses for all organs within the imaging field-of-view of each site were calculated for a single image acquisition from both of the orthogonal x-ray tubes. Results: Average organ doses were <1.0 mGy for every treatment site and imaging protocol. For a given organ, dose increases as kV increases or body size decreases. Higher doses are typically reported for skeletal components, such as the skull, ribs, or clavicles, than for softtissue organs. Typical organ doses due to a single exposure are estimated as 0.23 mGy to the brain, 0.29 mGy to the heart, 0.08 mGy to the kidneys, etc., depending on the imaging protocol and site. Conclusion: The organ doses vary with treatment site, imaging protocol and patient size. Although the organ dose from a single image acquisition resulting from two orthogonal beams is generally insignificant, the sum of repeated image acquisitions (>100) could reach 10–20 cGy for a typical treatment fraction.

  8. Additive effects of LPL, APOA5 and APOE variant combinations on triglyceride levels and hypertriglyceridemia: results of the ICARIA genetic sub-study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) is a well-established independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and the influence of several genetic variants in genes related with triglyceride (TG) metabolism has been described, including LPL, APOA5 and APOE. The combined analysis of these polymorphisms could produce clinically meaningful complementary information. Methods A subgroup of the ICARIA study comprising 1825 Spanish subjects (80% men, mean age 36 years) was genotyped for the LPL-HindIII (rs320), S447X (rs328), D9N (rs1801177) and N291S (rs268) polymorphisms, the APOA5-S19W (rs3135506) and -1131T/C (rs662799) variants, and the APOE polymorphism (rs429358; rs7412) using PCR and restriction analysis and TaqMan assays. We used regression analyses to examine their combined effects on TG levels (with the log-transformed variable) and the association of variant combinations with TG levels and hypertriglyceridemia (TG ≥ 1.69 mmol/L), including the covariates: gender, age, waist circumference, blood glucose, blood pressure, smoking and alcohol consumption. Results We found a significant lowering effect of the LPL-HindIII and S447X polymorphisms (p < 0.0001). In addition, the D9N, N291S, S19W and -1131T/C variants and the APOE-ε4 allele were significantly associated with an independent additive TG-raising effect (p < 0.05, p < 0.01, p < 0.001, p < 0.0001 and p < 0.001, respectively). Grouping individuals according to the presence of TG-lowering or TG-raising polymorphisms showed significant differences in TG levels (p < 0.0001), with the lowest levels exhibited by carriers of two lowering variants (10.2% reduction in TG geometric mean with respect to individuals who were homozygous for the frequent alleles of all the variants), and the highest levels in carriers of raising combinations (25.1% mean TG increase). Thus, carrying two lowering variants was protective against HTG (OR = 0.62; 95% CI, 0.39-0.98; p = 0.042) and having one single raising polymorphism (OR

  9. High SO{sub 2} removal efficiency testing. Topical report - results of sodium formate additive tests at New York State Electric & Gas Corporation`s Kintigh Station

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, J.

    1997-02-14

    Tests were conducted at New York State Gas & Electric`s (NYSEG`s) Kintigh Station to evaluate options for achieving high sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) removal efficiency in the wet limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system. This test program was one of six conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy to evaluate low-capital-cost upgrades to existing FGD systems as a means for utilities to comply with the requirements of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. The upgrade option tested at Kintigh was sodium formate additive. Results from the tests were used to calibrate the Electric Power Research Institute`s (EPRI) FGD PRocess Integration and Simulation Model (FGDPRISM) to the Kintigh scrubber configuration. FGDPRISM was then used to predict system performance for evaluating conditions other than those tested. An economic evaluation was then done to determine the cost effectiveness of various high-efficiency upgrade options. These costs can be compared with the estimated market value of SO{sub 2} allowance or the expected costs of allowances generated by other means, such as fuel switching or new scrubbers, to arrive at the most cost-effective strategy for Clean Air Act compliance.

  10. Prevalence of sexual desire and satisfaction among patients with screen-detected diabetes and impact of intensive multifactorial treatment: Results from the ADDITION-Denmark study

    PubMed Central

    Giraldi, Annamaria; Kristensen, Ellids; Lauritzen, Torsten; Sandbæk, Annelli; Charles, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective. Sexual problems are common in people with diabetes. It is unknown whether early detection of diabetes and subsequent intensive multifactorial treatment (IT) are associated with sexual health. We report the prevalence of low sexual desire and low sexual satisfaction among people with screen-detected diabetes and compare the impact of intensive multifactorial treatment with the impact of routine care (RC) on these measures. Design. A cross-sectional analysis of the ADDITION-Denmark trial cohort six years post-diagnosis. Setting. 190 general practices around Denmark. Subjects. A total of 968 patients with screen-detected type 2 diabetes. Main outcome measures. Low sexual desire and low sexual satisfaction. Results. Mean (standard deviation, SD) age was 64.9 (6.9) years. The prevalence of low sexual desire was 53% (RC) and 54% (IT) among women, and 24% (RC) and 25% (IT) among men. The prevalence of low sexual satisfaction was 23% (RC) and 18% (IT) among women, and 27% (RC) and 37% (IT) among men. Among men, the prevalence of low sexual satisfaction was significantly higher in the IT group than in the RC group, p = 0.01. Conclusion. Low sexual desire and low satisfaction are frequent among men and women with screen-detected diabetes, and IT may negatively impact men's sexual satisfaction. PMID:25659194

  11. Accuracy and Precision in the Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) Dataset 1998-2000 in Light of the JOSIE-2000 Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witte, J. C.; Thompson, A. M.; Schmidlin, F. J.; Oltmans, S. J.; McPeters, R. D.; Smit, H. G. J.

    2003-01-01

    A network of 12 southern hemisphere tropical and subtropical stations in the Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes (SHADOZ) project has provided over 2000 profiles of stratospheric and tropospheric ozone since 1998. Balloon-borne electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozonesondes are used with standard radiosondes for pressure, temperature and relative humidity measurements. The archived data are available at:http: //croc.gsfc.nasa.gov/shadoz. In Thompson et al., accuracies and imprecisions in the SHADOZ 1998- 2000 dataset were examined using ground-based instruments and the TOMS total ozone measurement (version 7) as references. Small variations in ozonesonde technique introduced possible biases from station-to-station. SHADOZ total ozone column amounts are now compared to version 8 TOMS; discrepancies between the two datasets are reduced 2\\% on average. An evaluation of ozone variations among the stations is made using the results of a series of chamber simulations of ozone launches (JOSIE-2000, Juelich Ozonesonde Intercomparison Experiment) in which a standard reference ozone instrument was employed with the various sonde techniques used in SHADOZ. A number of variations in SHADOZ ozone data are explained when differences in solution strength, data processing and instrument type (manufacturer) are taken into account.

  12. High frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation with diphenidol administration results in an additive antiallodynic effect in rats following chronic constriction injury.

    PubMed

    Lin, Heng-Teng; Chiu, Chong-Chi; Wang, Jhi-Joung; Hung, Ching-Hsia; Chen, Yu-Wen

    2015-03-01

    The impact of coadministration of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) and diphenidol is not well established. Here we estimated the effects of diphenidol in combination with TENS on mechanical allodynia and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) expression. Using an animal chronic constriction injury (CCI) model, the rat was estimated for evidence of mechanical sensitivity via von Frey hair stimulation and TNF-α expression in the sciatic nerve using the ELISA assay. High frequency (100Hz) TENS or intraperitoneal injection of diphenidol (2.0μmol/kg) was applied daily, starting on postoperative day 1 (POD1) and lasting for the next 13 days. We demonstrated that both high frequency TENS and diphenidol groups had an increase in mechanical withdrawal thresholds of 60%. Coadministration of high frequency TENS and diphenidol gives better results of paw withdrawal thresholds in comparison with high frequency TENS alone or diphenidol alone. Both diphenidol and coadministration of high frequency TENS with diphenidol groups showed a significant reduction of the TNF-α level compared with the CCI or HFS group (P<0.05) in the sciatic nerve on POD7, whereas the CCI or high frequency TENS group exhibited a higher TNF-α level than the sham group (P<0.05). Our resulting data revealed that diphenidol alone, high frequency TENS alone, and the combination produced a reduction of neuropathic allodynia. Both diphenidol and the combination of diphenidol with high frequency TENS inhibited TNF-α expression. A moderately effective dose of diphenidol appeared to have an additive effect with high frequency TENS. Therefore, multidisciplinary treatments could be considered for this kind of mechanical allodynia. PMID:25596445

  13. Cytogenetic confirmation of a positive NIPT result: evidence-based choice between chorionic villus sampling and amniocentesis depending on chromosome aberration.

    PubMed

    Van Opstal, Diane; Srebniak, Malgorzata I

    2016-01-01

    It has been shown that in non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) there is a small chance of a false-positive or false-negative result. This is partly due to the fact that the fetal cell-free DNA present in maternal plasma is derived from the cytotrophoblast of chorionic villi (CV), which is not always representative for the fetal karyotype due to chromosomal mosaicism. Therefore, a positive NIPT result should always be confirmed with invasive testing, preferably amniocentesis, in order to investigate the fetal karyotype. However, since this invasive test can only be safely performed after 15.5 weeks of gestation while NIPT can be done from the 10(th) week of gestation, this potentially means an unacceptable long waiting time for the prospective parents to receive a definitive result. Based on our experience with cytogenetic investigations in CV and the literature, we determined whether CV sampling may be appropriate for confirmation of an abnormal NIPT result. PMID:26864482

  14. The results with the addition of metronomic cyclophosphamide to palliative radiotherapy for the treatment of non-small cell lung carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Subhash Chandra; Pandey, Kailash Chandra; Rastogi, Madhup; Sharma, Mukesh; Gupta, Manoj

    2015-01-01

    Background A considerable proportion of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) patients are ineligible for radical therapies. Many are frail not to tolerate intravenous palliative chemotherapy either. These patients often receive palliative radiotherapy (RT), or supportive care alone. We intend to compare outcomes with palliative RT alone, versus palliative RT plus oral low dose metronomic cyclophosphamide. Methods Data was mined from 139 eligible NSCLC patient records. Comparisons were made between 65 patients treated from January 2011 to March 2013 with palliative RT (20-30 Gray in 5-10 fractions) alone, versus 74 patients treated from April 2013 to December 2014 with palliative RT plus oral metronomic cyclophosphamide (50 mg once daily from day of initiation of RT until at least the day of disease progression). Response was assessed after 1-month post-RT by computed tomography. Patients with complete or partial response were recorded as responders. For the determination of progression free survival (PFS), progression would be declared in case of increase in size of lesions, development of new lesions, or development of effusions. The proportions of responders were compared with the Fisher exact test, and the PFS curves were compared with the log-rank test. Results Differences in response rates were statistically insignificant. The PFS was significantly higher when metronomic chemotherapy was added to RT in comparison to treatment with RT alone (mean PFS 3.1 vs. 2.55 months; P=0.0501). Further histological sub-group analysis revealed that the enhanced outcomes with addition of metronomic cyclophosphamide to RT were limited to patients with adenocarcinoma histology (3.5 vs. 2.4 months; P=0.0053), while there was no benefit for those with squamous cell histology (2.6 vs. 2.6 months; P=1). At the dose of oral cyclophosphamide used, there was no recorded instance of any measurable hematological toxicity. Conclusions For pulmonary adenocarcinoma patients, the treatment

  15. Computer-assisted assignment of functional domains in the nonstructural polyprotein of hepatitis E virus: delineation of an additional group of positive-strand RNA plant and animal viruses.

    PubMed

    Koonin, E V; Gorbalenya, A E; Purdy, M A; Rozanov, M N; Reyes, G R; Bradley, D W

    1992-09-01

    Computer-assisted comparison of the nonstructural polyprotein of hepatitis E virus (HEV) with proteins of other positive-strand RNA viruses allowed the identification of the following putative functional domains: (i) RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, (ii) RNA helicase, (iii) methyltransferase, (iv) a domain of unknown function ("X" domain) flanking the papain-like protease domains in the polyproteins of animal positive-strand RNA viruses, and (v) papain-like cysteine protease domain distantly related to the putative papain-like protease of rubella virus (RubV). Comparative analysis of the polymerase and helicase sequences of positive-strand RNA viruses belonging to the so-called "alpha-like" supergroup revealed grouping between HEV, RubV, and beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV), a plant furovirus. Two additional domains have been identified: one showed significant conservation between HEV, RubV, and BNYVV, and the other showed conservation specifically between HEV and RubV. The large nonstructural proteins of HEV, RubV, and BNYVV retained similar domain organization, with the exceptions of relocation of the putative protease domain in HEV as compared to RubV and the absence of the protease and X domains in BNYVV. These observations show that HEV, RubV, and BNYVV encompass partially conserved arrays of distinctive putative functional domains, suggesting that these viruses constitute a distinct monophyletic group within the alpha-like supergroup of positive-strand RNA viruses. PMID:1518855

  16. Changes in physical activity and modelled cardiovascular risk following diagnosis of diabetes: 1-year results from the ADDITION-Cambridge trial cohort

    PubMed Central

    Barakat, A; Williams, K M; Prevost, A T; Kinmonth, A-L; Wareham, N J; Griffin, S J; Simmons, R K

    2013-01-01

    Aims To describe change in physical activity over 1 year and associations with change in cardiovascular disease risk factors in a population with screen-detected Type 2 diabetes. Methods Eight hundred and sixty-seven individuals with screen-detected diabetes underwent measurement of self-reported physical activity, cardiovascular disease risk factors and modelled cardiovascular disease risk at baseline and 1 year (n = 736) in the ADDITION-Cambridge trial. Multiple linear regression was used to quantify the association between change in different physical activity domains and cardiovascular disease risk factors at 1 year. Results There was no change in self-reported physical activity over 12 months. Even relatively large changes in physical activity were associated with relatively small changes in cardiovascular disease risk factors after allowing for changes in self-reported medication and diet. For every 30 metabolic equivalent-h increase in recreational activity (equivalent to 10 h/brisk walking/week), there was an average reduction of 0.1% in HbA1c in men (95% CI −0.15 to −0.01, P = 0.021) and an average reduction of 2 mmHg in systolic blood pressure in women (95% CI −4.0 to −0.05, P = 0.045). Conclusions Few associations were observed between change in different physical activity domains and cardiovascular disease risk factors in this trial cohort. Cardiovascular disease risk reduction appeared to be driven largely by factors other than changes in self-reported physical activity in the first year following diagnosis. PMID:22913463

  17. Changes in diet, cardiovascular risk factors and modelled cardiovascular risk following diagnosis of diabetes: 1-year results from the ADDITION-Cambridge trial cohort

    PubMed Central

    Savory, L A; Griffin, S J; Williams, K M; Prevost, A T; Kinmonth, A-L; Wareham, N J; Simmons, R K

    2014-01-01

    Aims To describe change in self-reported diet and plasma vitamin C, and to examine associations between change in diet and cardiovascular disease risk factors and modelled 10-year cardiovascular disease risk in the year following diagnosis of Type 2 diabetes. Methods Eight hundred and sixty-seven individuals with screen-detected diabetes underwent assessment of self-reported diet, plasma vitamin C, cardiovascular disease risk factors and modelled cardiovascular disease risk at baseline and 1 year (n = 736) in the ADDITION-Cambridge trial. Multivariable linear regression was used to quantify the association between change in diet and cardiovascular disease risk at 1 year, adjusting for change in physical activity and cardio-protective medication. Results Participants reported significant reductions in energy, fat and sodium intake, and increases in fruit, vegetable and fibre intake over 1 year. The reduction in energy was equivalent to an average-sized chocolate bar; the increase in fruit was equal to one plum per day. There was a small increase in plasma vitamin C levels. Increases in fruit intake and plasma vitamin C were associated with small reductions in anthropometric and metabolic risk factors. Increased vegetable intake was associated with an increase in BMI and waist circumference. Reductions in fat, energy and sodium intake were associated with reduction in HbA1c, waist circumference and total cholesterol/modelled cardiovascular disease risk, respectively. Conclusions Improvements in dietary behaviour in this screen-detected population were associated with small reductions in cardiovascular disease risk, independently of change in cardio-protective medication and physical activity. Dietary change may have a role to play in the reduction of cardiovascular disease risk following diagnosis of diabetes. PMID:24102972

  18. False-positive results in immunoglobulin M (IgM) toxoplasma antibody tests and importance of confirmatory testing: the Platelia Toxo IgM test.

    PubMed Central

    Liesenfeld, O; Press, C; Montoya, J G; Gill, R; Isaac-Renton, J L; Hedman, K; Remington, J S

    1997-01-01

    Although tests for detection of immunoglobulin M (IgM) toxoplasma antibodies have been reported to have a high degree of accuracy, it is well recognized by investigators in the United States and Europe that false-positive results may occur with many of these tests, at times to an alarming degree. Unfortunately, this information is not well documented in the literature. Studies on various toxoplasma IgM test kits are frequently flawed. The investigators often use reference tests which have not previously been carefully evaluated as well as sera that were not appropriate to answer the question of how often false-positive results might occur. We recently had the unique opportunity to evaluate the accuracy of the Platelia Toxo IgM test in 575 serum samples obtained during an outbreak of toxoplasmosis which occurred in 1995 in the Capital Regional District of British Columbia, Canada. When compared with results obtained in a reference IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), the Platelia Toxo IgM test had a sensitivity of 99.4%, specificity of 49.2%, positive predictive value of 51.9%, negative predictive value of 99.3%, and an overall agreement of 67.0%. In an attempt to resolve discrepancies between these two tests, a serological profile (Sabin-Feldman dye test, IgA and IgE antibody tests, differential agglutination [AC/HS] test, and IgG avidity method) was performed. Of 153 serum samples that were positive in the Platelia Toxo IgM test and negative in the IgM ELISA, 71 (46.4%) were negative in the Sabin-Feldman dye test. Of the serum samples that were positive in the dye test, 77 (93.9%) had a serological profile most compatible with an infection acquired in the distant past. These results reveal high numbers of false-positive results in the Platelia Toxo IgM test and highlight the importance of appropriate evaluation of commercial tests that are currently being marked. Our results also emphasize the importance of confirmatory testing to determine whether the

  19. Screening for latent tuberculosis in Norwegian health care workers: high frequency of discordant tuberculin skin test positive and interferon-gamma release assay negative results

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) presents globally a significant health problem and health care workers (HCW) are at increased risk of contracting TB infection. There is no diagnostic gold standard for latent TB infection (LTBI), but both blood based interferon-gamma release assays (IGRA) and the tuberculin skin test (TST) are used. According to the national guidelines, HCW who have been exposed for TB should be screened and offered preventive anti-TB chemotherapy, but the role of IGRA in HCW screening is still unclear. Methods A total of 387 HCW working in clinical and laboratory departments in three major hospitals in the Western region of Norway with possible exposure to TB were included in a cross-sectional study. The HCW were asked for risk factors for TB and tested with TST and the QuantiFERON®TB Gold In-Tube test (QFT). A logistic regression model analyzed the associations between risk factors for TB and positive QFT or TST. Results A total of 13 (3.4%) demonstrated a persistent positive QFT, whereas 214 (55.3%) had a positive TST (≥ 6 mm) and 53 (13.7%) a TST ≥ 15 mm. Only ten (4.7%) of the HCW with a positive TST were QFT positive. Origin from a TB-endemic country was the only risk factor associated with a positive QFT (OR 14.13, 95% CI 1.37 - 145.38, p = 0.026), whereas there was no significant association between risk factors for TB and TST ≥ 15 mm. The five HCW with an initial positive QFT that retested negative all had low interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) responses below 0.70 IU/ml when first tested. Conclusions We demonstrate a low prevalence of LTBI in HCW working in hospitals with TB patients in our region. The “IGRA-only” seems like a desirable screening strategy despite its limitations in serial testing, due to the high numbers of discordant TST positive/IGRA negative results in HCW, probably caused by BCG vaccination or boosting due to repetitive TST testing. Thus, guidelines for TB screening in HCW should be updated in order to

  20. Paleomagnetic intensity of Aso pyroclastic flows: Additional results with LTD-DHT Shaw method, Thellier method with pTRM-tail check

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruuchi, T.; Shibuya, H.

    2009-12-01

    For the sake to calibrate the absolute value of the ’relative paleointensity variation curve’ drawn from sediment cores, Takai et al. (2002) proposed to use pyroclastic flows co-bearing with wide spread tephras. The pyroclastic flows prepare volcanic rocks with TRM, which let us determine absolute paleointensity, and the tephras prepare the correlation with sediment stratigraphy. While 4 out of 6 pyroclastic flows are consistent with Sint-800 paleointensity variation curve, two flows, Aso-2 and Aso-4, show weaker and stronger than Sint-800 beyond the error, respectively. We revisited the paleointensity study of Aso pyroclastic flows, adding LTD- DHT Shaw method, the pTRM-tail check in Thellier experiment, and LTD-DHT Shaw method by using volcanic glasses. We prepared 11 specimens from 3 sites of Aso-1 welded tuff for LTD-DHT Shaw method experiments, and obtained 6 paleointensities satisfied a set of strict criteria. They yield an average paleointensity of 21.3±5.8uT, which is smaller than 31.0±3.4uT provided by Takai et al. (2002). For Aso-2 welded tuff, 11 samples from 3 sites were submitted to Thellier experiments, and 6 passed a set of pretty stringent criteria including pTRM-tail check, which is not performed by Takai et al. (2002). They give an average paleointensity of 20.2±1.5uT, which is virtually identical to 20.2±1.0uT (27 samples) given by Takai et al. (2002). Although the success rate was not good in LTD-DHT Shaw method, 2 out of 12 specimens passed the criteria, and gave 25.8±3.4uT, which is consistent with Takai et al. (2002). In addition, we obtained a reliable paleointensity from a volcanic glass in LTD-DHT Shaw method, it gives a paleointensity of 23.6 uT. It is also consitent with Takai et al. (2002). For Aso-3 welded tuff, we performed only LTD-DHT Shaw method for one specimen from one site yet. It gives a paleointensity of 43.0uT, which is higher than 31.8±3.6uT given by Takai et al. (2002). Eight sites were set for Aso-4 welded tuff

  1. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN POSITIVE CANINE HEARTWORM (DIROFILARIA IMMITIS) ANTIGEN RESULTS AND PRESENCE OF ACANTHOCHEILONEMA ODENDHALI MICROFILARIA IN CALIFORNIA SEA LIONS (ZALOPHUS CALIFORNIANUS).

    PubMed

    Krucik, David D R; Van Bonn, William; Johnson, Shawn P

    2016-03-01

    This study establishes a relationship between positive canine heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) test results frequently observed in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) and infection with the filarid nematode Acanthocheilonema odendhali. Four commercially available canine heartworm antigen tests were evaluated for cross-reaction with A. odendhali in California sea lions. Sera were tested from fifteen California sea lions with A. odendhali-associated microfilaremia, confirmed by blood smear, and with no evidence of D. immitis infection at necropsy. Ninety-five percent of tests were falsely positive for D. immitis. This study also determined that the prevalence of A. odendhali infection in stranded California sea lions from central California is approximately 23% by comparing the number of findings of mircofilaremia to the total number of California sea lions sampled at The Marine Mammal Center between 2005 and 2011, inclusive. Acanthocheilonema odenhali microfilaremia in California sea lions is likely to cross-react with canine heartworm antigen tests, and clinicians should interpret results with caution.

  2. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  3. Short-term Follow-up US Leads to Higher False-positive Results Without Detection of Structural Recurrences in PTMC.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jung Hyun; Lee, Hye Sun; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Youk, Ji Hyun; Kim, Hyun Gi; Moon, Hee Jung; Kwak, Jin Young

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the value of the annual follow-up neck ultrasonography (US) for postoperative surveillance in patients with papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC). This retrospective study has been approved by our institutional review board (IRB) with waiver for informed consent. A total of 375 patients diagnosed as PTMCs, who underwent total thyroidectomy with radioiodine remnant ablation were included, to identify the recurrence rate and the false-positive rate of annual ultrasound. The number, interval, and the results of follow-up US or fine needle aspiration were obtained from electronic medical records. Four (1.1%, 4/375) recurrences were found 3 years after the initial treatment, and only 1 patient (0.3%, 1/375) had a metastatic lymph node larger than 8 mm in the shortest diameter on US found 7.6 years after initial treatment with biochemical abnormalities. Cumulative risk of having at least 1 false-positive exam was 8.3% by the 8th US, and 8.1% by the 8-9 year follow-up. Cox multivariate regression showed shorter interval of follow-up US and presence of lymph node metastasis at initial surgery are independent predictors affecting the cumulative false-positive results (hazard ratio [HR], 0.60; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.49-0.73; P < 0.001 and HR, 2.19; 95% CI: 1.01-4.75; P = 0.048, respectively). Short-term follow-up US can result in higher cumulative false-positive results without detection of meaningful recurrences in patients with PTMCs who do not have biochemical abnormalities.

  4. Short-term Follow-up US Leads to Higher False-positive Results Without Detection of Structural Recurrences in PTMC

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Jung Hyun; Lee, Hye Sun; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Youk, Ji Hyun; Kim, Hyun Gi; Moon, Hee Jung; Kwak, Jin Young

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To investigate the value of the annual follow-up neck ultrasonography (US) for postoperative surveillance in patients with papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC). This retrospective study has been approved by our institutional review board (IRB) with waiver for informed consent. A total of 375 patients diagnosed as PTMCs, who underwent total thyroidectomy with radioiodine remnant ablation were included, to identify the recurrence rate and the false-positive rate of annual ultrasound. The number, interval, and the results of follow-up US or fine needle aspiration were obtained from electronic medical records. Four (1.1%, 4/375) recurrences were found 3 years after the initial treatment, and only 1 patient (0.3%, 1/375) had a metastatic lymph node larger than 8 mm in the shortest diameter on US found 7.6 years after initial treatment with biochemical abnormalities. Cumulative risk of having at least 1 false-positive exam was 8.3% by the 8th US, and 8.1% by the 8–9 year follow-up. Cox multivariate regression showed shorter interval of follow-up US and presence of lymph node metastasis at initial surgery are independent predictors affecting the cumulative false-positive results (hazard ratio [HR], 0.60; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.49–0.73; P < 0.001 and HR, 2.19; 95% CI: 1.01–4.75; P = 0.048, respectively). Short-term follow-up US can result in higher cumulative false-positive results without detection of meaningful recurrences in patients with PTMCs who do not have biochemical abnormalities. PMID:26735548

  5. Modification of the active layer/PEDOT:PSS interface by solvent additives resulting in improvement of the performance of organic solar cells.

    PubMed

    Synooka, Olesia; Kretschmer, Florian; Hager, Martin D; Himmerlich, Marcel; Krischok, Stefan; Gehrig, Dominik; Laquai, Frédéric; Schubert, Ulrich S; Gobsch, Gerhard; Hoppe, Harald

    2014-07-23

    The influence of various polar solvent additives with different dipole moments has been investigated since the performance of a photovoltaic device comprising a donor-acceptor copolymer (benzothiadiazole-fluorene-diketopyrrolopyrrole (BTD-F-DKPP)) and phenyl-C60-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) was notably increased. A common approach for controlling bulk heterojunction morphology and thereby improving the solar cell performance involves the use of solvent additives exhibiting boiling points higher than that of the surrounding solvent in order to allow the fullerene to aggregate during the host solvent evaporation and film solidification. In contrast to that, we report the application of polar solvent additives with widely varied dipole moments, where intentionally no dependence on their boiling points was applied. We found that an appropriate amount of the additive can improve all solar cell parameters. This beneficial effect could be largely attributed to a modification of the poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS)-active layer interface within the device layer stack, which was successfully reproduced for polymer solar cells based on the commonly used PCDTBT (poly[N-900-hepta-decanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(40,70-di-2-thienyl-20,10,30-benzothiadiazole)]) copolymer. PMID:24979240

  6. Long-term Results from Cyclocryotherapy Applied to the 3O'clock and 9O'clock Positions in Blind Refractory Glaucoma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Byoung Seon; Kim, Young Jun; Seo, Seong Wook; Yoo, Ji Myong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To report the long-term follow-up results after cyclocryotherapy, applied to the 3-o'clock and 9-o'clock positions in blind refractory glaucoma patients. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 19 blind patients, and a total of 20 eyes with refractory glaucoma who were treated with cyclocryotherapy. Cyclocryotherapy treatments were performed using a retinal cryoprobe. The temperature of each cyclocryotherapy spot was -80℃ and each spot was maintained in place for 60 seconds. Six cyclocryotherapy spots were placed in each quadrant, including the 3-o'clock and 9-o'clock positions. Results The mean baseline pretreatment intraocular pressure (IOP) in all eyes was 50.9 ± 12.5 mmHg, which significantly decreased to a mean IOP at last follow-up of 14.1 ± 7.1 mmHg (p < 0.001). The mean number of antiglaucoma medications that patients were still taking at last follow-up was 0.3 ± 0.6. Devastating post-procedure phthisis occurred in only one eye. Conclusions Cyclocryotherapy, performed at each quadrant and at the 3-o'clock and 9-o'clock position, is an effective way to lower IOP and, thus, is a reasonable treatment option for refractory glaucoma patients who experience with ocular pain and headaches. PMID:25646060

  7. Pegylated interferon in HBeAg-positive and -negative chronic hepatitis B patients: post-treatment 1-year results of three Turkish centres.

    PubMed

    Yamazhan, Tansu; Kurtaran, Behice; Pullukçu, Hüsnü; Yüksel, Esma; Özkaya, Deniz; Taşbakan, Meltem Işıkgöz; Sipahi, Oğuz Reşat; Durusoy, Raika; Aksu, Hasan Salih Zeki

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we aimed to evaluate the 1-year post-treatment follow-up results of 112 patients who received pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) for 52 weeks. HBeAg negativity/seroconversion and/or negative HBV-DNA at the end of the treatment were considered as response. Patients who had response at the end of treatment but had HBV-DNA breakthrough during 1-year follow-up were considered as relapse. The study group comprised 112 cases (34 HBeAg-positive, 78 HBeAg-negative). In HBeAg-positive and -negative cases, end-of-treatment response rates were 2·9% and 60·2%, whereas 1-year sustained virological response rates were 0 and 33·3%, respectively. When we compared relapse cases versus cases with response at the end of 1-year follow-up, being female and having low viral load were the two parameters associated with higher response rates (Chi-square, P  =  0·028; Mann-Whitney U test, P  =  0·023). Overall non-response rates to PEG-IFN were high (57·1%). Results in HBeAg-positive cases were disappointing.

  8. Positional plagiocephaly

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, Carl

    2011-01-01

    Cranial asymmetry occurring as a result of forces that deform skull shape in the supine position is known as deformational plagiocephaly. The risk of plagiocephaly may be modified by positioning the baby on alternate days with the head to the right or the left side, and by increasing time spent in the prone position during awake periods. When deformational plagiocephaly is already present, physiotherapy (including positioning equivalent to the preventive positioning, and exercises as needed for torticollis and positional preference) has been shown to be superior to counselling about preventive positioning only. Helmet therapy (moulding therapy) to reduce skull asymmetry has some drawbacks: it is expensive, significantly inconvenient due to the long hours of use per day and associated with skin complications. There is evidence that helmet therapy may increase the initial rate of improvement of asymmetry, but there is no evidence that it improves the final outcome for patients with moderate or severe plagiocephaly. PMID:23024590

  9. Positive screening and carrier results for the England-wide universal newborn sickle cell screening programme by ethnicity and area for 2005–07

    PubMed Central

    Latinovic, Radoslav; Henthorn, Joan

    2010-01-01

    Aims The overall aim of the new national newborn programme is to identify infants at risk of sickle cell disease to allow early detection and to minimise deaths and complications. Methods Universal screening for sickle cell disease was introduced in England between September 2003 and July 2006. The 13 newborn laboratories each screen between 25 000 and 110 000 babies a year using the existing dried bloodspot cards. The specified conditions to be screened for include sickle cell anaemia (Hb SS), Hb SC disease, Hb S/β thalassaemia, Hb S/DPunjab and Hb S/OArab. Data are reported on screening results by ethnic group and geographical area. Results The prevalence of screen positive results across England is 1:2000. There is a 25-fold variation by geographical area. African babies make up 61% of all screen positive results despite representing only 4% of total births. Combined carrier rates vary widely by ethnicity, from 1.85 per 1000 (1:540) in ‘White British’ to 145 per 1000 (1:7) in ‘African’ babies. Refusal rates for screening show variation by ethnicity. Conclusions These results provide useful information both about the frequency of these conditions and the carrier state and their geographic and ethnic distribution across England. This can be used to refine counselling information and are also useful to target and plan services and public information. PMID:20591912

  10. Faster methods for estimating arc centre position during VAR and results from Ti-6Al-4V and INCONEL 718 alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, B. G.; Winter, N.; Daniel, B.; Ward, R. M.

    2016-07-01

    Direct measurement of the flow of electric current during VAR is extremely difficult due to the aggressive environment as the arc process itself controls the distribution of current. In previous studies the technique of “magnetic source tomography” was presented; this was shown to be effective but it used a computationally intensive iterative method to analyse the distribution of arc centre position. In this paper we present faster computational methods requiring less numerical optimisation to determine the centre position of a single distributed arc both numerically and experimentally. Numerical validation of the algorithms were done on models and experimental validation on measurements based on titanium and nickel alloys (Ti6Al4V and INCONEL 718). The results are used to comment on the effects of process parameters on arc behaviour during VAR.

  11. Goblet-cell-specific transcription of mouse intestinal trefoil factor gene results from collaboration of complex series of positive and negative regulatory elements.

    PubMed Central

    Itoh, H; Inoue, N; Podolsky, D K

    1999-01-01

    Intestinal trefoil factor (ITF) is expressed selectively in intestinal goblet cells. Previous studies of the rat ITF gene identified one cis-regulatory element, designated the goblet-cell-response element (GCRE), present in the proximal region of the promoter. To identify additional cis-regulatory elements responsible for goblet-cell-specific expression, a DNA fragment containing 6353 bp of the 5'-flanking region of the mouse ITF gene was cloned and its promoter activity was examined extensively. In human and murine intestinal-derived cell lines (LS174T and CMT-93), the luciferase activities of a 6.3-kb construct were 5- and 2-fold greater than the smaller 1.8-kb construct, respectively. In contrast, the activity in non-intestinal cell lines (HepG2 and HeLa) was 2-4-fold lower than the smaller construct. In the region downstream from the 1.8-kb position, strong luciferase activities in LS174T and HepG2 cells were observed using a 201-bp construct. Interestingly, increased activity was almost completely suppressed in cells transfected with a 391-bp construct. Detailed analyses of this region revealed the existence of a 11-bp positive regulatory element (-181 to -170; ACCTCTTCCTG) and a 9-bp negative regulatory element (-208 to -200; ATTGACAGA) in addition to the GCRE. All three elements were well conserved among human, rat and mouse ITF gene promoters. In addition, a mutant 1.8-kb construct in which the negative regulatory region was deleted yielded the same approximate luciferase activity as a 6.3-kb construct, suggesting binding of a goblet-cell-specific silencer inhibitor (SI) between -6.3 and -1.8 kb. The SI present in goblet cells may block the silencers' binding to the pre-initiation complex and allow increased transcriptional activity driven by specific and non-specific enhancers. High-level expression of the mouse ITF gene specifically in intestinal goblet cells may be achieved through the combined effects of these regulatory elements. PMID:10393106

  12. A Radio-genomics Approach for Identifying High Risk Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancers on DCE-MRI: Preliminary Results in Predicting OncotypeDX Risk Scores.

    PubMed

    Wan, Tao; Bloch, B Nicolas; Plecha, Donna; Thompson, CheryI L; Gilmore, Hannah; Jaffe, Carl; Harris, Lyndsay; Madabhushi, Anant

    2016-01-01

    To identify computer extracted imaging features for estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancers on dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE)-MRI that are correlated with the low and high OncotypeDX risk categories. We collected 96 ER-positive breast lesions with low (< 18, N = 55) and high (> 30, N = 41) OncotypeDX recurrence scores. Each lesion was quantitatively characterize via 6 shape features, 3 pharmacokinetics, 4 enhancement kinetics, 4 intensity kinetics, 148 textural kinetics, 5 dynamic histogram of oriented gradient (DHoG), and 6 dynamic local binary pattern (DLBP) features. The extracted features were evaluated by a linear discriminant analysis (LDA) classifier in terms of their ability to distinguish low and high OncotypeDX risk categories. Classification performance was evaluated by area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (Az). The DHoG and DLBP achieved Az values of 0.84 and 0.80, respectively. The 6 top features identified via feature selection were subsequently combined with the LDA classifier to yield an Az of 0.87. The correlation analysis showed that DHoG (ρ = 0.85, P < 0.001) and DLBP (ρ = 0.83, P < 0.01) were significantly associated with the low and high risk classifications from the OncotypeDX assay. Our results indicated that computer extracted texture features of DCE-MRI were highly correlated with the high and low OncotypeDX risk categories for ER-positive cancers. PMID:26887643

  13. Influence of a source line position on results of EM observations applied to the diagnostics of underground heating system pipelines in urban area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetrov, A.

    2009-05-01

    The condition of underground constructions, communication and supply systems in the cities has to be periodically monitored and controlled in order to prevent their breakage, which can result in serious accident, especially in urban area. The most risk of damage have the underground construction made of steal such as pipelines widely used for water, gas and heat supply. To ensure the pipeline survivability it is necessary to carry out the operative and inexpensive control of pipelines condition. Induced electromagnetic methods of geophysics can be applied to provide such diagnostics. The highly developed surface in urbane area is one of cause hampering the realization of electromagnetic methods of diagnostics. The main problem is in finding of an appropriate place for the source line and electrodes on a limited surface area and their optimal position relative to the observation path to minimize their influence on observed data. Author made a number of experiments of an underground heating system pipeline diagnostics using different position of the source line and electrodes. The experiments were made on a 200 meters section over 2 meters deep pipeline. The admissible length of the source line and angle between the source line and the observation path were determined. The minimal length of the source line for the experiment conditions and accuracy made 30 meters, the maximum admissible angle departure from the perpendicular position made 30 degrees. The work was undertaken in cooperation with diagnostics company DIsSO, Saint-Petersburg, Russia.

  14. Benzodiazepine whole blood concentrations in cases with positive oral fluid on-site screening test results using the DrugWipe(®) single for benzodiazepines.

    PubMed

    Blencowe, Tom; Vimpari, Kari; Lillsunde, Pirjo

    2011-07-01

    Reliable on-site oral fluid screening devices are a useful and convenient means of policing traffic. In Finland, benzodiazepines represent a particular challenge to traffic safety. This study presents a retrospective examination of toxicological analysis results from whole blood in cases which gave a positive screening result for benzodiazepines in oral fluid using the DrugWipe Single device (Securetec). Use of oral fluid on-site screening tests and blood confirmation analyses reflects the real situation in many countries. The data were compiled from the databases of Alcohol and Drug Analytics Unit at the National Institute for Health and Welfare. Confirmation analysis results in whole blood were obtained using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Data were from 224 real cases in which the Finnish police had conducted a DrugWipe Single benzodiazepines test on drivers suspected of driving under the influence of drugs (DUID). The benzodiazepine concentrations encountered in positive oral fluid screening cases in this study indicate that the device is able to detect these substances even at relatively low levels. However, the DrugWipe device does not enable any distinction between therapeutic use and harmful use of benzodiazepines at higher doses.

  15. Treatment differences between urban and rural women with hormone receptor-positive early-stage breast cancer based on 21-gene assay recurrence score results

    PubMed Central

    Andreason, Molly; Zhang, Chong; Onitilo, Adedayo A; Engel, Jessica; Ledesma, Wendy M; Ridolfi, Kimberly; Kim, KyungMann; Charlson, John C; Wisinski, Kari B; Tevaarwerk, Amye J

    2015-01-01

    Background Women who live in rural and urban settings have different outcomes for breast cancer. A 21-gene assay predicts 10-year distant recurrence risk and potential benefit of chemotherapy for women with hormone receptor-positive (HR+) breast cancer. Objective To assess differences in scores and cancer therapies received by rural versus urban residence. Methods We conducted a multi-institutional retrospective chart review of breast cancer patients diagnosed 2005-2010 with score results. Comparisons by rural versus urban residence (determined by rural-urban commuting area (RUCA) codes derived from zip codes) were made using the Fisher exact test for discrete data such as recurrence score results (<18 vs >18; score range, 0-100, with lower results correlated with less risk of distant recurrence), stage, and receptor status. The Wilcoxon rank sum test was used for continuous data (score results 0-100 and age.) All tests were at a 2-sided significance level of .05. Results 504 patients had RUCA codes (92% white, 62% postmenopausal). For rural (n = 135) compared with urban (n = 369) patients, the median scores were 16 and 18, respectively, P = .18. Most of the patients received endocrine therapy, 123 of 135 (91%) rural, compared with 339 of 369 (92%) urban (P = .19). For scores 18-30, 20 of 56 (36%) rural patients, compared with 82 of 159 (52%) urban patients received chemotherapy (P = .03). Limitations Limitations include lack of randomization to receipt of the assay. Conclusions Recurrence score results did not significantly differ between women based on residence, although women living in a rural area received significantly less chemotherapy for scores >18. This suggests that for HR-positive breast cancer, discrepancies between rural and urban residence are driven by treatment factors rather than differences in biology. Funding Genomic Health Inc PMID:26029936

  16. Immune responses result in misdiagnosis of Schistosoma japonicum by immunodiagnosis kits in egg-positive patients living in a low schistosomiasis transmission area of China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In recent field surveys, we failed to detect the presence of specific antibody against Schistosoma japonicum in some egg-positive patients by commonly used immunodiagnostic kits. To find out whether low levels of specific antibody truly exist among egg-positive individuals and elucidate the underlying immune mechanisms, we carried out a cross-sectional epidemiologic study in a S. japonicum low transmission endemic area of Poyang Lake region, China and compared the humoral and cellular immune characteristics between S. japonicum high and low antibody responders. Methods Kato–Katz thick smear assay was used to determine the schistosomiasis status of 3,384 participants residing in two Poyang Lake region villages, Jiangxi, China. Among the 142 stool egg-positive participants, we identified low and high S. japonicum antibody responders with soluble egg antigen (SEA) and adult worm antigen (AWA) specific IgG levels by adopting ROC curve analysis. To compare the humoral and cellular immune responses between high and low S. japonicum antibody responders, serum specific antibody levels as well as the percentage of T lymphocyte subpopulation in PMBC, and cell stimulated cytokines (IFN- gamma and interlukin-10) were detected. Results Eight S. japonicum egg-positive participants were defined as low antibody responders. Although the percentage of CD3+T cells in low responders was slightly higher and the percentage of CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, the ratio of CD4+/CD8+ and CD4+ CD25+ Treg cells were lower than those in high responders, the differences between the two groups were not significant (P > 0.05). AWA -stimulated interlukin-10 level was significantly higher in high responders, while other cytokines did not show differences between two groups. For antibody profiles, except AWA specific IgA, significant differences of each antibody isotype between low and high responders were detected (P < 0.05). Conclusions Our study confirmed that there are S

  17. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN POSITIVE CANINE HEARTWORM (DIROFILARIA IMMITIS) ANTIGEN RESULTS AND PRESENCE OF ACANTHOCHEILONEMA ODENDHALI MICROFILARIA IN CALIFORNIA SEA LIONS (ZALOPHUS CALIFORNIANUS).

    PubMed

    Krucik, David D R; Van Bonn, William; Johnson, Shawn P

    2016-03-01

    This study establishes a relationship between positive canine heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) test results frequently observed in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) and infection with the filarid nematode Acanthocheilonema odendhali. Four commercially available canine heartworm antigen tests were evaluated for cross-reaction with A. odendhali in California sea lions. Sera were tested from fifteen California sea lions with A. odendhali-associated microfilaremia, confirmed by blood smear, and with no evidence of D. immitis infection at necropsy. Ninety-five percent of tests were falsely positive for D. immitis. This study also determined that the prevalence of A. odendhali infection in stranded California sea lions from central California is approximately 23% by comparing the number of findings of mircofilaremia to the total number of California sea lions sampled at The Marine Mammal Center between 2005 and 2011, inclusive. Acanthocheilonema odenhali microfilaremia in California sea lions is likely to cross-react with canine heartworm antigen tests, and clinicians should interpret results with caution. PMID:27010261

  18. Health-Related Quality of Life With Adjuvant Docetaxel- and Trastuzumab-Based Regimens in Patients with Node-Positive and High-Risk Node-Negative, HER2-Positive Early Breast Cancer: Results from the BCIRG 006 Study

    PubMed Central

    Au, Heather-Jane; Eiermann, Wolfgang; Robert, Nicholas J.; Pieńkowski, Tadeusz; Crown, John; Martin, Miguel; Pawlicki, Marek; Chan, Arlene; Mackey, John; Glaspy, John; Pintér, Tamás; Liu, Mei-Ching; Fornander, Tommy; Sehdev, Sandeep; Ferrero, Jean-Marc; Bée, Valerie; Miller, Dave P.; Lalla, Deepa; Slamon, Dennis J.

    2013-01-01

    Background. This study aims to describe and compare health-related quality of life (HRQL) in patients with node-positive and high-risk node-negative HER2-positive early breast cancer receiving adjuvant docetaxel and trastuzumab-based or docetaxel-based regimens alone. Methods. Eligible patients (n = 3,222) were randomly assigned to either four cycles of adjuvant doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide followed by four cycles of docetaxel (AC→T) or one of two trastuzumab-containing regimens: adjuvant doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide followed by docetaxel plus trastuzumab administered for 1 year (AC→TH) or six cycles of docetaxel plus carboplatin combined with trastuzumab administered for 1 year (TCH). The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Questionnaire C30 and BR-23 were administered at baseline, the start of cycle 4 (mid), and the end of chemotherapy (EOC), as well as at 6, 12, and 24 months after chemotherapy. Results. Compliance rates for the EORTC questionnaires were acceptable at 72%–93% of eligible patients out to the 12-month assessment. Systemic side effect (SE) change scores were significantly improved for TCH-treated patients compared with AC→TH and AC→T at EOC, suggesting improved tolerability. Physical functioning (PF) was only slightly worse at midpoint for those receiving TCH, compared with patients who were just starting on taxane in an AC→TH regimen, but was otherwise similar between arms. All treatment arms recovered from the deterioration in SE, PF, and Global Health Scale scores by 1 year and median future perspective change scores continued to improve throughout treatment and follow-up. Conclusion. HRQL outcomes for adjuvant docetaxel and trastuzumab-based regimens are favorable and support TCH as a more tolerable treatment option. PMID:23814044

  19. [Position paper on the results of Symplicity HTN-3 trial. Grupo de estudio de la hipertensión arterial resistente].

    PubMed

    Azpiri-López, José Ramón; Assad-Morell, José Luis; Ponce de León-Martínez, Enrique; Monreal-Puente, Rogelio; Dávila-Bortoni, Adrián; Vázquez-Díaz, Luis Alberto; Treviño-Frutos, Ramón Javier; Barrera-Oranday, Félix; Del Angel-Soto, Juan Gustavo; Martínez, José Guadalupe; Arellano-Torres, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Renal artery denervation has shown to be an effective treatment for resistant hypertension. Symplicity HTN 1 and 2 trials showed in small and uncontrolled groups, significant systolic blood pressure reductions down to 30 mm Hg. Symplicity HTN-3, a double blind, randomized, placebo controlled clinical trial shaded this initial enthusiasm. Surprisingly, their results showed that renal denervation has a similar effect to placebo. Pre-specified subgroup analysis showed that non-black race individuals, younger than 65 years and with normal renal function, had a statistically significant systolic blood pressure decrease. This manuscript critically appraises the Symplicity HTN-3 trial, proposing possible explanations for the results. Also declares our group position and future actions regarding renal denervation.

  20. Additional correction for energy transfer efficiency calculation in filter-based Förster resonance energy transfer microscopy for more accurate results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yuansheng; Periasamy, Ammasi

    2010-03-01

    Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) microscopy is commonly used to monitor protein interactions with filter-based imaging systems, which require spectral bleedthrough (or cross talk) correction to accurately measure energy transfer efficiency (E). The double-label (donor+acceptor) specimen is excited with the donor wavelength, the acceptor emission provided the uncorrected FRET signal and the donor emission (the donor channel) represents the quenched donor (qD), the basis for the E calculation. Our results indicate this is not the most accurate determination of the quenched donor signal as it fails to consider the donor spectral bleedthrough (DSBT) signals in the qD for the E calculation, which our new model addresses, leading to a more accurate E result. This refinement improves E comparisons made with lifetime and spectral FRET imaging microscopy as shown here using several genetic (FRET standard) constructs, where cerulean and venus fluorescent proteins are tethered by different amino acid linkers.

  1. Hepatitis C virus seroconversion among HIV-positive men who have sex with men with no history of injection drug use: Results from a clinical HIV cohort

    PubMed Central

    Burchell, Ann N; Gardner, Sandra L; Mazzulli, Tony; Manno, Michael; Raboud, Janet; Allen, Vanessa G; Bayoumi, Ahmed M; Kaul, Rupert; McGee, Frank; Millson, Peggy; Remis, Robert S; Wobeser, Wendy; Cooper, Curtis; Rourke, Sean B

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Internationally, there is a growing recognition that hepatitis C virus (HCV) may be sexually transmitted among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM). OBJECTIVE: To report the first Canadian estimate of HCV seroincidence in 2000 to 2010 and its risk factors among HIV-positive MSM with no known history of injection drug use. METHODS: Data from the Ontario HIV Treatment Network Cohort Study, an ongoing cohort of individuals in HIV care in Ontario, were analyzed. Data were obtained from medical charts, interviews and record linkage with the provincial public health laboratories. The analysis was restricted to 1534 MSM who did not report injection drug use and had undergone ≥2 HCV antibody tests, of which the first was negative (median 6.1 person-years [PY] of follow-up; sum 9987 PY). RESULTS: In 2000 to 2010, 51 HCV seroconversions were observed, an overall incidence of 5.1 per 1000 PY (95% CI 3.9 to 6.7). Annual incidence varied from 1.6 to 8.9 per 1000 PY, with no statistical evidence of a temporal trend. Risk for seroconversion was elevated among men who had ever had syphilis (adjusted HR 2.5 [95% CI 1.1 to 5.5) and men who had acute syphilis infection in the previous 18 months (adjusted HR 2.8 [95% CI 1.0 to 7.9]). Risk was lower for men who had initiated antiretroviral treatment (adjusted HR 0.49 [95% CI 0.25 to 0.95]). There were no statistically significant effects of age, ethnicity, region, CD4 cell count or HIV viral load. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that periodic HCV rescreening may be appropriate in Ontario among HIV-positive MSM. Future research should seek evidence whether syphilis is simply a marker for high-risk sexual behaviour or networks, or whether it potentiates sexual HCV transmission among individuals with HIV. PMID:25798149

  2. The addition of rituximab to fludarabine and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy results in a significant improvement in overall survival in patients with newly diagnosed mantle cell lymphoma: results of a randomized UK National Cancer Research Institute trial

    PubMed Central

    Rule, Simon; Smith, Paul; Johnson, Peter W.M.; Bolam, Simon; Follows, George; Gambell, Joanne; Hillmen, Peter; Jack, Andrew; Johnson, Stephen; Kirkwood, Amy A; Kruger, Anton; Pocock, Christopher; Seymour, John F.; Toncheva, Milena; Walewski, Jan; Linch, David

    2016-01-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma is an incurable and generally aggressive lymphoma that is more common in elderly patients. Whilst a number of different chemotherapeutic regimens are active in this disease, there is no established gold standard therapy. Rituximab has been used widely to good effect in B-cell malignancies but there is no evidence that it improves outcomes when added to chemotherapy in this disease. We performed a randomized, open-label, multicenter study looking at the addition of rituximab to the standard chemotherapy regimen of fludarabine and cyclophosphamide in patients with newly diagnosed mantle cell lymphoma. A total of 370 patients were randomized. With a median follow up of six years, rituximab improved the median progression-free survival from 14.9 to 29.8 months (P<0.001) and overall survival from 37.0 to 44.5 months (P=0.005). This equates to absolute differences of 9.0% and 22.1% for overall and progression-free survival, respectively, at two years. Overall response rates were similar, but complete response rates were significantly higher in the rituximab arm: 52.7% vs. 39.9% (P=0.014). There was no clinically significant additional toxicity observed with the addition of rituximab. Overall, approximately 18% of patients died of non-lymphomatous causes, most commonly infections. The addition of rituximab to fludarabine and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy significantly improves outcomes in patients with mantle cell lymphoma. However, these regimens have significant late toxicity and should be used with caution. This trial has been registered (ISRCTN81133184 and clinicaltrials.gov:00641095) and is supported by the UK National Cancer Research Network. PMID:26611473

  3. An Economic Evaluation of TENS in Addition to Usual Primary Care Management for the Treatment of Tennis Elbow: Results from the TATE Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Martyn; Chesterton, Linda S.; Sim, Julius; Mallen, Christian D.; Hay, Elaine M.; van der Windt, Daniëlle A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The TATE trial was a multicentre pragmatic randomized controlled trial of supplementing primary care management (PCM)–consisting of a GP consultation followed by information and advice on exercises–with transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), to reduce pain intensity in patients with tennis elbow. This paper reports the health economic evaluation. Methods and Findings Adults with new diagnosis of tennis elbow were recruited from 38 general practices in the UK, and randomly allocated to PCM (n = 120) or PCM plus TENS (n = 121). Outcomes included reduction in pain intensity and quality-adjusted-life-years (QALYs) based on the EQ5D and SF6D. Two economic perspectives were evaluated: (i) healthcare–inclusive of NHS and private health costs for the tennis elbow; (ii) societal–healthcare costs plus productivity losses through work absenteeism. Mean outcome and cost differences between the groups were evaluated using a multiple imputed dataset as the base case evaluation, with uncertainty represented in cost-effectiveness planes and through probabilistic cost-effectiveness acceptability curves). Incremental healthcare cost was £33 (95%CI -40, 106) and societal cost £65 (95%CI -307, 176) for PCM plus TENS. Mean differences in outcome were: 0.11 (95%CI -0.13, 0.35) for change in pain (0–10 pain scale); -0.015 (95%CI -0.058, 0.029) for QALYEQ5D; 0.007 (95%CI -0.022, 0.035) for QALYSF6D (higher score differences denote greater benefit for PCM plus TENS). The ICER (incremental cost effectiveness ratio) for the main evaluation of mean difference in societal cost (£) relative to mean difference in pain outcome was -582 (95%CI -8666, 8113). However, incremental ICERs show differences in cost–effectiveness of additional TENS, according to the outcome being evaluated. Conclusion Our findings do not provide evidence for or against the cost-effectiveness of TENS as an adjunct to primary care management of tennis elbow. PMID:26317528

  4. Habitual Levels of High, But Not Moderate or Low, Impact Activity Are Positively Related to Hip BMD and Geometry: Results From a Population-Based Study of Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Deere, Kevin; Sayers, Adrian; Rittweger, Jörn; Tobias, Jon H

    2012-01-01

    Whether a certain level of impact needs to be exceeded for physical activity (PA) to benefit bone accrual is currently unclear. To examine this question, we performed a cross-sectional analysis between PA and hip BMD in 724 adolescents (292 boys, mean 17.7 years) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), partitioning outputs from a Newtest accelerometer into six different impact bands. Counts within 2.1 to 3.1g, 3.1 to 4.2g, 4.2 to 5.1g, and >5.1g bands were positively related to femoral neck (FN) BMD, in boys and girls combined, in our minimally adjusted model including age, height, and sex (0.5–1.1g: beta = −0.007, p = 0.8; 1.1–2.1g: beta = 0.003, p = 0.9; 2.1–3.1g: beta = 0.042, p = 0.08; 3.1–4.2g: beta = 0.058, p = 0.009; 4.2–5.1g: beta = 0.070, p = 0.001; >5.1g: beta = 0.080, p < 0.001) (beta = SD change per doubling in activity). Similar positive relationships were observed between high-impact bands and BMD at other hip sites (ward's triangle, total hip), hip structure indices derived by hip structural analysis of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans (FN width, cross-sectional area, cortical thickness), and predicted strength (cross-sectional moment of inertia). In analyses where adjacent bands were combined and then adjusted for other impacts, high impacts (>4.2g) were positively related to FN BMD, whereas, if anything, moderate (2.1–4.2g) and low impacts (0.5–2.1g) were inversely related (low: beta = −0.052, p = 0.2; medium: beta = −0.058, p = 0.2; high: beta = 0.137, p < 0.001). Though slightly attenuated, the positive association between PA and FN BMD, confined to high impacts, was still observed after adjustment for fat mass, lean mass, and socioeconomic position (high: beta = 0.096, p = 0.016). These results suggest that PA associated with impacts >4.2g, such as jumping and running (which further studies suggested requires speeds >10 km/h) is positively related to hip BMD and structure in adolescents

  5. Phosphazene additives

    DOEpatents

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  6. Effect of Using Local Intrawound Vancomycin Powder in Addition to Intravenous Antibiotics in Posterior Lumbar Surgery: Midterm Result in a Single-Center Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Gun-Ill; Chun, Hyoung-Joon; Choi, Kyu-Sun

    2016-01-01

    Objective We conducted this study to report the efficacy of local application of vancomycin powder in the setting of surgical site infection (SSI) of posterior lumbar surgical procedures and to figure out risk factors of SSIs. Methods From February 2013 to December 2013, SSI rates following 275 posterior lumbar surgeries of which intrawound vancomycin powder was used in combination with intravenous antibiotics (Vanco group) were assessed. Compared with 296 posterior lumbar procedures with intravenous antibiotic only group from February 2012 to December 2012 (non-Vanco group), various infection rates were assessed. Univariate and multivariate analysis to figure out risk factors of infection among Vanco group were done. Results Statistically significant reduction of SSI in Vanco group (5.5%) from non-Vanco group (10.5%) was confirmed (p=0.028). Mean follow-up period was 8 months. Rate of acute staphylococcal SSIs reduced statistically significantly to 4% compared to 7.4% of non-Vanco group (p=0.041). Deep staphylococcal infection decreased to 2 compared to 8 and deep methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection also decreased to 1 compared to 5 in non-Vanco group. No systemic complication was observed. Statistically significant risk factors associated with SSI were diabetes mellitus, history of cardiovascular disease, length of hospital stay, number of instrumented level and history of previous surgery. Conclusion In this series of 571 patients, intrawound vancomycin powder usage resulted in significant decrease in SSI rates in our posterior lumbar surgical procedures. Patients at high risk of infection are highly recommended as a candidate for this technique. PMID:27437012

  7. Does early intensive multifactorial therapy reduce modelled cardiovascular risk in individuals with screen-detected diabetes? Results from the ADDITION-Europe cluster randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Black, J A; Sharp, S J; Wareham, N J; Sandbæk, A; Rutten, G E H M; Lauritzen, T; Khunti, K; Davies, M J; Borch-Johnsen, K; Griffin, S J; Simmons, R K

    2014-01-01

    Aims Little is known about the long-term effects of intensive multifactorial treatment early in the diabetes disease trajectory. In the absence of long-term data on hard outcomes, we described change in 10-year modelled cardiovascular risk in the 5 years following diagnosis, and quantified the impact of intensive treatment on 10-year modelled cardiovascular risk at 5 years. Methods In a pragmatic, cluster-randomized, parallel-group trial in Denmark, the Netherlands and the UK, 3057 people with screen-detected Type 2 diabetes were randomized by general practice to receive (1) routine care of diabetes according to national guidelines (1379 patients) or (2) intensive multifactorial target-driven management (1678 patients). Ten-year modelled cardiovascular disease risk was calculated at baseline and 5 years using the UK Prospective Diabetes Study Risk Engine (version 3β). Results Among 2101 individuals with complete data at follow up (73.4%), 10-year modelled cardiovascular disease risk was 27.3% (sd 13.9) at baseline and 21.3% (sd 13.8) at 5-year follow-up (intensive treatment group difference –6.9, sd 9.0; routine care group difference –5.0, sd 12.2). Modelled 10-year cardiovascular disease risk was lower in the intensive treatment group compared with the routine care group at 5 years, after adjustment for baseline cardiovascular disease risk and clustering (–2.0; 95% CI –3.1 to –0.9). Conclusions Despite increasing age and diabetes duration, there was a decline in modelled cardiovascular disease risk in the 5 years following diagnosis. Compared with routine care, 10-year modelled cardiovascular disease risk was lower in the intensive treatment group at 5 years. Our results suggest that patients benefit from intensive treatment early in the diabetes disease trajectory, where the rate of cardiovascular disease risk progression may be slowed. PMID:24533664

  8. Positioning Agility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oza, Nilay; Abrahamsson, Pekka; Conboy, Kieran

    Agile methods are increasingly adopted by European companies. Academics too are conducting numerous studies on different tenets of agile methods. Companies often feel proud in marketing themselves as ‘agile’. However, the true notion of ‘being agile’ seems to have been overlooked due to lack of positioning of oneself for agility. This raises a call for more research and interactions between academia and the industry. The proposed workshop refers to this call. It will be highly relevant to participants, interested in positioning their company’s agility from organizational, group or project perspectives. The positioning of agility will help companies to better align their agile practices with stakeholder values. Results of the workshop will be shared across participants and they will also have opportunity to continue their work on agile positioning in their companies. At broader level, the work done in this workshop will contribute towards developing Agile Positioning System.

  9. Association Between Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Hormone Metabolism and DNA Repair Genes and Epithelial Ovarian Cancer: Results from Two Australian Studies and an Additional Validation Set

    PubMed Central

    Beesley, Jonathan; Jordan, Susan J.; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Song, Honglin; Ramus, Susan J.; Kjaer, Suzanne Kruger; Hogdall, Estrid; DiCioccio, Richard A.; McGuire, Valerie; Whittemore, Alice S.; Gayther, Simon A.; Pharoah, Paul D.P.; Webb, Penelope M.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia

    2009-01-01

    Although some high-risk ovarian cancer genes have been identified, it is likely that common low penetrance alleles exist that confer some increase in ovarian cancer risk. We have genotyped nine putative functional single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in genes involved in steroid hormone synthesis (SRD5A2, CYP19A1, HSB17B1, and HSD17B4) and DNA repair (XRCC2, XRCC3, BRCA2, and RAD52) using two Australian ovarian cancer case-control studies, comprising a total of 1,466 cases and 1,821 controls of Caucasian origin. Genotype frequencies in cases and controls were compared using logistic regression. The only SNP we found to be associated with ovarian cancer risk in both of these two studies was SRD5A2 V89L (rs523349), which showed a significant trend of increasing risk per rare allele (P = 0.00002). We then genotyped another SNP in this gene (rs632148; r2 = 0.945 with V89L) in an attempt to validate this finding in an independent set of 1,479 cases and 2,452 controls from United Kingdom, United States, and Denmark. There was no association between rs632148 and ovarian cancer risk in the validation samples, and overall, there was no significant heterogeneity between the results of the five studies. Further analyses of SNPs in this gene are therefore warranted to determine whether SRD5A2 plays a role in ovarian cancer predisposition. PMID:18086758

  10. Development of a method that eliminates false-positive results due to nerve growth factor interference in the assessment of fulranumab immunogenicity.

    PubMed

    Dai, Sheng; Schantz, Allen; Clements-Egan, Adrienne; Cannon, Michael; Shankar, Gopi

    2014-05-01

    Fulranumab, a human IgG2 monoclonal antibody that neutralizes nerve growth factor (NGF), is currently in development for the treatment of pain. Our initial immunogenicity test method was found to be prone to NGF interference, leading to a high apparent incidence of anti-drug antibody (ADA) in phase 1 studies. The ADA immunoassay comprised a homogeneous bridging electrochemiluminescence (ECL) format with biotin and ruthenium-labeled fulranumab bound together ("bridged") by ADA in test samples for detection. In this assay, NGF produced a false-positive signal due to its ability to bridge fulranumab molecules. Thus, we developed a specificity assay to eliminate the NGF false-positive results. We encountered the challenge of eliminating drug interference as well as drug target interference, and discovered that the acid-dissociation-based pretreatment of samples used for mitigating drug interference dramatically increased drug target interference. Several strategies were investigated to eliminate the NGF interference; yet only one strategy specifically removed NGF and produced true fulranumab-specific ADA results by using competitive inhibition with fulranumab and utilizing an alternative NGF binding antibody to eliminate NGF interference. Using this new method, we confirmed that the high apparent anti-fulranumab antibody incidence (>60%) in clinical study samples was in fact due to fulranumab-bound NGF released during the acid-dissociation step of the ADA testing method. We conclude that our revised method accurately identifies anti-fulranumab antibodies by incorporating steps to eliminate fulranumab and NGF interference. We advise that acid-dissociation pretreatment must not be universally applied to improve ADA assays without investigating its bioanalytical risks versus benefits.

  11. Soil Greenhouse Gas Fluxes in a Pacific Northwest Douglas-Fir Forest: Results from a Soil Fertilization and Biochar Addition Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawthorne, I.; Johnson, M. S.; Jassal, R. S.; Black, T. A.

    2013-12-01

    evacuated 12-mL vials and analyzed by gas chromatography. Chamber headspace GHG mixing ratios vs. time data were fit to linear and exponential models in R (Version 2.14.0) and fluxes were calculated. Results showed high variability in GHG fluxes over time in all treatments. Higher CO2 emissions were observed during early summer (119 μg CO2 m-2 s-1 in the control plots), decreasing with drought (19 μg CO2 m-2 s-1 in the control plots). CH4 uptake by soil increased during summer months from -0.004 μg CH4 m-2 s-1 to -0.089 μg CH4 m-2 s-1 in the control plots, in response to drying conditions in the upper soil profile. N2O was both consumed and emitted in all treatments, with fluxes ranging from -0.0009 to 0.0019 μg N2O m-2 s-1 in the control plots. Analysis of variance indicated that there were significant differences in GHG fluxes between treatments over time. We also investigated the potential effects of large volume headspace removal, and H2O vapour saturation leading to a dilution effect by using a closed-path infra-red gas analyzer with an inline humidity sensor.

  12. Socio Economic Position in TB Prevalence and Access to Services: Results from a Population Prevalence Survey and a Facility-Based Survey in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Shahed; Quaiyum, Mohammad Abdul; Zaman, Khalequ; Banu, Sayera; Husain, Mohammad Ashaque; Islam, Mohammad Akramul; Cooreman, Erwin; Borgdorff, Martien; Lönnroth, Knut; Salim, Abdul Hamid; van Leth, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Background In Bangladesh DOTS has been provided free of charge since 1993, yet information on access to TB services by different population group is not well documented. The objective of this study was to assess and compare the socio economic position (SEP) of actively detected cases from the community and the cases being routinely detected under National Tuberculosis Control Programme (NTP) in Bangladesh. Methods and Findings SEP was assessed by validated asset item for each of the 21,427 households included in the national tuberculosis prevalence survey 2007–2009. A principal component analysis generated household scores and categorized in quartiles. The distribution of 33 actively identified cases was compared with the 240 NTP cases over the identical SEP quartiles to evaluate access to TB services by different groups of the population. The population prevalence of tuberculosis was 5 times higher in the lowest quartiles of population (95.4, 95% CI: 48.0–189.7) to highest quartile population (19.5, 95% CI: 6.9–55.0). Among the 33 cases detected during survey, 25 (75.8%) were from lower two quartiles, and the rest 8 (24.3%) were from upper two quartiles. Among TB cases detected passively under NTP, more than half of them 137 (57.1%) were from uppermost two quartiles, 98 (41%) from the second quartile, and 5 (2%) in the lowest quartile of the population. This distribution is not affected when adjusted for other factors or interactions among them. Conclusions The findings indicate that despite availability free of charge, DOTS is not equally accessed by the poorer sections of the population. However, these figures should be interpreted with caution since there is a need for additional studies that assess in-depth poverty indicators and its determinants in relation to access of the TB services provided in Bangladesh. PMID:23028718

  13. Blended learning positively affects students' satisfaction and the role of the tutor in the problem-based learning process: results of a mixed-method evaluation.

    PubMed

    Woltering, Vanessa; Herrler, Andreas; Spitzer, Klaus; Spreckelsen, Cord

    2009-12-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is an established didactic approach in medical education worldwide. The impact of PBL depends on the tutors' quality and the students' motivation. To enhance students' motivation and satisfaction and to overcome the problems with the changing quality of tutors, online learning and face-to-face classes were systematically combined resulting in a blended learning scenario (blended problem-based learning--bPBL). The study aims at determining whether bPBL increases the students' motivation and supports the learning process with respect to the students' cooperation, their orientation, and more reliable tutoring. The blended PBL was developed in a cooperation of students and teachers. The well-established Seven Jump-scheme of PBL was carefully complemented by eLearning modules. On the first training day of bPBL the students start to work together with the online program, but without a tutor, on the final training day the tutor participates in the meeting for additional help and feedback. The program was evaluated by a mixed-method study. The traditional PBL course was compared with the blended PBL by means of qualitative and quantitative questionnaires, standardized group interviews, and students' test results. In addition log-files were analyzed. A total of 185 third-year students and 14 tutors took part in the study. Motivation, subjective learning gains and satisfaction achieved significantly higher ratings by the bPBL students compared with the students learning by traditional PBL. The tutors' opinion and the test results showed no differences between the groups. Working with the web-based learning environment was assessed as very good by the students. According to the log-file analysis, the web-based learning module was frequently used and improved the cooperation during the self-directed learning.

  14. Blended learning positively affects students' satisfaction and the role of the tutor in the problem-based learning process: results of a mixed-method evaluation.

    PubMed

    Woltering, Vanessa; Herrler, Andreas; Spitzer, Klaus; Spreckelsen, Cord

    2009-12-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is an established didactic approach in medical education worldwide. The impact of PBL depends on the tutors' quality and the students' motivation. To enhance students' motivation and satisfaction and to overcome the problems with the changing quality of tutors, online learning and face-to-face classes were systematically combined resulting in a blended learning scenario (blended problem-based learning--bPBL). The study aims at determining whether bPBL increases the students' motivation and supports the learning process with respect to the students' cooperation, their orientation, and more reliable tutoring. The blended PBL was developed in a cooperation of students and teachers. The well-established Seven Jump-scheme of PBL was carefully complemented by eLearning modules. On the first training day of bPBL the students start to work together with the online program, but without a tutor, on the final training day the tutor participates in the meeting for additional help and feedback. The program was evaluated by a mixed-method study. The traditional PBL course was compared with the blended PBL by means of qualitative and quantitative questionnaires, standardized group interviews, and students' test results. In addition log-files were analyzed. A total of 185 third-year students and 14 tutors took part in the study. Motivation, subjective learning gains and satisfaction achieved significantly higher ratings by the bPBL students compared with the students learning by traditional PBL. The tutors' opinion and the test results showed no differences between the groups. Working with the web-based learning environment was assessed as very good by the students. According to the log-file analysis, the web-based learning module was frequently used and improved the cooperation during the self-directed learning. PMID:19184497

  15. Reciprocal Crossovers and a Positional Preference for Strand Exchange in Recombination Events Resulting in Deletion or Duplication of Chromosome 17p11.2

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Weimin; Park, Sung-Sup; Shaw, Christine J.; Withers, Marjorie A.; Patel, Pragna I.; Lupski, James R.

    2003-01-01

    Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is caused by an ∼4-Mb heterozygous interstitial deletion on chromosome 17p11.2 in ∼80%–90% of affected patients. Three large (∼200 kb), complex, and highly homologous (∼98%) low-copy repeats (LCRs) are located inside or flanking the SMS common deletion. These repeats, also known as “SMS-REPs,” are termed “distal,” “middle,” and “proximal.” The directly oriented distal and proximal copies act as substrates for nonallelic homologous recombination resulting in both the deletion associated with SMS and the reciprocal duplication: dup(17)(p11.2p11.2). Using restriction enzyme cis-morphism analyses and direct sequencing, we mapped the regions of strand exchange in 16 somatic-cell hybrids that harbor only the recombinant SMS-REP. Our studies showed that the sites of crossovers were distributed throughout the region of homology between the distal and proximal SMS-REPs. However, despite ∼170 kb of high homology, 50% of the recombinant junctions occurred in a 12.0-kb region within the KER gene clusters. DNA sequencing of this hotspot (positional preference for strand exchange) in seven recombinant SMS-REPs narrowed the crossovers to an ∼8-kb interval. Four of them occurred in a 1,655-bp region rich in polymorphic nucleotides that could potentially reflect frequent gene conversion. For further evaluation of the strand exchange frequency in patients with SMS, novel junction fragments from the recombinant SMS-REPs were identified. As predicted by the reciprocal-recombination model, junction fragments were also identified from this hotspot region in patients with dup(17)(p11.2p11.2), documenting reciprocity of the positional preference for strand exchange. Several potential cis-acting recombination-promoting sequences were identified within the hotspot. It is interesting that we found 2.1-kb AT-rich inverted repeats flanking the proximal and middle KER gene clusters but not the distal one. The role of any or all of these

  16. Self-Management of Patient Body Position, Pose, and Motion Using Wide-Field, Real-Time Optical Measurement Feedback: Results of a Volunteer Study

    SciTech Connect

    Parkhurst, James M.; Price, Gareth J.; Sharrock, Phil J.; Jackson, Andrew S.N.; Stratford, Julie; Moore, Christopher J.

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: We present the results of a clinical feasibility study, performed in 10 healthy volunteers undergoing a simulated treatment over 3 sessions, to investigate the use of a wide-field visual feedback technique intended to help patients control their pose while reducing motion during radiation therapy treatment. Methods and Materials: An optical surface sensor is used to capture wide-area measurements of a subject's body surface with visualizations of these data displayed back to them in real time. In this study we hypothesize that this active feedback mechanism will enable patients to control their motion and help them maintain their setup pose and position. A capability hierarchy of 3 different level-of-detail abstractions of the measured surface data is systematically compared. Results: Use of the device enabled volunteers to increase their conformance to a reference surface, as measured by decreased variability across their body surfaces. The use of visual feedback also enabled volunteers to reduce their respiratory motion amplitude to 1.7 ± 0.6 mm compared with 2.7 ± 1.4 mm without visual feedback. Conclusions: The use of live feedback of their optically measured body surfaces enabled a set of volunteers to better manage their pose and motion when compared with free breathing. The method is suitable to be taken forward to patient studies.

  17. Disciplinary Referrals for Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students with and without Disabilities: Patterns Resulting from School-Wide Positive Behavior Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Claudia G.; Swain-Bradway, Jessica; Tobin, Tary J.; May, Seth

    2011-01-01

    The goal of our study was to examine if school-wide positive behavior support implementation was associated with reductions in the discipline gap. We provided outcomes from descriptive and preliminary statistical analyses of three years of office discipline referral data from elementary schools engaged in school-wide positive behavior support…

  18. The Results of the “Positive Action for Today’s Health” (PATH) Trial for Increasing Walking and Physical Activity in Underserved African-American Communities

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Dawn K.; Van Horn, M. Lee; Siceloff, E. Rebekah; Alia, Kassandra A.; St. George, Sara M.; Lawman, Hannah G.; Trumpeter, Nevelyn N.; Coulon, Sandra M.; Griffin, Sarah F.; Wandersman, Abraham; Egan, Brent; Colabianchi, Natalie; Forthofer, Melinda; Gadson, Barney

    2015-01-01

    Background The “Positive Action for Today’s Health” (PATH) trial tested an environmental intervention to increase walking in underserved communities. Methods Three matched communities were randomized to a police-patrolled walking plus social marketing, a police-patrolled walking-only, or a no-walking intervention. The 24-month intervention addressed safety and access for physical activity (PA) and utilized social marketing to enhance environmental supports for PA. African-Americans (N=434; 62 % females; aged 51±16 years) provided accelerometry and psychosocial measures at baseline and 12, 18, and 24 months. Walking attendance and trail use were obtained over 24 months. Results There were no significant differences across communities over 24 months for moderate-to-vigorous PA. Walking attendance in the social marketing community showed an increase from 40 to 400 walkers per month at 9 months and sustained ~200 walkers per month through 24 months. No change in attendance was observed in the walking-only community. Conclusions Findings support integrating social marketing strategies to increase walking in underserved African-Americans (ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT01025726). PMID:25385203

  19. Innovative Integration of Decommissioning and Deactivation Program with Soil-Groundwater Clean Up Program Has Positive Results on Budget and Schedule: A Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    Schappell, B; Rucker, G

    2007-07-25

    An innovative approach to integrate the activities of a decommissioning and deactivation program (D&D) with a soil-groundwater clean up program has had significant positive results saving both money and time at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site. The accomplishments that have been achieved by the combining the two programs have been remarkable including significant cost savings, economies of scale for sampling and document generation, and alignment of common objectives. Because of the coordination of both activities area-wide ''end states'' can be formulated and be consistent with the customers' cleanup goals and federal regulations. This coordinates and aligns both the environmental clean up and D&D objectives because each must be addressed simultaneously and comprehensively. In this respect, resources from both organizations can be pooled to take advantage of the strengths of each. The new approach allows more efficient use of lean financial resources and optimizes workforce activities to attain the common objectives while being more cost effective, more protective of the environment, and optimizing the use existing resources.

  20. Positively Charged Oligo[Poly(Ethylene Glycol) Fumarate] Scaffold Implantation Results in a Permissive Lesion Environment after Spinal Cord Injury in Rat

    PubMed Central

    Hakim, Jeffrey S.; Esmaeili Rad, Melika; Grahn, Peter J.; Chen, Bingkun K.; Knight, Andrew M.; Schmeichel, Ann M.; Isaq, Nasro A.; Dadsetan, Mahrokh; Yaszemski, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Positively charged oligo[poly(ethylene glycol) fumarate] (OPF+) scaffolds loaded with Schwann cells bridge spinal cord injury (SCI) lesions and support axonal regeneration in rat. The regeneration achieved is not sufficient for inducing functional recovery. Attempts to increase regeneration would benefit from understanding the effects of the scaffold and transplanted cells on lesion environment. We conducted morphometric and stereological analysis of lesions in rats implanted with OPF+ scaffolds with or without loaded Schwann cells 1, 2, 3, 4, and 8 weeks after thoracic spinal cord transection. No differences were found in collagen scarring, cyst formation, astrocyte reactivity, myelin debris, or chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) accumulation. However, when scaffold-implanted animals were compared with animals with transection injuries only, these barriers to regeneration were significantly reduced, accompanied by increased activated macrophages/microglia. This distinctive and regeneration permissive tissue reaction to scaffold implantation was independent of Schwann cell transplantation. Although the tissue reaction was beneficial in the short term, we observed a chronic fibrotic host response, resulting in scaffolds surrounded by collagen at 8 weeks. This study demonstrates that an appropriate biomaterial scaffold improves the environment for regeneration. Future targeting of the host fibrotic response may allow increased axonal regeneration and functional recovery. PMID:25891264

  1. Lack of the H-NS Protein Results in Extended and Aberrantly Positioned DNA during Chromosome Replication and Segregation in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Helgesen, Emily; Fossum-Raunehaug, Solveig

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The architectural protein H-NS binds nonspecifically to hundreds of sites throughout the chromosome and can multimerize to stiffen segments of DNA as well as to form DNA-protein-DNA bridges. H-NS has been suggested to contribute to the orderly folding of the Escherichia coli chromosome in the highly compacted nucleoid. In this study, we investigated the positioning and dynamics of the origins, the replisomes, and the SeqA structures trailing the replication forks in cells lacking the H-NS protein. In H-NS mutant cells, foci of SeqA, replisomes, and origins were irregularly positioned in the cell. Further analysis showed that the average distance between the SeqA structures and the replisome was increased by ∼100 nm compared to that in wild-type cells, whereas the colocalization of SeqA-bound sister DNA behind replication forks was not affected. This result may suggest that H-NS contributes to the folding of DNA along adjacent segments. H-NS mutant cells were found to be incapable of adopting the distinct and condensed nucleoid structures characteristic of E. coli cells growing rapidly in rich medium. It appears as if H-NS mutant cells adopt a “slow-growth” type of chromosome organization under nutrient-rich conditions, which leads to a decreased cellular DNA content. IMPORTANCE It is not fully understood how and to what extent nucleoid-associated proteins contribute to chromosome folding and organization during replication and segregation in Escherichia coli. In this work, we find in vivo indications that cells lacking the nucleoid-associated protein H-NS have a lower degree of DNA condensation than wild-type cells. Our work suggests that H-NS is involved in condensing the DNA along adjacent segments on the chromosome and is not likely to tether newly replicated strands of sister DNA. We also find indications that H-NS is required for rapid growth with high DNA content and for the formation of a highly condensed nucleoid structure under such

  2. [Paradoxical air embolism resulted in acute myocardial infarction and massive ischemic brain injury in a patient operated on in a sitting position].

    PubMed

    Anan'ev, E P; Polupan, A A; Savin, I A; Goryachev, A S; Troitskiy, A P; Kolokol'nikov, A E; Kulikovskiy, V P; Matskovskiy, I V; Abramov, T A; Podlepich, V V; Krylov, K Yu; Sychev, A A; Tabasaranskiy, T F; Pashin, A A; Lubnin, A Yu

    2016-01-01

    Paradoxical air embolism (PAE) is a rare life-threatening complication when air emboli enter arteries of the systemic circulation and cause their occlusion. Here, we describe a clinical case of PAE developed during neurosurgery in a patient in the sitting position. PAE led to injuries to the cerebral blood vessels, coronary arteries, and lungs, which caused death of the patient. An effective measure for preventing PAE is abandoning surgery in the sitting position in favor of surgery in the prone position. PMID:27070262

  3. Once-daily dolutegravir is superior to once-daily darunavir/ritonavir in treatment-naïve HIV-1-positive individuals: 96 week results from FLAMINGO

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Jean-Michel; Clotet, Bonaventura; van Lunzen, Jan; Lazzarin, Adriano; Cavassini, Matthias; Henry, Keith; Kulagin, Valeriv; Givens, Naomi; Brennan, Clare; de Oliveira, Carlos Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Dolutegravir (DTG) 50 mg once daily was superior to darunavir/ritonavir (DRV/r) 800 mg/100 mg once daily through Week 48, with 90% vs. 83% of participants achieving HIV RNA 50 c/mL (p=0.025) [1]. We present data through Week 96. Material and Methods FLAMINGO is a multicentre, randomized, open-label, Phase IIIb non-inferiority study, in which HIV-1-positive ART-naïve adults with HIV-1 RNA≥1000 c/mL and no evidence of viral resistance were randomized 1:1 to receive DTG or DRV/r, with investigator-selected backbone NRTIs (TDF/FTC or ABC/3TC). Participants were stratified by screening HIV-1 RNA (≤100K c/mL) and NRTI backbone. Results A total of 484 adults were randomized and treated; 25% had baseline HIV RNA 100K c/mL. At Week 96, the proportion of participants with HIV RNA 50 c/mL was 80% in the DTG arm vs. 68% in the DRV/r arm (adjusted difference 12.4%; 95% CI 4.7, 20.2%; p=0.002). Secondary analyses supported primary results: per-protocol [(DTG 83% vs. DRV/r 70%), 95% CI 12.9 (5.3, 20.6)] and treatment-related discontinuation = failure [(98% vs. 95%), 95% CI 3.2 (−0.3, 6.7)]. Overall virologic non-response (DTG 8%; DRV/r 12%) and non-response due to other reasons (DTG 12%; DRV/r 21%) occurred less frequently on DTG. As at Week 48, the difference between arms was most pronounced in participants with high baseline viral load (82% vs. 52% response through Week 96) and in the TDF/FTC stratum (79% vs. 64%); consistent responses were seen in the ABC/3TC stratum (82% vs. 75%). Six participants (DTG 2, none post-Week 48; DRV/r 4, two post-Week 48) experienced protocol-defined virologic failure (PDVF; confirmed viral load 200 c/mL on or after Week 24); none had treatment-emergent resistance to study drugs. Most frequent drug-related adverse events (AEs) were diarrhoea, nausea and headache, with diarrhoea significantly more common on DRV/r (24%) than DTG (10%). Significantly more participants had Grade 2 fasting LDL toxicities on DRV/r (22%) vs. DTG (7

  4. A study of the observed shift in the peak position of olivine Raman spectra as a result of shock induced by hypervelocity impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harriss, Kathryn H.; Burchell, M. J.

    2016-07-01

    Kuebler et al. (2006) identified variations in olivine Raman spectra based on the composition of individual olivine grains, leading to identification of olivine composition from Raman spectra alone. However, shock on a crystal lattice has since been shown to result in a structural change to the original material, which produces a shift in the Raman spectra of olivine grains compared with the original unshocked olivine (Foster et al. 2013). This suggests that the use of the compositional calculations from the Raman spectra, reported in Kuebler et al. (2006), may provide an incorrect compositional value for material that has experienced shock. Here, we have investigated the effect of impact speed (and hence peak shock pressure) on the shift in the Raman spectra for San Carlos olivine (Fo91) impacting Al foil. Powdered San Carlos olivine (grain size 1-10 μm) was fired at a range of impact speeds from 0.6 to 6.1 km s-1 (peak shock pressures 5-86 GPa) at Al foil to simulate capture over a wide range of peak shock pressures. A permanent change in the Raman spectra was found to be observed only for impact speeds greater than ~5 km s-1. The process that causes the shift is most likely linked to an increase in the peak pressure produced by the impact, but only after a minimum shock pressure associated with the speed at which the effect is first observed (here 65-86 GPa). At speeds around 6 km s-1 (peak shock pressures ~86 GPa), the shift in Raman peak positions is in a similar direction (red shift) to that observed by Foster et al. (2013) but of twice the magnitude.

  5. Correlative Analysis of Genetic Alterations and Everolimus Benefit in Hormone Receptor–Positive, Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2–Negative Advanced Breast Cancer: Results From BOLERO-2

    PubMed Central

    Chen, David; Piccart, Martine; Rugo, Hope S.; Burris, Howard A.; Pritchard, Kathleen I.; Campone, Mario; Noguchi, Shinzaburo; Perez, Alejandra T.; Deleu, Ines; Shtivelband, Mikhail; Masuda, Norikazu; Dakhil, Shaker; Anderson, Ian; Robinson, Douglas M.; He, Wei; Garg, Abhishek; McDonald, E. Robert; Bitter, Hans; Huang, Alan; Taran, Tetiana; Bachelot, Thomas; Lebrun, Fabienne; Lebwohl, David; Baselga, José

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To explore the genetic landscape of tumors from patients enrolled on the BOLERO-2 trial to identify potential correlations between genetic alterations and efficacy of everolimus treatment. The BOLERO-2 trial has previously demonstrated that the addition of everolimus to exemestane prolonged progression-free survival by more than twofold in patients with hormone receptor–positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2–negative, advanced breast cancer previously treated with nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitors. Patients and Methods Next-generation sequencing was used to analyze genetic status of cancer-related genes in 302 archival tumor specimens from patients representative of the BOLERO-2 study population. Correlations between the most common somatic alterations and degree of chromosomal instability, and treatment effect of everolimus were investigated. Results Progression-free survival benefit with everolimus was maintained regardless of alteration status of PIK3CA, FGFR1, and CCND1 or the pathways of which they are components. However, quantitative differences in everolimus benefit were observed between patient subgroups defined by the exon-specific mutations in PIK3CA (exon 20 v 9) or by different degrees of chromosomal instability in the tumor tissues. Conclusion The data from this exploratory analysis suggest that the efficacy of everolimus was largely independent of the most commonly altered genes or pathways in hormone receptor–positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2–negative breast cancer. The potential impact of chromosomal instabilities and low-frequency genetic alterations on everolimus efficacy warrants further investigation. PMID:26503204

  6. Social media use and HIV transmission risk behavior among ethnically diverse HIV-positive gay men: results of an online study in three U.S. states.

    PubMed

    Hirshfield, Sabina; Grov, Christian; Parsons, Jeffrey T; Anderson, Ian; Chiasson, Mary Ann

    2015-10-01

    Though Black and Hispanic men who have sex with men (MSM) are at an increased risk for HIV, few HIV risk reduction interventions that target HIV-positive MSM, and even fewer that use technology, have been designed to target these groups. Despite similar rates of social media and technology use across racial/ethnic groups, online engagement of minority MSM for HIV prevention efforts is low. Since minority MSM tend to have less representation in online HIV prevention studies, the goals of this online anonymous study of HIV-positive gay-identified men were to test the feasibility of conducting targeted recruitment by race/ethnicity and sexual orientation, to assess technology and social media use, and to assess global HIV transmission risk. In 2011, an anonymous online survey was conducted among 463 members of an HIV-positive personals website. Emails were sent to a subset of HIV-positive male members who self-identified as gay. While 57 % were White, substantial proportions of participants were Black (20 %) or Hispanic (18 %). Median age was 46 (range 18-79). Men who reported using 3 or more websites or apps to meet sex partners were significantly more likely to report anal intercourse (AOR 4.43, p < .001) and condomless anal sex (CAS) (AOR 2.70, p < .05) in the past 3 months. The only predictor of CAS with HIV-negative or unknown status partners was being under age 30 (AOR 3.38, p < .01). This study helped to inform online targeted recruitment techniques, access to technology and social media use, and sexual risk among a diverse sample of HIV-positive gay men. Efficacy trials of technology-based HIV prevention interventions targeting high-risk minority HIV-positive MSM are warranted. PMID:26179596

  7. Social media use and HIV transmission risk behavior among ethnically diverse HIV-positive gay men: results of an online study in three U.S. states.

    PubMed

    Hirshfield, Sabina; Grov, Christian; Parsons, Jeffrey T; Anderson, Ian; Chiasson, Mary Ann

    2015-10-01

    Though Black and Hispanic men who have sex with men (MSM) are at an increased risk for HIV, few HIV risk reduction interventions that target HIV-positive MSM, and even fewer that use technology, have been designed to target these groups. Despite similar rates of social media and technology use across racial/ethnic groups, online engagement of minority MSM for HIV prevention efforts is low. Since minority MSM tend to have less representation in online HIV prevention studies, the goals of this online anonymous study of HIV-positive gay-identified men were to test the feasibility of conducting targeted recruitment by race/ethnicity and sexual orientation, to assess technology and social media use, and to assess global HIV transmission risk. In 2011, an anonymous online survey was conducted among 463 members of an HIV-positive personals website. Emails were sent to a subset of HIV-positive male members who self-identified as gay. While 57 % were White, substantial proportions of participants were Black (20 %) or Hispanic (18 %). Median age was 46 (range 18-79). Men who reported using 3 or more websites or apps to meet sex partners were significantly more likely to report anal intercourse (AOR 4.43, p < .001) and condomless anal sex (CAS) (AOR 2.70, p < .05) in the past 3 months. The only predictor of CAS with HIV-negative or unknown status partners was being under age 30 (AOR 3.38, p < .01). This study helped to inform online targeted recruitment techniques, access to technology and social media use, and sexual risk among a diverse sample of HIV-positive gay men. Efficacy trials of technology-based HIV prevention interventions targeting high-risk minority HIV-positive MSM are warranted.

  8. Intraventricular injection of 6-hydroxydopamine results in an increased number of tyrosine hydroxylase immune-positive cells in the rat cortex.

    PubMed

    Wachter, B; Caradonna, S; Gittinger, K; Schläger, A; Küppers, E

    2014-11-01

    Previously we have demonstrated that intraventricular injection of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) results in increased proliferation and de-differentiation of rat cortical astrocytes into progenitor-like cells 4 days after lesion (Wachter et al., 2010). To find out if these cells express tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in the catecholamine synthesis pathway, we performed immunohistochemistry in the rat cortex following intraventricular injection of 6-OHDA. Four days after injection we demonstrated a strong emergence of TH-positive (TH(+)) somata in the cortices of 6-OHDA-lesioned animals. The number of TH(+) cells in the cortex of 6-OHDA-lesioned animals was 15 times higher than in sham-operated animals, where virtually no TH(+) somata occurred. Combining TH immunohistochemistry with classical Nissl stain yielded complete congruency, and ∼45% of the TH(+) cells co-expressed calretinin, which indicates an interneuron affiliation. There was no co-staining of TH with other interneuron markers or with glial markers such as glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) or the neural stem/progenitor marker Nestin, nor could we find co-localization with the proliferation marker Ki67. However, we found a co-localization of TH with glial progenitor cell markers (Sox2 and S100β) and with polysialylated-neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM), which has been shown to be expressed in immature, but not recently generated cortical neurons. Taken together, this study seems to confirm our previous findings with respect to a 6-OHDA-induced expression of neuronal precursor markers in cells of the rat cortex, although the TH(+) cells found in this study are not identical with the potentially de-differentiated astrocytes described recently (Wachter et al., 2010). The detection of cortical cells expressing the catecholaminergic key enzyme TH might indicate a possible compensatory role of these cells in a dopamine-(DA)-depleted system. Future studies are needed to determine

  9. The Impact of Positive and Negative Ecstasy-Related Information on Ecstasy Use among College Students: Results of a Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Kathryn B.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Wish, Eric D.; Arria, Amelia M.

    2010-01-01

    Aims: To: (1) estimate the proportion of students exposed to specific types of information regarding the positive and negative effects of ecstasy, (2) test models that quantified the relationship between exposure to these messages and subsequent ecstasy use, controlling for peer drug use and sensation-seeking. Methods: As part of the College Life…

  10. Examining the Effects of Schoolwide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports on Student Outcomes: Results from a Randomized Controlled Effectiveness Trial in Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Mitchell, Mary M.; Leaf, Philip J.

    2010-01-01

    Schoolwide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS) is a universal, schoolwide prevention strategy that is currently implemented in over 9,000 schools across the nation to reduce disruptive behavior problems through the application of behavioral, social learning, and organizational behavioral principles. SWPBIS aims to alter school…

  11. The impact of positive and negative ecstasy-related information on ecstasy use among college students: Results of a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Kathryn B.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; O’Grady, Kevin E.; Wish, Eric D.; Arria, Amelia M.

    2008-01-01

    Aims To: 1) estimate the proportion of students exposed to specific types of information regarding the positive and negative effects of ecstasy, 2) test models that quantified the relationship between exposure to these messages and subsequent ecstasy use, controlling for peer drug use and sensation-seeking. Methods As part of the College Life Study, 447 students, ages 17–20, from a university in the mid-Atlantic region of the US completed an in person interview plus three follow-up assessments. Findings Individuals who had heard a greater number of negative messages were significantly more likely to use ecstasy, even controlling for positive messages, prior ecstasy use, peer ecstasy use, perceived harm, sensation-seeking, sex, and race. Some messages were significant at the bivariate level. Conclusions Ecstasy use may have been influenced more by the content of the messages than by the quantity or diversity of messages. Interventions should be designed to address both positive and negative perceptions about a particular drug, rather than focusing exclusively on the negative information. Future evaluations should focus on the effectiveness of multi-pronged sustainable prevention programs in reducing adolescent drug use risk. PMID:21057670

  12. "If it ain't broke, don't fix it": a commentary on the positive-negative results of the ACCORD Lipid study.

    PubMed

    Tenenbaum, Alexander; Fisman, Enrique Z

    2010-01-01

    Even using intensive statin monotherapy, many patients fail to achieve all the desired lipid goals and remain at high residual risk of cardiovascular events. In view of the still unproven decisively intensive "statin as monotherapy" strategy and "residual risk" concept, it is logical to ask whether other strategies, particularly fibrate/statin combination therapy, could be more beneficial and safer. A clear benefit of fibrate monotherapy did emerge previously among patients with atherogenic dyslipidemia (particularly high triglycerides and low high density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C]) typically present in the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. In contrast, in patients without atherogenic dyslipidemia this favorable effect was not demonstrated. The Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) study investigated whether combination therapy with a statin plus a fibrate, as compared with statin monotherapy, would reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, relevant patients with atherogenic dyslipidemia represented less than 17 percent of the ACCORD Lipid population (941 out of 5518 patients). In this prespecified subgroup, the patients benefited from fenofibrate therapy in addition to simvastatin similar to the previous "fibrate's as monotherapy" trials: the primary outcome rate was 12.4% in the fenofibrate group, versus 17.3% in the placebo group (28% crude HR reduction, CI less than 1, e.g. statistically significant findings). Among all other 4548 patients without atherogenic dyslipidemia such rates were 10.1% in both fenofibrate and placebo study groups. Authors concluded that in the overall cohort of patients the combination of fenofibrate and simvastatin did not reduce the rate of the cardiovascular events as compared with simvastatin alone. Thus, their results do not support the routine use of combination therapy with fenofibrate and simvastatin to reduce cardiovascular risk in the general

  13. Painful bipartite patella in young athletes. The diagnostic value of skyline views taken in squatting position and the results of surgical excision.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, H; Sakurai, A; Hirata, S; Ohno, O; Kita, K; Sato, T; Kashiwagi, D

    1994-08-01

    Nine patients with painful bipartite patella associated with young athletes were evaluated clinically and radiologically at an average of 60 months (range, 21 to 145 months) after excision of accessory nucleus of the patella. All patients were male and between 14 and 21 years of age when they were operated on. The indications for excision of separated fragments of the patella included: failure of nonoperative treatment for more than 3 months; radiographic evidence of significant irregularities of the articular surface of the separated fragment of the patella; and symptoms severe and prolonged enough to warrant surgery. Skyline views taken with the patient in a squatting position with weight bearing showed a wider separation of the accessory fragment from the main patella than did the nonweight bearing skyline views. This appears to be an important and useful diagnostic feature in a painful bipartite patellae; the authors propose that this radiographic examination should be called a "squatting position test". Histologically, the interface between the accessory and main patella was fibrocartilaginous, and the adjacent bone tissue was clearly demarcated by a dense lamina, indicating that the initial lesion was probably a traction lesion. All patients returned to full sports activity at their previous highest level within 4 to 7 weeks. The excision of accessory bone appears to be a simple and reliable procedure for avoiding prolonged postoperative treatment, reducing the length of incapacitation, and minimizing the danger of permanent stiffness of the joint.

  14. Comparison of false-negative/positive results of intraoperative evoked potential monitoring between no and partial neuromuscular blockade in patients receiving propofol/remifentanil-based anesthesia during cerebral aneurysm clipping surgery: A retrospective analysis of 685 patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Hoon; Jin, Seok-Joon; Karm, Myong-Hwan; Moon, Young-Jin; Jeong, Hye-Won; Kim, Jae-Won; Ha, Seung-Il; Kim, Joung-Uk

    2016-08-01

    Although the elicited responses of motor evoked potential (MEP) monitoring are very sensitive to suppression by anesthetic agents and muscle relaxants, the use of neuromuscular blockade (NMB) during MEP monitoring is still controversial because of serious safety concerns and diagnostic accuracy. Here, we evaluated the incidence of unacceptable movement and compared false-negative MEP results between no and partial NMB during cerebral aneurysm clipping surgery. We reviewed patient medical records for demographic data, anesthesia regimen, neurophysiology event logs, MEP results, and clinical outcomes. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to the intraoperative use of NMB: no NMB group (n = 276) and partial NMB group (n = 409). We compared the diagnostic accuracy of MEP results to predict postoperative outcomes between both groups. Additionally, we evaluated unwanted patient movement during MEP monitoring in both groups. Of the 685 patients, 622 (90.8%) manifested no intraoperative changes in MEP and no postoperative motor deficits. Twenty patients showed postoperative neurologic deficits despite preserved intraoperative MEP. False-positive MEP results were 3.6% in the no NMB group and 3.9% in the partial NMB group (P = 1.00). False-negative MEP results were 1.1% in the no NMB group and 4.2% in the partial NMB group (P = 0.02). No spontaneous movement or spontaneous respiration was observed in either group. Propofol/remifentanil-based anesthesia without NMB decreases the stimulation intensity of MEPs, which may reduce the false-negative ratio of MEP monitoring during cerebral aneurysm surgery. Our anesthetic protocol enabled reliable intraoperative MEP recording and patient immobilization during cerebral aneurysm clipping surgery. PMID:27559984

  15. Comparison of false-negative/positive results of intraoperative evoked potential monitoring between no and partial neuromuscular blockade in patients receiving propofol/remifentanil-based anesthesia during cerebral aneurysm clipping surgery: A retrospective analysis of 685 patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Hoon; Jin, Seok-Joon; Karm, Myong-Hwan; Moon, Young-Jin; Jeong, Hye-Won; Kim, Jae-Won; Ha, Seung-Il; Kim, Joung-Uk

    2016-08-01

    Although the elicited responses of motor evoked potential (MEP) monitoring are very sensitive to suppression by anesthetic agents and muscle relaxants, the use of neuromuscular blockade (NMB) during MEP monitoring is still controversial because of serious safety concerns and diagnostic accuracy. Here, we evaluated the incidence of unacceptable movement and compared false-negative MEP results between no and partial NMB during cerebral aneurysm clipping surgery. We reviewed patient medical records for demographic data, anesthesia regimen, neurophysiology event logs, MEP results, and clinical outcomes. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to the intraoperative use of NMB: no NMB group (n = 276) and partial NMB group (n = 409). We compared the diagnostic accuracy of MEP results to predict postoperative outcomes between both groups. Additionally, we evaluated unwanted patient movement during MEP monitoring in both groups. Of the 685 patients, 622 (90.8%) manifested no intraoperative changes in MEP and no postoperative motor deficits. Twenty patients showed postoperative neurologic deficits despite preserved intraoperative MEP. False-positive MEP results were 3.6% in the no NMB group and 3.9% in the partial NMB group (P = 1.00). False-negative MEP results were 1.1% in the no NMB group and 4.2% in the partial NMB group (P = 0.02). No spontaneous movement or spontaneous respiration was observed in either group. Propofol/remifentanil-based anesthesia without NMB decreases the stimulation intensity of MEPs, which may reduce the false-negative ratio of MEP monitoring during cerebral aneurysm surgery. Our anesthetic protocol enabled reliable intraoperative MEP recording and patient immobilization during cerebral aneurysm clipping surgery.

  16. Computerised determination of spontaneous inspiratory and expiratory times in premature neonates during intermittent positive pressure ventilation. II: Results from 20 babies.

    PubMed Central

    Ahluwalia, J S; Morley, C J; Mockridge, J N

    1994-01-01

    Twenty premature infants ventilated for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) were studied using a new computerised technique to determine spontaneous inspiratory and expiratory times. The technique is continuous and non-invasive. Infants were studied during intermittent positive pressure ventilation for periods of up to 45 minutes. Median birth weight and gestation were 1477 g and 30 weeks. The median number of breaths analysed for each baby was 925. The median (range) for spontaneous inspiratory time was 0.30 (0.26 to 0.34) seconds and for spontaneous expiratory time it was 0.46 (0.34 to 0.66) seconds. The spontaneous inspiratory and expiratory times were different from the ventilator settings. PMID:7820709

  17. Point-of-Care Testing in Bathhouses: A Narrative Inquiry into the Experience of Receiving a Positive Preliminary HIV Test Result.

    PubMed

    Genoway, Shyla; Caine, Vera; Singh, Ameeta E; Estefan, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    With a call to increase the accessibility of HIV testing, point-of-care testing for HIV is being readily adopted, but little attention has been paid to the experiences of people being tested at HIV point-of-care sites. Some testing environments, such as bathhouses, promote testing for HIV in higher-risk groups. In this narrative inquiry study we explored the experiences of people testing positive for HIV through point-of-care while at a bathhouse. Three narrative threads for reconsidering the practice were identified: (a) seeing complexities, understanding testing decisions in relation to time, place, and social context; (b) recognizing the impact and significance of secret and silent stories; and (c) tentative and tension-filled connections to care. It is important to understand testing experiences across time, place, and in diverse social contexts. These experiences are embedded within the larger life histories of people and raise questions about adequate support, follow-up, and counseling. PMID:26900014

  18. Addition of docetaxel, zoledronic acid, or both to first-line long-term hormone therapy in prostate cancer (STAMPEDE): survival results from an adaptive, multiarm, multistage, platform randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    James, Nicholas D; Sydes, Matthew R; Clarke, Noel W; Mason, Malcolm D; Dearnaley, David P; Spears, Melissa R; Ritchie, Alastair W S; Parker, Christopher C; Russell, J Martin; Attard, Gerhardt; de Bono, Johann; Cross, William; Jones, Rob J; Thalmann, George; Amos, Claire; Matheson, David; Millman, Robin; Alzouebi, Mymoona; Beesley, Sharon; Birtle, Alison J; Brock, Susannah; Cathomas, Richard; Chakraborti, Prabir; Chowdhury, Simon; Cook, Audrey; Elliott, Tony; Gale, Joanna; Gibbs, Stephanie; Graham, John D; Hetherington, John; Hughes, Robert; Laing, Robert; McKinna, Fiona; McLaren, Duncan B; O'Sullivan, Joe M; Parikh, Omi; Peedell, Clive; Protheroe, Andrew; Robinson, Angus J; Srihari, Narayanan; Srinivasan, Rajaguru; Staffurth, John; Sundar, Santhanam; Tolan, Shaun; Tsang, David; Wagstaff, John; Parmar, Mahesh K B

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Long-term hormone therapy has been the standard of care for advanced prostate cancer since the 1940s. STAMPEDE is a randomised controlled trial using a multiarm, multistage platform design. It recruits men with high-risk, locally advanced, metastatic or recurrent prostate cancer who are starting first-line long-term hormone therapy. We report primary survival results for three research comparisons testing the addition of zoledronic acid, docetaxel, or their combination to standard of care versus standard of care alone. Methods Standard of care was hormone therapy for at least 2 years; radiotherapy was encouraged for men with N0M0 disease to November, 2011, then mandated; radiotherapy was optional for men with node-positive non-metastatic (N+M0) disease. Stratified randomisation (via minimisation) allocated men 2:1:1:1 to standard of care only (SOC-only; control), standard of care plus zoledronic acid (SOC + ZA), standard of care plus docetaxel (SOC + Doc), or standard of care with both zoledronic acid and docetaxel (SOC + ZA + Doc). Zoledronic acid (4 mg) was given for six 3-weekly cycles, then 4-weekly until 2 years, and docetaxel (75 mg/m2) for six 3-weekly cycles with prednisolone 10 mg daily. There was no blinding to treatment allocation. The primary outcome measure was overall survival. Pairwise comparisons of research versus control had 90% power at 2·5% one-sided α for hazard ratio (HR) 0·75, requiring roughly 400 control arm deaths. Statistical analyses were undertaken with standard log-rank-type methods for time-to-event data, with hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs derived from adjusted Cox models. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00268476) and ControlledTrials.com (ISRCTN78818544). Findings 2962 men were randomly assigned to four groups between Oct 5, 2005, and March 31, 2013. Median age was 65 years (IQR 60–71). 1817 (61%) men had M+ disease, 448 (15%) had N+/X M0, and 697 (24%) had N0M0. 165 (6

  19. Complete Biallelic Insulation at the H19/Igf2 Imprinting Control Region Position Results in Fetal Growth Retardation and Perinatal Lethality

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong-Hoon; Singh, Purnima; Tsark, Walter M. K.; Szabó, Piroska E.

    2010-01-01

    Background The H19/Igf2 imprinting control region (ICR) functions as an insulator exclusively in the unmethylated maternal allele, where enhancer-blocking by CTCF protein prevents the interaction between the Igf2 promoter and the distant enhancers. DNA methylation inhibits CTCF binding in the paternal ICR allele. Two copies of the chicken β-globin insulator (ChβGI)2 are capable of substituting for the enhancer blocking function of the ICR. Insulation, however, now also occurs upon paternal inheritance, because unlike the H19 ICR, the (ChβGI)2 does not become methylated in fetal male germ cells. The (ChβGI)2 is a composite insulator, exhibiting enhancer blocking by CTCF and chromatin barrier functions by USF1 and VEZF1. We asked the question whether these barrier proteins protected the (ChβGI)2 sequences from methylation in the male germ line. Methodology/Principal Findings We genetically dissected the ChβGI in the mouse by deleting the binding sites USF1 and VEZF1. The methylation of the mutant versus normal (ChβGI)2 significantly increased from 11% to 32% in perinatal male germ cells, suggesting that the barrier proteins did have a role in protecting the (ChβGI)2 from methylation in the male germ line. Contrary to the H19 ICR, however, the mutant (mChβGI)2 lacked the potential to attain full de novo methylation in the germ line and to maintain methylation in the paternal allele in the soma, where it consequently functioned as a biallelic insulator. Unexpectedly, a stricter enhancer blocking was achieved by CTCF alone than by a combination of the CTCF, USF1 and VEZF1 sites, illustrated by undetectable Igf2 expression upon paternal transmission. Conclusions/Significance In this in vivo model, hypomethylation at the ICR position together with fetal growth retardation mimicked the human Silver-Russell syndrome. Importantly, late fetal/perinatal death occurred arguing that strict biallelic insulation at the H19/Igf2 ICR position is not tolerated in development

  20. Positive Reinforcement Training for Blood Collection in Grizzly Bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) Results in Undetectable Elevations in Serum Cortisol Levels: A Preliminary Investigation.

    PubMed

    Joyce-Zuniga, Nicole M; Newberry, Ruth C; Robbins, Charles T; Ware, Jasmine V; Jansen, Heiko T; Nelson, O Lynne

    2016-01-01

    Training nonhuman animals in captivity for participation in routine husbandry procedures is believed to produce a lower stress environment compared with undergoing a general anesthetic event for the same procedure. This hypothesis rests largely on anecdotal evidence that the captive subjects appear more relaxed with the trained event. Blood markers of physiological stress responses were evaluated in 4 captive grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) who were clicker-trained for blood collection versus 4 bears who were chemically immobilized for blood collection. Serum cortisol and immunoglobulin A (IgA) and plasma β-endorphin were measured as indicators of responses to stress. Plasma β-endorphin was not different between the groups. Serum IgA was undetectable in all bears. Serum cortisol was undetectable in all trained bears, whereas chemically immobilized bears had marked cortisol elevations (p < .05). The highest cortisol elevations were found in 2 bears with extensive recent immobilization experience. These findings support the use of positive reinforcement training for routine health procedures to minimize anxiety. PMID:26847149

  1. Positive Reinforcement Training for Blood Collection in Grizzly Bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) Results in Undetectable Elevations in Serum Cortisol Levels: A Preliminary Investigation.

    PubMed

    Joyce-Zuniga, Nicole M; Newberry, Ruth C; Robbins, Charles T; Ware, Jasmine V; Jansen, Heiko T; Nelson, O Lynne

    2016-01-01

    Training nonhuman animals in captivity for participation in routine husbandry procedures is believed to produce a lower stress environment compared with undergoing a general anesthetic event for the same procedure. This hypothesis rests largely on anecdotal evidence that the captive subjects appear more relaxed with the trained event. Blood markers of physiological stress responses were evaluated in 4 captive grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) who were clicker-trained for blood collection versus 4 bears who were chemically immobilized for blood collection. Serum cortisol and immunoglobulin A (IgA) and plasma β-endorphin were measured as indicators of responses to stress. Plasma β-endorphin was not different between the groups. Serum IgA was undetectable in all bears. Serum cortisol was undetectable in all trained bears, whereas chemically immobilized bears had marked cortisol elevations (p < .05). The highest cortisol elevations were found in 2 bears with extensive recent immobilization experience. These findings support the use of positive reinforcement training for routine health procedures to minimize anxiety.

  2. Efficacy of Several Serological Tests and Antigens for Diagnosis of Bovine Brucellosis in the Presence of False-Positive Serological Results Due to Yersinia enterocolitica O:9

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, P. M.; Marín, C. M.; Monreal, D.; González, D.; Garin-Bastuji, B.; Díaz, R.; Mainar-Jaime, R. C.; Moriyón, I.; Blasco, J. M.

    2005-01-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica O:9 bears a smooth lipopolysaccharide (S-LPS) of Brucella sp. O-chain A + C/Y epitopic structure and is a cause of false-positive serological reactions (FPSR) in standard tests for cattle brucellosis. Brucella S-LPS, cross-reacting S-LPSs representing several O-chain epitope combinations, Brucella core lipid A epitopes (rough LPS), Brucella abortus S-LPS-derived polysaccharide, native hapten polysaccharide, rough LPS group 3 outer membrane protein complexes, recombinant BP26, and cytosolic proteins were tested in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and precipitation tests to detect cattle brucellosis (sensitivity) and to differentiate it from FPSR (specificity). No single serological test and antigen combination showed 100% sensitivity and specificity simultaneously. Immunoprecipitation tests with native hapten polysaccharide, counterimmunoelectrophoresis with cytosolic proteins, and a chaotropic ELISA with Brucella S-LPS were 100% specific but less sensitive than the Rose Bengal test, complement fixation, and indirect ELISA with Brucella S-LPSs and native hapten or S-LPS-derived polysaccharides. A competitive ELISA with Brucella S-LPS and M84 C/Y-specific monoclonal antibody was not 100% specific and was less sensitive than other tests. ELISA with Brucella suis bv. 2 S-LPS (deficient in C epitopes), Escherichia hermannii S-LPSs [lacking the contiguous α-(1-2)-linked perosamine residues characteristic of Y. enterocolitica S-LPS], BP26 recombinant protein, and Brucella cytosolic fractions did not provide adequate sensitivity/specificity ratios. Although no serological test and antigen combination fully resolved the diagnosis of bovine brucellosis in the presence of FPSR, some are simple and practical alternatives to the brucellin skin test currently recommended for differential diagnosis. PMID:15642999

  3. Positive battery plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowlette, John R. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    The power characteristics of a lead acid battery are improved by incorporating a dispersion of 1 to 10% by weight of a thermodynamically stable conductivity additive, such as conductive tin oxide coated glass fibers (34) of filamentary glass wool (42) in the positive active layer (32) carried on the grid (30) of the positive plate (16). Positive plate potential must be kept high enough to prevent reduction of the tin oxide to tin by utilizing an oversized, precharged positive paste.

  4. Practice changing mature results of RTOG study 9802: another positive PCV trial makes adjuvant chemotherapy part of standard of care in low-grade glioma.

    PubMed

    van den Bent, Martin J

    2014-12-01

    The long-term follow-up of the RTOG 9802 trial that compared 54 Gy of radiotherapy (RT) with the same RT followed by adjuvant procarbazine, CCNU, and vincristine (PCV) chemotherapy in high-risk low-grade glioma shows a major increase in survival after adjuvant PCV chemotherapy. Median overall survival increased from 7.8 years to 13.3 years, with a hazard ratio of death of 0.59 (log rank: P = .002). This increase in survival was observed despite the fact that 77% of patients who progressed after RT alone received salvage chemotherapy. With this outcome, RT + PCV is now to be considered standard of care for low-grade glioma requiring postsurgical adjuvant treatment. Unfortunately, studies on molecular correlates associated with response are still lacking. This is now the third trial showing benefit from the addition of PCV to RT in grade II or III diffuse glioma. The optimal parameter for selecting patients for adjuvant PCV has not yet been fully elucidated, but several candidate markers have so far emerged. It is still unclear whether temozolomide can replace PCV and whether initial management with chemotherapy only is a safe initial treatment. Potentially, that may adversely affect overall survival, but concerns for delayed RT-induced neurotoxicity may limit acceptance of early RT in patients with expected long term survival. The current evidence supports that in future trials, grades II and III tumors with similar molecular backgrounds should be combined, and trials should focus on molecular glial subtype regardless of grade.

  5. Possible Positive Results of the Current Fiscal Crisis in Higher Education. Panel Session: Learning to Live on Less--The Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calais, Mary Jane

    The increasing use of management techniques may be viewed as a beneficial result of the financial problems currently being experienced by many community colleges. The college budget should be goal-oriented and the basis for a good management system. When properly used as a planning technique, the budget can become a vehicle for considering and…

  6. Nursing Positions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Nursing Positions KidsHealth > For Parents > Nursing Positions Print A ... and actually needs to feed. Getting Comfortable With Breastfeeding Nursing can be one of the most challenging ...

  7. The measurement of boundary layers on a compressor blade in cascade at high positive incidence angle. 1: Experimental techniques and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutsch, S.; Zierke, W. C.

    1986-01-01

    Measurements of the mean velocity and turbulence intensity were made using a one-component laser Doppler velocimeter in the boundary layer and near wake about a double circular arc, compressor blade in cascade. The measurements were made at a chord Reynolds number of 500,000. Boundary layer measurements on the pressure surface indicate a transition region over the last 40% of the chord. A small separation bubble near the leading edge of the suction surface results in an immediate transition from laminar to turbulent flow. The non-equilibrium turbulent boundary layer separates near the trailing edge of the suction surface. Similarity of the outer region of the turbulent boundary layer ceases to exist in the separated region. Also, similarity does not hold in the near-wake region, a region which includes negative mean velocities because of the separation near the trailing edge on the suction surface.

  8. Lost opportunities to identify and treat HIV-positive patients: results from a baseline assessment of provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling (PITC) in Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Saeed; Schwarz, Monica; Flick, Robert; Rees, Chris A.; Harawa, Mwelura; Simon, Katie; Robison, Jeff; Kazembe, Peter N.; Kim, Maria H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess implementation of provider-initiated testing and counseling (PITC) for HIV in Malawi. Methods A review of PITC practices within 118 departments in 12 Ministry of Health (MoH) facilities across Malawi was conducted. Information on PITC practices was collected via a health facility survey. Data describing patient visits and HIV tests were abstracted from routinely collected program data. Results Reported PITC practices were highly variable. Most providers practiced symptom-based PITC. Antenatal clinics and maternity wards reported widespread use of routine opt-out PITC. In 2014, there was approximately 1 HIV test for every 15 clinic visits. HIV status was ascertained in 94.3% (5,293/5,615) of patients at tuberculosis clinics, 92.6% (30,675/33,142) of patients at antenatal clinics, and 49.4% (6,871/13,914) of patients at sexually transmitted infection clinics. Reported challenges to delivering PITC included test kit shortages (71/71 providers), insufficient physical space (58/71), and inadequate number of HIV counselors (32/71) while providers from inpatient units cited the inability to test on weekends. Conclusions Various models of PITC currently exist at MoH facilities in Malawi. Only antenatal and maternity clinics demonstrated high rates of routine opt-out PITC. The low ratio of facility visits to HIV tests suggests missed opportunities for HIV testing. However, the high proportion of patients at TB and antenatal clinics with known HIV status suggests routine PITC is feasible. These results underscore the need to develop clear, standardized PITC policy and protocols, and to address obstacles of limited health commodities, infrastructure, and human resources. PMID:26806378

  9. Positive Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Positive psychology is a deliberate correction to the focus of psychology on problems. Positive psychology does not deny the difficulties that people may experience but does suggest that sole attention to disorder leads to an incomplete view of the human condition. Positive psychologists concern themselves with four major topics: (1) positive…

  10. Addition of positive charges at the C-terminal peptide region of CssII, a mammalian scorpion peptide toxin, improves its affinity for sodium channels Nav1.6.

    PubMed

    Estrada, Georgina; Restano-Cassulini, Rita; Ortiz, Ernesto; Possani, Lourival D; Corzo, Gerardo

    2011-01-01

    CssII is a β-scorpion peptide that modifies preferentially sodium currents of the voltage-dependent Na(+) channel (Nav) sub-type 1.6. Previously, we have found that the C-terminal amidation of CssII increases its affinity for Nav, which opens at more negative potentials in the presence of CssII. Although C-terminal amidation in vitro conditions is possible, five CssII peptide toxin variants with C-terminal residues modified were heterologously expressed (rN66S, rN66H, rN66R, r[T64R/N66S] and r[T64R/N66R], in which r stands for recombinant, the capital letters to the amino acid residues and the numbers indicate the position of the given residue into the primary sequence of the toxin) and correctly folded. A secondary structure prediction of CssII agrees with the experimental secondary structure obtained by circular dichroism; so all bacterial expressed neurotoxin variants maintained the typical α/β secondary structure motif of most Na(+) channel scorpion toxins. The electrophysiological properties of all recombinant variants were examined, and it was found that substitutions of threonine (T) and asparagine (N) at the C-terminal region for arginine (R) (r[T64R/N66R]) increase their affinity for Nav1.6. Although, the molecular interactions involved in this mechanism are still not clearly determined, there is experimental evidence supporting the suspicion that incorporation of basic charged amino acid residues at the C-terminal tail of a group of α-scorpion toxin was favored by natural selection.

  11. Acid-base titrations by stepwise addition of equal volumes of titrant with special reference to automatic titrations-III Presentation of a fully automatic titration apparatus and of results supporting the theories given in the preceding parts.

    PubMed

    Pehrsson, L; Ingman, F

    1977-02-01

    This paper forms Part III of a series in which the first two parts describe methods for evaluating titrations performed by stepwise addition of equal volumes of titrant. The great advantage of these methods is that they do not require an accurate calibration of the electrode system. This property makes the methods very suitable for routine work. e.g., in automatic analysis. An apparatus for performing such titrations automatically is presented. Further, results of titrations of monoprotic acids, a diprotic acid, an ampholyte, a mixture of an acid with its conjugate base, and mixtures of two acids with a small difference between the stability constants are given. Most of these titrations cannot be evaluated by the Gran or Hofstee methods but yield results having errors of the order of 0.1% if the methods proposed in Parts I and II of this series are employed. The advantages of the method of stepwise addition of equal volumes of titrant combined with the proposed evaluation methods, in comparison with common methods such as titration to a preset pH, are that all the data are used in the evaluation, permitting a statistical treatment and giving better possibilities for tracing systematic errors.

  12. Implementation of Departmental Quality Strategies Is Positively Associated with Clinical Practice: Results of a Multicenter Study in 73 Hospitals in 7 European Countries

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Given the amount of time and resources invested in implementing quality programs in hospitals, few studies have investigated their clinical impact and what strategies could be recommended to enhance its effectiveness. Objective To assess variations in clinical practice and explore associations with hospital- and department-level quality management systems. Design Multicenter, multilevel cross-sectional study. Setting and Participants Seventy-three acute care hospitals with 276 departments managing acute myocardial infarction, deliveries, hip fracture, and stroke in seven countries. Intervention None. Measures Predictor variables included 3 hospital- and 4 department-level quality measures. Six measures were collected through direct observation by an external surveyor and one was assessed through a questionnaire completed by hospital quality managers. Dependent variables included 24 clinical practice indicators based on case note reviews covering the 4 conditions (acute myocardial infarction, deliveries, hip fracture and stroke). A directed acyclic graph was used to encode relationships between predictors, outcomes, and covariates and to guide the choice of covariates to control for confounding. Results and Limitations Data were provided on 9021 clinical records by 276 departments in 73 hospitals. There were substantial variations in compliance with the 24 clinical practice indicators. Weak associations were observed between hospital quality systems and 4 of the 24 indicators, but on analyzing department-level quality systems, strong associations were observed for 8 of the 11 indicators for acute myocardial infarction and stroke. Clinical indicators supported by higher levels of evidence were more frequently associated with quality systems and activities. Conclusions There are significant gaps between recommended standards of care and clinical practice in a large sample of hospitals. Implementation of department-level quality strategies was significantly

  13. Satellite positioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombo, Oscar L.; Watkins, Michael M.

    1991-01-01

    Developments in satellite positioning techniques and their applications are reviewed on the basis of the theoretical and practical work published by U.S. researchers in 1987-1990. Current techniques are classified into two main categories: satellite laser tracking and radio tracking. Particular attention is given to the Geoscience Laser Ranging System, the Lunar Laser Ranging concept; GPS ephemerides determination, fiducial networks, and reference frame; static GPS positioning; and kinematic GPS positioning.

  14. Smog control fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Lundby, W.

    1993-06-29

    A method is described of controlling, reducing or eliminating, ozone and related smog resulting from photochemical reactions between ozone and automotive or industrial gases comprising the addition of iodine or compounds of iodine to hydrocarbon-base fuels prior to or during combustion in an amount of about 1 part iodine per 240 to 10,000,000 parts fuel, by weight, to be accomplished by: (a) the addition of these inhibitors during or after the refining or manufacturing process of liquid fuels; (b) the production of these inhibitors for addition into fuel tanks, such as automotive or industrial tanks; or (c) the addition of these inhibitors into combustion chambers of equipment utilizing solid fuels for the purpose of reducing ozone.

  15. Functional Generalized Additive Models.

    PubMed

    McLean, Mathew W; Hooker, Giles; Staicu, Ana-Maria; Scheipl, Fabian; Ruppert, David

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the functional generalized additive model (FGAM), a novel regression model for association studies between a scalar response and a functional predictor. We model the link-transformed mean response as the integral with respect to t of F{X(t), t} where F(·,·) is an unknown regression function and X(t) is a functional covariate. Rather than having an additive model in a finite number of principal components as in Müller and Yao (2008), our model incorporates the functional predictor directly and thus our model can be viewed as the natural functional extension of generalized additive models. We estimate F(·,·) using tensor-product B-splines with roughness penalties. A pointwise quantile transformation of the functional predictor is also considered to ensure each tensor-product B-spline has observed data on its support. The methods are evaluated using simulated data and their predictive performance is compared with other competing scalar-on-function regression alternatives. We illustrate the usefulness of our approach through an application to brain tractography, where X(t) is a signal from diffusion tensor imaging at position, t, along a tract in the brain. In one example, the response is disease-status (case or control) and in a second example, it is the score on a cognitive test. R code for performing the simulations and fitting the FGAM can be found in supplemental materials available online.

  16. Positive Psychotherapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seligman, Martin E. P.; Rashid, Tayyab; Parks, Acacia C.

    2006-01-01

    Positive psychotherapy (PPT) contrasts with standard interventions for depression by increasing positive emotion, engagement, and meaning rather than directly targeting depressive symptoms. The authors have tested the effects of these interventions in a variety of settings. In informal student and clinical settings, people not uncommonly reported…

  17. Positioning performance of a maglev fine positioning system

    SciTech Connect

    Wronosky, J.B.; Smith, T.G.; Jordan, J.D.; Darnold, J.R.

    1996-12-01

    A wafer positioning system was recently developed by Sandia National Laboratories for an Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography (EUVL) research tool. The system, which utilizes a magnetically levitated fine stage to provide ultra-precise positioning in all six degrees of freedom, incorporates technological improvements resulting from four years of prototype development experience. System enhancements, implemented on a second generation design for an ARPA National Center for Advanced Information Component Manufacturing (NCAICM) project, introduced active structural control for the levitated structure of the system. Magnetic levitation (maglev) is emerging as an important technology for wafer positioning systems in advanced lithography applications. The advantages of maglev stem from the absence of physical contact. The resulting lack of friction enables accurate, fast positioning. Maglev systems are mechanically simple, accomplishing full six degree-of-freedom suspension and control with a minimum of moving parts. Power-efficient designs, which reduce the possibility of thermal distortion of the platen, are achievable. Manufacturing throughput will be improved in future systems with the addition of active structural control of the positioning stages. This paper describes the design, implementation, and functional capability of the maglev fine positioning system. Specifics regarding performance design goals and test results are presented.

  18. New Tendencies in Development of Carbonaceous Additives for Welding Fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozyrev, N. A.; Kryukov, R. E.; Kozyreva, O. A.

    2015-09-01

    The paper provides results of comparative analysis of the effect of carbonaceous components introduced into welding fluxes on molten metal - slag interaction. Thermodynamical calculations of dehydrogenization are presented for submerged arc welding. A positive influence of carbonaceous additives on gas content and mechanical properties of welds is demonstrated. Carbon and fluorine containing additives are emphasized to be promising for automatic submerged arc welding.

  19. Positive Proof.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auty, Geoffrey

    1988-01-01

    Presents experiments which show that in electrostatics there are logical reasons for describing charged materials as positive or negative. Indicates that static and current electricity are not separate areas of physics. Diagrams of experiments and circuits are included. (RT)

  20. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamine, containing phenylethvnvl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynviphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pvrrolidinone to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  1. Prevalence of positive antibody test results for canine parvovirus (CPV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) and response to modified live vaccination against CPV and CDV in dogs entering animal shelters.

    PubMed

    Litster, Annette; Nichols, Jamieson; Volpe, Allison

    2012-05-25

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) infections are relatively common in animal shelters and are important population management issues since the immune status of incoming dogs is usually unknown. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of positive antibody test results for CPV and CDV in incoming dogs aged ≥ 4 months and to measure antibody response over 2 weeks following vaccination with a modified live vaccine (MLV). Dogs aged 4-24 months entering an adoption-guarantee shelter (Shelter 1, n=51) and aged ≥ 4 months entering a limited admission shelter (Shelter 2; n=51) were enrolled. Dogs from Shelter 1 had been vaccinated with MLV at a municipal shelter 5 days before enrollment, whereas dogs from Shelter 2 had no known history of vaccination at enrollment. Sera were obtained on day 1, immediately prior to CPV/CDV MLV, and tested using an in-clinic ELISA kit to detect CPV/CDV antibodies. Dogs negative for CPV and/or CDV were retested at day 6-8 and those dogs still negative at day 6-8 were retested at day 13-15. Prior to CPV/CDV MLV on day 1, more dogs tested positive for CPV (Shelter 1 - 68.6%; Shelter 2 - 84.3%) than for CDV (Shelter 1 - 37.3%; Shelter 2 - 41.2%). On day 1, prior to MLV, all spayed/neutered animals tested CPV antibody-positive (n=17/102) and CPV antibody-positive dogs were older than serologically negative dogs (Shelter 1, P=0.0029; Shelter 2, P=0.0042). By day 13-15, almost all dogs were CPV antibody-positive (Shelter 1 - 97.9%; Shelter 2 - 100.0%) and CDV antibody-positive (Shelter 1 - 93.8%; Shelter 2 - 97.8%). MLV induces protective antibody titers against CPV/CDV in almost all dogs after 13-15 days.

  2. Health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis. Modification of models resulting from addition of effects of exposure to alpha-emitting radionuclides: Revision 1, Part 2, Scientific bases for health effects models, Addendum 2

    SciTech Connect

    Abrahamson, S.; Bender, M.A.; Boecker, B.B.; Scott, B.R.; Gilbert, E.S.

    1993-05-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has sponsored several studies to identify and quantify, through the use of models, the potential health effects of accidental releases of radionuclides from nuclear power plants. The Reactor Safety Study provided the basis for most of the earlier estimates related to these health effects. Subsequent efforts by NRC-supported groups resulted in improved health effects models that were published in the report entitled {open_quotes}Health Effects Models for Nuclear Power Plant Consequence Analysis{close_quotes}, NUREG/CR-4214, 1985 and revised further in the 1989 report NUREG/CR-4214, Rev. 1, Part 2. The health effects models presented in the 1989 NUREG/CR-4214 report were developed for exposure to low-linear energy transfer (LET) (beta and gamma) radiation based on the best scientific information available at that time. Since the 1989 report was published, two addenda to that report have been prepared to (1) incorporate other scientific information related to low-LET health effects models and (2) extend the models to consider the possible health consequences of the addition of alpha-emitting radionuclides to the exposure source term. The first addendum report, entitled {open_quotes}Health Effects Models for Nuclear Power Plant Accident Consequence Analysis, Modifications of Models Resulting from Recent Reports on Health Effects of Ionizing Radiation, Low LET Radiation, Part 2: Scientific Bases for Health Effects Models,{close_quotes} was published in 1991 as NUREG/CR-4214, Rev. 1, Part 2, Addendum 1. This second addendum addresses the possibility that some fraction of the accident source term from an operating nuclear power plant comprises alpha-emitting radionuclides. Consideration of chronic high-LET exposure from alpha radiation as well as acute and chronic exposure to low-LET beta and gamma radiations is a reasonable extension of the health effects model.

  3. Position indicator

    DOEpatents

    Tanner, David E.

    1981-01-01

    A nuclear reactor system is described in which a position indicator is provided for detecting and indicating the position of a movable element inside a pressure vessel. The movable element may be a valve element or similar device which moves about an axis. Light from a light source is transmitted from a source outside the pressure vessel to a first region inside the pressure vessel in alignment with the axis of the movable element. The light is redirected by a reflector prism to a second region displaced radially from the first region. The reflector prism moves in response to movement of the movable element about its axis such that the second region moves arcuately with respect to the first region. Sensors are arrayed in an arc corresponding to the arc of movement of the second region and signals are transmitted from the sensors to the exterior of the reactor vessel to provide indication of the position of the movable element.

  4. Electrophilic addition of astatine

    SciTech Connect

    Norseev, Yu.V.; Vasaros, L.; Nhan, D.D.; Huan, N.K.

    1988-03-01

    It has been shown for the first time that astatine is capable of undergoing addition reactions to unsaturated hydrocarbons. A new compound of astatine, viz., ethylene astatohydrin, has been obtained, and its retention numbers of squalane, Apiezon, and tricresyl phosphate have been found. The influence of various factors on the formation of ethylene astatohydrin has been studied. It has been concluded on the basis of the results obtained that the univalent cations of astatine in an acidic medium is protonated hypoastatous acid.

  5. Overview of differences between microbial feed additives and probiotics for food regarding regulation, growth promotion effects and health properties and consequences for extrapolation of farm animal results to humans.

    PubMed

    Bernardeau, M; Vernoux, J-P

    2013-04-01

    For many years, microbial adjuncts have been used to supplement the diets of farm animals and humans. They have evolved since the 1990s to become known as probiotics, i.e. functional food with health benefits. After the discovery of a possible link between manipulation of gut microflora in mice and obesity, a focus on the use of these beneficial microbes that act on gut microflora in animal farming was undertaken and compared with the use of probiotics for food. Beneficial microbes added to feed are classified at a regulatory level as zootechnical additives, in the category of gut flora stabilizers for healthy animals and are regulated up to strain level in Europe. Intended effects are improvement of performance characteristics, which are strain dependent and growth enhancement is not a prerequisite. In fact, increase of body weight is not commonly reported and its frequency is around 25% of the published data examined here. However, when a Body Weight Gain (BWG) was found in the literature, it was generally moderate (lower than or close to 10%) and this over a reduced period of their short industrial life. When it was higher than 10%, it could be explained as an indirect consequence of the alleviation of the weight losses linked to stressful intensive rearing conditions or health deficiency. However, regulations on feed do not consider the health effects because animals are supposed to be healthy, so there is no requirement for reporting healthy effects in the standard European dossier. The regulations governing the addition of beneficial microorganisms to food are less stringent than for feed and no dossier is required if a species has a Qualified Presumption of Safety status. The microbial strain marketed is not submitted to any regulation and its properties (including BWG) do not need to be studied. Only claims for functional or healthy properties are regulated and again growth effect is not included. However, recent studies on probiotic effects showed that BWG

  6. Positive psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Seligman, Martin E P; Rashid, Tayyab; Parks, Acacia C

    2006-11-01

    Positive psychotherapy (PPT) contrasts with standard interventions for depression by increasing positive emotion, engagement, and meaning rather than directly targeting depressive symptoms. The authors have tested the effects of these interventions in a variety of settings. In informal student and clinical settings, people not uncommonly reported them to be "life-changing." Delivered on the Web, positive psychology exercises relieved depressive symptoms for at least 6 months compared with placebo interventions, the effects of which lasted less than a week. In severe depression, the effects of these Web exercises were particularly striking. This address reports two preliminary studies: In the first, PPT delivered to groups significantly decreased levels of mild-to-moderate depression through 1-year follow-up. In the second, PPT delivered to individuals produced higher remission rates than did treatment as usual and treatment as usual plus medication among outpatients with major depressive disorder. Together, these studies suggest that treatments for depression may usefully be supplemented by exercises that explicitly increase positive emotion, engagement, and meaning. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:17115810

  7. Positively Adolescent!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Sue

    2000-01-01

    Believes that music teachers should reassess their views toward adolescent behavior in the music classroom by learning to see their behavior in a positive light. Describes teaching strategies that build on four adolescent behaviors: (1) desire for peer acceptance; (2) abundant energy; (3) love of fun; and (4) limited time-managing skills. (CMK)

  8. Smoking interacts with HLA-DRB1 shared epitope in the development of anti-citrullinated protein antibody-positive rheumatoid arthritis: results from the Malaysian Epidemiological Investigation of Rheumatoid Arthritis (MyEIRA)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a multifactorial autoimmune disease in which genetic and environmental factors interact in the etiology. In this study, we investigated whether smoking and HLA-DRB1 shared-epitope (SE) alleles interact differently in the development of the two major subgroups of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), anti-citrullinated proteins antibody (ACPA)-positive and ACPA-negative disease, in a multiethnic population of Asian descent. Methods A case-control study comprising early diagnosed RA cases was carried out in Malaysia between 2005 and 2009. In total, 1,076 cases and 1,612 matched controls participated in the study. High-resolution HLA-DRB1 genotyping was performed for shared-epitope (SE) alleles. All participants answered a questionnaire on a broad range of issues, including smoking habits. The odds ratio (OR) of developing ACPA-positive and ACPA-negative disease was calculated for smoking and the presence of any SE alleles separately. Potential interaction between smoking history (defined as "ever" and "never" smoking) and HLA-DRB1 SE alleles also was calculated. Results In our multiethnic study, both the SE alleles and smoking were associated with an increased risk of developing ACPA-positive RA (OR SE alleles, 4.7; 95% confidence interval (CI), 3.6 to 6.2; OR smoking, 4.1; 95% CI, 1.9 to 9.2). SE-positive smokers had an odds ratio of ACPA-positive RA of 25.6 (95% CI, 10.4 to 63.4), compared with SE-negative never-smokers. The interaction between smoking and SE alleles was significant (attributable proportion due to interaction (AP) was 0.7 (95% CI, 0.5 to 1.0)). The HLA-DRB1*04:05 SE allele, which is common in Asian populations, but not among Caucasians, was associated with an increased risk of ACPA-positive RA, and this allele also showed signs of interaction with smoking (AP, 0.4; 95% CI, -0.1 to 0.9). Neither smoking nor SE alleles nor their combination was associated with an increased risk of ACPA-negative RA. Conclusions The risk

  9. Vinyl capped addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D. (Inventor); Malarik, Diane C. (Inventor); Delvigs, Peter (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Polyimide resins (PMR) are generally useful where high strength and temperature capabilities are required (at temperatures up to about 700 F). Polyimide resins are particularly useful in applications such as jet engine compressor components, for example, blades, vanes, air seals, air splitters, and engine casing parts. Aromatic vinyl capped addition polyimides are obtained by reacting a diamine, an ester of tetracarboxylic acid, and an aromatic vinyl compound. Low void materials with improved oxidative stability when exposed to 700 F air may be fabricated as fiber reinforced high molecular weight capped polyimide composites. The aromatic vinyl capped polyimides are provided with a more aromatic nature and are more thermally stable than highly aliphatic, norbornenyl-type end-capped polyimides employed in PMR resins. The substitution of aromatic vinyl end-caps for norbornenyl end-caps in addition polyimides results in polymers with improved oxidative stability.

  10. Position sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auer, Siegfried (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A radiant energy angle sensor is provided wherein the sensitive portion thereof comprises a pair of linear array detectors with each detector mounted normal to the other to provide X and Y channels and a pair of slits spaced from the pair of linear arrays with each of the slits positioned normal to its associated linear array. There is also provided electrical circuit means connected to the pair of linear array detectors and to separate X and Y axes outputs.

  11. Positive Psychologists on Positive Constructs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyubomirsky, Sonja

    2012-01-01

    Comments on the original article by McNulty and Fincham (see record 2011-15476-001). In their article, the authors offered compelling evidence that constructs such as forgiveness and optimism can have both beneficial and adverse consequences, depending on the context. Their caution about labeling particular psychological processes as "positive" is…

  12. Differences in inferred genome-wide signals of positive selection during the evolution of Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania spp. lineages: A result of disparities in host and tissue infection ranges?

    PubMed

    Flores-López, Carlos A; Machado, Carlos A

    2015-07-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania spp. are kinetoplastids responsible for Chagas disease and Leishmaniasis, neglected tropical diseases for which there are no effective methods of control. These two human pathogens differ widely in the range of mammal species they can infect, their cell/tissue tropism and cell invasion mechanisms. Whether such major biological differences have had any impact on genome-wide patterns of genetic diversification in both pathogens has not been explored. The recent genome sequencing projects of medically important species of Leishmania and T. cruzi lineages provide unique resources for performing comparative evolutionary analyses to address that question. We show that inferred genome-wide signals of positive selection are higher in T. cruzi proteins than in Leishmania spp. proteins. We report significant differences in the fraction of protein-coding genes showing evidence of positive selection in the two groups of parasites, and also report that the intensity of positive selection and the proportion of sites under selection are higher in T. cruzi than in Leishmania spp. The pattern is unlikely to be the result of confounding factors like differences in GC content, average gene length or differences in reproductive mode between the two taxa. We propose that the greater versatility of T. cruzi in its host range, cell tropism and cell invasion mechanisms may explain the observed differences between the two groups of parasites. Genes showing evidence of positive selection within each taxonomic group may be under diversifying selection to evade the immune system and thus, depending on their functions, could represent viable candidates for the development of drugs or vaccines for these neglected human diseases.

  13. Positioning apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Vogel, M.A.; Alter, P.

    1983-07-07

    An apparatus is provided for precisely adjusting the position of an article relative to a beam emerging from a neutron source disposed in a housing. The apparatus includes a support pivotably mounted on a movable base plate and freely suspended therefrom. The support is gravity biased toward the housing and carries an article holder movable in a first direction longitudinally of the axis of said beam and normally urged into engagement against said housing. Means are provided for moving the base plate in two directions to effect movement of the suspended holder in two mutually perpendicular directions, respectively, normal to the axis of the beam.

  14. Positioning apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Vogel, Max A.; Alter, Paul

    1986-05-06

    An apparatus for precisely positioning materials test specimens within the optimum neutron flux path emerging from a neutron source located in a housing. The test specimens are retained in a holder mounted on the free end of a support pivotably mounted and suspended from a movable base plate. The support is gravity biased to urge the holder in a direction longitudinally of the flux path against the housing. Means are provided for moving the base plate in two directions to effect movement of the holder in two mutually perpendicular directions normal to the axis of the flux path.

  15. Positioning apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Vogel, Max A.; Alter, Paul

    1986-01-01

    An apparatus for precisely positioning materials test specimens within the optimum neutron flux path emerging from a neutron source located in a housing. The test specimens are retained in a holder mounted on the free end of a support pivotably mounted and suspended from a movable base plate. The support is gravity biased to urge the holder in a direction longitudinally of the flux path against the housing. Means are provided for moving the base plate in two directions to effect movement of the holder in two mutually perpendicular directions normal to the axis of the flux path.

  16. POSITIONING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Wall, R.R.; Peterson, D.L.

    1959-09-15

    A positioner is described for a vertical reactor-control rod. The positioner comprises four grooved friction rotatable members that engage the control rod on all sides and shift it longitudinally. The four friction members are drivingly interconnected for conjoint rotation and comprise two pairs of coaxial members. The members of each pair are urged toward one another by hydraulic or pneumatic pressure and thus grip the control rod so as to hold it in any position or adjust it. Release of the by-draulic or pneumatic pressure permits springs between the friction members of each pair to force them apart, whereby the control rod moves quickly by gravity into the reactor.

  17. Positive Emotion following a Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Ostir, Glenn V.; Berges, Ivonne; Ottenbacher, Margaret; Graham, James E.; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES As populations age, interest in exploring the emotional health of adults has increased. In the current study we were interested in investigating the positive emotion of adults with stroke at discharge from in-patient medical rehabilitation and 3 months post discharge. DESIGN A longitudinal study using information from the Stroke Recovery in Underserved Patients database. SETTING Information was collected during in-patient medical rehabilitation stay and approximately 3 months post discharge. PARTICIPANTS The study included 856 persons aged 55 or older with stroke admitted to in-patient medical rehabilitation in the U.S. MEASUREMENTS Positive emotion. RESULTS The average age was 72.5 years, 78.7% were non-Hispanic white and 51.9% were women. The average length of in-patient hospital stay was 20.2 (SD 10.1) days. More than a third (35.6%) reported higher positive emotion over the 3 month follow-up, while 29.7% reported lower positive emotion. In addition to discharge positive emotion, three factors including depression (b = −0.05, SE .02, p = .0001), level of education (b = 0.08, SE .04, p = .04) and functional status (b = 0.04, SE .006, p = .001) significantly predicted higher positive emotion at 3 month follow-up. CONCLUSION A large percentage of adults report high positive emotion in the initial months following a stroke. This finding adds to work on stroke recovery and indicates the resilience of adults when faced with a health challenge. Understanding the role of positive emotion in persons living with stroke may provide critical insight into long-term recovery. PMID:18509564

  18. Study of the consumption of the additive prop-1-ene-1,3-sultone in Li[Ni0.33Mn0.33Co0.33]O2/graphite pouch cells and evidence of positive-negative electrode interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petibon, R.; Madec, L.; Rotermund, L. M.; Dahn, J. R.

    2016-05-01

    The consumption of the additive prop-1-ene-1,3-sultone (PES) in Li[Ni0.33Mn0.33Co0.33]O2/graphite (NMC(111)/graphite) pouch cells during the first cycle and after hold periods at different cell potentials was measured using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). GC-MS measurements of the electrolyte of NMC(111)/graphite pouch cells during the first charge showed that the amount of PES consumed, and the cell impedance, increased with increasing starting concentration up to a starting concentration of 5 wt% and then seemed to slow down at higher starting concentration. Additive consumption measurements after holding periods showed that PES is consumed in measurable amounts at the positive electrode, suggesting that PES oxidizes at potentials as low as 4.27 V vs. Li/Li+ on the NMC(111) surface. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy on symmetric cells as well as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of electrodes salvaged from NMC(111)/graphite cells after hold periods at various cell potentials strongly support the existence of a positive-negative electrode interaction.

  19. Molecular basis of an adult form of Sandhoff disease: substitution of glutamine for arginine at position 505 of the beta-chain of beta-hexosaminidase results in a labile enzyme.

    PubMed

    Bolhuis, P A; Ponne, N J; Bikker, H; Baas, F; Vianney de Jong, J M

    1993-09-01

    Sandhoff disease is a lysosomal storage disorder characterized by accumulation of GM2 ganglioside due to mutations in the beta-chain of beta-hexosaminidase. Hexosaminidase activity is negligible in infantile Sandhoff disease whereas residual activity is present in juvenile and adult forms. Here we report the molecular basis of the first described adult form of Sandhoff disease. Southern analysis of chromosomal DNA indicated the absence of chromosomal deletions in the gene encoding the beta-chain. Northern analysis of RNA from cultured fibroblasts demonstrated that at least one of the beta-chain alleles was transcribed into normal-length mRNA. Sequence analysis of the entire cDNA prepared from poly-adenylated RNA showed that only one point mutation was present, consisting of a G-->A transition at nucleotide position 1514. This mutation changes the electric charge at amino acid position 505 by substitution of glutamine for arginine in a highly conserved part of the beta-chain, present even in the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. The nucleotide transition generated a new restriction site for DdeI, which was present in only one of the alleles of the patient. Reverse transcription of mRNA followed by restriction with DdeI resulted in complete digestion at the mutation site, demonstrating that the second allele was of an mRNA-negative type. Transfection of COS cells with a cDNA construct containing the mutation but otherwise the normal sequence resulted in the expression of a labile form of beta-hexosaminidase. These results show that the patient's is a genetic compound, and that the lability of beta-hexosaminidase found in this form of Sandhoff disease is based on a single nucleotide transition. PMID:8357844

  20. [Autoimmune processes after long-term low-level exposure to electromagnetic fields (the results of an experiment). Part 1. Mobile communications and changes in electromagnetic conditions for the population. Needs for additional substantiation of the existing hygienic standards].

    PubMed

    Grigor'ev, Iu G; Grigor'ev, O A; Ivanov, A A; Liaginskaia, A M; Merkulov, A V; Stepanov, V S; Shagina, N B

    2010-01-01

    Mobile communications provides a new source of electromagnetic exposure for almost the whole population of the Russian Federation. For the first time in the history of civilization the brain of mobile phone users was exposed to localized radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMF). Population exposure from the base stations is also considered to be specific. However, existing standards for limiting the exposure do not account for this special EMF source and may not ensure the absence of health effects. There was a need for reliable information that would extend databases used for development of new standards. As recommended by the World Health Organization an additional experiment was performed under the supervision of foreign experts, which showed changes in autoimmune status in rats after long-term low-level RF EMF exposure with an incident power density of 500 microW/cm2.

  1. Intensification of antiretroviral therapy through addition of enfuvirtide in naive HIV-1-infected patients with severe immunosuppression does not improve immunological response: results of a randomized multicenter trial (ANRS 130 Apollo).

    PubMed

    Joly, Véronique; Fagard, Catherine; Grondin, Carine; Descamps, Diane; Yazdanpanah, Yazdan; Charpentier, Charlotte; Colin de Verdiere, Nathalie; Tabuteau, Sophie; Raffi, François; Cabie, André; Chene, Geneviève; Yeni, Patrick

    2013-02-01

    We studied whether addition of enfuvirtide (ENF) to a background combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) would improve the CD4 cell count response at week 24 in naive patients with advanced HIV disease. ANRS 130 Apollo is a randomized study, conducted in naive HIV-1-infected patients, either asymptomatic with CD4 counts of <100/mm(3) or stage B/C disease with CD4 counts of <200/mm(3). Patients received tenofovir-emtricitabine with lopinavir-ritonavir (LPV/r) or efavirenz and were randomized to receive ENF for 24 weeks (ENF arm) or not (control arm). The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with CD4 counts of ≥ 200/mm(3) at week 24. A total of 195 patients were randomized: 73% had stage C disease, 78% were male, the mean age was 44 years, the median CD4 count was 30/mm(3), and the median HIV-1 RNA load was 5.4 log(10) copies/ml. Eighty-one percent of patients received LPV/r. One patient was lost to follow-up, and eight discontinued the study (four in each arm). The proportions of patients with CD4 counts of ≥ 200/mm(3) at week 24 were 34% and 38% in the ENF and control arms, respectively (P = 0.53). The proportions of patients with HIV-1 RNA loads of <50 copies/ml were 74% and 58% at week 24 in the ENF and control arms, respectively (P < 0.02), and the proportion reached 79% in both arms at week 48. Twenty (20%) and 12 patients (13%) in the ENF and control arms, respectively, experienced at least one AIDS event during follow-up (P = 0.17). Although inducing a more rapid virological response, addition of ENF to a standard cART does not improve the immunological outcome in naive HIV-infected patients with severe immunosuppression. PMID:23165467

  2. Intensification of antiretroviral therapy through addition of enfuvirtide in naive HIV-1-infected patients with severe immunosuppression does not improve immunological response: results of a randomized multicenter trial (ANRS 130 Apollo).

    PubMed

    Joly, Véronique; Fagard, Catherine; Grondin, Carine; Descamps, Diane; Yazdanpanah, Yazdan; Charpentier, Charlotte; Colin de Verdiere, Nathalie; Tabuteau, Sophie; Raffi, François; Cabie, André; Chene, Geneviève; Yeni, Patrick

    2013-02-01

    We studied whether addition of enfuvirtide (ENF) to a background combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) would improve the CD4 cell count response at week 24 in naive patients with advanced HIV disease. ANRS 130 Apollo is a randomized study, conducted in naive HIV-1-infected patients, either asymptomatic with CD4 counts of <100/mm(3) or stage B/C disease with CD4 counts of <200/mm(3). Patients received tenofovir-emtricitabine with lopinavir-ritonavir (LPV/r) or efavirenz and were randomized to receive ENF for 24 weeks (ENF arm) or not (control arm). The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with CD4 counts of ≥ 200/mm(3) at week 24. A total of 195 patients were randomized: 73% had stage C disease, 78% were male, the mean age was 44 years, the median CD4 count was 30/mm(3), and the median HIV-1 RNA load was 5.4 log(10) copies/ml. Eighty-one percent of patients received LPV/r. One patient was lost to follow-up, and eight discontinued the study (four in each arm). The proportions of patients with CD4 counts of ≥ 200/mm(3) at week 24 were 34% and 38% in the ENF and control arms, respectively (P = 0.53). The proportions of patients with HIV-1 RNA loads of <50 copies/ml were 74% and 58% at week 24 in the ENF and control arms, respectively (P < 0.02), and the proportion reached 79% in both arms at week 48. Twenty (20%) and 12 patients (13%) in the ENF and control arms, respectively, experienced at least one AIDS event during follow-up (P = 0.17). Although inducing a more rapid virological response, addition of ENF to a standard cART does not improve the immunological outcome in naive HIV-infected patients with severe immunosuppression.

  3. Differential sensitivity of aerobic gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms to 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) leads to dissimilar growth and TNT transformation: Results of soil and pure culture studies

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, M.E.; Manning, J.F. Jr.

    1996-07-30

    The effects of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) on indigenous soil populations and pure bacterial cultures were examined. The number of colony-forming units (CFU) appearing when TNT-contaminated soil was spread on 0.3% molasses plates decreased by 50% when the agar was amended with 67 {mu}g TNT mL{sup -1}, whereas a 99% reduction was observed when uncontaminated soil was plated. Furthermore, TNT-contaminated soil harbored a greater number of organisms able to grow on plates amended with greater than 10 {mu}g TNT mL{sup -1}. The percentage of gram-positive isolates was markedly less in TNT-contaminated soil (7%; 2 of 30) than in uncontaminated soil (61%; 20 of 33). Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas corrugate, Pseudomonasfluorescens and Alcaligenes xylosoxidans made up the majority of the gram-negative isolates from TNT-contaminated soil. Gram-positive isolates from both soils demonstrated marked growth inhibition when greater than 8-16 {mu}g TNT mL{sup -1} was present in the culture media. Most pure cultures of known aerobic gram-negative organisms readily degraded TNT and evidenced net consumption of reduced metabolites. However, pure cultures of aerobic gram-positive bacteria were sensitive to relatively low concentrations of TNT as indicated by the 50% reduction in growth and TNT transformation which was observed at approximately 10 {mu}g TNT mL{sup -1}. Most non-sporeforming gram-positive organisms incubated in molasses media amended with 80 {mu}g TNT mL{sup -1} or greater became unculturable, whereas all strains tested remained culturable when incubated in mineral media amended with 98 {mu}g TNT mL{sup -1}, indicating that TNT sensitivity is likely linked to cell growth. These results indicate that gram-negative organisms are most likely responsible for any TNT transformation in contaminated soil, due to their relative insensitivity to high TNT concentrations and their ability to transform TNT.

  4. Beam position monitor

    DOEpatents

    Alkire, Randy W.; Rosenbaum, Gerold; Evans, Gwyndaf

    2003-07-22

    An apparatus for determining the position of an x-ray beam relative to a desired beam axis. Where the apparatus is positioned along the beam path so that a thin metal foil target intersects the x-ray beam generating fluorescent radiation. A PIN diode array is positioned so that a portion of the fluorescent radiation is intercepted by the array resulting in an a series of electrical signals from the PIN diodes making up the array. The signals are then analyzed and the position of the x-ray beam is determined relative to the desired beam path.

  5. Perceived positions determine crowding.

    PubMed

    Maus, Gerrit W; Fischer, Jason; Whitney, David

    2011-01-01

    Crowding is a fundamental bottleneck in object recognition. In crowding, an object in the periphery becomes unrecognizable when surrounded by clutter or distractor objects. Crowding depends on the positions of target and distractors, both their eccentricity and their relative spacing. In all previous studies, position has been expressed in terms of retinal position. However, in a number of situations retinal and perceived positions can be dissociated. Does retinal or perceived position determine the magnitude of crowding? Here observers performed an orientation judgment on a target Gabor patch surrounded by distractors that drifted toward or away from the target, causing an illusory motion-induced position shift. Distractors in identical physical positions led to worse performance when they drifted towards the target (appearing closer) versus away from the target (appearing further). This difference in crowding corresponded to the difference in perceived positions. Further, the perceptual mislocalization was necessary for the change in crowding, and both the mislocalization and crowding scaled with drift speed. The results show that crowding occurs after perceived positions have been assigned by the visual system. Crowding does not operate in a purely retinal coordinate system; perceived positions need to be taken into account.

  6. Persistent ICT malaria P.f/P.v panmalarial and HRP2 antigen reactivity after treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria is associated with gametocytemia and results in false-positive diagnoses of Plasmodium vivax in convalescence.

    PubMed

    Tjitra, E; Suprianto, S; McBroom, J; Currie, B J; Anstey, N M

    2001-03-01

    A problem with rapid Plasmodium falciparum-specific antigen histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2) detection tests for malaria is the persistence of antigen in blood after the disappearance of asexual-stage parasitemia and clinical symptoms, resulting in false-positive (FP) test results following treatment. The ICT P.f/P.v immunochromatographic test detects both HRP2 and a panmalarial antigen (PMA) found in both P. falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. To examine posttreatment antigen persistence with this test and whether persistent sexual-stage forms (gametocytes) are a cause of FP tests after treatment, we compared serial antigen test results with microscopy results from patients symptomatic with P. falciparum malaria in Indonesia for 28 days following treatment with chloroquine (CQ; n = 66), sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP; n = 36), and artesunate plus sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (ART + SP; n = 15). Persistent FP antigenemia following SP treatment occurred in 29% (HRP2) and 42% (PMA) of the patients on day 7 and in 10% (HRP2) and 23% (PMA) on day 14. The high rates of persistent HRP2 and PMA antigenemia following CQ and SP treatment were strongly associated with the presence of gametocytemia, with the proportion with gametocytes on day 7 posttreatment being significantly greater in those with FP results than in those with true-negative PMA and HRP2 results. Gametocyte frequency on day 14 post-SP treatment was also greater in those with FP PMA results. Following SP treatment, PMA persisted longer than HRP2, giving an FP diagnosis of P. vivax in up to 16% of patients on day 14, with all FP P. vivax diagnoses having gametocytemia. In contrast, PMA was rapidly cleared following ART + SP treatment in association with rapid clearance of gametocytemia. Gametocytes appear to be an important cause of persistent posttreatment panmalarial antigenemia in areas of endemicity and may also contribute in part to persistent HRP2 antigenemia following treatment. PMID:11230422

  7. False Positive FDG PET/CT Resulting from Fibrous Dysplasia of the Bone in the Work-Up of a Patient with Bladder Cancer: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Aras, Mustafa; Ones, Tunc; Dane, Faysal; Nosheri, Omid; Inanir, Sabahat; Erdil, Tanju Yusuf; Turoglu, Halil Turgut

    2012-12-01

    Fibrous dysplasia of the bone (FDB) is a common, genetic, developmental disorder with a benign course. FDB can be seen anywhere throughout the skeleton. It is usually asymptomatic and found incidentally on imaging studies that are performed for other purposes. Although whole body 18 F-flourodeoxyglucose PET/CT (FDG PET/CT) is widely used in tumor imaging, infections and benign pathologies like FDB may cause false positive results. Herein we report the case of a 48-year-old FDB patient with transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder. Restaging FDG PET/CT showed multiple mild to moderate hypermetabolic bone lesions which were initially misinterpreted as bone metastases. In this case report, we aimed to guide physicians in evaluating bone lesions in cancer patients with FDB in the light of the literature.

  8. Clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness results from the randomised controlled Trial of Oral Mandibular Advancement Devices for Obstructive sleep apnoea-hypopnoea (TOMADO) and long-term economic analysis of oral devices and continuous positive airway pressure.

    PubMed Central

    Sharples, Linda; Glover, Matthew; Clutterbuck-James, Abigail; Bennett, Maxine; Jordan, Jake; Chadwick, Rebecca; Pittman, Marcus; East, Clare; Cameron, Malcolm; Davies, Mike; Oscroft, Nick; Smith, Ian; Morrell, Mary; Fox-Rushby, Julia; Quinnell, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Obstructive sleep apnoea-hypopnoea (OSAH) causes excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), impairs quality of life (QoL) and increases cardiovascular disease and road traffic accident risks. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment is clinically effective but undermined by intolerance, and its cost-effectiveness is borderline in milder cases. Mandibular advancement devices (MADs) are another option, but evidence is lacking regarding their clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness in milder disease. OBJECTIVES (1) Conduct a randomised controlled trial (RCT) examining the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of MADs against no treatment in mild to moderate OSAH. (2) Update systematic reviews and an existing health economic decision model with data from the Trial of Oral Mandibular Advancement Devices for Obstructive sleep apnoea-hypopnoea (TOMADO) and newly published results to better inform long-term clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of MADs and CPAP in mild to moderate OSAH. TOMADO A crossover RCT comparing clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of three MADs: self-moulded [SleepPro 1™ (SP1); Meditas Ltd, Winchester, UK]; semibespoke [SleepPro 2™ (SP2); Meditas Ltd, Winchester, UK]; and fully bespoke [bespoke MAD (bMAD); NHS Oral-Maxillofacial Laboratory, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, UK] against no treatment, in 90 adults with mild to moderate OSAH. All devices improved primary outcome [apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI)] compared with no treatment: relative risk 0.74 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.62 to 0.89] for SP1; relative risk 0.67 (95% CI 0.59 to 0.76) for SP2; and relative risk 0.64 (95% CI 0.55 to 0.76) for bMAD (p < 0.001). Differences between MADs were not significant. Sleepiness [as measured by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS)] was scored 1.51 [95% CI 0.73 to 2.29 (SP1)] to 2.37 [95% CI 1.53 to 3.22 (bMAD)] lower than no treatment (p < 0.001), with SP2 and bMAD significantly better than SP1

  9. [Food additives and healthiness].

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects.

  10. Additive effects on lubricant fuel economy

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, S.; Moore, L.D.

    1987-01-01

    Bench and engine tests were used to determine the effects of typical lubricating oil components on the fuel economy performance of energy conserving oils. The bench studies identified negative fuel economy effects of zinc dialkyldithiophosphates and positive effects of overbased sulfonates. The Sequence VI dynamometer test quantified viscometric influences on fuel economy; results indicated that SAE 5W-30 oils are not always more fuel efficient than 10W-30 analogs, and that viscosity index improver type has a large impact on fuel economy. These effects were integrated with additive effects on other formulation criteria to design an overall system.

  11. Reflection Positivity for Parafermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaffe, Arthur; Pedrocchi, Fabio L.

    2015-07-01

    We establish reflection positivity for Gibbs trace states for a class of gauge-invariant, reflection-invariant Hamiltonians describing parafermion interactions on a lattice. We relate these results to recent work in the condensed-matter physics literature.

  12. Prospective Clinical Utility Study of the Use of the 21-Gene Assay in Adjuvant Clinical Decision Making in Women With Estrogen Receptor-Positive Early Invasive Breast Cancer: Results From the SWITCH Study

    PubMed Central

    Pivot, Xavier B.; Jacot, William; Naman, Hervé L.; Spaeth, Dominique; Misset, Jean-Louis; Largillier, Rémy; Sautiere, Jean-Loup; de Roquancourt, Anne; Pomel, Christophe; Rouanet, Philippe; Rouzier, Roman; Penault-Llorca, Frederique M.

    2015-01-01

    Background. The 21-gene Oncotype DX Recurrence Score assay is a validated assay to help decide the appropriate treatment for estrogen receptor-positive (ER+), early-stage breast cancer (EBC) in the adjuvant setting. The choice of adjuvant treatments might vary considerably in different countries according to various treatment guidelines. This prospective multicenter study is the first to assess the impact of the Oncotype DX assay in the French clinical setting. Methods. A total of 100 patients with ER+, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative EBC, and node-negative (pN0) disease or micrometastases in up to 3 lymph nodes (pN1mi) were enrolled. Treatment recommendations, physicians’ confidence before and after knowing the Recurrence Score value, and physicians’ perception of the assay were recorded. Results. Of the 100 patients, 95 were evaluable (83 pN0, 12 pN1mi). Treatment recommendations changed in 37% of patients, predominantly from chemoendocrine to endocrine treatment alone. The proportion of patients recommended chemotherapy decreased from 52% pretest to 25% post-test. Of patients originally recommended chemotherapy, 61% were recommended endocrine treatment alone after receiving the Recurrence Score result. For both pN0 and pN1mi patients, post-test recommendations appeared to follow the Recurrence Score result for low and high values. Physicians’ confidence improved significantly. Conclusion. These are the first prospective data on the impact of the Oncotype DX assay on adjuvant treatment decisions in France. Using the assay was associated with a significant change in treatment decisions and an overall reduction in chemotherapy use. These data are consistent with those presented from European and non-European studies. Implications for Practice: This study shows that in estrogen receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative early breast cancer (either node-negative or with micrometastases in up to 3 lymph nodes

  13. Basophil activation test with food additives in chronic urticaria patients.

    PubMed

    Kang, Min-Gyu; Song, Woo-Jung; Park, Han-Ki; Lim, Kyung-Hwan; Kim, Su-Jung; Lee, Suh-Young; Kim, Sae-Hoon; Cho, Sang-Heon; Min, Kyung-Up; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2014-01-01

    The role of food additives in chronic urticaria (CU) is still under investigation. In this study, we aimed to explore the association between food additives and CU by using the basophil activation test (BAT). The BAT using 15 common food additives was performed for 15 patients with CU who had a history of recurrent urticarial aggravation following intake of various foods without a definite food-specific IgE. Of the 15 patients studied, two (13.3%) showed positive BAT results for one of the tested food additives. One patient responded to monosodium glutamate, showing 18.7% of CD203c-positive basophils. Another patient showed a positive BAT result to sodium benzoate. Both patients had clinical correlations with the agents, which were partly determined by elimination diets. The present study suggested that at least a small proportion of patients with CU had symptoms associated with food additives. The results may suggest the potential utility of the BAT to identity the role of food additives in CU.

  14. Basophil Activation Test with Food Additives in Chronic Urticaria Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Min-Gyu; Song, Woo-Jung; Park, Han-Ki; Lim, Kyung-Hwan; Kim, Su-Jung; Lee, Suh-Young; Kim, Sae-Hoon; Cho, Sang-Heon; Min, Kyung-Up

    2014-01-01

    The role of food additives in chronic urticaria (CU) is still under investigation. In this study, we aimed to explore the association between food additives and CU by using the basophil activation test (BAT). The BAT using 15 common food additives was performed for 15 patients with CU who had a history of recurrent urticarial aggravation following intake of various foods without a definite food-specific IgE. Of the 15 patients studied, two (13.3%) showed positive BAT results for one of the tested food additives. One patient responded to monosodium glutamate, showing 18.7% of CD203c-positive basophils. Another patient showed a positive BAT result to sodium benzoate. Both patients had clinical correlations with the agents, which were partly determined by elimination diets. The present study suggested that at least a small proportion of patients with CU had symptoms associated with food additives. The results may suggest the potential utility of the BAT to identity the role of food additives in CU. PMID:24527415

  15. Detecting contaminated birthdates using generalized additive models

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Erroneous patient birthdates are common in health databases. Detection of these errors usually involves manual verification, which can be resource intensive and impractical. By identifying a frequent manifestation of birthdate errors, this paper presents a principled and statistically driven procedure to identify erroneous patient birthdates. Results Generalized additive models (GAM) enabled explicit incorporation of known demographic trends and birth patterns. With false positive rates controlled, the method identified birthdate contamination with high accuracy. In the health data set used, of the 58 actual incorrect birthdates manually identified by the domain expert, the GAM-based method identified 51, with 8 false positives (resulting in a positive predictive value of 86.0% (51/59) and a false negative rate of 12.0% (7/58)). These results outperformed linear time-series models. Conclusions The GAM-based method is an effective approach to identify systemic birthdate errors, a common data quality issue in both clinical and administrative databases, with high accuracy. PMID:24923281

  16. Is herpes zoster an additional complication in old age alongside comorbidity and multiple medications? Results of the post hoc analysis of the 12-month longitudinal prospective observational ARIZONA cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Pickering, Gisèle; Gavazzi, Gaëtan; Gaillat, Jacques; Paccalin, Marc; Bloch, Karine; Bouhassira, Didier

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine the burden of comorbidity, polypharmacy and herpes zoster (HZ), an infectious disease, and its main complication post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN) in young (50–70 years of age: 70−) and old (≥70 years of age: 70+) patients. Design Post hoc analysis of the results of the 12-month longitudinal prospective multicentre observational ARIZONA cohort study. Settings and participants The study took place in primary care in France from 20 November 2006 to 12 September 2008. Overall, 644 general practitioners (GPs) collected data from 1358 patients aged 50 years or more with acute eruptive HZ. Outcome measures Presence of HZ-related pain or PHN (pain persisting >3 months) was documented at day 0 and at months 3, 6, and 12. To investigate HZ and PHN burden, pain, quality of life (QoL) and mood were self-assessed using validated questionnaires (Zoster Brief Pain Inventory, 12-item Short-Form health survey and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, respectively). Results As compared with younger patients, older patients more frequently presented with comorbidities, more frequently took analgesics and had poorer response on all questionnaires, indicating greater burden, at inclusion. Analgesics were more frequently prescribed to relieve acute pain or PHN in 70+ than 70− patients. Despite higher levels of medication prescription, poorer pain relief and poorer response to all questionnaires were reported in 70+ than 70− patients. Conclusions Occurrence of HZ and progression to PHN adds extra burden on top of pharmacological treatment and impaired quality of life, especially in older patients who already have health problems to cope with in everyday life. PMID:26892790

  17. Reward positivity elicited by predictive cues.

    PubMed

    Holroyd, Clay B; Krigolson, Olav E; Lee, Seung

    2011-03-30

    A recent theory holds that a component of the human event-related brain potential called the reward positivity reflects a reward prediction error signal. We investigated this idea in gambling-like task in which, on each trial, a visual stimulus predicted a subsequent rewarding or nonrewarding outcome with 80% probability. Consistent with earlier results, we found that the reward positivity was larger to unexpected than to expected outcomes. In addition, we found that the predictive cues also elicited a reward positivity, as proposed by the theory. These results indicate that the reward positivity reflects the initial assessment of whether a trial will end in success or failure and the reappraisal of that information once the outcome actually occurs.

  18. Microbial phytase addition resulted in a greater increase in phosphorus digestibility in dry-fed compared with liquid-fed non-heat-treated wheat-barley-maize diets for pigs.

    PubMed

    Blaabjerg, K; Thomassen, A-M; Poulsen, H D

    2015-02-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of microbial phytase (1250 FTU/kg diet with 88% dry matter (DM)) on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of phosphorus (P) in pigs fed a dry or soaked diet. Twenty-four pigs (65±3 kg) from six litters were used. Pigs were housed in metabolism crates and fed one of four diets for 12 days; 5 days for adaptation and 7 days for total, but separate collection of feces and urine. The basal diet was composed of wheat, barley, maize, soybean meal and no mineral phosphate. Dietary treatments were: basal dry-fed diet (BDD), BDD with microbial phytase (BDD+phy), BDD soaked for 24 h at 20°C before feeding (BDS) and BDS with microbial phytase (BDS+phy). Supplementation of microbial phytase increased ATTD of DM and crude protein (N×6.25) by 2 and 3 percentage units (P<0.0001; P<0.001), respectively. The ATTD of P was affected by the interaction between microbial phytase and soaking (P=0.02). This was due to a greater increase in ATTD of P by soaking of the diet containing solely plant phytase compared with the diet supplemented with microbial phytase: 35%, 65%, 44% and 68% for BDD, BDD+phy, BSD and BSD+phy, respectively. As such, supplementation of microbial phytase increased ATTD of P in the dry-fed diet, but not in the soaked diet. The higher ATTD of P for BDS compared with BDD resulted from the degradation of 54% of the phytate in BDS by wheat and barley phytases during soaking. On the other hand, soaking of BDS+phy did not increase ATTD of P significantly compared with BDD+phy despite that 76% of the phytate in BDS+phy was degraded before feeding. In conclusion, soaking of BDS containing solely plant phytase provided a great potential for increasing ATTD of P. However, this potential was not present when microbial phytase (1250 FTU/kg diet) was supplemented, most likely because soaking of BDS+phy for 24 h at 20°C did not result in a complete degradation of phytate before feeding.

  19. Using the rate of positive high-risk HPV test results for ASC-US together with the ASC-US/SIL ratio in evaluating the performance of cytopathologists.

    PubMed

    Cibas, Edmund S; Zou, Kelly H; Crum, Christopher P; Kuo, Frank

    2008-01-01

    We reviewed our experience with 2 indicators of cytopathologist performance: the relative frequency of the interpretations atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) and squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL) and the frequency of positive test results for high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) DNA associated with a cytologic interpretation of ASC-US. Data derived for 9 cytopathologists were reviewed. ASC-US/SIL ranged from 0.99 to 4.02 (mean, 1.77) in 2005 and from 0.82 to 3.68 (mean, 1.81) in 2006. The HR-HPV+ rate for ASC-US ranged from 31.5% to 54.6% for individual cytopathologists (mean, 46.1%) in 2005 and from 29.6% to 61.8% (mean, 45.8%) in 2006. Combined data from both years showed only a slight negative correlation for these 2 variables. Both indicators together provide useful feedback to cytopathologists. We provide a working schema for interpreting perturbations in these indicators to assist in improving the quality of gynecologic cytology interpretations. PMID:18089494

  20. Optimal Centroid Position Estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Candy, J V; McClay, W A; Awwal, A S; Ferguson, S W

    2004-07-23

    The alignment of high energy laser beams for potential fusion experiments demand high precision and accuracy by the underlying positioning algorithms. This paper discusses the feasibility of employing online optimal position estimators in the form of model-based processors to achieve the desired results. Here we discuss the modeling, development, implementation and processing of model-based processors applied to both simulated and actual beam line data.

  1. Plasma and breast-milk selenium in HIV-infected Malawian mothers are positively associated with infant selenium status but are not associated with maternal supplementation: results of the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition study123

    PubMed Central

    Flax, Valerie L; Bentley, Margaret E; Combs, Gerald F; Chasela, Charles S; Kayira, Dumbani; Tegha, Gerald; Kamwendo, Debbie; Daza, Eric J; Fokar, Ali; Kourtis, Athena P; Jamieson, Denise J; van der Horst, Charles M; Adair, Linda S

    2014-01-01

    Background: Selenium is found in soils and is essential for human antioxidant defense and immune function. In Malawi, low soil selenium and dietary intakes coupled with low plasma selenium concentrations in HIV infection could have negative consequences for the health of HIV-infected mothers and their exclusively breastfed infants. Objective: We tested the effects of lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) that contained 1.3 times the Recommended Dietary Allowance of sodium selenite and antiretroviral drugs (ARV) on maternal plasma and breast-milk selenium concentrations. Design: HIV-infected Malawian mothers in the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition study were randomly assigned at delivery to receive: LNS, ARV, LNS and ARV, or a control. In a subsample of 526 mothers and their uninfected infants, we measured plasma and breast-milk selenium concentrations at 2 or 6 (depending on the availability of infant samples) and 24 wk postpartum. Results: Overall, mean (±SD) maternal (range: 81.2 ± 20.4 to 86.2 ± 19.9 μg/L) and infant (55.6 ± 16.3 to 61.0 ± 15.4 μg/L) plasma selenium concentrations increased, whereas breast-milk selenium concentrations declined (14.3 ± 11.5 to 9.8 ± 7.3 μg/L) from 2 or 6 to 24 wk postpartum (all P < 0.001). Compared with the highest baseline selenium tertile, low and middle tertiles were positively associated with a change in maternal plasma or breast-milk selenium from 2 or 6 to 24 wk postpartum (both P < 0.001). With the use of linear regression, we showed that LNS that contained selenium and ARV were not associated with changes in maternal plasma and breast-milk selenium, but maternal selenium concentrations were positively associated with infant plasma selenium at 2 or 6 and 24 wk postpartum (P < 0.001) regardless of the study arm. Conclusions: Selenite supplementation of HIV-infected Malawian women was not associated with a change in their plasma or breast-milk selenium concentrations. Future research should examine

  2. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, James C. (Inventor); Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  3. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of the additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  4. Are positive changes in potential determinants associated with increased fruit and vegetable intakes among primary schoolchildren? Results of two intervention studies in the Netherlands: The Schoolgruiten Project and the Pro Children Study

    PubMed Central

    Tak, Nannah I; te Velde, Saskia J; Brug, Johannes

    2008-01-01

    Background To investigate if positive changes or maintenance high scores on potential behavioral determinants of fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake are associated with increased or maintenance favorable levels of F&V intake frequency in the same time lapse or later in time. Data were used from two intervention studies in the Netherlands: the Schoolgruiten Project and the Pro Children Study. Methods A design with baseline and two follow-up measurements. 344 children of the Dutch Schoolgruiten Project and 258 children of the Pro Children Study completed questionnaires, including questions on general demographics, usual F&V intake frequency, important potential determinants of F&V intake, such as taste preferences of F&V, availability of F&V, knowledge of recommended intake levels of F&V, self-efficacy for eating F&V, and parental influences for eating F&V. Three different associations between changes in determinants of F&V intake and changes in F&V intake frequency were assessed by multilevel multinomial regression analyses. Results Results of one of the investigated associations indicated that in both studies behavior change (increase in F&V intake frequency) was preceded by changes in the following variables; liking of fruit, parental facilitation of vegetables, family rules for eating vegetables and availability at home of vegetables. Furthermore, changes in F&V intake frequency preceded changes in liking of F&V later in time. Conclusion In accordance with behavior change theories, the present study provides some evidence that behavior change was preceded by changes in certain potential determinants of F&V intake. Potential determinants of F&V intake that appear to be important to induce behavior change were liking of fruit, parental facilitation of vegetables, family rules for eating vegetables and availability at home of vegetables. Some evidence was also found that behavior changes may precede changes in presumed determinants of F&V intake, such as liking of F

  5. Additional Types of Neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... A A Listen En Español Additional Types of Neuropathy Charcot's Joint Charcot's Joint, also called neuropathic arthropathy, ... can stop bone destruction and aid healing. Cranial Neuropathy Cranial neuropathy affects the 12 pairs of nerves ...

  6. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wender, Ester H.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that food additives are causally associated with hyperkinesis and learning disabilities in children is reviewed, and available data are summarized. Available from: American Medical Association 535 North Dearborn Street Chicago, Illinois 60610. (JG)

  7. Surface acoustic wave stabilized oscillators: Additional aging results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Updated aging data for SAW oscillators with aluminum transducers on ST-cut quartz, for gold transducers on ST-cut quartz, and for aluminum transducers on SiO2/LiTaO3. Devices with gold transducers age differently (both and shape of curve) from those having a aluminum transducers indicating the transducer metallization can represent an important aging mechanism.

  8. Incidence of central nervous system metastases in patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer treated with pertuzumab, trastuzumab, and docetaxel: results from the randomized phase III study CLEOPATRA

    PubMed Central

    Swain, S. M.; Baselga, J.; Miles, D.; Im, Y.-H.; Quah, C.; Lee, L. F.; Cortés, J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Results from the phase III trial CLEOPATRA in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive first-line metastatic breast cancer demonstrated significant improvements in progression-free and overall survival with pertuzumab, trastuzumab, and docetaxel over placebo, trastuzumab, and docetaxel. We carried out exploratory analyses of the incidence and time to development of central nervous system (CNS) metastases in patients from CLEOPATRA. Patients and methods Patients received pertuzumab/placebo: 840 mg in cycle 1, then 420 mg; trastuzumab: 8 mg/kg in cycle 1, then 6 mg/kg; docetaxel: initiated at 75 mg/m2. Study drugs were administered i.v. every 3 weeks. The log-rank test was used for between-arm comparisons of time to CNS metastases as first site of disease progression and overall survival in patients with CNS metastases as first site of disease progression. The Kaplan–Meier approach was used to estimate median time to CNS metastases as first site of disease progression and median overall survival. Results The incidence of CNS metastases as first site of disease progression was similar between arms; placebo arm: 51 of 406 (12.6%), pertuzumab arm: 55 of 402 (13.7%). Median time to development of CNS metastases as first site of disease progression was 11.9 months in the placebo arm and 15.0 months in the pertuzumab arm; hazard ratio (HR) = 0.58, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.39–0.85, P = 0.0049. Overall survival in patients who developed CNS metastases as first site of disease progression showed a trend in favor of pertuzumab, trastuzumab, and docetaxel; HR = 0.66, 95% CI 0.39–1.11. Median overall survival was 26.3 versus 34.4 months in the placebo and pertuzumab arms, respectively. Treatment comparison of the survival curves was not statistically significant for the log-rank test (P = 0.1139), but significant for the Wilcoxon test (P = 0.0449). Conclusions While the incidence of CNS metastases was similar between arms, our results suggest that

  9. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapid prototyping technology that allows parts to be built in a series of thin layers from plastic, ceramics, and metallics. Metallic additive manufacturing is an emerging form of rapid prototyping that allows complex structures to be built using various metallic powders. Significant time and cost savings have also been observed using the metallic additive manufacturing compared with traditional techniques. Development of the metallic additive manufacturing technology has advanced significantly over the last decade, although many of the techniques to inspect parts made from these processes have not advanced significantly or have limitations. Several external geometry inspection techniques exist such as Coordinate Measurement Machines (CMM), Laser Scanners, Structured Light Scanning Systems, or even traditional calipers and gages. All of the aforementioned techniques are limited to external geometry and contours or must use a contact probe to inspect limited internal dimensions. This presentation will document the development of a process for real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record of the additive manufacturing process using Infrared camera imaging and processing techniques.

  10. Neoadjuvant treatment with docetaxel plus lapatinib, trastuzumab, or both followed by an anthracycline-based chemotherapy in HER2-positive breast cancer: results of the randomised phase II EORTC 10054 study

    PubMed Central

    Bonnefoi, H.; Jacot, W.; Saghatchian, M.; Moldovan, C.; Venat-Bouvet, L.; Zaman, K.; Matos, E.; Petit, T.; Bodmer, A.; Quenel-Tueux, N.; Chakiba, C.; Vuylsteke, P.; Jerusalem, G.; Brain, E.; Tredan, O.; Messina, C. G. M.; Slaets, L.; Cameron, D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Neoadjuvant trials conducted using a double HER2 blockade with lapatinib and trastuzumab, combined with different paclitaxel-containing chemotherapy regimens, have shown high pathological complete response (pCR) rates, but at the cost of important toxicity. We hypothesised that this toxicity might be due to a specific interaction between paclitaxel and lapatinib. This trial assesses the toxicity and activity of the combination of docetaxel with lapatinib and trastuzumab. Patients and methods Patients with stage IIA to IIIC HER2-positive breast cancer received six cycles of chemotherapy (three cycles of docetaxel followed by three cycles of fluorouracil, epirubicin, cyclophosphamide). They were randomised 1 : 1 : 1 to receive during the first three cycles either lapatinib (1000 mg orally daily), trastuzumab (4 mg/kg loading dose followed by 2 mg/kg weekly), or trastuzumab + lapatinib at the same dose. The primary end point was pCR rate defined as ypT0/is. Secondary end points included safety and toxicity. pCR rate defined as ypT0/is ypN0 was assessed as an exploratory analysis. In June 2012, arm A was closed for futility based on the results from other studies. Results From October 2010 to January 2013, 128 patients were included in 14 centres. The percentage of the 122 assessable patients with pCR in the breast, and pCR in the breast and nodes, was numerically highest in the lapatinib + trastuzumab group (60% and 56%, respectively), intermediate in the trastuzumab group (52% and 52%), and lowest in the lapatinib group (46% and 36%). Frequency (%) of the most common grade 3–4 toxicities in the lapatinib /trastuzumab/lapatinib + trastuzumab arms were: febrile neutropenia 23/15/10, diarrhoea 9/2/18, infection (other) 9/4/8, and hepatic toxicity 0/2/8. Conclusions This study demonstrates a numerically modest pCR rate increase with double anti-HER2 blockade plus chemotherapy, but suggests that the use of docetaxel rather than paclitaxel may not reduce

  11. Positive lightning and severe weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, C.; Murphy, B.

    2003-04-01

    In recent years researchers have noticed that severe weather (tornados, hail and damaging winds) are closely related to the amount of positive lightning occurring in thunderstorms. On 4 July 1999, a severe derecho (wind storm) caused extensive damage to forested regions along the United States/Canada border, west of Lake Superior. There were 665,000 acres of forest destroyed in the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness (BWCAW) in Minnesota and Quetico Provincial Park in Canada, with approximately 12.5 million trees blown down. This storm resulted in additional severe weather before and after the occurrence of the derecho, with continuous cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning occurring for more than 34 hours during its path across North America. At the time of the derecho the percentage of positive cloud-to-ground (+CG) lightning measured by the Canadian Lightning Detection Network (CLDN) was greater than 70% for more than three hours, with peak values reaching 97% positive CG lightning. Such high ratios of +CG are rare, and may be useful indicators for short-term forecasts of severe weather.

  12. Multifunctional fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Baillargeon, D.J.; Cardis, A.B.; Heck, D.B.

    1991-03-26

    This paper discusses a composition comprising a major amount of a liquid hydrocarbyl fuel and a minor low-temperature flow properties improving amount of an additive product of the reaction of a suitable diol and product of a benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride and a long-chain hydrocarbyl aminoalcohol.

  13. Biobased lubricant additives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fully biobased lubricants are those formulated using all biobased ingredients, i.e. biobased base oils and biobased additives. Such formulations provide the maximum environmental, safety, and economic benefits expected from a biobased product. Currently, there are a number of biobased base oils that...

  14. Nucleosome positioning determinants.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Alfonso G; Anderson, John N

    2007-08-17

    A previous report demonstrated that one site in a nucleosome assembled onto a synthetic positioning sequence known as Fragment 67 is hypersensitive to permanganate. The site is required for positioning activity and is located 1.5 turns from the dyad, which is a region of high DNA curvature in the nucleosome. Here, the permanganate sensitivity of the nucleosome positioning Fragment 601 was examined in order to expand the dataset of nucleosome sequences containing KMnO(4) hypersensitive sites. The hyperreactive T residue in the six sites detected as well as the one in Fragment 67 and three in the 5 S rDNA positioning sequence were contained within a TA step. Seven of the ten sequences were of the form CTAGPuG or the related sequence TTAAPu. These motifs were also found in the binding sites of several transcriptional regulatory proteins that kink DNA. In order to assess the significance of these sites, the 10 bp positioning determinant in Fragment 67 was removed and replaced by the nine sequences from the 5 S rDNA and Fragment 601. The results demonstrated that these derivative fragments promoted high nucleosome stability and positioning as compared to a control sequence that contained an AT step in place of the TA step. The importance of the TA step was further tested by making single base-pair substitutions in Fragment 67 and the results revealed that stability and positioning activity followed the order: TA>TG>TT>/=TC approximately GG approximately GA approximately AT. Sequences flanking the TA step were also shown to be critical for nucleosome stability and positioning. Nucleosome positioning was restored to near wild-type levels with (CTG)(3), which can form slipped stranded structures and with one base bulges that kink DNA. The results of this study suggest that local DNA structures are important for positioning and that single base-pair changes at these sites could have profound effects on those genomic functions that depend on ordered nucleosomes. PMID

  15. French and English Together: An "Additive" Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiltshire, Jessica; Harbon, Lesley

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the nature of the "additive" experience of a bilingual French-English curriculum at Killarney Heights Public School in New South Wales. Predictably, the well-supported "additive" nature of the languages program model elicited positive reactions regarding educational success. The paper also explores issues for administration,…

  16. Robot Position Sensor Fault Tolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aldridge, Hal A.

    1997-01-01

    Robot systems in critical applications, such as those in space and nuclear environments, must be able to operate during component failure to complete important tasks. One failure mode that has received little attention is the failure of joint position sensors. Current fault tolerant designs require the addition of directly redundant position sensors which can affect joint design. A new method is proposed that utilizes analytical redundancy to allow for continued operation during joint position sensor failure. Joint torque sensors are used with a virtual passive torque controller to make the robot joint stable without position feedback and improve position tracking performance in the presence of unknown link dynamics and end-effector loading. Two Cartesian accelerometer based methods are proposed to determine the position of the joint. The joint specific position determination method utilizes two triaxial accelerometers attached to the link driven by the joint with the failed position sensor. The joint specific method is not computationally complex and the position error is bounded. The system wide position determination method utilizes accelerometers distributed on different robot links and the end-effector to determine the position of sets of multiple joints. The system wide method requires fewer accelerometers than the joint specific method to make all joint position sensors fault tolerant but is more computationally complex and has lower convergence properties. Experiments were conducted on a laboratory manipulator. Both position determination methods were shown to track the actual position satisfactorily. A controller using the position determination methods and the virtual passive torque controller was able to servo the joints to a desired position during position sensor failure.

  17. Non-additive and Additive Genetic Effects on Extraversion in 3314 Dutch Adolescent Twins and Their Parents

    PubMed Central

    Rebollo-Mesa, Irene; Hudziak, James J.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2012-01-01

    The influence of non-additive genetic influences on personality traits has been increasingly reported in adult populations. Less is known, however, with respect to younger samples. In this study, we examine additive and non-additive genetic contributions to the personality trait of extraversion in 1,689 Dutch twin pairs, 1,505 mothers and 1,637 fathers of the twins. The twins were on average 15.5 years (range 12–18 years). To increase statistical power to detect non-additive genetic influences, data on extraversion were also collected in parents and simultaneously analyzed. Genetic modeling procedures incorporating age as a potential modifier of heritability showed significant influences of additive (20–23%) and non-additive genetic factors (31–33%) in addition to unshared environment (46–48%) for adolescents and for their parents. The additive genetic component was slightly and positively related to age. No significant sex differences were found for either extraversion means or for the magnitude of the genetic and environmental influences. There was no evidence of non-random mating for extraversion in the parental generation. Results show that in addition to additive genetic influences, extraversion in adolescents is influenced by non-additive genetic factors. PMID:18240014

  18. Individual and interpersonal characteristics that influence male-dominated sexual decision-making and inconsistent condom use among married HIV serodiscordant couples in Gujarat, India: results from the positive Jeevan Saathi study.

    PubMed

    Patel, Shilpa N; Wingood, Gina M; Kosambiya, J K; McCarty, Frances; Windle, Michael; Yount, Kathryn; Hennink, Monique

    2014-10-01

    Approximately 40 % of new infections occur among married women. No studies have examined the factors that may contribute to HIV transmission among HIV-negative wives in HIV serodiscordant relationships in Gujarat, India. In 2010, a cross-sectional survey with 185 HIV serodiscordant, married couples (i.e. 185 HIV-positive husbands and their 185 HIV-negative wives) in Gujarat was conducted. Socio-demographic, individual, and interpersonal characteristics of HIV-positive husbands and their HIV negative wives were examined. The association of these characteristics with inconsistent condom use and male-dominated sexual decision-making, were examined using multivariate logistic regression analyses. Approximately 10 % of couples reported inconsistent condom use in the past 3 months and 20 % reported intimate partner violence (IPV). Reports of IPV were associated with a higher odds of inconsistent condom use among HIV-positive husbands (aOR = 6.281). Husbands who reported having received couples counseling had a lower odds of male-dominated decision making about condom use (aOR = 0.372). HIV-negative wives who reported sex communication had a lower odds of male-dominated decision making about condom use (aOR = 0.322) with their HIV-positive husbands. Although condom use is a traditional measure of risk behavior, other factors that facilitate risk, such as male-dominated sexual decision-making need to be considered in analyses of risk. PMID:24893852

  19. Tackifier for addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, J. M.; St.clair, T. L.

    1980-01-01

    A modification to the addition polyimide, LaRC-160, was prepared to improve tack and drape and increase prepeg out-time. The essentially solventless, high viscosity laminating resin is synthesized from low cost liquid monomers. The modified version takes advantage of a reactive, liquid plasticizer which is used in place of solvent and helps solve a major problem of maintaining good prepeg tack and drape, or the ability of the prepeg to adhere to adjacent plies and conform to a desired shape during the lay up process. This alternate solventless approach allows both longer life of the polymer prepeg and the processing of low void laminates. This approach appears to be applicable to all addition polyimide systems.

  20. Geometrical Positioning Schemes Based on Hybrid Lines of Position

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chien-Sheng; Lin, Jium-Ming; Liu, Wen-Hsiung; Chi, Ching-Lung

    To achieve more accurate measurements of the mobile station (MS) location, it is possible to integrate many kinds of measurements. In this paper we proposed several simpler methods that utilized time of arrival (TOA) at three base stations (BSs) and the angle of arrival (AOA) information at the serving BS to give location estimation of the MS in non-line-of-sight (NLOS) environments. From the viewpoint of geometric approach, for each a TOA value measured at any BS, one can generate a circle. Rather than applying the nonlinear circular lines of position (LOP), the proposed methods are much easier by using linear LOP to determine the MS. Numerical results demonstrate that the calculation time of using linear LOP is much less than employing circular LOP. Although the location precision of using linear LOP is only reduced slightly. However, the proposed efficient methods by using linear LOP can still provide precise solution of MS location and reduce the computational effort greatly. In addition, the proposed methods with less effort can mitigate the NLOS effect, simply by applying the weighted sum of the intersections between different linear LOP and the AOA line, without requiring priori knowledge of NLOS error statistics. Simulation results show that the proposed methods can always yield superior performance in comparison with Taylor series algorithm (TSA) and the hybrid lines of position algorithm (HLOP).

  1. Positioning for Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapovsky, Lucie; Hubbell, Loren Loomis

    2000-01-01

    Analyzes results of the 1999 National Association of College and Business Officers tuition discounting survey and identifies trends. Finds colleges and universities are reactively responding to market pressures and proactively trying to analyze and position themselves ahead of the competition, often regional rather than national, for the…

  2. Positive maps, positive polynomials and entanglement witnesses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skowronek, Łukasz; Życzkowski, Karol

    2009-08-01

    We link the study of positive quantum maps, block positive operators and entanglement witnesses with problems related to multivariate polynomials. For instance, we show how indecomposable block positive operators relate to biquadratic forms that are not sums of squares. Although the general problem of describing the set of positive maps remains open, in some particular cases we solve the corresponding polynomial inequalities and obtain explicit conditions for positivity.

  3. Role of additional radiotherapy in advanced stages of Hodgkin's disease.

    PubMed

    Meerwaldt, J H; Coleman, C N; Fischer, R I; Lister, T A; Diehl, V

    1992-09-01

    Although radiotherapy is widely used as additional treatment following chemotherapy, its precise role has never been clearly proven. Relapses tend to occur in previously involved bulky sites. Non-randomized studies may suggest a positive effect of the addition of radiotherapy. This effect however, might also be caused by selection. Randomized studies have not resulted in a survival advantage for the patients treated with additional radiotherapy compared to no further treatment or additional chemotherapy. The SWOG study 7808 suggest a 20% benefit in remission duration for the nodular sclerosis histology subgroup. Definitive conclusions have to wait for more mature results of randomized studies including the ongoing EORTC study and the possibility to perform an overview of all studies. PMID:1280464

  4. Role of additional radiotherapy in advanced stages of Hodgkin's disease.

    PubMed

    Meerwaldt, J H; Coleman, C N; Fischer, R I; Lister, T A; Diehl, V

    1992-09-01

    Although radiotherapy is widely used as additional treatment following chemotherapy, its precise role has never been clearly proven. Relapses tend to occur in previously involved bulky sites. Non-randomized studies may suggest a positive effect of the addition of radiotherapy. This effect however, might also be caused by selection. Randomized studies have not resulted in a survival advantage for the patients treated with additional radiotherapy compared to no further treatment or additional chemotherapy. The SWOG study 7808 suggest a 20% benefit in remission duration for the nodular sclerosis histology subgroup. Definitive conclusions have to wait for more mature results of randomized studies including the ongoing EORTC study and the possibility to perform an overview of all studies.

  5. Results of the surveillance of Tedizolid activity and resistance program: in vitro susceptibility of gram-positive pathogens collected in 2011 and 2012 from the United States and Europe.

    PubMed

    Sahm, Daniel F; Deane, Jennifer; Bien, Paul A; Locke, Jeffrey B; Zuill, Douglas E; Shaw, Karen J; Bartizal, Ken F

    2015-02-01

    The in vitro activity and spectrum of tedizolid and comparators were analyzed against 6884 Gram-positive clinical isolates collected from multiple US and European sites as part of the Surveillance of Tedizolid Activity and Resistance Program in 2011 and 2012. Organisms included 4499 Staphylococcus aureus, 537 coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), 873 enterococci, and 975 β-hemolytic streptococci. The MIC values that inhibited 90% of the isolates within each group (MIC90) were 0.25 μg/mL for Staphylococcus epidermidis and β-hemolytic streptococci and 0.5 μg/mL for S. aureus, other CoNS, and enterococci. Of 16 isolates with elevated tedizolid or linezolid MIC values (intermediate or resistant isolates), 10 had mutations in the genes encoding 23S rRNA (primarily G2576T), 5 had mutations in the genes encoding ribosomal proteins L3 or L4, and 5 carried the cfr multidrug resistance gene. Overall, tedizolid showed excellent activity against Gram-positive bacteria and was at least 4-fold more potent than linezolid against wild-type and linezolid-resistant isolates. Given the low overall frequency of isolates that would be resistant to tedizolid at the proposed break point of 0.5 μg/mL (0.19%) and potent activity against contemporary US and European isolates, tedizolid has the potential to serve as a valuable therapeutic option in the treatment of infections caused by Gram-positive pathogens.

  6. Taking a Position

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    "TerrAvoid" and "Position Integrity" combine Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) data with high-resolution maps of the Earth's topography. Dubbs & Severino, Inc., based in Irvine, California, has developed software that allows the system to be run on a battery-powered laptop in the cockpit. The packages, designed primarily for military sponsors and now positioned to hit the consumer market in coming months, came about as the result of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Technology Affiliates Program. Intended to give American industry assistance from NASA experts and to facilitate business use of intellectual property developed for the space program, the Technology Affiliates Program introduced the start-up company of Dubbs & Severino to JPL's Dr. Nevin Bryant four years ago. GeoTIFF is now in the public domain, and its use for commercial product development has evolved into an industry standard over the last year.

  7. Possibilities of Application of Carbon-Fluorine Containing Additions in Submerged-Arc Welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozyrev, N. A.; Kryukov, N. E.; Kryukov, R. E.; Igushev, V. F.; Kovalskii, I. I.

    2015-09-01

    The paper provides results of comparative analysis of the effect of carbonaceous components introduced into welding fluxes on molten metal - slag interaction. A positive influence of carbonaceous additives on gas content and mechanical properties of welds is demonstrated. Carbon and fluorine containing additives are emphasized to be promising for automatic submerged arc welding.

  8. Performance Boosting Additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Mainstream Engineering Corporation was awarded Phase I and Phase II contracts from Goddard Space Flight Center's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program in early 1990. With support from the SBIR program, Mainstream Engineering Corporation has developed a unique low cost additive, QwikBoost (TM), that increases the performance of air conditioners, heat pumps, refrigerators, and freezers. Because of the energy and environmental benefits of QwikBoost, Mainstream received the Tibbetts Award at a White House Ceremony on October 16, 1997. QwikBoost was introduced at the 1998 International Air Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Exposition. QwikBoost is packaged in a handy 3-ounce can (pressurized with R-134a) and will be available for automotive air conditioning systems in summer 1998.

  9. Sewage sludge additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

  10. Perspectives on Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourell, David L.

    2016-07-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has skyrocketed in visibility commercially and in the public sector. This article describes the development of this field from early layered manufacturing approaches of photosculpture, topography, and material deposition. Certain precursors to modern AM processes are also briefly described. The growth of the field over the last 30 years is presented. Included is the standard delineation of AM technologies into seven broad categories. The economics of AM part generation is considered, and the impacts of the economics on application sectors are described. On the basis of current trends, the future outlook will include a convergence of AM fabricators, mass-produced AM fabricators, enabling of topology optimization designs, and specialization in the AM legal arena. Long-term developments with huge impact are organ printing and volume-based printing.

  11. Sarks as additional fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Jyoti; Frampton, Paul H.; Jack Ng, Y.; Nishino, Hitoshi; Yasuda, Osamu

    1991-03-01

    An extension of the standard model is proposed. The gauge group is SU(2) X ⊗ SU(3) C ⊗ SU(2) S ⊗ U(1) Q, where all gauge symmetries are unbroken. The colour and electric charge are combined with SU(2) S which becomes strongly coupled at approximately 500 GeV and binds preons to form fermionic and vector bound states. The usual quarks and leptons are singlets under SU(2) X but additional fermions, called sarks. transform under it and the electroweak group. The present model explains why no more than three light quark-lepton families can exist. Neutral sark baryons, called narks, are candidates for the cosmological dark matter having the characteristics designed for WIMPS. Further phenomenological implications of sarks are analyzed i including electron-positron annihilation. Z 0 decay, flavor-changing neutral currents. baryon-number non-conservation, sarkonium and the neutron electric dipole moment.

  12. The Kepler False Positive Table

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryson, Steve; Kepler False Positive Working Group

    2015-01-01

    The Kepler Space Telescope has detected thousands of candidate exoplanets by observing transit signals in a sample of more than 190,000 stars. Many of these transit signals are false positives, defined as a transit-like signal that is not due to a planet orbiting the target star (or a bound companion if the target is a multiple-star system). Astrophysical causes of false positives include background eclipsing binaries, planetary transits not associated with the target star, and non-planetary eclipses of the target star by stellar companions. The fraction of Kepler planet candidates that are false positives ranges from about 10% at high Galactic latitudes to 40% at low Galactic latitudes. Creating a high-reliability planet candidate catalog for statistical studies such as occurrence rate calculations requires removing clearly identified false positives.The Kepler Object of Interest (KOI) catalog at the NExScI NASA Exoplanet Archive flags false positives, and will soon provide a high-level classification of false positives, but lacks detailed description of why a KOI was determined to be a false positive. The Kepler False Positive Working Group (FPWG) examines each false positive in detail to certify that it is correctly identified as a false positive, and determines the primary reason(s) a KOI is classified as a false positive. The work of the FPWG will be published as the Kepler False Positive Table, hosted at the NExScI NASA Exoplanet Archive.The Kepler False Positive Table provides detailed information on the evidence for background binaries, transits caused by stellar companions, and false alarms. In addition to providing insight into the Kepler false positive population, the false positive table gives information about the background binary population and other areas of astrophysical interest. Because a planet around a star not associated with the target star is considered a false positive, the false positive table likely contains further planet candidates

  13. Clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness results from the randomised controlled Trial of Oral Mandibular Advancement Devices for Obstructive sleep apnoea-hypopnoea (TOMADO) and long-term economic analysis of oral devices and continuous positive airway pressure.

    PubMed Central

    Sharples, Linda; Glover, Matthew; Clutterbuck-James, Abigail; Bennett, Maxine; Jordan, Jake; Chadwick, Rebecca; Pittman, Marcus; East, Clare; Cameron, Malcolm; Davies, Mike; Oscroft, Nick; Smith, Ian; Morrell, Mary; Fox-Rushby, Julia; Quinnell, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Obstructive sleep apnoea-hypopnoea (OSAH) causes excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), impairs quality of life (QoL) and increases cardiovascular disease and road traffic accident risks. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment is clinically effective but undermined by intolerance, and its cost-effectiveness is borderline in milder cases. Mandibular advancement devices (MADs) are another option, but evidence is lacking regarding their clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness in milder disease. OBJECTIVES (1) Conduct a randomised controlled trial (RCT) examining the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of MADs against no treatment in mild to moderate OSAH. (2) Update systematic reviews and an existing health economic decision model with data from the Trial of Oral Mandibular Advancement Devices for Obstructive sleep apnoea-hypopnoea (TOMADO) and newly published results to better inform long-term clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of MADs and CPAP in mild to moderate OSAH. TOMADO A crossover RCT comparing clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of three MADs: self-moulded [SleepPro 1™ (SP1); Meditas Ltd, Winchester, UK]; semibespoke [SleepPro 2™ (SP2); Meditas Ltd, Winchester, UK]; and fully bespoke [bespoke MAD (bMAD); NHS Oral-Maxillofacial Laboratory, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, UK] against no treatment, in 90 adults with mild to moderate OSAH. All devices improved primary outcome [apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI)] compared with no treatment: relative risk 0.74 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.62 to 0.89] for SP1; relative risk 0.67 (95% CI 0.59 to 0.76) for SP2; and relative risk 0.64 (95% CI 0.55 to 0.76) for bMAD (p < 0.001). Differences between MADs were not significant. Sleepiness [as measured by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS)] was scored 1.51 [95% CI 0.73 to 2.29 (SP1)] to 2.37 [95% CI 1.53 to 3.22 (bMAD)] lower than no treatment (p < 0.001), with SP2 and bMAD significantly better than SP1

  14. Additive lattice kirigami

    PubMed Central

    Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M.; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D.

    2016-01-01

    Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes. PMID:27679822

  15. Additive lattice kirigami

    PubMed Central

    Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M.; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D.

    2016-01-01

    Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes.

  16. Parent Personality and Positive Parenting as Predictors of Positive Adolescent Personality Development Over Time

    PubMed Central

    Schofield, Thomas J.; Conger, Rand D.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Jochem, Rachel; Widaman, Keith F.; Conger, Katherine J.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the degree to which parent positive personality characteristics in terms of conscientiousness, agreeableness and emotional stability predict similar adolescent personality traits over time as well as the role played by positive parenting in this process. Mothers and fathers of 451 White adolescents (52% female, mean age = 13.59 years) were assessed on three occasions, with 2-year lags between each assessment. Parent personality and observed positive parenting both predicted 12th graders personality. Additionally, we found evidence for an indirect link between parent personality and later adolescent personality through positive parenting. The results suggest that parents may play a significant role in the development of adolescent personality traits that promote competence and personal well-being across the life course. PMID:22822287

  17. Detecting Positioning Errors and Estimating Correct Positions by Moving Window

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ha Yoon; Lee, Jun Seok

    2015-01-01

    In recent times, improvements in smart mobile devices have led to new functionalities related to their embedded positioning abilities. Many related applications that use positioning data have been introduced and are widely being used. However, the positioning data acquired by such devices are prone to erroneous values caused by environmental factors. In this research, a detection algorithm is implemented to detect erroneous data over a continuous positioning data set with several options. Our algorithm is based on a moving window for speed values derived by consecutive positioning data. Both the moving average of the speed and standard deviation in a moving window compose a moving significant interval at a given time, which is utilized to detect erroneous positioning data along with other parameters by checking the newly obtained speed value. In order to fulfill the designated operation, we need to examine the physical parameters and also determine the parameters for the moving windows. Along with the detection of erroneous speed data, estimations of correct positioning are presented. The proposed algorithm first estimates the speed, and then the correct positions. In addition, it removes the effect of errors on the moving window statistics in order to maintain accuracy. Experimental verifications based on our algorithm are presented in various ways. We hope that our approach can help other researchers with regard to positioning applications and human mobility research. PMID:26624282

  18. Detecting Positioning Errors and Estimating Correct Positions by Moving Window.

    PubMed

    Song, Ha Yoon; Lee, Jun Seok

    2015-01-01

    In recent times, improvements in smart mobile devices have led to new functionalities related to their embedded positioning abilities. Many related applications that use positioning data have been introduced and are widely being used. However, the positioning data acquired by such devices are prone to erroneous values caused by environmental factors. In this research, a detection algorithm is implemented to detect erroneous data over a continuous positioning data set with several options. Our algorithm is based on a moving window for speed values derived by consecutive positioning data. Both the moving average of the speed and standard deviation in a moving window compose a moving significant interval at a given time, which is utilized to detect erroneous positioning data along with other parameters by checking the newly obtained speed value. In order to fulfill the designated operation, we need to examine the physical parameters and also determine the parameters for the moving windows. Along with the detection of erroneous speed data, estimations of correct positioning are presented. The proposed algorithm first estimates the speed, and then the correct positions. In addition, it removes the effect of errors on the moving window statistics in order to maintain accuracy. Experimental verifications based on our algorithm are presented in various ways. We hope that our approach can help other researchers with regard to positioning applications and human mobility research.

  19. Detecting Positioning Errors and Estimating Correct Positions by Moving Window.

    PubMed

    Song, Ha Yoon; Lee, Jun Seok

    2015-01-01

    In recent times, improvements in smart mobile devices have led to new functionalities related to their embedded positioning abilities. Many related applications that use positioning data have been introduced and are widely being used. However, the positioning data acquired by such devices are prone to erroneous values caused by environmental factors. In this research, a detection algorithm is implemented to detect erroneous data over a continuous positioning data set with several options. Our algorithm is based on a moving window for speed values derived by consecutive positioning data. Both the moving average of the speed and standard deviation in a moving window compose a moving significant interval at a given time, which is utilized to detect erroneous positioning data along with other parameters by checking the newly obtained speed value. In order to fulfill the designated operation, we need to examine the physical parameters and also determine the parameters for the moving windows. Along with the detection of erroneous speed data, estimations of correct positioning are presented. The proposed algorithm first estimates the speed, and then the correct positions. In addition, it removes the effect of errors on the moving window statistics in order to maintain accuracy. Experimental verifications based on our algorithm are presented in various ways. We hope that our approach can help other researchers with regard to positioning applications and human mobility research. PMID:26624282

  20. Additional Drive Circuitry for Piezoelectric Screw Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smythe, Robert; Palmer, Dean; Gursel, Yekta; Reder, Leonard; Savedra, Raymond

    2004-01-01

    Modules of additional drive circuitry have been developed to enhance the functionality of a family of commercially available positioning motors (Picomotor . or equivalent) that provide linear motion controllable, in principle, to within increments .30 nm. A motor of this type includes a piezoelectric actuator that turns a screw. Unlike traditional piezoelectrically actuated mechanisms, a motor of this type does not rely on the piezoelectric transducer to hold position: the screw does not turn except when the drive signal is applied to the actuator.

  1. A POSITIONAL DATA SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Forster, G.A.

    1963-09-24

    between master and slave synchros is described. A threephase a-c power source is connected to the stators of the synchros and an error detector is connected to the rotors of the synchros to measure the phasor difference therebetween. A phase shift network shifts the phase of one of the rotors 90 degrees and a demodulator responsive thereto causes the phasor difference signal of the rotors to shift phase 180 degrees whenever the 90 degree phase shifted signal goes negative. The phase shifted difference signal has a waveform which, with the addition of small values of resistance and capacitance, gives a substantially pure d-c output whose amplitude and polarity is proportional to the magnitude and direction of the difference in the angular positions of the synchro's rotors. (AEC)

  2. A New Indoor Positioning System Architecture Using GPS Signals.

    PubMed

    Xu, Rui; Chen, Wu; Xu, Ying; Ji, Shengyue

    2015-04-29

    The pseudolite system is a good alternative for indoor positioning systems due to its large coverage area and accurate positioning solution. However, for common Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers, the pseudolite system requires some modifications of the user terminals. To solve the problem, this paper proposes a new pseudolite-based indoor positioning system architecture. The main idea is to receive real-world GPS signals, repeat each satellite signal and transmit those using indoor transmitting antennas. The transmitted GPS-like signal can be processed (signal acquisition and tracking, navigation data decoding) by the general receiver and thus no hardware-level modification on the receiver is required. In addition, all Tx can be synchronized with each other since one single clock is used in Rx/Tx. The proposed system is simulated using a software GPS receiver. The simulation results show the indoor positioning system is able to provide high accurate horizontal positioning in both static and dynamic situations.

  3. A New Indoor Positioning System Architecture Using GPS Signals

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Rui; Chen, Wu; Xu, Ying; Ji, Shengyue

    2015-01-01

    The pseudolite system is a good alternative for indoor positioning systems due to its large coverage area and accurate positioning solution. However, for common Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers, the pseudolite system requires some modifications of the user terminals. To solve the problem, this paper proposes a new pseudolite-based indoor positioning system architecture. The main idea is to receive real-world GPS signals, repeat each satellite signal and transmit those using indoor transmitting antennas. The transmitted GPS-like signal can be processed (signal acquisition and tracking, navigation data decoding) by the general receiver and thus no hardware-level modification on the receiver is required. In addition, all Tx can be synchronized with each other since one single clock is used in Rx/Tx. The proposed system is simulated using a software GPS receiver. The simulation results show the indoor positioning system is able to provide high accurate horizontal positioning in both static and dynamic situations. PMID:25938199

  4. Positive isolation disconnect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosener, A. A.; Jonkoniec, T. G.

    1975-01-01

    A positive isolation disconnect was developed for component replacement in serviced liquid and gaseous spacecraft systems. Initially a survey of feasible concepts was made to determine the optimum method for fluid isolation, sealing techniques, coupling concepts, and foolproofing techniques. The top concepts were then further evaluated, including the fabrication of a semifunctional model. After all tradeoff analyses were made, a final configuration was designed and fabricated for development testing. This resulted in a 6.35 mm (1/4 inch) line and 12.7 mm (1/2 inch) line positive isolation disconnect, each unit consisting of two coupled disconnect halves, each capable of fluid isolation with essentially zero clearance between them for zero leakage upon disconnect half disengagement. An interlocking foolproofing technique was incorporated that prevents uncoupling of disconnect halves prior to fluid isolation.

  5. Imatinib use immediately before stem cell transplantation in children with Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia: Results from Japanese Pediatric Leukemia/Lymphoma Study Group (JPLSG) Study Ph(+) ALL04.

    PubMed

    Manabe, Atsushi; Kawasaki, Hirohide; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Kato, Itaru; Kodama, Yuichi; Sato, Atsushi; Matsumoto, Kimikazu; Kato, Keisuke; Yabe, Hiromasa; Kudo, Kazuko; Kato, Motohiro; Saito, Tomohiro; Saito, Akiko M; Tsurusawa, Masahito; Horibe, Keizo

    2015-05-01

    Incorporation of imatinib into chemotherapeutic regimens has improved the prognosis of children with Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph(+) ALL). We investigated a role of imatinib immediately before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Children with Ph(+) ALL were enrolled on JPLSG Ph(+) ALL 04 Study within 1 week of initiation of treatment for ALL. Treatment regimen consisted of Induction phase, Consolidation phase, Reinduction phase, 2 weeks of imatinib monotherapy phase, and HSCT phase (Etoposide+CY+TBI conditioning). Minimal residual disease (MRD), the amount of BCR-ABL transcripts, was measured with the real-time PCR method. The study was registered in UMIN-CTR: UMIN ID C000000290. Forty-two patients were registered and 36 patients (86%) achieved complete remission (CR). Eight of 17 patients (47%) who had detectable MRD at the beginning of imatinib monotherapy phase showed disappearance or decrease in MRD after imatinib treatment. Consequently, 26 patients received HSCT in the first CR and all the patients had engraftment and no patients died because of complications of HSCT. The 4-year event-free survival rates and overall survival rates among all the 42 patients were 54.1 ± 7.8% and 78.1 ± 6.5%, respectively. Four of six patients who did achieve CR and three of six who relapsed before HSCT were salvaged with imatinib-containing chemotherapy and subsequently treated with HSCT. The survival rate was excellent in this study although all patients received HSCT. A longer use of imatinib concurrently with chemotherapy should eliminate HSCT in a subset of patients with a rapid clearance of the disease. PMID:25641907

  6. Prospective long-term minimal residual disease monitoring using RQ-PCR in RUNX1-RUNX1T1-positive acute myeloid leukemia: results of the French CBF-2006 trial.

    PubMed

    Willekens, Christophe; Blanchet, Odile; Renneville, Aline; Cornillet-Lefebvre, Pascale; Pautas, Cécile; Guieze, Romain; Ifrah, Norbert; Dombret, Hervé; Jourdan, Eric; Preudhomme, Claude; Boissel, Nicolas

    2016-03-01

    In t(8;21)(q22;q22) acute myeloid leukemia, the prognostic value of early minimal residual disease assessed with real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction is the most important prognostic factor, but how long-term minimal residual disease monitoring may contribute to drive individual patient decisions remains poorly investigated. In the multicenter CBF-2006 study, a prospective monitoring of peripheral blood and bone marrow samples was performed every 3 months and every year, respectively, for 2 years following intensive chemotherapy in 94 patients in first complete remission. A complete molecular remission was defined as a (RUNX1-RUNX1T1/ABL1)×100 ≤ 0.001%. After the completion of consolidation therapy, a bone marrow complete molecular remission was observed in 30% of the patients, but was not predictive of subsequent relapse. Indeed, 8 patients (9%) presented a positive bone marrow minimal residual disease for up to 2 years of follow-up while still remaining in complete remission. Conversely, a peripheral blood complete molecular remission was statistically associated with a lower risk of relapse whatever the time-point considered after the completion of consolidation therapy. During the 2-year follow-up, the persistence of peripheral blood complete molecular remission was associated with a lower risk of relapse (4-year cumulative incidence, 8.2%), while molecular relapse confirmed on a subsequent peripheral blood sample predicted hematological relapse (4-year cumulative incidence, 86.9%) within a median time interval of 3.9 months. In t(8;21)(q22;q22) acute myeloid leukemia, minimal residual disease monitoring on peripheral blood every 3 months allows for the prediction of hematological relapse, and to identify patients who could potentially benefit from intervention therapy. (ClinicalTrials.gov ID #NCT00428558).

  7. Positional Plagiocephaly (Flattened Head)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Simple practices like changing a baby's sleep position, holding your baby, and providing lots of "tummy time" ... devices to keep your baby in one position. Alternate positions in the crib. Consider how you lay ...

  8. Benign positional vertigo - aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    Vertigo - positional - aftercare; Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo - aftercare; BPPV - aftercare; Dizziness - positional vertigo ... Your health care provider may have treated your vertigo with the Epley maneuver . These are head movements ...

  9. Positive Education: Positive Psychology and Classroom Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seligman, Martin E. P.; Ernst, Randal M.; Gillham, Jane; Reivich, Karen; Linkins, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Positive education is defined as education for both traditional skills and for happiness. The high prevalence worldwide of depression among young people, the small rise in life satisfaction, and the synergy between learning and positive emotion all argue that the skills for happiness should be taught in school. There is substantial evidence from…

  10. Want Positive Behavior? Use Positive Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Chip; Freeman-Loftis, Babs

    2012-01-01

    Positive adult language is the professional use of words and tone of voice to enable students to learn in an engaged, active way. This includes learning social skills. To guide children toward choosing and maintaining positive behaviors, adults need to carefully choose the words and tone of voice used when speaking to them. Learning to use…

  11. Covert positive reinforcement and pain modification: a test of efficacy and theory.

    PubMed

    Turkat, I D; Adams, H E

    1982-01-01

    The effects of covert positive reinforcement, covert positive reinforcement plus positive expectancy, covert positive reinforcement plus negative expectancy, covert positive reinforcement of pain, attention placebo and no treatment on control of headache and finger pressure pain were examined. Self-report, behavioural and physiological measures were taken. Groups did not differ on any measures except for validity checks of the expectancy manipulation. The results provide little support for the efficacy of covert positive reinforcement in modifying pain. Additionally, the data failed to substantiate the theoretical basis of the procedure.

  12. Impacts of a book reading club intervention on enhancing parents' positive thinking.

    PubMed

    Hong, Zuway-R; Lin, Huann-shyang

    2012-03-01

    This study investigated the effects of participating in a book reading club on improving parents' positive interactions with children and positive thinking. A total of 85 parent volunteers were randomized into the experimental or comparison group. The Parent Questionnaire was used to measure positive thinking and interaction with children. Additionally interview results were used to triangulate and elucidate the findings. The findings revealed a positive impact on parents' positive thinking and interaction with children and that these were significant predictors of parents' positive thinking. Implications and recommendations are presented.

  13. Centenarians' "holy" memory: is being positive enough?

    PubMed

    Fairfield, Beth; Mammarella, Nicola; Di Domenico, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    The authors compared 18 centenarians' (M age = 100.1 years, SD = 1.8 years) recognition memory for emotional (positive, negative, and religious) pictures with 18 older adults (M age = 75.2 years, SD = 6.8 years). Participants observed a series of images that varied in emotional valence and meaning and were later asked to discriminate between old and new images in a series of pictures that included studied images as well as new images. Centenarians showed decreased recognition memory for positive and negative images items compared with older adults, F(1, 34) = 9.82, p < .01. In addition, a significant age by valence interaction was observed highlighting how centenarians remembered religious pictures better while older adults favoured positive information when only positive pictures were taken into consideration. Results are interpreted in terms of possible age-linked changes in meaningful goals that lead centenarians to focus on meaningful religious self-relevant information rather than simply on positive information.

  14. Additive manufacturing of hybrid circuits

    DOE PAGES

    Bell, Nelson S.; Sarobol, Pylin; Cook, Adam; Clem, Paul G.; Keicher, David M.; Hirschfeld, Deidre; Hall, Aaron Christopher

    2016-03-26

    There is a rising interest in developing functional electronics using additively manufactured components. Considerations in materials selection and pathways to forming hybrid circuits and devices must demonstrate useful electronic function; must enable integration; and must complement the complex shape, low cost, high volume, and high functionality of structural but generally electronically passive additively manufactured components. This article reviews several emerging technologies being used in industry and research/development to provide integration advantages of fabricating multilayer hybrid circuits or devices. First, we review a maskless, noncontact, direct write (DW) technology that excels in the deposition of metallic colloid inks for electrical interconnects.more » Second, we review a complementary technology, aerosol deposition (AD), which excels in the deposition of metallic and ceramic powder as consolidated, thick conformal coatings and is additionally patternable through masking. As a result, we show examples of hybrid circuits/devices integrated beyond 2-D planes, using combinations of DW or AD processes and conventional, established processes.« less

  15. Acoustic positioning and orientation prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barmatz, Martin B.; Aveni, Glenn; Putterman, Seth; Rudnick, Joseph

    1990-10-01

    A method is described for use with an acoustic positioner, which enables a determination of the equilibrium position and orientation which an object assumes in a zero gravity environment, as well as restoring forces and torques of an object in an acoustic standing wave field. An acoustic standing wave field is established in the chamber, and the object is held at several different positions near the expected equilibrium position. While the object is held at each position, the center resonant frequency of the chamber is determined, by noting which frequency results in the greatest pressure of the acoustic field. The object position which results in the lowest center resonant frequency is the equilibrium position. The orientation of a nonspherical object is similarly determined, by holding the object in a plurality of different orientations at its equilibrium position, and noting the center resonant frequency for each orientation. The orientation which results in the lowest center resonant frequency is the equilibrium orientation. Where the acoustic frequency is constant, but the chamber length is variable, the equilibrium position or orientation is that which results in the greatest chamber length at the center resonant frequency.

  16. Acoustic positioning and orientation prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmatz, Martin B. (Inventor); Aveni, Glenn (Inventor); Putterman, Seth (Inventor); Rudnick, Joseph (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A method is described for use with an acoustic positioner, which enables a determination of the equilibrium position and orientation which an object assumes in a zero gravity environment, as well as restoring forces and torques of an object in an acoustic standing wave field. An acoustic standing wave field is established in the chamber, and the object is held at several different positions near the expected equilibrium position. While the object is held at each position, the center resonant frequency of the chamber is determined, by noting which frequency results in the greatest pressure of the acoustic field. The object position which results in the lowest center resonant frequency is the equilibrium position. The orientation of a nonspherical object is similarly determined, by holding the object in a plurality of different orientations at its equilibrium position, and noting the center resonant frequency for each orientation. The orientation which results in the lowest center resonant frequency is the equilibrium orientation. Where the acoustic frequency is constant, but the chamber length is variable, the equilibrium position or orientation is that which results in the greatest chamber length at the center resonant frequency.

  17. Inductive Non-Contact Position Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngquist, Robert; Garcia, Alyssa; Simmons, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Optical hardware has been developed to measure the depth of defects in the Space Shuttle Orbiter's windows. In this hardware, a mirror is translated such that its position corresponds to the defect's depth, so the depth measurement problem is transferred to a mirror-position measurement problem. This is preferable because the mirror is internal to the optical system and thus accessible. Based on requirements supplied by the window inspectors, the depth of the defects needs to be measured over a range of 200 microns with a resolution of about 100 nm and an accuracy of about 400 nm. These same requirements then apply to measuring the position of the mirror, and in addition, since this is a scanning system, a response time of about 10 ms is needed. A market search was conducted and no sensor that met these requirements that also fit into the available housing volume (less than one cubic inch) was found, so a novel sensor configuration was constructed to meet the requirements. This new sensor generates a nearly linearly varying magnetic field over a small region of space, which can easily be sampled, resulting in a voltage proportional to position. Experiments were done with a range of inductor values, drive voltages, drive frequencies, and inductor shapes. A rough mathematical model was developed for the device that, in most aspects, describes how it operates and what electrical parameters should be chosen for best performance. The final configuration met all the requirements, yielding a small rugged sensor that was easy to use and had nanometer resolution over more than the 200-micron range required. The inductive position sensor is a compact device (potentially as small as 2 cubic centimeters), which offers nanometer-position resolution over a demonstrated range of nearly 1 mm. One of its advantages is the simplicity of its electrical design. Also, the sensor resolution is nearly uniform across its operational range, which is in contrast to eddy current and

  18. [Positive Activities Campaign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Center for Substance Abuse Prevention.

    This packet contains four pamphlets that are part of a campaign to encourage adults to provide and promote positive activities for youth and to serve as role models for young people. "Positive Activities: A Campaign for Youth" includes information on what positive activities are, how to get involved in helping to provide positive activities for…

  19. On Positive Functions with Positive Derivatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobbs, David E.

    2002-01-01

    Three proofs are given for the fact that the derivative of an everywhere-positive non-constant real polynomial function must change sign. This self-contained note could find classroom use in courses on calculus or abstract algebra.

  20. Grasping Objects with Environmentally Induced Position Uncertainty

    PubMed Central

    Christopoulos, Vassilios N.; Schrater, Paul R.

    2009-01-01

    Due to noisy motor commands and imprecise and ambiguous sensory information, there is often substantial uncertainty about the relative location between our body and objects in the environment. Little is known about how well people manage and compensate for this uncertainty in purposive movement tasks like grasping. Grasping objects requires reach trajectories to generate object-fingers contacts that permit stable lifting. For objects with position uncertainty, some trajectories are more efficient than others in terms of the probability of producing stable grasps. We hypothesize that people attempt to generate efficient grasp trajectories that produce stable grasps at first contact without requiring post-contact adjustments. We tested this hypothesis by comparing human uncertainty compensation in grasping objects against optimal predictions. Participants grasped and lifted a cylindrical object with position uncertainty, introduced by moving the cylinder with a robotic arm over a sequence of 5 positions sampled from a strongly oriented 2D Gaussian distribution. Preceding each reach, vision of the object was removed for the remainder of the trial and the cylinder was moved one additional time. In accord with optimal predictions, we found that people compensate by aligning the approach direction with covariance angle to maintain grasp efficiency. This compensation results in higher probability to achieve stable grasps at first contact than non-compensation strategies in grasping objects with directional position uncertainty, and the results provide the first demonstration that humans compensate for uncertainty in a complex purposive task. PMID:19834543

  1. Hyperbolic tangential function-based progressive addition lens design.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Gufeng; Cui, Xudong

    2015-12-10

    The diopter distribution is key to the successful design of a progressive addition lens. A hyperbolic tangential function is then introduced to describe well the desired diopter distribution on the lens. Simulation and fabrication show that the astigmia on the whole surface is very close to the addition, exhibiting superior performance than that of currently used high-order polynomials and cosine functions. Our investigations found that once the diopter distribution design is reasonable, both the direct and indirect methods of constructing a progressive addition lens can give consistent results. With this function we are able to effectively control the design of critical areas, the position, sizes of far-view and near-view zones, as well as the channel of the lens. This study would provide an efficient way to customize different progressive lenses not only for presbyopia, but also for anti-fatigue, office progressive usages, etc. PMID:26836863

  2. Sample positioning in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridharan, Govind (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Repulsion forces arising from laser beams are provided to produce mild positioning forces on a sample in microgravity vacuum environments. The system of the preferred embodiment positions samples using a plurality of pulsed lasers providing opposing repulsion forces. The lasers are positioned around the periphery of a confinement area and expanded to create a confinement zone. The grouped laser configuration, in coordination with position sensing devices, creates a feedback servo whereby stable position control of a sample within microgravity environment can be achieved.

  3. Sample positioning in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridharan, Govind (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Repulsion forces arising from laser beams are provided to produce mild positioning forces on a sample in microgravity vacuum environments. The system of the preferred embodiment positions samples using a plurality of pulsed lasers providing opposing repulsion forces. The lasers are positioned around the periphery of a confinement area and expanded to create a confinement zone. The grouped laser configuration, in coordination with position sensing devices, creates a feedback servo whereby stable position control of a sample within microgravity environment can be achieved.

  4. An Additive Manufacturing Test Artifact.

    PubMed

    Moylan, Shawn; Slotwinski, John; Cooke, April; Jurrens, Kevin; Donmez, M Alkan

    2014-01-01

    A test artifact, intended for standardization, is proposed for the purpose of evaluating the performance of additive manufacturing (AM) systems. A thorough analysis of previously proposed AM test artifacts as well as experience with machining test artifacts have inspired the design of the proposed test artifact. This new artifact is designed to provide a characterization of the capabilities and limitations of an AM system, as well as to allow system improvement by linking specific errors measured in the test artifact to specific sources in the AM system. The proposed test artifact has been built in multiple materials using multiple AM technologies. The results of several of the builds are discussed, demonstrating how the measurement results can be used to characterize and improve a specific AM system. PMID:26601039

  5. An Additive Manufacturing Test Artifact

    PubMed Central

    Moylan, Shawn; Slotwinski, John; Cooke, April; Jurrens, Kevin; Donmez, M Alkan

    2014-01-01

    A test artifact, intended for standardization, is proposed for the purpose of evaluating the performance of additive manufacturing (AM) systems. A thorough analysis of previously proposed AM test artifacts as well as experience with machining test artifacts have inspired the design of the proposed test artifact. This new artifact is designed to provide a characterization of the capabilities and limitations of an AM system, as well as to allow system improvement by linking specific errors measured in the test artifact to specific sources in the AM system. The proposed test artifact has been built in multiple materials using multiple AM technologies. The results of several of the builds are discussed, demonstrating how the measurement results can be used to characterize and improve a specific AM system. PMID:26601039

  6. An Additive Manufacturing Test Artifact.

    PubMed

    Moylan, Shawn; Slotwinski, John; Cooke, April; Jurrens, Kevin; Donmez, M Alkan

    2014-01-01

    A test artifact, intended for standardization, is proposed for the purpose of evaluating the performance of additive manufacturing (AM) systems. A thorough analysis of previously proposed AM test artifacts as well as experience with machining test artifacts have inspired the design of the proposed test artifact. This new artifact is designed to provide a characterization of the capabilities and limitations of an AM system, as well as to allow system improvement by linking specific errors measured in the test artifact to specific sources in the AM system. The proposed test artifact has been built in multiple materials using multiple AM technologies. The results of several of the builds are discussed, demonstrating how the measurement results can be used to characterize and improve a specific AM system.

  7. A cutaneous positioning system.

    PubMed

    Martin, Bernard J; Lee, Beom-Chan; Sienko, Kathleen H

    2015-04-01

    Our previous work revealed that torso cutaneous information contributes to the internal representation of the torso and plays a role in postural control. Hence, the aims of this study were to assess whether posture could be manipulated by patterns of vibrotactile stimulation and to determine whether resulting modified postures were associated with specific and consistent spatial attitudes. Ten healthy young adults stood in normal and Romberg stances with six vibrating actuators positioned on the torso in contact with the skin over the anatomical locations corresponding to left and right external oblique, internal oblique and erector spinae muscles at the L4/L5 vertebrae level. A 250-Hz tactile vibration was applied for 5 s either at a single location or consecutively at each location in clockwise or counterclockwise sequences. Kinematic analysis of the body segments indicated that postural responses observed in response to single and sequential stimulation patterns were similar, while the center of pressure remained unaltered in any situations. Moreover, torso inclinations followed rectilinear-like path segments chartered by stimuli loci during sequential stimulations. Comparison of torso attitudes with previous results obtained with co-vibration patterns of the same duration showed that torso inclination amplitudes are equivalent for single (one location) and co-vibration (pairs of locations) patterns inducing the same directional effect. Hence, torso cutaneous information exhibits kinesthetic properties, appears to provide a map of upper body spatial configuration, and could assume the role of an internal positioning system for the upper body. PMID:25600816

  8. Does Preoperative Measurement of Cerebral Blood Flow with Acetazolamide Challenge in Addition to Preoperative Measurement of Cerebral Blood Flow at the Resting State Increase the Predictive Accuracy of Development of Cerebral Hyperperfusion after Carotid Endarterectomy? Results from 500 Cases with Brain Perfusion Single-photon Emission Computed Tomography Study

    PubMed Central

    OSHIDA, Sotaro; OGASAWARA, Kuniaki; SAURA, Hiroaki; YOSHIDA, Koji; FUJIWARA, Shunro; KOJIMA, Daigo; KOBAYASHI, Masakazu; YOSHIDA, Kenji; KUBO, Yoshitaka; OGAWA, Akira

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether preoperative measurement of cerebral blood flow (CBF) with acetazolamide in addition to preoperative measurement of CBF at the resting state increases the predictive accuracy of development of cerebral hyperperfusion after carotid endarterectomy (CEA). CBF at the resting state and cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) to acetazolamide were quantitatively assessed using N-isopropyl-p-[123I]-iodoamphetamine (IMP)-autoradiography method with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) before CEA in 500 patients with ipsilateral internal carotid artery stenosis (≥ 70%). CBF measurement using 123I-IMP SPECT was also performed immediately and 3 days after CEA. A region of interest (ROI) was automatically placed in the middle cerebral artery territory in the affected cerebral hemisphere using a three-dimensional stereotactic ROI template. Preoperative decreases in CBF at the resting state [95% confidence intervals (CIs), 0.855 to 0.967; P = 0.0023] and preoperative decreases in CVR to acetazolamide (95% CIs, 0.844 to 0.912; P < 0.0001) were significant independent predictors of post-CEA hyperperfusion. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for prediction of the development of post-CEA hyperperfusion was significantly greater for CVR to acetazolamide than for CBF at the resting state (difference between areas, 0.173; P < 0.0001). Sensitivity, specificity, and positive- and negative-predictive values for the prediction of the development of post-CEA hyperperfusion were significantly greater for CVR to acetazolamide than for CBF at the resting state (P < 0.05, respectively). The present study demonstrated that preoperative measurement of CBF with acetazolamide in addition to preoperative measurement of CBF at the resting state increases the predictive accuracy of the development of post-CEA hyperperfusion. PMID:25746308

  9. Additional noise data on the SR-3 propeller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dittmar, J. H.; Jeracki, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    The noise generated by supersonic-tip-speed propellers is investigated. An eight bladed propeller was tested in the Lewis 8- by 6-foot wind tunnel with conditions providing data in the subsonic operating region of the propeller. These conditions resulted in a slight reshaping of the curve for blade passing tone as a function of helical tip Mach number as compared with previous results. Directivity curves with an additional transducer position gave an indication of a lobe pattern for this propeller that was not previously observed. The present data at the aft-most position indicate that some reflections, possibly from the test rig support strut, may have affected the data taken previously.

  10. Indoor Positioning - An Ad-Hoc Positioning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mautz, Rainer

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the development of an automatic, low-cost system that exploits current or near future wireless communications technology to enable continuous tracking of the location of devices in all environments. The development of such a wireless sensor network involves system design, digital signal processing, protocol development, extraction of ranges and localisation. This paper focuses on the user requirements, system architecture and network positioning. The user requirements are presented with a focus on applications in geodesy. A high level strategy for the positioning function is presented based on an ad-hoc geodetic network positioning method including issues of accuracy, quality and reliability of the node positions. Results show that it is possible to achieve a position deviation that is of the size of the ranging error.

  11. Revisiting Additivity Violation of Quantum Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, Motohisa

    2014-12-01

    We prove additivity violation of minimum output entropy of quantum channels by straightforward application of -net argument and Lévy's lemma. The additivity conjecture was disproved initially by Hastings. Later, a proof via asymptotic geometric analysis was presented by Aubrun, Szarek and Werner, which uses Dudley's bound on Gaussian process (or Dvoretzky's theorem with Schechtman's improvement). In this paper, we develop another proof along Dvoretzky's theorem in Milman's view, showing additivity violation in broader regimes than the existing proofs. Importantly,Dvoretzky's theorem works well with norms to give strong statements, but these techniques can be extended to functions which have norm-like structures-positive homogeneity and triangle inequality. Then, a connection between Hastings' method and ours is also discussed. In addition, we make some comments on relations between regularized minimum output entropy and classical capacity of quantum channels.

  12. Positioning of bacterial chemoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Jones, Christopher W; Armitage, Judith P

    2015-05-01

    For optimum growth, bacteria must adapt to their environment, and one way that many species do this is by moving towards favourable conditions. To do so requires mechanisms to both physically drive movement and provide directionality to this movement. The pathways that control this directionality comprise chemoreceptors, which, along with an adaptor protein (CheW) and kinase (CheA), form large hexagonal arrays. These arrays can be formed around transmembrane receptors, resulting in arrays embedded in the inner membrane, or they can comprise soluble receptors, forming arrays in the cytoplasm. Across bacterial species, chemoreceptor arrays (both transmembrane and soluble) are localised to a variety of positions within the cell; some species with multiple arrays demonstrate this variety within individual cells. In many cases, the positioning pattern of the arrays is linked to the need for segregation of arrays between daughter cells on division, ensuring the production of chemotactically competent progeny. Multiple mechanisms have evolved to drive this segregation, including stochastic self-assembly, cellular landmarks, and the utilisation of ParA homologues. The variety of mechanisms highlights the importance of chemotaxis to motile species.

  13. High School Student Physics Research Experience Yields Positive Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Podolak, K. R.; Walters, M. J.

    2016-01-01

    All high school students that wish to continue onto college are seeking opportunities to be competitive in the college market. They participate in extra-curricular activities which are seen to foster creativity and the skills necessary to do well in the college environment. In the case of students with an interest in physics, participating in a…

  14. [Positive results with haematology webcasting for junior doctors].

    PubMed

    Raaschou-Jensen, Klas; Thomsen, Rasmus Heje; Gang, Anne Ortved; Do, Thrung; Aagaard, Thomas; Niemann, Carsten; Bjerrum, Ole Weis

    2016-01-11

    Webcasting is an educational activity where the teacher and the participants are separated in space and time when using modern information technology. It is widely used for all learning levels and in all educational forms of haematology training in Europe. A working group in the Education Council of internal medicine, haematology in the eastern part of Denmark initiated a project with webcasting from local haematological departments. The aim of the education project was to contribute to spreading knowledge and support the training of specialist in haematology. Our experience is hereby reported. PMID:26750197

  15. Patient throughput collaborative yields positive results for New Jersey hospitals.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Karen

    2015-05-01

    Collecting and analyzing data was a key step in a process improvement initiative undertaken by several hospitals in New Jersey. The hospitals found that patient flow problems commonly stemmed from uneven use of operating rooms and unenforced admission/discharge policies on inpatient units. Shared solutions included improving staff communication and enforcing admission/discharge policies.

  16. High school student physics research experience yields positive results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podolak, K. R.; Walters, M. J.

    2016-03-01

    All high school students that wish to continue onto college are seeking opportunities to be competitive in the college market. They participate in extra-curricular activities which are seen to foster creativity and the skills necessary to do well in the college environment. In the case of students with an interest in physics, participating in a small scale research project while in high school gives them the hands on experience and ultimately prepares them more for the college experience. SUNY Plattsburgh’s Physics department started a five-week summer program for high school students in 2012. This program has proved not only beneficial for students while in the program, but also as they continue on in their development as scientists/engineers. Independent research, such as that offered by SUNY Plattsburgh’s five-week summer program, offers students a feel and taste of the culture of doing research, and life as a scientist. It is a short-term, risk free way to investigate whether a career in research or a particular scientific field is a good fit.

  17. Chemical patterning on preformed porous silicon photonic crystals: towards multiplex detection of protease activity at precise positions† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: SEM images, XPS result and more optical reflectivity data. See DOI: 10.1039/c4tb00281d Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Ying; Soeriyadi, Alexander H.; Parker, Stephen G.; Reece, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Porous silicon (PSi) rugate filters modified with alkyne-terminated monolayers were chemically patterned using a combination of photolithography of photoresist and click chemistry. Two chemical functionalities were obtained by conjugating, via click reactions, ethylene glycol moieties containing two different terminal groups to discrete areas towards the exterior of a PSi rugate filter. The patterning of biological species to the functionalized surface was demonstrated through the conjugation of fluorescein isothiocyanate labelled bovine serum albumin (FITC-BSA). Fluorescence microscopy showed selective positioning of FITC-BSA at discretely functionalized areas. Meanwhile, the optical information from precisely defined positions on the patterned surface was monitored by optical reflectivity measurements. The optical measurements revealed successful step-wise chemical functionalization followed by immobilization of gelatin. Multiplex detection of protease activity from different array elements on the patterned surface was demonstrated by monitoring the blue shifts in the reflectivity spectra resulted from the digestion of gelatin by subtilisin. Precise information from both individual elements and average population was acquired. This technique is important for the development of PSi into a microarray platform for highly parallel biosensing applications, especially for cell-based assays. PMID:24910774

  18. Sharing a Faculty Position.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Kane, Patricia K.; Meyer, Mary

    1982-01-01

    Describes the experience of two nursing faculty members who shared an assistant professor of nursing position. Discusses positive and negative aspects of the experience and notes that a unified and creative approach must be taken for it to succeed. (JOW)

  19. Beam Position Monitor System for PEP II

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Stephen R.; Aiello, G.Roberto; Hendrickson, Linda J.; Johnson, Ronald G.; Mills, Mark R.; Olsen, Jeff J.; /SLAC

    2011-09-12

    We describe the beam position monitor system built for PEP-II, the B-factory at SLAC. The system reports beam position for bunches of between 5 x 10{sup 8} and 8 x 10{sup 10} electron charges, either singly or as continuous streams of bunches every 4.2 ns. Resolution at full charge is to be better than 10 microns in a single turn. Higher resolution is available via on-board multi-turn averaging. The position signal is processed in a 20 MHz bandwidth around 952 MHz. This bandwidth, rather broader than that typical of RF position monitors, allows good resolution for low charge single bunches. Additional novel features include stringent control of return losses in order to minimize cross-talk between nearby bunches which may contain very different charges. The digitizing electronics is multiplexed between the two PEP-II storage rings. Design, construction, and installation experience, as well as first results with beam are presented.

  20. The Positivity Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Alessandri, Guido; Eisenberg, Nancy; Kupfer, A.; Steca, Patrizia; Caprara, Maria Giovanna; Yamaguchi, Susumu; Fukuzawa, Ai; Abela, John

    2012-01-01

    Five studies document the validity of a new 8-item scale designed to measure "positivity," defined as the tendency to view life and experiences with a positive outlook. In the first study (N = 372), the psychometric properties of Positivity Scale (P Scale) were examined in accordance with classical test theory using a large number of college…

  1. Prone positioning for surgery.

    PubMed

    Bowers, Mark

    2012-05-01

    The role of the registered perioperative practitioner (Operating Department Practitioner or Registered Nurse) includes the responsibility for safely positioning patients for surgery. The prone position is in common use for a variety of surgical procedures. The formal term for this surgical position is ventral decubitus (meaning laying face down). PMID:22720505

  2. Development of an Automatic Identification System Autonomous Positioning System.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qing; Jiang, Yi; Zhang, Jingbo; Sun, Xiaowen; Zhang, Shufang

    2015-11-11

    In order to overcome the vulnerability of the global navigation satellite system (GNSS) and provide robust position, navigation and time (PNT) information in marine navigation, the autonomous positioning system based on ranging-mode Automatic Identification System (AIS) is presented in the paper. The principle of the AIS autonomous positioning system (AAPS) is investigated, including the position algorithm, the signal measurement technique, the geometric dilution of precision, the time synchronization technique and the additional secondary factor correction technique. In order to validate the proposed AAPS, a verification system has been established in the Xinghai sea region of Dalian (China). Static and dynamic positioning experiments are performed. The original function of the AIS in the AAPS is not influenced. The experimental results show that the positioning precision of the AAPS is better than 10 m in the area with good geometric dilution of precision (GDOP) by the additional secondary factor correction technology. This is the most economical solution for a land-based positioning system to complement the GNSS for the navigation safety of vessels sailing along coasts.

  3. Development of an Automatic Identification System Autonomous Positioning System.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qing; Jiang, Yi; Zhang, Jingbo; Sun, Xiaowen; Zhang, Shufang

    2015-01-01

    In order to overcome the vulnerability of the global navigation satellite system (GNSS) and provide robust position, navigation and time (PNT) information in marine navigation, the autonomous positioning system based on ranging-mode Automatic Identification System (AIS) is presented in the paper. The principle of the AIS autonomous positioning system (AAPS) is investigated, including the position algorithm, the signal measurement technique, the geometric dilution of precision, the time synchronization technique and the additional secondary factor correction technique. In order to validate the proposed AAPS, a verification system has been established in the Xinghai sea region of Dalian (China). Static and dynamic positioning experiments are performed. The original function of the AIS in the AAPS is not influenced. The experimental results show that the positioning precision of the AAPS is better than 10 m in the area with good geometric dilution of precision (GDOP) by the additional secondary factor correction technology. This is the most economical solution for a land-based positioning system to complement the GNSS for the navigation safety of vessels sailing along coasts. PMID:26569258

  4. Development of an Automatic Identification System Autonomous Positioning System

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Qing; Jiang, Yi; Zhang, Jingbo; Sun, Xiaowen; Zhang, Shufang

    2015-01-01

    In order to overcome the vulnerability of the global navigation satellite system (GNSS) and provide robust position, navigation and time (PNT) information in marine navigation, the autonomous positioning system based on ranging-mode Automatic Identification System (AIS) is presented in the paper. The principle of the AIS autonomous positioning system (AAPS) is investigated, including the position algorithm, the signal measurement technique, the geometric dilution of precision, the time synchronization technique and the additional secondary factor correction technique. In order to validate the proposed AAPS, a verification system has been established in the Xinghai sea region of Dalian (China). Static and dynamic positioning experiments are performed. The original function of the AIS in the AAPS is not influenced. The experimental results show that the positioning precision of the AAPS is better than 10 m in the area with good geometric dilution of precision (GDOP) by the additional secondary factor correction technology. This is the most economical solution for a land-based positioning system to complement the GNSS for the navigation safety of vessels sailing along coasts. PMID:26569258

  5. Metallic positive expulsion diaphragms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gleich, D.

    1972-01-01

    High-cycle life ring-reinforced hemispherical type positive expulsion diaphragm performance was demonstrated by room temperature fluid expulsion tests of 13" diameter, 8 mil thick stainless steel configurations. A maximum of eleven (11) leak-free, fluid expulsions were achieved by a 25 deg cone angle diaphragm hoop-reinforced with .110-inch cross-sectional diameter wires. This represents a 70% improvement in diaphragm reversal cycle life compared to results previously obtained. The reversal tests confirmed analytic predictions for diaphragm cycle life increases due to increasing values of diaphragm cone angle, radius to thickness ratio and material strain to necking capacity. Practical fabrication techniques were demonstrated for forming close-tolerance, thin corrugated shells and for obtaining closely controlled reinforcing ring stiffness required to maximize diaphragm cycle life. A non-destructive inspection technique for monitoring large local shell bending strains was developed.

  6. Precision positioning device

    DOEpatents

    McInroy, John E.

    2005-01-18

    A precision positioning device is provided. The precision positioning device comprises a precision measuring/vibration isolation mechanism. A first plate is provided with the precision measuring mean secured to the first plate. A second plate is secured to the first plate. A third plate is secured to the second plate with the first plate being positioned between the second plate and the third plate. A fourth plate is secured to the third plate with the second plate being positioned between the third plate and the fourth plate. An adjusting mechanism for adjusting the position of the first plate, the second plate, the third plate, and the fourth plate relative to each other.

  7. Serial position encoding of signs.

    PubMed

    Miozzo, Michele; Petrova, Anna; Fischer-Baum, Simon; Peressotti, Francesca

    2016-09-01

    Reduced short-term memory (STM) capacity has been reported for sign as compared to speech when items have to be recalled in a specific order. This difference has been attributed to a more precise and efficient serial position encoding in verbal STM (used for speech) than visuo-spatial STM (used for sign). We tested in the present investigation whether the reduced STM capacity with signs stems from a lack of positional encoding available in verbal STM. Error analyses reported in prior studies have revealed that positions are defined in verbal STM by distance from both the start and the end of the sequence (both-edges positional encoding scheme). Our analyses of the errors made by deaf participants with finger-spelled letters revealed that the both-edges positional encoding scheme underlies the STM representation of signs. These results indicate that the cause of the STM disadvantage is not the type of positional encoding but rather the difficulties in binding an item in visuo-spatial STM to its specific position in the sequence. Both-edges positional encoding scheme could be specific of sign, since it has not been found in visuo-spatial STM tasks conducted with hearing participants. PMID:27244095

  8. Incorporation of additives into polymers

    DOEpatents

    McCleskey, T. Mark; Yates, Matthew Z.

    2003-07-29

    There has been invented a method for incorporating additives into polymers comprising: (a) forming an aqueous or alcohol-based colloidal system of the polymer; (b) emulsifying the colloidal system with a compressed fluid; and (c) contacting the colloidal polymer with the additive in the presence of the compressed fluid. The colloidal polymer can be contacted with the additive by having the additive in the compressed fluid used for emulsification or by adding the additive to the colloidal system before or after emulsification with the compressed fluid. The invention process can be carried out either as a batch process or as a continuous on-line process.

  9. [Patch-testing methods: additional specialised or additional series].

    PubMed

    Cleenewerck, M-B

    2009-01-01

    The tests in the European standard battery must occasionally be supplemented by specialised or additional batteries, particularly where the contact allergy is thought to be of occupational origin. These additional batteries cover all allergens associated with various professional activities (hairdressing, baking, dentistry, printing, etc.) and with different classes of materials and chemical products (glue, plastic, rubber...). These additional tests may also include personal items used by patients on a daily basis such as cosmetics, shoes, plants, textiles and so on.

  10. Medium to Long Range Kinematic GPS Positioning with Position-Velocity-Acceleration Model Using Multiple Reference Stations.

    PubMed

    Hong, Chang-Ki; Park, Chi Ho; Han, Joong-hee; Kwon, Jay Hyoun

    2015-07-13

    In order to obtain precise kinematic global positioning systems (GPS) in medium to large scale networks, the atmospheric effects from tropospheric and ionospheric delays need to be properly modeled and estimated. It is also preferable to use multiple reference stations to improve the reliability of the solutions. In this study, GPS kinematic positioning algorithms are developed for the medium to large-scale network based on the position-velocity-acceleration model. Hence, the algorithm can perform even in cases where the near-constant velocity assumption does not hold. In addition, the estimated kinematic accelerations can be used for the airborne gravimetry. The proposed algorithms are implemented using Kalman filter and are applied to the in situ airborne GPS data. The performance of the proposed algorithms is validated by analyzing and comparing the results with those from reference values. The results show that reliable and comparable solutions in both position and kinematic acceleration levels can be obtained using the proposed algorithms.

  11. Additive manufacturing of optical components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, Andreas; Rank, Manuel; Maillard, Philippe; Suckow, Anne; Bauckhage, Yannick; Rößler, Patrick; Lang, Johannes; Shariff, Fatin; Pekrul, Sven

    2016-08-01

    The development of additive manufacturing methods has enlarged rapidly in recent years. Thereby, the work mainly focuses on the realization of mechanical components, but the additive manufacturing technology offers a high potential in the field of optics as well. Owing to new design possibilities, completely new solutions are possible. This article briefly reviews and compares the most important additive manufacturing methods for polymer optics. Additionally, it points out the characteristics of additive manufactured polymer optics. Thereby, surface quality is of crucial importance. In order to improve it, appropriate post-processing steps are necessary (e.g. robot polishing or coating), which will be discussed. An essential part of this paper deals with various additive manufactured optical components and their use, especially in optical systems for shape metrology (e.g. borehole sensor, tilt sensor, freeform surface sensor, fisheye lens). The examples should demonstrate the potentials and limitations of optical components produced by additive manufacturing.

  12. PHOTOELECTRIC CONTROL FOR TAPE POSITIONING

    DOEpatents

    Woody, J.W. Jr.

    1961-07-25

    A control system is described for producing control impulses which may be used to start, stop, and position a magnetic tape with respect to a transducer, and to locate discrete areas on the tape. Means are provided for positive identification of data blocks, exact positioning of the tape under the magnetic head, drive in either direction, accurate skip-over of imperfect regions of the tape, stopping the tape if equipment malfunction results in a failure to detect the block-identifying signals, and starting and stopping those parts of the tape between of the tape drive clutches.

  13. SWITCHING TRANSMITTER POSITIONING OF SYNCHROS

    DOEpatents

    Wolff, H.

    1962-03-13

    A transformer apparatus is designed for effecting the step positioning of synchro motors. The apparatus is provided with ganged switches and pre- selected contacts to permit the units and tens selection of the desired angular position for the synchro motor rotor with only the movement of two selector knobs required. With the selection thus made, the appropriate pre-selected signal is delivered to the synchro motor for positioning the rotor of the latter as selected. The transformer apparatus is divided into smaller arrangements to conform with coraputed trigonometric relations which will give the desired results. (AEC)

  14. Straightness error evaluation of additional constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Ling; Wang, Shenghuai; Liu, Yong

    2011-05-01

    A new generation of Dimensional and Geometrical Product Specifications (GPS) and Verification standard system is based on both the Mathematical structure and the Metrology. To determine the eligibility of the product should be adapt to modern digital measuring instruments. But in mathematizating measurement when the geometric tolerance specifications has additional constraints requirement, such as straightness with an additional constraint, required to qualify the additional form requirements of the feature within the tolerance zone. Knowing how to close the geometrical specification to the functional specification will result in the correctness of measurement results. Adopting the methodology to evaluate by analyzing various forms including the ideal features and the extracted features and their combinations in an additional form constraint of the straightness in tolerance zone had been found correctly acceptance decision for products. The results show that different combinations of the various forms had affected acceptance on the product qualification and the appropriate forms matching can meet the additional form requirements for product features.

  15. Straightness error evaluation of additional constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Ling; Wang, Shenghuai; Liu, Yong

    2010-12-01

    A new generation of Dimensional and Geometrical Product Specifications (GPS) and Verification standard system is based on both the Mathematical structure and the Metrology. To determine the eligibility of the product should be adapt to modern digital measuring instruments. But in mathematizating measurement when the geometric tolerance specifications has additional constraints requirement, such as straightness with an additional constraint, required to qualify the additional form requirements of the feature within the tolerance zone. Knowing how to close the geometrical specification to the functional specification will result in the correctness of measurement results. Adopting the methodology to evaluate by analyzing various forms including the ideal features and the extracted features and their combinations in an additional form constraint of the straightness in tolerance zone had been found correctly acceptance decision for products. The results show that different combinations of the various forms had affected acceptance on the product qualification and the appropriate forms matching can meet the additional form requirements for product features.

  16. Replacing and Additive Horizontal Gene Transfer in Streptococcus

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sang Chul; Rasmussen, Matthew D.; Hubisz, Melissa J.; Gronau, Ilan; Stanhope, Michael J.; Siepel, Adam

    2012-01-01

    The prominent role of Horizontal Gene Transfer (HGT) in the evolution of bacteria is now well documented, but few studies have differentiated between evolutionary events that predominantly cause genes in one lineage to be replaced by homologs from another lineage (“replacing HGT”) and events that result in the addition of substantial new genomic material (“additive HGT”). Here in, we make use of the distinct phylogenetic signatures of replacing and additive HGTs in a genome-wide study of the important human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes (SPY) and its close relatives S. dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis (SDE) and S. dysgalactiae subspecies dysgalactiae (SDD). Using recently developed statistical models and computational methods, we find evidence for abundant gene flow of both kinds within each of the SPY and SDE clades and of reduced levels of exchange between SPY and SDD. In addition, our analysis strongly supports a pronounced asymmetry in SPY–SDE gene flow, favoring the SPY-to-SDE direction. This finding is of particular interest in light of the recent increase in virulence of pathogenic SDE. We find much stronger evidence for SPY–SDE gene flow among replacing than among additive transfers, suggesting a primary influence from homologous recombination between co-occurring SPY and SDE cells in human hosts. Putative virulence genes are correlated with transfer events, but this correlation is found to be driven by additive, not replacing, HGTs. The genes affected by additive HGTs are enriched for functions having to do with transposition, recombination, and DNA integration, consistent with previous findings, whereas replacing HGTs seen to influence a more diverse set of genes. Additive transfers are also found to be associated with evidence of positive selection. These findings shed new light on the manner in which HGT has shaped pathogenic bacterial genomes. PMID:22617954

  17. 75 FR 51444 - Procurement List Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-20

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Additions On 6/4/2010 (75 FR 31768-31769); 6/11/2010 (75 FR 33270-33271); 6/ 18/2010 (75 FR 34701-34702); and 6/25/2010 (75 FR 36363-36371), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are... factors considered for this certification were: 1. The action will not result in any additional...

  18. The Additive Coloration of Alkali Halides

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jirgal, G. H.; and others

    1969-01-01

    Describes the construction and use of an inexpensive, vacuum furnace designed to produce F-centers in alkali halide crystals by additive coloration. The method described avoids corrosion or contamination during the coloration process. Examination of the resultant crystals is discussed and several experiments using additively colored crystals are…

  19. Developing Multiplicative Thinking from Additive Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobias, Jennifer M.; Andreasen, Janet B.

    2013-01-01

    As students progress through elementary school, they encounter mathematics concepts that shift from additive to multiplicative situations (NCTM 2000). When they encounter fraction problems that require multiplicative thinking, they tend to incorrectly extend additive properties from whole numbers (Post et al. 1985). As a result, topics such as …

  20. Quality Markers in Cardiology. Main Markers to Measure Quality of Results (Outcomes) and Quality Measures Related to Better Results in Clinical Practice (Performance Metrics). INCARDIO (Indicadores de Calidad en Unidades Asistenciales del Área del Corazón): A SEC/SECTCV Consensus Position Paper.

    PubMed

    López-Sendón, José; González-Juanatey, José Ramón; Pinto, Fausto; Cuenca Castillo, José; Badimón, Lina; Dalmau, Regina; González Torrecilla, Esteban; López-Mínguez, José Ramón; Maceira, Alicia M; Pascual-Figal, Domingo; Pomar Moya-Prats, José Luis; Sionis, Alessandro; Zamorano, José Luis

    2015-11-01

    Cardiology practice requires complex organization that impacts overall outcomes and may differ substantially among hospitals and communities. The aim of this consensus document is to define quality markers in cardiology, including markers to measure the quality of results (outcomes metrics) and quality measures related to better results in clinical practice (performance metrics). The document is mainly intended for the Spanish health care system and may serve as a basis for similar documents in other countries. PMID:26315766