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Sample records for additional potential applications

  1. Hybrid Additive Manufacturing Technologies - An Analysis Regarding Potentials and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merklein, Marion; Junker, Daniel; Schaub, Adam; Neubauer, Franziska

    Imposing the trend of mass customization of lightweight construction in industry, conventional manufacturing processes like forming technology and chipping production are pushed to their limits for economical manufacturing. More flexible processes are needed which were developed by the additive manufacturing technology. This toolless production principle offers a high geometrical freedom and an optimized utilization of the used material. Thus load adjusted lightweight components can be produced in small lot sizes in an economical way. To compensate disadvantages like inadequate accuracy and surface roughness hybrid machines combining additive and subtractive manufacturing are developed. Within this paper the principles of mainly used additive manufacturing processes of metals and their possibility to be integrated into a hybrid production machine are summarized. It is pointed out that in particular the integration of deposition processes into a CNC milling center supposes high potential for manufacturing larger parts with high accuracy. Furthermore the combination of additive and subtractive manufacturing allows the production of ready to use products within one single machine. Additionally actual research for the integration of additive manufacturing processes into the production chain will be analyzed. For the long manufacturing time of additive production processes the combination with conventional manufacturing processes like sheet or bulk metal forming seems an effective solution. Especially large volumes can be produced by conventional processes. In an additional production step active elements can be applied by additive manufacturing. This principle is also investigated for tool production to reduce chipping of the high strength material used for forming tools. The aim is the addition of active elements onto a geometrical simple basis by using Laser Metal Deposition. That process allows the utilization of several powder materials during one process what

  2. Addition theorems for Slater-type orbitals and their application to multicenter multielectron integrals of central and noncentral interaction potentials.

    PubMed

    Guseinov, Israfil

    2003-06-01

    By the use of complete orthonormal sets of psi(alpha)-ETOs (alpha=1, 0, m1, m2,...) introduced by the author, new addition theorems are derived for STOs and arbitrary central and noncentral interaction potentials (CIPs and NCIPs). The expansion coefficients in these addition theorems are expressed through the Gaunt and Gegenbauer coefficients. Using the addition theorems obtained for STOs and potentials, general formulae in terms of three-center overlap integrals are established for the multicenter t-electron integrals of CIPs and NCIPs that arise in the solution of the N-electron atomic and molecular problem (2hthN) when a Hylleraas approximation in Hartree-Fock-Roothaan theory is employed. With the help of expansion formulae for translation of STOs, the three-center overlap integrals are expressed through the two-center overlap integrals. The formulae obtained are valid for arbitrary quantum numbers, screening constants and location of orbitals.

  3. Cellulolytic potential of probiotic Bacillus Subtilis AMS6 isolated from traditional fermented soybean (Churpi): An in-vitro study with regards to application as an animal feed additive.

    PubMed

    Manhar, Ajay K; Bashir, Yasir; Saikia, Devabrata; Nath, Dhrubajyoti; Gupta, Kuldeep; Konwar, Bolin K; Kumar, Rahul; Namsa, Nima D; Mandal, Manabendra

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate the probiotic attributes of Bacillus subtilis AMS6 isolated from fermented soybean (Churpi). This isolate exhibited tolerance to low pH (pH 2.0) and bile salt (0.3%), capability to autoaggregate and coaggregate. AMS6 also showed highest antibacterial activity against the pathogenic indicator strain Salmonella enterica typhimurium (MTCC 1252) and susceptibility towards different antibiotics tested. The isolate was effective in inhibiting the adherence of food borne pathogens to Caco-2 epithelial cell lines, and was also found to be non-hemolytic which further strengthen the candidature of the isolate as a potential probiotic. Further studies revealed B. subtilis AMS6 showed cellulolytic activity (0.54±0.05 filter paper units mL(-1)) at 37°C. The isolate was found to hydrolyze carboxymethyl cellulose, filter paper and maize (Zea mays) straw. The maize straw digestion was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy studies. The isolate was able to degrade filter paper within 96h of incubation. A full length cellulase gene of AMS6 was amplified using degenerate primers consisting of 1499 nucleotides. The ORF encoded for a protein of 499 amino acids residues with a predicted molecular mass of 55.04kDa. The amino acids sequence consisted of a glycosyl hydrolase family 5 domain at N-terminal; Glycosyl hydrolase catalytic core and a CBM-3 cellulose binding domain at its C terminal. The study suggests potential probiotic B. subtilis AMS6 as a promising candidate envisaging its application as an animal feed additive for enhanced fiber digestion and gut health of animal.

  4. Additive manufacturing of glass for optical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Junjie; Gilbert, Luke J.; Bristow, Douglas A.; Landers, Robert G.; Goldstein, Jonathan T.; Urbas, Augustine M.; Kinzel, Edward C.

    2016-04-01

    Glasses including fused quartz have significant scientific and engineering applications including optics, communications, electronics, and hermetic seals. This paper investigates a filament fed process for Additive Manufacturing (AM) of fused quartz. Additive manufacturing has several potential benefits including increased design freedom, faster prototyping, and lower processing costs for small production volumes. However, current research in AM of glasses is limited and has focused on non-optical applications. Fused quartz is studied here because of its desirability for high-quality optics due to its high transmissivity and thermal stability. Fused quartz also has a higher working temperature than soda lime glass which poses a challenge for AM. In this work, fused quartz filaments are fed into a CO2 laser generated melt pool, smoothly depositing material onto the work piece. Single tracks are printed to explore the effects that different process parameters have on the morphology of printed fused quartz. A spectrometer is used to measure the thermal radiation incandescently emitted from the melt pool. Thin-walls are printed to study the effects of layer-to-layer height. Finally, a 3D fused quartz cube is printed using the newly acquired layer height and polished on each surface. The transmittance and index homogeneity of the polished cube are both measured. These results show that the filament fed process has the potential to print fused quartz with optical transparency and of index of refraction uniformity approaching bulk processed glass.

  5. Potential Applications for AQUATOX

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    AQUATOX has a myriad of potential applications to water management issues and programs, including water quality criteria and standards, TMDLs (Total Maximum Daily Loads), and ecological risk assessments of aquatic systems.

  6. Surfactant- and oxidant-stable alkaline proteases from Bacillus invictae: Characterization and potential applications in chitin extraction and as a detergent additive.

    PubMed

    Hammami, Amal; Hamdi, Marwa; Abdelhedi, Ola; Jridi, Mourad; Nasri, Moncef; Bayoudh, Ahmed

    2017-03-01

    A newly alkaline proteases producing strain was isolated from sea water. The strain was identified as Bacillus invictae on the basis of biochemical characteristics and 16S rRNA sequence analysis. The crude protease activity showed an optimal activity at approximately 60°C and in wide pH interval ranging from 9.0 to 11.0. At least six clear caseinolytic protease bands were observed in a zymogram. Phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), a serine-protease inhibitor, was found to inhibit completely the protease activity. The crude alkaline proteases showed high stability toward solid and liquid detergents. Furthermore, wash performance analysis revealed that the crude enzyme could effectively remove blood stain when added to commercial detergent. In addition, the crude proteases were found to be effective in the deproteinization of shrimp shell waste. The percent of protein removal after 3h of hydrolysis at 50°C with an E/S ratio of 10U/mg of protein or after fermentation by the strain were about 76% and 82%, respectively. Thus, the results of the present study showed that the crude proteases of B. invectae could be effectively used in several industrial applications, as an eco-friendly agent.

  7. Two detergent stable alkaline serine-proteases from Bacillus mojavensis A21: purification, characterization and potential application as a laundry detergent additive.

    PubMed

    Haddar, Anissa; Agrebi, Rym; Bougatef, Ali; Hmidet, Noomen; Sellami-Kamoun, Alya; Nasri, Moncef

    2009-07-01

    Two detergent stable alkaline serine-proteases (BM1 and BM2) from Bacillus mojavensis A21 were purified. The molecular weights of BM1 and BM2 enzymes determined by SDS-PAGE were approximately 29,00 Da and 15,50 Da, respectively. The optimum pH values of BM1 and BM2 proteases were shown to be 8.0-10.0 and 10.0, respectively. Both enzymes exhibited maximal activity at 60 degrees C, using casein as a substrate. The N-terminal amino acid sequences of BM1 and BM2 proteases were AQSVPYGISQIKA and AIPDQAATTLL, respectively. Both proteases showed high stability towards non-ionic surfactants. The enzymes were found to be relatively stable towards oxidizing agents. In addition, both enzymes showed excellent stability and compatibility with a wide range of commercial liquid and solid detergents. These properties and the high activity in high alkaline pH make these proteases an ideal choice for application in detergent formulations.

  8. Additive Layer Manufacturing for Launcher's Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilanova, J.; Romera, P.; Lasagni, F.; Zorrilla, A.; Perinan, A.

    2014-06-01

    In the next years the European space industry has the challenge of maintaining its competitiveness in launch vehicles (LV) production, due to the growth of competition worldwide. It has to assure its position developing new applied technologies. In this field the effort is focussed on the production of short series of customized products, like payloads, flight components or launcher parts. ALM (Additive Layer Manufacturing) could be a powerful tool that offers new competitiveness factors for this industry, comprising a set of emerging technologies that are becoming a competitor to forming, casting and machining as well as being utilised directly as a complementary alternative.Originally used for prototypes and models, now ALM becomes a very useful technology capable to fabricate functional parts for the space industrial sector. Its demands on rapid technologies are different to "earth" industries, and they aren't so easily satisfied because space is a field with different requirements depending on its application: launchers, reusable vehicles, satellites, probes, low gravity researches, manned spacecraft, or even moon and planetary exploration.This paper reports on the ALM potential applications, under ESA requirements, exploring the challenges and possibilities for its use in the launchers market, trying to answer two basic questions: the first one, whether ALM is a mature technology to be ready for its use as flight hardware; and the second one, if it can be used to reduce the product cycle, and consequently, the development, production and operational costs.

  9. Molecular and biochemical characteristics of β-propeller phytase from marine Pseudomonas sp. BS10-3 and its potential application for animal feed additives.

    PubMed

    Nam, Seung-Jeung; Kim, Young-Ok; Ko, Tae-Kyung; Kang, Jin-Ku; Chun, Kwang-Hoon; Auh, Joong-Hyuck; Lee, Chul-Soon; Lee, In-Kyu; Park, Sunghoon; Oh, Byung-Chul

    2014-10-01

    Phytate is an antinutritional factor that impacts the bioavailability of essential minerals such as Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Mn(2+), Zn(2+), and Fe(2+) by forming insoluble mineral-phytate salts. These insoluble mineral-phytate salts are hydrolyzed rarely by monogastric animals, because they lack the hydrolyzing phytases and thus excrete the majority of them. The β-propeller phytases (BPPs) hydrolyze these insoluble mineral-phytate salts efficiently. In this study, we cloned a novel BPP gene from a marine Pseudomonas sp. This Pseudomonas BPP gene (PsBPP) had low sequence identity with other known phytases and contained an extra internal repeat domain (residues 24-279) and a typical BPP domain (residues 280-634) at the C-terminus. Structurebased sequence alignment suggested that the N-terminal repeat domain did not possess the active-site residues, whereas the C-terminal BPP domain contained multiple calcium-binding sites, which provide a favorable electrostatic environment for substrate binding and catalytic activity. Thus, we overexpressed the BPP domain from Pseudomonas sp. to potentially hydrolyze insoluble mineral-phytate salts. Purified recombinant PsBPP required Ca(2+) or Fe(2+) for phytase activity, indicating that PsBPP hydrolyzes insoluble Fe(2+)-phytate or Ca2+-phytate salts. The optimal temperature and pH for the hydrolysis of Ca(2+)-phytate by PsBPP were 50°C and 6.0, respectively. Biochemical and kinetic studies clearly showed that PsBPP efficiently hydrolyzed Ca(2+)-phytate salts and yielded myo-inositol 2,4,6-trisphosphate and three phosphate groups as final products. Finally, we showed that PsBPP was highly effective for hydrolyzing rice bran with high phytate content. Taken together, our results suggest that PsBPP has great potential in the animal feed industry for reducing phytates.

  10. [Additive Manufacturing and Its Medical Applications].

    PubMed

    Song, Zewen; Wang, Guohui; Gao, Qin; Zhu, Shaihong

    2015-04-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) is a collection of technologies based on the layer-by-layer manufacturing. Characterized by its direct manufacturing and rapidity, it has been regarded by the Economist Journal as one of the key techniques which will trigger the third industry reformation. The present article, beginning with a brief introduction of the history of AM and the process of its major technologies, focuses on the advantages and disadvantages and medical applications of the technique.

  11. Applications of Metal Additive Manufacturing in Veterinary Orthopedic Surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrysson, Ola L. A.; Marcellin-Little, Denis J.; Horn, Timothy J.

    2015-03-01

    Veterinary medicine has undergone a rapid increase in specialization over the last three decades. Veterinarians now routinely perform joint replacement, neurosurgery, limb-sparing surgery, interventional radiology, radiation therapy, and other complex medical procedures. Many procedures involve advanced imaging and surgical planning. Evidence-based medicine has also become part of the modus operandi of veterinary clinicians. Modeling and additive manufacturing can provide individualized or customized therapeutic solutions to support the management of companion animals with complex medical problems. The use of metal additive manufacturing is increasing in veterinary orthopedic surgery. This review describes and discusses current and potential applications of metal additive manufacturing in veterinary orthopedic surgery.

  12. Haberlea rhodopensis: pharmaceutical and medical potential as a food additive.

    PubMed

    Todorova, Roumiana; Atanasov, Atanas T

    2016-01-01

    This review discusses the potential of Haberlea rhodopensis as a food additive. The following are described: plant distribution, reproduction, cultivation, propagation and resurrection properties; extraction, isolation and screening of biologically active compounds; metabolite changes during dehydration; phytotherapy-related properties such as antioxidant potential and free radical-scavenging activities, antioxidant skin effect, antibacterial activity, cytotoxic activity and cancer-modulating effect, radioprotective effect, chemoprotective effect, immunologic effect; present use in homoeopathy and cosmetics, pharmacological and economical importance; perspectives based on the ethnobotanical data for medicinal, cosmetic or ritual attributes. H. rhodopensis showed unique medical and pharmaceutical potential, related to antioxidant, antimicrobial, antimutagenic, anticancer, radioprotective, chemoprotective and immunological properties. H. rhodopensis extracts lack any cytotoxic activity and could be used in phytotherapy. The metabolic profiling of H. rhodopensis extracts revealed the presence of biologically active compounds, possessing antiradical and other physiological activities, useful for design of in vitro synthesised analogues and drugs.

  13. Additive Manufacturing: Ensuring Quality for Spacecraft Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, Theodore; Stephenson, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Reliable manufacturing requires that material properties and fabrication processes be well defined in order to insure that the manufactured parts meet specified requirements. While this issue is now relatively straightforward for traditional processes such as subtractive manufacturing and injection molding, this capability is still evolving for AM products. Hence, one of the principal challenges within AM is in qualifying and verifying source material properties and process control. This issue is particularly critical for applications in harsh environments and demanding applications, such as spacecraft.

  14. Discontinuous transitions in globally coupled potential systems with additive noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kürsten, Rüdiger; Behn, Ulrich

    2016-12-01

    An infinite array of globally coupled overdamped constituents moving in a double-well potential with n th order saturation term under the influence of additive Gaussian white noise is investigated. The system exhibits a continuous phase transition from a symmetric phase to a symmetry-broken phase. The qualitative behavior is independent on n . The critical point is calculated for strong and for weak noise; these limits are also bounds for the critical point. Introducing an additional nonlinearity, such that the potential can have up to three minima, leads to richer behavior. There the parameter space divides into three regions: a region with a symmetric phase, a region with a phase of broken symmetry and a region where both phases coexist. The region of coexistence collapses into one of the others via a discontinuous phase transition, whereas the transition between the symmetric phase and the phase of broken symmetry is continuous. The tricritical point where the three regions intersect can be calculated for strong and for weak noise. These limiting values form tight bounds on the tricritical point. In the region of coexistence simulations of finite systems are performed. One finds that the stationary distribution of finite but large systems differs qualitatively from the one of the infinite system. Hence the limits of stationarity and large system size do not commute.

  15. Qualitative Reasoning for Additional Die Casting Applications

    SciTech Connect

    R. Allen Miller; Dehua Cui; Yuming Ma

    2003-05-28

    If manufacturing incompatibility of a product can be evaluated at the early product design stage, the designers can modify their design to reduce the effect of potential manufacturing problems. This will result in fewer manufacturing problems, less redsign, less expensive tooling, lower cost, better quality, and shorter development time. For a given design, geometric reasoning can predict qualitatively the behaviors of a physical manufacturing process by representing and reasoning with incomplete knowledge of the physical phenomena. It integrates a design with manufacturing processes to help designers simultaneously consider design goals and manufacturing constraints during the early design stage. The geometric reasoning approach can encourage design engineers to qualitatively evaluate the compatibility of their design with manufacturing limitations and requirements.

  16. Quantum walk and potential application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J. B.; Douglas, B. L.

    2010-06-01

    Quantum walk represents a generalised version of the well-known classical random walk. Regardless of their apparent connection, the dynamics of quantum walk is often non-intuitive and far deviate from its classical counterpart. However, despite such potentially superior efficiency in quantum walks, it has yet to be applied to problems of practical importance. In this paper, we will give a brief introduction to quantum walks and discuss potential applications.

  17. Dimension spectrum of asymptotically additive potentials for C1 average conformal repellers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yongluo

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, the dimension spectrum of asymptotically additive potentials for C1 average conformal repellers is considered. First, we give dimension estimates of arbitrary subsets for C1 average conformal repellers and we also consider the pointwise dimension of invariant measures. Furthermore, we consider the dimension spectrum of asymptotically additive potentials and its properties. As applications, we give an affirmative answer to the problem posed by Olsen (2003 J. Math. Pures Appl. 82 1591-649) for general types of level sets and obtain the dimension spectrum of weak Gibbs measures for continuous potentials on C1 average conformal repellers.

  18. Potential therapeutic applications of biosurfactants.

    PubMed

    Gudiña, Eduardo J; Rangarajan, Vivek; Sen, Ramkrishna; Rodrigues, Lígia R

    2013-12-01

    Biosurfactants have recently emerged as promising molecules for their structural novelty, versatility, and diverse properties that are potentially useful for many therapeutic applications. Mainly due to their surface activity, these molecules interact with cell membranes of several organisms and/or with the surrounding environments, and thus can be viewed as potential cancer therapeutics or as constituents of drug delivery systems. Some types of microbial surfactants, such as lipopeptides and glycolipids, have been shown to selectively inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells and to disrupt cell membranes causing their lysis through apoptosis pathways. Moreover, biosurfactants as drug delivery vehicles offer commercially attractive and scientifically novel applications. This review covers the current state-of-the-art in biosurfactant research for therapeutic purposes, providing new directions towards the discovery and development of molecules with novel structures and diverse functions for advanced applications.

  19. Imaging requirements for medical applications of additive manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Huotilainen, Eero; Paloheimo, Markku; Salmi, Mika; Paloheimo, Kaija-Stiina; Björkstrand, Roy; Tuomi, Jukka; Markkola, Antti; Mäkitie, Antti

    2014-02-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM), formerly known as rapid prototyping, is steadily shifting its focus from industrial prototyping to medical applications as AM processes, bioadaptive materials, and medical imaging technologies develop, and the benefits of the techniques gain wider knowledge among clinicians. This article gives an overview of the main requirements for medical imaging affected by needs of AM, as well as provides a brief literature review from existing clinical cases concentrating especially on the kind of radiology they required. As an example application, a pair of CT images of the facial skull base was turned into 3D models in order to illustrate the significance of suitable imaging parameters. Additionally, the model was printed into a preoperative medical model with a popular AM device. Successful clinical cases of AM are recognized to rely heavily on efficient collaboration between various disciplines - notably operating surgeons, radiologists, and engineers. The single main requirement separating tangible model creation from traditional imaging objectives such as diagnostics and preoperative planning is the increased need for anatomical accuracy in all three spatial dimensions, but depending on the application, other specific requirements may be present as well. This article essentially intends to narrow the potential communication gap between radiologists and engineers who work with projects involving AM by showcasing the overlap between the two disciplines.

  20. New process additive reduces HF cloud-forming potential

    SciTech Connect

    Sheckler, J.C.; Hammershaimb, H.U. ); Ross, L.J. ); Comey, K.R. III )

    1994-08-22

    The Texaco-UOP HF additive technology has demonstrated significant aerosol reduction in both small-scale and large-scale releases. The pilot plant testing did not indicate any adverse impact on the alkylation reaction, as was confirmed in a short trial at Texaco Refining and Marketing Inc.'s El Dorado, Kan., refinery in 1992. Equipment to enable continuous addition of the additive was installed in the second quarter of 1994 at the refinery. The paper discusses HF alkylation, mitigation technology, additive development, aerosol reduction, and testing on pilot scale and large scale.

  1. A new application for food customization with additive manufacturing technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serenó, L.; Vallicrosa, G.; Delgado, J.; Ciurana, J.

    2012-04-01

    Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies have emerged as a freeform approach capable of producing almost any complete three dimensional (3D) objects from computer-aided design (CAD) data by successively adding material layer by layer. Despite the broad range of possibilities, commercial AM technologies remain complex and expensive, making them suitable only for niche applications. The developments of the Fab@Home system as an open AM technology discovered a new range of possibilities of processing different materials such as edible products. The main objective of this work is to analyze and optimize the manufacturing capacity of this system when producing 3D edible objects. A new heated syringe deposition tool was developed and several process parameters were optimized to adapt this technology to consumers' needs. The results revealed in this study show the potential of this system to produce customized edible objects without qualified personnel knowledge, therefore saving manufacturing costs compared to traditional technologies.

  2. Bacteriocins: Recent Trends and Potential Applications.

    PubMed

    Bali, Vandana; Panesar, Parmjit S; Bera, Manab B; Kennedy, John F

    2016-01-01

    In the modern era, there is great need for food preservation in both developing and developed countries due to increasing demand for extending shelf life and prevention of spoilage of food material. With the emergence of new pathogens and ability of micro-organisms to undergo changes, exploration of new avenues for the food preservation has gained importance. Moreover, awareness among consumers regarding harmful effects of chemical preservatives has been increased. Globally, altogether there is increasing demand by consumers for chemical-free and minimal processed food products. Potential of bacteriocin and its application in reducing the microbiological spoilages and in the preservation of food is long been recognized. Bacteriocins are normally specific to closely related species without disrupting the growth of other microbial populations. A number of applications of bacteriocin have been reported for humans, live stock, aquaculture etc. This review is focused on recent trends and applications of bacteriocins in different areas in addition to their biopreservative potential.

  3. Potential applications of bacteriorhodopsin mutants

    PubMed Central

    Saeedi, P.; Moosaabadi, J. Mohammadian; Sebtahmadi, S. Sina; Mehrabadi, J. Fallah; Behmanesh, M.; Mekhilef, S.

    2012-01-01

    Bacteriorhodopsin (BR), a model system in biotechnology, is a G-protein dependent trans membrane protein which serves as a light driven proton pump in the cell membrane of Halobacterium salinarum. Due to the linkage of retinal to the protein, it seems colored and has numbers of versatile properties. As in vitro culture of the Halobacteria is very difficult, and isolation is time consuming and usually inefficient, production of genetically modified constructs of the protein is essential. There are three important characteristics based on protein catalytic cycle and molecular functions of photo-electric, photochromic and proton transporting, which makes this protein as a strategic molecule with potential applications in biotechnology. Such applications include protein films, used in artificial retinal implants, light modulators, three-dimensional optical memories, color photochromic sensors, photochromic and electrochromic papers and ink, biological camouflage and photo detectors for biodefense and non-defense purposes. PMID:22895057

  4. Potential applications of ocular thermography.

    PubMed

    Morgan, P B; Soh, M P; Efron, N; Tullo, A B

    1993-07-01

    Thermography is an investigative technique which allows rapid color-coded display of the temperature across a wide surface by means of infrared detection. We describe an ocular thermographic study of a normal population and present case studies describing the application of this technique for patients with ocular disease. We found that 95% of the normal population have an interocular temperature difference (temperature of center of right cornea minus temperature of center of left cornea) of 0.60 degrees or less. There appears to be a greater difference in temperature between the limbus and the center of the cornea in patients with dry eyes. This technique has potential for evaluating tear film disorders and inflammatory conditions, for monitoring the progress of such conditions, and for evaluating the efficacy of various treatments.

  5. Bioprocessing of “Hair Waste” by Paecilomyces lilacinus as a Source of a Bleach-Stable, Alkaline, and Thermostable Keratinase with Potential Application as a Laundry Detergent Additive: Characterization and Wash Performance Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cavello, Ivana A.; Hours, Roque A.; Cavalitto, Sebastián F.

    2012-01-01

    Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom) Samson LPS 876, a locally isolated fungal strain, was grown on minimal mineral medium containing “hair waste,” a residue from the hair-saving unhairing process, and produced a protease with keratinolytic activity. This enzyme was biochemically characterized. The optimum reaction conditions, determined with a response surface methodology, were 60°C and pH 6.0. It was remarkably stable in a wide range of pHs and temperatures. Addition of Ca2+, Mg2+, or sorbitol was found to be effective in increasing thermal stability of the protease. PMSF and Hg2+ inhibited the proteolytic activity indicating the presence of a thiol-dependent serine protease. It showed high stability toward surfactants, bleaching agents, and solvents. It was also compatible with commercial detergents (7 mg/mL) such as Ariel, Skip, Drive, and Ace, retaining more than 70% of its proteolytic activity in all detergents after 1 h of incubation at 40°C. Wash performance analysis revealed that this protease could effectively remove blood stains. From these properties, this enzyme may be considered as a potential candidate for future use in biotechnological processes, as well as in the formulation of laundry detergents. PMID:23365760

  6. Bioprocessing of "Hair Waste" by Paecilomyces lilacinus as a Source of a Bleach-Stable, Alkaline, and Thermostable Keratinase with Potential Application as a Laundry Detergent Additive: Characterization and Wash Performance Analysis.

    PubMed

    Cavello, Ivana A; Hours, Roque A; Cavalitto, Sebastián F

    2012-01-01

    Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom) Samson LPS 876, a locally isolated fungal strain, was grown on minimal mineral medium containing "hair waste," a residue from the hair-saving unhairing process, and produced a protease with keratinolytic activity. This enzyme was biochemically characterized. The optimum reaction conditions, determined with a response surface methodology, were 60°C and pH 6.0. It was remarkably stable in a wide range of pHs and temperatures. Addition of Ca(2+), Mg(2+), or sorbitol was found to be effective in increasing thermal stability of the protease. PMSF and Hg(2+) inhibited the proteolytic activity indicating the presence of a thiol-dependent serine protease. It showed high stability toward surfactants, bleaching agents, and solvents. It was also compatible with commercial detergents (7 mg/mL) such as Ariel, Skip, Drive, and Ace, retaining more than 70% of its proteolytic activity in all detergents after 1 h of incubation at 40°C. Wash performance analysis revealed that this protease could effectively remove blood stains. From these properties, this enzyme may be considered as a potential candidate for future use in biotechnological processes, as well as in the formulation of laundry detergents.

  7. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  8. Application of Additive Manufacturing in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery.

    PubMed

    Farré-Guasch, Elisabet; Wolff, Jan; Helder, Marco N; Schulten, Engelbert A J M; Forouzanfar, Tim; Klein-Nulend, Jenneke

    2015-12-01

    Additive manufacturing is the process of joining materials to create objects from digital 3-dimensional (3D) model data, which is a promising technology in oral and maxillofacial surgery. The management of lost craniofacial tissues owing to congenital abnormalities, trauma, or cancer treatment poses a challenge to oral and maxillofacial surgeons. Many strategies have been proposed for the management of such defects, but autogenous bone grafts remain the gold standard for reconstructive bone surgery. Nevertheless, cell-based treatments using adipose stem cells combined with osteoconductive biomaterials or scaffolds have become a promising alternative to autogenous bone grafts. Such treatment protocols often require customized 3D scaffolds that fulfill functional and esthetic requirements, provide adequate blood supply, and meet the load-bearing requirements of the head. Currently, such customized 3D scaffolds are being manufactured using additive manufacturing technology. In this review, 2 of the current and emerging modalities for reconstruction of oral and maxillofacial bone defects are highlighted and discussed, namely human maxillary sinus floor elevation as a valid model to test bone tissue-engineering approaches enabling the application of 1-step surgical procedures and seeding of Good Manufacturing Practice-level adipose stem cells on computer-aided manufactured scaffolds to reconstruct large bone defects in a 2-step surgical procedure, in which cells are expanded ex vivo and seeded on resorbable scaffolds before implantation. Furthermore, imaging-guided tissue-engineering technologies to predetermine the surgical location and to facilitate the manufacturing of custom-made implants that meet the specific patient's demands are discussed. The potential of tissue-engineered constructs designed for the repair of large oral and maxillofacial bone defects in load-bearing situations in a 1-step surgical procedure combining these 2 innovative approaches is

  9. 25 CFR 227.7 - Additional information from applicant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Additional information from applicant. 227.7 Section 227.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING How to Acquire...

  10. 25 CFR 227.7 - Additional information from applicant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Additional information from applicant. 227.7 Section 227.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING How to Acquire Leases §...

  11. 25 CFR 227.7 - Additional information from applicant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional information from applicant. 227.7 Section 227.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING How to Acquire...

  12. 20 CFR 416.263 - No additional application needed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false No additional application needed. 416.263 Section 416.263 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Eligibility Special Provisions for People Who Work Despite A...

  13. 25 CFR 227.7 - Additional information from applicant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional information from applicant. 227.7 Section 227.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING How to Acquire...

  14. 25 CFR 227.7 - Additional information from applicant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional information from applicant. 227.7 Section 227.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING How to Acquire...

  15. 43 CFR 3922.30 - Application-Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Application-Additional information. 3922.30 Section 3922.30 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL SHALE LEASING...

  16. 43 CFR 3922.30 - Application-Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application-Additional information. 3922.30 Section 3922.30 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) OIL SHALE LEASING...

  17. 43 CFR 3922.30 - Application-Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Application-Additional information. 3922.30 Section 3922.30 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL SHALE LEASING...

  18. 43 CFR 3922.30 - Application-Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Application-Additional information. 3922.30 Section 3922.30 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL SHALE LEASING...

  19. Application of Additively Manufactured Components in Rocket Engine Turbopumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calvert, Marty, Jr.; Hanks, Andrew; Schmauch, Preston; Delessio, Steve

    2015-01-01

    The use of additive manufacturing technology has the potential to revolutionize the development of turbopump components in liquid rocket engines. When designing turbomachinery with the additive process there are several benefits and risks that are leveraged relative to a traditional development cycle. This topic explores the details and development of a 90,000 RPM Liquid Hydrogen Turbopump from which 90% of the parts were derived from the additive process. This turbopump was designed, developed and will be tested later this year at Marshall Space Flight Center.

  20. Overview of current additive manufacturing technologies and selected applications.

    PubMed

    Horn, Timothy J; Harrysson, Ola L A

    2012-01-01

    Three-dimensional printing or rapid prototyping are processes by which components are fabricated directly from computer models by selectively curing, depositing or consolidating materials in successive layers. These technologies have traditionally been limited to the fabrication of models suitable for product visualization but, over the past decade, have quickly developed into a new paradigm called additive manufacturing. We are now beginning to see additive manufacturing used for the fabrication of a range of functional end use components. In this review, we briefly discuss the evolution of additive manufacturing from its roots in accelerating product development to its proliferation into a variety of fields. Here, we focus on some of the key technologies that are advancing additive manufacturing and present some state of the art applications.

  1. Thiol-addition reactions and their applications in thiol recognition.

    PubMed

    Yin, Caixia; Huo, Fangjun; Zhang, Jingjing; Martínez-Máñez, Ramón; Yang, Yutao; Lv, Haigang; Li, Sidian

    2013-07-21

    Because of the biological importance of thiols, the development of probes for thiols has been an active research area in recent years. In this review, we summarize the results of recent exciting reports regarding thiol-addition reactions and their applications in thiol recognition. The examples reported can be classified into four reaction types including 1,1, 1,2, 1,3, 1,4 addition reactions, according to their addition mechanisms, based on different Michael acceptors. In all cases, the reactions are coupled to color and/or emission changes, although some examples dealing with electrochemical recognition have also been included. The use of thiol-addition reactions is a very simple and straightforward procedure for the preparation of thiol-sensing probes.

  2. Potential medical applications of TAE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fahy, J. Ben; Kaucic, Robert; Kim, Yongmin

    1986-01-01

    In cooperation with scientists in the University of Washington Medical School, a microcomputer-based image processing system for quantitative microscopy, called DMD1 (Digital Microdensitometer 1) was constructed. In order to make DMD1 transportable to different hosts and image processors, we have been investigating the possibility of rewriting the lower level portions of DMD1 software using Transportable Applications Executive (TAE) libraries and subsystems. If successful, we hope to produce a newer version of DMD1, called DMD2, running on an IBM PC/AT under the SCO XENIX System 5 operating system, using any of seven target image processors available in our laboratory. Following this implementation, copies of the system will be transferred to other laboratories with biomedical imaging applications. By integrating those applications into DMD2, we hope to eventually expand our system into a low-cost general purpose biomedical imaging workstation. This workstation will be useful not only as a self-contained instrument for clinical or research applications, but also as part of a large scale Digital Imaging Network and Picture Archiving and Communication System, (DIN/PACS). Widespread application of these TAE-based image processing and analysis systems should facilitate software exchange and scientific cooperation not only within the medical community, but between the medical and remote sensing communities as well.

  3. MAGNETOMETRY, SELF-POTENTIAL, AND SEISMIC - ADDITIONAL GEOPHYSICAL METHODS HAVING POTENTIALLY SIGNIFICANT FUTURE UTILIZATION IN AGRICULTURE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Geophysical methods can provide important information in agricultural settings, and the use of these techniques are becoming more and more widespread. Magnetrometry, self-potential, and seismic are three geophysical methods, all of which have the potential for substantial future use in agriculture, ...

  4. Marine bioactives and potential application in sports.

    PubMed

    Gammone, Maria Alessandra; Gemello, Eugenio; Riccioni, Graziano; D'Orazio, Nicolantonio

    2014-04-30

    An enriched diet with antioxidants, such as vitamin E, vitamin C, β-carotene and phenolic compounds, has always been suggested to improve oxidative stress, preventing related diseases. In this respect, marine natural product (MNP), such as COX inhibitors, marine steroids, molecules interfering with factors involved in the modulation of gene expression (such as NF-κB), macrolides, many antioxidant agents, thermogenic substances and even substances that could help the immune system and that result in the protection of cartilage, have been recently gaining attention. The marine world represents a reserve of bioactive ingredients, with considerable potential as functional food. Substances, such as chitin, chitosan, n-3 oils, carotenoids, vitamins, minerals and bioactive peptides, can provide several health benefits, such as the reduction of cardiovascular diseases, anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic activities. In addition, new marine bioactive substances with potential anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and thermogenic capacity may provide health benefits and performance improvement, especially in those who practice physical activity, because of their increased free radical and Reacting Oxygen Species (ROS) production during exercise, and, particularly, in athletes. The aim of this review is to examine the potential pharmacological properties and application of many marine bioactive substances in sports.

  5. Marine Bioactives and Potential Application in Sports

    PubMed Central

    Gammone, Maria Alessandra; Gemello, Eugenio; Riccioni, Graziano; D’Orazio, Nicolantonio

    2014-01-01

    An enriched diet with antioxidants, such as vitamin E, vitamin C, β-carotene and phenolic compounds, has always been suggested to improve oxidative stress, preventing related diseases. In this respect, marine natural product (MNP), such as COX inhibitors, marine steroids, molecules interfering with factors involved in the modulation of gene expression (such as NF-κB), macrolides, many antioxidant agents, thermogenic substances and even substances that could help the immune system and that result in the protection of cartilage, have been recently gaining attention. The marine world represents a reserve of bioactive ingredients, with considerable potential as functional food. Substances, such as chitin, chitosan, n-3 oils, carotenoids, vitamins, minerals and bioactive peptides, can provide several health benefits, such as the reduction of cardiovascular diseases, anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic activities. In addition, new marine bioactive substances with potential anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and thermogenic capacity may provide health benefits and performance improvement, especially in those who practice physical activity, because of their increased free radical and Reacting Oxygen Species (ROS) production during exercise, and, particularly, in athletes. The aim of this review is to examine the potential pharmacological properties and application of many marine bioactive substances in sports. PMID:24796298

  6. Potential applications of satellite navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaenzer, G.

    The applicability of Navstar GPS to civil air navigation is discussed. The accuracy of current air-navigation systems is reviewed; the basic principle and accuracy of GPS navigation are characterized; the relatively low cost of GPS receiving equipment is pointed out; and particular attention is given to hybrid systems combining GPS with inertial navigation. It is predicted that CAT III landings will be possible using such hybrid systems when the GPS satellites are fully deployed, even without access to the military GPS code. Techniques for GPS-based precision landings, reduced-noise landings, landings on parallel runways, control of taxiing maneuvers, and aircraft-based geodetic measurements are briefly described and illustrated with diagrams.

  7. Functionalized carbon nanotubes for potential medicinal applications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Bai, Yuhong; Yan, Bing

    2010-06-01

    Functionalized carbon nanotubes display unique properties that enable a variety of medicinal applications, including the diagnosis and treatment of cancer, infectious diseases and central nervous system disorders, and applications in tissue engineering. These potential applications are particularly encouraged by their ability to penetrate biological membranes and relatively low toxicity. High aspect ratio, unique optical property and the likeness as small molecule make carbon nanotubes an unusual allotrope of element carbon. After functionalization, carbon nanotubes display potentials for a variety of medicinal applications, including the diagnosis and treatment of cancer, infectious diseases and central nervous system disorders, and applications in tissue engineering. These potential applications are particularly encouraged by their ability to penetrate biological membranes and relatively low toxicity.

  8. Additional application of the NASCAP code. Volume 1: NASCAP extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, I.; Cassidy, J. J.; Mandell, M. J.; Parks, D. E.; Schnuelle, G. W.; Stannard, P. R.; Steen, P. G.

    1981-01-01

    The NASCAP computer program comprehensively analyzes problems of spacecraft charging. Using a fully three dimensional approach, it can accurately predict spacecraft potentials under a variety of conditions. Several changes were made to NASCAP, and a new code, NASCAP/LEO, was developed. In addition, detailed studies of several spacecraft-environmental interactions and of the SCATHA spacecraft were performed. The NASCAP/LEO program handles situations of relatively short Debye length encountered by large space structures or by any satellite in low earth orbit (LEO).

  9. Fuzzy Number Addition with the Application of Horizontal Membership Functions

    PubMed Central

    Piegat, Andrzej; Pluciński, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents addition of fuzzy numbers realised with the application of the multidimensional RDM arithmetic and horizontal membership functions (MFs). Fuzzy arithmetic (FA) is a very difficult task because operations should be performed here on multidimensional information granules. Instead, a lot of FA methods use α-cuts in connection with 1-dimensional classical interval arithmetic that operates not on multidimensional granules but on 1-dimensional intervals. Such approach causes difficulties in calculations and is a reason for arithmetical paradoxes. The multidimensional approach allows for removing drawbacks and weaknesses of FA. It is possible thanks to the application of horizontal membership functions which considerably facilitate calculations because now uncertain values can be inserted directly into equations without using the extension principle. The paper shows how the addition operation can be realised on independent fuzzy numbers and on partly or fully dependent fuzzy numbers with taking into account the order relation and how to solve equations, which can be a difficult task for 1-dimensional FAs. PMID:26199953

  10. Potential applications of insect symbionts in biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Berasategui, Aileen; Shukla, Shantanu; Salem, Hassan; Kaltenpoth, Martin

    2016-02-01

    Symbiotic interactions between insects and microorganisms are widespread in nature and are often the source of ecological innovations. In addition to supplementing their host with essential nutrients, microbial symbionts can produce enzymes that help degrade their food source as well as small molecules that defend against pathogens, parasites, and predators. As such, the study of insect ecology and symbiosis represents an important source of chemical compounds and enzymes with potential biotechnological value. In addition, the knowledge on insect symbiosis can provide novel avenues for the control of agricultural pest insects and vectors of human diseases, through targeted manipulation of the symbionts or the host-symbiont associations. Here, we discuss different insect-microbe interactions that can be exploited for insect pest and human disease control, as well as in human medicine and industrial processes. Our aim is to raise awareness that insect symbionts can be interesting sources of biotechnological applications and that knowledge on insect ecology can guide targeted efforts to discover microorganisms of applied value.

  11. Aerospace Power Technology for Potential Terrestrial Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, Valerie J.

    2012-01-01

    Aerospace technology that is being developed for space and aeronautical applications has great potential for providing technical advances for terrestrial power systems. Some recent accomplishments arising from activities being pursued at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Centers is described in this paper. Possible terrestrial applications of the new aerospace technology are also discussed.

  12. Economic incentives for additional critical experimentation applicable to fuel dissolution

    SciTech Connect

    Mincey, J.F.; Primm, R.T. III; Waltz, W.R.

    1981-01-01

    Fuel dissolution operations involving soluble absorbers for criticality control are among the most difficult to establish economical subcritical limits. The paucity of applicable experimental data can significantly hinder a precise determination of a bias in the method chosen for calculation of the required soluble absorber concentration. Resorting to overly conservative bias estimates can result in excessive concentrations of soluble absorbers. Such conservatism can be costly, especially if soluble absorbers are used in a throw-away fashion. An economic scoping study is presented which demonstrates that additional critical experimentation will likely lead to reductions in the soluble absorber (i.e., gadolinium) purchase costs for dissolution operations. The results indicate that anticipated savings maybe more than enough to pay for the experimental costs.

  13. The Application of Powder Rheology in Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayton, Jamie; Millington-Smith, Doug; Armstrong, Brian

    2015-03-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) is sensitive to powder variability when applying fine layers in a uniform manner. This demands a high degree of consistency and repeatability in the feedstock. Particle size is often used as a critical quality attribute, but this is not sufficient to fully qualify a feedstock. Indeed, it is inadequate to suggest that any parameter from a single test, e.g., Hall flowmeter or Hausner ratio, can comprehensively describe a powder's characteristics. This article uses four case studies to demonstrate the limitations of single parameter characterization and how the rheological properties of several metal powders used in AM applications are used to establish in-process performance. In the first study, the significantly reduced permeability and increased specific energy of a one batch of powder demonstrate a clear link to poor layer uniformity. The second study investigates the impact of metal powder manufacturing methods and suppliers, and it shows how shear properties alone cannot be relied on to identify properties that influence the process. The effect of additives on the processability of polymer blends used in AM is also evaluated, and the results show that even small quantities can have a significant effect on the permeability and basic flowability energy of feedstocks. The final study demonstrates the how rheological measurements can be used to identify the optimum blend of fresh and used material when reusing metal powders to manufacture components. These case studies illustrate the ability of a modern powder rheometer to detect minor variations in powders that are directly relevant to performance in AM processes in a way that traditional characterization methods cannot.

  14. 76 FR 5370 - Potential Addition of Vapor Intrusion Component to the Hazard Ranking System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Potential Addition of Vapor Intrusion Component to the Hazard Ranking System AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of Opportunity for Public Input. SUMMARY: The...

  15. 21 CFR 1311.302 - Additional application provider requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... part, the application provider must notify practitioners or pharmacies that use the application as soon... practitioners or pharmacies with updates to any issue that makes the application non-compliant with the... practitioner or pharmacy may use the application to issue or process electronic controlled...

  16. Additively Manufactured Combustion Devices Components for LOX/Methane Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, Sandra Elam; Protz, Christopher; Garcia, Chance; Goodman, Dwight; Baker, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has designed, fabricated, and hot-fire tested a variety of successful injectors, chambers, and igniters for potential liquid oxygen (LOX) and methane (CH4) systems since 2005. The most recent efforts have focused on components with additive manufacturing (AM) to include unique design features, minimize joints, and reduce final machining efforts. Inconel and copper alloys have been used with AM processes to produce a swirl coaxial injector and multiple methane cooled thrust chambers. The initial chambers included unique thermocouple ports for measuring local coolant channel temperatures along the length of the chamber. Results from hot-fire testing were used to anchor thermal models and generate a regeneratively cooled thruster for a 4,000 lbf LOX/CH4 engine. The completed thruster will be hot-fire tested in the summer of 2016 at MSFC. The thruster design can also be easily scaled and used on a 25,000 lbf engine. To further support the larger engine design, an AM gas generator injector has been designed. Hot-fire testing on this injector is planned for the summer of 2016 at MSFC.

  17. Potential Clinical Applications for Spinal Functional MRI

    PubMed Central

    Kornelsen, Jennifer; Mackey, Sean

    2010-01-01

    Functional MRI (fMRI) of the spinal cord is a noninvasive technique for obtaining information regarding spinal cord neuronal function. This article provides a brief overview of recent developments in spinal cord fMRI and outlines potential applications, as well as the limitations that must be overcome, for using spinal fMRI in the clinic. This technique is currently used for research purposes, but significant potential exists for spinal fMRI to become an important clinical tool. PMID:17504642

  18. Characterization of glucansucrase and dextran from Weissella sp. TN610 with potential as safe food additives.

    PubMed

    Bejar, Wacim; Gabriel, Valérie; Amari, Myriam; Morel, Sandrine; Mezghani, Monia; Maguin, Emmanuelle; Fontagné-Faucher, Catherine; Bejar, Samir; Chouayekh, Hichem

    2013-01-01

    Pear-derived Weissella sp. TN610 produced extracellular glycosyltransferase activity responsible for the synthesis of soluble exopolysaccharide from sucrose. Acid and dextranase-catalyzed hydrolysis revealed that the synthesized polymer was a glucan. According to (1)H and (13)C NMR analysis, the glucan produced by TN610 was a linear dextran made of 96% α-(1→6) and 4% α-(1→3) linkages. Zymogram analysis confirmed the presence of a unique glucansucrase of approximately 180 kDa in the cell-free supernatant from TN610. The crude enzyme, optimally active at 37°C and pH 5, has promising potential for application as a food additive since it catalyzes dextran synthesis in sucrose-supplemented milk, allowing its solidification. A 4257-bp product corresponding to the mature glucansucrase gene was amplified by PCR from TN610. It encoded a polypeptide of 1418 residues having a calculated molecular mass of 156.089 kDa and exhibiting 96% and 95% identity with glucansucrases from Lactobacillus fermentum Kg3 and Weissella cibaria CMU, respectively.

  19. The Application and Development of an Addition Goal Sketch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baroody, Arthur J.; Brach, Catherine; Tai, Yu-chi

    2006-01-01

    A schema based view of addition development is compared with Siegler's latest strategy-choice model, which includes an addition goal sketch (a basic understanding of "the goals and causal relations" of addition; Siegler & Crowley, 1994, p. 196). This metacognitive component in the latter model is presumed to develop as a child practices a basic…

  20. Wind erosion potential following application of biosolids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The application of biosolids to agricultural land has the potential to improve soil health and crop production. These benefits could also possibly reduce the threat of wind erosion in arid and semiarid regions. Therefore, we assessed the impact of biosolids on wind erosion of agricultural land at Li...

  1. Potential teleoperator applications in manned aerospace systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnsen, E. G.

    1973-01-01

    The trend of teleoperator development is toward digital computer controlled systems which utilize local sensor-computer-actuator loops to avoid obstacles and to sense manipulator grip-and-slip. The potential applications of advanced teleoperator technology to manned aerospace systems include long manipulator booms to be mounted on the shuttle. These can transfer cargo from the space shuttle and can acquire and retrieve objects in space. Free-flying teleoperators capable of acquiring, inspecting, repairing or refurbishing satellites in orbit are another space application. Another potential application of teleoperator technology is the concept of using an anthropomorphous teleoperator in lieu of man to control aircraft or spacecraft normally controlled by a human pilot.

  2. 38 CFR 59.60 - Additional application requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... information requested for an application), 424C, and 424D (these forms are available on the internet Web site... documentation specified by VA Form 10-0388-5 (this form is available on the internet Web site provided in §...

  3. Benefits of additives application during combustion of phytomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palacka, Matej; Vician, Peter; Holubčík, Michal; Jandačka, Jozef

    2016-06-01

    Phytomass, particularly wheat straw as a source of energy has countless benefits, but it has many problems in its direct burn too. The worst problem is the ash flow temperature. The aim of study was to analyze and reduce the problems of the wheat straw combustion. The experiment was conducted under realistic conditions. In this paper was implemented analysis of ash features with and without adding additives into the wheat straw. Selected samples were laboratory processed and examined. The result of the work was the impact of additional additives for ash features.

  4. Evaluation of potential performance additives for the advanced lithium bromide chiller

    SciTech Connect

    Reiner, R.H.; Del Cul, W.; Perez-Blanco, H.; Ally, M.R.; Zaltash, A.

    1991-04-01

    The effectiveness and stability of potential heat-and-mass transfer (performance) additives for an advanced lithium bromide (LiBr) chiller were evaluated in a series of experimental studies. These studies of additive effectiveness and stability were necessary because many currently used performance additives decompose at the high generator temperatures (220{degrees}C to 260{degrees}C) desired for this particular advanced LiBr chiller. For example, one common performance additive, 2-ethyl-l-hexanol (2EH), reacts with the corrosion inhibitor, lithium chromate (Li{sub 2}CrO{sub 4}), even at moderate generator temperatures ({ge}180{degrees}C). These stability problems can be mitigated by using less reactive corrosion inhibitors such as lithium molybdate (Li{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}) and by using more stable performance additives such as 1-heptanol (HEP) or 1H,1H,7H-dodecafluoro-1-heptanol (DFH). There seems to be a trade-off between additive stability and effectiveness: the most effective performance additives are not the most stable additives. These studies indicate that HEP or DFH may be effective additives in the advanced LiBr chiller if Li{sub 2}MoO{sub 4} is used as a corrosion inhibitor.

  5. Extremozymes: A Potential Source for Industrial Applications.

    PubMed

    Dumorné, Kelly; Córdova, David Camacho; Astorga-Eló, Marcia; Renganathan, Prabhaharan

    2017-01-20

    Extremophilic microorganisms have established a diversity of molecular strategies in order to survive in extreme conditions. Biocatalysts isolated by these organisms are termed extremozymes, possess extraordinary properties are salt allowance thermostability and cold adaptivity. Extremozymes are very resistant in extreme conditions due to their great solidity and they propose new opportunities for biocatalysis and biotransformations, also for the development of the economy and new line of research through their application. Thermophilic proteins, piezophilic proteins, acidophilic proteins and halophilic proteins have been studied during the last years. Amylases, proteases lipases pullulanases, cellulases, chitinases, xylanases, pectinases isomerases, esterases, dehydrogenases have great potential application for biotechnology such as agricultural, chemical, biomedical and biotechnological processes. The study of extremozymes and their main applications have emerged during the last years.

  6. Additive Technology: Update on Current Materials and Applications in Dentistry.

    PubMed

    Barazanchi, Abdullah; Li, Kai Chun; Al-Amleh, Basil; Lyons, Karl; Waddell, J Neil

    2017-02-01

    Additive manufacturing or 3D printing is becoming an alternative to subtractive manufacturing or milling in the area of computer-aided manufacturing. Research on material for use in additive manufacturing is ongoing, and a wide variety of materials are being used or developed for use in dentistry. Some materials, however, such as cobalt chromium, still lack sufficient research to allow definite conclusions about the suitability of their use in clinical dental practice. Despite this, due to the wide variety of machines that use additive manufacturing, there is much more flexibility in the build material and geometry when building structures compared with subtractive manufacturing. Overall additive manufacturing produces little material waste and is energy efficient when compared to subtractive manufacturing, due to passivity and the additive layering nature of the build process. Such features make the technique suitable to be used with fabricating structures out of hard to handle materials such as cobalt chromium. The main limitations of this technology include the appearance of steps due to layering of material and difficulty in fabricating certain material generally used in dentistry for use in 3D printing such as ceramics. The current pace of technological development, however, promises exciting possibilities.

  7. Application features of additives based on metakaolin in concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirsanova, A. A.; Kramar, L. Y.

    2015-01-01

    The present paper is devoted to the influence of additives based on metakaolin (U- YF, UM-YF and YF-UMD) on speed concrete strength development in the early stages of concrete hardening, as well as the strength increase in 28 days. The authors have proved that metakaolin gauging in concrete should not exceed 3%. Introduction of 5% of metakaolin or more entails the fault in concrete strength in the later stages of concrete hardening and decreases its resistance to the influence of sulfate and frosty environments. The most effective of the developed additives are UM-YF and UMD-YF which provide high sulfate and frost resistance to the concrete (up to 800 ... 1000 cycles). The above mentioned influence of additives on concrete properties is connected with an intended formation of structure of the cement matrix of concrete that is resistant to various aggressive environments.

  8. 21 CFR 1311.302 - Additional application provider requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... provider must notify practitioners or pharmacies that use the application as soon as feasible, but no later... electronic controlled substance prescriptions. (b) When providing practitioners or pharmacies with updates to... provider must indicate that the updates must be installed before the practitioner or pharmacy may use...

  9. 21 CFR 1311.302 - Additional application provider requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... provider must notify practitioners or pharmacies that use the application as soon as feasible, but no later... electronic controlled substance prescriptions. (b) When providing practitioners or pharmacies with updates to... provider must indicate that the updates must be installed before the practitioner or pharmacy may use...

  10. 21 CFR 1311.302 - Additional application provider requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... provider must notify practitioners or pharmacies that use the application as soon as feasible, but no later... electronic controlled substance prescriptions. (b) When providing practitioners or pharmacies with updates to... provider must indicate that the updates must be installed before the practitioner or pharmacy may use...

  11. 21 CFR 1311.302 - Additional application provider requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... provider must notify practitioners or pharmacies that use the application as soon as feasible, but no later... electronic controlled substance prescriptions. (b) When providing practitioners or pharmacies with updates to... provider must indicate that the updates must be installed before the practitioner or pharmacy may use...

  12. Additive Manufacturing of Superalloys for Aerospace Applications (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    minimum quality standards, for example, as defined in MIL-STD 2219 , Fusion Welding for Aerospace Applications, Class A. Typical features that one...properties at room temperature and elevated temperatures, creep stress rupture, and some low cycle fatigue . Selected typical results are shown for... fatigue test results for IN 718 using the EBWD process. Strain-controlled LCF at 1000oF, A=1.0, strain=0.4%. 3 Creep testing results for IN 718 using

  13. 29 CFR 1926.452 - Additional requirements applicable to specific types of scaffolds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Additional requirements applicable to specific types of... Scaffolds § 1926.452 Additional requirements applicable to specific types of scaffolds. In addition to the applicable requirements of § 1926.451, the following requirements apply to the specific types of...

  14. 29 CFR 1926.452 - Additional requirements applicable to specific types of scaffolds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Additional requirements applicable to specific types of... Scaffolds § 1926.452 Additional requirements applicable to specific types of scaffolds. In addition to the applicable requirements of § 1926.451, the following requirements apply to the specific types of...

  15. 29 CFR 1926.452 - Additional requirements applicable to specific types of scaffolds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Additional requirements applicable to specific types of... Scaffolds § 1926.452 Additional requirements applicable to specific types of scaffolds. In addition to the applicable requirements of § 1926.451, the following requirements apply to the specific types of...

  16. 29 CFR 1926.452 - Additional requirements applicable to specific types of scaffolds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Additional requirements applicable to specific types of... Scaffolds § 1926.452 Additional requirements applicable to specific types of scaffolds. In addition to the applicable requirements of § 1926.451, the following requirements apply to the specific types of...

  17. 49 CFR 260.25 - Additional information for Applicants not having a credit rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional information for Applicants not having a... Financial Assistance § 260.25 Additional information for Applicants not having a credit rating. Each application submitted by Applicants not having a recent credit rating from one or more nationally...

  18. An Approach to the Classification of Potential Reserve Additions of Giant Oil Fields of the World

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, T.R.; Tennyson, M.E.

    2008-01-01

    This report contains slides and notes for slides for a presentation given to the Committee on Sustainable Energy and the Ad Hoc Group of Experts on Harmonization of Fossil Energy and Mineral Resources Terminology on 17 October 2007 in Geneva, Switzerland. The presentation describes the U.S. Geological Survey study to characterize and quantify petroleum-reserve additions, and the application of this study to help classify the quantities.

  19. Additive Manufacturing of Medical Models--Applications in Rhinology.

    PubMed

    Raos, Pero; Klapan, Ivica; Galeta, Tomislav

    2015-09-01

    In the paper we are introducing guidelines and suggestions for use of 3D image processing SW in head pathology diagnostic and procedures for obtaining physical medical model by additive manufacturing/rapid prototyping techniques, bearing in mind the improvement of surgery performance, its maximum security and faster postoperative recovery of patients. This approach has been verified in two case reports. In the treatment we used intelligent classifier-schemes for abnormal patterns using computer-based system for 3D-virtual and endoscopic assistance in rhinology, with appropriate visualization of anatomy and pathology within the nose, paranasal sinuses, and scull base area.

  20. Potential biomedical applications of ion beam technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, B. A.; Weigand, A. J.; Babbush, C. A.; Vankampen, C. L.

    1976-01-01

    Electron bombardment ion thrusters used as ion sources have demonstrated a unique capability to vary the surface morphology of surgical implant materials. The microscopically rough surface texture produced by ion beam sputtering of these materials may result in improvements in the biological response and/or performance of implanted devices. Control of surface roughness may result in improved attachment of the implant to soft tissue, hard tissue, bone cement, or components deposited from blood. Potential biomedical applications of ion beam texturing discussed include: vascular prostheses, artificial heart pump diaphragms, pacemaker fixation, percutaneous connectors, orthopedic pros-thesis fixtion, and dental implants.

  1. Potential biomedical applications of ion beam technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, B. A.; Weigand, A. J.; Van Kampen, C. L.; Babbush, C. A.

    1976-01-01

    Electron bombardment ion thrusters used as ion sources have demonstrated a unique capability to vary the surface morphology of surgical implant materials. The microscopically rough surface texture produced by ion beam sputtering of these materials may result in improvements in the biological response and/or performance of implanted devices. Control of surface roughness may result in improved attachment of the implant to soft tissue, hard tissue, bone cement, or components deposited from blood. Potential biomedical applications of ion beam texturing discussed include: vascular prostheses, artificial heart pump diaphragms, pacemaker fixation, percutaneous connectors, orthopedic prosthesis fixation, and dental implants.

  2. Investigation of immiscible systems and potential applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markworth, A. J.; Oldfield, W.; Duga, J.; Gelles, S. H.

    1975-01-01

    The droplet coalescence kinetics at 0 g and 1 g were considered for two systems which contained liquid droplets in a host liquid. One of these (Al-In) typified a system containing a liquid phase miscibility gap and the order (oil-water) a mixture of two essentially insoluble liquids. A number of coalescence mechanisms potentially prominent at low g in this system were analyzed and explanations are presented for the observed unusual stability of the emulsion. Ground base experiments were conducted on the coalescence of In droplets in and Al-In alloy during cooling through the miscibility gap at different cooling rates. These were in qualitative agreement with the computer simulation. Potential applications for systems with liquid phase miscibility gaps were explored. Possibilities included superconductors, electrical contact materials, superplastic materials, catalysts, magnetic materials, and others. The role of space processing in their production was also analyzed.

  3. Conotoxins: Structure, Therapeutic Potential and Pharmacological Applications.

    PubMed

    Mir, Rafia; Karim, Sajjad; Kamal, Mohammad Amjad; Wilson, Cornelia M; Mirza, Zeenat

    2016-01-01

    Cone snails, also known as marine gastropods, from Conus genus produce in their venom a diverse range of small pharmacologically active structured peptides called conotoxins. The cone snail venoms are widely unexplored arsenal of toxins with therapeutic and pharmacological potential, making them a treasure trove of ligands and peptidic drug leads. Conotoxins are small disulfide bonded peptides, which act as remarkable selective inhibitors and modulators of ion channels (calcium, sodium, potassium), nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, noradrenaline transporters, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, and neurotensin receptors. They are highly potent and specific against several neuronal targets making them valuable as research tools, drug leads and even therapeutics. In this review, we discuss their gene superfamily classification, nomenclature, post-translational modification, structural framework, pharmacology and medical applications of the active conopeptides. We aim to give an overview of their structure and therapeutic potential. Understanding these aspects of conopeptides will help in designing more specific peptidic analogues.

  4. Dipeptide-derived nitriles containing additional electrophilic sites: potentially irreversible inhibitors of cysteine proteases.

    PubMed

    Löser, Reik; Gütschow, Michael

    2009-12-01

    Heterocyclic and open-chain dipeptide-derived nitriles have been synthesized, containing an additional electrophilic center enabling the subsequent covalent modification of the thioimidate nitrogen formed in situ at the active site of the enzyme. The inhibitory potential of these nitriles against the cysteine proteases papain and cathepsins L, S, and K was determined. The open-chain dipeptide nitriles 8 and 10 acted as moderate reversible inhibitors, but no evidence for an irreversible inhibition of these enzymes was discernable.

  5. Potential aerospace applications of high temperature superconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selim, Raouf

    1994-01-01

    The recent discovery of High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) with superconducting transition temperature, T(sub c), above the boiling point of liquid nitrogen has opened the door for using these materials in new and practical applications. These materials have zero resistance to electric current, have the capability of carrying large currents and as such have the potential to be used in high magnetic field applications. One of the space applications that can use superconductors is electromagnetic launch of payloads to low-earth-orbit. An electromagnetic gun-type launcher can be used in small payload systems that are launched at very high velocity, while sled-type magnetically levitated launcher can be used to launch larger payloads at smaller velocities. Both types of launchers are being studied by NASA and the aerospace industry. The use of superconductors will be essential in any of these types of launchers in order to produce the large magnetic fields required to obtain large thrust forces. Low Temperature Superconductor (LTS) technology is mature enough and can be easily integrated in such systems. As for the HTS, many leading companies are currently producing HTS coils and magnets that potentially can be mass-produced for these launchers. It seems that designing and building a small-scale electromagnetic launcher is the next logical step toward seriously considering this method for launching payloads into low-earth-orbit. A second potential application is the use of HTS to build sensitive portable devices for the use in Non Destructive Evaluation (NDE). Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUID's) are the most sensitive instruments for measuring changes in magnetic flux. By using HTS in SQUID's, one will be able to design a portable unit that uses liquid nitrogen or a cryocooler pump to explore the use of gradiometers or magnetometers to detect deep cracks or corrosion in structures. A third use is the replacement of Infra-Red (IR) sensor leads on

  6. Effects of potential additives to promote seal swelling on the thermal stability of synthetic jet fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Lind, D.D.; Gormley, R.G.; Zandhuis, P.H.; Baltrus, J.P.

    2007-10-01

    Synthetic fuels derived from the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) process using natural gas or coal-derived synthesis gas as feedstocks can be used for powering of ground vehicles, aircraft and ships. Because of their chemical and physical properties, F-T fuels will probably require additives in order to meet specifications with respect to lubricity and seal swell capability for use in ground and air vehicles. These additives can include oxygenates and compounds containing other heteroatoms that may adversely affect thermal stability. In order to understand what additives will be the most beneficial, a comprehensive experimental and computational study of conventional and additized fuels has been undertaken. The experimental approach includes analysis of the trace oxygenate and nitrogen-containing compounds present in conventional petroleum-derived fuels and trying to relate their presence (or absence) to changes in the desired properties of the fuels. This paper describes the results of efforts to test the thermal stability of synthetic fuels and surrogate fuels containing single-component additives that have been identified in earlier research as the best potential additives for promoting seal swelling in synthetic fuels, as well as mixtures of synthetic and petroleum-derived fuels.

  7. Suitability of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in screening potential additives to mitigate fouling deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balakrishnan, S.; Midhun Reddy, V.; Mehta, A.; Vasa, N. J.; Nagarajan, R.

    2016-04-01

    Alkali vapors present in the flue gas generated during coal-based combustion form fouling deposits as they condense. An additive added to coal can trap alkali elements in ash, therefore suppress the growth rate of fouling deposits, and increase thermal efficiency of a coal-fired thermal power plant. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique is proposed and demonstrated to screen potential additives to trap alkali elements in ash. Five additives—namely, kaolinite, alumina, silica, magnesia, and pumice—were analyzed for their effectiveness on four Indian coals for retaining/confining alkali elements in ash during coal combustion. Ratio analysis based on LIBS emission intensity values clearly shows that kaolinite and pumice are promising additives to trap sodium. Similarly, kaolinite, pumice, and silica exhibited good potassium retention.

  8. Screening of Potential O-Ring Swelling Additives for Ultraclean Transportation Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Baltrus, J.P.; Link, D.D.; Zandhuis, P.H.; Gormley, R.J.; Anderson, R.R.

    2007-03-01

    Several classes of organic compounds and mixtures of organic compounds were evaluated as potential additives to Fischer-Tropsch fuels to promote swelling of nitrile rubber o-rings that come in contact with the fuels. Computational modeling studies were also carried out to predict which compounds might be best at promoting o-ring swelling. The combined experimental-theoretical approach showed that steric factors strongly influence the interactions between additives and the nitrile sites in the rubber that result in swelling. Select compounds incorporating both oxygenate and aromatic functionalities appear to be the best candidates for additives because of a "dual" interaction between complementary functionalities on these compounds and the nitrile rubber.

  9. Potential Additives to Promote Seal Swell in Synthetic Fuels and Their Effect on Thermal Stability

    SciTech Connect

    Link, D.D.; Gormley, R.J.; Baltrus, J.P.; Anderson, R.R.; Zandhuis, P.H.

    2008-03-01

    Synthetic fuels derived from the Fischer–Tropsch (F-T) process using natural gas or coal-derived synthesis gas as feedstocks can be used for powering ground vehicles, aircraft, and ships. Because of their chemical and physical properties, F-T fuels will probably require additives in order to meet specifications with respect to lubricity and seal swell capability for use in ground and air vehicles. Using both experimental and computational studies, the propensity of certain species to enhance the seal swell characteristics of synthetic fuels and surrogates has been determined, and promising additives have been identified. Important structural characteristics for potential additives, namely an aromatic ring along with a polar constituent, are described. The thermal stability of synthetic and surrogate fuels containing the single-component additive benzyl alcohol, which is representative of this structural class, has been determined by batch stressing of the mixtures at 350 °C for up to 12 h. Synthetic fuels spiked with benzyl alcohol at concentrations (vol %) of 1.0, 0.75, and 0.5 have demonstrated the ability to swell nitrile rubber o-rings to a comparable degree as petroleum jet fuel. Further, batch reactor studies have shown that addition of benzyl alcohol does not degrade the thermal oxidative stability of the fuel based on gravimetric analysis of the solid deposits after stressing. GC-MS was used to characterize the products from thermal stressing of neat and additized surrogate jet fuel, and their compositions were compared with respect to the creation of certain species and their potential effect on deposition.

  10. Evaluation of Select Surface Processing Techniques for In Situ Application During the Additive Manufacturing Build Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Book, Todd A.; Sangid, Michael D.

    2016-07-01

    Although additive manufacturing offers numerous performance advantages for different applications, it is not being used for critical applications due to uncertainties in structural integrity as a result of innate process variability and defects. To minimize uncertainty, the current approach relies on the concurrent utilization of process monitoring, post-processing, and non-destructive inspection in addition to an extensive material qualification process. This paper examines an alternative approach by evaluating the application of select surface process techniques, to include sliding severe plastic deformation (SPD) and fine particle shot peening, on direct metal laser sintering-produced AlSi10Mg materials. Each surface processing technique is compared to baseline as-built and post-processed samples as a proof of concept for surface enhancement. Initial results pairing sliding SPD with the manufacture's recommended thermal stress relief cycle demonstrated uniform recrystallization of the microstructure, resulting in a more homogeneous distribution of strain among the microstructure than as-built or post-processed conditions. This result demonstrates the potential for the in situ application of various surface processing techniques during the layerwise direct metal laser sintering build process.

  11. Applications for Gradient Metal Alloys Fabricated Using Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hofmann, Douglas C.; Borgonia, John Paul C.; Dillon, Robert P.; Suh, Eric J.; Mulder, jerry L.; Gardner, Paul B.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, additive manufacturing (AM) techniques have been developed that may shift the paradigm of traditional metal production by allowing complex net-shaped hardware to be built up layer-by-layer, rather than being machined from a billet. The AM process is ubiquitous with polymers due to their low melting temperatures, fast curing, and controllable viscosity, and 3D printers are widely available as commercial or consumer products. 3D printing with metals is inherently more complicated than with polymers due to their higher melting temperatures and reactivity with air, particularly when heated or molten. The process generally requires a high-power laser or other focused heat source, like an electron beam, for precise melting and deposition. Several promising metal AM techniques have been developed, including laser deposition (also called laser engineered net shaping or LENS® and laser deposition technology (LDT)), direct metal laser sintering (DMLS), and electron beam free-form (EBF). These machines typically use powders or wire feedstock that are melted and deposited using a laser or electron beam. Complex net-shape parts have been widely demonstrated using these (and other) AM techniques and the process appears to be a promising alternative to machining in some cases. Rather than simply competing with traditional machining for cost and time savings, the true advantage of AM involves the fabrication of hardware that cannot be produced using other techniques. This could include parts with "blind" features (like foams or trusses), parts that are difficult to machine conventionally, or parts made from materials that do not exist in bulk forms. In this work, the inventors identify that several AM techniques can be used to develop metal parts that change composition from one location in the part to another, allowing for complete control over the mechanical or physical properties. This changes the paradigm for conventional metal fabrication, which relies on an

  12. Autoclavable addition polyimides for 371 C composite applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, R. D.; Malarik, D.; Papadopoulos, D.; Waters, J.

    1990-01-01

    Studies were conducted to improve the thermo-oxidative stability (TOS) of PMR type polyimides by the substitution of para-aminostyrene (PAS) for the nadic ester endcap in second generation PMR polyimides (PMR-2). The nadic endcap which provides the PMR polyimides with their relative ease of fabrication, both by limiting the molecular weight of the prepolymer and by undergoing the final addition cure without volatiles, is also the weak link with regard to TOS. A polyimide formulated with PAS endcaps, called V-CAP, utilizes a two step reaction sequence similar to that of the PMR polyimides and can be easily autoclave molded into low void composite materials. Resin studies included two formulations of both PMR-2 and V-CAP, corresponding to n = 9 and n = 14 prepolymer stoichiometry. Unidirectional reinforced T40R graphite fiber laminates were fabricated from each of the resins was post-cured in either air at 385 C or nitrogen at 400 C. Composite specimens were aged in air at 371 C and mechanical properties were measured at 371 C before and after exposure.

  13. Autoclavable addition polyimides for 371 C composite applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, R. D.; Malarik, D. C.; Papadapoulos, D. S.; Waters, J. F.

    1990-01-01

    Studies were conducted to improve the thermo-oxidative stability (TOS) of PMR type polyimides by the substitution of para-aminostyrene (PAS) for the nadic ester endcap in second generation PMR polyimides (PMR-2). The nadic endcap which provides the PMR polyimides with their relative ease of fabrication, both by limiting the molecular weight of the prepolymer and by undergoing the final addition cure without volatiles, is also the weak link with regard to TOS. A polyimide formulated with PAS endcaps, called V-CAP, utilizes a two step reaction sequence similar to that of the PMR polyimides and can be easily autoclave molded into low void composite materials. Resin studies included two formulations of both PMR-2 and V-CAP, corresponding to n=9 and n=14 prepolymer stoichiometry. Unidirectional reinforced T40R graphite fiber laminates were fabricated from each of the resins was post-cured in either air at 385 C or nitrogen at 400 C. Composite specimens were aged in air at 371 C and mechanical properties were measured at 371 C before and after exposure.

  14. POTENTIAL THERMOELECTRIC APPLICATIONS IN DIESEL VEHICLES

    SciTech Connect

    Crane, D

    2003-08-24

    Novel thermodynamic cycles developed by BSST provide improvements by factors of approximately 2 in cooling, heating and power generation efficiency of solid-state thermoelectric systems. The currently available BSST technology is being evaluated in automotive development programs for important new applications. Thermoelectric materials are likely to become available that further increase performance by a comparable factor. These major advancements should allow the use of thermoelectric systems in new applications that have the prospect of contributing to emissions reduction, fuel economy, and improved user comfort. Potential applications of thermoelectrics in diesel vehicles are identified and discussed. As a case in point, the history and status of the Climate Controlled Seat (CCS) system from Amerigon, the parent of BSST, is presented. CCS is the most successful and highest production volume thermoelectric system in vehicles today. As a second example, the results of recent analyses on electric power generation from vehicle waste heat are discussed. Conclusions are drawn as to the practicality of waste power generation systems that incorporate BSST's thermodynamic cycle and advanced thermoelectric materials.

  15. Additive manufacturing of stretchable tactile sensors: Processes, materials, and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vatani, Morteza

    3D printing technology is becoming more ubiquitous every day especially in the area of smart structures. However, fabrication of multi-material, functional, and smart structures is problematic because of the process and material limitations. This thesis sought to develop a Direct Print Photopolymerization (DPP) fabrication technique that appreciably extends the manufacturing space for the 3D smart structures. This method employs a robotically controlled micro-extrusion of a filament equipped with a photopolymerization process. The ability to use polymers and ultimately their nanocomposites in this process is the advantage of the proposed process over the current fabrication methods in the fabrication of 3D structures featuring mechanical, physical, and electrical functionalities. In addition, this study focused to develop a printable, conductive, and stretchable nanocomposite based on a photocurable and stretchable liquid resin filled with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs). This nanocomposite exhibited piezoresistivity, means its resistivity changes as it deforms. This property is a favorable factor in developing resistance based tactile sensors. They were also able to resist high tensile strains while they showed conductivity. Furthermore, this study offered a possible and low-cost method to have a unique and highly stretchable pressure sensitive polymer. This disruptive pressure sensitive polymer composed of an Ionic Liquid (IL) and a stretchable photopolymer embedded between two layers of Carbon Nanotube (CNTs) based stretchable electrodes. The developed IL-polymer showed both field effect property and piezoresistivity that can detect large tensile strains up 30%. In summary, this research study focused to present feasible methods and materials for printing a 3D smart structure especially in the context of flexible tactile sensors. This study provides a foundation for the future efforts in fabrication of skin like tactile sensors in three-dimensional motifs

  16. Stochastic resonance subject to multiplicative and additive noise: The influence of potential asymmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Zijian; Lei, Yaguo; Lin, Jing; Niu, Shantao

    2016-11-01

    The influence of potential asymmetries on stochastic resonance (SR) subject to both multiplicative and additive noise is studied by using two-state theory, where three types of asymmetries are introduced in double-well potential by varying the depth, the width, and both the depth and the width of the left well alone. The characteristics of SR in the asymmetric cases are different from symmetric ones, where asymmetry has a strong influence on output signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and optimal noise intensity. Even optimal noise intensity is also associated with the steepness of the potential-barrier wall, which is generally ignored. Moreover, the largest SNR in asymmetric SR is found to be relatively larger than the symmetric one, which also closely depends on noise intensity ratio. In addition, a moderate cross-correlation intensity between two noises is good for improving the output SNR. More interestingly, a double SR phenomenon is observed in certain cases for two correlated noises, whereas it disappears for two independent noises. The above clues are helpful in achieving weak signal detection under heavy background noise.

  17. Investigation of sewage sludge stabilization potential by the addition of fly ash and lime.

    PubMed

    Samaras, P; Papadimitriou, C A; Haritou, I; Zouboulis, A I

    2008-06-15

    The aim of this work was the examination of stabilization potential of sewage sludge by the addition of fly ash and/or lime and the investigation of the effect of stabilization time on the properties of produced mixtures. Five samples were prepared by mixing fly ash, sewage sludge and lime in various ratios and the mixtures were stabilized for a period of 35 d. The addition of alkaline agents resulted in the increase of sample pH up to 12, the increase of total solids content to about 50% and the reduction of the organic fraction of the solids. The produced samples presented inhibition effects to seed germination and root length growth of three higher plants (one monocotyl and two dicotyls); however, samples with high sludge content resulted in negligible seed germination inhibition at prolonged stabilization times. The standard TCLP leaching procedure was applied in all the produced samples in order to evaluate the extraction potential of certain metallic elements; the content of metals in the eluates was varied, depending upon their speciation and form. Eluates presented significant inhibition to the marine photobacterium Vibrio fischeri bioluminescence, while the lowest inhibition was detected for the samples containing higher sludge content. These samples potentially could be applied as soil amendment, offering an efficient method for the combined utilization of two different solid wastes; however, low dosages of fly ash should be used for the production of a stabilized material presenting negligible effects with respect to its phytotoxic and ecotoxic properties.

  18. New lithium borates with bistetrazolato(2-) and pyrazinediolato(2-) ligands - potentially interesting lithium electrolyte additives.

    PubMed

    Finger, Lars H; Venker, Alexander; Schröder, Fabian G; Sundermeyer, Jörg

    2017-02-28

    We present a convenient synthesis of the first silylated bistetrazole via a catalyzed twin [2 + 3] cycloaddition of TMS-azide at cyanogen and its application to access bistetrazolatoborates, structurally characterized by a unique unsaturated ten-membered B2N4C4 heterocyclic system. Furthermore, new borate anions with two pyrazine-2,3-diolato ligands were synthesized from tetrafluoroborate salts and structurally characterized. Their organic cation can be exchanged for Li(+)via cation exchange. The conceptual relation of these new salts to lithium ion battery bisoxalalatoborate additive LiBOB, a prominent solid electrolyte interface (SEI) generator, is discussed.

  19. 37 CFR 2.23 - Additional requirements for TEAS Plus application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... TEAS Plus application. 2.23 Section 2.23 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND... § 2.23 Additional requirements for TEAS Plus application. (a) In addition to the filing requirements under § 2.22(a), the applicant must: (1) File the following communications through TEAS: (i)...

  20. Graphene with outstanding anti-irradiation capacity as multialkylated cyclopentanes additive toward space application

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Xiaoqiang; Wang, Liping

    2015-01-01

    Multialkylated cyclopentanes (MACs), a class of synthetic hydrocarbon fluid have attracted intensive interest as possible space lubricants due to a series of unique physical and chemical properties. Here, we used graphene with high mechanical strength and chemical inertness as lubricant additive to explore its potential for space application. The effects of space irradiation on graphene and the tribological properties of graphene as lubricant additive were firstly investigated in detail under simulated space environment composed of high vacuum, high/low temperature and irradiation. Results demonstrate that graphene not only possesses outstanding anti–irradiation capacity but also significantly improves the space performance and tribological properties of MACs, which depends on the excellent physicochemical properties and high load-carrying ability of graphene as well as more effective separation of the sliding surfaces. PMID:26224254

  1. Simulation of Laser Additive Manufacturing and its Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yousub

    Laser and metal powder based additive manufacturing (AM), a key category of advanced Direct Digital Manufacturing (DDM), produces metallic components directly from a digital representation of the part such as a CAD file. It is well suited for the production of high-value, customizable components with complex geometry and the repair of damaged components. Currently, the main challenges for laser and metal powder based AM include the formation of defects (e.g., porosity), low surface finish quality, and spatially non-uniform properties of material. Such challenges stem largely from the limited knowledge of complex physical processes in AM especially the molten pool physics such as melting, molten metal flow, heat conduction, vaporization of alloying elements, and solidification. Direct experimental measurement of melt pool phenomena is highly difficult since the process is localized (on the order of 0.1 mm to 1 mm melt pool size) and transient (on the order of 1 m/s scanning speed). Furthermore, current optical and infrared cameras are limited to observe the melt pool surface. As a result, fluid flows in the melt pool, melt pool shape and formation of sub-surface defects are difficult to be visualized by experiment. On the other hand, numerical simulation, based on rigorous solution of mass, momentum and energy transport equations, can provide important quantitative knowledge of complex transport phenomena taking place in AM. The overarching goal of this dissertation research is to develop an analytical foundation for fundamental understanding of heat transfer, molten metal flow and free surface evolution. Two key types of laser AM processes are studied: a) powder injection, commonly used for repairing of turbine blades, and b) powder bed, commonly used for manufacturing of new parts with complex geometry. In the powder injection simulation, fluid convection, temperature gradient (G), solidification rate (R) and melt pool shape are calculated using a heat transfer

  2. Curative potential of foremost mitogen applications.

    PubMed

    Wimer, Bruce M

    2003-12-01

    This paper is presented as a sequel to the Mitogen Information Summaries article, representing a condensation of salient features involved with facilitating the curative potential of the more important mitogen applications. Following is a resumé of the critical attributes of mitogen therapy relative to the management of malignant tumors: (1) An inherent capability to recognize and destroy mutated or damaged tissues without altering those that are normal; (2) The capacity to induce global immunostimulation by the nonspecific activation of CD4+/- and CD8+/- cells with balanced production of a variety of cytokines able to stimulate B cell, NK cell, and macrophage pathways, at the same time augmenting myeloproliferation; (3) The ability to afford protection and accelerated recovery from the immunosuppressive and myelosuppressive effects of tumors, infections, GvH reactions, and autoimmune states along with the surgery, irradiation, chemotherapeutic agents, antibiotics, and suppressive factors used in their management; (4) Berke's in vitro data from the lectin-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (LDCC) system showing that systemic administration of mitogens such as PHA-L4 should indeed prove destructive to virtually any type of malignancy, leaving normal tissues undamaged; and (5) The potential of these activities to reconstitute the immune competence so vital to lasting cures. The potential role of L4 immunotherapy for infections may be defined by the following criteria: those, including drug-resistant infections, not satisfactorily treatable otherwise; those in which a rapid response is essential; those that are subclinical, latent, recurrent, chronic, persistent, highly lethal, or opportunistic; those in patients with impaired immune responses; and most importantly, those that are not likely to be adversely affected by immunostimulation. Certain paths of administration such as the intralesional (for granulomas), intrapleural (for pleurisy, empyema), and intraperitoneal

  3. Retinal image analysis: concepts, applications and potential.

    PubMed

    Patton, Niall; Aslam, Tariq M; MacGillivray, Thomas; Deary, Ian J; Dhillon, Baljean; Eikelboom, Robert H; Yogesan, Kanagasingam; Constable, Ian J

    2006-01-01

    As digital imaging and computing power increasingly develop, so too does the potential to use these technologies in ophthalmology. Image processing, analysis and computer vision techniques are increasing in prominence in all fields of medical science, and are especially pertinent to modern ophthalmology, as it is heavily dependent on visually oriented signs. The retinal microvasculature is unique in that it is the only part of the human circulation that can be directly visualised non-invasively in vivo, readily photographed and subject to digital image analysis. Exciting developments in image processing relevant to ophthalmology over the past 15 years includes the progress being made towards developing automated diagnostic systems for conditions, such as diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration and retinopathy of prematurity. These diagnostic systems offer the potential to be used in large-scale screening programs, with the potential for significant resource savings, as well as being free from observer bias and fatigue. In addition, quantitative measurements of retinal vascular topography using digital image analysis from retinal photography have been used as research tools to better understand the relationship between the retinal microvasculature and cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, advances in electronic media transmission increase the relevance of using image processing in 'teleophthalmology' as an aid in clinical decision-making, with particular relevance to large rural-based communities. In this review, we outline the principles upon which retinal digital image analysis is based. We discuss current techniques used to automatically detect landmark features of the fundus, such as the optic disc, fovea and blood vessels. We review the use of image analysis in the automated diagnosis of pathology (with particular reference to diabetic retinopathy). We also review its role in defining and performing quantitative measurements of vascular topography

  4. Microfluidic desalination techniques and their potential applications.

    PubMed

    Roelofs, S H; van den Berg, A; Odijk, M

    2015-09-07

    In this review we discuss recent developments in the emerging research field of miniaturized desalination. Traditionally desalination is performed to convert salt water into potable water and research is focused on improving performance of large-scale desalination plants. Microfluidic desalination offers several new opportunities in comparison to macro-scale desalination, such as providing a platform to increase fundamental knowledge of ion transport on the nano- and microfluidic scale and new microfluidic sample preparation methods. This approach has also lead to the development of new desalination techniques, based on micro/nanofluidic ion-transport phenomena, which are potential candidates for up-scaling to (portable) drinking water devices. This review assesses microfluidic desalination techniques on their applications and is meant to contribute to further implementation of microfluidic desalination techniques in the lab-on-chip community.

  5. Bacterial quorum sensing: functional features and potential applications in biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Mangwani, Neelam; Dash, Hirak Ranjan; Chauhan, Ashvini; Das, Surajit

    2012-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) represents an exceptional pattern of cell-to-cell communication in bacteria using self-synthesized signalling molecules known as autoinducers. Various features regulated by QS in bacteria include virulence, biofilm formation, sporulation, genetic competence and bioluminescence, among others. Other than the diverse signalling properties of autoinducers, there are non-signalling properties also associated with these signalling molecules which make them potential antimicrobial agents and metal chelators. Additionally, QS signal antagonism has also been shown to be a promising alternative for blocking pathogenic diseases. Besides, QS has impressive design features useful in tissue engineering and biosensor technology. Although many aspects of QS are well understood, several other features remain largely unknown, especially in biotechnology applications. This review focuses on the functional features and potential applications of QS signalling molecules in biotechnology.

  6. Energy and emissions saving potential of additive manufacturing: the case of lightweight aircraft components

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Runze; Riddle, Matthew; Graziano, Diane; Warren, Joshua; Das, Sujit; Nimbalkar, Sachin; Cresko, Joe; Masanet, Eric

    2015-05-08

    Additive manufacturing (AM) holds great potential for improving materials efficiency, reducing life-cycle impacts, and enabling greater engineering functionality compared to conventional manufacturing (CM) processes. For these reasons, AM has been adopted by a growing number of aircraft component manufacturers to achieve more lightweight, cost-effective designs. This study estimates the net changes in life-cycle primary energy and greenhouse gas emissions associated with AM technologies for lightweight metallic aircraft components through the year 2050, to shed light on the environmental benefits of a shift from CM to AM processes in the U.S. aircraft industry. A systems modeling framework is presented, with integrates engineering criteria, life-cycle environmental data, and aircraft fleet stock and fuel use models under different AM adoption scenarios. Estimated fleetwide life-cycle primary energy savings in a rapid adoption scenario reach 70-174 million GJ/year in 2050, with cumulative savings of 1.2-2.8 billion GJ. Associated cumulative emission reduction potentials of CO2e were estimated at 92.8-217.4 million metric tons. About 95% of the savings is attributed to airplane fuel consumption reductions due to lightweighting. In addition, about 4050 tons aluminum, 7600 tons titanium and 8100 tons of nickel alloys could be saved per year in 2050. The results indicate a significant role of AM technologies in helping society meet its long-term energy use and GHG emissions reduction goals, and highlight barriers and opportunities for AM adoption for the aircraft industry.

  7. Biodegradation of potential diesel oxygenate additives: dibutyl maleate (DBM), and tripropylene glycol methyl ether (TGME).

    PubMed

    Marchetti, Alfredo A; Knize, Mark G; Chiarappa-Zucca, Marina L; Pletcher, Ronald J; Layton, David W

    2003-08-01

    The addition of oxygen-bearing compounds to diesel fuel considerably reduces particulate emissions. TGME and DBM have been identified as possible diesel additives based on their physicochemical characteristics and performance in engine tests. Although these compounds will reduce particulate emissions, their potential environmental impacts are unknown. As a means of characterizing their persistence in environmental media such as soil and groundwater, we conducted a series of biodegradation tests of DBM and TGME. Benzene and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) were also tested as reference compounds. Primary degradation of DBM fully occurred within 3 days, while TGME presented a lag phase of approximately 8 days and was not completely degraded by day 28. Benzene primary degradation occurred completely by day 3 and MTBE did not degrade at all. The total mineralized fractions of DBM and TGME achieved constant values as a function of time of approximately 65% and approximately 40%, respectively. Transport predictions show that, released to the environment, DBM and TGME would concentrate mostly in soils and waters with minimal impact to air. From an environmental standpoint, these results combined with the transport predictions indicate that DBM is a better choice than TGME as a diesel additive.

  8. 21 CFR 174.5 - General provisions applicable to indirect food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... additives. 174.5 Section 174.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: GENERAL § 174.5 General provisions applicable to indirect food additives. (a) Regulations prescribing conditions under which food additive substances may...

  9. 12 Years of NPK Addition Diminishes Carbon Sink Potential of a Nutrient Limited Peatland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larmola, T.; Bubier, J. L.; Juutinen, S.; Moore, T. R.

    2011-12-01

    Peatlands store about a third of global soil carbon. Our aim was to study whether the vegetation feedbacks of nitrogen (N) deposition lead to stronger carbon sink or source in a nutrient limited peatland ecosystem. We investigated vegetation structure and ecosystem CO2 exchange at Mer Bleue Bog, Canada, that has been fertilized for 7-12 years. We have applied 5 and 20 times ambient annual wet N deposition (0.8 g N m-2) with or without phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). Gross photosynthesis, ecosystem respiration and net CO2 exchange (NEE) were measured weekly during the growing season using chamber technique. Under the highest N(PK) treatments, the light saturated photosynthesis (PSmax) was reduced by 20-30% compared to the control treatment, whereas under moderate N and PK additions PSmax slightly increased or was similar to the control. The ecosystem respiration showed similar trends among the treatments, but changes in the rates were less pronounced. High nutrient additions led to up to 65% lower net CO2 uptake than that in the control: In the NPK plots with cumulative N additions of 70, 19, and 0 g N m-2, the daytime NEE in May-July 2011 averaged 0.8 (se. 0.3), 2.0 (se. 0.4), and 2.4 (se. 0.3) μmol m-2 s-1, respectively. In the N only plots with cumulative N additions of 45, 19, and 0 g N m-2, the daytime NEE in May-July 2011 averaged 0.8 (se. 0.2), 2.6 (se. 0.4), and 1.8 (se. 0.3) μmol m-2 s-1, respectively. The reduced plant photosynthetic capacity and diminished carbon sink potential in the highest nutrient treatments correlated with the loss of peat mosses and were not compensated for by the increased vascular plant biomass that has mainly been allocated to woody shrub stems.

  10. Polymer recycling: potential application of radiation technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burillo, Guillermina; Clough, Roger L.; Czvikovszky, Tibor; Guven, Olgun; Le Moel, Alain; Liu, Weiwei; Singh, Ajit; Yang, Jingtian; Zaharescu, Traian

    2002-04-01

    Management of solid waste is an important problem, which is becoming progressively worse as a byproduct of continuing economic growth and development. Polymeric materials (plastics and rubbers) comprise a steadily increasing proportion of the municipal and industrial waste going into landfill. Development of technologies for reducing polymeric waste, which are acceptable from the environmental standpoint, and which are cost-effective, has proven to be a difficult challenge due to complexities inherent in the reuse of polymers. Establishing optimal processes for the reuse/recycling of polymeric materials thus remains a worldwide challenge as we enter the new century. Due to the ability of ionizing radiation to alter the structure and properties of bulk polymeric materials, and the fact that it is applicable to essentially all polymer types, irradiation holds promise for impacting the polymer waste problem. The three main possibilities for use of radiation in this application are: (1) enhancing the mechanical properties and performance of recovered materials or material blends, principally through crosslinking, or through surface modification of different phases being combined; (2) treatment causing or enhancing the decomposition of polymers, particularly through chain scission, leading to recovery of either low molecular weight mixtures, or powders, for use as chemical feedstocks or additives; (3) production of advanced polymeric materials designed for environmental compatibility. This paper provides an overview of the polymer recycling problem, describes the major technological obstacles to the implementation of recycling technologies, and outlines some of the approaches being taken. A review of radiation-based recycling research is then provided, followed by a discussion of future directions where irradiation may be relevant to the problems currently inhibiting the widespread recycling of polymeric materials.

  11. Addition of visual noise boosts evoked potential-based brain-computer interface

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Jun; Xu, Guanghua; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Sicong; Zhang, Feng; Li, Yeping; Han, Chengcheng; Li, Lili

    2014-01-01

    Although noise has a proven beneficial role in brain functions, there have not been any attempts on the dedication of stochastic resonance effect in neural engineering applications, especially in researches of brain-computer interfaces (BCIs). In our study, a steady-state motion visual evoked potential (SSMVEP)-based BCI with periodic visual stimulation plus moderate spatiotemporal noise can achieve better offline and online performance due to enhancement of periodic components in brain responses, which was accompanied by suppression of high harmonics. Offline results behaved with a bell-shaped resonance-like functionality and 7–36% online performance improvements can be achieved when identical visual noise was adopted for different stimulation frequencies. Using neural encoding modeling, these phenomena can be explained as noise-induced input-output synchronization in human sensory systems which commonly possess a low-pass property. Our work demonstrated that noise could boost BCIs in addressing human needs. PMID:24828128

  12. Event-related potential practice effects on the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT)

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Jeffrey M.; Fox, Alison M.

    2012-01-01

    Practice can change the nature and quality of a stimulus-response relationship. The current study observed the effects of repeated administration of the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) in 12 healthy individuals, in an effort to establish distinct profiles associated with novel and practiced processing. Over four training sessions the mean number of correct responses on this demanding test of attention significantly improved and was approaching ceiling for most task conditions. Behavioural improvements were associated with significantly reduced amplitude of late Processing Negativity, a frontally distributed component of the event-related potential waveform associated with voluntary, limited-capacity activity within higher-order attentional systems. These results suggest that PASAT performance became more efficient as practice seemingly eased the strategic planning and coordination requirements the task places on frontally-mediated executive attention resources. The findings of the current study extend our understanding of the functional and behavioural mechanisms underlying the effects of practice. PMID:23717344

  13. Energy and emissions saving potential of additive manufacturing: the case of lightweight aircraft components

    DOE PAGES

    Huang, Runze; Riddle, Matthew; Graziano, Diane; ...

    2015-05-08

    Additive manufacturing (AM) holds great potential for improving materials efficiency, reducing life-cycle impacts, and enabling greater engineering functionality compared to conventional manufacturing (CM) processes. For these reasons, AM has been adopted by a growing number of aircraft component manufacturers to achieve more lightweight, cost-effective designs. This study estimates the net changes in life-cycle primary energy and greenhouse gas emissions associated with AM technologies for lightweight metallic aircraft components through the year 2050, to shed light on the environmental benefits of a shift from CM to AM processes in the U.S. aircraft industry. A systems modeling framework is presented, with integratesmore » engineering criteria, life-cycle environmental data, and aircraft fleet stock and fuel use models under different AM adoption scenarios. Estimated fleetwide life-cycle primary energy savings in a rapid adoption scenario reach 70-174 million GJ/year in 2050, with cumulative savings of 1.2-2.8 billion GJ. Associated cumulative emission reduction potentials of CO2e were estimated at 92.8-217.4 million metric tons. About 95% of the savings is attributed to airplane fuel consumption reductions due to lightweighting. In addition, about 4050 tons aluminum, 7600 tons titanium and 8100 tons of nickel alloys could be saved per year in 2050. The results indicate a significant role of AM technologies in helping society meet its long-term energy use and GHG emissions reduction goals, and highlight barriers and opportunities for AM adoption for the aircraft industry.« less

  14. PUF proteins: Cellular functions and potential applications.

    PubMed

    Kiani, Seyed Jalal; Taheri, Tahereh; Rafati, Sima; Samimi-Rad, Katayoun

    2016-09-14

    RNA-binding proteins play critical roles in the regulation of gene expression. Among several families of RNA-binding proteins, PUF (Pumilio and FBF) proteins have been the subject of extensive investigations, as they can bind RNA in a sequence-specific manner and they are evolutionarily conserved among a wide range of organisms. The outstanding feature of these proteins is a highly conserved RNA-binding domain, which is known as the Pumilio-homology domain (PUM-HD) that mostly consists of eight tandem repeats. Each repeat recognizes an RNA base with a simple three-letter code that can be programmed in order to change the sequence-specificity of the protein. Using this tailored architecture, researchers have been able to change the specificity of the PUM-HD and target desired transcripts in the cell, even in subcellular compartments. The potential applications of this versatile tool in molecular cell biology seem unbounded and the use of these factors in pharmaceutics might be an interesting field of study in near future.

  15. Vehicle bridge interaction dynamics and potential applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y. B.; Lin, C. W.

    2005-06-01

    The dynamic interaction between a moving vehicle and the sustaining bridge is studied. By the method of modal superposition, closed-form solutions are obtained for the vertical responses of both the bridge and moving vehicle, assuming the vehicle/bridge mass ratio to be small. For both the bridge and vehicle responses, it is confirmed that rather accurate solutions can be obtained by considering only the first mode. The displacement, velocity, and acceleration of the bridge are governed at different extents by two sets of frequencies, i.e., the driving frequency of the vehicle and natural frequencies of the bridge. From the spectrum for the bridge displacement, the vehicle speeds can be shown to be associated with some low-frequency pikes. On the other hand, the vehicle responses are governed by five distinct frequencies that appear as driving frequencies, vehicle frequency, and bridge frequencies with shift. From the vehicle's acceleration spectrum, the first bridge frequency (with shift) is shown to have rather high visibility and can be easily identified. The effects of damping of the vehicle and bridge are evaluated in the numerical studies. Potential applications of the present results, as well as further researches required, are also indicated in the paper.

  16. Application potential of rechargeable lithium batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Hunger, H.F.; Bramhall, P.J.

    1983-10-01

    Rechargeable lithium cells with Cr /SUB 0.5/ V/sub 0/ /sub 5/S/sub 2/ and MoO/sub 3/ cathodes were investigated in the temperature range of -30/sup 0/C to +25/sup 0/C. The electrolyte was 1.5M LiAsF/sub 6/ in 2-methyl tetrahydrofuran with tetrahydrofuran (50:50 V percent). Current densities and capacities as a function of temperature, cathode utilization efficiencies versus cycle life, and shelf lives were determined. The state of charge could be related to open circuit voltages after partial discharge. The potential of the system for communication applications is discussed. Recent advances in rechargeable lithium batteries were mainly due to the discovery of stable, cyclic ether electrolyte solvents (1) and to the use of rechargeable cathode materials (2). The practical usefulness of rechargeable lithium cells with Cr /SUB 0.5/ V /SUB 0.5/ S/sub 2/ and MoO/sub 3/ cathodes was investigated in the temperature range of -30/sup 0/C to +25/sup 0/C. The electrolyte was mainly 1.5M LiAsF/sub 6/ in 2-methyl tetrahydrofuran with tetrahydrofuran (50:50 V percent). The two cathode materials were chosen because Cr /SUB 0.5/ V /SUB 0.5/ S/sub 2/ resembles TiS/sub 2/ in capacity and cycling behavior and MoO/sub 3/ is a low cost cathode material of interest.

  17. New Potential Pharmaceutical Applications of Hypericum Species.

    PubMed

    Marrelli, Mariangela; Statti, Giancarlo; Conforti, Filomena; Menichini, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    The genus Hypericum includes more than 450 species distributed in Europe, North America, North Africa and West Asia. These plants are widely used in folk medicine for the treatment of inflammation, bacterial and viral infections, burns and gastric disorders. The use for alleviating inflammation and promoting wound healing is well known for H. Perforatum L. (St. John's wort) and other species. Because of its pharmacological activity, H. perforatum L. is one of the most important species of this genus. This plant has been largely utilized for its efficacy in the treatment of mild to moderate depression. However, some other species have been utilized in traditional medicine and have been studied for their phytochemical composition and for their biological activities to date. Hypericum species contain biologically active secondary metabolites belonging to at least ten different classes, with prevalence of naphthodianthrones (hypericin and pseudohypericin), phloroglucinols (hyperforin), flavonoids (rutin, hyperoside, isoquercitrin, quercitrin, quercetin, amentoflavone) and phenylpropanoids (chlorogenic acid). However, great variations in contents have been reported for wild populations worldwide. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of most recent studies about potential pharmaceutical applications of plants belonging to Hypericum genus. The most interesting isolated active principles and both in vitro and in vivo effects of Hypericum extracts are presented and discussed.

  18. Flame Retardant Applications in Camping Tents and Potential Exposure

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Concern has mounted over health effects caused by exposure to flame retardant additives used in consumer products. Significant research efforts have focused particularly on exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) used in furniture and electronic applications. However, little attention has focused on applications in textiles, particularly textiles meeting a flammability standard known as CPAI-84. In this study, we investigated flame retardant applications in camping tents that met CPAI-84 standards by analyzing 11 samples of tent fabrics for chemical flame retardant additives. Furthermore, we investigated potential exposure by collecting paired samples of tent wipes and hand wipes from 27 individuals after tent setup. Of the 11 fabric samples analyzed, 10 contained flame retardant additives, which included tris(1,3-dichloroisopropyl) phosphate (TDCPP), decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209), triphenyl phosphate, and tetrabromobisphenol-A. Flame retardant concentrations were discovered to be as high as 37.5 mg/g (3.8% by weight) in the tent fabric samples, and TDCPP and BDE-209 were the most frequently detected in these samples. We also observed a significant association between TDCPP levels in tent wipes and those in paired hand wipes, suggesting that human contact with the tent fabric material leads to the transfer of the flame retardant to the skin surface and human exposure. These results suggest that direct contact with flame retardant-treated textiles may be a source of exposure. Future studies will be needed to better characterize exposure, including via inhalation and dermal sorption from air. PMID:24804279

  19. Flame Retardant Applications in Camping Tents and Potential Exposure.

    PubMed

    Keller, Alexander S; Raju, Nikhilesh P; Webster, Thomas F; Stapleton, Heather M

    2014-02-11

    Concern has mounted over health effects caused by exposure to flame retardant additives used in consumer products. Significant research efforts have focused particularly on exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) used in furniture and electronic applications. However, little attention has focused on applications in textiles, particularly textiles meeting a flammability standard known as CPAI-84. In this study, we investigated flame retardant applications in camping tents that met CPAI-84 standards by analyzing 11 samples of tent fabrics for chemical flame retardant additives. Furthermore, we investigated potential exposure by collecting paired samples of tent wipes and hand wipes from 27 individuals after tent setup. Of the 11 fabric samples analyzed, 10 contained flame retardant additives, which included tris(1,3-dichloroisopropyl) phosphate (TDCPP), decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209), triphenyl phosphate, and tetrabromobisphenol-A. Flame retardant concentrations were discovered to be as high as 37.5 mg/g (3.8% by weight) in the tent fabric samples, and TDCPP and BDE-209 were the most frequently detected in these samples. We also observed a significant association between TDCPP levels in tent wipes and those in paired hand wipes, suggesting that human contact with the tent fabric material leads to the transfer of the flame retardant to the skin surface and human exposure. These results suggest that direct contact with flame retardant-treated textiles may be a source of exposure. Future studies will be needed to better characterize exposure, including via inhalation and dermal sorption from air.

  20. Potential impacts of nanotechnology on energy transmission applications and needs.

    SciTech Connect

    Elcock, D.; Environmental Science Division

    2007-11-30

    The application of nanotechnologies to energy transmission has the potential to significantly impact both the deployed transmission technologies and the need for additional development. This could be a factor in assessing environmental impacts of right-of-way (ROW) development and use. For example, some nanotechnology applications may produce materials (e.g., cables) that are much stronger per unit volume than existing materials, enabling reduced footprints for construction and maintenance of electricity transmission lines. Other applications, such as more efficient lighting, lighter-weight materials for vehicle construction, and smaller batteries having greater storage capacities may reduce the need for long-distance transport of energy, and possibly reduce the need for extensive future ROW development and many attendant environmental impacts. This report introduces the field of nanotechnology, describes some of the ways in which processes and products developed with or incorporating nanomaterials differ from traditional processes and products, and identifies some examples of how nanotechnology may be used to reduce potential ROW impacts. Potential environmental, safety, and health impacts are also discussed.

  1. 49 CFR 260.25 - Additional information for Applicants not having a credit rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... prospective traffic base; (3) System-wide plans to maintain equipment and rights-of-way at current or improved... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional information for Applicants not having a... Financial Assistance § 260.25 Additional information for Applicants not having a credit rating....

  2. 49 CFR 260.25 - Additional information for Applicants not having a credit rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... prospective traffic base; (3) System-wide plans to maintain equipment and rights-of-way at current or improved... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional information for Applicants not having a... Financial Assistance § 260.25 Additional information for Applicants not having a credit rating....

  3. Optimization-based additive decomposition of weakly coercive problems with applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bochev, Pavel B.; Ridzal, Denis

    2016-01-27

    In this study, we present an abstract mathematical framework for an optimization-based additive decomposition of a large class of variational problems into a collection of concurrent subproblems. The framework replaces a given monolithic problem by an equivalent constrained optimization formulation in which the subproblems define the optimization constraints and the objective is to minimize the mismatch between their solutions. The significance of this reformulation stems from the fact that one can solve the resulting optimality system by an iterative process involving only solutions of the subproblems. Consequently, assuming that stable numerical methods and efficient solvers are available for every subproblem, our reformulation leads to robust and efficient numerical algorithms for a given monolithic problem by breaking it into subproblems that can be handled more easily. An application of the framework to the Oseen equations illustrates its potential.

  4. Optimization-based additive decomposition of weakly coercive problems with applications

    DOE PAGES

    Bochev, Pavel B.; Ridzal, Denis

    2016-01-27

    In this study, we present an abstract mathematical framework for an optimization-based additive decomposition of a large class of variational problems into a collection of concurrent subproblems. The framework replaces a given monolithic problem by an equivalent constrained optimization formulation in which the subproblems define the optimization constraints and the objective is to minimize the mismatch between their solutions. The significance of this reformulation stems from the fact that one can solve the resulting optimality system by an iterative process involving only solutions of the subproblems. Consequently, assuming that stable numerical methods and efficient solvers are available for every subproblem,more » our reformulation leads to robust and efficient numerical algorithms for a given monolithic problem by breaking it into subproblems that can be handled more easily. An application of the framework to the Oseen equations illustrates its potential.« less

  5. Adapting My Weather Impacts Decision Aid (MyWIDA) to Additional Web Application Server Technologies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-01

    ARL-TN-0688 ● AUG 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Adapting My Weather Impacts Decision Aid (MyWIDA) to Additional Web...Laboratory Adapting My Weather Impacts Decision Aid (MyWIDA) to Additional Web Application Server Technologies by Jacob C Randall and Jeffrey O...COVERED (From - To) May–Aug 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Adapting My Weather Impacts Decision Aid (MyWIDA) to Additional Web Application Server

  6. 21 CFR 174.5 - General provisions applicable to indirect food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... additives. 174.5 Section 174.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: GENERAL § 174.5 General provisions applicable to indirect food additives. (a) Regulations prescribing conditions...

  7. 21 CFR 174.5 - General provisions applicable to indirect food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... additives. 174.5 Section 174.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: GENERAL § 174.5 General provisions applicable to indirect food additives. (a) Regulations prescribing conditions...

  8. 21 CFR 174.5 - General provisions applicable to indirect food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... additives. 174.5 Section 174.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: GENERAL § 174.5 General provisions applicable to indirect food additives. (a) Regulations prescribing conditions...

  9. 21 CFR 174.5 - General provisions applicable to indirect food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... additives. 174.5 Section 174.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: GENERAL § 174.5 General provisions applicable to indirect food additives. (a) Regulations prescribing conditions...

  10. Two applications of potential vorticity thinking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Walter A.

    1987-01-01

    The phenomena of dissipative destabilization of external Rossby waves and the acceleration of the zonal mean jet during baroclinic life cycles are described in terms of potential vorticity. The main principle of the potential temperature variations at rigid boundaries have the same effect on the interior flow as do sheets of potential vorticity located just within the boundaries. It is noted that the potential vorticity theory is useful for understanding the dynamical behavior of meterological phenomena.

  11. Potential food additives from Carex distachya roots: identification and in vitro antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Fiorentino, Antonio; Ricci, Andreina; D'Abrosca, Brigida; Pacifico, Severina; Golino, Annunziata; Letizia, Marianna; Piccolella, Simona; Monaco, Pietro

    2008-09-10

    In the present study, the chemical composition and antioxidant properties of root methanol extract of Carex distachya Desf. (Cyperaceae) were assessed to use this plant as sources of food additives and nutraceuticals. The IC50 of the extract (4.2 microg/mL), derived from the DPPH radical scavenging capacity assay, was similar to those of ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol, and BHT. These results revealed a strong antioxidant activity because of the presence of an extraordinary quantity of bioactive phytochemicals. The phytochemical study of the root extract led to the isolation and identification of new and known polyphenols, most of them common constituents of plant foods. A total of 16 polyphenols, identified on the basis of spectroscopic data as 7 lignans, 4 phenylethanoids, 3 resveratrol derivatives, a monolignol, and a secoiridoid glucoside, were isolated. The tentative structural elucidation of the new metabolites 5'-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy-3,3'-dimethoxy-7,9'-epoxylignan-4,8',9-triol and 3,5-bis-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy-3'-methoxy-trans-stilben-4'-ol have been performed by a combined approach using ESI/TQ/MS techniques and 1D and 2D NMR experiments. All of the compounds have been tested for their antioxidant activity using six different antioxidant and radical scavenging tests. Interestingly, the extract contained high quantities of polyphenols, most of them reported as constituents of edible plants, such as grape and olive, suggesting that the methanol root extract of this plant could be used as a source of natural antioxidants useful as potential food additives.

  12. Gel-like Carbon Dots: Characterization and their Potential Applications.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yiqun; Desserre, Alexandra; Sharma, Shiv K; Li, Shanghao; Marksberry, M Hensley; Chusuei, Charles; Blackwelder, Patricia L; Leblanc, Roger M

    2017-02-07

    Highly photoluminescent gel-like carbon dots (G-CDs) were successfully synthesized for the first time by a rapid one-step solvothermal synthesis approach with citric acid and 1,2-ethylenediamine as the precursors. Their gel-like nature was revealed by the Tyndall and coagulation effects, which were elucidated by a negative ζ potential value. The influences of temperature on the properties and sizes of these G-CDs were analyzed, and the best method for a maximum quantum yield was identified. The resulting products emitted blue photoluminescence under UV light (λ=365 nm) and a gradient of color under regular light. In addition, the UV/Vis absorption and fluorescence emission spectra of the G-CDs indicated that those synthesized at 160 °C exhibited the highest fluorescence quantum yield (33 %). Atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy measurements were performed, and a higher temperature of formation resulted in smaller G-CDs. Furthermore, band shifts in the UV/Vis and fluorescence spectra and sequential changes in the quantum yield values and ζ potentials in addition to elemental compositional changes as determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were monitored throughout the formation process of the G-CDs. As to applications, G-CDs were prepared as an invisible ink for printers, which exhibited the applicability of G-CDs in daily life and military activities.

  13. Non-additivity of molecule-surface van der Waals potentials from force measurements

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Christian; Fournier, Norman; Ruiz, Victor G.; Li, Chen; Müllen, Klaus; Rohlfing, Michael; Tkatchenko, Alexandre; Temirov, Ruslan; Tautz, F. Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Van der Waals (vdW) forces act ubiquitously in condensed matter. Despite being weak on an atomic level, they substantially influence molecular and biological systems due to their long range and system-size scaling. The difficulty to isolate and measure vdW forces on a single-molecule level causes our present understanding to be strongly theory based. Here we show measurements of the attractive potential between differently sized organic molecules and a metal surface using an atomic force microscope. Our choice of molecules and the large molecule-surface separation cause this attraction to be purely of vdW type. The experiment allows testing the asymptotic vdW force law and its validity range. We find a superlinear growth of the vdW attraction with molecular size, originating from the increased deconfinement of electrons in the molecules. Because such non-additive vdW contributions are not accounted for in most first-principles or empirical calculations, we suggest further development in that direction. PMID:25424490

  14. Ionic Liquids as Novel Lubricants and Additives for Diesel Engine Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, Jun; Blau, Peter Julian; Dai, Sheng; Luo, Huimin; Meyer III, Harry M

    2009-01-01

    The lubricating properties of two ionic liquids with the same anion but different cations, one ammonium IL [C8H17]3NH.Tf2N and one imidazolium IL C10mim.Tf2N, were evaluated both in neat form and as oil additives. Experiments were conducted using a standardized reciprocating sliding test using a segment of a Cr-plated diesel engine piston ring against a grey cast iron flat specimen with simulated honing marks as on the engine cylinder liner. The selected ionic liquids were benchmarked against conventional hydrocarbon oils. Substantial friction and wear reductions, up to 55% and 34%, respectively, were achieved for the neat ionic liquids compared to a fully-formulated 15W40 engine oil. Adding 5 vol% ILs into mineral oil has demonstrated significant improvement in the lubricity. One blend even outperformed the 15W40 engine oil with 9% lower friction and 34% less wear. Lubrication regime modeling, worn surface morphology examination, and surface chemical analysis were conducted to help understand the lubricating mechanisms for ionic liquids. Results suggest great potential for using ionic liquids as base lubricants or lubricant additives for diesel engine applications.

  15. Theoretical study of ignition reactions of linear symmetrical monoethers as potential diesel fuel additives: DFT calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrouni, Karim El; Abou-Rachid, Hakima; Kaliaguine, Serge

    This work investigates the chemical reactivity of four linear symmetrical monoethers with molecular oxygen. Such oxygenated compounds may be considered as potential diesel fuel additives in order to reduce the ignition delay in diesel fuel engines. For this purpose, a kinetic study is proposed to clarify the relation between the molecular structure of the fuel molecule and its ignition properties. To this end, DFT calculations were performed for these reactions using B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) and BH&HLYP/6-311G(d,p) to determine structures, energies, and vibrational frequencies of stationary points as well as activated complexes involved in each gas-phase combustion initiation reaction of the monoethers CH3OCH3, C2H5OC2H5, C3H7OC3H7, or C4H9OC4H9 with molecular oxygen. This theoretical kinetic study was carried out using electronic structure results and the transition state theory, to assess the rate constants for all studied combustion reactions. As it has been shown in our previous work [Abou-Rachid et al., J Mol Struct (Theochem) 2003, 621, 293], the cetane number (CN) of a pure organic molecule depends on the initiation rate of its homogeneous gas-phase reaction with molecular oxygen. Indeed, the calculated initiation rate constants of the H-abstraction process of linear monoethers with O2 show a very good correlation with experimental CN data of these pure compounds at T D 1,000 K. This temperature is representative of the operating conditions of a diesel fuel engine.0

  16. Extracellular matrix protein in calcified endoskeleton: a potential additive for crystal growth and design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azizur Rahman, M.; Fujimura, Hiroyuki; Shinjo, Ryuichi; Oomori, Tamotsu

    2011-06-01

    In this study, we demonstrate a key function of extracellular matrix proteins (ECMPs) on seed crystals, which are isolated from calcified endoskeletons of soft coral and contain only CaCO 3 without any living cells. This is the first report that an ECMP protein extracted from a marine organism could potentially influence in modifying the surface of a substrate for designing materials via crystallization. We previously studied with the ECMPs from a different type of soft coral ( Sinularia polydactyla) without introducing any seed crystals in the process , which showed different results. Thus, crystallization on the seed in the presence of ECMPs of present species is an important first step toward linking function to individual proteins from soft coral. For understanding this interesting phenomenon, in vitro crystallization was initiated in a supersaturated solution on seed particles of calcite (1 0 4) with and without ECMPs. No change in the crystal growth shape occurred without ECMPs present during the crystallization process. However, with ECMPs, the morphology and phase of the crystals in the crystallization process changed dramatically. Upon completion of crystallization with ECMPs, an attractive crystal morphology was found. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was utilized to observe the crystal morphologies on the seeds surface. The mineral phases of crystals nucleated by ECMPs on the seeds surface were examined by Raman spectroscopy. Although 50 mM Mg 2+ is influential in making aragonite in the crystallization process, the ECMPs significantly made calcite crystals even when 50 mM Mg 2+ was present in the process. Crystallization with the ECMP additive seems to be a technically attractive strategy to generate assembled micro crystals that could be used in crystals growth and design in the Pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries.

  17. 42 CFR 84.22 - Unlisted fees; additional fees; payment by applicant prior to approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Fees § 84.22 Unlisted fees; additional fees; payment by applicant prior to... assemblies and components or subassemblies shall be at the rate of $100 per day for each man-day required...

  18. 42 CFR 84.22 - Unlisted fees; additional fees; payment by applicant prior to approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Fees § 84.22 Unlisted fees; additional fees; payment by applicant prior to... assemblies and components or subassemblies shall be at the rate of $100 per day for each man-day required...

  19. 75 FR 60721 - Aerospace Supplier Development Mission to China; Recruitment Reopened for Additional Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Aerospace Supplier Development Mission to China; Recruitment Reopened for Additional Applications AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION:...

  20. Energy deposition by heavy ions: Additivity of kinetic and potential energy contributions in hillock formation on CaF2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y. Y.; Grygiel, C.; Dufour, C.; Sun, J. R.; Wang, Z. G.; Zhao, Y. T.; Xiao, G. Q.; Cheng, R.; Zhou, X. M.; Ren, J. R.; Liu, S. D.; Lei, Y.; Sun, Y. B.; Ritter, R.; Gruber, E.; Cassimi, A.; Monnet, I.; Bouffard, S.; Aumayr, F.; Toulemonde, M.

    2014-07-01

    Modification of surface and bulk properties of solids by irradiation with ion beams is a widely used technique with many applications in material science. In this study, we show that nano-hillocks on CaF2 crystal surfaces can be formed by individual impact of medium energy (3 and 5 MeV) highly charged ions (Xe22+ to Xe30+) as well as swift (kinetic energies between 12 and 58 MeV) heavy xenon ions. For very slow highly charged ions the appearance of hillocks is known to be linked to a threshold in potential energy (Ep) while for swift heavy ions a minimum electronic energy loss per unit length (Se) is necessary. With our results we bridge the gap between these two extreme cases and demonstrate, that with increasing energy deposition via Se the Ep-threshold for hillock production can be lowered substantially. Surprisingly, both mechanisms of energy deposition in the target surface seem to contribute in an additive way, which can be visualized in a phase diagram. We show that the inelastic thermal spike model, originally developed to describe such material modifications for swift heavy ions, can be extended to the case where both kinetic and potential energies are deposited into the surface.

  1. Energy deposition by heavy ions: additivity of kinetic and potential energy contributions in hillock formation on CaF2.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y Y; Grygiel, C; Dufour, C; Sun, J R; Wang, Z G; Zhao, Y T; Xiao, G Q; Cheng, R; Zhou, X M; Ren, J R; Liu, S D; Lei, Y; Sun, Y B; Ritter, R; Gruber, E; Cassimi, A; Monnet, I; Bouffard, S; Aumayr, F; Toulemonde, M

    2014-07-18

    Modification of surface and bulk properties of solids by irradiation with ion beams is a widely used technique with many applications in material science. In this study, we show that nano-hillocks on CaF2 crystal surfaces can be formed by individual impact of medium energy (3 and 5 MeV) highly charged ions (Xe(22+) to Xe(30+)) as well as swift (kinetic energies between 12 and 58 MeV) heavy xenon ions. For very slow highly charged ions the appearance of hillocks is known to be linked to a threshold in potential energy (Ep) while for swift heavy ions a minimum electronic energy loss per unit length (Se) is necessary. With our results we bridge the gap between these two extreme cases and demonstrate, that with increasing energy deposition via Se the Ep-threshold for hillock production can be lowered substantially. Surprisingly, both mechanisms of energy deposition in the target surface seem to contribute in an additive way, which can be visualized in a phase diagram. We show that the inelastic thermal spike model, originally developed to describe such material modifications for swift heavy ions, can be extended to the case where both kinetic and potential energies are deposited into the surface.

  2. 10 CFR 52.158 - Contents of application; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Contents of application; additional technical information. 52.158 Section 52.158 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.158 Contents of application;...

  3. 10 CFR 52.158 - Contents of application; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Contents of application; additional technical information. 52.158 Section 52.158 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.158 Contents of application;...

  4. 10 CFR 52.158 - Contents of application; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Contents of application; additional technical information. 52.158 Section 52.158 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.158 Contents of application;...

  5. 10 CFR 52.158 - Contents of application; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contents of application; additional technical information. 52.158 Section 52.158 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.158 Contents of application;...

  6. 10 CFR 52.158 - Contents of application; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Contents of application; additional technical information. 52.158 Section 52.158 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.158 Contents of application;...

  7. 21 CFR 1304.26 - Additional recordkeeping requirements applicable to drug products containing gamma-hydroxybutyric...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional recordkeeping requirements applicable to drug products containing gamma-hydroxybutyric acid. 1304.26 Section 1304.26 Food and Drugs DRUG... accordance with an application under section 505 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act must...

  8. Plasma focus: Present status and potential applications

    SciTech Connect

    Brzosko, J.S.; Nardi, V.; Powell, C.

    1997-12-01

    Initially, dense plasma focus (DPF) machines were constructed independently by Filippov in Moscow and Mather in Los Alamos at the end of the 1950s. Since then, more than 30 laboratories have carried vigorous DPF programs, oriented mainly toward the studies of physics of ion acceleration and trapping in the plasma focus environment. Applications of the DPF as intense neutron and X-ray sources have been recognized since its discovery but not implemented for various reasons. Recently, some groups (including AES) addressed the issue of DPF applications, and some of them are briefly discussed in this paper.

  9. New Rare Earth Antiknock Additives that are Potential Substitutes for Tetraethyl Lead

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-12-01

    Io. Dola Enter when tested by the Supercharge Method (ASTM 0909-67). The significance of this result, compared to the inferior performance of Ce... METHODS OF ADDITIVE INTRODUCTION ...... ................... .... 45 X DISCUSSION .................... 46 1. PERFORMANCE...ISOOCTANE PRIMARY REFERENCE FUEL BY THE SUPERCHARGE METHOD , ASTM D 909-67 .. . 18 2 ANTIKNOCK EFFECTIVENESS AS A FUNCTION OF ADDITIVE CONCENTRATION FOR Ce

  10. Potentially useful polyolester lubricant additives an overview of antioxidants, antiwear and antiseize compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Cavestri, R.C.

    1996-11-01

    Reliable service lubrication of compressors with polyolesters that do not contain additives is the optimal goal for hermetic compressor use. Chlorine derived from CFC and HCFC refrigerants is reported to have effective antiwear properties and negates the widespread use of additives in mineral oil lubricated systems. The use of antioxidants for mineral oil and polyolesters have been reported; antioxidant additive activity seems essential for polyolesters.- Antiwear and antiseize additives seem to be a short term goal for use with polyolesters. High silicone aluminum to steel wear seems to be a primary target for additive use. The interaction of specific heteroatom organic compounds with highly polar surface active synthetic polyolester lubricants is complex. Results of an extensive literature search describe results from a service base determined at ambient conditions. Known lubricant additives used in the hermetic compressor industry, the. mode of action of several types of additives and some lubricant additive chemistry that demonstrates selective thermal stability in conjunction with the chemical structure are examined.

  11. [FADCC in NIHS for prior consultation system of application of food additives].

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Hiroshi; Sato, Kyoko

    2015-01-01

    An increasing number of inquiries about application of food additives have been made from businesses in and outside Japan. The Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW) is requested to expedite the procedure for designation and revision of use standards. In June 2014, the MHLW set up a center for consultation on application concerning food additives (Food Additive Designation Consultation Center, FADCC) in the National Institute of Health Sciences, aiming to smoothly and expeditiously handle clerical work for designation or revision of the use standards. FADCC gives advice on how to prepare documents on the information such as physicochemical characteristics, effectiveness, safety, daily intake and use standards, based on actual cases and experience.

  12. Additive Manufacturing: Which DLA-Managed Legacy Parts are Potential AM Candidates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-01

    part is a CSI, the failure of which can result in loss of life)  End item application environment (for example, some polymers are sensi- tive to...decision support process can be automated and provided as a web-based application to DoD personnel. We include a set of functional require- ments for...or capability and to identify the necessary interfaces; and  which DLA activity or organization will pay for development, implemen- tation

  13. Current and potential applications of bismuth-based drugs.

    PubMed

    Keogan, Donal M; Griffith, Darren M

    2014-09-23

    : Bismuth compounds have been used extensively as medicines and in particular for the treatment of gastrointestinal ailments. In addition to bismuth's well known gastroprotective effects and efficacy in treating H. pylori infection it also has broad anti-microbial, anti-leishmanial and anti-cancer properties. Aspects of the biological chemistry of bismuth are discussed and biomolecular targets associated with bismuth treatment are highlighted. This review strives to provide the reader with an up to date account of bismuth-based drugs currently used to treat patients and discuss potential medicinal applications of bismuth drugs with reference to recent developments in the literature. Ultimately this review aims to encourage original contributions to this exciting and important field.

  14. Application potential of toll-like receptors in cancer immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Ming; Chen, Xi; Ye, Kangruo; Yao, Yuanfei; Li, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Toll-like receptors (TLRs), as the most important pattern recognition receptors in innate immunity, play a pivotal role in inducing immune response through recognition of microbial invaders or specific agonists. Recent studies have suggested that TLRs could serve as important regulators in the development of a variety of cancer. However, increasing evidences have shown that TLRs may display quite opposite outcomes in cancer development. Although several potential therapeutic Toll-like receptor ligands have been found, the mechanism and therapy prospect of TLRs in cancer development has to be further elucidated to accelerate the clinical application. By performing a systematic review of the present findings on TLRs in cancer immunology, we attempted to evaluate the therapeutic potential of TLRs in cancer therapy and elucidate the potential mechanism of cancer progress regulated by TLR signaling and the reported targets on TLRs for clinical application. An electronic databases search was conducted in PubMed, Chinese Scientific Journal Database, and Chinese Biomedical Literature Database from their inception to February 1, 2016. The following keywords were used to search the databases: Toll-like receptors, cancer therapy, therapeutic target, innate immunity. Of 244 studies that were identified, 97 nonrelevant studies were excluded. In total, 147 full-text articles were assessed, and from these, 54 were excluded as they did not provide complete key information. Thus, 93 studies were considered eligible and included in the analysis. According to the data from the included trials, 14 TLR ligands (77.8%) from 82 studies have been demonstrated to display antitumor property in various cancers, whereas 4 ligands (22.2%) from 11 studies promote tumors. Among them, only 3 TLR ligands have been approved for cancer therapy, and 9 ligands were in clinical trials. In addition, the potential mechanism of recently reported targets on TLRs for clinical application was also

  15. Potential Applications of Biotechnology to Aerospace Materials.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-11-01

    from low - grade ores and industrial wastes. Other organisms that have demonstrated ability to solu- bilize metals include heterotrophic bacteria, molds...cadmium, scandium, erbium, yttrium, and titanium. The potential advantage of biomining is the ability to concentrate metals from low - grade materials...organisms and/ or biological molecules to produce or aid in production of a commercial product. This is a broad definition of a relatively young

  16. Lantibiotics produced by Actinobacteria and their potential applications (a Review).

    PubMed

    Gomes, Karen; Duarte, Rafael Silva; Bastos, Maria do Carmo de Freire

    2016-11-22

    The phylum Actinobacteria, which comprises a great variety of Gram-positive bacteria with a high G+C content in their genomes, is known for its large production of bioactive compounds, including those with antimicrobial activity. Among the antimicrobials, bacteriocins, ribosomally-synthesized peptides, represent an important arsenal of potential new drugs to face the increasing prevalence of resistance to antibiotics among microbial pathogens. The actinobacterial bacteriocins form a heterogeneous group of substances that is difficult to adapt to most proposed classification schemes. However, recent updates have accommodated efficiently the diversity of bacteriocins produced by this phylum. Among the bacteriocins, the lantibiotics represent a source of new antimicrobials to control infections caused mainly by Gram-positive bacteria and with a low propensity for resistance development. Moreover, some of these compounds have additional biological properties, exhibiting activity against viruses and tumor cells, and having also potential to be used in blood pressure or inflammation control and in pain relief. Thus, lantibiotics already described in Actinobacteria exhibit potential practical applications in medical settings, food industry and agriculture, with examples at different stages of pre-clinical and clinical trials.

  17. Lantibiotics produced by Actinobacteria and their potential applications (a review).

    PubMed

    Gomes, Karen Machado; Duarte, Rafael Silva; de Freire Bastos, Maria do Carmo

    2017-02-01

    The phylum Actinobacteria, which comprises a great variety of Gram-positive bacteria with a high G+C content in their genomes, is known for its large production of bioactive compounds, including those with antimicrobial activity. Among the antimicrobials, bacteriocins, ribosomally synthesized peptides, represent an important arsenal of potential new drugs to face the increasing prevalence of resistance to antibiotics among microbial pathogens. The actinobacterial bacteriocins form a heterogeneous group of substances that is difficult to adapt to most proposed classification schemes. However, recent updates have accommodated efficiently the diversity of bacteriocins produced by this phylum. Among the bacteriocins, the lantibiotics represent a source of new antimicrobials to control infections caused mainly by Gram-positive bacteria and with a low propensity for resistance development. Moreover, some of these compounds have additional biological properties, exhibiting activity against viruses and tumour cells and having also potential to be used in blood pressure or inflammation control and in pain relief. Thus, lantibiotics already described in Actinobacteria exhibit potential practical applications in medical settings, food industry and agriculture, with examples at different stages of pre-clinical and clinical trials.

  18. Thermoluminescence: Potential Applications in Forensic Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingham, J. D.; Lawson, D. D.

    1973-01-01

    In crime laboratories one of the most difficult operations is to determine unequivocally whether or not two samples of evidence of the same type were originally part of the same thing or were from the same source. It has been found that high temperature thermoluminescence (room temperature to 723 K) can be used for comparisons of this type, although work to date indicates that there is generally a finite probability for coincidental matching of glass or soil samples. Further work is required to determine and attempt to minimize these probabilities for different types of materials, and to define more clearly the scope of applicability of thermoluminescence to actual forensic situations.

  19. Metabolic processes of Methanococcus maripaludis and potential applications.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Nishu; Zhou, Zhi; Karimi, Iftekhar A

    2016-06-10

    Methanococcus maripaludis is a rapidly growing, fully sequenced, genetically tractable model organism among hydrogenotrophic methanogens. It has the ability to convert CO2 and H2 into a useful cleaner energy fuel (CH4). In fact, this conversion enhances in the presence of free nitrogen as the sole nitrogen source due to prolonged cell growth. Given the global importance of GHG emissions and climate change, diazotrophy can be attractive for carbon capture and utilization applications from appropriately treated flue gases, where surplus hydrogen is available from renewable electricity sources. In addition, M. maripaludis can be engineered to produce other useful products such as terpenoids, hydrogen, methanol, etc. M. maripaludis with its unique abilities has the potential to be a workhorse like Escherichia coli and S. cerevisiae for fundamental and experimental biotechnology studies. More than 100 experimental studies have explored different specific aspects of the biochemistry and genetics of CO2 and N2 fixation by M. maripaludis. Its genome-scale metabolic model (iMM518) also exists to study genetic perturbations and complex biological interactions. However, a comprehensive review describing its cell structure, metabolic processes, and methanogenesis is still lacking in the literature. This review fills this crucial gap. Specifically, it integrates distributed information from the literature to provide a complete and detailed view for metabolic processes such as acetyl-CoA synthesis, pyruvate synthesis, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, reductive tricarboxylic acid (RTCA) cycle, non-oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (NOPPP), nitrogen metabolism, amino acid metabolism, and nucleotide biosynthesis. It discusses energy production via methanogenesis and its relation to metabolism. Furthermore, it reviews taxonomy, cell structure, culture/storage conditions, molecular biology tools, genome-scale models, and potential industrial and environmental applications. Through the

  20. Potential clinical applications of quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Medintz, Igor L; Mattoussi, Hedi; Clapp, Aaron R

    2008-01-01

    The use of luminescent colloidal quantum dots in biological investigations has increased dramatically over the past several years due to their unique size-dependent optical properties and recent advances in biofunctionalization. In this review, we describe the methods for generating high-quality nanocrystals and report on current and potential uses of these versatile materials. Numerous examples are provided in several key areas including cell labeling, biosensing, in vivo imaging, bimodal magnetic-luminescent imaging, and diagnostics. We also explore toxicity issues surrounding these materials and speculate about the future uses of quantum dots in a clinical setting.

  1. Antarctic Yeasts: Biodiversity and Potential Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shivaji, S.; Prasad, G. S.

    This review is an attempt in cataloguing the diversity of yeasts in Antarctica, highlight their biotechnological potential and understand the basis of adaptation to low temperature. As of now several psychrophilic and psychrotolerant yeasts from Antarctic soils and marine waters have been characterized with respect to their growth characteristics, ecological distribution and taxonomic significance. Interestingly most of these species belonged to basidiomycetous yeasts which as a group are known for their ability to circumvent and survive under stress conditions. Simultaneously their possible role as work horses in the biotechnological industry was recognized due to their ability to produce novel enzymes and biomolecules such as agents for the breakdown of xenobiotics, and novel pharmaceutical chemi cals. The high activity of psychrophilic enzymes at low and moderate temperatures offers potential economic benefits. As of now lipases from Pseudozyma antarctica have been extensively studied to understand their unique thermal stability at 90°C and also because of its use in the pharmaceutical, agriculture, food, cosmetics and chemical industry. A few of the other enzymes which have been studied include extracellular alpha-amylase and glucoamylase from the yeast Pseudozyma antarctica (Candida antarctica), an extra-cellular protease from Cryptococcus humicola, an aspartyl proteinase from Cryptococcus humicola, a novel extracellular subtilase from Leucosporidium antarcticum, and a xylanase from Cryptococcus adeliensis

  2. Algal Cell Factories: Approaches, Applications, and Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Weiqi; Chaiboonchoe, Amphun; Khraiwesh, Basel; Nelson, David R.; Al-Khairy, Dina; Mystikou, Alexandra; Alzahmi, Amnah; Salehi-Ashtiani, Kourosh

    2016-01-01

    With the advent of modern biotechnology, microorganisms from diverse lineages have been used to produce bio-based feedstocks and bioactive compounds. Many of these compounds are currently commodities of interest, in a variety of markets and their utility warrants investigation into improving their production through strain development. In this review, we address the issue of strain improvement in a group of organisms with strong potential to be productive “cell factories”: the photosynthetic microalgae. Microalgae are a diverse group of phytoplankton, involving polyphyletic lineage such as green algae and diatoms that are commonly used in the industry. The photosynthetic microalgae have been under intense investigation recently for their ability to produce commercial compounds using only light, CO2, and basic nutrients. However, their strain improvement is still a relatively recent area of work that is under development. Importantly, it is only through appropriate engineering methods that we may see the full biotechnological potential of microalgae come to fruition. Thus, in this review, we address past and present endeavors towards the aim of creating productive algal cell factories and describe possible advantageous future directions for the field. PMID:27983586

  3. Microwave processing of lunar materials: potential applications

    SciTech Connect

    Meek, T.T.; Cocks, F.H.; Vaniman, D.T.; Wright, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    The microwave processing of lunar materials holds promise for the production of either water, oxygen, primary metals, or ceramic materials. Extra high frequency microwave (EHF) at between 100 and 500 gigahertz have the potential for selective coupling to specific atomic species and a concomitant low energy requirement for the extraction of specific materials, such as oxygen, from lunar ores. The coupling of ultra high frequency (UHF) (e.g., 2.45 gigahertz) microwave frequencies to hydrogen-oxygen bonds might enable the preferential and low energy cost removal (as H/sub 2/O) of implanted protons from the sun or of adosrbed water which might be found in lunar dust in permanently shadowed polar areas. Microwave melting and selective phase melting of lunar materials could also be used either in the preparation of simplified ceramic geometries (e.g., bricks) with custom-tailored microstructures, or for the direct preparation of hermetic walls in underground structures. Speculatively, the preparation of photovoltaic devices based on lunar materials, especially ilmenite, may be a potential use of microwave processing on the moon. Preliminary experiments on UHF melting of terrestrial basalt, basalt/ilmenite and mixtures show that microwave processing is feasible.

  4. Algal Cell Factories: Approaches, Applications, and Potentials.

    PubMed

    Fu, Weiqi; Chaiboonchoe, Amphun; Khraiwesh, Basel; Nelson, David R; Al-Khairy, Dina; Mystikou, Alexandra; Alzahmi, Amnah; Salehi-Ashtiani, Kourosh

    2016-12-13

    With the advent of modern biotechnology, microorganisms from diverse lineages have been used to produce bio-based feedstocks and bioactive compounds. Many of these compounds are currently commodities of interest, in a variety of markets and their utility warrants investigation into improving their production through strain development. In this review, we address the issue of strain improvement in a group of organisms with strong potential to be productive "cell factories": the photosynthetic microalgae. Microalgae are a diverse group of phytoplankton, involving polyphyletic lineage such as green algae and diatoms that are commonly used in the industry. The photosynthetic microalgae have been under intense investigation recently for their ability to produce commercial compounds using only light, CO₂, and basic nutrients. However, their strain improvement is still a relatively recent area of work that is under development. Importantly, it is only through appropriate engineering methods that we may see the full biotechnological potential of microalgae come to fruition. Thus, in this review, we address past and present endeavors towards the aim of creating productive algal cell factories and describe possible advantageous future directions for the field.

  5. RBC micromotors carrying multiple cargos towards potential theranostic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhiguang; Esteban-Fernández de Ávila, Berta; Martín, Aída; Christianson, Caleb; Gao, Weiwei; Thamphiwatana, Soracha Kun; Escarpa, Alberto; He, Qiang; Zhang, Liangfang; Wang, Joseph

    2015-08-01

    Red blood cell (RBC)-based micromotors containing both therapeutic and diagnostic modalities are described as a means for potential theranostic applications. In this natural RBC-based multicargo-loaded micromotor system, quantum dots (QDs), anti-cancer drug doxorubicin (DOX), and magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), were co-encapsulated into RBC micromotors. The fluorescent emission of both QDs and DOX provides direct visualization of their loading inside the RBC motors at two distinct wavelengths. The presence of MNPs within the RBCs allows for efficient magnetic guidance under ultrasound propulsion along with providing the potential for magnetic resonance imaging. The simultaneous encapsulation of the imaging nanoparticles and therapeutic payloads within the same RBC micromotor has a minimal effect upon its propulsion behavior. The ability of the RBC micromotors to transport imaging and therapeutic agents at high speed and spatial precision through a complex microchannel network is also demonstrated. Such ability to load and transport diagnostic imaging agents and therapeutic drugs within a single cell-based motor, in addition to a lower toxicity observed once the drug is encapsulated within the multicargo RBC motor, opens the door to the development of theranostic micromotors that may simultaneously treat and monitor diseases.Red blood cell (RBC)-based micromotors containing both therapeutic and diagnostic modalities are described as a means for potential theranostic applications. In this natural RBC-based multicargo-loaded micromotor system, quantum dots (QDs), anti-cancer drug doxorubicin (DOX), and magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), were co-encapsulated into RBC micromotors. The fluorescent emission of both QDs and DOX provides direct visualization of their loading inside the RBC motors at two distinct wavelengths. The presence of MNPs within the RBCs allows for efficient magnetic guidance under ultrasound propulsion along with providing the potential for magnetic

  6. Generation of a Complete Set of Additive Shape-Invariant Potentials from an Euler Equation

    SciTech Connect

    Bougie, Jonathan; Gangopadhyaya, Asim; Mallow, Jeffry V.

    2010-11-19

    In supersymmetric quantum mechanics, shape invariance is a sufficient condition for solvability. We show that all conventional additive shape-invariant superpotentials that are independent of ({h_bar}/2{pi}) can be generated from two partial differential equations. One of these is equivalent to the one-dimensional Euler equation expressing momentum conservation for inviscid fluid flow, and it is closed by the other. We solve these equations, generate the set of all conventional shape-invariant superpotentials, and show that there are no others in this category. We then develop an algorithm for generating all additive shape-invariant superpotentials including those that depend on ({h_bar}/2{pi}) explicitly.

  7. Generation of a complete set of additive shape-invariant potentials from an Euler equation.

    PubMed

    Bougie, Jonathan; Gangopadhyaya, Asim; Mallow, Jeffry V

    2010-11-19

    In supersymmetric quantum mechanics, shape invariance is a sufficient condition for solvability. We show that all conventional additive shape-invariant superpotentials that are independent of ℏ can be generated from two partial differential equations. One of these is equivalent to the one-dimensional Euler equation expressing momentum conservation for inviscid fluid flow, and it is closed by the other. We solve these equations, generate the set of all conventional shape-invariant superpotentials, and show that there are no others in this category. We then develop an algorithm for generating all additive shape-invariant superpotentials including those that depend on ℏ explicitly.

  8. Potential of Lactobacillus reuteri from Spontaneous 
Sourdough as a Starter Additive for Improving Quality Parameters of Bread

    PubMed Central

    Vaičiulytė-Funk, Lina; Šalomskienė, Joana; Alenčikienė, Gitana; Mieželienė, Aldona

    2016-01-01

    Summary Retardation of microbial spoilage of bread can be achieved by the use of spontaneous sourdough with an antimicrobial activity. This study was undertaken to identify lactic acid bacteria naturally occurring in spontaneous sourdough and use them for quality improvement and prolonging shelf life of rye, wheat and rye with wheat bread. Identification of isolates from spontaneous sourdough by pyrosequencing assay showed that Lactobacillus reuteri were dominant lactic acid bacteria. The isolates showed a wide range of antimicrobial activity and displayed a synergistic activity against other lactobacilli, some lactococci and foodborne yeasts. The best application of spontaneous sourdough was noticed in the rye bread with the lowest crumb firmness of the final product, although the sensory results of wheat and rye with wheat bread did not statistically differ from control bread. L. reuteri showed a high preserving capacity against fungi during storage. This may be due to bacteriocins and various fatty acids secreted into the growth medium that were identified by agar well diffusion assay and gas chromatography. L. reuteri showing high antimicrobial activity have the potential to be used as a starter additive that could improve safety and/or shelf life of bread. PMID:27956866

  9. Marine Origin Collagens and Its Potential Applications

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Tiago H.; Moreira-Silva, Joana; Marques, Ana L. P.; Domingues, Alberta; Bayon, Yves; Reis, Rui L.

    2014-01-01

    Collagens are the most abundant high molecular weight proteins in both invertebrate and vertebrate organisms, including mammals, and possess mainly a structural role, existing different types according with their specific organization in distinct tissues. From this, they have been elected as one of the key biological materials in tissue regeneration approaches. Also, industry is constantly searching for new natural sources of collagen and upgraded methodologies for their production. The most common sources are from bovine and porcine origin, but other ways are making their route, such as recombinant production, but also extraction from marine organisms like fish. Different organisms have been proposed and explored for collagen extraction, allowing the sustainable production of different types of collagens, with properties depending on the kind of organism (and their natural environment) and extraction methodology. Such variety of collagen properties has been further investigated in different ways to render a wide range of applications. The present review aims to shed some light on the contribution of marine collagens for the scientific and technological development of this sector, stressing the opportunities and challenges that they are and most probably will be facing to assume a role as an alternative source for industrial exploitation. PMID:25490254

  10. Material Development for Tooling Applications Using Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM)

    SciTech Connect

    Duty, Chad E.; Drye, Tom; Franc, Alan

    2015-03-01

    Techmer Engineered Solutions (TES) is working with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to develop materials and evaluate their use for ORNL s recently developed Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) system for tooling applications. The first phase of the project established the performance of some commercially available polymer compositions deposited with the BAAM system. Carbon fiber reinforced ABS demonstrated a tensile strength of nearly 10 ksi, which is sufficient for a number of low temperature tooling applications.

  11. Uv-Light Stabilization Additive Package For Solar Cell Module And Laminated Glass Applications

    DOEpatents

    Hanoka, Jack I.; Klemchuk, Peter P.

    2002-03-05

    An ultraviolet light stabilization additive package is used in an encapsulant material that may be used in solar cell modules, laminated glass and a variety of other applications. The ultraviolet light stabilization additive package comprises a first hindered amine light stabilizer and a second hindered amine light stabilizer. The first hindered amine light stabilizer provides thermal oxidative stabilization, and the second hindered amine light stabilizer providing photo-oxidative stabilization.

  12. Analysis of the Potential Impact of Additive Manufacturing on Army Logistics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    highlighting the state of AM during the Leading Edge Forum titled 3D Printing and the Future of Additive Manufacturing. In the program, CSC highlighted...great success is Boeing. CSC (2012) described Boeing’s experience using AM as follows: Boeing, a pioneer in 3D printing , has printed 22,000...components that are used in a variety of aircraft. For example, Boeing has used 3D printing to produce environmental control ducting (ECD) for its new 787

  13. Screening potential intakes of colour additives used in non-alcoholic beverages.

    PubMed

    Tennant, David R

    2008-06-01

    The Union of European Beverages Associations (UNESDA) has undertaken a screening exercise to determine whether any of the colours used in non-alcoholic beverages has the potential for high consumers to exceed the acceptable daily intake (ADI). The organisation undertook a survey of its membership to identify current use levels in non-alcoholic beverages. Information about the consumption of beverages and other foods that can contain the colours was derived from UK survey data because UK consumers were shown to represent some of the highest in the EU. A methodology was developed which added the intake of high level consumers of beverages to average intakes from all other uses to estimate total high level intake. A hierarchical approach used maximum approved use levels (where available) at the first tier and, if intakes exceed the ADI or maximum use levels were not available, UNESDA usage survey data at the second tier. Of the 33 colours approved for use in beverages nine were eliminated from further consideration at Tier 1. A further 22 colours were eliminated from further consideration at Tier 2. Two colours (E101 riboflavins and E110 sunset yellow) required further evaluation but under practical use conditions neither of these colours had the potential to exceed its ADI. Some colours used in beverages are permitted quantum satis in other foods and so permitted use levels were not available. Further information is required about these uses to determine whether total intakes from all foods have the potential to exceed ADIs.

  14. RBC micromotors carrying multiple cargos towards potential theranostic applications.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhiguang; Esteban-Fernández de Ávila, Berta; Martín, Aída; Christianson, Caleb; Gao, Weiwei; Thamphiwatana, Soracha Kun; Escarpa, Alberto; He, Qiang; Zhang, Liangfang; Wang, Joseph

    2015-08-28

    Red blood cell (RBC)-based micromotors containing both therapeutic and diagnostic modalities are described as a means for potential theranostic applications. In this natural RBC-based multicargo-loaded micromotor system, quantum dots (QDs), anti-cancer drug doxorubicin (DOX), and magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), were co-encapsulated into RBC micromotors. The fluorescent emission of both QDs and DOX provides direct visualization of their loading inside the RBC motors at two distinct wavelengths. The presence of MNPs within the RBCs allows for efficient magnetic guidance under ultrasound propulsion along with providing the potential for magnetic resonance imaging. The simultaneous encapsulation of the imaging nanoparticles and therapeutic payloads within the same RBC micromotor has a minimal effect upon its propulsion behavior. The ability of the RBC micromotors to transport imaging and therapeutic agents at high speed and spatial precision through a complex microchannel network is also demonstrated. Such ability to load and transport diagnostic imaging agents and therapeutic drugs within a single cell-based motor, in addition to a lower toxicity observed once the drug is encapsulated within the multicargo RBC motor, opens the door to the development of theranostic micromotors that may simultaneously treat and monitor diseases.

  15. Non-additive simple potentials for pre-programmed self-assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, Carlos

    2015-03-01

    A major goal in nanoscience and nanotechnology is the self-assembly of any desired complex structure with a system of particles interacting through simple potentials. To achieve this objective, intense experimental and theoretical efforts are currently concentrated in the development of the so called ``patchy'' particles. Here we follow a completely different approach and introduce a very accessible model to produce a large variety of pre-programmed two-dimensional (2D) complex structures. Our model consists of a binary mixture of particles that interact through isotropic interactions that is able to self-assemble into targeted lattices by the appropriate choice of a small number of geometrical parameters and interaction strengths. We study the system using Monte Carlo computer simulations and, despite its simplicity, we are able to self assemble potentially useful structures such as chains, stripes, Kagomé, twisted Kagomé, honeycomb, square, Archimedean and quasicrystalline tilings. Our model is designed such that it may be implemented using discotic particles or, alternatively, using exclusively spherical particles interacting isotropically. Thus, it represents a promising strategy for bottom-up nano-fabrication. Partial Financial Support: DGAPA IN-110613.

  16. 10 CFR 52.80 - Contents of applications; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... 52.80 Section 52.80 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.80 Contents of applications; additional technical... the circumstances associated with the loss of large areas of the plant due to explosions or fire...

  17. 10 CFR 52.80 - Contents of applications; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... 52.80 Section 52.80 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.80 Contents of applications; additional technical... the circumstances associated with the loss of large areas of the plant due to explosions or fire...

  18. 10 CFR 52.80 - Contents of applications; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... 52.80 Section 52.80 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.80 Contents of applications; additional technical... the circumstances associated with the loss of large areas of the plant due to explosions or fire...

  19. 10 CFR 52.80 - Contents of applications; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... 52.80 Section 52.80 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.80 Contents of applications; additional technical... the circumstances associated with the loss of large areas of the plant due to explosions or fire...

  20. 10 CFR 52.80 - Contents of applications; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... 52.80 Section 52.80 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.80 Contents of applications; additional technical... the circumstances associated with the loss of large areas of the plant due to explosions or fire...

  1. 10 CFR 431.174 - Additional requirements applicable to Voluntary Independent Certification Program participants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Additional requirements applicable to Voluntary Independent Certification Program participants. 431.174 Section 431.174 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Provisions...

  2. 34 CFR 658.32 - What additional criteria does the Secretary apply to institutional applications?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... STUDIES AND FOREIGN LANGUAGE PROGRAM How Does the Secretary Make a Grant? § 658.32 What additional... studies and foreign languages at the applicant institution; (ii) The interdisciplinary aspects of the... funds will result in the implementation of a program in international studies and foreign languages...

  3. 24 CFR 570.711 - State borrowers; additional requirements and application procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... requirements and application procedures. 570.711 Section 570.711 Housing and Urban Development Regulations... following: (1) A copy of the State's CDBG method of distribution in the action plan most recently submitted or amended pursuant to 24 CFR part 91. In addition to the requirements of 24 CFR part 91, such...

  4. 10 CFR 431.175 - Additional requirements applicable to non-Voluntary Independent Certification Program participants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... represented value of energy usage is no less than the greater of the mean of the sample, or the upper 95... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Additional requirements applicable to non-Voluntary Independent Certification Program participants. 431.175 Section 431.175 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY...

  5. 34 CFR 658.32 - What additional criteria does the Secretary apply to institutional applications?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... STUDIES AND FOREIGN LANGUAGE PROGRAM How Does the Secretary Make a Grant? § 658.32 What additional... studies and foreign languages at the applicant institution; (ii) The interdisciplinary aspects of the... funds will result in the implementation of a program in international studies and foreign languages...

  6. 34 CFR 658.32 - What additional criteria does the Secretary apply to institutional applications?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... STUDIES AND FOREIGN LANGUAGE PROGRAM How Does the Secretary Make a Grant? § 658.32 What additional... studies and foreign languages at the applicant institution; (ii) The interdisciplinary aspects of the... funds will result in the implementation of a program in international studies and foreign languages...

  7. 34 CFR 658.32 - What additional criteria does the Secretary apply to institutional applications?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... STUDIES AND FOREIGN LANGUAGE PROGRAM How Does the Secretary Make a Grant? § 658.32 What additional... studies and foreign languages at the applicant institution; (ii) The interdisciplinary aspects of the... funds will result in the implementation of a program in international studies and foreign languages...

  8. 34 CFR 658.32 - What additional criteria does the Secretary apply to institutional applications?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... STUDIES AND FOREIGN LANGUAGE PROGRAM How Does the Secretary Make a Grant? § 658.32 What additional... studies and foreign languages at the applicant institution; (ii) The interdisciplinary aspects of the... funds will result in the implementation of a program in international studies and foreign languages...

  9. A novel classification and online platform for planning and documentation of medical applications of additive manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Tuomi, Jukka; Paloheimo, Kaija-Stiina; Vehviläinen, Juho; Björkstrand, Roy; Salmi, Mika; Huotilainen, Eero; Kontio, Risto; Rouse, Stephen; Gibson, Ian; Mäkitie, Antti A

    2014-12-01

    Additive manufacturing technologies are widely used in industrial settings and now increasingly also in several areas of medicine. Various techniques and numerous types of materials are used for these applications. There is a clear need to unify and harmonize the patterns of their use worldwide. We present a 5-class system to aid planning of these applications and related scientific work as well as communication between various actors involved in this field. An online, matrix-based platform and a database were developed for planning and documentation of various solutions. This platform will help the medical community to structurally develop both research innovations and clinical applications of additive manufacturing. The online platform can be accessed through http://www.medicalam.info.

  10. Impact of bioaugmentation on biochemical methane potential for wheat straw with addition of Clostridium cellulolyticum.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xiaowei; Börner, Rosa Aragão; Nges, Ivo Achu; Liu, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Hydrolysis is usually the rate-limited step for methane production from lignocellulosic substrate. Two bioaugmentation strategies, using the cellulolytic anaerobic bacteria Clostridium cellulolyticum, were adopted to enhance the hydrolysis of wheat straw with the purpose of improving the biochemical methane potential (BMP). Namely, the 24-h-incubated seed (C24S) with cellobiose as carbon source and the 60-h-incubated seed (WS60S) with wheat straw as carbon source were respectively used as the bioaugmentation agents. As a result, the BMPs were respectively 342.5 and 326.3 ml g(-1) VS of wheat straw, with an increase of 13.0% and 7.6% comparing to the no-bioaugmentation BMP of 303.3 ml g(-1) VS. The result indicates that the anaerobic digestion efficiency can be improved by bioaugmentation, which therefore may be a promising method for improving methane production from lignocellulosic substrate.

  11. Potential of Hazardous Waste Encapsulation in Concrete Compound Combination with Coal Ash and Quarry Fine Additives.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Roy Nir; Anker, Yaakov; Font, Oriol; Querol, Xavier; Mastai, Yitzhak; Knop, Yaniv; Cohen, Haim

    2015-12-15

    Coal power plants are producing huge amounts of coal ash that may be applied to a variety of secondary uses. Class F fly ash may act as an excellent scrubber and fixation reagent for highly acidic wastes, which might also contain several toxic trace elements. This paper evaluates the potential of using Class F fly ashes (<20% CaO), in combination with excessive fines from the limestone quarry industry as a fixation reagent. The analysis included leaching experiments (EN12457-2) and several analytical techniques (ICP, SEM, XRD, etc.), which were used in order to investigate the fixation procedure. The fine sludge is used as a partial substitute in concrete that can be used in civil engineering projects, as it an environmentally safe product.

  12. Microbial surfactants and their potential applications: an overview.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Ashis K; Das, Kishore

    2010-01-01

    Biosurfactant or microbial surfactants produced by microbes are structurally diverse and heterogeneous groups of surface-active amphipathic molecules. They are capable of reducing surface and interfacial tension and have a wide range of industrial and environmental applications. The present chapter reviews the biochemical properties of different classes of microbial surfactants and their potential application in different industrial sectors.

  13. Past applications and future potential of variable stability research helicopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hindson, W. S.

    1982-01-01

    The historical development of variable-stability research helicopters and some of their previous applications are presented as a guide for assessing their future potential. The features of three general-purpose rotary-wing flight research aircraft that provide complementary capabilities are described briefly, and a number of future applications are proposed.

  14. Potential applications of computational fluid dynamics to biofluid analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwak, D.; Chang, J. L. C.; Rogers, S. E.; Rosenfeld, M.; Kwak, D.

    1988-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics was developed to the stage where it has become an indispensable part of aerospace research and design. In view of advances made in aerospace applications, the computational approach can be used for biofluid mechanics research. Several flow simulation methods developed for aerospace problems are briefly discussed for potential applications to biofluids, especially to blood flow analysis.

  15. Application of polymer graded-index materials for aberration correction of progressive addition lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shitanoki, Yuki; Tagaya, Akihiro; Koike, Yasuhiro

    2009-02-01

    Graded-index (GRIN) progressive addition lens (PAL) was successfully fabricated, and GRIN's potential for aberration correction of PAL was confirmed. GRIN material was prepared by partial diffusion of methyl methacrylate (MMA (nd at polymer = 1.492)) monomer into cross-linked benzyl methacrylate (BzMA (nd at polymer=1.568)) flat gel, and GRINPAL was prepared by polymerization of the GRIN material attached to a mold of commercially available PAL. GRIN polymer materials have been used for various applications such as rod lenses and optical fibers. GRIN represents gradual change of refractive index in a material, which adds or reduces light focusing power of the material. PAL is a multifocal spectacle lens for presbyopia. However, some localized aberrations (especially astigmatism) in PAL have not yet been reduced satisfactorily for decades by optimizing surface geometry of a lens. In this research, we propose to employ GRIN materials for astigmatism reduction of PALs. BzMA flat gel was prepared by UV polymerization of BzMA, crosslinking agent ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EDMA) and photopolymerization initiator DAROCURE 1173. MMA monomer was diffused into BzMA flat gel from a portion of periphery for several hours. The obtained GRIN material was attached to a mold of commercially available PAL and polymerized by UV. As a result, reduction of astigmatism was confirmed locally in the fabricated PAL and GRIN-PAL using lens meter. In conclusion, GRIN-PAL was successfully fabricated. The validity of GRIN employment for the astigmatism reduction in PAL was demonstrated experimentally.

  16. Number line estimation and mental addition: examining the potential roles of language and education.

    PubMed

    Laski, Elida V; Yu, Qingyi

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the relative importance of language and education to the development of numerical knowledge. Consistent with previous research suggesting that counting systems that transparently reflect the base-10 system facilitate an understanding of numerical concepts, Chinese and Chinese American kindergartners' and second graders' number line estimation (0-100 and 0-1000) was 1 to 2 years more advanced than that of American children tested in previous studies. However, Chinese children performed better than their Chinese American peers, who were fluent in Chinese but had been educated in America, at kindergarten on 0-100 number lines, at second grade on 0-1000 number lines, and at both time points on complex addition problems. Overall, the pattern of findings suggests that educational approach may have a greater influence on numerical development than the linguistic structure of the counting system. The findings also demonstrate that, despite generating accurate estimates of numerical magnitude on 0-100 number lines earlier, it still takes Chinese children approximately 2 years to demonstrate accurate estimates on 0-1000 number lines, which raises questions about how to promote the mapping of knowledge across numerical scales.

  17. Potential environmental impact of effluents from the artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) byproduct ensiling process using additives.

    PubMed

    Megías, M D; Martínez-Teruel, A; Hérnandez, M R

    1999-06-01

    Three treatments have been tested on canned artichoke byproduct after 50 days of ensilage: formic acid at 20% in doses of 2 mL. kg(-)(1) (FA), cane sugar molasses at 50 g.kg(-)(1) (M), and sodium chloride at 30 g.kg(-)(1) (SC). A fourth batch acted as a control group (C). The nutritive value, fermentation characteristics, environmental pollution effect, and total volume of effluents released have been studied. The highest nutritive value recorded was with SC silage. The use of the additives did not significantly improve the fermentation stability of the silage, but the total production of effluents in each treatment-52.7 (FA), 46.9 (M), and 55.2 (SC)-was significantly lower (P < 0.01) than that of the control group (70.1 L.Tm(-)(1)). The chemical oxygen demand (COD), 117300 mg of O(2).L(-)(1), and the conductivity, 46.4 microOmega(-)(1). cm(-)(1), were significantly higher (P < 0.01) in M and SC, respectively, than in the other group.

  18. Optimizing Production of Two Potential Probiotic Lactobacilli Strains Isolated from Piglet Feces as Feed Additives for Weaned Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Ming-Lun; Chen, Hsi-Chia; Chen, Kun-Nan; Lin, Yu-Chun; Lin, Ya-Ting; Chen, Ming-Ju

    2015-01-01

    Two probiotic strains, Lactobacillus johnsonii x-1d-2 and Lactobacillus mucosae x-4w-1, originally isolated from piglet feces, have been demonstrated to possess antimicrobial activities, antibiotic resistances and interleukin-6 induction ability in RAW 267.4 macrophages in our previous study. These characteristics make L. johnsonii x-1d-2 and L. mucosae x-4w-1 good candidates for application in feed probiotics. In this study, soybeal meal, molasses and sodium acetate were selected to optimize the growth medium for cultivation of L. johnsonii x-1d-2 and L. mucosae x-4w-1. These two strains were then freeze-dried and mixed into the basal diet to feed the weaned piglets. The effects of L. johnsonii x-1d-2 and L. mucosae x-4w-1 on the growth performance and fecal microflora of weaned piglets were investigated. The results showed that the bacterial numbers of L. johnsonii x-1d-2 and L. mucosae x-4w-1 reached a maximum of 8.90 and 9.30 log CFU/mL, respectively, when growing in optimal medium consisting of 5.5% (wt/vol) soybean meal, 1.0% (wt/vol) molasses and 1.0% (wt/vol) sodium acetate. The medium cost was 96% lower than the commercial de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe medium. In a further feeding study, the weaned piglets fed basal diet supplemented with freeze-dried probiotic cultures exhibited higher (p<0.05) body weight gain, feed intake, and gain/feed ratio than weaned piglets fed basal diet. Probiotic feeding also increased the numbers of lactobacilli and decreased the numbers of E. coli in the feces of weaned piglets. This study demonstrates that L. johnsonii x-1d-2 and L. mucosae x-4w-1 have high potential to be used as feed additives in the pig industry. PMID:26104525

  19. The emotion potential of simple sentences: additive or interactive effects of nouns and adjectives?

    PubMed Central

    Lüdtke, Jana; Jacobs, Arthur M.

    2015-01-01

    The vast majority of studies on affective processes in reading focus on single words. The most robust finding is a processing advantage for positively valenced words, which has been replicated in the rare studies investigating effects of affective features of words during sentence or story comprehension. Here we were interested in how the different valences of words in a sentence influence its processing and supralexical affective evaluation. Using a sentence verification task we investigated how comprehension of simple declarative sentences containing a noun and an adjective depends on the valences of both words. The results are in line with the assumed general processing advantage for positive words. We also observed a clear interaction effect, as can be expected from the affective priming literature: sentences with emotionally congruent words (e.g., The grandpa is clever) were verified faster than sentences containing emotionally incongruent words (e.g., The grandpa is lonely). The priming effect was most prominent for sentences with positive words suggesting that both, early processing as well as later meaning integration and situation model construction, is modulated by affective processing. In a second rating task we investigated how the emotion potential of supralexical units depends on word valence. The simplest hypothesis predicts that the supralexical affective structure is a linear combination of the valences of the nouns and adjectives (Bestgen, 1994). Overall, our results do not support this: The observed clear interaction effect on ratings indicate that especially negative adjectives dominated supralexical evaluation, i.e., a sort of negativity bias in sentence evaluation. Future models of sentence processing thus should take interactive affective effects into account. PMID:26321975

  20. Increasing dietary phosphorus intake from food additives: potential for negative impact on bone health.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Eiji; Yamamoto, Hironori; Yamanaka-Okumura, Hisami; Taketani, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    It is important to consider whether habitual high phosphorus intake adversely affects bone health, because phosphorus intake has been increasing, whereas calcium intake has been decreasing in dietary patterns. A higher total habitual dietary phosphorus intake has been associated with higher serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and lower serum calcium concentrations in healthy individuals. Higher serum PTH concentrations have been shown in those who consume foods with phosphorus additives. These findings suggest that long-term dietary phosphorus loads and long-term hyperphosphatemia may have important negative effects on bone health. In contrast, PTH concentrations did not increase as a result of high dietary phosphorus intake when phosphorus was provided with adequate amounts of calcium. Intake of foods with a ratio of calcium to phosphorus close to that found in dairy products led to positive effects on bone health. Several randomized controlled trials have shown positive relations between dairy intake and bone mineral density. In our loading test with a low-calcium, high-phosphorus lunch provided to healthy young men, serum PTH concentrations showed peaks at 1 and 6 h, and serum fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) concentrations increased significantly at 8 h after the meal. In contrast, the high-calcium, high-phosphorus meal suppressed the second PTH and FGF23 elevations until 8 h after the meal. This implies that adequate dietary calcium intake is needed to overcome the interfering effects of high phosphorus intake on PTH and FGF23 secretion. FGF23 acts on the parathyroid gland to decrease PTH mRNA and PTH secretion in rats with normal kidney function. However, increased serum FGF23 is an early alteration of mineral metabolism in chronic kidney disease, causing secondary hyperthyroidism, and implying resistance of the parathyroid gland to the action of FGF23 in chronic kidney disease. These findings suggest that long-term high-phosphorus diets may impair bone health

  1. Insights into lignin degradation and its potential industrial applications.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Hamid, Ahmed M; Solbiati, Jose O; Cann, Isaac K O

    2013-01-01

    -phenolic lignin model compounds. In addition to the peroxidases and laccases, fungi produce other accessory oxidases such as aryl-alcohol oxidase and the glyoxal oxidase that generate the hydrogen peroxide required by the peroxidases. Lignin-degrading enzymes have attracted the attention for their valuable biotechnological applications especially in the pretreatment of recalcitrant lignocellulosic biomass for biofuel production. The use of lignin-degrading enzymes has been studied in various applications such as paper industry, textile industry, wastewater treatment and the degradation of herbicides.

  2. Locust bean gum: Exploring its potential for biopharmaceutical applications.

    PubMed

    Dionísio, Marita; Grenha, Ana

    2012-07-01

    Polysaccharides have been finding, in the last decades, very interesting and useful applications in the biomedical and, specifically, in the biopharmaceutical field. Locust bean gum is a polysaccharide belonging to the group of galactomannans, being extracted from the seeds of the carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua). This polymer displays a number of appealing characteristics for biopharmaceutical applications, among which its high gelling capacity should be highlighted. In this review, we describe critical aspects of locust bean gum, contributing for its role in biopharmaceutical applications. Physicochemical properties, as well as strong and effective synergies with other biomaterials are described. The potential for in vivo biodegradation is explored and the specific biopharmaceutical applications are discussed.

  3. Natural products from resurrection plants: potential for medical applications.

    PubMed

    Gechev, Tsanko S; Hille, Jacques; Woerdenbag, Herman J; Benina, Maria; Mehterov, Nikolay; Toneva, Valentina; Fernie, Alisdair R; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd

    2014-11-01

    Resurrection species are a group of land plants that can tolerate extreme desiccation of their vegetative tissues during harsh drought stress, and still quickly - often within hours - regain normal physiological and metabolic functions following rehydration. At the molecular level, this desiccation tolerance is attributed to basal cellular mechanisms including the constitutive expression of stress-associated genes and high levels of protective metabolites present already in the absence of stress, as well as to transcriptome and metabolome reconfigurations rapidly occurring during the initial phases of drought stress. Parts of this response are conferred by unique metabolites, including a diverse array of sugars, phenolic compounds, and polyols, some of which accumulate to high concentrations within the plant cell. In addition to drought stress, these metabolites are proposed to contribute to the protection against other abiotic stresses and to an increased oxidative stress tolerance. Recently, extracts of resurrection species and particular secondary metabolites therein were reported to display biological activities of importance to medicine, with e.g. antibacterial, anticancer, antifungal, and antiviral activities, rendering them possible candidates for the development of novel drug substances as well as for cosmetics. Herein, we provide an overview of the metabolite composition of resurrection species, summarize the latest reports related to the use of natural products from resurrection plants, and outline their potential for medical applications.

  4. Carbohydrate-based nanoparticles for potential applications in medicine.

    PubMed

    Marradi, Marco; García, Isabel; Penadés, Soledad

    2011-01-01

    Although carbohydrates are essential for life, the development of medical tools based on these important biomolecules is significantly slower than those based on proteins or nucleic acids. This chapter deals with the applications of nanoparticles decorated with carbohydrates and discusses the perspectives of their use in the field of medicine. The review is divided into two sections: diagnosis and therapy. Within these topics, the focus will be on two main types of systems: carbohydrate-coated metallic nanoparticles in which the carbohydrate ligands are "covalently" linked to a nanosized metallic cluster and polysaccharide-encapsulated metallic cores. The former glyconanoparticles (GNPs) represent a powerful chemical tool in the field of glycobiology as a specific carbohydrate can be selected to exert a concrete biological function and profile carbohydrate-based interactions. Up to now, these GNPs have been mainly used as potential anti-adhesion agents against pathogens. The opportunity of inserting multifunctionality and changing the nucleus size/material is giving birth to new targeted systems for imaging and therapy. On the other hand, nonmetallic polysaccharide-based nanoparticles have been successfully used as drug delivery carriers in addition to molecular imaging.

  5. Chitosan oligosaccharide: Biological activities and potential therapeutic applications.

    PubMed

    Muanprasat, Chatchai; Chatsudthipong, Varanuj

    2017-02-01

    Chitosan oligosaccharide (COS) is an oligomer of β-(1➔4)-linked d-glucosamine. COS can be prepared from the deacetylation and hydrolysis of chitin, which is commonly found in the exoskeletons of arthropods and insects and the cell walls of fungi. COS is water soluble, non-cytotoxic, readily absorbed through the intestine and mainly excreted in the urine. Of particular importance, COS and its derivatives have been demonstrated to possess several biological activities including anti-inflammation, immunostimulation, anti-tumor, anti-obesity, anti-hypertension, anti-Alzheimer's disease, tissue regeneration promotion, drug and DNA delivery enhancement, anti-microbial, anti-oxidation and calcium-absorption enhancement. The mechanisms of actions of COS have been found to involve the modulation of several important pathways including the suppression of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). This review summarizes the current knowledge of the preparation methods, pharmacokinetic profiles, biological activities, potential therapeutic applications and safety profiles of COS and its derivatives. In addition, future research directions are discussed.

  6. Densification of silicon carbide using oxy-nitride additives for space-based telescope mirror applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, R. Suresh; Shukla, Anoop K.; Babu, Sankaranarayanan; Sivakumar, Dhenuvakonda; Gandhi, Ashutosh S.

    2011-07-01

    Densification behavior of alpha silicon carbide (SiC) during vacuum hot pressing was studied up to 1900ºC with sintering additives based on AlN and Y2O3 in different proportions. Near theoretical density was obtained with a total sintering additive content of < 4 vol.%. The microstructure of SiC sintered with AlN+Y2O3 revealed fine equiaxed grains against the additional elongated grains exhibited by SiC sintered with AlN alone. The SiC having high density exhibited very good strength, elastic modulus, high thermal conductivity, low coefficient of thermal expansion and excellent polishability for telescope mirror applications.

  7. Bacteriophages--potential for application in wastewater treatment processes.

    PubMed

    Withey, S; Cartmell, E; Avery, L M; Stephenson, T

    2005-03-01

    Bacteriophages are viruses that infect and lyse bacteria. Interest in the ability of phages to control bacterial populations has extended from medical applications into the fields of agriculture, aquaculture and the food industry. Here, the potential application of phage techniques in wastewater treatment systems to improve effluent and sludge emissions into the environment is discussed. Phage-mediated bacterial mortality has the potential to influence treatment performance by controlling the abundance of key functional groups. Phage treatments have the potential to control environmental wastewater process problems such as: foaming in activated sludge plants; sludge dewaterability and digestibility; pathogenic bacteria; and to reduce competition between nuisance bacteria and functionally important microbial populations. Successful application of phage therapy to wastewater treatment does though require a fuller understanding of wastewater microbial community dynamics and interactions. Strategies to counter host specificity and host cell resistance must also be developed, as should safety considerations regarding pathogen emergence through transduction.

  8. Personnel Security Clearances: Additional Guidance and Oversight Needed at DHS and DOD to Ensure Consistent Application of Revocation Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    Application of Revocation Process Report to the Ranking Member, Committee on Homeland Security, House of Representatives September 2014 GAO-14-640...Personnel Security Clearances: Additional Guidance and Oversight Needed at DHS and DOD to Ensure Consistent Application of Revocation Process 5a. CONTRACT...2014 PERSONNEL SECURITY CLEARANCES Additional Guidance and Oversight Needed at DHS and DOD to Ensure Consistent Application of Revocation Process

  9. Thermophilic and alkaliphilic Actinobacteria: biology and potential applications.

    PubMed

    Shivlata, L; Satyanarayana, Tulasi

    2015-01-01

    Microbes belonging to the phylum Actinobacteria are prolific sources of antibiotics, clinically useful bioactive compounds and industrially important enzymes. The focus of the current review is on the diversity and potential applications of thermophilic and alkaliphilic actinobacteria, which are highly diverse in their taxonomy and morphology with a variety of adaptations for surviving and thriving in hostile environments. The specific metabolic pathways in these actinobacteria are activated for elaborating pharmaceutically, agriculturally, and biotechnologically relevant biomolecules/bioactive compounds, which find multifarious applications.

  10. Survey of advanced nuclear technologies for potential applications of sonoprocessing.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Floren; Blandford, Edward D; Bond, Leonard J

    2016-09-01

    Ultrasonics has been used in many industrial applications for both sensing at low power and processing at higher power. Generally, the high power applications fall within the categories of liquid stream degassing, impurity separation, and sonochemical enhancement of chemical processes. Examples of such industrial applications include metal production, food processing, chemical production, and pharmaceutical production. There are many nuclear process streams that have similar physical and chemical processes to those applications listed above. These nuclear processes could potentially benefit from the use of high-power ultrasonics. There are also potential benefits to applying these techniques in advanced nuclear fuel cycle processes, and these benefits have not been fully investigated. Currently the dominant use of ultrasonic technology in the nuclear industry has been using low power ultrasonics for non-destructive testing/evaluation (NDT/NDE), where it is primarily used for inspections and for characterizing material degradation. Because there has been very little consideration given to how sonoprocessing can potentially improve efficiency and add value to important process streams throughout the nuclear fuel cycle, there are numerous opportunities for improvement in current and future nuclear technologies. In this paper, the relevant fundamental theory underlying sonoprocessing is highlighted, and some potential applications to advanced nuclear technologies throughout the nuclear fuel cycle are discussed.

  11. Laser wakefield accelerator based light sources: potential applications and requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Albert, F.; Thomas, A. G.; Mangles, S. P.D.; Banerjee, S.; Corde, S.; Flacco, A.; Litos, M.; Neely, D.; Viera, J.; Najmudin, Z.; Bingham, R.; Joshi, C.; Katsouleas, T.

    2015-01-15

    In this article we review the prospects of laser wakefield accelerators as next generation light sources for applications. This work arose as a result of discussions held at the 2013 Laser Plasma Accelerators Workshop. X-ray phase contrast imaging, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and nuclear resonance fluorescence are highlighted as potential applications for laser-plasma based light sources. We discuss ongoing and future efforts to improve the properties of radiation from plasma betatron emission and Compton scattering using laser wakefield accelerators for these specific applications.

  12. Metrology test object for dimensional verification in additive manufacturing of metals for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Teeter, Matthew G; Kopacz, Alexander J; Nikolov, Hristo N; Holdsworth, David W

    2015-01-01

    Additive manufacturing continues to increase in popularity and is being used in applications such as biomaterial ingrowth that requires sub-millimeter dimensional accuracy. The purpose of this study was to design a metrology test object for determining the capabilities of additive manufacturing systems to produce common objects, with a focus on those relevant to medical applications. The test object was designed with a variety of features of varying dimensions, including holes, cylinders, rectangles, gaps, and lattices. The object was built using selective laser melting, and the produced dimensions were compared to the target dimensions. Location of the test objects on the build plate did not affect dimensions. Features with dimensions less than 0.300 mm did not build or were overbuilt to a minimum of 0.300 mm. The mean difference between target and measured dimensions was less than 0.100 mm in all cases. The test object is applicable to multiple systems and materials, tests the effect of location on the build, uses a minimum of material, and can be measured with a variety of efficient metrology tools (including measuring microscopes and micro-CT). Investigators can use this test object to determine the limits of systems and adjust build parameters to achieve maximum accuracy.

  13. Potential applications for halloysite nanotubes based drug delivery systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Lin

    could be released in a sustained manner; (2) cytotoxicity test confirmed the biocompatibility of HNTs and methotrexate coated HNTs; (3) proliferation test confirmed the growth inhibition of released methotrexate on osteosarcoma cells; and (4) nylon-6 could prolong the sustained release of methotrexate from polyelectrolytes coated HNTs. Another application comes from the prevention of surgical site infection. It is a common complication in surgery, which may prolong hospital stay, increase mortality rate, and cause additional financial burden for patients. By directly releasing antibiotics at the surgical site, it is supposed to enhance the drug efficacy and improve the treatment outcome. Therefore, the same HNTs based system was tested with E. coli in vitro to show the potential of delivering antibiotics to enhance the prevention of surgical site infection. Nitrofurantoin was incorporated within HNTs using the layer-by-layer coating technique, and the drug coated HNTs were filled into nylon-6 again. Results showed that (1) nitrofurantoin could be incorporated with this HNTs based drug delivery system, and released in a sustained manner; (2) nylon-6 could prolong the sustained release of nitrofurantoin from polyelectrolytes coated HNTs; and (3) released nitrofurantoin could severely inhibit E. coil growth. Therefore, a tunable drug delivery system based on HNTs was developed, and a great potential of medical application in drug delivery was shown.

  14. 12 CFR 390.128 - If the FDIC requests additional information to complete my application, how will it process my...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... complete my application, how will it process my application? 390.128 Section 390.128 Banks and Banking... additional information to complete my application, how will it process my application? (a) You may use the... will notify you that it has extended the period before the end of the initial 15-day period and...

  15. Potential applications of electron emission membranes in medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilevych, Yevgen; Brunner, Stefan E.; Chan, Hong Wah; Charbon, Edoardo; van der Graaf, Harry; Hagen, Cornelis W.; Nützel, Gert; Pinto, Serge D.; Prodanović, Violeta; Rotman, Daan; Santagata, Fabio; Sarro, Lina; Schaart, Dennis R.; Sinsheimer, John; Smedley, John; Tao, Shuxia; Theulings, Anne M. M. G.

    2016-02-01

    With a miniaturised stack of transmission dynodes, a noise free amplifier is being developed for the detection of single free electrons, with excellent time- and 2D spatial resolution and efficiency. With this generic technology, a new family of detectors for individual elementary particles may become possible. Potential applications of such electron emission membranes in medicine are discussed.

  16. Application of liquid chromatography in polymer non-ionic antistatic additives analysis.

    PubMed

    González-Rodríguez, M Victoria; Dopico-García, M Sonia; Noguerol-Cal, Rosalía; Carballeira-Amarelo, Tania; López-Vilariño, José M; Fernández-Martínez, Gerado

    2010-11-01

    This article investigates the applicability of HPLC-UV, ultra performance LC-evaporative light-scattering detection (UPLC-ELSD), HPLC-ESI(+)-MS and HPLC-hybrid linear ion trap (LTQ) Orbitrap MS for the analysis of different non-ionic antistatic additives, Span 20, Span 60, Span 65, Span 80, Span 85 (sorbitan fatty acid esters), Atmer 129 (glycerol fatty acid ester) and Atmer 163 (ethoxylated alkylamine). Several alkyl chain length or different degrees of esterification of polyol derivatives can be present in commercial mixtures of these polymer additives. Therefore, their identification and quantification is complicated. Qualitative composition of the studied compounds was analysed by MS. HPLC-UV, UPLC-ELSD and HPLC-LTQ Orbitrap MS methods were applied to the quantitative determination of the different Spans, Atmer 129 and Atmer 163, respectively. Quality parameters of these methods were established and no derivatization was necessary.

  17. Application of antibodies for the identification of polysaccharide gum additives in processed foods.

    PubMed

    Pazur, J H; Li, N-Q

    2004-11-01

    Anti-carbohydrate antibodies with specificities for polysaccharide gums were isolated from the serum of rabbits that were immunized with a solution of the gums and Freund's complete adjuvant. The primary objective was to test an immunological method for the detection of the polysaccharide gums as additives to processed foods. Analysis involved the extraction of food with phosphate buffer and the testing of the extract for a reaction with anti-gum antibodies by the agar diffusion method. Reaction by a specific gum with the homologous antibodies establishes the presence of the gum in the food. The method is a novel application of antibodies. The antibody method is highly specific for a gum and thus possesses advantages over other methods of analysis for polysaccharide gums as additives in processed foods.

  18. Effects of Biochar Addition on CO2 and N2O Emissions following Fertilizer Application to a Cultivated Grassland Soil

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jingjing; Kim, Hyunjin; Yoo, Gayoung

    2015-01-01

    Carbon (C) sequestration potential of biochar should be considered together with emission of greenhouse gases when applied to soils. In this study, we investigated CO2 and N2O emissions following the application of rice husk biochars to cultivated grassland soils and related gas emissions tos oil C and nitrogen (N) dynamics. Treatments included biochar addition (CHAR, NO CHAR) and amendment (COMPOST, UREA, NO FERT). The biochar application rate was 0.3% by weight. The temporal pattern of CO2 emissions differed according to biochar addition and amendments. CO2 emissions from the COMPOST soils were significantly higher than those from the UREA and NO FERT soils and less CO2 emission was observed when biochar and compost were applied together during the summer. Overall N2O emission was significantly influenced by the interaction between biochar and amendments. In UREA soil, biochar addition increased N2O emission by 49% compared to the control, while in the COMPOST and NO FERT soils, biochar did not have an effect on N2O emission. Two possible mechanisms were proposed to explain the higher N2O emissions upon biochar addition to UREA soil than other soils. Labile C in the biochar may have stimulated microbial N mineralization in the C-limited soil used in our study, resulting in an increase in N2O emission. Biochar may also have provided the soil with the ability to retain mineral N, leading to increased N2O emission. The overall results imply that biochar addition can increase C sequestration when applied together with compost, and might stimulate N2O emission when applied to soil amended with urea. PMID:26020941

  19. Assessing the potential additionality of certification by the Round table on Responsible Soybeans and the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrett, Rachael D.; Carlson, Kimberly M.; Rueda, Ximena; Noojipady, Praveen

    2016-04-01

    Multi-stakeholder roundtables offering certification programs are promising voluntary governance mechanisms to address sustainability issues associated with international agricultural supply chains. Yet, little is known about whether roundtable certifications confer additionality, the benefits of certification beyond what would be expected from policies and practices currently in place. Here, we examine the potential additionality of the Round table on Responsible Soybeans (RTRS) and the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO) in mitigating conversion of native vegetation to cropland. We develop a metric of additionality based on business as usual land cover change dynamics and roundtable standard stringency relative to existing policies. We apply this metric to all countries with RTRS (n = 8) and RSPO (n = 12) certified production in 2013-2014, as well as countries that have no certified production but are among the top ten global producers in terms of soy (n = 2) and oil palm (n = 2). We find RSPO and RTRS both have substantially higher levels of stringency than existing national policies except in Brazil and Uruguay. In regions where these certification standards are adopted, the mean estimated rate of tree cover conversion to the target crop is similar for both standards. RTRS has higher mean relative stringency than the RSPO, yet RSPO countries have slightly higher enforcement levels. Therefore, mean potential additionality of RTRS and RSPO is similar across regions. Notably, countries with the highest levels of additionality have some adoption. However, with extremely low adoption rates (0.41% of 2014 global harvested area), RTRS likely has lower impact than RSPO (14%). Like most certification programs, neither roundtable is effectively targeting smallholder producers. To improve natural ecosystem protection, roundtables could target adoption to regions with low levels of environmental governance and high rates of forest-to-cropland conversion.

  20. Locust bean gum: Exploring its potential for biopharmaceutical applications

    PubMed Central

    Dionísio, Marita; Grenha, Ana

    2012-01-01

    Polysaccharides have been finding, in the last decades, very interesting and useful applications in the biomedical and, specifically, in the biopharmaceutical field. Locust bean gum is a polysaccharide belonging to the group of galactomannans, being extracted from the seeds of the carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua). This polymer displays a number of appealing characteristics for biopharmaceutical applications, among which its high gelling capacity should be highlighted. In this review, we describe critical aspects of locust bean gum, contributing for its role in biopharmaceutical applications. Physicochemical properties, as well as strong and effective synergies with other biomaterials are described. The potential for in vivo biodegradation is explored and the specific biopharmaceutical applications are discussed. PMID:22923958

  1. Manipulation and Characterization of a Novel Titanium Powder Precursor for Additive Manufacturing Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Y. Y.; Gulizia, S.; Oh, C. H.; Doblin, C.; Yang, Y. F.; Qian, M.

    2015-03-01

    Lowering the cost of feedstock powder has been a major issue for wider applications of additive manufacturing (AM) of titanium (Ti) and its alloys. A novel and inexpensive Ti sponge material was selected as a precursor and processed using a CSIRO proprietary powder manipulation technology (PMT). The manipulated powder was characterized in terms of the particle size distribution (PSD), roundness, flowability in the Hall Funnel flowmeter, static angle of repose (AOR), apparent density and tap density. In addition, a universal powder bed (UPB) system was used to characterize the manipulated powder behavior after raking. Two benchmark powders, virgin Arcam Ti-6Al-4V powder and used Arcam Ti-6Al-4V powder, were assessed for a comparison. PMT processing of the Ti powder precursor produced near spherically shaped Ti powder in the size range of 75-106 µm, which performed very similarly to the used Arcam powder in the UPB system. The CSIRO PMT offers a cost-effective manipulation process to produce Ti powder promising for AM applications, while the UPB system allows a quick assessment of the powder spreading behavior in AM processes.

  2. Influence of additional adhesive application on the microtensile bond strength of adhesive systems.

    PubMed

    de Silva, André Luís Faria; Lima, Débora Alves Nunes Leite; de Souza, Grace Mendonça Dias; dos Santos, Carlos Tadeu Dias; Paulillo, Luís Alexandre Maffei Sartini

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated microtensile bond strength (pTBS) when an additional adhesive layer was applied to the dentin surface. Thirty-five human third molars were flattened to expose the occlusal dentin surface. The teeth were randomly assigned to 7 experimental groups: G1-Single Bond (SB); G2-additional layer of SB; G3--a layer of Scotchbond Multi-purpose (SMP) adhesive applied over SB; G4-Clearfil SE Bond (CE); G5-additional layer of CE; G6-Adper Prompt (AP) and G7-additional layer of AP. For the G2, G3, G5 and G7 groups, the first adhesive layer was light-cured before application of the additional layer. After bonding procedures, 5-mm high composite crowns were incrementally built up. The samples were sectioned to obtain 0.9 x 0.9 beams, which were tested under tension at a crosshead speed of 0.5-mm/minute until failure. The failure mode and adhesive thickness were evaluated under SEM. The pTBS data were analyzed by 1-way ANOVA and post-hoc Ducan's Test (a=0.05). Mean adhesive thickness was analyzed by 1-way ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey's test (a=0.05). The results indicated that G3 presented the highest microTBS and the thickest adhesive layer. G6 and G7 presented the lowest microTBS values. When solvent-free adhesives systems were used, microTBS values were not affected by the thicker layer.

  3. Importance of biological systems in industrial waste treatment potential application to the space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Revis, Nathaniel; Holdsworth, George

    1990-01-01

    In addition to having applications for waste management issues on planet Earth, microbial systems have application in reducing waste volumes aboard spacecraft. A candidate for such an application is the space station. Many of the planned experiments generate aqueous waste. To recycle air and water the contaminants from previous experiments must be removed before the air and water can be used for other experiments. This can be achieved using microorganisms in a bioreactor. Potential bioreactors (inorganics, organics, and etchants) are discussed. Current technologies that may be applied to waste treatment are described. Examples of how biological systems may be used in treating waste on the space station.

  4. Mobile Applications for Diabetes Self-Management: Status and Potential

    PubMed Central

    El-Gayar, Omar; Timsina, Prem; Nawar, Nevine; Eid, Wael

    2013-01-01

    Background Advancements in smartphone technology coupled with the proliferation of data connectivity has resulted in increased interest and unprecedented growth in mobile applications for diabetes self-management. The objective of this article is to determine, in a systematic review, whether diabetes applications have been helping patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes self-manage their condition and to identify issues necessary for large-scale adoption of such interventions. Methods The review covers commercial applications available on the Apple App Store (as a representative of commercially available applications) and articles published in relevant databases covering a period from January 1995 to August 2012. The review included all applications supporting any diabetes self-management task where the patient is the primary actor. Results Available applications support self-management tasks such as physical exercise, insulin dosage or medication, blood glucose testing, and diet. Other support tasks considered include decision support, notification/alert, tagging of input data, and integration with social media. The review points to the potential for mobile applications to have a positive impact on diabetes self-management. Analysis indicates that application usage is associated with improved attitudes favorable to diabetes self-management. Limitations of the applications include lack of personalized feedback; usability issues, particularly the ease of data entry; and integration with patients and electronic health records. Conclusions Research into the adoption and use of user-centered and sociotechnical design principles is needed to improve usability, perceived usefulness, and, ultimately, adoption of the technology. Proliferation and efficacy of interventions involving mobile applications will benefit from a holistic approach that takes into account patients’ expectations and providers’ needs. PMID:23439183

  5. Additional requirements for leak-before-break application to primary coolant piping in Belgium

    SciTech Connect

    Roussel, G.

    1997-04-01

    Leak-Before-Break (LBB) technology has not been applied in the first design of the seven Pressurized Water Reactors the Belgian utility is currently operating. The design basis of these plants required to consider the dynamic effects associated with the ruptures to be postulated in the high energy piping. The application of the LBB technology to the existing plants has been recently approved by the Belgian Safety Authorities but with a limitation to the primary coolant loop. LBB analysis has been initiated for the Doel 3 and Tihange 2 plants to allow the withdrawal of some of the reactor coolant pump snubbers at both plants and not reinstall some of the restraints after steam generator replacement at Doel 3. LBB analysis was also found beneficial to demonstrate the acceptability of the primary components and piping to the new conditions resulting from power uprating and stretch-out operation. LBB analysis has been subsequently performed on the primary coolant loop of the Tihange I plant and is currently being performed for the Doel 4 plant. Application of the LBB to the primary coolant loop is based in Belgium on the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission requirements. However the Belgian Safety Authorities required some additional analyses and put some restrictions on the benefits of the LBB analysis to maintain the global safety of the plant at a sufficient level. This paper develops the main steps of the safety evaluation performed by the Belgian Safety Authorities for accepting the application of the LBB technology to existing plants and summarizes the requirements asked for in addition to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission rules.

  6. Potential National Security Applications of Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, Glen A.; Peplowski, Patrick N.; Caggiano, Joseph A.

    2009-06-09

    The objective of this report is to document the initial investigation into the possible research issues related to the development of NRF-based national security applications. The report discusses several potential applications ranging from measuring uranium enrichment in UF6 canisters to characterization of gas samples. While these applications are varied, there are only a few research issues that need to be addressed to understand the limitation of NRF in solving these problems. These research issues range from source and detector development to measuring small samples. The next effort is to determine how best to answer the research issues, followed by a prioritization of those questions to ensure that the most important are addressed. These issues will be addressed through either analytical calculations, computer simulations, analysis of previous data or collection of new measurements. It will also be beneficial to conduct a thorough examination of a couple of the more promising applications in order to develop concrete examples of how NRF may be applied in specific situations. The goals are to develop an understanding of whether the application of NRF is limited by technology or physics in addressing national security applications, to gain a motivation to explore those possible applications, and to develop a research roadmap so that those possibilities may be made reality.

  7. Application of laser ultrasonic non-destructive evaluation technique to additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzo, Anthony J.; Kenderian, Shant; Helvajian, Henry

    2016-04-01

    The change in properties of a propagating ultrasonic wave has been a mainstay characterization tool of the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) industry for identifying subsurface defects (e.g. damage). A variant of this concept could be applicable to 3D additive manufacturing where the existence of defects (e.g. pores) within a sub-layer could mark a product as non-qualifying. We have been exploring the utility of pulsed laser ultrasonic excitation coupled with CW laser heterodyne detection as an all optical scheme for characterizing sub surface layer properties. The all-optical approach permits a straight forward integration into a laser additive processing tool. To test the concept, we have developed an experimental system that generates pulsed ultrasonic waves (the probe) with high bandwidth (<<10MHz) and a surface displacement sensor that can capture the ultrasonic "return" signal with bandwidth close to 300 MHz. The use of high frequencies enables the detection of smaller defect sites. The technique is time resolved with the sensor and probe as point (>>30-200 microns) beams. Current tests include characterizing properties of spot weld joints between two thin stainless steel plates. The long term objective is to transition the technique into a laser additive manufacturing tool.

  8. Thermophilic and alkaliphilic Actinobacteria: biology and potential applications

    PubMed Central

    Shivlata, L.; Satyanarayana, Tulasi

    2015-01-01

    Microbes belonging to the phylum Actinobacteria are prolific sources of antibiotics, clinically useful bioactive compounds and industrially important enzymes. The focus of the current review is on the diversity and potential applications of thermophilic and alkaliphilic actinobacteria, which are highly diverse in their taxonomy and morphology with a variety of adaptations for surviving and thriving in hostile environments. The specific metabolic pathways in these actinobacteria are activated for elaborating pharmaceutically, agriculturally, and biotechnologically relevant biomolecules/bioactive compounds, which find multifarious applications. PMID:26441937

  9. Introduction to nanotechnology: potential applications in physical medicine and rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Assaf T; Lutz, Greg E; Boninger, Michael L; Cooper, Rory A

    2007-03-01

    Nanotechnology is a scientific movement that has the potential to transform the diagnosis and treatment of disease in the 21st century. The area of investigation is defined by the study, design, manipulation, manufacture, and control of materials or devices by physical or chemical means at resolutions on the order of one billionth of a meter. The potential for a wide range of clinical applications makes a basic understanding of nanotechnology important to physiatrists. This review presents an introduction to nanotechnology and discusses key developments in tissue engineering, drug delivery, imaging, diagnostics, surface texturing, and biointerfaces that could impact the practice of physiatry in the future.

  10. The natural flavonoid pinocembrin: molecular targets and potential therapeutic applications

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Xi; Wang, Wenzhu; Li, Qiang; Wang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Pinocembrin is a natural flavonoid compound extracted from honey, propolis, ginger roots, wild marjoram, and other plants. In preclinical studies, it has shown anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects as well as the ability to reduce reactive oxygen species, protect the blood-brain barrier, modulate mitochondrial function, and regulate apoptosis. Considering these pharmaceutical characteristics, pinocembrin has potential as a drug to treat ischemic stroke and other clinical conditions. In this review, we summarize its pharmacologic characteristics and discuss its mechanisms of action and potential therapeutic applications. PMID:25744566

  11. Neurotrophic Factors and Their Potential Applications in Tissue Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Nan; Le, Quynh-Thu

    2016-04-01

    Neurotrophic factors are growth factors that can nourish neurons and promote neuron survival and regeneration. They have been studied as potential drug candidates for treating neurodegenerative diseases. Since their identification, there are more and more evidences to indicate that neurotrophic factors are also expressed in non-neuronal tissues and regulate the survival, anti-inflammation, proliferation and differentiation in these tissues. This mini review summarizes the characteristics of the neurotrophic factors and their potential clinical applications in the regeneration of neuronal and non-neuronal tissues.

  12. Neurotrophic Factors and Their Potential Applications in Tissue Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Le, Quynh-Thu

    2016-01-01

    Neurotrophic factors are growth factors that can nourish neurons and promote neuron survival and regeneration. They have been studied as potential drug candidates for treating neurodegenerative diseases. Since their identification, there are more and more evidences to indicate that neurotrophic factors are also expressed in non-neuronal tissues and regulate the survival, anti-inflammation, proliferation and differentiation in these tissues. This mini review summarizes the characteristics of the neurotrophic factors and their potential clinical applications in the regeneration of neuronal and non-neuronal tissues. PMID:26611762

  13. 34 CFR 385.45 - What additional application requirements apply to the training of individuals for rehabilitation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What additional application requirements apply to the training of individuals for rehabilitation careers? 385.45 Section 385.45 Education Regulations of the... additional application requirements apply to the training of individuals for rehabilitation careers? (a)...

  14. 34 CFR 385.45 - What additional application requirements apply to the training of individuals for rehabilitation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What additional application requirements apply to the training of individuals for rehabilitation careers? 385.45 Section 385.45 Education Regulations of the... additional application requirements apply to the training of individuals for rehabilitation careers? (a)...

  15. 34 CFR 385.45 - What additional application requirements apply to the training of individuals for rehabilitation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true What additional application requirements apply to the training of individuals for rehabilitation careers? 385.45 Section 385.45 Education Regulations of the... additional application requirements apply to the training of individuals for rehabilitation careers? (a)...

  16. Assessment of the micro-structure and depletion potentials in two-dimensional binary mixtures of additive hard-disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perera-Burgos, Jorge Adrián; Méndez-Alcaraz, José Miguel; Pérez-Ángel, Gabriel; Castañeda-Priego, Ramón

    2016-09-01

    Depletion forces are a particular class of effective interactions that have been mainly investigated in binary mixtures of hard-spheres in bulk. Although there are a few contributions that point toward the effects of confinement on the depletion potential, little is known about such entropic potentials in two-dimensional colloidal systems. From theoretical point of view, the problem resides in the fact that there is no general formulation of depletion forces in arbitrary dimensions and, typically, any approach that works well in three dimensions has to be reformulated for lower dimensionality. However, we have proposed a theoretical framework, based on the formalism of contraction of the description within the integral equations theory of simple liquids, to account for effective interactions in colloidal liquids, whose main feature is that it does not need to be readapted to the problem under consideration. We have also shown that such an approach allows one to determine the depletion pair potential in three-dimensional colloidal mixtures even near to the demixing transition, provided the bridge functions are sufficiently accurate to correctly describe the spatial correlation between colloids [E. López-Sánchez et al., J. Chem. Phys. 139, 104908 (2013)]. We here report an extensive analysis of the structure and the entropic potentials in binary mixtures of additive hard-disks. In particular, we show that the same functional form of the modified-Verlet closure relation used in three dimensions can be straightforwardly employed to obtain an accurate solution for two-dimensional colloidal mixtures in a wide range of packing fractions, molar fractions, and size asymmetries. Our theoretical results are explicitly compared with the ones obtained by means of event-driven molecular dynamics simulations and recent experimental results. Furthermore, to assess the accuracy of our predictions, the depletion potentials are used in an effective one-component model to reproduce

  17. Assessment of the micro-structure and depletion potentials in two-dimensional binary mixtures of additive hard-disks.

    PubMed

    Perera-Burgos, Jorge Adrián; Méndez-Alcaraz, José Miguel; Pérez-Ángel, Gabriel; Castañeda-Priego, Ramón

    2016-09-14

    Depletion forces are a particular class of effective interactions that have been mainly investigated in binary mixtures of hard-spheres in bulk. Although there are a few contributions that point toward the effects of confinement on the depletion potential, little is known about such entropic potentials in two-dimensional colloidal systems. From theoretical point of view, the problem resides in the fact that there is no general formulation of depletion forces in arbitrary dimensions and, typically, any approach that works well in three dimensions has to be reformulated for lower dimensionality. However, we have proposed a theoretical framework, based on the formalism of contraction of the description within the integral equations theory of simple liquids, to account for effective interactions in colloidal liquids, whose main feature is that it does not need to be readapted to the problem under consideration. We have also shown that such an approach allows one to determine the depletion pair potential in three-dimensional colloidal mixtures even near to the demixing transition, provided the bridge functions are sufficiently accurate to correctly describe the spatial correlation between colloids [E. López-Sánchez et al., J. Chem. Phys. 139, 104908 (2013)]. We here report an extensive analysis of the structure and the entropic potentials in binary mixtures of additive hard-disks. In particular, we show that the same functional form of the modified-Verlet closure relation used in three dimensions can be straightforwardly employed to obtain an accurate solution for two-dimensional colloidal mixtures in a wide range of packing fractions, molar fractions, and size asymmetries. Our theoretical results are explicitly compared with the ones obtained by means of event-driven molecular dynamics simulations and recent experimental results. Furthermore, to assess the accuracy of our predictions, the depletion potentials are used in an effective one-component model to reproduce

  18. Potential applications of immunoassays in studies of flatfish recruitment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feller, Robert J.

    The fisheries recruitment-stock problem, a lack of correlation between measures of reproductive output of the parent stock and recruitment to the fishery, has several potential biotic and abiotic causes. Immunoassays may be useful in examining several aspects of this and several other problems in flatfish ecology: stock identification, parasitism and disease, and trophic interactions. Given stage-specific antisera capable of recognozing antigenic moieties of, for instance, eggs, larvae, or newly-settled juveniles, it is possible to screen stomach contents of many putative predators ( e.g., shrimp or crabs) rapidly for the presence and amounts of platfish prey. This trophic application of immunological methods has great promise for measuring loss of potential recruits to predation. All immunoassays are limited by the quality of antisera used and the researcher's ability to interpret quantitative data in an ecologically meaningful way. Key references for applications of immunoassays in fish-related questions are provided with recommendations for their utilization.

  19. Molecular sonography with targeted microbubbles: current investigations and potential applications.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Misun; Lyshchik, Andrej; Fleischer, Arthur C

    2010-06-01

    Sonography using targeted microbubbles affords a variety of diagnostic and potentially therapeutic clinical applications. It provides a whole new world of functional information at the cellular and molecular level. This information can then be used to diagnose and possibly prevent diseases at early stages as well as devise therapeutic strategies at the molecular level. It is also useful in monitoring tumor response to therapy and devising treatment timing and plans based on the molecular state of an individual's health. Moreover, targeted microbubble-enhanced sonography has several advantages over other imaging modalities, including widespread availability, low cost, fast acquisition times, and lack of radiation risk. These traits are likely to advance it as one of the imaging methods of choice in future clinical trials examining the impact of molecular imaging on treatment outcome. This review describes the fundamental concepts of targeted microbubble-enhanced sonography as well as its potential clinical applications.

  20. Corals and Their Potential Applications to Integrative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Edwin L.; Hirabayashi, Kyle; Strychar, Kevin B.; Sammarco, Paul W.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last few years, we have pursued the use and exploitation of invertebrate immune systems, most notably their humoral products, to determine what effects their complex molecules might exert on humans, specifically their potential for therapeutic applications. This endeavor, called “bioprospecting,” is an emerging necessity for biomedical research. In order to treat the currently “untreatable,” or to discover more efficient treatment modalities, all options and potential sources must be exhausted so that we can provide the best care to patients, that is, proceed from forest and ocean ecosystems through the laboratory to the bedside. Here, we review current research findings that have yielded therapeutic benefits, particularly as derived from soft and hard corals. Several applications have already been demonstrated, including anti-inflammatory properties, anticancer properties, bone repair, and neurological benefits. PMID:24757491

  1. Bone marrow stromal stem cells: nature, biology, and potential applications.

    PubMed

    Bianco, P; Riminucci, M; Gronthos, S; Robey, P G

    2001-01-01

    Bone marrow stromal cells are progenitors of skeletal tissue components such as bone, cartilage, the hematopoiesis-supporting stroma, and adipocytes. In addition, they may be experimentally induced to undergo unorthodox differentiation, possibly forming neural and myogenic cells. As such, they represent an important paradigm of post-natal nonhematopoietic stem cells, and an easy source for potential therapeutic use. Along with an overview of the basics of their biology, we discuss here their potential nature as components of the vascular wall, and the prospects for their use in local and systemic transplantation and gene therapy.

  2. Potential applications of nanostructured materials in nuclear waste management.

    SciTech Connect

    Braterman, Paul S. (The University of North Texas, Denton, TX); Phol, Phillip Isabio; Xu, Zhi-Ping (The University of North Texas, Denton, TX); Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Yang, Yi; Bryan, Charles R.; Yu, Kui; Xu, Huifang (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Wang, Yifeng; Gao, Huizhen

    2003-09-01

    This report summarizes the results obtained from a Laboratory Directed Research & Development (LDRD) project entitled 'Investigation of Potential Applications of Self-Assembled Nanostructured Materials in Nuclear Waste Management'. The objectives of this project are to (1) provide a mechanistic understanding of the control of nanometer-scale structures on the ion sorption capability of materials and (2) develop appropriate engineering approaches to improving material properties based on such an understanding.

  3. Phytases: crystal structures, protein engineering and potential biotechnological applications.

    PubMed

    Yao, M-Z; Zhang, Y-H; Lu, W-L; Hu, M-Q; Wang, W; Liang, A-H

    2012-01-01

    Phytases are a group of enzymes capable of releasing phosphates from phytates, one of the major forms of phosphorus (P) in animal feeds of plant origin. These enzymes have been widely used in animal feed to improve phosphorus nutrition and to reduce phosphorus pollution in animal waste. This review covers the basic nomenclature and crystal structures of phytases and emphasizes both the protein engineering strategies used for the development of new, effective phytases with improved properties and the potential biotechnological applications of phytases.

  4. Potential applications of bioprocess technology in petroleum industry.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ajay; Singh, Brajesh; Ward, Owen

    2012-11-01

    Petroleum refining is traditionally based on the use of physicochemical processes such as distillation and chemical catalysis that operate under high temperatures and pressures conditions, which are energy intensive and costly. Biotechnology has become an important tool for providing new approaches in petroleum industry during oil production, refining and processing as well as managing environmentally safe pollutant remediation and disposal practices. Earlier biotechnology applications in the petroleum industry were limited to microbial enhanced oil recovery, applications of bioremediation to contaminated marine shorelines, soils and sludges. The potential role of bioprocess technology in this industry has now expanded further into the areas of biorefining and upgrading of fuels, production of fine chemicals, control of souring during production and air VOC biofiltration. In this paper we provide an overview of the major applications of bioprocesses and technology development in the petroleum industry both in upstream and downstream areas and highlight future challenges and opportunities.

  5. Solar energy in California industry - Applications, characteristics and potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbieri, R. H.; Pivirotto, D. S.

    1978-01-01

    Results of a survey to determine the potential applicability of solar thermal energy to industrial processes in California are presented. It is found that if the heat for all industrial processes at temperatures below 212 F were supplied by solar energy, total state energy consumption could be reduced by 100 trillion Btus (2%), while the use of solar energy in processes between 212 and 350 F could displace 500 trillion Btus. The issues and problems with which solar energy must contend are illustrated by a description of fluid milk processing operations. Solar energy application is found to be technically feasible for processes with thermal energy requirements below 212 F, with design, and degree of technical, economic and management feasibility being site specific. It is recommended that the state provide support for federal and industrial research, development and demonstration programs in order to stimulate acceptance of solar process heat application by industry.

  6. 12 CFR 516.220 - If OTS requests additional information to complete my application, how will it process my...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... complete my application, how will it process my application? 516.220 Section 516.220 Banks and Banking... Standard Treatment § 516.220 If OTS requests additional information to complete my application, how will it... your response. OTS will notify you that it has extended the period before the end of the initial...

  7. 12 CFR 116.220 - If the OCC requests additional information to complete my application, how will it process my...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... complete my application, how will it process my application? 116.220 Section 116.220 Banks and Banking... Treatment § 116.220 If the OCC requests additional information to complete my application, how will it... that it has extended the period before the end of the initial 15-day period and will briefly...

  8. 12 CFR 516.220 - If OTS requests additional information to complete my application, how will it process my...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... complete my application, how will it process my application? 516.220 Section 516.220 Banks and Banking... Standard Treatment § 516.220 If OTS requests additional information to complete my application, how will it... your response. OTS will notify you that it has extended the period before the end of the initial...

  9. Potentials and problems in space applications of smart structures technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eaton, D. C.; Bashford, D. P.

    1994-09-01

    The well known addage 'don't run before you can walk emerging materials. It typically takes ten years before a material is sufficiently well characterized for commercial aerospace application. Much has to be learnt not only about the material properties and their susceptibility to the effects of their working environment but also about the manufacturing process and the most effective configuration related application. No project will accept a product which has no proven reliability and attractive cost effectiveness in its application. The writers firmly believe that smart structures and their related technologies must follow a similar development pattern. Indeed, faced with a range of interdisciplinary problems it seems likely that 'partially smart' techniques may well be the first applications. These will place emphasis on the more readily realizable features for any structural application. Prior use may well have been achieved in other engineering sectors. Because ground based applications are more readily accessible to check and maintain, these are generally the front runners of smart technology usage. Nevertheless, there is a strong potential for the use of smart techniques in space applications if their capabilities can be advantageously introduced when compared with traditional solutions. This paper endeavors to give a critical appraisal of the possibilities and the accompanying problems. A sample overview of related developing space technology is included. The reader is also referred to chapters 90 to 94 in ESA's Structural Materials Handbook (ESA PSS 03 203, issue 1.). It is envisaged that future space applications may include the realization and maintenance of large deployable reflector profiles, the dimensional stability of optical payloads, active noise and vibration control and in orbit health monitoring and control for largely unmanned spacecraft. The possibility of monitoring the health of items such as large cryogenic fuel tanks is a typical longer

  10. Biomedical applications of polymers derived by reversible addition - fragmentation chain-transfer (RAFT).

    PubMed

    Fairbanks, Benjamin D; Gunatillake, Pathiraja A; Meagher, Laurence

    2015-08-30

    RAFT- mediated polymerization, providing control over polymer length and architecture as well as facilitating post polymerization modification of end groups, has been applied to virtually every facet of biomedical materials research. RAFT polymers have seen particularly extensive use in drug delivery research. Facile generation of functional and telechelic polymers permits straightforward conjugation to many therapeutic compounds while synthesis of amphiphilic block copolymers via RAFT allows for the generation of self-assembled structures capable of carrying therapeutic payloads. With the large and growing body of literature employing RAFT polymers as drug delivery aids and vehicles, concern over the potential toxicity of RAFT derived polymers has been raised. While literature exploring this complication is relatively limited, the emerging consensus may be summed up in three parts: toxicity of polymers generated with dithiobenzoate RAFT agents is observed at high concentrations but not with polymers generated with trithiocarbonate RAFT agents; even for polymers generated with dithiobenzoate RAFT agents, most reported applications call for concentrations well below the toxicity threshold; and RAFT end-groups may be easily removed via any of a variety of techniques that leave the polymer with no intrinsic toxicity attributable to the mechanism of polymerization. The low toxicity of RAFT-derived polymers and the ability to remove end groups via straightforward and scalable processes make RAFT technology a valuable tool for practically any application in which a polymer of defined molecular weight and architecture is desired.

  11. Hydrothermally Treated Chitosan Hydrogel Loaded with Copper and Zinc Particles as a Potential Micronutrient-Based Antimicrobial Feed Additive

    PubMed Central

    Rajasekaran, Parthiban; Santra, Swadeshmukul

    2015-01-01

    Large-scale use of antibiotics in food animal farms as growth promoters is considered as one of the driving factors behind increasing incidence of microbial resistance. Several alternatives are under investigation to reduce the amount of total antibiotics used in order to avoid any potential transmission of drug resistant microbes to humans through food chain. Copper sulfate and zinc oxide salts are used as feed supplement as they exhibit antimicrobial properties in addition to being micronutrients. However, higher dosage of copper and zinc (often needed for growth promoting effect) to animals is not advisable because of potential environmental toxicity arising from excreta. Innovative strategies are needed to utilize the complete potential of trace minerals as growth promoting feed supplements. To this end, we describe here the development and preliminary characterization of hydrothermally treated chitosan as a delivery vehicle for copper and zinc nanoparticles that could act as a micronutrient-based antimicrobial feed supplement. Material characterization studies showed that hydrothermal treatment makes a chitosan hydrogel that rearranged to capture the copper and zinc metal particles. Systemic antimicrobial assays showed that this chitosan biopolymer matrix embedded with copper (57.6 μg/ml) and zinc (800 μg/ml) reduced the load of model gut bacteria (target organisms of growth promoting antibiotics), such as Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Lactobacillus fermentum under in vitro conditions. Particularly, the chitosan/copper/zinc hydrogel exhibited significantly higher antimicrobial effect against L. fermentum, one of the primary targets of antibiotic growth promoters. Additionally, the chitosan matrix ameliorated the cytotoxicity levels of metal supplements when screened against a murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 and in TE-71, a murine thymic epithelial cell line. In this proof-of-concept study, we show that by using

  12. Investigating calcium polyphosphate addition to a conventional calcium phosphate cement for bone-interfacing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krausher, Jennifer Lynn

    Calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) are of great interest in bone regeneration applications because of their biocompatibility and osteoconductivity, and as delivery vehicles for therapeutics; however, delivery applications have been limited by adverse interactions between therapeutics and the cement setting reaction. Amorphous calcium polyphosphate (CPP) yields a biodegradable material with a demonstrated drug delivery capacity following appropriate processing. The incorporation of drug-loaded CPP into a CPC is under consideration as a method of minimizing adverse interactions and extending drug release. This thesis represents the first investigation into the effects of CPP addition on the properties, setting and antibiotic release profile of a conventional apatitic calcium phosphate cement. As-made, gelled and vancomycin-loaded CPP particulate were added to the powder component of a conventional dicalcium phosphate/tetracalcium phosphate CPC. The setting behaviour, set properties and microstructure of the resulting CPP-CPCs were evaluated with setting time testing (Gilmore needle method), pH testing, mechanical testing, SEM imaging, XRD and FTIR analysis. In vitro degradation and elution behaviour were evaluated by monitoring calcium release (atomic absorbance spectroscopy), mechanical strength and vancomycin release (UV-visual spectrophotometry). CPP addition was found to increase the setting time, reduce the mechanical strength and inhibit the conversion of the CPC starting powders to the set apatitic phase. The most likely mechanism for the observed effect of CPP addition was the adsorption of polyphosphate chains on the particle surfaces, which would inhibit the dissolution of the starting powders and the conversion of apatite precursor phases to apatite, leading to reduced mechanical properties. The detrimental effects of CPP were reduced by limiting the CPP fraction to less than a few weight per cent and increasing the size of the CPP particulate. CPP

  13. Potential Applications of Smart Multifunctional Wearable Materials to Gerontology.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, David G; Najafi, Bijan; Shahinpoor, Mohsen

    2017-01-12

    Smart multifunctional materials can play a constructive role in addressing some very important aging-related issues. Aging affects the ability of older adults to continue to live safely and economically in their own residences for as long as possible. Thus, there will be a greater need for preventive, acute, rehabilitative, and long-term health care services for older adults as well as a need for tools to enable them to function independently during daily activities. The objective of this paper is, thus, to present a comprehensive review of some potential smart materials and their areas of applications to gerontology. Thus, brief descriptions of various currently available multifunctional smart materials and their possible applications to aging-related problems are presented. It is concluded that some of the most important applications to geriatrics may be in various sensing scenarios to collect health-related feedback or information and provide personalized care. Further described are the applications of wearable technologies to aging-related needs, including devices for home rehabilitation, remote monitoring, social well-being, frailty monitoring, monitoring of diabetes and wound healing and fall detection or prediction. It is also concluded that wearable technologies, when combined with an appropriate application and with appropriate feedback, may help improve activities and functions of older patients with chronic diseases. Finally, it is noted that methods developed to measure what one collectively manages in this population may provide a foundation to establish new definitions of quality of life.

  14. Toxicogenomics concepts and applications to study hepatic effects of food additives and chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Stierum, Rob . E-mail: stierum@voeding.tno.nl; Heijne, Wilbert; Kienhuis, Anne; Ommen, Ben van; Groten, John

    2005-09-01

    Transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics are genomics technologies with great potential in toxicological sciences. Toxicogenomics involves the integration of conventional toxicological examinations with gene, protein or metabolite expression profiles. An overview together with selected examples of the possibilities of genomics in toxicology is given. The expectations raised by toxicogenomics are earlier and more sensitive detection of toxicity. Furthermore, toxicogenomics will provide a better understanding of the mechanism of toxicity and may facilitate the prediction of toxicity of unknown compounds. Mechanism-based markers of toxicity can be discovered and improved interspecies and in vitro-in vivo extrapolations will drive model developments in toxicology. Toxicological assessment of chemical mixtures will benefit from the new molecular biological tools. In our laboratory, toxicogenomics is predominantly applied for elucidation of mechanisms of action and discovery of novel pathway-supported mechanism-based markers of liver toxicity. In addition, we aim to integrate transcriptome, proteome and metabolome data, supported by bioinformatics to develop a systems biology approach for toxicology. Transcriptomics and proteomics studies on bromobenzene-mediated hepatotoxicity in the rat are discussed. Finally, an example is shown in which gene expression profiling together with conventional biochemistry led to the discovery of novel markers for the hepatic effects of the food additives butylated hydroxytoluene, curcumin, propyl gallate and thiabendazole.

  15. Additivity of kinetic and potential energy contributions in modification of graphene supported on SiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xitong; Zhao, Shijun; Wang, Yuyu; Xue, Jianming

    2017-04-01

    The damage production induced by MeV highly charged ions (HCI) irradiations in graphene supported on a SiO2 substrate is investigated using molecular dynamics method. We get results in agreement with our recent experiments. We find that the electronic energy loss and potential energy deposition have similar effects on the defects creation in SiO2 substrate-supported graphene and both mechanisms of energy deposition seem to contribute in an additive way. The influences of the energy deposition depth and radius are studied. Only the energy deposited below the surface within 2.5 nm will induce the damage in graphene. Hence, the HCI can be a powerful tool to induce defects in graphene without causing deep damage of the substrate. When charge of incident Xeq+ is above 30, a nanopore is formed and the size of nanopore in graphene can be controlled by changing the incident charge state.

  16. Cardiovascular pleiotropic actions of DPP-4 inhibitors: a step at the cutting edge in understanding their additional therapeutic potentials.

    PubMed

    Balakumar, Pitchai; Dhanaraj, Sokkalingam A

    2013-09-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) is a serine protease enzyme expressed widely in many tissues, including the cardiovascular system. The incretin hormones such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) are released from the small intestine into the vasculature during a meal, and these incretins have a potential to release insulin from pancreatic beta cells of islets of Langerhans, affording a glucose-lowering action. However, both incretins are hurriedly degraded by the DPP-4. Inhibitors of DPP-4, therefore, enhance the bioavailability of GLP-1 and GIP, and thus have been approved for better glycemic management in patients afflicted with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Five different DPP-4 inhibitors, often called as 'gliptins', namely sitagliptin, vildagliptin, saxagliptin, linagliptin and alogliptin have been approved hitherto for clinical use. These drugs are used along with diet and exercise to lower blood sugar in diabetic subjects. T2DM is intricately related with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Growing body of evidence suggests that gliptins, in addition to their persuasive anti-diabetic action, have a beneficial pleiotropic action on the heart and vessels. In view of the fact of cardiovascular disease susceptibility of patients afflicted with T2DM, gliptins might offer additional therapeutic benefits in treating diabetic cardiovascular complications. Exploring further the cardiovascular pleiotropic potentials of gliptins might open a panorama in impeccably employing these agents for the dual management of T2DM and T2DM-associated perilous cardiovascular complications. This review will shed lights on the newly identified beneficial pleiotropic actions of gliptins on the cardiovascular system.

  17. Detection of potential fishing zone for Pacific saury (Cololabis saira) using generalized additive model and remotely sensed data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fachruddin Syah, Achmad; Saitoh, Sei-Ichi; Alabia, Irene D.; Hirawake, Toru

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of oceanographic conditions on the formation of the potential fishing zones for Pacific saury in western North Pacific, fishing locations of Pacific saury from Defense Meteorological Satellite Program/Operating Linescan System (DMSP/OLS) and satellite-based oceanographic information were used to construct species habitat models. A 2-level slicing method was used to identify the bright regions as actual fishing areas from OLS images, collected during the peak fishing season of Pacific saury in the North Pacific. Statistical metrics, including the significance of model terms, and reduction in the Akaike’s Information Criterion (AIC) were used as the bases for model selection. The selected model was then used to visualize the basin scale distributions of the Pacific saury habitat. The predicted potential fishing zones exhibited spatial correspondence with the fishing locations. The results from generalized additive model revealed that the Pacific saury habitat selection was significantly influenced by the SST ranges from 13-18°C, SSC ranges from 0.5-1.8 mg.m-3, SSHA ranges from 5-17 cm and EKE ranges from 700-1200 cm2s-2. Moreover, among the set of oceanographic factors examined, SST explained the smallest AIC and is thus, considered to be the most significant variable in the geographic distribution of Pacific saury.

  18. Thermophotovoltaic potential applications for civilian and industrial use in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Hiromi; Yamaguchi, Masafumi

    1999-03-01

    Investigative research on potential market for TPV power sources in Japan has been focused on how TPV can contribute to energy conservation and environmental protection and harmony. The application needs for TPV were surveyed in comparison with conventional engine or turbine generators and developing power generation technologies such as fuel cells or chemical batteries, etc. The investigation on the performance of commercial generators shows that regarding system efficiency, TPV can compete with conventional generators in the output power class of tens of kW. According to the sales for small scale generators in Japan, most of the generators below 10 kW class are utilized mainly for construction, communication, leisure, and that 10-100 kW class generators are for cogeneration in small buildings. Waste heat recovery in dispersed furnaces is another potential application of compact TPV cells. Exhaust heat from small scale incinerators and industrial furnaces is undesirable to be recorded into electricity due to excessive heat loss of the smaller steam turbine generators. Solar powered TPV is also of our concern as a natural energy use. From the viewpoint of applicability for TPV, portable generators cogeneration systems, and solar power plants were selected for our system consideration. Intermediate report on the feasibility study concerning such TPV systems is given as well as the review of the current status of competing power generation technologies in Japan.

  19. Nanotechnology in meat processing and packaging: potential applications - a review.

    PubMed

    Ramachandraiah, Karna; Han, Sung Gu; Chin, Koo Bok

    2015-02-01

    Growing demand for sustainable production, increasing competition and consideration of health concerns have led the meat industries on a path to innovation. Meat industries across the world are focusing on the development of novel meat products and processes to meet consumer demand. Hence, a process innovation, like nanotechnology, can have a significant impact on the meat processing industry through the development of not only novel functional meat products, but also novel packaging for the products. The potential benefits of utilizing nanomaterials in food are improved bioavailability, antimicrobial effects, enhanced sensory acceptance and targeted delivery of bioactive compounds. However, challenges exist in the application of nanomaterials due to knowledge gaps in the production of ingredients such as nanopowders, stability of delivery systems in meat products and health risks caused by the same properties which also offer the benefits. For the success of nanotechnology in meat products, challenges in public acceptance, economics and the regulation of food processed with nanomaterials which may have the potential to persist, accumulate and lead to toxicity need to be addressed. So far, the most promising area for nanotechnology application seems to be in meat packaging, but the long term effects on human health and environment due to migration of the nanomaterials from the packaging needs to be studied further. The future of nanotechnology in meat products depends on the roles played by governments, regulatory agencies and manufacturers in addressing the challenges related to the application of nanomaterials in food.

  20. Potential biodefense model applications for portable chlorine dioxide gas production.

    PubMed

    Stubblefield, Jeannie M; Newsome, Anthony L

    2015-01-01

    Development of decontamination methods and strategies to address potential infectious disease outbreaks and bioterrorism events are pertinent to this nation's biodefense strategies and general biosecurity. Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) gas has a history of use as a decontamination agent in response to an act of bioterrorism. However, the more widespread use of ClO2 gas to meet current and unforeseen decontamination needs has been hampered because the gas is too unstable for shipment and must be prepared at the application site. Newer technology allows for easy, onsite gas generation without the need for dedicated equipment, electricity, water, or personnel with advanced training. In a laboratory model system, 2 unique applications (personal protective equipment [PPE] and animal skin) were investigated in the context of potential development of decontamination protocols. Such protocols could serve to reduce human exposure to bacteria in a decontamination response effort. Chlorine dioxide gas was capable of reducing (2-7 logs of vegetative and spore-forming bacteria), and in some instances eliminating, culturable bacteria from difficult to clean areas on PPE facepieces. The gas was effective in eliminating naturally occurring bacteria on animal skin and also on skin inoculated with Bacillus spores. The culturable bacteria, including Bacillus spores, were eliminated in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Results of these studies suggested portable, easily used ClO2 gas generation systems have excellent potential for protocol development to contribute to biodefense strategies and decontamination responses to infectious disease outbreaks or other biothreat events.

  1. Adaptive coded aperture imaging: progress and potential future applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottesman, Stephen R.; Isser, Abraham; Gigioli, George W., Jr.

    2011-09-01

    Interest in Adaptive Coded Aperture Imaging (ACAI) continues to grow as the optical and systems engineering community becomes increasingly aware of ACAI's potential benefits in the design and performance of both imaging and non-imaging systems , such as good angular resolution (IFOV), wide distortion-free field of view (FOV), excellent image quality, and light weight construct. In this presentation we first review the accomplishments made over the past five years, then expand on previously published work to show how replacement of conventional imaging optics with coded apertures can lead to a reduction in system size and weight. We also present a trade space analysis of key design parameters of coded apertures and review potential applications as replacement for traditional imaging optics. Results will be presented, based on last year's work of our investigation into the trade space of IFOV, resolution, effective focal length, and wavelength of incident radiation for coded aperture architectures. Finally we discuss the potential application of coded apertures for replacing objective lenses of night vision goggles (NVGs).

  2. Electric poling-assisted additive manufacturing process for PVDF polymer-based piezoelectric device applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, ChaBum; Tarbutton, Joshua A.

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents a new additive manufacturing (AM) process to directly and continuously print piezoelectric devices from polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) polymeric filament rods under a strong electric field. This process, called ‘electric poling-assisted additive manufacturing or EPAM, combines AM and electric poling processes and is able to fabricate free-form shape piezoelectric devices continuously. In this process, the PVDF polymer dipoles remain well-aligned and uniform over a large area in a single design, production and fabrication step. During EPAM process, molten PVDF polymer is simultaneously mechanically stresses in-situ by the leading nozzle and electrically poled by applying high electric field under high temperature. The EPAM system was constructed to directly print piezoelectric structures from PVDF polymeric filament while applying high electric field between nozzle tip and printing bed in AM machine. Piezoelectric devices were successfully fabricated using the EPAM process. The crystalline phase transitions that occurred from the process were identified by using the Fourier transform infrared spectroscope. The results indicate that devices printed under a strong electric field become piezoelectric during the EPAM process and that stronger electric fields result in greater piezoelectricity as marked by the electrical response and the formation of sharper peaks at the polar β crystalline wavenumber of the PVDF polymer. Performing this process in the absence of an electric field does not result in dipole alignment of PVDF polymer. The EPAM process is expected to lead to the widespread use of AM to fabricate a variety of piezoelectric PVDF polymer-based devices for sensing, actuation and energy harvesting applications with simple, low cost, single processing and fabrication step.

  3. Microbial aspartic proteases: current and potential applications in industry.

    PubMed

    Theron, Louwrens W; Divol, Benoit

    2014-11-01

    Aspartic proteases are a relatively small group of proteolytic enzymes that are active in acidic environments and are found across all forms of life. Certain microorganisms secrete such proteases as virulence agents and/or in order to break down proteins thereby liberating assimilable sources of nitrogen. Some of the earlier applications of these proteolytic enzymes are found in the manufacturing of cheese where they are used as milk-clotting agents. Over the last decade, they have received tremendous research interest because of their involvement in human diseases. Furthermore, there has also been a growing interest on these enzymes for their applications in several other industries. Recent research suggests in particular that they could be used in the wine industry to prevent the formation of protein haze while preserving the wines' organoleptic properties. In this mini-review, the properties and mechanisms of action of aspartic proteases are summarized. Thereafter, a brief overview of the industrial applications of this specific class of proteases is provided. The use of aspartic proteases as alternatives to clarifying agents in various beverage industries is mentioned, and the potential applications in the wine industry are thoroughly discussed.

  4. Bacterial and Fungal Proteolytic Enzymes: Production, Catalysis and Potential Applications.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Ronivaldo Rodrigues

    2017-02-03

    Submerged and solid-state bioprocesses have been extensively explored worldwide and employed in a number of important studies dealing with microbial cultivation for the production of enzymes. The development of these production technologies has facilitated the generation of new enzyme-based products with applications in pharmaceuticals, food, bioactive peptides, and basic research studies, among others. The applicability of microorganisms in biotechnology is potentiated because of their various advantages, including large-scale production, short time of cultivation, and ease of handling. Currently, several studies are being conducted to search for new microbial peptidases with peculiar biochemical properties for industrial applications. Bioprospecting, being an important prerequisite for research and biotechnological development, is based on exploring the microbial diversity for enzyme production. Limited information is available on the production of specific proteolytic enzymes from bacterial and fungal species, especially on the subgroups threonine and glutamic peptidases, and the seventh catalytic type, nonhydrolytic asparagine peptide lyase. This gap in information motivated the present study about these unique biocatalysts. In this study, the biochemical and biotechnological aspects of the seven catalytic types of proteolytic enzymes, namely aspartyl, cysteine, serine, metallo, glutamic, and threonine peptidase, and asparagine peptide lyase, are summarized, with an emphasis on new studies, production, catalysis, and application of these enzymes.

  5. Graphene-plasmon polaritons: From fundamental properties to potential applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Sanshui; Zhu, Xiaolong; Li, Bo-Hong; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2016-04-01

    With unique possibilities for controlling light in nanoscale devices, graphene plasmonics has opened new perspectives to the nanophotonics community with potential applications in metamaterials, modulators, photodetectors, and sensors. In this paper, we briefly review the recent exciting progress in graphene plasmonics. We begin with a general description of the optical properties of graphene, particularly focusing on the dispersion of graphene-plasmon polaritons. The dispersion relation of graphene-plasmon polaritons of spatially extended graphene is expressed in terms of the local response limit with an intraband contribution. With this theoretical foundation of graphene-plasmon polaritons, we then discuss recent exciting progress, paying specific attention to the following topics: excitation of graphene plasmon polaritons, electron-phonon interactions in graphene on polar substrates, and tunable graphene plasmonics with applications in modulators and sensors. Finally, we address some of the apparent challenges and promising perspectives of graphene plasmonics.

  6. Nanotechnology and stem cell therapy for cardiovascular diseases: potential applications.

    PubMed

    La Francesca, Saverio

    2012-01-01

    The use of stem cell therapy for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases has generated significant interest in recent years. Limitations to the clinical application of this therapy center on issues of stem cell delivery, engraftment, and fate. Nanotechnology-based cell labeling and imaging techniques facilitate stem cell tracking and engraftment studies. Nanotechnology also brings exciting new opportunities to translational stem cell research as it enables the controlled engineering of nanoparticles and nanomaterials that can properly relate to the physical scale of cell-cell and cell-niche interactions. This review summarizes the most relevant potential applications of nanoscale technologies to the field of stem cell therapy for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  7. Stimuli-responsive Pickering emulsions: recent advances and potential applications.

    PubMed

    Tang, Juntao; Quinlan, Patrick James; Tam, Kam Chiu

    2015-05-14

    Pickering emulsions possess many advantages over traditional surfactant stabilized emulsions. For example, Pickering emulsions impart better stability against coalescence and, in many cases, are biologically compatible and environmentally friendly. These characteristics open the door for their use in a variety of industries spanning petroleum, food, biomedicine, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. Depending on the application, rapid, but controlled stabilization and destabilization of an emulsion may be necessary. As a result, Pickering emulsions with stimuli-responsive properties have, in recent years, received a considerable amounts of attention. This paper provides a concise and comprehensive review of Pickering emulsion systems that possess the ability to respond to an array of external triggers, including pH, temperature, CO2 concentration, light intensity, ionic strength, and magnetic field. Potential applications for which stimuli-responsive Pickering emulsion systems would be of particular value, such as emulsion polymerization, enhanced oil recovery, catalyst recovery, and cosmetics, are discussed.

  8. 28 CFR 34.4 - Additional competitive application requirements and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... reflected in past written evaluation reports and memoranda on performance, and the completeness of required.... (c) Evaluation of applications submitted under part C of the Act. All applications filed in... will notify the applicant in writing of the disposition of the application. A signed...

  9. [Ecological memory and its potential applications in ecology: a review].

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhong-yu; Ren, Hai

    2011-03-01

    Ecological memory (EM) is defined as the capability of the past states or experiences of a community to influence the present or future ecological responses of the community. As a relatively new concept, EM has received considerable attention in the study of ecosystem structure and function, such as community succession, ecological restoration, biological invasion, and natural resource management. This review summarized the definition, components, and categories of EM, and discussed the possible mechanisms and affecting factors of EM. Also, the potential applications of EM were proposed, in order to further understand the mechanisms of community succession and to guide ecological restoration.

  10. Potential applications of an electron cyclotron resonance multicusp plasma source

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, C.C.; Berry, L.A.; Gorbatkin, S.M.; Haselton, H.H.; Roberto, J.B.; Stirling, W.L.

    1989-01-01

    An electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) multicusp plasmatron has been developed by feeding a multicusp bucket arc chamber with a compact ECR plasma source. This novel source produced large (about 25-cm-diam), uniform (to within {plus minus}10%), dense (>10{sup 11}-cm{sup -3}) plasmas of argon, helium, hydrogen, and oxygen. It has been operated to produce an oxygen plasma for etching 12.7-cm (5-in.) positive photoresist-coated silicon wafers with uniformity within {plus minus}8%. Results and potential applications of this new ECR plasma source for plasma processing of thin films are discussed. 21 refs., 10 figs.

  11. Clinical application of vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP).

    PubMed

    Murofushi, Toshihisa

    2016-08-01

    The author reviewed clinical aspects of vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs). Now two types of VEMPs are available. The first one is cervical VEMP, which is recorded in the sternocleidomastoid muscle and predominantly reflects sacculo-collic reflex. The other is ocular VEMP, which is usually recorded below the lower eye lid and predominantly reflects utriculo-ocular reflex. VEMPs play important roles not only for assessment of common vestibular diseases but also for establishment of new clinical entities. Clinical application in Meniere's disease, vestibular neuritis, benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, vestibular migraine, idiopathic otolithic vertigo, and central vertigo/dizziness was reviewed.

  12. Carbon nanotubes: a potential concept for drug delivery applications.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rakesh; Dhanawat, Meenakshi; Kumar, Sudhir; Singh, Brahma N; Pandit, Jayant K; Sinha, Vivek R

    2014-04-01

    The unique properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) make them a highly interesting and demandable nanocarrier in the field of nanoscience. CNTs facilitate efficient delivery of therapeutics like drugs, proteins, genes, nucleic acids, vitamins and lot more. Even though highly beneficial, the biocompatibility of CNTs is a major issue in their questioning their potential application in targeting drug delivery. Studies confirmed subdued toxicity of CNTs following slight modifications like functionalization, controlled dimensions, purification etc. A well-established mechanism for cellular internalization is an insistent need to attain a more efficient and targeted delivery. Recent patents have been thoroughly discussed in the text below.

  13. Higher order statistical moment application for solar PV potential analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basri, Mohd Juhari Mat; Abdullah, Samizee; Azrulhisham, Engku Ahmad; Harun, Khairulezuan

    2016-10-01

    Solar photovoltaic energy could be as alternative energy to fossil fuel, which is depleting and posing a global warming problem. However, this renewable energy is so variable and intermittent to be relied on. Therefore the knowledge of energy potential is very important for any site to build this solar photovoltaic power generation system. Here, the application of higher order statistical moment model is being analyzed using data collected from 5MW grid-connected photovoltaic system. Due to the dynamic changes of skewness and kurtosis of AC power and solar irradiance distributions of the solar farm, Pearson system where the probability distribution is calculated by matching their theoretical moments with that of the empirical moments of a distribution could be suitable for this purpose. On the advantage of the Pearson system in MATLAB, a software programming has been developed to help in data processing for distribution fitting and potential analysis for future projection of amount of AC power and solar irradiance availability.

  14. Release of heavy metals during long-term land application of sewage sludge compost: Percolation leaching tests with repeated additions of compost.

    PubMed

    Fang, Wen; Delapp, Rossane C; Kosson, David S; van der Sloot, Hans A; Liu, Jianguo

    2017-02-01

    Leaching assessment procedures have been used to determine the leachability of heavy metals as input for evaluating the risk from sewage sludge compost land application. However, relatively little attention has been paid to understanding leaching from soils with repeated application of sewage sludge compost with elevated levels of heavy metals. In this paper, leaching assessment is extended to evaluate the potential leaching of heavy metals during repetitive application of composted sewage sludge to soils. Four cycling of compost additions and percolation leaching were conducted to investigate how leaching behavior of heavy metals changed with repeated additions of compost. Results showed that repetitive additions of compost to soil significantly increased the content of organic matter, which favored the formation of reducing condition due to improved microbial activities and oxygen consumption. Establishment of reducing conditions can enhance the leaching concentrations of As by approximately 1 order of magnitude, especially for the soil rich in organic matter. For Cd, Cr, Cu, and Pb, repeated additions of compost will cause accumulation in total contents but not enhancement in leaching concentrations. The infiltration following compost additions will leach out the mobile fraction and the residual fraction might not release in the next cycling of compost addition and infiltration. The cumulative release of Cd, Cr, Cu, and Pb accounted for less than 5% of the total contents during four times of compost applications.

  15. Properties of a new hydrotrope hydrophobic molecule and its potential applications.

    PubMed

    Schnell, E; Touraud, D; Gick, R; Kunz, W

    2008-10-01

    In the present contribution, the properties of dipropylene glycol isobornyl ether (Pribelance) are discussed, especially in the context of microemulsion and emulsion formulations. Pribelance is a new low-toxic anti-foaming hydrotrope with excellent co-surfactant properties that has some similarities with long-chain alcohols, but in contrast to them, it is liquid at room temperature. In combination with another, more hydrophilic co-surfactant, it allows significant amounts of oil to be solubilized in water. Possible applications such as in cosmetics, as an anti-foaming agent or as additive to cooling lubricants are discussed. Further potential applications are plasticizers, fermentation systems, agrochemicals and waste-water treatments.

  16. Application of ToxCast to evaluate potential biological effects ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    With the development of “high throughput” in-vitro biological assays, screening-level information on potential adverse biological effects is available for a rapidly increasing number of chemicals. The U.S. EPA ToxCast program has now evaluated several thousand chemicals with more than 800 assays. The original intent of this data was to evaluate potential for human health effects, but it is now being extended to environmental health evaluations. The R package ToxEval was developed as a screening tool to use ToxCast results for evaluation of potential adverse biological effects from trace organic chemicals in water samples. Using ToxEval, trace organic chemical data from water samples and passive samplers collected at 57 Great Lakes tributaries from 2010-2013 were examined to determine the tributaries with the greatest potential for adverse biological effects with prioritization of the most influential contaminants. Results are being used as part of the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative to focus current and future investigations that will help understand likely adverse outcome pathways in biological organisms, and to formulate possible remediation strategies. not applicable

  17. Low loss NiZn spinel ferrite-W-type hexaferrite composites from BaM addition for antenna applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Zongliang; Zhang, Huaiwu; Xiao, John Q.; Yang, Qinghui; Jia, Lijun

    2014-03-01

    A series of NiZn ferrite composites with various BaFe12O19 hexaferrite (BaM) additions (x) were successfully synthesized by the solid-state reaction method for their potential application as magneto-dielectric antenna substrate materials. XRD and energy-dispersive spectrum analyses reveal that a W-type hexagonal phase is formed when the mixture of NiZn ferrite and BaM are sintered at 1200 °C, and diphase composite ferrite that consists of NiZn spinel ferrite and BaW hexaferrite is finally obtained. The composites display much smaller grain size and a refined microstructure. With the increasing x, the initial permeability decreases from ˜84.5 to ˜15.5, while the cut-off frequency is dramatically improved from 75 to 570 MHz. BaM addition significantly inhibits the frequency dispersion of permittivity spectrum and stable permittivity ɛ‧ around 15 is observed for the doped samples from 1 MHz to 1 GHz, which is proved to be closely related to the refined grains according to Koops' theory. Besides, compared with the undoped NiZn ferrite, both the magnetic loss and dielectric loss are found to be reduced in the doped samples. Almost equal values of μ‧ and ɛ‧ is obtained in the sample with x = 30 wt%. Related magnetic and dielectric mechanisms are also discussed.

  18. An introduction to modeling longitudinal data with generalized additive models: applications to single-case designs.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Kristynn J; Shadish, William R; Steiner, Peter M

    2015-03-01

    Single-case designs (SCDs) are short time series that assess intervention effects by measuring units repeatedly over time in both the presence and absence of treatment. This article introduces a statistical technique for analyzing SCD data that has not been much used in psychological and educational research: generalized additive models (GAMs). In parametric regression, the researcher must choose a functional form to impose on the data, for example, that trend over time is linear. GAMs reverse this process by letting the data inform the choice of functional form. In this article we review the problem that trend poses in SCDs, discuss how current SCD analytic methods approach trend, describe GAMs as a possible solution, suggest a GAM model testing procedure for examining the presence of trend in SCDs, present a small simulation to show the statistical properties of GAMs, and illustrate the procedure on 3 examples of different lengths. Results suggest that GAMs may be very useful both as a form of sensitivity analysis for checking the plausibility of assumptions about trend and as a primary data analysis strategy for testing treatment effects. We conclude with a discussion of some problems with GAMs and some future directions for research on the application of GAMs to SCDs.

  19. The effects of tantalum addition on the microtexture and mechanical behaviour of tungsten for ITER applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tejado, E.; Carvalho, P. A.; Munoz, A.; Dias, M.; Correia, J. B.; Mardolcar, U. V.; Pastor, J. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Tungsten (W) and its alloys are very promising materials for producing plasma-facing components (PFCs) in the fusion power reactors of the near future, even as a structural part in them. However, whereas the properties of pure tungsten are suitable for a PFC, its structural applications are still limited due to its low toughness, ductile to brittle transition temperature and recrystallization behaviour. Therefore, many efforts have been made to improve its performance by alloying tungsten with other elements. Hence, in this investigation, the thermo-mechanical performance of two new tungsten-tantalum materials has been evaluated. Materials with W-5wt.%Ta and W-15wt.%Ta were processed by mechanical alloying (MA) and later consolidation by hot isostatic pressing (HIP), with distinct settings for each composition. Thus, it was possible to determine the relationship between the microstructure and the addition of Ta with the macroscopic mechanical properties. These were measured by means of hardness, flexural strength and fracture toughness, in the temperature range of 300-1473 K. The microstructure and the fracture surfaces features of the tested materials were analysed by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM).

  20. Nanotechnology and HIV: potential applications for treatment and prevention.

    PubMed

    Kim, Peter S; Read, Sarah W

    2010-01-01

    HIV/AIDS is a global pandemic and is the leading infectious cause of death among adults. Although antiretroviral (ARV) therapy has dramatically improved the quality of life and increased the life expectancy of those infected with HIV, life-long suppressive treatment is required and a cure for HIV infection remains elusive; frequency of dosing and drug toxicity as well as the development of viral resistance pose additional limitations. Furthermore, preventative measures such as a vaccine or microbicide are urgently needed to curb the rate of new infections. The capabilities inherent to nanotechnology hold much potential for impact in the field of HIV treatment and prevention. This article reviews the potential for the multidisciplinary field of nanotechnology to advance the fields of HIV treatment and prevention.

  1. Tantalum trabecular metal - addition of human skeletal cells to enhance bone implant interface strength and clinical application.

    PubMed

    Smith, J O; Sengers, B G; Aarvold, A; Tayton, E R; Dunlop, D G; Oreffo, R O C

    2014-04-01

    The osteo-regenerative properties of allograft have recently been enhanced by addition of autogenous human bone marrow stromal cells (HBMSCs). Limitations in the use of allograft have prompted the investigation of tantalum trabecular metal (TTM) as a potential alternative. TTM is already in widespread orthopaedic use, although in applications where there is poor initial stability, or when TTM is used in conjunction with bone grafting, initial implant loading may need to be limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate the osteo-regenerative potential of TTM with HBMSCs, in direct comparison to human allograft and autograft. HBMSCs were cultured on blocks of TTM, allograft or autograft in basal and osteogenic media. Molecular profiling, confocal and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and biochemical assays were used to characterize cell adherence, proliferation and phenotype. Mechanical testing was used to define the tensile characteristics of the constructs. HBMSCs displayed adherence and proliferation throughout TTM, evidenced by immunocytochemistry and SEM, with significant cellular ingrowth and matrix production through TTM. In contrast to cells cultured with allograft, cell proliferation assays showed significantly higher activity with TTM (p < 0.001), although molecular profiling confirmed no significant difference in expression of osteogenic genes. In contrast to acellular constructs, mechanical testing of cell-TTM constructs showed enhanced tensile characteristics, which compared favourably to cell-allograft constructs. These studies demonstrated the ability of TTM to support HBMSC growth and osteogenic differentiation comparable to allograft. Thus, TTM represents an alternative to allograft for osteo-regenerative strategies, extending its clinical applications as a substitute for allograft.

  2. Testing departure from additivity in Tukey's model using shrinkage: application to a longitudinal setting.

    PubMed

    Ko, Yi-An; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Smith, Jennifer A; Park, Sung Kyun; Kardia, Sharon L R; Allison, Matthew A; Vokonas, Pantel S; Chen, Jinbo; Diez-Roux, Ana V

    2014-12-20

    While there has been extensive research developing gene-environment interaction (GEI) methods in case-control studies, little attention has been given to sparse and efficient modeling of GEI in longitudinal studies. In a two-way table for GEI with rows and columns as categorical variables, a conventional saturated interaction model involves estimation of a specific parameter for each cell, with constraints ensuring identifiability. The estimates are unbiased but are potentially inefficient because the number of parameters to be estimated can grow quickly with increasing categories of row/column factors. On the other hand, Tukey's one-degree-of-freedom model for non-additivity treats the interaction term as a scaled product of row and column main effects. Because of the parsimonious form of interaction, the interaction estimate leads to enhanced efficiency, and the corresponding test could lead to increased power. Unfortunately, Tukey's model gives biased estimates and low power if the model is misspecified. When screening multiple GEIs where each genetic and environmental marker may exhibit a distinct interaction pattern, a robust estimator for interaction is important for GEI detection. We propose a shrinkage estimator for interaction effects that combines estimates from both Tukey's and saturated interaction models and use the corresponding Wald test for testing interaction in a longitudinal setting. The proposed estimator is robust to misspecification of interaction structure. We illustrate the proposed methods using two longitudinal studies-the Normative Aging Study and the Multi-ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

  3. Testing Departure from Additivity in Tukey’s Model using Shrinkage: Application to a Longitudinal Setting

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Yi-An; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Smith, Jennifer A.; Park, Sung Kyun; Kardia, Sharon L.R.; Allison, Matthew A.; Vokonas, Pantel S.; Chen, Jinbo; Diez-Roux, Ana V.

    2014-01-01

    While there has been extensive research developing gene-environment interaction (GEI) methods in case-control studies, little attention has been given to sparse and efficient modeling of GEI in longitudinal studies. In a two-way table for GEI with rows and columns as categorical variables, a conventional saturated interaction model involves estimation of a specific parameter for each cell, with constraints ensuring identifiability. The estimates are unbiased but are potentially inefficient because the number of parameters to be estimated can grow quickly with increasing categories of row/column factors. On the other hand, Tukey’s one degree of freedom (df) model for non-additivity treats the interaction term as a scaled product of row and column main effects. Due to the parsimonious form of interaction, the interaction estimate leads to enhanced efficiency and the corresponding test could lead to increased power. Unfortunately, Tukey’s model gives biased estimates and low power if the model is misspecified. When screening multiple GEIs where each genetic and environmental marker may exhibit a distinct interaction pattern, a robust estimator for interaction is important for GEI detection. We propose a shrinkage estimator for interaction effects that combines estimates from both Tukey’s and saturated interaction models and use the corresponding Wald test for testing interaction in a longitudinal setting. The proposed estimator is robust to misspecification of interaction structure. We illustrate the proposed methods using two longitudinal studies — the Normative Aging Study and the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. PMID:25112650

  4. Toxicological features of maleilated polyflavonoids from Pinus radiata (D. Don.) as potential functional additives for biomaterials design.

    PubMed

    García, Danny E; Medina, Paulina A; Zúñiga, Valentina I

    2017-03-14

    Polyflavonoids from Pinus radiata (D. Don.) are an abundant natural oligomers highly desirable as renewable chemicals. However, structural modification of polyflavonoids is a viable strategy in order to use such polyphenols as macrobuilding-blocks for biomaterial design. Polyflavonoids were esterified with three five-member cyclic anhydrides (maleic, itaconic, and citraconic) at 20 °C during 24 h in order to diversify physicochemical-, and biological-properties for agricultural, and food-packaging applications. In addition, the influence of the chemical modification, as well as the chemical structure of the grafting on toxicological features was evaluated. Structural features of derivatives were analyzed by spectroscopy (FT-IR and (1)H-NMR), and the degree of substitution was calculated. Toxicological profile was assessed by using three target species in a wide range of concentration (0.01-100 mgL(-)(1)). Effect of polyflavonoids on the growth rate (Selenastrum capricornutum), mortality (Daphnia magna), and germination and radicle length (Lactuca sativa) was determined. Chemical modification affects the toxicological profile on the derivatives in a high extent. Results described remarkable differences in function of the target specie. The bioassays indicate differences of the polyflavonoids toxicological profile associated to the chemical structure of the grafting. Results allowed conclude that polyflavonoids from pine bark show slight toxic properties.

  5. Electric Potential and Electric Field Imaging with Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Generazio, Ed

    2016-01-01

    The technology and techniques for remote quantitative imaging of electrostatic potentials and electrostatic fields in and around objects and in free space is presented. Electric field imaging (EFI) technology may be applied to characterize intrinsic or existing electric potentials and electric fields, or an externally generated electrostatic field may be used for (illuminating) volumes to be inspected with EFI. The baseline sensor technology, electric field sensor (e-sensor), and its construction, optional electric field generation (quasistatic generator), and current e-sensor enhancements (ephemeral e-sensor) are discussed. Demonstrations for structural, electronic, human, and memory applications are shown. This new EFI capability is demonstrated to reveal characterization of electric charge distribution, creating a new field of study that embraces areas of interest including electrostatic discharge mitigation, crime scene forensics, design and materials selection for advanced sensors, dielectric morphology of structures, inspection of containers, inspection for hidden objects, tether integrity, organic molecular memory, and medical diagnostic and treatment efficacy applications such as cardiac polarization wave propagation and electromyography imaging.

  6. Potential applications of wrought magnesium alloys for passenger vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Gaines, L.; Cuenca, R.; Stodolsky, F.; Wu, S.

    1995-12-31

    Vehicle weight reduction is one of the major means available for improving automotive fuel efficiency. Although high-strength steels, aluminum (Al), and polymers are already being used to achieve significant weight reductions, substantial additional weight reductions could be achieved by increased use of magnesium (Mg) and its alloys, which have very low density. Magnesium alloys are currently used in relatively small quantities for auto parts; use is generally limited to die castings, such as housings. The Center for Transportation Research at Argonne National Laboratory has performed a study for the Lightweight Materials Program within DOE`s Office of Transportation Materials to evaluate the suitability of wrought Mg and its alloys to replace steel or aluminum for automotive structural and sheet applications. This study identifies technical and economic barriers to this replacement and suggests R&D areas to enable economical large-volume use. Detailed results of the study will be published at a later date. Magnesium sheet could be used in body nonstructural and semi-structural applications, while extrusions could be used in such structural applications as spaceframes. Currently, Mg sheet has found limited use in the aerospace industry, where costs are not a major concern. The major barrier to greatly increased automotive use is high cost; two technical R&D areas are identified that could enable major reductions in costs. These are novel reduction technology and better hot-forming technology, possibly operating at lower temperatures and involving superplastic behavior.

  7. 34 CFR 660.32 - What additional selection criteria does the Secretary use for an application for a research...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... use for an application for a research project, a survey, or a study? 660.32 Section 660.32 Education..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH AND STUDIES PROGRAM How Does the Secretary Make a Grant? § 660.32 What additional selection criteria does the Secretary use for an application for a...

  8. 34 CFR 611.24 - What additional selection criteria are used for a full application that proposes teacher...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... application that proposes teacher recruitment activities? 611.24 Section 611.24 Education Regulations of the... EDUCATION TEACHER QUALITY ENHANCEMENT GRANTS PROGRAM Partnership Grants Program § 611.24 What additional selection criteria are used for a full application that proposes teacher recruitment activities?...

  9. 34 CFR 611.22 - What additional selection criteria are used for a pre-application that proposes teacher...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-application that proposes teacher recruitment activities? 611.22 Section 611.22 Education Regulations of the... EDUCATION TEACHER QUALITY ENHANCEMENT GRANTS PROGRAM Partnership Grants Program § 611.22 What additional selection criteria are used for a pre-application that proposes teacher recruitment activities? In...

  10. 34 CFR 611.24 - What additional selection criteria are used for a full application that proposes teacher...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... application that proposes teacher recruitment activities? 611.24 Section 611.24 Education Regulations of the... EDUCATION TEACHER QUALITY ENHANCEMENT GRANTS PROGRAM Partnership Grants Program § 611.24 What additional selection criteria are used for a full application that proposes teacher recruitment activities?...

  11. 34 CFR 611.12 - What additional selection criteria are used for an application proposing teacher recruitment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... application proposing teacher recruitment activities? 611.12 Section 611.12 Education Regulations of the... EDUCATION TEACHER QUALITY ENHANCEMENT GRANTS PROGRAM State Grants Program § 611.12 What additional selection criteria are used for an application proposing teacher recruitment activities? In reviewing...

  12. 34 CFR 611.22 - What additional selection criteria are used for a pre-application that proposes teacher...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-application that proposes teacher recruitment activities? 611.22 Section 611.22 Education Regulations of the... EDUCATION TEACHER QUALITY ENHANCEMENT GRANTS PROGRAM Partnership Grants Program § 611.22 What additional selection criteria are used for a pre-application that proposes teacher recruitment activities? In...

  13. 34 CFR 611.24 - What additional selection criteria are used for a full application that proposes teacher...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... application that proposes teacher recruitment activities? 611.24 Section 611.24 Education Regulations of the... EDUCATION TEACHER QUALITY ENHANCEMENT GRANTS PROGRAM Partnership Grants Program § 611.24 What additional selection criteria are used for a full application that proposes teacher recruitment activities?...

  14. 34 CFR 611.12 - What additional selection criteria are used for an application proposing teacher recruitment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... application proposing teacher recruitment activities? 611.12 Section 611.12 Education Regulations of the... EDUCATION TEACHER QUALITY ENHANCEMENT GRANTS PROGRAM State Grants Program § 611.12 What additional selection criteria are used for an application proposing teacher recruitment activities? In reviewing...

  15. 34 CFR 611.12 - What additional selection criteria are used for an application proposing teacher recruitment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... application proposing teacher recruitment activities? 611.12 Section 611.12 Education Regulations of the... EDUCATION TEACHER QUALITY ENHANCEMENT GRANTS PROGRAM State Grants Program § 611.12 What additional selection criteria are used for an application proposing teacher recruitment activities? In reviewing...

  16. 34 CFR 611.12 - What additional selection criteria are used for an application proposing teacher recruitment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... application proposing teacher recruitment activities? 611.12 Section 611.12 Education Regulations of the... EDUCATION TEACHER QUALITY ENHANCEMENT GRANTS PROGRAM State Grants Program § 611.12 What additional selection criteria are used for an application proposing teacher recruitment activities? In reviewing...

  17. 34 CFR 611.24 - What additional selection criteria are used for a full application that proposes teacher...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... application that proposes teacher recruitment activities? 611.24 Section 611.24 Education Regulations of the... EDUCATION TEACHER QUALITY ENHANCEMENT GRANTS PROGRAM Partnership Grants Program § 611.24 What additional selection criteria are used for a full application that proposes teacher recruitment activities?...

  18. 34 CFR 611.22 - What additional selection criteria are used for a pre-application that proposes teacher...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-application that proposes teacher recruitment activities? 611.22 Section 611.22 Education Regulations of the... EDUCATION TEACHER QUALITY ENHANCEMENT GRANTS PROGRAM Partnership Grants Program § 611.22 What additional selection criteria are used for a pre-application that proposes teacher recruitment activities? In...

  19. 34 CFR 611.22 - What additional selection criteria are used for a pre-application that proposes teacher...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-application that proposes teacher recruitment activities? 611.22 Section 611.22 Education Regulations of the... EDUCATION TEACHER QUALITY ENHANCEMENT GRANTS PROGRAM Partnership Grants Program § 611.22 What additional selection criteria are used for a pre-application that proposes teacher recruitment activities? In...

  20. 34 CFR 611.12 - What additional selection criteria are used for an application proposing teacher recruitment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... application proposing teacher recruitment activities? 611.12 Section 611.12 Education Regulations of the... EDUCATION TEACHER QUALITY ENHANCEMENT GRANTS PROGRAM State Grants Program § 611.12 What additional selection criteria are used for an application proposing teacher recruitment activities? In reviewing...

  1. The potential of oceanic transport and onshore leaching of additive-derived lead by marine macro-plastic debris.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Etsuko; Isobe, Atsuhiko; Kako, Shin'ichiro; Itai, Takaaki; Takahashi, Shin; Guo, Xinyu

    2016-06-15

    The long-distance transport potential of toxic lead (Pb) by plastic marine debris was examined by pure water leaching experiments using plastic fishery floats containing high level of additive-Pb such as 5100±74.3mgkg(-1). The leaching of Pb ended after sequential 480-h leaching experiments, and the total leaching amount is equivalent to approximately 0.1% of total Pb in a float. But it recovered when the float was scratched using sandpaper. We propose that a "low-Pb layer," in which Pb concentration is negligibly small, be generated on the float surface by the initial leaching process. Thickness of the layer is estimated at 2.5±1.2μm, much shallower than flaws on floats scratched by sandpaper and floats littering beaches. The result suggests that the low-Pb layer is broken by physical abrasion when floats are washed ashore, and that Pb inside the floats can thereafter leach into beaches.

  2. Degradation of Phytate Pentamagnesium Salt by Bacillus sp. T4 Phytase as a Potential Eco-friendly Feed Additive

    PubMed Central

    Park, Inkyung; Lee, Jaekoo; Cho, Jaiesoon

    2012-01-01

    A bacterial isolate derived from soil samples near a cattle farm was found to display extracellular phytase activity. Based on 16S rRNA sequence analysis, the strain was named Bacillus sp. T4. The optimum temperature for the phytase activity toward magnesium phytate (Mg-InsP6) was 40°C without 5 mM Ca2+ and 50°C with 5 mM Ca2+. T4 phytase had a characteristic bi-hump two pH optima of 6.0 to 6.5 and 7.4 for Mg-InsP6. The enzyme showed higher specificity for Mg-InsP6 than sodium phytate (Na-InsP6). Its activity was fairly inhibited by EDTA, Cu2+, Mn2+, Co2+, Ba2+ and Zn2+. T4 phytase may have great potential for use as an eco-friendly feed additive to enhance the nutritive quality of phytate and reduce phosphorus pollution. PMID:25049504

  3. Microbial siderophores and their potential applications: a review.

    PubMed

    Saha, Maumita; Sarkar, Subhasis; Sarkar, Biplab; Sharma, Bipin Kumar; Bhattacharjee, Surajit; Tribedi, Prosun

    2016-03-01

    Siderophores are small organic molecules produced by microorganisms under iron-limiting conditions which enhance the uptake of iron to the microorganisms. In environment, the ferric form of iron is insoluble and inaccessible at physiological pH (7.35-7.40). Under this condition, microorganisms synthesize siderophores which have high affinity for ferric iron. These ferric iron-siderophore complexes are then transported to cytosol. In cytosol, the ferric iron gets reduced into ferrous iron and becomes accessible to microorganism. In recent times, siderophores have drawn much attention due to its potential roles in different fields. Siderophores have application in microbial ecology to enhance the growth of several unculturable microorganisms and can alter the microbial communities. In the field of agriculture, different types of siderophores promote the growth of several plant species and increase their yield by enhancing the Fe uptake to plants. Siderophores acts as a potential biocontrol agent against harmful phyto-pathogens and holds the ability to substitute hazardous pesticides. Heavy-metal-contaminated samples can be detoxified by applying siderophores, which explicate its role in bioremediation. Siderophores can detect the iron content in different environments, exhibiting its role as a biosensor. In the medical field, siderophore uses the "Trojan horse strategy" to form complexes with antibiotics and helps in the selective delivery of antibiotics to the antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Certain iron overload diseases for example sickle cell anemia can be treated with the help of siderophores. Other medical applications of siderophores include antimalarial activity, removal of transuranic elements from the body, and anticancer activity. The aim of this review is to discuss the important roles and applications of siderophores in different sectors including ecology, agriculture, bioremediation, biosensor, and medicine.

  4. Potential Applications of Carbohydrases Immobilization in the Food Industry

    PubMed Central

    Contesini, Fabiano Jares; de Alencar Figueira, Joelise; Kawaguti, Haroldo Yukio; de Barros Fernandes, Pedro Carlos; de Oliveira Carvalho, Patrícia; Nascimento, Maria da Graça; Sato, Hélia Harumi

    2013-01-01

    Carbohydrases find a wide application in industrial processes and products, mainly in the food industry. With these enzymes, it is possible to obtain different types of sugar syrups (viz. glucose, fructose and inverted sugar syrups), prebiotics (viz. galactooligossacharides and fructooligossacharides) and isomaltulose, which is an interesting sweetener substitute for sucrose to improve the sensory properties of juices and wines and to reduce lactose in milk. The most important carbohydrases to accomplish these goals are of microbial origin and include amylases (α-amylases and glucoamylases), invertases, inulinases, galactosidases, glucosidases, fructosyltransferases, pectinases and glucosyltransferases. Yet, for all these processes to be cost-effective for industrial application, a very efficient, simple and cheap immobilization technique is required. Immobilization techniques can involve adsorption, entrapment or covalent bonding of the enzyme into an insoluble support, or carrier-free methods, usually based on the formation of cross-linked enzyme aggregates (CLEAs). They include a broad variety of supports, such as magnetic materials, gums, gels, synthetic polymers and ionic resins. All these techniques present advantages and disadvantages and several parameters must be considered. In this work, the most recent and important studies on the immobilization of carbohydrases with potential application in the food industry are reviewed. PMID:23344046

  5. Potential applications of carbohydrases immobilization in the food industry.

    PubMed

    Contesini, Fabiano Jares; de Alencar Figueira, Joelise; Kawaguti, Haroldo Yukio; de Barros Fernandes, Pedro Carlos; de Oliveira Carvalho, Patrícia; da Graça Nascimento, Maria; Sato, Hélia Harumi

    2013-01-11

    Carbohydrases find a wide application in industrial processes and products, mainly in the food industry. With these enzymes, it is possible to obtain different types of sugar syrups (viz. glucose, fructose and inverted sugar syrups), prebiotics (viz. galactooligossacharides and fructooligossacharides) and isomaltulose, which is an interesting sweetener substitute for sucrose to improve the sensory properties of juices and wines and to reduce lactose in milk. The most important carbohydrases to accomplish these goals are of microbial origin and include amylases (α-amylases and glucoamylases), invertases, inulinases, galactosidases, glucosidases, fructosyltransferases, pectinases and glucosyltransferases. Yet, for all these processes to be cost-effective for industrial application, a very efficient, simple and cheap immobilization technique is required. Immobilization techniques can involve adsorption, entrapment or covalent bonding of the enzyme into an insoluble support, or carrier-free methods, usually based on the formation of cross-linked enzyme aggregates (CLEAs). They include a broad variety of supports, such as magnetic materials, gums, gels, synthetic polymers and ionic resins. All these techniques present advantages and disadvantages and several parameters must be considered. In this work, the most recent and important studies on the immobilization of carbohydrases with potential application in the food industry are reviewed.

  6. Applicability and limitations of enzyme addition assays for the characterisation of soil organic phosphorus across a range of soil types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarosch, Klaus; Doolette, Ashlea; Smernik, Ronald; Frossard, Emmanuel; Bünemann, Else K.

    2014-05-01

    Solution 31P NMR spectroscopy is a powerful tool for the characterisation and quantification of organic P classes in soil. Potential limitations are due to costs, equipment accessibility and the requirement of relatively large amounts of sample. A recent alternative approach for the quantification of specific organic P classes is the use of substrate-specific phosphohydrolase enzymes which cleave the inorganic orthophosphate from the organic moiety. The released orthophosphate is detectable by colorimetry. Conclusions about the hydrolysed class of organic P can be made based on the comparison of inorganic P concentrations in enzymatically treated and untreated samples. The aim of this study was to test the applicability of enzyme addition assays for the characterisation of organic P classes on a) NaOH-EDTA extracts, b) soil:water filtrates (0.2 μm) and c) soil:water suspensions. The organic P classes in NaOH-EDTA extracts were also determined by 31P NMR spectroscopy, enabling a comparison between methods. Ten topsoil samples from four continents (five cambisols, two ferralsols, two luvisols and one lixisol) with varying total P content (83 - 1,1560 mg kg-1), pHH2O (4.2 - 8.0) and land management (grassland or cropped land) were analysed. Four different classes of organic P were determined by the enzyme addition assay: 1) monoester like-P (by an acid phosphatase known to hydrolyse simple monoesters, pyrophosphate and ATP), 2) DNA-like P (by a nuclease in combination with an acid phosphatase), 3) inositol phosphate-like P (by a phytase known to hydrolyse all monoester like-P plus myo-inositol hexakisphosphate and scyllo-inositol hexakisphosphate) and 4) enzyme stable-P (enzymatically not hydrolysed organic P forms). In the ten topsoil samples, NaOH-EDTA-extractable organic P ranged from 6 - 1,115 mg P kg-1 soil. Of this, 33 - 92 % was enzyme labile, with inositol phosphate-like P being the largest organic P class in most soils (15 - 51%), followed by monoester

  7. Evanescent field: A potential light-tool for theranostics application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polley, Nabarun; Singh, Soumendra; Giri, Anupam; Pal, Samir Kumar

    2014-03-01

    A noninvasive or minimally invasive optical approach for theranostics, which would reinforce diagnosis, treatment, and preferably guidance simultaneously, is considered to be major challenge in biomedical instrument design. In the present work, we have developed an evanescent field-based fiber optic strategy for the potential theranostics application in hyperbilirubinemia, an increased concentration of bilirubin in the blood and is a potential cause of permanent brain damage or even death in newborn babies. Potential problem of bilirubin deposition on the hydroxylated fiber surface at physiological pH (7.4), that masks the sensing efficacy and extraction of information of the pigment level, has also been addressed. Removal of bilirubin in a blood-phantom (hemoglobin and human serum albumin) solution from an enhanced level of 77 μM/l (human jaundice >50 μM/l) to ˜30 μM/l (normal level ˜25 μM/l in human) using our strategy has been successfully demonstrated. In a model experiment using chromatography paper as a mimic of biological membrane, we have shown efficient degradation of the bilirubin under continuous monitoring for guidance of immediate/future course of action.

  8. Evaluations of membrane fouling potential in water treatment applications

    SciTech Connect

    Tu, S.C.; Ravindran, V.; Pirbazari, M.

    1999-07-01

    Membrane processes such as ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, and reverse osmosis are becoming increasingly popular in water treatment utilities because of their ability to produce high finished water quality. A major problem affecting the economics of these processes is permeate flux decline due to membrane fouling. The types of membrane fouling can be broadly categorized as follows: organic fouling, biofouling, colloidal fouling, inorganic fouling, and precipitation scaling. The membrane performance with respect to resistance to fouling as well as rejection characteristics is an important consideration. Selection of appropriate membranes for performance improvement in water treatment applications mandates the evaluation of the fouling potential, an aspect related to the membrane material, membrane type, nature of feed solution, and interactions between membranes and solutes. In the present study, the membrane fouling potential is evaluated by membrane performance tests with respect to permeate flux and solute rejections, and by membrane surface characterization techniques including measurements of membrane sorption, zeta potential, contact angles, and membrane surface morphology. These surface characterization techniques are intended to evaluate membrane sorption characteristics (with respect to foulants), membrane surface hydrophobicity, membrane surface charge under different solution conditions, and changes on membrane surface topography on the clean and fouled membranes.

  9. Additive manufacturing of 316L stainless steel by electron beam melting for nuclear fusion applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Yuan; Rännar, Lars-Erik; Liu, Leifeng; Koptyug, Andrey; Wikman, Stefan; Olsen, Jon; Cui, Daqing; Shen, Zhijian

    2017-04-01

    A feasibility study was performed to fabricate ITER In-Vessel components by one of the metal additive manufacturing methods, Electron Beam Melting® (EBM®). Solid specimens of SS316L with 99.8% relative density were prepared from gas atomized precursor powder granules. After the EBM® process the phase remains as austenite and the composition has practically not been changed. The RCC-MR code used for nuclear pressure vessels provides guidelines for this study and tensile tests and Charpy-V tests were carried out at 22 °C (RT) and 250 °C (ET). This work provides the first set of mechanical and microstructure data of EBM® SS316L for nuclear fusion applications. The mechanical testing shows that the yield strength, ductility and toughness are well above the acceptance criteria and only the ultimate tensile strength of EBM® SS316L is below the RCC-MR code. Microstructure characterizations reveal the presence of hierarchical structures consisting of solidified melt pools, columnar grains and irregular shaped sub-grains. Lots of precipitates enriched in Cr and Mo are observed at columnar grain boundaries while no sign of element segregation is shown at the sub-grain boundaries. Such a unique microstructure forms during a non-equilibrium process, comprising rapid solidification and a gradient 'annealing' process due to anisotropic thermal flow of accumulated heat inside the powder granule matrix. Relations between process parameters, specimen geometry (total building time) and sub-grain structure are discussed. Defects are formed mainly due to the large layer thickness (100 μm) which generates insufficient bonding between a few of the adjacently formed melt pools during the process. Further studies should focus on adjusting layer thickness to improve the strength of EBM® SS316L and optimizing total building time.

  10. Potential role of bromelain in clinical and therapeutic applications

    PubMed Central

    Rathnavelu, Vidhya; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Sohila, Subramaniam; Kanagesan, Samikannu; Ramesh, Rajendran

    2016-01-01

    Pineapple has been used as part of traditional folk medicine since ancient times and it continues to be present in various herbal preparations. Bromelain is a complex mixture of protease extracted from the fruit or stem of the pineapple plant. Although the complete molecular mechanism of action of bromelain has not been completely identified, bromelain gained universal acceptability as a phytotherapeutic agent due to its history of safe use and lack of side effects. Bromelain is widely administered for its well-recognized properties, such as its anti-inflammatory, antithrombotic and fibrinolytic affects, anticancer activity and immunomodulatory effects, in addition to being a wound healing and circulatory improvement agent. The current review describes the promising clinical applications and therapeutic properties of bromelain. PMID:27602208

  11. Broad-Spectrum Antimicrobial Effects of Photocatalysis Using Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles Are Strongly Potentiated by Addition of Potassium Iodide

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ying-Ying; Choi, Hwanjun; Kushida, Yu; Bhayana, Brijesh; Wang, Yuguang

    2016-01-01

    Photocatalysis describes the excitation of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (a wide-band gap semiconductor) by UVA light to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can destroy many organic molecules. This photocatalysis process is used for environmental remediation, while antimicrobial photocatalysis can kill many classes of microorganisms and can be used to sterilize water and surfaces and possibly to treat infections. Here we show that addition of the nontoxic inorganic salt potassium iodide to TiO2 (P25) excited by UVA potentiated the killing of Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, and fungi by up to 6 logs. The microbial killing depended on the concentration of TiO2, the fluence of UVA light, and the concentration of KI (the best effect was at 100 mM). There was formation of long-lived antimicrobial species (probably hypoiodite and iodine) in the reaction mixture (detected by adding bacteria after light), but short-lived antibacterial reactive species (bacteria present during light) produced more killing. Fluorescent probes for ROS (hydroxyl radical and singlet oxygen) were quenched by iodide. Tri-iodide (which has a peak at 350 nm and a blue product with starch) was produced by TiO2-UVA-KI but was much reduced when methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) cells were also present. The model tyrosine substrate N-acetyl tyrosine ethyl ester was iodinated in a light dose-dependent manner. We conclude that UVA-excited TiO2 in the presence of iodide produces reactive iodine intermediates during illumination that kill microbial cells and long-lived oxidized iodine products that kill after light has ended. PMID:27381399

  12. Broad-Spectrum Antimicrobial Effects of Photocatalysis Using Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles Are Strongly Potentiated by Addition of Potassium Iodide.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying-Ying; Choi, Hwanjun; Kushida, Yu; Bhayana, Brijesh; Wang, Yuguang; Hamblin, Michael R

    2016-09-01

    Photocatalysis describes the excitation of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (a wide-band gap semiconductor) by UVA light to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can destroy many organic molecules. This photocatalysis process is used for environmental remediation, while antimicrobial photocatalysis can kill many classes of microorganisms and can be used to sterilize water and surfaces and possibly to treat infections. Here we show that addition of the nontoxic inorganic salt potassium iodide to TiO2 (P25) excited by UVA potentiated the killing of Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, and fungi by up to 6 logs. The microbial killing depended on the concentration of TiO2, the fluence of UVA light, and the concentration of KI (the best effect was at 100 mM). There was formation of long-lived antimicrobial species (probably hypoiodite and iodine) in the reaction mixture (detected by adding bacteria after light), but short-lived antibacterial reactive species (bacteria present during light) produced more killing. Fluorescent probes for ROS (hydroxyl radical and singlet oxygen) were quenched by iodide. Tri-iodide (which has a peak at 350 nm and a blue product with starch) was produced by TiO2-UVA-KI but was much reduced when methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) cells were also present. The model tyrosine substrate N-acetyl tyrosine ethyl ester was iodinated in a light dose-dependent manner. We conclude that UVA-excited TiO2 in the presence of iodide produces reactive iodine intermediates during illumination that kill microbial cells and long-lived oxidized iodine products that kill after light has ended.

  13. Molecular Imaging with MRI: Potential Application in Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chen; Wu, Chang Qiang; Chen, Tian Wu; Tang, Meng Yue; Zhang, Xiao Ming

    2015-01-01

    Despite the variety of approaches that have been improved to achieve a good understanding of pancreatic cancer (PC), the prognosis of PC remains poor, and the survival rates are dismal. The lack of early detection and effective interventions is the main reason. Therefore, considerable ongoing efforts aimed at identifying early PC are currently being pursued using a variety of methods. In recent years, the development of molecular imaging has made the specific targeting of PC in the early stage possible. Molecular imaging seeks to directly visualize, characterize, and measure biological processes at the molecular and cellular levels. Among different imaging technologies, the magnetic resonance (MR) molecular imaging has potential in this regard because it facilitates noninvasive, target-specific imaging of PC. This topic is reviewed in terms of the contrast agents for MR molecular imaging, the biomarkers related to PC, targeted molecular probes for MRI, and the application of MRI in the diagnosis of PC. PMID:26579537

  14. Potential biotechnological application of microalgae: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Odjadjare, Ejovwokoghene C; Mutanda, Taurai; Olaniran, Ademola O

    2017-02-01

    Microalgae are diverse microorganisms inhabiting a wide range of habitats with only a small fraction being cultivated for human use. Recently, interest in microalgal research has increased in the quest for alternative renewable fuels due to possible depletion of fossil fuels in the near future. However, costly downstream processing has hampered the commercialization of biofuels derived from microalgae. Several value added products of industrial, pharmaceutical and agricultural relevance could be simultaneously derived from microalgae during bioenergy production. Despite these value-added products having the potential to offset the high cost of downstream processing of renewable fuels, their production has not been explored in-depth. This review presents a critical overview of the current state of biotechnological applications of microalgae for human benefit and highlights possible areas for further research and development.

  15. New Functions and Potential Applications of Amino Acids.

    PubMed

    Uneyama, Hisayuki; Kobayashi, Hisamine; Tonouchi, Naoto

    2016-11-22

    Currently, several types of amino acids are being produced and used worldwide. Nevertheless, several new functions of amino acids have been recently discovered that could result in other applications. For example, oral stimulation by glutamate triggers the cephalic phase response to prepare for food digestion. Further, the stomach and intestines have specific glutamate-recognizing systems in their epithelial mucosa. Regarding clinical applications, addition of monosodium glutamate to the medicinal diet has been shown to markedly enhance gastric secretion in a vagus-dependent manner. Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are the major components of muscles, and ingestion of BCAAs has been found to be effective for decreasing muscle pain. BCAAs are expected to be a solution for the serious issue of aging. Further, ingestion of specific amino acids could be beneficial. Glycine can be ingested for good night's sleep: glycine ingestion before bedtime significantly improved subjective sleep quality. Ingestion of alanine and glutamine effectively accelerates alcohol metabolism, and ingestion of cystine and theanine effectively prevents colds. Finally, amino acids could be used in a novel clinical diagnostic method: the balance of amino acids in the blood could be an indicator of the risk of diseases such as cancer. These newly discovered functions of amino acids are expected to contribute to the resolution of various issues.

  16. 28 CFR 34.4 - Additional competitive application requirements and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for review and approval prior to the acceptance of an application. (b) Cooperative arrangements. (1) When specified in program announcements, eligible parties may enter into cooperative arrangements with...'s performance on prior award. When the applicant has previously received an award from OJJDP...

  17. 24 CFR 570.466 - Additional application submission requirements for Pockets of Poverty-employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... requirements for Pockets of Poverty-employment opportunities. 570.466 Section 570.466 Housing and Urban... application submission requirements for Pockets of Poverty—employment opportunities. Applicants for Action Grants under the Pockets of Poverty provision must describe the number and, to the extent possible,...

  18. 75 FR 2122 - Additional Guidance Regarding Application of Current Procedures for Testing Energy Consumption of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-14

    ... ensure the consistent application of DOE's current test procedure to refrigerator-freezers with French doors, bottom-mounted freezers, and through-the-door (TTD) ice service (French door TTD models). This... application of the current test procedure to refrigerator- freezers with French doors, bottom-mounted...

  19. Synthesis and characterization of corn oil polyhydroxy fatty acids designed as additive agent for many applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Before the advent of the modern food industry, vegetable oils (triglycerides) from many sources had a long history of use as condiments in cooking, personal care and other therapeutic applications. Industrial applications of vegetable oils, on the other hand, have been limited on account of the shor...

  20. Morse, Lennard-Jones, and Kratzer Potentials: A Canonical Perspective with Applications.

    PubMed

    Walton, Jay R; Rivera-Rivera, Luis A; Lucchese, Robert R; Bevan, John W

    2016-10-12

    Canonical approaches are applied to classic Morse, Lennard-Jones, and Kratzer potentials. Using the canonical transformation generated for the Morse potential as a reference, inverse transformations allow the accurate generation of the Born-Oppenheimer potential for the H2(+) ion, neutral covalently bound H2, van der Waals bound Ar2, and the hydrogen bonded one-dimensional dissociative coordinate in a water dimer. Similar transformations are also generated using the Lennard-Jones and Kratzer potentials as references. Following application of inverse transformations, vibrational eigenvalues generated from the Born-Oppenheimer potentials give significantly improved quantitative comparison with values determined from the original accurately known potentials. In addition, an algorithmic strategy based upon a canonical transformation to the dimensionless form applied to the force distribution associated with a potential is presented. The resulting canonical force distribution is employed to construct an algorithm for deriving accurate estimates for the dissociation energy, the maximum attractive force, and the internuclear separations corresponding to the maximum attractive force and the potential well.

  1. Exploitation of marine algae: biogenic compounds for potential antifouling applications.

    PubMed

    Bhadury, Punyasloke; Wright, Phillip C

    2004-08-01

    Marine algae are one of the largest producers of biomass in the marine environment. They produce a wide variety of chemically active metabolites in their surroundings, potentially as an aid to protect themselves against other settling organisms. These active metabolites, also known as biogenic compounds, produced by several species of marine macro- and micro-algae, have antibacterial, antialgal, antimacrofouling and antifungal properties, which are effective in the prevention of biofouling, and have other likely uses, e.g. in therapeutics. The isolated substances with potent antifouling activity belong to groups of fatty acids, lipopeptides, amides, alkaloids, terpenoids, lactones, pyrroles and steroids. These biogenic compounds have the potential to be produced commercially using metabolic engineering techniques. Therefore, isolation of biogenic compounds and determination of their structure could provide leads for future development of, for example, environmentally friendly antifouling paints. This paper mainly discusses the successes of such research, and the future applications in the context of understanding the systems biology of micro-algae and cyanobacteria.

  2. Bacteriocins synthesized by Bacillus thuringiensis: generalities and potential applications

    PubMed Central

    Salazar-Marroquín, Elma Laura; Galán-Wong, Luis J.; Moreno-Medina, Víctor Ricardo; Reyes-López, Miguel Ángel; Pereyra-Alférez, Benito

    2016-01-01

    The members of the Bacillus thuringiensis group, commonly known as Bt, produce a huge number of metabolites, which show biocidal and antagonistic activity. B. thuringiensis is widely known for synthesizing Cry, Vip and Cyt proteins, active against insects and other parasporins with biocidal activity against certain types of cancerous cells. Nevertheless, B. thuringiensis also synthesizes compounds with antimicrobial activity, especially bacteriocins. Some B. thuringiensis bacteriocins resemble lantibiotics and other small linear peptides (class IIa) from the lactic acid bacteria bacteriocins classification system. Although many bacteriocins produced by Bt have been reported, there is no proper classification for them. In this work, we have grouped these based on molecular weight and functionality. Bacteriocins are small peptides synthesized by bacteria, presenting inhibitory activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and to a lesser extent against fungi. These molecules represent a good study model in the search for microbial control alternatives. Lactic acid bacteria produces a huge number of these types of molecules with great potential. Nonetheless, members of the Bacillus, cereus group, especially B. thuringiensis, emerge as an attractive alternative for obtaining bacteriocins showing novel activities. This review describes the potential applications of B. thuringiensis bacteriocins in the control of foodborne pathogens, environment and medical area. PMID:27340340

  3. Potential applications for antiviral therapy and prophylaxis in bovine medicine.

    PubMed

    Newcomer, Benjamin W; Walz, Paul H; Givens, M Daniel

    2014-06-01

    Viral disease is one of the major causes of financial loss and animal suffering in today's cattle industry. Increases in global commerce and average herd size, urbanization, vertical integration within the industry and alterations in global climate patterns have allowed the spread of pathogenic viruses, or the introduction of new viral species, into regions previously free of such pathogens, creating the potential for widespread morbidity and mortality in naïve cattle populations. Despite this, no antiviral products are currently commercially licensed for use in bovine medicine, although significant progress has been made in the development of antivirals for use against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) and bovine herpesvirus (BHV). BVDV is extensively studied as a model virus for human antiviral studies. Consequently, many compounds with efficacy have been identified and a few have been successfully used to prevent infection in vivo although commercial development is still lacking. FMDV is also the subject of extensive antiviral testing due to the importance of outbreak containment for maintenance of export markets. Thirdly, BHV presents an attractive target for antiviral development due to its worldwide presence. Antiviral studies for other bovine viral pathogens are largely limited to preliminary studies. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge of antiviral compounds against several key bovine pathogens and the potential for commercial antiviral applications in the prevention and control of several selected bovine diseases.

  4. Modification And Designing Of Electrodeposited Polyaniline Films For Potential Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, I. D.; Dhawan, S. K.; Srivastav, Ritu; Sharma, V. K.

    2011-12-01

    Conducting polymers have been widely investigated for both academic and industrial purposes over three decades. Thin film of polyaniline(PANI) upon ITO coated glass was electrodeposited using direct power supply method. In this method stainless steel electrode was used as cathode and ITO coated glass as anode. 0.1 M aniline monomer and 0.5 M H2SO4 solution in distilled water was used as electrolyte. The electric current in the electrolite was supplied at fixed voltage 1.5 volt upto the required time to obtained the desired thickness of the polymer film. An attempt has been made to estimate various electronic perameters such as barrier height through I/V measurements of the polyaniline film upon ITO coated glass. The surface morphology of the film material was studied by scanning electron microscopy. The film material was also characterised by X-Ray Difractometer & FTIR The value of potential barrier O/b &constant factor ß was obtained using Schottky equations. Bandgap calculations were carried out by using U.V. Visible spectroscopy method. The results has been explained for potential applications.

  5. AC electrokinetic manipulation of selenium nanoparticles for potential nanosensor applications

    SciTech Connect

    Mahmoodi, Seyed Reza; Bayati, Marzieh; Hosseinirad, Somayeh; Foroumadi, Alireza; Gilani, Kambiz; Rezayat, Seyed Mahdi

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► Se nanoparticles were synthesized using a reverse-microemulsion process. ► AC osmotic fluid flow repulses the particles from electrode edges. ► Dielectrophoretic force attracts the particles to electrode edges. ► Dielectrophoresis electrode showed non-ohmic behavior. ► The device can potentially be used as a nanosensor. - Abstract: We report the AC electrokinetic behavior of selenium (Se) nanoparticles for electrical characterization and possible application as micro/nano devices. selenium Se nanoparticles were successfully synthesized using a reverse-microemulsion process and investigated structurally using X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscope. Interdigitated castellated ITO and non-castellated platinum electrodes were employed for manipulation of suspended materials in the fluid. Using ITO electrodes at low frequency limits resulted in deposition of Se particles on electrode surface. When Se particles exposed to platinum electrodes in the 10 Hz–1 kHz range and V {sub p−p}> 8, AC osmotic fluid flow repulses the particles from electrode edges. However, in 10 kHz–10 MHz range and V {sub p−p}> 5, dielectrophoretic force attracts the particles to electrode edges. As the Se particle concentration increased, the trapped Se particles were aligned along the electric field line and bridged the electrode gap. The device was characterized and can potentially be useful in making micro/nano electronic devices.

  6. Application of Direct Current Potential Drop for Fracture Toughness Measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xiang; Nanstad, Randy K; Sokolov, Mikhail A

    2013-01-01

    Material fracture toughness based on J-integral versus crack-extension relationship (J-R curve) is investigated with direct current potential drop (DCPD) technique and compared with results from elastic unloading compliance (EUC) or normalization technique. The test matrix covered four different materials, half inch thickness and one inch thickness compact tension (C(T))specimens, and temperatures ranging from 24 C to 600 C. The original J-R curves from DCPD yielded much smaller Jq value than EUC or normalization results due to the influence of plastic deformation on potential drop. To counter this effect, two new methods for adjusting DCPD data have been proposed. After adjustment, the average difference in Jq between DCPD and EUC or normalization results is only about 8% whereas the difference in tearing modulus is about 17%. The promising results prove the applicability of DCPD for J-R curve determination for C(T) specimens especially in extreme environments, such as elevated temperatures, where conventional EUC method faces considerable challenges.

  7. COMPUTATIONAL MITRAL VALVE EVALUATION AND POTENTIAL CLINICAL APPLICATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Chandran, Krishnan B.; Kim, Hyunggun

    2014-01-01

    The mitral valve (MV) apparatus consists of the two asymmetric leaflets, the saddle-shaped annulus, the chordae tendineae, and the papillary muscles. MV function over the cardiac cycle involves complex interaction between the MV apparatus components for efficient blood circulation. Common diseases of the MV include valvular stenosis, regurgitation, and prolapse. MV repair is the most popular and most reliable surgical treatment for early MV pathology. One of the unsolved problems in MV repair is to predict the optimal repair strategy for each patient. Although experimental studies have provided valuable information to improve repair techniques, computational simulations are increasingly playing an important role in understanding the complex MV dynamics, particularly with the availability of patient-specific real-time imaging modalities. This work presents a review of computational simulation studies of MV function employing finite element (FE) structural analysis and fluid-structure interaction (FSI) approach reported in the literature to date. More recent studies towards potential applications of computational simulation approaches in the assessment of valvular repair techniques and potential pre-surgical planning of repair strategies are also discussed. It is anticipated that further advancements in computational techniques combined with the next generations of clinical imaging modalities will enable physiologically more realistic simulations. Such advancement in imaging and computation will allow for patient-specific, disease-specific, and case-specific MV evaluation and virtual prediction of MV repair. PMID:25134487

  8. Novel and potential application of cryopreservation to plant genetic transformation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Biao; Zhang, Zhibo; Yin, Zhenfang; Feng, Chaohong; Wang, Qiaochun

    2012-01-01

    The world population now is 6.7 billion and is predicted to reach 9 billion by 2050. Such a rapid growing population has tremendously increased the challenge for food security. Obviously, it is impossible for traditional agriculture to ensure the food security, while plant biotechnology offers considerable potential to realize this goal. Over the last 15 years, great benefits have been brought to sustainable agriculture by commercial cultivation of genetically modified (GM) crops. Further development of new GM crops will with no doubt contribute to meeting the requirements for food by the increasing population. The present article provides updated comprehensive information on novel and potential application of cryopreservation to genetic transformation. The major progresses that have been achieved in this subject include (1), long-term storage of a large number of valuable plant genes, which offers a good potential for further development of novel cultivars by genetic transformation; (2), retention of regenerative capacity of embryogenic tissues and protoplasts, which ensures efficient plant regeneration system for genetic transformation; (3), improvement of transformation efficiency and plant regeneration of transformed cells; (4), long-term preservation of transgenic materials with stable expression of transgenes and productive ability of recombinant proteins, which allows transgenic materials to be stored in a safe manner before being analyzed and evaluated, and allows establishment of stable seed stocks for commercial production of homologous proteins. Data provided in this article clearly demonstrate that cryo-technique has an important role to play in the whole chain of genetic transformation. Further studies coupling cryotechnique and genetic transformation are expected to significantly improve development of new GM crops.

  9. Genome-wide meta-analysis of maize heterosis reveals the potential role of additive gene expression at pericentromeric loci

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    QTL, and also suggests a model for the potential role of additive expression in the formation and conservation of heterosis for GY via dominant, multigenic quantitative trait loci. Our findings contribute to a deeper understanding of the multifactorial phenomenon of heterosis, and thus to the breeding of new high yielding varieties. PMID:24693880

  10. Impacts of nitrogen addition on plant biodiversity in mountain grasslands depend on dose, application duration and climate: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Humbert, Jean-Yves; Dwyer, John M; Andrey, Aline; Arlettaz, Raphaël

    2016-01-01

    Although the influence of nitrogen (N) addition on grassland plant communities has been widely studied, it is still unclear whether observed patterns and underlying mechanisms are constant across biomes. In this systematic review, we use meta-analysis and metaregression to investigate the influence of N addition (here referring mostly to fertilization) upon the biodiversity of temperate mountain grasslands (including montane, subalpine and alpine zones). Forty-two studies met our criteria of inclusion, resulting in 134 measures of effect size. The main general responses of mountain grasslands to N addition were increases in phytomass and reductions in plant species richness, as observed in lowland grasslands. More specifically, the analysis reveals that negative effects on species richness were exacerbated by dose (ha(-1) year(-1) ) and duration of N application (years) in an additive manner. Thus, sustained application of low to moderate levels of N over time had effects similar to short-term application of high N doses. The climatic context also played an important role: the overall effects of N addition on plant species richness and diversity (Shannon index) were less pronounced in mountain grasslands experiencing cool rather than warm summers. Furthermore, the relative negative effect of N addition on species richness was more pronounced in managed communities and was strongly negatively related to N-induced increases in phytomass, that is the greater the phytomass response to N addition, the greater the decline in richness. Altogether, this review not only establishes that plant biodiversity of mountain grasslands is negatively affected by N addition, but also demonstrates that several local management and abiotic factors interact with N addition to drive plant community changes. This synthesis yields essential information for a more sustainable management of mountain grasslands, emphasizing the importance of preserving and restoring grasslands with both low

  11. Stratospheric changes caused by geoengineering applications: potential repercussions and uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenzelmann, P.; Weisenstein, D.; Peter, T.; Luo, B. P.; Rozanov, E.; Fueglistaler, S.; Thomason, L. W.

    2009-04-01

    Anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions tend to warm the global climate, calling for significant rapid emission reductions. As potential support measures various ideas for geoengineering are currently being discussed. The assessment of the possible manifold and as yet substantially unexplored repercussions of implementing geoengineering ideas to ameliorate climate change poses enormous challenges not least in the realm of aerosol-cloud-climate interactions. Sulphur aerosols cool the Earth's surface by reflecting short wave radiation. By increasing the amount of sulphur aerosols in the stratosphere, for example by sulphur dioxide injections, part of the anthropogenic climate warming might be compensated due to enhanced albedo. However, we are only at the beginning of understanding possible side effects. One such effect that such aerosol might have is the warming of the tropical tropopause and consequently the increase of the amount of stratospheric water vapour. Using the 2D AER Aerosol Model we calculated the aerosol distributions for yearly injections of 1, 2, 5 and 10 Mt sulphur into the lower tropical stratosphere. The results serve as input for the 3D chemistry-climate model SOCOL, which allows calculating the aerosol effect on stratospheric temperatures and chemistry. In the injection region the continuously formed sulphuric acid condensates rapidly on sulphate aerosol, which eventually grow to such extent that they sediment down to the tropical tropopause region. The growth of the aerosol particles depends on non-linear processes: the more sulphur is emitted the faster the particles grow. As a consequence for the scenario with continuous sulphur injection of totally 10 Mt per year, only 6 Mt sulphur are in the stratosphere if equilibrium is reached. According to our model calculations this amount of sulphate aerosols leads to a net surface forcing of -3.4 W/m2, which is less then expected radiative forcing by doubling of carbon dioxide concentration. Hence

  12. Investigation of the effectiveness of smoke suppressant fuel additives for turbojet applications. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Bramer, J.R.

    1982-10-01

    Seven fuel additives were tested to investigate their effectiveness at reducing exhaust stack gas opacity in a turbojet test cell. Exhaust particle sizes and mass concentrations were determined at the engine and stack exhausts using measurements of light transmittance at three frequencies. Particle samples were also collected at the engine exhaust and measured with a scanning electron microscope to verify the optical technique. Nitrous oxide emissions were measured at the test cell stack exhaust. Four of the additives tested were found effective at reducing stack exhaust opacity and particulate mass concentration. None of the additives had any measurable effect on particle diameters. No meaningful changes in particle size or mass occurred between the engine and stack exhausts. The optical technique for determining particle size was verified effective using the scanning electron microscope. No additive had any significant effect on nitrous oxide production.

  13. Production, sintering, and application of nanocrystalline iron-copper additions in a powder steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meilakh, A. G.

    2015-12-01

    A method is proposed for activated sintering of a sprayed iron powder by the coalescence of pressed particles through fine-grained layers based on iron-copper nanodispersed (ND) additions. The mechanical properties of composite materials containing 2% Fe-Cu ND addition are higher than those of the materials prepared from a mixture of standard powders by a factor of 1.5.

  14. Preparation of laponite bioceramics for potential bone tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chuanshun; Wang, Shige; Li, Kai; Ju, Yaping; Li, Jipeng; Zhang, Yongxing; Li, Jinhua; Liu, Xuanyong; Shi, Xiangyang; Zhao, Qinghua

    2014-01-01

    We report a facile approach to preparing laponite (LAP) bioceramics via sintering LAP powder compacts for bone tissue engineering applications. The sintering behavior and mechanical properties of LAP compacts under different temperatures, heating rates, and soaking times were investigated. We show that LAP bioceramic with a smooth and porous surface can be formed at 800°C with a heating rate of 5°C/h for 6 h under air. The formed LAP bioceramic was systematically characterized via different methods. Our results reveal that the LAP bioceramic possesses an excellent surface hydrophilicity and serum absorption capacity, and good cytocompatibility and hemocompatibility as demonstrated by resazurin reduction assay of rat mesenchymal stem cells (rMSCs) and hemolytic assay of pig red blood cells, respectively. The potential bone tissue engineering applicability of LAP bioceramic was explored by studying the surface mineralization behavior via soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF), as well as the surface cellular response of rMSCs. Our results suggest that LAP bioceramic is able to induce hydroxyapatite deposition on its surface when soaked in SBF and rMSCs can proliferate well on the LAP bioceramic surface. Most strikingly, alkaline phosphatase activity together with alizarin red staining results reveal that the produced LAP bioceramic is able to induce osteoblast differentiation of rMSCs in growth medium without any inducing factors. Finally, in vivo animal implantation, acute systemic toxicity test and hematoxylin and eosin (H&E)-staining data demonstrate that the prepared LAP bioceramic displays an excellent biosafety and is able to heal the bone defect. Findings from this study suggest that the developed LAP bioceramic holds a great promise for treating bone defects in bone tissue engineering.

  15. Configuration and technology implications of potential nuclear hydrogen system applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Conzelmann, G.; Petri, M.; Forsberg, C.; Yildiz, B.; ORNL

    2005-11-05

    Nuclear technologies have important distinctions and potential advantages for large-scale generation of hydrogen for U.S. energy services. Nuclear hydrogen requires no imported fossil fuels, results in lower greenhouse-gas emissions and other pollutants, lends itself to large-scale production, and is sustainable. The technical uncertainties in nuclear hydrogen processes and the reactor technologies needed to enable these processes, as well waste, proliferation, and economic issues must be successfully addressed before nuclear energy can be a major contributor to the nation's energy future. In order to address technical issues in the time frame needed to provide optimized hydrogen production choices, the Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative (NHI) must examine a wide range of new technologies, make the best use of research funding, and make early decisions on which technology options to pursue. For these reasons, it is important that system integration studies be performed to help guide the decisions made in the NHI. In framing the scope of system integration analyses, there is a hierarchy of questions that should be addressed: What hydrogen markets will exist and what are their characteristics? Which markets are most consistent with nuclear hydrogen? What nuclear power and production process configurations are optimal? What requirements are placed on the nuclear hydrogen system? The intent of the NHI system studies is to gain a better understanding of nuclear power's potential role in a hydrogen economy and what hydrogen production technologies show the most promise. This work couples with system studies sponsored by DOE-EE and other agencies that provide a basis for evaluating and selecting future hydrogen production technologies. This assessment includes identifying commercial hydrogen applications and their requirements, comparing the characteristics of nuclear hydrogen systems to those market requirements, evaluating nuclear hydrogen configuration options within a given

  16. Marine bioactives: pharmacological properties and potential applications against inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    D'Orazio, Nicolantonio; Gammone, Maria Alessandra; Gemello, Eugenio; De Girolamo, Massimo; Cusenza, Salvatore; Riccioni, Graziano

    2012-04-01

    Inflammation is a hot topic in medical research, because it plays a key role in inflammatory diseases: rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and other forms of arthritis, diabetes, heart diseases, irritable bowel syndrome, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, allergies, asthma, even cancer and many others. Over the past few decades, it was realized that the process of inflammation is virtually the same in different disorders, and a better understanding of inflammation may lead to better treatments for numerous diseases. Inflammation is the activation of the immune system in response to infection, irritation, or injury, with an influx of white blood cells, redness, heat, swelling, pain, and dysfunction of the organs involved. Although the pathophysiological basis of these conditions is not yet fully understood, reactive oxygen species (ROS) have often been implicated in their pathogenesis. In fact, in inflammatory diseases the antioxidant defense system is compromised, as evidenced by increased markers of oxidative stress, and decreased levels of protective antioxidant enzymes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). An enriched diet containing antioxidants, such as vitamin E, vitamin C, β-carotene and phenolic substances, has been suggested to improve symptoms by reducing disease-related oxidative stress. In this respect, the marine world represents a largely untapped reserve of bioactive ingredients, and considerable potential exists for exploitation of these bioactives as functional food ingredients. Substances such as n-3 oils, carotenoids, vitamins, minerals and peptides provide a myriad of health benefits, including reduction of cardiovascular diseases, anticarcinogenic and anti-inflammatory activities. New marine bioactives are recently gaining attention, since they could be helpful in combating chronic inflammatory degenerative conditions. The aim of this review is to examine the published studies concerning the potential pharmacological properties and

  17. Marine Bioactives: Pharmacological Properties and Potential Applications against Inflammatory Diseases

    PubMed Central

    D’Orazio, Nicolantonio; Gammone, Maria Alessandra; Gemello, Eugenio; De Girolamo, Massimo; Cusenza, Salvatore; Riccioni, Graziano

    2012-01-01

    Inflammation is a hot topic in medical research, because it plays a key role in inflammatory diseases: rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and other forms of arthritis, diabetes, heart diseases, irritable bowel syndrome, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, allergies, asthma, even cancer and many others. Over the past few decades, it was realized that the process of inflammation is virtually the same in different disorders, and a better understanding of inflammation may lead to better treatments for numerous diseases. Inflammation is the activation of the immune system in response to infection, irritation, or injury, with an influx of white blood cells, redness, heat, swelling, pain, and dysfunction of the organs involved. Although the pathophysiological basis of these conditions is not yet fully understood, reactive oxygen species (ROS) have often been implicated in their pathogenesis. In fact, in inflammatory diseases the antioxidant defense system is compromised, as evidenced by increased markers of oxidative stress, and decreased levels of protective antioxidant enzymes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). An enriched diet containing antioxidants, such as vitamin E, vitamin C, β-carotene and phenolic substances, has been suggested to improve symptoms by reducing disease-related oxidative stress. In this respect, the marine world represents a largely untapped reserve of bioactive ingredients, and considerable potential exists for exploitation of these bioactives as functional food ingredients. Substances such as n-3 oils, carotenoids, vitamins, minerals and peptides provide a myriad of health benefits, including reduction of cardiovascular diseases, anticarcinogenic and anti-inflammatory activities. New marine bioactives are recently gaining attention, since they could be helpful in combating chronic inflammatory degenerative conditions. The aim of this review is to examine the published studies concerning the potential pharmacological properties and

  18. The threshold of regulation and its application to indirect food additive contaminants in recycled plastics.

    PubMed

    Bayer, F L

    1997-01-01

    Recycled plastics have been used in food-contact applications since 1990 in various countries around the world. To date, there have been no reported issues concerning health or off-taste resulting from the use of recycled plastics in food-contact applications. This is due to the fact that the criteria that have been established regarding safety and processing are based on extremely high standards that render the finished recycled material equivalent in virtually all aspects to virgin polymers. The basis for this conclusion is detailed in this document.

  19. Multiscale simulation process and application to additives in porous composite battery electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieser, Christian; Prill, Torben; Schladitz, Katja

    2015-03-01

    Structure-resolving simulation of porous materials in electrochemical cells such as fuel cells and lithium ion batteries allows for correlating electrical performance with material morphology. In lithium ion batteries characteristic length scales of active material particles and additives range several orders of magnitude. Hence, providing a computational mesh resolving all length scales is not reasonably feasible and requires alternative approaches. In the work presented here a virtual process to simulate lithium ion batteries by bridging the scales is introduced. Representative lithium ion battery electrode coatings comprised of μm-scale graphite particles as active material and a nm-scale carbon/polymeric binder mixture as an additive are imaged with synchrotron radiation computed tomography (SR-CT) and sequential focused ion beam/scanning electron microscopy (FIB/SEM), respectively. Applying novel image processing methodologies for the FIB/SEM images, data sets are binarized to provide a computational grid for calculating the effective mass transport properties of the electrolyte phase in the nanoporous additive. Afterwards, the homogenized additive is virtually added to the micropores of the binarized SR-CT data set representing the active particle structure, and the resulting electrode structure is assembled to a virtual half-cell for electrochemical microheterogeneous simulation. Preliminary battery performance simulations indicate non-negligible impact of the consideration of the additive.

  20. Fungal Ribotoxins: A Review of Potential Biotechnological Applications

    PubMed Central

    Olombrada, Miriam; Lázaro-Gorines, Rodrigo; López-Rodríguez, Juan C.; Martínez-del-Pozo, Álvaro; Oñaderra, Mercedes; Maestro-López, Moisés; Lacadena, Javier; Gavilanes, José G.; García-Ortega, Lucía

    2017-01-01

    Fungi establish a complex network of biological interactions with other organisms in nature. In many cases, these involve the production of toxins for survival or colonization purposes. Among these toxins, ribotoxins stand out as promising candidates for their use in biotechnological applications. They constitute a group of highly specific extracellular ribonucleases that target a universally conserved sequence of RNA in the ribosome, the sarcin-ricin loop. The detailed molecular study of this family of toxic proteins over the past decades has highlighted their potential in applied research. Remarkable examples would be the recent studies in the field of cancer research with promising results involving ribotoxin-based immunotoxins. On the other hand, some ribotoxin-producer fungi have already been studied in the control of insect pests. The recent role of ribotoxins as insecticides could allow their employment in formulas and even as baculovirus-based biopesticides. Moreover, considering the important role of their target in the ribosome, they can be used as tools to study how ribosome biogenesis is regulated and, eventually, may contribute to a better understanding of some ribosomopathies. PMID:28230789

  1. Fungal Ribotoxins: A Review of Potential Biotechnological Applications.

    PubMed

    Olombrada, Miriam; Lázaro-Gorines, Rodrigo; López-Rodríguez, Juan C; Martínez-Del-Pozo, Álvaro; Oñaderra, Mercedes; Maestro-López, Moisés; Lacadena, Javier; Gavilanes, José G; García-Ortega, Lucía

    2017-02-21

    Fungi establish a complex network of biological interactions with other organisms in nature. In many cases, these involve the production of toxins for survival or colonization purposes. Among these toxins, ribotoxins stand out as promising candidates for their use in biotechnological applications. They constitute a group of highly specific extracellular ribonucleases that target a universally conserved sequence of RNA in the ribosome, the sarcin-ricin loop. The detailed molecular study of this family of toxic proteins over the past decades has highlighted their potential in applied research. Remarkable examples would be the recent studies in the field of cancer research with promising results involving ribotoxin-based immunotoxins. On the other hand, some ribotoxin-producer fungi have already been studied in the control of insect pests. The recent role of ribotoxins as insecticides could allow their employment in formulas and even as baculovirus-based biopesticides. Moreover, considering the important role of their target in the ribosome, they can be used as tools to study how ribosome biogenesis is regulated and, eventually, may contribute to a better understanding of some ribosomopathies.

  2. Potential Rainwater Harvesting Improvement Using Advanced Remote Sensing Applications

    PubMed Central

    Elhag, Mohamed; Bahrawi, Jarbou A.

    2014-01-01

    The amount of water on earth is the same and only the distribution and the reallocation of water forms are altered in both time and space. To improve the rainwater harvesting a better understanding of the hydrological cycle is mandatory. Clouds are major component of the hydrological cycle; therefore, clouds distribution is the keystone of better rainwater harvesting. Remote sensing technology has shown robust capabilities in resolving challenges of water resource management in arid environments. Soil moisture content and cloud average distribution are essential remote sensing applications in extracting information of geophysical, geomorphological, and meteorological interest from satellite images. Current research study aimed to map the soil moisture content using recent Landsat 8 images and to map cloud average distribution of the corresponding area using 59 MERIS satellite imageries collected from January 2006 to October 2011. Cloud average distribution map shows specific location in the study area where it is always cloudy all the year and the site corresponding soil moisture content map came in agreement with cloud distribution. The overlay of the two previously mentioned maps over the geological map of the study area shows potential locations for better rainwater harvesting. PMID:25114973

  3. Portraits of colloidal hybrid nanostructures: controlled synthesis and potential applications.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thanh-Dinh

    2013-03-01

    Inorganic hybrid nanostructures containing two or more nanocomponents have been emerging in many areas of materials science in recent years. The particle-particle interactions in a hybrid particle system could significantly improve existing local electronic structure and induce tunable physiochemical responses. The current work reviews the diverse inorganic hybrid nanostructures formed by adhesion of the different single components via seed-mediated method. The hybrid nanomaterials have great potentials for real applications in many other fields. The nanohybrids have been used as efficient heterocatalysts for carbon monoxide conversion and photodegradation of organic contaminants. The enhanced catalytic activity of these hybrid nanocatalysts could be attributed the formation of oxygen vacancies and electron transfer across the structural junction in a hybrid system as a result of the interfacial particle-particle interactions. The synergistic combination of up-converting and semiconducting properties in an up-converting semiconducting hybrid particle results in appearance of sub-band-gap photoconductivity. This behavior has a great significance for the design of photovoltaic devices for effective solar energy conversion. The functionalization and subsequent bioconjugation of the hybrid nanostructures to afford the multifunctional nanomedical platforms for simultaneous diagnosis and therapy are reviewed. The conjugated multifunctional hybrid nanostructures exhibit high biocompatibility and highly selective binding with functional groups-fabricated alive organs through delivering them to the tumor sites. The clever combinations of multifunctional features and antibody conjugation within these vehicles make them to generally offer new opportunities for clinical diagnostics and therapeutics.

  4. Polyimides Containing Fluorine and Phosphorus for Potential Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W.; Watson, Kent A.

    2000-01-01

    As part of an effort to develop low color, ultraviolet (UV) radiation and atomic oxygen resistant polyimides for potential space applications, a novel diamine containing fluorine and phosphorus was synthesized and used to prepare polyimides. The approach was to combine attributes from colorless, UV resistant polyimides and atomic oxygen (AO) resistant polymers into a single material. Preparation of colorless polyimides has focused on minimization of charge transfer complex formation by incorporation of bulky substituents and disrupting conjugation by using meta-catenated monomers. AO resistant polymer technology development has focused on placing phenylphosphine oxide groups into the backbone of aromatic polymers. However, polyimides prepared utilizing this approach thus far have all exhibited significant color. Thus in an attempt to combine these features in a polyimide a new diamine, bis(3-aminophenyl)-3,5-di(trifluoromethyl)phenylphosphine oxide (TFMDA) was synthesized and used to prepare polyimides. The polyimides were cast into films and characterized for physical and mechanical properties, optical transmission and AO and UV resistance.

  5. A comparison of propulsion systems for potential space mission applications

    SciTech Connect

    Harvego, E.A.; Sulmeisters, T.K.

    1987-01-01

    A derivative of the NERVA nuclear rocket engine was compared with a chemical propulsion system and a nuclear electric propulsion system to assess the relative capabilities of the different propulsion system options for three potential space missions. The missions considered were (1) orbital transfer from low earth orbit (LEO) to geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO), (2) LEO to a lunar base, and (3) LEO to Mars. The results of this comparison indicate that the direct-thrust NERVA-derivative nuclear rocket engine has the best performance characteristics for the missions considered. The combined high thrust and high specific impulse achievable with a direct-thrust nuclear stage permits short operating times (transfer times) comparable to chemical propulsion systems, but with considerably less required propellant. While nuclear-electric propulsion systems are more fuel efficient than either direct-nuclear or chemical propulsion, they are not stand-alone systems, since their relatively low thrust levels require the use of high-thrust ferry or lander stages in high gravity applications such as surface-to-orbit propulsion. The extremely long transfer times and inefficient trajectories associated with electric propulsion systems were also found to be a significant drawback.

  6. GLP-1: physiological effects and potential therapeutic applications.

    PubMed

    Aaboe, Kasper; Krarup, Thure; Madsbad, Sten; Holst, Jens Juul

    2008-11-01

    Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is a gut-derived incretin hormone with the potential to change diabetes. The physiological effects of GLP-1 are multiple, and many seem to ameliorate the different conditions defining the diverse physiopathology seen in type 2 diabetes. In animal studies, GLP-1 stimulates beta-cell proliferation and neogenesis and inhibits beta-cell apoptosis. In humans, GLP-1 stimulates insulin secretion and inhibits glucagon and gastrointestinal secretions and motility. It enhances satiety and reduces food intake and has beneficial effects on cardiovascular function and endothelial dysfunction. Enhancing incretin action for therapeutic use includes GLP-1 receptor agonists resistant to degradation (incretin mimetics) and dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4 inhibitors. In clinical trials with type 2 diabetic patients on various oral antidiabetic regimes, both treatment modalities efficaciously improve glycaemic control and beta-cell function. Whereas the incretin mimetics induce weight loss, the DPP-4 inhibitors are considered weight neutral. In type 1 diabetes, treatment with GLP-1 shows promising effects. However, several areas need clinical confirmation: the durability of the weight loss, the ability to preserve functional beta-cell mass and the applicability in other than type 2 diabetes. As such, long-term studies and studies with cardiovascular end-points are needed to confirm the true benefits of these new classes of antidiabetic drugs in the treatment of diabetes mellitus.

  7. Development and potential applications of CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing technology in sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tang; Shen, Jacson K; Li, Zhihong; Choy, Edwin; Hornicek, Francis J; Duan, Zhenfeng

    2016-04-01

    Sarcomas include some of the most aggressive tumors and typically respond poorly to chemotherapy. In recent years, specific gene fusion/mutations and gene over-expression/activation have been shown to drive sarcoma pathogenesis and development. These emerging genomic alterations may provide targets for novel therapeutic strategies and have the potential to transform sarcoma patient care. The RNA-guided nuclease CRISPR-Cas9 (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)-associated protein-9 nuclease) is a convenient and versatile platform for site-specific genome editing and epigenome targeted modulation. Given that sarcoma is believed to develop as a result of genetic alterations in mesenchymal progenitor/stem cells, CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing technologies hold extensive application potentials in sarcoma models and therapies. We review the development and mechanisms of the CRISPR-Cas9 system in genome editing and introduce its application in sarcoma research and potential therapy in clinic. Additionally, we propose future directions and discuss the challenges faced with these applications, providing concise and enlightening information for readers interested in this area.

  8. 18 CFR 33.3 - Additional information requirements for applications involving horizontal competitive impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Affirmatively demonstrates that the merging entities do not currently conduct business in the same geographic markets or that the extent of the business transactions in the same geographic markets is de minimis; and... the horizontal Competitive Analysis Screen. (3) The applicant may use a computer model to complete...

  9. Application of electron beam equipment based on a plasma cathode gun in additive technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galchenko, N. K.; Kolesnikova, K. A.; Semenov, G. V.; Rau, A. G.; Raskoshniy, S. Y.; Bezzubko, A. V.; Dampilon, B. V.; Sorokova, S. N.

    2016-11-01

    The paper discusses the application of electron beam equipment based on a plasma cathode gun for three-dimensional surface modification of metals and alloys. The effect of substrate surface preparation on the adhesion strength of gas thermal coatings has been investigated.

  10. 21 CFR 1311.150 - Additional requirements for internal application audits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS FOR ELECTRONIC ORDERS AND PRESCRIPTIONS (Eff. 6-1-10) Electronic Prescriptions § 1311.150...) Attempted unauthorized access to the electronic prescription application, or successful unauthorized access... any information or records required by this part, or successful unauthorized modification...

  11. IL-21: A Pleiotropic Cytokine with Potential Applications in Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Croce, Michela; Rigo, Valentina; Ferrini, Silvano

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin- (IL-) 21 is a pleiotropic cytokine that regulates the activity of both innate and specific immunity. Indeed, it costimulates T and natural killer (NK) cell proliferation and function and regulates B cell survival and differentiation and the function of dendritic cells. In addition, IL-21 exerts divergent effects on different lymphoid cell leukemia and lymphomas, as it may support cell proliferation or on the contrary induce growth arrest or apoptosis of the neoplastic lymphoid cells. Several preclinical studies showed that IL-21 has antitumor activity in different tumor models, through mechanism involving the activation of NK and T or B cell responses. Moreover, IL-21's antitumor activity can be potentiated by its combination with other immune-enhancing molecules, monoclonal antibodies recognizing tumor antigens, chemotherapy, or molecular targeted agents. Clinical phase I-II studies of IL-21 in cancer patients showed immune stimulatory properties, acceptable toxicity profile, and antitumor effects in a fraction of patients. In view of its tolerability, IL-21 is also suitable for combinational therapeutic regimens with other agents. This review will summarize the biological functions of IL-21, and address its role in lymphoid malignancies and preclinical and clinical studies of cancer immunotherapy. PMID:25961061

  12. 34 CFR 350.55 - What are the additional considerations for selecting Field-Initiated Project applications for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the additional considerations for selecting Field-Initiated Project applications for funding? 350.55 Section 350.55 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION DISABILITY...

  13. 20 CFR 641.210 - What services, in addition to the applicable core services, must SCSEP grantees and sub...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What services, in addition to the applicable core services, must SCSEP grantees and sub-recipients provide through the One-Stop delivery system? 641... PROVISIONS GOVERNING THE SENIOR COMMUNITY SERVICE EMPLOYMENT PROGRAM Coordination With the...

  14. 20 CFR 641.210 - What services, in addition to the applicable core services, must SCSEP grantees and sub...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What services, in addition to the applicable core services, must SCSEP grantees and sub-recipients provide through the One-Stop delivery system? 641... PROVISIONS GOVERNING THE SENIOR COMMUNITY SERVICE EMPLOYMENT PROGRAM Coordination With the...

  15. 34 CFR 660.32 - What additional selection criteria does the Secretary use for an application for a research...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... use for an application for a research project, a survey, or a study? 660.32 Section 660.32 Education..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH AND STUDIES PROGRAM How Does the Secretary Make a Grant... project, a survey, or a study? In addition to the criteria referred to in § 660.31, the...

  16. 12 CFR 208.73 - What additional provisions are applicable to state member banks with financial subsidiaries?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... state member banks with financial subsidiaries? 208.73 Section 208.73 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (REGULATION H) Financial Subsidiaries of State Member Banks § 208.73 What additional provisions are applicable to state member banks with financial subsidiaries? (a) Capital...

  17. 12 CFR 208.73 - What additional provisions are applicable to state member banks with financial subsidiaries?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... state member banks with financial subsidiaries? 208.73 Section 208.73 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (REGULATION H) Financial Subsidiaries of State Member Banks § 208.73 What additional provisions are applicable to state member banks with financial subsidiaries? (a) Capital...

  18. 34 CFR 660.32 - What additional selection criteria does the Secretary use for an application for a research...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What additional selection criteria does the Secretary use for an application for a research project, a survey, or a study? 660.32 Section 660.32 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY...

  19. 34 CFR 350.55 - What are the additional considerations for selecting Field-Initiated Project applications for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Field-Initiated Project applications for funding? 350.55 Section 350.55 Education Regulations of the..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION DISABILITY AND REHABILITATION RESEARCH PROJECTS AND CENTERS PROGRAM How Does the Secretary Make an Award? § 350.55 What are the additional considerations for selecting...

  20. Parametrically Guided Generalized Additive Models with Application to Mergers and Acquisitions Data.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jianqing; Maity, Arnab; Wang, Yihui; Wu, Yichao

    2013-01-01

    Generalized nonparametric additive models present a flexible way to evaluate the effects of several covariates on a general outcome of interest via a link function. In this modeling framework, one assumes that the effect of each of the covariates is nonparametric and additive. However, in practice, often there is prior information available about the shape of the regression functions, possibly from pilot studies or exploratory analysis. In this paper, we consider such situations and propose an estimation procedure where the prior information is used as a parametric guide to fit the additive model. Specifically, we first posit a parametric family for each of the regression functions using the prior information (parametric guides). After removing these parametric trends, we then estimate the remainder of the nonparametric functions using a nonparametric generalized additive model, and form the final estimates by adding back the parametric trend. We investigate the asymptotic properties of the estimates and show that when a good guide is chosen, the asymptotic variance of the estimates can be reduced significantly while keeping the asymptotic variance same as the unguided estimator. We observe the performance of our method via a simulation study and demonstrate our method by applying to a real data set on mergers and acquisitions.

  1. 18 CFR 33.3 - Additional information requirements for applications involving horizontal competitive impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional information... and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE... reserve existing transmission capacity needed for native load growth and network transmission...

  2. 18 CFR 33.3 - Additional information requirements for applications involving horizontal competitive impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional information... and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE... reserve existing transmission capacity needed for native load growth and network transmission...

  3. 18 CFR 33.3 - Additional information requirements for applications involving horizontal competitive impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Additional information... and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE... reserve existing transmission capacity needed for native load growth and network transmission...

  4. Parametrically Guided Generalized Additive Models with Application to Mergers and Acquisitions Data

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jianqing; Maity, Arnab; Wang, Yihui; Wu, Yichao

    2012-01-01

    Generalized nonparametric additive models present a flexible way to evaluate the effects of several covariates on a general outcome of interest via a link function. In this modeling framework, one assumes that the effect of each of the covariates is nonparametric and additive. However, in practice, often there is prior information available about the shape of the regression functions, possibly from pilot studies or exploratory analysis. In this paper, we consider such situations and propose an estimation procedure where the prior information is used as a parametric guide to fit the additive model. Specifically, we first posit a parametric family for each of the regression functions using the prior information (parametric guides). After removing these parametric trends, we then estimate the remainder of the nonparametric functions using a nonparametric generalized additive model, and form the final estimates by adding back the parametric trend. We investigate the asymptotic properties of the estimates and show that when a good guide is chosen, the asymptotic variance of the estimates can be reduced significantly while keeping the asymptotic variance same as the unguided estimator. We observe the performance of our method via a simulation study and demonstrate our method by applying to a real data set on mergers and acquisitions. PMID:23645976

  5. 18 CFR 33.4 - Additional information requirements for applications involving vertical competitive impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional information... and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE... entities that provides inputs to electricity products and one or more merging entities that...

  6. 18 CFR 33.4 - Additional information requirements for applications involving vertical competitive impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Additional information... and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE... entities that provides inputs to electricity products and one or more merging entities that...

  7. 18 CFR 33.4 - Additional information requirements for applications involving vertical competitive impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional information... and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE... entities that provides inputs to electricity products and one or more merging entities that...

  8. A FEASIBILITY STUDY EXAMINING THE POTENTIAL FOR HUMAN HEALTH EXPOSURE TO PET-BORNE DIAZINON RESIDUES FOLLOWING RESIDENTIAL TURF APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The domestic dog may be a vehicle for translocation of pesticide residues following residential applications to turf. In addition, human occupants may be exposed to residues deposited inside homes by pets or by intimate contacts with them. This study examines the potential of a...

  9. A FEASIBILITY STUDY EXAMINING THE POTENTIAL FOR HUMAN EXPOSURE TO PET-BORNE DIAZINON RESIDUES FOLLOWING RESIDENTIAL TURF APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The domestic dog may be a vehicle for translocation of pesticide residues following residential applications to turf. In addition, human occupants may be exposed to residues deposited inside homes by pets or by intimate contacts with them. This study examines the potential of ...

  10. 18 CFR 33.3 - Additional information requirements for applications involving horizontal competitive impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... firm transmission rights held (including, at a minimum, quantity and remaining time the rights will be held, and any relevant time restrictions on transmission use, such as peak or off-peak rights). (10... transmission rights held by the potential supplier that are not committed to long-term transactions. For...

  11. Flavonoid engineering of flax potentiate its biotechnological application

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Flavonoids are a group of secondary plant metabolites important for plant growth and development. They show also a protective effect against colon and breast cancer, diabetes, hypercholesterolemic atherosclerosis, lupus nephritis, and immune and inflammatory reactions. Thus, overproduction of these compounds in flax by genetic engineering method might potentiate biotechnological application of these plant products. Results Flax plants of third generation overexpressing key genes of flavonoid pathway cultivated in field were used as plant material throughout this study. The biochemical properties of seed, oil and seedcake extracts and fibre from natural and transgenic flax plants were compared. The data obtained suggests that the introduced genes were stably inherited and expressed through plant generations. Overproduction of flavonoid compounds resulted in increase of fatty acids accumulation in oil from transgenic seeds due to protection from oxidation offered during synthesis and seed maturation. The biochemical analysis of seedcake extracts from seeds of transgenic flax revealed significant increase in flavonoids (kaempferol), phenolic acids (coumaric, ferulic, synapic acids) and lignan content. Fibres, another product of flax plant showed increase in the level of catechine and acetylvanillone and decrease in phenolic acids upon flax modification. Biochemical analysis results were confirmed using IR spectroscopy. The integral intensities of IR bands have been used for identification of the component of phenylpropanoid pathway in oil, seedcake extract and fibre from control and transgenic flax. It was shown that levels of flavonoids, phenolic acids and lignans in oil and seedcake extract was higher in transgenic flax products compared to control. An FT-IR study of fibres confirmed the biochemical data and revealed that the arrangement of the cellulose polymer in the transgenic fibres differs from the control; in particular a significant decrease in the

  12. Development and Qualification of a Specialized Gas Turbine Test Stand to Research the Potential Benefits of Nanocatalyst Fuel Additives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    71 ix LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1. Activation Energy Affect on Residence Time (from Davis...altered on a molecular level in order to achieve higher catalytic energies or increase operating ranges. The use of nanocatalysts as a means of...stored fuel. Anti- oxidants can also act to inhibit the formation of peroxide compounds. 3. Static dissipater additives reduce the effects of static

  13. Biochemical methane potential from sewage sludge: Effect of an aerobic pretreatment and fly ash addition as source of trace elements.

    PubMed

    Huiliñir, César; Pinto-Villegas, Paula; Castillo, Alejandra; Montalvo, Silvio; Guerrero, Lorna

    2017-03-18

    The effect of aerobic pretreatment and fly ash addition on the production of methane from mixed sludge is studied. Three assays with pretreated and not pretreated mixed sludge in the presence of fly ash (concentrations of 0, 10, 25, 50, 250 and 500mg/L) were run at mesophilic condition. It was found that the combined use of aerobic pretreatment and fly ash addition increases methane production up to 70% when the fly ash concentrations were lower than 50mg/L, while concentrations higher than 250mg/L cause up to 11% decrease of methane production. For the anaerobic treatment of mixed sludge without pretreatment, the fly ash improved methane generation at all the concentrations studied, with a maximum of 56%. The removal of volatile solids does not show an improvement compared to the separate use of an aerobic pre-treatment and fly ash addition. Therefore, the combined use of the aerobic pre-treatment and fly ash addition improves only the production of methane.

  14. Influence of Si addition on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Ti-35Nb alloy for applications in orthopedic implants.

    PubMed

    Tavares, A M G; Ramos, W S; de Blas, J C G; Lopes, E S N; Caram, R; Batista, W W; Souza, S A

    2015-11-01

    In the development of new materials for orthopedic implants, special attention has been given to Ti alloys that show biocompatible alloy elements and that are capable of reducing the elastic modulus. Accordingly, Ti-Nb-Si alloys show great potential for application. Thus, this is a study on the microstructures and properties of Ti-35Nb-xSi alloys (x=0, 0.15, 0.35 and 0.55) (wt%) which were thermally treated and cooled under the following conditions: furnace cooling (FC), air cooling (AC), and water quenching (WQ). The results showed that Si addition is effective to reduce the density of omega precipitates making beta more stable, and to produce grain refinement. Silicides, referred as (Ti,Nb)3Si, were formed for alloys containing 0.55% Si, and its formation presumably occurred during the heating at 1000°C. In all cooling conditions, the hardness values increased with the increasing of Si content, as a result from the strong Si solid solution strengthening effect, while the elastic modulus underwent a continuous reduction due to the reduction of omega precipitates in beta matrix. Lower elastic moduli were observed in water-quenched alloys, which concentration of 0.15% Si was more effective in their reduction, with value around 65 GPa. Regarding Ti-35Nb-xSi alloys (x=0, 0.15 and 0.35), the "double yield point" phenomenon, which is typical of alloys with shape memory effect, was observed. The increase in Si concentration also produced an increase from 382 MPa to 540 MPa in the alloys' mechanical strength. Ti-35Nb-0.55Si alloy, however, showed brittle mechanical behavior which was related to the presence of silicides at the grain boundary.

  15. A Delphi Study of Additive Manufacturing Applicability for United States Air Force Civil Engineer Contingency Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-26

    This simple process is the basis for most consumer-grade desktop AM machines, commonly known as 3D printers (Pham & Gault, 1998:1270). Material...as a single purchase to decrease initial capital costs. Once the 3D printers are purchased and delivered, the selected bases can begin training...for several Questions if you would liKe to explain or elaborate on your answers. Additional information •out 3D printers and UTCs is provided as an

  16. The Application of Additive Factors Methodology to Workload Assessment in a Dynamic System Monitoring Task.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    resources, task interference will be greater, and changes in the difficulty of one task will be more likely to derogate performance of the other. It...number of items in short term memory and response latency suggesting the presence of a comparison process between test stimulus onset and response...execution. Each additional item in memory adds approximately 38ms to the response latency. The essentially equivalent slopes for positive and negative

  17. Potential Application of Environmental Noise Recordings in Geoarchaeological Site Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Luzio, E.

    2015-12-01

    Environmental noise recordings are commonly applied in seismic microzonation studies. By calculating the H/V spectral ratio, the fundamental frequency of soft terrains overlying a rigid bedrock can be determined (Nakamura (1989). In such a simple two-layer system, equation f = n Vs/4H (1) links the resonance frequency "f" to the thickness "H" and shear waves velocity "Vs "of the resonating layer. In recent years, this methodology has been applied generally to obtain information on the seismostratigraphy of an investigated site in different environmental context. In this work, its potential application in the characterization of archaeological features hosted in shallow geological levels is discussed. Field cases are identified in the Appia Antica archaeological site which is placed in central Italy. Here, acknowledged targets correspond to: i) empty tanks carved by the Romans into Cretaceous limestone in the IV-III cen. BC and ii): the basaltic stone paving of the ancient road track which is locally buried beneath colluvial deposits. Narrowly-spaced recordings of environmental noise were carried using a portable digital seismograph equipped with three electrodynamic orthogonal sensors (velocimeters) responding in the band 0.1 ÷1024 Hz and adopting a sampling frequency of 256 Hz.. Results are discussed in terms of absolute H/V values and related distribution maps in the very high-frequency interval of 10-40Hz. In the tanks hosting area, interpolation of H/V maximum values around 13Hz matches caves location and alignment, which is also evidenced by clear inversions (H/V<1) at lower frequencies (10-1Hz). Correlation between H/V peaks and the top surface of the buried stone paving along the prosecution of the road track is even more straightforward. Finally, the depth variations of the tank roofs and the basaltic paving were reconstructed combining in equation (1) results of noise recordings with borehole data and geophysical surveys (SASW analysis).

  18. Potential applications of gut microbiota to control human physiology.

    PubMed

    Umu, Ozgün Candan Onarman; Oostindjer, Marije; Pope, Phillip B; Svihus, Birger; Egelandsdal, Bjørg; Nes, Ingolf F; Diep, Dzung B

    2013-11-01

    The microorganisms living in our gut have been a black box to us for a long time. However, with the recent advances in high throughput DNA sequencing technologies, it is now possible to assess virtually all microorganisms in our gut including non-culturable ones. With the use of powerful bioinformatics tools to deal with multivariate analyses of huge amounts of data from metagenomics, metatranscriptomics, metabolomics, we now start to gain some important insights into these tiny gut inhabitants. Our knowledge is increasing about who they are, to some extent, what they do and how they affect our health. Gut microbiota have a broad spectrum of possible effects on health, from preventing serious diseases, improving immune system and gut health to stimulating the brain centers responsible for appetite and food intake control. Further, we may be on the verge of being capable of manipulating the gut microbiota by diet control to possibly improve our health. Diets consisting of different components that are fermentable by microbiota are substrates for different kinds of microbes in the gut. Thus, diet control can be used to favor the growth of some selected gut inhabitants. Nowadays, the gut microbiota is taken into account as a separate organ in human body and their activities and metabolites in gut have many physiological and neurological effects. In this mini-review, we discuss the diversity of gut microbiota, the technologies used to assess them, factors that affect microbial composition and metabolites that affect human physiology, and their potential applications in satiety control via the gut-brain axis.

  19. Potential applications of skip SMV with thrust engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weilin; Savvaris, Al

    2016-11-01

    This paper investigates the potential applications of Space Maneuver Vehicles (SMV) with skip trajectory. Due to soaring space operations over the past decades, the risk of space debris has considerably increased such as collision risks with space asset, human property on ground and even aviation. Many active debris removal methods have been investigated and in this paper, a debris remediation method is first proposed based on skip SMV. The key point is to perform controlled re-entry. These vehicles are expected to achieve a trans-atmospheric maneuver with thrust engine. If debris is released at altitude below 80 km, debris could be captured by the atmosphere drag force and re-entry interface prediction accuracy is improved. Moreover if the debris is released in a cargo at a much lower altitude, this technique protects high value space asset from break up by the atmosphere and improves landing accuracy. To demonstrate the feasibility of this concept, the present paper presents the simulation results for two specific mission profiles: (1) descent to predetermined altitude; (2) descent to predetermined point (altitude, longitude and latitude). The evolutionary collocation method is adopted for skip trajectory optimization due to its global optimality and high-accuracy. This method is actually a two-step optimization approach based on the heuristic algorithm and the collocation method. The optimal-control problem is transformed into a nonlinear programming problem (NLP) which can be efficiently and accurately solved by the sequential quadratic programming (SQP) procedure. However, such a method is sensitive to initial values. To reduce the sensitivity problem, genetic algorithm (GA) is adopted to refine the grids and provide near optimum initial values. By comparing the simulation data from different scenarios, it is found that skip SMV is feasible in active debris removal and the evolutionary collocation method gives a truthful re-entry trajectory that satisfies the

  20. Arachnid toxinology in Australia: from clinical toxicology to potential applications.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Graham M; Graudins, Andis; Wilson, Harry I; Little, Michelle; Broady, Kevin W

    2006-12-01

    The unique geographic isolation of Australia has resulted in the evolution of a distinctive range of Australian arachnid fauna. Through the pioneering work of a number of Australian arachnologists, toxinologists, and clinicians, the taxonomy and distribution of new species, the effective clinical treatment of envenomation, and the isolation and characterisation of the many distinctive neurotoxins, has been achieved. In particular, work has focussed on several Australian arachnids, including red-back and funnel-web spiders, paralysis ticks, and buthid scorpions that contain neurotoxins capable of causing death or serious systemic envenomation. In the case of spiders, species-specific antivenoms have been developed to treat envenomed patients that show considerable cross-reactivity. Both in vitro and clinical case studies have shown they are particularly efficacious in the treatment of envenomation by spiders even from unrelated families. Despite their notorious reputation, the high selectivity and potency of a unique range of toxins from the venom of Australian arachnids will make them invaluable molecular tools for studies of neurotransmitter release and vesicle exocytosis as well as ion channel structure and function. The venoms of funnel-web spiders, and more recently Australian scorpions, have also provided a previously untapped rich source of insect-selective neurotoxins for the future development of biopesticides and the characterisation of previously unvalidated insecticide targets. This review provides a historical viewpoint of the work of many toxinologists to isolate and characterise just some of the toxins produced by such a unique group of arachnids and examines the potential applications of these novel peptides.

  1. Potential nanotechnology applications for reducing freshwater consumption at coal fired power plants : an early view.

    SciTech Connect

    Elcock, D.

    2010-09-17

    This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements the overall research effort of the Existing Plants Research Program by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. A growing challenge to the economic production of electricity from coal-fired power plants is the demand for freshwater, particularly in light of the projected trends for increasing demands and decreasing supplies of freshwater. Nanotechnology uses the unique chemical, physical, and biological properties that are associated with materials at the nanoscale to create and use materials, devices, and systems with new functions and properties. It is possible that nanotechnology may open the door to a variety of potentially interesting ways to reduce freshwater consumption at power plants. This report provides an overview of how applications of nanotechnology could potentially help reduce freshwater use at coal-fired power plants. It was developed by (1) identifying areas within a coal-fired power plant's operations where freshwater use occurs and could possibly be reduced, (2) conducting a literature review to identify potential applications of nanotechnology for facilitating such reductions, and (3) collecting additional information on potential applications from researchers and companies to clarify or expand on information obtained from the literature. Opportunities, areas, and processes for reducing freshwater use in coal-fired power plants considered in this report include the use of nontraditional waters in process and cooling water systems, carbon capture alternatives, more efficient processes for removing sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides, coolants that have higher thermal conductivities than water alone, energy storage options, and a variety of plant inefficiencies, which, if improved

  2. Fully depleted CMOS pixel sensor development and potential applications

    SciTech Connect

    Baudot, J.; Kachel, M.

    2015-07-01

    CMOS pixel sensors are often opposed to hybrid pixel sensors due to their very different sensitive layer. In standard CMOS imaging processes, a thin (about 20 μm) low resistivity epitaxial layer acts as the sensitive volume and charge collection is mostly driven by thermal agitation. In contrast, the so-called hybrid pixel technology exploits a thick (typically 300 μm) silicon sensor with high resistivity allowing for the depletion of this volume, hence charges drift toward collecting electrodes. But this difference is fading away with the recent availability of some CMOS imaging processes based on a relatively thick (about 50 μm) high resistivity epitaxial layer which allows for full depletion. This evolution extents the range of applications for CMOS pixel sensors where their known assets, high sensitivity and granularity combined with embedded signal treatment, could potentially foster breakthrough in detection performances for specific scientific instruments. One such domain is the Xray detection for soft energies, typically below 10 keV, where the thin sensitive layer was previously severely impeding CMOS sensor usage. Another application becoming realistic for CMOS sensors, is the detection in environment with a high fluence of non-ionizing radiation, such as hadron colliders. However, when considering highly demanding applications, it is still to be proven that micro-circuits required to uniformly deplete the sensor at the pixel level, do not mitigate the sensitivity and efficiency required. Prototype sensors in two different technologies with resistivity higher than 1 kΩ, sensitive layer between 40 and 50 μm and featuring pixel pitch in the range 25 to 50 μm, have been designed and fabricated. Various biasing architectures were adopted to reach full depletion with only a few volts. Laboratory investigations with three types of sources (X-rays, β-rays and infrared light) demonstrated the validity of the approach with respect to depletion, keeping a

  3. SARAL/Altika for inland water: current and potential applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarpanelli, Angelica; Brocca, Luca; Barbetta, Silvia; Moramarco, Tommaso; Santos da Silva, Joécila; Calmant, Stephane

    2015-04-01

    Although representing less than 1% of the total amount of water on Earth the freshwater is essential for terrestrial life and human needs. Over one third of the world's population is not served by adequate supplies of clean water and for this reason freshwater wars are becoming one of the most pressing environmental issues exacerbating the already difficult tensions between the riparian nations. Notwithstanding the foregoing, we have surprisingly poor knowledge of the spatial and temporal dynamics of surface discharge. In-situ gauging networks quantify the instantaneous water volume in the main river channels but provide few information about the spatial dynamics of surface water extent, such as floodplain flows and the dynamics of wetlands. The growing reduction of hydrometric monitoring networks over the world, along with the inaccessibility of many remote areas and the difficulties for data sharing among developing countries feed the need to develop new procedures for river discharge estimation based on remote sensing technology. The major challenge in this case is the possibility of using Earth Observation data without ground measurements. Radar altimeters are a valuable tool to retrieve hydrological information from space such as water level of inland water. More than a decade of research on the application of radar altimetry has demonstrated its advantages also for monitoring continental water, providing global coverage and regular temporal sampling. The high accuracy of altimetry data provided by the latest spatial missions and the convincing results obtained in the previous applications suggest that these data may be employed for hydraulic/hydrological applications as well. If used in synergy with the modeling, the potential benefits of the altimetry measurements can grow significantly. The new SARAL French-Indian mission, providing improvements in terms of vertical accuracy and spatial resolution of the onboard altimeter Altika, can offer a great

  4. Understanding the Performance and Potential of Cloud Computing for Scientific Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Sadooghi, Iman; Hernandez Martin, Jesus; Li, Tonglin; Brandstatter, Kevin; Zhao, Yong; Maheshwari, Ketan; Pais Pitta de Lacerda Ruivo, Tiago; Timm, Steven; Garzoglio, Gabriele; Raicu, Ioan

    2015-01-01

    Commercial clouds bring a great opportunity to the scientific computing area. Scientific applications usually require significant resources, however not all scientists have access to sufficient high-end computing systems, may of which can be found in the Top500 list. Cloud Computing has gained the attention of scientists as a competitive resource to run HPC applications at a potentially lower cost. But as a different infrastructure, it is unclear whether clouds are capable of running scientific applications with a reasonable performance per money spent. This work studies the performance of public clouds and places this performance in context to price. We evaluate the raw performance of different services of AWS cloud in terms of the basic resources, such as compute, memory, network and I/O. We also evaluate the performance of the scientific applications running in the cloud. This paper aims to assess the ability of the cloud to perform well, as well as to evaluate the cost of the cloud running scientific applications. We developed a full set of metrics and conducted a comprehensive performance evlauation over the Amazon cloud. We evaluated EC2, S3, EBS and DynamoDB among the many Amazon AWS services. We evaluated the memory sub-system performance with CacheBench, the network performance with iperf, processor and network performance with the HPL benchmark application, and shared storage with NFS and PVFS in addition to S3. We also evaluated a real scientific computing application through the Swift parallel scripting system at scale. Armed with both detailed benchmarks to gauge expected performance and a detailed monetary cost analysis, we expect this paper will be a recipe cookbook for scientists to help them decide where to deploy and run their scientific applications between public clouds, private clouds, or hybrid clouds.

  5. Applications of recently improved electronic speckle pattern interferometry by addition of incremental images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertwig, Manfred H. F.; Floureux, Thierry; Flemming, Torsten

    1994-12-01

    This paper demonstrates the advantages of a recently reported improved technique of phase- shifted electronic speckle interferometry. The improvement extends the range and enhances the accuracy of measurements and thus unlocks many new applications. One of these is detecting various types of fatigue damage in carbon-fiber-reinforced plastics (CFRP). The optical measurements of surface matrix cracks and of delaminations agree very well with the results of other non-destructive testing (NDT) methods. We also demonstrate an improved contouring technique and present the theory behind the experimental procedure, leading to the improved results reported here.

  6. Preparation of animal polysaccharides nanofibers by electrospinning and their potential biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wen; Liu, Wenlong; Li, Jiaojiao; Lin, Xiao; Wang, Ying

    2015-02-01

    Animal polysaccharides belong to a class of biological macromolecules. They are natural biopolymers with numerous advantages for biomedical applications, such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, non-antigenicity and non-toxicity. Electrospinning is a versatile and facile technique which can produce continuous fibers with nanoscale from a wide range of natural and synthetic polymers. The review aims to provide an up-to-date overview of the preparation of animal polysaccharides nanofibers by electrospinning and their potential biomedical applications such as tissue engineering, wound healing, and drug delivery. Various animal polysaccharides including chitin and chitosan (CS), hyaluronic acid (HA), heparin and heparan sulfate (HS), and chondroitin sulfate (ChS), are discussed. The challenges and some useful strategies in electrospinning of animal polysaccharides also are summarized. In addition, future study of animal polysaccharides nanofibers by electrospinning is proposed.

  7. Potential of aeration flow rate and bio-char addition to reduce greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions during manure composting.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Md Albarune; de Neergaard, Andreas; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2014-02-01

    Aeration is an important factor influencing CO2, CH4, N2O and NH3 emissions from the composting process. Both CH4 and N2O are potent greenhouse gases (GHG) of high importance. Here, we examined the effects of high and low aeration rates together with addition of barley straw with and without bio-char on GHG and NH3 emissions from composting cattle slurry and hen manure in small-scale laboratory composters. Depending on treatment, cumulative C losses via CO2 and CH4 emissions accounted for 11.4-22.5% and 0.004-0.2% of initial total carbon, while N losses as N2O and NH3 emissions comprised 0.05-0.1% and 0.8-26.5% of initial total nitrogen, respectively. Decreasing the flow rate reduced cumulative NH3 losses non-significantly (by 88%) but significantly increased CH4 losses (by 51%) from composting of cattle slurry with barley straw. Among the hen manure treatments evaluated, bio-char addition to composting hen manure and barley straw at low flow rates proved most effective in reducing cumulative NH3 and CH4 losses. Addition of bio-char in combination with barley straw to hen manure at both high and low flow rates reduced total GHG emissions (as CO2-equivalents) by 27-32% compared with barley straw addition alone. Comparisons of flow rates showed that low flow could be an alternative strategy for reducing NH3 losses without any significant change in N2O emissions, pointing to the need for well-controlled composting conditions if gaseous emissions are to be minimised.

  8. Boundedness of completely additive measures with application to 2-local triple derivations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamhalter, Jan; Kudaybergenov, Karimbergen; Peralta, Antonio M.; Russo, Bernard

    2016-02-01

    We prove a Jordan version of Dorofeev's boundedness theorem for completely additive measures and use it to show that every (not necessarily linear nor continuous) 2-local triple derivation on a continuous JBW∗-triple is a triple derivation. 2-local triple derivations are well understood on von Neumann algebras. JBW*-triples, which are properly defined in Section I, are intimately related to infinite dimensional holomorphy and include von Neumann algebras as special cases. In particular, continuous JBW∗-triples can be realized as subspaces of continuous von Neumann algebras which are stable for the triple product xy∗z + zy∗x and closed in the weak operator topology.

  9. Controlling quality of ferroalloys and alloying additives in the manufacture of nickel alloys for nuclear applications

    SciTech Connect

    Stryker, R.S.

    1981-01-01

    Nickel alloys supplied to the nuclear industry must meet strict requirements for quality and traceability of constituents. Ensuring that end products meet those requirements involves careful control of the raw materials used in melting the alloys. Especially important is an effective system of quality control for purchasing and consuming ferroalloys and alloying additives. Development and operation of such a system requires (1) adequate specifications, (2) good relations with suppliers, (3) an approved-suppliers list, (4) formal receiving inspection, and (5) backup surveillance during processing.

  10. Isolation, structural characterization, and potential applications of hemicelluloses from bamboo: a review.

    PubMed

    Peng, Pai; She, Diao

    2014-11-04

    Bamboo is one of the mostly fast growing natural resources and has great potential to be used as a valuable feedstock for biorefinery. The hemicelluloses, next to cellulose, represent a diverse group of polysaccharides in plant cell wall. Elucidation and understanding of the hemicelluloses from bamboo play an important role in the efficient conversion of bamboo into biofuels and bioproducts. This review summarized the recent reports on hemicelluloses from bamboo, including immunohistochemical localization, focused on extraction and purification methods, chemical components, characterization of structural features, as well as physicochemical properties. In addition, attention was also paid to derivatives prepared from bamboo hemicelluloses and to potential applications of bamboo hemicelluloses in a variety of areas such as biomaterials, biofuel, and food.

  11. The Role of Bacterial Spores in Metal Cycling and Their Potential Application in Metal Contaminant Bioremediation.

    PubMed

    Butterfield, Cristina N; Lee, Sung-Woo; Tebo, Bradley M

    2016-04-01

    Bacteria are one of the premier biological forces that, in combination with chemical and physical forces, drive metal availability in the environment. Bacterial spores, when found in the environment, are often considered to be dormant and metabolically inactive, in a resting state waiting for favorable conditions for them to germinate. However, this is a highly oversimplified view of spores in the environment. The surface of bacterial spores represents a potential site for chemical reactions to occur. Additionally, proteins in the outer layers (spore coats or exosporium) may also have more specific catalytic activity. As a consequence, bacterial spores can play a role in geochemical processes and may indeed find uses in various biotechnological applications. The aim of this review is to introduce the role of bacteria and bacterial spores in biogeochemical cycles and their potential use as toxic metal bioremediation agents.

  12. 18 CFR 5.11 - Potential Applicant's proposed study plan and study plan meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... proposed study plan and study plan meetings. 5.11 Section 5.11 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... INTEGRATED LICENSE APPLICATION PROCESS § 5.11 Potential Applicant's proposed study plan and study plan..., including information and study requests, the potential applicant must file with the Commission a...

  13. 18 CFR 5.11 - Potential Applicant's proposed study plan and study plan meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... proposed study plan and study plan meetings. 5.11 Section 5.11 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... INTEGRATED LICENSE APPLICATION PROCESS § 5.11 Potential Applicant's proposed study plan and study plan..., including information and study requests, the potential applicant must file with the Commission a...

  14. 18 CFR 5.11 - Potential Applicant's proposed study plan and study plan meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... proposed study plan and study plan meetings. 5.11 Section 5.11 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... INTEGRATED LICENSE APPLICATION PROCESS § 5.11 Potential Applicant's proposed study plan and study plan..., including information and study requests, the potential applicant must file with the Commission a...

  15. 18 CFR 5.11 - Potential Applicant's proposed study plan and study plan meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potential Applicant's... FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT INTEGRATED LICENSE APPLICATION PROCESS § 5.11 Potential Applicant's proposed study plan and study...

  16. 18 CFR 5.11 - Potential Applicant's proposed study plan and study plan meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potential Applicant's... FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT INTEGRATED LICENSE APPLICATION PROCESS § 5.11 Potential Applicant's proposed study plan and study...

  17. Aging effects on fire-retardant additives in organic materials for nuclear-plant applications

    SciTech Connect

    Clough, R.L.

    1982-08-01

    Inhibiting fire is a major concern of nuclear safety. One of the most widely used commercial fire-retardant additives incorporated into cable insulation and other organic materials to reduce their flammability has been the halocarbon (usually a chlorinated hydrocarbon), typically in combination with antimony oxide. Such materials may be installed for the design lifetime of a nuclear plant; this report describes an investigation of the long-term aging behavior of these fire-retardant additives in polymeric materials. Extensive aging experiments on fire-retarded formulations of ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) and of chlorosulfonated polyethylene (CSPE) have been carried out, with chemical analysis of halogen and antimony content performed as a function of aging time and conditions. Oxygen index flammability measurements were also performed on selected samples. Significant fire-retardant losses (both chlorine (Cl) and antimony (Sb)) were found to occur in certain of the fire-retardant materials but not in others, depending on the molecular structure of the particular halogen-containing component. The data indicate that the loss of halogen- and antimony-based fire retardants appears to be insignificant under ambient conditions expected for nuclear plants.

  18. Chitosan: An Update on Potential Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Randy Chi Fai; Ng, Tzi Bun; Wong, Jack Ho; Chan, Wai Yee

    2015-01-01

    Chitosan is a natural polycationic linear polysaccharide derived from chitin. The low solubility of chitosan in neutral and alkaline solution limits its application. Nevertheless, chemical modification into composites or hydrogels brings to it new functional properties for different applications. Chitosans are recognized as versatile biomaterials because of their non-toxicity, low allergenicity, biocompatibility and biodegradability. This review presents the recent research, trends and prospects in chitosan. Some special pharmaceutical and biomedical applications are also highlighted. PMID:26287217

  19. A new water-based liquid scintillator and potential applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, M.; Hans, S.; Beriguete, W.; Rosero, R.; Hu, L.; Hahn, R. L.; Diwan, M. V.; Jaffe, D. E.; Kettell, S. H.; Littenberg, L.

    2011-12-01

    In this paper we describe a new type of scintillating liquid based on water. We describe the concept, preparation, and properties of this liquid, and how it could be used for a very large, but economical detector. The applications of such a detector range from fundamental physics such as nucleon decay and neutrino physics to physics with broader application such as neutron detection. We briefly describe the scientific requirements of these applications, and how they can be satisfied by the new material.

  20. Struvite recovery from anaerobically digested dairy manure: A review of application potential and hindrances.

    PubMed

    Tao, Wendong; Fattah, Kazi P; Huchzermeier, Matthew P

    2016-03-15

    Anaerobically digested dairy manure is rich in ammonium, orthophosphates, and magnesium, indicating a high potential for struvite recovery. Continuous generation of large amounts of dairy manure plus increasing global interest in anaerobic digestion of dairy manure suggest a huge market for struvite production with anaerobically digested dairy manure. However, the complex chemical composition of digested dairy manure presents hindrances to struvite recovery. This review paper assesses the significance and potential of struvite recovery from anaerobically digested dairy manure, identifies the factors hindering struvite recovery, and discusses the methods to overcome hindrances and the measures to improve phosphorus speciation of dairy manure for struvite formation. This paper proposes using "struvite recovery potential" or Pstruvite based on the least molar activity of struvite component ions in addition to "supersaturation ratio" to identify the potential for struvite recovery. The probable hindrances mainly include high Ca(2+) concentration and molar activity ratios of Ca(2+): Mg(2+) and Ca(2+): PO4(3-), high ionic strength, and high alkalinity. Struvite formation and purity is likely a function of all the interfering variables, rather than just a single factor with digested dairy manure. Potential enhancement measures need to be tested for technical and economic feasibility and applicability to various sources of digested dairy manure. This review paper provides guidance to overcoming the hindrances of digested dairy manure to struvite formation.

  1. The force-field derivation and application of explosive/additive interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Yao; Chen, Jun

    2016-10-01

    The inter-molecular force-field across RDX/(paraffin, fluoropolymer) interfaces are derived from first-principles calculated energies under the GGA+vdW functional. Based on the force-field, the polycrystal structures of mixture explosives are obtained, and a set of thermodynamic properties are calculated, including the elastic constants, thermal expansion coefficient, heat capacity, isothermal curve and the Hugoniot curve. The results are in good agreement with the available experiments, and provide a reasonable prediction about the properties of plastic bonded explosives. We find that the thermal expansion coefficient of a multi-component explosive is not only determined by the properties of the components, but is also affected by the thermal stress at the explosive/additive interfaces.

  2. Logic For Qualification And Industrialisation Of Additive Layer Manufacturing Parts For Spatial Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brindeau, Aymeric; Lopes, Jean-Louis; Brivot, Frederic; Bourneaud, Florent; Desagulier, Christian

    2012-07-01

    ASTRIUM Space Transportation has been manufacturing composite equipments for satellite for 25 years. For this business, the development of Additive Layer Manufacturing (ALM) processes has been identified as a real opportunity to improve design and performances. For satellite equipments, ASTRIUM ST has chosen to investigate in the Electron Beam Melting process (patented EBM® process from Arcam AB company) for the manufacturing of Titanium parts, in collaboration with MECACHROME who has developed strong skills in this ALM process. This first development step has been achieved by introducing a titanium part realised by EBM on an equipment of Atlantic Bird 7 satellite launched in September 2011. The new step consists in the formal industrialisation of the EBM process for the procurement of titanium parts for satellite equipments. The present paper describes the logic retained for this industrialisation. It includes the technical requirements but also the verifications and inspections which have to be performed to guarantee that technical requirements are met.

  3. Processing of New Materials by Additive Manufacturing: Iron-Based Alloys Containing Silver for Biomedical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niendorf, Thomas; Brenne, Florian; Hoyer, Peter; Schwarze, Dieter; Schaper, Mirko; Grothe, Richard; Wiesener, Markus; Grundmeier, Guido; Maier, Hans Jürgen

    2015-07-01

    In the biomedical sector, production of bioresorbable implants remains challenging due to improper dissolution rates or deficient strength of many candidate alloys. Promising materials for overcoming the prevalent drawbacks are iron-based alloys containing silver. However, due to immiscibility of iron and silver these alloys cannot be manufactured based on conventional processing routes. In this study, iron-manganese-silver alloys were for the first time synthesized by means of additive manufacturing. Based on combined mechanical, microscopic, and electrochemical studies, it is shown that silver particles well distributed in the matrix can be obtained, leading to cathodic sites in the composite material. Eventually, this results in an increased dissolution rate of the alloy. Stress-strain curves showed that the incorporation of silver barely affects the mechanical properties.

  4. Application and testing of additive manufacturing for mirrors and precision structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney, Michael; Acreman, Martyn; Vettese, Tom; Myatt, Ray; Thompson, Mike

    2015-09-01

    Additive Manufacturing (aka AM, and 3-D printing) is widely touted in the media as the foundation for the next industrial revolution. Beneath the hype, AM does indeed offer profound advantages in lead-time, dramatically reduced consumption of expensive raw materials, while enabling new and innovative design forms that cannot be produced by other means. General Dynamics and their industry partners have begun to embrace this technology for mirrors and precision structures used in the aerospace, defense, and precision optical instrumentation industries. Aggressively lightweighted, open and closed back test mirror designs, 75-150 mm in size, were first produced by AM from several different materials. Subsequent optical finishing and test experiments have exceeded expectations for density, surface finish, dimensional stability and isotropy of thermal expansion on the optical scale of measurement. Materials currently under examination include aluminum, titanium, beryllium, aluminum beryllium, Inconel 625, stainless steel/bronze, and PEKK polymer.

  5. Application of the self-potential method in hydrogeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Jeffrey Ralston

    The self-potential (SP) method is a passive electrical tool that measures naturally occurring voltages created by fluid flow in earth materials. SP monitoring has proven to be a fast and inexpensive means for evaluating subsurface hydrology. This dissertation presents the results of three studies, demonstrating innovative use of the SP method for describing both historical and new hydrogeologic scenarios. The cumulative result encourages application of SP monitoring in a variety of situations, and demonstrates the unique ability of the SP method to describe the physical processes controlling subsurface fluid flow. Three topics were investigated by means of SP monitoring: hydraulic fracturing of low-permeability intact rock, liquid CO2 flow through rock in support of carbon sequestration research, and seepage characterization at a remote moraine dam. In the case of hydraulic fracturing, SP observations responded to permeability variations prior to fracturing caused by dilatancy of microcracks at high pore pressure. An asymmetric spatial SP response was observed as injectate moved into aligned dilatant zones during pressurization, which in most cases revealed the impending crack geometry. SP measurements described the direction of crack propagation after initial fracturing due to strong anisotropic flow through the new fracture zone. During liquid CO 2 injection into reservoir rock, differences in the magnitude of the SP coupling coefficient (Cc) were observed for various stages of a CO 2 flood. The Cc was found to decrease by an order of magnitude as CO 2 replaced mobile water in the rock porosity, and the variation of the Cc during CO2 and water mixing was characterized. These results allow mapping of the various phase boundaries present during liquid CO 2 injection, and may contribute to the success of carbon sequestration. Finally, a preliminary description of the hydraulic regime at a remote moraine dam was obtained through analysis of SP and accompanying

  6. Worldwide wind/diesel hybrid power system study: Potential applications and technical issues

    SciTech Connect

    King, W.R.; Johnson, B.L. III )

    1991-04-01

    The world market potential for wind/diesel hybrid technology is a function of the need for electric power, the availability of sufficient wind resource to support wind/diesel power, and the existence of buyers with the financial means to invest in the technology. This study includes data related to each of these three factors. This study does not address market penetration, which would require analysis of application specific wind/diesel economics. Buyer purchase criteria, which are vital to assessing market penetration, are discussed only generally. Countries were screened for a country-specific market analysis based on indicators of need and wind resource. Both developed countries and less developed countries'' (LDCs) were screened for wind/diesel market potential. Based on the results of the screening, ten countries showing high market potential were selected for more extensive market analyses. These analyses provide country-specific market data to guide wind/diesel technology developers in making design decisions that will lead to a competitive product. Section 4 presents the country-specific data developed for these analyses, including more extensive wind resource characterization, application-specific market opportunities, business conditions, and energy market characterizations. An attempt was made to identify the potential buyers with ability to pay for wind/diesel technology required to meet the application-specific market opportunities identified for each country. Additionally, the country-specific data are extended to corollary opportunities in countries not covered by the study. Section 2 gives recommendations for wind/diesel research based on the findings of the study. 86 refs.

  7. Sophorolipids Production by Candida bombicola ATCC 22214 and its Potential Application in Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Elshafie, Abdulkadir E.; Joshi, Sanket J.; Al-Wahaibi, Yahya M.; Al-Bemani, Ali S.; Al-Bahry, Saif N.; Al-Maqbali, Dua’a; Banat, Ibrahim M.

    2015-01-01

    Biosurfactant production using Candida bombicola ATCC 22214, its characterization and potential applications in enhancing oil recovery were studied at laboratory scale. The seed media and the production media were standardized for optimal growth and biosurfactant production. The production media were tested with different carbon sources: glucose (2%w/v) and corn oil (10%v/v) added separately or concurrently. The samples were collected at 24 h interval up to 120 h and checked for growth (OD660), and biosurfactant production [surface tension (ST) and interfacial tension (IFT)]. The medium with both glucose and corn oil gave better biosurfactant production and reduced both ST and IFT to 28.56 + 0.42mN/m and 2.13 + 0.09mN/m, respectively within 72 h. The produced biosurfactant was quite stable at 13–15% salinity, pH range of 2–12, and at temperature up to 100°C. It also produced stable emulsions (%E24) with different hydrocarbons (pentane, hexane, heptane, tridecane, tetradecane, hexadecane, 1-methylnaphthalene, 2,2,4,4,6,8-heptamethylnonane, light and heavy crude oil). The produced biosurfactant was extracted using ethyl acetate and characterized as a mixture of sophorolipids (SPLs). The potential of SPLs in enhancing oil recovery was tested using core-flooding experiments under reservoir conditions, where additional 27.27% of residual oil (Sor) was recovered. This confirmed the potential of SPLs for applications in microbial enhanced oil recovery. PMID:26635782

  8. Sophorolipids Production by Candida bombicola ATCC 22214 and its Potential Application in Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery.

    PubMed

    Elshafie, Abdulkadir E; Joshi, Sanket J; Al-Wahaibi, Yahya M; Al-Bemani, Ali S; Al-Bahry, Saif N; Al-Maqbali, Dua'a; Banat, Ibrahim M

    2015-01-01

    Biosurfactant production using Candida bombicola ATCC 22214, its characterization and potential applications in enhancing oil recovery were studied at laboratory scale. The seed media and the production media were standardized for optimal growth and biosurfactant production. The production media were tested with different carbon sources: glucose (2%w/v) and corn oil (10%v/v) added separately or concurrently. The samples were collected at 24 h interval up to 120 h and checked for growth (OD660), and biosurfactant production [surface tension (ST) and interfacial tension (IFT)]. The medium with both glucose and corn oil gave better biosurfactant production and reduced both ST and IFT to 28.56 + 0.42mN/m and 2.13 + 0.09mN/m, respectively within 72 h. The produced biosurfactant was quite stable at 13-15% salinity, pH range of 2-12, and at temperature up to 100°C. It also produced stable emulsions (%E24) with different hydrocarbons (pentane, hexane, heptane, tridecane, tetradecane, hexadecane, 1-methylnaphthalene, 2,2,4,4,6,8-heptamethylnonane, light and heavy crude oil). The produced biosurfactant was extracted using ethyl acetate and characterized as a mixture of sophorolipids (SPLs). The potential of SPLs in enhancing oil recovery was tested using core-flooding experiments under reservoir conditions, where additional 27.27% of residual oil (Sor) was recovered. This confirmed the potential of SPLs for applications in microbial enhanced oil recovery.

  9. Addition of Electrostatic Forces to EDEM with Applications to Triboelectrically Charged Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogue, Michael D.; Calle, Carlos; Curry, David

    2008-01-01

    Tribocharging of particles is common in many processes including fine powder handling and mixing, printer toner transport and dust extraction. In a lunar environment with its high vacuum and lack of water, electrostatic forces are an important factor to consider when designing and operating equipment. Dust mitigation and management is critical to safe and predictable performance of people and equipment. The extreme nature of lunar conditions makes it difficult and costly to carryout experiments on earth which are necessary to better understand how particles gather and transfer charge between each other and with equipment surfaces. DEM (Discrete Element Modeling) provides an excellent virtual laboratory for studying tribocharging of particles as well as for design of devices for dust mitigation and for other purposes related to handling and processing of lunar regolith. Theoretical and experimental work has been performed pursuant to incorporating screened Coulombic electrostatic forces into EDEM Tm, a commercial DEM software package. The DEM software is used to model the trajectories of large numbers of particles for industrial particulate handling and processing applications and can be coupled with other solvers and numerical models to calculate particle interaction with surrounding media and force fields. In this paper we will present overview of the theoretical calculations and experimental data and their comparison to the results of the DEM simulations. We will also discuss current plans to revise the DEM software with advanced electrodynamic and mechanical algorithms.

  10. Use of Antimicrobial Food Additives as Potential Dipping Solutions to Control Pseudomonas spp. Contamination in the Frankfurters and Ham

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Mi-Hwa; Park, Beom-Young; Choi, Kyoung-Hee

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of sodium diacetate and sodium lactate solutions for reducing the cell count of Pseudomonas spp. in frankfurters and hams. A mixture of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (NCCP10338, NCCP10250, and NCCP11229), and Pseudomonas fluorescens (KACC10323 and KACC10326) was inoculated on cooked frankfurters and ham. The inoculated samples were immersed into control (sterile distilled water), sodium diacetate (5 and 10%), sodium lactate (5 and 10%), 5% sodium diacetate + 5% sodium lactate, and 10% sodium diacetate + 10% sodium lactate for 0-10 min. Inoculated frankfurters and ham were also immersed into acidified (pH 3.0) solutions such as acidified sodium diacetate (5 and 10%), and acidified sodium lactate (5 and 10%) in addition to control (acidified distilled water) for 0-10 min. Total aerobic plate counts for Pseudomonas spp. were enumerated on Cetrimide agar. Significant reductions (ca. 2 Log CFU/g) in Pseudomonas spp. cells on frankfurters and ham were observed only for a combination treatment of 10% sodium lactate + 10% sodium diacetate. When the solutions were acidified to pH 3.0, the total reductions of Pseudomonas spp. were 1.5-4.0 Log CFU/g. The order of reduction amounts of Pseudomonas spp. cell counts was 10% sodium lactate > 5% sodium lactate ≥ 10% sodium diacetate > 5% sodium diacetate > control for frankfurters, and 10% sodium lactate > 5% sodium lactate > 10% sodium diacetate > 5% sodium diacetate > control for ham. The results suggest that using acidified food additive antimicrobials, as dipping solutions, should be useful in reducing Pseudomonas spp. on frankfurters and ham. PMID:26761492

  11. Zoledronic acid inhibits aromatase activity and phosphorylation: potential mechanism for additive zoledronic acid and letrozole drug interaction.

    PubMed

    Schech, Amanda J; Nemieboka, Brandon E; Brodie, Angela H

    2012-11-01

    Zoledronic acid (ZA), a bisphosphonate originally indicated for use in osteoporosis, has been reported to exert a direct effect on breast cancer cells, although the mechanism of this effect is currently unknown. Data from the ABCSG-12 and ZO-FAST clinical trials suggest that treatment with the combination of ZA and aromatase inhibitors (AI) result in increased disease free survival in breast cancer patients over AI alone. To determine whether the mechanism of this combination involved inhibition of aromatase, AC-1 cells (MCF-7 human breast cancer cells transfected with an aromatase construct) were treated simultaneously with combinations of ZA and AI letrozole. This combination significantly increased inhibition of aromatase activity of AC-1 cells when compared to letrozole alone. Treatment of 1 nM letrozole in combination with 1 μM or 10 μM ZA resulted in an additive drug interaction on inhibition of cell viability, as measured by MTT assay. Treatment with ZA was found to inhibit phosphorylation of aromatase on serine residues. Zoledronic acid was also shown to be more effective in inhibiting cell viability in aromatase transfected AC-1 cells when compared to inhibition of cell viability observed in non-transfected MCF-7. Estradiol was able to partially rescue the effect of 1 μM and 10 μM ZA on cell viability following treatment for 72 h, as shown by a shift to the right in the estradiol dose-response curve. In conclusion, these results indicate that the combination of ZA and letrozole results in an additive inhibition of cell viability. Furthermore, ZA alone can inhibit aromatase activity through inhibition of serine phosphorylation events important for aromatase enzymatic activity and contributes to inhibition of cell viability.

  12. An Additional Potential Factor for Kidney Stone Formation during Space Flights: Calcifying Nanoparticles (Nanobacteria): A Case Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jeffrey A.; Ciftcioglu, Neva; Schmid, Joseph; Griffith, Donald

    2007-01-01

    Spaceflight-induced microgravity appears to be a risk factor for the development of urinary calculi due to skeletal calcium liberation and other undefined factors, resulting in stone disease in crewmembers during and after spaceflight. Calcifying nanoparticles, or nanobacteria, reproduce at a more rapid rate in simulated microgravity conditions and create external shells of calcium phosphate in the form of apatite. The questions arises whether calcifying nanoparticles are niduses for calculi and contribute to the development of clinical stone disease in humans, who possess environmental factors predisposing to the development of urinary calculi and potentially impaired immunological defenses during spaceflight. A case of a urinary calculus passed from an astronaut post-flight with morphological characteristics of calcifying nanoparticles and staining positive for a calcifying nanoparticle unique antigen, is presented.

  13. Phosphorus applications improved the soil microbial responses under nitrogen additions in Chinese fir plantations of subtropical China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xinyu; Li, Dandan; Yang, Yang; Tang, Yuqian; Wang, Huimin; Chen, Fusheng; Sun, Xiaomin

    2016-04-01

    Nitrogen (N) deposition and low soil phosphorus (P) content aggravate the P limitation in subtropical forest soils. However, the responses of soil microbial communities, enzyme kinetics, and N cycling genes to P additions in subtropical plantations are still not clear. The hypothesis that P application can alleviate the limitation and improve the soil microbial properties was tested by long term field experiment in the Chinese fir plantations in subtropical China. Thirty 20m×20m plots were established in November 2011 and six different treatments were randomly distributed with five replicates. The treatments are control (CK, no N and P application), low N addition (N1: 50 kg N ha-1 yr-1), high N addition (N2: 100 kg N ha-1 yr-1), P addition (P: 50 kg P ha-1 yr-1), low N and P addition (N1P: 50 kg N ha-1 yr-1 and 50 kg P ha-1 yr-1) and high N and P addition (N2P: 100 kg N ha-1 yr-1 and 50 kg P ha-1 yr-1). A suite of responses of soil microorganism across four years (2012-2015) during three seasons (spring, summer and autumn) were measured. Following 4 years of N amendments, fertilized soils were more acidic and had lower soil microbial biomass carbon contents than CK. However, P alleviated the soil acidification and increased the soil microbial biomass carbon contents. Increases in microbial PLFA biomarkers and exoenzyme kinetics in N fertilized plots were observed in the initial year (2013) but reduced since then (2014 and 2015). Whereas P amendments increased the soil PLFA biomarkers and exoenzyme kinetics through the four years except that the acid phosphatase activities declined after 3 years applications. P applications enhanced the soil N cycling by increases the abundances of nitrifiers (ammonia-oxidizing archea) and denitrifiers (nos Z, norG, and nirK). The bacterial and fungal residue carbons (calculated by amino sugar indicators) were higher under NP fertilizations than the other treatments. Our results suggest that P application could improve the soil

  14. Mechanically tunable aspheric lenses via additive manufacture of hanging elastomeric droplets for microscopic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuh, Yiin-Kuen; Chen, Pin-Wen; Lai, Zheng-Hong

    2016-07-01

    Mechanically deformable lenses with dynamically tunable focal lengths have been developed in this work. The fabricated five types of aspheric polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) lenses presented here have an initial focal length of 7.0, 7.8, 9.0, 10.0 and 10.2 mm. Incorporating two modes of operation in biconvex and concave-convex configurations, the focal lengths can be tuned dynamically as 5.2-10.2, 5.5-9.9, 6.6-11.9, 6.1-13.5 and 6.6-13.5 mm respectively. Additive manufacturing was utilized to fabricate these five types of aspheric lenses (APLs) via sequential layering of PDMS materials. Complex structures with three-dimensional features and shorter focal lengths can be successfully produced by repeatedly depositing, inverting and curing controlled PDMS volume onto previously cured PDMS droplets. From our experiments, we empirically found a direct dependence of the focal length of the lenses with the amount (volume) of deposited PDMS droplets. This new mouldless, low-cost, and flexible lens fabrication method is able to transform an ordinary commercial smartphone camera into a low-cost portable microscope. A few microscopic features can be readily visualized, such as wrinkles of ladybird pupa and printed circuit board. The fabrication technique by successively applying hanging droplet and facile mechanical focal-length-tuning set-up can be easily adopted in the development of high-performance optical lenses.

  15. Molecular Imprinting of Silica Nanoparticle Surfaces via Reversible Addition-Fragmentation Polymerization for Optical Biosensing Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oluz, Zehra; Nayab, Sana; Kursun, Talya Tugana; Caykara, Tuncer; Yameen, Basit; Duran, Hatice

    Azo initiator modified surface of silica nanoparticles were coated via reversible addition-fragmentation polymerization (RAFT) of methacrylic acid and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate using 2-phenylprop 2-yl dithobenzoate as chain transfer agent. Using L-phenylalanine anilide as template during polymerization led molecularly imprinted nanoparticles. RAFT polymerization offers an efficient control of grafting process, while molecularly imprinted polymers shows enhanced capacity as sensor. L-phenylalanine anilide imprinted silica particles were characterized by X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM). Performances of the particles were followed by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy (SPR) after coating the final product on gold deposited glass substrate against four different analogous of analyte molecules: D-henylalanine anilide, L-tyrosine, L-tryptophan and L-phenylalanine. Characterizations indicated that silica particles coated with polymer layer do contain binding sites for L-phenylalanine anilide, and are highly selective for the molecule of interest. This project was supported by TUBITAK (Project No:112M804).

  16. Additive SMILES-based optimal descriptors in QSAR modelling bee toxicity: Using rare SMILES attributes to define the applicability domain.

    PubMed

    Toropov, A A; Benfenati, E

    2008-05-01

    The additive SMILES-based optimal descriptors have been used for modelling the bee toxicity. The influence of relative prevalence of the SMILES attributes in a training and test sets to the models for bee toxicity has been analysed. Avoiding the use of rare attributes improves statistical characteristics of the model on the external test set. The possibility of using the probability of the presence of SMILES attributes in training and test sets for rational definition of the applicability domain is discussed.

  17. Additional application of the NASCAP code. Volume 2: SEPS, ion thruster neutralization and electrostatic antenna model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, I.; Cassidy, J. J.; Mandell, M. J.; Parks, D. E.; Schnuelle, G. W.; Stannard, P. R.; Steen, P. G.

    1981-01-01

    The interactions of spacecraft systems with the surrounding plasma environment were studied analytically for three cases of current interest: calculating the impact of spacecraft generated plasmas on the main power system of a baseline solar electric propulsion stage (SEPS), modeling the physics of the neutralization of an ion thruster beam by a plasma bridge, and examining the physical and electrical effects of orbital ambient plasmas on the operation of an electrostatically controlled membrane mirror. In order to perform these studies, the NASA charging analyzer program (NASCAP) was used as well as several other computer models and analytical estimates. The main result of the SEPS study was to show how charge exchange ion expansion can create a conducting channel between the thrusters and the solar arrays. A fluid-like model was able to predict plasma potentials and temperatures measured near the main beam of an ion thruster and in the vicinity of a hollow cathode neutralizer. Power losses due to plasma currents were shown to be substantial for several proposed electrostatic antenna designs.

  18. Hypernated supercritical fluid chromatography: potential application for car lubricant analysis.

    PubMed

    Lavison-Bompard, Gwenaelle; Bertoncini, Fabrice; Thiébaut, Didier; Beziau, Jean-François; Carrazé, Bernadette; Valette, Pascale; Duteurtre, Xavier

    2012-12-28

    Car lubricant additives are added to mineral or synthetic base stocks to improve viscosity and resistance to oxidation of the lubricant and to limit wear of engines. In previous papers related to this purpose, it was demonstrated that SFC allows the elution of common low molecular weight additives. Since their total resolution could not be achieved owing to the limited peak capacity of packed columns, the hyphenation of selective and informative detectors, atomic emission and mass spectrometry, were also carried out for identification. This paper describes the final implementation of a packed column SFC/FID-UV-AED-FTIR-MS system to contribute to the characterisation of both the base stock, mineral or semi-synthetic, and the low molecular weight additives. SFC/FID-UV-FTIR ensures the easy confirmation of the presence of esters in the base stock. Reference additives are used to demonstrate the performances of the multi hyphenated system prior to its implementation for their identification in packages and in formulated lubricants. Identification and partial structure elucidation of additives and families of additives in package and formulated car lubricants are presented: using combined information obtained from AED traces and FTIR chemigrams, chemical families of additives can be deduced. Then, the mass spectra can be interpreted in the elution zone of interest in order to go further in the determination of the additive molecular structure. The hypernated SFC system was also employed to follow the ageing of car lubricants.

  19. Carbon nanotubes: potential medical applications and safety concerns.

    PubMed

    Amenta, Valeria; Aschberger, Karin

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have unique atomic structure, as well as outstanding thermal, mechanical, and electronic properties, making them extremely attractive materials for several different applications. Many research groups are focusing on biomedical applications of carbon-based nanomaterials, however the application of CNTs to the biomedical field is not developing as fast as in other areas. While CNTs-based products are already being used in textiles, polymer matrices to strengthen materials, sports articles, microelectronics, energy storage, etc., medicinal products and medical devices for in vivo application based on CNTs have not been commercialized yet. However, CNTs for biomedical application, i.e., CNTs conjugated to siRNA for cancer therapy, or CNTs for imaging of colorectal cancer and many other products may enter clinical trials in the next years. Concerns related to the toxicity of CNTs must be overcome in order to have these products commercialized in a near future. This article reviews emerging biomedical applications of CNTs, specifically for therapy. It also deals with challenges associated with possible medical applications of CNTs, such as their not fully understood toxicological profile in the human body.

  20. From lab to industrial: PZT nanoparticles synthesis and process control for application in additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Hsien-Lin

    Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) nanoparticles hold many promising current and future applications, such as PZT ink for 3-D printing or seeds for PZT thick films. One common method is hydrothermal growth, in which temperature, duration time, or mineralizer concentrations are optimized to produce PZT nanoparticles with desired morphology, controlled size and size distribution. A modified hydrothermal process is used to fabricate PZT nanoparticles. The novelty is to employ a high ramping rate (e.g., 20 deg C/min) to generate abrupt supersaturation so as to promote burst nucleation of PZT nanoparticles as well as a fast cooling rate (e.g., 5 deg C/min) with a controlled termination of crystal growth. As a result, PZT nanoparticles with a size distribution ranging from 200 nm to 800 nm are obtained with cubic morphology and good crystallinity. The identification of nanoparticles is confirmed through use of X-ray diffractometer (XRD). XRD patterns are used to compare sample variations in their microstructures such as lattice parameter. A cubic morphology and particle size are also examined via SEM images. The hydrothermal process is further modified with excess lead (from 20% wt. to 80% wt.) to significantly reduce amorphous phase and agglomeration of the PZT nanoparticles. With a modified process, the particle size still remains within the 200 nm to 800 nm. Also, the crystal structures (microstructure) of the samples show little variations. Finally, a semi-continuous hydrothermal manufacturing process was developed to substantially reduce the fabrication time and maintained the same high quality as the nanoparticles prepared in an earlier stage. In this semi-continuous process, a furnace is maintained at the process temperature (200 deg C), whereas autoclaves containing PZT sol are placed in and out of the furnace to control the ramp-up and cooling rates. This setup eliminates an extremely time-consuming step of cooling down the furnace, thus saving tremendous amount of

  1. Recent and Potential Application of Engineering Tools to Educational Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taft, Martin I.

    This paper presents a summary of some recent engineering research in education and identifies some research areas with high payoff potential. The underlying assumption is that a school is a system with a set of subsystems which is potentially susceptible to analysis, design, and eventually some sort of optimization. This assumption leads to the…

  2. Potential type operators in PDEs and their applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burtseva, Evgeniya; Lundberg, Staffan; Persson, Lars-Erik; Samko, Natasha

    2017-01-01

    We prove the boundedness of Potential operator in weighted generalized Morrey space in terms of Matuszewska-Orlicz indices of weights and apply this result to the Hemholtz equation in ℝ3 with a free term in such a space. We also give a short overview of some typical situations when Potential type operators arise when solving PDEs.

  3. Development of magnetodielectric materials to be used in additive manufacturing processes for high-frequency applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, Paul Emerson, II

    Electrical devices for very-high frequency (VHF, 0.03 -- 0.3 GHz) and ultra-high frequency (UHF, 0.3 -- 3.0 GHz) are commonly used for communications. However, the wavelengths, lambda, of these frequency bands correspond to lengths between 10 and 0.1 m, resulting in prohibitively large devices. Materials with an index of refraction, n, greater than 1 can be used to effectively shrink these devices by a factor of 1/ n. In this thesis, magnetodielectric materials (MDM), where n ≥1, have been made to be used in additive manufacturing processes with strict particle size requirements and were developed using various methods, such as polyol reduction and conventional ceramic solid state processing. These materials were characterized using x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), to determine their crystalline, physical, and direct current (DC) magnetization properties. The techniques used to synthesize the MDM yielded particles that were chemically similar, but had drastically different physical properties which heavily influences their high-frequency electromagnetic properties. These materials were then uniformly dispersed into a non-conducting medium, such as a low-electrical loss polymer or resin, and formed into composite samples with variable volumetric loading. These composite samples were measured using several techniques to characterize the frequency-dependent electromagnetic (EM) properties, such as relative permeability, relative permittivity, and their respective losses. Finite element method (FEM) simulations were performed using these MDM-composites to design a spiral antenna to be used at approximately 585 MHz.

  4. Potential Nano-Enabled Environmental Applications for Radionuclides

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document provides information about nanotechnology materials and processes that may be applicable when cleaning up radioactively contaminated sites or materials, and presents a snapshot of lessons learned in nano-science and engineering.

  5. Generalized net analyte signal standard addition as a novel method for simultaneous determination: application in spectrophotometric determination of some pesticides.

    PubMed

    Asadpour-Zeynali, Karim; Saeb, Elhameh; Vallipour, Javad; Bamorowat, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of three neonicotinoid insecticides (acetamiprid, imidacloprid, and thiamethoxam) by a novel method named generalized net analyte signal standard addition method (GNASSAM) in some binary and ternary synthetic mixtures was investigated. For this purpose, standard addition was performed using a single standard solution consisting of a mixture of standards of all analytes. Savings in time and amount of used materials are some of the advantages of this method. All determinations showed appropriate applicability of this method with less than 5% error. This method may be applied for linearly dependent data in the presence of known interferents. The GNASSAM combines the advantages of both the generalized standard addition method and net analyte signal; therefore, it may be a proper alternative for some other multivariate methods.

  6. Mechanical properties and phase composition of potential biodegradable Mg-Zn-Mn-base alloys with addition of rare earth elements

    SciTech Connect

    Stulikova, Ivana; Smola, Bohumil

    2010-10-15

    Mechanical properties and creep resistance of the MgY4Zn1Mn1 alloy in the as cast as well as in the T5 condition were compared to those of the MgCe4Zn1Mn1 alloy in the same conditions. Yield tensile stress and ultimate tensile strength of the MgY4Zn1Mn1 alloy are slightly better in the temperature range 20 deg. C-400 deg. C than these of the MgCe4Zn1Mn1 alloy. Better thermal stability of ultimate tensile strength was observed in the T5 treated MgCe4Zn1Mn1 alloy than in this material in the as cast condition. An outstanding creep resistance at 225 deg. C-350 deg. C found in the MgY4Zn1Mn1 alloy is due to the existence of the 18R long period stacking structure persisting in this alloy even a long heat treatment of 500 deg. C/32 h. No similar stacking effects happen when Ce substitutes Y in approximately the same concentration. The creep resistance deteriorates considerably in the MgCe4Zn1Mn1 alloy. Rectangular particles of the equilibrium Mg{sub 12}Ce phase dominate in the microstructure of as cast as well as of high temperature heat-treated MgCe4Zn1Mn1 alloy. A population of small oval particles containing Mg and Zn develops additionally during annealing of this alloy. These particles pin effectively dislocations and can be responsible for the better thermal stability of the T5 treated material.

  7. Development and application of the quasi-potential transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Pillay, B.

    1992-08-01

    The quasi-potential transformation, based on the Kirchhoff transformation, reduces the equations governing mass-transfer in a steady-state, nonconvective electrolytic system into two independent parts. The geometry-specific part involves the solution of Laplace`s equation subject to the relevant boundary conditions. The system-specific part involves the solution of a set of coupled first-order, nonlinear, ordinary differential equations. We develop a theoretical basis for the quasi-potential transformation using potential theory. The major assumption on which the quasi-potential transformation is based is that the concentrations can be written as single-valued functions of the electrostatic potential. We see how the system-specific part of the calculation is developed. Boundary conditions are outlined, and the geometry-specific calculations for the disk and hemisphere electrodes are developed. We combine the system-specific calculations for the binary and acidic copper sulfate solutions with these geometry-specific calculations to obtain complete concentration profiles, potential distributions, and current density distributions for these systems. We also investigate the effect of migration on limiting currents.

  8. Development and application of the quasi-potential transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Pillay, B.

    1992-08-01

    The quasi-potential transformation, based on the Kirchhoff transformation, reduces the equations governing mass-transfer in a steady-state, nonconvective electrolytic system into two independent parts. The geometry-specific part involves the solution of Laplace's equation subject to the relevant boundary conditions. The system-specific part involves the solution of a set of coupled first-order, nonlinear, ordinary differential equations. We develop a theoretical basis for the quasi-potential transformation using potential theory. The major assumption on which the quasi-potential transformation is based is that the concentrations can be written as single-valued functions of the electrostatic potential. We see how the system-specific part of the calculation is developed. Boundary conditions are outlined, and the geometry-specific calculations for the disk and hemisphere electrodes are developed. We combine the system-specific calculations for the binary and acidic copper sulfate solutions with these geometry-specific calculations to obtain complete concentration profiles, potential distributions, and current density distributions for these systems. We also investigate the effect of migration on limiting currents.

  9. Application of Designer Polynomials to the Soft-Coulomb Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weatherford, Charles; Wynn, Albert, III; Red, Eddie; Mathis, Clausell

    2004-05-01

    In a recent article [C.A. Weatherford, E. Red, A. Wynn III, International Journal of Quantum Chemistry 90, 1289-1294 (2002)], an algorithm was described whereby a synthetic weighted polynomial basis may be constructed which is adapted (designed) to a particular potential. It was applied therein to the Schroedinger equation with a coulomb potential in one dimension (-1/|x| ). A weighted polynomial basis with weight function w(x)=exp(-a|x|) was employed. It was observed that this potential had no even parity solutions - only odd parity solutions. The question arises as to the relationship of the solutions (eigenfunctions and eigenvalues) for this hard coulomb potential to the solutions for the soft coulomb potential (-1/ √x^2+b^2^1/2 ). In particular, since the soft coulomb potential is clearly expected to possess both even and odd parity solutions, how do these solutions behave as b->0 and thus what happens to the even solutions. This problem is deceptively difficult none of the standard basis sets produce a variational minimum as a function of 'a' for nonzero 'b'. This is apparently why this problem has never been done before. A new orthonormal basis was designed with weight function w(x)=exp(-a√x^2+b^2) which did produce a variational minimum for variable a and arbitrary fixed 'b'. The present paper describes these solutions and clearly indicates how they behave as b->0 .

  10. Use of different spices as potential natural antioxidant additives on cooked beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). Increase of DPPH radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Marina Pelincer; Tavano, Olga Luisa

    2014-12-01

    Herbs and spices, excellent sources of phenolic compounds, can be considered potential antioxidant additives. The use of spices must strike a balance between their potential antioxidant capabilities during preparation and the flavor acceptance, in order to avoid rejection of the food. The aimed of this study is to evaluate the influence of different spices and their concentrations on cooked common beans, focusing its potential as antioxidant additives. Onion, parsley, spring onion, laurel and coriander increased the antioxidant activity of preparation when used at 7.96 g of onion, 1.06 g parsley, 3.43 g spring onion, 0.25 g laurel (dry leaves), and 0.43 g coriander/100 g of cooked beans. Besides, these spices concentrations enhance total phenolics and alter the mixture protein digestibility minimally. For garlic samples it was not possible to establish a concentration that increases the antioxidant activity of cooked beans.

  11. Marine polysaccharides from algae with potential biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    de Jesus Raposo, Maria Filomena; de Morais, Alcina Maria Bernardo; de Morais, Rui Manuel Santos Costa

    2015-05-15

    There is a current tendency towards bioactive natural products with applications in various industries, such as pharmaceutical, biomedical, cosmetics and food. This has put some emphasis in research on marine organisms, including macroalgae and microalgae, among others. Polysaccharides with marine origin constitute one type of these biochemical compounds that have already proved to have several important properties, such as anticoagulant and/or antithrombotic, immunomodulatory ability, antitumor and cancer preventive, antilipidaemic and hypoglycaemic, antibiotics and anti-inflammatory and antioxidant, making them promising bioactive products and biomaterials with a wide range of applications. Their properties are mainly due to their structure and physicochemical characteristics, which depend on the organism they are produced by. In the biomedical field, the polysaccharides from algae can be used in controlled drug delivery, wound management, and regenerative medicine. This review will focus on the biomedical applications of marine polysaccharides from algae.

  12. Potential high efficiency solar cells: Applications from space photovoltaic research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flood, D. J.

    1986-01-01

    NASA involvement in photovoltaic energy conversion research development and applications spans over two decades of continuous progress. Solar cell research and development programs conducted by the Lewis Research Center's Photovoltaic Branch have produced a sound technology base not only for the space program, but for terrestrial applications as well. The fundamental goals which have guided the NASA photovoltaic program are to improve the efficiency and lifetime, and to reduce the mass and cost of photovoltaic energy conversion devices and arrays for use in space. The major efforts in the current Lewis program are on high efficiency, single crystal GaAs planar and concentrator cells, radiation hard InP cells, and superlattice solar cells. A brief historical perspective of accomplishments in high efficiency space solar cells will be given, and current work in all of the above categories will be described. The applicability of space cell research and technology to terrestrial photovoltaics will be discussed.

  13. Potential applications of boron nitride nanotubes as drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Ciofani, Gianni

    2010-08-01

    In recent years, there has been an explosion of research in the 'bio-nano' field, with the discovery and introduction of ever more fascinating materials for applications as drug delivery systems, sensors, transducers, and so on. The author's group, for the first time in the literature, proposed boron nitride nanotubes as a valid alternative to carbon nanotubes and other kinds of inorganic materials, because of their improved chemical properties that theoretically guarantee better stability and compatibility in a biological context. In this paper, the bio-applications of boron nitride nanotubes that have emerged in the literature are summarized, with special attention given to their exploitation as safe drug delivery and targeting carriers. Finally, the possibility of combining their physical and chemical properties is approached, highlighting the features that render these innovative nanovectors unique and exceptional candidates for many bio-applications.

  14. Marine Polysaccharides from Algae with Potential Biomedical Applications

    PubMed Central

    de Jesus Raposo, Maria Filomena; de Morais, Alcina Maria Bernardo; de Morais, Rui Manuel Santos Costa

    2015-01-01

    There is a current tendency towards bioactive natural products with applications in various industries, such as pharmaceutical, biomedical, cosmetics and food. This has put some emphasis in research on marine organisms, including macroalgae and microalgae, among others. Polysaccharides with marine origin constitute one type of these biochemical compounds that have already proved to have several important properties, such as anticoagulant and/or antithrombotic, immunomodulatory ability, antitumor and cancer preventive, antilipidaemic and hypoglycaemic, antibiotics and anti-inflammatory and antioxidant, making them promising bioactive products and biomaterials with a wide range of applications. Their properties are mainly due to their structure and physicochemical characteristics, which depend on the organism they are produced by. In the biomedical field, the polysaccharides from algae can be used in controlled drug delivery, wound management, and regenerative medicine. This review will focus on the biomedical applications of marine polysaccharides from algae. PMID:25988519

  15. Application of multivariate analysis to the effects of additives on chemical and sensory quality of stored coffee brew.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Martínez, Mónica; Sopelana, Patricia; de Peña, M Paz; Cid, Concepción

    2008-12-24

    The aim of this work was to obtain a black coffee brew to be consumed hot by extension of its shelf life, by addition of additives. Four pH-regulator agents (sodium and potassium carbonates and bicarbonates), one pH regulator and antioxidant (sodium citrate), three antioxidants [sodium ascorbate, ethylenediaminetetracetic acid (EDTA), and sodium sulfite], and lactoserum were tested by sensory analysis. Sodium carbonate and bicarbonate were selected for a study of the physicochemical (soluble and volatile compounds related to the sensory properties) and sensorial quality of coffee brew stored for 90 days at 4 degrees C. Although both additives extended the shelf life of the coffee brew up to 60 days, sodium carbonate was the chosen additive because it was the most useful in limiting the pH decrease and perception of sourness, which are some of the main factors involved in the rejection of stored coffee brews, and it better maintained the aroma and taste/flavor. Moreover, the application of multivariate analysis facilitated first the description of the global changes of the coffee brews with or without additives throughout the storage using principal component analysis and second the obtainment of a simple equation only with pH and caffeic acid parameters to discriminate the three types of coffee brews and simplify the analytical process, by means of the stepwise discriminant analysis.

  16. Biologic interaction of prostaglandin, thromboxane and prostacyclin: potential clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Bell, T G; Smith, W L; Oxender, W D

    1986-01-01

    Prostaglandins are vasoactive agents which have potent and varied effects depending on the species, conditions and organs tested. The clinician wishing to gain a significant overview of the field from current research literature has a demanding task for himself. A review of biologic interactions is exactly what is needed in a consideration of possible clinical applications of prostaglandins. Thus, it is necessary first to recount the last five years' advances in prostaglandin research. Only then will the listing and discussion of some diseases soon to benefit from the application of research be meaningful.

  17. Boundary potential of lipid bilayers: methods, interpretations and biological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermakov, Yu A.

    2017-01-01

    The electric field distribution at boundaries of cell membranes consists of diffuse part of the electrical double layer and the potential drop over the polar area generally attributed to dipole effects. This report focuses on the molecular nature of dipole components of boundary potential and its relation to bilayer structure as it follows from different experimental approaches and molecular dynamic (MD) simulations. Alterations of the total boundary potential (BP) of planar bilayer lipid membranes (BLM) can be detected by the method of Intramembraneous Field Compensation, developed in our laboratory. When combined with traditional electrokinetic measurements in liposome suspension and Volta potential control at lipid monolayers it reveals alterations of the dipole potential induced by multivalent cations (Be2+, Gd3+) about 100-150 mV. It is related to the lipid phase transition detected by isotherm titration calorimetry (ITC) measurements. IFC method combined with perfusion of the cell show reversible electrostatic effects due to lysine adsorption and irreversible binding of polylysines accompanied by fast positive changes of BP as electrokinetic measurements, and slow negative ones attributed to BP dipole component. According to model proposed it related with changes of lipid hydration state varied by incorporation of ions or organic molecules into the lipid monolayer. Molecular dynamic simulations support this idea and relate dipole effects with H-bonded water molecules and lipid lateral coordination. Both effects are assumed as the principal reason of Gd3+ blocking effect on E.coli mechanosensitive channels.

  18. Applications of Scheimpflug Imaging in Glaucoma Management: Current and Potential Applications

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Alexander T.; Liu, Tiffany

    2016-01-01

    Scheimpflug photography is the basis for a variety of imaging devices that are highly versatile. The applications of Scheimpflug imaging are wide in scope, spanning from evaluation of corneal ectasia to quantifying density in nuclear sclerotic cataracts. The potential uses for Scheimpflug-based devices are expanding and a number of them are relevant in glaucoma. In particular, they can provide three-dimensional image reconstruction of the anterior segment which includes assessment of the iridocorneal angle. Photographic analyses allow also for a noncontact method of estimating central corneal thickness (CCT) and intraocular pressure (IOP), as well as the study of various corneal biomechanical properties, which may be useful for stratifying glaucoma risk. PMID:28044101

  19. Hot Workability of CuZr-Based Shape Memory Alloys for Potential High-Temperature Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biffi, Carlo Alberto; Tuissi, Ausonio

    2014-07-01

    The research on high-temperature shape memory alloys has been growing because of the interest of several potential industrial fields, such as automotive, aerospace, mechanical, and control systems. One suitable candidate is given by the CuZr system, because of its relative low price in comparison with others, like the NiTi-based one. In this context, the goal of this work is the study of hot workability of some CuZr-based shape memory alloys. In particular, this study addresses on the effect of hot rolling process on the metallurgical and calorimetric properties of the CuZr system. The addition of some alloying elements (Cr, Co, Ni, and Ti) is taken into account and their effect is also put in comparison with each other. The alloys were produced by means of an arc melting furnace in inert atmosphere under the shape of cigars. Due to the high reactivity of these alloys at high temperature, the cigars were sealed in a stainless steel can before the processing and two different procedures of hot rolling were tested. The characterization of the rolled alloys is performed using discrete scanning calorimetry in terms of evolution of the martensitic transformation and scanning electron microscopy for the microstructural investigations. Additionally, preliminary tests of laser interaction has been also proposed on the alloy more interesting for potential applications, characterized by high transformation temperatures and its good thermal stability.

  20. Molecular Breeding to Create Optimized Crops: From Genetic Manipulation to Potential Applications in Plant Factories

    PubMed Central

    Hiwasa-Tanase, Kyoko; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Crop cultivation in controlled environment plant factories offers great potential to stabilize the yield and quality of agricultural products. However, many crops are currently unsuited to these environments, particularly closed cultivation systems, due to space limitations, low light intensity, high implementation costs, and high energy requirements. A major barrier to closed system cultivation is the high running cost, which necessitates the use of high-margin crops for economic viability. High-value crops include those with enhanced nutritional value or containing additional functional components for pharmaceutical production or with the aim of providing health benefits. In addition, it is important to develop cultivars equipped with growth parameters that are suitable for closed cultivation. Small plant size is of particular importance due to the limited cultivation space. Other advantageous traits are short production cycle, the ability to grow under low light, and high nutriculture availability. Cost-effectiveness is improved from the use of cultivars that are specifically optimized for closed system cultivation. This review describes the features of closed cultivation systems and the potential application of molecular breeding to create crops that are optimized for cost-effectiveness and productivity in closed cultivation systems. PMID:27200016

  1. Molecular Breeding to Create Optimized Crops: From Genetic Manipulation to Potential Applications in Plant Factories.

    PubMed

    Hiwasa-Tanase, Kyoko; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Crop cultivation in controlled environment plant factories offers great potential to stabilize the yield and quality of agricultural products. However, many crops are currently unsuited to these environments, particularly closed cultivation systems, due to space limitations, low light intensity, high implementation costs, and high energy requirements. A major barrier to closed system cultivation is the high running cost, which necessitates the use of high-margin crops for economic viability. High-value crops include those with enhanced nutritional value or containing additional functional components for pharmaceutical production or with the aim of providing health benefits. In addition, it is important to develop cultivars equipped with growth parameters that are suitable for closed cultivation. Small plant size is of particular importance due to the limited cultivation space. Other advantageous traits are short production cycle, the ability to grow under low light, and high nutriculture availability. Cost-effectiveness is improved from the use of cultivars that are specifically optimized for closed system cultivation. This review describes the features of closed cultivation systems and the potential application of molecular breeding to create crops that are optimized for cost-effectiveness and productivity in closed cultivation systems.

  2. Potential application for genipin-modified gelatin in leather processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genipin is a non-toxic iridoid compound, extracted from the gardenia fruits, and, because of its low cytoxicity, is replacing both glutaraldehyde and formaldehyde as a crosslinking reagent. In prior research we had shown the potential of chemical (glutaraldehyde) and enzyme (transglutaminase) modif...

  3. Potential Characteristics and Applications of X-Ray Lasers,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    X - ray lasers derives from their potential uses. Both radiation physics and materials ...laboratory sources of X - rays , from radioactive materials and X - ray tubes, through storage rings, to plasmas and eventually X - ray lasers, have unique and... ray laser research; (ii) radiation physics; (iii) natrrial_ analysis ; and (iv) materials modification. These categories, whilst broad and

  4. Potential Commercial Applications from Combustion and Fire Research in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, Robert; Lyons, Valerie J.

    1996-01-01

    The near-zero (microgravity) environment of orbiting spacecraft minimizes buoyant flows, greatly simplifying combustion processes and isolating important phenomena ordinarily concealed by the overwhelming gravity-driven forces and flows. Fundamental combustion understanding - the focus to date of the NASA microgravity-combustion program - has greatly benefited from analyses and experiments conducted in the microgravity environment. Because of the economic and commercial importance of combustion in practice, there is strong motivation to seek wider applications for the microgravity-combustion findings. This paper reviews selected technology developments to illustrate some emerging applications. Topics cover improved fire-safety technology in spacecraft and terrestrial systems, innovative combustor designs for aerospace and ground propulsion, applied sensors and controls for combustion processes, and self-sustaining synthesis techniques for advanced materials.

  5. Some potential antenna applications of high-temperature superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinger, Robert J.

    1990-09-01

    A review of possible applications of high temperature superconductors (HTS) to antennas and antenna feed networks is presented. The frequency range of consideration is 1 MHz to 100 GHz. Three antenna application areas seem appropriate for HTS material. (1) Electrically small antennas and their matching networks: an increase in efficiency is possible for electrically short antennas, but at the expense of bandwidth. Substantial radiated power levels (on the order of kilowatts) can be handled by the best HTS material. Substantial improvement may be realized by making only the matching network of HTS material. (2) Feed and matching networks for compact arrays with enhanced directive gain (superdirective arrays): HTS material should permit such arrays to be fabricated that have high efficiency. (3) Feed networks for millimeter-wave arrays: Low-loss feed networks using HTS microstrip transmission lines give many decibels improvement in gain.

  6. Human Amnion Membrane: Potential Applications in Oral and Periodontal Field

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Ranjana; Bajaj, Aashima; Gundappa, Mohan

    2017-01-01

    Human amniotic membrane (HAM) is derived from the fetal membranes which consist of the inner amniotic membrane made of single layer of amnion cells fixed to collagen-rich mesenchyme attached to chorion. HAM has low immunogenicity, anti-inflammatory properties and their cells can be isolated without the sacrifice of human embryos. Amniotic membrane has biological properties which are important for the experimental and clinical applications in managing patients of various medical specialties. Abundant, natural and wonderful biomembrane not only protects the foetus but also has various clinical applications in the field of dermatology, ophthalmology, ENT surgery, orthopedics and dental surgery. As it is discarded post-partum it may be useful for regenerative medicine and cell therapy to treat damaged or diseased tissues. PMID:28316944

  7. Applications of Diatoms as Potential Microalgae in Nanobiotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Jamali, Ali Akbar; Akbari, Fariba; Ghorakhlu, Mohamad Moradi; de la Guardia, Miguel; Yari Khosroushahi, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Diatoms are single cell eukaryotic microalgae, which present in nearly every water habitat make them ideal tools for a wide range of applications such as oil explora-tion, forensic examination, environmental indication, biosilica pattern generation, toxicity testing and eutrophication of aqueous ecosystems. Methods Essential information on diatoms were reviewed and discussed towards impacts of diatoms on biosynthesis and bioremediation. Results In this review, we present the recent progress in this century on the application of diatoms in waste degradation, synthesis of biomaterial, biomineraliza-tion, toxicity and toxic effects of mineral elements evaluations. Conclusion Diatoms can be considered as metal toxicity bioindicators and they can be applied for biomineralization, synthesis of biomaterials, and degradation of wastes. PMID:23678445

  8. Human Amnion Membrane: Potential Applications in Oral and Periodontal Field.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Ranjana; Bajaj, Aashima; Gundappa, Mohan

    2017-01-01

    Human amniotic membrane (HAM) is derived from the fetal membranes which consist of the inner amniotic membrane made of single layer of amnion cells fixed to collagen-rich mesenchyme attached to chorion. HAM has low immunogenicity, anti-inflammatory properties and their cells can be isolated without the sacrifice of human embryos. Amniotic membrane has biological properties which are important for the experimental and clinical applications in managing patients of various medical specialties. Abundant, natural and wonderful biomembrane not only protects the foetus but also has various clinical applications in the field of dermatology, ophthalmology, ENT surgery, orthopedics and dental surgery. As it is discarded post-partum it may be useful for regenerative medicine and cell therapy to treat damaged or diseased tissues.

  9. Biogenic Amines Degradation by Lactobacillus plantarum: Toward a Potential Application in Wine

    PubMed Central

    Capozzi, Vittorio; Russo, Pasquale; Ladero, Victor; Fernández, María; Fiocco, Daniela; Alvarez, Miguel A.; Grieco, Francesco; Spano, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    Biogenic amines (BA) in wine represent a toxicological risk for the health of the consumer, with several trade implications. In this study 26 strains of Lactobacillus plantarum were analyzed for their ability to degrade BA commonly found during wine fermentation. Two strains of L. plantarum were selected in reason of their ability to degrade putrescine and tyramine. The degradation was assessed in vitro, both in presence of the BA and in presence of the specific chemical precursor and of producer bacteria. The two L. plantarum biotypes were found capable to work synergically. In addition, the survival in wine-like medium and the aptitude to degrade malic acid after alcoholic fermentation of the selected L. plantarum strains was analyzed. Our results suggest the potential application of wine L. plantarum strains to design malolactic starter cultures able to degrade BA in wine. PMID:22485114

  10. Edible oleogels based on water soluble food polymers: preparation, characterization and potential application.

    PubMed

    Patel, Ashok R; Cludts, Nick; Sintang, Mohd Dona Bin; Lesaffer, Ans; Dewettinck, Koen

    2014-11-01

    Oil structuring using food-approved polymers is an emerging strategy and holds significant promise in the area of food and nutrition. In the current study, edible oleogels (containing >97 wt% of sunflower oil) were prepared using a combination of water soluble food polymers (methylcellulose and xanthan gum) and further evaluated for potential application as a shortening alternative. Microstructure studies (including cryo-SEM) and rheology measurements were conducted to gain more insights into the properties of these new types of oleogels. In addition, the functionality of oleogel as a shortening alternative was studied in terms of batter properties and the texture analysis of cakes and compared to the reference batches made using either oil, commercial shortening or cake margarine. Interestingly, while the batter properties (air incorporation, rheology and microstructure) of the oleogel batch were more close to the oil batch, the textural properties of cakes were significantly better than oil and resembled more to the cakes prepared using shortening and margarine.

  11. Biogenic Amines Degradation by Lactobacillus plantarum: Toward a Potential Application in Wine.

    PubMed

    Capozzi, Vittorio; Russo, Pasquale; Ladero, Victor; Fernández, María; Fiocco, Daniela; Alvarez, Miguel A; Grieco, Francesco; Spano, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    Biogenic amines (BA) in wine represent a toxicological risk for the health of the consumer, with several trade implications. In this study 26 strains of Lactobacillus plantarum were analyzed for their ability to degrade BA commonly found during wine fermentation. Two strains of L. plantarum were selected in reason of their ability to degrade putrescine and tyramine. The degradation was assessed in vitro, both in presence of the BA and in presence of the specific chemical precursor and of producer bacteria. The two L. plantarum biotypes were found capable to work synergically. In addition, the survival in wine-like medium and the aptitude to degrade malic acid after alcoholic fermentation of the selected L. plantarum strains was analyzed. Our results suggest the potential application of wine L. plantarum strains to design malolactic starter cultures able to degrade BA in wine.

  12. Biotechnological approaches for the production of prebiotics and their potential applications.

    PubMed

    Panesar, Parmjit S; Kumari, Shweta; Panesar, Reeba

    2013-12-01

    Worldwide interest in prebiotics have been increasing extensively both as food ingredients and pharmacological supplements, since they have beneficial properties for human health. Prebiotics not only stimulate the growth of healthy bacteria such as bifidobacteria and lactobacilli in the gut but also increase the resistance towards pathogens. In addition to this, they also act as dietary fiber, an energy source for intestinal cells after converting to short-chain fatty acids, a stimulator of immune systems, sugar replacer etc. Moreover, due to heat resistant properties, they are able to maintain their intact form during the baking process and allow them to be incorporated into every day food products. Thus, they can be interesting and useful ingredients in the development of novel functional foods. This review provides comprehensive information about the different biotechnological techniques employed in the production of prebiotics and their potential applications in different areas.

  13. Potential space applications of nanomaterials and standartization issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voronina, Ekaterina; Novikov, Lev

    Nanomaterials surpass traditional materials for space applications in many aspects due to their unique properties associated with nanoscale size of their constituents. This superiority in mechanical, thermal, electrical and optical properties will evidently inspire a wide range of applications in the next generation spacecraft intended for the long-term (~15-20 years) operation in near-Earth orbits and the automatic and manned interplanetary missions as well as in the construction of inhabited bases on the Moon. Nanocomposites with nanoclays, carbon nanotubes and various nanoparticles as fillers are one of the most promising materials for space applications. They may be used as light-weighted and strong structural materials as well as functional and smart materials of general and specific applications, e.g. thermal stabilization, radiation shielding, electrostatic charge mitigation, protection of atomic oxygen influence and space debris impact, etc. Currently, ISO activity on developing standards concerning different issues of nanomaterials manufacturing and applications is high enough. In this presentation, a brief review of existing standards and standards under development in this field is given. Most such standards are related to nanoparticles and nanotube production and characterization, thus the next important step in this activity is the creation of standards on nanomaterial properties and their behavior in different environmental conditions, including extreme environments. The near-Earth’s space is described as an extreme environment for materials due to high vacuum, space radiation, hot and cold plasma, micrometeoroids and space debris, temperature differences, etc. Existing experimental and theoretical data demonstrate that nanomaterials response to various space environment effects may differ substantially from the one of conventional bulk spacecraft materials. Therefore, it is necessary to determine the space environment components, critical for

  14. The potential of nonperiodic truss structures for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perk, K. C.; Winger, J. M.

    1982-01-01

    In order to assess the dynamic characteristics of truss structures made of the nonperiodic lattices, a cantilever truss beam was analyzed for vibrations. In addition, three additional lattice configurations were also constructured along with two beams made of tetrahedrons. The relative frequency variations of the six cantilever truss beams for their first mode were examined. To make the comparison meaningful, the beam length, the number of lattice joints and the total weight were chosen to be identical within 2 percent differences. The frequencies of the four nonperiodic truss beams varied over 60 percent while those of the two beams of tetrahedron lattices only about 13 percent. Such wide frequency variations of the proposed nonperiodic truss beams indicate that the introduction of nonperiodic lattices could be effectively used to improve the controllability of steady state vibration as well as improved wave dispersion characteristics.

  15. Potential Application of Radiomics for Differentiating Solitary Pulmonary Nodules

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rong; Cai, Peiqiang; Fan, Yi; Xie, Chuanmiao; Fei, Baowei; Zhang, Zhenfeng

    2016-01-01

    A solitary pulmonary nodule is defined as radiographic lesion with diameters no more than 3 cm and completely surrounded by normal lung tissue. It is commonly encountered in clinical practice and its diagnosis is a big challenge. Medical imaging, as a non-invasive approach, plays a crucial role in the diagnosis of solitary pulmonary nodules since the potential morbidity of surgery and the limits of biopsy. Advanced hardware, image acquisition and analysis technologies have led to the utilization of imaging towards quantitative imaging. With the aim of mining more useful information from image data, radiomics with high-throughput extraction can play a useful role. This article is to introduce the current state of radiomics studies and describe the general procedures. Another objective of this paper is to discover the feasibility and potential of radiomics methods on differentiating solitary pulmonary nodules and to look into the future direction of radiomics in this area. PMID:28261535

  16. Potential of engineering methodologies for the application to pharmaceutical research.

    PubMed

    Shin, Ji Won; Park, So Hee; Kang, Yun Gyeong; Shin, Jung-Woog

    2012-02-01

    Current engineering methods and their potential for use in cell-based research are reviewed. The basis of the suggested engineering methods is that real cellular responses can be assessed when the cells are under the same conditions as in vivo. Providing various conditions for this various engineering methodologies can be adopted. Three major factors should be considered when we apply bio-mimetic conditions to cells under in vitro culture conditions. They are the surface pattern and stiffness of the substrate, physical stimuli and neighboring cells. Various outcomes affected by those factors are introduced and reviewed. In particular, those outcomes from stem cell research have been reported. Even though some limitations of adopting those factors alone or combined still exist, the potential is now widely being recognized. The readers are kindly asked to consider those methodologies in relation to pharmaceutical research.

  17. Potential Application of Radiomics for Differentiating Solitary Pulmonary Nodules.

    PubMed

    Wei, Kaikai; Su, Huifang; Zhou, Guofeng; Zhang, Rong; Cai, Peiqiang; Fan, Yi; Xie, Chuanmiao; Fei, Baowei; Zhang, Zhenfeng

    2016-01-01

    A solitary pulmonary nodule is defined as radiographic lesion with diameters no more than 3 cm and completely surrounded by normal lung tissue. It is commonly encountered in clinical practice and its diagnosis is a big challenge. Medical imaging, as a non-invasive approach, plays a crucial role in the diagnosis of solitary pulmonary nodules since the potential morbidity of surgery and the limits of biopsy. Advanced hardware, image acquisition and analysis technologies have led to the utilization of imaging towards quantitative imaging. With the aim of mining more useful information from image data, radiomics with high-throughput extraction can play a useful role. This article is to introduce the current state of radiomics studies and describe the general procedures. Another objective of this paper is to discover the feasibility and potential of radiomics methods on differentiating solitary pulmonary nodules and to look into the future direction of radiomics in this area.

  18. Application potential of toll-like receptors in cancer immunotherapy: Systematic review.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ming; Chen, Xi; Ye, Kangruo; Yao, Yuanfei; Li, Yu

    2016-06-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs), as the most important pattern recognition receptors in innate immunity, play a pivotal role in inducing immune response through recognition of microbial invaders or specific agonists. Recent studies have suggested that TLRs could serve as important regulators in the development of a variety of cancer. However, increasing evidences have shown that TLRs may display quite opposite outcomes in cancer development. Although several potential therapeutic Toll-like receptor ligands have been found, the mechanism and therapy prospect of TLRs in cancer development has to be further elucidated to accelerate the clinical application. By performing a systematic review of the present findings on TLRs in cancer immunology, we attempted to evaluate the therapeutic potential of TLRs in cancer therapy and elucidate the potential mechanism of cancer progress regulated by TLR signaling and the reported targets on TLRs for clinical application. An electronic databases search was conducted in PubMed, Chinese Scientific Journal Database, and Chinese Biomedical Literature Database from their inception to February 1, 2016. The following keywords were used to search the databases: Toll-like receptors, cancer therapy, therapeutic target, innate immunity. Of 244 studies that were identified, 97 nonrelevant studies were excluded. In total, 147 full-text articles were assessed, and from these, 54 were excluded as they did not provide complete key information. Thus, 93 studies were considered eligible and included in the analysis. According to the data from the included trials, 14 TLR ligands (77.8%) from 82 studies have been demonstrated to display antitumor property in various cancers, whereas 4 ligands (22.2%) from 11 studies promote tumors. Among them, only 3 TLR ligands have been approved for cancer therapy, and 9 ligands were in clinical trials. In addition, the potential mechanism of recently reported targets on TLRs for clinical application was also evaluated

  19. Potential application of lithium in Parkinson's and other neurodegenerative diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lazzara, Carol A.; Kim, Yong-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Lithium, the long-standing hallmark treatment for bipolar disorder, has recently been identified as a potential neuroprotective agent in neurodegeneration. Here we focus on introducing numerous in vitro and in vivo studies that have shown lithium treatment to be efficacious in reducing oxidative stress and inflammation, increasing autophagy, inhibiting apoptosis, and decreasing the accumulation of α-synulcein, with an emphasis on Parkinson's disease. A number of biological pathways have been shown to be involved in causing these neuroprotective effects. The inhibition of GSK-3β has been the mechanism most studied; however, other modes of action include the regulation of apoptotic proteins and glutamate excitotoxicity as well as down-regulation of calpain. This review provides a framework of the neuroprotective effects of lithium in neurodegenerative diseases and the putative mechanisms by which lithium provides the protection. Lithium-only treatment may not be a suitable therapeutic option for neurodegenerative diseases due to inconsistent efficacy and potential side-effects, however, the use of low dose lithium in combination with other potential or existing therapeutic compounds may be a promising approach to reduce symptoms and disease progression in neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26578864

  20. Leveraging biodiversity knowledge for potential phyto-therapeutic applications

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Vivekanand; Sarkar, Indra Neil

    2013-01-01

    Objective To identify and highlight the feasibility, challenges, and advantages of providing a cross-domain pipeline that can link relevant biodiversity information for phyto-therapeutic assessment. Materials and methods A public repository of clinical trials information (ClinicalTrials.gov) was explored to determine the state of plant-based interventions under investigation. Results The results showed that ∼15% of drug interventions in ClinicalTrials.gov were potentially plant related, with about 60% of them clustered within 10 taxonomic families. Further analysis of these plant-based interventions identified ∼3.7% of associated plant species as endangered as determined from the International Union for the Conservation of Nature Red List. Discussion The diversity of the plant kingdom has provided human civilization with life-sustaining food and medicine for centuries. There has been renewed interest in the investigation of botanicals as sources of new drugs, building on traditional knowledge about plant-based medicines. However, data about the plant-based biodiversity potential for therapeutics (eg, based on genetic or chemical information) are generally scattered across a range of sources and isolated from contemporary pharmacological resources. This study explored the potential to bridge biodiversity and biomedical knowledge sources. Conclusions The findings from this feasibility study suggest that there is an opportunity for developing plant-based drugs and further highlight taxonomic relationships between plants that may be rich sources for bioprospecting. PMID:23518859

  1. Study to determine potential flight applications and human factors design guidelines for voice recognition and synthesis systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, R. W.; Parks, D. L.

    1985-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine potential commercial aircraft flight deck applications and implementation guidelines for voice recognition and synthesis. At first, a survey of voice recognition and synthesis technology was undertaken to develop a working knowledge base. Then, numerous potential aircraft and simulator flight deck voice applications were identified and each proposed application was rated on a number of criteria in order to achieve an overall payoff rating. The potential voice recognition applications fell into five general categories: programming, interrogation, data entry, switch and mode selection, and continuous/time-critical action control. The ratings of the first three categories showed the most promise of being beneficial to flight deck operations. Possible applications of voice synthesis systems were categorized as automatic or pilot selectable and many were rated as being potentially beneficial. In addition, voice system implementation guidelines and pertinent performance criteria are proposed. Finally, the findings of this study are compared with those made in a recent NASA study of a 1995 transport concept.

  2. Therapeutic application of hydrogen sulfide donors: the potential and challenges.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dan; Hu, Qingxun; Zhu, Yizhun

    2016-03-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a colorless gas smelling of rotten egg, has long been considered a toxic gas and environment hazard. However, evidences show that H2S plays a great role in many physiological and pathological activities, and it exhibits different effects when applied at various doses. In this review, we summarize the chemistry and biomedical applications of H2S-releasing compounds, including inorganic salts, phosphorodithioate derivatives, derivatives of Allium sativum extracts, derivatives of thioaminoacids, and derivatives of antiinflammatory drugs.

  3. Laccase: Microbial Sources, Production, Purification, and Potential Biotechnological Applications

    PubMed Central

    Shraddha; Shekher, Ravi; Sehgal, Simran; Kamthania, Mohit; Kumar, Ajay

    2011-01-01

    Laccase belongs to the blue multicopper oxidases and participates in cross-linking of monomers, degradation of polymers, and ring cleavage of aromatic compounds. It is widely distributed in higher plants and fungi. It is present in Ascomycetes, Deuteromycetes and Basidiomycetes and abundant in lignin-degrading white-rot fungi. It is also used in the synthesis of organic substance, where typical substrates are amines and phenols, the reaction products are dimers and oligomers derived from the coupling of reactive radical intermediates. In the recent years, these enzymes have gained application in the field of textile, pulp and paper, and food industry. Recently, it is also used in the design of biosensors, biofuel cells, as a medical diagnostics tool and bioremediation agent to clean up herbicides, pesticides and certain explosives in soil. Laccases have received attention of researchers in the last few decades due to their ability to oxidize both phenolic and nonphenolic lignin-related compounds as well as highly recalcitrant environmental pollutants. It has been identified as the principal enzyme associated with cuticular hardening in insects. Two main forms have been found: laccase-1 and laccase-2. This paper reviews the occurrence, mode of action, general properties, production, applications, and immobilization of laccases within different industrial fields. PMID:21755038

  4. Pullulanase: role in starch hydrolysis and potential industrial applications.

    PubMed

    Hii, Siew Ling; Tan, Joo Shun; Ling, Tau Chuan; Ariff, Arbakariya Bin

    2012-01-01

    The use of pullulanase (EC 3.2.1.41) has recently been the subject of increased applications in starch-based industries especially those aimed for glucose production. Pullulanase, an important debranching enzyme, has been widely utilised to hydrolyse the α-1,6 glucosidic linkages in starch, amylopectin, pullulan, and related oligosaccharides, which enables a complete and efficient conversion of the branched polysaccharides into small fermentable sugars during saccharification process. The industrial manufacturing of glucose involves two successive enzymatic steps: liquefaction, carried out after gelatinisation by the action of α-amylase; saccharification, which results in further transformation of maltodextrins into glucose. During saccharification process, pullulanase has been used to increase the final glucose concentration with reduced amount of glucoamylase. Therefore, the reversion reaction that involves resynthesis of saccharides from glucose molecules is prevented. To date, five groups of pullulanase enzymes have been reported, that is, (i) pullulanase type I, (ii) amylopullulanase, (iii) neopullulanase, (iv) isopullulanase, and (v) pullulan hydrolase type III. The current paper extensively reviews each category of pullulanase, properties of pullulanase, merits of applying pullulanase during starch bioprocessing, current genetic engineering works related to pullulanase genes, and possible industrial applications of pullulanase.

  5. Black Phosphorus (BP) Nanodots for Potential Biomedical Applications.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun Uk; Park, So Young; Lee, Soon Chang; Choi, Saehae; Seo, Soonjoo; Kim, Hyeran; Won, Jonghan; Choi, Kyuseok; Kang, Kyoung Suk; Park, Hyun Gyu; Kim, Hee-Sik; An, Ha Rim; Jeong, Kwang-Hun; Lee, Young-Chul; Lee, Jouhahn

    2016-01-13

    Recently, the appeal of 2D black phosphorus (BP) has been rising due to its unique optical and electronic properties with a tunable band gap (≈0.3-1.5 eV). While numerous research efforts have recently been devoted to nano- and optoelectronic applications of BP, no attention has been paid to promising medical applications. In this article, the preparation of BP-nanodots of a few nm to <20 nm with an average diameter of ≈10 nm and height of ≈8.7 nm is reported by a modified ultrasonication-assisted solution method. Stable formation of nontoxic phosphates and phosphonates from BP crystals with exposure in water or air is observed. As for the BP-nanodot crystals' stability (ionization and persistence of fluorescent intensity) in aqueous solution, after 10 d, ≈80% at 1.5 mg mL(-1) are degraded (i.e., ionized) in phosphate buffered saline. They showed no or little cytotoxic cell-viability effects in vitro involving blue- and green-fluorescence cell imaging. Thus, BP-nanodots can be considered a promising agent for drug delivery or cellular tracking systems.

  6. Pullulanase: Role in Starch Hydrolysis and Potential Industrial Applications

    PubMed Central

    Hii, Siew Ling; Tan, Joo Shun; Ling, Tau Chuan; Ariff, Arbakariya Bin

    2012-01-01

    The use of pullulanase (EC 3.2.1.41) has recently been the subject of increased applications in starch-based industries especially those aimed for glucose production. Pullulanase, an important debranching enzyme, has been widely utilised to hydrolyse the α-1,6 glucosidic linkages in starch, amylopectin, pullulan, and related oligosaccharides, which enables a complete and efficient conversion of the branched polysaccharides into small fermentable sugars during saccharification process. The industrial manufacturing of glucose involves two successive enzymatic steps: liquefaction, carried out after gelatinisation by the action of α-amylase; saccharification, which results in further transformation of maltodextrins into glucose. During saccharification process, pullulanase has been used to increase the final glucose concentration with reduced amount of glucoamylase. Therefore, the reversion reaction that involves resynthesis of saccharides from glucose molecules is prevented. To date, five groups of pullulanase enzymes have been reported, that is, (i) pullulanase type I, (ii) amylopullulanase, (iii) neopullulanase, (iv) isopullulanase, and (v) pullulan hydrolase type III. The current paper extensively reviews each category of pullulanase, properties of pullulanase, merits of applying pullulanase during starch bioprocessing, current genetic engineering works related to pullulanase genes, and possible industrial applications of pullulanase. PMID:22991654

  7. Metallic glass thin films for potential biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Neelam; Sharma, Parmanand; Ahadian, Samad; Khademhosseini, Ali; Takahashi, Masaharu; Makino, Akihiro; Tanaka, Shuji; Esashi, Masayoshi

    2014-10-01

    We introduce metallic glass thin films (TiCuNi) as biocompatible materials for biomedical applications. TiCuNi metallic glass thin films were deposited on the Si substrate and their structural, surface, and mechanical properties were investigated. The fabricated films showed good biocompatibility upon exposure to muscle cells. Also, they exhibited an average roughness of <0.2 nm, high wear resistance, and high mechanical properties (hardness ∼6.9 GPa and reduced modulus ∼130 GPa). Top surface of the TiCuNi films was shown to be free from Ni and mainly composed of a thin titanium oxide layer, which resulted in the high surface biocompatibility. In particular, there was no cytotoxicity effect of metallic glass films on the C2C12 myoblasts and the cells were able to proliferate well on these substrates. Low cost, viscoelastic behavior, patternability, high electrical conductivity, and the capability to coat various materials (e.g., nonbiocompatible materials) make TiCuNi as an attractive material for biomedical applications.

  8. [Application and potential of genome engineering by artificial enzymes].

    PubMed

    Nomura, Wataru

    2015-01-01

    Artificial zinc finger proteins (ZFPs) consist of Cys2-His2-type modules composed of approximately 30 amino acids that adopt a ββα structure and coordinate a zinc ion. ZFPs recognizing specific DNA target sequences can substitute for the binding domains of various DNA-modifying enzymes to create designer nucleases, recombinases, and methylases with programmable sequence specificity. Enzymatic genome editing and modification can be applied to many fields of basic research and medicine. The recent development of new platforms using transcription activator-like effector (TALE) proteins or the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein (CRISPR/Cas) system has expanded the range of possibilities for genome-editing technologies. These technologies empower investigators with the ability to efficiently knockout or regulate the functions of genes of interest. In this review, we discuss historical advancements in artificial ZFP applications and important issues that may influence the future of genome editing and engineering technologies. The development of artificial ZFPs has greatly increased the feasibility of manipulating endogenous gene functions through transcriptional control and gene modification. Advances in the ZFP, TALE, and CRISPR/Cas platforms have paved the way for the next generation of genome engineering approaches. Perspectives for the future of genome engineering are also discussed, including applications of targeting specific genomic alleles and studies in synthetic biology.

  9. Centipede venoms and their components: resources for potential therapeutic applications.

    PubMed

    Hakim, Md Abdul; Yang, Shilong; Lai, Ren

    2015-11-17

    Venomous animals have evolved with sophisticated bio-chemical strategies to arrest prey and defend themselves from natural predators. In recent years, peptide toxins from venomous animals have drawn considerable attention from researchers due to their surprising chemical, biochemical, and pharmacological diversity. Similar to other venomous animals, centipedes are one of the crucial venomous arthropods that have been used in traditional medicine for hundreds of years in China. Despite signifying pharmacological importance, very little is known about the active components of centipede venoms. More than 500 peptide sequences have been reported in centipede venomous glands by transcriptome analysis, but only a small number of peptide toxins from centipede has been functionally described. Like other venomous animals such as snakes, scorpions, and spiders, the venom of centipedes could be an excellent source of peptides for developing drugs for treatments as well as bio-insecticides for agrochemical applications. Although centipede venoms are yet to be adequately studied, the venom of centipedes as well as their components described to date, should be compiled to help further research. Therefore, based on previous reports, this review focusses on findings and possible therapeutic applications of centipede venoms as well as their components.

  10. Centipede Venoms and Their Components: Resources for Potential Therapeutic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Hakim, Md Abdul; Yang, Shilong; Lai, Ren

    2015-01-01

    Venomous animals have evolved with sophisticated bio-chemical strategies to arrest prey and defend themselves from natural predators. In recent years, peptide toxins from venomous animals have drawn considerable attention from researchers due to their surprising chemical, biochemical, and pharmacological diversity. Similar to other venomous animals, centipedes are one of the crucial venomous arthropods that have been used in traditional medicine for hundreds of years in China. Despite signifying pharmacological importance, very little is known about the active components of centipede venoms. More than 500 peptide sequences have been reported in centipede venomous glands by transcriptome analysis, but only a small number of peptide toxins from centipede has been functionally described. Like other venomous animals such as snakes, scorpions, and spiders, the venom of centipedes could be an excellent source of peptides for developing drugs for treatments as well as bio-insecticides for agrochemical applications. Although centipede venoms are yet to be adequately studied, the venom of centipedes as well as their components described to date, should be compiled to help further research. Therefore, based on previous reports, this review focusses on findings and possible therapeutic applications of centipede venoms as well as their components. PMID:26593947

  11. Antimicrobial biomaterials and their potential application in ophthalmology.

    PubMed

    Anaya-Alaminos, Roberto; Ibáñez-Flores, Nuria; Aznar-Peña, Irene; González-Andrades, Miguel

    2015-12-18

    Infections associated with the use of intraocular, periocular, or orbital implants are associated with an increase in both morbidity and in the costs of ophthalmological surgery. This is due to an increased number of visits and the need for additional treatments, at a time when some conventional therapies are losing their efficacy, or even hospitalization. To avoid such consequences, the first step should be to prevent the biomaterials that form implants from being colonized by various microorganisms, either intraoperatively or postoperatively. To this end, several lines of research have emerged that aim at equipping implants with antimicrobial properties, some of which are described in this review.

  12. Additive effects due to biochar and endophyte application enable soybean to enhance nutrient uptake and modulate nutritional parameters* #

    PubMed Central

    Waqas, Muhammad; Kim, Yoon-Ha; Khan, Abdul Latif; Shahzad, Raheem; Asaf, Sajjad; Hamayun, Muhammad; Kang, Sang-Mo; Khan, Muhammad Aaqil; Lee, In-Jung

    2017-01-01

    We studied the effects of hardwood-derived biochar (BC) and the phytohormone-producing endophyte Galactomyces geotrichum WLL1 in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) with respect to basic, macro-and micronutrient uptakes and assimilations, and their subsequent effects on the regulation of functional amino acids, isoflavones, fatty acid composition, total sugar contents, total phenolic contents, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)-scavenging activity. The assimilation of basic nutrients such as nitrogen was up-regulated, leaving carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen unaffected in BC+G. geotrichum-treated soybean plants. In comparison, the uptakes of macro-and micronutrients fluctuated in the individual or co-application of BC and G. geotrichum in soybean plant organs and rhizospheric substrate. Moreover, the same attribute was recorded for the regulation of functional amino acids, isoflavones, fatty acid composition, total sugar contents, total phenolic contents, and DPPH-scavenging activity. Collectively, these results showed that BC+G. geotrichum-treated soybean yielded better results than did the plants treated with individual applications. It was concluded that BC is an additional nutriment source and that the G. geotrichum acts as a plant biostimulating source and the effects of both are additive towards plant growth promotion. Strategies involving the incorporation of BC and endophytic symbiosis may help achieve eco-friendly agricultural production, thus reducing the excessive use of chemical agents. PMID:28124840

  13. Modulation of hepcidin to treat iron deregulation: potential clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Blanchette, Nicole L; Manz, David H; Torti, Frank M; Torti, Suzy V

    2016-01-01

    The secreted peptide hormone hepcidin regulates systemic and local iron homeostasis through degradation of the iron exporter ferroportin. Dysregulation of hepcidin leads to altered iron homeostasis and development of pathological disorders including hemochromatosis, and iron loading and iron restrictive anemias. Therapeutic modulation of hepcidin is a promising method to ameliorate these conditions. Several approaches have been taken to enhance or reduce the effects of hepcidin in vitro and in vivo. Based on these approaches, hepcidin modulating drugs have been developed and are undergoing clinical evaluation. In this article we review the rationale for development of these drugs, the data concerning their safety and efficacy, their therapeutic uses, and potential future prospects.

  14. Optical elements formed by compressed gases: Analysis and potential applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howes, W. L.

    1986-01-01

    Spherical, cylindrical, and conical shock waves are optically analogous to gas lenses. The geometrical optics of these shock configurations are analyzed as they pertain to flow visualization instruments, particularly the rainbow schlieren apparatus and single-pass interferometers. It is proposed that a lens or mirror formed by gas compressed between plastic sheets has potential as a fluid visualization test object; as the objective mirror in a very large space-based telescope, communication antenna, or energy collector; as the objective mirror in inexpensive commercial telescopes; and as a component in fluid visualization apparatuses.

  15. Modulation of hepcidin to treat iron deregulation: potential clinical applications

    PubMed Central

    Blanchette, Nicole L.; Manz, David H.; Torti, Frank M.

    2016-01-01

    The secreted peptide hormone hepcidin regulates systemic and local iron homeostasis through degradation of the iron exporter ferroportin. Dysregulation of hepcidin leads to altered iron homeostasis and development of pathological disorders including hemochromatosis, and iron loading and iron restrictive anemias. Therapeutic modulation of hepcidin is a promising method to ameliorate these conditions. Several approaches have been taken to enhance or reduce the effects of hepcidin in vitro and in vivo. Based on these approaches, hepcidin modulating drugs have been developed and are undergoing clinical evaluation. In this article we review the rationale for development of these drugs, the data concerning their safety and efficacy, their therapeutic uses, and potential future prospects. PMID:26669208

  16. Fabrication of Thermoelectric Devices Using Additive-Subtractive Manufacturing Techniques: Application to Waste-Heat Energy Harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tewolde, Mahder

    Thermoelectric generators (TEGs) are solid-state devices that convert heat directly into electricity. They are well suited for waste-heat energy harvesting applications as opposed to primary energy generation. Commercially available thermoelectric modules are flat, inflexible and have limited sizes available. State-of-art manufacturing of TEG devices relies on assembling prefabricated parts with soldering, epoxy bonding, and mechanical clamping. Furthermore, efforts to incorporate them onto curved surfaces such as exhaust pipes, pump housings, steam lines, mixing containers, reaction chambers, etc. require custom-built heat exchangers. This is costly and labor-intensive, in addition to presenting challenges in terms of space, thermal coupling, added weight and long-term reliability. Additive manufacturing technologies are beginning to address many of these issues by reducing part count in complex designs and the elimination of sub-assembly requirements. This work investigates the feasibility of utilizing such novel manufacturing routes for improving the manufacturing process of thermoelectric devices. Much of the research in thermoelectricity is primarily focused on improving thermoelectric material properties by developing of novel materials or finding ways to improve existing ones. Secondary to material development is improving the manufacturing process of TEGs to provide significant cost benefits. To improve the device fabrication process, this work explores additive manufacturing technologies to provide an integrated and scalable approach for TE device manufacturing directly onto engineering component surfaces. Additive manufacturing techniques like thermal spray and ink-dispenser printing are developed with the aim of improving the manufacturing process of TEGs. Subtractive manufacturing techniques like laser micromachining are also studied in detail. This includes the laser processing parameters for cutting the thermal spray materials efficiently by

  17. Potential applications of environmental sampling and analysis for the IAEA

    SciTech Connect

    Raber, E.

    1993-03-01

    This objective of this paper is to address the usefulness of envirorunental sampling and analysis in support of the IAEA. In particular, whether state-of-the-art analytical methods may provide detection of undeclared nuclear activities. It is important to emphasize that envirorunental sampling offers the IAEA a method of improving the assurance that a particular facility has no ongoing undeclared nuclear activities. It is suggested as a supplement to the existing IAEA safeguards inspections and activities. Enviromental sampling with appropriate analytical techniques can detect unknown activity fairly well, but it is not very reliable for determining how much or when activity has actually occured. Additionally, it is important to point out that the cost of such an envirorunental sampling program needs to be balanced with the confidence provided to detect undeclared nuclear activities. Environmental sampling wig probably not allow the IAEA to reduce or eliminate some of its existing baseline activities. The addition of an environmental sampling and analysis program will entail a cost of its own, and adding such a program may not reduce IAEA total costs. The overall cost of such a program will depend on the level of confidence required, (e.g. number and type of samples and analyses), the Quality Assurance plan to be implemented and the number of sites to be inspected. A more detailed cost analysis is not within the scope of this paper.

  18. Potentiation of photoinactivation of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria mediated by six phenothiazinium dyes by addition of azide ion.

    PubMed

    Kasimova, Kamola R; Sadasivam, Magesh; Landi, Giacomo; Sarna, Tadeusz; Hamblin, Michael R

    2014-11-01

    Antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation (APDI) using phenothiazinium dyes is mediated by reactive oxygen species consisting of a combination of singlet oxygen (quenched by azide), hydroxyl radicals and other reactive oxygen species. We recently showed that addition of sodium azide paradoxically potentiated APDI of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria using methylene blue as the photosensitizer, and this was due to electron transfer to the dye triplet state from azide anion, producing azidyl radical. Here we compare this effect using six different homologous phenothiazinium dyes: methylene blue, toluidine blue O, new methylene blue, dimethylmethylene blue, azure A, and azure B. We found both significant potentiation (up to 2 logs) and also significant inhibition (>3 logs) of killing by adding 10 mM azide depending on Gram classification, washing the dye from the cells, and dye structure. Killing of E. coli was potentiated with all 6 dyes after a wash, while S. aureus killing was only potentiated by MB and TBO with a wash and DMMB with no wash. More lipophilic dyes (higher log P value, such as DMMB) were more likely to show potentiation. We conclude that the Type I photochemical mechanism (potentiation with azide) likely depends on the microenvironment, i.e. higher binding of dye to bacteria. Bacterial dye-binding is thought to be higher with Gram-negative compared to Gram-positive bacteria, when unbound dye has been washed away, and with more lipophilic dyes.

  19. Potential markets for application of space medicine achievements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlov, Oleg; Belakovskiy, Mark; Kussmaul, Anna

    2014-11-01

    The Institute of Biomedical Problems (IBMP) is the lead institution of the Russian Federation in the area of space biology and medicine. It has successfully implemented a set of innovation-based activities and projects to develop and introduce promising space products and technologies into the practices of Earth health care. To this end, various investigative methods developed for the medical selection of cosmonauts have been successfully applied in ophthalmology, gastroenterology, and cardiology. Axial loading “Regent” suits and soil simulators of bearing load have proved their efficiency in rehabilitating patients with motor disorders. Developmental prototypes of versatile training devices and technologies of their application are used for rehabilitation and purposeful development of physical status in people of various age groups. The application of telemedicine technologies allows one to diagnose and treat diseases in people who are in remote locations from medical centers or happen to be in extreme conditions. In cooperation with leading national medical institutions, other developments by the Institute have been also introduced into clinical practice: for example, the method of assessing the human functional state on the basis of computerized analysis of cardiac rhythm indices; methods of diagnosing, treating and preventing osteoporosis and metabolic osteopathias; methods of treating cardiorespiratory diseases using warmed-up heliox mixtures; methods of prophylactic examination and assessing the physical health status of the population; methods of monitoring the functional state and enhancing the physical capacity of athletes; developmental models of devices for simulating the effects of artificial gravity for refining methods of treatment and rehabilitation of patients; and systems of IV anesthesia with an option of a remote control. The effective management of innovation-based activities and the issues of commercialization of promising developments and

  20. Evoked potential application to study of echolocation in cetaceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supin, Alexander Ya.; Nactigall, Paul E.; Pawloski, Jeffrey; Au, Whitlow W. L.

    2002-05-01

    The evoked-potential (EP) method is effective in studies of hearing capabilities of cetaceans. However, until now EP studies in cetaceans were performed only in conditions of passive hearing by recording EP to external stimuli. Can this method be applied to study active echolocation in odontocetes? To answer this question, auditory brainstem evoked responses (ABR) were recorded in a false killer whale while the animal echolocated a target within an experiment in which the animal reported the target present or absent. The ABR collection was triggered by echolocation clicks. In these conditions, the recorded ABR pattern contained a duplicate set of waves. A comparison of ABR wave delays recorded during echolocation with those recorded during regular external stimulation has shown that the first set of waves is a response to the emitted click whereas the second one is a response to the echo. Both responses, to the emitted click and to the echo, were of comparable amplitude in spite of the intensity difference of these two sounds of more than 40 dB near the animal's head. This finding indicates some mechanisms releasing responses to echoes from masking by loud emitted clicks. The evoked-potential method may be productive to investigate these mechanisms.

  1. Potential applications for transesophageal echocardiography in hypertrophic cardiomyopathies.

    PubMed

    Widimsky, P; Ten Cate, F J; Vletter, W; van Herwerden, L

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the potential advantages of transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) in comparison with transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) in selected patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Ten patients with previously established or suspected diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy were examined by TEE to solve specific clinical questions. TEE was well tolerated by all patients; no arrhythmias were seen during the procedure. The comparison of TTE and TEE showed the following: Advantages of TTE--better assessment of the left ventricle, myocardial thickness measurements available in all regions and sufficient for the diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in nine out of 10 patients; advantages of TEE--precise assessment of mitral valve morphology and regurgitant jets, detailed evaluation of systolic anterior motion, and subaortic membrane (not seen by TTE) recognized in one patient. Clinically, in three patients TEE influenced the management (mitral leaflet perforation, subaortic membrane, and residual mitral regurgitation after valvuloplasty). Thus TEE enables more precise diagnosis in some patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and has the potential to influence their surgical management. However, for medical treatment of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, TTE is sufficient.

  2. Distillery spent wash: treatment technologies and potential applications.

    PubMed

    Mohana, Sarayu; Acharya, Bhavik K; Madamwar, Datta

    2009-04-15

    Distillery spent wash is the unwanted residual liquid waste generated during alcohol production and pollution caused by it is one of the most critical environmental issue. Despite standards imposed on effluent quality, untreated or partially treated effluent very often finds access to watercourses. The distillery wastewater with its characteristic unpleasant odor poses a serious threat to the water quality in several regions around the globe. The ever-increasing generation of distillery spent wash on the one hand and stringent legislative regulations of its disposal on the other has stimulated the need for developing new technologies to process this effluent efficiently and economically. A number of clean up technologies have been put into practice and novel bioremediation approaches for treatment of distillery spent wash are being worked out. Potential microbial (anaerobic and aerobic) as well as physicochemical processes as feasible remediation technologies to combat environmental pollution are being explored. An emerging field in distillery waste management is exploiting its nutritive potential for production of various high value compounds. This review presents an overview of the pollution problems caused by distillery spent wash, the technologies employed globally for its treatment and its alternative use in various biotechnological sectors.

  3. Application of Differential Evolution Algorithm on Self-Potential Data

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiangtao; Yin, Minghao

    2012-01-01

    Differential evolution (DE) is a population based evolutionary algorithm widely used for solving multidimensional global optimization problems over continuous spaces, and has been successfully used to solve several kinds of problems. In this paper, differential evolution is used for quantitative interpretation of self-potential data in geophysics. Six parameters are estimated including the electrical dipole moment, the depth of the source, the distance from the origin, the polarization angle and the regional coefficients. This study considers three kinds of data from Turkey: noise-free data, contaminated synthetic data, and Field example. The differential evolution and the corresponding model parameters are constructed as regards the number of the generations. Then, we show the vibration of the parameters at the vicinity of the low misfit area. Moreover, we show how the frequency distribution of each parameter is related to the number of the DE iteration. Experimental results show the DE can be used for solving the quantitative interpretation of self-potential data efficiently compared with previous methods. PMID:23240004

  4. G-quadruplexes in viruses: function and potential therapeutic applications

    PubMed Central

    Métifiot, Mathieu; Amrane, Samir; Litvak, Simon; Andreola, Marie-Line

    2014-01-01

    G-rich nucleic acids can form non-canonical G-quadruplex structures (G4s) in which four guanines fold in a planar arrangement through Hoogsteen hydrogen bonds. Although many biochemical and structural studies have focused on DNA sequences containing successive, adjacent guanines that spontaneously fold into G4s, evidence for their in vivo relevance has recently begun to accumulate. Complete sequencing of the human genome highlighted the presence of ∼300 000 sequences that can potentially form G4s. Likewise, the presence of putative G4-sequences has been reported in various viruses genomes [e.g., Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1), Epstein–Barr virus (EBV), papillomavirus (HPV)]. Many studies have focused on telomeric G4s and how their dynamics are regulated to enable telomere synthesis. Moreover, a role for G4s has been proposed in cellular and viral replication, recombination and gene expression control. In parallel, DNA aptamers that form G4s have been described as inhibitors and diagnostic tools to detect viruses [e.g., hepatitis A virus (HAV), EBV, cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV), severe acute respiratory syndrome virus (SARS), simian virus 40 (SV40)]. Here, special emphasis will be given to the possible role of these structures in a virus life cycle as well as the use of G4-forming oligonucleotides as potential antiviral agents and innovative tools. PMID:25332402

  5. Potential Applications for Nuclear Energy besides Electricity Generation: AREVA Global Perspective of HTR Potential Market

    SciTech Connect

    Soutworth, Finis; Gauthier, Jean-Claude; Lecomte, Michel; Carre, Franck

    2007-07-01

    Energy supply is increasingly showing up as a major issue for electricity supply, transportation, settlement, and process heat industrial supply including hydrogen production. Nuclear power is part of the solution. For electricity supply, as exemplified in Finland and France, the EPR brings an immediate answer; HTR could bring another solution in some specific cases. For other supply, mostly heat, the HTR brings a solution inaccessible to conventional nuclear power plants for very high or even high temperature. As fossil fuels costs increase and efforts to avoid generation of Greenhouse gases are implemented, a market for nuclear generated process heat will develop. Following active developments in the 80's, HTR have been put on the back burner up to 5 years ago. Light water reactors are widely dominating the nuclear production field today. However, interest in the HTR technology was renewed in the past few years. Several commercial projects are actively promoted, most of them aiming at electricity production. ANTARES is today AREVA's response to the cogeneration market. It distinguishes itself from other concepts with its indirect cycle design powering a combined cycle power plant. Several reasons support this design choice, one of the most important of which is the design flexibility to adapt readily to combined heat and power applications. From the start, AREVA made the choice of such flexibility with the belief that the HTR market is not so much in competition with LWR in the sole electricity market but in the specific added value market of cogeneration and process heat. In view of the volatility of the costs of fossil fuels, AREVA's choice brings to the large industrial heat applications the fuel cost predictability of nuclear fuel with the efficiency of a high temperature heat source free of greenhouse gases emissions. The ANTARES module produces 600 MWth which can be split into the required process heat, the remaining power drives an adapted prorated

  6. Monoterpenol Oxidative Metabolism: Role in Plant Adaptation and Potential Applications

    PubMed Central

    Ilc, Tina; Parage, Claire; Boachon, Benoît; Navrot, Nicolas; Werck-Reichhart, Danièle

    2016-01-01

    Plants use monoterpenols as precursors for the production of functionally and structurally diverse molecules, which are key players in interactions with other organisms such as pollinators, flower visitors, herbivores, fungal, or microbial pathogens. For humans, many of these monoterpenol derivatives are economically important because of their pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, flavor, or fragrance applications. The biosynthesis of these derivatives is to a large extent catalyzed by enzymes from the cytochrome P450 superfamily. Here we review the knowledge on monoterpenol oxidative metabolism in plants with special focus on recent elucidations of oxidation steps leading to diverse linalool and geraniol derivatives. We evaluate the common features between oxidation pathways of these two monoterpenols, such as involvement of the CYP76 family, and highlight the differences. Finally, we discuss the missing steps and other open questions in the biosynthesis of oxygenated monoterpenol derivatives. PMID:27200002

  7. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and its potential for nuclear applications

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, D.P.; Wei, T.Y.C.; Rock, D.T.; Rizwan-Uddin; Brewster, R.A.; Jonnavithula, S.

    1999-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the use of these advanced models, methods and computing environments for nuclear applications to determine if the industry can expect to derive the same benefit as other industries, such as the automotive and the aerospace industries. As an example, the authors will examine the use of modern computational fluid dynamics (CFD) capability for subchannel analysis, which is an important part of the analysis technology used by utilities to ensure safe and economical design and operation of reactors. In the current deregulated environment, it is possible that by use of these enhanced techniques, the thermal and electrical output of current reactors may be increased without any increase in cost and at no compromise in safety.

  8. Potential civil mission applications for space nuclear power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambrus, J. H.; Beatty, R. G. G.

    1985-01-01

    It is pointed out that the energy needs of spacecraft over the last 25 years have been met by photovoltaic arrays with batteries, primary fuel cells, and radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG). However, it might be difficult to satisfy energy requirements for the next generation of space missions with the currently used energy sources. Applications studies have emphasized the need for a lighter, cheaper, and more compact high-energy source than the scaling up of current technologies would permit. These requirements could be satisfied by a nuclear reactor power system. The joint NASA/DOD/DOE SP-100 program is to explore and evaluate this option. Critical elements of the technology are also to be developed, taking into account space reactor systems of the 100 kW class. The present paper is concerned with some of the civil mission categories and concepts which are enabled or significantly enhanced by the performance characteristics of a nuclear reactor energy system.

  9. Potential application of palladium nanoparticles as selective recyclable hydrogenation catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, DebKumar

    2008-03-01

    The search for more efficient catalytic systems that might combine the advantages of both homogeneous (catalyst modulation) and heterogeneous (catalyst recycling) catalysis is one of the most exciting challenges of modern chemistry. More recently with the advances of nanochemistry, it has been possible to prepare soluble analogues of heterogeneous catalysts. These nanoparticles are generally stabilized against aggregation into larger particles by electrostatic or steric protection. Herein we demonstrate the use of room temperature ionic liquid for the stabilization of palladium nanoparticles that are recyclable catalysts for the hydrogenation of carbon-carbon double bonds and application of these catalysts to the selective hydrogenation of internal or terminal C=C bonds in unsaturated primary alcohols. The particles suspended in room temperature ionic liquid show no metal aggregation or loss of catalytic activity even on prolonged use.

  10. Potential applications of human saliva as diagnostic fluid.

    PubMed

    Castagnola, M; Picciotti, P M; Messana, I; Fanali, C; Fiorita, A; Cabras, T; Calò, L; Pisano, E; Passali, G C; Iavarone, F; Paludetti, G; Scarano, E

    2011-12-01

    The use of human saliva as a diagnostic and prognostic fluid has until recently been somewhat disregarded. Although sample collection is non-invasive, physiological and genetic variations were largely responsible for its infrequent application in the past. Recently, several proteomic studies contributed to partial elucidation of the salivary proteome (more than 2400 protein components have been characterized), both in terms of composition, contributions to whole saliva and genetic/physiological variability. On this basis, is not too optimistic to believe that in the near future human saliva could become a relevant diagnostic fluid. In this review, the characterization by proteomic approaches of new salivary markers in oncology, head and neck carcinoma (oral cavity, oropharynx, larynx, and salivary glands), breast and gastric cancers, salivary gland function and disease, Sjögren syndrome, systemic sclerosis, dental and gingival pathology, systemic, psychiatric and neurological diseases, is described.

  11. Evaluation of a high power inverter for potential space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guynes, B. V.; Lanier, J. R., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The ADM-006 inverter discussed utilizes a unique method of using power switching circuits to produce three-phase low harmonic content voltages without any significant filtering. This method is referred to as the power center approach to inverter design and is explained briefly. The results are presented of tests performed by MSFC to evaluate inverter performance, especially when required to provide power to nonlinear loads such as half or full wave rectified loads with capacitive filtering. Test preocedures and results are described. These tests show that the power center inverter essentially met or exceeded all of claims excluding voltage regulation (3.9 percent versus specified 3.3 percent) and would be a good candidate for high power inverter applications such as may be found on Space Station, Spacelab, etc.

  12. A review of neuroendoscopy and potential applications in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Higginbotham, Michael; Levesque, Donald

    2011-01-01

    The endoscope was first developed over 200 yr ago. Endoscopy has since been applied to many disciplines of medicine. Its application to the nervous system was initially slow and not widely accepted and mainly involved the biopsy of tumors and the treatment of hydrocephalus. Several reasons for neuroendoscopy's limited use include inadequate endoscope technology, high skill level required, the advent of the surgical microscope, and the development of other treatments such as ventricular shunting. Over the past 50 yr, improvements in optical glass lenses, fiber optics, and electrical circuitry has led to better equipment and a revival of neuroendoscopy. Neuroendoscopy is now used in many diseases in human medicine including hydrocephalus, neoplasia, and intracranial cysts. This review presents the history of neuroendoscopy, the equipment and technology used, and the possible translation of techniques currently used in human medicine to veterinary medicine.

  13. Translational systems biology of inflammation: potential applications to personalized medicine

    PubMed Central

    Mi, Qi; Li, Nicole Yee-Key; Ziraldo, Cordelia; Ghuma, Ali; Mikheev, Maxim; Squires, Robert; Okonkwo, David O; Verdolini-Abbott, Katherine; Constantine, Gregory; An, Gary; Vodovotz, Yoram

    2011-01-01

    A central goal of industrialized nations is to provide personalized, preemptive and predictive medicine, while maintaining healthcare costs at a minimum. To do so, we must confront and gain an understanding of inflammation, a complex, nonlinear process central to many diseases that affect both industrialized and developing nations. Herein, we describe the work aimed at creating a rational, engineering-oriented and evidence-based synthesis of inflammation geared towards rapid clinical application. This comprehensive approach, which we call ‘Translational Systems Biology’, to date has been utilized for in silico studies of sepsis, trauma/hemorrhage/traumatic brain injury, acute liver failure and wound healing. This framework has now allowed us to suggest how to modulate acute inflammation in a rational and individually optimized fashion using engineering principles applied to a biohybrid device. We suggest that we are on the cusp of fulfilling the promise of in silico modeling for personalized medicine for inflammatory disease. PMID:21339856

  14. Eco-friendly fly ash utilization: potential for land application

    SciTech Connect

    Malik, A.; Thapliyal, A.

    2009-07-01

    The increase in demand for power in domestic, agricultural, and industrial sectors has increased the pressure on coal combustion and aggravated the problem of fly ash generation/disposal. Consequently the research targeting effective utilization of fly ash has also gained momentum. Fly ash has proved to be an economical substitute for expensive adsorbents as well as a suitable raw material for brick manufacturing, zeolite synthesis, etc. Fly ash is a reservoir of essential minerals but is deficient in nitrogen and phosphorus. By amending fly ash with soil and/or various organic materials (sewage sludge, bioprocess materials) as well as microbial inoculants like mycorrhizae, enhanced plant growth can be realized. Based on the sound results of large scale studies, fly ash utilization has grown into prominent discipline supported by various internationally renowned organizations. This paper reviews attempts directed toward various utilization of fly ash, with an emphasis on land application of organic/microbial inoculants amended fly ash.

  15. Microencapsulation of probiotic bacteria: technology and potential applications.

    PubMed

    Kailasapathy, Kaila

    2002-09-01

    In the recent past, there has been an explosion of probiotic health-based products. Many reports indicated that there is poor survival of probiotic bacteria in these products. Further, the survival of these bacteria in the human gastro-intestinal system is questionable. Providing probiotic living cells with a physical barrier against adverse environmental conditions is therefore an approach currently receiving considerable interest. The technology of micro-encapsulation of probiotic bacterial cells evolved from the immobilised cell culture technology used in the biotechnological industry. Several methods of micro-encapsulation of probiotic bacteria have been reported and include spray drying, extrusion, emulsion and phase separation. None of these reported methods however, has resulted in the large numbers of shelf-stable, viable probiotic bacterial cells necessary for use in industry for development of new probiotic products. The most commonly reported micro-encapsulation procedure is based on the calcium-alginate gel capsule formation. Kappa-carrageenan, gellan gum, gelatin and starch are also used as excipients for the micro-encapsulation of probiotic bacteria. The currently available equipment for micro-encapsulation is not able to generate large quantities of uniform sized micro or nano capsules. There is a need to design and develop equipment that will be able to generate precise and uniform micro or nano capsules in large quantities for industrial applications. The reported food vehicles for delivery of encapsulated probiotic bacteria are yoghurt, cheese, ice cream and mayonnaise. Studies need to be done on the application of micro-encapsulation of probiotic bacteria in other food systems. The number of probiotic supplements will increase in the future. More studies, however, need to be conducted on the efficacy of micro-encapsulation to deliver probiotic bacteria and their controlled or targeted release in the gastrointestinal tract.

  16. A High Redox Potential Laccase from Pycnoporus sanguineus RP15: Potential Application for Dye Decolorization

    PubMed Central

    Zimbardi, Ana L. R. L.; Camargo, Priscila F.; Carli, Sibeli; Aquino Neto, Sidney; Meleiro, Luana P.; Rosa, Jose C.; De Andrade, Adalgisa R.; Jorge, João A.; Furriel, Rosa P. M.

    2016-01-01

    Laccase production by Pycnoporus sanguineus RP15 grown in wheat bran and corncob under solid-state fermentation was optimized by response surface methodology using a Central Composite Rotational Design. A laccase (Lacps1) was purified and characterized and the potential of the pure Lacps1 and the crude culture extract for synthetic dye decolorization was evaluated. At optimal conditions (eight days, 26 °C, 18% (w/w) milled corncob, 0.8% (w/w) NH4Cl and 50 mmol·L−1 CuSO4, initial moisture 4.1 mL·g−1), the laccase activity reached 138.6 ± 13.2 U·g−1. Lacps1 was a monomeric glycoprotein (67 kDa, 24% carbohydrate). Optimum pH and temperature for the oxidation of 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS) were 4.4 and 74.4 °C, respectively. Lacps1 was stable at pH 3.0–8.0, and after two hours at 55–60 °C, presenting high redox potential (0.747 V vs. NHE). ABTS was oxidized with an apparent affinity constant of 147.0 ± 6.4 μmol·L−1, maximum velocity of 413.4 ± 21.2 U·mg−1 and catalytic efficiency of 3140.1 ± 149.6 L·mmol−1·s−1. The maximum decolorization percentages of bromophenol blue (BPB), remazol brilliant blue R and reactive blue 4 (RB4), at 25 or 40 °C without redox mediators, reached 90%, 80% and 60%, respectively, using either pure Lacps1 or the crude extract. This is the first study of the decolorization of BPB and RB4 by a P. sanguineus laccase. The data suggested good potential for treatment of industrial dye-containing effluents. PMID:27164083

  17. A High Redox Potential Laccase from Pycnoporus sanguineus RP15: Potential Application for Dye Decolorization.

    PubMed

    Zimbardi, Ana L R L; Camargo, Priscila F; Carli, Sibeli; Aquino Neto, Sidney; Meleiro, Luana P; Rosa, Jose C; De Andrade, Adalgisa R; Jorge, João A; Furriel, Rosa P M

    2016-05-05

    Laccase production by Pycnoporus sanguineus RP15 grown in wheat bran and corncob under solid-state fermentation was optimized by response surface methodology using a Central Composite Rotational Design. A laccase (Lacps1) was purified and characterized and the potential of the pure Lacps1 and the crude culture extract for synthetic dye decolorization was evaluated. At optimal conditions (eight days, 26 °C, 18% (w/w) milled corncob, 0.8% (w/w) NH₄Cl and 50 mmol·L(-1) CuSO₄, initial moisture 4.1 mL·g(-1)), the laccase activity reached 138.6 ± 13.2 U·g(-1). Lacps1 was a monomeric glycoprotein (67 kDa, 24% carbohydrate). Optimum pH and temperature for the oxidation of 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS) were 4.4 and 74.4 °C, respectively. Lacps1 was stable at pH 3.0-8.0, and after two hours at 55-60 °C, presenting high redox potential (0.747 V vs. NHE). ABTS was oxidized with an apparent affinity constant of 147.0 ± 6.4 μmol·L(-1), maximum velocity of 413.4 ± 21.2 U·mg(-1) and catalytic efficiency of 3140.1 ± 149.6 L·mmol(-1)·s(-1). The maximum decolorization percentages of bromophenol blue (BPB), remazol brilliant blue R and reactive blue 4 (RB4), at 25 or 40 °C without redox mediators, reached 90%, 80% and 60%, respectively, using either pure Lacps1 or the crude extract. This is the first study of the decolorization of BPB and RB4 by a P. sanguineus laccase. The data suggested good potential for treatment of industrial dye-containing effluents.

  18. Recent Advances in Potential Clinical Application of Ghrelin in Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Delporte, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Ghrelin is the natural ligand of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R1a). Ghrelin is a 28 amino acid peptide possessing a unique acylation on the serine in position 3 catalyzed by ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT). Ghrelin stimulates growth hormone secretion, but also appetite, food intake, weight gain, and gastric emptying. Ghrelin is involved in weight regulation, obesity, type 2 diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. Furthermore, a better understanding of ghrelin biology led to the identification of molecular targets modulating ghrelin levels and/or its biological effects: GOAT, ghrelin, and GHS-R1a. Furthermore, a recent discovery, showing the involvement of bitter taste receptor T2R in ghrelin secretion and/or synthesis and food intake, suggested that T2R could represent an additional interesting molecular target. Several classes of ghrelin-related pharmacological tools for the treatment of obesity have been or could be developed to modulate the identified molecular targets. PMID:22523666

  19. Investigating the potential applications of a Raman tweezer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wray, John Casey

    This thesis describes the construction of an Optical Tweezer apparatus to be used in conjunction with a confocal Raman spectrometer. The tweezer utilizes an infrared (e=1064 nm) laser directed into an inverted microscope with NA=1.4 oil immersion 100x objective lens that strongly focuses the laser light into a sample to function as a single-beam gradient force trap. The long term goal of this research program is to develop a single molecule Raman tweezers apparatus that allows one to control the position of a Raman nanoplasmonic amplifier. This thesis describes the construction of the Raman tweezer apparatus along with several Raman spectra obtained from optically trapped samples of polystyrene fluorescent orange, amine-modified latex beads. In addition, I explored the Raman spectra of bulk cytochrome c mixed with or injected onto Ag aggregates for SERs enhancement.

  20. Application of remote sensing to estimating soil erosion potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris-Jones, D. R.; Kiefer, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    A variety of remote sensing data sources and interpretation techniques has been tested in a 6136 hectare watershed with agricultural, forest and urban land cover to determine the relative utility of alternative aerial photographic data sources for gathering the desired land use/land cover data. The principal photographic data sources are high altitude 9 x 9 inch color infrared photos at 1:120,000 and 1:60,000 and multi-date medium altitude color and color infrared photos at 1:60,000. Principal data for estimating soil erosion potential include precipitation, soil, slope, crop, crop practice, and land use/land cover data derived from topographic maps, soil maps, and remote sensing. A computer-based geographic information system organized on a one-hectare grid cell basis is used to store and quantify the information collected using different data sources and interpretation techniques. Research results are compared with traditional Universal Soil Loss Equation field survey methods.