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Sample records for additional positive results

  1. Rates of False-Positive Classification Resulting From the Analysis of Additional Embedded Performance Validity Measures.

    PubMed

    Silk-Eglit, Graham M; Stenclik, Jessica H; Miele, Andrea S; Lynch, Julie K; McCaffrey, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have documented improvements in the classification accuracy of performance validity tests (PVTs) when they are combined to form aggregated models. Fewer studies have evaluated the impact of aggregating additional PVTs and changing the classification threshold within these models. A recent Monte Carlo simulation demonstrated that to maintain a false-positive rate (FPR) of ≤.10, only 1, 4, 8, 10, and 15 PVTs should be analyzed at classification thresholds of failing at least 1, at least 2, at least 3, at least 4, and at least 5 PVTs, respectively. The current study sought to evaluate these findings with embedded PVTs in a sample of real-life litigants and to highlight a potential danger in analytic flexibility with embedded PVTs. Results demonstrated that to maintain an FPR of ≤.10, only 3, 7, 10, 14, and 15 PVTs should be analyzed at classification thresholds of failing at least 1, at least 2, at least 3, at least 4, and at least 5 PVTs, respectively. Analyzing more than these numbers of PVTs resulted in a dramatic increase in the FPR. In addition, in the most extreme case, flexibility in analyzing and reporting embedded PVTs increased the FPR by 67%. Given these findings, a more objective approach to analyzing and reporting embedded PVTs should be introduced.

  2. Systematic tests for position-dependent additive shear bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Uitert, Edo; Schneider, Peter

    2016-11-01

    We present new tests to identify stationary position-dependent additive shear biases in weak gravitational lensing data sets. These tests are important diagnostics for currently ongoing and planned cosmic shear surveys, as such biases induce coherent shear patterns that can mimic and potentially bias the cosmic shear signal. The central idea of these tests is to determine the average ellipticity of all galaxies with shape measurements in a grid in the pixel plane. The distribution of the absolute values of these averaged ellipticities can be compared to randomised catalogues; a difference points to systematics in the data. In addition, we introduce a method to quantify the spatial correlation of the additive bias, which suppresses the contribution from cosmic shear and therefore eases the identification of a position-dependent additive shear bias in the data. We apply these tests to the publicly available shear catalogues from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Lensing Survey (CFHTLenS) and the Kilo Degree Survey (KiDS) and find evidence for a small but non-negligible residual additive bias at small scales. As this residual bias is smaller than the error on the shear correlation signal at those scales, it is highly unlikely that it causes a significant bias in the published cosmic shear results of CFHTLenS. In CFHTLenS, the amplitude of this systematic signal is consistent with zero in fields where the number of stars used to model the point spread function (PSF) is higher than average, suggesting that the position-dependent additive shear bias originates from undersampled PSF variations across the image.

  3. 20 CFR 655.154 - Additional positive recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... recruitment within a multistate region of traditional or expected labor supply where the CO finds that there... to non-H-2A employers in the area. The CO will ensure that the effort, including the location(s) and... employer made to obtain foreign workers. (c) Nature of the additional positive recruitment. The CO...

  4. The Distinction between Positive and Negative Reinforcement: Some Additional Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidman, Murray

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the distinction between positive and negative reinforcement and some additional considerations. He states that the concept of negative reinforcement has caused confusion, and he believes that the difficulty stems from conventions of ordinary speech, in which the term "negative" usually denotes the opposite of…

  5. Global Positioning System receiver evaluation results

    SciTech Connect

    Byrne, R.H.

    1993-09-01

    A Sandia project currently uses an outdated Magnavox 6400 Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver as the core of its navigation system. The goal of this study was to analyze the performance of the current GPS receiver compared to newer, less expensive models and to make recommendations on how to improve the performance of the overall navigation system. This paper discusses the test methodology used to experimentally analyze the performance of different GPS receivers, the test results, and recommendations on how an upgrade should proceed. Appendices contain detailed information regarding the raw data, test hardware, and test software.

  6. Dimethylamylamine: a drug causing positive immunoassay results for amphetamines.

    PubMed

    Vorce, Shawn P; Holler, Justin M; Cawrse, Brian M; Magluilo, Joseph

    2011-04-01

    The Department of Defense (DoD) operates six forensic urine drug-testing laboratories that screen close to 5 million urine samples for amphetamines yearly. Recently, the DoD laboratories have observed a significant decrease in the confirmation rates for amphetamines because of specimens screening positive by two separate immunoassays and confirming negative by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Previous studies conducted by the Division of Forensic Toxicology, Armed Force Institute of Pathology (AFIP) utilizing a GC-MS basic drug screen and a designer drug screen revealed no common compound or compound classes as to the cause of the immunoassay-positive results. Additional information obtained from an immunoassay vendor suggested the anorectic compound dimethylamylamine (DMAA) may be the cause of the false-positive screens. An additional 134 false-positive samples were received and analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) for DMAA. LC-MS-MS analysis revealed the presence of DMAA in 92.3% of the false-positive samples at a concentration of approximately 6.0 mg/L DMAA, causing a positive screen on both immunoassay kits.

  7. Mars-GRAM 2010: Additions and Resulting Improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justh, Hilary L.; Burns, K. Lee

    2013-01-01

    factors. The adjustment factors generated by this process had to satisfy the gas law as well as the hydrostatic relation and are expressed as a function of height (z), Latitude (Lat) and areocentric solar longitude (Ls). The greatest adjustments are made at large optical depths such as tau greater than 1. The addition of the adjustment factors has led to better correspondence to TES Limb data from 0-60 km altitude as well as better agreement with MGS, ODY and MRO data at approximately 90-130 km altitude. Improved Mars-GRAM atmospheric simulations for various locations, times and dust conditions on Mars will be presented at the workshop session. The latest results validating Mars-GRAM 2010 versus Mars Climate Sounder data will also be presented. Mars-GRAM 2010 updates have resulted in improved atmospheric simulations which will be very important when beginning systems design, performance analysis, and operations planning for future aerocapture, aerobraking or landed missions to Mars.

  8. Additional Results of Ice-Accretion Scaling at SLD Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, Thomas H. (Technical Monitor); Anderson, David N.; Tsao, Jen-Ching

    2005-01-01

    To determine scale velocity an additional similarity parameter is needed to supplement the Ruff scaling method. A Weber number based on water droplet MVD has been included in several studies because the effect of droplet splashing on ice accretion was believed to be important, particularly for SLD conditions. In the present study, ice shapes recorded at Appendix-C conditions and recent results at SLD conditions are reviewed to show that droplet diameter cannot be important to main ice shape, and for low airspeeds splashing does not appear to affect SLD ice shapes. Evidence is presented to show that while a supplementary similarity parameter probably has the form of a Weber number, it must be based on a length proportional to model size rather than MVD. Scaling comparisons were made between SLD reference conditions and Appendix-C scale conditions using this Weber number. Scale-to-reference model size ratios were 1:1.7 and 1:3.4. The reference tests used a 91-cm-chord NACA 0012 model with a velocity of approximately 50 m/s and an MVD of 160 m. Freezing fractions of 0.3, 0.4, and 0.5 were included in the study.

  9. Additional Results of Glaze Icing Scaling in SLD Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsao, Jen-Ching

    2016-01-01

    This presentation reports results from recent icing scaling tests in NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) to evaluate how well the scaling method recommended for Appendix C conditions might apply to SLD conditions.

  10. Distance between homologous chromosomes results from chromosome positioning constraints.

    PubMed

    Heride, Claire; Ricoul, Michelle; Kiêu, Kien; von Hase, Johann; Guillemot, Vincent; Cremer, Christoph; Dubrana, Karine; Sabatier, Laure

    2010-12-01

    The organization of chromosomes is important for various biological processes and is involved in the formation of rearrangements often observed in cancer. In mammals, chromosomes are organized in territories that are radially positioned in the nucleus. However, it remains unclear whether chromosomes are organized relative to each other. Here, we examine the nuclear arrangement of 10 chromosomes in human epithelial cancer cells by three-dimensional FISH analysis. We show that their radial position correlates with the ratio of their gene density to chromosome size. We also observe that inter-homologue distances are generally larger than inter-heterologue distances. Using numerical simulations taking radial position constraints into account, we demonstrate that, for some chromosomes, radial position is enough to justify the inter-homologue distance, whereas for others additional constraints are involved. Among these constraints, we propose that nucleolar organizer regions participate in the internal positioning of the acrocentric chromosome HSA21, possibly through interactions with nucleoli. Maintaining distance between homologous chromosomes in human cells could participate in regulating genome stability and gene expression, both mechanisms that are key players in tumorigenesis.

  11. Small-Scale Spray Releases: Additional Aerosol Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Schonewill, Philip P.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Brown, G. N.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Tran, Diana N.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Kurath, Dean E.

    2013-08-01

    One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. To expand the data set upon which the WTP accident and safety analyses were based, an aerosol spray leak testing program was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL’s test program addressed two key technical areas to improve the WTP methodology (Larson and Allen 2010). The first technical area was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where slurry particles may plug the hole and prevent high-pressure sprays. The results from an effort to address this first technical area can be found in Mahoney et al. (2012a). The second technical area was to determine aerosol droplet size distribution and total droplet volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, including sprays from larger breaches and sprays of slurries for which literature data are largely absent. To address the second technical area, the testing program collected aerosol generation data at two scales, commonly referred to as small-scale and large-scale. The small-scale testing and resultant data are described in Mahoney et al. (2012b) and the large-scale testing and resultant data are presented in Schonewill et al. (2012). In tests at both scales, simulants were used to mimic the

  12. Large-Scale Spray Releases: Additional Aerosol Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, Richard C.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Fountain, Matthew S.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Billing, Justin M.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Kurath, Dean E.; Jenks, Jeromy WJ; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Mahoney, Lenna A.

    2013-08-01

    One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis for the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak event involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids that behave as a Newtonian fluid. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and in processing facilities across the DOE complex. To expand the data set upon which the WTP accident and safety analyses were based, an aerosol spray leak testing program was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL’s test program addressed two key technical areas to improve the WTP methodology (Larson and Allen 2010). The first technical area was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where slurry particles may plug the hole and prevent high-pressure sprays. The results from an effort to address this first technical area can be found in Mahoney et al. (2012a). The second technical area was to determine aerosol droplet size distribution and total droplet volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, including sprays from larger breaches and sprays of slurries for which literature data are mostly absent. To address the second technical area, the testing program collected aerosol generation data at two scales, commonly referred to as small-scale and large-scale testing. The small-scale testing and resultant data are described in Mahoney et al. (2012b), and the large-scale testing and resultant data are presented in Schonewill et al. (2012). In tests at both scales, simulants were used

  13. Additional Results of Glaze Icing Scaling in SLD Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsao, Jen-Ching

    2016-01-01

    New guidance of acceptable means of compliance with the super-cooled large drops (SLD) conditions has been issued by the U.S. Department of Transportation's Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in its Advisory Circular AC 25-28 in November 2014. The Part 25, Appendix O is developed to define a representative icing environment for super-cooled large drops. Super-cooled large drops, which include freezing drizzle and freezing rain conditions, are not included in Appendix C. This paper reports results from recent glaze icing scaling tests conducted in NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) to evaluate how well the scaling methods recommended for Appendix C conditions might apply to SLD conditions. The models were straight NACA 0012 wing sections. The reference model had a chord of 72 in. and the scale model had a chord of 21 in. Reference tests were run with airspeeds of 100 and 130.3 kn and with MVD's of 85 and 170 micron. Two scaling methods were considered. One was based on the modified Ruff method with scale velocity found by matching the Weber number WeL. The other was proposed and developed by Feo specifically for strong glaze icing conditions, in which the scale liquid water content and velocity were found by matching reference and scale values of the nondimensional water-film thickness expression and the film Weber number Wef. All tests were conducted at 0 deg AOA. Results will be presented for stagnation freezing fractions of 0.2 and 0.3. For nondimensional reference and scale ice shape comparison, a new post-scanning ice shape digitization procedure was developed for extracting 2-D ice shape profiles at any selected span-wise location from the high fidelity 3-D scanned ice shapes obtained in the IRT.

  14. Additional Results of Glaze Icing Scaling in SLD Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsao, Jen-Ching

    2016-01-01

    New guidance of acceptable means of compliance with the super-cooled large drops (SLD) conditions has been issued by the U.S. Department of Transportation's Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in its Advisory Circular AC 25-28 in November 2014. The Part 25, Appendix O is developed to define a representative icing environment for super-cooled large drops. Super-cooled large drops, which include freezing drizzle and freezing rain conditions, are not included in Appendix C. This paper reports results from recent glaze icing scaling tests conducted in NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) to evaluate how well the scaling methods recommended for Appendix C conditions might apply to SLD conditions. The models were straight NACA 0012 wing sections. The reference model had a chord of 72 inches and the scale model had a chord of 21 inches. Reference tests were run with airspeeds of 100 and 130.3 knots and with MVD's of 85 and 170 microns. Two scaling methods were considered. One was based on the modified Ruff method with scale velocity found by matching the Weber number W (sub eL). The other was proposed and developed by Feo specifically for strong glaze icing conditions, in which the scale liquid water content and velocity were found by matching reference and scale values of the non-dimensional water-film thickness expression and the film Weber number W (sub ef). All tests were conducted at 0 degrees angle of arrival. Results will be presented for stagnation freezing fractions of 0.2 and 0.3. For non-dimensional reference and scale ice shape comparison, a new post-scanning ice shape digitization procedure was developed for extracting 2-dimensional ice shape profiles at any selected span-wise location from the high fidelity 3-dimensional scanned ice shapes obtained in the IRT.

  15. Effect of a mineral additive on the electrical performances of the positive plate of lead acid battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foudia, M.; Matrakova, M.; Zerroual, L.

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this work is to improve the performance of the positive electrode of lead-acid battery. The use of the additive in the positive paste is to increase the capacity and cycle life of the positive active material. Mineral porous additives, dispersed uniformly in the PAM, may act as acid reservoirs and favor the ionic diffusion. The results show that the addition of mineral additive in the paste before oxidation influences the composition and the crystal size of the PAM after oxidation. We observe a remarkable improvement of the discharge capacity of the PAM for an amount of additive ranging between 1 and 5%. Nano-sized particles of PbO2 with amorphous character are obtained. XRD, TG and DSC, SEM, and galvanostatic discharge were used as techniques of investigation.

  16. False-positive results with amylase testing of citrus fruits.

    PubMed

    Ricci, Ugo; Carboni, Ilaria; Torricelli, Francesca

    2014-09-01

    In a case of robbery in which the criminals passed through the garden adorned with calamondin trees (Citrus madurensis), the investigators found in the grass six calamondin fruits, some undamaged, while others apparently bitten. The fruits were collected and sent to the laboratory for DNA analysis to verify the presence of saliva and robbers' DNA profile. A specific immunochromatographic strip test for saliva confirmed the presence of human salivary α-amylase, but similar positive results were also observed for intact calamondin and other citrus fruits. Further analysis with a specific automated amylase test confirmed the absence of amylase activity. DNA quantification and typing using a specific forensic kit revealed no human DNA presence in any fruits. This case report demonstrates for the first time the occurrence of false positives when human saliva is sought on citrus fruits.

  17. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  18. Vector Addition: Effect of the Context and Position of the Vectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barniol, Pablo; Zavala, Genaro

    2010-10-01

    In this article we investigate the effect of: 1) the context, and 2) the position of the vectors, on 2D vector addition tasks. We administered a test to 512 students completing introductory physics courses at a private Mexican university. In the first part, we analyze students' responses in three isomorphic problems: displacements, forces, and no physical context. Students were asked to draw two vectors and the vector sum. We analyzed students' procedures detecting the difficulties when drawing the vector addition and proved that the context matters, not only compared to the context-free case but also between the contexts. In the second part, we analyze students' responses with three different arrangements of the sum of two vectors: tail-to-tail, head-to-tail and separated vectors. We compared the frequencies of the errors in the three different positions to deduce students' conceptions in the addition of vectors.

  19. Adding source positions to the IVS combination—First results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachmann, Sabine; Thaller, Daniela

    2016-12-01

    The consistent estimation of terrestrial reference frames (TRF), celestial reference frames (CRF) and Earth orientation parameters (EOP) is still an open subject and offers a large field of investigations. Until now, source positions resulting from Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations are not routinely combined on the level of normal equations in the same way as it is a common process for station coordinates and EOPs. The combination of source positions based on VLBI observations is now integrated in the IVS combination process. We present the studies carried out to evaluate the benefit of the combination compared to individual solutions. On the level of source time series, improved statistics regarding weighted root mean square have been found for the combination in comparison with the individual contributions. In total, 67 stations and 907 sources (including 291 ICRF2 defining sources) are included in the consistently generated CRF and TRF covering 30 years of VLBI contributions. The rotation angles A_1 , A_2 and A_3 relative to ICRF2 are -12.7, 51.7 and 1.8 {μ} as, the drifts D_α and D_δ are -67.2 and 19.1 μ as/rad and the bias B_δ is 26.1 μ as. The comparison of the TRF solution with the IVS routinely combined quarterly TRF solution shows no significant impact on the TRF, when the CRF is estimated consistently with the TRF. The root mean square value of the post-fit station coordinate residuals is 0.9 cm.

  20. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS FROM A MICROWAVE CAVITY BEAM POSITION MONITOR.

    SciTech Connect

    BALAKIN,V.; BAZHAN,A.; LUNEV,P.; SOLYAK,N.; VOGEL,V.; ZHOGOLEV,P.; LISITSYN,A.; YAKIMENKO,V.

    1999-03-29

    Future Linear Colliders have hard requirements for the beam transverse position stability in the accelerator. A beam Position Monitor (BPM) with the resolution better than 0.1 micron in the single bunch regime is needed to control the stability of the beam position along the linac. Proposed BPM is based on the measurement of the asymmetrical mode excited by single bunch in the cavity. Four stages of signal processing (space-, time-, frequency- and phase-filtering providing the required signal-to-noise ratio) are used to obtain extremely high resolution. The measurement set-up was designed by BINP and installed at ATF/BNL to test experimentally this concept. The set-up includes three two-coordinates BPM's at the frequency of 13.566 GHz, and reference intensity/phase cavity. BPM's were mounted on support table. The two-coordinates movers allow to move and align BPM's along the straight line, using the signals from the beam. The position of each monitor is controlled by the sensors with the accuracy 0.03 micron. The information from three monitors allows to exclude angle and position jitter of the beam and measure BPM resolution. In the experiments the resolution of about 0.15 micron for 0.25 nC beam intensity was obtained, that is close to the value required.

  1. A retrospective analysis of false-positive infectious screening results in blood donors

    PubMed Central

    Vo, Michelle T.; Bruhn, Roberta; Kaidarova, Zhanna; Custer, Brian S.; Murphy, Edward L.; Bloch, Evan M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND False-positive infectious transfusion screening results remain a challenge with continued loss of both donors and blood products. We sought to identify associations between donor demographic characteristics (age, race, sex, education, first-time donor status) and testing false positive for viruses during routine blood donation screening. In addition the study assessed the prevalence of high-risk behaviors in false-positive donors. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS Blood Systems, Inc. donors with allogeneic donations between January 1, 2011, and December 31, 2012, were compared in a case-control study. Those with a false-positive donation for one of four viruses (human immunodeficiency virus [HIV], human T-lymphotropic virus [HTLV], hepatitis B virus [HBV], and hepatitis C virus [HCV]) were included as cases. Those with negative test results were controls. For a subset of cases, infectious risk factors were evaluated. RESULTS Black race and Hispanic ethnicity were associated with HCV and HTLV false-positive results. Male sex and lower education were associated with HCV false positivity, and age 25 to 44 was associated with HTLV false positivity. First-time donors were more likely to be HCV false positive although less likely to be HBV and HTLV false positive. No significant associations between donor demographics and HIV false positivity were observed. A questionnaire for false-positive donors showed low levels of high-risk behaviors. CONCLUSION Demographic associations with HCV and HTLV false-positive results overlap with those of true infection. While true infection is unlikely given current testing algorithms and risk factor evaluation, the findings suggest nonrandom association. Further investigation into biologic mechanisms is warranted. PMID:26509432

  2. The Development and Resulting Performance Impact of Positive Psychological Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luthans, Fred; Avey, James B.; Avolio, Bruce J.; Peterson, Suzanne J.

    2010-01-01

    Recently, theory and research have supported psychological capital (PsyCap) as an emerging core construct linked to positive outcomes at the individual and organizational level. However, to date, little attention has been given to PsyCap development through training interventions; nor have there been attempts to determine empirically if such…

  3. FERMILAB SWITCHYARD RESONANT BEAM POSITION MONITOR ELECTRONICS UPGRADE RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, T.; Diamond, J.; Liu, N.; Prieto, P. S.; Slimmer, D.; Watts, A.

    2016-10-12

    The readout electronics for the resonant beam position monitors (BPMs) in the Fermilab Switchyard (SY) have been upgraded, utilizing a low noise amplifier transition board and Fermilab designed digitizer boards. The stripline BPMs are estimated to have an average signal output of between -110 dBm and -80 dBm, with an estimated peak output of -70 dBm. The external resonant circuit is tuned to the SY machine frequency of 53.10348 MHz. Both the digitizer and transition boards have variable gain in order to accommodate the large dynamic range and irregularity of the resonant extraction spill. These BPMs will aid in auto-tuning of the SY beamline as well as enabling operators to monitor beam position through the spill.

  4. Percutaneous peritoneovenous shunt positioning: technique and preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Orsi, Franco; Grasso, Rosario Francesco; Bonomo, Guido; Monti, Cinzia; Marinucci, Irene; Bellomi, Massimo

    2002-05-01

    Nine peritoneovenous shunts were positioned by percutaneous technique in seven patients with advanced malignancy causing severe refractory ascites, and in two patients with hepatic cirrhosis (one with hepatocarcinoma). In all patients the shunts were percutaneously placed through the subclavian vein in the angiographic suite under digital fluoroscopic guide. No complications directly related to the procedure occurred. The shunt was successfully positioned in all patients in 60 min average time. No patient showed symptoms related to pulmonary overload or to disseminated intravascular coagulation. All patients had a significant improvement of the objective symptoms related to ascites such as respiratory symptoms, dyspepsia, and functional impairment to evacuation describing an improvement of their quality of life. Maximum shunt patency was 273 days. Percutaneous placement of peritoneovenous shunt is a safe, fast, and inexpensive procedure, extremely useful in resolution of refractory ascites, reducing symptoms, and allowing effective palliation, with a great improvement in quality of life.

  5. False-Positive Viability PCR Results: An Association with Microtubes.

    PubMed

    Agustí, Gemma; Fittipaldi, Mariana; Codony, Francesc

    2017-03-01

    Currently, one of the most challenged points to expand the use of viability PCR technique is achieving the complete exclusion of dead cells amplification signals, thus avoiding the overestimation of live cells population. Considering that, and based on the hypothesis that DNA may be retained by microtube walls, the impact of the microtube was addressed on signals from live and heat-killed cells. A double-dye reagent, PEMAX™, which comprises a mix of photo-reactive azide forms of phenanthridium, was used in this work. We found that if both the incubation and the photoactivation steps are carried out in different microtubes, the dead cell signal is greatly reduced than when those steps are done in the same tube. Therefore, the strategy depicted in this study presents a simple and efficient step in minimizing false-positive signal when employing viability PCR.

  6. Red Cross only positive result of horrifying 1859 bloodbath.

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, J

    1996-01-01

    Haunted by the suffering and human devastation he witnessed after the 1859 Battle of Solferino in Italy, Swiss banker Henry Dunant wrote a book that galvanized European governments and resulted in the first international agreement that established rules for the conduct of war. The Geneva Convention also resulted in the formation of the Red Cross. PMID:8873648

  7. Precursor medications as a source of methamphetamine and/or amphetamine positive drug testing results.

    PubMed

    Cody, John T

    2002-05-01

    Medical Review Officer interpretation of laboratory results is an important component of drug testing programs. The clinical evaluation of laboratory results to assess the possibility of appropriate medical use of a drug is a task with many different facets, depending on the drug class considered. This intercession prevents the reporting of positive results unless it is apparent that drugs were used illicitly. In addition to the commonly encountered prescribed drugs that yield positive drug testing results, other sources of positive results must be considered. This review describes a series of compounds referred to as "precursor" drugs that are metabolized by the body to amphetamine and/or methamphetamine. These compounds lead to positive results for amphetamines even though neither amphetamine nor methamphetamine were used, a possibility that must be considered in the review of laboratory results. Description of the drugs, their clinical indications, and results seen following administration are provided. This information allows for the informed evaluation of results with regard to the potential involvement of these drugs.

  8. Evaluating the addition of positive reinforcement for learning a frightening task: a pilot study with horses.

    PubMed

    Heleski, Camie; Bauson, Laura; Bello, Nora

    2008-01-01

    Horse training often relies upon negative reinforcement (NR). This study tested the hypothesis that adding positive reinforcement (PR) to NR would enhance learning in horses (n = 34) being taught to walk over a tarp (novel/typically frightening task). Subjects were Arabians, and the same person handled all of them. This person handled half "traditionally" (NR only)--that is, halter/lead were pulled; when horse stepped forward, pressure was released; process repeated until criterion met (horse crossed the tarp with little/no obvious anxiety). The same person handled the other half traditionally--but with addition of PR < food + verbal praise > (NR + PR). Subjects "failed" the task if they refused to walk onto the tarp after 10 min. Nine horses failed; 6 of 9 failures were from NR only--no significant difference detected (p = .41). The study detected no difference in time to first crossing of the tarp (p = .30) or total time to achieve calmness criterion (p = .67). Overall, adding PR did not significantly enhance learning this task. However, there were practical implications--adding PR made the task safer/less fatiguing for the handler.

  9. Poppy seed ingestion as a contributing factor to opiate-positive urinalysis results: the Pacific perspective.

    PubMed

    Selavka, C M

    1991-05-01

    The possible contribution of poppy seed foods to positive opiate urinalysis results, especially from foods available in the Pacific Rim area, has recently become an issue for the U.S. Army Forensic Toxicology Drug Testing Laboratory in Hawaii. To assess the likelihood of this possible contribution, seven different poppy seed food products were consumed by male and female volunteers, and urine specimens were collected at time increments up to either 24 or 72 h. Specimens were evaluated for opiates using Roche Abuscreen radioimmunoassay (RIA), and all RIA positive specimens were analyzed for morphine and codeine using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Poppy seed cake, bagels, muffins, and rolls did not contain sufficient quantities of poppy seeds to give rise to opiate positive specimens by U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) GC-MS cutoff levels (morphine = 4000 ng/mL, codeine = 2000 ng/mL), although a number of specimens were positive by National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) cutoff levels (morphine and codeine = 300 ng/mL). However, ingestion of poppy seed streusel or Danish pastry led to confirmed morphine and codeine positive specimens, irrespective of the use of DOD or NIDA confirmation cutoff values. In addition, significant amounts of codeine were observed in a number of these specimens. These findings argue against the unqualified application of previously published quantitative guidelines for eliminating poppy seed ingestion as a possible cause for a positive opiate urinalysis result.

  10. Fenofibric Acid Can Cause False-Positive Urine Methylenedioxymethamphetamine Immunoassay Results.

    PubMed

    Quesada, Loreto; Gomila, Isabel; Fe, Antonia; Servera, Miguel A; Yates, Christopher; Morell-Garcia, Daniel; Castanyer, Bartomeu; Barceló, Bernardino

    2015-01-01

    We present a false-positive result of ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxy-NN-methylamphetamine) screening due to the therapeutic use of fenofibrate, an antihyperlipidemic drug. Our hypothesis was that the main metabolite of fenofibrate, fenofibric acid, was responsible for this cross-reactivity on a DRI(®) Ecstasy Assay, using a cut-off of 500 ng/mL. We estimated that the addition of 225 µg/mL pure fenofibric acid to blank urine would be sufficient to result in a positive DRI(®) Ecstasy Assay. The results obtained on the urine samples analyses of the patient show that the DRI(®) Ecstasy Assay resulted negative 2 days after discontinuing fenofibrate treatment, when the urine fenofibric acid concentration corrected by creatinine and determinated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was 20.3 µg/mg creatinine. The cross-reactivity data for fenofibric acid would seem to indicate that there was insufficient concentration of measured compound to account for the positive immunochemical results for ecstasy. This apparent discrepancy can be explained in several ways, one of them is that the β-glucuronidase-resistent fenofibric acid isomers are responsible. This process could explain the low recovery of free fenofibric acid when we use the developed method for its quantification in urine samples. Positive results on immunoassay screening must be considered presumptive until confirmation with another method based on a different principle, preferably gas chromatography-mass spectrometry or liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

  11. Evaluation of additive formulations to inhibit precipitation of positive electrolyte in vanadium battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Faizur; Skyllas-Kazacos, M.

    2017-02-01

    A comprehensive study has been performed to develop blended additive formulations based on organic and inorganic compounds to prevent the precipitation of supersaturated V(V) species in the Vanadium Flow Battery at high temperatures around 50 °C. It was found that organic formulations are oxidized by the strong oxidizing effect of V(V) species and are hence ineffective. The inorganic additive formulation KS11 which consists of 1 wt% of K3PO4+ 1 wt% of SHMP appears to be very effective with a vanadium solution of composition 3.5 M V(V) in total sulphate/bisulphate concentration of 5.7 M up to a temperature of 40 °C. The phosphate ions (PO43-) released from K3PO4 and PO3- ions from SHMP (NaPO3)6 are believed to adsorb onto the nucleating ions, thus inhibiting the precipitation of scale forming species, or adsorption onto the growing crystals, deforming and/or inhibiting further formation of vanadium crystals. Although the electrochemical activity of 3.5 M V solutions was unaffected in the presence of the KS11, increasing vanadium concentration above 3.5 M and total sulphate/bisulphate concentration above 6 M is probably increasing the formation of electrochemically inactive complexes of vanadium-sulphate and polyvanadic species. This results in increased solution viscosity and subsequently reduces the electrochemical activity exponentially.

  12. Preliminary Results on Setup Precision of Prone-Lateral Patient Positioning for Whole Breast Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Veldeman, Liv; Speleers, Bruno; Bakker, Marlies; Jacobs, Filip; Coghe, Marc; De Gersem, Werner; Impens, Aline; Nechelput, Sarah; De Wagter, Carlos

    2010-09-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to develop a rapid and reproducible technique for prone positioning and to compare dose-volume indices in prone and supine positions. Methods and Materials: Eighteen patients underwent computed tomography imaging for radiotherapy planning in prone and supine position. Experience was gained in the first eight patients, which lead to modifications of the Horizon prone breast board (Civco Medical Solutions, Orange City, Iowa, USA) and the patient setup technique. A unilateral breast holder (U-BH) was developed (Van de Velde, Schellebelle, Belgium) to retract the contralateral breast away from the treated breast. The technique was then applied to an additional 10 patients. The setup precision was evaluated using daily cone-beam CT. Results: Modifications to the breast board were made to secure a prone-lateral rather then a pure prone position. We evolved from a classical setup using laser marks on the patients' body to a direct breast setup using marks on the breast only. The setup precision of the direct positioning procedure with the modified breast board and the U-BH is comparable to supine setup data in the literature. Dose-volume indices for heart and lung show significantly better results for prone than for supine position, and dose homogeneity within the treated breast did not differ according to the treatment position. Conclusions: The setup precision of our prone-lateral positioning technique is comparable to supine data in literature. Our data show the advantage of prone radiotherapy to spare the lung and heart. Further research is necessary to reduce the duration of prone setup.

  13. Are Hemorrhoids Associated with False-Positive Fecal Immunochemical Test Results?

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Nam Hee; Park, Jung Ho; Park, Dong Il; Sohn, Chong Il; Choi, Kyuyong

    2017-01-01

    Purpose False-positive (FP) results of fecal immunochemical tests (FITs) conducted in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening could lead to performing unnecessary colonoscopies. Hemorrhoids are a possible cause of FP FIT results; however, studies on this topic are extremely rare. We investigated whether hemorrhoids are associated with FP FIT results. Materials and Methods A retrospective study was conducted at a university hospital in Korea from June 2013 to May 2015. Of the 34547 individuals who underwent FITs, 3946 aged ≥50 years who underwent colonoscopies were analyzed. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine factors associated with FP FIT results. Results Among 3946 participants, 704 (17.8%) showed positive FIT results and 1303 (33.0%) had hemorrhoids. Of the 704 participants with positive FIT results, 165 had advanced colorectal neoplasia (ACRN) and 539 had no ACRN (FP results). Of the 1303 participants with hemorrhoids, 291 showed FP results, of whom 81 showed FP results because of hemorrhoids only. Participants with hemorrhoids had a higher rate of FP results than those without hemorrhoids (291/1176, 24.7% vs. 248/2361, 10.5%; p<0.001). Additionally, the participants with hemorrhoids as the only abnormality had a higher rate of FP results than those experiencing no such abnormalities (81/531, 15.3% vs. 38/1173, 3.2%; p<0.001). In multivariate analysis, the presence of hemorrhoids was identified as an independent predictor of FP results (adjusted odds ratio, 2.76; 95% confidence interval, 2.24–3.40; p<0.001). Conclusion Hemorrhoids are significantly associated with FP FIT results. Their presence seemed to be a non-negligible contributor of FP results in FIT-based CRC screening programs. PMID:27873508

  14. Differentiating medicinal from illicit use in positive methamphetamine results in a pain population.

    PubMed

    West, Robert; Pesce, Amadeo; West, Cameron; Mikel, Charles; Velasco, Javier; Gonzales, Elizabeth; Dizon, Zenaida; Almazan, Perla; Latyshev, Sergey

    2013-03-01

    In addition to illicit methamphetamine, there are prescription and over-the-counter medications that, if ingested, may yield positive methamphetamine (MAMP) results on laboratory urine drug tests. The purpose of the study is to estimate the prevalence of medicinal and illicit MAMP in the pain population using chiral analysis to determine the relative amounts of the d and l-MAMP enantiomers. This retrospective analysis included the LC-MS/MS results and prescriber provided medication histories of 485,889 de-identified urine specimens from patients treated for pain. Two groups of 100 specimens each were subjected to chiral analysis. Group 1 contained specimens that were MAMP positive and amphetamine negative. Group 2 contained randomly selected MAMP positive specimens. The overall MAMP positivity rate of the 485,889 specimens tested was 1.6%. The prevalence of MAMP medications based on reported medications and detection of l-MAMP in Group 1 and Group 2 was 44% and 6%, respectively. These data indicate that the use of both illicit and medicinal MAMP is found in this patient population, and that medicinal use is underreported in clinical histories. Therefore, clinical laboratories should provide on request chiral analysis to aid in differentiating illicit and medicinal MAMP.

  15. Way forward in case of a false positive in vitro genotoxicity result for a cosmetic substance?

    PubMed

    Doktorova, Tatyana Y; Ates, Gamze; Vinken, Mathieu; Vanhaecke, Tamara; Rogiers, Vera

    2014-02-01

    The currently used regulatory in vitro mutagenicity/genotoxicity test battery has a high sensitivity for detecting genotoxicants, but it suffers from a large number of irrelevant positive results (i.e. low specificity) thereby imposing the need for additional follow-up by in vitro and/or in vivo genotoxicity tests. This could have a major impact on the cosmetic industry in Europe, seen the imposed animal testing and marketing bans on cosmetics and their ingredients. Afflicted, but safe substances could therefore be lost. Using the example of triclosan, a cosmetic preservative, we describe here the potential applicability of a human toxicogenomics-based in vitro assay as a potential mechanistically based follow-up test for positive in vitro genotoxicity results. Triclosan shows a positive in vitro chromosomal aberration test, but is negative during in vivo follow-up tests. Toxicogenomics analysis unequivocally shows that triclosan is identified as a compound acting through non-DNA reactive mechanisms. This proof-of-principle study illustrates the potential of genome-wide transcriptomics data in combination with in vitro experimentation as a possible weight-of-evidence follow-up approach for de-risking a positive outcome in a standard mutagenicity/genotoxicity battery. As such a substantial number of cosmetic compounds wrongly identified as genotoxicants could be saved for the future.

  16. Metallic sulfide additives for positive electrode material within a secondary electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Walsh, William J.; McPheeters, Charles C.; Yao, Neng-ping; Koura, Kobuyuki

    1976-01-01

    An improved active material for use within the positive electrode of a secondary electrochemical cell includes a mixture of iron disulfide and a sulfide of a polyvalent metal. Various metal sulfides, particularly sulfides of cobalt, nickel, copper, cerium and manganese, are added in minor weight proportion in respect to iron disulfide for improving the electrode performance and reducing current collector requirements.

  17. The use of nanometer tetrabasic lead sulfate as positive active material additive for valve regulated lead-acid battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Xiaoshi; Wang, Dianlong; Hu, Chiyu; Tang, Shenzhi; Zhu, Junsheng; Guo, Chenfeng

    2014-12-01

    Conventional tetrabasic lead sulfate used as positive active material additive shows the results of the low effective lead dioxide conversion rate due to the large grain size and crossed the crystal structure. In this paper, we study on a type of nanometer tetrabasic lead sulfate. Through the XRD and SEM test and Material Studio software calculation, the purity of tetrabasic lead sulfate is very high, the grain size of the nanometer 4BS is almost unanimous, and can be controlled below 200 nm. When charged and discharged in 1.75 V-2.42 V with the current density of 40 mA g-1, 80 mA g-1 and 160 mA g-1, the effective lead dioxide conversion rate of nanometer 4BS after formation can achieve to 83.48%, 71.42%, and 66.96%. Subsequently, the nanometer 4BS as additive is added to positive paste of lead-acid battery. When the batteries are tested galvanostatically between 1.75 V and 2.42 V at 0.25 C charge and 0.5 C discharge rates at room temperature. The ratio of adding nanometer 4BS is 0%, 1% and 4% and the initial discharge specific capacities are 60 mAh g-1, 65 mAh g-1 and 68 mAh g-1. After 80 cycles, the initial discharge capacity of positive active material with 1% nanometer 4BS decreased less than 10%, while adding 4% nanometer 4BS, the initial discharge capacity doesn't decrease obviously.

  18. Ammonia-oxidizing archaea respond positively to inorganic nitrogen addition in desert soils.

    PubMed

    Marusenko, Yevgeniy; Garcia-Pichel, Ferran; Hall, Sharon J

    2015-02-01

    In soils, nitrogen (N) addition typically enhances ammonia oxidation (AO) rates and increases the population density of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), but not that of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA). We asked if long-term inorganic N addition also has similar consequences in arid land soils, an understudied yet spatially ubiquitous ecosystem type. Using Sonoran Desert top soils from between and under shrubs within a long-term N-enrichment experiment, we determined community concentration-response kinetics of AO and measured the total and relative abundance of AOA and AOB based on amoA gene abundance. As expected, N addition increased maximum AO rates and the abundance of bacterial amoA genes compared to the controls. Surprisingly, N addition also increased the abundance of archaeal amoA genes. We did not detect any major effects of N addition on ammonia-oxidizing community composition. The ammonia-oxidizing communities in these desert soils were dominated by AOA as expected (78% of amoA gene copies were related to Nitrososphaera), but contained unusually high contributions of Nitrosomonas (18%) and unusually low numbers of Nitrosospira (2%). This study highlights unique traits of ammonia oxidizers in arid lands, which should be considered globally in predictions of AO responses to changes in N availability.

  19. The Modern U.S. High School Astronomy Course, Its Status and Makeup II: Additional Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krumenaker, Larry

    2009-01-01

    A postal survey of high school astronomy teachers strongly confirms many results of an earlier electronic survey. Additional and new results include a measure of the level of inquiry (more structured inquiry and teacher-led) in the classroom as well as data showing that more emphasis is given to traditional topics than to contemporary astronomy…

  20. Amisulpride Augmentation for Clozapine-Refractory Positive Symptoms: Additional Benefit in Reducing Hypersialorrhea

    PubMed Central

    Bogorni, Fabiani; Moreira, Frederico Fernandes; Pimentel, Eduardo Mylius; Grohs, Géder Evandro Motta; Diaz, Alexandre Paim

    2015-01-01

    One-third to half of patients taking clozapine suffer from refractory symptoms despite adequate treatment. Among other adverse effects, clozapine-induced hypersalivation (CIH) occurs in approximately half of all patients. This is a case of a 30-year-old male with refractory schizophrenia; in this patient, the remission of residual positive symptoms, as well as the reduction of CIH, was achieved by treatment with clozapine augmented with amisulpride. PMID:25838958

  1. Accuracy and stability of positioning in radiosurgery: Long term results of the Gamma Knife system

    SciTech Connect

    Heck, Bernhard; Jess-Hempen, Anja; Kreiner, Hans Juerg; Schoepgens, Hans; Mack, Andreas

    2007-04-15

    The primary aim of this investigation was to determine the long term overall accuracy of an irradiation position of Gamma Knife systems. The mechanical accuracy of the system as well as the overall accuracy of an irradiation position was examined by irradiating radiosensitive films. To measure the mechanical accuracy, the GafChromic registered film was fixed by a special tool at the unit center point (UCP). For overall accuracy the film was mounted inside a phantom at a target position given by a two-dimensional cross. Its position was determined by CT or MRI scans, a treatment was planned to hit this target by use of the standard planning software and the radiation was finally delivered. This procedure is named ''system test'' according to DIN 6875-1 and is equivalent to a treatment simulation. The used GafChromic registered films were evaluated by high resolution densitometric measurements. The Munich Gamma Knife UCP coincided within x;y;z: -0.014{+-}0.09 mm; 0.013{+-}0.09 mm; -0.002{+-}0.06 mm (mean{+-}SD) to the center of dose distribution. There was no trend in the measured data observed over more than ten years. All measured data were within a sphere of 0.2 mm radius. When basing the target definition in the system test on MRI scans, we obtained an overall accuracy of an irradiation position in the x direction of 0.21{+-}0.32 mm and in the y direction 0.15{+-}0.26 mm (mean{+-}SD). When a CT-based target definition was used, we measured distances in x direction 0.06{+-}0.09 mm and in y direction 0.04{+-}0.09 mm (mean{+-}SD), respectively. These results were compared with those obtained with a Gamma Knife equipped with an automatic positioning system (APS) by use of a different phantom. This phantom was found to be slightly less accurate due to its mechanical construction and the soft fixation into the frame. The phantom related position deviation was found to be about {+-}0.2 mm, and therefore the measured accuracy of the APS Gamma Knife was evidently less

  2. Additional results on 'Reducing geometric dilution of precision using ridge regression'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Robert J.

    1990-07-01

    Kelly (1990) presented preliminary results on the feasibility of using ridge regression (RR) to reduce the effects of geometric dilution of precision (GDOP) error inflation in position-fix navigation systems. Recent results indicate that RR will not reduce GDOP bias inflation when biaslike measurement errors last much longer than the aircraft guidance-loop response time. This conclusion precludes the use of RR on navigation systems whose dominant error sources are biaslike; e.g., the GPS selective-availability error source. The simulation results given by Kelly are, however, valid for the conditions defined. Although RR has not yielded a satisfactory solution to the general GDOP problem, it has illuminated the role that multicollinearity plays in navigation signal processors such as the Kalman filter. Bias inflation, initial position guess errors, ridge-parameter selection methodology, and the recursive ridge filter are discussed.

  3. Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive for Enhanced Mercury Control - Pilot-Scale Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Gary M. Blythe

    2006-03-01

    Texas Lignite Flue Gas; Task 3 - Full-scale FGD Additive Testing in High Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Flue Gas; Task 4 - Pilot Wet Scrubber Additive Tests at Yates; and Task 5 - Full-scale Additive Tests at Plant Yates. This topical report presents the results from the Task 2 and Task 4 pilot-scale additive tests. The Task 3 and Task 5 full-scale additive tests will be conducted later in calendar year 2006.

  4. The oblique supine decubitus position: technical description and comparison of results with the prone decubitus and dorsal supine decubitus positions.

    PubMed

    Arrabal-Martin, Miguel; Arrabal-Polo, Miguel A; Lopez-Leon, Victor; Merino-Salas, Sergio; Palao-Yago, Francisco; Cámara-Ortega, Manuel; Zuluaga-Gomez, Armando

    2012-10-01

    Our objective was to analyze the advantages of the percutaneous nephrolithotomy in oblique supine decubitus compared to the prone and dorsal supine position. In 87 patients diagnosed with urolithiasis (495.5-530.8 mm(2)), percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) was performed from 2000 to 2011. The patients were divided into three groups: Group A, 32 patients, PNL in the prone decubitus position; Group B, 24 patients, PNL in the dorsal supine position; Group C, 31 patients, PNL in the oblique supine position. We analyzed intraoperative parameters, complications, and results among the three groups. The three procedures were performed with a single access, 24-30 Ch. No statistically significant differences were found among the three groups regarding the patients' characteristics, or the morphology or size of the kidney stone treated. The operation time was shorter in the cases of PNL in dorsal supine and oblique supine compared to the prone position. The complication rate was very similar in the three groups. The main advantage of the PNL in oblique supine compared to the dorsal supine was that the puncture could in all cases be directed by ultrasonography, with greater precision, more safety, and more control of the percutaneous renal access. The oblique supine decubitus position is a safe position for the percutaneous treatment of urolithiasis and it becomes easier when the puncture is guided by ultrasound.

  5. Green Positive Guidance and Green Positive Life Counseling for Decent Work and Decent Lives: Some Empirical Results

    PubMed Central

    Di Fabio, Annamaria; Bucci, Ornella

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses green positive guidance and green positive life counseling for decent work and decent lives. From a green guidance perspective, the connectedness to nature construct is important both in terms of the meaning of work and life construction. The study discussed in this article analyzed the relationship between empathy and connectedness to nature, controlling for the effects of fluid intelligence and personality traits. In this connection, the Advanced Progressive Matrices, the Big Five Questionnaire, and the Interpersonal Reactivity Index were administered to 144 Italian high school students. The study revealed that connecteness to nature was not associated with fluid intelligence and was only moderately associated with personality traits. It was empathy that showed the highest association with connectedness to nature. The results open new opportunities for future research and interventions in green positive guidance/life counseling and green positive decent work. PMID:26973563

  6. Green Positive Guidance and Green Positive Life Counseling for Decent Work and Decent Lives: Some Empirical Results.

    PubMed

    Di Fabio, Annamaria; Bucci, Ornella

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses green positive guidance and green positive life counseling for decent work and decent lives. From a green guidance perspective, the connectedness to nature construct is important both in terms of the meaning of work and life construction. The study discussed in this article analyzed the relationship between empathy and connectedness to nature, controlling for the effects of fluid intelligence and personality traits. In this connection, the Advanced Progressive Matrices, the Big Five Questionnaire, and the Interpersonal Reactivity Index were administered to 144 Italian high school students. The study revealed that connecteness to nature was not associated with fluid intelligence and was only moderately associated with personality traits. It was empathy that showed the highest association with connectedness to nature. The results open new opportunities for future research and interventions in green positive guidance/life counseling and green positive decent work.

  7. Additional results on space environmental effects on polymer matrix composites: Experiment A0180

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tennyson, R. C.

    1992-01-01

    Additional experimental results on the atomic oxygen erosion of boron, Kevlar, and graphite fiber reinforced epoxy matrix composites are presented. Damage of composite laminates due to micrometeoroid/debris impacts is also examined with particular emphasis on the relationship between damage area and actual hole size due to particle penetration. Special attention is given to one micrometeoroid impact on an aluminum base plate which resulted in ejecta visible on an adjoining vertical flange structure.

  8. False-Positive Results after Environmental Pinworm PCR Testing due to Rhabditid Nematodes in Corncob Bedding

    PubMed Central

    Leblanc, Mathias; Berry, Kristina; Graciano, Sandy; Becker, Brandon; Reuter, Jon D

    2014-01-01

    Modern rodent colonies are housed in individually ventilated cages to protect the animals from contamination with adventitious pathogens. Standard health monitoring through soiled-bedding sentinels does not always detect infections, especially in the context of low pathogen prevalence. Recently proposed alternatives include analyzing environmental samples from the cages or rack exhaust by PCR to improve the detection of rodent pathogens but optimal sampling strategies have not yet been established for different microorganisms. Although generally very sensitive and specific, these molecular assays are not foolproof and subject to false-positive and –negative results and should always be interpreted cautiously with an overall understanding of the intrinsic controls and all the variables that may affect the results. Here, we report a limited Aspiculuris tetraptera outbreak in a mouse barrier facility that was detected by fecal PCR in sentinels and confirmed by fecal flotation and direct cecal examination of both sentinels and colony animals. The outbreak led to a widespread survey of all facilities for pinworms by using environmental PCR from ventilated rack exhaust plenums. Environmental PCR suggested an unexpected widespread contamination of all ventilated racks holding nonautoclaved cages, but results could not be confirmed in sentinel or colony animals by fecal flotation, cecal and colonic examination, or cage PCR testing. After additional investigation, the unexpected environmental PCR results were confirmed as false-positive findings due to the nonspecificity of the assay, leading to the amplification of rhabditid nematodes, which are not infectious in rodents but which contaminated the corncob bedding. PMID:25650980

  9. False-positive results after environmental pinworm PCR testing due to Rhabditid nematodes in Corncob bedding.

    PubMed

    Leblanc, Mathias; Berry, Kristina; Graciano, Sandy; Becker, Brandon; Reuter, Jon D

    2014-11-01

    Modern rodent colonies are housed in individually ventilated cages to protect the animals from contamination with adventitious pathogens. Standard health monitoring through soiled-bedding sentinels does not always detect infections, especially in the context of low pathogen prevalence. Recently proposed alternatives include analyzing environmental samples from the cages or rack exhaust by PCR to improve the detection of rodent pathogens but optimal sampling strategies have not yet been established for different microorganisms. Although generally very sensitive and specific, these molecular assays are not foolproof and subject to false-positive and -negative results and should always be interpreted cautiously with an overall understanding of the intrinsic controls and all the variables that may affect the results. Here, we report a limited Aspiculuris tetraptera outbreak in a mouse barrier facility that was detected by fecal PCR in sentinels and confirmed by fecal flotation and direct cecal examination of both sentinels and colony animals. The outbreak led to a widespread survey of all facilities for pinworms by using environmental PCR from ventilated rack exhaust plenums. Environmental PCR suggested an unexpected widespread contamination of all ventilated racks holding nonautoclaved cages, but results could not be confirmed in sentinel or colony animals by fecal flotation, cecal and colonic examination, or cage PCR testing. After additional investigation, the unexpected environmental PCR results were confirmed as false-positive findings due to the nonspecificity of the assay, leading to the amplification of rhabditid nematodes, which are not infectious in rodents but which contaminated the corncob bedding.

  10. The influence of vibration type, frequency, body position and additional load on the neuromuscular activity during whole body vibration.

    PubMed

    Ritzmann, Ramona; Gollhofer, Albert; Kramer, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the influence of different whole body vibration (WBV) determinants on the electromyographic (EMG) activity during WBV in order to identify those training conditions that cause highest neuromuscular responses and therefore provide optimal training conditions. In a randomized cross-over study, the EMG activity of six leg muscles was analyzed in 18 subjects with respect to the following determinants: (1) vibration type (side-alternating vibration (SV) vs. synchronous vibration (SyV), (2) frequency (5-10-15-20-25-30 Hz), (3) knee flexion angle (10°-30°-60°), (4) stance condition (forefoot vs. normal stance) and (5) load variation (no extra load vs. additional load equal to one-third of the body weight). The results are: (1) neuromuscular activity during SV was enhanced compared to SyV (P < 0.05); (2) a progressive increase in frequency caused a progressive increase in EMG activity (P < 0.05); (3) the EMG activity was highest for the knee extensors when the knee joint was 60° flexed (P < 0.05); (4) for the plantar flexors in the forefoot stance condition (P < 0.05); and (5) additional load caused an increase in neuromuscular activation (P < 0.05). In conclusion, large variations of the EMG activation could be observed across conditions. However, with an appropriate adjustment of specific WBV determinants, high EMG activations and therefore high activation intensities could be achieved in the selected muscles. The combination of high vibration frequencies with additional load on an SV platform led to highest EMG activities. Regarding the body position, a knee flexion of 60° and forefoot stance appear to be beneficial for the knee extensors and the plantar flexors, respectively.

  11. The use of EMDR in positive verbal material: results from a patient study

    PubMed Central

    Matthijssen, Suzy Johanna Martina Adriana; van den Hout, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Background According to the working memory (WM) theory of eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing (EMDR), dual tasks that tax WM during memory recall reduce image vividness and emotionality of memory during future recalls when no dual task is carried out. There is some evidence that WM taxing also reduces vividness and emotionality of auditory or verbal imagery. Objective The present study tests the effect of eye movements (EM) on positive verbal material (verbal imagery), which is used in different parts of the EMDR protocol. In the Dutch version of the standard EMDR protocol, a procedure “Positive Closure” (PC) is performed, which uses verbal imagery under dual task condition (EM). The value of EM in this procedure has not been established and according to the WM account would be counterproductive. Two earlier studies with undergraduates, with a set-up comparable to the present one, showed no additive value of the EM in the procedure, but no counterproductive effect either. Method Thirty-six patients rated the belief in possessing two positive personality traits and emotionality of the traits. They then had an EMDR session targeting a negative memory and recalled and re-rated the belief and emotionality of the traits afterward. Subsequently, they recalled one trait while dual tasking (EM) and the other trait without dual tasking. Afterward, they re-rated the belief and emotionality. Results EM did not affect the belief in possessing the trait or the emotionality. Secondary analysis shows an effective EMDR session itself enhances the belief in the traits, compared to a less or non-effective EMDR session. Conclusions EM are not effective in enhancing the belief in possessing a personality trait or the emotionality. If replicated by other patient studies, this suggests elimination of the PC procedure. Highlights of the article In this study the additive value of EM on verbal material (in the procedure Positive Closure) is not found. No effect of the

  12. Lifecourse socioeconomic position and alcohol use in young adulthood: results from the French TEMPO cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Yaogo, Ahmed; Fombonne, Eric; Kouanda, Seni; Lert, France; Melchior, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Aims To examine the relationship between lifetime socioeconomic position and alcohol use in young adults. Methods Study participants (n=1,103, age 22–35 years in 2009) belong to the French TEMPO cohort study and are all offspring of participants of the GAZEL cohort study. Alcohol use was assessed by the WHO AUDIT questionnaire (none, low or intermediate alcohol use, alcohol abuse). Childhood socioeconomic position was measured using parental income through the GAZEL cohort study in 1989 (low: ≤2592€/month vs. Intermediate/high: >2592€/month). Adult socioeconomic position was measured by participants’ educational level (<=high school degree vs. > high school degree). Combining family income and educational attainment, we ascertained participants’ social trajectory (stable high, upward, downward and stable low). Data were analyzed using multinomial regression analyses controlled for demographic, social, psychological and family characteristics. Results Participants’ social trajectory was associated with alcohol abstinence: compared to participants with a stable high social trajectory, those with an upward, downward or low social trajectory were more likely to abstain from alcohol (compared to a stable high social trajectory, sex and age-adjusted ORs: OR=2.22, 95% CI 1.35–3.65 for an upward social trajectory; OR=3.20, 95% CI 1.78–5.73 for a downward social trajectory; OR= 3.27, 95% CI 1.75–6.12 for a stable low social trajectory). Additionally, participants with a downward social trajectory were disproportionately likely to abuse alcohol (sex and age-adjusted OR: 1.48, 95% CI 0.89–2.48). In multivariate analyses, social trajectory remained associated with alcohol abstinence. Conclusions Lifelong socioeconomic position may shape patterns of alcohol use early in life. PMID:23900495

  13. Risk for Neurobehavioral Disinhibition in Prenatal Methamphetamine-Exposed Young Children with Positive Hair Toxicology Results

    PubMed Central

    Himes, Sarah K.; LaGasse, Linda L.; Derauf, Chris; Newman, Elana; Smith, Lynne M.; Arria, Amelia M.; Grotta, Sheri A. Della; Dansereau, Lynne M.; Abar, Beau; Neal, Charles R.; Lester, Barry M.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The objective was to evaluate effects of prenatal methamphetamine exposure (PME) and postnatal drug exposures identified by child hair analysis on neurobehavioral disinhibition at 6.5 years of age. Methods Mother-infant pairs were enrolled in the Infant Development, Environment, and Lifestyle (IDEAL) Study in Los Angeles, Honolulu, Tulsa and Des Moines. PME was determined by maternal self-report and/or positive meconium results. At the 6.5-year follow-up visit, hair was collected and analyzed for methamphetamine, tobacco, cocaine, and cannabinoid markers. Child behavioral and executive function test scores were aggregated to evaluate child neurobehavioral disinhibition. Hierarchical linear regression models assessed the impact of PME, postnatal substances, and combined PME with postnatal drug exposures on the child’s neurobehavioral disinhibition aggregate score. Past year caregiver substance use was compared to child hair results. Results A total of 264 children were evaluated. Significantly more PME children (n=133) had hair positive for methamphetamine/amphetamine (27.1% versus 8.4%) and nicotine/cotinine (38.3% versus 25.2%) than children without PME (n=131). Overall, no significant differences in analyte hair concentrations were noted between groups. Significant differences in behavioral and executive function were observed between children with and without PME. No independent effects of postnatal methamphetamine or tobacco exposure, identified by positive hair test, were noted and no additional neurobehavioral disinhibition was observed in PME children with postnatal drug exposures, as compared to PME children without postnatal exposure. Conclusions Child hair testing offered a non-invasive means to evaluate postnatal environmental drug exposure, although no effects from postnatal drug exposure alone were seen. PME, alone and in combination with postnatal drug exposures, was associated with behavioral and executive function deficits at 6.5 years

  14. The oxidation of organic additives in the positive vanadium electrolyte and its effect on the performance of vanadium redox flow battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Tam D.; Whitehead, Adam; Scherer, Günther G.; Wai, Nyunt; Oo, Moe O.; Bhattarai, Arjun; Chandra, Ghimire P.; Xu, Zhichuan J.

    2016-12-01

    Despite many desirable properties, the vanadium redox flow battery is limited, in the maximum operation temperature that can be continuously endured, before precipitation begins in the positive electrolyte. Many additives have been proposed to improve the thermal stability of the charged positive electrolyte. However, we have found that the apparent stability, revealed in laboratory testing, is often simply an artifact of the test method and arises from the oxidation of the additive, with corresponding partial reduction of V(V) to V(IV). This does not improve the stability of the electrolyte in an operating system. Here, we examined the oxidation of some typical organic additives with carboxyl, alcohol, and multi-functional groups, in sulfuric acid solutions containing V(V). The UV-vis measurements and titration results showed that many compounds reduced the state-of-charge (SOC) of vanadium electrolyte, for example, by 27.8, 88.5, and 81.9% with the addition of 1%wt of EDTA disodium salt, pyrogallol, and ascorbic acid, respectively. The cell cycling also indicated the effect of organic additives on the cell performance, with significant reduction in the usable charge capacity. In addition, a standard screening method for thermally stable additives was introduced, to quickly screen suitable additives for the positive vanadium electrolyte.

  15. Effect of product form upon fatigue-crack growth behavior in Alloy 718: additional results

    SciTech Connect

    James, L A

    1980-08-01

    A previous study had characterized the fatigue-crack growth behavior of four wrought product forms (sheet, plate, bar and forging) from a single heat of Alloy 718 and concluded that there were no consistent trends in the crack growth rate results that could be attributed to product form variability. The present study adds one additional product form (gas-tungsten-arc weldments) from the same heat, and compares the behavior to that exhibited by the wrought product forms. Two different precipitation heat-treatments were employed at each of five test temperatures (24, 316, 427, 538, and 649{sup 0}C).

  16. The effect of product form upon fatigue-crack growth behavior in Alloy 718: Additional results

    SciTech Connect

    James, L.A.

    1980-08-01

    A previous study had characterized the fatigue-crack growth behavior of four wrought product forms (sheet, plate, bar and forging) from a single heat of Alloy 718 and concluded that there were no consistent trends in the crack growth rate results that could be attributed to product form variability. The present study adds one additional product form (gas-tungsten-arc weldments) from the same heat, and compares the behavior to that exhibited by the wrought product forms. Two different precipitation heat-treatments were employed at each of five test temperatures. 11 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Results of investigations of Ethernet network fault-tolerance parameters by using additional analysis subsystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sultanov, Albert H.; Gayfulin, Renat R.; Vinogradova, Irina L.

    2008-04-01

    Fiber optic telecommunication systems with duplex data transmitting over single fiber require reflection minimization. Moreover reflections may be so high that causes system deactivating by misoperation of conventional alarm, and system can not automatically adjudge the collision, so operator manual control is required. In this paper we proposed technical solution of mentioned problem based on additional analysis subsystem, realized on the installed Ufa-city fiber optic CTV system "Crystal". Experience of it's maintenance and results of investigations of the fault tolerance parameters are represented

  18. Adherent cell assay results affected by variable z-position mixing.

    PubMed

    Carramanzana, Nelson; Ross, Sandra; Biddlecombe, Gloria; Lin, Chi-Hwei; Johnson, Michael

    2010-04-01

    We demonstrate that modifying mixing dynamics after addition of organic solute into aqueous buffers dramatically affects cell morphology and protein expression. Variable z-position (VZP) or varying the height of aspiration and dispense positions during mixing eliminates artifactual effects. Here, we tested 4 adherent cell types and show effects of VZP on quantitative imaging, protein expression, viability, and morphology. The result: The quantitation of cytoplasmic fluorescence within the fields of interest of the phalloidin-actin stain assay improved by 47% and fluorescence variability emitted by cells expressing green fluorescence protein (GFP) fusion proteins decreased by 15%. Assays that perform measurement by averaged reading of the entire well are somewhat susceptible. For example, protein production decreased 8% on the hypoxia response element (HRE)-luciferase assay. VZP did not affect quantitative cell viability, deviate the half maximal effective dose concentration (EC(50)) values or alter expected curve patterns. VZP is a valuable systematic process for cellular assay workflows as it efficiently folds organic solute into the aqueous solution.

  19. Detection of circulating prostate tumor cells: alternative spliced variant of PSM induced false-positive result.

    PubMed

    Hisatomi, Hisashi; Nagao, Kumi; Kawakita, Mutsuji; Matsuda, Tadashi; Hirata, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Shigeki; Nakamoto, Takaaki; Harasawa, Hiroshi; Kaneko, Noboru; Hikiji, Kazumasa; Tsukada, Yutaka

    2002-11-01

    RT-nested PCR has been introduced as a highly specific and sensitive assay method to detect the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSM) mRNA in peripheral blood. However, appreciable percentages of false-positive cases have been reported. Additionally, primer sets reported previously could not discriminate between PSM and PSM', an alternatively spliced variant, mRNA. These isoforms can be produced from a single gene. Switches in alternative splicing patterns are often controlled with strict cell-type or developmental-stage specificity. Therefore, it is most important to discriminate between PSM mRNA and PSM' mRNA. Using our highly specific primer sets, PSM mRNA was detected in 3 of 24 peripheral blood samples of normal male volunteers (12.5%) and was not detected in peripheral blood of 11 normal female volunteers. PSM' mRNA was detected in 5 of 24 peripheral blood samples of normal male volunteers (20.8%) and in 4 of 11 of normal female volunteers (36.4%). PSM' mRNA induced false-positive results, it is important for genetic diagnosis of prostate cancer to discriminate between PSM and PSM' using our primer sets with high specificity. The advances in the uniquely designed primer sets may allow researchers to detect a real PSM mRNA without PSM' mRNA.

  20. A radio/optical reference frame. 5: Additional source positions in the mid-latitude southern hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, J. L.; Reynolds, J. E.; Jauncey, D. L.; De Vegt, C.; Zacharias, N.; Ma, C.; Fey, A. L.; Johnston, K. J.; Hindsley, R.; Hughes, J. A.

    1994-01-01

    We report new accurate radio position measurements for 30 sources, preliminary positions for two sources, improved radio postions for nine additional sources which had limited previous observations, and optical positions and optical-radio differences for six of the radio sources. The Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations are part of the continuing effort to establish a global radio reference frame of about 400 compact, flat spectrum sources, which are evenly distributed across the sky. The observations were made using Mark III data format in four separate sessions in 1988-89 with radio telescopes at Tidbinbilla, Australia, Kauai, USA, and Kashima, Japan. We observed a total of 54 sources, including ten calibrators and three which were undetected. The 32 new source positions bring the total number in the radio reference frame catalog to 319 (172 northern and 147 southern) and fill in the zone -25 deg greater than delta greater than -45 deg which, prior to this list, had the lowest source density. The VLBI positions have an average formal precision of less than 1 mas, although unknown radio structure effects of about 1-2 mas may be present. The six new optical postion measurements are part of the program to obtain positions of the optical counterparts of the radio reference frame source and to map accurately the optical on to the radio reference frames. The optical measurements were obtained from United States Naval Observatory (USNO) Black Birch astrograph plates and source plates from the AAT, and Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) 4 m, and the European Southern Observatory (ESO) Schmidt. The optical positions have an average precision of 0.07 sec, mostly due to the zero point error when adjusted to the FK5 optical frame using the IRS catalog. To date we have measured optical positions for 46 sources.

  1. Positioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conone, Ruth M.

    The key to positioning is the creation of a clear benefit image in the consumer's mind. One positioning strategy is creating in the prospect's mind a position that takes into consideration the company's or agency's strengths and weaknesses as well as those of its competitors. Another strategy is to gain entry into a position ladder owned by…

  2. What Lies beneath Seemingly Positive Campus Climate Results: Institutional Sexism, Racism, and Male Hostility toward Equity Initiatives and Liberal Bias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaccaro, Annemarie

    2010-01-01

    This article presents qualitative results from a campus climate study at one predominately white university. Data analysis uncovered "what lies beneath" a seemingly positive campus climate. Gender differences in survey responses suggest that men and women experienced the climate in vastly different ways. Additionally, lack of deep diversity…

  3. Delays in antiretroviral therapy initiation among HIV-positive individuals: results of the positive living with HIV study

    PubMed Central

    Poudel, Krishna C.; Buchanan, David R.; Poudel-Tandukar, Kalpana

    2016-01-01

    Background Lack of early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) remains a major health concern due to increased risk of premature mortality and further HIV transmission. This study explored CD4+ cell count monitoring in relation to delays in ART initiation among HIV-positive individuals in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal, where ART coverage was only 23.7% in 2011. Design We recruited a total of 87 ART-naïve, HIV-positive individuals aged 18 to 60 years through the networks of five non-government organizations working with HIV-positive individuals. We collected data on the history of ART initiation, CD4+ cell count monitoring, socio-demographic variables, perceived family support (measured with 10-item Nepali Family Support and Difficulty Scale), depression, and HIV symptom burden. Correlates of ART eligibility were examined using multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results A total of 72 of the 87 ART-naïve participants (82.8%) had monitored their CD4+ cell count in the past 6 months. Of these, 36 (50%) participants were eligible for ART initiation with CD4+ cell count <350 cells/mm3. A total of 12 participants had CD4+ cell count <200 cells/mm3. Lower level of perceived family support was associated with 6.05-fold higher odds (95% confidence interval =1.95 to 18.73) of being ART eligible with a CD4+ cell count <350 cells/mm3. Conclusions High rate of delays in ART initiation and the strong association of low perceived family support with ART eligibility in our study participants suggest that HIV service providers should consider the role and impact of family support in influencing individual decisions to initiate ART among eligible HIV-positive individuals. PMID:27369221

  4. Aerosolized vaccine as an unexpected source of false-positive Bordetella pertussis PCR results.

    PubMed

    Salimnia, Hossein; Lephart, Paul R; Asmar, Basim I; Prebelich, Dawn; Paulson, Erin; Fairfax, Marilynn R

    2012-02-01

    When 13 of 13 nasal wash specimens from a single pediatrician's office tested positive for low quantities of Bordetella pertussis DNA, we suspected prelaboratory contamination. Investigation revealed that Pentacel and Adacel vaccines contain high copy numbers of B. pertussis DNA, which can be aerosolized, causing false-positive B. pertussis PCR results.

  5. Bragg's rule of stopping power additivity: a compilation and summary of results

    SciTech Connect

    Thwaites, D.I.

    1983-09-01

    Stopping power additivity, as expressed by Bragg's rule, is an important concept in many practical situations involving charged particles. Its validity has been investigated in a large number of studies and the wide range of data is confusing and at times conflicting. No previous comprehensive survey of the data has been undertaken. Thus a compilation is attempted here of a hundred or so papers which have included tests of Bragg's rule. Their main results are indicated and a summary is given of the effects of chemical binding and phase on the stopping power of heavy charged particles. Such effects are confirmed on the evidence available. Chemical binding effects become more significant for materials containing low-Z constituents and as energy falls into and through the transition region. Deviations of up to 50% have been observed in atomic stopping cross sections extracted from measurements on hydrocarbons. There is still some conflicting evidence appearing on phase effects. However, in general a broad consensus is emerging indicating significant differences in H/sub 2/O and organic and similar materials. Stopping cross sections in the vapor phase are greater by up to approx. 5 or 10% at energies around those of the stopping power maximum for protons and He ions. The effects decrease as energy increases.

  6. False positive results for antibody to HIV in two men with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed Central

    Esteva, M H; Blasini, A M; Ogly, D; Rodríguez, M A

    1992-01-01

    False positive results were obtained for HIV tests in two men with active systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) who were suspected of being infected with HIV because of fever, weight loss, lymphadenopathy, and inflammatory myopathy. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for HIV were twice positive when tested three times over a period of six months. Western blot analysis showed reactivity against the gp41 band in patient 1. False positive results for HIV tests can occur in patients with SLE, potentially leading to an erroneous diagnosis of HIV infection. PMID:1417140

  7. Positive reinforcement training in rhesus macaques-training progress as a result of training frequency.

    PubMed

    Fernström, A-L; Fredlund, H; Spångberg, M; Westlund, K

    2009-05-01

    Positive reinforcement training (PRT) efficiency was examined as a function of training frequency in 33 pair- or triple-housed female rhesus macaques. The animals were trained three times a week, once a day or twice a day, using PRT and a clicker as a secondary reinforcer. All animals were trained on 30 sessions, with an average of 5 min per training session per animal. The behaviors, trained in succession, were Targeting (reliably touching and following a Target); Collaborating (dominant animals allowing subordinates to train while stationing); Box-training (accepting being enclosed in a small compartment while responding to Target training) and initial Injection training.Fulfilled criteria for Targeting were obtained in 32/33 animals in a median of nine training sessions. Collaboration was obtained in 27/33 animals in a median of 15 training sessions. However, only four animals completed Box-training during the 30 training sessions and started Injection training. When comparing training success in terms of number of training sessions, training twice a day was less efficient than the other two treatments. In terms of daily progress, our results suggest that from a management perspective, daily training is more conducive to quick training success than thrice weekly training. In addition, in this study no further advantages could be gained from training twice a day.

  8. Consequences of a false-positive mammography result: drug consumption before and after screening.

    PubMed

    von Euler-Chelpin, My; Bæksted, Christina; Vejborg, Ilse; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2016-05-01

    Background Previous research showed women experiencing false-positive mammograms to have greater anxiety about breast cancer than women with normal mammograms. To elucidate psychological effects of false-positive mammograms, we studied impact on drug intake. Methods We calculated the ratio of drug use for women with false-positive versus women with normal mammograms, before and after the event, using population-based registers, 1997-2006. The ratio of the ratios (RRR) assessed the impact. Results Before the test, 40.3% of women from the false-positive group versus 36.2% from the normal group used anxiolytic and antidepressant drugs. There was no difference in use of beta blockers. Hormone therapy was used more frequently by the false-positive, 36.6% versus 28.7%. The proportion of women using anxiolytic and antidepressant drugs increased with 19% from the before to the after period in the false-positive group, and with 16% in the normal group, resulting in an RRR of 1.02 (95% CI 0.92-1.14). RRR was 1.03 for beta blockers, 0.97 for hormone therapy. Conclusion(s) Drugs used to mitigate mood disorders were used more frequently by women with false-positive than by women with normal mammograms already before the screening event, while the changes from before to after screening were similar for both groups. The results point to the importance of control for potential selection in studies of screening effects.

  9. EPA Update on Gold King Mine Response: Additional Data Results and Public Records

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WASHINGTON - Today the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released an update on water quality and sediment data for the Animas and San Juan Rivers, as well as additional public records on the Gold King Mine response.

  10. Atom-probe tomography of tribological boundary films resulting from boron-based oil additives

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yoon-Jun; Baik, Sung-Il; Bertolucci-Coelho, Leonardo; Mazzaferro, Lucca; Ramirez, Giovanni; Erdemir, Ali; Seidman, D K

    2016-01-15

    Correlative characterization using atom-probe tomography (APT) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was performed on a tribofilm formed during sliding frictional testing with a fully formulated engine oil, which also contains a boron-based additive. The tribofilm formed is ~15 nm thick and consists of oxides of iron and compounds of B, Ca, P, and S, which are present in the additive. This study provides strong evidence for boron being embedded in the tribofilm, which effectively reduces friction and wear losses.

  11. Plant interspecific differences in arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization as a result of soil carbon addition.

    PubMed

    Eschen, René; Müller-Schärer, Heinz; Schaffner, Urs

    2013-01-01

    Soil nutrient availability and colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi are important and potentially interacting factors shaping vegetation composition and succession. We investigated the effect of carbon (C) addition, aimed at reducing soil nutrient availability, on arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization. Seedlings of 27 plant species with different sets of life-history traits (functional group affiliation, life history strategy and nitrophilic status) were grown in pots filled with soil from a nutrient-rich set-aside field and amended with different amounts of C. Mycorrhizal colonization was progressively reduced along the gradient of increasing C addition in 17 out of 27 species, but not in the remaining species. Grasses had lower colonization levels than forbs and legumes and the decline in AM fungal colonization was more pronounced in legumes than in other forbs and grasses. Mycorrhizal colonization did not differ between annual and perennial species, but decreased more rapidly along the gradient of increasing C addition in plants with high Ellenberg N values than in plants with low Ellenberg N values. Soil C addition not only limits plant growth through a reduction in available nutrients, but also reduces mycorrhizal colonization of plant roots. The effect of C addition on mycorrhizal colonization varies among plant functional groups, with legumes experiencing an overproportional reduction in AM fungal colonization along the gradient of increasing C addition. We therefore propose that for a better understanding of vegetation succession on set-aside fields one may consider the interrelationship between plant growth, soil nutrient availability and mycorrhizal colonization of plant roots.

  12. TANK 40 FINAL SB5 CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION RESULTS PRIOR TO NP ADDITION

    SciTech Connect

    Bannochie, C.; Click, D.

    2010-01-06

    A sample of Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) was pulled from Tank 40 in order to obtain radionuclide inventory analyses necessary for compliance with the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS). This sample was also analyzed for chemical composition including noble metals. Prior to radionuclide inventory analyses, a final sample of the H-canyon Np stream will be added to bound the Np addition anticipated for Tank 40. These analyses along with the WAPS radionuclide analyses will help define the composition of the sludge in Tank 40 that is currently being fed to DWPF as SB5. At the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) the 3-L Tank 40 SB5 sample was transferred from the shipping container into a 4-L high density polyethylene vessel and solids allowed to settle overnight. Supernate was then siphoned off and circulated through the shipping container to complete the transfer of the sample. Following thorough mixing of the 3-L sample, a 239 g sub-sample was removed. This sub-sample was then utilized for all subsequent analytical samples. Eight separate aliquots of the slurry were digested, four with HNO{sub 3}/HCl (aqua regia) in sealed Teflon{reg_sign} vessels and four in Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} (alkali or peroxide fusion) using Zr crucibles. Due to the use of Zr crucibles and Na in the peroxide fusions, Na and Zr cannot be determined from this preparation. Additionally, other alkali metals, such as Li and K that may be contaminants in the Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} are not determined from this preparation. Three Analytical Reference Glass - 14 (ARG-1) standards were digested along with a blank for each preparation. The ARG-1 glass allows for an assessment of the completeness of each digestion. Each aqua regia digestion and blank was diluted to 1:100 mL with deionized water and submitted to Analytical Development (AD) for inductively coupled plasma - atomic emission spectroscopy (ICPAES) analysis, inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis of masses 81-209 and 230

  13. Copy-number variation and false positive prenatal aneuploidy screening results.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Matthew W; Simmons, LaVone E; Kitzman, Jacob O; Coe, Bradley P; Henson, Jessica M; Daza, Riza M; Eichler, Evan E; Shendure, Jay; Gammill, Hilary S

    2015-04-23

    Investigations of noninvasive prenatal screening for aneuploidy by analysis of circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) have shown high sensitivity and specificity in both high-risk and low-risk cohorts. However, the overall low incidence of aneuploidy limits the positive predictive value of these tests. Currently, the causes of false positive results are poorly understood. We investigated four pregnancies with discordant prenatal test results and found in two cases that maternal duplications on chromosome 18 were the likely cause of the discordant results. Modeling based on population-level copy-number variation supports the possibility that some false positive results of noninvasive prenatal screening may be attributable to large maternal copy-number variants. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and others.).

  14. Copy-Number Variation and False Positive Prenatal Aneuploidy Screening Results

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Matthew W.; Simmons, LaVone E.; Kitzman, Jacob O.; Coe, Bradley P.; Henson, Jessica M.; Daza, Riza M.; Eichler, Evan E.; Shendure, Jay; Gammill, Hilary S.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Investigations of noninvasive prenatal screening for aneuploidy by analysis of circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) have shown high sensitivity and specificity in both high-risk and low-risk cohorts. However, the overall low incidence of aneuploidy limits the positive predictive value of these tests. Currently, the causes of false positive results are poorly understood. We investigated four pregnancies with discordant prenatal test results and found in two cases that maternal duplications on chromosome 18 were the likely cause of the discordant results. Modeling based on population-level copy-number variation supports the possibility that some false positive results of noninvasive prenatal screening may be attributable to large maternal copy-number variants. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and others.) PMID:25830323

  15. Estimated results analysis and application of the precise point positioning based high-accuracy ionosphere delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shi-tai; Peng, Jun-huan

    2015-12-01

    The characterization of ionosphere delay estimated with precise point positioning is analyzed in this paper. The estimation, interpolation and application of the ionosphere delay are studied based on the processing of 24-h data from 5 observation stations. The results show that the estimated ionosphere delay is affected by the hardware delay bias from receiver so that there is a difference between the estimated and interpolated results. The results also show that the RMSs (root mean squares) are bigger, while the STDs (standard deviations) are better than 0.11 m. When the satellite difference is used, the hardware delay bias can be canceled. The interpolated satellite-differenced ionosphere delay is better than 0.11 m. Although there is a difference between the between the estimated and interpolated ionosphere delay results it cannot affect its application in single-frequency positioning and the positioning accuracy can reach cm level.

  16. Significance of a Positive Toxoplasma Immunoglobulin M Test Result in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Gajurel, Kiran; Pomares, Christelle; Talucod, Jeanne; Press, Cynthia J.

    2015-01-01

    A positive Toxoplasma immunoglobulin M (IgM) result is often interpreted as a marker of an acute infection. However, IgM can persist for several years, and Toxoplasma commercial IgM diagnostic test kits can yield a number of false-positive results. For these reasons, a chronic Toxoplasma infection can be erroneously classified as an acute infection, resulting in serious adverse consequences, especially in pregnant women, leading to emotional distress and unnecessary interventions, including termination of pregnancy. Interpretation of Toxoplasma serology at a reference laboratory can help differentiate a recently acquired infection from a chronic infection. Serological test results for 451 patients with positive Toxoplasma IgM and IgG test results obtained at nonreference laboratories (NRLs) that were referred to Palo Alto Medical Foundation Toxoplasma Serology Laboratory (PAMF-TSL) to determine whether the patient was acutely or chronically infected were retrospectively reviewed. PAMF-TSL results established that of the 451 patients, 335 (74%) had a chronic infection, 100 (22%) had an acute infection, and 7 (2%) were not infected, and for 9 (2%), results were indeterminate. Positive Toxoplasma IgM and IgG test results obtained at NRLs cannot accurately distinguish between acute and chronic infections. To do so, testing at reference laboratories is required, as mandated in 1997 in a letter from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to clinicians and laboratories in the United States. PMID:26354818

  17. Significance of a Positive Toxoplasma Immunoglobulin M Test Result in the United States.

    PubMed

    Dhakal, Reshika; Gajurel, Kiran; Pomares, Christelle; Talucod, Jeanne; Press, Cynthia J; Montoya, Jose G

    2015-11-01

    A positive Toxoplasma immunoglobulin M (IgM) result is often interpreted as a marker of an acute infection. However, IgM can persist for several years, and Toxoplasma commercial IgM diagnostic test kits can yield a number of false-positive results. For these reasons, a chronic Toxoplasma infection can be erroneously classified as an acute infection, resulting in serious adverse consequences, especially in pregnant women, leading to emotional distress and unnecessary interventions, including termination of pregnancy. Interpretation of Toxoplasma serology at a reference laboratory can help differentiate a recently acquired infection from a chronic infection. Serological test results for 451 patients with positive Toxoplasma IgM and IgG test results obtained at nonreference laboratories (NRLs) that were referred to Palo Alto Medical Foundation Toxoplasma Serology Laboratory (PAMF-TSL) to determine whether the patient was acutely or chronically infected were retrospectively reviewed. PAMF-TSL results established that of the 451 patients, 335 (74%) had a chronic infection, 100 (22%) had an acute infection, and 7 (2%) were not infected, and for 9 (2%), results were indeterminate. Positive Toxoplasma IgM and IgG test results obtained at NRLs cannot accurately distinguish between acute and chronic infections. To do so, testing at reference laboratories is required, as mandated in 1997 in a letter from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to clinicians and laboratories in the United States.

  18. Performance on Addition and Subtraction Problems: Results from Individual Interviews - Sandy Bay Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romberg, Thomas A.; And Others

    The purpose of this study was to relate children's cognitive processing capabilities and their grade level to their performance and to the strategies they used when working addition and subtraction problems. From two sets of data which assessed memory capacity and cognitive processing capacities, six groups of children with different cognitive…

  19. 21 CFR 570.14 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and pet food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.14 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed...

  20. 21 CFR 570.14 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and pet food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.14 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed...

  1. 21 CFR 570.13 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and pet food. 570.13 Section 570.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.13 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging...

  2. 21 CFR 570.14 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and pet food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.14 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed...

  3. 21 CFR 570.13 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and pet food. 570.13 Section 570.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.13 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging...

  4. 21 CFR 570.13 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and pet food. 570.13 Section 570.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.13 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging...

  5. Low socioeconomic position and depression persistence: longitudinal results from the GAZEL cohort study.

    PubMed

    Melchior, Maria; Chastang, Jean-François; Leclerc, Annette; Ribet, Céline; Rouillon, Frédéric

    2010-05-15

    Research examining the association between socioeconomic position and depression course has yielded inconsistent results. We tested the association between low socioeconomic position and 7-year depression persistence among 298 community-based individuals with depression (subset of the GAZEL cohort study based in France). Data were analyzed using Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE models). Low socioeconomic position predicted depression persistence (men: low vs. intermediate/high income: OR: 2.52, 95% CI 1.28-4.95; women: low vs. intermediate/high occupational grade: OR: 2.25, 95% CI 1.06-4.80). These associations were reduced and became statistically nonsignificant after controlling for baseline sociodemographic characteristics and stressful life events (men and women), overall health (men), and the severity of mental health difficulties (men and women). Overall, depressed individuals with low socioeconomic position appear disproportionately likely to experience multiple risk factors of long-term depression.

  6. Preliminary result on the enhancement of Ufer electrodes using recycle additives materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulkifli, Muhammad Haziq Aniq Bin; Ahmad, Hussein Bin

    2016-11-01

    Ground building pillars is to be used as ground rod. The pillars are design, fabricated, and formulated with new ground fillers. The additives will be used from recycle waste materials mainly from the palm oil plant process. Micro scale building pillars will be fabricated and install in the test ground at all of the location. Earth tester meter are used to measure and collect the data of the soil resistivity when the research is conducted. In collecting these data, 3-terminal methods are used to carry the measurements. This experiment will be conducted for 30 weeks and regular measurements at the test ground copper grids will be conducted to measure the ground electrode resistance. The study will mainly base on IEC 62503-3. The used of reinforcing rods and mixture of recycle additives could produce a better grounding system that are suitable and can be used in all kind of soil condition and large industries.

  7. Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen PET/CT: False-Positive Results due to Sarcoidosis?

    PubMed Central

    Hermann, Robert M.; Djannatian, Manoutschehr; Czech, Norbert; Nitsche, Mirko

    2016-01-01

    We report on a 72-year-old male patient who developed sarcoidosis of the mediastinal lymph nodes, the liver, and the prostate 11 years ago. Seven years later, he underwent transurethral resection of the prostate by laser due to hematuria. Pathology of the resected chips showed a ‘granulomatous prostatitis with epitheloid cells’. Malignancy was histologically excluded at that time. Four years later, he was diagnosed with an undifferentiated prostate carcinoma, with a Gleason score of 5 + 4 = 9. After initiation of antihormonal therapy, he underwent radical prostatectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy, which revealed a pT3b pN1 carcinoma with infiltrated resection margins. Three months later, the prostate-specific antigen level was 1.4 ng/ml, and a local recurrence was suspected by ultrasound; consequently, a 68Ga-prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) PET/CT was performed. This examination seemed to confirm the local recurrence, a right pelvic lymph node metastasis, and a hepatic metastasis. However, ultrasound with contrast medium could not confirm the metastatic spread to the liver. In palliative intention, radiotherapy of the pelvis was done. After 50 Gy, the supposed recurrence had markedly shrunk, and an additional boost dose with 16.2 Gy was applied. Two years later, the patient is still free of disease. Due to this clinical development, we doubt the diagnosis of a fulminant progression of the prostate cancer as suspected by PSMA-PET/CT. Instead, we suspect a recurrence of the previously proven sarcoidosis leading to false-positive results. Our focus in this report is on the interaction between PSMA-PET/CT and sarcoidosis. Another report on a case of sarcoidosis of the spleen seems to confirm this possibility [Kobe et al: Clin Nucl Med 2015;40: 897–898]. PMID:27721768

  8. Impact on HIV test providers of giving a positive test result.

    PubMed

    Myers, Ted; Worthington, Catherine; Aguinaldo, Jeffrey P; Haubrich, Dennis J; Ryder, Karen; Rawson, Brian

    2007-09-01

    The provision of a positive HIV antibody test result and the direction and support given to the test recipient are critical components of care and prevention. There has been little research that describes what happens in such interactions between recipient and provider. The impact on the test provider of delivering the HIV test result is an important issue to consider. The discomfort experienced by some health providers in giving a positive test result may have adverse effects on the client interaction or may carry over into subsequent client interactions. Utilizing a thematic analysis on interview data from 24 HIV test providers, we describe the impact of delivering a positive test result on HIV test providers, identify the factors that influence this impact, and describe strategies used to manage the impact. As with other health care professionals communicating "bad news,"HIV test providers experience a variety of impacts. While a small number of providers indicated little or no impact of delivering the HIV positive test result because the diagnosis is ''not the end of the world,'' most indicated it was difficult as it was anticipated that the test recipient would (or did) find the news distressing. Several coping strategies were identified.

  9. Spinel dissolution via addition of glass forming chemicals. Results of preliminary experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K. M.; Johnson, F. C.

    2015-11-01

    Increased loading of high level waste in glass can lead to crystallization within the glass. Some crystalline species, such as spinel, have no practical impact on the chemical durability of the glass, and therefore may be acceptable from both a processing and a product performance standpoint. In order to operate a melter with a controlled amount of crystallization, options must be developed for remediating an unacceptable accumulation of crystals. This report describes preliminary experiments designed to evaluate the ability to dissolve spinel crystals in simulated waste glass melts via the addition of glass forming chemicals (GFCs).

  10. Follow-up actions from positive results of in vitro genetic toxicity testing

    EPA Science Inventory

    Appropriate follow-up actions and decisions are needed when evaluating and interpreting clear positive results obtained in the in vitro assays used in the initial genotoxicity screening battery (i.e., the battery of tests generally required by regulatory authorities) to assist in...

  11. 10 CFR 26.103 - Determining a confirmed positive test result for alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Determining a confirmed positive test result for alcohol. 26.103 Section 26.103 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting... fitness indicates that the donor is fit to safely and competently perform his or her duties....

  12. 10 CFR 26.103 - Determining a confirmed positive test result for alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determining a confirmed positive test result for alcohol. 26.103 Section 26.103 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting... fitness indicates that the donor is fit to safely and competently perform his or her duties....

  13. 10 CFR 26.103 - Determining a confirmed positive test result for alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Determining a confirmed positive test result for alcohol. 26.103 Section 26.103 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting... fitness indicates that the donor is fit to safely and competently perform his or her duties....

  14. 10 CFR 26.103 - Determining a confirmed positive test result for alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Determining a confirmed positive test result for alcohol. 26.103 Section 26.103 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting... fitness indicates that the donor is fit to safely and competently perform his or her duties....

  15. 10 CFR 26.103 - Determining a confirmed positive test result for alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Determining a confirmed positive test result for alcohol. 26.103 Section 26.103 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting... fitness indicates that the donor is fit to safely and competently perform his or her duties....

  16. Additional erythrocytic and reticulocytic parameters helpful for diagnosis of hereditary spherocytosis: results of a multicentre study.

    PubMed

    Mullier, François; Lainey, Elodie; Fenneteau, Odile; Da Costa, Lydie; Schillinger, Françoise; Bailly, Nicolas; Cornet, Yvan; Chatelain, Christian; Dogne, Jean-Michel; Chatelain, Bernard

    2011-07-01

    Hereditary spherocytosis (HS) is characterised by weakened vertical linkages between the membrane skeleton and the red blood cell's lipid bilayer, leading to the release of microparticles. All the reference tests suffer from specific limitations. The aim of this study was to develop easy to use diagnostic tool for screening of hereditary spherocytosis based on routinely acquired haematological parameters like percentage of microcytes, percentage of hypochromic cells, reticulocyte counts, and percentage of immature reticulocytes. The levels of haemoglobin, mean cell volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, reticulocytes (Ret), immature reticulocytes fraction (IRF), hypochromic erythrocytes (Hypo-He) and microcytic erythrocytes (MicroR) were determined on EDTA samples on Sysmex instruments from a cohort of 45 confirmed SH. The HS group was then compared with haemolytical disorders, microcytic anaemia, healthy individuals and routine samples (n = 1,488). HS is characterised by a high Ret count without an equally elevated IRF. All 45 HS have Ret >80,000/μl and Ret(10(9)/L)/IRF (%) greater than 7.7 (rule 1). Trait and mild HS had a Ret/IRF ratio greater than 19. Moderate and severe HS had increased MicroR and MicroR/Hypo-He (rule 2). Combination of both rules gave predictive positive value and negative predictive value of respectively 75% and 100% (n=1,488), which is much greater than single parameters or existing rules. This simple and fast diagnostic method could be used as an excellent screening tool for HS. It is also valid for mild HS, neonates and ABO incompatibilities and overcomes the lack of sensitivity of electrophoresis in ankyrin deficiencies.

  17. Additional evidence for the cyclic GMP signaling pathway resulting in the photophobic behavior of Stentor coeruleus.

    PubMed

    Walerczyk, M; Fabczak, S

    2001-12-01

    We report that exo- and endogenous guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP) specifically influenced the photophobic response. In behavioral experiments the slowly hydrolyzable and membrane-permeable analogs of cGMP (8-bromo-cGMP [Br-cGMP] and N6,2'-o-dibutyryl-cGMP) dramatically prolonged the time for ciliary stop response and decreased the duration of ciliary reversal in a dose-dependent manner. When analogs of adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) (8-bromo-cAMP or N6,2'-o-dibutyryl-cAMP) were used, no essential effects were detected on the kinetics of the photophobic response. Both nonspecific cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE) activity inhibitors (3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine [IBMX] and 1,3-dimethylxanthine [theophylline]) and the highly specific cGMP-PDE activity inhibitor 1,4-dihydro-5-[2-propoxyphenyl]-7H-1,2,3-triazolo[4,5-d]pyrimidine-7-one (zaprinast) mimicked the effects of cGMP analogs. Treatment of cells with an inhibitor of guanylate cyclase activity (6-anilino-5,8-quinolinedione [LY 83583]) exerted an effect opposite to that of cGMP analogs and PDE activity inhibitors. The positive physiological effect of LY 83583 was significantly diminished in ciliates that were treated simultaneously with Br-cGMP. In an assay of cell cyclic nucleotide content, the exposure of dark-adapted Stentor to light evoked a transient decrease in the basal level of intracellular cGMP. Alterations in internal cGMP levels were more distinct when the intensity of applied illumination was increased. In the presence of IBMX or theophylline the basal content of cGMP was markedly enhanced, and the photoinduced changes in cGMP level were less pronounced. In this paper the possible whole molecular mechanism by which the ciliary orientation in Stentor is controlled by light is presented.

  18. The trazodone metabolite meta-chlorophenylpiperazine can cause false-positive urine amphetamine immunoassay results.

    PubMed

    Baron, Jason M; Griggs, David A; Nixon, Andrea L; Long, William H; Flood, James G

    2011-07-01

    Amphetamines and methamphetamines are part of an important class of drugs included in most urine drugs of abuse screening panels, and a common assay to detect these drugs is the Amphetamines II immunoassay (Roche Diagnostics). To demonstrate that meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (m-CPP), a trazodone metabolite, cross-reacts in the Amphetamines II assay, we tested reference standards of m-CPP at various concentrations (200 to 20,000 g/L). We also tested real patient urine samples containing m-CPP (detected and quantified by HPLC) with no detectable amphetamine, methamphetamine, or MDMA (demonstrated by GC MS). In both the m-CPP standards and the patient urine samples, we found a strong association between m-CPP concentration and Amphetamines II immunoreactivity (r = 0.990 for the urine samples). Further, we found that patients taking trazodone can produce urine with sufficient m-CPP to result in false-positive Amphetamines II results. At our institution, false-positive amphetamine results occur not infrequently in patients taking trazodone with at least 8 trazodone-associated false-positive results during a single 26-day period. Laboratories should remain cognizant of this interference when interpreting results of this assay.

  19. False-Positive Results in Cancer Epidemiology: A Plea for Epistemological Modesty

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Joseph K.; La Vecchia, Carlo; Tarone, Robert E.; Lipworth, Loren; Blot, William J.

    2008-01-01

    False-positive results are inherent in the scientific process of testing hypotheses concerning the determinants of cancer and other human illnesses. Although much of what is known about the etiology of human cancers has arisen from well-conducted epidemiological studies, epidemiology has been increasingly criticized for producing findings that are often sensationalized in the media and fail to be upheld in subsequent studies. Herein we describe examples from cancer epidemiology of likely false-positive findings and discuss conditions under which such results may occur. We suggest general guidelines or principles, including the endorsement of editorial policies requiring the prominent listing of study caveats, which may help reduce the reporting of misleading results. Increased epistemological humility regarding findings in epidemiology would go a long way to diminishing the detrimental effects of false-positive results on the allocation of limited research resources, on the advancement of knowledge of the causes and prevention of cancer, and on the scientific reputation of epidemiology and would help to prevent oversimplified interpretations of results by the media and the public. PMID:18612135

  20. Additional results for 'Sequential design approaches for bioequivalence studies with crossover designs'.

    PubMed

    Montague, Timothy H; Potvin, Diane; Diliberti, Charles E; Hauck, Walter W; Parr, Alan F; Schuirmann, Donald J

    2012-01-01

    In 2008, this group published a paper on approaches for two-stage crossover bioequivalence (BE) studies that allowed for the reestimation of the second-stage sample size based on the variance estimated from the first-stage results. The sequential methods considered used an assumed GMR of 0.95 as part of the method for determining power and sample size. This note adds results for an assumed GMR = 0.90. Two of the methods recommended for GMR = 0.95 in the earlier paper have some unacceptable increases in Type I error rate when the GMR is changed to 0.90. If a sponsor wants to assume 0.90 for the GMR, Method D is recommended. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. [A pseudo-outbreak of pharyngeal gonorrhoea related to a false-positive PCR-result].

    PubMed

    Verzijl, A; Berretty, P J M; Erceg, A; Krekels, G A M; Van den Brule, A J C; Boel, C H E

    2007-03-24

    Nucleic acid amplification tests, including the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), are sensitive and specific tests that are often used for diagnosing sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). A pseudo-outbreak of pharyngeal gonorrhoea in a group of prostitutes turned out to have been caused by false-positive test results due to commensal oropharyngeal Neisseria species. Specific molecular tests may yield erroneous results. When the results of an STD study have major consequences at a legal or social level, it is advisable, in consultation with a medical microbiologist, to take a sample for culture or to carry out a second molecular test aimed at a different part of the bacterial genome.

  2. Reporting of Positive Results in Randomized Controlled Trials of Mindfulness-Based Mental Health Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Coronado-Montoya, Stephanie; Levis, Alexander W.; Kwakkenbos, Linda; Steele, Russell J.; Turner, Erick H.; Thombs, Brett D.

    2016-01-01

    Background A large proportion of mindfulness-based therapy trials report statistically significant results, even in the context of very low statistical power. The objective of the present study was to characterize the reporting of “positive” results in randomized controlled trials of mindfulness-based therapy. We also assessed mindfulness-based therapy trial registrations for indications of possible reporting bias and reviewed recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses to determine whether reporting biases were identified. Methods CINAHL, Cochrane CENTRAL, EMBASE, ISI, MEDLINE, PsycInfo, and SCOPUS databases were searched for randomized controlled trials of mindfulness-based therapy. The number of positive trials was described and compared to the number that might be expected if mindfulness-based therapy were similarly effective compared to individual therapy for depression. Trial registries were searched for mindfulness-based therapy registrations. CINAHL, Cochrane CENTRAL, EMBASE, ISI, MEDLINE, PsycInfo, and SCOPUS were also searched for mindfulness-based therapy systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Results 108 (87%) of 124 published trials reported ≥1 positive outcome in the abstract, and 109 (88%) concluded that mindfulness-based therapy was effective, 1.6 times greater than the expected number of positive trials based on effect size d = 0.55 (expected number positive trials = 65.7). Of 21 trial registrations, 13 (62%) remained unpublished 30 months post-trial completion. No trial registrations adequately specified a single primary outcome measure with time of assessment. None of 36 systematic reviews and meta-analyses concluded that effect estimates were overestimated due to reporting biases. Conclusions The proportion of mindfulness-based therapy trials with statistically significant results may overstate what would occur in practice. PMID:27058355

  3. Addition of prothrombin to plasma can result in a paradoxical increase in activated partial thromboplastin time.

    PubMed

    Hansson, Kenny M; Björkqvist, Jenny; Deinum, Johanna

    2014-12-01

    In the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) assay, a variety of nonphysiological reagents is used to induce contact activation. The sensitivity of the APTT response for different thrombin inhibitors has previously been found to be dependent on the used reagent. Recently, infusion of prothrombin (FII) has been used in in-vivo coagulopathy models and its effect has been analyzed in different assays. Therefore, we investigated whether the FII plasma concentration might affect APTT using different commercial reagents, applying both turbidimetry and viscometry. We compared both plasma-derived human FII (pd-hFII) and recombinant human FII (r-hFII). Similar results were found for pd-hFII and r-hFII with different APTT reagents. As expected, no effect on APTT was found by increasing the plasma concentration of FII using APTT reagents consisting of ellagic acid (Actin FS or Actin). Although with Pathromtin SL, consisting of SiO2, only a slight increase was found, with most other commercial APTT reagents, consisting of SiO2 or kaolin, APTT dose-dependently increased by increasing concentration of FII. Therefore, both Pathromtin SL and Actin FS were used to compare r-hFII and pd-hFII by determining the KM at 37C using FII-depleted plasma, providing values of 6 ± 0.3 nmol/l FII for both. Thus, at normal plasma concentrations of FII, the maximal initial thrombin generation rate should be reached and no effect on the coagulation time is expected at higher FII concentrations. To completely avoid the paradoxical effect in the APTT assay at FII concentrations higher than normal, Actin or Actin FS is the preferable reagent.

  4. Flue gas conditioning for improved particle collection in electrostatic precipitators. First topical report, Results of laboratory screening of additives

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, M.D.

    1993-04-16

    Several tasks have been completed in a program to evaluate additives to improve fine particle collection in electrostatic precipitators. Screening tests and laboratory evaluations of additives are summarized in this report. Over 20 additives were evaluated; four were found to improve flyash precipitation rates. The Insitec particle analyzer was also evaluated; test results show that the analyzer will provide accurate sizing and counting information for particles in the size range of {le} 10 {mu}m dia.

  5. Results of surgical treatment on benign anal diseases in Korean HIV-positive patients.

    PubMed

    Oh, Heung-Kwon; Moon, Sang-Hui; Ryoo, Seungbum; Choe, Eun Kyung; Park, Kyu Joo

    2014-09-01

    Perianal diseases are the most common reasons for surgery in HIV-positive patients. This study aimed to evaluate the outcomes of these surgical procedures in Korean patients, focusing on wound healing and postoperative complications. Retrospective analysis was performed on 72 HIV-positive patients who underwent surgery by a single surgeon for benign anal disease between 1998 and 2011. Of these, 68.1% (49/72) of patients received surgery for condyloma acuminata, 19.4% (14/72) for anal fistulas, 6.9% (5/72) for hemorrhoids, and 5.6% (4/72) for perianal abscesses. Patients with condyloma acuminata received surgical excision with electrical coagulation, and all wounds healed completely within 3 months, though 16.3% (8/49) of these patients experienced recurrence. Twelve of the 49 patients (24.5%) who were treated for condyloma acuminata underwent simultaneous operations for concomitant anal fistulas (n = 6), hemorrhoids (n = 4), and perianal abscesses (n = 2). Overall, 3 postoperative complications developed following a total of 94 procedures, and there was no significant increase in complication rate for patients with a low CD4+ T-cell count ( < 200/µL) compared to those with a higher count. The results demonstrate favorable results following perianal surgery in HIV-positive Korean patients.

  6. Accuracy of relative positioning by interferometry with GPS Double-blind test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Counselman, C. C., III; Gourevitch, S. A.; Herring, T. A.; King, B. W.; Shapiro, I. I.; Cappallo, R. J.; Rogers, A. E. E.; Whitney, A. R.; Greenspan, R. L.; Snyder, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    MITES (Miniature Interferometer Terminals for Earth Surveying) observations conducted on December 17 and 29, 1980, are analyzed. It is noted that the time span of the observations used on each day was 78 minutes, during which five satellites were always above 20 deg elevation. The observations are analyzed to determine the intersite position vectors by means of the algorithm described by Couselman and Gourevitch (1981). The average of the MITES results from the two days is presented. The rms differences between the two determinations of the components of the three vectors, which were about 65, 92, and 124 m long, were 8 mm for the north, 3 mm for the east, and 6 mm for the vertical. It is concluded that, at least for short distances, relative positioning by interferometry with GPS can be done reliably with subcentimeter accuracy.

  7. False-positive PCR results linked to administration of seasonal influenza vaccine.

    PubMed

    Curran, T; McCaughey, C; Ellis, J; Mitchell, S J; Feeney, S A; Watt, A P; Mitchell, F; Fairley, D; Crawford, L; McKenna, J; Coyle, P V

    2012-03-01

    False-positive PCR results usually occur as a consequence of specimen-to-specimen or amplicon-to-specimen contamination within the laboratory. Evidence of contamination at time of specimen collection linked to influenza vaccine administration in the same location as influenza sampling is described. Clinical, circumstantial and laboratory evidence was gathered for each of five cases of influenza-like illness (ILI) with unusual patterns of PCR reactivity for seasonal H1N1, H3N2, H1N1 (2009) and influenza B viruses. Two 2010 trivalent influenza vaccines and environmental swabs of a hospital influenza vaccination room were also tested for influenza RNA. Sequencing of influenza A matrix (M) gene amplicons from the five cases and vaccines was undertaken. Four 2009 general practitioner (GP) specimens were seasonal H1N1, H3N2 and influenza B PCR positive. One 2010 GP specimen was H1N1 (2009), H3N2 and influenza B positive. PCR of 2010 trivalent vaccines showed high loads of detectable influenza A and B RNA. Sequencing of the five specimens and vaccines showed greatest homology with the M gene sequence of Influenza A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 H1N1 virus (used in generation of influenza vaccine strains). Environmental swabs had detectable influenza A and B RNA. RNA detection studies demonstrated vaccine RNA still detectable for at least 66 days. Administration of influenza vaccines and clinical sampling in the same room resulted in the contamination with vaccine strains of surveillance swabs collected from patients with ILI. Vaccine contamination should therefore be considered, particularly where multiple influenza virus RNA PCR positive signals (e.g. H1N1, H3N2 and influenza B) are detected in the same specimen.

  8. Case Report: Direct Access Genetic Testing and A False-Positive Result For Long QT Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Predham, Sarah; Hamilton, Sara; Elliott, Alison M; T Gibson, William

    2016-02-01

    We report the case of a woman who pursued direct access genetic testing and then presented with concerns regarding a positive test result for Long-QT syndrome. Although the result ultimately proved to be a false positive, this case illustrates that costs associated with follow-up of direct access genetic testing results can be non-trivial for both the patient and for health care systems. Here we raise policy questions regarding the appropriate distribution of these costs. We also discuss the possibility that, when confronted by a direct access genetic test result that reports high risk for one or more actionable diseases, a family physician might feel compelled to act out of a desire to avoid liability, even when information regarding the accuracy and validity of the testing were not easily accessible. This case outlines lessons that can easily be translated into clinical practice, not only by genetic counselors, but also by family physicians, medical specialists and members of the public.

  9. OIE white spot syndrome virus PCR gives false-positive results in Cherax quadricarinatus.

    PubMed

    Claydon, Kerry; Cullen, Bradford; Owens, Leigh

    2004-12-13

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is an intranuclear bacilliform virus (IBV) that is a serious, notifiable crustacean pathogen. The Office International des Epizooties (OIE) PCR protocol for WSSV uses primer sets initially developed by Lo et al. (1996). It yields a first-step PCR amplicon of 1441 bp and a nested PCR amplicon of 941 bp. An amplicon (941 bp) purported to specifically detect WSSV was obtained when using template DNA extracted from Cherax quadricarinatus in a WSSV PCR detection protocol recommended by the OIE. Sequencing and analysis of the 941 bp amplicon and an occasional 550 bp amplicon from C. quadricarinatus revealed no phylogenetic relationship with WSSV, and suggested a possible lack of sufficient primer specificity for WSSV in the OIE test. This suggestion was supported by the fact that the OIE outer primer sequence (146F1) was present in both the forward and reverse position of the 941 bp and the forward position of the 550 bp nested amplicons from C. quadricarinatus. As WSSV is a notifiable pathogen, the consequences of false-positive results are harsh in WSSV-free zones and can lead to incorrect quarantine and unnecessary destruction of animals. Therefore, urgent attention and revision is necessary for the current OIE PCR protocol for WSSV detection.

  10. Investor Outlook: Significance of the Positive LCA2 Gene Therapy Phase III Results.

    PubMed

    Schimmer, Joshua; Breazzano, Steven

    2015-12-01

    Spark Therapeutics recently reported positive phase III results for SPK-RPE65 targeting the treatment of visual impairment caused by RPE65 gene mutations (often referred to as Leber congenital amaurosis type 2, or LCA2, but may include other retinal disorders), marking an important inflection point for the field of gene therapy. The results highlight the ability to successfully design and execute a randomized trial of a gene therapy and also reinforce the potentially predictive nature of early preclinical and clinical data. The results are expected to pave the way for the first approved gene therapy product in the United States and should sustain investor interest and confidence in gene therapy for many approaches, including retina targeting and beyond.

  11. Neisseria Species Identification Assay for the Confirmation of Neisseria gonorrhoeae-Positive Results of the COBAS Amplicor PCR▿

    PubMed Central

    Mangold, Kathy A.; Regner, MaryAnn; Tajuddin, Mohammed; Tajuddin, Aamair M.; Jennings, Lawrence; Du, Hongyan; Kaul, Karen L.

    2007-01-01

    Screening assays for Neisseria gonorrhoeae exhibit low positive predictive values, particularly in low-prevalence populations. A new real-time PCR assay that detects and identifies individual Neisseria spp. using melt curve analysis was compared to two previously published supplementary assays. NsppID, a 16S rRNA real-time PCR/melt curve assay developed to distinguish N. gonorrhoeae from other Neisseria spp., was compared to real-time PCR assays targeting genes reportedly specific for N. gonorrhoeae, the cppB gene and the porA pseudogene. A total of 408 clinical specimens (324 female endocervical swabs and 84 male urine or urogenital swab specimens) were screened using the COBAS Amplicor assay for Chlamydia trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae (CT/NG) (Roche Diagnostics, Indianapolis, IN) followed by confirmatory testing via real-time PCR. The NsppID assay detected Neisseria spp. in 150/181 COBAS-positive specimens (82%), including six dual infections, and identified N. gonorrhoeae in 102 (56%) specimens. Sixty-nine of 181 (38%) specimens were positive for N. gonorrhoeae by porA pseudogene, and 115/181 (64%) were positive for cppB. However, cppB was also positive in 15% of COBAS-negative specimens, more than either NsppID (4%) or porA pseudogene (2%) assays. The porA pseudogene assay had the highest specificity for both genders but the lowest sensitivity, especially in female specimens. NsppID had a slightly lower specificity but greater sensitivity and overall accuracy. The least desirable confirmatory assay was cppB, due to poor specificity. The NsppID assay is an accurate confirmatory assay for N. gonorrhoeae detection. In addition, the NsppID assay can identify the non-N. gonorrhoeae species responsible for the majority of false-positive results from the COBAS Amplicor CT/NG assay. PMID:17360838

  12. Addition of Carboplatin to Neoadjuvant Therapy for Triple-negative and HER2-positive Early Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-12

    Tubular Breast Cancer Stage II; Mucinous Breast Cancer Stage II; Breast Cancer Female NOS; Invasive Ductal Breast Cancer; Tubular Breast Cancer Stage III; HER-2 Positive Breast Cancer; Inflammatory Breast Cancer Stage IV; Inflammatory Breast Cancer

  13. Cocamidopropyl betaine: the significance of positive patch test results in twelve patients.

    PubMed

    Fowler, J F

    1993-11-01

    Cocamidopropyl betaine is a surfactant coming into wide use in shampoos and other cleansing products. Recent reports have implicated it as a potential allergen, although it is less irritating than other surfactants such as sodium lauryl sulfate. Twelve positive patch test results were seen over a period of fifteen months of testing in selected patients. Of these, seven results were thought to be relevant. All seven patients with relevant reactions and four of the five with uncertain relevance had dermatitis of the head and neck area. It is concluded that although cocamidopropyl betaine is not a common allergen, it may be at least partially responsible for some cases of allergic dermatitis of the head and neck.

  14. TOPEX/POSEIDON operational orbit determination results using global positioning satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guinn, J.; Jee, J.; Wolff, P.; Lagattuta, F.; Drain, T.; Sierra, V.

    1994-01-01

    Results of operational orbit determination, performed as part of the TOPEX/POSEIDON (T/P) Global Positioning System (GPS) demonstration experiment, are presented in this article. Elements of this experiment include the GPS satellite constellation, the GPS demonstration receiver on board T/P, six ground GPS receivers, the GPS Data Handling Facility, and the GPS Data Processing Facility (GDPF). Carrier phase and P-code pseudorange measurements from up to 24 GPS satellites to the seven GPS receivers are processed simultaneously with the GDPF software MIRAGE to produce orbit solutions of T/P and the GPS satellites. Daily solutions yield subdecimeter radial accuracies compared to other GPS, LASER, and DORIS precision orbit solutions.

  15. Positive Psychotherapy for Smoking Cessation: Treatment Development, Feasibility and Preliminary Results.

    PubMed

    Kahler, Christopher W; Spillane, Nichea S; Day, Anne; Clerkin, Elise; Parks, Acacia; Leventhal, Adam M; Brown, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    Low positive and high negative affect predict low rates of smoking abstinence among smokers making a quit attempt. Positive Psychotherapy can both increase positive affect and decrease negative affect and therefore may be a useful adjunct to behavioral smoking counseling. The purpose of the present study was to assess the feasibility and acceptability of a Positive Psychotherapy for Smoking Cessation (PPT-S) intervention that integrates standard smoking cessation counseling with nicotine patch and a package of positive psychology interventions. We delivered PPT-S to 19 smokers who were low in positive affect at baseline. Rates of session attendance and satisfaction with treatment were high, and most participants reported using and benefiting from the positive psychology interventions. Almost one-third of participants (31.6%) sustained smoking abstinence for 6 months after their quit date. Future studies to assess the relative efficacy of PPT-S compared to standard smoking cessation treatment are warranted.

  16. Addition of the p110α inhibitor BYL719 overcomes targeted therapy resistance in cells from Her2-positive-PTEN-loss breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chen; Xu, Bingfei; Liu, Pian

    2016-11-01

    Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of death for women worldwide. Among various subtypes of breast cancer, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) loss breast cancer is a cause of great concern in terms of its resistance to HER2-targeted therapies and its poor prognosis. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT hyperphosphorylation is considered one of key mechanisms leading to this resistance, thus combination therapy of PI3K inhibitors and HER2 antibodies is promising for overcoming this problem, and more specific regimens should be designed in this age of precision medicine. In this study, we established an HER2-positive and PTEN loss cell line and confirmed it by western blot analysis. This cell line and its orthotopic xenograft models were exposed to p110α-specific inhibitor BYL719, p110β-specific inhibitor AZD6482, or pan-PI3K inhibitor BKM120, respectively, and the results showed sensitivity to both BYL719 and BKM120 but not AZD6482, which indicated a p110α-reliance for HER2-positive-PTEN-loss breast cancer. Then, the addition of BYL719 to HER2 antibody greatly reduced tumor growth both in vitro and in vivo, accompanied by inhibited PI3K effector phosphorylation. Therefore, our findings suggest that the combination of p110α-selective inhibitor BYL719 with HER2 antibody could be a potential strategy for more personalized treatment of HER2-posistive-PTEN-loss breast cancer; and in addition, the optimal schedule of this combination therapy needs to be further explored.

  17. Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive for Enhanced Mercury Control - Task 3 Full-scale Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Gary Blythe

    2007-05-01

    in Texas Lignite Flue Gas; Task 3 - Full-scale FGD Additive Testing in High-sulfur Eastern Bituminous Flue Gas; Task 4 - Pilot Wet Scrubber Additive Tests at Plant Yates; and Task 5 - Full-scale Additive Tests at Plant Yates. The pilot-scale tests were completed in 2005 and have been previously reported. This topical report presents the results from the Task 3 full-scale additive tests, conducted at IPL's Petersburg Station Unit 2. The Task 5 full-scale additive tests will be conducted later in calendar year 2007.

  18. Flight Test Results from Real-Time Relative Global Positioning System Flight Experiment on STS-69

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Young W.; Brazzel, Jack P., Jr.; Carpenter, J. Russell; Hinkel, Heather D.; Newman, James H.

    1996-01-01

    A real-time global positioning system (GPS) Kalman filter has been developed to support automated rendezvous with the International Space Station (ISS). The filter is integrated with existing Shuttle rendezvous software running on a 486 laptop computer under Windows. In this work, we present real-time and postflight results achieved with the filter on STS-69. The experiment used GPS data from an Osborne/Jet propulsion Laboratory TurboRouge receiver carried on the Wake Shield Facility (WSF) free flyer and a Rockwell Collins 3M receiver carried on the Orbiter. Real time filter results, processed onboard the Shuttle and replayed in near-time on the ground, are based on single vehicle mode operation and on 5 to 20 minute snapshots of telemetry provided by WSF for dual-vehicle mode operation. The Orbiter and WSF state vectors calculated using our filter compare favorably with precise reference orbits determined by the University of Texas Center for Space Research. The lessons learned from this experiment will be used in conjunction with future experiments to mitigate the technology risk posed by automated rendezvous and docking to the ISS.

  19. Can handling E85 motor fuel cause positive breath alcohol test results?

    PubMed

    Ran, Ran; Mullins, Michael E

    2013-09-01

    Hand-held breath alcohol analyzers are widely used by police in traffic stops of drivers suspected of driving while intoxicated (DWI). E85 is a motor fuel consisting of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline or other hydrocarbons, and is available at nearly 2,600 stations in the USA. We sought to determine whether handling E85 fuel could produce measurable breath alcohol results using a hand-held analyzer and to see if this would be a plausible explanation for a positive breath alcohol test. Five healthy adult subjects dispensed or transferred 8 US gallons of E85 fuel in each of four scenarios. We measured breath alcohol concentration in g/210 L of exhaled breath using the BACTrack S50 at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 15 and 20 min after each fuel-handling scenario. Most of the subjects had no detectable breath alcohol after handling E85 motor fuel. Transient elevations (0.02-0.04 g/210 L) in breath alcohol measurement occurred up to 6 min after handling E85 in a minority of subjects. We conclude that it is unlikely that handling E85 motor fuel would result in erroneous prosecution for DWI.

  20. Positive EtG findings in hair as a result of a cosmetic treatment.

    PubMed

    Sporkert, Frank; Kharbouche, Hicham; Augsburger, Marc P; Klemm, Clementine; Baumgartner, Markus R

    2012-05-10

    In a case of a driving ability assessment, hair analysis for ethyl glucuronide (EtG) was requested by the authorities. The person concerned denied alcohol consumption and did not present any clinical sign of alcoholism. However, EtG was found in concentrations of up to 910pg/mg in hair from different sampling dates suggesting an excessive drinking behavior. The person declared to use a hair lotion on a regularly base. To evaluate a possible effect of the hair lotion, prospective blood and urine controls as well as hair sampling of scalp and pubic hair were performed. The traditional clinical biomarkers of ethanol consumption, CDT and GGT, were inconspicuous in three blood samples taken. EtG was not detected in all collected urine samples. The hair lotion was transmitted to our laboratory. The ethanol concentration in this lotion was determined with 35g/L. The EtG immunoassay gave a positive result indicating EtG, which could be confirmed by GC-MS/MS-NCI. In a follow-up experiment the lotion was applied to the hair of a volunteer over a period of six weeks. After this treatment, EtG could be measured in the hair at a concentration of 72pg/mg suggesting chronic and excessive alcohol consumption. Overnight incubation of EtG free hair in the lotion yielded an EtG concentration of 140pg/mg. In the present case, the positive EtG hair findings could be interpreted as the result of an EtG containing hair care product. To our knowledge, the existence of such a product has not yet been reported, and it is exceptionally unusual to find EtG in cosmetics. Therefore, external sources for hair contamination should always be taken into account when unusual cosmetic treatment is mentioned. In those cases, it is recommended to analyze the hair product for a possible contamination with EtG. The analysis of body hair can help to reveal problems occurring from cosmetic treatment of head hair. As a consequence, the assessment of drinking behavior should be based on more than one

  1. College football, elections, and false-positive results in observational research.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Anthony; Montagnes, B Pablo

    2015-11-10

    A recent, widely cited study [Healy AJ, Malhotra N, Mo CH (2010) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107(29):12804-12809] finds that college football games influence voting behavior. Victories within 2 weeks of an election reportedly increase the success of the incumbent party in presidential, senatorial, and gubernatorial elections in the home county of the team. We reassess the evidence and conclude that there is likely no such effect, despite the fact that Healy et al. followed the best practices in social science and used a credible research design. Multiple independent sources of evidence suggest that the original finding was spurious-reflecting bad luck for researchers rather than a shortcoming of American voters. We fail to estimate the same effect when we leverage situations where multiple elections with differing incumbent parties occur in the same county and year. We also find that the purported effect of college football games is stronger in counties where people are less interested in college football, just as strong when the incumbent candidate does not run for reelection, and just as strong in other parts of the state outside the home county of the team. Lastly, we detect no effect of National Football League games on elections, despite their greater popularity. We conclude with recommendations for evaluating surprising research findings and avoiding similar false-positive results.

  2. College football, elections, and false-positive results in observational research

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, Anthony; Montagnes, B. Pablo

    2015-01-01

    A recent, widely cited study [Healy AJ, Malhotra N, Mo CH (2010) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107(29):12804–12809] finds that college football games influence voting behavior. Victories within 2 weeks of an election reportedly increase the success of the incumbent party in presidential, senatorial, and gubernatorial elections in the home county of the team. We reassess the evidence and conclude that there is likely no such effect, despite the fact that Healy et al. followed the best practices in social science and used a credible research design. Multiple independent sources of evidence suggest that the original finding was spurious—reflecting bad luck for researchers rather than a shortcoming of American voters. We fail to estimate the same effect when we leverage situations where multiple elections with differing incumbent parties occur in the same county and year. We also find that the purported effect of college football games is stronger in counties where people are less interested in college football, just as strong when the incumbent candidate does not run for reelection, and just as strong in other parts of the state outside the home county of the team. Lastly, we detect no effect of National Football League games on elections, despite their greater popularity. We conclude with recommendations for evaluating surprising research findings and avoiding similar false-positive results. PMID:26504202

  3. Otic Barotrauma Resulting from Continuous Positive Airway Pressure: Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    McCormick, Justin P.; Hildrew, Douglas M.; Lawlor, Claire M.; Guittard, Jesse A.; Worley, N. Knight

    2016-01-01

    Background: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a growing problem affecting millions of people in the United States. The prevalence of OSA has risen drastically in the past few decades concurrently with the increasing prevalence of obesity. Subsequently, there has been an ever-increasing rise in the use of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) devices. While using CPAP devices may lead to many adverse effects, the majority of these effects are described as relatively benign. Case Report: We describe the detailed clinical course and outcome for a patient with otic barotrauma as a result of excessive self-titration of CPAP therapy in an in-home setting. We also discuss the pathophysiology of otic barotrauma and present a review of current literature on the topic. Conclusion: While the benefits of CPAP are clear, we must take into account the rare but possible effects on ear structure and function. Many studies describe an increase in middle ear pressure with the use of CPAP, but few describe the effects of this increased pressure on the middle ear, such as the otic barotrauma described in this case. Given the increased prevalence of OSA, it is important to understand the risks associated with CPAP therapy. PMID:27303224

  4. Real Time Precise Point Positioning: Preliminary Results for the Brazilian Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, Haroldo; Monico, João.; Hirokazu Shimabukuro, Milton; Aquino, Marcio

    2010-05-01

    GNSS positioning can be carried out in relative or absolute approach. In the last years, more attention has been driven to the real time precise point positioning (PPP). To achieve centimeter accuracy with this method in real time it is necessary to have available the satellites precise coordinates as well as satellites clocks corrections. The coordinates can be used from the predicted IGU ephemeris, but the satellites clocks must be estimated in a real time. It can be made from a GNSS network as can be seen from EUREF Permanent Network. The infra-structure to realize the PPP in real time is being available in Brazil through the Brazilian Continuous Monitoring Network (RBMC) together with the Sao Paulo State GNSS network which are transmitting GNSS data using NTRIP (Networked Transport of RTCM via Internet Protocol) caster. Based on this information it was proposed a PhD thesis in the Univ. Estadual Paulista (UNESP) aiming to investigate and develop the methodology to estimate the satellites clocks and realize PPP in real time. Then, software is being developed to process GNSS data in the real time PPP mode. A preliminary version of the software was called PPP_RT and is able to process GNSS code and phase data using precise ephemeris and satellites clocks. The PPP processing can be accomplished considering the absolute satellite antenna Phase Center Variation (PCV), Ocean Tide Loading (OTL), Earth Body Tide, among others. The first order ionospheric effects can be eliminated or minimized by ion-free combination or parameterized in the receiver-satellite direction using a stochastic process, e.g. random walk or white noise. In the case of ionosphere estimation, a pseudo-observable is introduced in the mathematical model for each satellite and the initial value can be computed from Klobuchar model or from Global Ionospheric Map (GIM). The adjustment is realized in the recursive mode and the DIA (Detection Identification and Adaptation) is used for quality control. In

  5. Limb position drift results from misalignment of proprioceptive and visual maps.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Jacqueline R; Brown, Liana E; Wagstaff, David A; Sainburg, Robert L

    2017-03-27

    Previous work (Brown et al., 2003a,b) has shown that limb position drifts when individuals make repetitive movements in the absence of visual feedback. The purpose of this study was to examine whether limb position drift might reflect a misalignment in visual and proprioceptive maps by examining the nature of information used to specify new movements from a drifted limb position. In a virtual reality (VR) environment, participants made continuous movements with their dominant right hand between two targets positioned 15cm apart, paced by a 0.625-Hz metronome. After 5 cycles, cursor feedback of the hand was removed for the next 44 cycles, which induced an average drift in hand position of roughly 5cm. On the 50th cycle, participants were required to move to one of 6 new targets from the drifted hand position. Kinematic analysis indicated that movement direction was unambiguously determined by the visual input marked by the original start position, or the last-seen hand position. Forward dynamics analysis revealed that current limb configuration was used to inform joint torques to produce this parallel direction. For new movement specification, accurate proprioceptive information about the drifted limb position was used, even though it was apparently not available for detecting drift in the first place. Movement distance varied directly with the extent of limb drift, although the differentiation of visual and proprioceptive control of distance could not be analyzed, as our control conditions were not significantly different for this measure. We suggest that movement drift, in the absence of visual feedback during cyclic repetitive movements, reflects a misalignment between largely accurate visual and proprioceptive maps, rather than a weighted fusion of the two modalities.

  6. False-positive results in metagenomic virus discovery: a strong case for follow-up diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Rosseel, T; Pardon, B; De Clercq, K; Ozhelvaci, O; Van Borm, S

    2014-08-01

    A viral metagenomic approach using virion enrichment, random amplification and next-generation sequencing was used to investigate an undiagnosed cluster of dairy cattle presenting with high persistent fever, unresponsive to anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory treatment, diarrhoea and redness of nose and teat. Serum and whole blood samples were taken in the predicted hyperviraemic state of an animal that a few days later presented with these clinical signs. Bioinformatics analysis of the resulting data from the DNA virus identification workflow (a total of 32 757 sequences with average read length 335 bases) initially demonstrated the presence of parvovirus-like sequences in the tested blood sample. Thorough follow-up using specific real-time RT-PCR assays targeting the detected sequence fragments confirmed the presence of these sequences in the original sample as well as in a sample of an additional animal, but a contamination with an identical genetic signature in negative extraction controls was demonstrated. Further investigation using an alternative extraction method identified a contamination of the originally used Qiagen extraction columns with parvovirus-like nucleic acids or virus particles. Although we did not find any relevant virus that could be associated with the disease, these observations clearly illustrate the importance of using a proper control strategy and follow-up diagnostic tests in any viral metagenomic study.

  7. Effect of poppy seed consummation on the positive results of opiates screening in biological samples.

    PubMed

    Jankovicová, Katarína; Ulbrich, Pavol; Fuknová, Mária

    2009-04-01

    Poppy seed is a popular substance of many traditional Slovak cakes. We can eat quite great amount of it, sometimes more than 50 g. Existing problem in interpreting the results of opiate urine analysis in case of drug abuse arises from the natural occurrence of opiate alkaloids in poppy seed. Interpretation of morphine presence in urine sample is in some cases a problem because morphine present in the urine sample may come from different "sources". The presence of additional, respectively, other opiate in urine sample is significant help when interpreting the presence of morphine. We used poppy seed bought in supermarket for our experiment. Presence of morphine and codeine was determined in poppy seed extracts, whereas the concentration of majority opiate-morphine was 0.9 mg/100 g (9 ppm). This poppy seed was used for two series of experiment-poppy seed consummation, where four persons consumed 100g of poppy seed in the first series and 50 g in the second series. Urine samples were taken in regular 1h intervals where first urine sample was given for testing 3 h after consummation. Concentrations of total opiates were determined in each urine sample by screening examination. Morphine concentrations were determined in selected urine samples using GC/MS with internal standard.

  8. Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive for Enhanced Mercury Control - Task 5 Full-Scale Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Gary Blythe; MariJon Owens

    2007-12-01

    and reporting. The other four tasks involve field testing on FGD systems, either at pilot or full scale. The four tasks include: Task 2 - Pilot Additive Testing in Texas Lignite Flue Gas; Task 3 - Full-scale FGD Additive Testing in High-sulfur Eastern Bituminous Flue Gas; Task 4 - Pilot Wet Scrubber Additive Tests at Plant Yates; and Task 5 - Full-scale Additive Tests at Plant Yates. The pilot-scale tests and the full-scale test using high-sulfur coal were completed in 2005 and 2006 and have been previously reported. This topical report presents the results from the Task 5 full-scale additive tests, conducted at Southern Company's Plant Yates Unit 1. Both additives were tested there.

  9. Effect of lime addition during sewage sludge treatment on characteristics of resulting SSA when it is used in cementitious materials.

    PubMed

    Vouk, D; Nakic, D; Štirmer, N; Baricevic, A

    2017-02-01

    Final disposal of sewage sludge is important not only in terms of satisfying the regulations, but the aspect of choosing the optimal wastewater treatment technology, including the sludge treatment. In most EU countries, significant amounts of stabilized and dewatered sludge are incinerated, and sewage sludge ash (SSA) is generated as a by product. At the same time, lime is one of the commonly used additives in the sewage sludge treatment primarily to stabilize the sludge. In doing so, the question arose how desirable is such addition of lime if the sludge is subsequently incinerated, and the generated ash is further used in the production of cementitious materials. A series of mortars were prepared where 10-20% of the cement fraction was replaced by SSA. Since all three types of analyzed SSA (without lime, with lime added during sludge stabilization and with extra lime added during sludge incineration) yielded nearly same results, it can be concluded that if sludge incineration is accepted solution, lime addition during sludge treatment is unnecessary even from the standpoint of preserving the pozzolanic properties of the resulting SSA. Results of the research carried out on cement mortars point to the great possibilities of using SSA in concrete industry.

  10. Comparing GWAS Results of Complex Traits Using Full Genetic Model and Additive Models for Revealing Genetic Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Monir, Md. Mamun; Zhu, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Most of the genome-wide association studies (GWASs) for human complex diseases have ignored dominance, epistasis and ethnic interactions. We conducted comparative GWASs for total cholesterol using full model and additive models, which illustrate the impacts of the ignoring genetic variants on analysis results and demonstrate how genetic effects of multiple loci could differ across different ethnic groups. There were 15 quantitative trait loci with 13 individual loci and 3 pairs of epistasis loci identified by full model, whereas only 14 loci (9 common loci and 5 different loci) identified by multi-loci additive model. Again, 4 full model detected loci were not detected using multi-loci additive model. PLINK-analysis identified two loci and GCTA-analysis detected only one locus with genome-wide significance. Full model identified three previously reported genes as well as several new genes. Bioinformatics analysis showed some new genes are related with cholesterol related chemicals and/or diseases. Analyses of cholesterol data and simulation studies revealed that the full model performs were better than the additive-model performs in terms of detecting power and unbiased estimations of genetic variants of complex traits. PMID:28079101

  11. Addition of sargramostim (GM-CSF) to imatinib results in major cytogenetic response in a patient with chronic myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Connor, Rebecca F; Hurd, David; Pettenati, Mark J; Koty, Patrick; Molnár, István

    2006-10-01

    Imatinib mesylate, an inhibitor of BCR/ABL tyrosine kinase, has remarkable activity in chronic myeloid leukemia resulting in an 87% major cytogenetic response. We describe a woman who failed to achieve any cytogenetic response after 2.5 years of imatinib, 400mg daily. When daily sargramostim (GM-CSF) 100 microg/m2 was added, cytogenetic studies revealed a gradual increase in percentage of normal cells from start, 4, 9, and 15 months at 0%, 10%, 55%, and 85%, respectively. She became transfusion independent after starting GM-CSF. The addition of GM-CSF to imatinib resulted in a clinical benefit and a major cytogenetic response in this patient.

  12. [Postoperative results under the new stage classification of lung cancer: the additional reports for those of JACS in 1996].

    PubMed

    Shirakusa, T

    2000-10-01

    This time, in 3008 lung cancer patients, the postoperative results were analyzed under the new stage grouping of TNM classification. All of those patients underwent the operation in 1989, and the 5 year-survival rates had beeb surveyed in 1996 by JACS (The Japanese Association for Chest Surgery). Under the new TNM classification established in 1996 worldwidey, T3N0M0 was transferred from IIIA to IIB. This report is the additional one in the focus of the results accompanied with the change of TNM classification.

  13. Commissioning results of the narrow-band beam position monitor system upgrade in the APS storage ring.

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, O.

    1999-04-20

    When using a low emittance storage ring as a high brightness synchrotron radiation source, it is critical to maintain a very high degree of orbit stability, both for the short term and for the duration of an operational fill. A fill-to-fill reproducibility is an additional important requirement. Recent developments in orbit correction algorithms have provided tools that are capable of achieving a high degree of orbit stability. However, the performance of these feedback systems can be severely limited if there are errors in the beam position monitors (BPMs). The present orbit measurement and correction system at the APS storage ring utilizes 360 broad-band-type BPMs that provide turn-by-turn diagnostics and an ultra-stable orbit: < 1.8 micron rms vertically and 4.5 microns rms horizontally in a frequency band of 0.017 to 30 Hz. The effects of beam intensity and bunch pattern dependency on these BPMs have been significantly reduced by employing offset compensation correction. Recently, 40 narrow-band switching-type BPMs have been installed in the APS storage ring, two in each of 20 operational insertion device straight sections, bringing the total number of beam position monitors to 400. The use of narrow-band BPM electronics is expected to reduce sensitivity to beam intensity, bunch pattern dependence, and long-term drift. These beam position monitors are used for orbit correction/feedback and machine protection interlocks for the insertion device beamlines. The commissioning results and overall performance for orbit stability are provided.

  14. Organizational predictors of colonoscopy follow-up for positive fecal occult blood test results: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Partin, Melissa R.; Burgess, Diana J.; Burgess, James F.; Gravely, Amy; Haggstrom, David; Lillie, Sarah E; Nugent, Sean; Powell, Adam A; Shaukat, Aasma; Walter, Louise C.; Nelson, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Background This study assessed the contribution of organizational structures and processes identified from facility surveys to follow-up for positive Fecal Occult Blood Tests (FOBT+). Methods We identified 74,104 patients with FOBT+ results from 98 Veterans Health Administration (VHA) facilities between 8/16/09-3/20/11 and followed them until 9/30/11 for completion of colonoscopy. We identified patient characteristics from VHA administrative records, and organizational factors from facility surveys completed by Primary Care and Gastroenterology Chiefs. We estimated predictors of colonoscopy completion within 60 days and 6 months using hierarchical logistic regression models. Results 30% of patients with FOBT+ results received colonoscopy within 60 days and 49% within 6 months. Having Gastroenterology or Laboratory staff notify Gastroenterology providers directly about FOBT+ cases was a significant predictor of 60-day (odds ratio (OR)=1.85, p=0.01) and 6-month follow-up (OR 1.25, p=0.008). Additional predictors of 60-day follow-up included adequacy of colonoscopy appointment availability (OR 1.43, p=0.01) and frequent individual feedback to Primary Care providers about FOBT+ referral timeliness (OR 1.79, p=0.04). Additional predictors of 6-month follow-up included using guideline-concordant surveillance intervals for low-risk adenomas (OR 1.57, p=0.01) and using group appointments and combined verbal-written methods for colonoscopy preparation instruction (OR 1.48, p=0.0001). Conclusion Directly notifying Gastroenterology providers about FOBT+ results, employing guideline-concordant adenoma surveillance intervals, and using colonoscopy preparations instruction methods that provide both verbal and written information may increase overall follow-up rates. Enhancing follow-up within 60-days may require increased colonoscopy capacity and feedback to Primary Care providers. Impact These findings may inform organizational-level interventions to improve FOBT+ follow

  15. Addition of positively charged tripeptide to N-terminus of the Fos basic region leucine zipper domain: implications on DNA bending, affinity, and specificity.

    PubMed

    Mahmoudi, T; Sarkar, B

    1999-09-01

    GKH-Fos(139-211)/Jun(248-334) (GKH: glycine-lysine-histidine) is a modified Fos/Jun heterodimer designed to contain a metal binding motif in the form of a GKH tripeptide at the amino terminus of Fos bZIP domain dimerized with the Jun basic region leucine zipper (bZIP) domain. We examined the effect of the addition of positively charged GKH motif to the N-terminus of Fos(139-211) on the DNA binding characteristics of the Fos(139-211)/Jun(248-334) heterodimer. Binding studies indicate that while the nonspecific DNA binding affinity of the GKH modified heterodimer increases 4-fold, it specifically binds the activating protein-1 (AP-1) site 6-fold less tightly than the control unmodified counterpart. Furthermore, helical phasing analysis indicates that GKH-Fos(139-211)/Jun(248-334) and control Fos(139-211)/Jun(248-334) both bend the DNA at the AP-1 site toward the minor groove. However, due to the presence of the positively charged GKH motif on Fos, the degree of the induced bend by GKH- Fos(139-211)/Jun(248-334) is greater than that induced by the unmodified Fos/Jun heterodimer. Our results suggest that the unfavorable energetic cost of the increased DNA bending by GKH-Fos(139-211)/Jun(248-334) results in a decrease in both specificity and affinity of binding of the heterodimer to the AP-1 site. These findings may have important implications in protein design as well in our understanding of DNA bending and factors responsible for the functional specificity of different members of the bZIP family of transcription factors.

  16. A re-examination of paleomagnetic results from NA Jurassic sedimentary rocks: Additional evidence for proposed Jurassic MUTO?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Housen, B. A.

    2015-12-01

    Kent and Irving, 2010; and Kent et al, 2015 propose a monster shift in the position of Jurassic (160 to 145 Ma) paleopoles for North America- defined by results from igneous rocks. This monster shift is likely an unrecognized true polar wander occurrence. Although subject to inclination error, results from sedimentary rocks from North America, if corrected for these effects, can be used to supplement the available data for this time period. Steiner (2003) reported results from 48 stratigraphic horizons sampled from the Callovian Summerville Fm, from NE New Mexico. A recalculated mean of these results yields a mean direction of D = 332, I = 39, n=48, k = 15, α95 = 5.4°. These data were analyzed for possible inclination error-although the dataset is small, the E-I results yielded a corrected I = 53. This yields a corrected paleopole for NA at ~165 Ma located at 67° N and 168° E.Paleomagnetic results from the Black Hills- Kilanowski (2002) for the Callovian Hulett Mbr of the Sundance Fm, and Gregiore (2001) the Oxfordian-Tithonian Morrison Fm (Gregiore, 2001) have previously been interpreted to represent Eocene-aged remagnetizations- due to the nearly exact coincidence between the in-situ pole positions of these Jurassic units with the Eocene pole for NA. Both of the tilt-corrected results for these units have high latitude poles (Sundance Fm: 79° N, 146° E; Morrison Fm: 89° N, 165° E). An E-I analysis of these data will be presented- using a provisional inclination error of 10°, corrected paleopoles are: (Sundance Fm: 76° N, 220° E; Morrison Fm: 77° N, 266° E). The Black Hills 165 Ma (Sundance Fm) and 145 Ma (Morrison Fm) poles, provisionally corrected for 10° inclination error- occur fairly close to the NA APWP proposed by Kent et al, 2015- using an updated set of results from kimberlites- the agreement between the Sundance Fm and the Triple-B (158 Ma) pole would be nearly exact with a slightly lesser inclination error. The Summerville Fm- which is

  17. Adjusting for temporal change in trophic position results in reduced rates of contaminant decline.

    PubMed

    Hebert, Craig E; Weseloh, D V Chip

    2006-09-15

    The development of ecological tracers to track the flow of energy and nutrients through food webs has provided new insights into the factors that are important in regulating diet composition in wildlife. The Great Lakes Herring Gull Monitoring Program has provided information regarding temporal trends in levels of bioaccumulative contaminants since the early 1970s. In recent years, data from this program have also been generated to examine ecological changes in the Great Lakes. Because the contaminants that are evaluated as part of this program biomagnify, food is the primary determinant of contaminant concentrations in the eggs that are analyzed annually. Fluctuations in diet composition could affect the interpretation of temporal trends by affecting exposure to contaminants. Retrospective analyses involving ecological tracers, i.e., stable nitrogen isotopes and fatty acids, have shown temporal change in the diets of Great Lakes herring gulls at some monitoring colonies. These dietary differences have led to temporal variation in the trophic position of herring gulls. Given that higher trophic level organisms incur greater exposure to biomagnifying contaminants, it is necessary to adjust for these temporal changes in trophic position to get an accurate indication of how contaminant burdens are changing within the Great Lakes ecosystem. Here, we outline a method to adjust for temporal changes in indicator species trophic position and discuss how these adjustments affect the interpretation of contaminant temporal trend monitoring data.

  18. Risk factors for false positive and for false negative test results in screening with fecal occult blood testing.

    PubMed

    Stegeman, Inge; de Wijkerslooth, Thomas R; Stoop, Esther M; van Leerdam, Monique; van Ballegooijen, M; Kraaijenhagen, Roderik A; Fockens, Paul; Kuipers, Ernst J; Dekker, Evelien; Bossuyt, Patrick M

    2013-11-15

    Differences in the risk of a false negative or a false positive fecal immunochemical test (FIT) across subgroups may affect optimal screening strategies. We evaluate whether subgroups are at increased risk of a false positive or a false negative FIT result, whether such variability in risk is related to differences in FIT sensitivity and specificity or to differences in prior CRC risk. Randomly selected, asymptomatic individuals were invited to undergo colonoscopy. Participants were asked to undergo one sample FIT and to complete a risk questionnaire. We identified patient characteristics associated with a false negative and false positive FIT results using logistic regression. We focused on statistically significant differences as well as on variables influencing the false positive or negative risk for which the odds ratio exceeded 1.25. Of the 1,426 screening participants, 1,112 (78%) completed FIT and the questionnaire; 101 (9.1%) had advanced neoplasia. 102 Individuals were FIT positive, 65 (64%) had a false negative FIT result and 66 (65%) a false positive FIT result. Participants at higher age and smokers had a significantly higher risk of a false negative FIT result. Males were at increased risk of a false positive result, so were smokers and regular NSAID users. FIT sensitivity was lower in females. Specificity was lower for males, smokers and regular NSAID users. FIT sensitivity was lower in women. FIT specificity was lower in males, smokers and regular NSAID users. Our results can be used for further evidence based individualization of screening strategies.

  19. Perceived Family Support and Antiretroviral Adherence in HIV-Positive Individuals: Results from a Community-Based Positive Living With HIV Study.

    PubMed

    Poudel, Krishna C; Buchanan, David R; Amiya, Rachel M; Poudel-Tandukar, Kalpana

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between perceived family support, either positive or negative, and adherence to antiretroviral medication regimens among HIV-positive individuals in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. We measured past 3-month antiretroviral adherence among 233 HIV-positive individuals, in relation to perceived family support, both positive (in terms of emotional and instrumental support) and negative (in the form of negative interactions), using the 10-item Nepali Family Support and Difficulty Scale. Medium and high levels of perceived emotional support from family were associated with reduced risk of antiretroviral nonadherence, compared with low levels of perceived emotional support (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]  = 0.37, 95% confidence interval [CI] [0.16, 0.88], and AOR  = 0.23, 95% CI [0.08, 0.64], respectively). Conversely, higher levels of felt emotional distance (AOR  = 1.46, 95% CI [1.00, 2.14]) and experienced physical harm (AOR  = 2.04, 95% CI [1.07, 3.91]) were associated with increased risk of nonadherence. The results support the recommendation that service providers need to be aware of the significant role of family support in shaping antiretroviral adherence and to consider ways to strengthen positive family support while minimizing negative family interactions to increase adherence rates.

  20. Factors to predict positive results of gonadotropin releasing hormone stimulation test in girls with suspected precocious puberty.

    PubMed

    Nam, Hyo-Kyoung; Rhie, Young Jun; Son, Chang Sung; Park, Sang Hee; Lee, Kee-Hyoung

    2012-02-01

    Sometimes, the clinical findings and the results of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) stimulation test are inconsistent in girls with early breast development and bone age advancement. We aimed to investigate the factors predicting positive results of the GnRH stimulation test in girls with suspected central precocious puberty (CPP). We reviewed the records of 574 girls who developed breast budding before the age of 8 yr and underwent the GnRH stimulation test under the age of 9 yr. Positive results of the GnRH stimulated peak luteinizing hormone (LH) level were defined as 5 IU/L and over. Girls with the initial positive results (n = 375) showed accelerated growth, advanced bone age and higher serum basal LH, follicle-stimulating hormone, and estradiol levels, compared to those with the initial negative results (n = 199). Girls with the follow-up positive results (n = 64) showed accelerated growth and advanced bone age, compared to those with the follow-up negative results. In the binary logistic regression, the growth velocity ratio was the most significant predictive factor of positive results. We suggest that the rapid growth velocity is the most useful predictive factor for positive results in the GnRH stimulation test in girls with suspected precocious puberty.

  1. Estimates for the sensitivity and false-positive rates for second trimester serum screening for Down syndrome and trisomy 18 with adjustment for cross-identification and double-positive results.

    PubMed

    Benn, P A; Ying, J; Beazoglou, T; Egan, J F

    2001-01-01

    Second trimester screening for fetal Down syndrome and trisomy 18 is available through separate protocols that combine the maternal age-specific risk and the analysis of maternal serum markers. We have determined the extent to which additional Down syndrome affected pregnancies may be identified through trisomy 18 screening, and the extent to which additional cases of trisomy 18 may be screen-positive for Down syndrome. The combined false-positive rate, taking into consideration those pregnancies that are screen-positive by both protocols, has also been determined. Sensitivity and false-positive rates were determined by computer simulation of results that incorporated previously published statistical variables into the model. Using second trimester risk cut-offs of 1:270 for Down syndrome and 1:100 for trisomy 18, it was found that few additional cases of Down syndrome are identified through trisomy 18 screening. However, approximately 6-10% of trisomy 18 affected pregnancies will be screen-positive for Down syndrome but screen-negative for trisomy 18. For women aged 40 or more, the false-positive rate for trisomy 18 exceeds 1% and approximately half of these cases will also be screen-positive for Down syndrome. For a population with maternal ages equivalent to that in the United States in 1998, after adjusting for the cross-identification, the sensitivity for three-analyte trisomy 18 screening is 78%. If this testing is performed in conjunction with Down syndrome "triple" screening, the Down syndrome sensitivity is 75% and the combined false-positive rate is 8.5%. If the three-analyte trisomy 18 screening is performed with the Down syndrome "quad" screen, the trisomy 18 sensitivity remains at 78%, the Down syndrome sensitivity is 79%, and combined false-positive rate is 7.5%. Sensitivity and false-positive rates are also provided for other widely used Down syndrome and trisomy 18 risk cut-offs. Sensitivity and false-positive rates that take into consideration

  2. Neratinib in HER-2-positive breast cancer: results to date and clinical usefulness

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Arlene

    2016-01-01

    The management of HER-2-positive breast cancer has improved significantly with the use of targeted agents to the HER-2 signaling pathway. Despite the improved survival achieved with the use of trastuzumab and chemotherapy in both the adjuvant and metastatic setting, patients may still recur or progress; whilst preclinical data demonstrate that these cancer cells remain addicted to the HER-2 oncogene. Neratinib, an oral small molecule tyrosine-kinase inhibitor has efficacy in the metastatic and adjuvant setting of patients who have previously received trastuzumab-based treatment. Diarrhea, being a class effect of tyrosine-kinase inhibitor, is the most common side effect seen following neratinib administration, but recent data suggests that a prophylactic loperamide regimen can reduce the incidence of grade 3 diarrhea. Phase I through to III clinical trials of neratinib will be reviewed, with discussion of the postulated mechanism underlying diarrheal events and its management. PMID:27583026

  3. Position but not color deviants result in visual mismatch negativity in an active oddball task.

    PubMed

    Berti, Stefan

    2009-05-06

    Changes in the visual environment might be detected automatically. This function is provided by the sensory systems and showed, for instance, by the pop-out phenomenon. Automatic change detection is also observable within visual oddball paradigms, where rare changes are introduced in an irrelevant stimulus feature; the detection of deviant stimuli is accompanied by a negative component (so-called visual mismatch negativity) in the human event-related brain potential. In this study, the deviating stimulus feature was embedded in a task-relevant object presented in the focus of attention. With this, visual mismatch negativity was observable only with position deviants presented in the upper visual half field but not by lower half field presentation or color deviants.

  4. The benefits of health information technology: a review of the recent literature shows predominantly positive results.

    PubMed

    Buntin, Melinda Beeuwkes; Burke, Matthew F; Hoaglin, Michael C; Blumenthal, David

    2011-03-01

    An unprecedented federal effort is under way to boost the adoption of electronic health records and spur innovation in health care delivery. We reviewed the recent literature on health information technology to determine its effect on outcomes, including quality, efficiency, and provider satisfaction. We found that 92 percent of the recent articles on health information technology reached conclusions that were positive overall. We also found that the benefits of the technology are beginning to emerge in smaller practices and organizations, as well as in large organizations that were early adopters. However, dissatisfaction with electronic health records among some providers remains a problem and a barrier to achieving the potential of health information technology. These realities highlight the need for studies that document the challenging aspects of implementing health information technology more specifically and how these challenges might be addressed.

  5. Ruling out False-Positive Urinary Legionella pneumophila Serogroup 1 and Streptococcus pneumoniae Antigen Test Results by Heating Urine

    PubMed Central

    Pontoizeau, C.; Dangers, L.; Jarlier, V.; Luyt, C. E.; Guiller, E.; Fievet, M. H.; Lecsö-Bornet, M.; Aubry, A.

    2014-01-01

    We report here false-positive urinary Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 and Streptococcus pneumoniae antigen test results due to rabbit antilymphocyte serum treatment and provide a simple and fast solution to rule them out by heating urine. PMID:25253788

  6. 49 CFR 40.155 - What does the MRO do when a negative or positive test result is also dilute?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Medical Review Officers and the Verification Process § 40.155 What does the MRO do when a negative or positive test result...

  7. 49 CFR 40.155 - What does the MRO do when a negative or positive test result is also dilute?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Medical Review Officers and the Verification Process § 40.155 What does the MRO do when a negative or positive test result...

  8. 49 CFR 40.155 - What does the MRO do when a negative or positive test result is also dilute?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Medical Review Officers and the Verification Process § 40.155 What does the MRO do when a negative or positive test result...

  9. 49 CFR 40.155 - What does the MRO do when a negative or positive test result is also dilute?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Medical Review Officers and the Verification Process § 40.155 What does the MRO do when a negative or positive test result...

  10. 49 CFR 40.155 - What does the MRO do when a negative or positive test result is also dilute?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Medical Review Officers and the Verification Process § 40.155 What does the MRO do when a negative or positive test result...

  11. Health literacy of HIV-positive individuals enrolled in an outreach intervention: results of a cross-site analysis.

    PubMed

    Drainoni, Mari-Lynn; Rajabiun, Serena; Rumptz, Maureen; Welles, Seth L; Relf, Michael; Rebholz, Casey; Holmes, Leah; Dyl, Angela; Lovejoy, Travis; Dekker, Debra; Frye, Alison

    2008-01-01

    This article examines health literacy among a group a HIV-positive persons at risk for receiving suboptimal health care due to histories of substance abuse, mental illness, incarceration, and unstable housing or homelessness. Participants receiving services from three outreach programs funded as part of a multisite demonstration project were screened for health literacy using the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (TOFHLA) at program enrollment. The goal of this analysis was to identify demographics, risk factors, and health indicators associated with different levels of health literacy. Results indicated that although fewer than 30% of the sample scored in the marginal or inadequate range for health literacy, participants with these lower levels of health literacy were more likely to be African American or Latino/a, heterosexual, speak Spanish as their primary language, and have less than a high school education. The disparities in health literacy found in this study point to a need to assess level of health literacy and provide culturally sensitive health literacy interventions for persons with chronic diseases such as HIV. In addition to offering these services within HIV health care settings, health professionals can use other potential venues for health literacy assessment and intervention including substance abuse treatment and community-based social service, education, and training programs. Health care and support service providers also must become aware of the importance of health literacy when caring for all patients with HIV, particularly those most likely to have low health literacy.

  12. [Afatinib as first-line therapy in mutation-positive EGFR. Results by type of mutation].

    PubMed

    Vidal, Óscar Juan

    2016-04-01

    The discovery of endothelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations has laid the foundations for personalized medicine in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). In phase III trials, the first-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI), gefitinib and erlotinib, demonstrated greater efficacy compared with chemotherapy in patients with EGFR mutations, achieving progression-free survival of 8-13.5 months. Afatinib, a second-generation irreversible pan-ErbB inhibitor, is the first TKI that has shown a benefit in overall survival (OS) compared with chemotherapy in EGFR mutation-positive NSCLC when used as first-line treatment. Exon 19 deletion (Del19) and the single-point substitution mutation (L858R) in exon 21, called activating mutations due to their ability to confer sensitivity to TKI, represent approximately 90% of the EGFR mutations in NSCLC. Distinct sensitivity to TKI has been observed depending on the type of mutation, with greater progression-free survival in patients with the Del19 mutation. The analysis of OS in the LUX-Lung 3 and LUX-Lung 6 trials showed a statistically significant increase in survival in afatinib-treated patients with the Del 19 mutation, but no significant increase in that of patients with the L858R mutation. Direct comparison of afatinib and gefitinib as first-line therapy (LUX-Lung 7 trial) showed a statistically-significant increase in progression-free survival (hazard ratio: 0.73; 95% confidence interval, 0.57-0.95; p=0.0165) with afatinib. In the analysis by type of mutation, this benefit was observed for both the Del19 and the L858R mutations.

  13. Can homeopathy bring additional benefits to thalassemic patients on hydroxyurea therapy? Encouraging results of a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Antara; Chakrabarty, Sudipa Basu; Karmakar, Susanta Roy; Chakrabarty, Amit; Biswas, Surjyo Jyoti; Haque, Saiful; Das, Debarsi; Paul, Saili; Mandal, Biswapati; Naoual, Boujedaini; Belon, Philippe; Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur Rahman

    2010-03-01

    Several homeopathic remedies, namely, Pulsatilla Nigricans (30th potency), Ceanothus Americanus (both mother tincture and 6th potency) and Ferrum Metallicum (30th potency) selected as per similia principles were administered to 38 thalassemic patients receiving Hydroxyurea (HU) therapy for a varying period of time. Levels of serum ferritin (SF), fetal hemoglobin (HbF), hemoglobin (Hb), platelet count (PC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), white blood cell (WBC) count, bilirubin content, alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST) and serum total protein content of patients were determined before and 3 months after administration of the homeopathic remedies in combination with HU to evaluate additional benefits, if any, derived by the homeopathic remedies, by comparing the data with those of 38 subjects receiving only HU therapy. Preliminary results indicated that there was a significant decrease in the SF and increase in HbF levels in the combined, treated subjects. Although the changes in other parameters were not so significant, there was a significant decrease in size of spleen in most patients with spleenomegaly and improvement in general health conditions along with an increased gap between transfusions in most patients receiving the combined homeopathic treatment. The homeopathic remedies being inexpensive and without any known side-effects seem to have great potentials in bringing additional benefits to thalassemic patients; particularly in the developing world where blood transfusions suffer from inadequate screening and fall short of the stringent safety standards followed in the developed countries. Further independent studies are encouraged.

  14. Model assessment of additional contamination of water bodies as a result of wildfires in the Chernobyl exclusion zone.

    PubMed

    Bondar, Yu I; Navumau, A D; Nikitin, A N; Brown, J; Dowdall, M

    2014-12-01

    Forest fires and wild fires are recognized as a possible cause of resuspension and redistribution of radioactive substances when occurring on lands contaminated with such materials, and as such are a matter of concern within the regions of Belarus and the Ukraine which were contaminated by the Chernobyl accident in 1986. Modelling the effects of such fires on radioactive contaminants is a complex matter given the number of variables involved. In this paper, a probabilistic model was developed using empirical data drawn from the Polessie State Radiation-Ecological Reserve (PSRER), Belarus, and the Maximum Entropy Method. Using the model, it was possible to derive estimates of the contribution of fire events to overall variability in the levels of (137)Cs and (239,240)Pu in ground air as well as estimates of the deposition of these radionuclides to specific water bodies within the contaminated areas of Belarus. Results indicate that fire events are potentially significant redistributors of radioactive contaminants within the study area and may result in additional contamination being introduced to water bodies.

  15. A comparison of two position estimate algorithms that use ILS localizer and DME information. Simulation and flight test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knox, C. E.; Vicroy, D. D.; Scanlon, C.

    1984-01-01

    Simulation and flight tests were conducted to compare the accuracy of two algorithms designed to compute a position estimate with an airborne navigation computer. Both algorithms used ILS localizer and DME radio signals to compute a position difference vector to be used as an input to the navigation computer position estimate filter. The results of these tests show that the position estimate accuracy and response to artificially induced errors are improved when the position estimate is computed by an algorithm that geometrically combines DME and ILS localizer information to form a single component of error rather than by an algorithm that produces two independent components of error, one from a DMD input and the other from the ILS localizer input.

  16. Functional result relating to the positioning of the graft in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction☆

    PubMed Central

    de Melo Silva Júnior, Otávio; do Nascimento Ohashi, Bruno; de Almeida, Murilo Oliveira; Reis Gonçalves, Murilo

    2015-01-01

    Objective To ascertain the coronal angles for the femoral and tibial tunnels that provide the best postoperative result from anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction surgery, through assessing the variables of the IKDC and Lysholm–Tegner questionnaires and the hop test. Methods Sixteen patients with a single unilateral ACL injury who underwent this surgery between 24 and 36 months earlier were evaluated. They were divided into four groups in which the tibial and femoral tunnel angles were greater than or less than 65° in the coronal plane. Results The results demonstrated that a more vertical angle for the tibial tunnel (72°) and a more horizontal angle for the femoral tunnel (60°), with valgus alignment of 12° correlated with the best values for the variables studied. This may indicate that the long-term results from this surgery are excellent. Conclusion A more horizontal femoral angle and a more vertical tibial angle produced better assessments in the tests that were applied and in the functional results evaluated. PMID:26229897

  17. The Position of Turkey among OECD Member and Candidate Countries According to PISA 2009 Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acar, Tulin

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the status of Turkey among OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) members and candidate countries through cluster and discriminant analyses according to PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment) 2009 results. The study includes 475460 fifteen year-old students from 65…

  18. False Positive Functional Analysis Results as a Contributor of Treatment Failure during Functional Communication Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Amanda J.; Mueller, Michael M.

    2009-01-01

    Research has shown that functional analysis results are beneficial for treatment selection because they identify reinforcers for severe behavior that can then be used to reinforce replacement behaviors either differentially or noncontingently. Theoretically then, if a reinforcer is identified in a functional analysis erroneously, a well researched…

  19. Accuracy and Precision in the Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) Dataset in Light of the JOSIE-2000 Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Thompson, Anne M.; Schmidlin, F. J.; Oltmans, S. J.; Smit, H. G. J.

    2004-01-01

    Since 1998 the Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes (SHADOZ) project has provided over 2000 ozone profiles over eleven southern hemisphere tropical and subtropical stations. Balloon-borne electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozonesondes are used to measure ozone. The data are archived at: &ttp://croc.gsfc.nasa.gov/shadoz>. In analysis of ozonesonde imprecision within the SHADOZ dataset, Thompson et al. [JGR, 108,8238,20031 we pointed out that variations in ozonesonde technique (sensor solution strength, instrument manufacturer, data processing) could lead to station-to-station biases within the SHADOZ dataset. Imprecisions and accuracy in the SHADOZ dataset are examined in light of new data. First, SHADOZ total ozone column amounts are compared to version 8 TOMS (2004 release). As for TOMS version 7, satellite total ozone is usually higher than the integrated column amount from the sounding. Discrepancies between the sonde and satellite datasets decline two percentage points on average, compared to version 7 TOMS offsets. Second, the SHADOZ station data are compared to results of chamber simulations (JOSE-2000, Juelich Ozonesonde Intercomparison Experiment) in which the various SHADOZ techniques were evaluated. The range of JOSE column deviations from a standard instrument (-10%) in the chamber resembles that of the SHADOZ station data. It appears that some systematic variations in the SHADOZ ozone record are accounted for by differences in solution strength, data processing and instrument type (manufacturer).

  20. Results of a two-position reactor neutrino-oscillation experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwood, Z.D.; Kropp, W.R.; Mandelkern, M.A.; Nakamura, S.; Pasierb-Love, E.L.; Price, L.R.; Reines, F.; Riley, S.P.; Sobel, H.W.; Baumann, N.; Gurr, H.S.

    1996-06-01

    A search for vacuum neutrino oscillations in the range {Delta}{ital m}{sup 2}{approx_gt}0.01 eV{sup 2} with sin{sup 2}2{theta}{approx_gt}0.05 was performed with a detector placed at two different distances (18 and 24 m) from a production reactor at the Savannah River Site. The results observed are inconsistent with oscillations in this region and consistent with other reactor experiments. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  1. Interpretation of positive troponin results among patients with and without myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Tecson, Kristen M.; Arnold, William; Barrett, Tyler; Birkhahn, Robert; Daniels, Lori B.; DeFilippi, Christopher; Headden, Gary; Peacock, W. Frank; Reed, Michael; Singer, Adam J.; Schussler, Jeffrey M.; Smith, Stephen; Than, Martin P.

    2017-01-01

    Measuring cardiac troponins is integral to diagnosing acute myocardial infarction (AMI); however, troponins may be elevated without AMI, and the use of multiple different assays confounds comparisons. We considered characteristics and serial troponin values in emergency department chest pain patients with and without AMI to interpret troponin excursions. We compared serial troponin in 124 AMI and non-AMI patients from the observational Performance of Triage Cardiac Markers in the Clinical Setting (PEARL) study who presented with chest pain and had at least one troponin value exceeding the 99th percentile of normal. Because 8 assays were used during data collection, we employed a method of scaling the troponin value to the corresponding assay's 99th percentile upper reference limit to standardize the results. In 81 AMI patients, 96% had elevated troponin at the first test following initial elevation, compared to 73% of the 43 non-AMI patients (P < 0.001). Scaling troponin to the 99th percentile of normal yielded a median value that was 4.8 [2.2, 14.1] times higher than the 99th percentile cutpoint among AMI patients, compared to 2.3 [1.5, 6.5] times higher among non-AMI patients (P = 0.04). The rise in serial scaled troponin values distinguished the AMI patients. Scaling to the 99th percentile was useful for comparing troponin when different assays were utilized. PMID:28127121

  2. A Study of Genotyping for Management of Human Papillomavirus-Positive, Cytology-Negative Cervical Screening Results

    PubMed Central

    Burk, R. D.; Boyle, S.; Raine-Bennett, T.; Katki, H. A.; Gage, J. C.; Wentzensen, N.; Kornegay, J. R.; Aldrich, C.; Tam, T.; Erlich, H.; Apple, R.; Befano, B.; Castle, P. E.

    2014-01-01

    The effective management of women with human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive, cytology-negative results is critical to the introduction of HPV testing into cervical screening. HPV typing has been recommended for colposcopy triage, but it is not clear which combinations of high-risk HPV types provide clinically useful information. This study included 18,810 women with Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2)-positive, cytology-negative results and who were age ≥30 years from Kaiser Permanente Northern California. The median follow-up was 475 days (interquartile range [IQR], 0 to 1,077 days; maximum, 2,217 days). The baseline specimens from 482 cases of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or cancer (CIN3+) and 3,517 random HC2-positive noncases were genotyped using 2 PCR-based methods. Using the case-control sampling fractions, the 3-year cumulative risks of CIN3+ were calculated for each individual high-risk HPV type. The 3-year cumulative risk of CIN3+ among all women with HC2-positive, cytology-negative results was 4.6%. HPV16 status conferred the greatest type-specific risk stratification; women with HC2-positive/HPV16-positive results had a 10.6% risk of CIN3+, while women with HC-2 positive/HPV16-negative results had a much lower risk of 2.4%. The next most informative HPV types and their risks in HPV-positive women were HPV33 (5.9%) and HPV18 (5.9%). With regard to the etiologic fraction, 20 of 71 cases of cervical adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) and adenocarcinoma in the cohort were positive for HPV18. HPV16 genotyping provides risk stratification useful for guiding clinical management; the risk among HPV16-positive women clearly exceeds the U.S. consensus risk threshold for immediate colposcopy referral. HPV18 is of particular interest because of its association with difficult-to-detect glandular lesions. There is a less clear clinical value of distinguishing the other high-risk HPV types. PMID:25339396

  3. [Does a positive finding of tetrahydrocannabinol in the blood result from ingestion of Indian frankincense (Boswellia serrata)?].

    PubMed

    Skopp, Gisela; Schmitt, Georg

    2012-01-01

    The exculpatory statement that a positive THC finding in the blood is due to the consumption of hemp products or passive exposure to cannabis smoke has been disproved by the monitoring of hemp products and recent passive inhalation studies conducted in social settings, which showed that these conditions are unlikely to produce a positive result in the blood. The defense that the ingestion of Indian olibanum may result in a positive THC concentration in the blood is unusual; it is based on older publications where authors had speculated on a possible association of the synthetic pathways of THC from terpenoid precursors also being present in olibanum and the biogenesis of THC in hemp. It had further been speculated whether chemical or plant-derived pathways may also occur in humans. A thorough understanding of the different pathways and recently published results have outdated these speculations.

  4. The Effect of False-Positive Results on Subsequent Participation in Chest X-ray Screening for Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Akira; Hamada, Shota; Urashima, Yuki; Tanaka, Shiro; Okamoto, Hiroaki; Kawakami, Koji

    2016-01-01

    Background High attendance rates and regular participation in disease screening programs are important contributors to program effectiveness. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of an initial false-positive result in chest X-ray screening for lung cancer on subsequent screening participation. Methods This historical cohort study analyzed individuals who first participated in a lung cancer screening program conducted by Yokohama City between April 2007 and March 2011, and these participants were retrospectively tracked until March 2013. Subsequent screening participation was compared between participants with false-positive results and those with negative results in evaluation periods between 365 (for the primary outcome) and 730 days. The association of screening results with subsequent participation was evaluated using a generalized linear regression model, with adjustment for characteristics of patients and screening. Results The proportions of subsequent screening participation within 365 days were 12.9% in 3132 participants with false-positive results and 6.7% in 15 737 participants with negative results. Although the differences in attendance rates were reduced with longer cutoffs, participants with false-positive results were consistently more likely to attend subsequent screening than patients with negative results (P < 0.01). The predictors of subsequent screening participation were false-positive results (risk ratio [RR] 1.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.54–1.92), older age (RR 1.17; 95% CI, 1.11–1.23), male sex (RR 1.46; 95% CI, 1.29–1.64), being a current smoker (RR 0.80; 95% CI, 0.69–0.93), current employment (RR 0.79; 95% CI, 0.70–0.90), and being screened at a hospital cancer center (vs public health centers; RR 1.36; 95% CI, 1.15–1.60). Conclusions Our findings indicated that subsequent participation in lung cancer screening was more likely among participants with false-positive results in an initial screening than

  5. Amino acid addition to Vibrio cholerae LPS establishes a link between surface remodeling in gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Hankins, Jessica V; Madsen, James A; Giles, David K; Brodbelt, Jennifer S; Trent, M Stephen

    2012-05-29

    Historically, the O1 El Tor and classical biotypes of Vibrio cholerae have been differentiated by their resistance to the antimicrobial peptide polymyxin B. However, the molecular mechanisms associated with this phenotypic distinction have remained a mystery for 50 y. Both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria modify their cell wall components with amine-containing substituents to reduce the net negative charge of the bacterial surface, thereby promoting cationic antimicrobial peptide resistance. In the present study, we demonstrate that V. cholerae modify the lipid A anchor of LPS with glycine and diglycine residues. This previously uncharacterized lipid A modification confers polymyxin resistance in V. cholerae El Tor, requiring three V. cholerae proteins: Vc1577 (AlmG), Vc1578 (AlmF), and Vc1579 (AlmE). Interestingly, the protein machinery required for glycine addition is reminiscent of the gram-positive system responsible for D-alanylation of teichoic acids. Such machinery was not thought to be used by gram-negative organisms. V. cholerae O1 El Tor mutants lacking genes involved in transferring glycine to LPS showed a 100-fold increase in sensitivity to polymyxin B. This work reveals a unique lipid A modification and demonstrates a charge-based remodeling strategy shared between gram-positive and gram-negative organisms.

  6. Anticipated and Actual Reactions to Receiving HIV Positive Results Through Self-Testing Among Gay and Bisexual Men

    PubMed Central

    Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Ibitoye, Mobolaji; Frasca, Timothy; Brown, William; Balan, Iván

    2014-01-01

    We explored anticipated and actual reactions to receiving HIV positive results through self-testing with a diverse group of 84 gay and bisexual men in New York City. Grounded Theory was used to investigate these reactions in a two-phase study, one hypothetical, followed by a practical phase in which self-tests were distributed and used. Three major themes emerged when participants were asked about their anticipated reactions to an HIV positive self-test result: managing emotional distress, obtaining HIV medical care, and postponing sexual activity. When participants were asked about their anticipated reactions to a partner’s HIV positive self-test result, five themes emerged: provide emotional support; refrain from engaging in sex with casual partner; avoid high-risk sexual activity with both main and casual partners; seek medical services; and obtain a confirmatory test result. Although none of the participants tested positive, seven of their partners did. Participants provided emotional support and linked their partners to support services. The availability of HIV self-testing kits offers potential opportunities to tackle HIV infection among individuals with high-risk practices. PMID:24858480

  7. Does Gender Influence Emotions Resulting from Positive Applause Feedback in Self-Assessment Testing? Evidence from Neuroscience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Chia-Ju; Huang, Chin-Fei; Liu, Ming-Chi; Chien, Yu-Cheng; Lai, Chia-Hung; Huang, Yueh-Min

    2015-01-01

    Computerized self-assessment testing can help learners reflect on learning content and can also promote their motivation toward learning. However, a positive affective state is the key to achieving these learning goals. This study aims to examine learning gains and emotional reactions resulting from receiving emotional feedback in the form of…

  8. Importance of Local Control in Early-Stage Prostate Cancer: Outcomes of Patients With Positive Post-Radiation Therapy Biopsy Results Treated in RTOG 9408

    SciTech Connect

    Krauss, Daniel J.; Hu, Chen; Bahary, Jean-Paul; Souhami, Luis; Gore, Elizabeth M.; Chafe, Susan Maria Jacinta; Leibenhaut, Mark H.; Narayan, Samir; Torres-Roca, Javier; Michalski, Jeff; Zeitzer, Kenneth L.; Donavanik, Viroon; Sandler, Howard; McGowan, David G.; Jones, Christopher U.; Shipley, William U.

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the association between positive post-radiation therapy (RT) biopsy results and subsequent clinical outcomes in males with localized prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group study 94-08 analyzed 1979 males with prostate cancer, stage T1b-T2b and prostate-specific antigen concentrations of ≤20 ng/dL, to investigate whether 4 months of total androgen suppression (TAS) added to RT improved survival compared to RT alone. Patients randomized to receive TAS received flutamide with luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) agonist. According to protocol, patients without evidence of clinical recurrence or initiation of additional endocrine therapy underwent repeat prostate biopsy 2 years after RT completion. Statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the impact of positive post-RT biopsy results on clinical outcomes. Results: A total of 831 patients underwent post-RT biopsy, 398 were treated with RT alone and 433 with RT plus TAS. Patients with positive post-RT biopsy results had higher rates of biochemical failure (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.7; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.3-2.1) and distant metastasis (HR = 2.4; 95% CI = 1.3-4.4) and inferior disease-specific survival (HR = 3.8; 95% CI = 1.9-7.5). Positive biopsy results remained predictive of such outcomes after correction for potential confounders such as Gleason score, tumor stage, and TAS administration. Prior TAS therapy did not prevent elevated risk of adverse outcome in the setting of post-RT positive biopsy results. Patients with Gleason score ≥7 with a positive biopsy result additionally had inferior overall survival compared to those with a negative biopsy result (HR = 1.56; 95% CI = 1.04-2.35). Conclusions: Positive post-RT biopsy is associated with increased rates of distant metastases and inferior disease-specific survival in patients treated with definitive RT and was associated with inferior overall

  9. Potentiation of photoinactivation of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria mediated by six phenothiazinium dyes by addition of azide ion.

    PubMed

    Kasimova, Kamola R; Sadasivam, Magesh; Landi, Giacomo; Sarna, Tadeusz; Hamblin, Michael R

    2014-11-01

    Antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation (APDI) using phenothiazinium dyes is mediated by reactive oxygen species consisting of a combination of singlet oxygen (quenched by azide), hydroxyl radicals and other reactive oxygen species. We recently showed that addition of sodium azide paradoxically potentiated APDI of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria using methylene blue as the photosensitizer, and this was due to electron transfer to the dye triplet state from azide anion, producing azidyl radical. Here we compare this effect using six different homologous phenothiazinium dyes: methylene blue, toluidine blue O, new methylene blue, dimethylmethylene blue, azure A, and azure B. We found both significant potentiation (up to 2 logs) and also significant inhibition (>3 logs) of killing by adding 10 mM azide depending on Gram classification, washing the dye from the cells, and dye structure. Killing of E. coli was potentiated with all 6 dyes after a wash, while S. aureus killing was only potentiated by MB and TBO with a wash and DMMB with no wash. More lipophilic dyes (higher log P value, such as DMMB) were more likely to show potentiation. We conclude that the Type I photochemical mechanism (potentiation with azide) likely depends on the microenvironment, i.e. higher binding of dye to bacteria. Bacterial dye-binding is thought to be higher with Gram-negative compared to Gram-positive bacteria, when unbound dye has been washed away, and with more lipophilic dyes.

  10. [Shift the skin paddle in an additional incision improves the result: Study of a series of 82 breast reconstructions by latissimus dorsi flap and prosthesis implantation at 10 years].

    PubMed

    Chiriac, S; Dissaux, C; Bruant-Rodier, C; Djerada, Z; Bodin, F; François, C

    2016-11-17

    The position of the skin paddle on the breast area is a fundamental element for the breast reconstructions by latissimus dorsi flap and prosthesis implantation. Should, as Millard advocated, to recreate the initial defect and include it in the mastectomy scar or is it better in an additional incision as have others authors. This study compares the long-term morphological results of these two attitudes, with or without additional incision.

  11. Additional results on palaeomagnetic stratigraphy of the Koobi Fora Formation, east of Lake Turkana (Lake Rudolf), Kenya

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hillhouse, J.W.; Ndombi, J.W.M.; Cox, A.; Brock, A.

    1977-01-01

    The magnetostratigraphy of the hominid-bearing sediments exposed east of Lake Turkana has been strengthened by new palaeomagnetic results. Ages obtained from several tuffs by the 40Ar/39Ar method suggest an approxmate match between the observed magnetozones and the geomagnetic polarity time scale; however, the palaeomagnetic results are also compatible with a younger chronology suggested by conventional K-Ar dating of the KBS Tuff. ?? 1977 Nature Publishing Group.

  12. Estimation of daily aluminum intake in Japan based on food consumption inspection results: impact of food additives

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Kyoko; Suzuki, Ippei; Kubota, Hiroki; Furusho, Noriko; Inoue, Tomoyuki; Yasukouchi, Yoshikazu; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Dietary aluminum (Al) intake by young children, children, youths, and adults in Japan was estimated using the market basket method. The Al content of food category (I–VII) samples for each age group was determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The Al content in processed foods and unprocessed foods ranged from 0.40 to 21.7 mg/kg and from 0.32 to 0.54 mg/kg, respectively. For processed foods in all age groups, the Al content in food category VI samples, sugar and confections/savories, was the highest, followed by those in category II, cereals. The daily dietary Al intake from processed foods was much larger than that from unprocessed foods. The mean weekly percentages of the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI, established by the joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives in 2011) from processed foods for all age groups are 43.1, 22.4, 17.6 and 15.1%, respectively. Only the highest consumer Al exposure value (>P95) of the young children group exceeded the PTWI. PMID:25473496

  13. Differential Global Positioning System for the Surface-Towed Ordnance Locating System: Testing, results, and user`s guide

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, T.L.; Hubbard, C.W.

    1993-10-01

    Researchers at Pacific Northwest Laboratory integrated and tested a Global Positioning System (GPS) for use with the Naval Explosive Ordnance Disposal Technology Center`s (NEODTC) Surface-Towed Ordnance Locating System (STOLS). The GPS automatically and continuously provides latitude, longitude, and elevation information at the mobile GPS unit. The results of testing the GPS are shown in this report. The results reveal accuracies in the submeter range in real time and within a few centimeters using post-processing software. A description of hardware and software components is also included, along with system drawings and parts lists.

  14. A nonnatural head-neck position (Rollkur) during training results in less acute stress in elite, trained, dressage horses.

    PubMed

    van Breda, Eric

    2006-01-01

    This study measured parameters of stress in recreational, trained horses (REC; n = 7) and elite (International Grand Prix level) trained, dressage horses (DRES; n = 5). The training of the DRES horses uses an unnatural head-neck position (Rollkur), whereas in the REC horses such training techniques are not common. The study measured stress by using heart rate variability analysis for 30 min postfeeding in the morning and 30 min postexercise after a morning training session. The study found no significant difference at rest between the REC and DRES horses. During the posttraining measurements, however, the DRES horses showed, among others, a less sympathetic and increased parasympathetic dominance. These results suggest that DRES horses tend to have less acute stress than do REC horses postexercise. The findings of this study suggest maintaining the health and well-being of DRES horses despite nonnatural, biomechanical positions.

  15. Additive reductions in zebrafish PRPS1 activity result in a spectrum of deficiencies modeling several human PRPS1-associated diseases

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Wuhong; Xu, Lisha; Varshney, Gaurav K.; Carrington, Blake; Bishop, Kevin; Jones, MaryPat; Huang, Sunny C.; Idol, Jennifer; Pretorius, Pamela R.; Beirl, Alisha; Schimmenti, Lisa A.; Kindt, Katie S.; Sood, Raman; Burgess, Shawn M.

    2016-01-01

    Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthetase-1 (PRPS1) is a key enzyme in nucleotide biosynthesis, and mutations in PRPS1 are found in several human diseases including nonsyndromic sensorineural deafness, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease-5, and Arts Syndrome. We utilized zebrafish as a model to confirm that mutations in PRPS1 result in phenotypic deficiencies in zebrafish similar to those in the associated human diseases. We found two paralogs in zebrafish, prps1a and prps1b and characterized each paralogous mutant individually as well as the double mutant fish. Zebrafish prps1a mutants and prps1a;prps1b double mutants showed similar morphological phenotypes with increasingly severe phenotypes as the number of mutant alleles increased. Phenotypes included smaller eyes and reduced hair cell numbers, consistent with the optic atrophy and hearing impairment observed in human patients. The double mutant also showed abnormal development of primary motor neurons, hair cell innervation, and reduced leukocytes, consistent with the neuropathy and recurrent infection of the human patients possessing the most severe reductions of PRPS1 activity. Further analyses indicated the phenotypes were associated with a prolonged cell cycle likely resulting from reduced nucleotide synthesis and energy production in the mutant embryos. We further demonstrated the phenotypes were caused by delays in the tissues most highly expressing the prps1 genes. PMID:27425195

  16. Perchloroethylene-contaminated drinking water and the risk of breast cancer: additional results from Cape Cod, Massachusetts, USA.

    PubMed Central

    Aschengrau, Ann; Rogers, Sarah; Ozonoff, David

    2003-01-01

    In 1998 we published the results of a study suggesting an association between breast cancer and perchloroethylene (PCE; also called tetrachloroethylene) exposure from public drinking water. The present case-control study was undertaken to evaluate this association further. The cases were composed of female residents of eight towns in the Cape Cod region of Massachusetts who had been diagnosed with breast cancer from 1987 through 1993 (n = 672). Controls were composed of demographically similar women from the same towns (n = 616). Women were exposed to PCE when it leached from the vinyl lining of water distribution pipes from the late 1960s through the early 1980s. A relative delivered dose of PCE that entered a home was estimated using an algorithm that took into account residential history, water flow, and pipe characteristics. Small to moderate elevations in risk were seen among women whose exposure levels were above the 75th and 90th percentiles when 0-15 years of latency were considered (adjusted odds ratios, 1.5-1.9 for > 75th percentile, 1.3-2.8 for > 90th percentile). When data from the present and prior studies were combined, small to moderate increases in risk were also seen among women whose exposure levels were above the 75th and 90th percentiles when 0-15 years of latency were considered (adjusted odds ratios, 1.6-1.9 for > 75th percentile, 1.3-1.9 for > 90th percentile). The results of the present study confirm those of the previous one and suggest that women with the highest PCE exposure levels have a small to moderate increased risk of breast cancer. PMID:12573900

  17. A homozygous telomerase T-motif variant resulting in markedly reduced repeat addition processivity in siblings with Hoyeraal Hreidarsson syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gramatges, Maria M.; Qi, Xiaodong; Sasa, Ghadir S.; Chen, Julian J.-L.

    2013-01-01

    Hoyeraal Hreidarsson syndrome (HHS) is a form of dyskeratosis congenita (DC) characterized by bone marrow failure, intrauterine growth retardation, developmental delay, microcephaly, cerebellar hypoplasia, immunodeficiency, and extremely short telomeres. As with DC, mutations in genes encoding factors required for telomere maintenance, such as telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), have been found in patients with HHS. We describe 2 sibling HHS cases caused by a homozygous mutation (p.T567M) within the TERT T motif. This mutation resulted in a marked reduction in the capacity of telomerase to processively synthesize telomeric repeats, indicating a role for the T motif in this unique aspect of telomerase function. We support this finding by demonstrating defective processivity in the previously reported p.K570N T-motif mutation. The consanguineous, heterozygous p.T567M parents exhibited telomere lengths around the first percentile and no evidence of a DC phenotype. Although heterozygous processivity defects have been associated with familial, adult-onset pulmonary fibrosis, these cases demonstrate the severe clinical and functional impact of biallelic processivity mutations. Thus, despite retaining the capacity to add short stretches of telomeric repeats onto the shortest telomeres, sole expression of telomerase processivity mutants can lead to a profound failure of telomere maintenance and early-onset multisystem disease. PMID:23538340

  18. Positive skin and serologic test results of diagnostic assays for bovine tuberculosis and subsequent isolation of Mycobacterium interjectum in a pygmy hippopotamus (Hexaprotodon liberiensis).

    PubMed

    Bouts, Tim; Vordermeier, Martin; Flach, Edmund; Routh, Andrew

    2009-09-01

    A 20-yr-old male pygmy hippopotamus (Hexaprotodon liberiensis), weighing 250 kg, arrived at Zoological Society London Whipsnade Zoo (United Kingdom) from a captive collection in Portugal. A quarantine health check was performed including a comparative intradermal tuberculosis (IDTB) test. Assessment of the comparative IDTB test at 72 hr revealed a strong positive reaction at the bovine site. Serum was tested with a rapid immunochromatographic assay (TB STAT-PAK) and was positive for tuberculosis antibodies. The tuberculosis tests were repeated 6 wk later with the same positive test outcome. In addition, a broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) was submitted for mycobacterial culture. The positive IDTB test and TB STAT-PAK results were supported by multiantigen print immunoassay (MAPIA). Based on these results, the animal was suspected to be infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex organisms and was euthanized. No gross or histologic signs of tuberculosis were found at postmortem examination. Mycobacterium interjectum was cultured from the BAL but not from necropsy samples. The antigens used in the TB STAT-PAK and MAPIA tests are reportedly specific for the M. tuberculosis complex, and so it is possible this animal presented with a latent case of tuberculosis or had a previous tuberculosis infection that resolved prior to testing. Cross-reactions with nontuberculous mycobacteria have been described with TB STAT-PAK and MAPIA tests. However, Western blotting analysis using serum from this animal did not recognize M. interjectum proteins of equivalent size to the M. tuberculosis-Mycobacterium bovis proteins recognized in the MAPIA. Thus, antigenic cross-reactivity with M. interjectum can be deemed less likely, but other nontuberculous mycobacterial proteins cannot be ruled out. It is therefore possible that false-positive reactions were obtained. These results highlight the difficulty of diagnosing tuberculosis in the absence of pathology and the presence of

  19. Assessment of the improvements in accuracy of aerosol characterization resulted from additions of polarimetric measurements to intensity-only observations using GRASP algorithm (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubovik, O.; Litvinov, P.; Lapyonok, T.; Herman, M.; Fedorenko, A.; Lopatin, A.; Goloub, P.; Ducos, F.; Aspetsberger, M.; Planer, W.; Federspiel, C.

    2013-12-01

    During last few years we were developing GRASP (Generalized Retrieval of Aerosol and Surface Properties) algorithm designed for the enhanced characterization of aerosol properties from spectral, multi-angular polarimetric remote sensing observations. The concept of GRASP essentially relies on the accumulated positive research heritage from previous remote sensing aerosol retrieval developments, in particular those from the AERONET and POLDER retrieval activities. The details of the algorithm are described by Dubovik et al. (Atmos. Meas. Tech., 4, 975-1018, 2011). The GRASP retrieves properties of both aerosol and land surface reflectance in cloud-free environments. It is based on highly advanced statistically optimized fitting and deduces nearly 50 unknowns for each observed site. The algorithm derives a similar set of aerosol parameters as AERONET including detailed particle size distribution, the spectrally dependent the complex index of refraction and the fraction of non-spherical particles. The algorithm uses detailed aerosol and surface models and fully accounts for all multiple interactions of scattered solar light with aerosol, gases and the underlying surface. All calculations are done on-line without using traditional look-up tables. In addition, the algorithm uses the new multi-pixel retrieval concept - a simultaneous fitting of a large group of pixels with additional constraints limiting the time variability of surface properties and spatial variability of aerosol properties. This principle is expected to result in higher consistency and accuracy of aerosol products compare to conventional approaches especially over bright surfaces where information content of satellite observations in respect to aerosol properties is limited. The GRASP is a highly versatile algorithm that allows input from both satellite and ground-based measurements. It also has essential flexibility in measurement processing. For example, if observation data set includes spectral

  20. A Study of HPV Typing for the Management of HPV-Positive ASC-US Cervical Cytologic Results

    PubMed Central

    Schiffman, Mark; Vaughan, Laurence; Raine-Bennett, Tina R.; Castle, Philip E.; Katki, Hormuzd A.; Gage, Julia C.; Fetterman, Barbara; Befano, Brian; Wentzensen, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Background In US cervical screening, immediate colposcopy is recommended for women with HPV-positive ASC-US (equivocal) cytology. We evaluated whether partial typing by Onclarity™ (BD) might identify HPV-positive women with low enough CIN3+ risk to permit 1-year follow-up instead. Methods The NCI-Kaiser Permanente Northern California Persistence and Progression Cohort includes a subset of 13,890 women aged 21+ with HC2 (Qiagen)-positive ASC-US at enrollment; current median follow-up is 3.0 years. Using stratified random sampling, we typed 2,079 archived enrollment specimens including 329 women subsequently diagnosed with CIN3+, 563 with CIN2, and 1,187 with Results The 3-year CIN3+ risk for all HC2-positive women with ASC-US was 5.2%; this establishes the “benchmark” risk for colposcopic referral. Hierarchically, 3-year cumulative risks for each typing channel were 16.0% for HPV16, 7.4% for HPV18, 7.0% for HPV31, 7.1% for grouped HPV33/58, 4.4% for HPV52, 3.9% for HPV45, 2.7% for HPV51, 1.6% for HPV39/68/35, and 1.3% for HPV59/56/66. Discussion ASC-US linked to HPV16, HPV18, HPV31, or HPV33/58 warrants immediate colposcopy. Optimal management of women with HPV52 or HPV45 is uncertain. Risk of women with only HPV51, HPV39/68/35, or HPV59/56/66 might be low enough to recommend 1-year retesting permitting viral clearance. This strategy would defer colposcopy for 40% of women with HPV-positive ASC-US, half of whom would be cotest-negative at 1-year return. Approximately 10% of those with CIN3 diagnosable at enrollment would be delayed 1 year instead. Cost-effectiveness analyses are needed. PMID:26148763

  1. SU-E-J-94: Positioning Errors Resulting From Using Bony Anatomy Alignment for Treating SBRT Lung Tumor

    SciTech Connect

    Frame, C; Ding, G

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To quantify patient setups errors based on bony anatomy registration rather than 3D tumor alignment for SBRT lung treatments. Method: A retrospective study was performed for patients treated with lung SBRT and imaged with kV cone beam computed tomography (kV-CBCT) image-guidance. Daily CBCT images were registered to treatment planning CTs based on bony anatomy alignment and then inter-fraction tumor movement was evaluated by comparing shift in the tumor center in the medial-lateral, anterior-posterior, and superior-inferior directions. The PTV V100% was evaluated for each patient based on the average daily tumor displacement to assess the impact of the positioning error on the target coverage when the registrations were based on bony anatomy. Of the 35 patients studied, 15 were free-breathing treatments, 10 used abdominal compression with a stereotactic body frame, and the remaining 10 were performed with BodyFIX vacuum bags. Results: For free-breathing treatments, the range of tumor displacement error is between 1–6 mm in the medial-lateral, 1–13 mm in the anterior-posterior, and 1–7 mm in the superior-inferior directions. These positioning errors lead to 6–22% underdose coverage for PTV - V100% . Patients treated with abdominal compression immobilization showed positional errors of 0–4mm mediallaterally, 0–3mm anterior-posteriorly, and 0–2 mm inferior-superiorly with PTV - V100% underdose ranging between 6–17%. For patients immobilized with the vacuum bags, the positional errors were found to be 0–1 mm medial-laterally, 0–1mm anterior-posteriorly, and 0–2 mm inferior-superiorly with PTV - V100% under dose ranging between 5–6% only. Conclusion: It is necessary to align the tumor target by using 3D image guidance to ensure adequate tumor coverage before performing SBRT lung treatments. The BodyFIX vacuum bag immobilization method has the least positioning errors among the three methods studied when bony anatomy is used for

  2. Phenotypic Consequences Resulting from a Methionine-to-Valine Substitution at Position 48 in the HPr Protein of Streptococcus salivarius

    PubMed Central

    Plamondon, Pascale; Brochu, Denis; Thomas, Suzanne; Fradette, Julie; Gauthier, Lucie; Vaillancourt, Katy; Buckley, Nicole; Frenette, Michel; Vadeboncoeur, Christian

    1999-01-01

    In gram-positive bacteria, the HPr protein of the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) can be phosphorylated on a histidine residue at position 15 (His15) by enzyme I (EI) of the PTS and on a serine residue at position 46 (Ser46) by an ATP-dependent protein kinase (His∼P and Ser-P, respectively). We have isolated from Streptococcus salivarius ATCC 25975, by independent selection from separate cultures, two spontaneous mutants (Ga3.78 and Ga3.14) that possess a missense mutation in ptsH (the gene encoding HPr) replacing the methionine at position 48 by a valine. The mutation did not prevent the phosphorylation of HPr at His15 by EI nor the phosphorylation at Ser46 by the ATP-dependent HPr kinase. The levels of HPr(Ser-P) in glucose-grown cells of the parental and mutant Ga3.78 were virtually the same. However, mutant cells growing on glucose produced two- to threefold less HPr(Ser-P)(His∼P) than the wild-type strain, while the levels of free HPr and HPr(His∼P) were increased 18- and 3-fold, respectively. The mutants grew as well as the wild-type strain on PTS sugars (glucose, fructose, and mannose) and on the non-PTS sugars lactose and melibiose. However, the growth rate of both mutants on galactose, also a non-PTS sugar, decreased rapidly with time. The M48V substitution had only a minor effect on the repression of α-galactosidase, β-galactosidase, and galactokinase by glucose, but this mutation abolished diauxie by rendering cells unable to prevent the catabolism of a non-PTS sugar (lactose, galactose, and melibiose) when glucose was available. The results suggested that the capacity of the wild-type cells to preferentially metabolize glucose over non-PTS sugars resulted mainly from inhibition of the catabolism of these secondary energy sources via a HPr-dependent mechanism. This mechanism was activated following glucose but not lactose metabolism, and it did not involve HPr(Ser-P) as the only regulatory molecule. PMID:10559156

  3. SU-C-210-06: Quantitative Evaluation of Dosimetric Effects Resulting From Positional Variations of Pancreatic Tumor Volumes

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, S; Sehgal, V; Wei, R; Lawrenson, L; Kuo, J; Hanna, N; Ramsinghani, N; Daroui, P; Al-Ghazi, M

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to quantify dosimetric effects resulting from variation in pancreatic tumor position assessed by bony anatomy and implanted fiducial markers Methods: Twelve pancreatic cancer patients were retrospectively analyzed for this study. All patients received modulated arc therapy (VMAT) treatment using fiducial-based Image Guided Radiation Therapy (IGRT) to the intact pancreas. Using daily orthogonal kV and/or Cone beam CT images, the shift needed to co-register the daily pre-treatment images to reference CT from fiducial to bone (Fid-Bone) were recorded as Left-Right (LR), Anterior-Posterior (AP) and Superior-Inferior (SI). The original VMAT plan iso-center was shifted based on KV bone matching positions at 5 evenly spaced fractions. Dose coverage of the planning target volumes (PTVs) (V100%), mean dose to liver, kidney and stomach/duodenum were assessed in the modified plans. Results: A total of 306 fractions were analyzed. The absolute fiducial-bone positional shifts were greatest in the SI direction, (AP = 2.7 ± 3.0, LR = 2.8 ± 2.8, and SI 6.3 ± 7.9 mm, mean ± SD). The V100% was significantly reduced by 13.5%, (Fid-Bone = 95.3 ± 2.0 vs. 82.3 ± 11.8%, p=0.02). This varied widely among patients (Fid-Bone V100% Range = 2–60%), where 33% of patients had a reduction in V100% of more than 10%. The impact on OARs was greatest to the liver (Fid-Bone= 14.6 vs. 16.1 Gy, 10%), and stomach, (Fid-Bone = 23.9 vx. 25.5 Gy, 7%), however was not statistically significant (p=0.10 both). Conclusion: Compared to matching by fiducial markers, matching by bony anatomy would have substantially reduced the PTV coverage by 13.5%. This reinforces the importance of online position verification based on fiducial markers. Hence, implantation of fiducial markers is strongly recommended for pancreatic cancer patients undergoing intensity modulated radiation therapy treatments.

  4. Anti-NMDAR antibodies in new-onset psychosis. Positive results in an HIV-infected patient.

    PubMed

    Arboleya, Susana; Clemente, Antonio; Deng, Savannah; Bedmar, Marta; Salvador, Isabel; Herbera, Patricia; Cunill, Vanessa; Vives-Bauza, Cristòfol; Haro, Josep Maria; Canellas, Francesca; Julià, Maria Rosa

    2016-08-01

    The role of neuronal surface autoantibodies (NSAs) in non-encephalitic psychosis is of recent and controversial interest. Most of the studies relating NSAs with psychosis are retrospective and only focused on the N-methyl-d-aspartate glutamate receptor (NMDAR). Our goal was to evaluate the prevalence of IgG antibodies against the NMDAR NR1 subunit (NMDAR-Abs) along with five additional NSAs in 61 first psychotic episode patients and 47 matched controls. We found two patients positive for NMDAR-Abs (3.3%). One of them was eventually considered to have been misdiagnosed and reclassified as encephalitis. The other met the criteria for bipolar I disorder, presented no neurological symptoms and had a comorbid HIV infection of vertical transmission. This is the first reported case of an HIV-infected patient with psychosis associated with NSAs. This study shows that patients presenting with clinically incomplete forms of anti-NMDAR encephalitis, with predominant or isolated psychiatric symptoms, can remain undetected if no ancillary tests are performed. To improve patient diagnosis and treatment of individuals with a first psychotic episode, more detailed neurological examinations might be needed. Further studies are required to better clarify the role of NSAs in the neuropsychiatric effects of HIV infection.

  5. Application of the Global Positioning System to crustal deformation measurements. 3: Result from the southern California borderlands

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, K.M.

    1993-12-01

    Five years of measurements from the Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites collected between 1986 and 1991 are used to investigate deformation in the offshore regions of southern California. GPS provides the first practical technique to make precise geodetic measurements in the region. The geodetic network is situated along the California coastline from Vandenberg (120.6 deg W, 34.6 deg N) to San Diego, with additional sites on Santa Cruz, San Nicolas, Santa Catalina, Santa Rosa, and San Clemente Islands. The precision of horizontal interstation vectors is subcentimeter, and the interstation vector rate between Owens Valley Radio Observatory (OVRO) and Vandenberg agrees with the very long baseline interferometry derived rate to within one standard deviation. No significant motion is observed in th e western Santa Barbara Channel between Vandenberg and Santa Rosa Island, 0.5 +/- 1.6 mm/yr, where the quoted uncertainties are one standard deviation. Motions in the eastern Santa Barbara Channel are consistent with compressional deformation of 6 +/- 1 mm/yr at N16 +/- 3 deg E. This motion is in agreement with seismicity and an independent geodetic analysis for the period 1971-1987 (Larsen, 1991). San Clemente Island is moving relative to San Diego at the rate of 5.9 +/- 1.8/yr at a direction of N38 +/- 20 deg W. The motion between San Nicolas Island and San Clemente Island, 0.8 +/- 1.5 mm/yr, is insignificant.

  6. A grounded theory of positive youth development through sport based on results from a qualitative meta-study.

    PubMed

    Holt, Nicholas L; Neely, Kacey C; Slater, Linda G; Camiré, Martin; Côté, Jean; Fraser-Thomas, Jessica; MacDonald, Dany; Strachan, Leisha; Tamminen, Katherine A

    2017-01-01

    The overall purpose of this study was to create a model of positive youth development (PYD) through sport grounded in the extant qualitative literature. More specifically, the first objective was to review and evaluate qualitative studies of PYD in sport. The second objective was to analyze and synthesize findings from these studies. Following record identification and screening, 63 articles were retained for analysis. Meta-method analysis revealed strengths of studies were the use of multiple data collection and validity techniques, which produced high-quality data. Weaknesses were limited use of 'named' methodologies and inadequate reporting of sampling procedures. Philosophical perspectives were rarely reported, and theory was used sparingly. Results of an inductive meta-data analysis produced three categories: PYD climate (adult relationships, peer relationships, and parental involvement), life skills program focus (life skill building activities and transfer activities), and PYD outcomes (in personal, social, and physical domains). A model that distinguishes between implicit and explicit processes to PYD is presented.

  7. Foraging rates of larval dragonfly colonists are positively related to habitat isolation: results from a landscape-level experiment.

    PubMed

    McCauley, Shannon J; Brodin, Tomas; Hammond, John

    2010-03-01

    There is increasing evidence of intraspecific variation in dispersal behavior. Individual differences in dispersal behavior may be correlated with other traits that determine the impact individuals have on patches they colonize. We established habitat patches-artificial pools-across a landscape, and these pools were naturally colonized by dragonfly larvae. Larvae were collected from pools at different levels of isolation and held under common lab conditions for 5 months. We then compared larval foraging rates. Foraging rate was positively related to habitat isolation, and colonists from the most isolated artificial pools had significantly higher foraging rates than individuals from the least isolated pools. Our results indicate that spatial patterns in colonist behavior can develop across a landscape independent of species-level dispersal limitation. This finding suggests that studies of community structure across space should include an assessment of the distribution of phenotypes as well as species-level dispersal limitation patterns.

  8. Effect of oxyfluorinated multi-walled carbon nanotube additives on positive temperature coefficient/negative temperature coefficient behavior in high-density polyethylene polymeric switches

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, Byong Chol; Kang, Seok Chang; Im, Ji Sun; Lee, Se Hyun; Lee, Young-Seak

    2011-09-15

    Graphical abstract: The electrical properties of MWCNT-filled HDPE polymeric switches and their effect on oxyfluorination. Highlights: {yields} Oxyfluorinated MWCNTs were used to reduce the PTC/NTC phenomenon in MWCNT-filled HDPE polymeric switches. {yields} Electron mobility is difficult in MWCNT particles when the number of oxygen functional groups (C-O, C=O) increases by oxyfluorination. {yields} A mechanism of improved electrical properties of oxyfluorinated MWCNT-filled HDPE polymeric switches was suggested. -- Abstract: Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were embedded into high-density polyethylene (HDPE) to improve the electrical properties of HDPE polymeric switches. The MWCNT surfaces were modified by oxyfluorination to improve their positive temperature coefficient (PTC) and negative temperature coefficient (NTC) behaviors in HDPE polymeric switches. HDPE polymeric switches exhibit poor electron mobility between MWCNT particles when the number of oxygen functional groups is increased by oxyfluorination. Thus, the PTC intensity of HDPE polymeric switches was increased by the destruction of the electrical conductivity network. The oxyfluorination of MWCNTs also leads to weak NTC behavior in the MWCNT-filled HDPE polymeric switches. This result is attributed to the reduction of the mutual attraction between the MWCNT particles at the melting temperature of HDPE, which results from a decrease in the surface free energy of the C-F bond in MWCNT particles.

  9. Sunflower Oil but Not Fish Oil Resembles Positive Effects of Virgin Olive Oil on Aged Pancreas after Life-Long Coenzyme Q Addition

    PubMed Central

    González-Alonso, Adrián; Ramírez-Tortosa, César L.; Varela-López, Alfonso; Roche, Enrique; Arribas, María I.; Ramírez-Tortosa, M. Carmen; Giampieri, Francesca; Ochoa, Julio J.; Quiles, José L.

    2015-01-01

    An adequate pancreatic structure is necessary for optimal organ function. Structural changes are critical in the development of age-related pancreatic disorders. In this context, it has been reported that different pancreatic compartments from rats were affected according to the fat composition consumed. Since there is a close relationship between mitochondria, oxidative stress and aging, an experimental approach has been developed to gain more insight into this process in the pancreas. A low dosage of coenzyme Q was administered life-long in rats in order to try to prevent pancreatic aging-related alterations associated to some dietary fat sources. According to that, three groups of rats were fed normocaloric diets containing Coenzyme Q (CoQ) for two years, where virgin olive, sunflower, or fish oil was included as unique fat source. Pancreatic samples for microscopy and blood samples were collected at the moment of euthanasia. The main finding is that CoQ supplementation gives different results according to fat used in diet. When sunflower oil was the main fat in the diet, CoQ supplementation seems to improve endocrine pancreas structure and in particular β-cell mass resembling positive effects of virgin olive oil. Conversely, CoQ intake does not seem to improve the structural alterations of exocrine compartment previously observed in fish oil fed rats. Therefore CoQ may improve pancreatic alterations associated to the chronic intake of some dietary fat sources. PMID:26426013

  10. Sunflower Oil but Not Fish Oil Resembles Positive Effects of Virgin Olive Oil on Aged Pancreas after Life-Long Coenzyme Q Addition.

    PubMed

    González-Alonso, Adrián; Ramírez-Tortosa, César L; Varela-López, Alfonso; Roche, Enrique; Arribas, María I; Ramírez-Tortosa, M Carmen; Giampieri, Francesca; Ochoa, Julio J; Quiles, José L

    2015-09-29

    An adequate pancreatic structure is necessary for optimal organ function. Structural changes are critical in the development of age-related pancreatic disorders. In this context, it has been reported that different pancreatic compartments from rats were affected according to the fat composition consumed. Since there is a close relationship between mitochondria, oxidative stress and aging, an experimental approach has been developed to gain more insight into this process in the pancreas. A low dosage of coenzyme Q was administered life-long in rats in order to try to prevent pancreatic aging-related alterations associated to some dietary fat sources. According to that, three groups of rats were fed normocaloric diets containing Coenzyme Q (CoQ) for two years, where virgin olive, sunflower, or fish oil was included as unique fat source. Pancreatic samples for microscopy and blood samples were collected at the moment of euthanasia. The main finding is that CoQ supplementation gives different results according to fat used in diet. When sunflower oil was the main fat in the diet, CoQ supplementation seems to improve endocrine pancreas structure and in particular β-cell mass resembling positive effects of virgin olive oil. Conversely, CoQ intake does not seem to improve the structural alterations of exocrine compartment previously observed in fish oil fed rats. Therefore CoQ may improve pancreatic alterations associated to the chronic intake of some dietary fat sources.

  11. The Application of Voltammetric Analysis of Δ(9) -THC for the Reduction of False Positive Results in the Analysis of Suspected Marijuana Plant Matter.

    PubMed

    Balbino, Marco A; de Oliveira, Laura S; Eleotério, Izabel C; Oiye, Erica N; Ribeiro, Maria F M; McCord, Bruce R; Ipolito, Antonio J; de Oliveira, Marcelo F

    2016-07-01

    The development of methodologies using inexpensive, fast, and reliable instrumention is desirable in illicit drug analysis. The purpose of this study was based on cyclic voltammetry technique to differentiate the electrochemical behavior of ∆(9) -THC, the psychoactive substance in marijuana, and five different extract plants to yield false positive results after analysis protocol for cannabinoids using thin-layer chromatography and Fast Blue B salt. After applying a deposition potential of -0.5 V in a glassy carbon working electrode, the results indicated an anodic peak current at 0.0 V versus Ag/AgCl after addition of ∆(9) -THC solution in the electrochemical cell, and limits of detection and quantification were 1.0 ng mL(-1) and 3.5 ng mL(-1) , respectively. Other interfering plants showed distinct amperometric responses. This methodology was useful to detect ∆(9) -THC even in the presence of the Fast Blue B salt, which avoided false positive results for all the studied extract plants.

  12. Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zemsky, Robert; Shaman, Susan; Shapiro, Daniel B.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the Collegiate Results Instrument (CRI), which measures a range of collegiate outcomes for alumni 6 years after graduation. The CRI was designed to target alumni from institutions across market segments and assess their values, abilities, work skills, occupations, and pursuit of lifelong learning. (EV)

  13. Multiple diagnostic tests to identify cattle with Bovine viral diarrhea virus and duration of positive test results in persistently infected cattle.

    PubMed

    Fulton, Robert W; Hessman, Bill E; Ridpath, Julia F; Johnson, Bill J; Burge, Lurinda J; Kapil, Sanjay; Braziel, Barbara; Kautz, Kira; Reck, Amy

    2009-04-01

    Several tests for Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) were applied to samples collected monthly from December 20, 2005, through November 27, 2006 (day 0 to day 342) from 12 persistently infected (PI) cattle with BVDV subtypes found in US cattle: BVDV-1a, BVDV-1b, and BVDV-2a. The samples included clotted blood for serum, nasal swabs, and fresh and formalin-fixed ear notches. The tests were as follows: titration of infectious virus in serum and nasal swabs; antigen-capture (AC) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), or ACE, on serum, nasal swabs, and fresh ear notches; gel-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing of serum, nasal swabs, and fresh ear notches; immunohistochemical (IHC) testing of formalin-fixed ear notches; and serologic testing for BVDV antibodies in serum. Of the 12 animals starting the study, 3 died with mucosal disease. The ACE and IHC tests on ear notches had positive results throughout the study, as did the ACE and PCR tests on serum. There was detectable virus in nasal swabs from all the cattle throughout the study except for a few samples that were toxic to cell cultures. The serum had a virus titer > or = log(10) 1.60 in all samples from all the cattle except for 3 collections from 1 animal. Although there were several equivocal results, the PCR test most often had positive results. The BVDV antibodies were due to vaccination or exposure to heterologous strains and did not appear to interfere with any BVDV test. These findings illustrate that PI cattle may be identified by several tests, but differentiation of PI cattle from cattle with acute BVDV infection requires additional testing, especially of blood samples and nasal swabs positive on initial testing. Also, calves PI with BVDV are continual shedders of infectious virus, as shown by the infectivity of nasal swabs over the 11-mo study.

  14. A grounded theory of positive youth development through sport based on results from a qualitative meta-study

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Nicholas L.; Neely, Kacey C.; Slater, Linda G.; Camiré, Martin; Côté, Jean; Fraser-Thomas, Jessica; MacDonald, Dany; Strachan, Leisha; Tamminen, Katherine A.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The overall purpose of this study was to create a model of positive youth development (PYD) through sport grounded in the extant qualitative literature. More specifically, the first objective was to review and evaluate qualitative studies of PYD in sport. The second objective was to analyze and synthesize findings from these studies. Following record identification and screening, 63 articles were retained for analysis. Meta-method analysis revealed strengths of studies were the use of multiple data collection and validity techniques, which produced high-quality data. Weaknesses were limited use of ‘named’ methodologies and inadequate reporting of sampling procedures. Philosophical perspectives were rarely reported, and theory was used sparingly. Results of an inductive meta-data analysis produced three categories: PYD climate (adult relationships, peer relationships, and parental involvement), life skills program focus (life skill building activities and transfer activities), and PYD outcomes (in personal, social, and physical domains). A model that distinguishes between implicit and explicit processes to PYD is presented. PMID:27695511

  15. The combination of compost addition and arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation produced positive and synergistic effects on the phytomanagement of a semiarid mine tailing.

    PubMed

    Kohler, J; Caravaca, F; Azcón, R; Díaz, G; Roldán, A

    2015-05-01

    A field experiment was carried out to assess the effectiveness of combining mycorrhizal inoculation with a native AM fungus (Glomus sp.) and the addition of an urban organic waste compost (OWC) applied at two rates (0.5 and 2.0% (w:w)), with regard to promoting the establishment of Anthyllis cytisoides L. seedlings in a heavy metal polluted mine tailing, as well as stimulating soil microbial functions. The results showed that the combined use of the highest dose of OWC and AM inoculation significantly increased shoot biomass - by 64% - compared to the control value. However, the separate use of each treatment had no effect on the shoot biomass of this shrub species. At the 2% rate, OWC enhanced root colonisation by the introduced fungus as well as soil nutrient content and soil dehydrogenase and ß-glucosidase activities. The combined treatment increased the uptake of Zn and Mn in shoots, although only Zn reached excessive or potentially toxic levels. This study demonstrates that the combination of organic amendment and an AM fungus is a suitable tool for the phytomanagement of degraded mine tailings, although its effectiveness is dependent on the dose of the amendment.

  16. Comparison of ENDF/B-VII.1 and ENDF/B-VII.0 Results for the Expanded Criticality Validation Suite for MCNP and for Selected Additional Criticality Benchmarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosteller, R.

    2014-04-01

    Results obtained with the MCNP5 Monte Carlo code and the ENDF/B-VII.1 and ENDF/B-VII.0 nuclear data libraries have been compared for the 119 benchmarks in the expanded criticality validation suite for MCNP and for 23 additional benchmarks. ENDF/B-VII.1 was found to produce improvements relative to ENDF/B-VII.0 for benchmarks that contain significant amounts of tungsten, zirconium, cadmium, or beryllium, although the results for the benchmarks with beryllium suggest that further improvement still may be needed. In addition, a number of deficiencies previously identified for ENDF/B-VII.0 still remain in ENDF/B-VII.1.

  17. Additional cytogenetic abnormalities in adults with Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: a study of the Cancer and Leukaemia Group B.

    PubMed

    Wetzler, Meir; Dodge, Richard K; Mrózek, Krzysztof; Stewart, Carleton C; Carroll, Andrew J; Tantravahi, Ramana; Vardiman, James W; Larson, Richard A; Bloomfield, Clara D

    2004-02-01

    We analysed the nature and prognostic significance of secondary cytogenetic changes in 111 newly diagnosed adults with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) and t(9;22)(q34;q11.2) or its variants. Secondary aberrations were seen in 75 (68%) patients. They included, in order of descending frequency: +der(22)t(9;22), +21, abnormalities of 9p, high hyperdiploidy (>50 chromosomes), +8, -7, +X and abnormalities resulting in loss of material from 8p, gain of 8q, gain of 1q and loss of 7p. Eighty patients (72%) had > or =1 normal metaphase in their karyotype. There were four balanced and 12 unbalanced translocations previously unreported in ALL with t(9;22). The t(2;7)(p11;p13) and der(18)t(8;18)(q11.2;p11.2) were seen in two cases each, and have never before been reported in haematological malignancy. All but four patients were treated on front-line Cancer and Leukaemia Group B clinical protocols. The presence of -7 as a sole secondary abnormality was associated with a lower complete remission (CR) rate (P = 0.004), while the presence of > or =3 aberrations was associated with a higher CR rate (P = 0.009) and +der(22)t(9;22) with a higher cumulative incidence of relapse (P = 0.02). It will be of interest to see if newly diagnosed t(9;22)-positive adult ALL patients with these and other secondary aberrations respond differently to treatment regimens that include imatinib mesylate.

  18. Influence of binder properties, method of addition, powder type and operating conditions on fluid-bed melt granulation and resulting tablet properties.

    PubMed

    Abberger, T

    2001-12-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate melt granulation in a laboratory scale fluid-bed granulator with respect to granule growth, granule properties and resulting tablet properties. The parameters investigated were method of addition of PEG (spray-on or addition as flakes), binder concentration, PEG type (3000, 4000 and 6000, sprayed-on), size (PEG 4000, added as three different sized flakes), powder type (two different sized lactose types and corn starch) and operating conditions (volume air flow and heating temperature). Addition of binder as flakes led to layering as a growth mechanism when the size of the flakes was high. Coalescence occurred when the size was low. Coalescence also occurred when spraying was the method of addition. Due to the greater viscosity of the PEG 6000 melt it produced bigger granules than 3000 or 4000. The influence of volume air flow was moderate and the influence of heating temperature in the range of 70-90 degrees C was very low with both methods of addition. The disintegration time of tablets from granules where PEG was added as flakes was shorter than from granules where PEG was sprayed-on. The latter method of binder addition led to tablets which did not disintegrate but eroded. This was apparently caused by formation of a binder matrix, which could not be destroyed by the disintegrant.

  19. Prevalence, Predictors, and Same Day Treatment of Positive VIA Enhanced by Digital Cervicography and Histopathology Results in a Cervical Cancer Prevention Program in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    DeGregorio, Geneva A.; Bradford, Leslie S.; Manga, Simon; Tih, Pius M.; Wamai, Richard; Ogembo, Rebecca; Sando, Zacharie; Liu, Yuxin; Schwaiger, Constance; Rao, Sowmya R.; Kalmakis, Karen; Kennedy Sheldon, Lisa; Nulah, Kathleen; Welty, Edith; Welty, Thomas; Ogembo, Javier Gordon

    2016-01-01

    Background In 2007, the Cameroon Baptist Convention Health Services (CBCHS) implemented a screen-and-treat cervical cancer prevention program using visual inspection with acetic acid enhanced by digital cervicography (VIA-DC). Methods We retrospectively analyzed 46,048 medical records of women who received care through the CBCHS Women’s Health Program from 2007 through 2014 to determine the prevalence and predictors of positive VIA-DC, rates of same day treatment, and cohort prevalence of invasive cervical cancer (ICC). Results Of the 44,979 women who were screened for cervical cancer, 9.0% were VIA-DC-positive, 66.8% were VIA-DC-negative, 22.0% were VIA-DC-inadequate (normal ectocervix, but portions of the transformation zone were obscured), and 2.2% were VIA-DC-uncertain (cervical abnormalities confounding VIA-DC interpretation). Risk factors significantly associated with VIA-DC-positive screen were HIV-positivity, young age at sexual debut, higher lifetime number of sexual partners, low education status and higher gravidity. In 2014, 31.1% of women eligible for cryotherapy underwent same day treatment. Among the 32,788 women screened from 2007 through 2013, 201 cases of ICC were identified corresponding to a cohort prevalence of 613 per 100,000. Conclusions High rate of VIA-DC-positive screens suggests a significant burden of potential cervical cancer cases and highlights the need for expansion of cervical cancer screening and prevention throughout the 10 regions of Cameroon. VIA-DC-inadequate rates were also high, especially in older women, and additional screening methods are needed to confirm whether these results are truly negative. In comparison to similar screening programs in sub-Saharan Africa there was low utilization of same day cryotherapy treatment. Further studies are required to characterize possible program specific barriers to treatment, for example cultural demands, health system challenges and cost of procedure. The prevalence of ICC among

  20. Continuous positive airway pressure therapy in non-sleepy patients with obstructive sleep apnea: results of a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dongmei; Luo, Jinmei; Qiao, Yixian

    2016-01-01

    Background Although continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has become the first line of therapy for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), it remains controversial whether non-sleepy patients could benefit from CPAP treatment. Methods We searched the online databases Medline, Embase, the Cochrane library and the Cochrane Central Registry of Controlled Trials to select eligible control trials, including non-sleepy OSA patients and those patients treated by CPAP or either sham CPAP or no CPAP. Results Seven eligible studies (1,541 patients) were included. The pooled estimates of the mean changes after CPAP treatment for the systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were −0.51 mmHg (95% CI, −3.39 to 2.38 mmHg; P=0.73) and −0.92 mmHg (95% CI, −1.39 to −0.46 mmHg; P<0.001), respectively. CPAP should not improve subjective sleepiness in the minimally symptomatic OSA patients, as the change in the Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS) was −0.51 (95% CI, −1.68 to 0.67; P=0.397). However, CPAP can effectively reduce AHI or ODI by 15.57 events/h (95% CI, −29.32 to −1.82; P=0.026) compared to controls. However, the risk of cardiovascular events did not significantly decrease [odds ratio (OR), 0.80; 95% CI, 0.50 to 1.26; P=0.332] in the end. Conclusions CPAP treatment can reduce OSA severity in non-sleepy patients and minutely reduce the DBP, but CPAP seems to have no overall beneficial effects on subjective sleepiness, SBP, or cardiovascular risk. PMID:27867549

  1. The effect of landscape position and aspect on chemical weathering and soil formation: contrasting field and model results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanwalleghem, Tom; Román, Andrea; Giráldez, Juan

    2016-04-01

    Interest in modelling pedogenesis has increased greatly over the past few years, with the emergence of detailed pedon-scale models (e.g. Soilgen) on the one hand and landscape-scale models (e.g. marm3D, MILESD, LORICA) on the other. Pore water chemistry and chemical weathering is not (well) represented in the latter and needs to be improved in order to adequately model the evolution of soils and of the critical zone. The objective of this work is to analyse the spatial variability of chemical weathering and to develop a new soil landscape model that accounts for this. Here, we present field and model results from the Santa Clotilde Critical Zone Observatory, S Spain. A new model, MILESD2, was developed to integrate the effect of landscape evolution and soil formation. This model is based on a daily spatially-explicit soil water balance. Average soil water content, temperature and deep percolation fluxes are linked to weathering and soil formation processes. Model input (temperature and precipitation) for the last 25 000 years was generated on a daily time by combining palaeoclimate data and the WXGEN weather generator. The soil-landscape model was applied to a 48 km2 semi-natural catchment in Southern Spain, with soils developed on granite. Model-generated runoff was used for a first validation against discharge observations. Next, soil formation output was contrasted against experimental data from 10 soil profiles along two catenas. Field data showed an important variation in mobile regolith thickness, between 0,44 and 1,10m, and in chemical weathering along the catena. Southern slopes were characterized by shallower, stonier and carbon-poor soils, while soils on north-facing slopes were deeper, more fine-textured and had a higher carbon content. Chemical depletion fraction was found to vary between 0,41 and 0,72. The lowest overall weathering intensity was found on plateau positions. South facing slopes revealed slightly lower weathering compared to north facing

  2. [Can the position of a patient influence the result of an ultrasound examination of venous valve insufficiency?].

    PubMed

    Musil, D

    2004-10-01

    The goal of our work was to test sensitivity of the duplex ultrasound examination in making a sapheno-femoral junction diagnosis in lying patients. For this reason we tried to find out whether in ultrasound examination of lumen diameter of the great saphenous vein (B-mode) the speed of blood flow and reflux detection (CFM, pulse Doppler detection) are influenced by the position of a patient when lying and when standing. We examined 70 lower limbs of 70 different patients (47 women and 23 men) in whom the sapheno-femoral junction was not diagnosed when examined in the lying position. The difference in the lumen diameter of the great saphenous vein measured when lying and when standing was statistically significant in our group of patients (p < 0.01). Decreased blood flow when standing was also statistically significant (p < 0.01). In any of the 50 examined lower limbs with the competent sapheno-femoral junction during the Valsalvov's manoeuvre when lying was not proved reflux nor it was proved when standing ( CFM, pulse Doppler detection). The examination of the venous reflux in the lying position is a physiologic, delicate, and at the same time reliable method. The lying position is comfortable for both the patient and the physician and as we proved, compared to ultrasonography in the vertical position, it does not lack needed sensitivity.

  3. First-line therapy in HER2 positive metastatic breast cancer: is the mosaic fully completed or are we missing additional pieces?

    PubMed

    Fabi, Alessandra; Malaguti, Paola; Vari, Sabrina; Cognetti, Francesco

    2016-06-30

    The discovery of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and its role in the biology of breast cancer and the subsequent development of HER2-targeted therapies, have dramatically improved clinical outcomes for women with early-stage and advanced HER2-positive breast cancer (BC).HER-2 targeted therapies represent a major step forward in achieving the goal of delivering individualized targeted therapy for BC, and trastuzumab was the first anti-HER-2 strategy to be approved for treatment of HER-2 positive BC. This review discusses the treatment of metastatic HER2-positive BC and describes efficacy and safety of novel anti-HER2 target therapies in first-line metastatic settings and the future challenges include refining such treatments, reducing toxicity and simultaneously developing innovative therapies. Furthermore, combinations of trastuzumab and drugs targeting the downstream pathway are described.In the next future will be possible to use an ample armamentarium of combination therapies directed against HER2 and key signaling components integrated in the HER network. This approach will allow clinicians to tailor the management of the individual patient on the basis of tumor- specific biomarker profiles.There is an urgent need for prospective biomarker-driven trials to identify patients for whom targeting is cost-effective.

  4. DSS1/DSS2 astrometry for 1101 First Byurakan Survey blue stellar objects: Accurate positions and other results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickaelian, A. M.

    2004-10-01

    Accurate measurements of the positions of 1101 First Byurakan Survey (FBS) blue stellar objects (the Second part of the FBS) have been carried out on the DSS1 and DSS2 (red and blue images). To establish the accuracy of the DSS1 and DSS2, measurements have been made for 153 AGN for which absolute VLBI coordinates have been published. The rms errors are: 0.45 arcsec for DSS1, 0.33 arcsec for DSS2 red, and 0.59 arcsec for DSS2 blue in each coordinate, the corresponding total positional errors being 0.64 arcsec, 0.46 arcsec, and 0.83 arcsec, respectively. The highest accuracy (0.42 arcsec) is obtained by weighted averaging of the DSS1 and DSS2 red positions. It is shown that by using all three DSS images accidental errors can be significantly reduced. The comparison of DSS2 and DSS1 images made it possible to reveal positional differences and proper motions for 78 objects (for 62 of these for the first time), including new high-probability candidate white dwarfs, and to find objects showing strong variability, i.e. high-probability candidate cataclysmic variables. Table 1 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/426/367

  5. Increasing Elementary School Students' Subjective Well-Being through a Classwide Positive Psychology Intervention: Results of a Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suldo, Shannon M.; Hearon, Brittany V.; Bander, Bryan; McCullough, Mollie; Garofano, Jeffrey; Roth, Rachel A.; Tan, Sim Yin

    2015-01-01

    There is growing interest in school-based programs to promote students' subjective well-being (SWB). Students with greater SWB tend to have stronger relationships with their teachers and classmates, as well as behave in more positive ways. Drawing from theory and research pertinent to promoting children's SWB, we developed an 11-session classwide…

  6. Student Drug Testing in the Context of Positive and Negative School Climates: Results from a National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sznitman, Sharon R.; Dunlop, Sally M.; Nalkur, Priya; Khurana, Atika; Romer, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Positive school climates and student drug testing have been separately proposed as strategies to reduce student substance use in high schools. However, the effects of drug testing programs may depend on the favorability of school climates. This study examined the association between school drug testing programs and student substance use in schools…

  7. Positive penicillin allergy testing results: a systematic review and meta-analysis of papers published from 2010 through 2015.

    PubMed

    Harandian, Farnoush; Pham, Donavan; Ben-Shoshan, Moshe

    2016-08-01

    β-lactam antibiotics are the most widely used group of antibiotics, given their effectiveness for the most common bacterial pathogens and their relatively low price. Adverse reactions, mainly cutaneous, are often reported to be associated with their use and hence, less effective and usually more costly alternative antibiotics are prescribed. However, it is not clear what is the risk of immediate immune-mediated (i.e. developing within one hour of administration) and potentially life-threatening reactions among those using β-lactam antibiotic. We conducted a systematic review to assess the prevalence of immediate adverse reactions to β-lactam antibiotics, specifically penicillin derivatives, in patients with a reported adverse reaction to β-lactam antibiotics. In addition, we determined the effect of age on the prevalence of immediate reactions. Assessing the true risk of using β-lactam antibiotics in patients with a reported allergy could prevent physicians from unnecessarily discouraging the use of β-lactam antibiotics. We conducted a systematic review and a meta-analysis using the PubMed, OVID, and Embase databases of work published in English and in French in the last 5 years. Studies were only eligible if they established the prevalence of immediate penicillin reactions with skin testing or challenges in case of negative skin tests. The meta-analysis was conducted using Stata version 12.0. The prevalence of immediate reactions to penicillin derivatives in patients reporting a β-lactam hypersensitivity is 1.98% (95%CI; 1.35%, 2.60%) in the pediatric (under 18 years old) group, 7.78% (95%CI; 6.53%, 9.04%) in the adult group, and 2.84% (95%CI; 1.77%, 3.91%) in the combined group, as tested in various studies, using skin tests and oral challenges. The I(2) value ranged between 87.2% and 97.0%. Our results indicate that the prevalence of immediate reactions is higher in adults than in children. However, wide confidence intervals and a large study

  8. A new radiographic method for evaluation of the position of the carpus in the coronal plane: results in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Aufauvre, B; Herzberg, G; Garret, J; Berthonneaud, E; Dimnet, J

    1999-01-01

    The methods used to quantify pathological variations of the position of the carpus in the coronal plane, mainly ulnar translation of the carpus from trauma or rheumatoid disease, are often difficult to use in arthritic or postsurgical wrists; moreover, they require the measurement of the whole length of the third metacarpal. The aim of this study was to determine a reliable and easy-to-use index to analyse the position of the carpus in the coronal plane. One hundred PA X-rays of normal wrists were studied, of which 56 presented with a medial hamate facet of the lunate. An index of position of the carpus in the coronal plane is defined as the ratio of orthogonal distances from [1] the most medial point of the distal radius and [2] the most medial point of the capitate to the long axis of the radius: its mean value being 1.06 (+/- 0.13) in this series of normal wrists. The index is influenced by the presence of a medial hamate facet of the lunate, but is not dependent on the ulnar head and radial styloid process, nor on the length of the third metacarpal. To help to define the usefulness of the index in quantifying the different types of ulnar carpal translations in clinical practice, further studies are required.

  9. Preliminary results of real-time PPP-RTK positioning algorithm development for moving platforms and its performance validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Won, Jihye; Park, Kwan-Dong

    2015-04-01

    Real-time PPP-RTK positioning algorithms were developed for the purpose of getting precise coordinates of moving platforms. In this implementation, corrections for the satellite orbit and satellite clock were taken from the IGS-RTS products while the ionospheric delay was removed through ionosphere-free combination and the tropospheric delay was either taken care of using the Global Pressure and Temperature (GPT) model or estimated as a stochastic parameter. To improve the convergence speed, all the available GPS and GLONASS measurements were used and Extended Kalman Filter parameters were optimized. To validate our algorithms, we collected the GPS and GLONASS data from a geodetic-quality receiver installed on a roof of a moving vehicle in an open-sky environment and used IGS final products of satellite orbits and clock offsets. The horizontal positioning error got less than 10 cm within 5 minutes, and the error stayed below 10 cm even after the vehicle start moving. When the IGS-RTS product and the GPT model were used instead of the IGS precise product, the positioning accuracy of the moving vehicle was maintained at better than 20 cm once convergence was achieved at around 6 minutes.

  10. Structure of transition-metal cluster compounds: Use of an additional orbital resulting from the f, g character of spd bond orbitals*

    PubMed Central

    Pauling, Linus

    1977-01-01

    A general theory of the structure of complexes of the transition metals is developed on the basis of the enneacovalence of the metals and the requirements of the electroneutrality principle. An extra orbital may be provided through the small but not negligible amount of f and g character of spd bond orbitals, and an extra electron or electron pair may be accepted in this orbital for a single metal or a cluster to neutralize the positive electric charge resulting from the partial ionic character of the bonds with ligands, such as the carbonyl group. Examples of cluster compounds of cobalt, ruthenium, rhodium, osmium, and gold are discussed. PMID:16592470

  11. Can in vitro mammalian cell genotoxicity test results be used to complement positive results in the Ames test and help predict carcinogenic or in vivo genotoxic activity? II. Construction and analysis of a consolidated database.

    PubMed

    Kirkland, David; Zeiger, Errol; Madia, Federica; Corvi, Raffaella

    2014-12-01

    A Workshop sponsored by EURL ECVAM was held in Ispra, Italy in 2013 to consider whether the in vitro mammalian cell genotoxicity test results could complement and mitigate the implications of a positive Ames test response for the prediction of in vivo genotoxicity and carcinogenicity, and if patterns of results could be identified. Databases of Ames-positive chemicals that were tested for in vivo genotoxicity and/or carcinogenicity were collected from different sources and analysed individually (Kirkland et al., in this issue). Because there were overlaps and inconsistent test results among chemicals in the different databases, a combined database which eliminated the overlaps and evaluated the inconsistencies was considered preferable for addressing the above question. A database of >700 Ames-positive chemicals also tested in vivo was compiled, and the results in in vitro mammalian cell tests were analysed. Because the database was limited to Ames-positive chemicals, the majority (>85%) of carcinogens (103/119) and in vivo genotoxins (83/88) were positive when tested in both in vitro gene mutation and aneugenicity/clastogenicity tests. However, about half (>45%) of chemicals that were not carcinogenic (19/28) or genotoxic in vivo (33/73) also gave the same patterns of positive mammalian cell results. Although the different frequencies were statistically significant, positive results in 2 in vitro mammalian cell tests did not, per se, add to the predictivity of the positive Ames test. By contrast, negative results for both in vitro mammalian cell endpoints were rare for Ames-positive carcinogens (3/119) and in vivo genotoxins (2/88) but, were significantly more frequent for Ames-positive chemicals that are not carcinogenic (4/28) or genotoxic in vivo (14/73). Thus, in the case of an Ames-positive chemical, negative results in 2 in vitro mammalian cell tests covering both mutation and clastogenicity/aneugenicity endpoints should be considered as indicative of

  12. False positive hepatitis C antibody test results in left ventricular assist device recipients: increased risk with age and transfusions.

    PubMed

    Minamoto, Grace Y; Lee, Doreen; Colovai, Adriana; Levy, Dana; Vasovic, Ljiljana; Roach, Keith W; Shuter, Jonathan; Goldstein, Daniel; D'Alessandro, David; Jorde, Ulrich P; Muggia, Victoria A

    2017-01-01

    Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) have been successfully used in patients with heart failure. However, LVADs may trigger immune activation, leading to higher frequencies of autoantibodies. We describe the clinical, epidemiological, and laboratory characteristics of LVAD recipients with false positive hepatitis C (FPHC) serology among 39 consecutive adult LVAD recipients who bridged to heart transplantation from January 2007 to January 2013 at Montefiore Medical Center. FPHC patients were identified as those with post-LVAD positive hepatitis C ELISA antibody tests and negative confirmatory testing with hepatitis C RNA PCR and/or radioimmunoblot assay. Ten (26%) patients previously seronegative for hepatitis C were found to have FPHC after device placement. Of the 39 patients, 32 had HeartMate II devices. The mean age at LVAD placement was 55 years. FPHC correlated with older age at the time of LVAD implantation and with receipt of packed red blood cell transfusions, but not with gender, fresh frozen plasma transfusions, panel reactive antibodies, globulin fraction, rheumatoid factor, or anticardiolipin antibodies. Clinicians should be aware of this increased risk of FPHC in older LVAD patients and those more heavily transfused in order to avoid unnecessary apprehension and possible delay in transplantation. Further studies should be done to evaluate the possible relationship between transfused blood products and immunomodulation.

  13. False positive hepatitis C antibody test results in left ventricular assist device recipients: increased risk with age and transfusions

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Doreen; Colovai, Adriana; Levy, Dana; Vasovic, Ljiljana; Roach, Keith W.; Shuter, Jonathan; Goldstein, Daniel; D’Alessandro, David; Jorde, Ulrich P.; Muggia, Victoria A.

    2017-01-01

    Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) have been successfully used in patients with heart failure. However, LVADs may trigger immune activation, leading to higher frequencies of autoantibodies. We describe the clinical, epidemiological, and laboratory characteristics of LVAD recipients with false positive hepatitis C (FPHC) serology among 39 consecutive adult LVAD recipients who bridged to heart transplantation from January 2007 to January 2013 at Montefiore Medical Center. FPHC patients were identified as those with post-LVAD positive hepatitis C ELISA antibody tests and negative confirmatory testing with hepatitis C RNA PCR and/or radioimmunoblot assay. Ten (26%) patients previously seronegative for hepatitis C were found to have FPHC after device placement. Of the 39 patients, 32 had HeartMate II devices. The mean age at LVAD placement was 55 years. FPHC correlated with older age at the time of LVAD implantation and with receipt of packed red blood cell transfusions, but not with gender, fresh frozen plasma transfusions, panel reactive antibodies, globulin fraction, rheumatoid factor, or anticardiolipin antibodies. Clinicians should be aware of this increased risk of FPHC in older LVAD patients and those more heavily transfused in order to avoid unnecessary apprehension and possible delay in transplantation. Further studies should be done to evaluate the possible relationship between transfused blood products and immunomodulation. PMID:28203425

  14. Controlling false-positive results obtained with the Hodge and Masuda assays for detection of class a carbapenemase in species of enterobacteriaceae by incorporating boronic Acid.

    PubMed

    Pasteran, Fernando; Mendez, Tania; Rapoport, Melina; Guerriero, Leonor; Corso, Alejandra

    2010-04-01

    The modified Hodge method (MHT) has been recommended by the CLSI for confirmation of suspected class A carbapenemase production in species of Enterobacteriaceae. This test and the Masuda method (MAS) have advantages over traditional phenotypic methods in that they directly analyze carbapenemase activity. In order to identify the potential interferences of these tests, we designed a panel composed of diverse bacterial genera with distinct carbapenem susceptibility patterns (42 carbapenemase producers and 48 nonproducers). About 25% of results among carbapenemase nonproducers, mainly strains harboring CTX-M and AmpC hyperproducers, were observed to be false positive. Subsequently, we developed an optimized approach for more-accurate detection of suspicious isolates of carbapenemase by addition of boronic acid (BA) derivatives (reversible inhibitor of class A carbapenemases and AmpC cephalosporinases) and oxacillin (inhibitor of AmpCs enzymes). The use of the modified BA- and oxacillin-based MHT and MAS resulted in high sensitivity (>90%) and specificity (100%) for class A carbapenemase detection. By use of these methodologies, isolates producing KPCs and GES, Sme, IMI, and NMC-A carbapenemases were successfully distinguished from those producing other classes of ss-lactamases (extended-spectrum beta-lactamases [ESBLs], AmpC beta-lactamases, metallo-beta-lactamases [MBLs], etc.). These methods will provide the fast and useful information needed for targeting of antimicrobial therapy and appropriate infection control.

  15. Preliminary results on the effect of sensor position on unobtrusive rollover detection for sleep monitoring in smart homes.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Daphne I; Goubran, Rafik; Frize, Monique; Knoefel, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Older adults experience increased sleep movement disorders and sleep fragmentation, and these are associated with serious health consequences such as falls. Monitoring sleep fragmentation and restlessness in older adults can reveal information about their daily and long-term health status. Long-term home monitoring is only realistic within the contact of unobtrusive, non-contact sensors. This paper presents exploratory work using the pressure sensor array as an instrument for rollover detection. The sensor output is used to calculate a center of gravity signal, from which five features are extracted. These features are used in a decision tree to classify detected movements in two categories; rollovers and other movements. Rollovers were detected with a sensitivity and specificity of 82% and 100% respectively, and a Mathew's correlation coefficient of 0.86 when data from all sensor positions were included. Intrapositional and interpositional effects of movements on sensors placed throughout the bed are described.

  16. The valvo-pump, an axial blood pump implanted at the heart valve position: concept and initial results.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, K; Okamoto, E; Yamamoto, K; Mitamura, Y; Tanaka, T; Yozu, R

    1992-06-01

    The valvo-pump, an axial nonpulsatile blood pump implanted at the heart valve position, has been developed. The valvo-pump consists of an impeller and a motor, which are encased in a housing. An impeller with 5 vanes (22.0 mm in diameter) is used. The impeller is connected to a samarium-cobalt-rare earth magnet direct current (DC) brushless motor measuring 21.3 mm in diameter and 18.5 mm in length. Sealing is achieved by means of a ferrofluidic seal. A pump flow of 10.5 L/min was obtained at a pump differential pressure of 3.3 kPa (25 mm Hg), and a flow of 4.9 L/min was obtained at 7.0 kPa (53 mm Hg). Sealing was kept perfect against a pressure of 29.3 kPa (220 mm Hg) at 9,000 rpm.

  17. Freedom From Local and Regional Failure of Contralateral Neck With Ipsilateral Neck Radiotherapy for Node-Positive Tonsil Cancer: Results of a Prospective Management Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Rusthoven, Kyle E. Raben, David; Schneider, Charles; Witt, Robert; Sammons, Sarah; Raben, Adam

    2009-08-01

    Purpose: To review the outcomes of a prospective management approach using ipsilateral neck radiotherapy in the treatment of node-positive squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil with a well-lateralized primary lesion. Methods and Materials: Between August 2003 and June 2007, 20 patients who presented with squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil, without involvement of the base of the tongue or midline soft palate, and with Stage N1-N2b disease were prospectively treated with radiotherapy to the primary site and ipsilateral neck. In addition, 18 patients received concurrent chemotherapy. The actuarial freedom from contralateral nodal and in-field progression was determined. Acute and late toxicity were prospectively evaluated using the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3, and Radiation Therapy Oncology Group criteria. Results: The nodal disease was Stage N1 in 4 patients, N2a in 3 patients, and N2b in 13 patients. At a median follow-up 19 months (range, 12-40), no in-field or contralateral nodal recurrences had been observed. The 2-year freedom from distant metastasis rate was 87.4%. The actuarial 2-year disease-free and overall survival rates were both 79.5%. Late Radiation Therapy Oncology Group grade 2 xerostomia occurred in 1 patient (5%). No late Grade 3 or greater toxicity was observed. No patient was feeding tube dependent at their last follow-up visit. Conclusion: In carefully selected patients with node-positive, lateralized tonsillar cancer, treatment of the ipsilateral neck and primary site does not appear to increase the risk of contralateral nodal failure and reduces late morbidity compared with historical controls. Although the outcomes with ipsilateral radiotherapy in the present series were promising, these findings require longer follow-up and validation in a larger patient cohort.

  18. 49 CFR 655.46 - Return to duty following refusal to submit to a test, verified positive drug test result and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... test, verified positive drug test result and/or breath alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater. 655.46... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT... drug test result and/or breath alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater. Where a covered employee...

  19. 49 CFR 655.46 - Return to duty following refusal to submit to a test, verified positive drug test result and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... test, verified positive drug test result and/or breath alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater. 655.46... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT... drug test result and/or breath alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater. Where a covered employee...

  20. 49 CFR 655.46 - Return to duty following refusal to submit to a test, verified positive drug test result and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... test, verified positive drug test result and/or breath alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater. 655.46... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT... drug test result and/or breath alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater. Where a covered employee...

  1. 49 CFR 655.46 - Return to duty following refusal to submit to a test, verified positive drug test result and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... test, verified positive drug test result and/or breath alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater. 655.46... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT... drug test result and/or breath alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater. Where a covered employee...

  2. 49 CFR 655.46 - Return to duty following refusal to submit to a test, verified positive drug test result and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... test, verified positive drug test result and/or breath alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater. 655.46... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT... drug test result and/or breath alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater. Where a covered employee...

  3. CD90-positive cells, an additional cell population, produce laminin {alpha}2 upon transplantation to dy{sup 3k}/dy{sup 3k} mice

    SciTech Connect

    Fukada, So-ichiro Yamamoto, Yukiko; Segawa, Masashi; Sakamoto, Kenta; Nakajima, Mari; Sato, Masaki; Morikawa, Daisuke; Uezumi, Akiyoshi; Miyagoe-Suzuki, Yuko; Takeda, Shin'ichi; Tsujikawa, Kazutake; Yamamoto, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    Laminin {alpha}2 is a component of skeletal and cardiac muscle basal lamina. A defect of the laminin {alpha}2 chain leads to severe congenital muscular dystrophy (MDC1A) in humans and dy/dy mice. Myogenic cells including myoblasts, myotubes, and myofibers in skeletal muscle are a possible source of the laminin {alpha}2 chain, and myogenic cells are thus proposed as a cell source for congenital muscular dystrophy therapy. However, we observed production of laminin {alpha}2 in non-myogenic cells of normal mice, and we could enrich these laminin {alpha}2-producing cells in CD90{sup +} cell fractions. Intriguingly, the number of CD90{sup +} cells increased dramatically during skeletal muscle regeneration in mice. This fraction did not include myogenic cells but exhibited a fibroblast-like phenotype. Moreover, these cells were resident in skeletal muscle, not derived from bone marrow. Finally, the production of laminin {alpha}2 in CD90{sup +} cells was not dependent on fusion with myogenic cells. Thus, CD90{sup +} cells are a newly identified additional cell fraction that increased during skeletal muscle regeneration in vivo and could be another cell source for therapy for lama2-deficient muscular dystrophy.

  4. Clinical Spectrum Time Course in Anti Jo-1 Positive Antisynthetase Syndrome: Results From an International Retrospective Multicenter Study.

    PubMed

    Cavagna, Lorenzo; Nuño, Laura; Scirè, Carlo Alberto; Govoni, Marcello; Longo, Francisco Javier Lopez; Franceschini, Franco; Neri, Rossella; Castañeda, Santos; Sifuentes Giraldo, Walter Alberto; Caporali, Roberto; Iannone, Florenzo; Fusaro, Enrico; Paolazzi, Giuseppe; Pellerito, Raffaele; Schwarting, Andreas; Saketkoo, Lesley Ann; Ortego-Centeno, Norberto; Quartuccio, Luca; Bartoloni, Elena; Specker, Christof; Murcia, Trinitario Pina; La Corte, Renato; Furini, Federica; Foschi, Valentina; Corral, Javier Bachiller; Airò, Paolo; Cavazzana, Ilaria; Martínez-Barrio, Julia; Hinojosa, Michelle; Giannini, Margherita; Barsotti, Simone; Menke, Julia; Triantafyllias, Kostantinos; Vitetta, Rosetta; Russo, Alessandra; Bajocchi, Gianluigi; Bravi, Elena; Barausse, Giovanni; Bortolotti, Roberto; Selmi, Carlo; Parisi, Simone; Montecucco, Carlomaurizio; González-Gay, Miguel Angel

    2015-08-01

    Anti Jo-1 antibodies are the main markers of the antisynthetase syndrome (ASSD), an autoimmune disease clinically characterized by the occurrence of arthritis, myositis, and interstitial lung disease (ILD). These manifestations usually co-occur (for practical purpose complete forms) in the same patient, but cases with only 1 or 2 of these findings (for practical purpose incomplete forms) have been described. In incomplete forms, the ex novo occurrence of further manifestations is possible, although with frequencies and timing not still defined. The aim of this international, multicenter, retrospective study was to characterize the clinical time course of anti Jo-1 positive ASSD in a large cohort of patients. Included patients should be anti Jo-1 positive and with at least 1 feature between arthritis, myositis, and ILD. We evaluated the differences between complete and incomplete forms, timing of clinical picture appearance and analyzed factors predicting the appearance of further manifestations in incomplete ASSD. Finally, we collected 225 patients (58 males and 167 females) with a median follow-up of 80 months. At the onset, complete ASSD were 44 and incomplete 181. Patients with incomplete ASSD had frequently only 1 of the classic triad findings (110 cases), in particular, isolated arthritis in 54 cases, isolated myositis in 28 cases, and isolated ILD in 28 cases. At the end of follow-up, complete ASSD were 113, incomplete 112. Only 5 patients had an isolated arthritis, only 5 an isolated myositis, and 15 an isolated ILD. During the follow-up, 108 patients with incomplete forms developed further manifestations. Single main feature onset was the main risk factor for the ex novo appearance of further manifestation. ILD was the prevalent ex novo manifestation (74 cases). In conclusion, ASSD is a condition that should be carefully considered in all patients presenting with arthritis, myositis, and ILD, even when isolated. The ex novo appearance of further

  5. Allergic contact stomatitis to dodecyl gallate? A review of the relevance of positive patch test results to gallates.

    PubMed

    Gamboni, Sarah E; Palmer, Amanda M; Nixon, Rosemary L

    2013-08-01

    Gallic acid esters or gallates are antioxidants used as preservatives in food and cosmetics. Few cases of gallates causing allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) have been reported in the literature. We present a case report of a 42-year-old beauty therapist who presented with a swollen tongue. Patch testing was positive to dodecyl gallate, commonly reported as being present in edible oil and oily foods such as margarine. Our patient avoided foods presumed to contain gallates and at the 6-week review reported a substantial improvement in her tongue symptoms. We reviewed our database and found 16 (7%) definitely or possibly relevant reactions to dodecyl gallate, seven (15%) definitely or possibly relevant reactions to propyl gallate and six (3%) definitely or possibly relevant reactions to octyl gallate. Most reactions were attributed to margarine, moisturising cream and lipstick. These products are often mentioned in the literature as containing gallates; however, ingredient labelling and discussions with manufacturers made it difficult to establish whether they are currently present in foods. Ascertaining relevance for these reactions is not always possible.

  6. Results of using the global positioning system to maintain the time and frequency synchronization in the Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clements, P. A.; Kirk, A.; Unglaub, R.

    1987-01-01

    There are two hydrogen maser clocks located at each signal processing center (SPC) in the DSN. Close coordination of the time and frequency of the SPC clocks is needed to navigate spacecraft to the outer planets. A recent example was the Voyager spacecraft's encounter with Uranus in January 1986. The clocks were adjusted with the goal of minimizing time and frequency offsets between the SPCs at encounter. How time and frequency at each SPC is estimated using data acquired from the Global Positioning System Timing Receivers operating on the NBS-BIH (National Bureau of Standards-Bureau International de l'Heure) tracking schedule is described. These data are combined with other available timing receiver data to calculate the time offset estimates. The adjustment of the clocks is described. It was determined that long range hydrogen maser drift is quite predictable and adjustable within limits. This enables one to minimize time and frequency differences between the three SPCs for many months by matching the drift rates of the three standards. Data acquisition and processing techniques using a Kalman filter to make estimates of time and frequency offsets between the clocks at the SPCs and UTC(NBS) (Coordinated Universal Time realized at NBS) are described.

  7. Predictive Factors of Lapatinib and Capecitabine Activity in Patients with HER2-Positive, Trastuzumab-Resistant Metastatic Breast Cancer: Results from the Italian Retrospective Multicenter HERLAPAC Study

    PubMed Central

    Gori, Stefania; Inno, Alessandro; Rossi, Valentina; Turazza, Monica; Fiorio, Elena; Fabi, Alessandra; Bisagni, Giancarlo; Foglietta, Jennifer; Santini, Daniele; Pavese, Ida; Pellegrino, Arianna; Zambelli, Alberto; Vici, Patrizia; Leonardi, Vita; Barni, Sandro; Saracchini, Silvana; Bogina, Giuseppe; Marchetti, Fabiana; Duranti, Simona; Lunardi, Gianluigi; Montemurro, Filippo

    2016-01-01

    Background There are no validated predictive markers for lapatinib and capecitabine in patients with trastuzumab-resistant HER2 positive metastatic breast cancer. Methods Data of 148 consecutive patients treated with lapatinib and capecitabine from March 2007 to December 2013 were collected from 13 Italian institutions. Estimates of progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were obtained with the Kaplan-Meier method and compared with logrank test. The association of clinicopathological variables and the outcome was studied by binary logistic regression analysis and Cox proportional hazard analysis. Results At a median follow-up of 41 months, median PFS and OS were 7 and 21 months, respectively. Patents with a PFS longer than 7 months had a significantly longer OS, compared with patients with a PFS equal to or shorter than 7 months (36 vs 15 months; p<0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed the benefit of lapatinib-based therapy in terms of PFS and OS was significantly associated with time-to-progression (TTP) on prior first-line trastuzumab-based therapy. In particular, each additional month on first-line trastuzumab based therapy was associated with a reduction in hazard of progression and death after the initiation of lapatinib-based therapy of 2% and 4%, respectively. Conclusions A longer TTP to first line trastuzumab seems to predict a prolonged PFS and OS with subsequent lapatinib and capecitabine. PMID:27224517

  8. Positive association between short-term ambient air pollution exposure and children blood pressure in China-Result from the Seven Northeast Cities (SNEC) study.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xiao-Wen; Qian, Zhengmin Min; Vaughn, Michael G; Nelson, Erik J; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Bowatte, Gayan; Perret, Jennifer; Chen, Duo-Hong; Ma, Huimin; Lin, Shao; de Foy, Benjamin; Hu, Li-Wen; Yang, Bo-Yi; Xu, Shu-Li; Zhang, Chuan; Tian, Yan-Peng; Nian, Min; Wang, Jia; Xiao, Xiang; Bao, Wen-Wen; Zhang, Ya-Zhi; Dong, Guang-Hui

    2017-05-01

    The impact of ambient air pollution on health causes concerns in China. However, little is known about the association of short-term air pollution exposure with blood pressure (BP) in children. The goal of present study was to assess the association between short-term air pollution and BP in children from a highly polluted area in China. This study enrolled 9354 children in 24 elementary and middle schools (aged 5-17 years) from the Seven Northeast Cities (SNEC) study, respectively, during the period of 2012-2013. Ambient air pollutants, including particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of ≤10 μm (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3) on the days (1-5 days) preceding BP examination were collected from local air monitoring stations. Generalized additive models and two-level regression analyses were used to evaluate the relationship between air pollution and BP after adjusting for other covariates. Results showed that with an interquartile range (IQR) increase in PM10 (50.0 μg/m(3)) and O3 (53.0 μg/m(3)) level during the 5-day mean exposure, positive associations with elevated BP were observed, with an odds ratio of 2.17 (95% CI, 1.61-2.93) for PM10 and 2.77 (95% CI, 1.94-3.95) for O3. Both systolic BP and diastolic BP levels were positively associated with an IQR increase of four air pollutants at different lag times. Specifically, an IQR increase in the 5-day mean of PM10 and O3 was associated with elevation of 2.07 mmHg (95% CI, 1.71-2.44) and 3.29 mmHg (95% CI, 2.86-3.72) in systolic BP, respectively. When stratified by sex, positive relationships were observed for elevated BP with NO2 exposure only in males. This is the first report on the relationship between ambient short-term air pollution exposure and children BP in China. Findings indicate a need to control air pollutants and protect children from heavy air pollution exposure in China.

  9. Expression of GLUT-1 and GLUT-3 in xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis induced a positive result on ¹⁸F-FDG PET: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Sawada, Shigeaki; Shimada, Yutaka; Sekine, Shinichi; Shibuya, Kazuto; Yoshioka, Isaku; Matsui, Koshi; Okumura, Tomoyuki; Yoshida, Toru; Nagata, Takuya; Uotani, Hideyuki; Tsukada, Kazuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Although several reports have revealed that fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ((18)F-FDG PET) is useful for differentiating between benign and malignant lesions in the gallbladder, the positive results of (18)F-FDG PET are not specific for malignancy because (18)F-FDG is also accumulated in inflammatory lesions. It is known that the most important pathway for (18)F-FDG to enter the cell body is mediated by the facilitative glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1) through GLUT-3. We herein present a case of xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis (XGC) with a positive result on (18)F-FDG PET. In this case, GLUT-1 and GLUT-3 were both positively expressed in inflammatory cells at the gallbladder wall of XGC and this is the first report to reveal GLUT expression in XGC. This report reveals that surgeons should carefully consider the appropriate treatment of gallbladder tumor, even with a positive result on (18)F-FDG PET.

  10. [Clinical resulting risks in the persons injured in the traffic accident depending on the role and position in the traffic].

    PubMed

    Hur'iev, S O; Chundak, S S; Satsyk, S P

    2013-03-01

    Clinical resulting risks of the abdominal organs trauma in the injured persons, as a consequence of a traffic accident, constitute an important component of multicomponent polysystem trauma for the sign of taking part in a traffic.

  11. Predictive Value of Dental Maturity for a Positive Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Stimulation Test Result in Girls with Precocious Puberty.

    PubMed

    Baik, Jee Seon; Choi, Jin Woo; Kim, Su Jin; Kim, Ji Hyun; Kim, Sollip; Kim, Jae Hyun

    2017-02-01

    Dental maturity is associated with skeletal maturity, which is advanced in girls with central precocious puberty (CPP). We investigated the performance of dental maturity as a screening method for CPP using mandibular second premolar and molar calcification stages, assessed the associated anthropometric and laboratory factors, and evaluated pubertal response predictors using the gonadotropin-releasing hormone stimulation test (GnRHST) in prepubertal and pubertal girls. A prospective case-control study was conducted in girls, aged 7.0-8.9 years, classified into pubertal (peak luteinizing hormone [LH] after GnRHST ≥ 5 IU/L), prepubertal (peak LH < 5 IU/L), and control groups. Auxological and biochemical tests, panoramic radiographs, and GnRHSTs in participants with breast development were conducted. Dental maturity was assessed using the Demirjian index (DI). We included 103 girls (pubertal, 40; prepubertal, 19; control, 44). Chronological age (CA) was not significantly different between groups. Bone age (BA) and BA advancement was higher in the pubertal and prepubertal groups. Increased DI values at the mandibular second premolar and molar were significantly associated with CA, BA, BA advancement, height standard deviation score (SDS), peak LH after GnRHST, and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) (all P < 0.05). Moreover, odds ratio (OR) of the mandibular second premolar and molar (a DI value of ≥ E) for predicting a positive response to GnRHST was 8.7 (95% confidence intervals [CI], 2.9-26.1) and 5.2 (95% CI, 2.2-12.7), respectively. Dental maturity was a strong predictor for diagnosing CPP. Determining dental maturity in girls with suspected precocious puberty might help determine the performance of GnRHSTs.

  12. Factors involved in continuance of atazanavir-based regimens: Results from a cohort of HIV1-positive patients.

    PubMed

    Giacomelli, Andrea; Oreni, Letizia; Franzetti, Marco; Di Cristo, Valentina; Colella, Elisa; Ridolfo, Anna Lisa; Galli, Massimo; Rusconi, Stefano

    2016-05-01

    We evaluated predictive factors involved in durability and therapeutic failure of atazanavir (ATV)-based antiretroviral regimens with or without ritonavir (r) in real life setting. This retrospective study of HIV-1-positive patients evaluated the factors related to ATV continuance and the time-dependent probability of therapeutic failure (HIV-RNA >200 copies/mL and concomitant discontinuation of ATV). We also investigated the rate of therapeutic failure and the variations in total bilirubin levels from starting unboosted ATV-based regimens. The study involved 1030 patients: 183 treatment-naïve patients (17.8%) started ATV/r (17 subsequently switched to unboosted ATV); 653 (63.4%) switched to ATV/r from previous antiretroviral regimens (121 subsequently switched to unboosted ATV); and 194 (18.8%) switched to unboosted ATV from previous ATV-free regimens. The median ATV follow-up was 28 months (interquartile range 7-56). The risk of ATV discontinuation was significantly lower in patients switched to unboosted ATV from ATV/r (HR 0.45; p < 0.0001). The discontinuation of ATV correlated with female gender (HR 1.26; p = 0.035), use of a zidovudine/didanosine/stavudine containing backbone (HR 1.8; p = 0.004), and a baseline CD4+ cell counts of <200/μL (HR 1.54; p = 0.003), the last of which was also associated with a higher risk of therapeutic failure (HR 2.42; p = 0.001). Total bilirubin levels were significantly lower in the patients switching from ATV/r to unboosted ATV. Unboosted ATV-based therapies are safe and effective options in patients whose immuno-virological conditions are stable, and allow the long-term survival of ATV-containing regimens.

  13. Predictive Value of Dental Maturity for a Positive Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Stimulation Test Result in Girls with Precocious Puberty

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Dental maturity is associated with skeletal maturity, which is advanced in girls with central precocious puberty (CPP). We investigated the performance of dental maturity as a screening method for CPP using mandibular second premolar and molar calcification stages, assessed the associated anthropometric and laboratory factors, and evaluated pubertal response predictors using the gonadotropin-releasing hormone stimulation test (GnRHST) in prepubertal and pubertal girls. A prospective case-control study was conducted in girls, aged 7.0–8.9 years, classified into pubertal (peak luteinizing hormone [LH] after GnRHST ≥ 5 IU/L), prepubertal (peak LH < 5 IU/L), and control groups. Auxological and biochemical tests, panoramic radiographs, and GnRHSTs in participants with breast development were conducted. Dental maturity was assessed using the Demirjian index (DI). We included 103 girls (pubertal, 40; prepubertal, 19; control, 44). Chronological age (CA) was not significantly different between groups. Bone age (BA) and BA advancement was higher in the pubertal and prepubertal groups. Increased DI values at the mandibular second premolar and molar were significantly associated with CA, BA, BA advancement, height standard deviation score (SDS), peak LH after GnRHST, and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) (all P < 0.05). Moreover, odds ratio (OR) of the mandibular second premolar and molar (a DI value of ≥ E) for predicting a positive response to GnRHST was 8.7 (95% confidence intervals [CI], 2.9–26.1) and 5.2 (95% CI, 2.2–12.7), respectively. Dental maturity was a strong predictor for diagnosing CPP. Determining dental maturity in girls with suspected precocious puberty might help determine the performance of GnRHSTs. PMID:28049241

  14. Psychological distress with direct-to-consumer genetic testing: a case report of an unexpected BRCA positive test result.

    PubMed

    Dohany, Lindsay; Gustafson, Shanna; Ducaine, Whitney; Zakalik, Dana

    2012-06-01

    We report a case of a client who discovered she had a BRCA mutation following direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic testing in the absence of genetic counseling. After testing she presented for genetic counseling with anxiety, distress, and a deficit of knowledge about what the DTC genetic testing revealed. Genetic counseling helped alleviate distress while empowering the client to apply the results of testing to improve medical management. Despite recent studies demonstrating no negative psychological impact of DTC genetic testing on the consumer, this case illustrates that significant psychological distress and confusion can occur as a result of DTC genetic testing for highly penetrant single gene disorders. Pre- and post-test genetic counseling in conjunction with DTC genetic testing may alleviate consumers' distress and empower clients to proactively utilize their result information.

  15. CD14+ cells from peripheral blood positively regulate hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell survival resulting in increased erythroid yield.

    PubMed

    Heideveld, Esther; Masiello, Francesca; Marra, Manuela; Esteghamat, Fatemehsadat; Yağcı, Nurcan; von Lindern, Marieke; Migliaccio, Anna Rita F; van den Akker, Emile

    2015-11-01

    Expansion of erythroblasts from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells is 4- to 15-fold more efficient than that of CD34(+) cells purified from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. In addition, purified CD34(+) and CD34(-) populations from blood do not reconstitute this erythroid yield, suggesting a role for feeder cells present in blood mononuclear cells that increase hematopoietic output. Immunodepleting peripheral blood mononuclear cells for CD14(+) cells reduced hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell expansion. Conversely, the yield was increased upon co-culture of CD34(+) cells with CD14(+) cells (full contact or transwell assays) or CD34(+) cells re-constituted in conditioned medium from CD14(+) cells. In particular, CD14(++)CD16(+) intermediate monocytes/macrophages enhanced erythroblast outgrowth from CD34(+) cells. No effect of CD14(+) cells on erythroblasts themselves was observed. However, 2 days of co-culturing CD34(+) and CD14(+) cells increased CD34(+) cell numbers and colony-forming units 5-fold. Proliferation assays suggested that CD14(+) cells sustain CD34(+) cell survival but not proliferation. These data identify previously unrecognized erythroid and non-erythroid CD34(-) and CD34(+) populations in blood that contribute to the erythroid yield. A flow cytometry panel containing CD34/CD36 can be used to follow specific stages during CD34(+) differentiation to erythroblasts. We have shown modulation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell survival by CD14(+) cells present in peripheral blood mononuclear cells which can also be found near specific hematopoietic niches in the bone marrow.

  16. Pulsed addition of HMF and furfural to batch-grown xylose-utilizing Saccharomyces cerevisiae results in different physiological responses in glucose and xylose consumption phase

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass generates a number of undesired degradation products that can inhibit microbial metabolism. Two of these compounds, the furan aldehydes 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and 2-furaldehyde (furfural), have been shown to be an impediment for viable ethanol production. In the present study, HMF and furfural were pulse-added during either the glucose or the xylose consumption phase in order to dissect the effects of these inhibitors on energy state, redox metabolism, and gene expression of xylose-consuming Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Results Pulsed addition of 3.9 g L-1 HMF and 1.2 g L-1 furfural during either the glucose or the xylose consumption phase resulted in distinct physiological responses. Addition of furan aldehydes in the glucose consumption phase was followed by a decrease in the specific growth rate and the glycerol yield, whereas the acetate yield increased 7.3-fold, suggesting that NAD(P)H for furan aldehyde conversion was generated by acetate synthesis. No change in the intracellular levels of NAD(P)H was observed 1 hour after pulsing, whereas the intracellular concentration of ATP increased by 58%. An investigation of the response at transcriptional level revealed changes known to be correlated with perturbations in the specific growth rate, such as protein and nucleotide biosynthesis. Addition of furan aldehydes during the xylose consumption phase brought about an increase in the glycerol and acetate yields, whereas the xylitol yield was severely reduced. The intracellular concentrations of NADH and NADPH decreased by 58 and 85%, respectively, hence suggesting that HMF and furfural drained the cells of reducing power. The intracellular concentration of ATP was reduced by 42% 1 hour after pulsing of inhibitors, suggesting that energy-requiring repair or maintenance processes were activated. Transcriptome profiling showed that NADPH-requiring processes such as amino acid biosynthesis and sulfate and

  17. Starch plus sunflower oil addition to the diet of dry dairy cows results in a trans-11 to trans-10 shift of biohydrogenation.

    PubMed

    Zened, A; Enjalbert, F; Nicot, M C; Troegeler-Meynadier, A

    2013-01-01

    Trans fatty acids (FA), exhibit different biological properties. Among them, cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid has some interesting putative health properties, whereas trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid has negative effects on cow milk fat production and would negatively affect human health. In high-yielding dairy cows, a shift from trans-11 to trans-10 pathway of biohydrogenation (BH) can occur in the rumen of cows receiving high-concentrate diets, especially when the diet is supplemented with unsaturated fat sources. To study this shift, 4 rumen-fistulated nonlactating Holstein cows were assigned to a 4×4 Latin square design with 4 different diets during 4 periods. Cows received 12 kg of dry matter per day of 4 diets based on corn silage during 4 successive periods: a control diet (22% starch, <3% crude fat on DM basis), a high-starch diet supplemented with wheat plus barley (35% starch, <3% crude fat), a sunflower oil diet supplemented with 5% of sunflower oil (20% starch, 7.6% crude fat), and a high-starch plus sunflower oil diet (33% starch, 7.3% crude fat). Five hours after feeding, proportions of trans-11 BH isomers greatly increased in the rumen content with the addition of sunflower oil, without change in ruminal pH compared with the control diet. Addition of starch to the control diet had no effect on BH pathways but decreased ruminal pH. The addition of a large amount of starch in association with sunflower oil increased trans-10 FA at the expense of trans-11 FA in the rumen content, revealing a trans-11 to trans-10 shift. Interestingly, with this latter diet, ruminal pH did not change compared with a single addition of starch. This trans-11 to trans-10 shift occurred progressively, after a decrease in the proportion of trans-11 FA in the rumen, suggesting that this shift could result from a dysbiosis in the rumen in favor of trans-10-producing bacteria at the expense of those producing trans-11 or a modification of bacterial activities.

  18. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  19. High SO{sub 2} removal efficiency testing: Results of DBA and sodium formate additive tests at Southwestern Electric Power company`s Pirkey Station

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-30

    Tests were conducted at Southwestern Electric Power Company`s (SWEPCo) Henry W. Pirkey Station wet limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system to evaluate options for achieving high sulfur dioxide removal efficiency. The Pirkey FGD system includes four absorber modules, each with dual slurry recirculation loops and with a perforated plate tray in the upper loop. The options tested involved the use of dibasic acid (DBA) or sodium formate as a performance additive. The effectiveness of other potential options was simulated with the Electric Power Research Institute`s (EPRI) FGD PRocess Integration and Simulation Model (FGDPRISM) after it was calibrated to the system. An economic analysis was done to determine the cost effectiveness of the high-efficiency options. Results are-summarized below.

  20. The long-term results and changing patterns of biological valves at the mitral position in contemporary practice in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Abe, Tomonobu; Ito, Hideki; Mutsuga, Masato; Fujimoto, Kazuro; Terazawa, Sachie; Narita, Yuji; Oshima, Hideki; Usui, Akihiko

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mitral valve surgery has changed with the wide acceptance of mitral valve repair. The aim of this study is to obtain the long-term results of patients who underwent mitral valve replacement (MVR) using a biological prosthesis in contemporary practice in Japan. From January 1990 to December 2013, 76 patients underwent MVR using a biological prosthesis with or without concomitant surgery. Data were obtained by means of a questionnaire and a telephone interview. The mean follow-up period was 4.26 years. The etiologies of the patients included dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) (n=20 [26.3%]), ischemic mitral regurgitation (n=7 [9.2%]). There is a trend towards decreasing number of rheumatic and degenerative disease and increasing number of DCM and ischemic mitral regurgitation. Three patients (3.9%) died in the perioperative period. The 5- and 10-year overall survival rates were 69.6% and 31.7%, respectively. The 5- and 10-year freedom from valve related death were 95.6% and 80.6 %, respectively. The linearized rates of valve-related complications were as follows: thromboembolism (0.63%/patient/year), bleeding (1.25%/patient/year). One patient underwent reoperation for structural degeneration 13 years after the first operation. The present study shows the long-term results of mitral valve replacement with bioproshtesis in a contemporary case series. The practice pattern is changing. The low rate of valve-related complication justify the current patient selection. PMID:28008192

  1. CS(2) blinds in Brassica crops: false positive results in the dithiocarbamate residue analysis by the acid digestion method.

    PubMed

    Perz, R C; van Lishaut, H; Schwack, W

    2000-03-01

    Various members of the Brassicaceae family (cauliflower, savoy cabbage, red cabbage, turnip-rooted cabbage) grown without any application of pesticides were analyzed according to the acid digestion method commonly used for the determination of dithiocarbamate fungicide residues. Depending on postharvest treatments, high non-anthropogenic CS(2) values up to 4 mg/kg were found in some cases, especially in frozen raw cabbage samples, exceeding maximum residue limits. To explore phytogenic CS(2) occurrences, two model substances (phenylisothiocyanate and methyl tryptaminedithiocarbamate) representing natural mustard oils and brassinines, respectively, were analyzed for their acid hydrolysis decomposition products. In both cases, COS was found generally, but CS(2) was readily formed during acid digestion, too, when sulfides were present. The results obtained clearly demonstrate that CS(2) values determined by using the acid digestion method of crops rich in secondary metabolism sulfur compounds have to be interpreted carefully.

  2. Sequence homologies between Mycoplasma and Chlamydia spp. lead to false-positive results in chlamydial cell cultures tested for mycoplasma contamination with a commercial PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Maass, Viola; Kern, Jan Marco; Poeckl, Matthias; Maass, Matthias

    2011-10-01

    Mycoplasma contamination is a frequent problem in chlamydial cell culture. After obtaining contradictory contamination results, we compared three commercial PCR kits for mycoplasma detection. One kit signaled contamination in mycoplasma-free Chlamydia pneumoniae cultures. Sequencing of cloned PCR products revealed primer homology with the chlamydial genome as the basis of this false-positive result.

  3. Is Underweight Associated with more Positive Body Image? Results of a Cross-Sectional Study in Adolescent Girls and Boys.

    PubMed

    Kantanista, Adam; Król-Zielińska, Magdalena; Borowiec, Joanna; Osiński, Wiesław

    2017-02-09

    The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between body image and prevalence of underweight, normal weight, and overweight in adolescents. The study included 1702 girls and 1547 boys, aged 14-16 years, who completed questionnaire assessing body satisfaction. The participants' BMI status: underweight, normal weight or overweight was determined on the basis of BMI cut-off values. Results revealed that more girls (p < .001) showed low body satisfaction (44.8%) and fewer girls (p < .001) had high body satisfaction (17.6%) compared to boys (28.5% and 29.0%, respectively). A two-way ANOVA revealed a significant interaction between BMI status and gender on body satisfaction F(2, 3243) = 4.10, p = .017, η2 = .003. In boys, body satisfaction was higher in normal weight and underweight in comparison to overweight individuals (p < .001). Underweight girls presented higher body satisfaction than those who were normal weight and overweight (p < .001). Our findings indicated that, in relation to gender, BMI status can be associated with different body satisfaction in adolescents. This should be taken into consideration when designing programs aimed at obesity and disordered eating prevention and body image improvement. Due to the fact that underweight girls and boys have high body satisfaction, this can lead to behaviors that maintain low body weight in adolescents and in turn this may have negative health consequences.

  4. Thermochemical properties, rotation barriers, and group additivity for unsaturated oxygenated hydrocarbons and radicals resulting from reaction of vinyl and phenyl radical systems with O2.

    PubMed

    Sebbarand, Nadia; Bockhorn, Henning; Bozzelli, Joseph W

    2005-03-17

    Oxidation of unsaturated and aromatic hydrocarbons in atmospheric and combustion processes results in formation of linear and cyclic unsaturated, oxygenated-hydrocarbon intermediates. The thermochemical parameters delatafH degrees 298, S degrees 298, and C(p)(f298)(T) for these intermediates are needed to understand their stability and reaction paths in further oxidation. These properties are not available for a majority of these unsaturated oxy-hydrocarbons and their corresponding radicals, even via group additivity methods. Enthalpy, entropy, and heat capacity of a series of 40 oxygenated and non-oxygenated molecules, or radicals corresponding to hydrogen atom loss from the parent stable molecules are determined in this study. Enthalpy (delatafH degrees 298 in kcal mol(-1)) is derived from the density function calculations at the B3LYP/6-311g(d,p) calculated enthalpy of reaction (delatafH degrees rxn,298) and by use of isodesmic (work) reactions. Estimation of error in enthalpy delatafH degrees 298, from use of computational chemistry coupled with work reactions analysis, is presented using comparisons between the calculated and literature enthalpies of reaction. Entropies (S degrees 298) and heat capacities (C(p)(f298)(T)) were calculated using the B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) determined frequencies and geometries. Potential barriers for internal rotors in each molecule were determined and used (in place of torsion frequencies) to calculate contributions to S and C(p)(T) from the hindered rotors. Twenty-six groups for use in group additivity (GA) are also developed.

  5. Risk stratification of thyroid nodules with Bethesda category III results on fine-needle aspiration cytology: The additional value of acoustic radiation force impulse elastography

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Chong-Ke; Xu, Hui-Xiong; Xu, Jun-Mei; Sun, Cheng-Yu; Chen, Wei; Liu, Bo-Ji; Bo, Xiao-Wan; Wang, Dan; Qu, Shen

    2017-01-01

    To assess the value of conventional ultrasound, conventional strain elastography (CSE) and acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography in differentiating likelihood of malignancy for Bethesda category III thyroid nodules. 103 thyroid nodules with Bethesda category III results on fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in 103 patients were included and all were pathologically confirmed after surgery. Conventional ultrasound, CSE and ARFI elastography including ARFI imaging and point shear wave speed (SWS) measurement were performed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify the independent factors associated with malignancy. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (Az) was calculated to assess the diagnostic performance. Pathologically, 65 nodules were benign and 38 were malignant. Significant differences were found between benign and malignant nodules in ARFI. The cut-off points were ARFI imaging grade ≥ 4, SWS > 2.94 m/s and SWS ratio > 1.09, respectively. ARFI imaging (Az: 0.861) had the highest diagnostic performance to differentiate malignant from benign nodules, following by conventional ultrasound (Az: 0.606 - 0.744), CSE (Az: 0.660) and point SWS measurement (Az: 0.725 - 0.735). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that ARFI imaging grade ≥ 4 was the most significant independent predictor. The combination of ARFI imaging with point SWS measurement significantly improved the specificity (100% vs. 80.0%) and positive predictive value (100 % vs. 72.9%) in comparison with ARFI imaging alone. ARFI elastography is a useful tool in differentiating malignant from benign thyroid nodules with Bethesda category III results on FNAC. PMID:27906671

  6. Risk stratification of thyroid nodules with Bethesda category III results on fine-needle aspiration cytology: The additional value of acoustic radiation force impulse elastography.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chong-Ke; Xu, Hui-Xiong; Xu, Jun-Mei; Sun, Cheng-Yu; Chen, Wei; Liu, Bo-Ji; Bo, Xiao-Wan; Wang, Dan; Qu, Shen

    2017-01-03

    To assess the value of conventional ultrasound, conventional strain elastography (CSE) and acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography in differentiating likelihood of malignancy for Bethesda category III thyroid nodules. 103 thyroid nodules with Bethesda category III results on fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in 103 patients were included and all were pathologically confirmed after surgery. Conventional ultrasound, CSE and ARFI elastography including ARFI imaging and point shear wave speed (SWS) measurement were performed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify the independent factors associated with malignancy. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (Az) was calculated to assess the diagnostic performance. Pathologically, 65 nodules were benign and 38 were malignant. Significant differences were found between benign and malignant nodules in ARFI. The cut-off points were ARFI imaging grade ≥ 4, SWS > 2.94 m/s and SWS ratio > 1.09, respectively. ARFI imaging (Az: 0.861) had the highest diagnostic performance to differentiate malignant from benign nodules, following by conventional ultrasound (Az: 0.606 - 0.744), CSE (Az: 0.660) and point SWS measurement (Az: 0.725 - 0.735). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that ARFI imaging grade ≥ 4 was the most significant independent predictor. The combination of ARFI imaging with point SWS measurement significantly improved the specificity (100% vs. 80.0%) and positive predictive value (100 % vs. 72.9%) in comparison with ARFI imaging alone. ARFI elastography is a useful tool in differentiating malignant from benign thyroid nodules with Bethesda category III results on FNAC.

  7. SU-E-J-06: Additional Imaging Guidance Dose to Patient Organs Resulting From X-Ray Tubes Used in CyberKnife Image Guidance System

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, A; Ding, G

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The use of image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) has become increasingly common, but the additional radiation exposure resulting from repeated image guidance procedures raises concerns. Although there are many studies reporting imaging dose from different image guidance devices, imaging dose for the CyberKnife Robotic Radiosurgery System is not available. This study provides estimated organ doses resulting from image guidance procedures on the CyberKnife system. Methods: Commercially available Monte Carlo software, PCXMC, was used to calculate average organ doses resulting from x-ray tubes used in the CyberKnife system. There are seven imaging protocols with kVp ranging from 60 – 120 kV and 15 mAs for treatment sites in the Cranium, Head and Neck, Thorax, and Abdomen. The output of each image protocol was measured at treatment isocenter. For each site and protocol, Adult body sizes ranging from anorexic to extremely obese were simulated since organ dose depends on patient size. Doses for all organs within the imaging field-of-view of each site were calculated for a single image acquisition from both of the orthogonal x-ray tubes. Results: Average organ doses were <1.0 mGy for every treatment site and imaging protocol. For a given organ, dose increases as kV increases or body size decreases. Higher doses are typically reported for skeletal components, such as the skull, ribs, or clavicles, than for softtissue organs. Typical organ doses due to a single exposure are estimated as 0.23 mGy to the brain, 0.29 mGy to the heart, 0.08 mGy to the kidneys, etc., depending on the imaging protocol and site. Conclusion: The organ doses vary with treatment site, imaging protocol and patient size. Although the organ dose from a single image acquisition resulting from two orthogonal beams is generally insignificant, the sum of repeated image acquisitions (>100) could reach 10–20 cGy for a typical treatment fraction.

  8. Additive effects of LPL, APOA5 and APOE variant combinations on triglyceride levels and hypertriglyceridemia: results of the ICARIA genetic sub-study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) is a well-established independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and the influence of several genetic variants in genes related with triglyceride (TG) metabolism has been described, including LPL, APOA5 and APOE. The combined analysis of these polymorphisms could produce clinically meaningful complementary information. Methods A subgroup of the ICARIA study comprising 1825 Spanish subjects (80% men, mean age 36 years) was genotyped for the LPL-HindIII (rs320), S447X (rs328), D9N (rs1801177) and N291S (rs268) polymorphisms, the APOA5-S19W (rs3135506) and -1131T/C (rs662799) variants, and the APOE polymorphism (rs429358; rs7412) using PCR and restriction analysis and TaqMan assays. We used regression analyses to examine their combined effects on TG levels (with the log-transformed variable) and the association of variant combinations with TG levels and hypertriglyceridemia (TG ≥ 1.69 mmol/L), including the covariates: gender, age, waist circumference, blood glucose, blood pressure, smoking and alcohol consumption. Results We found a significant lowering effect of the LPL-HindIII and S447X polymorphisms (p < 0.0001). In addition, the D9N, N291S, S19W and -1131T/C variants and the APOE-ε4 allele were significantly associated with an independent additive TG-raising effect (p < 0.05, p < 0.01, p < 0.001, p < 0.0001 and p < 0.001, respectively). Grouping individuals according to the presence of TG-lowering or TG-raising polymorphisms showed significant differences in TG levels (p < 0.0001), with the lowest levels exhibited by carriers of two lowering variants (10.2% reduction in TG geometric mean with respect to individuals who were homozygous for the frequent alleles of all the variants), and the highest levels in carriers of raising combinations (25.1% mean TG increase). Thus, carrying two lowering variants was protective against HTG (OR = 0.62; 95% CI, 0.39-0.98; p = 0.042) and having one single raising polymorphism (OR

  9. High SO{sub 2} removal efficiency testing. Topical report - results of sodium formate additive tests at New York State Electric & Gas Corporation`s Kintigh Station

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, J.

    1997-02-14

    Tests were conducted at New York State Gas & Electric`s (NYSEG`s) Kintigh Station to evaluate options for achieving high sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) removal efficiency in the wet limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system. This test program was one of six conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy to evaluate low-capital-cost upgrades to existing FGD systems as a means for utilities to comply with the requirements of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. The upgrade option tested at Kintigh was sodium formate additive. Results from the tests were used to calibrate the Electric Power Research Institute`s (EPRI) FGD PRocess Integration and Simulation Model (FGDPRISM) to the Kintigh scrubber configuration. FGDPRISM was then used to predict system performance for evaluating conditions other than those tested. An economic evaluation was then done to determine the cost effectiveness of various high-efficiency upgrade options. These costs can be compared with the estimated market value of SO{sub 2} allowance or the expected costs of allowances generated by other means, such as fuel switching or new scrubbers, to arrive at the most cost-effective strategy for Clean Air Act compliance.

  10. Mucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa caused by mucA mutations result in activation of TLR2 in addition to TLR5 in airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Beaudoin, Trevor; Lafayette, Shantelle; Nguyen, Dao; Rousseau, Simon

    2012-11-09

    The presence of the mucoid phenotype of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a marker of poor survival in cystic fibrosis. As CF lung disease results from chronic infection leading to airway inflammation, we determined whether the switch to a mucoid phenotype by P. aeruginosa has an impact on the inflammatory response of airway epithelial cells. Exposure of airway epithelial cells to non-mucoid and mucoid P. aeruginosa-derived material leads to p38α MAPK activation, a key protein kinase involved in transmitting inflammatory signals. However, while the non-mucoid strain PAO1 activates p38α MAPK pathway solely via TLR5, the mucoid strain PACF508 activates p38α MAPK via both TLR5 and TLR2. Inactivation of mucA (the gene responsible for the mucoid phenotype) in PAO1 leads to p38α MAPK activation by both TLR2 and TLR5, as observed in the clinical mucoid isolate PACF508. Therefore, the switch to mucoid phenotype may contribute to more inflammation via TLR2 activation in addition to TLR5. Our findings highlight an important and under recognized role for TLR2 in the response of airway epithelial cells to infection.

  11. Accuracy and Precision in the Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) Dataset 1998-2000 in Light of the JOSIE-2000 Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witte, J. C.; Thompson, A. M.; Schmidlin, F. J.; Oltmans, S. J.; McPeters, R. D.; Smit, H. G. J.

    2003-01-01

    A network of 12 southern hemisphere tropical and subtropical stations in the Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes (SHADOZ) project has provided over 2000 profiles of stratospheric and tropospheric ozone since 1998. Balloon-borne electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozonesondes are used with standard radiosondes for pressure, temperature and relative humidity measurements. The archived data are available at:http: //croc.gsfc.nasa.gov/shadoz. In Thompson et al., accuracies and imprecisions in the SHADOZ 1998- 2000 dataset were examined using ground-based instruments and the TOMS total ozone measurement (version 7) as references. Small variations in ozonesonde technique introduced possible biases from station-to-station. SHADOZ total ozone column amounts are now compared to version 8 TOMS; discrepancies between the two datasets are reduced 2\\% on average. An evaluation of ozone variations among the stations is made using the results of a series of chamber simulations of ozone launches (JOSIE-2000, Juelich Ozonesonde Intercomparison Experiment) in which a standard reference ozone instrument was employed with the various sonde techniques used in SHADOZ. A number of variations in SHADOZ ozone data are explained when differences in solution strength, data processing and instrument type (manufacturer) are taken into account.

  12. Next-generation sequencing indicates false-positive MRD results and better predicts prognosis after SCT in patients with childhood ALL.

    PubMed

    Kotrova, M; van der Velden, V H J; van Dongen, J J M; Formankova, R; Sedlacek, P; Brüggemann, M; Zuna, J; Stary, J; Trka, J; Fronkova, E

    2017-02-27

    Minimal residual disease (MRD) monitoring via quantitative PCR (qPCR) detection of Ag receptor gene rearrangements has been the most sensitive method for predicting prognosis and making post-transplant treatment decisions for patients with ALL. Despite the broad clinical usefulness and standardization of this method, we and others have repeatedly reported the possibility of false-positive MRD results caused by massive B-lymphocyte regeneration after stem cell transplantation (SCT). Next-generation sequencing (NGS) enables precise and sensitive detection of multiple Ag receptor rearrangements, thus providing a more specific readout compared to qPCR. We investigated two cohorts of children with ALL who underwent SCT (30 patients and 228 samples). The first cohort consisted of 17 patients who remained in long-term CR after SCT despite having low MRD positivity (<0.01%) at least once during post-SCT monitoring using qPCR. Only one of 27 qPCR-positive samples was confirmed to be positive by NGS. Conversely, 10 of 15 samples with low qPCR-detected MRD positivity from 13 patients who subsequently relapsed were also confirmed to be positive by NGS (P=0.002). These data show that NGS has a better specificity in post-SCT ALL management and indicate that treatment interventions aimed at reverting impending relapse should not be based on qPCR only.Bone Marrow Transplantation advance online publication, 27 February 2017; doi:10.1038/bmt.2017.16.

  13. High frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation with diphenidol administration results in an additive antiallodynic effect in rats following chronic constriction injury.

    PubMed

    Lin, Heng-Teng; Chiu, Chong-Chi; Wang, Jhi-Joung; Hung, Ching-Hsia; Chen, Yu-Wen

    2015-03-04

    The impact of coadministration of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) and diphenidol is not well established. Here we estimated the effects of diphenidol in combination with TENS on mechanical allodynia and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) expression. Using an animal chronic constriction injury (CCI) model, the rat was estimated for evidence of mechanical sensitivity via von Frey hair stimulation and TNF-α expression in the sciatic nerve using the ELISA assay. High frequency (100Hz) TENS or intraperitoneal injection of diphenidol (2.0μmol/kg) was applied daily, starting on postoperative day 1 (POD1) and lasting for the next 13 days. We demonstrated that both high frequency TENS and diphenidol groups had an increase in mechanical withdrawal thresholds of 60%. Coadministration of high frequency TENS and diphenidol gives better results of paw withdrawal thresholds in comparison with high frequency TENS alone or diphenidol alone. Both diphenidol and coadministration of high frequency TENS with diphenidol groups showed a significant reduction of the TNF-α level compared with the CCI or HFS group (P<0.05) in the sciatic nerve on POD7, whereas the CCI or high frequency TENS group exhibited a higher TNF-α level than the sham group (P<0.05). Our resulting data revealed that diphenidol alone, high frequency TENS alone, and the combination produced a reduction of neuropathic allodynia. Both diphenidol and the combination of diphenidol with high frequency TENS inhibited TNF-α expression. A moderately effective dose of diphenidol appeared to have an additive effect with high frequency TENS. Therefore, multidisciplinary treatments could be considered for this kind of mechanical allodynia.

  14. Determination of ANA specificity using multiplexed fluorescent microsphere immunoassay in patients with ANA positivity at high titres after infliximab treatment: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Caramaschi, Paola; Ruzzenente, Orazio; Pieropan, Sara; Volpe, Alessandro; Carletto, Antonio; Bambara, Lisa Maria; Biasi, Domenico

    2007-05-01

    To evaluate ANA specificity using the fully automated multiplexed fluorescent microsphere immunoassay in patients affected either by rheumatoid arthritis or ankylosing spondylitis who developed strong positivity for ANA as assessed by indirect immunofluorescent method on HEp-2 cells during infliximab treatment. Three men affected by ankylosing spondylitis and 12 women affected by rheumatoid arthritis who developed ANA positivity at high titres during infliximab treatment underwent the identification of ANA specificity by multiplexed fluorescent microsphere immunoassay; moreover anti-DNA and anti-ENA antibodies were tested by indirect immunofluorescence and ELISA method, respectively. In 4 out of 15 cases, the determination of ANA reactivity by multiplexed fluorescent microsphere immunoassay was also performed on the serum collected before infliximab administration. One patient affected by rheumatoid arthritis showed multiple ANA reactivities against SS-A, SS-B, RNP, Sm, Jo-1 and histones; one patient affected by ankylosing spondylitis resulted positive for the same autoantibodies, except for anti-Sm antibody. Moreover, two patients, one with rheumatoid arthritis and one with ankylosing spondylitis, showed single antibody specificity to SS-B and RNP, respectively. The remaining 11 cases did not show any positivity. Instead, all the patients resulted negative for anti-ENA antibodies by the ELISA method. In the four cases tested for ANA specificity by multiplexed fluorescent microsphere immunoassay before and after infliximab administration no difference was found. The search for anti-DNA antibody always resulted negative by both the traditional immunofluorescent assay and the novel technique. The use of multiplexed fluorescent microsphere immunoassay in patients treated with infliximab with ANA positivity at high titres allowed to find some ANA specificities which were not revealed by ELISA method. Nevertheless, the majority of patients resulted negative in spite of

  15. Primers determine the sensitivity of PCR-mediated hepatitis B virus DNA detection and pretreatment of PCR mixture with 8-methoxypsoralen eliminates false-positive results.

    PubMed

    Keum, W K; Park, C E; Lee, J H; Khil, L Y; Kang, I; Kim, S S; Jung, J C; Oh, S M; Woo, H J; Lee, J H; Kim, Y C; Yoon, Y; Choi, J W; Ha, J

    1997-04-30

    Most methods for the diagnosis of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection largely depend on viral DNA detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or radioimmunological assay of viral antigens or antibodies. The quality assurance program recently established in Europe reported that PCR-mediated HBV DNA detection methods used in many laboratories produced a high rate of false-positive and false-negative results. Thus, we attempted to improve the conditions of current PCR methods for detection of HBV DNA. In the present study, we applied a recently developed method of releasing HBV DNA from virion by NaOH treatment of patient serum. Using four different primer sets specific to the HBV core region, we found that the sensitivity of first-round PCR can be improved by more than two orders of magnitude depending on the primers. The second round of PCR using nested primers was sensitive enough to detect up to 10(-6) pg of the HBV DNA, which is equivalent to approximately 3 copies of the HBV genome. Among the approximately 800 HBV-infected patient sera investigated in our laboratory, more than 60% of the tested samples gave positive results in the first-round PCR. The rate of positive results obtained using our experimental conditions is very high in comparison with other reports. The reamplification of the first-round PCR reaction mixture with the nested primers produced practically 100% positive results. For diagnosis of HBV infection, we routinely used 1 microliter of patient serum, which was found to be optimum in our laboratory. Surprisingly, from 20% of our positive results, even serum diluted to 1/100 (0.01 microliter) produced a stronger signal than 1 microliter. This observation suggests that direct PCR amplification of HBV DNA released from serum by NaOH treatment has to be compensated by other DNA detection methods for correct quantitation. In order to eliminate the false positive signal resulting from the carry-over due to massive screening of a large number of

  16. Cytogenetic confirmation of a positive NIPT result: evidence-based choice between chorionic villus sampling and amniocentesis depending on chromosome aberration.

    PubMed

    Van Opstal, Diane; Srebniak, Malgorzata I

    2016-01-01

    It has been shown that in non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) there is a small chance of a false-positive or false-negative result. This is partly due to the fact that the fetal cell-free DNA present in maternal plasma is derived from the cytotrophoblast of chorionic villi (CV), which is not always representative for the fetal karyotype due to chromosomal mosaicism. Therefore, a positive NIPT result should always be confirmed with invasive testing, preferably amniocentesis, in order to investigate the fetal karyotype. However, since this invasive test can only be safely performed after 15.5 weeks of gestation while NIPT can be done from the 10(th) week of gestation, this potentially means an unacceptable long waiting time for the prospective parents to receive a definitive result. Based on our experience with cytogenetic investigations in CV and the literature, we determined whether CV sampling may be appropriate for confirmation of an abnormal NIPT result.

  17. Case report of a false positive result of the Xpert(®) MTB/RIF assay for rifampicin resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex.

    PubMed

    Claessens, Jolien; Mathys, Vanessa; Derdelinckx, Inge; Saegeman, Veroniek

    2016-06-10

    In the present case, we report a false positive result for the detection of rifampicin (RIF) resistance by the Xpert(®) MTB/RIF assay, version G4.Miliary Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (miliary TB) was suspected in a 50-year old Angolan woman. Imaging of the thorax and abdomen displayed diffuse lesions. The Xpert(®) MTB/RIF assay conducted on the broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) fluid was positive for TB and positive for RIF resistance. Confirmatory molecular tests and the phenotypic drug susceptibility determination supported the diagnosis of TB but not RIF resistance. The patient was treated successfully with a conventional therapeutic scheme. Because, the Xpert(®) MTB/RIF assay allows the simultaneous detection of TB and RIF resistance, the World Health Organisation (WHO) recommends its use as initial diagnostic test, over microscopy, culture and phenotypic drug susceptibility testing. Even though specificity of the Xpert(®) MTB/RIF assay version G4 is high, false positive test results remain possible and have to be considered for the interpretation of the RIF resistance detection by Xpert(®) MTB/RIF assay.

  18. Screening for latent tuberculosis in Norwegian health care workers: high frequency of discordant tuberculin skin test positive and interferon-gamma release assay negative results

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) presents globally a significant health problem and health care workers (HCW) are at increased risk of contracting TB infection. There is no diagnostic gold standard for latent TB infection (LTBI), but both blood based interferon-gamma release assays (IGRA) and the tuberculin skin test (TST) are used. According to the national guidelines, HCW who have been exposed for TB should be screened and offered preventive anti-TB chemotherapy, but the role of IGRA in HCW screening is still unclear. Methods A total of 387 HCW working in clinical and laboratory departments in three major hospitals in the Western region of Norway with possible exposure to TB were included in a cross-sectional study. The HCW were asked for risk factors for TB and tested with TST and the QuantiFERON®TB Gold In-Tube test (QFT). A logistic regression model analyzed the associations between risk factors for TB and positive QFT or TST. Results A total of 13 (3.4%) demonstrated a persistent positive QFT, whereas 214 (55.3%) had a positive TST (≥ 6 mm) and 53 (13.7%) a TST ≥ 15 mm. Only ten (4.7%) of the HCW with a positive TST were QFT positive. Origin from a TB-endemic country was the only risk factor associated with a positive QFT (OR 14.13, 95% CI 1.37 - 145.38, p = 0.026), whereas there was no significant association between risk factors for TB and TST ≥ 15 mm. The five HCW with an initial positive QFT that retested negative all had low interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) responses below 0.70 IU/ml when first tested. Conclusions We demonstrate a low prevalence of LTBI in HCW working in hospitals with TB patients in our region. The “IGRA-only” seems like a desirable screening strategy despite its limitations in serial testing, due to the high numbers of discordant TST positive/IGRA negative results in HCW, probably caused by BCG vaccination or boosting due to repetitive TST testing. Thus, guidelines for TB screening in HCW should be updated in order to

  19. Risk assessment of false-positive quantitative real-time PCR results in food, due to detection of DNA originating from dead cells.

    PubMed

    Wolffs, Petra; Norling, Börje; Rådström, Peter

    2005-03-01

    Real-time PCR technology is increasingly used for detection and quantification of pathogens in food samples. A main disadvantage of nucleic acid detection is the inability to distinguish between signals originating from viable cells and DNA released from dead cells. In order to gain knowledge concerning risks of false-positive results due to detection of DNA originating from dead cells, quantitative PCR (qPCR) was used to investigate the degradation kinetics of free DNA in four types of meat samples. Results showed that the fastest degradation rate was observed (1 log unit per 0.5 h) in chicken homogenate, whereas the slowest rate was observed in pork rinse (1 log unit per 120.5 h). Overall results indicated that degradation occurred faster in chicken samples than in pork samples and faster at higher temperatures. Based on these results, it was concluded that, especially in pork samples, there is a risk of false-positive PCR results. This was confirmed in a quantitative study on cell death and signal persistence over a period of 28 days, employing three different methods, i.e. viable counts, direct qPCR, and finally floatation, a recently developed discontinuous density centrifugation method, followed by qPCR. Results showed that direct qPCR resulted in an overestimation of up to 10 times of the amount of cells in the samples compared to viable counts, due to detection of DNA from dead cells. However, after using floatation prior to qPCR, results resembled the viable count data. This indicates that by using of floatation as a sample treatment step prior to qPCR, the risk of false-positive PCR results due to detection of dead cells, can be minimized.

  20. Comparative Efficacy and Safety of Adjuvant Letrozole Versus Anastrozole in Postmenopausal Patients With Hormone Receptor-Positive, Node-Positive Early Breast Cancer: Final Results of the Randomized Phase III Femara Versus Anastrozole Clinical Evaluation (FACE) Trial.

    PubMed

    Smith, Ian; Yardley, Denise; Burris, Howard; De Boer, Richard; Amadori, Dino; McIntyre, Kristi; Ejlertsen, Bent; Gnant, Michael; Jonat, Walter; Pritchard, Kathleen I; Dowsett, Mitch; Hart, Lowell; Poggio, Susan; Comarella, Lisa; Salomon, Herve; Wamil, Barbara; O'Shaughnessy, Joyce

    2017-04-01

    Purpose The Letrozole (Femara) Versus Anastrozole Clinical Evaluation (FACE) study compared the efficacy and safety of adjuvant letrozole versus anastrozole in postmenopausal patients with hormone receptor (HR) -positive and node-positive early breast cancer (eBC). Methods Postmenopausal women with HR-positive and node-positive eBC were randomly assigned to receive adjuvant therapy with either letrozole (2.5 mg) or anastrozole (1 mg) once per day for 5 years or until recurrence of disease. Patients were stratified on the basis of the number of lymph nodes and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 status. The primary end point was 5-year disease-free survival (DFS), and the key secondary end points were overall survival and safety. Results A total of 4,136 patients were randomly assigned to receive either letrozole (n = 2,061) or anastrozole (n = 2,075). The final analysis was done at 709 DFS events (letrozole, 341 [16.5%]; anastrozole, 368 [17.7%]). The 5-year estimated DFS rate was 84.9% for letrozole versus 82.9% for anastrozole arm (hazard ratio, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.80 to 1.07; P = .3150). Exploratory analysis showed similar DFS with letrozole and anastrozole in all evaluated subgroups. The 5-year estimated overall survival rate was 89.9% for letrozole versus 89.2% for anastrozole arm (hazard ratio, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.82 to 1.17; P = .7916). Most common grade 3 to 4 adverse events (> 5% of patients) reported for letrozole versus anastrozole were arthralgia (3.9% v 3.3%, and 48.2% v 47.9% for all adverse events), hypertension (1.2% v 1.0%), hot flushes (0.8% v 0.4%), myalgia (0.8% v 0.7%), dyspnea (0.8% v 0.5%), and depression (0.8% v 0.6%). Conclusion Letrozole did not demonstrate significantly superior efficacy or safety compared with anastrozole in postmenopausal patients with HR-positive, node-positive eBC.

  1. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  2. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN POSITIVE CANINE HEARTWORM (DIROFILARIA IMMITIS) ANTIGEN RESULTS AND PRESENCE OF ACANTHOCHEILONEMA ODENDHALI MICROFILARIA IN CALIFORNIA SEA LIONS (ZALOPHUS CALIFORNIANUS).

    PubMed

    Krucik, David D R; Van Bonn, William; Johnson, Shawn P

    2016-03-01

    This study establishes a relationship between positive canine heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) test results frequently observed in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) and infection with the filarid nematode Acanthocheilonema odendhali. Four commercially available canine heartworm antigen tests were evaluated for cross-reaction with A. odendhali in California sea lions. Sera were tested from fifteen California sea lions with A. odendhali-associated microfilaremia, confirmed by blood smear, and with no evidence of D. immitis infection at necropsy. Ninety-five percent of tests were falsely positive for D. immitis. This study also determined that the prevalence of A. odendhali infection in stranded California sea lions from central California is approximately 23% by comparing the number of findings of mircofilaremia to the total number of California sea lions sampled at The Marine Mammal Center between 2005 and 2011, inclusive. Acanthocheilonema odenhali microfilaremia in California sea lions is likely to cross-react with canine heartworm antigen tests, and clinicians should interpret results with caution.

  3. Removal of strontium and transuranics from Hanford tank waste via addition of metal cations and chemical oxidant: FY 1995 test results

    SciTech Connect

    Orth, R.J.; Zacher, A.H.; Schmidt, A.J.; Elmore, M.R.; Elliott, K.R.; Neuenschwander, G.G.; Gano, S.R.

    1995-09-01

    Chelating organics and some of their degradation products in the Hanford tank waste, such as EDTA, HEDTA, and NTA act to solubilize strontium and transuranics (TRU) in the tank waste supernatant. Displacement of strontium and TRU will facilitate the removal of these radionuclides via precipitation/filtration, ion exchange, or solvent extraction so that low-level waste feed specifications can be met. Pacific Northwest Laboratory has investigated two methods for releasing organic-complexed strontium and TRU components to allow for effective pretreatment of tank waste supernatant: metal cation addition (to promote displacement and flocculation) and chemical oxidant (pennanganate) addition (to promote chelator destruction/defunctionalization and possibly flocculation). These methods, which can be conducted at near-ambient. temperatures and pressures, could be deployed as intank processes.

  4. False-positive amphetamine/ecstasy (MDMA/3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) (CEDIA) and ecstasy (MDMA/3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) (DRI) test results with fenofibrate.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Yusuf Cem; Erol, Almla; Karadaş, Barş

    2012-10-01

    This case report describes a false-positive amphetamine/ecstasy [3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)] and ecstasy (MDMA) screen after therapeutic use of antihyperlipidemic drug, fenofibrate. A 60-year-old male patient was admitted to inpatient psychiatry unit with the diagnosis of alcohol dependency. He was prescribed diazepam 30 mg/day, thiamine 300 mg/day, and naltrexone 50 mg/day. He had also been using fenofibrate 267 mg/day for 3 years for hyperlipidemia and trazodone 100 mg/day for 5 months for insomnia. On routine, urine drugs-of-abuse screening amphetamine/MDMA (CEDIA) test was positive for 4 different occasions and MDMA (DRI) test was positive on 5 different occasions. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry confirmation of the first positive 3 samples were negative for amphetamine and MDMA. After discontinuation of fenofibrate, amphetamine/MDMA, and MDMA immunoassay results turned out to be negative. Caution should be given to interpretation of amphetamine/MDMA (CEDIA) and MDMA (DRI) tests in patients taking fenofibrate. Specific confirmation with a suitable method should be used to prevent erroneous interpretations.

  5. Assessment of skin sensitization under REACH: A case report on vehicle choice in the LLNA and its crucial role preventing false positive results.

    PubMed

    Watzek, Nico; Berger, Franz; Kolle, Susanne Noreen; Kaufmann, Tanja; Becker, Matthias; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard

    2017-04-01

    In the EU, chemicals with a production or import volume in quantities of one metric ton per year or more have to be tested for skin sensitizing properties under the REACH regulation. The murine Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA) and its modifications are widely used to fulfil the data requirement, as it is currently considered the first-choice method for in vivo testing to cover this endpoint. This manuscript describes a case study highlighting the importance of understanding the chemistry of the test material during testing for 'skin sensitization' of MCDA (mixture of 2,4- and 2,6-diamino-methylcyclohexane) with particular focus on the vehicle used. While the BrdU-ELISA modification of the LLNA using acetone/olive oil (AOO) as vehicle revealed expectable positive results. However, the concentration control analysis unexpectedly revealed an instability of MCDA in the vehicle AOO. Further studies on the reactivity showed MCDA to rapidly react with AOO under formation of various imine structures, which might have caused the positive LLNA result. The repetition of the LLNA using propylene glycol (PG) as vehicle did not confirm the positive results of the LLNA using AOO. Finally, a classification of MCDA as skin sensitizer according to the Globally Harmonized System (GHS) was not justified.

  6. Study of the extent of information desired by women undergoing non-invasive prenatal testing following positive prenatal Down-syndrome screening test results.

    PubMed

    Lo, Tsz-Kin; Chan, Kelvin Yuen-Kwong; Kan, Anita Sik-Yau; So, Po-Lam; Kong, Choi-Wah; Mak, Shui-Lam; Lee, Chung-Nin

    2017-03-12

    In addition to common trisomies, the inclusion of sex chromosomes and atypical autosomal anomalies in non-invasive prenatal tests (NIPTs) is becoming increasingly common; this is the result of limited screening alternatives that can identify them [1]. It has been recommended that healthcare practitioners understand patient preferences thoroughly [1], and that, given the complexity of NIPTs, patients be given the option to accept or reject this additional information [2, 3]. However, how much information patients want from NIPTs in a real-life clinical setting remains unknown. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Agreement between QuantiFERON®-TB Gold In-Tube and the tuberculin skin test and predictors of positive test results in Warao Amerindian pediatric tuberculosis contacts

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Interferon-gamma release assays have emerged as a more specific alternative to the tuberculin skin test (TST) for detection of tuberculosis (TB) infection, especially in Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccinated people. We determined the prevalence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection by TST and QuantiFERON®-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT) and assessed agreement between the two test methods and factors associated with positivity in either test in Warao Amerindian children in Venezuela. Furthermore, progression to active TB disease was evaluated for up to 12 months. Methods 163 HIV-negative childhood household contacts under 16 years of age were enrolled for TST, QFT-GIT and chest X-ray (CXR). Follow-up was performed at six and 12 months. Factors associated with TST and QFT-GIT positivity were studied using generalized estimation equations logistic regression models. Results At baseline, the proportion of TST positive children was similar to the proportion of children with a positive QFT-GIT (47% vs. 42%, p = 0.12). Overall concordance between QFT-GIT and TST was substantial (kappa 0.76, 95% CI 0.46-1.06). Previous BCG vaccination was not associated with significantly increased positivity in either test (OR 0.68, 95% CI 0.32-1.5 for TST and OR 0.51, 95% CI 0.14-1.9 for QFT-GIT). Eleven children were diagnosed with active TB at baseline. QFT-GIT had a higher sensitivity for active TB (88%, 95% CI 47-98%) than TST (55%, 95% CI 24-83%) while specificities were similar (respectively 58% and 55%). Five initially asymptomatic childhood contacts progressed to active TB disease during follow-up. Conclusion Replacement of TST by the QFT-GIT for detection of M. tuberculosis infection is not recommended in this resource-constrained setting as test results showed substantial concordance and TST positivity was not affected by previous BCG vaccination. The QFT-GIT had a higher sensitivity than the TST for the detection of TB disease. However, the value of the QFT

  8. Long-term Results from Cyclocryotherapy Applied to the 3O'clock and 9O'clock Positions in Blind Refractory Glaucoma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Byoung Seon; Kim, Young Jun; Seo, Seong Wook; Yoo, Ji Myong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To report the long-term follow-up results after cyclocryotherapy, applied to the 3-o'clock and 9-o'clock positions in blind refractory glaucoma patients. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 19 blind patients, and a total of 20 eyes with refractory glaucoma who were treated with cyclocryotherapy. Cyclocryotherapy treatments were performed using a retinal cryoprobe. The temperature of each cyclocryotherapy spot was -80℃ and each spot was maintained in place for 60 seconds. Six cyclocryotherapy spots were placed in each quadrant, including the 3-o'clock and 9-o'clock positions. Results The mean baseline pretreatment intraocular pressure (IOP) in all eyes was 50.9 ± 12.5 mmHg, which significantly decreased to a mean IOP at last follow-up of 14.1 ± 7.1 mmHg (p < 0.001). The mean number of antiglaucoma medications that patients were still taking at last follow-up was 0.3 ± 0.6. Devastating post-procedure phthisis occurred in only one eye. Conclusions Cyclocryotherapy, performed at each quadrant and at the 3-o'clock and 9-o'clock position, is an effective way to lower IOP and, thus, is a reasonable treatment option for refractory glaucoma patients who experience with ocular pain and headaches. PMID:25646060

  9. Faster methods for estimating arc centre position during VAR and results from Ti-6Al-4V and INCONEL 718 alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, B. G.; Winter, N.; Daniel, B.; Ward, R. M.

    2016-07-01

    Direct measurement of the flow of electric current during VAR is extremely difficult due to the aggressive environment as the arc process itself controls the distribution of current. In previous studies the technique of “magnetic source tomography” was presented; this was shown to be effective but it used a computationally intensive iterative method to analyse the distribution of arc centre position. In this paper we present faster computational methods requiring less numerical optimisation to determine the centre position of a single distributed arc both numerically and experimentally. Numerical validation of the algorithms were done on models and experimental validation on measurements based on titanium and nickel alloys (Ti6Al4V and INCONEL 718). The results are used to comment on the effects of process parameters on arc behaviour during VAR.

  10. Positive screening and carrier results for the England-wide universal newborn sickle cell screening programme by ethnicity and area for 2005–07

    PubMed Central

    Latinovic, Radoslav; Henthorn, Joan

    2010-01-01

    Aims The overall aim of the new national newborn programme is to identify infants at risk of sickle cell disease to allow early detection and to minimise deaths and complications. Methods Universal screening for sickle cell disease was introduced in England between September 2003 and July 2006. The 13 newborn laboratories each screen between 25 000 and 110 000 babies a year using the existing dried bloodspot cards. The specified conditions to be screened for include sickle cell anaemia (Hb SS), Hb SC disease, Hb S/β thalassaemia, Hb S/DPunjab and Hb S/OArab. Data are reported on screening results by ethnic group and geographical area. Results The prevalence of screen positive results across England is 1:2000. There is a 25-fold variation by geographical area. African babies make up 61% of all screen positive results despite representing only 4% of total births. Combined carrier rates vary widely by ethnicity, from 1.85 per 1000 (1:540) in ‘White British’ to 145 per 1000 (1:7) in ‘African’ babies. Refusal rates for screening show variation by ethnicity. Conclusions These results provide useful information both about the frequency of these conditions and the carrier state and their geographic and ethnic distribution across England. This can be used to refine counselling information and are also useful to target and plan services and public information. PMID:20591912

  11. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    ... or natural. Natural food additives include: Herbs or spices to add flavor to foods Vinegar for pickling ... Certain colors improve the appearance of foods. Many spices, as well as natural and man-made flavors, ...

  12. Additional results for "joint entropy of continuously differentiable ultrasonic waveforms" [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 133(1), 283-300 (2013)].

    PubMed

    Hughes, M S; Marsh, J N; Wickline, S A; McCarthy, J E

    2015-01-01

    Previous results on the use of joint entropy for detection of targeted nanoparticles accumulating in the neovasculature of MDA435 tumors [Fig. 7 of M. S. Hughes et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 133, 283-300 (2013)] are extended, with sensitivity improving by nearly another factor of 2. This result is obtained using a "quasi-optimal" reference waveform in the computation of the joint entropy imaging technique used to image the accumulating nanoparticles.

  13. [Anti-deamidated gliadin peptides antibodies and coeliac disease: state of art and analysis of false-positive results from five assays].

    PubMed

    Lutteri, Laurence; Sagot, Clémence; Chapelle, Jean-Paul

    2010-01-01

    Recently, anti-deamidated gliadin antibodies were proposed for the serological diagnosis of celiac disease. We evaluate the specificity of different anti-deamidated gliadin antibodies ELISA in comparison with conventional anti-native gliadin kits. Serum samples from 46 non celiac patients were analyzed by five different quantitative ELISA for anti-native gliadin, anti-deamidated gliadin and anti-transglutaminase neo-epitope antibodies together with a screening ELISA. Twenty-four percent of the patients demonstrated anti-native gliadin IgA and 63% IgG antibodies. Using anti-deamidated gliadin antibodies, the number of false positive IgA and, particularly, IgG results, markedly decreased in the non celiac patients: 21 and 24% respectively with anti-Gliadin (GAF-3X) Euroimmun kit, 7 and 26% with Bindazyme Human Anti-Gliadin (MGP) The Binding Site kit and 0 and 41% with Celiac G+ Immco kit. The new assay which makes use of the physiological complex of tissue transglutaminase cross-linked with deamidated gliadin peptides, called neo-epitope, did not improve the differential diagnosis of celiac disease with 30% of false positive results in IgG (2% in IgA). Using the Inova screening kit, a positive result for IgA and/or IgG anti-deamidated gliadin and/or anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies was obtained in 24% of the non celiac patients. In conclusion, our study assessed the superiority, in terms of specificity, of anti-deamidated gliadin antibodies, over the conventional anti-gliadin antibodies for the differential diagnosis of celiac disease.

  14. BPI-ANCA Provides Additional Clinical Information to Anti-Pseudomonas Serology: Results from a Cohort of 117 Swedish Cystic Fibrosis Patients.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Ulrika; Carlsson, Malin; Hellmark, Thomas; Segelmark, Mårten

    2015-01-01

    Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) colonized with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) have worse prognosis compared with patients who are not. BPI-ANCA is an anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody against BPI (bactericidal/permeability increasing protein) correlating with P. aeruginosa colonization and adverse long time prognosis. Whether it provides additional information as compared to standard anti-P. aeruginosa serology tests is not known. 117 nontransplanted CF patients at the CF centre in Lund, Sweden, were followed prospectively for ten years. Bacterial colonisation was classified according to the Leeds criteria. IgA BPI-ANCA was compared with assays for antibodies against alkaline protease (AP), Elastase (ELA), and Exotoxin A (ExoA). Lung function and patient outcome, alive, lung transplanted, or dead, were registered. BPI-ANCA showed the highest correlation with lung function impairment with an r-value of 0.44. Forty-eight of the 117 patients were chronically colonized with P. aeruginosa. Twenty of these patients experienced an adverse outcome. Receiver operator curve (ROC) analysis revealed that this could be predicted by BPI-ANCA (AUC = 0.77), (p = 0.002) to a better degree compared with serology tests. BPI-ANCA correlates better with lung function impairment and long time prognosis than anti-P. aeruginosa serology and has similar ability to identify patients with chronic P. aeruginosa.

  15. Results of the Ongoing Monitoring of the Position of a Geostationary Telecommunication Satellite by the Method of Spatially Separated Basis Receiving of Digital Satellite Television Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bushuev, F.; Kaliuzhnyi, M.; Sybiryakova, Y.; Shulga, O.; Moskalenko, S.; Balagura, O.; Kulishenko, V.

    2016-10-01

    The results of the ongoing monitoring of the position of geostationary telecommunication satellite Eutelsat-13B (13° East) are presented in the article. The results were obtained using a radio engineering complex (RC) of four stations receiving digital satellite television and a data processing centre. The stations are located in Kyiv, Mukachevo, Kharkiv and Mykolaiv. The equipment of each station allows synchronous recording (by the GPS) of fragments of DVB-S signal from the quadrature detector output of the satellite television receiver. Samples of the complex signal are archived and sent to the data processing center through the Internet. Here three linearly independent slant range differences (Δr) for three pairs of the stations are determined as a result of correlation processing of received signals. Every second measured values of Δr are used to calculate Cartesian coordinates (XYZ) of the satellite in the coordinate system WGS84 by multilateration method. The time series of Δr, X, Y and Z obtained during continuous observations from March to May 2015 are presented in the article. Single-measurement errors of Δr, X, Y and Z are equal to 2.6 m, 3540 m, 705 m and 455 m, respectively. The complex is compared with known analogues. Ways of reduction of measurement errors of satellite coordinates are considered. The radio engineering complex could be considered a prototype of a system of independent ongoing monitoring of the position of geostationary telecommunication satellites.

  16. Benzodiazepine whole blood concentrations in cases with positive oral fluid on-site screening test results using the DrugWipe(®) single for benzodiazepines.

    PubMed

    Blencowe, Tom; Vimpari, Kari; Lillsunde, Pirjo

    2011-07-01

    Reliable on-site oral fluid screening devices are a useful and convenient means of policing traffic. In Finland, benzodiazepines represent a particular challenge to traffic safety. This study presents a retrospective examination of toxicological analysis results from whole blood in cases which gave a positive screening result for benzodiazepines in oral fluid using the DrugWipe Single device (Securetec). Use of oral fluid on-site screening tests and blood confirmation analyses reflects the real situation in many countries. The data were compiled from the databases of Alcohol and Drug Analytics Unit at the National Institute for Health and Welfare. Confirmation analysis results in whole blood were obtained using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Data were from 224 real cases in which the Finnish police had conducted a DrugWipe Single benzodiazepines test on drivers suspected of driving under the influence of drugs (DUID). The benzodiazepine concentrations encountered in positive oral fluid screening cases in this study indicate that the device is able to detect these substances even at relatively low levels. However, the DrugWipe device does not enable any distinction between therapeutic use and harmful use of benzodiazepines at higher doses.

  17. Prospective and clinical validation of ALK immunohistochemistry: results from the phase I/II study of alectinib for ALK-positive lung cancer (AF-001JP study)

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, K.; Togashi, Y.; Kamihara, Y.; Fukuyama, T.; Yoshioka, H.; Inoue, A.; Katsuki, H.; Kiura, K.; Nakagawa, K.; Seto, T.; Maemondo, M.; Hida, T.; Harada, M.; Ohe, Y.; Nogami, N.; Yamamoto, N.; Nishio, M.; Tamura, T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusions need to be accurately and efficiently detected for ALK inhibitor therapy. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) remains the reference test. Although increasing data are supporting that ALK immunohistochemistry (IHC) is highly concordant with FISH, IHC screening needed to be clinically and prospectively validated. Patients and methods In the AF-001JP trial for alectinib, 436 patients were screened for ALK fusions through IHC (n = 384) confirmed with FISH (n = 181), multiplex RT-PCR (n = 68), or both (n = 16). IHC results were scored with iScore. Result ALK fusion was positive in 137 patients and negative in 250 patients. Since the presence of cancer cells in the samples for RT-PCR was not confirmed, ALK fusion negativity could not be ascertained in 49 patients. IHC interpreted with iScore showed a 99.4% (173/174) concordance with FISH. All 41 patients who had iScore 3 and were enrolled in phase II showed at least 30% tumor reduction with 92.7% overall response rate. Two IHC-positive patients with an atypical FISH pattern responded to ALK inhibitor therapy. The reduction rate was not correlated with IHC staining intensity. Conclusions Our study showed (i) that when sufficiently sensitive and appropriately interpreted, IHC can be a stand-alone diagnostic for ALK inhibitor therapies; (ii) that when atypical FISH patterns are accompanied by IHC positivity, the patients should be considered as candidates for ALK inhibitor therapies, and (iii) that the expression level of ALK fusion is not related to the level of response to ALK inhibitors and is thus not required for patient selection. Registration number JapicCTI-101264 (This study is registered with the Japan Pharmaceutical Information Center). PMID:26487585

  18. The addition of rituximab to fludarabine and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy results in a significant improvement in overall survival in patients with newly diagnosed mantle cell lymphoma: results of a randomized UK National Cancer Research Institute trial

    PubMed Central

    Rule, Simon; Smith, Paul; Johnson, Peter W.M.; Bolam, Simon; Follows, George; Gambell, Joanne; Hillmen, Peter; Jack, Andrew; Johnson, Stephen; Kirkwood, Amy A; Kruger, Anton; Pocock, Christopher; Seymour, John F.; Toncheva, Milena; Walewski, Jan; Linch, David

    2016-01-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma is an incurable and generally aggressive lymphoma that is more common in elderly patients. Whilst a number of different chemotherapeutic regimens are active in this disease, there is no established gold standard therapy. Rituximab has been used widely to good effect in B-cell malignancies but there is no evidence that it improves outcomes when added to chemotherapy in this disease. We performed a randomized, open-label, multicenter study looking at the addition of rituximab to the standard chemotherapy regimen of fludarabine and cyclophosphamide in patients with newly diagnosed mantle cell lymphoma. A total of 370 patients were randomized. With a median follow up of six years, rituximab improved the median progression-free survival from 14.9 to 29.8 months (P<0.001) and overall survival from 37.0 to 44.5 months (P=0.005). This equates to absolute differences of 9.0% and 22.1% for overall and progression-free survival, respectively, at two years. Overall response rates were similar, but complete response rates were significantly higher in the rituximab arm: 52.7% vs. 39.9% (P=0.014). There was no clinically significant additional toxicity observed with the addition of rituximab. Overall, approximately 18% of patients died of non-lymphomatous causes, most commonly infections. The addition of rituximab to fludarabine and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy significantly improves outcomes in patients with mantle cell lymphoma. However, these regimens have significant late toxicity and should be used with caution. This trial has been registered (ISRCTN81133184 and clinicaltrials.gov:00641095) and is supported by the UK National Cancer Research Network. PMID:26611473

  19. The addition of rituximab to fludarabine and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy results in a significant improvement in overall survival in patients with newly diagnosed mantle cell lymphoma: results of a randomized UK National Cancer Research Institute trial.

    PubMed

    Rule, Simon; Smith, Paul; Johnson, Peter W M; Bolam, Simon; Follows, George; Gambell, Joanne; Hillmen, Peter; Jack, Andrew; Johnson, Stephen; Kirkwood, Amy A; Kruger, Anton; Pocock, Christopher; Seymour, John F; Toncheva, Milena; Walewski, Jan; Linch, David

    2016-02-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma is an incurable and generally aggressive lymphoma that is more common in elderly patients. Whilst a number of different chemotherapeutic regimens are active in this disease, there is no established gold standard therapy. Rituximab has been used widely to good effect in B-cell malignancies but there is no evidence that it improves outcomes when added to chemotherapy in this disease. We performed a randomized, open-label, multicenter study looking at the addition of rituximab to the standard chemotherapy regimen of fludarabine and cyclophosphamide in patients with newly diagnosed mantle cell lymphoma. A total of 370 patients were randomized. With a median follow up of six years, rituximab improved the median progression-free survival from 14.9 to 29.8 months (P<0.001) and overall survival from 37.0 to 44.5 months (P=0.005). This equates to absolute differences of 9.0% and 22.1% for overall and progression-free survival, respectively, at two years. Overall response rates were similar, but complete response rates were significantly higher in the rituximab arm: 52.7% vs. 39.9% (P=0.014). There was no clinically significant additional toxicity observed with the addition of rituximab. Overall, approximately 18% of patients died of non-lymphomatous causes, most commonly infections. The addition of rituximab to fludarabine and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy significantly improves outcomes in patients with mantle cell lymphoma. However, these regimens have significant late toxicity and should be used with caution. This trial has been registered (ISRCTN81133184 and clinicaltrials.gov:00641095) and is supported by the UK National Cancer Research Network.

  20. Clinical Impact of Additional Cytogenetic Aberrations, cKIT and RAS Mutations, and Treatment Elements in Pediatric t(8;21)-AML: Results From an International Retrospective Study by the International Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster Study Group

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Kim; Kaspers, Gertjan; Harrison, Christine J.; Beverloo, H. Berna; Reedijk, Ardine; Bongers, Mathilda; Cloos, Jacqueline; Pession, Andrea; Reinhardt, Dirk; Zimmerman, Martin; Creutzig, Ursula; Dworzak, Michael; Alonzo, Todd; Johnston, Donna; Hirsch, Betsy; Zapotocky, Michal; De Moerloose, Barbara; Fynn, Alcira; Lee, Vincent; Taga, Takashi; Tawa, Akio; Auvrignon, Anne; Zeller, Bernward; Forestier, Erik; Salgado, Carmen; Balwierz, Walentyna; Popa, Alexander; Rubnitz, Jeffrey; Raimondi, Susana; Gibson, Brenda

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This retrospective cohort study aimed to determine the predictive relevance of clinical characteristics, additional cytogenetic aberrations, and cKIT and RAS mutations, as well as to evaluate whether specific treatment elements were associated with outcomes in pediatric t(8;21)-positive patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Patients and Methods Karyotypes of 916 pediatric patients with t(8;21)-AML were reviewed for the presence of additional cytogenetic aberrations, and 228 samples were screened for presence of cKIT and RAS mutations. Multivariable regression models were used to assess the relevance of anthracyclines, cytarabine, and etoposide during induction and overall treatment. End points were the probability of achieving complete remission, cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR), probability of event-free survival, and probability of overall survival. Results Of 838 patients included in final analyses, 92% achieved complete remission. The 5-year overall survival, event-free survival, and CIR were 74%, 58%, and 26%, respectively. cKIT mutations and RAS mutations were not significantly associated with outcome. Patients with deletions of chromosome arm 9q [del(9q); n = 104] had a lower probability of complete remission (P = .01). Gain of chromosome 4 (+4; n = 21) was associated with inferior CIR and survival (P < .01). Anthracycline doses greater than 150 mg/m2 and etoposide doses greater than 500 mg/m2 in the first induction course and high-dose cytarabine 3 g/m2 during induction were associated with better outcomes on various end points. Cumulative doses of cytarabine greater than 30 g/m2 and etoposide greater than 1,500 mg/m2 were associated with lower CIR rates and better probability of event-free survival. Conclusion Pediatric patients with t(8;21)-AML and additional del(9q) or additional +4 might not be considered at good risk. Patients with t(8;21)-AML likely benefit from protocols that have high doses of anthracyclines, etoposide, and

  1. Lupus anticoagulant is the main predictor of adverse pregnancy outcomes in aPL-positive patients: validation of PROMISSE study results

    PubMed Central

    Yelnik, Cecile M; Laskin, Carl A; Porter, T Flint; Branch, D Ware; Buyon, Jill P; Guerra, Marta M; Lockshin, Michael D; Petri, Michelle; Merrill, Joan T; Sammaritano, Lisa R; Kim, Mimi Y; Salmon, Jane E

    2016-01-01

    Objective We previously reported that lupus anticoagulant (LAC) is the main predictor of poor pregnancy outcome in antiphospholipid antibody (aPL)-positive patients. We sought to confirm this finding in an independent group of patients who were subsequently recruited into the PROMISSE study. Methods The PROMISSE study is a multicentre, prospective, observational study of pregnancy outcomes in women with aPL and/or systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) that enrolled patients from 2003 to 2015. All consecutive, aPL-positive patients from the PROMISSE study who completed their pregnancy between April 2011 and January 2015 (after the previous PROMISSE report) are included in the current report. Patients were followed monthly until delivery, and aPL was tested at first, second and third trimesters of pregnancy and at 12 weeks post partum. Adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs) were defined as fetal death after 12 weeks of gestation, neonatal death, delivery prior to 36 weeks of gestation due to pre-eclampsia or placental insufficiency or small-for-gestational age (birth weight <5th percentile). Results Forty-four aPL-positive patients are included in this paper. Thirteen patients had APOs, which occurred in 80% of cases during the second trimester of pregnancy. LAC was present in 69% of patients with APOs compared with 27% of patients without APOs (p=0.01). No association was found between anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL) or anti-β2 glycoprotein I antibodies (aβ2GPI) IgG or IgM positivity and APOs. Definite antiphospholipid syndrome (history of thrombosis and/or pregnancy morbidity and aPL) was found in 92% of patients with any APOs compared with 45% of patients without APOs (p=0.004). Conversely, the frequency of SLE was not statistically different between those with and without APOs (30% vs 39%). Conclusions Our findings, in an independent group of aPL-positive patients from the PROMISSE study, confirm that LAC, but not aCL and aβ2GPI, is predictive of poor pregnancy

  2. [Position paper on the results of Symplicity HTN-3 trial. Grupo de estudio de la hipertensión arterial resistente].

    PubMed

    Azpiri-López, José Ramón; Assad-Morell, José Luis; Ponce de León-Martínez, Enrique; Monreal-Puente, Rogelio; Dávila-Bortoni, Adrián; Vázquez-Díaz, Luis Alberto; Treviño-Frutos, Ramón Javier; Barrera-Oranday, Félix; Del Angel-Soto, Juan Gustavo; Martínez, José Guadalupe; Arellano-Torres, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Renal artery denervation has shown to be an effective treatment for resistant hypertension. Symplicity HTN 1 and 2 trials showed in small and uncontrolled groups, significant systolic blood pressure reductions down to 30 mm Hg. Symplicity HTN-3, a double blind, randomized, placebo controlled clinical trial shaded this initial enthusiasm. Surprisingly, their results showed that renal denervation has a similar effect to placebo. Pre-specified subgroup analysis showed that non-black race individuals, younger than 65 years and with normal renal function, had a statistically significant systolic blood pressure decrease. This manuscript critically appraises the Symplicity HTN-3 trial, proposing possible explanations for the results. Also declares our group position and future actions regarding renal denervation.

  3. How can a methadone and an opiate-positive immunoassay result be reconciled in a patient prescribed only OxyContin and Wellbutrin?

    PubMed

    Abadie, Jude M

    2013-01-01

    Appropriate management of patients in pain clinics can be complex and sometimes confusing because providers must correctly interpret multiple sources of patient information. The correct interpretation of laboratory results is essential to guide subsequent patient treatment and management; however, laboratory and clinical pictures can appear to be conflicting in cases of substance abuse. Incorrect interpretation of laboratory results can multiply negative impacts on clinical outcomes and may lead to patient harm or death. This report introduces the complex nature involved in understanding and interpreting urine drug testing (UDT) results in pain patients who are prescribed opioid medications. Laboratory testing examples of UDT results are provided to illustrate the sometimes discordant nature of UDT interpretation. This case study describes one method of approaching cases where laboratory result interpretation in pain clinic patients is essential for medical treatment and management. The case presented in this manuscript illustrates a reconciliation of an opiate positive immunoassay result in a patient who was prescribed only OxyContin and Wellbutrin after traumatic amputations.

  4. Does early intensive multifactorial therapy reduce modelled cardiovascular risk in individuals with screen-detected diabetes? Results from the ADDITION-Europe cluster randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Black, J A; Sharp, S J; Wareham, N J; Sandbæk, A; Rutten, G E H M; Lauritzen, T; Khunti, K; Davies, M J; Borch-Johnsen, K; Griffin, S J; Simmons, R K

    2014-01-01

    Aims Little is known about the long-term effects of intensive multifactorial treatment early in the diabetes disease trajectory. In the absence of long-term data on hard outcomes, we described change in 10-year modelled cardiovascular risk in the 5 years following diagnosis, and quantified the impact of intensive treatment on 10-year modelled cardiovascular risk at 5 years. Methods In a pragmatic, cluster-randomized, parallel-group trial in Denmark, the Netherlands and the UK, 3057 people with screen-detected Type 2 diabetes were randomized by general practice to receive (1) routine care of diabetes according to national guidelines (1379 patients) or (2) intensive multifactorial target-driven management (1678 patients). Ten-year modelled cardiovascular disease risk was calculated at baseline and 5 years using the UK Prospective Diabetes Study Risk Engine (version 3β). Results Among 2101 individuals with complete data at follow up (73.4%), 10-year modelled cardiovascular disease risk was 27.3% (sd 13.9) at baseline and 21.3% (sd 13.8) at 5-year follow-up (intensive treatment group difference –6.9, sd 9.0; routine care group difference –5.0, sd 12.2). Modelled 10-year cardiovascular disease risk was lower in the intensive treatment group compared with the routine care group at 5 years, after adjustment for baseline cardiovascular disease risk and clustering (–2.0; 95% CI –3.1 to –0.9). Conclusions Despite increasing age and diabetes duration, there was a decline in modelled cardiovascular disease risk in the 5 years following diagnosis. Compared with routine care, 10-year modelled cardiovascular disease risk was lower in the intensive treatment group at 5 years. Our results suggest that patients benefit from intensive treatment early in the diabetes disease trajectory, where the rate of cardiovascular disease risk progression may be slowed. PMID:24533664

  5. Effect of Using Local Intrawound Vancomycin Powder in Addition to Intravenous Antibiotics in Posterior Lumbar Surgery: Midterm Result in a Single-Center Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Gun-Ill; Chun, Hyoung-Joon; Choi, Kyu-Sun

    2016-01-01

    Objective We conducted this study to report the efficacy of local application of vancomycin powder in the setting of surgical site infection (SSI) of posterior lumbar surgical procedures and to figure out risk factors of SSIs. Methods From February 2013 to December 2013, SSI rates following 275 posterior lumbar surgeries of which intrawound vancomycin powder was used in combination with intravenous antibiotics (Vanco group) were assessed. Compared with 296 posterior lumbar procedures with intravenous antibiotic only group from February 2012 to December 2012 (non-Vanco group), various infection rates were assessed. Univariate and multivariate analysis to figure out risk factors of infection among Vanco group were done. Results Statistically significant reduction of SSI in Vanco group (5.5%) from non-Vanco group (10.5%) was confirmed (p=0.028). Mean follow-up period was 8 months. Rate of acute staphylococcal SSIs reduced statistically significantly to 4% compared to 7.4% of non-Vanco group (p=0.041). Deep staphylococcal infection decreased to 2 compared to 8 and deep methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection also decreased to 1 compared to 5 in non-Vanco group. No systemic complication was observed. Statistically significant risk factors associated with SSI were diabetes mellitus, history of cardiovascular disease, length of hospital stay, number of instrumented level and history of previous surgery. Conclusion In this series of 571 patients, intrawound vancomycin powder usage resulted in significant decrease in SSI rates in our posterior lumbar surgical procedures. Patients at high risk of infection are highly recommended as a candidate for this technique. PMID:27437012

  6. A phase III randomized trial comparing adjuvant concomitant chemoradiotherapy versus standard adjuvant chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy in operable node-positive breast cancer: Final results

    SciTech Connect

    Rouesse, Jacques . E-mail: j.rouesse@stcloud-huguenin.org; Lande, Brigitte de la; Bertheault-Cvitkovic, Frederique; Serin, Daniel; Graic, Yvon; Combe, Martin; Leduc, Bernard; Lucas, Virginie; Demange, Liliane; Tan Dat Nguyen; Castera, Daniel; Krzisch, Claude; Villet, Richard; Mouret-Fourme, Emmanuelle; Garbay, Jean-Remy; Nogues, Catherine

    2006-03-15

    Purpose: To compare concomitant and sequential adjuvant chemoradiotherapy regimens in node-positive, operable breast cancer patients. Methods and Materials: This was a randomized, French, multicenter, phase III trial enrolling 638 eligible women with prior breast surgery and positive axillary dissection. Patients in Arm A received 500 mg/m{sup 2} 5-fluorouracil, 12 mg/m{sup 2} mitoxantrone, and 500 mg/m{sup 2} cyclophosphamide, with concomitant radiotherapy (50 Gy {+-} 10-20-Gy boost). Patients in Arm B received 500 mg/m{sup 2} 5-fluorouracil, 60 mg/m{sup 2} epirubicin, and 500 mg/m{sup 2} cyclophosphamide, with subsequent radiotherapy. Chemotherapy was administered on Day 1 every 21 days for 4 cycles. Results: Median treatment durations were 64 and 126 days (Arms A and B, respectively), with no significant difference in overall or disease-free survival. Five-year locoregional relapse-free survival favored patients with conservative surgery (two thirds of the population), with less local and/or regional recurrence in Arm A than in Arm B (3% vs. 9%; p 0.01). Multivariate analysis in this subgroup showed a 2.8-fold increased risk of locoregional recurrence with sequential chemoradiotherapy, independent of other prognostic factors (p = 0.027). Febrile neutropenia and Grade 3-4 leukopenia were significantly more frequent in Arm A. Subclinical left ventricular ejection fraction events at 1 year were more frequent with concomitant radiotherapy (p = 0.02). Conclusions: Concomitant radiotherapy with adjuvant fluorouracil, mitoxantrone, and cyclophosphamide has significantly better locoregional control in node-positive breast cancer after conservative surgery and 50% shorter treatment, albeit with slightly more acute toxicity. With mitoxantrone no longer available for adjuvant breast cancer treatment, alternative concomitant chemoradiotherapy studies are needed.

  7. Association Between Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Hormone Metabolism and DNA Repair Genes and Epithelial Ovarian Cancer: Results from Two Australian Studies and an Additional Validation Set

    PubMed Central

    Beesley, Jonathan; Jordan, Susan J.; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Song, Honglin; Ramus, Susan J.; Kjaer, Suzanne Kruger; Hogdall, Estrid; DiCioccio, Richard A.; McGuire, Valerie; Whittemore, Alice S.; Gayther, Simon A.; Pharoah, Paul D.P.; Webb, Penelope M.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia

    2009-01-01

    Although some high-risk ovarian cancer genes have been identified, it is likely that common low penetrance alleles exist that confer some increase in ovarian cancer risk. We have genotyped nine putative functional single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in genes involved in steroid hormone synthesis (SRD5A2, CYP19A1, HSB17B1, and HSD17B4) and DNA repair (XRCC2, XRCC3, BRCA2, and RAD52) using two Australian ovarian cancer case-control studies, comprising a total of 1,466 cases and 1,821 controls of Caucasian origin. Genotype frequencies in cases and controls were compared using logistic regression. The only SNP we found to be associated with ovarian cancer risk in both of these two studies was SRD5A2 V89L (rs523349), which showed a significant trend of increasing risk per rare allele (P = 0.00002). We then genotyped another SNP in this gene (rs632148; r2 = 0.945 with V89L) in an attempt to validate this finding in an independent set of 1,479 cases and 2,452 controls from United Kingdom, United States, and Denmark. There was no association between rs632148 and ovarian cancer risk in the validation samples, and overall, there was no significant heterogeneity between the results of the five studies. Further analyses of SNPs in this gene are therefore warranted to determine whether SRD5A2 plays a role in ovarian cancer predisposition. PMID:18086758

  8. The Protective Role of the Family and Social Support Network in a Sample of HIV-Positive African American Women: Results of a Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, Michael; Szapocznik, José; Tejeda, Manuel; Samuels, Deanne; Ironson, Gail; Antoni, Michael

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the role of family functioning and social support in protecting HIV-positive African American women from the adverse psychological consequences associated with deterioration in their CD4 cell count. Participants were 38 African American HIV-positive women who had recently given birth. Results demonstrated that changes in CD4 cell counts were inversely predictive of psychological distress and were moderated by family functioning and social support satisfaction. Women with good family functioning were less affected by changes in their CD4 cell counts, and women with poor family functioning were more emotionally responsive to changes in CD4 cell count. Unexpectedly, women from families where conflicts tended to be clearly laid out and discussed were also more responsive to both changes in CD4 cell counts. Interventions are recommended that increase a client’s social support satisfaction, foster an adaptive level of connectedness to family, and enhance the family’s range of conflict resolution styles. PMID:16609750

  9. Phosphazene additives

    DOEpatents

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  10. The enzymology of mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation and its application to follow-up analysis of positive neonatal screening results.

    PubMed

    Wanders, Ronald J A; Ruiter, Jos P N; IJLst, Lodewijk; Waterham, Hans R; Houten, Sander M

    2010-10-01

    Oxidation of fatty acids in mitochondria is a key physiological process in higher eukaryotes including humans. The importance of the mitochondrial beta-oxidation system in humans is exemplified by the existence of a group of genetic diseases in man caused by an impairment in the mitochondrial oxidation of fatty acids. Identification of patients with a defect in mitochondrial beta-oxidation has long remained notoriously difficult, but the introduction of tandem-mass spectrometry in laboratories for genetic metabolic diseases has revolutionalized the field by allowing the rapid and sensitive analysis of acylcarnitines. Equally important is that much progress has been made with respect to the development of specific enzyme assays to identify the enzyme defect in patients subsequently followed by genetic analysis. In this review, we will describe the current state of knowledge in the field of fatty acid oxidation enzymology and its application to the follow-up analysis of positive neonatal screening results.

  11. Results of therapy with interferon alpha and cyclic combination chemotherapy in patients with philadelphia chromosome positive chronic myelogenous leukemia in early chronic phase.

    PubMed

    Giles, F J; Kantarjian, H; O'Brien, S; Rios, M B; Cortes, J; Beran, M; Koller, C; Keating, M; Talpaz, M

    2001-04-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the toxicity and efficacy of cyclic combination therapy offered to patients with Ph-positive CML having a sub-optimal response to IFN-alpha. Patients in early chronic phase CML were treated with IFN-alpha at 5MU/m(2) daily. Patients who did not achieve cytogenetic response after 6 months of IFN-alpha therapy, or Ph-suppression to less than 35% Ph-positive cells (partial cytogenetic response) after 12 months of therapy were offered cyclic intensive chemotherapy every 6 months, with IFN-alpha maintenance between cycles. The initial 3 cycles included daunorubicin, vincristine, cytosine arabinoside (ara-C) and prednisone (DOAP). Later cycles were given with cyclophosphamide replacing daunorubicin (COAP). Of 74 patients treated, 61 (82%) achieved complete hematologic response (CHR): 51 (69%) had a cytogenetic response, which was major (Ph < 35%) in 31 (42%), and complete in 23 (31%). Fifty-five patients (74%) achieved CHR by 6 months of therapy, 38 (69%; 51% of total) with a cytogenetic response - 13 (24%) had a major cytogenetic response. Seventeen patients received at least 1 course of DOAP therapy. Median survival of the overall cohort of patients was 120 months. With a median follow-up of 145 months (103+ to 155+ months), 40 patients (54%) have died. The median duration of cytogenetic response was 35 months (range 3 to 149+ months) and the estimated 10-year cytogenetic response rate was 37%. A durable complete cytogenetic response was observed in 16 patients (20%) with a median duration of 139+ months (range 12+ to 149+ months), 11 of them (15%) are now off IFN-alpha therapy for a median of 57+ months (range 12+ to 128+ months). The projected 10-year survival was 50% for the study group versus 35% for 208 patients who received other IFN-alpha based regimens at the MD Anderson Cancer Center (p<.01). In conclusion, the addition of intensive chemotherapy may improve survival in patients with CML who have not obtained an

  12. Socio Economic Position in TB Prevalence and Access to Services: Results from a Population Prevalence Survey and a Facility-Based Survey in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Shahed; Quaiyum, Mohammad Abdul; Zaman, Khalequ; Banu, Sayera; Husain, Mohammad Ashaque; Islam, Mohammad Akramul; Cooreman, Erwin; Borgdorff, Martien; Lönnroth, Knut; Salim, Abdul Hamid; van Leth, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Background In Bangladesh DOTS has been provided free of charge since 1993, yet information on access to TB services by different population group is not well documented. The objective of this study was to assess and compare the socio economic position (SEP) of actively detected cases from the community and the cases being routinely detected under National Tuberculosis Control Programme (NTP) in Bangladesh. Methods and Findings SEP was assessed by validated asset item for each of the 21,427 households included in the national tuberculosis prevalence survey 2007–2009. A principal component analysis generated household scores and categorized in quartiles. The distribution of 33 actively identified cases was compared with the 240 NTP cases over the identical SEP quartiles to evaluate access to TB services by different groups of the population. The population prevalence of tuberculosis was 5 times higher in the lowest quartiles of population (95.4, 95% CI: 48.0–189.7) to highest quartile population (19.5, 95% CI: 6.9–55.0). Among the 33 cases detected during survey, 25 (75.8%) were from lower two quartiles, and the rest 8 (24.3%) were from upper two quartiles. Among TB cases detected passively under NTP, more than half of them 137 (57.1%) were from uppermost two quartiles, 98 (41%) from the second quartile, and 5 (2%) in the lowest quartile of the population. This distribution is not affected when adjusted for other factors or interactions among them. Conclusions The findings indicate that despite availability free of charge, DOTS is not equally accessed by the poorer sections of the population. However, these figures should be interpreted with caution since there is a need for additional studies that assess in-depth poverty indicators and its determinants in relation to access of the TB services provided in Bangladesh. PMID:23028718

  13. Blended learning positively affects students' satisfaction and the role of the tutor in the problem-based learning process: results of a mixed-method evaluation.

    PubMed

    Woltering, Vanessa; Herrler, Andreas; Spitzer, Klaus; Spreckelsen, Cord

    2009-12-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is an established didactic approach in medical education worldwide. The impact of PBL depends on the tutors' quality and the students' motivation. To enhance students' motivation and satisfaction and to overcome the problems with the changing quality of tutors, online learning and face-to-face classes were systematically combined resulting in a blended learning scenario (blended problem-based learning--bPBL). The study aims at determining whether bPBL increases the students' motivation and supports the learning process with respect to the students' cooperation, their orientation, and more reliable tutoring. The blended PBL was developed in a cooperation of students and teachers. The well-established Seven Jump-scheme of PBL was carefully complemented by eLearning modules. On the first training day of bPBL the students start to work together with the online program, but without a tutor, on the final training day the tutor participates in the meeting for additional help and feedback. The program was evaluated by a mixed-method study. The traditional PBL course was compared with the blended PBL by means of qualitative and quantitative questionnaires, standardized group interviews, and students' test results. In addition log-files were analyzed. A total of 185 third-year students and 14 tutors took part in the study. Motivation, subjective learning gains and satisfaction achieved significantly higher ratings by the bPBL students compared with the students learning by traditional PBL. The tutors' opinion and the test results showed no differences between the groups. Working with the web-based learning environment was assessed as very good by the students. According to the log-file analysis, the web-based learning module was frequently used and improved the cooperation during the self-directed learning.

  14. Rates and Predictors of Non-Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy among HIV-Positive Individuals in Kenya: Results from the Second Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Ng’ang’a, Lucy; Williamson, John; Wamicwe, Joyce N.; Vakil, Shobha; Katana, Abraham; Kim, Andrea A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Understanding the levels and associated factors of non-adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is crucial in designing interventions to improve adherence and health outcomes of ART. We assessed non-adherence to ART among HIV-infected persons reporting ART use in a nationally representative survey in Kenya. Methods The Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey 2012 was a population-based, household survey of persons aged 18 months-64 years conducted in 2012–2013. Self-reported information was collected on demographics, sexual behaviour, HIV status, and ART use. Blood was collected for HIV testing, and if HIV infected, CD4 and viral load testing. HIV-positive specimens were tested for the presence of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs using a qualitative ARV assay using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. HIV-positive persons who reported receiving ART but did not have the ARV biomarker present were defined as being non-adherent to their ARV medication. We restricted our analysis to HIV-infected persons aged 15–64 years who reported receiving ART and had laboratory-confirmed results from ARV testing. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify variables associated with non-adherence. Results A total of 648 (5.6%; CI 4.9–6.3) tested HIV-positive of whom 559 (86.3%) had sufficient volume of blood to be tested for ARV drugs. Of those, 271 (47.7%; CI 41.8–53.6) self-reported HIV-positive status during the interview and 186 (69.1%; CI 62.2–76.0) of those reported taking ART. The ARV biomarker was absent in 18 of 186 individuals (9.4%; CI 4.9–13.8) who thus were defined as being non-adherent to ART. Non-adherence was associated with being aged 15–29 years (AOR 8.39; CI 2.26–31.22, p = 0.002) compared to aged 30–64 years, rural residence (AOR 5.87; CI 1.39–25.61, p = 0.016) compared with urban residence and taking recreational drugs in the past 30 days (AOR 5.89; CI 1.30–26.70, p = 0.022). Conclusion Overall, less than 10% of Kenyans

  15. A Radio-genomics Approach for Identifying High Risk Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancers on DCE-MRI: Preliminary Results in Predicting OncotypeDX Risk Scores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Tao; Bloch, B. Nicolas; Plecha, Donna; Thompson, Cheryi L.; Gilmore, Hannah; Jaffe, Carl; Harris, Lyndsay; Madabhushi, Anant

    2016-02-01

    To identify computer extracted imaging features for estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancers on dynamic contrast en-hanced (DCE)-MRI that are correlated with the low and high OncotypeDX risk categories. We collected 96 ER-positivebreast lesions with low (<18, N = 55) and high (>30, N = 41) OncotypeDX recurrence scores. Each lesion was quantitatively charac-terize via 6 shape features, 3 pharmacokinetics, 4 enhancement kinetics, 4 intensity kinetics, 148 textural kinetics, 5 dynamic histogram of oriented gradient (DHoG), and 6 dynamic local binary pattern (DLBP) features. The extracted features were evaluated by a linear discriminant analysis (LDA) classifier in terms of their ability to distinguish low and high OncotypeDX risk categories. Classification performance was evaluated by area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (Az). The DHoG and DLBP achieved Az values of 0.84 and 0.80, respectively. The 6 top features identified via feature selection were subsequently combined with the LDA classifier to yield an Az of 0.87. The correlation analysis showed that DHoG (ρ = 0.85, P < 0.001) and DLBP (ρ = 0.83, P < 0.01) were significantly associated with the low and high risk classifications from the OncotypeDX assay. Our results indicated that computer extracted texture features of DCE-MRI were highly correlated with the high and low OncotypeDX risk categories for ER-positive cancers.

  16. [Paradoxical air embolism resulted in acute myocardial infarction and massive ischemic brain injury in a patient operated on in a sitting position].

    PubMed

    Anan'ev, E P; Polupan, A A; Savin, I A; Goryachev, A S; Troitskiy, A P; Kolokol'nikov, A E; Kulikovskiy, V P; Matskovskiy, I V; Abramov, T A; Podlepich, V V; Krylov, K Yu; Sychev, A A; Tabasaranskiy, T F; Pashin, A A; Lubnin, A Yu

    2016-01-01

    Paradoxical air embolism (PAE) is a rare life-threatening complication when air emboli enter arteries of the systemic circulation and cause their occlusion. Here, we describe a clinical case of PAE developed during neurosurgery in a patient in the sitting position. PAE led to injuries to the cerebral blood vessels, coronary arteries, and lungs, which caused death of the patient. An effective measure for preventing PAE is abandoning surgery in the sitting position in favor of surgery in the prone position.

  17. Evaluation of an oral appliance in patients with mild to moderate obstructive sleep apnea syndrome intolerant to continuous positive airway pressure use: Preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Cantore, S; Ballini, A; Farronato, D; Malcangi, G; Dipalma, G; Assandri, F; Garagiola, U; Inchingolo, F; De Vito, D; Cirulli, N

    2016-06-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a phenomenon of repeated, episodic reduction, or cessation of airflow (hypopnea/apnea) as a result of upper airways obstruction. First-line treatment in younger children is adenotonsillectomy, although other available treatment options in middle-aged adults include continuous positive airways pressure (CPAP) and airway adjuncts. Oral appliances (OA) are a viable treatment alternative in patients with OSAS.The objective of this study was to assess, in a 1-year follow-up study, an OA in OSAS patients. The participants were subjected to polysomnographic examination with a validated device (MicroMESAM). Eight participants were fitted with a Thornton Adjustable Positioner (TAP). The participants were asked to wear the test appliance for 7 nights, and in case of compliance, for 6 months. The selected patients record their usage of the appliance and any adverse effects in a treatment journal. The research focused on the following outcomes: sleep apnea (i.e. reduction in the apnea/hypopnea index) and the effect of oral appliances on daytime function.In conclusion, the results suggest that OA have a definite role in the treatment of snoring and sleep apnea.

  18. Evaluating the velocity accuracy of an integrated GPS/INS system: Flight test results. [Global positioning system/inertial navigation systems (GPS/INS)

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, T.E.; Wardlaw, R.

    1991-01-01

    Verifying the velocity accuracy of a GPS receiver or an integrated GPS/INS system in a dynamic environment is a difficult proposition when many of the commonly used reference systems have velocity uncertainities of the same order of magnitude or greater than the GPS system. The results of flight tests aboard an aircraft in which multiple reference systems simultaneously collected data to evaluate the accuracy of an integrated GPS/INS system are reported. Emphasis is placed on obtaining high accuracy estimates of the velocity error of the integrated system in order to verify that velocity accuracy is maintained during both linear and circular trajectories. Three different reference systems operating in parallel during flight tests are used to independently determine the position and velocity of an aircraft in flight. They are a transponder/interrogator ranging system, a laser tracker, and GPS carrier phase processing. Results obtained from these reference systems are compared against each other and against an integrated real time differential based GPS/INS system to arrive at a set of conclusions about the accuracy of the integrated system.

  19. Concurrent intensive chemotherapy and imatinib before and after stem cell transplantation in newly diagnosed Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Final results of the CSTIBES02 trial

    PubMed Central

    Ribera, Josep-Maria; Oriol, Albert; González, Marcos; Vidriales, Belén; Brunet, Salut; Esteve, Jordi; del Potro, Eloy; Rivas, Concepción; Moreno, Maria-José; Tormo, Mar; Martín-Reina, Victoria; Sarrá, Josep; Parody, Ricardo; de Oteyza, Jaime Pérez; Bureo, Encarna; Bernal, Maria-Teresa

    2010-01-01

    Background Imatinib, given concurrently or alternating with chemotherapy, has improved the response and survival of patients with Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph+ ALL) but relapses are still frequent. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and results of giving imatinib concurrently with intensive chemotherapy, stem cell transplantation and post-transplant imatinib maintenance therapy in patients with newly diagnosed Ph+ ALL. Design and Methods This was a phase II study of patients with newly diagnosed Ph+ ALL given standard chemotherapy, together with imatinib (400 mg/day) until stem cell transplantation, followed by imatinib maintenance therapy for all patients regardless of the molecular status of the disease. Results Of the 30 patients included, 27 (90%) achieved complete remission, one was resistant to treatment and two died during induction therapy. The percentages of major and complete molecular responses were 86% and 21% after induction, and 81% and 65% after consolidation, respectively. Similar results were observed assessing minimal residual disease by flow cytometry. Of the 27 patients who achieved complete remission, 21 underwent stem cell transplantation (16 allogeneic, 5 autologous). Imatinib (400 mg/day) could be administered after transplantation for a median of 3.9 months in 12 patients, although it was interrupted in 10 patients (in 2 cases because of side effects of the drug). Nine patients relapsed, four before and five after stem cell transplantation and eight patients died of transplant-related causes. With a median follow-up of 4.1 years, the probabilities (95% CI) of disease-free and overall survival were 30% (15% to 45%) and 30% (16% to 45%), respectively. Conclusions These results confirm that imatinib is an effective first-line treatment for adult Ph+ ALL when given concurrently with chemotherapy, making stem cell transplantation feasible in a high proportion of patients. However, post

  20. In vitro approaches to develop weight of evidence (WoE) and mode of action (MoA) discussions with positive in vitro genotoxicity results.

    PubMed

    Kirkland, D J; Aardema, M; Banduhn, N; Carmichael, P; Fautz, R; Meunier, J-R; Pfuhler, S

    2007-05-01

    A recent analysis by Kirkland et al. [Kirkland, D., Aardema, M., Henderson, L. and Müller, L. (2005) Evaluation of the ability of a battery of 3 in vitro genotoxicity tests to discriminate rodent carcinogens and non-carcinogens. I. Sensitivity, specificity and relative predictivity. Mutat. Res. 584, 1-256] demonstrated an extremely high false positive rate for in vitro genotoxicity tests when compared with carcinogenicity in rodents. In many industries, decisions have to be made on the safety of new substances, and health risk to humans, without rodent carcinogenicity data being available. In such cases, the usual way to determine whether a positive in vitro genotoxicity result is relevant (i.e. indicates a hazard) for humans is to develop weight of evidence (WoE) or mode of action (MoA) arguments. These are based partly on further in vitro investigations, but usually rely heavily on tests for genotoxicity in one or more in vivo assays. However, for certain product types in the European Union, the use of animals for genotoxicity testing (as well as for other endpoints) will be prohibited within the next few years. Many different examples have been described that indicate DNA damage and genotoxic responses in vitro can arise through non-relevant in vitro events that are a result of the test systems and conditions used. The majority of these non-relevant in vitro events can be grouped under a category of 'overload of normal physiology' that would not be expected to occur in exposed humans. However, obtaining evidence in support of such MoAs is not easy, particularly for those industries prohibited from carrying out in vivo testing. It will become necessary to focus on in vitro studies to provide evidence of non-DNA, threshold or in vitro-specific processes and to discuss the potential for such genotoxic effects to occur in exposed humans. Toward this end, we surveyed the published literature for in vitro approaches that may be followed to determine whether a

  1. Correlation of results obtained by in-vivo optical spectroscopy with measured blood oxygen saturation using a positive linear regression fit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCormick, Patrick W.; Lewis, Gary D.; Dujovny, Manuel; Ausman, James I.; Stewart, Mick; Widman, Ronald A.

    1992-05-01

    Near infrared light generated by specialized instrumentation was passed through artificially oxygenated human blood during simultaneous sampling by a co-oximeter. Characteristic absorption spectra were analyzed to calculate the ratio of oxygenated to reduced hemoglobin. A positive linear regression fit between diffuse transmission oximetry and measured blood oxygenation over the range 23% to 99% (r2 equals .98, p < .001) was noted. The same technology was used to pass two channels of light through the scalp of brain-injured patients with prolonged, decreased level of consciousness in a tertiary care neuroscience ICU. Transmission data were collected with gross superficial-to-deep spatial resolution. Saturation calculation based on the deep signal was observed in the patient over time. The procedure was able to be performed clinically without difficulty; rSO2 values recorded continuously demonstrate the usefulness of the technique. Using the same instrumentation, arterial input and cerebral response functions, generated by IV tracer bolus, were deconvoluted to measure mean cerebral transit time. Date collected over time provided a sensitive index of changes in cerebral blood flow as a result of therapeutic maneuvers.

  2. The Results of the “Positive Action for Today’s Health” (PATH) Trial for Increasing Walking and Physical Activity in Underserved African-American Communities

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Dawn K.; Van Horn, M. Lee; Siceloff, E. Rebekah; Alia, Kassandra A.; St. George, Sara M.; Lawman, Hannah G.; Trumpeter, Nevelyn N.; Coulon, Sandra M.; Griffin, Sarah F.; Wandersman, Abraham; Egan, Brent; Colabianchi, Natalie; Forthofer, Melinda; Gadson, Barney

    2015-01-01

    Background The “Positive Action for Today’s Health” (PATH) trial tested an environmental intervention to increase walking in underserved communities. Methods Three matched communities were randomized to a police-patrolled walking plus social marketing, a police-patrolled walking-only, or a no-walking intervention. The 24-month intervention addressed safety and access for physical activity (PA) and utilized social marketing to enhance environmental supports for PA. African-Americans (N=434; 62 % females; aged 51±16 years) provided accelerometry and psychosocial measures at baseline and 12, 18, and 24 months. Walking attendance and trail use were obtained over 24 months. Results There were no significant differences across communities over 24 months for moderate-to-vigorous PA. Walking attendance in the social marketing community showed an increase from 40 to 400 walkers per month at 9 months and sustained ~200 walkers per month through 24 months. No change in attendance was observed in the walking-only community. Conclusions Findings support integrating social marketing strategies to increase walking in underserved African-Americans (ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT01025726). PMID:25385203

  3. Innovative integration of decommissioning and deactivation program with soil-groundwater clean up program has positive results on budget and schedule: a case study

    SciTech Connect

    Schappell, Bruce G.; Rucker, Gregory G.

    2007-07-01

    An innovative approach to integrate the activities of a decommissioning and deactivation program (D and D) with a soil-groundwater clean up program has had significant positive results saving both money and time at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site. The accomplishments that have been achieved by the combining the two programs have been remarkable including significant cost savings, economies of scale for sampling and document generation, and alignment of common objectives. Because of the coordination of both activities area-wide 'end states' can be formulated and be consistent with the customers' cleanup goals and federal regulations. This coordinates and aligns both the environmental clean up and D and D objectives because each must be addressed simultaneously and comprehensively. In this respect, resources from both organizations can be pooled to take advantage of the strengths of each. The new approach allows more efficient use of lean financial resources and optimizes workforce activities to attain the common objectives while being more cost effective, more protective of the environment, and optimizing the use existing resources. (authors)

  4. Positively Charged Oligo[Poly(Ethylene Glycol) Fumarate] Scaffold Implantation Results in a Permissive Lesion Environment after Spinal Cord Injury in Rat

    PubMed Central

    Hakim, Jeffrey S.; Esmaeili Rad, Melika; Grahn, Peter J.; Chen, Bingkun K.; Knight, Andrew M.; Schmeichel, Ann M.; Isaq, Nasro A.; Dadsetan, Mahrokh; Yaszemski, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Positively charged oligo[poly(ethylene glycol) fumarate] (OPF+) scaffolds loaded with Schwann cells bridge spinal cord injury (SCI) lesions and support axonal regeneration in rat. The regeneration achieved is not sufficient for inducing functional recovery. Attempts to increase regeneration would benefit from understanding the effects of the scaffold and transplanted cells on lesion environment. We conducted morphometric and stereological analysis of lesions in rats implanted with OPF+ scaffolds with or without loaded Schwann cells 1, 2, 3, 4, and 8 weeks after thoracic spinal cord transection. No differences were found in collagen scarring, cyst formation, astrocyte reactivity, myelin debris, or chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) accumulation. However, when scaffold-implanted animals were compared with animals with transection injuries only, these barriers to regeneration were significantly reduced, accompanied by increased activated macrophages/microglia. This distinctive and regeneration permissive tissue reaction to scaffold implantation was independent of Schwann cell transplantation. Although the tissue reaction was beneficial in the short term, we observed a chronic fibrotic host response, resulting in scaffolds surrounded by collagen at 8 weeks. This study demonstrates that an appropriate biomaterial scaffold improves the environment for regeneration. Future targeting of the host fibrotic response may allow increased axonal regeneration and functional recovery. PMID:25891264

  5. Innovative Integration of Decommissioning and Deactivation Program with Soil-Groundwater Clean Up Program Has Positive Results on Budget and Schedule: A Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    Schappell, B; Rucker, G

    2007-07-25

    An innovative approach to integrate the activities of a decommissioning and deactivation program (D&D) with a soil-groundwater clean up program has had significant positive results saving both money and time at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site. The accomplishments that have been achieved by the combining the two programs have been remarkable including significant cost savings, economies of scale for sampling and document generation, and alignment of common objectives. Because of the coordination of both activities area-wide ''end states'' can be formulated and be consistent with the customers' cleanup goals and federal regulations. This coordinates and aligns both the environmental clean up and D&D objectives because each must be addressed simultaneously and comprehensively. In this respect, resources from both organizations can be pooled to take advantage of the strengths of each. The new approach allows more efficient use of lean financial resources and optimizes workforce activities to attain the common objectives while being more cost effective, more protective of the environment, and optimizing the use existing resources.

  6. The impact of missing data and how it is handled on the rate of false-positive results in drug development.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Sunni A; Mallinckrodt, Craig H; Lindborg, Stacy R; Carter, M Kallin

    2008-01-01

    In drug development, a common choice for the primary analysis is to assess mean changes via analysis of (co)variance with missing data imputed by carrying the last or baseline observations forward (LOCF, BOCF). These approaches assume that data are missing completely at random (MCAR). Multiple imputation (MI) and likelihood-based repeated measures (MMRM) are less restrictive as they assume data are missing at random (MAR). Nevertheless, LOCF and BOCF remain popular, perhaps because it is thought that the bias in these methods lead to protection against falsely concluding that a drug is more effective than the control. We conducted a simulation study that compared the rate of false positive results or regulatory risk error (RRE) from BOCF, LOCF, MI, and MMRM in 32 scenarios that were generated from a 2(5) full factorial arrangement with data missing due to a missing not at random (MNAR) mechanism. Both BOCF and LOCF inflated RRE were compared to MI and MMRM. In 12 of the 32 scenarios, BOCF yielded inflated RRE compared with eight scenarios for LOCF, three scenarios for MI and four scenarios for MMRM. In no situation did BOCF or LOCF provide adequate control of RRE when MI and MMRM did not. Both MI and MMRM are better choices than either BOCF or LOCF for the primary analysis.

  7. Lack of the H-NS Protein Results in Extended and Aberrantly Positioned DNA during Chromosome Replication and Segregation in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Helgesen, Emily; Fossum-Raunehaug, Solveig

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The architectural protein H-NS binds nonspecifically to hundreds of sites throughout the chromosome and can multimerize to stiffen segments of DNA as well as to form DNA-protein-DNA bridges. H-NS has been suggested to contribute to the orderly folding of the Escherichia coli chromosome in the highly compacted nucleoid. In this study, we investigated the positioning and dynamics of the origins, the replisomes, and the SeqA structures trailing the replication forks in cells lacking the H-NS protein. In H-NS mutant cells, foci of SeqA, replisomes, and origins were irregularly positioned in the cell. Further analysis showed that the average distance between the SeqA structures and the replisome was increased by ∼100 nm compared to that in wild-type cells, whereas the colocalization of SeqA-bound sister DNA behind replication forks was not affected. This result may suggest that H-NS contributes to the folding of DNA along adjacent segments. H-NS mutant cells were found to be incapable of adopting the distinct and condensed nucleoid structures characteristic of E. coli cells growing rapidly in rich medium. It appears as if H-NS mutant cells adopt a “slow-growth” type of chromosome organization under nutrient-rich conditions, which leads to a decreased cellular DNA content. IMPORTANCE It is not fully understood how and to what extent nucleoid-associated proteins contribute to chromosome folding and organization during replication and segregation in Escherichia coli. In this work, we find in vivo indications that cells lacking the nucleoid-associated protein H-NS have a lower degree of DNA condensation than wild-type cells. Our work suggests that H-NS is involved in condensing the DNA along adjacent segments on the chromosome and is not likely to tether newly replicated strands of sister DNA. We also find indications that H-NS is required for rapid growth with high DNA content and for the formation of a highly condensed nucleoid structure under such

  8. Caprine and ovine Greek dairy products: The official German method generates false-positive results due to κ-casein gene polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Tsartsianidou, V; Triantafillidou, D; Karaiskou, N; Tarantili, P; Triantafillidis, G; Georgakis, E; Triantafyllidis, A

    2017-03-16

    Caseins are widely used for species identification of dairy products. Isoelectric focusing (IEF) of para-κ-casein peptide is used as the official German method for the differentiation between caprine (isoform A) and ovine (isoform B) dairy products, based on their different isoelectric points. The discrimination between Greek goat and ewe dairy products using IEF has, however, been shown to be problematic because of the existence of the ewe isoform in milk from Greek indigenous dairy goats. This could be due to nucleotide polymorphisms within the goat κ-casein gene of Greek indigenous breeds, which alter the isoelectric point of the para-κ-casein peptide and lead to false positive results. Previous DNA analysis of the goat κ-casein gene has shown high levels of polymorphism; however, no such information is available for Greek indigenous dairy goats. Therefore, 87 indigenous dairy goats were sequenced at exon IV of κ-casein gene. In total, 9 polymorphic sites were detected. Three nonsynonymous point mutations were identified, which change the isoelectric point of the goat para-κ-casein peptide so that it appears identical to that of the ewe peptide. Ten composite genotypes were reconstructed and 6 of them included the problematic point mutations. For the verification of genetic results, IEF was carried out. Both goat and ewe patterns appeared in the problematic genotypes. The frequency of these genotypes could be characterized as moderate (0.23) to high (0.60) within Greek indigenous breeds. However, this is not an issue restricted to Greece, as such genotypes have been detected in various non-Greek goat breeds. In conclusion, IEF based on the official German method is certainly inappropriate for ovine and caprine discrimination concerning Greek dairy goat products, and consequently a new method should be established.

  9. Comparison of Clinical and Radiological Results according to Glenosphere Position in Reverse Total Shoulder Arthroplasty: A Short-term Follow-up Study

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Chang Hyuk; Kim, Sung Guk; Lee, Jae Jun

    2017-01-01

    Background In a previous biomechanical study, eccentric glenospheres with more inferior position of the center of rotation were shown to improve range of motion and reduce the incidence of scapular notching after reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RSA). The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical and radiological results of RSA using an eccentric glenosphere to those using a concentric glenosphere and to determine the usefulness of the eccentric glenosphere. Methods From 2009 to 2015, we performed a retrospective review of 20 consecutive patients who underwent RSA using a deltopectoral approach. Nine patients underwent RSA using a concentric glenosphere (group A) while 11 had an eccentric glenosphere (group B). The average follow-up period was 13.9 months (range, 12 to 18 months). All glenoid components were placed with 15° of inferior tilt. Clinical results were assessed using the visual analog pain scale score (VAS), the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeon (ASES) score, the Korean shoulder scoring system (KSS), and the Constant score. On radiological evaluation, prosthesisscapular neck angle (PSNA), peg-glenoid rim distance (PGRD), scapular neck-inferior glenoshere rim distance (inferior glenoshpere overhang), acromion-greater tuberosity (AT) distance, glenoid-greater tuberosity (GT) distance, and severity of notching according to the Nerot-Sirveaux classification were assessed. Results The clinical results improved significantly in both groups, but there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups. A significant intergroup difference was observed with regard to PGRD (24.8 ± 1.6 mm for group A vs. 22.2 ± 1.9 mm for group B; p = 0.002) and inferior glenosphere overhang (2.0 ± 1.7 mm for group A vs. 5.8 ± 1.6 mm for group B; p = 0.000). Seven of 9 patients in group A developed notching compared with 2 of 11 patients in group B (p = 0.022). The other radiological parameters such as inferior tilt and AT and GT distances were

  10. A study of the observed shift in the peak position of olivine Raman spectra as a result of shock induced by hypervelocity impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harriss, Kathryn H.; Burchell, M. J.

    2016-07-01

    Kuebler et al. (2006) identified variations in olivine Raman spectra based on the composition of individual olivine grains, leading to identification of olivine composition from Raman spectra alone. However, shock on a crystal lattice has since been shown to result in a structural change to the original material, which produces a shift in the Raman spectra of olivine grains compared with the original unshocked olivine (Foster et al. 2013). This suggests that the use of the compositional calculations from the Raman spectra, reported in Kuebler et al. (2006), may provide an incorrect compositional value for material that has experienced shock. Here, we have investigated the effect of impact speed (and hence peak shock pressure) on the shift in the Raman spectra for San Carlos olivine (Fo91) impacting Al foil. Powdered San Carlos olivine (grain size 1-10 μm) was fired at a range of impact speeds from 0.6 to 6.1 km s-1 (peak shock pressures 5-86 GPa) at Al foil to simulate capture over a wide range of peak shock pressures. A permanent change in the Raman spectra was found to be observed only for impact speeds greater than ~5 km s-1. The process that causes the shift is most likely linked to an increase in the peak pressure produced by the impact, but only after a minimum shock pressure associated with the speed at which the effect is first observed (here 65-86 GPa). At speeds around 6 km s-1 (peak shock pressures ~86 GPa), the shift in Raman peak positions is in a similar direction (red shift) to that observed by Foster et al. (2013) but of twice the magnitude.

  11. Detection of the marijuana metabolite 11-nor-Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid in oral fluid specimens and its contribution to positive results in screening assays.

    PubMed

    Moore, Christine; Ross, Wayne; Coulter, Cynthia; Adams, Laura; Rana, Sumandeep; Vincent, Michael; Soares, James

    2006-09-01

    The detection of the marijuana metabolite 11-nor-Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THC-COOH) in oral fluid specimens is described, and its contribution to an immunoassay for the detection of cannabinoids is investigated. Oral fluid specimens, screened using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent immunoassay (ELISA), were carried forward to confirmation for both tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and THC-COOH using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). One hundred and fifty-three specimens were analyzed, of which 143 screened positive for cannabinoids. Ninety-five (66.4%) of these specimens were positive for both THC and THC-COOH; 14 (9.7%) were positive for THC-COOH only, and 27 (18.8%) were positive for THC only. The GC-MS assay for the detection of THC-COOH in oral fluid was linear to 160 pg/mL with a limit of quantitation of 2 pg/mL. The detection of the marijuana metabolite, THC-COOH, in 76.2% of oral fluid specimens screening positive for cannabinoids is reported. As a potential defense against passive exposure claims, proposed SAMHSA regulations may require the simultaneous collection of a urine sample when oral fluid samples are used. The detection of the metabolite, THC-COOH, is a significant alternative to this approach because its presence in oral fluid minimizes the argument for passive exposure to marijuana in drug testing cases.

  12. Social media use and HIV transmission risk behavior among ethnically diverse HIV-positive gay men: results of an online study in three U.S. states.

    PubMed

    Hirshfield, Sabina; Grov, Christian; Parsons, Jeffrey T; Anderson, Ian; Chiasson, Mary Ann

    2015-10-01

    Though Black and Hispanic men who have sex with men (MSM) are at an increased risk for HIV, few HIV risk reduction interventions that target HIV-positive MSM, and even fewer that use technology, have been designed to target these groups. Despite similar rates of social media and technology use across racial/ethnic groups, online engagement of minority MSM for HIV prevention efforts is low. Since minority MSM tend to have less representation in online HIV prevention studies, the goals of this online anonymous study of HIV-positive gay-identified men were to test the feasibility of conducting targeted recruitment by race/ethnicity and sexual orientation, to assess technology and social media use, and to assess global HIV transmission risk. In 2011, an anonymous online survey was conducted among 463 members of an HIV-positive personals website. Emails were sent to a subset of HIV-positive male members who self-identified as gay. While 57 % were White, substantial proportions of participants were Black (20 %) or Hispanic (18 %). Median age was 46 (range 18-79). Men who reported using 3 or more websites or apps to meet sex partners were significantly more likely to report anal intercourse (AOR 4.43, p < .001) and condomless anal sex (CAS) (AOR 2.70, p < .05) in the past 3 months. The only predictor of CAS with HIV-negative or unknown status partners was being under age 30 (AOR 3.38, p < .01). This study helped to inform online targeted recruitment techniques, access to technology and social media use, and sexual risk among a diverse sample of HIV-positive gay men. Efficacy trials of technology-based HIV prevention interventions targeting high-risk minority HIV-positive MSM are warranted.

  13. Positive quadrature formulas III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peherstorfer, Franz

    2008-12-01

    First we discuss briefly our former characterization theorem for positive interpolation quadrature formulas (abbreviated qf), provide an equivalent characterization in terms of Jacobi matrices, and give links and applications to other qf, in particular to Gauss-Kronrod quadratures and recent rediscoveries. Then for any polynomial t_n which generates a positive qf, a weight function (depending on n ) is given with respect to which t_n is orthogonal to mathbb{P}_{n-1} . With the help of this result an asymptotic representation of the quadrature weights is derived. In general the asymptotic behaviour is different from that of the Gaussian weights. Only under additional conditions do the quadrature weights satisfy the so-called circle law. Corresponding results are obtained for positive qf of Radau and Lobatto type.

  14. Peginterferon add-on results in more HBsAg decline compared to monotherapy in HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B patients.

    PubMed

    Brouwer, W P; Sonneveld, M J; Xie, Q; Guo, S; Zhang, N; Zeuzem, S; Tabak, F; Zhang, Q; Simon, K; Akarca, U S; Streinu-Cercel, A; Hansen, B E; Janssen, H L A

    2016-06-01

    It is unknown whether peginterferon (PEG-IFN) add-on to entecavir (ETV) leads to more HBsAg decline compared to PEG-IFN monotherapy or combination therapy, and whether ETV therapy may prevent HBsAg increase after PEG-IFN cessation. We performed a post hoc analysis of 396 HBeAg-positive patients treated for 72 weeks with ETV + 24 weeks PEG-IFN add-on from week 24 to 48 (add-on, n = 85), 72 weeks with ETV monotherapy (n = 90), 52 weeks with PEG-IFN monotherapy (n = 111) and 52 weeks PEG-IFN + lamivudine (combination, n = 110) within 2 randomized trials. HBsAg decline was assessed at the end of PEG-IFN (EOP) and 6 months after PEG-IFN (EOF) discontinuation. Differences in baseline characteristics were accounted for using inversed probability of treatment weights. At EOP, a HBsAg reduction of ≥1log10 IU/mL was more frequently achieved for patients in the add-on or combination therapy arms (both 36%), compared to PEG-IFN mono (20%) or ETV (8%) (add-on vs PEG-IFN mono P = 0.050). At EOF, the HBsAg reduction ≥1log10 IU/mL was only sustained in patients treated with ETV consolidation (add-on vs combination and PEG-IFN mono: 40% vs 23% and 18%, P = 0.029 and P = 0.003, respectively). For add-on, combination, PEG-IFN mono and ETV, the mean HBsAg-level change at EOF was -0.84, -0.81, -0.68 and -0.33 log10 IU/mL, respectively (P > 0.05 for PEG-IFN arms). HBeAg loss at EOF was 36%, 31%, 33% and 20%, respectively (P > 0.05). PEG-IFN add-on for 24 weeks results in more on-treatment HBsAg decline than does 52 weeks of PEG-IFN monotherapy. ETV therapy may maintain the HBsAg reduction achieved with PEG-IFN.

  15. Changes in quality of life as a result of ketogenic diet therapy: A new approach to assessment with the potential for positive therapeutic effects.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Susan; Devlin, Anita; Air, Linda; Cook, Lucy

    2017-01-01

    There are difficulties inherent in measuring Quality of life (QoL) in patients with chronic illness, including agreement on definitions of quality of life and the type of measure used, disease specific or generic. Well validated QoL instruments for epilepsy exist but focus on capturing common themes pertinent to children and families as a group instead of focusing on themes important to individual patients and their families/carers. In addition, it is common for numerous items on these inventories to be left incomplete or responded to with "not applicable" since many of the items are not suitable for children with disabilities and their families. This led us to devise a way to capture individual quality-of-life measures that are linked to parental/carer expectations in families of children undergoing ketogenic diet therapy for epilepsy. As part of our routine clinical assessment, parents/carers were asked to describe what they would like to see happen or change as a result of their child being on ketogenic diet therapy. A simple unstructured form was designed to facilitate the assessment process. Parents were then asked to rate their own QoL against these criteria on a Likert scale of 0-10 prior to commencement of the diet. This assessment was repeated at subsequent visits with parents/carers initially blinded to their original responses. Our assessments indicated that ketogenic diet therapy improves quality of life over a twelve-month period when measured against parental expectations. This ideographic approach has demonstrated changes in parental Qol and parental perceptions of their child's quality of life that would not have been captured by other validated measures. A lengthy questionnaire is avoided and is replaced by a skilled supportive conversation that identifies goals for treatment that are important to parents. This helps parents to reflect on the progress their child makes on the diet by revisiting their previously stated aspirations, and assessing

  16. The Impact of Positive and Negative Ecstasy-Related Information on Ecstasy Use among College Students: Results of a Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Kathryn B.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Wish, Eric D.; Arria, Amelia M.

    2010-01-01

    Aims: To: (1) estimate the proportion of students exposed to specific types of information regarding the positive and negative effects of ecstasy, (2) test models that quantified the relationship between exposure to these messages and subsequent ecstasy use, controlling for peer drug use and sensation-seeking. Methods: As part of the College Life…

  17. Examining the Effects of Schoolwide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports on Student Outcomes: Results from a Randomized Controlled Effectiveness Trial in Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Mitchell, Mary M.; Leaf, Philip J.

    2010-01-01

    Schoolwide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS) is a universal, schoolwide prevention strategy that is currently implemented in over 9,000 schools across the nation to reduce disruptive behavior problems through the application of behavioral, social learning, and organizational behavioral principles. SWPBIS aims to alter school…

  18. Nitrogen as a friendly addition to steel

    SciTech Connect

    Rawers, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    Interstitial alloying with nitrogen or carbon is a common means of enhancing properties of iron-based alloys. Interstitial nitrogen addition to fcc-phase Fe-Cr-Mn/Ni alloys results in improved mechanical properties, whereas addition of carbon can result in the formation of unwanted carbides. Carbon addition to low alloy, bcc-phase iron alloys significantly improves strength through the formation of carbides, whereas addition of nitrogen in bcc-phase iron alloys can result in porous casting and reduced mechanical properties. This study will show that alloying iron-based alloys with both nitrogen and carbon can produce positive results. Nitrogen addition to Fe-C and Fe-Cr-C alloys, and both nitrogen and nitrogen-carbon additions to Fe-Cr-Mn/Ni alloys altered the microstructure, improved mechanical properties, increased hardness, and reduced wear by stabilizing the fcc-phase and altering (possibly eliminating) precipitate formation.

  19. The impact of positive and negative ecstasy-related information on ecstasy use among college students: Results of a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Kathryn B.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; O’Grady, Kevin E.; Wish, Eric D.; Arria, Amelia M.

    2008-01-01

    Aims To: 1) estimate the proportion of students exposed to specific types of information regarding the positive and negative effects of ecstasy, 2) test models that quantified the relationship between exposure to these messages and subsequent ecstasy use, controlling for peer drug use and sensation-seeking. Methods As part of the College Life Study, 447 students, ages 17–20, from a university in the mid-Atlantic region of the US completed an in person interview plus three follow-up assessments. Findings Individuals who had heard a greater number of negative messages were significantly more likely to use ecstasy, even controlling for positive messages, prior ecstasy use, peer ecstasy use, perceived harm, sensation-seeking, sex, and race. Some messages were significant at the bivariate level. Conclusions Ecstasy use may have been influenced more by the content of the messages than by the quantity or diversity of messages. Interventions should be designed to address both positive and negative perceptions about a particular drug, rather than focusing exclusively on the negative information. Future evaluations should focus on the effectiveness of multi-pronged sustainable prevention programs in reducing adolescent drug use risk. PMID:21057670

  20. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. R.; St. Clair, T. L.; Burks, H. D.; Stoakley, D. M.

    1987-01-01

    A method has been found for enhancing the melt flow of thermoplastic polyimides during processing. A high molecular weight 422 copoly(amic acid) or copolyimide was fused with approximately 0.05 to 5 pct by weight of a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive, and this melt was studied by capillary rheometry. Excellent flow and improved composite properties on graphite resulted from the addition of a PMDA-aniline additive to LARC-TPI. Solution viscosity studies imply that amic acid additives temporarily lower molecular weight and, hence, enlarge the processing window. Thus, compositions containing the additive have a lower melt viscosity for a longer time than those unmodified.

  1. Preliminary results on performance of new ultra-fast static positioning module - POZGEO-2 in areas outside the ASG-EUPOS network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paziewski, Jacek; Krukowska, Marta; Wielgosz, Paweł

    2014-06-01

    The presented preliminary research concerns the accuracy and reliability of new ultra-fast static positioning module - POZGEO-2 - in case of processing GPS data collected outside the ASG-EUPOS network. Such a case requires extrapolation of the network-derived atmospheric corrections which limits correction accuracy and, therefore, has adverse effect on the carrier phase ambiguity resolution. The presented processing tests are based on processing 5-minute long observing sessions and show that precise positioning can be supported up to 35 km from the ASG-EUPOS borders. This means that precise positioning with POZGEO-2 module can be assured for the most of the border areas of Poland. W pracy prezentowane są badania dotyczące dokładności i wiarygodności pozycji wyznaczanej z wykorzystaniem nowego modułu ultra-szybkiego pozycjonowania - POZGEO-2 opracowanego dla systemu ASG-EUPOS. Przedstawione testy obliczeniowe dotyczą szczególnego przypadku wyznaczania pozycji, gdy użytkownik znajduje się poza granicami sieci stacji referencyjnych. W takich warunkach wymagana jest ekstrapolacja sieciowych poprawek atmosferycznych. Wpływa to negatywnie na dokładność tych poprawek i może doprowadzić do sytuacji, w której wyznaczenie nieoznaczoności będzie niemożliwe. Prezentowane badania oparte są na pięciominutowych sesjach obserwacyjnych i pokazują, że poprawki mogą być ekstrapolowane dla obszarów położonych do około 35 km od granic sieci ASG-EUPOS. Oznacza to, że w praktyce precyzyjne pozycjonowanie ultra-szybkie z użyciem modułu POZGEO-2 może być zapewnione dla niemal całego obszaru Polski

  2. Antimicrobial susceptibility among Gram-positive organisms collected from pediatric patients globally between 2004 and 2011: results from the Tigecycline Evaluation and Surveillance Trial.

    PubMed

    Brandon, Michael; Dowzicky, Michael J

    2013-07-01

    The Tigecycline Evaluation and Surveillance Trial (TEST) was designed to monitor global longitudinal changes in bacterial susceptibility to a panel of antimicrobial agents, including tigecycline. In this study, we examine susceptibility among Gram-positive isolates collected from pediatric patients globally between 2004 and 2011. A total of 9,422 Gram-positive isolates were contributed by 1,255 centers, predominantly from Europe and North America. One-third of Staphylococcus aureus isolates were methicillin resistant, peaking in prevalence in 2007. All S. aureus isolates (n = 3,614) were susceptible to linezolid, tigecycline, and vancomycin; minocycline, imipenem, and meropenem were also highly active (>92% susceptibility). Ampicillin and penicillin susceptibility increased significantly during the study period (P < 0.0001 for both). Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates (n = 3,373) were highly susceptible to vancomycin (100%), linezolid (>99%), and levofloxacin and tigecycline (both >96%); imipenem susceptibility was low (32%) in Africa while minocycline susceptibility was low in Asia-Pacific Rim (38%). Penicillin resistance occurred in one-fifth of all S. pneumoniae isolates, with penicillin susceptibility ranging from 14% in Africa to 65% in Europe. Streptococcus agalactiae isolates (n = 1,056) were highly susceptible to most antimicrobials, although only 16% were susceptible to minocycline. Enterococcus faecalis isolates (n = 1,112) were highly susceptible (>97%) to ampicillin, linezolid, penicillin, tigecycline, and vancomycin globally, but only 34% were minocycline susceptible; minocycline susceptibility decreased significantly from 2004 to 2011 (P < 0.001). Tigecycline and linezolid were highly active against Enterococcus faecium (n = 267) globally (100% and 98% susceptible, respectively). Tigecycline and linezolid were highly active against Gram-positive pathogens from pediatric patients in TEST 2004 to 2011, with vancomycin and the carbapenems performing well

  3. The position of tree shrews in the mammalian tree: Comparing multi-gene analyses with phylogenomic results leaves monophyly of Euarchonta doubtful.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xuming; Sun, Fengming; Xu, Shixia; Yang, Guang; Li, Ming

    2015-03-01

    The well-accepted Euarchonta grandorder is a pruned version of Archonta nested within the Euarchontoglires (or Supraprimates) clade. At present, it includes tree shrews (Scandentia), flying lemurs (Dermoptera) and primates (Primates). Here, a phylogenomic dataset containing 1912 exons from 22 representative mammals was compiled to investigate the phylogenetic relationships within this group. Phylogenetic analyses and hypothesis testing suggested that tree shrews can be classified as a sister group to Primates or to Glires or even as a basal clade within Euarchontoglires. Further analyses of both modified and original previously published datasets found that the phylogenetic position of tree shrews is unstable. We also found that two of three exonic indels reported as synapomorphies of Euarchonta in a previous study do not unambiguously support the monophyly of such a clade. Therefore, the monophyly of both Euarchonta and Sundatheria (Dermoptera + Scandentia) are suspect. Molecular dating and divergence rate analyses suggested that the ancestor of Euarchontoglires experienced a rapid divergence, which may cause the unresolved position of tree shrews even using the whole genomic data.

  4. Results from expert tests of the TP-100A boiler at the Lugansk thermal power station during the combustion of lean coal and anthracite culm with addition of RA-GEN-F anaklarid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailov, V. E.; Tupitsyn, S. P.; Sokolov, V. V.; Chebakova, G. F.; Malygin, V. I.; Yazykov, Yu. V.; Kharchenko, A. V.; Chetverikov, A. N.

    2012-08-01

    Results from expert tests of separated combustion of Grade T and Grade ASh anthracite culm in the TP-100A boiler No. 15 at the Lugansk thermal power station carried out with and without addition of RA-GEN-F anaklarid are presented. The possibility of extending the boiler load adjustment range and excluding the use of natural gas for supporting the flame at minimal loads is considered.

  5. Relation of lead trajectory and electrode position to neuropsychological outcomes of subthalamic neurostimulation in Parkinson's disease: results from a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Witt, Karsten; Granert, Oliver; Daniels, Christine; Volkmann, Jens; Falk, Daniela; van Eimeren, Thilo; Deuschl, Günther

    2013-07-01

    Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus improves motor functions in patients suffering from advanced Parkinson's disease but in some patients, it is also associated with a mild decline in cognitive functioning about one standard deviation from the preoperative state. We assessed the impact of the cortical lead entry point, the subcortical electrode path and the position of the active electrode contacts on neuropsychological changes after subthalamic nucleus-deep brain stimulation compared to a control group of patients receiving best medical treatment. Sixty-eight patients with advanced Parkinson's disease were randomly assigned to have subthalamic nucleus-deep brain stimulation or best medical treatment for Parkinson's disease. All patients had a blinded standardized neuropsychological exam (Mattis Dementia Rating scale, backward digit span, verbal fluency and Stroop task performance) at baseline and after 6 months of treatment. Patients with subthalamic nucleus-deep brain stimulation were defined as impaired according to a mild decline of one or more standard deviations compared to patients in the best medical treatment group. The cortical entry point of the electrodes, the electrode trajectories and the position of the active electrode contact were transferred into a normalized brain volume by an automated, non-linear registration algorithm to allow accurate statistical group analysis using pre- and postoperative magnetic resonance imaging data. Data of 31 patients of the subthalamic nucleus-deep brain stimulation group and 31 patients of the best medical treatment group were analysed. The subthalamic nucleus-deep brain stimulation group showed impaired semantic fluency compared with the best medical treatment group 6 months after surgery (P = 0.02). Electrode trajectories intersecting with caudate nuclei increased the risk of a decline in global cognition and working memory performance. Statistically, for every 0.1 ml overlap with a caudate nucleus

  6. Point-of-Care Testing in Bathhouses: A Narrative Inquiry into the Experience of Receiving a Positive Preliminary HIV Test Result.

    PubMed

    Genoway, Shyla; Caine, Vera; Singh, Ameeta E; Estefan, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    With a call to increase the accessibility of HIV testing, point-of-care testing for HIV is being readily adopted, but little attention has been paid to the experiences of people being tested at HIV point-of-care sites. Some testing environments, such as bathhouses, promote testing for HIV in higher-risk groups. In this narrative inquiry study we explored the experiences of people testing positive for HIV through point-of-care while at a bathhouse. Three narrative threads for reconsidering the practice were identified: (a) seeing complexities, understanding testing decisions in relation to time, place, and social context; (b) recognizing the impact and significance of secret and silent stories; and (c) tentative and tension-filled connections to care. It is important to understand testing experiences across time, place, and in diverse social contexts. These experiences are embedded within the larger life histories of people and raise questions about adequate support, follow-up, and counseling.

  7. Addition of docetaxel, zoledronic acid, or both to first-line long-term hormone therapy in prostate cancer (STAMPEDE): survival results from an adaptive, multiarm, multistage, platform randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    James, Nicholas D; Sydes, Matthew R; Clarke, Noel W; Mason, Malcolm D; Dearnaley, David P; Spears, Melissa R; Ritchie, Alastair W S; Parker, Christopher C; Russell, J Martin; Attard, Gerhardt; de Bono, Johann; Cross, William; Jones, Rob J; Thalmann, George; Amos, Claire; Matheson, David; Millman, Robin; Alzouebi, Mymoona; Beesley, Sharon; Birtle, Alison J; Brock, Susannah; Cathomas, Richard; Chakraborti, Prabir; Chowdhury, Simon; Cook, Audrey; Elliott, Tony; Gale, Joanna; Gibbs, Stephanie; Graham, John D; Hetherington, John; Hughes, Robert; Laing, Robert; McKinna, Fiona; McLaren, Duncan B; O'Sullivan, Joe M; Parikh, Omi; Peedell, Clive; Protheroe, Andrew; Robinson, Angus J; Srihari, Narayanan; Srinivasan, Rajaguru; Staffurth, John; Sundar, Santhanam; Tolan, Shaun; Tsang, David; Wagstaff, John; Parmar, Mahesh K B

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Long-term hormone therapy has been the standard of care for advanced prostate cancer since the 1940s. STAMPEDE is a randomised controlled trial using a multiarm, multistage platform design. It recruits men with high-risk, locally advanced, metastatic or recurrent prostate cancer who are starting first-line long-term hormone therapy. We report primary survival results for three research comparisons testing the addition of zoledronic acid, docetaxel, or their combination to standard of care versus standard of care alone. Methods Standard of care was hormone therapy for at least 2 years; radiotherapy was encouraged for men with N0M0 disease to November, 2011, then mandated; radiotherapy was optional for men with node-positive non-metastatic (N+M0) disease. Stratified randomisation (via minimisation) allocated men 2:1:1:1 to standard of care only (SOC-only; control), standard of care plus zoledronic acid (SOC + ZA), standard of care plus docetaxel (SOC + Doc), or standard of care with both zoledronic acid and docetaxel (SOC + ZA + Doc). Zoledronic acid (4 mg) was given for six 3-weekly cycles, then 4-weekly until 2 years, and docetaxel (75 mg/m2) for six 3-weekly cycles with prednisolone 10 mg daily. There was no blinding to treatment allocation. The primary outcome measure was overall survival. Pairwise comparisons of research versus control had 90% power at 2·5% one-sided α for hazard ratio (HR) 0·75, requiring roughly 400 control arm deaths. Statistical analyses were undertaken with standard log-rank-type methods for time-to-event data, with hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs derived from adjusted Cox models. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00268476) and ControlledTrials.com (ISRCTN78818544). Findings 2962 men were randomly assigned to four groups between Oct 5, 2005, and March 31, 2013. Median age was 65 years (IQR 60–71). 1817 (61%) men had M+ disease, 448 (15%) had N+/X M0, and 697 (24%) had N0M0. 165 (6

  8. Complete Biallelic Insulation at the H19/Igf2 Imprinting Control Region Position Results in Fetal Growth Retardation and Perinatal Lethality

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong-Hoon; Singh, Purnima; Tsark, Walter M. K.; Szabó, Piroska E.

    2010-01-01

    Background The H19/Igf2 imprinting control region (ICR) functions as an insulator exclusively in the unmethylated maternal allele, where enhancer-blocking by CTCF protein prevents the interaction between the Igf2 promoter and the distant enhancers. DNA methylation inhibits CTCF binding in the paternal ICR allele. Two copies of the chicken β-globin insulator (ChβGI)2 are capable of substituting for the enhancer blocking function of the ICR. Insulation, however, now also occurs upon paternal inheritance, because unlike the H19 ICR, the (ChβGI)2 does not become methylated in fetal male germ cells. The (ChβGI)2 is a composite insulator, exhibiting enhancer blocking by CTCF and chromatin barrier functions by USF1 and VEZF1. We asked the question whether these barrier proteins protected the (ChβGI)2 sequences from methylation in the male germ line. Methodology/Principal Findings We genetically dissected the ChβGI in the mouse by deleting the binding sites USF1 and VEZF1. The methylation of the mutant versus normal (ChβGI)2 significantly increased from 11% to 32% in perinatal male germ cells, suggesting that the barrier proteins did have a role in protecting the (ChβGI)2 from methylation in the male germ line. Contrary to the H19 ICR, however, the mutant (mChβGI)2 lacked the potential to attain full de novo methylation in the germ line and to maintain methylation in the paternal allele in the soma, where it consequently functioned as a biallelic insulator. Unexpectedly, a stricter enhancer blocking was achieved by CTCF alone than by a combination of the CTCF, USF1 and VEZF1 sites, illustrated by undetectable Igf2 expression upon paternal transmission. Conclusions/Significance In this in vivo model, hypomethylation at the ICR position together with fetal growth retardation mimicked the human Silver-Russell syndrome. Importantly, late fetal/perinatal death occurred arguing that strict biallelic insulation at the H19/Igf2 ICR position is not tolerated in development

  9. Positive Reinforcement Training for Blood Collection in Grizzly Bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) Results in Undetectable Elevations in Serum Cortisol Levels: A Preliminary Investigation.

    PubMed

    Joyce-Zuniga, Nicole M; Newberry, Ruth C; Robbins, Charles T; Ware, Jasmine V; Jansen, Heiko T; Nelson, O Lynne

    2016-01-01

    Training nonhuman animals in captivity for participation in routine husbandry procedures is believed to produce a lower stress environment compared with undergoing a general anesthetic event for the same procedure. This hypothesis rests largely on anecdotal evidence that the captive subjects appear more relaxed with the trained event. Blood markers of physiological stress responses were evaluated in 4 captive grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) who were clicker-trained for blood collection versus 4 bears who were chemically immobilized for blood collection. Serum cortisol and immunoglobulin A (IgA) and plasma β-endorphin were measured as indicators of responses to stress. Plasma β-endorphin was not different between the groups. Serum IgA was undetectable in all bears. Serum cortisol was undetectable in all trained bears, whereas chemically immobilized bears had marked cortisol elevations (p < .05). The highest cortisol elevations were found in 2 bears with extensive recent immobilization experience. These findings support the use of positive reinforcement training for routine health procedures to minimize anxiety.

  10. A positive family history of hypertension might be associated with an accelerated onset of type 2 diabetes: Results from the National Center Diabetes Database (NCDD-02).

    PubMed

    Yamamoto-Honda, Ritsuko; Takahashi, Yoshihiko; Mori, Yasumichi; Yamashita, Shigeo; Yoshida, Yoko; Kawazu, Shoji; Iwamoto, Yasuhiko; Kajio, Hiroshi; Yanai, Hidekatsu; Mishima, Shuichi; Handa, Nobuhiro; Shimokawa, Kotaro; Yoshida, Akiko; Watanabe, Hiroki; Ohe, Kazuhiko; Shimbo, Takuro; Noda, Mitsuhiko

    2017-03-18

    Type 2 diabetes, which is characterized by a combination of decreased insulin secretion and decreased insulin sensitivity, can be delayed or prevented by healthy lifestyle behaviors. Therefore, it is important that the population in general understands their personal risk at an early age to reduce their chances of ever developing the disease. A family history of hypertension is known to be associated with insulin resistance, but the effect of a family history of hypertension on the onset of type 2 diabetes has not well been examined. We performed a retrospective study examining patient age at the time of the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes by analyzing a dataset of 1,299 patients (1,021 men and 278 women) who had been diagnosed as having type 2 diabetes during a health checkup. The mean ± standard deviation of the patient age at the time of the diagnosis of diabetes was 49.1 ± 10.4 years for patients with a family history of hypertension and 51.8 ± 11.4 years for patients without a family history of hypertension (p < 0.001). A multivariate linear regression analysis showed a significant association between a family history of hypertension and a younger age at the time of the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes, independent of a family history of diabetes mellitus and a male sex, suggesting that a positive family history of hypertension might be associated with the accelerated onset of type 2 diabetes.

  11. Effect of positive surgical margins on biochemical failure, biochemical recurrence-free survival, and overall survival after radical prostatectomy: median long-term results.

    PubMed

    Huri, Emre; Aydogmus, Yasin; Doluoglu, Omer Gokhan; Dadali, Mumtaz; Karakan, Tolga; Emir, Levent; Germiyanoglu, Cankon

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the median long-term effects of positive surgical margin (PSM) and other prognostic factors on biochemical recurrence-free survival, overall survival, and biochemical failure in patients who underwent radical prostatectomy. Our study included 121 patients with pT2-3N0 disease treated between March 2006 and August 2012. The patients were divided into two groups: those with PSM and those with negative surgical margin (NSM). We analyzed the age, clinical and pathological stages, preoperative and postoperative Gleason scores, duration of the follow-up, adjuvant chemo-/radiotherapy, biochemical failure, biochemical recurrence-free survival, and overall survival in these patients. PSM was found in 25 (20%) patients, whereas 96 patients had NSM. The median follow-up time was 46.6 months (range 12-72 months) for the PSM group and 48.3 months (range 7-149 months) for the NSM group. The biochemical failure rate was 24% in the PSM group and 8.3% in the NSM group (p = 0.029). The biochemical recurrence-free survival was found as 76% in the PSM group and 91.7% in the NSM group. The difference between the groups was not statistically significant (p = 0.06). The overall survival was 100% in both groups. The surgical margins of the radical prostatectomy material is an important pathological indicator for biochemical failure at mid long-term follow-up. We did not find any effect of PSM on overall survival or biochemical recurrence-free survival.

  12. Atazanavir and other determinants of hyperbilirubinemia in a cohort of 1150 HIV-positive patients: results from 9 years of follow-up.

    PubMed

    Laprise, Claudie; Baril, Jean-Guy; Dufresne, Serge; Trottier, Helen

    2013-07-01

    Hyperbilirubinemia is common among patients exposed to atazanavir (ATV), but its long-term significance is not well documented. The objective was to analyze hyperbilirubinemia (incidence, regression, determinants, and outcome) among 1150 HIV-positive patients followed-up in a prospective cohort between 2003 and 2012. Cumulative incidence of hyperbilirubinemia grades 3-4 and its probability of regression were estimated using Kaplan-Meier method. Cox proportional hazards model was used to study the determinants. Generalized estimating equation (GEE) regression was used to evaluate the association between hyperbilirubinemia grades 3-4 and adverse health outcome. Eight years cumulative incidence of hyperbilirubinemia was 83.6% (95% CI:79.0-87.7) and 6.6% (95% CI:4.7-9.2) among ATV users and non-users, respectively. This clinical outcome fluctuated considerably, as most patients exposed to ATV (91%) regressed, transiently, to lower grade at some point during follow-up. Determinants were atazanavir (HR=147.90, 95% CI: 33.64-604.18), ritonavir (HR=5.18, 95% CI:2.33-11.48), zidovudine (HR=2.62, 95% CI:1.07-6.46), and age (HR=1.04 95% CI:1.01-1.08). Alcohol consumption and others non-antiretroviral medications including hepatotoxic and recreational drugs were not available for analyses. Incidence of hyperbilirubinemia was very high among ATV users and, although regression to lower grade was frequent in the clinical follow-up of these patients, this was usually transient as the mean level of bilirubin stayed at a relatively high level. Importantly, long-term hyperbilirubinemia was not associated with adverse health outcome.

  13. Some Synonymous and Nonsynonymous gyrA Mutations in Mycobacterium tuberculosis Lead to Systematic False-Positive Fluoroquinolone Resistance Results with the Hain GenoType MTBDRsl Assays

    PubMed Central

    Ajileye, Adebisi; Alvarez, Nataly; Merker, Matthias; Walker, Timothy M.; Akter, Suriya; Brown, Kerstin; Moradigaravand, Danesh; Schön, Thomas; Andres, Sönke; Schleusener, Viola; Omar, Shaheed V.; Coll, Francesc; Huang, Hairong; Diel, Roland; Ismail, Nazir; de Jong, Bouke C.; Peto, Tim E. A.; Crook, Derrick W.; Niemann, Stefan; Robledo, Jaime; Smith, E. Grace; Peacock, Sharon J.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT In this study, using the Hain GenoType MTBDRsl assays (versions 1 and 2), we found that some nonsynonymous and synonymous mutations in gyrA in Mycobacterium tuberculosis result in systematic false-resistance results to fluoroquinolones by preventing the binding of wild-type probes. Moreover, such mutations can prevent the binding of mutant probes designed for the identification of specific resistance mutations. Although these mutations are likely rare globally, they occur in approximately 7% of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis strains in some settings. PMID:28137812

  14. Positive battery plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowlette, John R. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    The power characteristics of a lead acid battery are improved by incorporating a dispersion of 1 to 10% by weight of a thermodynamically stable conductivity additive, such as conductive tin oxide coated glass fibers (34) of filamentary glass wool (42) in the positive active layer (32) carried on the grid (30) of the positive plate (16). Positive plate potential must be kept high enough to prevent reduction of the tin oxide to tin by utilizing an oversized, precharged positive paste.

  15. Insufficient neutralization in testing a chlorhexidine-containing ethanol-based hand rub can result in a false positive efficacy assessment

    PubMed Central

    Kampf, Günter; Shaffer, Marc; Hunte, Corrine

    2005-01-01

    Background Effective neutralization in testing hand hygiene preparations is considered to be a crucial element to ensure validity of the test results, especially with the difficulty to neutralize chlorhexidine gluconate. Aim of the study was to measure the effect of chemical neutralization under practical test conditions according to EN 1500. Methods We have investigated two ethanol-based hand rubs (product A, based on 61% ethanol and 1% chlorhexidine gluconate; product B, based on 85% ethanol). The efficacy of products (application of 3 ml for 30 s) was compared to 2-propanol 60% (v/v) (two 3 ml rubs of 30 s each) on hands artificially contaminated with Escherichia coli using a cross-over design with 15 volunteers. Pre-values were obtained by rubbing fingertips for 1 minute in liquid broth. Post-values were determined by sampling immediately after disinfection in liquid broth with and without neutralizers (0.5% lecithin, 4% polysorbate 20). Results The neutralizers were found to be effective and non-toxic. Without neutralization in the sampling fluid, the reference disinfection reduced the test bacteria by 3.7 log10, product B by 3.3 log10 and product A by 4.8 log10 (P = 0.001; ANOVA). With neutralization the reference disinfection reduced the test bacteria by 3.5 log10, product B by 3.3 log10 and product A by 2.7 log10 (P = 0.011; ANOVA). In comparison to the reference treatment Product B lead to a lower mean reduction than the reference disinfection but the difference was not significant (P > 0.1; Wilcoxon-Wilcox test). Without neutralizing agents in the sampling fluid, product A yielded a significantly higher reduction of test bacteria (4.8; P = 0.02) as compared to the situation with neutralizing agents (2.7; P = 0.033). Conclusion The crucial step of neutralization lies in the sampling fluid itself in order to stop any residual bacteriostatic or bactericidal activity immediately after the application of the preparation, especially with chlorhexidine gluconate

  16. Electrophoresis of Positioned Nucleosomes

    PubMed Central

    Castelnovo, Martin; Grauwin, Sébastian

    2007-01-01

    We present in this article an original approach to compute the electrophoretic mobility of rigid nucleo-protein complexes like nucleosomes. This model allows us to address theoretically the influence of complex position along DNA, as well as wrapped length of DNA on the electrophoretic mobility of the complex. The predictions of the model are in qualitative agreement with experimental results on mononucleosomes assembled on short DNA fragments (<400 bp). Influences of additional experimental parameters like gel concentration, ionic strength, and effective charges are also discussed in the framework of the model, and are found to be qualitatively consistent with experiments when available. Based on the present model, we propose a simple semi-empirical formula describing positioning of nucleosomes as seen through electrophoresis. PMID:17277181

  17. Implementation of Departmental Quality Strategies Is Positively Associated with Clinical Practice: Results of a Multicenter Study in 73 Hospitals in 7 European Countries

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Given the amount of time and resources invested in implementing quality programs in hospitals, few studies have investigated their clinical impact and what strategies could be recommended to enhance its effectiveness. Objective To assess variations in clinical practice and explore associations with hospital- and department-level quality management systems. Design Multicenter, multilevel cross-sectional study. Setting and Participants Seventy-three acute care hospitals with 276 departments managing acute myocardial infarction, deliveries, hip fracture, and stroke in seven countries. Intervention None. Measures Predictor variables included 3 hospital- and 4 department-level quality measures. Six measures were collected through direct observation by an external surveyor and one was assessed through a questionnaire completed by hospital quality managers. Dependent variables included 24 clinical practice indicators based on case note reviews covering the 4 conditions (acute myocardial infarction, deliveries, hip fracture and stroke). A directed acyclic graph was used to encode relationships between predictors, outcomes, and covariates and to guide the choice of covariates to control for confounding. Results and Limitations Data were provided on 9021 clinical records by 276 departments in 73 hospitals. There were substantial variations in compliance with the 24 clinical practice indicators. Weak associations were observed between hospital quality systems and 4 of the 24 indicators, but on analyzing department-level quality systems, strong associations were observed for 8 of the 11 indicators for acute myocardial infarction and stroke. Clinical indicators supported by higher levels of evidence were more frequently associated with quality systems and activities. Conclusions There are significant gaps between recommended standards of care and clinical practice in a large sample of hospitals. Implementation of department-level quality strategies was significantly

  18. Milk yield and lactation stage are associated with positive results to ELISA for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in dairy cows from Northern Antioquia, Colombia: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Correa-Valencia, Nathalia María; Ramírez, Nicolás Fernando; Olivera, Martha; Fernández-Silva, Jorge Arturo

    2016-08-01

    Paratuberculosis is a slow-developing infectious disease characterized by chronic granulomatous enterocolitis. This disease has a variable incubation period from 6 months to over 15 years and is caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). Some studies have been conducted in cattle during the last decades in Colombia. However, those studies were designed using relatively small populations and were not aimed to establish prevalence. This study aimed to determine the MAP seroprevalence in selected dairy herds and to explore risk factors associated with the serology results. Serum samples and related data were collected from 696 randomly selected bovines in 28 dairy herds located in 12 different districts in one of the main dairy municipalities in Colombia (San Pedro de los Milagros). The samples were analyzed using a commercial ELISA kit. The information on risk factors was analyzed using a logistic regression. The apparent seroprevalence was 3.6 % (1/28) at the herd level and 2 % (14/696) at the animal level. The number of days in milk production between 100 and 200 days, and over 200 days as well as the daily milk production between 20 and 40 L/cow, and over 40 L/cow were associated with MAP seropositivity with odds ratios of 4.42, 3.45, 2.53, and 20.38, respectively. This study demonstrates the MAP seroprevalence in dairy herds from Antioquia, Colombia and the possible relationship between MAP seropositivity, milk yield, and lactation stage.

  19. Social determinants of health associated with hepatitis C co-infection among people living with HIV: results from the Positive Spaces, Healthy Places study

    PubMed Central

    Rourke, Sean B; Sobota, Michael; Tucker, Ruthann; Bekele, Tsegaye; Gibson, Katherine; Greene, Saara; Price, Colleen; Koornstra, J J (Jay); Monette, LaVerne; Byers, Steve; Watson, James; Hwang, Stephen W; Guenter, Dale; Dunn, James; Ahluwalia, Amrita; Wilson, Michael G; Bacon, Jean

    2011-01-01

    Background Social determinants of health (SDOH) may influence the probability of people living with HIV also being infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). We compared the SDOH of adults co-infected with HCV/HIV with that of HIV mono-infected adults to identify factors independently associated with HCV infection. Methods In this cross-sectional study, face-to-face interviews were conducted with 509 HIV-infected adults affiliated with or receiving services from community-based AIDS service organizations (CBAOs). The primary outcome measure was self-reported HCV infection status. Chi-square, Student’s t tests, and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests were performed to compare SDOH of HCV/HIV co-infected participants with that of HIV mono-infected participants. Multivariable hierarchical logistic regression was used to identify factors independently associated with HCV co-infection. Results Data on 482 (95 HCV/HIV co-infected and 387 HIV mono-infected) adults were analyzed. Compared with participants infected with HIV only, those who were co-infected with HIV and HCV were more likely to be heterosexual, Aboriginal, less educated and unemployed. They were more likely to have a low income, to not be receiving antiretroviral treatment, to live outside the Greater Toronto Area (GTA), to use/abuse substances, experience significant depression, and utilize addiction counselling and needle-exchange services. They also were more likely to report a history of homelessness and perceived housing-related discrimination and to have moved twice or more in the previous 12 months. Factors independently associated with HCV/HIV co-infection were history of incarceration (odds ratio [OR] 8.81, 95% CI 4.43–17.54), history of homelessness (OR 3.15, 95% CI 1.59–6.26), living outside of the GTA (OR 3.13, 95% CI 1.59–6.15), and using/abusing substances in the past 12 months (OR 2.05, 95% CI 1.07–3.91). Conclusion Differences in SDOH exist between HIV/HCV co-infected and HIV mono-infected adults

  20. Costs of health resource utilization among HIV-positive individuals in British Columbia, Canada: Results from a population-level study

    PubMed Central

    Nosyk, B; Lima, V; Colley, G; Yip, B; Hogg, RS; Montaner, JSG

    2015-01-01

    Background Through delayed HIV disease progression, Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) may reduce direct medical costs, thus at least partially offsetting therapy costs. Recent findings regarding the secondary preventive benefits of HAART necessitate careful consideration of funding allocations for HIV/AIDS care. Our objective is to estimate non-HAART direct medical costs at different levels of disease progression and over time in British Columbia, Canada. Methods We considered the population of individuals with HIV/AIDS within a set of linked disease registries and health administrative databases (N=11,836) from 1996–2010. Costs of hospitalization, physician billing, diagnostic testing and non-HAART medications were calculated in 2010$CDN. Effects of covariates on quarterly costs were assessed with a two-part model with logit for probability of nonzero costs and a generalized linear model (GLM). Net effects of CD4 strata on direct non-HAART medical costs were evaluated over time during the study period. Results Compared to person-quarters in which CD4>500mm3, costs were $185(95% confidence interval:132,239) greater for CD4:350–500mm3, $441(366,516) greater for CD4 200–350mm3 and $1173(1051,1294) greater when CD4<200mm3. Prior to HIV care initiation, individuals incurred costs $385(283,487) greater than in periods with CD4>500mm3. Hospitalization comprised the majority of the increment in costs amongst those with no measured CD4. Evaluated at CD4 state conditional means, those with CD4<200mm3 incurred quarterly costs of $5781(4716,6846), versus $1307(1154,1460) (p<0.001) for CD4≥500mm3 in 2010. Conclusion Non-HAART direct medical costs were substantially lower for individuals during periods of sustained virologic suppression and high CD4 count. HIV treatment and prevention evaluations require detailed health resource use data to inform funding allocation decisions. PMID:25404425

  1. Verification of false-positive blood culture results generated by the BACTEC 9000 series by eubacterial 16S rDNA and panfungal 18S rDNA directed polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

    PubMed

    Daxboeck, Florian; Dornbusch, Hans Jürgen; Krause, Robert; Assadian, Ojan; Wenisch, Christoph

    2004-01-01

    A small but significant proportion of blood cultures processed by the BACTEC 9000 series systems is signaled positive, while subsequent Gram's stain and culture on solid media yield no pathogens. In this study, 15 "false-positive" vials (7 aerobes, 8 anaerobes) from 15 patients were investigated for the presence of bacteria and fungi by eubacterial 16S rDNA and panfungal 18S rDNA amplification, respectively. All samples turned out negative by both methods. Most patients (7) had neutropenia, which does not support the theory that high leukocyte counts enhance the generation of false-positive results. In conclusion, the results of this study indicate that false-negative results generated by the BACTEC 9000 series are inherent to the automated detection and not due to the growth of fastidious organisms.

  2. Early Results of Pilot Study Using Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Positive Kidneys to Transplant HCV Infected Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease Allowing for Successful Interferon-Free Direct Acting Antiviral Therapy after Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Gallegos-Orozco, Juan F; Kim, Robin; Thiesset, Heather F; Hatch, Jenny; Lynch, Keisa; Chaly, Jr, Thomas; Shihab, Fuad; Ahmed, Faris; Hall, Isaac

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in kidney transplant (KTX) patients reduces long-term patient and graft survival. Direct-acting antivirals (DAA) are > 90% effective in achieving sustained viral response (SVR); however, DAAs are not routinely available to patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The University of Utah Transplant Program developed a protocol to allow HCV-positive potential KTX recipients to accept HCV-positive donors' kidneys. Three months after successful KTX, they were eligible for DAA therapy. Methods: HCV-positive patients approved for KTX by the University of Utah Transplant Selection Committee were eligible to be enrolled in this study. Patients consented for the use of HCV-positive donor organs. Three to six months after successful KTX, these patients were treated for HCV with interferon-free direct-acting antiviral regimens according to viral genotype and prior treatment experience. Results: Between 2014-2015, 12 HCV-positive patients were listed for KTX. Eight patients were kidney only eligible, seven patients received HCV-positive deceased donor kidneys, and one received an HCV-negative organ. Currently, six patients have completed treatment, all have achieved sustained viral response (SVR), and one patient is currently awaiting treatment. All seven patients have functioning kidney grafts. Wait time for KTX was reduced amongst all blood groups from an average of 1,350 days to only 65 days. Conclusions: HCV-positive patients with ESRD can successfully receive an HCV-positive donor's kidney. Once transplanted, these patients can receive DAA therapy and achieve SVR. Use of HCV-positive organs reduced time on the waitlist by greater than three years and expanded the donor organ pool. PMID:28018760

  3. Dimensional changes in stone models simulating full crown preparations with adjacent teeth resulting from long-term immersion of medium-viscosity addition-type silicone rubber impressions in disinfectant solutions.

    PubMed

    Hiraguchi, Hisako; Iwasaki, Yukiko; Iwasaki, Eriko; Kikuchi, Hisaji; Hirose, Hideharu; Yoneyama, Takayuki

    2015-01-01

    If impression materials could be immersed in disinfectant solutions for a longer period, then this form of disinfection would be easier to incorporate into dental preparation procedures. This study investigated the dimensional changes in stone models resulting from immersion of medium-viscosity hydrophilic addition-type silicone rubber impression material in disinfectant solutions for 30 min and 24 h. Impressions of a master die designed to simulate a full crown preparation with adjacent teeth were immersed in 2% glutaraldehyde and 0.55% ortho-phthalaldehyde solutions. The dimensional changes in the mesiodistal and buccolingual dimensions in the stone models were then measured using a three-dimensional coordinate system. It was found that the dimensional changes in the stone models caused by immersion of the impression materials were less than 15 μm. Immersion in 2% glutaraldehyde or 0.55% ortho-phthalaldehyde for 24 h was as clinically acceptable for medium-viscosity hydrophilic addition-type silicone rubber impressions as immersion for 30 min.

  4. Nursing Positions

    MedlinePlus

    ... breast with your other hand. The Clutch or Football Hold This is also a good position for ... same time may also choose this position. The football hold allows babies to take milk more easily — ...

  5. Positive Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Positive psychology is a deliberate correction to the focus of psychology on problems. Positive psychology does not deny the difficulties that people may experience but does suggest that sole attention to disorder leads to an incomplete view of the human condition. Positive psychologists concern themselves with four major topics: (1) positive…

  6. Smog control fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Lundby, W.

    1993-06-29

    A method is described of controlling, reducing or eliminating, ozone and related smog resulting from photochemical reactions between ozone and automotive or industrial gases comprising the addition of iodine or compounds of iodine to hydrocarbon-base fuels prior to or during combustion in an amount of about 1 part iodine per 240 to 10,000,000 parts fuel, by weight, to be accomplished by: (a) the addition of these inhibitors during or after the refining or manufacturing process of liquid fuels; (b) the production of these inhibitors for addition into fuel tanks, such as automotive or industrial tanks; or (c) the addition of these inhibitors into combustion chambers of equipment utilizing solid fuels for the purpose of reducing ozone.

  7. Functional Generalized Additive Models.

    PubMed

    McLean, Mathew W; Hooker, Giles; Staicu, Ana-Maria; Scheipl, Fabian; Ruppert, David

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the functional generalized additive model (FGAM), a novel regression model for association studies between a scalar response and a functional predictor. We model the link-transformed mean response as the integral with respect to t of F{X(t), t} where F(·,·) is an unknown regression function and X(t) is a functional covariate. Rather than having an additive model in a finite number of principal components as in Müller and Yao (2008), our model incorporates the functional predictor directly and thus our model can be viewed as the natural functional extension of generalized additive models. We estimate F(·,·) using tensor-product B-splines with roughness penalties. A pointwise quantile transformation of the functional predictor is also considered to ensure each tensor-product B-spline has observed data on its support. The methods are evaluated using simulated data and their predictive performance is compared with other competing scalar-on-function regression alternatives. We illustrate the usefulness of our approach through an application to brain tractography, where X(t) is a signal from diffusion tensor imaging at position, t, along a tract in the brain. In one example, the response is disease-status (case or control) and in a second example, it is the score on a cognitive test. R code for performing the simulations and fitting the FGAM can be found in supplemental materials available online.

  8. Addition of a single E2 binding site to the human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 long control region enhances killing of HPV positive cells via HPV E2 protein-regulated herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase-mediated suicide gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rachna; Palefsky, Joel M

    2010-07-01

    Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) is associated with the development of anogenital cancers and their precursor lesions, intraepithelial neoplasia. Treatment strategies against HPV-induced intraepithelial neoplasia are not HPV specific and mostly consist of physical removal or ablation of lesions. We had previously designed an HPV-specific approach to kill HPV-infected cells by the herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase (TK) gene driven by HPV E2 binding to E2-binding sites (E2BS) in the native HPV16 long control region. E2-induced TK expression renders the cells sensitive to the prodrug ganciclovir. To optimize this therapeutic approach, we modified the native long control region by adding variable numbers of E2BS adjacent to E2BS4, resulting in greatly increased cell death in HPV-positive cell lines with variable levels of E2 protein expression and no reduction in HPV specificity. Our results showed maximum increase in TK expression and cell killing when one additional E2BS was added adjacent to E2BS. As HPV-infected patients also exhibit variable E2 expression across lesions and within a lesion, this approach may potentiate the clinical utility of the herpes simplex virus type 1 TK/ganciclovir therapeutic approach.

  9. A centrally generated primary care physician audit report does not improve colonoscopy uptake after a positive result on a fecal occult blood test in Ontario’s ColonCancerCheck program

    PubMed Central

    Stock, D.; Rabeneck, L.; Baxter, N.N.; Paszat, L.F.; Sutradhar, R.; Yun, L.; Tinmouth, J.

    2017-01-01

    Background Timely follow-up of fecal occult blood screening with colonoscopy is essential for achieving colorectal cancer mortality reduction. In the present study, we evaluated the effectiveness of centrally generated, physician-targeted audit and feedback to improve colonoscopy uptake after a positive fecal occult blood test (fobt) result within Ontario’s population-wide ColonCancerCheck Program. Methods This prospective cohort study used data sets from Ontario’s ColonCancerCheck Program (2008–2011) that were linked to provincial administrative health databases. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate the effect of centralized, physician-targeted audit and feedback on colonoscopy uptake in an Ontario-wide fobt-positive cohort. Results A mailed physician audit and feedback report identifying individuals outstanding for colonoscopy for 3 or more months after a positive fobt result did not increase the likelihood of colonoscopy uptake (hazard ratio: 0.95; 95% confidence interval: 0.79 to 1.13). Duration of positive fobt status was strongly inversely associated with the hazard of follow-up colonoscopy (p for linear trend: <0.001). Conclusions In a large population-wide setting, centralized tracking in the form of physician-targeted mailed audit and feedback reports does not improve colonoscopy uptake for screening participants with a positive fobt result outstanding for 3 or more months. Mailed physician-targeted screening audit and feedback reports alone are unlikely to improve compliance with follow-up colonoscopy in Ontario. Other interventions such as physician audits or automatic referrals, demonstrated to be effective in other jurisdictions, might be warranted. PMID:28270725

  10. Positive Psychotherapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seligman, Martin E. P.; Rashid, Tayyab; Parks, Acacia C.

    2006-01-01

    Positive psychotherapy (PPT) contrasts with standard interventions for depression by increasing positive emotion, engagement, and meaning rather than directly targeting depressive symptoms. The authors have tested the effects of these interventions in a variety of settings. In informal student and clinical settings, people not uncommonly reported…

  11. Health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis. Modification of models resulting from addition of effects of exposure to alpha-emitting radionuclides: Revision 1, Part 2, Scientific bases for health effects models, Addendum 2

    SciTech Connect

    Abrahamson, S.; Bender, M.A.; Boecker, B.B.; Scott, B.R.; Gilbert, E.S.

    1993-05-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has sponsored several studies to identify and quantify, through the use of models, the potential health effects of accidental releases of radionuclides from nuclear power plants. The Reactor Safety Study provided the basis for most of the earlier estimates related to these health effects. Subsequent efforts by NRC-supported groups resulted in improved health effects models that were published in the report entitled {open_quotes}Health Effects Models for Nuclear Power Plant Consequence Analysis{close_quotes}, NUREG/CR-4214, 1985 and revised further in the 1989 report NUREG/CR-4214, Rev. 1, Part 2. The health effects models presented in the 1989 NUREG/CR-4214 report were developed for exposure to low-linear energy transfer (LET) (beta and gamma) radiation based on the best scientific information available at that time. Since the 1989 report was published, two addenda to that report have been prepared to (1) incorporate other scientific information related to low-LET health effects models and (2) extend the models to consider the possible health consequences of the addition of alpha-emitting radionuclides to the exposure source term. The first addendum report, entitled {open_quotes}Health Effects Models for Nuclear Power Plant Accident Consequence Analysis, Modifications of Models Resulting from Recent Reports on Health Effects of Ionizing Radiation, Low LET Radiation, Part 2: Scientific Bases for Health Effects Models,{close_quotes} was published in 1991 as NUREG/CR-4214, Rev. 1, Part 2, Addendum 1. This second addendum addresses the possibility that some fraction of the accident source term from an operating nuclear power plant comprises alpha-emitting radionuclides. Consideration of chronic high-LET exposure from alpha radiation as well as acute and chronic exposure to low-LET beta and gamma radiations is a reasonable extension of the health effects model.

  12. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamine, containing phenylethvnvl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynviphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pvrrolidinone to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  13. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamines containing phenylethynyl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynylphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidi none to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  14. Serosorting and recreational drug use are risk factors for diagnosis of genital infection with chlamydia and gonorrhoea among HIV-positive men who have sex with men: results from a clinical cohort in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Grewal, Ramandip; Allen, Vanessa G; Gardner, Sandra; Moravan, Veronika; Raboud, Janet; Bayoumi, Ahmed M; Kaul, Rupert; Mazzulli, Tony; McGee, Frank; Rourke, Sean B; Burchell, Ann N

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Rates of chlamydia and gonorrhoea have been rising in urban centres in Canada, particularly among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM). Our objective was to identify behavioural risk factors for diagnosis with chlamydia and gonorrhoea in this population, with a focus on the HIV status of sexual partners. Methods The OHTN Cohort Study follows people in HIV care across Ontario. We restricted the analysis to 1997 MSM who completed questionnaires in 2010–2013 at one of seven clinics that submit all chlamydia and gonorrhoea tests to the provincial public health laboratory; we obtained test results via record linkage. We estimated cumulative incidences using Kaplan–Meier methods and identified risk factors for diagnosis of a composite outcome (chlamydia or gonorrhoea infection) using Cox regression. Results At follow-up, there were 74 new chlamydia/gonorrhoea diagnoses with a 12-month cumulative incidence of 1.7% (95% CI 1.1% to 2.2%). Risk factors for chlamydia/gonorrhoea diagnosis were: 5+ HIV-positive partners (HR=3.3, 95% CI 1.4 to 7.8; reference=none) and recreational drug use (HR=2.2, 95% CI 1.2 to 3.9). Conclusions Heightened risks with recreational drug use and multiple HIV-positive partners suggest that chlamydia/gonorrhoea may have achieved high prevalence in certain sexual networks among HIV-positive MSM. Interventions to promote safer sex and timely testing among MSM are needed. PMID:27154185

  15. Prevalence of positive antibody test results for canine parvovirus (CPV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) and response to modified live vaccination against CPV and CDV in dogs entering animal shelters.

    PubMed

    Litster, Annette; Nichols, Jamieson; Volpe, Allison

    2012-05-25

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) infections are relatively common in animal shelters and are important population management issues since the immune status of incoming dogs is usually unknown. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of positive antibody test results for CPV and CDV in incoming dogs aged ≥ 4 months and to measure antibody response over 2 weeks following vaccination with a modified live vaccine (MLV). Dogs aged 4-24 months entering an adoption-guarantee shelter (Shelter 1, n=51) and aged ≥ 4 months entering a limited admission shelter (Shelter 2; n=51) were enrolled. Dogs from Shelter 1 had been vaccinated with MLV at a municipal shelter 5 days before enrollment, whereas dogs from Shelter 2 had no known history of vaccination at enrollment. Sera were obtained on day 1, immediately prior to CPV/CDV MLV, and tested using an in-clinic ELISA kit to detect CPV/CDV antibodies. Dogs negative for CPV and/or CDV were retested at day 6-8 and those dogs still negative at day 6-8 were retested at day 13-15. Prior to CPV/CDV MLV on day 1, more dogs tested positive for CPV (Shelter 1 - 68.6%; Shelter 2 - 84.3%) than for CDV (Shelter 1 - 37.3%; Shelter 2 - 41.2%). On day 1, prior to MLV, all spayed/neutered animals tested CPV antibody-positive (n=17/102) and CPV antibody-positive dogs were older than serologically negative dogs (Shelter 1, P=0.0029; Shelter 2, P=0.0042). By day 13-15, almost all dogs were CPV antibody-positive (Shelter 1 - 97.9%; Shelter 2 - 100.0%) and CDV antibody-positive (Shelter 1 - 93.8%; Shelter 2 - 97.8%). MLV induces protective antibody titers against CPV/CDV in almost all dogs after 13-15 days.

  16. Overview of differences between microbial feed additives and probiotics for food regarding regulation, growth promotion effects and health properties and consequences for extrapolation of farm animal results to humans.

    PubMed

    Bernardeau, M; Vernoux, J-P

    2013-04-01

    For many years, microbial adjuncts have been used to supplement the diets of farm animals and humans. They have evolved since the 1990s to become known as probiotics, i.e. functional food with health benefits. After the discovery of a possible link between manipulation of gut microflora in mice and obesity, a focus on the use of these beneficial microbes that act on gut microflora in animal farming was undertaken and compared with the use of probiotics for food. Beneficial microbes added to feed are classified at a regulatory level as zootechnical additives, in the category of gut flora stabilizers for healthy animals and are regulated up to strain level in Europe. Intended effects are improvement of performance characteristics, which are strain dependent and growth enhancement is not a prerequisite. In fact, increase of body weight is not commonly reported and its frequency is around 25% of the published data examined here. However, when a Body Weight Gain (BWG) was found in the literature, it was generally moderate (lower than or close to 10%) and this over a reduced period of their short industrial life. When it was higher than 10%, it could be explained as an indirect consequence of the alleviation of the weight losses linked to stressful intensive rearing conditions or health deficiency. However, regulations on feed do not consider the health effects because animals are supposed to be healthy, so there is no requirement for reporting healthy effects in the standard European dossier. The regulations governing the addition of beneficial microorganisms to food are less stringent than for feed and no dossier is required if a species has a Qualified Presumption of Safety status. The microbial strain marketed is not submitted to any regulation and its properties (including BWG) do not need to be studied. Only claims for functional or healthy properties are regulated and again growth effect is not included. However, recent studies on probiotic effects showed that BWG

  17. Addition of Nitazoxanide to PEG-IFN and Ribavirin to Improve HCV Treatment Response in HIV-1 and HCV Genotype 1 Coinfected Persons Naïve to HCV Therapy: Results of the ACTG A5269 Trial

    PubMed Central

    Amorosa, Valerianna K.; Luetkemeyer, Anne; Kang, Minhee; Johnson, Victoria A.; Umbleja, Triin; Haas, David W.; Yesmin, Suria; Bardin, Matthew C.; Chung, Ray T.; Alston-Smith, Beverly; Tebas, Pablo; Peters, Marion G.

    2014-01-01

    Background We hypothesized that nitazoxanide (NTZ) added to pegylated inter-feron alfa-2a (PEG-IFN) and weight-based ribavirin (WBR) would improve hepatitis C virus (HCV) virologic responses in HCV treatment-naïve HIV-1/HCV genotype 1 coin-fected persons. Methods Prospective, single-arm study in which subjects received 4-week lead-in (NTZ 500 mg twice daily) followed by 48 weeks of NTZ, PEG-IFN, and WBR. We compared the HCV virologic responses of these subjects to his­torical controls from the completed ACTG study A5178 who received PEG-IFN and WBR and had similar subject characteristics. Primary endpoints were early virologic response and complete early virologic response (EVR and cEVR). Results Among 67 subjects (78% male; 48% Black; median age, 50 years), EVR was achieved in 65.7% (90% CI, 55.0%–75.3%), cEVR in 38.8% (28.8%–49.6%). and SVR in 32.8% (23.4%–43.5%). EVR was higher with NTZ (51.4% in A5178; P = .03), but the sustained virologic response (SVR) proportion was similar (27.3% in A5178; P = .24). In contrast to A5178, SVR was similar across IL28B genotypes. Overall, NTZ was safe and well-tolerated. Conclusion Whereas EVR proportion improved significantly in this pilot study, the addition of NTZ to PEG-IFN/WBR did not significantly improve SVR compared to historical controls. NTZ may be associated with an attenuation of the effect of IL28B on HCV treatment response. PMID:24334180

  18. Nursing Positions

    MedlinePlus

    ... and actually needs to feed. Getting Comfortable With Breastfeeding Nursing can be one of the most challenging ... a mother. As you become more used to breastfeeding your baby, you can try different positions or ...

  19. Positive Proof.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auty, Geoffrey

    1988-01-01

    Presents experiments which show that in electrostatics there are logical reasons for describing charged materials as positive or negative. Indicates that static and current electricity are not separate areas of physics. Diagrams of experiments and circuits are included. (RT)

  20. Electrophilic addition of astatine

    SciTech Connect

    Norseev, Yu.V.; Vasaros, L.; Nhan, D.D.; Huan, N.K.

    1988-03-01

    It has been shown for the first time that astatine is capable of undergoing addition reactions to unsaturated hydrocarbons. A new compound of astatine, viz., ethylene astatohydrin, has been obtained, and its retention numbers of squalane, Apiezon, and tricresyl phosphate have been found. The influence of various factors on the formation of ethylene astatohydrin has been studied. It has been concluded on the basis of the results obtained that the univalent cations of astatine in an acidic medium is protonated hypoastatous acid.

  1. Different percentages of false-positive results obtained using five methods for the calculation of reference change values based on simulated normal and ln-normal distributions of data.

    PubMed

    Lund, Flemming; Petersen, Per Hyltoft; Fraser, Callum G; Sölétormos, György

    2016-11-01

    Background Reference change values provide objective tools to assess the significance of a change in two consecutive results for a biomarker from an individual. The reference change value calculation is based on the assumption that within-subject biological variation has random fluctuation around a homeostatic set point that follows a normal (Gaussian) distribution. This set point (or baseline in steady-state) should be estimated from a set of previous samples, but, in practice, decisions based on reference change value are often based on only two consecutive results. The original reference change value was based on standard deviations according to the assumption of normality, but was soon changed to coefficients of variation (CV) in the formula (reference change value = ± Z ċ 2(½) ċ CV). Z is being dependent on the desired probability of significance, which also defines the percentages of false-positive results. The aim of this study was to investigate false-positive results using five different published methods for calculation of reference change value. Methods The five reference change value methods were examined using normally and ln-normally distributed simulated data. Results One method performed best in approaching the theoretical false-positive percentages on normally distributed data and another method performed best on ln-normally distributed data. The commonly used reference change value method based on two results (without use of estimated set point) performed worst both on normally distributed and ln-normally distributed data. Conclusions The optimal choice of method to calculate reference change value limits requires knowledge of the distribution of data (normal or ln-normal) and, if possible, knowledge of the homeostatic set point.

  2. Quantitative PCR for determining the infectivity of bacteriophage MS2 upon inactivation by heat, UV-B radiation, and singlet oxygen: advantages and limitations of an enzymatic treatment to reduce false-positive results.

    PubMed

    Pecson, Brian M; Martin, Luisa Valério; Kohn, Tamar

    2009-09-01

    Health risks posed by waterborne viruses are difficult to assess because it is tedious or impossible to determine the infectivity of many viruses. Recent studies hypothesized that quantitative PCR (qPCR) could selectively quantify infective viruses if preceded by an enzymatic treatment (ET) to reduce confounding false-positive signals. The goal of this study was to determine if ET with qPCR (ET-qPCR) can be used to accurately quantify the infectivity of the human viral surrogate bacteriophage MS2 upon partial inactivation by three treatments (heating at 72 degrees C, singlet oxygen, and UV radiation). Viruses were inactivated in buffered solutions and a lake water sample and assayed with culturing, qPCR, and ET-qPCR. To ensure that inactivating genome damage was fully captured, primer sets that covered the entire coding region were used. The susceptibility of different genome regions and the maximum genomic damage after each inactivating treatment were compared. We found that (i) qPCR alone caused false-positive results for all treatments, (ii) ET-qPCR significantly reduced (up to >5.2 log units) but did not eliminate the false-positive signals, and (iii) the elimination of false-positive signals differed between inactivating treatments. By assaying the whole coding region, we demonstrated that genome damage only partially accounts for virus inactivation. The possibility of achieving complete accordance between culture- and PCR-based assays is therefore called into doubt. Despite these differences, we postulate that ET-qPCR can track infectivity, given that decreases in infectivity were always accompanied by dose-dependent decreases in ET-qPCR signal. By decreasing false-positive signals, ET-qPCR improved the detection of infectivity loss relative to qPCR.

  3. Competitive binding experiments can reduce the false positive results of affinity-based ultrafiltration-HPLC: A case study for identification of potent xanthine oxidase inhibitors from Perilla frutescens extract.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Kwon, Shin Hwa; Hwang, Seung Hwan; Kang, Young-Hee; Lee, Jae-Yong; Lim, Soon Sung

    2017-03-24

    The purpose of this study was to assess the possibility of using competitive binding experiments with ultrafiltration-HPLC analysis to identify potent xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitors from the Perilla frutescens extract as an attempt to reduce the number of false positive results. To isolate the enzyme-ligand complex from unbound compounds, the P. frutescens extract was either incubated in the absence of XO, in the presence of XO, or with the active site blocked XO before the ultrafiltration was performed. Allopurinaol was used as the XO active site blocker. The unbound compounds were subjected to HPLC analysis. The degree of total binding (TBD) and degree of specific binding (SBD) of each compound were calculated using the peak areas. TBD represents the binding affinities of compounds from the P. frutescens extract for the XO binding site. SBD represents the XO competitive binding between allopurinol and ligands from the extract samples. Two criteria were applied to select putative targets that could help avoid false positives. These include TBD>30% and SBD>10%. Using that approach, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside, rosmarinic acid, methyl-rosmarinic acid, apigenin, and 4',5,7-trimethoxyflavone were identified, from total 11 compounds, as potent XO inhibitors. Finally, apigenin, 4',5,7-trimethoxyflavone, and luteolin were XO inhibitors verified through an XO inhibition assay and structural simulation of the complex. These results showed that the newly developed strategy has the advantage that the number of targets identified via ultrafiltration-HPLC can be narrowed from many false positives. However, not all false positives can be eliminated with this approach. Some potent inhibitors might also be excluded with the use of this method. The limitations of this method are also discussed herein.

  4. Vinyl capped addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D. (Inventor); Malarik, Diane C. (Inventor); Delvigs, Peter (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Polyimide resins (PMR) are generally useful where high strength and temperature capabilities are required (at temperatures up to about 700 F). Polyimide resins are particularly useful in applications such as jet engine compressor components, for example, blades, vanes, air seals, air splitters, and engine casing parts. Aromatic vinyl capped addition polyimides are obtained by reacting a diamine, an ester of tetracarboxylic acid, and an aromatic vinyl compound. Low void materials with improved oxidative stability when exposed to 700 F air may be fabricated as fiber reinforced high molecular weight capped polyimide composites. The aromatic vinyl capped polyimides are provided with a more aromatic nature and are more thermally stable than highly aliphatic, norbornenyl-type end-capped polyimides employed in PMR resins. The substitution of aromatic vinyl end-caps for norbornenyl end-caps in addition polyimides results in polymers with improved oxidative stability.

  5. Positive psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Seligman, Martin E P; Rashid, Tayyab; Parks, Acacia C

    2006-11-01

    Positive psychotherapy (PPT) contrasts with standard interventions for depression by increasing positive emotion, engagement, and meaning rather than directly targeting depressive symptoms. The authors have tested the effects of these interventions in a variety of settings. In informal student and clinical settings, people not uncommonly reported them to be "life-changing." Delivered on the Web, positive psychology exercises relieved depressive symptoms for at least 6 months compared with placebo interventions, the effects of which lasted less than a week. In severe depression, the effects of these Web exercises were particularly striking. This address reports two preliminary studies: In the first, PPT delivered to groups significantly decreased levels of mild-to-moderate depression through 1-year follow-up. In the second, PPT delivered to individuals produced higher remission rates than did treatment as usual and treatment as usual plus medication among outpatients with major depressive disorder. Together, these studies suggest that treatments for depression may usefully be supplemented by exercises that explicitly increase positive emotion, engagement, and meaning. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Positive Psychologists on Positive Constructs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyubomirsky, Sonja

    2012-01-01

    Comments on the original article by McNulty and Fincham (see record 2011-15476-001). In their article, the authors offered compelling evidence that constructs such as forgiveness and optimism can have both beneficial and adverse consequences, depending on the context. Their caution about labeling particular psychological processes as "positive" is…

  7. Addition of cladribine to the standard induction treatment improves outcomes in a subset of elderly acute myeloid leukemia patients. Results of a randomized Polish Adult Leukemia Group (PALG) phase II trial.

    PubMed

    Pluta, Agnieszka; Robak, Tadeusz; Wrzesien-Kus, Agata; Katarzyna Budziszewska, Bozena; Sulek, Kazimierz; Wawrzyniak, Ewa; Czemerska, Magdalena; Zwolinska, Malgorzata; Golos, Aleksandra; Holowiecka-Goral, Aleksandra; Kyrcz-Krzemien, Slawomira; Piszcz, Jaroslaw; Kloczko, Janusz; Mordak-Domagala, Monika; Lange, Andrzej; Razny, Małgorzata; Madry, Krzysztof; Wiktor-Jedrzejczak, Wieslaw; Grosicki, Sebastian; Butrym, Aleksandra; Kuliczkowski, Kazimierz; Warzocha, Krzysztof; Holowiecki, Jerzy; Giebel, Sebastian; Szydlo, Richard; Wierzbowska, Agnieszka

    2017-04-01

    Intensive induction chemotherapy using anthracycline and cytarabine backbone is considered the most effective upfront therapy in physically fit older patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, outcomes of the standard induction in elderly AML are inferior to those observed in younger patients, and they are still unsatisfactory. As addition of cladribine to the standard induction therapy is known to improve outcome in younger AML patients. The present randomized phase II study compares efficacy and toxicity of the DAC (daunorubicin plus cytarabine plus cladribine) regimen with the standard DA (daunorubicin plus cytarabine) regimen in the newly diagnosed AML patients over 60 years of age. A total of 171 patients were enrolled in the study (DA, 86; DAC, 85). A trend toward higher complete remission (CR) was observed in the DAC arm compared to the DA arm (44% vs. 34%; P = .19), which did not lead to improved median overall survival, which in the case of the DAC group was 8.6 months compared to in 9.1 months in the DA group (P = .64). However, DAC appeared to be superior in the group of patients aged 60-65 (CR rate: DAC 51% vs. DA 29%; P = .02). What is more, a subgroup of patients, with good and intermediate karyotypes, benefited from addition of cladribine also in terms of overall survival (P = .02). No differences in hematological and nonhematological toxicity between the DA and DAC regimens were observed.

  8. Fludarabine and cytosine are less effective than standard ADE chemotherapy in high-risk acute myeloid leukemia, and addition of G-CSF and ATRA are not beneficial: results of the MRC AML-HR randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Milligan, Donald W; Wheatley, Keith; Littlewood, Timothy; Craig, Jenny I O; Burnett, Alan K

    2006-06-15

    The optimum chemotherapy schedule for reinduction of patients with high-risk acute myeloid leukemia (relapsed, resistant/refractory, or adverse genetic disease) is uncertain. The MRC AML (Medical Research Council Acute Myeloid Leukemia) Working Group designed a trial comparing fludarabine and high-dose cytosine (FLA) with standard chemotherapy comprising cytosine arabinoside, daunorubicin, and etoposide (ADE). Patients were also randomly assigned to receive filgrastim (G-CSF) from day 0 until neutrophil count was greater than 0.5 x 10(9)/L (or for a maximum of 28 days) and all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) for 90 days. Between 1998 and 2003, 405 patients were entered: 250 were randomly assigned between FLA and ADE; 356 to G-CSF versus no G-CSF; 362 to ATRA versus no ATRA. The complete remission rate was 61% with 4-year disease-free survival of 29%. There were no significant differences in the CR rate, deaths in CR, relapse rate, or DFS between ADE and FLA, although survival at 4 years was worse with FLA (16% versus 27%, P = .05). Neither the addition of ATRA nor G-CSF demonstrated any differences in the CR rate, relapse rate, DFS, or overall survival between the groups. In conclusion these findings indicate that FLA may be inferior to standard chemotherapy in high-risk AML and that the outcome is not improved with the addition of either G-CSF or ATRA.

  9. New addition curing polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frimer, Aryeh A.; Cavano, Paul

    1991-01-01

    In an attempt to improve the thermal-oxidative stability (TOS) of PMR-type polymers, the use of 1,4-phenylenebis (phenylmaleic anhydride) PPMA, was evaluated. Two series of nadic end-capped addition curing polyimides were prepared by imidizing PPMA with either 4,4'-methylene dianiline or p-phenylenediamine. The first resulted in improved solubility and increased resin flow while the latter yielded a compression molded neat resin sample with a T(sub g) of 408 C, close to 70 C higher than PME-15. The performance of these materials in long term weight loss studies was below that of PMR-15, independent of post-cure conditions. These results can be rationalized in terms of the thermal lability of the pendant phenyl groups and the incomplete imidization of the sterically congested PPMA. The preparation of model compounds as well as future research directions are discussed.

  10. Gene Positioning

    PubMed Central

    Ferrai, Carmelo; de Castro, Inês Jesus; Lavitas, Liron; Chotalia, Mita; Pombo, Ana

    2010-01-01

    Eukaryotic gene expression is an intricate multistep process, regulated within the cell nucleus through the activation or repression of RNA synthesis, processing, cytoplasmic export, and translation into protein. The major regulators of gene expression are chromatin remodeling and transcription machineries that are locally recruited to genes. However, enzymatic activities that act on genes are not ubiquitously distributed throughout the nucleoplasm, but limited to specific and spatially defined foci that promote preferred higher-order chromatin arrangements. The positioning of genes within the nuclear landscape relative to specific functional landmarks plays an important role in gene regulation and disease. PMID:20484389

  11. POSITIONING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Wall, R.R.; Peterson, D.L.

    1959-09-15

    A positioner is described for a vertical reactor-control rod. The positioner comprises four grooved friction rotatable members that engage the control rod on all sides and shift it longitudinally. The four friction members are drivingly interconnected for conjoint rotation and comprise two pairs of coaxial members. The members of each pair are urged toward one another by hydraulic or pneumatic pressure and thus grip the control rod so as to hold it in any position or adjust it. Release of the by-draulic or pneumatic pressure permits springs between the friction members of each pair to force them apart, whereby the control rod moves quickly by gravity into the reactor.

  12. Positioning apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Vogel, Max A.; Alter, Paul

    1986-01-01

    An apparatus for precisely positioning materials test specimens within the optimum neutron flux path emerging from a neutron source located in a housing. The test specimens are retained in a holder mounted on the free end of a support pivotably mounted and suspended from a movable base plate. The support is gravity biased to urge the holder in a direction longitudinally of the flux path against the housing. Means are provided for moving the base plate in two directions to effect movement of the holder in two mutually perpendicular directions normal to the axis of the flux path.

  13. Positioning apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Vogel, Max A.; Alter, Paul

    1986-05-06

    An apparatus for precisely positioning materials test specimens within the optimum neutron flux path emerging from a neutron source located in a housing. The test specimens are retained in a holder mounted on the free end of a support pivotably mounted and suspended from a movable base plate. The support is gravity biased to urge the holder in a direction longitudinally of the flux path against the housing. Means are provided for moving the base plate in two directions to effect movement of the holder in two mutually perpendicular directions normal to the axis of the flux path.

  14. Positioning apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Vogel, M.A.; Alter, P.

    1983-07-07

    An apparatus is provided for precisely adjusting the position of an article relative to a beam emerging from a neutron source disposed in a housing. The apparatus includes a support pivotably mounted on a movable base plate and freely suspended therefrom. The support is gravity biased toward the housing and carries an article holder movable in a first direction longitudinally of the axis of said beam and normally urged into engagement against said housing. Means are provided for moving the base plate in two directions to effect movement of the suspended holder in two mutually perpendicular directions, respectively, normal to the axis of the beam.

  15. [Autoimmune processes after long-term low-level exposure to electromagnetic fields (the results of an experiment). Part 1. Mobile communications and changes in electromagnetic conditions for the population. Needs for additional substantiation of the existing hygienic standards].

    PubMed

    Grigor'ev, Iu G; Grigor'ev, O A; Ivanov, A A; Liaginskaia, A M; Merkulov, A V; Stepanov, V S; Shagina, N B

    2010-01-01

    Mobile communications provides a new source of electromagnetic exposure for almost the whole population of the Russian Federation. For the first time in the history of civilization the brain of mobile phone users was exposed to localized radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMF). Population exposure from the base stations is also considered to be specific. However, existing standards for limiting the exposure do not account for this special EMF source and may not ensure the absence of health effects. There was a need for reliable information that would extend databases used for development of new standards. As recommended by the World Health Organization an additional experiment was performed under the supervision of foreign experts, which showed changes in autoimmune status in rats after long-term low-level RF EMF exposure with an incident power density of 500 microW/cm2.

  16. Combination therapy with ONO-KK1-300-01, a cathepsin K inhibitor, and parathyroid hormone results in additive beneficial effect on bone mineral density in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Ochi, Yasuo; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Mori, Hiroshi; Kawada, Naoki; Tanaka, Makoto; Imagawa, Akira; Ohmoto, Kazuyuki; Kawabata, Kazuhito

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a novel cathepsin K inhibitor, ONO-KK1-300-01 (KK1-300), used concurrently with parathyroid hormone (PTH) in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. KK1-300 (3 mg/kg, twice daily), alendronate (1 mg/kg, once daily) or vehicle were orally administered to OVX rats for 56 days, starting the day after ovariectomy, followed by combination treatment with or without PTH (3 μg/kg, subcutaneously three times a week) for another 28 days. OVX control animals exhibited a significant increase in both bone resorption (urinary deoxypyridinoline; DPD) and formation markers (serum osteocalcin) as well as microstructural changes associated with decreased bone mineral density (BMD). Combination treatment with KK1-300 and PTH significantly decreased urinary DPD and increased serum osteocalcin, indicating a sustained beneficial effect compared to the effect of each mono-therapy. On the other hand, combination therapy with alendronate and PTH weakened the PTH-induced increase in osteocalcin. In proximal tibia, combination treatment with KK1-300 and PTH increased BMD to a level significantly higher than that achieved following single treatment with KK1-300 or PTH alone. On the other hand, combination treatment with alendronate and PTH failed to produce any significant additive effect on BMD following single treatment with alendronate or PTH alone. Microstructural analysis revealed that the PTH-induced increase in bone formation (MS/BS and BFR/BS) was fully maintained following combination treatment with KK1-300 and PTH, but not following combination treatment with alendronate and PTH. These findings indicate that KK1-300, unlike alendronate, has an additive effect on the preventive action of PTH on bone loss in OVX rats.

  17. Intensification of Antiretroviral Therapy through Addition of Enfuvirtide in Naive HIV-1-Infected Patients with Severe Immunosuppression Does Not Improve Immunological Response: Results of a Randomized Multicenter Trial (ANRS 130 Apollo)

    PubMed Central

    Fagard, Catherine; Grondin, Carine; Descamps, Diane; Yazdanpanah, Yazdan; Charpentier, Charlotte; Colin de Verdiere, Nathalie; Tabuteau, Sophie; Raffi, François; Cabie, André; Chene, Geneviève; Yeni, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    We studied whether addition of enfuvirtide (ENF) to a background combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) would improve the CD4 cell count response at week 24 in naive patients with advanced HIV disease. ANRS 130 Apollo is a randomized study, conducted in naive HIV-1-infected patients, either asymptomatic with CD4 counts of <100/mm3 or stage B/C disease with CD4 counts of <200/mm3. Patients received tenofovir-emtricitabine with lopinavir-ritonavir (LPV/r) or efavirenz and were randomized to receive ENF for 24 weeks (ENF arm) or not (control arm). The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with CD4 counts of ≥200/mm3 at week 24. A total of 195 patients were randomized: 73% had stage C disease, 78% were male, the mean age was 44 years, the median CD4 count was 30/mm3, and the median HIV-1 RNA load was 5.4 log10 copies/ml. Eighty-one percent of patients received LPV/r. One patient was lost to follow-up, and eight discontinued the study (four in each arm). The proportions of patients with CD4 counts of ≥200/mm3 at week 24 were 34% and 38% in the ENF and control arms, respectively (P = 0.53). The proportions of patients with HIV-1 RNA loads of <50 copies/ml were 74% and 58% at week 24 in the ENF and control arms, respectively (P < 0.02), and the proportion reached 79% in both arms at week 48. Twenty (20%) and 12 patients (13%) in the ENF and control arms, respectively, experienced at least one AIDS event during follow-up (P = 0.17). Although inducing a more rapid virological response, addition of ENF to a standard cART does not improve the immunological outcome in naive HIV-infected patients with severe immunosuppression. PMID:23165467

  18. Intensification of antiretroviral therapy through addition of enfuvirtide in naive HIV-1-infected patients with severe immunosuppression does not improve immunological response: results of a randomized multicenter trial (ANRS 130 Apollo).

    PubMed

    Joly, Véronique; Fagard, Catherine; Grondin, Carine; Descamps, Diane; Yazdanpanah, Yazdan; Charpentier, Charlotte; Colin de Verdiere, Nathalie; Tabuteau, Sophie; Raffi, François; Cabie, André; Chene, Geneviève; Yeni, Patrick

    2013-02-01

    We studied whether addition of enfuvirtide (ENF) to a background combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) would improve the CD4 cell count response at week 24 in naive patients with advanced HIV disease. ANRS 130 Apollo is a randomized study, conducted in naive HIV-1-infected patients, either asymptomatic with CD4 counts of <100/mm(3) or stage B/C disease with CD4 counts of <200/mm(3). Patients received tenofovir-emtricitabine with lopinavir-ritonavir (LPV/r) or efavirenz and were randomized to receive ENF for 24 weeks (ENF arm) or not (control arm). The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with CD4 counts of ≥ 200/mm(3) at week 24. A total of 195 patients were randomized: 73% had stage C disease, 78% were male, the mean age was 44 years, the median CD4 count was 30/mm(3), and the median HIV-1 RNA load was 5.4 log(10) copies/ml. Eighty-one percent of patients received LPV/r. One patient was lost to follow-up, and eight discontinued the study (four in each arm). The proportions of patients with CD4 counts of ≥ 200/mm(3) at week 24 were 34% and 38% in the ENF and control arms, respectively (P = 0.53). The proportions of patients with HIV-1 RNA loads of <50 copies/ml were 74% and 58% at week 24 in the ENF and control arms, respectively (P < 0.02), and the proportion reached 79% in both arms at week 48. Twenty (20%) and 12 patients (13%) in the ENF and control arms, respectively, experienced at least one AIDS event during follow-up (P = 0.17). Although inducing a more rapid virological response, addition of ENF to a standard cART does not improve the immunological outcome in naive HIV-infected patients with severe immunosuppression.

  19. Effects of Two-Year Vitamin B12 and Folic Acid Supplementation on Depressive Symptoms and Quality of Life in Older Adults with Elevated Homocysteine Concentrations: Additional Results from the B-PROOF Study, an RCT

    PubMed Central

    de Koning, Elisa J.; van der Zwaluw, Nikita L.; van Wijngaarden, Janneke P.; Sohl, Evelien; Brouwer-Brolsma, Elske M.; van Marwijk, Harm W. J.; Enneman, Anke W.; Swart, Karin M. A.; van Dijk, Suzanne C.; Ham, Annelies C.; van der Velde, Nathalie; Uitterlinden, André G.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Elders, Petra J. M.; Lips, Paul; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie A. M.; van Schoor, Natasja M.; de Groot, Lisette C. P. G. M.

    2016-01-01

    Lowering elevated plasma homocysteine (Hcy) concentrations by supplementing vitamin B12 and folic acid may reduce depressive symptoms and improve health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) in older adults. This study aimed to test this hypothesis in a randomized controlled trial. Participants (N = 2919, ≥65 years, Hcy concentrations ≥12 µmol/L) received either 500 µg vitamin B12 and 400 µg folic acid daily or placebo for two years. Both tablets contained 15 µg vitamin D3. Depressive symptoms were measured with the Geriatric Depression Scale-15 (GDS-15). HR-QoL was assessed with the SF-12 Mental and Physical component summary scores and the EQ-5D Index score and Visual Analogue Scale. Differences in two-year change scores were analyzed with Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA). Hcy concentrations decreased more in the intervention group, but two-year change scores of the GDS-15 and three of four HR-QoL measures did not differ between groups. The EQ-5D Index score declined less in the intervention group than in the placebo group (mean change 0.00 vs. −0.02, p = 0.004). In conclusion, two-year supplementation with vitamin B12 and folic acid in older adults with hyperhomocysteinemia showed that lowering Hcy concentrations does not reduce depressive symptoms, but it may have a small positive effect on HR-QoL. PMID:27886078

  20. Better position

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    The U.S. Global Positioning System (GPS) will soon become more accurate for civilian users, improving the quality of navigation and of some types of scientific research. The Clinton Administration announced March 29 that within a decade, the federal government will stop degrading the civilian GPS signal and will allow nonmilitary users access to the same clear signals that U.S. troops rely upon.Designed as dual-use system with primary use by the American military, the GPS is a constellation of 24 satellites that allows soldiers to determine their exact positions (in latitude and longitude) anywhere in the world. While the GPS is operated by the Department of Defense (DoD), scientists and adventurous civilians have been able to purchase small, portable GPS devices. However, the U.S. military has kept to itself a capability known as “selective availability” that provides a much more precise signal than is available to the public. According to the White House, that selected signal will be available to all users within 4-10 years.

  1. Differential sensitivity of aerobic gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms to 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) leads to dissimilar growth and TNT transformation: Results of soil and pure culture studies

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, M.E.; Manning, J.F. Jr.

    1996-07-30

    The effects of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) on indigenous soil populations and pure bacterial cultures were examined. The number of colony-forming units (CFU) appearing when TNT-contaminated soil was spread on 0.3% molasses plates decreased by 50% when the agar was amended with 67 {mu}g TNT mL{sup -1}, whereas a 99% reduction was observed when uncontaminated soil was plated. Furthermore, TNT-contaminated soil harbored a greater number of organisms able to grow on plates amended with greater than 10 {mu}g TNT mL{sup -1}. The percentage of gram-positive isolates was markedly less in TNT-contaminated soil (7%; 2 of 30) than in uncontaminated soil (61%; 20 of 33). Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas corrugate, Pseudomonasfluorescens and Alcaligenes xylosoxidans made up the majority of the gram-negative isolates from TNT-contaminated soil. Gram-positive isolates from both soils demonstrated marked growth inhibition when greater than 8-16 {mu}g TNT mL{sup -1} was present in the culture media. Most pure cultures of known aerobic gram-negative organisms readily degraded TNT and evidenced net consumption of reduced metabolites. However, pure cultures of aerobic gram-positive bacteria were sensitive to relatively low concentrations of TNT as indicated by the 50% reduction in growth and TNT transformation which was observed at approximately 10 {mu}g TNT mL{sup -1}. Most non-sporeforming gram-positive organisms incubated in molasses media amended with 80 {mu}g TNT mL{sup -1} or greater became unculturable, whereas all strains tested remained culturable when incubated in mineral media amended with 98 {mu}g TNT mL{sup -1}, indicating that TNT sensitivity is likely linked to cell growth. These results indicate that gram-negative organisms are most likely responsible for any TNT transformation in contaminated soil, due to their relative insensitivity to high TNT concentrations and their ability to transform TNT.

  2. Additive Similarity Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sattath, Shmuel; Tversky, Amos

    1977-01-01

    Tree representations of similarity data are investigated. Hierarchical clustering is critically examined, and a more general procedure, called the additive tree, is presented. The additive tree representation is then compared to multidimensional scaling. (Author/JKS)

  3. Health Effects Models for Nuclear Power Plant Accident Consequence Analysis. Modification of Models Resulting from Addition of Effects of Exposure to Alpha-Emitting Radionuclides. Part 2. Scientific Bases for Health Effects Models. Revision 1. Addendum 2.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-05-01

    been Sponsored by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Report NUREG /CR-2l4, Rev. 1, Part II (NRC, 1989a) describes in detail the most recent health...that address early-occurring and continuing effects, late somatic effects, and genetic effects. These results should be used with the basic NUREG

  4. [Food additives and healthiness].

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects.

  5. Clinical validation of the EndoPredict test in node-positive, chemotherapy-treated ER+/HER2− breast cancer patients: results from the GEICAM 9906 trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction EndoPredict (EP) is an RNA-based multigene test that predicts the likelihood of distant recurrence in patients with estrogen receptor-positive (ER+), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2–negative (HER2−) breast cancer (BC) who are being treated with adjuvant endocrine therapy. Herein we report the prospective-retrospective clinical validation of EP in the node-positive, chemotherapy-treated, ER+/HER2− BC patients in the GEICAM 9906 trial. Methods The patients (N = 1,246) were treated either with six cycles of fluorouracil, epirubicin and cyclophosphamide (FEC) or with four cycles of FEC followed by eight weekly courses of paclitaxel (FEC-P), as well as with endocrine therapy if they had hormone receptor–positive disease. The patients were assigned to EP risk categories (low or high) according to prespecified cutoff levels. The primary endpoint in the clinical validation of EP was distant metastasis-free survival (MFS). Metastasis rates were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and multivariate analysis was performed using Cox regression. Results The molecular EP score and the combined molecular and clinical EPclin score were successfully determined in 555 ER+/HER2− tumors from the 800 available samples in the GEICAM 9906 trial. On the basis of the EP, 25% of patients (n = 141) were classified as low risk. MFS was 93% in the low-risk group and 70% in the high-risk group (absolute risk reduction = 23%, hazard ratio (HR) = 4.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.5 to 9.5; P < 0.0001). Multivariate analysis showed that, in this ER+/HER2− cohort, EP results are an independent prognostic parameter after adjustment for age, grade, lymph node status, tumor size, treatment arm, ER and progesterone receptor (PR) status and proliferation index (Ki67). Using the predefined EPclin score, 13% of patients (n = 74) were assigned to the low-risk group, who had excellent outcomes and no distant recurrence events (absolute risk reduction vs high

  6. API2-MALT1 fusion protein induces transcriptional activation of the API2 gene through NF-{kappa}B binding elements: Evidence for a positive feed-back loop pathway resulting in unremitting NF-{kappa}B activation

    SciTech Connect

    Hosokawa, Yoshitaka . E-mail: yhosokaw@aichi-cc.jp; Suzuki, Hiroko; Nakagawa, Masao; Lee, Tae H.; Seto, Masao

    2005-08-19

    t(11;18)(q21;q21) is a characteristic as well as the most frequent chromosomal translocation in mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type lymphoma, and this translocation results in a fusion transcript, API2-MALT1. Although API2-MALT1 has been shown to enforce activation of NF-{kappa}B signaling, the transcriptional target genes of this fusion protein remains to be identified. Our analyses of the API2-MALT transfectants suggested that one of the target genes may be the apoptotic inhibitor API2 gene. Luciferase reporter assays with deletion and mutational constructs of the API2 promoter and electrophoretic mobility shift assays established that API2-MALT1 induces transcriptional activation of the API2 gene through two NF-{kappa}B binding elements. Moreover, supershift experiments indicated that these elements are recognized by the NF-{kappa}B p50/p65 heterodimer. Taken together, our results strongly indicated that API2-MALT1 possesses a novel mechanism of self-activation by up-regulating its own expression in t(11;18)(q21;q21)-carrying MALT lymphomas, highlighting a positive feedback-loop pathway resulting in unremitting NF-{kappa}B activation.

  7. Beam position monitor

    DOEpatents

    Alkire, Randy W.; Rosenbaum, Gerold; Evans, Gwyndaf

    2003-07-22

    An apparatus for determining the position of an x-ray beam relative to a desired beam axis. Where the apparatus is positioned along the beam path so that a thin metal foil target intersects the x-ray beam generating fluorescent radiation. A PIN diode array is positioned so that a portion of the fluorescent radiation is intercepted by the array resulting in an a series of electrical signals from the PIN diodes making up the array. The signals are then analyzed and the position of the x-ray beam is determined relative to the desired beam path.

  8. Beam position monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Alkire, Randy W.; Rosenbaum, Gerold; Evans, Gwyndaf

    2000-09-21

    An apparatus for determining the position of an x-ray beam relative to a desired beam axis where the apparatus is positioned along the beam path so that a thin metal foil target intersects the x-ray beam generating fluorescent radiation. A PIN diode array is positioned so that a portion of the fluorescent radiation is intercepted by the array resulting in a series of electrical signals from the PIN diodes making up the array. The signals are then analyzed and the position of the x-ray beam is determined relative to the desired beam path.

  9. Trastuzumab Emtansine With or Without Pertuzumab Versus Trastuzumab Plus Taxane for Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2-Positive, Advanced Breast Cancer: Primary Results From the Phase III MARIANNE Study.

    PubMed

    Perez, Edith A; Barrios, Carlos; Eiermann, Wolfgang; Toi, Masakazu; Im, Young-Hyuck; Conte, Pierfranco; Martin, Miguel; Pienkowski, Tadeusz; Pivot, Xavier; Burris, Howard; Petersen, Jennifer A; Stanzel, Sven; Strasak, Alexander; Patre, Monika; Ellis, Paul

    2017-01-10

    Purpose Trastuzumab and pertuzumab are human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) -targeted monoclonal antibodies, and trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) is an antibody-drug conjugate that combines the properties of trastuzumab with the cytotoxic activity of DM1. T-DM1 demonstrated encouraging efficacy and safety in a phase II study of patients with previously untreated HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer. Combination T-DM1 and pertuzumab showed synergistic activity in cell culture models and had an acceptable safety profile in a phase Ib and II study. Methods In the MARIANNE study, 1,095 patients with centrally assessed, HER2-positive, advanced breast cancer and no prior therapy for advanced disease were randomly assigned 1:1:1 to control (trastuzumab plus taxane), T-DM1 plus placebo, hereafter T-DM1, or T-DM1 plus pertuzumab at standard doses. Primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS), as assessed by independent review. Results T-DM1 and T-DM1 plus pertuzumab showed noninferior PFS compared with trastuzumab plus taxane (median PFS: 13.7 months with trastuzumab plus taxane, 14.1 months with T-DM1, and 15.2 months with T-DM1 plus pertuzumab). Neither experimental arm showed PFS superiority to trastuzumab plus taxane. Response rate was 67.9% in patients who were treated with trastuzumab plus taxane, 59.7% with T-DM1, and 64.2% with T-DM1 plus pertuzumab; median response duration was 12.5 months, 20.7 months, and 21.2 months, respectively. The incidence of grade ≥ 3 adverse events was numerically higher in the control arm (54.1%) versus the T-DM1 arm (45.4%) and T-DM1 plus pertuzumab arm (46.2%). Numerically fewer patients discontinued treatment because of adverse events in the T-DM1 arms, and health-related quality of life was maintained for longer in the T-DM1 arms. Conclusion T-DM1 showed noninferior, but not superior, efficacy and better tolerability than did taxane plus trastuzumab for first-line treatment of HER2-positive, advanced breast

  10. Adjuvant Lapatinib and Trastuzumab for Early Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2–Positive Breast Cancer: Results From the Randomized Phase III Adjuvant Lapatinib and/or Trastuzumab Treatment Optimization Trial

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Eileen; Baselga, José; de Azambuja, Evandro; Dueck, Amylou C.; Viale, Giuseppe; Zujewski, Jo Anne; Goldhirsch, Aron; Armour, Alison; Pritchard, Kathleen I.; McCullough, Ann E.; Dolci, Stella; McFadden, Eleanor; Holmes, Andrew P.; Tonghua, Liu; Eidtmann, Holger; Dinh, Phuong; Di Cosimo, Serena; Harbeck, Nadia; Tjulandin, Sergei; Im, Young-Hyuck; Huang, Chiun-Sheng; Diéras, Véronique; Hillman, David W.; Wolff, Antonio C.; Jackisch, Christian; Lang, Istvan; Untch, Michael; Smith, Ian; Boyle, Frances; Xu, Binghe; Gomez, Henry; Suter, Thomas; Gelber, Richard D.; Perez, Edith A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Lapatinib (L) plus trastuzumab (T) improves outcomes for metastatic human epidermal growth factor 2–positive breast cancer and increases the pathologic complete response in the neoadjuvant setting, but their role as adjuvant therapy remains uncertain. Methods In the Adjuvant Lapatinib and/or Trastuzumab Treatment Optimization trial, patients with centrally confirmed human epidermal growth factor 2–positive early breast cancer were randomly assigned to 1 year of adjuvant therapy with T, L, their sequence (T→L), or their combination (L+T). The primary end point was disease-free survival (DFS), with 850 events required for 80% power to detect a hazard ratio (HR) of 0.8 for L+T versus T. Results Between June 2007 and July 2011, 8,381 patients were enrolled. In 2011, due to futility to demonstrate noninferiority of L versus T, the L arm was closed, and patients free of disease were offered adjuvant T. A protocol modification required P ≤ .025 for the two remaining pairwise comparisons. At a protocol-specified analysis with a median follow-up of 4.5 years, a 16% reduction in the DFS hazard rate was observed with L+T compared with T (555 DFS events; HR, 0.84; 97.5% CI, 0.70 to 1.02; P = .048), and a 4% reduction was observed with T→L compared with T (HR, 0.96; 97.5% CI, 0.80 to 1.15; P = .61). L-treated patients experienced more diarrhea, cutaneous rash, and hepatic toxicity compared with T-treated patients. The incidence of cardiac toxicity was low in all treatment arms. Conclusion Adjuvant treatment that includes L did not significantly improve DFS compared with T alone and added toxicity. One year of adjuvant T remains standard of care. PMID:26598744

  11. Microbial phytase addition resulted in a greater increase in phosphorus digestibility in dry-fed compared with liquid-fed non-heat-treated wheat-barley-maize diets for pigs.

    PubMed

    Blaabjerg, K; Thomassen, A-M; Poulsen, H D

    2015-02-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of microbial phytase (1250 FTU/kg diet with 88% dry matter (DM)) on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of phosphorus (P) in pigs fed a dry or soaked diet. Twenty-four pigs (65±3 kg) from six litters were used. Pigs were housed in metabolism crates and fed one of four diets for 12 days; 5 days for adaptation and 7 days for total, but separate collection of feces and urine. The basal diet was composed of wheat, barley, maize, soybean meal and no mineral phosphate. Dietary treatments were: basal dry-fed diet (BDD), BDD with microbial phytase (BDD+phy), BDD soaked for 24 h at 20°C before feeding (BDS) and BDS with microbial phytase (BDS+phy). Supplementation of microbial phytase increased ATTD of DM and crude protein (N×6.25) by 2 and 3 percentage units (P<0.0001; P<0.001), respectively. The ATTD of P was affected by the interaction between microbial phytase and soaking (P=0.02). This was due to a greater increase in ATTD of P by soaking of the diet containing solely plant phytase compared with the diet supplemented with microbial phytase: 35%, 65%, 44% and 68% for BDD, BDD+phy, BSD and BSD+phy, respectively. As such, supplementation of microbial phytase increased ATTD of P in the dry-fed diet, but not in the soaked diet. The higher ATTD of P for BDS compared with BDD resulted from the degradation of 54% of the phytate in BDS by wheat and barley phytases during soaking. On the other hand, soaking of BDS+phy did not increase ATTD of P significantly compared with BDD+phy despite that 76% of the phytate in BDS+phy was degraded before feeding. In conclusion, soaking of BDS containing solely plant phytase provided a great potential for increasing ATTD of P. However, this potential was not present when microbial phytase (1250 FTU/kg diet) was supplemented, most likely because soaking of BDS+phy for 24 h at 20°C did not result in a complete degradation of phytate before feeding.

  12. Basophil activation test with food additives in chronic urticaria patients.

    PubMed

    Kang, Min-Gyu; Song, Woo-Jung; Park, Han-Ki; Lim, Kyung-Hwan; Kim, Su-Jung; Lee, Suh-Young; Kim, Sae-Hoon; Cho, Sang-Heon; Min, Kyung-Up; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2014-01-01

    The role of food additives in chronic urticaria (CU) is still under investigation. In this study, we aimed to explore the association between food additives and CU by using the basophil activation test (BAT). The BAT using 15 common food additives was performed for 15 patients with CU who had a history of recurrent urticarial aggravation following intake of various foods without a definite food-specific IgE. Of the 15 patients studied, two (13.3%) showed positive BAT results for one of the tested food additives. One patient responded to monosodium glutamate, showing 18.7% of CD203c-positive basophils. Another patient showed a positive BAT result to sodium benzoate. Both patients had clinical correlations with the agents, which were partly determined by elimination diets. The present study suggested that at least a small proportion of patients with CU had symptoms associated with food additives. The results may suggest the potential utility of the BAT to identity the role of food additives in CU.

  13. Safety Profile of Pertuzumab With Trastuzumab and Docetaxel in Patients From Asia With Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2-Positive Metastatic Breast Cancer: Results From the Phase III Trial CLEOPATRA

    PubMed Central

    Im, Young-Hyuck; Im, Seock-Ah; Chan, Valorie; Miles, David; Knott, Adam; Clark, Emma; Ross, Graham; Baselga, José

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. We report detailed safety analyses by geographic region from the phase III study CLEOPATRA with pertuzumab, trastuzumab, and docetaxel in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive first-line metastatic breast cancer. Patients and Methods. Patients received pertuzumab/placebo at 840 mg in cycle 1 and 420 mg in subsequent cycles, and trastuzumab at 8 mg/kg in cycle 1 and 6 mg/kg in subsequent cycles; docetaxel was initiated at 75 mg/m2. All study drugs were given intravenously, 3 times weekly. Results. Docetaxel dose reductions below 75 mg/m2 were more common in patients from Asia (47.0%) than other regions (13.4%); docetaxel dose escalations to 100 mg/m2 were less frequent in Asia (2.4%) than other regions (18.7%). Rates of edema (26.1% and 5.4% for Asia and other regions, respectively), myalgia (42.3%, 14.7%), nail disorder (39.9%, 15.1%), febrile neutropenia (18.6%, 7.1%), upper respiratory tract infection (25.7%, 10.2%), decreased appetite (47.0%, 19.1%), and rash (44.3%, 22.0%) were at least twice as high in Asia as in other regions. Adverse events did not result in a reduction in the median number of study treatment cycles administered in patients from Asia. Efficacy analyses per region showed hazard ratios similar to those of the whole intention-to-treat (ITT) population for progression-free survival (ITT: 0.63; Asia: 0.68; other regions: 0.61) and overall survival (ITT: 0.66; Asia: 0.64; other regions: 0.66). Conclusion. Despite a higher proportion of docetaxel dose reductions in patients from Asia, survival benefits were comparable between regions. The benefit-risk profile of pertuzumab, trastuzumab, and docetaxel supports this regimen as the first-line therapy for patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer from all geographic regions. PMID:24869931

  14. Polylactides in additive biomanufacturing.

    PubMed

    Poh, Patrina S P; Chhaya, Mohit P; Wunner, Felix M; De-Juan-Pardo, Elena M; Schilling, Arndt F; Schantz, Jan-Thorsten; van Griensven, Martijn; Hutmacher, Dietmar W

    2016-12-15

    New advanced manufacturing technologies under the alias of additive biomanufacturing allow the design and fabrication of a range of products from pre-operative models, cutting guides and medical devices to scaffolds. The process of printing in 3 dimensions of cells, extracellular matrix (ECM) and biomaterials (bioinks, powders, etc.) to generate in vitro and/or in vivo tissue analogue structures has been termed bioprinting. To further advance in additive biomanufacturing, there are many aspects that we can learn from the wider additive manufacturing (AM) industry, which have progressed tremendously since its introduction into the manufacturing sector. First, this review gives an overview of additive manufacturing and both industry and academia efforts in addressing specific challenges in the AM technologies to drive toward AM-enabled industrial revolution. After which, considerations of poly(lactides) as a biomaterial in additive biomanufacturing are discussed. Challenges in wider additive biomanufacturing field are discussed in terms of (a) biomaterials; (b) computer-aided design, engineering and manufacturing; (c) AM and additive biomanufacturing printers hardware; and (d) system integration. Finally, the outlook for additive biomanufacturing was discussed.

  15. Additive Manufactured Product Integrity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waller, Jess; Wells, Doug; James, Steve; Nichols, Charles

    2017-01-01

    NASA is providing key leadership in an international effort linking NASA and non-NASA resources to speed adoption of additive manufacturing (AM) to meet NASA's mission goals. Participants include industry, NASA's space partners, other government agencies, standards organizations and academia. Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) is identified as a universal need for all aspects of additive manufacturing.

  16. Lactose binding to human galectin-7 (p53-induced gene 1) induces long-range effects through the protein resulting in increased dimer stability and evidence for positive cooperativity

    PubMed Central

    Ermakova, Elena; Miller, Michelle C; Nesmelova, Irina V; López-Merino, Lara; Berbís, Manuel Alvaro; Nesmelov, Yuri; Tkachev, Yaroslav V; Lagartera, Laura; Daragan, Vladimir A; André, Sabine; Cañada, F Javier; Jiménez-Barbero, Jesús; Solís, Dolores; Gabius, Hans-Joachim; Mayo, Kevin H

    2013-01-01

    The product of p53-induced gene 1 is a member of the galectin family, i.e., galectin-7 (Gal-7). To move beyond structural data by X-ray diffraction, we initiated the study of the lectin by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and circular dichroism spectroscopies, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. In concert, our results indicate that lactose binding to human Gal-7 induces long-range effects (minor conformational shifts and changes in structural dynamics) throughout the protein that result in stabilization of the dimer state, with evidence for positive cooperativity. Monte Carlo fits of 15N-Gal-7 HSQC titrations with lactose using a two-site model yield K1 = 0.9 ± 0.6 × 103 M−1 and K2 = 3.4 ± 0.8 × 103 M−1. Ligand binding-induced stabilization of the Gal-7 dimer was supported by several lines of evidence: MD-based calculations of interaction energies between ligand-loaded and ligand-free states, gel filtration data and hetero-FRET spectroscopy that indicate a highly reduced tendency for dimer dissociation in the presence of lactose, CD-based thermal denaturation showing that the transition temperature of the lectin is significantly increased in the presence of lactose, and saturation transfer difference (STD) NMR using a molecular probe of the monomer state whose presence is diminished in the presence of lactose. MD simulations with the half-loaded ligand-bound state also provided insight into how allosteric signaling may occur. Overall, our results reveal long-range effects on Gal-7 structure and dynamics, which factor into entropic contributions to ligand binding and allow further comparisons with other members of the galectin family. PMID:23376190

  17. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, James C. (Inventor); Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  18. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of the additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  19. SPA: Solar Position Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reda, Ibrahim; Andreas, Afshin

    2015-04-01

    The Solar Position Algorithm (SPA) calculates the solar zenith and azimuth angles in the period from the year -2000 to 6000, with uncertainties of +/- 0.0003 degrees based on the date, time, and location on Earth. SPA is implemented in C; in addition to being available for download, an online calculator using this code is available at http://www.nrel.gov/midc/solpos/spa.html.

  20. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wender, Ester H.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that food additives are causally associated with hyperkinesis and learning disabilities in children is reviewed, and available data are summarized. Available from: American Medical Association 535 North Dearborn Street Chicago, Illinois 60610. (JG)

  1. Positioning With GPS: 1985

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remondi, Benjamin W.; Hothem, Larry D.

    The First International Symposium on Precise Positioning With the Global Positioning System (GPS) was held in Rockville, Maryland from April 15 to April 19, 1985; 600 participants from 31 countries attended. Sponsors included the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics, the International Association of Geodesy, the Defense Mapping Agency (DMA), and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) in cooperation with the American Society of Civil Engineers. GPS uses the NAVSTAR (an acronym for Navigation and Satellite Timing and Ranging) satellite system developed by the Department of Defense (DOD).Although this symposium was limited to precise positioning with GPS, the scope of precise positioning was left open. Without a doubt, precise relative positioning with L band carrier phase measurements was the most important topic. Also included were certain high-accuracy applications of pseudorange measurements, such as orbit determination, time transfer, and navigation. Administration, policy, hardware, software, processing, and applications in these areas were also covered. Intentionally left out were areas in which high positional accuracy was not important (e.g., commercial aviation). Attendees presented 89 papers, which were organized into 15 sessions covering nine subject areas: overview, status, and policy; GPS time and orbits; user equipment; user equipment testing; modeling and processing; applications; survey positioning results; practical aspects of geodesy; and dynamic positioning.

  2. EU assessment of enterococci as feed additives.

    PubMed

    Becquet, Philippe

    2003-12-01

    Particular micro-organisms such as enterococcal strains are used as probiotics in feed. Observations indicate a positive effect of such strains on the gut flora, especially for young animals or during feed transition phases. This favourable effect is perceived by the farmers as a means of maintenance of the health status of the animals (e.g. less diarrhoea) and results in significant improvement of animal performance. Micro-organisms have been used since the end of the 1980s in animal feeds and were strictly regulated in 1993, when they were introduced under the scope of Council Directive 70/524/EEC of 23 November 1970 on additives in animal nutrition on feed additives. After a transition period, which ended in the year 2000, every microbial strain must now be assessed by the EU bodies and authorised by a Commission Regulation, before it can be placed on the market for use in feedingstuffs. Council Directive 70/524/EEC on feed additives is based on three main principles: (1) pre-market authorisation, (2) positive list principle, and (3) thorough risk assessment of the effect of a particular strain on human and animal health as well as on the environment. Therefore, before introducing a new enterococcal strain preparation or promote a new use of an approved product, a dossier has to be submitted to the authorities, following the guidelines, as published in Commission Directive 94/40/EEC [Commission Directive 94/40/EC of 22 July 1994 amending Council Directive 87/153/EEC fixing guidelines for the assessment of additives in animal nutrition]. These guidelines contain detailed evaluation methods. The safety requirements refer to (1) the target animal categories, (2) the consumer and the environment (presence of toxins and virulence factors as well as antibiotic resistance and transferability are assessed), and (3) the workers, based on requirements of Council Directive 89/391/EEC.

  3. Group Sparse Additive Models

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Junming; Chen, Xi; Xing, Eric P.

    2016-01-01

    We consider the problem of sparse variable selection in nonparametric additive models, with the prior knowledge of the structure among the covariates to encourage those variables within a group to be selected jointly. Previous works either study the group sparsity in the parametric setting (e.g., group lasso), or address the problem in the nonparametric setting without exploiting the structural information (e.g., sparse additive models). In this paper, we present a new method, called group sparse additive models (GroupSpAM), which can handle group sparsity in additive models. We generalize the ℓ1/ℓ2 norm to Hilbert spaces as the sparsity-inducing penalty in GroupSpAM. Moreover, we derive a novel thresholding condition for identifying the functional sparsity at the group level, and propose an efficient block coordinate descent algorithm for constructing the estimate. We demonstrate by simulation that GroupSpAM substantially outperforms the competing methods in terms of support recovery and prediction accuracy in additive models, and also conduct a comparative experiment on a real breast cancer dataset.

  4. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapid prototyping technology that allows parts to be built in a series of thin layers from plastic, ceramics, and metallics. Metallic additive manufacturing is an emerging form of rapid prototyping that allows complex structures to be built using various metallic powders. Significant time and cost savings have also been observed using the metallic additive manufacturing compared with traditional techniques. Development of the metallic additive manufacturing technology has advanced significantly over the last decade, although many of the techniques to inspect parts made from these processes have not advanced significantly or have limitations. Several external geometry inspection techniques exist such as Coordinate Measurement Machines (CMM), Laser Scanners, Structured Light Scanning Systems, or even traditional calipers and gages. All of the aforementioned techniques are limited to external geometry and contours or must use a contact probe to inspect limited internal dimensions. This presentation will document the development of a process for real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record of the additive manufacturing process using Infrared camera imaging and processing techniques.

  5. Optimal Centroid Position Estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Candy, J V; McClay, W A; Awwal, A S; Ferguson, S W

    2004-07-23

    The alignment of high energy laser beams for potential fusion experiments demand high precision and accuracy by the underlying positioning algorithms. This paper discusses the feasibility of employing online optimal position estimators in the form of model-based processors to achieve the desired results. Here we discuss the modeling, development, implementation and processing of model-based processors applied to both simulated and actual beam line data.

  6. Fused Lasso Additive Model

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Ashley; Witten, Daniela; Simon, Noah

    2016-01-01

    We consider the problem of predicting an outcome variable using p covariates that are measured on n independent observations, in a setting in which additive, flexible, and interpretable fits are desired. We propose the fused lasso additive model (FLAM), in which each additive function is estimated to be piecewise constant with a small number of adaptively-chosen knots. FLAM is the solution to a convex optimization problem, for which a simple algorithm with guaranteed convergence to a global optimum is provided. FLAM is shown to be consistent in high dimensions, and an unbiased estimator of its degrees of freedom is proposed. We evaluate the performance of FLAM in a simulation study and on two data sets. Supplemental materials are available online, and the R package flam is available on CRAN. PMID:28239246

  7. Additives in plastics.

    PubMed Central

    Deanin, R D

    1975-01-01

    The polymers used in plastics are generally harmless. However, they are rarely used in pure form. In almost all commercial plastics, they are "compounded" with monomeric ingredients to improve their processing and end-use performance. In order of total volume used, these monomeric additives may be classified as follows: reinforcing fibers, fillers, and coupling agents; plasticizers; colorants; stabilizers (halogen stabilizers, antioxidants, ultraviolet absorbers, and biological preservatives); processing aids (lubricants, others, and flow controls); flame retardants, peroxides; and antistats. Some information is already available, and much more is needed, on potential toxicity and safe handling of these additives during processing and manufacture of plastics products. PMID:1175566

  8. Additives in plastics.

    PubMed

    Deanin, R D

    1975-06-01

    The polymers used in plastics are generally harmless. However, they are rarely used in pure form. In almost all commercial plastics, they are "compounded" with monomeric ingredients to improve their processing and end-use performance. In order of total volume used, these monomeric additives may be classified as follows: reinforcing fibers, fillers, and coupling agents; plasticizers; colorants; stabilizers (halogen stabilizers, antioxidants, ultraviolet absorbers, and biological preservatives); processing aids (lubricants, others, and flow controls); flame retardants, peroxides; and antistats. Some information is already available, and much more is needed, on potential toxicity and safe handling of these additives during processing and manufacture of plastics products.

  9. Biobased lubricant additives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fully biobased lubricants are those formulated using all biobased ingredients, i.e. biobased base oils and biobased additives. Such formulations provide the maximum environmental, safety, and economic benefits expected from a biobased product. Currently, there are a number of biobased base oils that...

  10. More Than Additional Space...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CEFP Journal, 1973

    1973-01-01

    A much needed addition to the Jamestown Elementary School turned out to be more than an expansion of walls for more space. A new educational program, a limited budget, and a short time line were tackled on a team approach basis and were successfully resolved. (Author)

  11. Non-additive and additive genetic effects on extraversion in 3314 Dutch adolescent twins and their parents.

    PubMed

    Rettew, David C; Rebollo-Mesa, Irene; Hudziak, James J; Willemsen, Gonneke; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2008-05-01

    The influence of non-additive genetic influences on personality traits has been increasingly reported in adult populations. Less is known, however, with respect to younger samples. In this study, we examine additive and non-additive genetic contributions to the personality trait of extraversion in 1,689 Dutch twin pairs, 1,505 mothers and 1,637 fathers of the twins. The twins were on average 15.5 years (range 12-18 years). To increase statistical power to detect non-additive genetic influences, data on extraversion were also collected in parents and simultaneously analyzed. Genetic modeling procedures incorporating age as a potential modifier of heritability showed significant influences of additive (20-23%) and non-additive genetic factors (31-33%) in addition to unshared environment (46-48%) for adolescents and for their parents. The additive genetic component was slightly and positively related to age. No significant sex differences were found for either extraversion means or for the magnitude of the genetic and environmental influences. There was no evidence of non-random mating for extraversion in the parental generation. Results show that in addition to additive genetic influences, extraversion in adolescents is influenced by non-additive genetic factors.

  12. Studies Of Positive-Position-Feedback Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fanson, James L.; Caughey, Thomas K.

    1992-01-01

    Report discusses theoretical and experimental studies of positive-position-feedback control for suppressing vibrations in large flexible structures. Positive-position-feedback control involves placement of actuators and sensors on structure; control voltages applied to actuators in response to outputs of sensors processed via compensator algorithm. Experiments demonstrate feasibility of suppressing vibrations by positive position feedback, and spillover of vibrational energy into uncontrolled modes has stabilizing effect if control gain sufficiently small.

  13. Positive lightning and severe weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, C.; Murphy, B.

    2003-04-01

    In recent years researchers have noticed that severe weather (tornados, hail and damaging winds) are closely related to the amount of positive lightning occurring in thunderstorms. On 4 July 1999, a severe derecho (wind storm) caused extensive damage to forested regions along the United States/Canada border, west of Lake Superior. There were 665,000 acres of forest destroyed in the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness (BWCAW) in Minnesota and Quetico Provincial Park in Canada, with approximately 12.5 million trees blown down. This storm resulted in additional severe weather before and after the occurrence of the derecho, with continuous cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning occurring for more than 34 hours during its path across North America. At the time of the derecho the percentage of positive cloud-to-ground (+CG) lightning measured by the Canadian Lightning Detection Network (CLDN) was greater than 70% for more than three hours, with peak values reaching 97% positive CG lightning. Such high ratios of +CG are rare, and may be useful indicators for short-term forecasts of severe weather.

  14. The Genomic Code for Nucleosome Positioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widom, Jonathan

    2008-03-01

    Eukaryotic genomes encode an additional layer of genetic information, superimposed on top of the regulatory and coding information, that controls the organization of the genomic DNA into arrays of nucleosomes. We have developed a partial ability to read this nucleosome positioning code and predict the in vivo locations of nucleosomes. Our results suggest that genomes utilize the nucleosome positioning code to facilitate specific chromosome functions including to delineate functional versus nonfunctional binding sites for key gene regulatory proteins, and to define the next higher level of chromosome structure itself.

  15. Robot Position Sensor Fault Tolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aldridge, Hal A.

    1997-01-01

    Robot systems in critical applications, such as those in space and nuclear environments, must be able to operate during component failure to complete important tasks. One failure mode that has received little attention is the failure of joint position sensors. Current fault tolerant designs require the addition of directly redundant position sensors which can affect joint design. A new method is proposed that utilizes analytical redundancy to allow for continued operation during joint position sensor failure. Joint torque sensors are used with a virtual passive torque controller to make the robot joint stable without position feedback and improve position tracking performance in the presence of unknown link dynamics and end-effector loading. Two Cartesian accelerometer based methods are proposed to determine the position of the joint. The joint specific position determination method utilizes two triaxial accelerometers attached to the link driven by the joint with the failed position sensor. The joint specific method is not computationally complex and the position error is bounded. The system wide position determination method utilizes accelerometers distributed on different robot links and the end-effector to determine the position of sets of multiple joints. The system wide method requires fewer accelerometers than the joint specific method to make all joint position sensors fault tolerant but is more computationally complex and has lower convergence properties. Experiments were conducted on a laboratory manipulator. Both position determination methods were shown to track the actual position satisfactorily. A controller using the position determination methods and the virtual passive torque controller was able to servo the joints to a desired position during position sensor failure.

  16. Combination of Niacin and Fenofibrate with Lifestyle Changes Improves Dyslipidemia and Hypoadiponectinemia in HIV Patients on Antiretroviral Therapy: Results of “Heart Positive,” a Randomized, Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Coraza, Ivonne; Smith, E. O'Brian; Scott, Lynne W.; Patel, Payal; Iyer, Dinakar; Taylor, Addison A.; Giordano, Thomas P.; Sekhar, Rajagopal V.; Clark, Pamela; Cuevas-Sanchez, Edith; Kamble, Swarna; Ballantyne, Christie M.; Pownall, Henry J.

    2011-01-01

    Context: HIV patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) have a unique dyslipidemia [elevated triglycerides and non-high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low HDL-C] with insulin resistance (characterized by hypoadiponectinemia). Objective: The aim was to test a targeted, comprehensive, additive approach to treating the dyslipidemia. Design and Setting: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 24-wk trial of lifestyle modification, fenofibrate, and niacin in multiethnic HIV clinics at an academic center. Participants: Hypertriglyceridemic adult patients were stratified on three combinations of ART classes. Subjects retained at the first measurement (2 wk) after entry were included in the analysis (n = 191). Interventions: Subjects were randomized into five treatment groups: usual care (group 1); low-saturated-fat diet and exercise (D/E; group 2); D/E + fenofibrate (group 3); D/E + niacin (group 4); or D/E + fenofibrate + niacin (group 5). Main Outcome Measures: We measured changes in fasting triglycerides, HDL-C, and non-HDL-C (primary), and in insulin sensitivity, glycemia, adiponectin, C-reactive protein, energy expenditure, and body composition (secondary). Data were analyzed as a factorial set of treatment combinations using a mixed repeated measures model, last observation carried forward, and complete case approaches (groups 2–5), and as an unstructured set of treatments (groups 1–5). Results: Fenofibrate improved triglycerides (P = 0.002), total cholesterol (P = 0.02), and non-HDL-C (P = 0.003), whereas niacin improved HDL-C (P = 0.03), and both drugs decreased the total cholesterol-to-HDL-C ratio (P = 0.005–0.01). The combination of D/E, fenofibrate, and niacin provided maximal benefit, markedly reducing triglycerides (−52% compared to usual care; P = 0.003), increasing HDL-C (+12%; P < 0.001), and decreasing non-HDL-C (−18.5%; P = 0.003) and total cholesterol-to-HDL-C ratio (−24.5%; P < 0.001). Niacin doubled adiponectin

  17. Siloxane containing addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maudgal, S.; St. Clair, T. L.

    1984-01-01

    Addition polyimide oligomers have been synthesized from bis(gamma-aminopropyl) tetramethyldisiloxane and 3, 3', 4, 4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride using a variety of latent crosslinking groups as endcappers. The prepolymers were isolated and characterized for solubility (in amide, chlorinated and ether solvents), melt flow and cure properties. The most promising systems, maleimide and acetylene terminated prepolymers, were selected for detailed study. Graphite cloth reinforced composites were prepared and properties compared with those of graphite/Kerimid 601, a commercially available bismaleimide. Mixtures of the maleimide terminated system with Kerimid 601, in varying proportions, were also studied.

  18. Results of the surveillance of Tedizolid activity and resistance program: in vitro susceptibility of gram-positive pathogens collected in 2011 and 2012 from the United States and Europe.

    PubMed

    Sahm, Daniel F; Deane, Jennifer; Bien, Paul A; Locke, Jeffrey B; Zuill, Douglas E; Shaw, Karen J; Bartizal, Ken F

    2015-02-01

    The in vitro activity and spectrum of tedizolid and comparators were analyzed against 6884 Gram-positive clinical isolates collected from multiple US and European sites as part of the Surveillance of Tedizolid Activity and Resistance Program in 2011 and 2012. Organisms included 4499 Staphylococcus aureus, 537 coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), 873 enterococci, and 975 β-hemolytic streptococci. The MIC values that inhibited 90% of the isolates within each group (MIC90) were 0.25 μg/mL for Staphylococcus epidermidis and β-hemolytic streptococci and 0.5 μg/mL for S. aureus, other CoNS, and enterococci. Of 16 isolates with elevated tedizolid or linezolid MIC values (intermediate or resistant isolates), 10 had mutations in the genes encoding 23S rRNA (primarily G2576T), 5 had mutations in the genes encoding ribosomal proteins L3 or L4, and 5 carried the cfr multidrug resistance gene. Overall, tedizolid showed excellent activity against Gram-positive bacteria and was at least 4-fold more potent than linezolid against wild-type and linezolid-resistant isolates. Given the low overall frequency of isolates that would be resistant to tedizolid at the proposed break point of 0.5 μg/mL (0.19%) and potent activity against contemporary US and European isolates, tedizolid has the potential to serve as a valuable therapeutic option in the treatment of infections caused by Gram-positive pathogens.

  19. Positive lubrication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Dennis W.; Hooper, Fred L.

    1990-01-01

    As part of the development of an autonomous lubrication system for spin bearings, a system was developed to deliver oil to grease-lubricated bearings upon demand. This positive oil delivery system (PLUS) consists of a pressurized reservoir with a built-in solenoid valve that delivers a predictable quantity of oil to the spin bearing through a system of stainless steel tubes. Considerable testing was performed on the PLUS to characterize its performance and verify its effectiveness, along with qualifying it for flight. Additional development is underway that will lead to the fully autonomous active lubrication system.

  20. Role of additional radiotherapy in advanced stages of Hodgkin's disease.

    PubMed

    Meerwaldt, J H; Coleman, C N; Fischer, R I; Lister, T A; Diehl, V

    1992-09-01

    Although radiotherapy is widely used as additional treatment following chemotherapy, its precise role has never been clearly proven. Relapses tend to occur in previously involved bulky sites. Non-randomized studies may suggest a positive effect of the addition of radiotherapy. This effect however, might also be caused by selection. Randomized studies have not resulted in a survival advantage for the patients treated with additional radiotherapy compared to no further treatment or additional chemotherapy. The SWOG study 7808 suggest a 20% benefit in remission duration for the nodular sclerosis histology subgroup. Definitive conclusions have to wait for more mature results of randomized studies including the ongoing EORTC study and the possibility to perform an overview of all studies.

  1. Platelet additive solution - electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Azuma, Hiroshi; Hirayama, Junichi; Akino, Mitsuaki; Ikeda, Hisami

    2011-06-01

    Recent attention to solutions that replace most or all plasma in platelet concentrates, while maintaining satisfactory platelet function, is motivated by the potential of plasma reduction or depletion to mitigate various transfusion-related adverse events. This report considers the electrolytic composition of previously described platelet additive solutions, in order to draw general conclusions about what is required for platelet function and longevity. The optimal concentrations of Na(+) and Cl(-) are 69-115 mM. The presence of both K(+) and Mg(2+) in platelet suspension at nearly physiological concentrations (3-5mM and 1.5-3mM, respectively) is indispensable for good preservation capacity because both electrolytes are required to prevent platelet activation. In contrast to K(+) and Mg(2+), Ca(2+) may not be important because no free Ca(2+) is available in M-sol, which showed excellent platelet preservation capacity at less than 5% plasma concentration. The importance of bicarbonate (approximately 40 mM) can be recognized when the platelets are suspended in additive solution under less than 5% residual plasma concentration.

  2. Position sense asymmetry.

    PubMed

    Adamo, Diane E; Martin, Bernard J

    2009-01-01

    Asymmetries in upper limb position sense have been explained in the context of a left limb advantage derived from differences in hemispheric specialization in the processing of kinesthetic information. However, it is not clearly understood how the comparison of perceptual information associated with passive limb displacement and the corresponding matching movement resulting from the execution of a motor command contributes to these differences. In the present study, upper limb position sense was investigated in 12 right-hand-dominant young adults performing wrist position matching tasks which varied in terms of interhemispheric transfer, memory retrieval and whether the reference position was provided by the same or opposite limb. Right and left hand absolute matching errors were similar when the reference and matching positions were produced by the same hand but were 36% greater when matching the reference position with the opposite hand. When examining the constant errors generated from matching movements made with the same hand that provided the reference, the right and left hand matching errors (approximately 3 degrees) were similar. However, when matching with the opposite limb, a large overshoot (P < 0.05) characterized the error when the right hand matched the left hand reference while a large undershoot (P < 0.05) characterized the error when the left hand matched the right hand reference. The overshoot and undershoot were of similar magnitude (approximately 4 degrees). Although asymmetries in the central processing of proprioceptive information such as interhemispheric transfer may exist, the present study suggests that asymmetries in position sense predominantly result from a difference in the "gain of the respective proprioceptive sensory-motor loops". This new hypothesis is strongly supported by a dual-linear model representing the right and left hand sensory-motor systems as well as morphological and physiological data.

  3. Absolute Positioning Using the Global Positioning System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-04-01

    Global Positioning System ( GPS ) has becom a useful tool In providing relativ survey...Includes the development of a low cost navigator for wheeled vehicles. ABSTRACT The Global Positioning System ( GPS ) has become a useful tool In providing...technique of absolute or point positioning involves the use of a single Global Positioning System ( GPS ) receiver to determine the three-dimenslonal

  4. Positioning for Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapovsky, Lucie; Hubbell, Loren Loomis

    2000-01-01

    Analyzes results of the 1999 National Association of College and Business Officers tuition discounting survey and identifies trends. Finds colleges and universities are reactively responding to market pressures and proactively trying to analyze and position themselves ahead of the competition, often regional rather than national, for the…

  5. Additive composition, for gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Vataru, M.

    1989-01-10

    An admixture is described that comprises Diesel fuel and an additive composition added thereto which is between about 0.05 to about 2.0 percent by weight of the fuel, the composition comprising: (a) between about 0.05 and 25% relative weight parts of an organic peroxide, and (b) between about 0.1 and 25% relative weight parts of detergent selected from the component group that consists of: (i) fatty amines; (ii) ethoxylated and propoxylated derivatives of fatty amines; (iii) fatty diamines; (iv) fatty imidazlines; (v) polymeric amines and derivatives thereof; (vi) combination of one or more of the (i) through (v) components with carboxylic acid or acids having from three to forth carbon atoms, (c) from about 99.0 to about 50% by weight of a hydrocarbon solvent.

  6. Teardrop bladder: additional considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Wechsler, R.J.; Brennan, R.E.

    1982-07-01

    Nine cases of teardrop bladder (TDB) seen at excretory urography are presented. In some of these patients, the iliopsoas muscles were at the upper limit of normal in size, and additional evaluation of the perivesical structures with computed tomography (CT) was necessary. CT demonstrated only hypertrophied muscles with or without perivesical fat. The psoas muscles and pelvic width were measured in 8 patients and compared with the measurements of a control group of males without TDB. Patients with TDB had large iliopsoas muscles and narrow pelves compared with the control group. The psoas muscle width/pelvic width ratio was significantly greater (p < 0.0005) in patients with TDB than in the control group, with values of 1.04 + 0.05 and 0.82 + 0.09, respectively. It is concluded that TDB is not an uncommon normal variant in black males. Both iliopsoas muscle hypertrophy and a narrow pelvis are factors that predispose a patient to TDB.

  7. Perspectives on Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourell, David L.

    2016-07-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has skyrocketed in visibility commercially and in the public sector. This article describes the development of this field from early layered manufacturing approaches of photosculpture, topography, and material deposition. Certain precursors to modern AM processes are also briefly described. The growth of the field over the last 30 years is presented. Included is the standard delineation of AM technologies into seven broad categories. The economics of AM part generation is considered, and the impacts of the economics on application sectors are described. On the basis of current trends, the future outlook will include a convergence of AM fabricators, mass-produced AM fabricators, enabling of topology optimization designs, and specialization in the AM legal arena. Long-term developments with huge impact are organ printing and volume-based printing.

  8. Sewage sludge additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

  9. Antimicrobial susceptibility of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria collected from countries in Eastern Europe: results from the Tigecycline Evaluation and Surveillance Trial (T.E.S.T.) 2004-2010.

    PubMed

    Balode, Arta; Punda-Polić, Volga; Dowzicky, Michael J

    2013-06-01

    The Tigecycline Evaluation and Surveillance Trial (T.E.S.T.) commenced in 2004 to longitudinally monitor global changes in bacterial susceptibility to a suite of antimicrobial agents. The current study examined the activity of tigecycline and comparators against isolates collected across Eastern Europe between 2004 and 2010. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) broth microdilution methodologies. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined using CLSI interpretive criteria, and tigecycline susceptibility was established using European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) breakpoints. This study included 10 295 Gram-negative and 4611 Gram-positive isolates from 42 centres. Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) were reported among 15.3% of Escherichia coli and 39.3% of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates; the highest rates were observed in Turkey (30.9%) and Bulgaria (53.8%), respectively. Imipenem-non-susceptible K. pneumoniae were identified only in Turkey. ESBL-positive E. coli were highly susceptible to imipenem (95.1%), meropenem (98.0%) and tigecycline (98.5%). Most antimicrobials showed poor activity against Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Vancomycin resistance was noted among 0.9% of Enterococcus faecalis and 11.7% of Enterococcus faecium isolates. High rates of susceptibility were reported for linezolid (99.7%) and tigecycline (100%) against E. faecium. One-quarter of Staphylococcus aureus isolates were meticillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), with the highest rate in Romania (51.5%); all MRSA were susceptible to linezolid, tigecycline and vancomycin. Antimicrobial resistance is high in much of Eastern Europe, with considerable variation seen among countries. Tigecycline and the carbapenems retain excellent activity against many pathogens from Eastern Europe; linezolid and vancomycin are active against most Gram-positive pathogens.

  10. Additive manufacturing of hybrid circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, Nelson S.; Sarobol, Pylin; Cook, Adam; Clem, Paul G.; Keicher, David M.; Hirschfeld, Deidre; Hall, Aaron Christopher

    2016-03-26

    There is a rising interest in developing functional electronics using additively manufactured components. Considerations in materials selection and pathways to forming hybrid circuits and devices must demonstrate useful electronic function; must enable integration; and must complement the complex shape, low cost, high volume, and high functionality of structural but generally electronically passive additively manufactured components. This article reviews several emerging technologies being used in industry and research/development to provide integration advantages of fabricating multilayer hybrid circuits or devices. First, we review a maskless, noncontact, direct write (DW) technology that excels in the deposition of metallic colloid inks for electrical interconnects. Second, we review a complementary technology, aerosol deposition (AD), which excels in the deposition of metallic and ceramic powder as consolidated, thick conformal coatings and is additionally patternable through masking. As a result, we show examples of hybrid circuits/devices integrated beyond 2-D planes, using combinations of DW or AD processes and conventional, established processes.

  11. Taking a Position

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    "TerrAvoid" and "Position Integrity" combine Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) data with high-resolution maps of the Earth's topography. Dubbs & Severino, Inc., based in Irvine, California, has developed software that allows the system to be run on a battery-powered laptop in the cockpit. The packages, designed primarily for military sponsors and now positioned to hit the consumer market in coming months, came about as the result of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Technology Affiliates Program. Intended to give American industry assistance from NASA experts and to facilitate business use of intellectual property developed for the space program, the Technology Affiliates Program introduced the start-up company of Dubbs & Severino to JPL's Dr. Nevin Bryant four years ago. GeoTIFF is now in the public domain, and its use for commercial product development has evolved into an industry standard over the last year.

  12. Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo

    MedlinePlus

    ... Questionnaire Home Diseases and Conditions Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV) Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV) Condition Family HealthMenWomen Share Benign Paroxysmal Positional ...

  13. Additive lattice kirigami.

    PubMed

    Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D

    2016-09-01

    Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes.

  14. Ceramics with Different Additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Juanjuan; Feng, Lajun; Lei, Ali; Zhao, Kang; Yan, Aijun

    2014-09-01

    Li2CO3, MgCO3, BaCO3, and Bi2O3 dopants were introduced into CaCu3Ti4O12 (CCTO) ceramics in order to improve the dielectric properties. The CCTO ceramics were prepared by conventional solid-state reaction method. The phase structure, microstructure, and dielectric behavior were carefully investigated. The pure structure without any impurity phases can be confirmed by the x-ray diffraction patterns. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis illuminated that the grains of Ca0.90Li0.20Cu3Ti4O12 ceramics were greater than that of pure CCTO. It was important for the properties of the CCTO ceramics to study the additives in complex impedance spectroscopy. It was found that the Ca0.90Li0.20Cu3Ti4O12 ceramics had the higher permittivity (>45000), the lower dielectric loss (<0.025) than those of CCTO at 1 kHz at room temperature and good temperature stability from -30 to 75 °C.

  15. Additive lattice kirigami

    PubMed Central

    Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M.; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D.

    2016-01-01

    Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes. PMID:27679822

  16. Positive position control of robotic manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baz, A.; Gumusel, L.

    1989-01-01

    The present, simple and accurate position-control algorithm, which is applicable to fast-moving and lightly damped robot arms, is based on the positive position feedback (PPF) strategy and relies solely on position sensors to monitor joint angles of robotic arms to furnish stable position control. The optimized tuned filters, in the form of a set of difference equations, manipulate position signals for robotic system performance. Attention is given to comparisons between this PPF-algorithm controller's experimentally ascertained performance characteristics and those of a conventional proportional controller.

  17. Additional Drive Circuitry for Piezoelectric Screw Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smythe, Robert; Palmer, Dean; Gursel, Yekta; Reder, Leonard; Savedra, Raymond

    2004-01-01

    Modules of additional drive circuitry have been developed to enhance the functionality of a family of commercially available positioning motors (Picomotor . or equivalent) that provide linear motion controllable, in principle, to within increments .30 nm. A motor of this type includes a piezoelectric actuator that turns a screw. Unlike traditional piezoelectrically actuated mechanisms, a motor of this type does not rely on the piezoelectric transducer to hold position: the screw does not turn except when the drive signal is applied to the actuator.

  18. Positive expiratory pressure and oscillatory positive expiratory pressure therapies.

    PubMed

    Myers, Timothy R

    2007-10-01

    Airway clearance techniques, historically referred to as chest physical therapy, have traditionally consisted of a variety of breathing maneuvers or exercises and manual percussion and postural drainage. The methods and types of airway clearance techniques and devices have rapidly increased in an effort to find a more efficacious strategy that allows for self-therapy, better patient adherence and compliance, and more efficient durations of care. Mechanically applied pressure devices have migrated from European countries over the last several decades to clinical practice in the United States. I conducted a comprehensive MEDLINE search of two such devices: positive expiratory pressure (PEP) and oscillatory positive expiratory pressure (OPEP) and their role in airway clearance strategies. This was followed by a comprehensive search for cross-references in an attempt to identify additional studies. The results of that search are contained and reported in this review. From a methods standpoint, most of the studies of PEP and OPEP for airway clearance are limited by crossover designs and small sample sizes. While PEP and OPEP do not definitively prove superiority to other methods of airway clearance strategies, there is no clear evidence that they are inferior. Ultimately, the correct choice may be an airway clearance strategy that is clinically and cost effective, and is preferred by the patient so that adherence and compliance can be at the very least supported.

  19. The Kepler False Positive Table

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryson, Steve; Kepler False Positive Working Group

    2015-01-01

    The Kepler Space Telescope has detected thousands of candidate exoplanets by observing transit signals in a sample of more than 190,000 stars. Many of these transit signals are false positives, defined as a transit-like signal that is not due to a planet orbiting the target star (or a bound companion if the target is a multiple-star system). Astrophysical causes of false positives include background eclipsing binaries, planetary transits not associated with the target star, and non-planetary eclipses of the target star by stellar companions. The fraction of Kepler planet candidates that are false positives ranges from about 10% at high Galactic latitudes to 40% at low Galactic latitudes. Creating a high-reliability planet candidate catalog for statistical studies such as occurrence rate calculations requires removing clearly identified false positives.The Kepler Object of Interest (KOI) catalog at the NExScI NASA Exoplanet Archive flags false positives, and will soon provide a high-level classification of false positives, but lacks detailed description of why a KOI was determined to be a false positive. The Kepler False Positive Working Group (FPWG) examines each false positive in detail to certify that it is correctly identified as a false positive, and determines the primary reason(s) a KOI is classified as a false positive. The work of the FPWG will be published as the Kepler False Positive Table, hosted at the NExScI NASA Exoplanet Archive.The Kepler False Positive Table provides detailed information on the evidence for background binaries, transits caused by stellar companions, and false alarms. In addition to providing insight into the Kepler false positive population, the false positive table gives information about the background binary population and other areas of astrophysical interest. Because a planet around a star not associated with the target star is considered a false positive, the false positive table likely contains further planet candidates

  20. Clinical effects of prior trastuzumab on combination eribulin mesylate plus trastuzumab as first-line treatment for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 positive locally recurrent or metastatic breast cancer: results from a Phase II, single-arm, multicenter study

    PubMed Central

    Puhalla, Shannon; Wilks, Sharon; Brufsky, Adam M; O’Shaughnessy, Joyce; Schwartzberg, Lee S; Berrak, Erhan; Song, James; Vahdat, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Eribulin mesylate, a novel nontaxane microtubule dynamics inhibitor in the halichondrin class of antineoplastic drugs, is indicated for the treatment of patients with metastatic breast cancer who previously received ≥2 chemotherapy regimens in the metastatic setting. Primary data from a Phase II trial for the first-line combination of eribulin plus trastuzumab in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 positive patients showed a 71% objective response rate and tolerability consistent with the known profile of these agents. Here, we present prespecified analyses of efficacy of this combination based on prior trastuzumab use. Patients received eribulin mesylate 1.4 mg/m2 (equivalent to 1.23 mg/m2 eribulin [expressed as free base]) intravenously on days 1 and 8 plus trastuzumab (8 mg/kg intravenously/cycle 1, then 6 mg/kg) on day 1 of each 21-day cycle. Objective response rates, progression-free survival, and tolerability were assessed in patients who had and had not received prior adjuvant or neoadjuvant (neo/adjuvant) trastuzumab treatment. Fifty-two patients (median age: 59.5 years) received eribulin/trastuzumab for a median treatment duration of ~31 weeks; 40.4% (n=21) had been previously treated with neo/adjuvant trastuzumab prior to treatment with eribulin plus trastuzumab for metastatic disease (median time between neo/adjuvant and study treatment: 23 months). In trastuzumab-naïve patients (n=31) compared with those who had received prior trastuzumab, objective response rate was 77.4% versus 61.9%, respectively; duration of response was 11.8 versus 9.5 months, respectively; clinical benefit rate was 87.1% versus 81.0%, respectively; and median progression-free survival was 12.2 versus 11.5 months, respectively. The most common grade 3/4 treatment-emergent adverse events (occuring in ≥5% of patients) in patients who received prior trastuzumab versus trastuzumab naïve patients, respectively, were neutropenia (47.6% vs 32.3%), peripheral neuropathy (14

  1. Detecting Positioning Errors and Estimating Correct Positions by Moving Window

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ha Yoon; Lee, Jun Seok

    2015-01-01

    In recent times, improvements in smart mobile devices have led to new functionalities related to their embedded positioning abilities. Many related applications that use positioning data have been introduced and are widely being used. However, the positioning data acquired by such devices are prone to erroneous values caused by environmental factors. In this research, a detection algorithm is implemented to detect erroneous data over a continuous positioning data set with several options. Our algorithm is based on a moving window for speed values derived by consecutive positioning data. Both the moving average of the speed and standard deviation in a moving window compose a moving significant interval at a given time, which is utilized to detect erroneous positioning data along with other parameters by checking the newly obtained speed value. In order to fulfill the designated operation, we need to examine the physical parameters and also determine the parameters for the moving windows. Along with the detection of erroneous speed data, estimations of correct positioning are presented. The proposed algorithm first estimates the speed, and then the correct positions. In addition, it removes the effect of errors on the moving window statistics in order to maintain accuracy. Experimental verifications based on our algorithm are presented in various ways. We hope that our approach can help other researchers with regard to positioning applications and human mobility research. PMID:26624282

  2. Detecting Positioning Errors and Estimating Correct Positions by Moving Window.

    PubMed

    Song, Ha Yoon; Lee, Jun Seok

    2015-01-01

    In recent times, improvements in smart mobile devices have led to new functionalities related to their embedded positioning abilities. Many related applications that use positioning data have been introduced and are widely being used. However, the positioning data acquired by such devices are prone to erroneous values caused by environmental factors. In this research, a detection algorithm is implemented to detect erroneous data over a continuous positioning data set with several options. Our algorithm is based on a moving window for speed values derived by consecutive positioning data. Both the moving average of the speed and standard deviation in a moving window compose a moving significant interval at a given time, which is utilized to detect erroneous positioning data along with other parameters by checking the newly obtained speed value. In order to fulfill the designated operation, we need to examine the physical parameters and also determine the parameters for the moving windows. Along with the detection of erroneous speed data, estimations of correct positioning are presented. The proposed algorithm first estimates the speed, and then the correct positions. In addition, it removes the effect of errors on the moving window statistics in order to maintain accuracy. Experimental verifications based on our algorithm are presented in various ways. We hope that our approach can help other researchers with regard to positioning applications and human mobility research.

  3. Analysis of positive control STR experiments reveals that results obtained for FGA, D3S1358, and D13S317 condition the success rate of the analysis of routine reference samples.

    PubMed

    Murigneux, Valentine; Dufour, Anne-Béatrice; Lobry, Jean R; Pène, Laurent

    2014-07-01

    About 120,000 reference samples are analyzed each year in the Forensic Laboratory of Lyon. A total of 1640 positive control experiments used to validate and optimize the analytical method in the routine process were submitted to a multivariate exploratory data analysis approach with the aim of better understanding the underlying sources of variability. The peak heights of the 16 genetic markers targeted by the AmpFℓSTR(®) Identifiler(®) STR kit were used as variables of interest. Six different 3130xl genetic analyzers located in the same controlled environment were involved. Two major sources of variability were found: (i) the DNA load of the sample modulates all peak heights in a similar way so that the 16 markers are highly correlated, (ii) the genetic analyzer used with a locus-specific response for peak height and a better sensitivity for the most recently acquired. Three markers (FGA, D3S1358, and D13S317) were found to be of special interest to predict the success rate observed in the routine process.

  4. Automated Astrophysical False Positive Analysis of Transiting Planet Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, Timothy

    2015-08-01

    Beginning with Kepler, but continuing with K2 and TESS, transiting planet candidates are now found at a much faster rate than follow-up observations can be obtained. Thus, distinguishing true planet candidates from astrophysical false positives has become primarily a statistical exercise. I will describe a new publicly available open-source Python package for analyzing the astrophysical false positive probabilities of transiting exoplanet signals. In addition, I will present results of applying this analysis to both Kepler and K2 planet candidates, resulting in the probabilistic validation of thousands of exoplanets, as well as identifying many likely false positives.

  5. Prospective long-term minimal residual disease monitoring using RQ-PCR in RUNX1-RUNX1T1-positive acute myeloid leukemia: results of the French CBF-2006 trial

    PubMed Central

    Willekens, Christophe; Blanchet, Odile; Renneville, Aline; Cornillet-Lefebvre, Pascale; Pautas, Cécile; Guieze, Romain; Ifrah, Norbert; Dombret, Hervé; Jourdan, Eric; Preudhomme, Claude; Boissel, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    In t(8;21)(q22;q22) acute myeloid leukemia, the prognostic value of early minimal residual disease assessed with real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction is the most important prognostic factor, but how long-term minimal residual disease monitoring may contribute to drive individual patient decisions remains poorly investigated. In the multicenter CBF-2006 study, a prospective monitoring of peripheral blood and bone marrow samples was performed every 3 months and every year, respectively, for 2 years following intensive chemotherapy in 94 patients in first complete remission. A complete molecular remission was defined as a (RUNX1-RUNX1T1/ABL1)×100 ≤ 0.001%. After the completion of consolidation therapy, a bone marrow complete molecular remission was observed in 30% of the patients, but was not predictive of subsequent relapse. Indeed, 8 patients (9%) presented a positive bone marrow minimal residual disease for up to 2 years of follow-up while still remaining in complete remission. Conversely, a peripheral blood complete molecular remission was statistically associated with a lower risk of relapse whatever the time-point considered after the completion of consolidation therapy. During the 2-year follow-up, the persistence of peripheral blood complete molecular remission was associated with a lower risk of relapse (4-year cumulative incidence, 8.2%), while molecular relapse confirmed on a subsequent peripheral blood sample predicted hematological relapse (4-year cumulative incidence, 86.9%) within a median time interval of 3.9 months. In t(8;21)(q22;q22) acute myeloid leukemia, minimal residual disease monitoring on peripheral blood every 3 months allows for the prediction of hematological relapse, and to identify patients who could potentially benefit from intervention therapy. PMID:26635039

  6. Orthology confers intron position conservation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background With the wealth of genomic data available it has become increasingly important to assign putative protein function through functional transfer between orthologs. Therefore, correct elucidation of the evolutionary relationships among genes is a critical task, and attempts should be made to further improve the phylogenetic inference by adding relevant discriminating features. It has been shown that introns can maintain their position over long evolutionary timescales. For this reason, it could be possible to use conservation of intron positions as a discriminating factor when assigning orthology. Therefore, we wanted to investigate whether orthologs have a higher degree of intron position conservation (IPC) compared to non-orthologous sequences that are equally similar in sequence. Results To this end, we developed a new score for IPC and applied it to ortholog groups between human and six other species. For comparison, we also gathered the closest non-orthologs, meaning sequences close in sequence space, yet falling just outside the ortholog cluster. We found that ortholog-ortholog gene pairs on average have a significantly higher degree of IPC compared to ortholog-closest non-ortholog pairs. Also pairs of inparalogs were found to have a higher IPC score than inparalog-closest non-inparalog pairs. We verified that these differences can not simply be attributed to the generally higher sequence identity of the ortholog-ortholog and the inparalog-inparalog pairs. Furthermore, we analyzed the agreement between IPC score and the ortholog score assigned by the InParanoid algorithm, and found that it was consistently high for all species comparisons. In a minority of cases, the IPC and InParanoid score ranked inparalogs differently. These represent cases where sequence and intron position divergence are discordant. We further analyzed the discordant clusters to identify any possible preference for protein functions by looking for enriched GO terms and Pfam

  7. A POSITIONAL DATA SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Forster, G.A.

    1963-09-24

    between master and slave synchros is described. A threephase a-c power source is connected to the stators of the synchros and an error detector is connected to the rotors of the synchros to measure the phasor difference therebetween. A phase shift network shifts the phase of one of the rotors 90 degrees and a demodulator responsive thereto causes the phasor difference signal of the rotors to shift phase 180 degrees whenever the 90 degree phase shifted signal goes negative. The phase shifted difference signal has a waveform which, with the addition of small values of resistance and capacitance, gives a substantially pure d-c output whose amplitude and polarity is proportional to the magnitude and direction of the difference in the angular positions of the synchro's rotors. (AEC)

  8. Antibiotic resistance among clinical isolates of Haemophilus influenzae in the United States in 1994 and 1995 and detection of beta-lactamase-positive strains resistant to amoxicillin-clavulanate: results of a national multicenter surveillance study.

    PubMed

    Doern, G V; Brueggemann, A B; Pierce, G; Holley, H P; Rauch, A

    1997-02-01

    A total of 1,537 clinical isolates of Haemophilus influenzae were recovered in 30 U.S. medical center laboratories between 1 November 1994 and 30 April 1995 and were characterized in a central laboratory with respect to serotype and beta-lactamase production and the in vitro activities of 15 oral antimicrobial agents. Overall, 36.4% of the isolates were found to produce beta-lactamase. The rank order of activity of six cephalosporins on the basis of MICs was cefixime > cefpodoxime > cefuroxime > loracarbef > or = cefaclor > cefprozil. On the basis of current National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) breakpoints ages of isolates found to be resistant or intermediate to these agents were as follows: 0.1, 0.3, 6.4, 16.3, 18.3, and 29.8, respectively (National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Methods for dilution antimicrobial susceptibility tests for bacteria that grow aerobically, 4th ed. M7-A4, 1995). Azithromycin was, on a weight basis, the most potent of the macrolides tested in this study, followed by erythromycin and then clarithromycin. Azithromycin was typically fourfold more active than erythromycin, which was, in turn, slightly more active than clarithromycin. However, when compared on the basis of the frequency of resistance determined by using current NCCLS breakpoints, there was essentially no difference between azithromycin and clarithromycin, i.e., 0.5 and 1.9%, respectively (P = 0.086). Interpretive breakpoints for erythromycin MIC tests versus H. influenzae have not been developed. Resistance to other non- beta-lactam agents was variable, as follows: trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, 9.0%; chloramphenicol, 0.2%; tetracycline, 1.3%; and rifampin, 0.3%. Two conspicuous findings in this study were the identification of 39 strains H. influenzae that were beta-lactamase negative but ampicillin intermediate or resistant (BLNAR) and, even more surprisingly, 17 beta-lactamase-positive isolates that were resistant to amoxicillin

  9. Positive clinical neuroscience: explorations in positive neurology.

    PubMed

    Kapur, Narinder; Cole, Jonathan; Manly, Tom; Viskontas, Indre; Ninteman, Aafke; Hasher, Lynn; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2013-08-01

    Disorders of the brain and its sensory organs have traditionally been associated with deficits in movement, perception, cognition, emotion, and behavior. It is increasingly evident, however, that positive phenomena may also occur in such conditions, with implications for the individual, science, medicine, and for society. This article provides a selective review of such positive phenomena--enhanced function after brain lesions, better-than-normal performance in people with sensory loss, creativity associated with neurological disease, and enhanced performance associated with aging. We propose that, akin to the well-established field of positive psychology and the emerging field of positive clinical psychology, the nascent fields of positive neurology and positive neuropsychology offer new avenues to understand brain-behavior relationships, with both theoretical and therapeutic implications.

  10. A New Indoor Positioning System Architecture Using GPS Signals.

    PubMed

    Xu, Rui; Chen, Wu; Xu, Ying; Ji, Shengyue

    2015-04-29

    The pseudolite system is a good alternative for indoor positioning systems due to its large coverage area and accurate positioning solution. However, for common Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers, the pseudolite system requires some modifications of the user terminals. To solve the problem, this paper proposes a new pseudolite-based indoor positioning system architecture. The main idea is to receive real-world GPS signals, repeat each satellite signal and transmit those using indoor transmitting antennas. The transmitted GPS-like signal can be processed (signal acquisition and tracking, navigation data decoding) by the general receiver and thus no hardware-level modification on the receiver is required. In addition, all Tx can be synchronized with each other since one single clock is used in Rx/Tx. The proposed system is simulated using a software GPS receiver. The simulation results show the indoor positioning system is able to provide high accurate horizontal positioning in both static and dynamic situations.

  11. A New Indoor Positioning System Architecture Using GPS Signals

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Rui; Chen, Wu; Xu, Ying; Ji, Shengyue

    2015-01-01

    The pseudolite system is a good alternative for indoor positioning systems due to its large coverage area and accurate positioning solution. However, for common Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers, the pseudolite system requires some modifications of the user terminals. To solve the problem, this paper proposes a new pseudolite-based indoor positioning system architecture. The main idea is to receive real-world GPS signals, repeat each satellite signal and transmit those using indoor transmitting antennas. The transmitted GPS-like signal can be processed (signal acquisition and tracking, navigation data decoding) by the general receiver and thus no hardware-level modification on the receiver is required. In addition, all Tx can be synchronized with each other since one single clock is used in Rx/Tx. The proposed system is simulated using a software GPS receiver. The simulation results show the indoor positioning system is able to provide high accurate horizontal positioning in both static and dynamic situations. PMID:25938199

  12. SIRT3 is a Mitochondrial Tumor Suppressor and Genetic Loss Results in a Murine Model for ER/PR-Positive Mammary Tumors Connecting Metabolism and Carcinogenesis Mitochondrial Tumor Suppressor. Revision

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-01

    breast cancer in younger women have been established by altering the expression of BRCA genes . In contrast, there are no murine models for the...overarching goal of this proposal is to determine if the mitochondrial sirtuin SIRT3 is a tumor suppressor gene (TSG) that may be used to: (1...tumors. Based on these results we initially proposed a hypothesis that longevity genes impact the process of carcinogenesis via the maintenance of

  13. Positive isolation disconnect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosener, A. A.; Jonkoniec, T. G.

    1975-01-01

    A positive isolation disconnect was developed for component replacement in serviced liquid and gaseous spacecraft systems. Initially a survey of feasible concepts was made to determine the optimum method for fluid isolation, sealing techniques, coupling concepts, and foolproofing techniques. The top concepts were then further evaluated, including the fabrication of a semifunctional model. After all tradeoff analyses were made, a final configuration was designed and fabricated for development testing. This resulted in a 6.35 mm (1/4 inch) line and 12.7 mm (1/2 inch) line positive isolation disconnect, each unit consisting of two coupled disconnect halves, each capable of fluid isolation with essentially zero clearance between them for zero leakage upon disconnect half disengagement. An interlocking foolproofing technique was incorporated that prevents uncoupling of disconnect halves prior to fluid isolation.

  14. Additive manufacturing of hybrid circuits

    DOE PAGES

    Bell, Nelson S.; Sarobol, Pylin; Cook, Adam; ...

    2016-03-26

    There is a rising interest in developing functional electronics using additively manufactured components. Considerations in materials selection and pathways to forming hybrid circuits and devices must demonstrate useful electronic function; must enable integration; and must complement the complex shape, low cost, high volume, and high functionality of structural but generally electronically passive additively manufactured components. This article reviews several emerging technologies being used in industry and research/development to provide integration advantages of fabricating multilayer hybrid circuits or devices. First, we review a maskless, noncontact, direct write (DW) technology that excels in the deposition of metallic colloid inks for electrical interconnects.more » Second, we review a complementary technology, aerosol deposition (AD), which excels in the deposition of metallic and ceramic powder as consolidated, thick conformal coatings and is additionally patternable through masking. As a result, we show examples of hybrid circuits/devices integrated beyond 2-D planes, using combinations of DW or AD processes and conventional, established processes.« less

  15. Shale JP-4 Additive Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-10-01

    8217. •% . , ’ ,,,r ,% . -- - ,.-. ’ ’ 4,w% %’. " - ,’ . . . * ’, .* . TABLE OF CONTENTS .4q ,4 . * SECTION PAGE I. INTRODUCTION 1 II. TEST PARAMETERS 2 1...42 PRECEDING PAGE BLANK TABLE OF CONTENTS (CON’T) SECT ION PAGE V. CONCLUSIONS 44 REFERENCES 46 APPENDIX A Drum to Test Sample Relationship 47 APPENDIX...B.O.C.L.E. Results 40 vii LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE 1 Antioxidants 3 2 Raw Shale/Petroleum Fuel Properties 10 3 Drum Sample Additive Content 13 4

  16. Recovery position - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... CPR, the victim should be placed in the recovery position. The recovery position helps keep the victim's airway open. To put the victim in the recovery position grab the victim's leg and shoulder and ...

  17. Benign positional vertigo - aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    Vertigo - positional - aftercare; Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo - aftercare; BPPV - aftercare; Dizziness - positional vertigo ... Your health care provider may have treated your vertigo with the Epley maneuver . These are head movements ...

  18. Want Positive Behavior? Use Positive Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Chip; Freeman-Loftis, Babs

    2012-01-01

    Positive adult language is the professional use of words and tone of voice to enable students to learn in an engaged, active way. This includes learning social skills. To guide children toward choosing and maintaining positive behaviors, adults need to carefully choose the words and tone of voice used when speaking to them. Learning to use…

  19. Positive Education: Positive Psychology and Classroom Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seligman, Martin E. P.; Ernst, Randal M.; Gillham, Jane; Reivich, Karen; Linkins, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Positive education is defined as education for both traditional skills and for happiness. The high prevalence worldwide of depression among young people, the small rise in life satisfaction, and the synergy between learning and positive emotion all argue that the skills for happiness should be taught in school. There is substantial evidence from…

  20. Positive Behavior Interventions: The Issue of Sustainability of Positive Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeung, Alexander Seeshing; Craven, Rhonda G.; Mooney, Mary; Tracey, Danielle; Barker, Katrina; Power, Anne; Dobia, Brenda; Chen, Zhu; Schofield, Jill; Whitefield, Phillip; Lewis, Timothy J.

    2016-01-01

    During the last decade, positive behavior interventions have resulted in improvement of school behavior and academic gains in a range of school settings worldwide. Recent studies identify sustainability of current positive behavior intervention programs as a major concern. The purpose of this article is to identify future direction for effective…

  1. Impacts of a book reading club intervention on enhancing parents' positive thinking.

    PubMed

    Hong, Zuway-R; Lin, Huann-shyang

    2012-03-01

    This study investigated the effects of participating in a book reading club on improving parents' positive interactions with children and positive thinking. A total of 85 parent volunteers were randomized into the experimental or comparison group. The Parent Questionnaire was used to measure positive thinking and interaction with children. Additionally interview results were used to triangulate and elucidate the findings. The findings revealed a positive impact on parents' positive thinking and interaction with children and that these were significant predictors of parents' positive thinking. Implications and recommendations are presented.

  2. Covert positive reinforcement and pain modification: a test of efficacy and theory.

    PubMed

    Turkat, I D; Adams, H E

    1982-01-01

    The effects of covert positive reinforcement, covert positive reinforcement plus positive expectancy, covert positive reinforcement plus negative expectancy, covert positive reinforcement of pain, attention placebo and no treatment on control of headache and finger pressure pain were examined. Self-report, behavioural and physiological measures were taken. Groups did not differ on any measures except for validity checks of the expectancy manipulation. The results provide little support for the efficacy of covert positive reinforcement in modifying pain. Additionally, the data failed to substantiate the theoretical basis of the procedure.

  3. Centenarians' "holy" memory: is being positive enough?

    PubMed

    Fairfield, Beth; Mammarella, Nicola; Di Domenico, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    The authors compared 18 centenarians' (M age = 100.1 years, SD = 1.8 years) recognition memory for emotional (positive, negative, and religious) pictures with 18 older adults (M age = 75.2 years, SD = 6.8 years). Participants observed a series of images that varied in emotional valence and meaning and were later asked to discriminate between old and new images in a series of pictures that included studied images as well as new images. Centenarians showed decreased recognition memory for positive and negative images items compared with older adults, F(1, 34) = 9.82, p < .01. In addition, a significant age by valence interaction was observed highlighting how centenarians remembered religious pictures better while older adults favoured positive information when only positive pictures were taken into consideration. Results are interpreted in terms of possible age-linked changes in meaningful goals that lead centenarians to focus on meaningful religious self-relevant information rather than simply on positive information.

  4. Lumbar spine surgery positioning complications: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Shriver, Michael F; Zeer, Valerie; Alentado, Vincent J; Mroz, Thomas E; Benzel, Edward C; Steinmetz, Michael P

    2015-10-01

    OBJECT There are a variety of surgical positions that provide optimal exposure of the dorsal lumbar spine. These include the prone, kneeling, knee-chest, knee-elbow, and lateral decubitus positions. All are positions that facilitate exposure of the spine. Each position, however, is associated with an array of unique complications that result from excessive pressure applied to the torso or extremities. The authors reviewed clinical studies reporting complications that arose from positioning of the patient during dorsal exposures of the lumbar spine. METHODS MEDLINE, Scopus, and Web of Science database searches were performed to find clinical studies reporting complications associated with positioning during lumbar spine surgery. For articles meeting inclusion criteria, the following information was obtained: publication year, study design, sample size, age, operative time, type of surgery, surgical position, frame or table type, complications associated with positioning, time to first observed complication, long-term outcomes, and evidence-based recommendations for complication avoidance. RESULTS Of 3898 articles retrieved from MEDLINE, Scopus, and Web of Science, 34 met inclusion criteria. Twenty-four studies reported complications associated with use of the prone position, and 7 studies investigated complications after knee-chest positioning. Complications associated with the knee-elbow, lateral decubitus, and supine positions were each reported by a single study. Vision loss was the most commonly reported complication for both prone and knee-chest positioning. Several other complications were reported, including conjunctival swelling, Ischemic orbital compartment syndrome, nerve palsies, thromboembolic complications, pressure sores, lower extremity compartment syndrome, and shoulder dislocation, highlighting the assortment of possible complications following different surgical positions. For prone-position studies, there was a relationship between increased

  5. Reversal of clavulanate resistance conferred by a Ser-244 mutant of TEM-1 beta-lactamase as a result of a second mutation (Arg to Ser at position 164) that enhances activity against ceftazidime.

    PubMed Central

    Imtiaz, U; Manavathu, E K; Mobashery, S; Lerner, S A

    1994-01-01

    The mutation of Arg-244 to Ser (Arg-244-->Ser mutation) in the TEM-1 beta-lactamase has been shown to produce resistance to inactivation by clavulanate in the mutant enzyme and resistance to ampicillin plus clavulanate in a strain of Escherichia coli producing this enzyme. The Arg-164-->Ser mutation in the TEM-1 beta-lactamase (TEM-12 enzyme) is known to enhance the activity of the enzyme against ceftazidime, resulting in resistance to the drug in a strain producing the mutant enzyme (D. A. Weber, C. C. Sanders, J. S. Bakken, and J. P. Quinn, J. Infect. Dis. 162:460-465, 1990). The doubly mutated derivative of the TEM-1 enzyme (Ser-164/Ser-244) retains the characteristics of the Ser-164 mutant enzyme, i.e., enhanced activity against ceftazidime and sensitivity to inactivation by clavulanate. It also confers the same phenotype as the Ser-164 mutant enzyme, i.e., resistance to ceftazidime and ampicillin, with reversal of this resistance in the presence of clavulanate. Thus, the Arg-164-->Ser mutation in the TEM-1 beta-lactamase suppresses the effect of the Arg-244-->Ser mutation which, by itself, reduces the sensitivity of the enzyme to inactivation by clavulanate. PMID:8067751

  6. Does Preoperative Measurement of Cerebral Blood Flow with Acetazolamide Challenge in Addition to Preoperative Measurement of Cerebral Blood Flow at the Resting State Increase the Predictive Accuracy of Development of Cerebral Hyperperfusion after Carotid Endarterectomy? Results from 500 Cases with Brain Perfusion Single-photon Emission Computed Tomography Study

    PubMed Central

    OSHIDA, Sotaro; OGASAWARA, Kuniaki; SAURA, Hiroaki; YOSHIDA, Koji; FUJIWARA, Shunro; KOJIMA, Daigo; KOBAYASHI, Masakazu; YOSHIDA, Kenji; KUBO, Yoshitaka; OGAWA, Akira

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether preoperative measurement of cerebral blood flow (CBF) with acetazolamide in addition to preoperative measurement of CBF at the resting state increases the predictive accuracy of development of cerebral hyperperfusion after carotid endarterectomy (CEA). CBF at the resting state and cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) to acetazolamide were quantitatively assessed using N-isopropyl-p-[123I]-iodoamphetamine (IMP)-autoradiography method with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) before CEA in 500 patients with ipsilateral internal carotid artery stenosis (≥ 70%). CBF measurement using 123I-IMP SPECT was also performed immediately and 3 days after CEA. A region of interest (ROI) was automatically placed in the middle cerebral artery territory in the affected cerebral hemisphere using a three-dimensional stereotactic ROI template. Preoperative decreases in CBF at the resting state [95% confidence intervals (CIs), 0.855 to 0.967; P = 0.0023] and preoperative decreases in CVR to acetazolamide (95% CIs, 0.844 to 0.912; P < 0.0001) were significant independent predictors of post-CEA hyperperfusion. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for prediction of the development of post-CEA hyperperfusion was significantly greater for CVR to acetazolamide than for CBF at the resting state (difference between areas, 0.173; P < 0.0001). Sensitivity, specificity, and positive- and negative-predictive values for the prediction of the development of post-CEA hyperperfusion were significantly greater for CVR to acetazolamide than for CBF at the resting state (P < 0.05, respectively). The present study demonstrated that preoperative measurement of CBF with acetazolamide in addition to preoperative measurement of CBF at the resting state increases the predictive accuracy of the development of post-CEA hyperperfusion. PMID:25746308

  7. Does preoperative measurement of cerebral blood flow with acetazolamide challenge in addition to preoperative measurement of cerebral blood flow at the resting state increase the predictive accuracy of development of cerebral hyperperfusion after carotid endarterectomy? Results from 500 cases with brain perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography study.

    PubMed

    Oshida, Sotaro; Ogasawara, Kuniaki; Saura, Hiroaki; Yoshida, Koji; Fujiwara, Shunro; Kojima, Daigo; Kobayashi, Masakazu; Yoshida, Kenji; Kubo, Yoshitaka; Ogawa, Akira

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether preoperative measurement of cerebral blood flow (CBF) with acetazolamide in addition to preoperative measurement of CBF at the resting state increases the predictive accuracy of development of cerebral hyperperfusion after carotid endarterectomy (CEA). CBF at the resting state and cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) to acetazolamide were quantitatively assessed using N-isopropyl-p-[(123)I]-iodoamphetamine (IMP)-autoradiography method with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) before CEA in 500 patients with ipsilateral internal carotid artery stenosis (≥ 70%). CBF measurement using (123)I-IMP SPECT was also performed immediately and 3 days after CEA. A region of interest (ROI) was automatically placed in the middle cerebral artery territory in the affected cerebral hemisphere using a three-dimensional stereotactic ROI template. Preoperative decreases in CBF at the resting state [95% confidence intervals (CIs), 0.855 to 0.967; P = 0.0023] and preoperative decreases in CVR to acetazolamide (95% CIs, 0.844 to 0.912; P < 0.0001) were significant independent predictors of post-CEA hyperperfusion. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for prediction of the development of post-CEA hyperperfusion was significantly greater for CVR to acetazolamide than for CBF at the resting state (difference between areas, 0.173; P < 0.0001). Sensitivity, specificity, and positive- and negative-predictive values for the prediction of the development of post-CEA hyperperfusion were significantly greater for CVR to acetazolamide than for CBF at the resting state (P < 0.05, respectively). The present study demonstrated that preoperative measurement of CBF with acetazolamide in addition to preoperative measurement of CBF at the resting state increases the predictive accuracy of the development of post-CEA hyperperfusion.

  8. Hyperbolic tangential function-based progressive addition lens design.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Gufeng; Cui, Xudong

    2015-12-10

    The diopter distribution is key to the successful design of a progressive addition lens. A hyperbolic tangential function is then introduced to describe well the desired diopter distribution on the lens. Simulation and fabrication show that the astigmia on the whole surface is very close to the addition, exhibiting superior performance than that of currently used high-order polynomials and cosine functions. Our investigations found that once the diopter distribution design is reasonable, both the direct and indirect methods of constructing a progressive addition lens can give consistent results. With this function we are able to effectively control the design of critical areas, the position, sizes of far-view and near-view zones, as well as the channel of the lens. This study would provide an efficient way to customize different progressive lenses not only for presbyopia, but also for anti-fatigue, office progressive usages, etc.

  9. An Additive Manufacturing Test Artifact

    PubMed Central

    Moylan, Shawn; Slotwinski, John; Cooke, April; Jurrens, Kevin; Donmez, M Alkan

    2014-01-01

    A test artifact, intended for standardization, is proposed for the purpose of evaluating the performance of additive manufacturing (AM) systems. A thorough analysis of previously proposed AM test artifacts as well as experience with machining test artifacts have inspired the design of the proposed test artifact. This new artifact is designed to provide a characterization of the capabilities and limitations of an AM system, as well as to allow system improvement by linking specific errors measured in the test artifact to specific sources in the AM system. The proposed test artifact has been built in multiple materials using multiple AM technologies. The results of several of the builds are discussed, demonstrating how the measurement results can be used to characterize and improve a specific AM system. PMID:26601039

  10. An Additive Manufacturing Test Artifact.

    PubMed

    Moylan, Shawn; Slotwinski, John; Cooke, April; Jurrens, Kevin; Donmez, M Alkan

    2014-01-01

    A test artifact, intended for standardization, is proposed for the purpose of evaluating the performance of additive manufacturing (AM) systems. A thorough analysis of previously proposed AM test artifacts as well as experience with machining test artifacts have inspired the design of the proposed test artifact. This new artifact is designed to provide a characterization of the capabilities and limitations of an AM system, as well as to allow system improvement by linking specific errors measured in the test artifact to specific sources in the AM system. The proposed test artifact has been built in multiple materials using multiple AM technologies. The results of several of the builds are discussed, demonstrating how the measurement results can be used to characterize and improve a specific AM system.

  11. Position Analysis of Library Assistants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defa, Dennis R.

    1995-01-01

    Issues of maintaining equity of classification and salary for library assistants across a university library system and in relation to other university departments are addressed. A 1989 job analysis of library assistant positions at the University of Utah resulted in the reclassification of positions and an increase in salary implemented over two…

  12. Inductive Non-Contact Position Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngquist, Robert; Garcia, Alyssa; Simmons, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Optical hardware has been developed to measure the depth of defects in the Space Shuttle Orbiter's windows. In this hardware, a mirror is translated such that its position corresponds to the defect's depth, so the depth measurement problem is transferred to a mirror-position measurement problem. This is preferable because the mirror is internal to the optical system and thus accessible. Based on requirements supplied by the window inspectors, the depth of the defects needs to be measured over a range of 200 microns with a resolution of about 100 nm and an accuracy of about 400 nm. These same requirements then apply to measuring the position of the mirror, and in addition, since this is a scanning system, a response time of about 10 ms is needed. A market search was conducted and no sensor that met these requirements that also fit into the available housing volume (less than one cubic inch) was found, so a novel sensor configuration was constructed to meet the requirements. This new sensor generates a nearly linearly varying magnetic field over a small region of space, which can easily be sampled, resulting in a voltage proportional to position. Experiments were done with a range of inductor values, drive voltages, drive frequencies, and inductor shapes. A rough mathematical model was developed for the device that, in most aspects, describes how it operates and what electrical parameters should be chosen for best performance. The final configuration met all the requirements, yielding a small rugged sensor that was easy to use and had nanometer resolution over more than the 200-micron range required. The inductive position sensor is a compact device (potentially as small as 2 cubic centimeters), which offers nanometer-position resolution over a demonstrated range of nearly 1 mm. One of its advantages is the simplicity of its electrical design. Also, the sensor resolution is nearly uniform across its operational range, which is in contrast to eddy current and

  13. The stability of alloying additions in Zirconium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumley, S. C.; Murphy, S. T.; Burr, P. A.; Grimes, R. W.; Chard-Tuckey, P. R.; Wenman, M. R.

    2013-06-01

    The interactions of Cr, Fe, Nb, Ni, Sn, V and Y with Zr are simulated using density functional theory. Thermodynamic stabilities of various different Zr based intermetallic compounds, including multiple Laves phase structures and solutions of alloying additions in both α and β-Zr were investigated. The thermodynamic driving forces in this system can be correlated with trends in atomic radii and the relative electronegativities of the different species. Formation energies of Fe, Ni and Sn based intermetallic compounds were found to be negative, and the ZrFe and ZrNi intermetallics were metastable. Most elements displayed negative energies of solution in β-Zr but positive energies in the α-phase, with the exception of Sn (which was negative for both) and Y (which was positive for both). Solutions formed from intermetallics showed a similar trend. Cr -3s23p64s13d5. Fe -4s23d6. Nb -4s24p65s14d4. Ni -4s23d8. Sn -5s25p2. V -3s23p64s23d3. Y -4s24p65s24d1. Zr -4s24p65s24d2. The pseudopotential scheme used is "on-the-fly" generation, in which an isolated all-electron calculation is carried out before the main calculation and used as a starting point to generate a pseudopotential. This was carried out for all pseudopotentials except Cr and V, as the default on-the-fly pseudopotentials for these elements required a much higher cut-off energy. Instead, standard ultrasoft pseudopotentials, as found in the CASTEP pseudopotential library, were used for Cr and V. All pseudopotentials (both on-the-fly and library) are of the ultrasoft type [15], and so are compatible with each-other. Exchange-correlation was modelled using the Perdew, Burke and Ernzerhof formalisation of the Generalised Gradient Approximation [16].A series of simulations were run to establish an appropriate basis set cut-off energy, and the density of sampling in the Brillouin zone. The results were converged to within two decimal places for a cut-off energy of 450 eV and a k-point spacing of 0.003 nm-1. The k

  14. Additional noise data on the SR-3 propeller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittmar, J. H.; Jeracki, R. J.

    1981-05-01

    The noise generated by supersonic-tip-speed propellers is investigated. An eight bladed propeller was tested in the Lewis 8- by 6-foot wind tunnel with conditions providing data in the subsonic operating region of the propeller. These conditions resulted in a slight reshaping of the curve for blade passing tone as a function of helical tip Mach number as compared with previous results. Directivity curves with an additional transducer position gave an indication of a lobe pattern for this propeller that was not previously observed. The present data at the aft-most position indicate that some reflections, possibly from the test rig support strut, may have affected the data taken previously.

  15. Sample positioning in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridharan, Govind (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Repulsion forces arising from laser beams are provided to produce mild positioning forces on a sample in microgravity vacuum environments. The system of the preferred embodiment positions samples using a plurality of pulsed lasers providing opposing repulsion forces. The lasers are positioned around the periphery of a confinement area and expanded to create a confinement zone. The grouped laser configuration, in coordination with position sensing devices, creates a feedback servo whereby stable position control of a sample within microgravity environment can be achieved.

  16. Additive interaction between heterogeneous environmental ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    BACKGROUND Environmental exposures often occur in tandem; however, epidemiological research often focuses on singular exposures. Statistical interactions among broad, well-characterized environmental domains have not yet been evaluated in association with health. We address this gap by conducting a county-level cross-sectional analysis of interactions between Environmental Quality Index (EQI) domain indices on preterm birth in the Unites States from 2000-2005.METHODS: The EQI, a county-level index constructed for the 2000-2005 time period, was constructed from five domain-specific indices (air, water, land, built and sociodemographic) using principal component analyses. County-level preterm birth rates (n=3141) were estimated using live births from the National Center for Health Statistics. Linear regression was used to estimate prevalence differences (PD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) comparing worse environmental quality to the better quality for each model for a) each individual domain main effect b) the interaction contrast and c) the two main effects plus interaction effect (i.e. the “net effect”) to show departure from additive interaction for the all U.S counties. Analyses were also performed for subgroupings by four urban/rural strata. RESULTS: We found the suggestion of antagonistic interactions but no synergism, along with several purely additive (i.e., no interaction) associations. In the non-stratified model, we observed antagonistic interac

  17. [Positive results with haematology webcasting for junior doctors].

    PubMed

    Raaschou-Jensen, Klas; Thomsen, Rasmus Heje; Gang, Anne Ortved; Do, Thrung; Aagaard, Thomas; Niemann, Carsten; Bjerrum, Ole Weis

    2016-01-11

    Webcasting is an educational activity where the teacher and the participants are separated in space and time when using modern information technology. It is widely used for all learning levels and in all educational forms of haematology training in Europe. A working group in the Education Council of internal medicine, haematology in the eastern part of Denmark initiated a project with webcasting from local haematological departments. The aim of the education project was to contribute to spreading knowledge and support the training of specialist in haematology. Our experience is hereby reported.

  18. Good science and business practices also yield positive educational results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieman, Carl

    The reliance of modem society on science and technology has created a serious and growing need for a large high-technology workforce and a technically literate population. Nowhere is this clearer than in the area of optics. Furthermore, providing an effective science education for a large and diverse segment of the population is something no educational system has ever achieved (see Laser Focus World, December 2003, p. 47).

  19. Global Positioning System Timing Criticality Assessment - Preliminary Performance Results

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    average person doesn’t realize how much infrastructure is based on GPS and how vulnerable it is,” said Brent Ledvina of Virginia Tech, who helped...incorrect time or location appears on the intended receiver. “It looks exactly like a real GPS signal,” said Ledvina . “Everything looks completely

  20. High school student physics research experience yields positive results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podolak, K. R.; Walters, M. J.

    2016-03-01

    All high school students that wish to continue onto college are seeking opportunities to be competitive in the college market. They participate in extra-curricular activities which are seen to foster creativity and the skills necessary to do well in the college environment. In the case of students with an interest in physics, participating in a small scale research project while in high school gives them the hands on experience and ultimately prepares them more for the college experience. SUNY Plattsburgh’s Physics department started a five-week summer program for high school students in 2012. This program has proved not only beneficial for students while in the program, but also as they continue on in their development as scientists/engineers. Independent research, such as that offered by SUNY Plattsburgh’s five-week summer program, offers students a feel and taste of the culture of doing research, and life as a scientist. It is a short-term, risk free way to investigate whether a career in research or a particular scientific field is a good fit.

  1. Many Women Skip Mammograms After False-Positive Result

    MedlinePlus

    ... a screening mammogram to adhere to routine screening mammography recommendations, because it has been shown to reduce ... is extremely important that women continue annual screening mammography, even if they have had the experience of ...

  2. High School Student Physics Research Experience Yields Positive Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Podolak, K. R.; Walters, M. J.

    2016-01-01

    All high school students that wish to continue onto college are seeking opportunities to be competitive in the college market. They participate in extra-curricular activities which are seen to foster creativity and the skills necessary to do well in the college environment. In the case of students with an interest in physics, participating in a…

  3. Defense Mapping Agency Inertial Positioning System Test Results (2nd),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-11-01

    7APLE 3. -n’yo eletr ’~1 511.5/10 NORMAL ZUPT AVERAGE STANDARD INTERVAL (MIN) DEVIATION (CM) 4 25 8 59 60. S50- z S40- 30- o20 V 01 I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 ZUPr...College and Rollins College. He served 4 years in the U.S. Air Force , and did field work in Nicaragua and Haiti with the Inter American Geodetic Survey before joining the Geodetic Survey Squadron in 1961. DATE FILMEI

  4. Pyrophosphorolysis of CCA addition: implication for fidelity.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Takao; Liu, Cuiping; Morinaga, Hironobu; Kim, Sangbumn; Hou, Ya-Ming

    2011-11-18

    In nucleic acid polymerization reaction, pyrophosphorolysis is the reversal of nucleotide addition, in which the terminal nucleotide is excised in the presence of inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi). The CCA enzymes are unusual RNA polymerases, which catalyze CCA addition to positions 74-76 at the tRNA 3' end without using a nucleic acid template. To better understand the reaction mechanism of CCA addition, we tested pyrophosphorolysis of CCA enzymes, which are divided into two structurally distinct classes. Here, we show that only class II CCA enzymes catalyze pyrophosphorolysis and that the reaction can initiate from all three CCA positions and proceed processively until the removal of nucleotide C74. Pyrophosphorolysis of class II enzymes establishes a fundamental difference from class I enzymes, and it is achieved only with the tRNA structure and with specific divalent metal ions. Importantly, pyrophosphorolysis enables class II enzymes to efficiently remove an incorrect A75 nucleotide from the 3' end, at a rate much faster than the rate of A75 incorporation, suggesting the ability to perform a previously unexpected quality control mechanism for CCA synthesis. Measurement of kinetic parameters of the class II Escherichia coli CCA enzyme reveals that the enzyme catalyzes pyrophosphorolysis slowly relative to the forward nucleotide addition and that it exhibits weak binding affinity to PPi relative to NTP, suggesting a mechanism in which PPi is rapidly released after each nucleotide addition as a driving force to promote the forward synthesis of CCA.

  5. Positional vertigo afterwards maxillary dental implant surgery with bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Gutiérrez, Carlos; Rodríguez Gómez, Enrique

    2007-03-01

    Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is the most common form of vertigo. It is caused by loose otoconia from the utricle which, in certain positions, displaced the cupula of the posterior semicircular canal. BPPV most often is a result of aging. It also can occur after a blow to the head. Less common causes include a prolonged positioning on the back (supine) during some surgical procedures. Additionally one can include in this ethiopathogenesis the positioning required during the maxillary dental implant surgery with bone regeneration related to a forced head positioning and inner ear trauma induced by dental turbine noise working in the maxillary bone. Two cases of patients who suffered BPPV after undergoing maxillary dental implant with bone regeneration procedures are reported. Diagnosis and treatment are also described.

  6. Increasing Positive Interactive Classroom Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotcher, Elaine; Doremus, Richard R.

    1973-01-01

    The question examined in this study was as follows: do teachers increase their positive classroom interactive behaviors as a result of training in systematic classroom observation techniques? (Authors/JA)

  7. How Safe Are Color Additives?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home For Consumers Consumer Updates How Safe are Color Additives? Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Consumer Updates RSS Feed Download PDF (380 K) Color additives give the red tint to your fruit ...

  8. Position sensitive detector for fluorescence lifetime imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokazov, Y.; Turbin, E.; Weber, A.; Hartig, R.; Zuschratter, W.

    2014-12-01

    We present a detector system with a microchannel plate based photomultiplier tube (MCP-PMT) and its application for fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) in visible light. A capacity coupled imaging technique (charge image) combined with a charge division anode is employed for the positional readout. Using an artificial neural network's (ANN) computation model we are able to reconstruct the position of the incident photon as precise as 20 microns over the detector active area of 25 mm diameter. Thus, the resulting image quality corresponds roughly to a megapixel conventional CCD camera. Importantly, it is feasible to reach such resolution using only 9 charge acquisition channels supporting the anode structure of 14 interconnected readout electrodes. Additionally, the system features better than 50 ps temporal resolution allowing single photon counting FLIM acquisition with a regular fluorescence wide-field microscope.

  9. Dimensionless numbers in additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, T.; Manvatkar, V.; De, A.; DebRoy, T.

    2017-02-01

    The effects of many process variables and alloy properties on the structure and properties of additively manufactured parts are examined using four dimensionless numbers. The structure and properties of components made from 316 Stainless steel, Ti-6Al-4V, and Inconel 718 powders for various dimensionless heat inputs, Peclet numbers, Marangoni numbers, and Fourier numbers are studied. Temperature fields, cooling rates, solidification parameters, lack of fusion defects, and thermal strains are examined using a well-tested three-dimensional transient heat transfer and fluid flow model. The results show that lack of fusion defects in the fabricated parts can be minimized by strengthening interlayer bonding using high values of dimensionless heat input. The formation of harmful intermetallics such as laves phases in Inconel 718 can be suppressed using low heat input that results in a small molten pool, a steep temperature gradient, and a fast cooling rate. Improved interlayer bonding can be achieved at high Marangoni numbers, which results in vigorous circulation of liquid metal, larger pool dimensions, and greater depth of penetration. A high Fourier number ensures rapid cooling, low thermal distortion, and a high ratio of temperature gradient to the solidification growth rate with a greater tendency of plane front solidification.

  10. Detergent Additive for Lubricating Oils,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The Russian patent pertains to a method of producing additives for lubricating oils . A method is known for producing an antiwear additive for... lubricating oils by processing phenols with phosphorus oxychloride, phosphoric acid esters are obtained. In order to give the additive detergent properties

  11. Incorporation of additives into polymers

    DOEpatents

    McCleskey, T. Mark; Yates, Matthew Z.

    2003-07-29

    There has been invented a method for incorporating additives into polymers comprising: (a) forming an aqueous or alcohol-based colloidal system of the polymer; (b) emulsifying the colloidal system with a compressed fluid; and (c) contacting the colloidal polymer with the additive in the presence of the compressed fluid. The colloidal polymer can be contacted with the additive by having the additive in the compressed fluid used for emulsification or by adding the additive to the colloidal system before or after emulsification with the compressed fluid. The invention process can be carried out either as a batch process or as a continuous on-line process.

  12. Additive manufacturing of optical components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, Andreas; Rank, Manuel; Maillard, Philippe; Suckow, Anne; Bauckhage, Yannick; Rößler, Patrick; Lang, Johannes; Shariff, Fatin; Pekrul, Sven

    2016-08-01

    The development of additive manufacturing methods has enlarged rapidly in recent years. Thereby, the work mainly focuses on the realization of mechanical components, but the additive manufacturing technology offers a high potential in the field of optics as well. Owing to new design possibilities, completely new solutions are possible. This article briefly reviews and compares the most important additive manufacturing methods for polymer optics. Additionally, it points out the characteristics of additive manufactured polymer optics. Thereby, surface quality is of crucial importance. In order to improve it, appropriate post-processing steps are necessary (e.g. robot polishing or coating), which will be discussed. An essential part of this paper deals with various additive manufactured optical components and their use, especially in optical systems for shape metrology (e.g. borehole sensor, tilt sensor, freeform surface sensor, fisheye lens). The examples should demonstrate the potentials and limitations of optical components produced by additive manufacturing.

  13. 19F NMR-, ESR-, and vis-NIR-spectroelectrochemical study of the unconventional reduction behaviour of a perfluoroalkylated fullerene: dimerization of the C70(CF3)10 – radical anion† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional electrochemical and spectroscopic results, mass spectrometry study, and DFT-optimized Cartesian coordinates. See DOI: 10.1039/c5an01129a Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Machata, Peter; Clikeman, Tyler T.; Rosenkranz, Marco

    2015-01-01

    The most abundant isomer of C70(CF3)10 (70-10-1) is a rare example of a perfluoroalkylated fullerene exhibiting electrochemically irreversible reduction. We show that electrochemical reversibility at the first reduction step is achieved at scan rates higher than 500 V s–1. Applying ESR-, vis-NIR-, and 19F NMR-spectroelectrochemistry, as well as mass spectrometry and DFT calculations, we show that the (70-10-1)– radical monoanion is in equilibrium with a singly-bonded diamagnetic dimeric dianion. This study is the first example of 19F NMR spectroelectrochemistry, which promises to be an important method for the elucidation of redox mechanisms of fluoroorganic compounds. Additionally, we demonstrate the importance of combining different spectroelectrochemical methods and quantitative analysis of the transferred charge and spin numbers in the determination of the redox mechanism. PMID:26359514

  14. Positive Deviance: Learning from Positive Anomalies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeMahieu, Paul G.; Nordstrum, Lee E.; Gale, Dick

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This paper is one of seven in this volume, each elaborating different approaches to quality improvement in education. The purpose of this paper is to delineate a methodology called positive deviance. Design/methodology/approach: The paper presents the origins, theoretical foundations, core principles and a case study demonstrating an…

  15. The Positivity Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Alessandri, Guido; Eisenberg, Nancy; Kupfer, A.; Steca, Patrizia; Caprara, Maria Giovanna; Yamaguchi, Susumu; Fukuzawa, Ai; Abela, John

    2012-01-01

    Five studies document the validity of a new 8-item scale designed to measure "positivity," defined as the tendency to view life and experiences with a positive outlook. In the first study (N = 372), the psychometric properties of Positivity Scale (P Scale) were examined in accordance with classical test theory using a large number of…

  16. The Global Positioning System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-01

    Global Positioning System ( GPS ) and current program status are provided. The importance of...the NAVSTAR Global Positioning System (NAVSTAR GPS or GPS ) will have on future weapons employment. The study will: examine why we need a high...Washington, D.C., 24 January, 1984. Malone, Daniel K. GPS /NAVSTAR. Military Review, March 1986. Nepean, Phillip The NAVSTAR Global Positioning System

  17. Development of an Automatic Identification System Autonomous Positioning System.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qing; Jiang, Yi; Zhang, Jingbo; Sun, Xiaowen; Zhang, Shufang

    2015-11-11

    In order to overcome the vulnerability of the global navigation satellite system (GNSS) and provide robust position, navigation and time (PNT) information in marine navigation, the autonomous positioning system based on ranging-mode Automatic Identification System (AIS) is presented in the paper. The principle of the AIS autonomous positioning system (AAPS) is investigated, including the position algorithm, the signal measurement technique, the geometric dilution of precision, the time synchronization technique and the additional secondary factor correction technique. In order to validate the proposed AAPS, a verification system has been established in the Xinghai sea region of Dalian (China). Static and dynamic positioning experiments are performed. The original function of the AIS in the AAPS is not influenced. The experimental results show that the positioning precision of the AAPS is better than 10 m in the area with good geometric dilution of precision (GDOP) by the additional secondary factor correction technology. This is the most economical solution for a land-based positioning system to complement the GNSS for the navigation safety of vessels sailing along coasts.

  18. Development of an Automatic Identification System Autonomous Positioning System

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Qing; Jiang, Yi; Zhang, Jingbo; Sun, Xiaowen; Zhang, Shufang

    2015-01-01

    In order to overcome the vulnerability of the global navigation satellite system (GNSS) and provide robust position, navigation and time (PNT) information in marine navigation, the autonomous positioning system based on ranging-mode Automatic Identification System (AIS) is presented in the paper. The principle of the AIS autonomous positioning system (AAPS) is investigated, including the position algorithm, the signal measurement technique, the geometric dilution of precision, the time synchronization technique and the additional secondary factor correction technique. In order to validate the proposed AAPS, a verification system has been established in the Xinghai sea region of Dalian (China). Static and dynamic positioning experiments are performed. The original function of the AIS in the AAPS is not influenced. The experimental results show that the positioning precision of the AAPS is better than 10 m in the area with good geometric dilution of precision (GDOP) by the additional secondary factor correction technology. This is the most economical solution for a land-based positioning system to complement the GNSS for the navigation safety of vessels sailing along coasts. PMID:26569258

  19. Metallic positive expulsion diaphragms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gleich, D.

    1972-01-01

    High-cycle life ring-reinforced hemispherical type positive expulsion diaphragm performance was demonstrated by room temperature fluid expulsion tests of 13" diameter, 8 mil thick stainless steel configurations. A maximum of eleven (11) leak-free, fluid expulsions were achieved by a 25 deg cone angle diaphragm hoop-reinforced with .110-inch cross-sectional diameter wires. This represents a 70% improvement in diaphragm reversal cycle life compared to results previously obtained. The reversal tests confirmed analytic predictions for diaphragm cycle life increases due to increasing values of diaphragm cone angle, radius to thickness ratio and material strain to necking capacity. Practical fabrication techniques were demonstrated for forming close-tolerance, thin corrugated shells and for obtaining closely controlled reinforcing ring stiffness required to maximize diaphragm cycle life. A non-destructive inspection technique for monitoring large local shell bending strains was developed.

  20. Replacing and Additive Horizontal Gene Transfer in Streptococcus

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sang Chul; Rasmussen, Matthew D.; Hubisz, Melissa J.; Gronau, Ilan; Stanhope, Michael J.; Siepel, Adam

    2012-01-01

    The prominent role of Horizontal Gene Transfer (HGT) in the evolution of bacteria is now well documented, but few studies have differentiated between evolutionary events that predominantly cause genes in one lineage to be replaced by homologs from another lineage (“replacing HGT”) and events that result in the addition of substantial new genomic material (“additive HGT”). Here in, we make use of the distinct phylogenetic signatures of replacing and additive HGTs in a genome-wide study of the important human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes (SPY) and its close relatives S. dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis (SDE) and S. dysgalactiae subspecies dysgalactiae (SDD). Using recently developed statistical models and computational methods, we find evidence for abundant gene flow of both kinds within each of the SPY and SDE clades and of reduced levels of exchange between SPY and SDD. In addition, our analysis strongly supports a pronounced asymmetry in SPY–SDE gene flow, favoring the SPY-to-SDE direction. This finding is of particular interest in light of the recent increase in virulence of pathogenic SDE. We find much stronger evidence for SPY–SDE gene flow among replacing than among additive transfers, suggesting a primary influence from homologous recombination between co-occurring SPY and SDE cells in human hosts. Putative virulence genes are correlated with transfer events, but this correlation is found to be driven by additive, not replacing, HGTs. The genes affected by additive HGTs are enriched for functions having to do with transposition, recombination, and DNA integration, consistent with previous findings, whereas replacing HGTs seen to influence a more diverse set of genes. Additive transfers are also found to be associated with evidence of positive selection. These findings shed new light on the manner in which HGT has shaped pathogenic bacterial genomes. PMID:22617954