Science.gov

Sample records for additional potential benefits

  1. Impact of the quebec school-based hepatitis B immunization program and potential benefit of the addition of an infant immunization program.

    PubMed

    Gîlca, Vladimir; Duval, Bernard; Boulianne, Nicole; Dion, Réjean; De Serres, Gaston

    2006-04-01

    Ten years after a school-based hepatitis B immunization program was implemented, we conducted a study to assess the impact of the program, vaccine failures, risk factors and the number of cases potentially preventable by the addition of an infant vaccination program. The preteen vaccination program is highly effective. An infant immunization program would bring additional benefits. PMID:16567995

  2. 42 CFR 417.592 - Additional benefits requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) General rules. (1) An HMO or CMP that has an APCRP (as determined under § 417.590) greater than its ACR... least equal to the difference between the APCRP and the proposed ACR. (b) Options—(1) Additional... the APCRP and the ACR. (4) Combination of additional benefits and withholding in a stabilization...

  3. 45 CFR 155.170 - Additional required benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional required benefits. 155.170 Section 155.170 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS EXCHANGE ESTABLISHMENT STANDARDS AND OTHER RELATED STANDARDS UNDER THE AFFORDABLE CARE ACT...

  4. Benefits of additives application during combustion of phytomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palacka, Matej; Vician, Peter; Holubčík, Michal; Jandačka, Jozef

    2016-06-01

    Phytomass, particularly wheat straw as a source of energy has countless benefits, but it has many problems in its direct burn too. The worst problem is the ash flow temperature. The aim of study was to analyze and reduce the problems of the wheat straw combustion. The experiment was conducted under realistic conditions. In this paper was implemented analysis of ash features with and without adding additives into the wheat straw. Selected samples were laboratory processed and examined. The result of the work was the impact of additional additives for ash features.

  5. Potential Benefits of Commissioning California Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Matson, Nance; Wray, Craig; Walker, Iain; Sherman, Max

    2002-01-01

    Commissioning California's houses can result in better performing systems and houses. In turn, this will result in more efficient use of energy, carbon emission reductions, and improved occupant comfort. In particular, commissioning houses can save a significant amount of HVAC-related energy (15 to 30% in existing houses, 10 to 20% in new conventional houses, and up to 8% in advanced energy efficiency houses). The process that we considered includes corrective measures that could be implemented together during construction or during a single site visit (e.g., air tightening, duct sealing, and refrigerant and air handler airflow corrections in a new or existing house). Taking advantage of additional, more complex opportunities (e.g., installing new windows in an existing house, replacing the heating and air conditioning system in a new or existing house) can result in additional HVAC-related energy savings (60 to 75% in existing houses, and 50 to 60% in new conventional houses). The commissioning-related system and house performance improvements and energy savings translate to additional benefits throughout California and beyond. By applying commissioning principles to their work, the building community (builders and contractors) benefit from reduced callbacks and lower warranty costs. HERS raters and inspectors will have access to an expanded market sector. As the commissioning process rectifies construction defects and code problems, building code officials benefit from better compliance with codes. The utilities benefit from reduced peak demand, which can translate into lower energy acquisition costs. As houses perform closer to expectations, governmental bodies (e.g., the California Energy Commission and the Air Resources Board) benefit from greater assurance that actual energy consumption and carbon emissions are closer to the levels mandated in codes and standards, resulting in better achievement of state energy conservation and environmental goals. California

  6. Yoga: Potential Benefits for Persons Who Stutter.

    PubMed

    Kauffman, Heather

    2016-02-01

    Yoga has been demonstrated to modulate autonomic nervous system activity, decreasing anxiety and stress, and improving quality of life. This preliminary study sought to examine the use of yogic techniques on persons who stutter given the interaction between physiological arousal/anxiety and stuttering that current multifactorial models of stuttering propose. Four participants (M = 52 yr, SD = 10; 2 female, 2 male), recruited from local stuttering support groups in the greater Philadelphia community volunteered to participate. Stuttering severity, anxiety, and experiences regarding stuttering and communication were measured at baseline, post intervention, and at 4 months follow-up. The participants attended group yoga sessions and engaged in home practice. Descriptive results revealed that participants showed improvements across outcome measures, with the most improvement related to anxiety. Participants also reported improvements in their perceptions about communication as per qualitative analysis of responses to the open-ended questionnaires. The results suggest the potential benefits of yoga for persons who stutter and warrants further study using an experimental design. PMID:27420315

  7. A Study of the Economic Benefit Potential of Intermodal Transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, J. M.; Kawai, R. T.; Gregg, R. D.; McKinley, Robert E., Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A conceptual study was conducted to determine the benefit potential of an Intermodal Transport in which quick change payload modules are used to reduce the cost of air travel by increasing daily utilization. Three basic concepts varying the degree of modularity were investigated for a 122,000 pounds payload 3,000 NM range regional wide body transport. The profit potential for operating as a passenger transport during the day and as a freighter at night was assessed. Assuming current levels of profitability, Intermodal operations could offer an operating cost reduction potential up to 20%. Enabling technology needs are identified as very quiet aircraft for expanded night operations, distributed load carrying quick disconnect latching, and configuration dependent safety issues. Recommendations are made to explore if additional benefits are possible from alternative mission and usage modules.

  8. The benefit of additional oviposition targets for a polyphagous butterfly.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Josefin; Bergström, Anders; Janz, Niklas

    2007-01-01

    While the reasons for the prevalence of specialists over generalists among herbivorous insects have been at the focus of much interest, less effort has been put into understanding the polyphagous exceptions. Recent studies have suggested that these exceptions may be important for insect diversification, which calls for a better understanding of the potential factors that can lead to an increased host plant repertoire. Females of the Nymphalid butterfly, Polygonia c-album, were used to test if egg output and/or likelihood of finding a host increased with the addition of a secondary host. There was no effect of prior eggs on the host for willingness to oviposit on a plant. The main experiments were conducted both in small laboratory cages and in large outdoor experimental arenas. No positive effect was found when another oviposition target was added in small cages in the laboratory. On the other hand, in the outdoor arenas the females more often found a host to oviposit on and had a higher egg output when they had access to an additional host, even though the second host was lower in their preference hierarchy. The difference between these experiments was attributed to searching for acceptable host plants within a patch, a factor that was included in the large cages but not in the small. When host availability is limited, adding oviposition targets can potentially act to counterbalance specialization and thus favor the evolution of generalization.

  9. Additionality of global benefits and financial additionality in the context of the AIJ negotiations

    SciTech Connect

    Puhl, I.

    1996-12-31

    The Conference of the Party at their first meeting (COP1) took a decision regarding criteria for joint implementation as indicated in Art. 4.2 (a) of the FCCC which established a pilot phase for activities implemented jointly (AIJ) under the pilot phase. Besides some more technical issues this decision specified that such measures should bring about real, measurable and long-term environmental benefits related to the mitigation of climate change that would not have occurred in the absence of such activities. It also established that the financing of AIJ shall be additional to the financial obligations of developed country parties. These two requirements are called the additionality criteria for AIJ. The first refers to the realness of GHG emission abatement (which means reduction compared to a baseline) whereas the second describes that funds earmarked for AIJ have no other objective (i.e. profit making, export promotion) but to reduce GHG emissions to avoid the free-riding of investors and subsequently developed country parties. The reporting framework as well as the reporting requirements under national programs do not specify further the two types of additionality and even though research focuses on issues like baseline determination there has been no attempt so far to identify approaches which contribute towards defining strict and practicable methods and guidelines to frame additionality criteria. The first FCCC assessment of pilot project reporting revealed that in the reporting of activities, emissions additionality often remained unclear, especially in cases where AIJ was only a portion of an existing or already planned project, and that there is a point about how to account for financial additionality. It subsequently proposed to develop a uniform approach to baseline determination and the assessment of emission (reduction) additionality and financial additionality.

  10. [The potential health benefits of philanthropy].

    PubMed

    Vaccaro, Antoine

    2014-12-01

    The act of donating or doing voluntary or charitable work has a positive effect on the giver's health. Numerous French and international studies have shown the benefits of a voluntary activity. It enables people to live better and longer, by favouring their physical, psychological, social and cognitive balance.

  11. Additional potential for older, Antrim Shale wells

    SciTech Connect

    Frantz, J.H. Jr.; Hopkins, C.W.; Hill, D.G.

    1995-09-01

    The Gas Research Institute (GRI) has been performing evaluations to estimate the recompletion and restimulation potential in older, Antrim Shale wells. The recompletion potential is two-fold: (1) wells that can be deepened to the productive Norwood interval, and (2) wells with Upper Antrim potential. There are also numerous restimulation candidates due to sand flowback and/or other problems. The Antrim Shale is an organic-rich naturally fractured formation which produces both gas and water. Operators today typically complete the Lachine and Norwood intervals but many older wells were not drilled deep enough to encounter to Norwood. We performed an evaluation to determine the optimal deepening method using actual and simulated data. We estimate there are over 500 deepening candidates with total potential reserve additions of 50 Bscf. The Upper antrim formation can be added in approximately 1,500 existing wells throughout several counties. This interval is uphole from the Lachine and Norwood. In this phase of the project, we collected production and reservoir data from several Upper Antrim tests across the basin. We estimate the Upper Antrim could add total new reserves of 100 to 200 Bscf from al the recompletion candidates across the basin. In the restimulation evaluation, we developed a novel injection test unit to help operators identify the best restimulation candidates in a cost effective manner. The injection test determines if an effective hydraulic fracture is connected to the wellbore. Based on 60 test wells, we estimate the restimulations could add 50 to 200 Bscf of future reserves from the 500 to 1,000 candidate wells.

  12. 20 CFR 410.535 - Reductions; effect of an additional claim for benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reductions; effect of an additional claim for benefits. 410.535 Section 410.535 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Payment of Benefits §...

  13. 20 CFR 410.535 - Reductions; effect of an additional claim for benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reductions; effect of an additional claim for benefits. 410.535 Section 410.535 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Payment of Benefits §...

  14. Potential Economic Benefits of Consumer Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Allen R.; And Others

    A study explored the potential economic impacts of a large and successful national program of consumer education. Following a literature review, a qualitative analysis was performed on a wide range of topics. The topics pertained to information and the process of consumer choice, the role of advertising, consumer sovereignty and the supply system,…

  15. Potential benefits of satiety to the consumer: scientific considerations.

    PubMed

    Hetherington, M M; Cunningham, K; Dye, L; Gibson, E L; Gregersen, N T; Halford, J C G; Lawton, C L; Lluch, A; Mela, D J; Van Trijp, H C M

    2013-06-01

    Foods and dietary patterns that enhance satiety may provide benefit to consumers. The aim of the present review was to describe, consider and evaluate research on potential benefits of enhanced satiety. The proposal that enhanced satiety could only benefit consumers by a direct effect on food intake should be rejected. Instead, it is proposed that there is a variety of routes through which enhanced satiety could (indirectly) benefit dietary control or weight-management goals. The review highlights specific potential benefits of satiety, including: providing appetite control strategies for consumers generally and for those who are highly responsive to food cues; offering pleasure and satisfaction associated with low-energy/healthier versions of foods without feeling 'deprived'; reducing dysphoric mood associated with hunger especially during energy restriction; and improved compliance with healthy eating or weight-management efforts. There is convincing evidence of short-term satiety benefits, but only probable evidence for longer-term benefits to hunger management, possible evidence of benefits to mood and cognition, inadequate evidence that satiety enhancement can promote weight loss, and no evidence on which consumers would benefit most from satiety enhancement. The appetite-reducing effects of specific foods or diets will be much more subtle than those of pharmaceutical compounds in managing hunger; nevertheless, the experience of pharmacology in producing weight loss via effects on appetite suggests that there is potential benefit of satiety enhancement from foods incorporated into the diet to the consumer.

  16. Benefits negotiation: three Swedish hospitals pursuit of potential electronic health record benefits.

    PubMed

    Jeansson, John S

    2013-01-01

    At the very heart of Swedish healthcare digitalisation are large investments in electronic health records (EHRs). These integrated information systems (ISs) carry promises of great benefits and value for organisations. However, realising IS benefits and value has, in general, proven to be a challenging task, and as organisations strive to formalise their realisation efforts a misconception of rationality threatens to emerge. This misconception manifests itself when the formality of analysis threatens to underrate the impact of social processes in deciding which potential benefits to pursue. This paper suggests that these decisions are the result of a social process of negotiation. The purpose of this paper is to observe three benefits analysis projects of three Swedish hospitals to better understand the character and management of proposed benefits negotiations. Findings depict several different categories of benefits negotiations, as well as key factors to consider during the benefits negotiation process. PMID:24191344

  17. Dietary supplements and hypertension: potential benefits and precautions.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Carly B; Glisson, James K; Minor, Deborah S

    2012-07-01

    Dietary supplements (DSs) are used extensively in the general population and many are promoted for the natural treatment and management of hypertension. Patients with hypertension often choose to use these products either in addition to or instead of pharmacologic antihypertensive agents. Because of the frequent use of DS, both consumers and health care providers should be aware of the considerable issues surrounding these products and factors influencing both efficacy and safety. In this review of the many DSs promoted for the management of hypertension, 4 products with evidence of possible benefits (coenzyme Q10, fish oil, garlic, vitamin C) and 4 that were consistently associated with increasing blood pressure were found (ephedra, Siberian ginseng, bitter orange, licorice). The goals and objectives of this review are to discuss the regulation of DS, evaluate the efficacy of particular DS in the treatment of hypertension, and highlight DS that may potentially increase blood pressure. PMID:22747620

  18. Spotlight on lasers. A look at potential benefits

    SciTech Connect

    Zakariasen, K.L.; MacDonald, R.; Boran, T. )

    1991-07-01

    Before lasers can be highly integrated into clinical practice, further research must prove the efficacy, efficiency, consistency and safety of this new technology. Currently, increased caries prevention and rapid laser etching are two potential benefits of laser technology.

  19. Charcoal addition to soils in NE England: a carbon sink with environmental co-benefits?

    PubMed

    Bell, M J; Worrall, F

    2011-04-01

    Interest in the application of biochar (charcoal produced during the pyrolysis of biomass) to agricultural land is increasing across the world, recognised as a potential way to capture and store atmospheric carbon. Its interest is heightened by its potential co-benefits for soil quality and fertility. The majority of research has however been undertaken in tropical rather than temperate regions. This study assessed the potential for lump-wood charcoal addition (as a substitute for biochar) to soil types which are typically under arable and forest land-use in North East England. The study was undertaken over a 28 week period and found: i) No significant difference in net ecosystem respiration (NER) between soils containing charcoal and those without, other than in week 1 of the trial. ii) A significantly higher dissolved organic carbon (DOC) flux from soils containing large amounts of charcoal than from those untreated, when planted with ryegrass. iii) That when increased respiration or DOC loss did occur, neither was sufficiently large to alter the carbon sink benefits of charcoal application. iv) That charcoal incorporation resulted in a significantly lower nitrate flux in soil leachate from mineral soils. v) That charcoal incorporation caused significant increases in soil pH, from 6.98 to 7.22 on bare arable soils when 87,500 kg charcoal/ha was applied. Consideration of both the carbon sink and environmental benefits observed here suggests that charcoal application to temperate soils typical of North East England should be considered as a method of carbon sequestration. Before large scale land application is encouraged, further large scale trials should be undertaken to confirm the positive results of this research.

  20. 20 CFR 725.309 - Additional claims; effect of a prior denial of benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional claims; effect of a prior denial..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED CLAIMS FOR BENEFITS UNDER PART C OF TITLE IV OF THE FEDERAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT, AS AMENDED Filing of Claims §...

  1. Potential benefits from a successful solar thermal program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terasawa, K. L.; Gates, W. R.

    1982-01-01

    Solar energy systems were investigated which complement nuclear and coal technologies as a means of reducing the U.S. dependence on imported petroleum. Solar Thermal Energy Systems (STES) represents an important category of solar energy technologies. STES can be utilized in a broad range of applications servicing a variety of economic sectors, and they can be deployed in both near-term and long-term markets. The net present value of the energy cost savings attributable to electric utility and IPH applications of STES were estimated for a variety of future energy cost scenarios and levels of R&D success. This analysis indicated that the expected net benefits of developing an STES option are significantly greater than the expected costs of completing the required R&D. In addition, transportable fuels and chemical feedstocks represent a substantial future potential market for STES. Due to the basic nature of this R&D activity, however, it is currently impossible to estimate the value of STES in these markets. Despite this fact, private investment in STES R&D is not anticipated due to the high level of uncertainty characterizing the expected payoffs.

  2. Analysis of the benefits of carbon credits to hydrogen addition to midsize gas turbine feedstocks.

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.; Towns, B.; Keller, Jay O.; Schefer, Robert W.; Skolnik, Edward G.

    2006-02-01

    The addition of hydrogen to the natural gas feedstocks of midsize (30-150 MW) gas turbines was analyzed as a method of reducing nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) and CO{sub 2} emissions. In particular, the costs of hydrogen addition were evaluated against the combined costs for other current NO{sub x} and CO{sub 2} emissions control technologies for both existing and new systems to determine its benefits and market feasibility. Markets for NO{sub x} emissions credits currently exist in California and the Northeast States and are expected to grow. Although regulations are not currently in place in the United States, several other countries have implemented carbon tax and carbon credit programs. The analysis thus assumes that the United States adopts future legislation similar to these programs. Therefore, potential sale of emissions credits for volunteer retrofits was also included in the study. It was found that hydrogen addition is a competitive alternative to traditional emissions abatement techniques under certain conditions. The existence of carbon credits shifts the system economics in favor of hydrogen addition.

  3. Are There Additional Benefits from Being in Small Classes for More than One Year?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konstantopoulos, Spyros; Li, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Evidence from Project STAR has suggested a considerable advantage of being in small classes in early grades. However, the extra benefits of additional years in small classes have not been discussed in detail. The present study examined the additional effects of being in small classes for more than 1 year. We find that once previous grade…

  4. Cochlear Implantation among Deaf Children with Additional Disabilities: Parental Perceptions of Benefits, Challenges, and Service Provision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaidman-Zait, Anat; Curle, Deirdre; Jamieson, Janet R.; Chia, Ruth; Kozak, Frederick K.

    2015-01-01

    Although increasing numbers of children with additional disabilities are receiving cochlear implants (CIs), little is known about family perspectives of the benefits and the challenges of cochlear implantation in this pediatric population. This study examines perceptions among parents of deaf children with additional disabilities regarding…

  5. Supersonic HLFC: Potential benefits and technology development requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neumann, Frank

    1992-01-01

    The viewgraphs and discussion of the potential benefits and technology development requirements of supersonic Hybrid Laminar Flow Control (HLFC) are reviewed. For the last three years, Boeing has performed studies on the application of laminar flow control to High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) configurations. Large potential net benefits were identified for laminar flow control, even after accounting for the significant implementation penalties. However, the technical risks are high at this time, and an early, aggressive technology development program is required if laminar flow control (LFC) is to be incorporated in a year 2005 HSCT program. The benefits and required development effort are addressed. Of all the aerodynamic advances that are being considered for the HSCT, LFC has the largest potential for improving the supersonic lift drag ratio of a given configuration. The work accomplished to date, sponsored by NASA Langley, is summarized. This work includes studies on HLFC application to HSCT, cruise HLFC/low speed boundary layer control (BLC) compatibility, and impact of M 0.9 HLFC and high lift BLC. Requirements for production committments are listed. The need for a HSCT-HLFC Risk Reduction Program is addressed. Supersonic HLFC development planning and future applications are addressed. Laminar flow/high-lift integration is addressed.

  6. Potential benefits of superconductivity to transportation in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rote, Donald M.; Johnson, Larry R.

    Research in U.S. transportation applications of superconductors is strongly motivated by a number of potential national benefits. These include the reduction of dependence on petroleum-based fuels, energy savings, substantially reduced air and noise pollution, increased customer convenience, and reduced maintenance costs. Current transportation technology offers little flexibility to switch to alternative fuels, and efforts to achieve the other benefits are confounded by growing congestion at airports and on urban roadways. A program has been undertaken to identify possible applications of the emerging superconducting applications to transportation and to evaluate potential national benefits. The current phase of the program will select the most promising applications for a more detailed subsequent study. Transportation modes being examined include highway and industrial vehicles, as well as rail, sea, air transport and pipelines. Three strategies are being considered: (1) replacing present components with those employing superconductors, (2) substituting new combinations of components or systems for present systems, and (3) developing completely new technologies. Distinctions are made between low-, medium-, and near-room-temperature superconductors. The most promising applications include magnetically levitated passenger and freight vehicles; replacement of drive systems in locomotives, self-propelled rail cars, and ships; and electric vehicles inductively coupled to electrified roadways.

  7. Potential biodiversity benefits from international programs to reduce carbon emissions from deforestation.

    PubMed

    Siikamäki, Juha; Newbold, Stephen C

    2012-01-01

    Deforestation is the second largest anthropogenic source of carbon dioxide emissions and options for its reduction are integral to climate policy. In addition to providing potentially low cost and near-term options for reducing global carbon emissions, reducing deforestation also could support biodiversity conservation. However, current understanding of the potential benefits to biodiversity from forest carbon offset programs is limited. We compile spatial data on global forest carbon, biodiversity, deforestation rates, and the opportunity cost of land to examine biodiversity conservation benefits from an international program to reduce carbon emissions from deforestation. Our results indicate limited geographic overlap between the least-cost areas for retaining forest carbon and protecting biodiversity. Therefore, carbon-focused policies will likely generate substantially lower benefits to biodiversity than a more biodiversity-focused policy could achieve. These results highlight the need to systematically consider co-benefits, such as biodiversity in the design and implementation of forest conservation programs to support international climate policy.

  8. An Investigation of the Additive Benefits of Parent Dialogic Reading Techniques in Older Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Switalski, Sarah O'Neill

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the additive benefit of parent dialogic reading techniques in older, high-risk preschool children using multiple baseline design across participants, a single subject research design, as was as well as pre-test and post-test measures. Five preschoolers age-eligible to begin kindergarten the following school year participated.…

  9. Therapeutic potential and health benefits of Sargassum species

    PubMed Central

    Yende, Subhash R.; Harle, Uday N.; Chaugule, Bhupal B.

    2014-01-01

    Sargassum species are tropical and sub-tropical brown macroalgae (seaweed) of shallow marine meadow. These are nutritious and rich source of bioactive compounds such as vitamins, carotenoids, dietary fibers, proteins, and minerals. Also, many biologically active compounds like terpenoids, flavonoids, sterols, sulfated polysaccharides, polyphenols, sargaquinoic acids, sargachromenol, pheophytine were isolated from different Sargassum species. These isolated compounds exhibit diverse biological activities like analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, neuroprotective, anti-microbial, anti-tumor, fibrinolytic, immune-modulatory, anti-coagulant, hepatoprotective, anti-viral activity etc., Hence, Sargassum species have great potential to be used in pharmaceutical and neutralceutical areas. This review paper explores the current knowledge of phytochemical, therapeutic potential, and health benefits of different species of genus Sargassum. PMID:24600190

  10. [Dietary phytoestrogen and its potential benefits in adult human health].

    PubMed

    Garrido, Argelia; de la Maza, María Pía; Valladares, Luis

    2003-11-01

    Human diet contains a series of bioactive vegetal compounds that can improve human health. Among these, there has been a special interest for phytoestrogens. This article reviews the evidence about the potential benefits of phytoestrogens for human health. Forty eight manuscripts were selected for their study design and relevance to human health. The cell growth inhibitory effects of phytoestrogens and their implication in breast cancer are reviewed. Also the effects of these compounds on serum lipid levels and the effectiveness of a phytoestrogen derivate, ipriflavone, on the prevention of osteoporosis are analyzed. Although these compounds have a great potential for improving health, there is still not enough evidence to recommend the routine use of phytoestrogens.

  11. Potential Benefits of Non-Pharmacological Therapies in Fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    Sueiro Blanco, F.; Estévez Schwarz, I.; Ayán, C.; Cancela, JM.; Martín, V.

    2008-01-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is an incurable common syndrome of non-articular origin, and with no effective treatment by now. A great deal of research has sought to assess the efficacy of different therapies, especially non-pharmacological and low-cost ones, in the reduction of the intensity of symptoms. Despite the availability of a wide range of alternative therapies nowadays, there is little scientific evidence of the potential benefits of most of them, with results being contradictories. The purpose of this paper is to review some of the less well known alternative therapies in FM treatment, to describe the more relevant clinical studies published in this matter, and to analyze the potential effects of the main alternative therapies, in order to verify their efficacy. PMID:19088863

  12. 20 CFR 408.808 - What happens to your SVB payments if you begin receiving additional benefit income?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What happens to your SVB payments if you begin receiving additional benefit income? 408.808 Section 408.808 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Suspensions and Terminations Suspension §...

  13. 20 CFR 408.808 - What happens to your SVB payments if you begin receiving additional benefit income?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What happens to your SVB payments if you begin receiving additional benefit income? 408.808 Section 408.808 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Suspensions and Terminations Suspension §...

  14. 20 CFR 408.808 - What happens to your SVB payments if you begin receiving additional benefit income?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What happens to your SVB payments if you begin receiving additional benefit income? 408.808 Section 408.808 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Suspensions and Terminations Suspension §...

  15. 20 CFR 408.808 - What happens to your SVB payments if you begin receiving additional benefit income?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What happens to your SVB payments if you begin receiving additional benefit income? 408.808 Section 408.808 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Suspensions and Terminations Suspension §...

  16. 20 CFR 408.808 - What happens to your SVB payments if you begin receiving additional benefit income?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What happens to your SVB payments if you begin receiving additional benefit income? 408.808 Section 408.808 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Suspensions and Terminations Suspension §...

  17. Potential Therapeutic Benefits of Strategies Directed to Mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Lesnefsky, Edward J.; Stowe, David F.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The mitochondrion is the most important organelle in determining continued cell survival and cell death. Mitochondrial dysfunction leads to many human maladies, including cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative disease, and cancer. These mitochondria-related pathologies range from early infancy to senescence. The central premise of this review is that if mitochondrial abnormalities contribute to the pathological state, alleviating the mitochondrial dysfunction would contribute to attenuating the severity or progression of the disease. Therefore, this review will examine the role of mitochondria in the etiology and progression of several diseases and explore potential therapeutic benefits of targeting mitochondria in mitigating the disease processes. Indeed, recent advances in mitochondrial biology have led to selective targeting of drugs designed to modulate and manipulate mitochondrial function and genomics for therapeutic benefit. These approaches to treat mitochondrial dysfunction rationally could lead to selective protection of cells in different tissues and various disease states. However, most of these approaches are in their infancy. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 13, 279–347. PMID:20001744

  18. Condensed catechins and their potential health-benefits.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Toshiro

    2015-10-15

    Condensed catechins are commonly present in fermented tea, and are produced by the oxidation of monomeric catechins. Due to their auto-oxidation, catechins have diverse structural features, including different binding modes and degrees of polymerization. Because of their structural complexity, their physiological functions and possible health-benefits have not yet been fully investigated. This review focuses on the physiological potentials of dimeric and trimeric catechins in the intestine (regulation of absorption across the intestinal membrane), blood vessels (vasorelaxation in vessel regulation), and muscle organs (promotion of glucose uptake resulting in an anti-diabetic effect). Furthermore, the roles of non-absorbable theaflavins (dimeric catechins), absorbable theasinensins (dimeric catechins), and absorbable procyanidins (dimeric and trimeric catechins) on target organs are discussed. PMID:26386288

  19. Potential environmental benefits of prospective genetic changes in broiler traits.

    PubMed

    Leinonen, I; Williams, A G; Kyriazakis, I

    2016-02-01

    A system approach-based Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) framework, combined with a simple mechanistic model of bird energy balance was used to predict the potential effects of 15 y prospective broiler breeding on the environmental impacts of the standard UK broiler production system. The year 2014 Ross 308 genotype was used as a baseline, and a future scenario was specified from rates of genetic improvement predicted by the industry. The scenario included changes in the traits of growth rate (reducing the time to reach a target weight 2.05 kg from 34 d to 27 d), body lipid content, carcass yield, mortality and the number of chicks produced by a breeder hen. Diet composition was adjusted in order to accommodate the future nutrient requirements of the birds following the genetic change. The results showed that predicted changes in biological performance due to selective breeding could lead to reduced environmental impacts of the broiler production chain, most notably in the Eutrophication Potential (by 12%), Acidification Potential (by 10%) and Abiotic Resource Use (by 9%) and Global Warming Potential (by 9%). These reductions were mainly caused by the reduced maintenance energy requirement and thus lower feed intake, resulting from the shorter production cycle, together with the increased carcass yield. However, some environmental benefits were limited by the required changes in feed composition (e.g., increased inclusion of soy meal and vegetable oil) as a result of the changes in bird nutrient requirements. This study is the first one aiming to link the mechanistic animal modeling approach to predicted genetic changes in order to produce quantitative estimates of the future environmental impacts of broiler production. Although a more detailed understanding on the mechanisms of the potential changes in bird performance and their consequences on feeding and husbandry would be still be needed, the modeling framework produced in this study provides a starting point for

  20. Potential environmental benefits of prospective genetic changes in broiler traits.

    PubMed

    Leinonen, I; Williams, A G; Kyriazakis, I

    2016-02-01

    A system approach-based Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) framework, combined with a simple mechanistic model of bird energy balance was used to predict the potential effects of 15 y prospective broiler breeding on the environmental impacts of the standard UK broiler production system. The year 2014 Ross 308 genotype was used as a baseline, and a future scenario was specified from rates of genetic improvement predicted by the industry. The scenario included changes in the traits of growth rate (reducing the time to reach a target weight 2.05 kg from 34 d to 27 d), body lipid content, carcass yield, mortality and the number of chicks produced by a breeder hen. Diet composition was adjusted in order to accommodate the future nutrient requirements of the birds following the genetic change. The results showed that predicted changes in biological performance due to selective breeding could lead to reduced environmental impacts of the broiler production chain, most notably in the Eutrophication Potential (by 12%), Acidification Potential (by 10%) and Abiotic Resource Use (by 9%) and Global Warming Potential (by 9%). These reductions were mainly caused by the reduced maintenance energy requirement and thus lower feed intake, resulting from the shorter production cycle, together with the increased carcass yield. However, some environmental benefits were limited by the required changes in feed composition (e.g., increased inclusion of soy meal and vegetable oil) as a result of the changes in bird nutrient requirements. This study is the first one aiming to link the mechanistic animal modeling approach to predicted genetic changes in order to produce quantitative estimates of the future environmental impacts of broiler production. Although a more detailed understanding on the mechanisms of the potential changes in bird performance and their consequences on feeding and husbandry would be still be needed, the modeling framework produced in this study provides a starting point for

  1. Mapping Flood Reduction Benefits of Potential Wetlands Restoration

    EPA Science Inventory

    Public officials and environmental managers face difficult decisions when allocating funds to prioritize the most beneficial wetlands conservation or restoration projects, and often face difficulty even characterizing benefits. One benefit of natural and constructed wetlands is t...

  2. No Detectable Fertility Benefit from a Single Additional Mating in Wild Stalk-Eyed Flies

    PubMed Central

    Harley, Elisabeth; Fowler, Kevin; Cotton, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    Background Multiple mating by female insects is widespread, and the explanation(s) for repeated mating by females has been the subject of much discussion. Females may profit from mating multiply through direct material benefits that increase their own reproductive output, or indirect genetic benefits that increase offspring fitness. One particular direct benefit that has attracted significant attention is that of fertility assurance, as females often need to mate multiply to achieve high fertility. This hypothesis has never been tested in a wild insect population. Methodology/Principal Findings Female Malaysian stalk-eyed flies (Teleopsis dalmanni) mate repeatedly during their lifetime, and have been shown to be sperm limited under both laboratory and field conditions. Here we ask whether receiving an additional mating alleviates sperm limitation in wild females. In our experiment one group of females received a single additional mating, while a control group received an interrupted, and therefore unsuccessful, mating. Females that received an additional mating did not lay more fertilised eggs in total, nor did they lay proportionately more fertilised eggs. Female fertility declined significantly through time, demonstrating that females were sperm limited. However, receipt of an additional mating did not significantly alter the rate of this decline. Conclusions/Significance Our data suggest that the fertility consequences of a single additional mating were small. We discuss this effect (or lack thereof), and suggest that it is likely to be attributed to small ejaculate size, a high proportion of failed copulations, and the presence of X-linked meiotic drive in this species. PMID:21179210

  3. Thyroid Hormone Potentially Benefits Multiple Sclerosis via Facilitating Remyelination.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mao; Ma, Ziyi; Qin, Haochen; Yao, Zhongxiang

    2016-09-01

    Myelin destruction due to inflammatory damage of oligodendrocytes (OLs) in conjunction with axonal degeneration is one of the major histopathological hallmarks of multiple sclerosis (MS), a common autoimmune disorder affecting the central nervous system (CNS). Therapies over the last 20 years mainly focus on the immune system and, more specifically, on the modulation of immune cell behavior. It seems to be effective in MS with relapse, while it is of little benefit to progressive MS in which neurodegeneration following demyelination outweighs inflammation. Otherwise, remyelination, as a result of oligodendrocyte production from oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs), is considered to be a potential target for the treatment of progressive MS. In this review, positive effects of remyelination on MS will be discussed in view of the critical role played by thyroid hormone (TH), focusing on the following points: (1) promising treatment of TH on MS that potentially targets to remyelination; (2) the active role of TH that is able to promote remyelination; (3) the regulative role of TH that works on endogenous stem and precursor cells; (4) the effect of TH on gene transcription; and (5) a working hypothesis which is developed that TH can alleviate MS by promoting remyelination, and the mechanism of which is its regulative role in gene transcription of OPCs. PMID:26243185

  4. Potential ghrelin-mediated benefits and risks of hydrogen water.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Mark F

    2015-04-01

    Molecular hydrogen (H2) can scavenge hydroxyl radical and diminish the toxicity of peroxynitrite; hence, it has interesting potential for antioxidant protection. Recently, a number of studies have explored the utility of inhaled hydrogen gas, or of hydrogen-saturated water, administered parenterally or orally, in rodent models of pathology and in clinical trials, oftentimes with very positive outcomes. The efficacy of orally ingested hydrogen-rich water (HW) has been particularly surprising, given that only transient and rather small increments in plasma hydrogen can be achieved by this method. A recent study in mice has discovered that orally administered HW provokes increased gastric production of the orexic hormone ghrelin, and that this ghrelin mediates the favorable impact of HW on a mouse model of Parkinson's disease. The possibility that most of the benefits observed with HW in experimental studies are mediated by ghrelin merits consideration. Ghrelin is well known to function as an appetite stimulant and secretagogue for growth hormone, but it influences physiological function throughout the body via interaction with the widely express GHS-R1a receptor. Rodent and, to a more limited extent, clinical studies establish that ghrelin has versatile neuroprotective and cognitive enhancing activity, favorably impacts vascular health, exerts anti-inflammatory activity useful in autoimmune disorders, and is markedly hepatoprotective. The stimulatory impact of ghrelin on GH-IGF-I activity, while potentially beneficial in sarcopenia or cachectic disorders, does raise concerns regarding the long-term impact of ghrelin up-regulation on cancer risk. The impact of ingesting HW water on ghrelin production in humans needs to be evaluated; if HW does up-regulate ghrelin in humans, it may have versatile potential for prevention and control of a number of health disorders.

  5. Potential ghrelin-mediated benefits and risks of hydrogen water.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Mark F

    2015-04-01

    Molecular hydrogen (H2) can scavenge hydroxyl radical and diminish the toxicity of peroxynitrite; hence, it has interesting potential for antioxidant protection. Recently, a number of studies have explored the utility of inhaled hydrogen gas, or of hydrogen-saturated water, administered parenterally or orally, in rodent models of pathology and in clinical trials, oftentimes with very positive outcomes. The efficacy of orally ingested hydrogen-rich water (HW) has been particularly surprising, given that only transient and rather small increments in plasma hydrogen can be achieved by this method. A recent study in mice has discovered that orally administered HW provokes increased gastric production of the orexic hormone ghrelin, and that this ghrelin mediates the favorable impact of HW on a mouse model of Parkinson's disease. The possibility that most of the benefits observed with HW in experimental studies are mediated by ghrelin merits consideration. Ghrelin is well known to function as an appetite stimulant and secretagogue for growth hormone, but it influences physiological function throughout the body via interaction with the widely express GHS-R1a receptor. Rodent and, to a more limited extent, clinical studies establish that ghrelin has versatile neuroprotective and cognitive enhancing activity, favorably impacts vascular health, exerts anti-inflammatory activity useful in autoimmune disorders, and is markedly hepatoprotective. The stimulatory impact of ghrelin on GH-IGF-I activity, while potentially beneficial in sarcopenia or cachectic disorders, does raise concerns regarding the long-term impact of ghrelin up-regulation on cancer risk. The impact of ingesting HW water on ghrelin production in humans needs to be evaluated; if HW does up-regulate ghrelin in humans, it may have versatile potential for prevention and control of a number of health disorders. PMID:25649854

  6. Focal masses in a non-cirrhotic liver: The additional benefit of CEUS over baseline imaging.

    PubMed

    Chiorean, L; Cantisani, V; Jenssen, C; Sidhu, P S; Baum, U; Dietrich, C F

    2015-09-01

    Incidentally detected focal liver lesions are commonly encountered in clinical practice presenting a challenge in the daily department work flow. Guidelines for the management of incidental focal liver lesions have been published but comments, illustrations and recommendations regarding practical issues are crucial. The unique features of contrast-enhanced ultrasound in non-invasive assessment of focal liver lesion enhancement throughout the vascular phases in real-time has allowed an impressive improvement in the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound. We highlight the additional benefit of contrast-enhanced ultrasound over conventional B-mode ultrasound imaging in detection, characterization, differential and final diagnosis of focal liver lesions, as well as for liver metastases screening. The current roles of cross-sectional imaging are explained in detail, with indications and limitations for each procedure. The advantages of CEUS, such as non-ionizing radiation exposure, cost benefits, non-iodinate contrast agents, and repeatability are also described ultimately improving patient management.

  7. Hybrid Additive Manufacturing Technologies - An Analysis Regarding Potentials and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merklein, Marion; Junker, Daniel; Schaub, Adam; Neubauer, Franziska

    Imposing the trend of mass customization of lightweight construction in industry, conventional manufacturing processes like forming technology and chipping production are pushed to their limits for economical manufacturing. More flexible processes are needed which were developed by the additive manufacturing technology. This toolless production principle offers a high geometrical freedom and an optimized utilization of the used material. Thus load adjusted lightweight components can be produced in small lot sizes in an economical way. To compensate disadvantages like inadequate accuracy and surface roughness hybrid machines combining additive and subtractive manufacturing are developed. Within this paper the principles of mainly used additive manufacturing processes of metals and their possibility to be integrated into a hybrid production machine are summarized. It is pointed out that in particular the integration of deposition processes into a CNC milling center supposes high potential for manufacturing larger parts with high accuracy. Furthermore the combination of additive and subtractive manufacturing allows the production of ready to use products within one single machine. Additionally actual research for the integration of additive manufacturing processes into the production chain will be analyzed. For the long manufacturing time of additive production processes the combination with conventional manufacturing processes like sheet or bulk metal forming seems an effective solution. Especially large volumes can be produced by conventional processes. In an additional production step active elements can be applied by additive manufacturing. This principle is also investigated for tool production to reduce chipping of the high strength material used for forming tools. The aim is the addition of active elements onto a geometrical simple basis by using Laser Metal Deposition. That process allows the utilization of several powder materials during one process what

  8. Potential health benefits of controlling dust emissions in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Meng, Jing; Liu, Junfeng; Fan, Songmiao; Kang, Chuyun; Yi, Kan; Cheng, Yanli; Shen, Xing; Tao, Shu

    2016-06-01

    Although the adverse impact of fine particulate matter (i.e., PM2.5) on human health has been well acknowledged, little is known of the health effects of its specific constituents. Over the past decade, the annual average dust concentrations in Beijing were approximately ∼14 μg m(-3), a value that poses a great threat to the city's 20 million residents. In this study, we quantify the potential long-term health damages in Beijing resulting from the dust exposure that occurred from 2000 to 2011. Each year in Beijing, nearly 4000 (95% CI: 1000-7000) premature deaths may be associated with long-term dust exposure, and ∼20% of these deaths are attributed to lung cancer. A decomposition analysis of the inter-annual variability of premature deaths in Beijing indicates that dust concentrations determine the year-to-year tendency, whereas population growth and lung cancer mortality rates drive the increasing tendency of premature death. We suggest that if Beijing takes effective measures towards reducing dust concentrations (e.g., controlling the resuspension of road dust and the fugitive dust from construction sites) to a level comparable to that of New York City's, the associated premature deaths will be significantly reduced. This recommendation offers "low-hanging fruit" suggestions for pollution control that would greatly benefit the public health in Beijing. PMID:27038572

  9. Potential health benefits of controlling dust emissions in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Meng, Jing; Liu, Junfeng; Fan, Songmiao; Kang, Chuyun; Yi, Kan; Cheng, Yanli; Shen, Xing; Tao, Shu

    2016-06-01

    Although the adverse impact of fine particulate matter (i.e., PM2.5) on human health has been well acknowledged, little is known of the health effects of its specific constituents. Over the past decade, the annual average dust concentrations in Beijing were approximately ∼14 μg m(-3), a value that poses a great threat to the city's 20 million residents. In this study, we quantify the potential long-term health damages in Beijing resulting from the dust exposure that occurred from 2000 to 2011. Each year in Beijing, nearly 4000 (95% CI: 1000-7000) premature deaths may be associated with long-term dust exposure, and ∼20% of these deaths are attributed to lung cancer. A decomposition analysis of the inter-annual variability of premature deaths in Beijing indicates that dust concentrations determine the year-to-year tendency, whereas population growth and lung cancer mortality rates drive the increasing tendency of premature death. We suggest that if Beijing takes effective measures towards reducing dust concentrations (e.g., controlling the resuspension of road dust and the fugitive dust from construction sites) to a level comparable to that of New York City's, the associated premature deaths will be significantly reduced. This recommendation offers "low-hanging fruit" suggestions for pollution control that would greatly benefit the public health in Beijing.

  10. Potential Benefits of Dietary Fibre Intervention in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Celestine; Harris, Philip J.; Ferguson, Lynnette R.

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal dysbiosis is thought to be an important cause of disease progression and the gastrointestinal symptoms experienced in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Inflammation appears to be a major contributor in perpetuating a dysregulated gut microbiota. Although current drug therapies can significantly induce and maintain disease remission, there is no cure for these diseases. Nevertheless, ongoing human studies investigating dietary fibre interventions may potentially prove to exert beneficial outcomes for IBD. Postulated mechanisms include direct interactions with the gut mucosa through immunomodulation, or indirectly through the microbiome. Component species of the microbiome may degrade dietary-fibre polysaccharides and ferment the products to form short-chain fatty acids such as butyrate. Prebiotic dietary fibres may also act more directly by altering the composition of the microbiome. Longer term benefits in reducing the risk of more aggressive disease or colorectal cancer may require other dietary fibre sources such as wheat bran or psyllium. By critically examining clinical trials that have used dietary fibre supplements or dietary patterns containing specific types or amounts of dietary fibres, it may be possible to assess whether varying the intake of specific dietary fibres may offer an efficient treatment for IBD patients. PMID:27314323

  11. Potential Benefits of Dietary Fibre Intervention in Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    Wong, Celestine; Harris, Philip J; Ferguson, Lynnette R

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal dysbiosis is thought to be an important cause of disease progression and the gastrointestinal symptoms experienced in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Inflammation appears to be a major contributor in perpetuating a dysregulated gut microbiota. Although current drug therapies can significantly induce and maintain disease remission, there is no cure for these diseases. Nevertheless, ongoing human studies investigating dietary fibre interventions may potentially prove to exert beneficial outcomes for IBD. Postulated mechanisms include direct interactions with the gut mucosa through immunomodulation, or indirectly through the microbiome. Component species of the microbiome may degrade dietary-fibre polysaccharides and ferment the products to form short-chain fatty acids such as butyrate. Prebiotic dietary fibres may also act more directly by altering the composition of the microbiome. Longer term benefits in reducing the risk of more aggressive disease or colorectal cancer may require other dietary fibre sources such as wheat bran or psyllium. By critically examining clinical trials that have used dietary fibre supplements or dietary patterns containing specific types or amounts of dietary fibres, it may be possible to assess whether varying the intake of specific dietary fibres may offer an efficient treatment for IBD patients. PMID:27314323

  12. [Requirements for drug approval and additional benefits assessment: Regulatory aspects and experiences].

    PubMed

    Broich, K; Löbker, W; Schulte, A; Beinlich, P; Müller, T

    2016-04-01

    The early assessment of benefits of newly approved drugs with novel active substances or new applications, which came into force on 1 January 2011 still represents a challenge to all parties involved. This article highlights the definitions, regulatory requirements and interaction between drug marketing approval and early assessment of benefits in Germany. The constellation of an extensively harmonized European and even international drug authorization process with a predominantly national regulation of drug reimbursement situation inevitably causes friction, which could be markedly reduced through early joint advisory discussions during the planning phase for pivotal clinical trials. During the year 2015 the Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices (BfArM) carried out 300 scientific advice procedures of which 34 were concerned with applications in the field of indications for the central nervous system (CNS). In comparison 98 advisory meetings were held by the Federal Joint Committee (G-BA) of which the BfArM provided advice in 12 instances and in 2 cases on CNS indications. Study design, endpoints and appropriate comparative therapies are the key issues in exchanges and discussions between the BfArM, the G‑BA and applicants. Under these aspects the BfArM and G‑BA promote an early and consistent involvement in early advice procedures regarding the prerequisites for drug approval and assessment of additional benefits.

  13. [Requirements for drug approval and additional benefits assessment: Regulatory aspects and experiences].

    PubMed

    Broich, K; Löbker, W; Schulte, A; Beinlich, P; Müller, T

    2016-04-01

    The early assessment of benefits of newly approved drugs with novel active substances or new applications, which came into force on 1 January 2011 still represents a challenge to all parties involved. This article highlights the definitions, regulatory requirements and interaction between drug marketing approval and early assessment of benefits in Germany. The constellation of an extensively harmonized European and even international drug authorization process with a predominantly national regulation of drug reimbursement situation inevitably causes friction, which could be markedly reduced through early joint advisory discussions during the planning phase for pivotal clinical trials. During the year 2015 the Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices (BfArM) carried out 300 scientific advice procedures of which 34 were concerned with applications in the field of indications for the central nervous system (CNS). In comparison 98 advisory meetings were held by the Federal Joint Committee (G-BA) of which the BfArM provided advice in 12 instances and in 2 cases on CNS indications. Study design, endpoints and appropriate comparative therapies are the key issues in exchanges and discussions between the BfArM, the G‑BA and applicants. Under these aspects the BfArM and G‑BA promote an early and consistent involvement in early advice procedures regarding the prerequisites for drug approval and assessment of additional benefits. PMID:27003322

  14. Health benefits of fruit and vegetables are from additive and synergistic combinations of phytochemicals.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui Hai

    2003-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease and cancer are ranked as the first and second leading causes of death in the United States and in most industrialized countries. Regular consumption of fruit and vegetables is associated with reduced risks of cancer, cardiovascular disease, stroke, Alzheimer disease, cataracts, and some of the functional declines associated with aging. Prevention is a more effective strategy than is treatment of chronic diseases. Functional foods that contain significant amounts of bioactive components may provide desirable health benefits beyond basic nutrition and play important roles in the prevention of chronic diseases. The key question is whether a purified phytochemical has the same health benefit as does the whole food or mixture of foods in which the phytochemical is present. Our group found, for example, that the vitamin C in apples with skin accounts for only 0.4% of the total antioxidant activity, suggesting that most of the antioxidant activity of fruit and vegetables may come from phenolics and flavonoids in apples. We propose that the additive and synergistic effects of phytochemicals in fruit and vegetables are responsible for their potent antioxidant and anticancer activities, and that the benefit of a diet rich in fruit and vegetables is attributed to the complex mixture of phytochemicals present in whole foods.

  15. Haberlea rhodopensis: pharmaceutical and medical potential as a food additive.

    PubMed

    Todorova, Roumiana; Atanasov, Atanas T

    2016-01-01

    This review discusses the potential of Haberlea rhodopensis as a food additive. The following are described: plant distribution, reproduction, cultivation, propagation and resurrection properties; extraction, isolation and screening of biologically active compounds; metabolite changes during dehydration; phytotherapy-related properties such as antioxidant potential and free radical-scavenging activities, antioxidant skin effect, antibacterial activity, cytotoxic activity and cancer-modulating effect, radioprotective effect, chemoprotective effect, immunologic effect; present use in homoeopathy and cosmetics, pharmacological and economical importance; perspectives based on the ethnobotanical data for medicinal, cosmetic or ritual attributes. H. rhodopensis showed unique medical and pharmaceutical potential, related to antioxidant, antimicrobial, antimutagenic, anticancer, radioprotective, chemoprotective and immunological properties. H. rhodopensis extracts lack any cytotoxic activity and could be used in phytotherapy. The metabolic profiling of H. rhodopensis extracts revealed the presence of biologically active compounds, possessing antiradical and other physiological activities, useful for design of in vitro synthesised analogues and drugs. PMID:25849378

  16. The Service Learning Projects: Stakeholder Benefits and Potential Class Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutti, Raina M.; LaBonte, Joanne; Helms, Marilyn Michelle; Hervani, Aref Agahei; Sarkarat, Sy

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to summarize the benefits of including a service learning project in college classes and focusses on benefits to all stakeholders, including students, community, and faculty. Design/methodology/approach: Using a snowball approach in academic databases as well as a nominal group technique to poll faculty, key…

  17. A laboratory study of the perceived benefit of additional noise attenuation by houses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flindell, I. H.

    1983-01-01

    Two Experiments were conducted to investigate the perceived benefit of additional house attenuation against aircraft flyover noise. First, subjects made annoyance judgments in a simulated living room while an operative window with real and dummy storm windows was manipulated in full view of those subjects. Second, subjects made annoyance judgments in an anechoic audiometric test chamber of frequency shaped noise signals having spectra closely matched to those of the aircraft flyover noises reproduced in the first experiment. These stimuli represented the aircraft flyover noises in levels and spectra but without the situational and visual cues present in the simulated living room. Perceptual constancy theory implies that annoyance tends to remain constant despite reductions in noise level caused by additional attenuation of which the subjects are fully aware. This theory was supported when account was taken for a reported annoyance overestimation for certain spectra and for a simulated condition cue overreaction.

  18. A laboratory study of the perceived benefit of additional noise attenuation by houses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flindell, I. H.

    1983-06-01

    Two Experiments were conducted to investigate the perceived benefit of additional house attenuation against aircraft flyover noise. First, subjects made annoyance judgments in a simulated living room while an operative window with real and dummy storm windows was manipulated in full view of those subjects. Second, subjects made annoyance judgments in an anechoic audiometric test chamber of frequency shaped noise signals having spectra closely matched to those of the aircraft flyover noises reproduced in the first experiment. These stimuli represented the aircraft flyover noises in levels and spectra but without the situational and visual cues present in the simulated living room. Perceptual constancy theory implies that annoyance tends to remain constant despite reductions in noise level caused by additional attenuation of which the subjects are fully aware. This theory was supported when account was taken for a reported annoyance overestimation for certain spectra and for a simulated condition cue overreaction.

  19. Nutritional supplements and cancer: potential benefits and proven harms.

    PubMed

    Harvie, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Nutritional supplements are widely used among patients with cancer who perceive them to be anticancer and antitoxicity agents. Large-scale, randomized cancer prevention trials have mainly been negative, with some notable adverse and beneficial effects. For example, these trials showed that beta-carotene increases the risk of lung and stomach cancer, vitamin E increases prostate cancer and colorectal adenoma, and selenium reduces gastric and lung cancer in populations with low selenium levels but increase rates in those with higher levels. Both beta-carotene and vitamin E supplementation increase overall mortality. This article reviews phase II and III trials that examine the effects of multivitamins, antioxidants, vitamin D, and n-3 supplements on outcome and toxicity from cancer treatments. Although vitamin E and beta-carotene reduce toxicity from radiotherapy among patients with head and neck cancer, it has been found to increase recurrence, especially among smokers. Antioxidants have mixed effects on chemotherapy toxicity, but there are no data on outcome. Vitamin D deficiency is relatively common among patients with cancer, and ongoing phase III trials are studying the effect of vitamin D on outcome as well as optimum vitamin D and calcium intakes for bone health. Docosahexanoic and eicosopentanoic acid supplements have mixed effects on cachexia and are currently being tested as potential adjuncts to maximize response to chemotherapy. Nutritional supplementation tailored to an individual's background diet, genetics, tumor histology, and treatments may yield benefits in subsets of patients. Clinicians should have an open dialogue with patients about nutritional supplements. Supplement advice needs to be individualized and come from a credible source, and it is best communicated by the physician.

  20. Potential environmental benefits from increased use of bioenergy in China.

    PubMed

    Fan, Shuyang; Freedman, Bill; Gao, Jixi

    2007-09-01

    Because of its large population and rapidly growing economy, China is confronting a serious energy shortage and daunting environmental problems. An increased use of fuels derived from biomass could relieve some demand for nonrenewable sources of energy while providing environmental benefits in terms of cleaner air and reduced emissions of greenhouse gases. In 2003, China generated about 25.9 x 10(8) metric tons of industrial waste (liquid + solid), 14.7 x 10(8) metric tons/year (t/y) of manure (livestock + human), 7.1 x 10(8) t/y of crop residues and food-processing byproducts, 2 x 10(8) t/y of fuelwood and wood manufacturing residues, and 1.5 x 10(8) t/y of municipal waste. Biofuels derived from these materials could potentially displace the use of about 4.12 x 10(8) t/y of coal and 3.75 x 10(6) t/y of petroleum. An increased bioenergy use of this magnitude would help to reduce the emissions of key air pollutants: SO(2 )by 11.6 x 10(6) t/y, NO(X) by 1.48 x 10(6) t/y, CO2 by 1.07 x 10(9) t/y, and CH4 by 50 x 10(6) t/y. The reduced SO(2) emissions would be equivalent to 54% of the national emissions in 2003, whereas those for CO2 are 30%. It is important to recognize, however, that large increases in the use of biomass fuels also could result in socioeconomic and environmental problems such as less production of food and damage caused to natural habitats. PMID:17638052

  1. Potential Environmental Benefits from Increased Use of Bioenergy in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Shuyang; Freedman, Bill; Gao, Jixi

    2007-09-01

    Because of its large population and rapidly growing economy, China is confronting a serious energy shortage and daunting environmental problems. An increased use of fuels derived from biomass could relieve some demand for nonrenewable sources of energy while providing environmental benefits in terms of cleaner air and reduced emissions of greenhouse gases. In 2003, China generated about 25.9 × 108 metric tons of industrial waste (liquid + solid), 14.7 × 108 metric tons/year (t/y) of manure (livestock + human), 7.1 × 108 t/y of crop residues and food-processing byproducts, 2 × 108 t/y of fuelwood and wood manufacturing residues, and 1.5 × 108 t/y of municipal waste. Biofuels derived from these materials could potentially displace the use of about 4.12 × 108 t/y of coal and 3.75 × 106 t/y of petroleum. An increased bioenergy use of this magnitude would help to reduce the emissions of key air pollutants: SO2 by 11.6 × 106 t/y, NOX by 1.48 × 106 t/y, CO2 by 1.07 × 109 t/y, and CH4 by 50 × 106 t/y. The reduced SO2 emissions would be equivalent to 54% of the national emissions in 2003, whereas those for CO2 are 30%. It is important to recognize, however, that large increases in the use of biomass fuels also could result in socioeconomic and environmental problems such as less production of food and damage caused to natural habitats.

  2. Obesity and metabolic syndrome: potential benefit from specific nutritional components.

    PubMed

    Abete, I; Goyenechea, E; Zulet, M A; Martínez, J A

    2011-09-01

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) manifestations is rapidly increasing worldwide, and is becoming an important health problem. Actually, MetS includes a combination of clinical complications such as obesity (central adiposity), insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and hypertension. All these alterations predispose individuals to type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease inducing earlier mortality rates among people. In general terms, it is difficult for patients to follow a standard long-term diet/exercise regime that would improve or alleviate MetS symptoms. Thus, the investigation of food components that may deal with the MetS features is an important field for ameliorate and facilitate MetS dietary-based therapies. Currently antioxidants are of great interest due to the described association between obesity, cardiovascular alterations and oxidative stress. On the other hand, high MUFA and PUFA diets are being also considered due to their potential benefits on hypertension, insulin resistance and triglyceride levels. Mineral composition of the diet is also relevant since high potassium intake may improve hypertension and high calcium consumption may promote lipid oxidation. Thus, although nutritional supplements are at the peak of dietetic therapies, the consumption of some specific foods (legumes, fatty fish, vegetables and fruits, etc) with bioactive components within an energy-restricted diet is a promising approach to manage MetS manifestations. Therefore, the present review focuses on some of the most important food components currently investigated to improve and make easier the nutritional MetS treatment.

  3. 42 CFR 408.21 - Reduction in Medicare Part B premium as an additional benefit under Medicare+Choice plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reduction in Medicare Part B premium as an additional benefit under Medicare+Choice plans. 408.21 Section 408.21 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... additional benefit under Medicare+Choice plans. (a) Basis for reduction in Part B premium. Beginning...

  4. 42 CFR 408.21 - Reduction in Medicare Part B premium as an additional benefit under Medicare+Choice plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reduction in Medicare Part B premium as an additional benefit under Medicare+Choice plans. 408.21 Section 408.21 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... additional benefit under Medicare+Choice plans. (a) Basis for reduction in Part B premium. Beginning...

  5. Adding value to grafted watermelon: Novel benefits and potential pitfalls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grafted watermelons are commonly used in Asia and areas of Europe but are not widely used in the United States. The traditional reason for grafting watermelons has been for resistance to soil borne diseases such as Fusarium. We began to explore novel benefits which might make grafted watermelons m...

  6. The Laughing EFL Classroom: Potential Benefits and Barriers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stroud, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The use of humor in EFL across the world has been widely discussed as an effective way to create a more comfortable, productive classroom environment in language learning. However, student-perceived benefits of both teacher and student-produced humor in the more specific context of a Japanese language classroom have not been explored in any great…

  7. Evaluating the potential risks and benefits of infant rotavirus vaccination in England.

    PubMed

    Clark, Andy; Jit, Mark; Andrews, Nick; Atchison, Christina; Edmunds, W John; Sanderson, Colin

    2014-06-17

    Rotarix(®), a vaccine for the prevention of gastroenteritis in young children, was introduced in England in July 2013. At around this time, an elevated risk of intussusception (a cause of bowel obstruction) was reported among infants vaccinated in Australia and the USA. A risk-benefit analysis compared potential vaccine-related risks (additional intussusception admissions and deaths) with estimated vaccine benefits (prevented rotavirus general practitioner visits, emergency visits, admissions and deaths) in the 2012 birth cohort. Detailed data from England included the incidence of intussusception events aged <2 years by week of age, the coverage of vaccination aged <2 years by week of age, and the incidence of rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) events aged <5 years by week of age. Recent estimates of vaccine-related risk from Australia were applied during the 1-21 day period after the first and second dose of vaccination. Rotarix(®) is estimated to cause one additional intussusception admission in every 18,551 vaccinated English infants (5th and 95th percentiles, 6728-93,952), equivalent to 35 (7-98) additional intussusception admissions each year. The vaccine is estimated to prevent three rotavirus deaths, 13,000 rotavirus admissions, 27,000 rotavirus emergency visits and 74,000 rotavirus GP consultations in children aged <5 years, and lead to annual savings of over £11 million, each year. We estimate 375 (136-1900) fewer RVGE admissions for every additional intussusception admission, and 88 (18-852) fewer RVGE deaths for every additional intussusception death. The estimated benefits of Rotarix(®) vaccination would greatly exceed the potential risk in England.

  8. The endocrine system and sarcopenia: potential therapeutic benefits.

    PubMed

    McIntire, Kevin L; Hoffman, Andrew R

    2011-12-01

    Age related muscle loss, known as sarcopenia, is a major factor in disability, loss of mobility and quality of life in the elderly. There are many proposed mechanisms of age-related muscle loss that include the endocrine system. A variety of hormones regulate growth, development and metabolism throughout the lifespan. Hormone activity may change with age as a result of reduced hormone secretion or decreased tissue responsiveness. This review will focus on the complex interplay between the endocrine system, aging and skeletal muscle and will present possible benefits of therapeutic interventions for sarcopenia.

  9. Apoptosis inhibitors and mini-agrin have additive benefits in congenital muscular dystrophy mice

    PubMed Central

    Meinen, Sarina; Lin, Shuo; Thurnherr, Raphael; Erb, Michael; Meier, Thomas; Rüegg, Markus A

    2011-01-01

    Mutations in LAMA2 cause a severe form of congenital muscular dystrophy, called MDC1A. Studies in mouse models have shown that transgenic expression of a designed, miniaturized form of the extracellular matrix molecule agrin (‘mini-agrin’) or apoptosis inhibition by either overexpression of Bcl2 or application of the pharmacological substance omigapil can ameliorate the disease. Here, we tested whether mini-agrin and anti-apoptotic agents act on different pathways and thus exert additive benefits in MDC1A mouse models. By combining mini-agrin with either transgenic Bcl2 expression or oral omigapil application, we show that the ameliorating effect of mini-agrin, which acts by restoring the mechanical stability of muscle fibres and, thereby, reduces muscle fibre breakdown and concomitant fibrosis, is complemented by apoptosis inhibitors, which prevent the loss of muscle fibres. Treatment of mice with both agents results in improved muscle regeneration and increased force. Our results show that the combination of mini-agrin and anti-apoptosis treatment has beneficial effects that are significantly bigger than the individual treatments and suggest that such a strategy might also be applicable to MDC1A patients. PMID:21674808

  10. Cryogenic Neutron Protein Crystallography: routine methods and potential benefits

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, Kevin L; Tomanicek, Stephen J; NG, Joseph D

    2014-01-01

    The use of cryocooling in neutron diffraction has been hampered by several technical challenges such as the need for specialized equipment and techniques. Recently we have developed and deployed equipment and strategies that allow for routine neutron data collection on cryocooled crystals using off the shelf components. This system has several advantages, compared to a closed displex cooling system such as fast cooling coupled with easier crystal mounting and centering. The ability to routinely collect cryogenic neutron data for analysis will significantly broaden the range of scientific questions that can be examined by neutron protein crystallography. Cryogenic neutron data collection for macromolecules has recently become available at the new Biological Diffractometer BIODIFF at FRM II and the Macromolecular Diffractometer (MaNDi) at the Spallation Neutron Source, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. To evaluate the benefits of a cryocooled neutron structure we collected a full neutron data set on the BIODIFF instrument on a Toho-1 lactamase structure at 100K.

  11. A Pilot Test of the Additive Benefits of Physical Exercise to CBT for OCD.

    PubMed

    Rector, Neil A; Richter, Margaret A; Lerman, Bethany; Regev, Rotem

    2015-01-01

    The majority of "responders" to first-line cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) and pharmacological treatments for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are left with residual symptoms that are clinically relevant and disabling. Therefore, there is pressing need for widely accessible efficacious alternative and/or adjunctive treatments for OCD. Accumulating evidence suggests that physical exercise may be one such intervention in the mood and anxiety disorders broadly, although we are aware of only two positive small-scale pilot studies that have tested its clinical benefits in OCD. This pilot study aimed to test the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of adding a structured physical exercise programme to CBT for OCD. A standard CBT group was delivered concurrently with a 12-week customized exercise programme to 11 participants. The exercise regimen was individualized for each participant based on peak heart rate measured using an incremental maximal exercise test. Reports of exercise adherence across the 12-week regimen exceeded 80%. A paired-samples t-test indicated very large treatment effects in Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale scores from pre- to post-treatment in CBT group cohorts led by expert CBT OCD specialists (d = 2.55) and junior CBT clinician non-OCD specialists (d = 2.12). These treatment effects are very large and exceed effects typically observed with individual and group-based CBT for OCD based on leading meta-analytic reviews, as well as previously obtained treatment effects for CBT using the same recruitment protocol without exercise. As such, this pilot work demonstrates the feasibility and significant potential clinical utility of a 12-week aerobic exercise programme delivered in conjunction with CBT for OCD. PMID:25738234

  12. A Pilot Test of the Additive Benefits of Physical Exercise to CBT for OCD.

    PubMed

    Rector, Neil A; Richter, Margaret A; Lerman, Bethany; Regev, Rotem

    2015-01-01

    The majority of "responders" to first-line cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) and pharmacological treatments for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are left with residual symptoms that are clinically relevant and disabling. Therefore, there is pressing need for widely accessible efficacious alternative and/or adjunctive treatments for OCD. Accumulating evidence suggests that physical exercise may be one such intervention in the mood and anxiety disorders broadly, although we are aware of only two positive small-scale pilot studies that have tested its clinical benefits in OCD. This pilot study aimed to test the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of adding a structured physical exercise programme to CBT for OCD. A standard CBT group was delivered concurrently with a 12-week customized exercise programme to 11 participants. The exercise regimen was individualized for each participant based on peak heart rate measured using an incremental maximal exercise test. Reports of exercise adherence across the 12-week regimen exceeded 80%. A paired-samples t-test indicated very large treatment effects in Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale scores from pre- to post-treatment in CBT group cohorts led by expert CBT OCD specialists (d = 2.55) and junior CBT clinician non-OCD specialists (d = 2.12). These treatment effects are very large and exceed effects typically observed with individual and group-based CBT for OCD based on leading meta-analytic reviews, as well as previously obtained treatment effects for CBT using the same recruitment protocol without exercise. As such, this pilot work demonstrates the feasibility and significant potential clinical utility of a 12-week aerobic exercise programme delivered in conjunction with CBT for OCD.

  13. Potential benefits of exercise on blood pressure and vascular function.

    PubMed

    Pal, Sebely; Radavelli-Bagatini, Simone; Ho, Suleen

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity seems to enhance cardiovascular fitness during the course of the lifecycle, improve blood pressure, and is associated with decreased prevalence of hypertension and coronary heart disease. It may also delay or prevent age-related increases in arterial stiffness. It is unclear if specific exercise types (aerobic, resistance, or combination) have a better effect on blood pressure and vascular function. This review was written based on previous original articles, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses indexed on PubMed from years 1975 to 2012 to identify studies on different types of exercise and the associations or effects on blood pressure and vascular function. In summary, aerobic exercise (30 to 40 minutes of training at 60% to 85% of predicted maximal heart rate, most days of the week) appears to significantly improve blood pressure and reduce augmentation index. Resistance training (three to four sets of eight to 12 repetitions at 10 repetition maximum, 3 days a week) appears to significantly improve blood pressure, whereas combination exercise training (15 minutes of aerobic and 15 minutes of resistance, 5 days a week) is beneficial to vascular function, but at a lower scale. Aerobic exercise seems to better benefit blood pressure and vascular function.

  14. Potential benefits of integrated COPD management in primary care.

    PubMed

    Kruis, A L; Chavannes, N H

    2010-09-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) represents a major and progressive cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, resulting in an important financial and health burden in coming decades. Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) has been proven to be the most effective treatment in all patients in whom respiratory symptoms are associated with diminished functional capacity or reduced quality of life. Nevertheless, despite wide recommendation and proven efficacy, the use of PR is limited in daily practice. Reasons for these include low accessibility and availability, high costs, and lack of motivation to continue a healthy life style after treatment. By contrast, it has been demonstrated that primary care patients can be reactivated by formulating personal targets and designing individualized treatment plans in collaboration with their general practitioner or practice nurse. Based on these personal plans and targets, specific education must be provided and development of self management skills should be actively encouraged. Ideally, elements of pulmonary rehabilitation are tailored into a comprehensive primary care integrated disease management program. In that way, the benefits of PR can be extended to a substantially larger part of the COPD population, to reach even those with milder stages of disease. Favorable long-term effects on exercise tolerance and quality of life in a number of studies have been demonstrated in recent years, but broad introduction in the primary care setting still needs further justification in the form of a proper cost effectiveness analysis. PMID:21214043

  15. Potential benefits from and barriers against coal remining

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.A.

    1993-06-01

    Coal has been mined commercially in the United States since the mid 1700s and strip mining of coal began in the in the late 1800S. However, until the past 15--20 years, the environmental effects of coal mining caused little concern. In the past, coal mining sites were abandoned for economic reasons or because the equipment in use at the time could not recover any additional coal. Many of these sites were left in an unsafe and unsightly condition, resulting in severe water quality problems and threats to public health and safety. In more recent times, the advent of more sophisticated equipment allowed operators to return to previously mined sites and recover additional coal. This practice, known as remining, is the subject of this paper. In the most general sense, remining is simply mining again at a site that had formerly been mined. Many of today`s coal mining activities take place entirely or partially at sites that were formerly mined and left unreclaimed, primarily because no laws existed requiring reclamation. This paper focuses on the subset of remining projects, which not only recover additional coal, but also reclaim or improve the condition of abandoned mine lands (AMLs), particularly improvements to water quality.

  16. Potential for ag residue collection, economics and environmental benefits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hettenhaus, J. R.

    2003-12-01

    Removing excess corn stover and cereal straws after erosion requirements have been satisfied offers much potential as a renewable feedstock for initial biorefineries, producing fuels, chemicals and materials while reducing crop inputs, increasing farm income and offsetting greenhouse gas emissions. Two biorefinery site studies are presented for the production of fuel ethanol: SW Nebraska and Western Oklahoma. Results include excess available, delivered cost, net income to the farmer, improved SOM from move to no-till and GHG reduction from fossil fuel offset

  17. Successful implementation of biochar carbon sequestration in European soils requires additional benefits and close collaboration with the bioenergy sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Müller-Stöver, Dorette; Bruun, Esben W.; Petersen, Carsten T.

    2014-05-01

    Biochar soil application has been proposed as a measure to mitigate climate change and on the same time improve soil fertility by increased soil carbon sequestration. However, while on tropical soils the beneficial effects of biochar application on crop growth often become immediately apparent, it has been shown to be more difficult to demonstrate these effects on the more fertile soils in temperate regions. Therefore and because of the lack of carbon credits for farmers, it is necessary to link biochar application to additional benefits, both related to agricultural as well as to bioenergy production. Thermal gasification of biomass is an efficient (95% energy efficiency) and flexible way (able to cope with many different and otherwise difficult-to-handle biomass fuels) to generate bioenergy, while producing a valuable by-product - gasification biochar, containing recalcitrant carbon and essential crop nutrients. The use of the residual char product in agricultural soils will add value to the technology as well as result in additional soil benefits such as providing plant nutrients and improving soil water-holding capacity while reducing leaching risks. From a soil column (30 x 130 cm) experiment with gasification straw biochar amendment to coarse sandy subsoil increased root density of barley at critical depths in the soil profile reducing the mechanical resistance was shown, increasing yields, and the soil's capacity to store plant available water. Incorporation of residuals from a bioenergy technology like gasification show great potentials to reduce subsoil constraints increasing yield potentials on poor soils. Another advantage currently not appropriately utilized is recovery of phosphorus (P). In a recent pot experiments char products originating from low-temperature gasification of various biofuels were evaluated for their suitability as P fertilizers. Wheat straw gasification biochar generally had a low P content but a high P plant availability. To improve

  18. Potential benefits of magnetic suspension and balance systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawing, Pierce L.; Dress, David A.; Kilgore, Robert A.

    1987-01-01

    The potential of Magnetic Suspension and Balance Systems (MSBS) to improve conventional wind tunnel testing techniques is discussed. Topics include: elimination of model geometry distortion and support interference to improve the measurement accuracy of aerodynamic coefficients; removal of testing restrictions due to supports; improved dynamic stability data; and stores separation testing. Substantial increases in wind tunnel productivity are anticipated due to the coalescence of these improvements. Specific improvements in testing methods for missiles, helicopters, fighter aircraft, twin fuselage transports and bombers, state separation, water tunnels, and automobiles are also forecast. In a more speculative vein, new wind tunnel test techniques are envisioned as a result of applying MSBS, including free-flight computer trajectories in the test section, pilot-in-the-loop and designer-in-the-loop testing, shipboard missile launch simulation, and optimization of hybrid hypersonic configurations. Also addressed are potential applications of MSBS to such diverse technologies as medical research and practice, industrial robotics, space weaponry, and ore processing in space.

  19. Atmospheric deposition of nitrogen: Potential benefits to agricultural production

    SciTech Connect

    Coveney, E.A.; Medeiros, W.H.; Moskowitz, P.D.

    1986-11-01

    Effects of indirect fertilization on agricultural lands by atmospheric deposition are examined for the four most valuable crops in the US: corn, soybean, wheat, and pasture grasses. A literature search was conducted to find suitable dose-response functions for the effects of fertilization on yield of each crop. Predicted yield changes were computed from the deposition of nitrogen to the soil in addition to nitrogen applied in accordance with current agronomic practices using these dose-response functions. Low to high nitrogen inputs from atmospheric deposition (1 to 7 kg/ha) are expected to increase the average yield of corn by 0.2 to 1.1%, soybean by 0.1 to 0.7%, wheat by 0.1 to 0.4%, and pasture grasses by 1.6 to 14%. Pasture land is predicted to receive the greatest impact because it is usually unfertilized.

  20. Potential benefits of weight loss in coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Ades, Philip A; Savage, Patrick D

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of overweight, obesity and insulin resistance in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) exceeds that of the general population. Obesity is associated with a constellation of coronary risk factors that predispose to the development and progression of CHD. Intentional weight loss, accomplished through behavioral weight loss and exercise, improves insulin sensitivity and associated cardio-metabolic risk factors such as lipid measures, blood pressure, measures of inflammation and vascular function both in healthy individuals and patients with CHD. Additionally, physical fitness, physical function and quality of life all improve. There is evidence that intentional weight loss prevents the onset of CHD in high risk overweight individuals. While weight loss associated improvements in insulin resistance, fitness and related risk factors strongly supports favorable prognostic effects in individuals with established CHD, further study is needed to determine if long-term clinical outcomes are improved.

  1. Potential environmental benefits from regulatory consideration of synthetic drilling muds

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, C.J.; Veil, J.A.

    1995-02-01

    When drilling exploration and production wells for oil and gas, drillers use specialized drilling fluids, referred to as muds, to help maintain well control and to remove drill cuttings from the hole. Historically, either water-based muds (WBMs) or oil-based muds (OBMs) have been used for offshore wells. Recently, in response to US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations and drilling-waste discharge requirements imposed by North Sea nations, the drilling industry has developed several types of synthetic-based muds (SBMs) that combine the desirable operating qualities of OBMs with the lower toxicity and environmental impact qualities of WBMs. This report describes the operational, environmental, and economic features of all three types of muds and discusses potential EPA regulatory barriers to wider use of SBMs.

  2. Cocoa Polyphenols and Their Potential Benefits for Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Andújar, I.; Recio, M. C.; Giner, R. M.; Ríos, J. L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper compiles the beneficial effects of cocoa polyphenols on human health, especially with regard to cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases, metabolic disorders, and cancer prevention. Their antioxidant properties may be responsible for many of their pharmacological effects, including the inhibition of lipid peroxidation and the protection of LDL-cholesterol against oxidation, and increase resistance to oxidative stress. The phenolics from cocoa also modify the glycemic response and the lipid profile, decreasing platelet function and inflammation along with diastolic and systolic arterial pressures, which, taken together, may reduce the risk of cardiovascular mortality. Cocoa polyphenols can also modulate intestinal inflammation through the reduction of neutrophil infiltration and expression of different transcription factors, which leads to decreases in the production of proinflammatory enzymes and cytokines. The phenolics from cocoa may thus protect against diseases in which oxidative stress is implicated as a causal or contributing factor, such as cancer. They also have antiproliferative, antimutagenic, and chemoprotective effects, in addition to their anticariogenic effects. PMID:23150750

  3. Potential benefits of cell therapy in coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Grimaldi, Vincenzo; Mancini, Francesco Paolo; Casamassimi, Amelia; Al-Omran, Mohammed; Zullo, Alberto; Infante, Teresa; Napoli, Claudio

    2013-11-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the world. In recent years, there has been an increasing interest both in basic and clinical research regarding the field of cell therapy for coronary heart disease (CHD). Several preclinical models of CHD have suggested that regenerative properties of stem and progenitor cells might help restoring myocardial functions in the event of cardiac diseases. Here, we summarize different types of stem/progenitor cells that have been tested in experimental and clinical settings of cardiac regeneration, from embryonic stem cells to induced pluripotent stem cells. Then, we provide a comprehensive description of the most common cell delivery strategies with their major pros and cons and underline the potential of tissue engineering and injectable matrices to address the crucial issue of restoring the three-dimensional structure of the injured myocardial region. Due to the encouraging results from preclinical models, the number of clinical trials with cell therapy is continuously increasing and includes patients with CHD and congestive heart failure. Most of the already published trials have demonstrated safety and feasibility of cell therapies in these clinical conditions. Several studies have also suggested that cell therapy results in improved clinical outcomes. Numerous ongoing clinical trials utilizing this therapy for CHD will address fundamental issues concerning cell source and population utilized, as well as the use of imaging techniques to assess cell homing and survival, all factors that affect the efficacy of different cell therapy strategies.

  4. 20 CFR 725.309 - Additional claims; effect of a prior denial of benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (see § 725.4(d)), a person may exercise the right of review provided in paragraph (c) of § 727.103 at..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED CLAIMS FOR BENEFITS UNDER PART C OF TITLE IV OF THE FEDERAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT, AS AMENDED Filing of Claims §...

  5. 20 CFR 725.309 - Additional claims; effect of a prior denial of benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (see § 725.4(d)), a person may exercise the right of review provided in paragraph (c) of § 727.103 at..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED CLAIMS FOR BENEFITS UNDER PART C OF TITLE IV OF THE FEDERAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT, AS AMENDED Filing of Claims §...

  6. 42 CFR 417.442 - Risk HMO's and CMP's: Conditions for provision of additional benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ....440(b)(4) if its ACRs (calculated in accordance with § 417.594) are less than the average per capita... benefits and reduced payment is equivalent to the difference between the average of its per capita rates of...— (i) Elects to receive reduced payment so that there is no difference between the average of its...

  7. 42 CFR 417.442 - Risk HMO's and CMP's: Conditions for provision of additional benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ....440(b)(4) if its ACRs (calculated in accordance with § 417.594) are less than the average per capita... benefits and reduced payment is equivalent to the difference between the average of its per capita rates of...— (i) Elects to receive reduced payment so that there is no difference between the average of its...

  8. 42 CFR 417.442 - Risk HMO's and CMP's: Conditions for provision of additional benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ....440(b)(4) if its ACRs (calculated in accordance with § 417.594) are less than the average per capita... benefits and reduced payment is equivalent to the difference between the average of its per capita rates of...— (i) Elects to receive reduced payment so that there is no difference between the average of its...

  9. Effects of 20 Selected Fruits on Ethanol Metabolism: Potential Health Benefits and Harmful Impacts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-Jie; Wang, Fang; Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Zhou, Tong; Zheng, Jie; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Li, Sha; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-04-01

    The consumption of alcohol is often accompanied by other foods, such as fruits and vegetables. This study is aimed to investigate the effects of 20 selected fruits on ethanol metabolism to find out their potential health benefits and harmful impacts. The effects of the fruits on ethanol metabolism were characterized by the concentrations of ethanol and acetaldehyde in blood, as well as activities of alcohol dehydrogenase and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase in liver of mice. Furthermore, potential health benefits and harmful impacts of the fruits were evaluated by biochemical parameters including aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transferase (ALT), malondialdehyde, and superoxide dismutase. Generally, effects of these fruits on ethanol metabolism were very different. Some fruits (such as Citrus limon (yellow), Averrhoa carambola, Pyrus spp., and Syzygium samarangense) could decrease the concentration of ethanol in blood. In addition, several fruits (such as Cucumis melo) showed hepatoprotective effects by significantly decreasing AST or ALT level in blood, while some fruits (such as Averrhoa carambola) showed adverse effects. The results suggested that the consumption of alcohol should not be accompanied by some fruits, and several fruits could be developed as functional foods for the prevention and treatment of hangover and alcohol use disorder.

  10. Effects of 20 Selected Fruits on Ethanol Metabolism: Potential Health Benefits and Harmful Impacts

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu-Jie; Wang, Fang; Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Zhou, Tong; Zheng, Jie; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Li, Sha; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    The consumption of alcohol is often accompanied by other foods, such as fruits and vegetables. This study is aimed to investigate the effects of 20 selected fruits on ethanol metabolism to find out their potential health benefits and harmful impacts. The effects of the fruits on ethanol metabolism were characterized by the concentrations of ethanol and acetaldehyde in blood, as well as activities of alcohol dehydrogenase and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase in liver of mice. Furthermore, potential health benefits and harmful impacts of the fruits were evaluated by biochemical parameters including aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transferase (ALT), malondialdehyde, and superoxide dismutase. Generally, effects of these fruits on ethanol metabolism were very different. Some fruits (such as Citrus limon (yellow), Averrhoa carambola, Pyrus spp., and Syzygium samarangense) could decrease the concentration of ethanol in blood. In addition, several fruits (such as Cucumis melo) showed hepatoprotective effects by significantly decreasing AST or ALT level in blood, while some fruits (such as Averrhoa carambola) showed adverse effects. The results suggested that the consumption of alcohol should not be accompanied by some fruits, and several fruits could be developed as functional foods for the prevention and treatment of hangover and alcohol use disorder. PMID:27043608

  11. Effects of 20 Selected Fruits on Ethanol Metabolism: Potential Health Benefits and Harmful Impacts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-Jie; Wang, Fang; Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Zhou, Tong; Zheng, Jie; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Li, Sha; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-04-01

    The consumption of alcohol is often accompanied by other foods, such as fruits and vegetables. This study is aimed to investigate the effects of 20 selected fruits on ethanol metabolism to find out their potential health benefits and harmful impacts. The effects of the fruits on ethanol metabolism were characterized by the concentrations of ethanol and acetaldehyde in blood, as well as activities of alcohol dehydrogenase and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase in liver of mice. Furthermore, potential health benefits and harmful impacts of the fruits were evaluated by biochemical parameters including aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transferase (ALT), malondialdehyde, and superoxide dismutase. Generally, effects of these fruits on ethanol metabolism were very different. Some fruits (such as Citrus limon (yellow), Averrhoa carambola, Pyrus spp., and Syzygium samarangense) could decrease the concentration of ethanol in blood. In addition, several fruits (such as Cucumis melo) showed hepatoprotective effects by significantly decreasing AST or ALT level in blood, while some fruits (such as Averrhoa carambola) showed adverse effects. The results suggested that the consumption of alcohol should not be accompanied by some fruits, and several fruits could be developed as functional foods for the prevention and treatment of hangover and alcohol use disorder. PMID:27043608

  12. Analysis of Potential Benefits and Costs of Updating the Commercial Building Energy Code in North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Cort, Katherine A.; Belzer, David B.; Winiarski, David W.; Richman, Eric E.

    2004-04-30

    The state of North Dakota is considering updating its commercial building energy code. This report evaluates the potential costs and benefits to North Dakota residents from updating and requiring compliance with ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2001. Both qualitative and quantitative benefits and costs are assessed in the analysis. Energy and economic impacts are estimated using the Building Loads Analysis and System Thermodynamics (BLAST simulation combined with a Life-cycle Cost (LCC) approach to assess correspodning economic costs and benefits.

  13. Flight tests show potential benefits of data link as primary communication medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scanlon, Charles H.; Knox, Charles E.

    1991-01-01

    Message exchange for air traffic control (ATC) purposes via data link offers the potential benefits of increasing the airspace system safety and efficiency. This is accomplished by reducing communication errors and relieving the overloaded ATC radio frequencies, which hamper efficient message exchanges during peak traffic periods in many busy terminal areas. However, the many uses and advantages of data link create additional questions concerning the interface among the human-users and the cockpit and ground systems. A flight test was conducted in the NASA Langley B-737 airplane to contrast flight operations using current voice communications with the use of data link for transmitting both strategic and tactical ATC clearances during a typical commercial airline flight from takeoff to landing. Commercial airplane pilots were used as test subjects.

  14. Revisiting the Dialogue on the Transition from Coteaching to Inservice Teaching: New Frameworks, Additional Benefits and Emergent Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wassell, Beth; LaVan, Sarah Kate

    2009-01-01

    In this rejoinder, we respond to the major points made by Gallo-Fox (this forum), Beers (this forum), Carambo and Stickney (this forum), and Murphy, Carlisle and Beggs (this forum). We focus primarily on the benefits and considerations that stem from employing additional theoretical frameworks for analyzing research in coteaching. We also address…

  15. 77 FR 21995 - Trade Facilitation in the East African Community: Recent Developments and Potential Benefits...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-12

    ..., Institution of Investigation and Request for Written Statements AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of investigation and request for written statements. SUMMARY: Following... Developments and Potential Benefits. DATES: May 10, 2012: Deadline for filing written submissions. July 2,...

  16. Potential Benefits of Companion Animals for Self-Care Children. Reviews of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, D. Terry; McKenry, Patrick C.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the potential benefits of having pets for self-care children. Researchers suggest that companion animals can lower blood pressure, show up high on a list of children's helpers and indirectly increase feelings of safety. (RJC)

  17. Nicotinamide: a potential addition to the anti-psoriatic weaponry.

    PubMed

    Namazi, Mohammad Reza

    2003-08-01

    Psoriasis is an inflammatory disorder characterized by a T helper type 1 cell cytokine pattern. Increased expression of adhesion molecules, prominent neutrophil accumulation, and increased production of nitric oxide are characteristics of this disorder. Moreover, histamine and proteases are supposed to participate in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Nicotinamide is an inhibitor of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) that, through enhancement of nuclear kappa B-mediated transcription, plays a pivotal role in the expression of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, adhesion molecules, and inflammatory mediators. Through interaction with CD38 and inhibition of IL-1, IL-12, and TNF-alpha production, nicotinamide produces a mild TH2 bias. Nicotinamide is a potent phosphodiesterase inhibitor and suppresses neutrophil chemotaxis and mast cell histamine release. It inhibits nitric oxide synthase mRNA induction and suppresses antigen-induced lymphocyte transformation. Nicotinamide increases the biosynthesis of ceramides, which upon degradation produce sphingosine. Sphingosine inhibits protein kinase C (PKC) and decreases basal cell proliferation dependent on PKC. Taken together, it can be reasoned that nicotinamide could be a useful addition to anti-psoriatic armamentarium. The combination of nicotinamide and thalidomide or methotrexate provided a powerful synergistic inhibition of murine collagen-induced arthritis. Nicotinamide decreased the methotrexate-induced hepatotoxicity. The above combinations may prove to have a powerful anti-psoriatic effect as well. As PARP inhibitors could exert anti-retroviral effect, nicotinamide could also be of special value in the treatment of HIV-infected psoriatics. PMID:12890690

  18. Potential Therapeutic Benefit of Combining Gefitinib and Tamoxifen for Treating Advanced Lung Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Kuo-Liang; Chen, Tzu-Sheng; Chang, Shang-Miao; Yang, Shu-Yun; Chen, Li-Hsiou; Ni, Yung-Lun

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations are known as oncogene driver mutations and with EGFR mutations exhibit good response to the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor Gefitinib. Some studies have shown that activation of estrogen and estrogen receptor α or β (ERα/β) promote adenocarcinoma. We evaluated the relationship between the two receptors and the potential therapeutic benefit with Gefitinib and Tamoxifen. Methods. We assessed the association between EGFR mutations as well as ERα/β expression/location and overall survival in a cohort of 55 patients with LAC from a single hospital. PC9 (EGFR exon 19 deletion mutant; Gefitinib-vulnerable cells) and A549 (EGFR wild type; Gefitinib-resistant cells) cancer cells were used to evaluate the in vitro therapeutic benefits of combining Gefitinib and Tamoxifen. Results. We found that the cytosolic but not the nuclear expression of ERβ was associated with better OS in LAC tumors but not associated with EGFR mutation. The in vitro study showed that combined Gefitinib and Tamoxifen resulted in increased apoptosis and cytosolic expression of ERβ. In addition, combining both medications resulted in reduced cell growth and increased the cytotoxic effect of Gefitinib. Conclusion. Tamoxifen enhanced advanced LAC cytotoxic effect induced by Gefitinib by arresting ERβ in cytosol. PMID:25692143

  19. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  20. Review of the Additional Support for Learning Act: "Adding Benefits for Learners"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In May 2009, the Minister for Children and Early Years, gave a commitment to Parliament to establish a working group to report on how the "Education (Additional Support for Learning) (Scotland) Act 2004" (the Act) is affecting children and young people who: (1) are looked after; (2) are young carers; (3) have mental health disorders; and (4) have…

  1. News Note: Addition of drug to standard chemo for prostate cancer shows no benefit

    Cancer.gov

    Prostate cancer patients in a phase 3 trial who were non-responsive to hormone therapy and received the investigational agent atrasentan in addition to a standard chemotherapy regimen, did not have longer survival or longer progression-free survival compared to the patients on the same chemotherapy regimen and a placebo. This determination was made by the trial’s Data and Safety Monitoring Committee (DSMC) based on a planned interim analysis of the trial.

  2. The potential benefit of improving the dissemination of agricultural weather information to the Mississippi cotton farmer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Priddy, K. T.; Marlatt, W. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1978-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The potential benefit of improved dissemination of weather information to the Mississippi cotton farmer was estimated at $36,000 per 1000 acres. This is 16% of production cost of cotton in 1976. On a statewide basis, the total potential savings exceeds 100 million dollars.

  3. Energy and emissions saving potential of additive manufacturing: the case of lightweight aircraft components

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Runze; Riddle, Matthew; Graziano, Diane; Warren, Joshua; Das, Sujit; Nimbalkar, Sachin; Cresko, Joe; Masanet, Eric

    2015-05-08

    Additive manufacturing (AM) holds great potential for improving materials efficiency, reducing life-cycle impacts, and enabling greater engineering functionality compared to conventional manufacturing (CM) processes. For these reasons, AM has been adopted by a growing number of aircraft component manufacturers to achieve more lightweight, cost-effective designs. This study estimates the net changes in life-cycle primary energy and greenhouse gas emissions associated with AM technologies for lightweight metallic aircraft components through the year 2050, to shed light on the environmental benefits of a shift from CM to AM processes in the U.S. aircraft industry. A systems modeling framework is presented, with integrates engineering criteria, life-cycle environmental data, and aircraft fleet stock and fuel use models under different AM adoption scenarios. Estimated fleetwide life-cycle primary energy savings in a rapid adoption scenario reach 70-174 million GJ/year in 2050, with cumulative savings of 1.2-2.8 billion GJ. Associated cumulative emission reduction potentials of CO2e were estimated at 92.8-217.4 million metric tons. About 95% of the savings is attributed to airplane fuel consumption reductions due to lightweighting. In addition, about 4050 tons aluminum, 7600 tons titanium and 8100 tons of nickel alloys could be saved per year in 2050. The results indicate a significant role of AM technologies in helping society meet its long-term energy use and GHG emissions reduction goals, and highlight barriers and opportunities for AM adoption for the aircraft industry.

  4. Estimation of cancer risks and benefits associated with a potential increased consumption of fruits and vegetables.

    PubMed

    Reiss, Richard; Johnston, Jason; Tucker, Kevin; DeSesso, John M; Keen, Carl L

    2012-12-01

    The current paper provides an analysis of the potential number of cancer cases that might be prevented if half the U.S. population increased its fruit and vegetable consumption by one serving each per day. This number is contrasted with an upper-bound estimate of concomitant cancer cases that might be theoretically attributed to the intake of pesticide residues arising from the same additional fruit and vegetable consumption. The cancer prevention estimates were derived using a published meta-analysis of nutritional epidemiology studies. The cancer risks were estimated using U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) methods, cancer potency estimates from rodent bioassays, and pesticide residue sampling data from the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). The resulting estimates are that approximately 20,000 cancer cases per year could be prevented by increasing fruit and vegetable consumption, while up to 10 cancer cases per year could be caused by the added pesticide consumption. These estimates have significant uncertainties (e.g., potential residual confounding in the fruit and vegetable epidemiologic studies and reliance on rodent bioassays for cancer risk). However, the overwhelming difference between benefit and risk estimates provides confidence that consumers should not be concerned about cancer risks from consuming conventionally-grown fruits and vegetables.

  5. Benefits of neutral electrolyzed oxidizing water as a drinking water additive for broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Bügener, E; Kump, A Wilms-Schulze; Casteel, M; Klein, G

    2014-09-01

    In the wake of discussion about the use of drugs in food-producing farms, it seems to be more and more important to search for alternatives and supportive measures to improve health. In this field trial, the influence of electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water on water quality, drug consumption, mortality, and performance parameters such as BW and feed conversion rate was investigated on 2 broiler farms. At each farm, 3 rearing periods were included in the study. With EO water as the water additive, the total viable cell count and the number of Escherichia coli in drinking water samples were reduced compared with the respective control group. The frequency of treatment days was represented by the number of used daily doses per population and showed lower values in EO-water-treated groups at both farms. Furthermore, the addition of EO water resulted in a lower mortality rate. In terms of analyzed performance parameters, no significant differences were determined. In this study, the use of EO water improved drinking water quality and seemed to reduce the drug use without showing negative effects on performance parameters and mortality rates. PMID:25037820

  6. Benefits of neutral electrolyzed oxidizing water as a drinking water additive for broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Bügener, E; Kump, A Wilms-Schulze; Casteel, M; Klein, G

    2014-09-01

    In the wake of discussion about the use of drugs in food-producing farms, it seems to be more and more important to search for alternatives and supportive measures to improve health. In this field trial, the influence of electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water on water quality, drug consumption, mortality, and performance parameters such as BW and feed conversion rate was investigated on 2 broiler farms. At each farm, 3 rearing periods were included in the study. With EO water as the water additive, the total viable cell count and the number of Escherichia coli in drinking water samples were reduced compared with the respective control group. The frequency of treatment days was represented by the number of used daily doses per population and showed lower values in EO-water-treated groups at both farms. Furthermore, the addition of EO water resulted in a lower mortality rate. In terms of analyzed performance parameters, no significant differences were determined. In this study, the use of EO water improved drinking water quality and seemed to reduce the drug use without showing negative effects on performance parameters and mortality rates.

  7. Analysis of Potential Benefits and Costs of Updating the Commercial Building Energy Code in Iowa

    SciTech Connect

    Cort, Katherine A.; Belzer, David B.; Richman, Eric E.; Winiarski, David W.

    2002-09-07

    The state of Iowa is considering adpoting ASHRAE 90.1-1999 as its commercial building energy code. In an effort to evaluate whether or not this is an appropraite code for the state, the potential benefits and costs of adopting this standard are considered. Both qualitative and quantitative benefits are assessed. The energy simulation and economic results suggest that adopting ASHRAE 90.1-1999 would provide postitive net benefits to the state relative to the building and design requirements currently in place.

  8. Benefits and concerns associated with biotechnology-derived foods: can additional research reduce children health risks?

    PubMed

    Cantani, A

    2006-01-01

    The development of techniques devised for the genetic manipulation of foods poses new risks for children with food allergy (FA). The introduction of foreign allergenic proteins from different foods into previously tolerated foods may trigger allergic reactions, often complicating with anaphylactic shock in a subset of allergic babies. Children with FA, even if subjected to preventative diets, always challenge the risk of developing allergic manifestations after unintentional intake of a non tolerated food in restaurant settings, with relatives or schoolmates, etc, where product labelling is necessarily lacking. The introduction of potentially allergenic proteins into foods generally considered safe for allergic children can be done deliberately, by either substantially altering the food ingredients, or by genetic manipulation which change the composition or transfer allergens, or unintentionally by quality-control failures, due to contaminations in the production process, or to genetic mismanipulation. There is a controversy between multinationals often favored by governments and consumer association resistance, thus an equidistant analysis poses some unprecedented impediments. The importance of FA and the potential of transgenic plants to bring food allergens into the food supply should not be disregarded. The expression in soybeans of a Brazil nut protein resulted in a food allergen expressed in widely used infant formulas, so paving the way to an often reported multinational debacle. Genetic engineering poses innovative ethical and social concerns, as well as serious challenges to the environment, human health, animal welfare, and the future of agriculture. In this paper will be emphasized practical concepts more crucial for pediatricians.

  9. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors and the ischemic heart: Additional benefits beyond glycemic control.

    PubMed

    Chattipakorn, Nipon; Apaijai, Nattayaporn; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C

    2016-01-01

    Obese-insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have become global health problems, and they are both associated with a higher risk of ischemic heart disease. Although reperfusion therapy is the treatment to increase blood supply to the ischemic myocardium, this intervention potentially causes cardiac tissue damage and instigates arrhythmias, processes known as reperfusion injury. Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are glycemic control drugs commonly used in T2DM patients. Growing evidence from basic and clinical studies demonstrates that a DPP-4 inhibitor could exert cardioprotection and improve left ventricular function by reducing oxidative stress, apoptosis, and increasing reperfusion injury salvage kinase (RISK) activity. However, recent reports also showed potentially adverse cardiac events due to the use of a DPP-4 inhibitor. To investigate this disparity, future large clinical trials are essential in verifying whether DPP-4 inhibitors are beneficial beyond their glycemic control particularly for the ischemic heart in obese-insulin resistant subjects and T2DM patients.

  10. Benefits and concerns associated with biotechnology-derived foods: can additional research reduce children health risks?

    PubMed

    Cantani, A

    2009-01-01

    The development of techniques devised for the genetic manipulation of foods poses new risks for children with food allergy (FA). The introduction of foreign allergenic proteins from different foods into previously tolerated foods may trigger allergic reactions, often complicating with anaphylactic shock in a subset of allergic babies. Children with FA, even if subjected to preventative diets, always challenge the risk of developing allergic manifestations after unintentional intake of a non tolerated food in restaurant settings, with relatives or schoolmates, etc, where product labelling is necessarily lacking. The introduction of potentially allergenic proteins into foods generally considered safe for allergic children can be done deliberately, by either substantially altering the food ingredients, or by genetic manipulation which change the composition or transfer allergens, or unintentionally by qualitycontrol failures, due to contaminations in the production process, or to genetic mismanipulation. There is a controversy between multinationals often favored by governments and consumer association resistance, thus an equidistant analysis poses some unprecedented impediments. The importance of FA and the potential of transgenic plants to bring food allergens into the food supply should not be disregarded. The expression in soybeans of a Brazil nut protein resulted in a food allergen ex-pressed in widely used infant formulas, so paving the way to an often reported multinational debacle. Genetic engineering poses innovative ethical and social concerns, as well as serious challenges to the environment, human health, animal welfare, and the future of agriculture. In this paper will be emphasized practical concepts more crucial for pediatricians.

  11. Benefits and concerns associated with biotechnology-derived foods: can additional research reduce children health risks?

    PubMed

    Cantani, A

    2006-01-01

    The development of techniques devised for the genetic manipulation of foods poses new risks for children with food allergy (FA). The introduction of foreign allergenic proteins from different foods into previously tolerated foods may trigger allergic reactions, often complicating with anaphylactic shock in a subset of allergic babies. Children with FA, even if subjected to preventative diets, always challenge the risk of developing allergic manifestations after unintentional intake of a non tolerated food in restaurant settings, with relatives or schoolmates, etc, where product labelling is necessarily lacking. The introduction of potentially allergenic proteins into foods generally considered safe for allergic children can be done deliberately, by either substantially altering the food ingredients, or by genetic manipulation which change the composition or transfer allergens, or unintentionally by quality-control failures, due to contaminations in the production process, or to genetic mismanipulation. There is a controversy between multinationals often favored by governments and consumer association resistance, thus an equidistant analysis poses some unprecedented impediments. The importance of FA and the potential of transgenic plants to bring food allergens into the food supply should not be disregarded. The expression in soybeans of a Brazil nut protein resulted in a food allergen expressed in widely used infant formulas, so paving the way to an often reported multinational debacle. Genetic engineering poses innovative ethical and social concerns, as well as serious challenges to the environment, human health, animal welfare, and the future of agriculture. In this paper will be emphasized practical concepts more crucial for pediatricians. PMID:16910351

  12. Benefits and concerns associated with biotechnology-derived foods: can additional research reduce children health risks?

    PubMed

    Cantani, A

    2009-01-01

    The development of techniques devised for the genetic manipulation of foods poses new risks for children with food allergy (FA). The introduction of foreign allergenic proteins from different foods into previously tolerated foods may trigger allergic reactions, often complicating with anaphylactic shock in a subset of allergic babies. Children with FA, even if subjected to preventative diets, always challenge the risk of developing allergic manifestations after unintentional intake of a non tolerated food in restaurant settings, with relatives or schoolmates, etc, where product labelling is necessarily lacking. The introduction of potentially allergenic proteins into foods generally considered safe for allergic children can be done deliberately, by either substantially altering the food ingredients, or by genetic manipulation which change the composition or transfer allergens, or unintentionally by qualitycontrol failures, due to contaminations in the production process, or to genetic mismanipulation. There is a controversy between multinationals often favored by governments and consumer association resistance, thus an equidistant analysis poses some unprecedented impediments. The importance of FA and the potential of transgenic plants to bring food allergens into the food supply should not be disregarded. The expression in soybeans of a Brazil nut protein resulted in a food allergen ex-pressed in widely used infant formulas, so paving the way to an often reported multinational debacle. Genetic engineering poses innovative ethical and social concerns, as well as serious challenges to the environment, human health, animal welfare, and the future of agriculture. In this paper will be emphasized practical concepts more crucial for pediatricians. PMID:19364084

  13. Cloud-Aerosol Drivers of Reflective Roof and Solar Power Potential Benefits Across Selected Indian Cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millstein, D.; Fischer, M. L.

    2013-12-01

    while clouds were observed in Pantnagar on only 47% of the days. We then extend the model analysis to major Indian cities including New Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, and Bangalore. Preliminary results indicate that total (anthropogenic and natural) aerosols reduce the additional top of the atmosphere outgoing radiation from the installation of reflective roofs by an average of 45-110 W m-2 at midday, with the high end of the range set at New Dehli and the low end of the range set at Nainital. Similarly, aerosols reduce total incoming surface radiation by 61-150 W m-2, hence reducing potential solar power generation by up to 25% at some locations depending on the utilization of direct vs. diffuse solar energy. Ongoing analysis will evaluate inter-annual trends and variation in cloud and aerosol effects along with spatial variation across each selected city, and 1st order estimates of the potential improvements to radiative benefit and solar power generation from improvements to air quality. The authors note that the methods employed in this work to estimate radiative benefits from air quality changes assume constant cloud fields and do not account for any aerosol-cloud indirect effects or effects from land-use change (i.e. increased surface albedo from wide-scale adoption of reflective roofs).

  14. Probiotics in the Space Food System: Delivery, Microgravity Effects, and the Potential Benefit to Crew Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castro, S. L.; Ott, C. M.; Douglas, G. L.

    2014-01-01

    As mission distance and duration increase, the need grows for non-invasive disease prevention and immunomodulation, especially given the limited medical response capability expected for these missions and the immune dysregulation documented in crew. Additionally, changes in diet, lifestyle, antibiotic usage, and the environmental stresses during spaceflight may alter crewmembers' intestinal microbiome. The addition of probiotic bacteria to the space food system is expected to confer immunostimulatory benefits on crewmembers, with the potential to counteract the immune dysregulation that has been documented in spaceflight. Based on previous studies that demonstrated unique microbiological responses to the low shear environment of spaceflight, probiotic organisms hold the potential to induce enhanced beneficial responses through mechanisms, such as beneficial interactions with human immune cells and repression of colonization of pathogens on the mucosa. The work presented here will begin to address two research gaps related to providing probiotics in spaceflight: 1) delivery, and 2) the effect of the low shear microgravity environment on probiotic attributes. The probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus was selected for investigation due to its wide commercial use and documented benefits that include inhibition of virulence related gene expression in pathogens and mucosal stimulation of immune cells. The delivery system for probiotics has not been determined for spaceflight, where the food system is shelf stable and the lack of refrigeration prevents the use of traditional dairy delivery methods. In order to demonstrate the potential of the space food system to deliver viable probiotic bacteria to crewmembers, the probiotic L. acidophilus was packaged in high barrier flight packaging in nonfat dry milk (NFDM) or retained in commercial capsule form. Viable cells were enumerated over 8 months of storage at 22, 4, and -80ºC. The survival of L. acidophilus rehydrated in NFDM

  15. Probiotics as Additives on Therapy in Allergic Airway Diseases: A Systematic Review of Benefits and Risks

    PubMed Central

    Das, Rashmi Ranjan; Naik, Sushree Samiksha; Singh, Meenu

    2013-01-01

    Background. We conducted a systematic review to find out the role of probiotics in treatment of allergic airway diseases.  Methods. A comprehensive search of the major electronic databases was done till March 2013. Trials comparing the effect of probiotics versus placebo were included. A predefined set of outcome measures were assessed. Continuous data were expressed as standardized mean difference with 95% CI. Dichotomous data were expressed as odds ratio with 95% CI. P value < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results. A total of 12 studies were included. Probiotic intake was associated with a significantly improved quality of life score in patients with allergic rhinitis (SMD −1.9 (95% CI −3.62, −0.19); P = 0.03), though there was a high degree of heterogeneity. No improvement in quality of life score was noted in asthmatics. Probiotic intake also improved the following parameters: longer time free from episodes of asthma and rhinitis and decrease in the number of episodes of rhinitis per year. Adverse events were not significant. Conclusion. As the current evidence was generated from few trials with high degree of heterogeneity, routine use of probiotics as an additive on therapy in subjects with allergic airway diseases cannot be recommended. PMID:23956972

  16. Additive benefits of autonomy support and enhanced expectancies for motor learning.

    PubMed

    Wulf, Gabriele; Chiviacowsky, Suzete; Cardozo, Priscila Lopes

    2014-10-01

    Two factors that have been shown to facilitate motor learning are autonomy support (AS) and enhanced expectancies (EE) for performance. We examined the individual and combined influences of these factors. In a 2 × 2 design, participants learning a novel motor skill (throwing with the non-dominant arm) were or were not provided a choice (AS) about the ball color on each of 6 10-trial blocks during practice, and were or were not given bogus positive social-comparative feedback (EE). This resulted in four groups: AS/EE, AS, EE, and C (control). One day after the practice phase, participants completed 10 retention and 10 transfer trials. The distance to the target--a bull's eye with a 1m radius and 10 concentric circles--was 7.5m during practice and retention, and 8.5m during transfer. Autonomy support and enhanced expectancies had additive advantages for learning, with both main effects being significant for retention and transfer. On both tests, the AS/EE group showed the greatest throwing accuracy. Also, the accuracy scores of the AS and EE groups were higher than those of the C group. Furthermore, self-efficacy measured after practice and before retention and transfer was increased by both AS and EE. Thus, supporting learners' need for autonomy by given them a small choice--even though it was not directly related to task performance--and enhancing their performance expectancies appeared to independently influence learning.

  17. Smart SUDS: recognising the multiple-benefit potential of sustainable surface water management systems.

    PubMed

    Jose, Roshni; Wade, Rebecca; Jefferies, Chris

    2015-01-01

    How can we make sustainable urban drainage systems (SUDS) smart? SUDS help us to manage surface water runoff from urban environments but they are capable of delivering much more. This paper looks beyond the water quantity and quality improvement functions of SUDS and investigates the multiple benefits that can be gained by implementing smart SUDS solutions. This work provides a new perspective, using methodologies not normally associated with SUDS research, to determine multiple benefits. The outputs of the work can potentially assist decision-makers, designer and planners in recognising the potential for multiple benefits that can be delivered by SUDS. The ecosystem services (ES) associated with a large redevelopment in Dundee, Scotland, UK, are identified and a public perception study together with public participatory geographical information system (PPGIS) methods was used to confirm the goods and benefits of the SUDS. The paper presents findings on the public perception of SUDS as they provide cultural benefits such as recreation, aesthetics and biodiversity. The results show that greenspace is important when choosing a location, and willingness to pay for greenspace is high in this area. This paper concludes that SUDS provide multi-functional benefits in relation to the ES, thereby justifying the cachet of being termed Smart SUDS. PMID:25633948

  18. Analysis of Potential Benefits and Costs of Adopting a Commercial Building Energy Standard in South Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Belzer, David B.; Cort, Katherine A.; Winiarski, David W.; Richman, Eric E.

    2005-03-04

    The state of South Dakota is considering adopting a commercial building energy standard. This report evaluates the potential costs and benefits to South Dakota residents from requiring compliance with the most recent edition of the ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1-2001 Energy Standard for Buildings except Low-Rise Residential Buildings. These standards were developed in an effort to set minimum requirements for the energy efficient design and construction of new commercial buildings. The quantitative benefits and costs of adopting a commercial building energy code are modeled by comparing the characteristics of assumed current building practices with the most recent edition of the ASHRAE Standard, 90.1-2001. Both qualitative and quantitative benefits and costs are assessed in this analysis. Energy and economic impacts are estimated using results from a detailed building simulation tool (Building Loads Analysis and System Thermodynamics [BLAST] model) combined with a Life-Cycle Cost (LCC) approach to assess corresponding economic costs and benefits.

  19. Natural antioxidants as food and feed additives to promote health benefits and quality of meat products: A review.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jiang; Xiong, Youling L

    2016-10-01

    Fresh and processed meats offer numerous nutritional and health benefits and provide unique eating satisfaction in the lifestyle of the modern society. However, consumption of red meat including processed products is subjected to increasing scrutiny due to the health risks associated with cytotoxins that potentially could be generated during meat preparation. Evidence from recent studies suggests free radical pathways as a plausible mechanism for toxin formation, and antioxidants have shown promise to mitigate process-generated chemical hazards. The present review discusses the involvements of lipid and protein oxidation in meat quality, nutrition, safety, and organoleptic properties; animal production and meat processing strategies which incorporate natural antioxidants to enhance the nutritional and health benefits of meat; and the application of mixed or purified natural antioxidants to eliminate or minimize the formation of carcinogens for chemical safety of cooked and processed meats.

  20. Physical Activity Associated with Public Transport Use—A Review and Modelling of Potential Benefits

    PubMed Central

    Rissel, Chris; Curac, Nada; Greenaway, Mark; Bauman, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    Active travel, particularly walking and cycling, has been recommended because of the health benefits associated with increased physical activity. Use of public transport generally involves some walking to bus stops or train stations. This paper is a systematic review of how much time is spent in physical activity among adults using public transport. It also explores the potential effect on the population level of physical activity if inactive adults in NSW, Australia, increased their walking through increased use of public transport. Of 1,733 articles, 27 met the search criteria, and nine reported on absolute measures of physical activity associated with public transport. A further 18 papers reported on factors associated with physical activity as part of public transport use. A range of 8–33 additional minutes of walking was identified from this systematic search as being attributable to public transport use. Using “bootstrapping” statistical modelling, if 20% of all inactive adults increased their walking by only 16 minutes a day for five days a week, we predict there would be a substantial 6.97% increase in the proportion of the adult population considered “sufficiently active”. More minutes walked per day, or a greater uptake of public transport by inactive adults would likely lead to significantly greater increases in the adult population considered sufficiently active. PMID:22851954

  1. Potential and benefits of closed loop ECLS systems on the ISS.

    PubMed

    Raatschen, W; Preiss, H

    2001-01-01

    To close open loops for long manned missions in space is a big challenge for aeronautic engineers throughout the world. The paper's focus is on the oxygen reclamation from carbon dioxide within a space habitat. A brief description of the function principle of a fixed alkaline electrolyzer, a solid amine carbon dioxide concentrator and a Sabatier reactor is given. By combining these devices to an air revitalization system the technical and economical benefits are explained. Astrium's Air Revitalization System (ARES) as a potential future part of the International Space Station's Environmental Control and Life Support System would close the oxygen loop. The amount of oxygen, needed for an ISS crew of seven astronauts could be provided by ARES. The upload of almost 1500 kg of water annually for oxygen generation through the onboard electrolyzer would be reduced by more than 1000 kg, resulting in savings of more than 30M$ per year. Additionally, the payload capacity of supply flights would be increased by this amount of mass. Further possibilities are addressed to combine ECLS mass flows with those of the power, propulsion and attitude control systems. Such closed loop approaches will contribute to ease long time missions (e. g. Mars, Moon) from a cost and logistic point of view. The hardware realization of Astrium's space-sized operating ARES is shown and test results of continuous and intermittent closed chamber tests are presented.

  2. Solar thermal technologies - Potential benefits to U.S. utilities and industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terasawa, K. L.; Gates, W. R.

    1983-01-01

    Solar energy systems were investigated which complement nuclear and coal technologies as a means of reducing the U.S. dependence on imported petroleum. Solar Thermal Energy Systems (STES) represents an important category of solar energy technologies. STES can be utilized in a broad range of applications servicing a variety of economic sectors, and they can be deployed in both near-term and long-term markets. The net present value of the energy cost savings attributable to electric utility and IPH applications of STES were estimated for a variety of future energy cost scenarios and levels of R&D success. This analysis indicated that the expected net benefits of developing an STES option are significantly greater than the expected costs of completing the required R&D. In addition, transportable fuels and chemical feedstocks represent a substantial future potential market for STES. Due to the basic nature of this R&D activity, however, it is currently impossible to estimate the value of STES in these markets. Despite this fact, private investment in STES R&D is not anticipated due to the high level of uncertainty characterizing the expected payoffs. Previously announced in STAR as N83-10547

  3. Navajo Electrification for Sustainable Development: The Potential Economic and Social Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballentine, Crystal; DeSouza, Anil; Bain, Craig; Majure, Lisa; Smith, Dean Howard; Turek, Jill

    2004-01-01

    The concomitant secondary consequences of an electrification program and the potential long-term benefits of such a program are described. An electrification program can stimulate a move toward true self-determination and self-sufficiency for the Navajo nation.

  4. Attitudes of School Foodservice Directors about the Potential Benefits of School Wellness Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longley, Carol; Sneed, Jeannie

    2009-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The Reauthorization Act of 2004 requires schools participating in the National School Lunch and School Breakfast Programs to establish a wellness policy. The purpose of this study was to examine school foodservice directors' attitudes about the potential benefits of the wellness policy. Methods: A survey research design was…

  5. Energy and emissions saving potential of additive manufacturing: the case of lightweight aircraft components

    DOE PAGES

    Huang, Runze; Riddle, Matthew; Graziano, Diane; Warren, Joshua; Das, Sujit; Nimbalkar, Sachin; Cresko, Joe; Masanet, Eric

    2015-05-08

    Additive manufacturing (AM) holds great potential for improving materials efficiency, reducing life-cycle impacts, and enabling greater engineering functionality compared to conventional manufacturing (CM) processes. For these reasons, AM has been adopted by a growing number of aircraft component manufacturers to achieve more lightweight, cost-effective designs. This study estimates the net changes in life-cycle primary energy and greenhouse gas emissions associated with AM technologies for lightweight metallic aircraft components through the year 2050, to shed light on the environmental benefits of a shift from CM to AM processes in the U.S. aircraft industry. A systems modeling framework is presented, with integratesmore » engineering criteria, life-cycle environmental data, and aircraft fleet stock and fuel use models under different AM adoption scenarios. Estimated fleetwide life-cycle primary energy savings in a rapid adoption scenario reach 70-174 million GJ/year in 2050, with cumulative savings of 1.2-2.8 billion GJ. Associated cumulative emission reduction potentials of CO2e were estimated at 92.8-217.4 million metric tons. About 95% of the savings is attributed to airplane fuel consumption reductions due to lightweighting. In addition, about 4050 tons aluminum, 7600 tons titanium and 8100 tons of nickel alloys could be saved per year in 2050. The results indicate a significant role of AM technologies in helping society meet its long-term energy use and GHG emissions reduction goals, and highlight barriers and opportunities for AM adoption for the aircraft industry.« less

  6. Potential environmental benefits of feed additives and other strategies for ruminant production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Environmental pollution and food safety are two important concerns that impact ruminant production around the world. The growing public concern over chemical residues in animal-derived foods and threats of antibiotic-resistant bacteria have renewed interest in exploring safer alternatives to chemic...

  7. MAGNETOMETRY, SELF-POTENTIAL, AND SEISMIC - ADDITIONAL GEOPHYSICAL METHODS HAVING POTENTIALLY SIGNIFICANT FUTURE UTILIZATION IN AGRICULTURE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Geophysical methods can provide important information in agricultural settings, and the use of these techniques are becoming more and more widespread. Magnetrometry, self-potential, and seismic are three geophysical methods, all of which have the potential for substantial future use in agriculture, ...

  8. Perceived psychosocial benefits associated with perceived restorative potential of wilderness river-rafting trips.

    PubMed

    Garg, R; Couture, R T; Ogryzlo, T; Schinke, R

    2010-08-01

    Analysis of the restorative experiences and psychosocial benefits of wilderness river rafting trips of varying difficulty with 186 Canadian participants of different ages supported the restorative potential of natural settings for all age groups as measured by the Perceived Restorativeness Scale. The two-factor structure (General Restorativeness and Coherence) was confirmed. Significant associations were found between scores on the General Restorative subscale and perceived psychosocial benefits (relaxation, nature appreciation or kinship, and physical fitness or achievement) and positive affect. However, the findings associated with the Coherence subscale were not conclusive. PMID:20923066

  9. E-health: potential benefits and challenges in providing and accessing sexual health services

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background E-health has become a burgeoning field in which health professionals and health consumers create and seek information. E-health refers to internet-based health care and information delivery and seeks to improve health service locally, regionally and worldwide. E-sexual health presents new opportunities to provide online sexual health services irrespective of gender, age, sexual orientation and location. Discussion The paper used the dimensions of the RE-AIM model (reach, efficacy, adoption, implementation and maintenance) as a guiding principle to discuss potentials of E-health in providing and accessing sexual health services. There are important issues in relation to utilising and providing online sexual health services. For healthcare providers, e-health can act as an opportunity to enhance their clients’ sexual health care by facilitating communication with full privacy and confidentiality, reducing administrative costs and improving efficiency and flexibility as well as market sexual health services and products. Sexual health is one of the common health topics which both younger and older people explore on the internet and they increasingly prefer sexual health education to be interactive, non-discriminate and anonymous. This commentary presents and discusses the benefits of e-sexual health and provides recommendations towards addressing some of the emerging challenges. Future directions The provision of sexual health services can be enhanced through E-health technology. Doing this can empower consumers to engage with information technology to enhance their sexual health knowledge and quality of life and address some of the stigma associated with diversity in sexualities and sexual health experiences. In addition, e-sexual health may better support and enhance the relationship between consumers and their health care providers across different locations. However, a systematic and focused approach to research and the application of findings in

  10. Roots and Tuber Crops as Functional Foods: A Review on Phytochemical Constituents and Their Potential Health Benefits.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekara, Anoma; Josheph Kumar, Thamilini

    2016-01-01

    Starchy roots and tuber crops play a pivotal role in the human diet. There are number of roots and tubers which make an extensive biodiversity even within the same geographical location. Thus, they add variety to the diet in addition to offering numerous desirable nutritional and health benefits such as antioxidative, hypoglycemic, hypocholesterolemic, antimicrobial, and immunomodulatory activities. A number of bioactive constituents such as phenolic compounds, saponins, bioactive proteins, glycoalkaloids, and phytic acids are responsible for the observed effects. Many starchy tuber crops, except the common potatoes, sweet potatoes, and cassava, are not yet fully explored for their nutritional and health benefits. In Asian countries, some edible tubers are also used as traditional medicinal. A variety of foods can be prepared using tubers and they may also be used in industrial applications. Processing may affect the bioactivities of constituent compounds. Tubers have an immense potential as functional foods and nutraceutical ingredients to be explored in disease risk reduction and wellness. PMID:27127779

  11. Roots and Tuber Crops as Functional Foods: A Review on Phytochemical Constituents and Their Potential Health Benefits.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekara, Anoma; Josheph Kumar, Thamilini

    2016-01-01

    Starchy roots and tuber crops play a pivotal role in the human diet. There are number of roots and tubers which make an extensive biodiversity even within the same geographical location. Thus, they add variety to the diet in addition to offering numerous desirable nutritional and health benefits such as antioxidative, hypoglycemic, hypocholesterolemic, antimicrobial, and immunomodulatory activities. A number of bioactive constituents such as phenolic compounds, saponins, bioactive proteins, glycoalkaloids, and phytic acids are responsible for the observed effects. Many starchy tuber crops, except the common potatoes, sweet potatoes, and cassava, are not yet fully explored for their nutritional and health benefits. In Asian countries, some edible tubers are also used as traditional medicinal. A variety of foods can be prepared using tubers and they may also be used in industrial applications. Processing may affect the bioactivities of constituent compounds. Tubers have an immense potential as functional foods and nutraceutical ingredients to be explored in disease risk reduction and wellness.

  12. Roots and Tuber Crops as Functional Foods: A Review on Phytochemical Constituents and Their Potential Health Benefits

    PubMed Central

    Josheph Kumar, Thamilini

    2016-01-01

    Starchy roots and tuber crops play a pivotal role in the human diet. There are number of roots and tubers which make an extensive biodiversity even within the same geographical location. Thus, they add variety to the diet in addition to offering numerous desirable nutritional and health benefits such as antioxidative, hypoglycemic, hypocholesterolemic, antimicrobial, and immunomodulatory activities. A number of bioactive constituents such as phenolic compounds, saponins, bioactive proteins, glycoalkaloids, and phytic acids are responsible for the observed effects. Many starchy tuber crops, except the common potatoes, sweet potatoes, and cassava, are not yet fully explored for their nutritional and health benefits. In Asian countries, some edible tubers are also used as traditional medicinal. A variety of foods can be prepared using tubers and they may also be used in industrial applications. Processing may affect the bioactivities of constituent compounds. Tubers have an immense potential as functional foods and nutraceutical ingredients to be explored in disease risk reduction and wellness. PMID:27127779

  13. Nutritional, Health, and Technological Functionality of Lupin Flour Addition to Bread and Other Baked Products: Benefits and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Villarino, C B J; Jayasena, V; Coorey, R; Chakrabarti-Bell, S; Johnson, S K

    2016-01-01

    Lupin is an undervalued legume despite its high protein and dietary fiber content and potential health benefits. This review focuses on the nutritional value, health benefits, and technological effects of incorporating lupin flour into wheat-based bread. Results of clinical studies suggest that consuming lupin compared to wheat bread and other baked products reduce chronic disease risk markers; possibly due to increased protein and dietary fiber and bioactive compounds. However, lupin protein allergy has also been recorded. Bread quality has been improved when 10% lupin flour is substituted for refined wheat flour; possibly due to lupin-wheat protein cross-linking assisting bread volume and the high water-binding capacity (WBC) of lupin fiber delaying staling. Above 10% substitution appears to reduce bread quality due to lupin proteins low elasticity and the high WBC of its dietary fiber interrupting gluten network development. Gaps in understanding of the role of lupin flour in bread quality include the optimal formulation and processing conditions to maximize lupin incorporation, role of protein cross-linking, antistaling functionality, and bioactivity of its γ-conglutin protein. PMID:25675266

  14. Examination of Potential Benefits of an Energy Imbalance Market in the Western Interconnection

    SciTech Connect

    Milligan, M.; Clark, K.; King, J.; Kirby, B.; Guo, T.; Liu, G.

    2013-03-01

    In the Western Interconnection, there is significant interest in improving approaches to wide-area coordinated operations of the bulk electric power system, in part because of the increasing penetration of variable generation. One proposed solution is an energy imbalance market. This study focused on that approach alone, with the goal of identifying the potential benefits of an energy imbalance market in the year 2020.

  15. The potential impact of the space shuttle on space benefits to mankind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rattinger, I.

    1972-01-01

    The potential impact of the space shuttle on space benefits to mankind is discussed. The space shuttle mission profile is presented and the capabilities of the spacecraft to perform various maneuvers and operations are described. The cost effectiveness of the space shuttle operation is analyzed. The effects upon technological superiority and national economics are examined. Line drawings and artist concepts of space shuttle configurations are included to clarify the discussion.

  16. The role of gangliosides in brain development and the potential benefits of perinatal supplementation.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Jennifer M; Rice, Gregory E; Mitchell, Murray D

    2013-11-01

    The maternal diet provides critical nutrients that can influence fetal and infant brain development and function. This review highlights the potential benefits of maternal dietary ganglioside supplementation on fetal and infant brain development. English-language systematic reviews, preclinical studies, and clinical studies were obtained through searches on PubMed. Reports were selected if they included benefits and harms of maternal ganglioside supplementation during pregnancy or ganglioside-supplemented formula after pregnancy. The potential benefits of ganglioside supplementation were explored by investigating the following: (1) their role in neural development, (2) their therapeutic use in neural injury and disease, (3) their presence in human breast milk, and (4) their use as a dietary supplement during or after pregnancy. Preclinical studies indicate that ganglioside supplementation at high doses (1% of total dietary intake) can significantly increase cognitive development and body weight when given prenatally. However, lower ganglioside supplementation doses have no beneficial cognitive effects, even when given throughout pregnancy and lactation. In human clinical trials, infants given formula supplemented with gangliosides showed increased cognitive development and an increase in ganglioside content. Ganglioside supplementation may promote brain development and function in offspring when administered at the optimum dosage. We propose that prenatal maternal dietary supplementation with gangliosides throughout pregnancy may promote greater long-term effects on brain development and function. Before this concept can be encouraged in preconception clinics, future research and clinical trials are needed to confirm the ability of dietary gangliosides to improve cognitive development, but available results already encourage this area of research.

  17. Benefits, Challenges, and Potential Utility of a Gait Database for Diabetes Patients.

    PubMed

    Brown, Steven; Boulton, Andrew; Bowling, Frank; Reeves, Neil

    2016-09-01

    Gait analysis is a useful tool in understanding movement impairments, which impact on patient well-being. The use of gait analysis in patients with diabetes has led to improvements in health care including the treatment and prevention of ulceration and development of targeted exercise interventions. The current convention when analyzing gait is to address specific complications of diabetes, controlling for potential influencing conditions within a study sample to understand the effects of the few specific complications chosen for analysis. Databases allow for the storage of data in a structured format, allowing easy access to large quantities of data in a consistent, comparable manner. A database of gait analyses of patients with diabetes has the potential to include far greater sample sizes for statistical analyses, allowing multiple influencing factors to be assessed simultaneously, and relationships identified between multiple influencing factors. However, a database of this type would encounter ethical and methodological challenges in its implementation, which are discussed. This article introduces some of the potential benefits, challenges, and utility of a gait database for diabetes patients. We highlight that, whereas the creation of a database within this clinical population would be a complex process both ethically and practically, huge potential benefits could be gained, overcoming some of the limitations faced by traditional isolated gait analysis studies.

  18. Generating carbon finance through avoided deforestation and its potential to create climatic, conservation and human development benefits.

    PubMed

    Ebeling, Johannes; Yasué, Maï

    2008-05-27

    Recent proposals to compensate developing countries for reducing emissions from deforestation (RED) under forthcoming climate change mitigation regimes are receiving increasing attention. Here we demonstrate that if RED credits were traded on international carbon markets, even moderate decreases in deforestation rates could generate billions of Euros annually for tropical forest conservation. We also discuss the main challenges for a RED mechanism that delivers real climatic benefits. These include providing sufficient incentives while only rewarding deforestation reductions beyond business-as-usual scenarios, addressing risks arising from forest degradation and international leakage, and ensuring permanence of emission reductions. Governance may become a formidable challenge for RED because some countries with the highest RED potentials score poorly on governance indices. In addition to climate mitigation, RED funds could help achieve substantial co-benefits for biodiversity conservation and human development. However, this will probably require targeted additional support because the highest biodiversity threats and human development needs may exist in countries that have limited income potentials from RED. In conclusion, how successfully a market-based RED mechanism can contribute to climate change mitigation, conservation and development will strongly depend on accompanying measures and carefully designed incentive structures involving governments, business, as well as the conservation and development communities.

  19. Analysis of potential benefits of integrated-gasifier combined cycles for a utility system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choo, Y. K.

    1983-01-01

    Potential benefits of integrated gasifier combined cycle (IGCC) units were evaluated for a reference utility system by comparing long range expansion plans using IGCC units and gas turbine peakers with a plan using only state of the art steam turbine units and gas turbine peakers. Also evaluated was the importance of the benefits of individual IGCC unit characteristics, particularly unit efficiency, unit equivalent forced outage rate, and unit size. A range of IGCC units was analyzed, including cases achievable with state of the art gas turbines and cases assuming advanced gas turbine technology. All utility system expansion plans that used IGCC units showed substantial savings compared with the base expansion plan using the steam turbine units.

  20. Looking on the bright side in social anxiety: the potential benefit of promoting positive mental imagery.

    PubMed

    Pictet, Arnaud

    2014-01-01

    Current cognitive models of social phobia converge on the view that negative imagery is a key factor in the development and maintenance of the disorder. Research to date has predominantly focussed on the detrimental impact of negative imagery on cognitive bias and anxiety symptoms, while the potential benefit of promoting positive imagery has been relatively unexplored. Emerging evidence suggests however that positive imagery could have multiple benefits such as improving positive affect, self-esteem and positive interpretation bias, and enhancing social performance. The present article defends the view that combining bias induction with a repeated practice in generating positive imagery in a cognitive bias modification procedure could represent a promising area for future research and clinical innovation in social anxiety disorder. PMID:24550815

  1. Biological activities and potential health benefit effects of polysaccharides isolated from Lycium barbarum L.

    PubMed

    Jin, Mingliang; Huang, Qingsheng; Zhao, Ke; Shang, Peng

    2013-03-01

    Recently, isolation and investigation of novel ingredients with biological activities and health benefit effects from natural resources have attracted a great deal of attention. The fruit of Lycium barbarum L., a well-known Chinese herbal medicine as well as valuable nourishing tonic, has been used historically as antipyretic, anti-inflammation and anti-senile agent for thousands of years. Modern pharmacological experiments have proved that polysaccharide is one of the major ingredients responsible for those biological activities in L. barbarum. It has been demonstrated that L. barbarum polysaccharides had various important biological activities, such as antioxidant, immunomodulation, antitumor, neuroprotection, radioprotection, anti-diabetes, hepatoprotection, anti-osteoporosis and antifatigue. The purpose of the present review is to summarize previous and current references regarding biological activities as well as potential health benefits of L. barbarum polysaccharides.

  2. Potential Benefits of Cattle Vaccination as a Supplementary Control for Bovine Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Conlan, Andrew J. K.; Brooks Pollock, Ellen; McKinley, Trevelyan J.; Mitchell, Andrew P.; Jones, Gareth J.; Vordermeier, Martin; Wood, James L. N.

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination for the control of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in cattle is not currently used within any international control program, and is illegal within the EU. Candidate vaccines, based upon Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) all interfere with the action of the tuberculin skin test, which is used to determine if animals, herds and countries are officially bTB-free. New diagnostic tests that Differentiate Infected from Vaccinated Animals (DIVA) offer the potential to introduce vaccination within existing eradication programs. We use within-herd transmission models estimated from historical data from Great Britain (GB) to explore the feasibility of such supplemental use of vaccination. The economic impact of bovine Tuberculosis for farmers is dominated by the costs associated with testing, and associated restrictions on animal movements. Farmers’ willingness to adopt vaccination will require vaccination to not only reduce the burden of infection, but also the risk of restrictions being imposed. We find that, under the intensive sequence of testing in GB, it is the specificity of the DIVA test, rather than the sensitivity, that is the greatest barrier to see a herd level benefit of vaccination. The potential negative effects of vaccination could be mitigated through relaxation of testing. However, this could potentially increase the hidden burden of infection within Officially TB Free herds. Using our models, we explore the range of the DIVA test characteristics necessary to see a protective herd level benefit of vaccination. We estimate that a DIVA specificity of at least 99.85% and sensitivity of >40% is required to see a protective benefit of vaccination with no increase in the risk of missed infection. Data from experimentally infected animals suggest that this target specificity could be achieved in vaccinates using a cocktail of three DIVA antigens while maintaining a sensitivity of 73.3% (95%CI: 61.9, 82.9%) relative to post

  3. Potential benefits of cattle vaccination as a supplementary control for bovine tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Conlan, Andrew J K; Brooks Pollock, Ellen; McKinley, Trevelyan J; Mitchell, Andrew P; Jones, Gareth J; Vordermeier, Martin; Wood, James L N

    2015-02-01

    Vaccination for the control of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in cattle is not currently used within any international control program, and is illegal within the EU. Candidate vaccines, based upon Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) all interfere with the action of the tuberculin skin test, which is used to determine if animals, herds and countries are officially bTB-free. New diagnostic tests that Differentiate Infected from Vaccinated Animals (DIVA) offer the potential to introduce vaccination within existing eradication programs. We use within-herd transmission models estimated from historical data from Great Britain (GB) to explore the feasibility of such supplemental use of vaccination. The economic impact of bovine Tuberculosis for farmers is dominated by the costs associated with testing, and associated restrictions on animal movements. Farmers' willingness to adopt vaccination will require vaccination to not only reduce the burden of infection, but also the risk of restrictions being imposed. We find that, under the intensive sequence of testing in GB, it is the specificity of the DIVA test, rather than the sensitivity, that is the greatest barrier to see a herd level benefit of vaccination. The potential negative effects of vaccination could be mitigated through relaxation of testing. However, this could potentially increase the hidden burden of infection within Officially TB Free herds. Using our models, we explore the range of the DIVA test characteristics necessary to see a protective herd level benefit of vaccination. We estimate that a DIVA specificity of at least 99.85% and sensitivity of >40% is required to see a protective benefit of vaccination with no increase in the risk of missed infection. Data from experimentally infected animals suggest that this target specificity could be achieved in vaccinates using a cocktail of three DIVA antigens while maintaining a sensitivity of 73.3% (95%CI: 61.9, 82.9%) relative to post-mortem detection.

  4. Health benefits and potential risks related to consumption of fish or fish oil.

    PubMed

    Sidhu, Kirpal S

    2003-12-01

    The nutritional benefits of fish consumption relate to the utilization of proteins of high biological value, as well as certain minerals and vitamins that fish provide. Fish or fish oil contains omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) that appear to play several useful roles for human health. Conversely, some carcinogenic contaminants are also stored in the adipose tissue of fish. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the potential health benefits and risks related to the consumption of fish or fish oil. Health benefits related to the consumption of fish or omega-3 PUFAs were obtained by an extensive literature search. Potential health risks related to carcinogenic contaminants (e.g., dioxin, PCB, etc.) in fish were estimated using the U.S. EPA-approved cancer risk assessment guidelines. Potential health risk estimates were evaluated by comparing them with the acceptable excess risk level of 10(-6)-10(-4). Scientific data indicate that the consumption of fish or fish oil containing omega-3 PUFAs reduces the risk of coronary heart disease, decreases mild hypertension, and prevents certain cardiac arrhythmias and sudden death. Risk estimates in humans for carcinogenic environmental contaminants in fish ranged from an excess risk level of 3x10(-6)-9x10(-4). These risk estimates appeared to meet the acceptable excess risk level criteria. Therefore, consumption of fish in accordance with the State of Michigan Fish Advisory Guidelines is safe and should be encouraged. The top 11 fish species [e.g., sardines, mackerel, herring (Atlantic and Pacific), lake trout, salmon (Chinook, Atlantic, and Sockeye), anchovy (European), sablefish, and bluefish] provide an adequate amount of omega-3 PUFAs (2.7-7.5g/meal) and appear to meet the nutritional recommendation of the American Heart Association.

  5. An Assessment of Gas Foil Bearing Scalability and the Potential Benefits to Civilian Turbofan Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruckner, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past several years the term oil-free turbomachinery has been used to describe a rotor support system for high speed turbomachinery that does not require oil for lubrication, damping, or cooling. The foundation technology for oil-free turbomachinery is the compliant foil bearing. This technology can replace the conventional rolling element bearings found in current engines. Two major benefits are realized with this technology. The primary benefit is the elimination of the oil lubrication system, accessory gearbox, tower shaft, and one turbine frame. These components account for 8 to 13 percent of the turbofan engine weight. The second benefit that compliant foil bearings offer to turbofan engines is the capability to operate at higher rotational speeds and shaft diameters. While traditional rolling element bearings have diminished life, reliability, and load capacity with increasing speeds, the foil bearing has a load capacity proportional to speed. The traditional applications for foil bearings have been in small, lightweight machines. However, recent advancements in the design and manufacturing of foil bearings have increased their potential size. An analysis, grounded in experimentally proven operation, is performed to assess the scalability of the modern foil bearing. This analysis was coupled to the requirements of civilian turbofan engines. The application of the foil bearing to larger, high bypass ratio engines nominally at the 120 kN (approx.25000 lb) thrust class has been examined. The application of this advanced technology to this system was found to reduce mission fuel burn by 3.05 percent.

  6. Biological activities and potential health benefits of polysaccharides from Poria cocos and their derivatives.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yichun

    2014-07-01

    Poria cocos has a long history of medicinal use in Asian countries such as China, Japan, Korea and Thailand. It is a kind of edible and pharmaceutical mushroom. The chemical compositions of Poria cocos mainly include triterpenes, polysaccharides, steroids, amino acids, choline, histidine, etc. Great advances have been made in chemical and bioactive studies on Poria cocos polysaccharides (PCP) and their derivatives in recent decades. These PCP and their derivatives exhibit many beneficial biological activities including anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antiviral activities. Therefore, PCP and their derivatives have great potential for further development as therapy or adjuvant therapy for cancer, immune-modulatory and antiviral drugs. This paper presents an overview of biological activities and potential health benefits of PCP and their derivatives.

  7. The ecology of microorganisms in a small closed system: Potential benefits and problems for space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodgers, E. B.

    1986-01-01

    The inevitble presence on the space station of microorganisms associated with crew members and their environment will have the potential for both benefits and a range of problems including illness and corrosion of materials. This report reviews the literature presenting information about microorganisms pertinent to Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) on the space station. The perspective of the report is ecological, viewing the space station as an ecosystem in which biological relationships are affected by factors such as zero gravity and by closure of a small volume of space. Potential sites and activities of microorganisms on the space station and their environmental limits, microbial standards for the space station, monitoring and control methods, effects of space factors on microorganisms, and extraterrestrial contamination are discussed.

  8. Potential benefits of resistance exercise training on nutritional status in renal failure.

    PubMed

    Castaneda, C; Grossi, L; Dwyer, J

    1998-01-01

    Resistance or strength exercise training may help reverse the malnutrition common among patients in chronic renal failure and delay the progression of renal disease. Resistance training is characterized by resisting, lifting, and lowering weights. It results in muscle mass accretion, improved physical function, and slowed progression of muscle wasting. Resistance exercise training for a period of 8 to 12 weeks results in significant increases in muscle mass, muscle strength, and muscle function in frail "healthy" elderly individuals as well as in specific patient populations. States of malnutrition leading to muscle wasting directly affect lean tissue mass and functional capacity. Even at dietary protein intake below the Recommended Dietary Allowances, resistance training appears to exert an anabolic effect by improving energy intake and protein use allowing nitrogen retention. The potential benefits of resistance exercise extend beyond this direct impact on protein metabolism. They include improvements in functional capacity such as gait, balance, mobility, strength, exercise tolerance, improved glucose uptake, insulin sensitivity, and self-efficacy and self-esteem. Currently, the effects of resistance exercise in renal patients are unknown, although they are well shown in the case of other diseases. The potential benefits that resistance exercise training may have on muscle mass and function, nutritional status, hyperglycemia, disease progression, and the overall mental well-being of renal patients deserve further investigation. As an adjunct to current treatment modalities for chronic renal failure, resistance exercise may serve as a cost-effective, interdisciplinary, noninvasive approach to counteract malnutrition and improve the quality of life. PMID:9724824

  9. Global Health Education: a cross-sectional study among German medical students to identify needs, deficits and potential benefits (Part 2 of 2: Knowledge gaps and potential benefits)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In Germany, educational deficits or potential benefits involved in global health education have not been analysed till now. Objective We assess the importance medical students place on learning about social determinants of health (SDH) and assess their knowledge of global health topics in relation to (i) mobility patterns, their education in (ii) tropical medicine or (iii) global health. Methods Cross-sectional study among medical students from all 36 medical schools in Germany using a web-based, semi-structured questionnaire. Participants were recruited via mailing-lists of students' unions, all medical students registered in 2007 were eligible to participate in the study. We captured international mobility patterns, exposure to global health learning opportunities and attitudes to learning about SDH. Both an objective and subjective knowledge assessment were performed. Results 1126 online-replies were received and analysed. International health electives in developing countries correlated significantly with a higher importance placed on all provided SDH (p ≤ 0.006). Participation in tropical medicine (p < 0.03) and global health courses (p < 0.02) were significantly associated with a higher rating of 'culture, language and religion' and the 'economic system'. Global health trainings correlated with significantly higher ratings of the 'educational system' (p = 0.007) and the 'health system structure' (p = 0.007), while the item 'politics' was marginally significant (p = 0.053). In the knowledge assessment students achieved an average score of 3.6 (SD 1.5; Mdn 4.0), 75% achieved a score of 4.0 or less (Q25 = 3.0; Q75 = 4.0) from a maximum achievable score of 8.0. A better performance was associated with international health electives (p = 0.032), participation in tropical medicine (p = 0.038) and global health (p = 0.258) courses. Conclusion The importance medical students in our sample placed on learning about SDH strongly interacts with students

  10. Potential benefits of complementary medicine modalities in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Markell, Mariana S

    2005-07-01

    Use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) by the general population is common, and, although potential for harm exists, evidence is accumulating that several modalities, including acupuncture, massage, relaxation response/guided or integrative imagery, meditation, and herbal supplements, have actions that are beneficial for patients with chronic illness. Potential areas in which CAM might benefit patients with kidney disease include prolonging time of progression to kidney failure as well as treatment of concomitant problems, including arthritides, pruritus, cardiovascular risk factors, anxiety, depression, and fatigue, as well as hepatoprotection and treatment of uremic bruising. Although no systematic survey of prevalence of use has been performed in patients with chronic kidney disease and much research remains to be done so that safety and efficacy issues can be resolved, it is likely that many patients are using the services of CAM providers without the knowledge of their nephrologists. Thus, it behooves us to become conversant in these therapies so that we may hold open dialogues with our patients, discouraging potentially harmful treatments, suggesting potentially helpful ones, and monitoring them for effects, both beneficial and harmful.

  11. Primates’ behavioural responses to tourists: evidence for a trade-off between potential risks and benefits

    PubMed Central

    Maréchal, Laëtitia; MacLarnon, Ann; Majolo, Bonaventura; Semple, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    The presence of, and interactions with tourists can be both risky and beneficial for wild animals. In wildlife tourism settings, animals often experience elevated rates of aggression from conspecifics, and they may also be threatened or physically aggressed by the tourists themselves. However, tourist provisioning of wild animals provides them with highly desirable foods. In situations of conflicting motivations such as this, animals would be expected to respond using behavioural coping mechanisms. In the present study, we investigated how animals respond to tourist pressure, using wild adult Barbary macaques in the Middle Atlas Mountains, Morocco, as a case study. We found evidence that these animals use a range of different behavioural coping mechanisms–physical avoidance, social support, affiliative, aggressive and displacement behaviours–to cope with the stress associated with tourists. The pattern of use of such behaviours appears to depend on a trade-off between perceived risks and potential benefits. We propose a framework to describe how animals respond to conflicting motivational situations, such as the presence of tourists, that present simultaneously risks and benefits. PMID:27628213

  12. Potential medicinal benefits of Cosmos caudatus (Ulam Raja): A scoping review

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Shi-Hui; Barakatun-Nisak, Mohd Yusof; Anthony, Joseph; Ismail, Amin

    2015-01-01

    Cosmos caudatus is widely used as a traditional medicine in Southeast Asia. C. caudatus has been reported as a rich source of bioactive compounds such as ascorbic acid, quercetin, and chlorogenic acid. Studies have shown that C. caudatus exhibits high anti-oxidant capacity and various medicinal properties, including anti-diabetic activity, anti-hypertensive properties, anti-inflammatory responses, bone-protective effect, and anti-microbial activity. This review aims to present the potential medicinal benefits of C. caudatus from the available scientific literature. We searched PubMed and ScienceDirect database for articles published from 1995 to January 2015. Overall, 15 articles related to C. caudatus and its medicinal benefits are reviewed. All these studies demonstrated that C. caudatus is effective, having demonstrated its anti-diabetic, anti-hypertensive, anti-inflammatory, bone-protective, anti-microbial, and anti-fungal activity in both in vitro and animal studies. None of the studies showed any negative effect of C. caudatus related to medicinal use. Currently available evidence suggests that C. caudatus has beneficial effects such as reducing blood glucose, reducing blood pressure, promoting healthy bone formation, and demonstrating anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial properties. However, human clinical trial is warranted. PMID:26929767

  13. Potential medicinal benefits of Cosmos caudatus (Ulam Raja): A scoping review.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shi-Hui; Barakatun-Nisak, Mohd Yusof; Anthony, Joseph; Ismail, Amin

    2015-10-01

    Cosmos caudatus is widely used as a traditional medicine in Southeast Asia. C. caudatus has been reported as a rich source of bioactive compounds such as ascorbic acid, quercetin, and chlorogenic acid. Studies have shown that C. caudatus exhibits high anti-oxidant capacity and various medicinal properties, including anti-diabetic activity, anti-hypertensive properties, anti-inflammatory responses, bone-protective effect, and anti-microbial activity. This review aims to present the potential medicinal benefits of C. caudatus from the available scientific literature. We searched PubMed and ScienceDirect database for articles published from 1995 to January 2015. Overall, 15 articles related to C. caudatus and its medicinal benefits are reviewed. All these studies demonstrated that C. caudatus is effective, having demonstrated its anti-diabetic, anti-hypertensive, anti-inflammatory, bone-protective, anti-microbial, and anti-fungal activity in both in vitro and animal studies. None of the studies showed any negative effect of C. caudatus related to medicinal use. Currently available evidence suggests that C. caudatus has beneficial effects such as reducing blood glucose, reducing blood pressure, promoting healthy bone formation, and demonstrating anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial properties. However, human clinical trial is warranted.

  14. Primates' behavioural responses to tourists: evidence for a trade-off between potential risks and benefits.

    PubMed

    Maréchal, Laëtitia; MacLarnon, Ann; Majolo, Bonaventura; Semple, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    The presence of, and interactions with tourists can be both risky and beneficial for wild animals. In wildlife tourism settings, animals often experience elevated rates of aggression from conspecifics, and they may also be threatened or physically aggressed by the tourists themselves. However, tourist provisioning of wild animals provides them with highly desirable foods. In situations of conflicting motivations such as this, animals would be expected to respond using behavioural coping mechanisms. In the present study, we investigated how animals respond to tourist pressure, using wild adult Barbary macaques in the Middle Atlas Mountains, Morocco, as a case study. We found evidence that these animals use a range of different behavioural coping mechanisms-physical avoidance, social support, affiliative, aggressive and displacement behaviours-to cope with the stress associated with tourists. The pattern of use of such behaviours appears to depend on a trade-off between perceived risks and potential benefits. We propose a framework to describe how animals respond to conflicting motivational situations, such as the presence of tourists, that present simultaneously risks and benefits. PMID:27628213

  15. Race-based therapy for hypertension: possible benefits and potential pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Ferdinand, Keith C; Ferdinand, Daphne P

    2008-11-01

    Hypertension is a leading risk factor for cardiovascular disease, which includes coronary heart disease, heart failure and stroke. This article examines the possible benefits and potential pitfalls of utilizing race-based categories for antihypertensive therapy. Although the use of race and ethnicity to guide antihypertensive treatment is fraught with difficulty and is, to a large extent, inadequate, there may be benefit in recognizing specific aspects of race and ethnicity when approaching patients with hypertension. Evidence from clinical trials, including drug efficacy and safety comparisons and cardiovascular outcomes, has demonstrated some differences based on race/ethnicity. American federal standards strongly encourage capturing data on race/ethnicity, and most of the current data are available for self-described African-Americans. International studies increasingly identify race/ethnicity, although the data are not as robust as in US trials. Current guidelines recommend thiazide diuretics and/or long-acting calcium channel blockers as initial treatment for Blacks, although medications for compelling indications agents should be prescribed, regardless of race/ethnicity.

  16. Hardwood energy crops and wildlife diversity: Investigating potential benefits for breeding birds and small mammals

    SciTech Connect

    Schiller, A.; Tolbert, V.R.

    1996-08-01

    Hardwood energy crops have the potential to provide a profit to growers as well as environmental benefits (for water quality, soil stabilization, chemical runoff, and wildlife habitat). Environmental considerations are important for both sustainable development of bioenergy technologies on agricultural lands, and for public support. The Environmental Task of the US DOE`s Biofuels feedstock Development Program (BFDP) is working with industry, universities and others to determine how to plant, manage and harvest these crops to maximize environmental advantages and minimize impacts while economically meeting production needs. One research objective is to define and improve wildlife habitat value of these energy crops by exploring how breeding birds and small mammals use them. The authors have found increased diversity of birds in tree plantings compared to row crops. However, fewer bird and small mammal species use the tree plantings than use natural forest. Bird species composition on hardwood crops studied to date is a mixture of openland and forest bird species. Restricted research site availability to date has limited research to small acreage sites of several years of age, or to a few larger acreage but young (1--2 year) plantings. Through industry collaboration, research began this season on bird use of diverse hardwood plantings (different ages, acreages, tree species) in the southeast. Together with results of previous studies, this research will help define practical energy crop guidelines to integrate native wildlife benefits with productive energy crops.

  17. Additive potential of ginger starch on antifungal potency of honey against Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Moussa, Ahmed; Noureddine, Djebli; SM, Hammoudi; Saad, Aissat; Bourabeh, Akila; Houari, Hemida

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the additive action of ginger starch on the antifungal activity of honey against Candida albicans (C. albicans). Methods C. albicans was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of four varieties of Algerian honey. Lower concentrations of honey than the MIC were incubated with a set of concentrations of starch and then added to media to determine the minimum additive inhibitory concentration (MAIC). Results The MIC for the four varieties of honey without starch against C. albicans ranged between 38% and 42% (v/v). When starch was incubated with honey and then added to media, a MIC drop was noticed with each variety. MAIC of the four varieties ranged between 32% honey (v/v) with 4% starch and 36% honey (v/v) with 2% starch. Conclusions The use of ginger starch allows honey benefit and will constitute an alternative way against the resistance to antifungal agents. PMID:23569909

  18. Potential crashworthiness benefits to general aviation from Indianapolis Motor Speedway technology.

    PubMed

    Jennings, R T; Mohler, S R

    1988-01-01

    General aviation crashworthiness can potentially benefit from certain advances being accomplished by the automobile industry. Progressive improvements in crash protection technology, as documented by a dramatic reduction in crash injuries and fatalities at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway, reflect improved crashworthiness. The speeds of survivable general aviation aircraft impacts are in the range of the Indianapolis Motor Speedway crashes (200-220 mph). This paper relates the declining crash death rates at Indy by decade versus the increase in speeds. The continuous rise in speeds has prompted the development of new crashworthy designs and driver protection equipment. Crashworthiness improvements include crushable surrounding structures, high-grade restraint systems, protective head gear, fire resistant clothing, break-away structural components, and a "protective cocoon" concept. Adaptation of selected advances in crashworthiness design and operations accomplished at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway to the next generation of general aviation aircraft should provide significant dividends in survival of air crashes. PMID:3281647

  19. Record linkage in Australian epidemiological research: health benefits, privacy safeguards and future potential.

    PubMed

    Sibthorpe, B; Kliewer, E; Smith, L

    1995-06-01

    Epidemiologists are increasingly concerned with the health effects of interventions and of exposure to noninfectious agents, but there may be long periods between exposure and outcome. Collecting information from respondents is a costly and often inefficient way of obtaining the longitudinal data necessary to study these effects. Linking existing data can be an effective and efficient alternative. However, it is often not practicable to obtain informed consent from the individuals whose records are to be linked. This raises important issues relating to protection of privacy. This paper examines the health benefits and privacy issues of epidemiological and health services research involving record linkage in Australia. The future potential for studies based on record linkage is discussed in the context of recent national and international developments in data protection. In the interests of public health and the rational use of health resources a balance must be struck between protecting individual privacy and conducting such health research for the common good.

  20. Carbon Sequestration in Semi-arid Ecosystems: Potential Benefits of Sagebrush Restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austreng, A. C.; Olin, P. H.; Hummer, A.; Pierce, J. L.; deGraaff, M.; Benner, S. G.

    2011-12-01

    The results of our work indicate that sagebrush restoration may have the potential to offset 23% of annual US carbon emissions. Invasion of native sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) communities by cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) in semi-arid ecosystems of the Intermountain Northwest is degrading ecosystem structure and function and can significantly decrease soil carbon contents. Remediation of invaded sagebrush-steppe communities may be accomplished by replacing cheatgrass with bunchgrass (Agropyron cristatum) and subsequently reestablishing native sagebrush. To evaluate how this remedial strategy affects soil carbon contents, we have quantified carbon associated with root biomass and soils under adjacent cheatgrass, bunchgrass and sagebrush communities at a site in the central Snake River Plain of southern Idaho. A large soil carbon dataset (n = 850) was generated allowing statistical distinction of belowground carbon pools (biomass and soil C). Our study led to two main results: (1) Soil carbon stores were greatest under sagebrush and lowest under cheatgrass (67 and 35 t C per hectare, respectively). Soil carbon was found to be significantly greater beneath sagebrush compared to cheatgrass (~90% increase) at all depths throughout a 60cm profile. (2) Belowground biomass was greatest under sagebrush and lowest beneath cheatgrass (31 and 14 t per hectare, respectively), which accounted for approximately 20% of the total increase in belowground carbon beneath sagebrush. The results of our work indicate that this stepwise reclamation strategy will produce significant increases in soil carbon storage with conversion of cheatgrass to bunchgrass facilitating carbon storage benefits of ~15 t C per hectare and a bunchgrass to native sagebrush benefit of ~17 t C per hectare. Extending these results to all ~10 million ha of cheatgrass-infested ecosystems in the Great Basin, suggests that sagebrush restoration may have the potential to compensate for 23% of US annual carbon

  1. Evaluation of potential performance additives for the advanced lithium bromide chiller

    SciTech Connect

    Reiner, R.H.; Del Cul, W.; Perez-Blanco, H.; Ally, M.R.; Zaltash, A.

    1991-04-01

    The effectiveness and stability of potential heat-and-mass transfer (performance) additives for an advanced lithium bromide (LiBr) chiller were evaluated in a series of experimental studies. These studies of additive effectiveness and stability were necessary because many currently used performance additives decompose at the high generator temperatures (220{degrees}C to 260{degrees}C) desired for this particular advanced LiBr chiller. For example, one common performance additive, 2-ethyl-l-hexanol (2EH), reacts with the corrosion inhibitor, lithium chromate (Li{sub 2}CrO{sub 4}), even at moderate generator temperatures ({ge}180{degrees}C). These stability problems can be mitigated by using less reactive corrosion inhibitors such as lithium molybdate (Li{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}) and by using more stable performance additives such as 1-heptanol (HEP) or 1H,1H,7H-dodecafluoro-1-heptanol (DFH). There seems to be a trade-off between additive stability and effectiveness: the most effective performance additives are not the most stable additives. These studies indicate that HEP or DFH may be effective additives in the advanced LiBr chiller if Li{sub 2}MoO{sub 4} is used as a corrosion inhibitor.

  2. Incorporating the productivity benefits into the assessment of cost effective energy savings potential using conservation supply curves

    SciTech Connect

    Laitner, John A.; Ruth, Michael; Worrell, Ernst

    2001-07-24

    We review the relationship between energy efficiency improvement measures and productivity in industry. We propose a method to include productivity benefits in the economic assessment of the potential for energy efficiency improvement. The paper explores the implications of how this change in perspective might affect the evaluation of energy-efficient technologies for a study of the iron and steel industry in the U.S. It is found that including productivity benefits explicitly in the modeling parameters would double the cost-effective potential for energy efficiency improvement, compared to an analysis excluding those benefits. We provide suggestions for future research for this important area.

  3. Potential benefits of long-distance electricity transmission in China for air quality and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, W.; Mauzerall, D. L.; Yuan, J.; Zhao, Y.; Lin, M.; Zhang, Q.

    2015-12-01

    China is expanding west-to-east long-distance electricity transmission capacity with the aim of reducing eastern coal power production and resulting air pollution. In addition to coal power, this new grid capacity can be used to transport renewable-generated electricity with resulting climate co-benefits. Here we use an integrated assessment to evaluate the air quality and climate benefits of twelve proposed transmission lines in China, and compare two energy-by-wire strategies that transmit 1) only coal power (Coal-by-wire, CbW) or 2) combined renewable plus coal power (Renewable and coal-by-wire, (RE+C)bW), with 3) the current practice of transporting coal by rail for conversion to electricity near eastern demand centers (Coal-by-rail, CbR). Based on a regional atmospheric chemistry model, WRF-Chem, electricity transmission through the proposed lines leads to 2-3 μg/m3 (2-7%) reduction in the annual mean concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in the eastern provinces relative to 2010 levels, roughly ~1 μg/m3 greater than the reduction achieved in CbR where dirty coal units are locally replaced with efficient ones. Although the eastern air quality improvement is similar irrespective of the fuel source to power the lines, adding coal generation results in up to 3% increase in annual mean PM2.5 levels in some exporting provinces, whereas such increase is not observed when most added capacity is renewable-based. Counting both the economic value of reduced carbon emissions and the health-related air quality benefits can significantly improve the cost-effectiveness of transmitting both renewable and coal power. Comparing (RE+C)bW with the two coal-based options, we find not only 20% larger reduction in air-pollution-related deaths, but also three times greater reduction in CO2 emissions. Our study hence demonstrates the significance of coordinating renewable energy planning with transmission planning to simultaneously tackle air pollution and climate

  4. Climate change impacts and potential benefits of heat-tolerant maize in South Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tesfaye, Kindie; Zaidi, P. H.; Gbegbelegbe, Sika; Boeber, Christian; Rahut, Dil Bahadur; Getaneh, Fite; Seetharam, K.; Erenstein, Olaf; Stirling, Clare

    2016-09-01

    Maize is grown by millions of smallholder farmers in South Asia (SA) under diverse environments. The crop is grown in different seasons in a year with varying exposure to weather extremes, including high temperatures at critical growth stages which are expected to increase with climate change. This study assesses the impact of current and future heat stress on maize and the benefit of heat-tolerant varieties in SA. Annual mean maximum temperatures may increase by 1.4-1.8 °C in 2030 and 2.1-2.6 °C in 2050, with large monthly, seasonal, and spatial variations across SA. The extent of heat stressed areas in SA could increase by up to 12 % in 2030 and 21 % in 2050 relative to the baseline. The impact of heat stress and the benefit from heat-tolerant varieties vary with the level of temperature increase and planting season. At a regional scale, climate change would reduce rainfed maize yield by an average of 3.3-6.4 % in 2030 and 5.2-12.2 % in 2050 and irrigated yield by 3-8 % in 2030 and 5-14 % in 2050 if current varieties were grown under the future climate. Under projected climate, heat-tolerant varieties could minimize yield loss (relative to current maize varieties) by up to 36 and 93 % in 2030 and 33 and 86 % in 2050 under rainfed and irrigated conditions, respectively. Heat-tolerant maize varieties, therefore, have the potential to shield maize farmers from severe yield loss due to heat stress and help them adapt to climate change impacts.

  5. Assessing the potential additionality of certification by the Round table on Responsible Soybeans and the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrett, Rachael D.; Carlson, Kimberly M.; Rueda, Ximena; Noojipady, Praveen

    2016-04-01

    Multi-stakeholder roundtables offering certification programs are promising voluntary governance mechanisms to address sustainability issues associated with international agricultural supply chains. Yet, little is known about whether roundtable certifications confer additionality, the benefits of certification beyond what would be expected from policies and practices currently in place. Here, we examine the potential additionality of the Round table on Responsible Soybeans (RTRS) and the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO) in mitigating conversion of native vegetation to cropland. We develop a metric of additionality based on business as usual land cover change dynamics and roundtable standard stringency relative to existing policies. We apply this metric to all countries with RTRS (n = 8) and RSPO (n = 12) certified production in 2013-2014, as well as countries that have no certified production but are among the top ten global producers in terms of soy (n = 2) and oil palm (n = 2). We find RSPO and RTRS both have substantially higher levels of stringency than existing national policies except in Brazil and Uruguay. In regions where these certification standards are adopted, the mean estimated rate of tree cover conversion to the target crop is similar for both standards. RTRS has higher mean relative stringency than the RSPO, yet RSPO countries have slightly higher enforcement levels. Therefore, mean potential additionality of RTRS and RSPO is similar across regions. Notably, countries with the highest levels of additionality have some adoption. However, with extremely low adoption rates (0.41% of 2014 global harvested area), RTRS likely has lower impact than RSPO (14%). Like most certification programs, neither roundtable is effectively targeting smallholder producers. To improve natural ecosystem protection, roundtables could target adoption to regions with low levels of environmental governance and high rates of forest-to-cropland conversion.

  6. Assessing the potential additionality of certification by the Round table on Responsible Soybeans and the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrett, Rachael D.; Carlson, Kimberly M.; Rueda, Ximena; Noojipady, Praveen

    2016-04-01

    Multi-stakeholder roundtables offering certification programs are promising voluntary governance mechanisms to address sustainability issues associated with international agricultural supply chains. Yet, little is known about whether roundtable certifications confer additionality, the benefits of certification beyond what would be expected from policies and practices currently in place. Here, we examine the potential additionality of the Round table on Responsible Soybeans (RTRS) and the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO) in mitigating conversion of native vegetation to cropland. We develop a metric of additionality based on business as usual land cover change dynamics and roundtable standard stringency relative to existing policies. We apply this metric to all countries with RTRS (n = 8) and RSPO (n = 12) certified production in 2013–2014, as well as countries that have no certified production but are among the top ten global producers in terms of soy (n = 2) and oil palm (n = 2). We find RSPO and RTRS both have substantially higher levels of stringency than existing national policies except in Brazil and Uruguay. In regions where these certification standards are adopted, the mean estimated rate of tree cover conversion to the target crop is similar for both standards. RTRS has higher mean relative stringency than the RSPO, yet RSPO countries have slightly higher enforcement levels. Therefore, mean potential additionality of RTRS and RSPO is similar across regions. Notably, countries with the highest levels of additionality have some adoption. However, with extremely low adoption rates (0.41% of 2014 global harvested area), RTRS likely has lower impact than RSPO (14%). Like most certification programs, neither roundtable is effectively targeting smallholder producers. To improve natural ecosystem protection, roundtables could target adoption to regions with low levels of environmental governance and high rates of forest-to-cropland conversion.

  7. Spatial optimization of carbon-stocking projects across Africa integrating stocking potential with co-benefits and feasibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greve, Michelle; Reyers, Belinda; Mette Lykke, Anne; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2013-12-01

    Carbon offset projects through forestation are employed within the emissions trading framework to store carbon. Yet, information about the potential of landscapes to stock carbon, essential to the design of offset projects, is often lacking. Here, based on data on vegetation carbon, climate and soil, we quantify the potential for carbon storage in woody vegetation across tropical Africa. The ability of offset projects to produce co-benefits for ecosystems and people is then quantified. When co-benefits such as biodiversity conservation are considered, the top-ranked sites are sometimes different to sites selected purely for their carbon-stocking potential, although they still possess up to 92% of the latter carbon-stocking potential. This work provides the first continental-scale assessment of which areas may provide the greatest direct and indirect benefits from carbon storage reforestation projects at the smallest costs and risks, providing crucial information for prioritization of investments in carbon storage projects.

  8. Energy level formula for the Morse oscillator with an additional kinetic coupling potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Hong-yi; Chen, Bo-zhan; Fan, Yue

    1996-02-01

    Based on the <η| representation which is the common eigenstate of the relative position x1 - x2 and the total momentum P1 + P2 of two particles we derive the energy level formula for a Morse oscillator with an additional kinetic coupling potential. The <η| representation seems to provide a direct and convenient approach for solving certain dynamical problems for two-body systems.

  9. Effects of potential additives to promote seal swelling on the thermal stability of synthetic jet fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Lind, D.D.; Gormley, R.G.; Zandhuis, P.H.; Baltrus, J.P.

    2007-10-01

    Synthetic fuels derived from the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) process using natural gas or coal-derived synthesis gas as feedstocks can be used for powering of ground vehicles, aircraft and ships. Because of their chemical and physical properties, F-T fuels will probably require additives in order to meet specifications with respect to lubricity and seal swell capability for use in ground and air vehicles. These additives can include oxygenates and compounds containing other heteroatoms that may adversely affect thermal stability. In order to understand what additives will be the most beneficial, a comprehensive experimental and computational study of conventional and additized fuels has been undertaken. The experimental approach includes analysis of the trace oxygenate and nitrogen-containing compounds present in conventional petroleum-derived fuels and trying to relate their presence (or absence) to changes in the desired properties of the fuels. This paper describes the results of efforts to test the thermal stability of synthetic fuels and surrogate fuels containing single-component additives that have been identified in earlier research as the best potential additives for promoting seal swelling in synthetic fuels, as well as mixtures of synthetic and petroleum-derived fuels.

  10. Potential benefits and hazards of physical activity and exercise on the gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    PETERS, H; DE VRIES, W R; VANBERGE-HENEGOUW..., G; AKKERMANS, L

    2001-01-01

    G P VANBERGE-HENEGOUWEN, L M A AKKERMANS Gastrointestinal Research Unit
Departments of Surgery and Gastroenterology
University Medical Centre Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands
 This review describes the current state of knowledge on the hazards of exercise and the potential benefits of physical activity on the gastrointestinal tract. In particular, acute strenuous exercise may provoke gastrointestinal symptoms such as heartburn or diarrhoea. A substantial part (20-50%) of endurance athletes are hampered by these symptoms which may deter them from participation in training and competitive events. Nevertheless, these acute symptoms are transient and do not hamper the athlete's health in the long term. The only exception is repeated gastrointestinal bleeding during training and competition, which in the long term may occasionally lead to iron deficiency and anaemia. In contrast, repetitive exercise periods at a relatively low intensity may have protective effects on the gastrointestinal tract. There is strong evidence that physical activity reduces the risk of colon cancer by up to 50%. Less convincing evidence exists for cholelithiasis and constipation. Physical activity may reduce the risk of diverticulosis, gastrointestinal haemorrhage, and inflammatory bowel disease although this cannot be substantiated firmly. Up to now, underlying mechanisms are poorly understood although decreased gastrointestinal blood flow, neuro-immuno-endocrine alterations, increased gastrointestinal motility, and mechanical bouncing during exercise are postulated. Future research on exercise associated digestive processes should give more insight into the relationship between physical activity and the function of the gastrointestinal tract.

 PMID:11171839

  11. Electronic cigarettes: Review of use, content, safety, effects on smokers, and potential for harm and benefit

    PubMed Central

    Hajek, Peter; Etter, Jean-François; Benowitz, Neal; Eissenberg, Thomas; McRobbie, Hayden

    2015-01-01

    Aims We reviewed available research on the use, content and safety of electronic cigarettes (EC) and on their effects on users, to assess their potential for harm or benefit and to extract evidence that can guide future policy. Methods Studies were identified by systematic database searches and screening references to February 2014. Results EC aerosol can contain some of the toxicants present in tobacco smoke, but at levels which are much lower. Long-term health effects of EC use are unknown but compared with cigarettes, EC are likely to be much less, if at all, harmful to users or bystanders. EC are increasingly popular among smokers, but to date there is no evidence of regular use by never-smokers or by non-smoking children. EC enable some users to reduce or quit smoking. Conclusions Allowing EC to compete with cigarettes in the marketplace might decrease smoking-related morbidity and mortality. Regulating EC as strictly as cigarettes, or even more strictly as some regulators propose, is not warranted on current evidence. Health professionals may consider advising smokers unable or unwilling to quit through other routes to switch to EC as a safer alternative to smoking and a possible pathway to complete cessation of nicotine use. PMID:25078252

  12. The potential health benefits of legumes as a good source of dietary fibre.

    PubMed

    Trinidad, Trinidad P; Mallillin, Aida C; Loyola, Anacleta S; Sagum, Rosario S; Encabo, Rosario R

    2010-02-01

    Dietary fibre has been shown to have important health implications in the prevention of risks of chronic diseases. The objective of the present study was to determine the potential health benefits of legumes as a good source of dietary fibre. Six to ten local legumes were studied as follows: cowpeas, mung beans, pole sitao, chickpeas, green peas, groundnuts, pigeon peas, kidney beans, lima beans and soyabeans. The following studies were conducted: (a) mineral availability, in vitro; (b) glycaemic index (GI) in non-diabetic and diabetic human subjects; (c) the cholesterol-lowering effect in human subjects with moderately raised serum cholesterol levels. The highest Fe availability among legumes was for lima beans (9.5 (sem 0.1)) while for Zn and Ca, the highest availability was for kidney beans (49.3 (sem 4.5)) and pigeon peas (75.1 (sem 7.1)), respectively. Groundnuts have the lowest Fe (1.3 (sem 1.1)), Zn (7.9 (sem 1.3)) and Ca (14.6 (sem 2.8)) availability. Legumes are low-GI foods ( < 55), ranging from 6 (chickpeas) to 13 (mung beans). Kidney beans showed significant reductions for both total (6 %) and LDL-cholesterol (9 %), and groundnuts for total cholesterol (7 %; P < 0.05). We conclude that mineral availability from legumes differs and may be attributed to their mineral content, mineral-mineral interaction and from their phytic and tannic acid content; legumes are considered low-GI foods and have shown potential hypocholesterolaemic effects. The above studies can be a scientific basis for considering legumes as functional foods.

  13. The potential health benefits of legumes as a good source of dietary fibre.

    PubMed

    Trinidad, Trinidad P; Mallillin, Aida C; Loyola, Anacleta S; Sagum, Rosario S; Encabo, Rosario R

    2010-02-01

    Dietary fibre has been shown to have important health implications in the prevention of risks of chronic diseases. The objective of the present study was to determine the potential health benefits of legumes as a good source of dietary fibre. Six to ten local legumes were studied as follows: cowpeas, mung beans, pole sitao, chickpeas, green peas, groundnuts, pigeon peas, kidney beans, lima beans and soyabeans. The following studies were conducted: (a) mineral availability, in vitro; (b) glycaemic index (GI) in non-diabetic and diabetic human subjects; (c) the cholesterol-lowering effect in human subjects with moderately raised serum cholesterol levels. The highest Fe availability among legumes was for lima beans (9.5 (sem 0.1)) while for Zn and Ca, the highest availability was for kidney beans (49.3 (sem 4.5)) and pigeon peas (75.1 (sem 7.1)), respectively. Groundnuts have the lowest Fe (1.3 (sem 1.1)), Zn (7.9 (sem 1.3)) and Ca (14.6 (sem 2.8)) availability. Legumes are low-GI foods ( < 55), ranging from 6 (chickpeas) to 13 (mung beans). Kidney beans showed significant reductions for both total (6 %) and LDL-cholesterol (9 %), and groundnuts for total cholesterol (7 %; P < 0.05). We conclude that mineral availability from legumes differs and may be attributed to their mineral content, mineral-mineral interaction and from their phytic and tannic acid content; legumes are considered low-GI foods and have shown potential hypocholesterolaemic effects. The above studies can be a scientific basis for considering legumes as functional foods. PMID:19825218

  14. Potential benefits of biotechnology in aquaculture: The case of growth hormones in French trout farming

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnieux, F.; Gloaguen, Y.; Rainelli, P.; Faure, A.; Fauconneau, B.; Le Bail, P.Y.; Maisse, G.; Prunet, P.

    1993-05-01

    Against the background of rapidly increasing fish demand and stagnant or declining marine harvest, aquaculture or fish farming has assumed a major role in France which is set to expand. Trout farming in particular has already displayed considerable growth and France is the leading producer in the EEC. Biotechnology holds the key to future changes in trout culture. One such technology, which trials show has potential to reduce production costs, is recombinant trout growth hormone (rtGH). This paper sets out to perform a preliminary ex ante assessment of the possible social benefits from the adoption of rtGH by French trout producers. Several scenarios, based on possible hypotheses of supply and demand growth, are considered. Scenarios assuming an association of the technology with diversification towards more highly processed trout products display the highest estimated welfare gains. A key factor which will determine the outcome of using rtGH is its acceptance by the public. There has already been strong adverse reaction in Europe to the use of genetically engineered growth hormones in meat production and to the use of bovine somatotropin to enhance milk yields. The possibility that there might be a similar response in the case of trout is examined by considering the possibility of a sharp drop in demand. Part 1 of the paper sets out the economic and technological background to biotechnological development of trout farming in France. Part 2 undertakes an ex ante assessment of potential changes in producer and consumer surplus from the adoption of rtGH applying alternative supply and demand shifts in the framework of partial equilibrium analysis. 16 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Screening of Potential O-Ring Swelling Additives for Ultraclean Transportation Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Baltrus, J.P.; Link, D.D.; Zandhuis, P.H.; Gormley, R.J.; Anderson, R.R.

    2007-03-01

    Several classes of organic compounds and mixtures of organic compounds were evaluated as potential additives to Fischer-Tropsch fuels to promote swelling of nitrile rubber o-rings that come in contact with the fuels. Computational modeling studies were also carried out to predict which compounds might be best at promoting o-ring swelling. The combined experimental-theoretical approach showed that steric factors strongly influence the interactions between additives and the nitrile sites in the rubber that result in swelling. Select compounds incorporating both oxygenate and aromatic functionalities appear to be the best candidates for additives because of a "dual" interaction between complementary functionalities on these compounds and the nitrile rubber.

  16. Suitability of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in screening potential additives to mitigate fouling deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balakrishnan, S.; Midhun Reddy, V.; Mehta, A.; Vasa, N. J.; Nagarajan, R.

    2016-04-01

    Alkali vapors present in the flue gas generated during coal-based combustion form fouling deposits as they condense. An additive added to coal can trap alkali elements in ash, therefore suppress the growth rate of fouling deposits, and increase thermal efficiency of a coal-fired thermal power plant. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique is proposed and demonstrated to screen potential additives to trap alkali elements in ash. Five additives—namely, kaolinite, alumina, silica, magnesia, and pumice—were analyzed for their effectiveness on four Indian coals for retaining/confining alkali elements in ash during coal combustion. Ratio analysis based on LIBS emission intensity values clearly shows that kaolinite and pumice are promising additives to trap sodium. Similarly, kaolinite, pumice, and silica exhibited good potassium retention.

  17. Tandem oleosin genes in a cluster acquired in Brassicaceae created tapetosomes and conferred additive benefit of pollen vigor

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chien Yu; Chen, Pei-Ying; Huang, Ming-Der; Tsou, Chih-Hua; Jane, Wann-Neng; Huang, Anthony H. C.

    2013-01-01

    During evolution, genomes expanded via whole-genome, segmental, tandem, and individual-gene duplications, and the emerged redundant paralogs would be eliminated or retained owing to selective neutrality or adaptive benefit and further functional divergence. Here we show that tandem paralogs can contribute adaptive quantitative benefit and thus have been retained in a lineage-specific manner. In Brassicaceae, a tandem oleosin gene cluster of five to nine paralogs encodes ample tapetum-specific oleosins located in abundant organelles called tapetosomes in flower anthers. Tapetosomes coordinate the storage of lipids and flavonoids and their transport to the adjacent maturing pollen as the coat to serve various functions. Transfer-DNA and siRNA mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana with knockout and knockdown of different tandem oleosin paralogs had quantitative and correlated loss of organized structures of the tapetosomes, pollen-coat materials, and pollen tolerance to dehydration. Complementation with the knockout paralog restored the losses. Cleomaceae is the family closest to Brassicaceae. Cleome species did not contain the tandem oleosin gene cluster, tapetum oleosin transcripts, tapetosomes, or pollen tolerant to dehydration. Cleome hassleriana transformed with an Arabidopsis oleosin gene for tapetum expression possessed primitive tapetosomes and pollen tolerant to dehydration. We propose that during early evolution of Brassicaceae, a duplicate oleosin gene mutated from expression in seed to the tapetum. The tapetum oleosin generated primitive tapetosomes that organized stored lipids and flavonoids for their effective transfer to the pollen surface for greater pollen vitality. The resulting adaptive benefit led to retention of tandem-duplicated oleosin genes for production of more oleosin and modern tapetosomes. PMID:23940319

  18. Potential Additives to Promote Seal Swell in Synthetic Fuels and Their Effect on Thermal Stability

    SciTech Connect

    Link, Dirk D.; Gormley, Robert J.; Baltrus, John P.; Anderson, Richard R.; Zandhuis, Paul H.

    2008-03-01

    Synthetic, fuels derived from the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) process using natural gas or coal-derived synthesis gas as feedstocks can be used for powering ground vehicles, aircraft, and ships. Because of their chemical and physical properties, F-T fuels will probably require additives in order to meet specifications with respect to lubricity and seal swell capability for use in ground and air vehicles. Using both experimental and computational studies, the propensity of certain species to enhance the seal swell characteristics of synthetic fuels and surrogates has been determined, and promising additives have been identified. Important structural characteristics for potential additives, namely an aromatic ring along with a polar constituent, are described. The thermal stability of synthetic and surrogate fuels containing the single-component additive benzyl alcohol, which is representative of this structural class, has been determined by batch stressing of the mixtures at 350º C for up to 12 h. Synthetic fuels spiked with benzyl alcohol at concentrations (vol%) of 1.0, 0.75, and 0.5 have demonstrated the ability to swell nitrile rubber o-rings to a comparable degree as petroleum jet fuel. Further, batch reactor studies have shown that addition of benzyl alcohol does not degrade the thermal oxidative stability of the fuel based on gravimetric analysis of the solid deposits after stressing. GC-MS was used to characterize the products from thermal stressing of neat and additized surrogate jet fuel, and their compositions were compared with respect to the creation of certain species and their potential effect on deposition.

  19. Potential Additives to Promote Seal Swell in Synthetic Fuels and Their Effect on Thermal Stability

    SciTech Connect

    Link, D.D.; Gormley, R.J.; Baltrus, J.P.; Anderson, R.R.; Zandhuis, P.H.

    2008-03-01

    Synthetic fuels derived from the Fischer–Tropsch (F-T) process using natural gas or coal-derived synthesis gas as feedstocks can be used for powering ground vehicles, aircraft, and ships. Because of their chemical and physical properties, F-T fuels will probably require additives in order to meet specifications with respect to lubricity and seal swell capability for use in ground and air vehicles. Using both experimental and computational studies, the propensity of certain species to enhance the seal swell characteristics of synthetic fuels and surrogates has been determined, and promising additives have been identified. Important structural characteristics for potential additives, namely an aromatic ring along with a polar constituent, are described. The thermal stability of synthetic and surrogate fuels containing the single-component additive benzyl alcohol, which is representative of this structural class, has been determined by batch stressing of the mixtures at 350 °C for up to 12 h. Synthetic fuels spiked with benzyl alcohol at concentrations (vol %) of 1.0, 0.75, and 0.5 have demonstrated the ability to swell nitrile rubber o-rings to a comparable degree as petroleum jet fuel. Further, batch reactor studies have shown that addition of benzyl alcohol does not degrade the thermal oxidative stability of the fuel based on gravimetric analysis of the solid deposits after stressing. GC-MS was used to characterize the products from thermal stressing of neat and additized surrogate jet fuel, and their compositions were compared with respect to the creation of certain species and their potential effect on deposition.

  20. Harnessing Potential Evaporation as a Renewable Energy Resource With Water-Saving Benefits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavusoglu, A. H.; Chen, X.; Gentine, P.; Sahin, O.

    2015-12-01

    Water's large latent heat of vaporization makes evaporation a critical component of the energy balance at the Earth's surface. An immense amount of energy drives the hydrological cycle and is an important component of various weather and climate patterns. However, the potential of harnessing evaporation has received little attention as a renewable energy resource compared to wind and solar energy. Here, we investigate the potential of harvesting energy from naturally evaporating water. Using weather data across the contiguous United States and a modified model of potential evaporation, we estimate the power availability, intermittency, and the changes in evaporation rates imposed by energy conversion. Our results indicate that natural evaporation can deliver power densities similar to existing renewable energy platforms and require little to no energy storage to match the varying power demands of urban areas. This model also predicts additional, and substantial, water savings by reducing evaporative losses. These findings suggest that evaporative energy harvesting can address significant challenges with water/energy interactions that could be of interest to the hydrology community.

  1. Investigation of sewage sludge stabilization potential by the addition of fly ash and lime.

    PubMed

    Samaras, P; Papadimitriou, C A; Haritou, I; Zouboulis, A I

    2008-06-15

    The aim of this work was the examination of stabilization potential of sewage sludge by the addition of fly ash and/or lime and the investigation of the effect of stabilization time on the properties of produced mixtures. Five samples were prepared by mixing fly ash, sewage sludge and lime in various ratios and the mixtures were stabilized for a period of 35 d. The addition of alkaline agents resulted in the increase of sample pH up to 12, the increase of total solids content to about 50% and the reduction of the organic fraction of the solids. The produced samples presented inhibition effects to seed germination and root length growth of three higher plants (one monocotyl and two dicotyls); however, samples with high sludge content resulted in negligible seed germination inhibition at prolonged stabilization times. The standard TCLP leaching procedure was applied in all the produced samples in order to evaluate the extraction potential of certain metallic elements; the content of metals in the eluates was varied, depending upon their speciation and form. Eluates presented significant inhibition to the marine photobacterium Vibrio fischeri bioluminescence, while the lowest inhibition was detected for the samples containing higher sludge content. These samples potentially could be applied as soil amendment, offering an efficient method for the combined utilization of two different solid wastes; however, low dosages of fly ash should be used for the production of a stabilized material presenting negligible effects with respect to its phytotoxic and ecotoxic properties. PMID:18093729

  2. Accelerated partial-breast irradiation using intensity-modulated proton radiotherapy: do uncertainties outweigh potential benefits?

    PubMed Central

    Wang, X; Zhang, X; Li, X; Amos, R A; Shaitelman, S F; Hoffman, K; Howell, R; Salehpour, M; Zhang, S X; Sun, T L; Smith, B; Tereffe, W; Perkins, G H; Buchholz, T A; Strom, E A

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Passive scattering proton beam (PSPB) radiotherapy for accelerated partial-breast irradiation (APBI) provides superior dosimetry for APBI three-dimensional conformal photon radiotherapy (3DCRT). Here we examine the potential incremental benefit of intensity-modulated proton radiotherapy (IMPT) for APBI and compare its dosimetry with PSPB and 3DCRT. Methods: Two theoretical IMPT plans, TANGENT_PAIR and TANGENT_ENFACE, were created for 11 patients previously treated with 3DCRT APBI and were compared with PSPB and 3DCRT plans for the same CT data sets. The impact of range, motion and set-up uncertainties as well as scanned spot mismatching between fields of IMPT plans was evaluated. Results: IMPT plans for APBI were significantly better regarding breast skin sparing (p<0.005) and other normal tissue sparing than 3DCRT plans (p<0.01) with comparable target coverage (p=ns). IMPT plans were statistically better than PSPB plans regarding breast skin (p<0.002) and non-target breast (p<0.007) in higher dose regions but worse or comparable in lower dose regions. IMPT plans using TANGENT_ENFACE were superior to that using TANGENT_PAIR in terms of target coverage (p<0.003) and normal tissue sparing (p<0.05) in low-dose regions. IMPT uncertainties were demonstrated for multiple causes. Qualitative comparison of dose–volume histogram confidence intervals for IMPT suggests that numeric gains may be offset by IMPT uncertainties. Conclusion: Using current clinical dosimetry, PSPB provides excellent dosimetry compared with 3DCRT with fewer uncertainties compared with IMPT. Advances in knowledge: As currently delivered in the clinic, PSPB planning for APBI provides as good or better dosimetry than IMPT with less uncertainty. PMID:23728947

  3. The potential health benefit of polyisoprenylated benzophenones from Garcinia and related genera: ethnobotanical and therapeutic importance.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Satyanshu; Sharma, Shelly; Chattopadhyay, Sunil Kumar

    2013-09-01

    fruits, which may be useful for predicting other medicinal uses, potential drug or food interactions and may benefit people where the fruits are prevalent and healthcare resources are scarce.

  4. Exploring the potential benefits of stratified false discovery rates for region-based testing of association with rare genetic variation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Changjiang; Ciampi, Antonio; Greenwood, Celia M T

    2014-01-01

    When analyzing the data that arises from exome or whole-genome sequencing studies, window-based tests, (i.e., tests that jointly analyze all genetic data in a small genomic region), are very popular. However, power is known to be quite low for finding associations with phenotypes using these tests, and therefore a variety of analytic strategies may be employed to potentially improve power. Using sequencing data of all of chromosome 3 from an interim release of data on 2432 individuals from the UK10K project, we simulated phenotypes associated with rare genetic variation, and used the results to explore the window-based test power. We asked two specific questions: firstly, whether there could be substantial benefits associated with incorporating information from external annotation on the genetic variants, and secondly whether the false discovery rate (FDRs) would be a useful metric for assessing significance. Although, as expected, there are benefits to using additional information (such as annotation) when it is associated with causality, we confirmed the general pattern of low sensitivity and power for window-based tests. For our chosen example, even when power is high to detect some of the associations, many of the regions containing causal variants are not detectable, despite using lax significance thresholds and optimal analytic methods. Furthermore, our estimated FDR values tended to be much smaller than the true FDRs. Long-range correlations between variants-due to linkage disequilibrium-likely explain some of this bias. A more sophisticated approach to using the annotation information may improve power, however, many causal variants of realistic effect sizes may simply be undetectable, at least with this sample size. Perhaps annotation information could assist in distinguishing windows containing causal variants from windows that are merely correlated with causal variants.

  5. Assessment of potential benefits from lunar/Mars propellant production for support of human exploration of the moon and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, Mark K.; Collins, John T.; Stancati, Michael L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes an assessment of potential benefits offered through use of lunar/Mars in situ propellant production to support manned missions to the moon and Mars. Resources available at each location and processing options for their extraction are discussed. Key infrastructure and support systems needed to sustain the propellant production operation and to deliver the propellants from their point of origin to the point of application are defined. The analysis focuses on reductions of earth launched mass over the course of multiple missions to assess the potential savings offered. Initial results show the impact of requirements for sustaining in situ propellant production systems on benefits offered during steady-state operation.

  6. Additive Effects of Repetition and Predictability during Comprehension: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Barrios, Shannon; Parker, Dan; Morini, Giovanna; Lau, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown that neural responses to words during sentence comprehension are sensitive to both lexical repetition and a word’s predictability in context. While previous research has often contrasted the effects of these variables (e.g. by looking at cases in which word repetition violates sentence-level constraints), little is known about how they work in tandem. In the current study we examine how recent exposure to a word and its predictability in context combine to impact lexical semantic processing. We devise a novel paradigm that combines reading comprehension with a recognition memory task, allowing for an orthogonal manipulation of a word’s predictability and its repetition status. Using event-related brain potentials (ERPs), we show that word repetition and predictability have qualitatively similar and additive effects on the N400 amplitude. We propose that prior exposure to a word and predictability impact lexical semantic processing in an additive and independent fashion. PMID:24905459

  7. Integrating black liquor gasification with pulping - Process simulation, economics and potential benefits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindstrom, Erik Vilhelm Mathias

    Gasification of black liquor could drastically increase the flexibility and improve the profit potential of a mature industry. The completed work was focused on research around the economics and benefits of its implementation, utilizing laboratory pulping experiments and process simulation. The separation of sodium and sulfur achieved through gasification of recovered black liquor, can be utilized in processes like modified continuous cooking, split sulfidity and green liquor pretreatment pulping, and polysulfide-anthraquinone pulping, to improve pulp yield and properties. Laboratory pulping protocols have been developed for these modified pulping technologies and different process options evaluated. The process simulation work around BLG has led to the development of a WinGEMS module for the low temperature MTCI steam reforming process, and case studies comparing a simulated conventional kraft process to different process options built around the implementation of a BLG unit operation into the kraft recovery cycle. Pulp yield increases of 1-3% points with improved product quality, and the potential for capital and operating cost savings relative to the conventional kraft process have been demonstrated. Process simulation work has shown that the net variable operating cost for a pulping process using BLGCC is highly dependent on the cost of lime kiln fuel and the selling price of green power to the grid. Under the assumptions taken in the performed case study, the BLGCC process combined with split sulfidity or PSAQ pulping operations had net variable operating cost 2-4% greater than the kraft reference. The influence of the sales price of power to the grid is the most significant cost factor. If a sales price increase to 6 ¢/KWh for green power could be achieved, cost savings of about $40/ODtP could be realized in all investigated BLG processes. Other alternatives to improve the process economics around BLG would be to modify or eliminate the lime kiln unit

  8. The Quality of Tumor Size Assessment by Contrast-Enhanced Spectral Mammography and the Benefit of Additional Breast MRI

    PubMed Central

    Lobbes, Marc B.I.; Lalji, Ulrich C.; Nelemans, Patty J.; Houben, Ivo; Smidt, Marjolein L.; Heuts, Esther; de Vries, Bart; Wildberger, Joachim E.; Beets-Tan, Regina G.

    2015-01-01

    Background - Contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CESM) is a promising new breast imaging modality that is superior to conventional mammography for breast cancer detection. We aimed to evaluate correlation and agreement of tumor size measurements using CESM. As additional analysis, we evaluated whether measurements using an additional breast MRI exam would yield more accurate results. Methods - Between January 1st 2013 and April 1st 2014, 87 consecutive breast cancer cases that underwent CESM were collected and data on maximum tumor size measurements were gathered. In 57 cases, tumor size measurements were also available for breast MRI. Histopathological results of the surgical specimen served as gold standard in all cases. Results - The Pearson's correlation coefficients (PCC) of CESM versus histopathology and breast MRI versus histopathology were all >0.9, p<0.0001. For the agreement between measurements, the mean difference between CESM and histopathology was 0.03 mm. The mean difference between breast MRI and histopathology was 2.12 mm. Using a 2x2 contingency table to assess the frequency distribution of a relevant size discrepancy of >1 cm between the two imaging modalities and histopathological results, we did not observe any advantage of performing an additional breast MRI after CESM in any of the cases. Conclusion - Quality of tumor size measurement using CESM is good and matches the quality of these measurement assessed by breast MRI. Additional measurements using breast MRI did not improve the quality of tumor size measurements. PMID:25561979

  9. Potential Benefit of Metformin as Treatment for Colon Cancer: the Evidence so Far.

    PubMed

    Abdelsatir, Azza Ali; Husain, Nazik Elmalaika; Hassan, Abdallah Tarig; Elmadhoun, Wadie M; Almobarak, Ahmed O; Ahmed, Mohamed H

    2015-01-01

    Metformin is known as a hypoglycaemic agent that regulates glucose homeostasis by inhibiting liver glucose production and increasing muscle glucose uptake. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide, with about a million new cases diagnosed each year. The risk factors for CRC include advanced age, smoking, black race, obesity, low fibre diet, insulin resistance, and the metabolic syndrome. We have searched Medline for the metabolic syndrome and its relation to CRC, and metformin as a potential treatment of colorectal cancer. Administration of metformin alone or in combination with chemotherapy has been shown to suppress CRC. The mechanism that explains how insulin resistance is associated with CRC is complex and not fully understood. In this review we have summarised studies which showed an association with the metabolic syndrome as well as studies which tackled metformin as a potential treatment of CRC. In addition, we have also provided a summary of how metformin at the cellular level can induce changes that suppress the activity of cancer cells. PMID:26745038

  10. Potential Benefit of Metformin as Treatment for Colon Cancer: the Evidence so Far.

    PubMed

    Abdelsatir, Azza Ali; Husain, Nazik Elmalaika; Hassan, Abdallah Tarig; Elmadhoun, Wadie M; Almobarak, Ahmed O; Ahmed, Mohamed H

    2015-01-01

    Metformin is known as a hypoglycaemic agent that regulates glucose homeostasis by inhibiting liver glucose production and increasing muscle glucose uptake. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide, with about a million new cases diagnosed each year. The risk factors for CRC include advanced age, smoking, black race, obesity, low fibre diet, insulin resistance, and the metabolic syndrome. We have searched Medline for the metabolic syndrome and its relation to CRC, and metformin as a potential treatment of colorectal cancer. Administration of metformin alone or in combination with chemotherapy has been shown to suppress CRC. The mechanism that explains how insulin resistance is associated with CRC is complex and not fully understood. In this review we have summarised studies which showed an association with the metabolic syndrome as well as studies which tackled metformin as a potential treatment of CRC. In addition, we have also provided a summary of how metformin at the cellular level can induce changes that suppress the activity of cancer cells.

  11. A comparison of the additional protocols of the five nuclear weapon states and the ensuing safeguards benefits to international nonproliferation efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Uribe, Eva C; Sandoval, M Analisa; Sandoval, Marisa N; Boyer, Brian D; Leitch, Rosalyn M

    2009-01-01

    With the 6 January 2009 entry into force of the Additional Protocol by the United States of America, all five declared Nuclear Weapon States that are part of the Nonproliferation Treaty have signed, ratified, and put into force the Additional Protocol. This paper makes a comparison of the strengths and weaknesses of the five Additional Protocols in force by the five Nuclear Weapon States with respect to the benefits to international nonproliferation aims. This paper also documents the added safeguards burden to the five declared Nuclear Weapon States that these Additional Protocols put on the states with respect to access to their civilian nuclear programs and the hosting of complementary access activities as part of the Additional Protocol.

  12. School Holiday Food Provision in the UK: A Qualitative Investigation of Needs, Benefits, and Potential for Development.

    PubMed

    Graham, Pamela Louise; Crilley, Eilish; Stretesky, Paul B; Long, Michael A; Palmer, Katie Jane; Steinbock, Eileen; Defeyter, Margaret Anne

    2016-01-01

    Access to an adequate supply of nutritious food has been recognized as a basic human right. However, many families across the UK face food insecurity, which is thought to be exacerbated during school holidays. To address this issue, some schools and community groups have chosen to roll out holiday clubs, though research into the effectiveness of such interventions is limited and no studies to date have evaluated holiday clubs being organized through schools. In an effort to address some of the limitations in the research literature, the current qualitative investigation utilized semi-structured interviews with staff involved in holiday clubs in school and community venues with the aim of gaging their views on the need for and benefits of holiday food provision in addition to potential areas for development. The investigation revealed that staff perceived many families to be facing food insecurity and isolation during the school holidays, which may be alleviated through holiday club provision. Holiday clubs were viewed as a valuable source of support for children and adults, providing food, activities, and learning experiences. Staff were keen to see them implemented on a wider scale in future but suggested some areas that require attention in any future development of such provision. Findings are discussed in relation to current research, policy, and practice surrounding the health and wellbeing of children and families.

  13. School Holiday Food Provision in the UK: A Qualitative Investigation of Needs, Benefits, and Potential for Development

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Pamela Louise; Crilley, Eilish; Stretesky, Paul B.; Long, Michael A.; Palmer, Katie Jane; Steinbock, Eileen; Defeyter, Margaret Anne

    2016-01-01

    Access to an adequate supply of nutritious food has been recognized as a basic human right. However, many families across the UK face food insecurity, which is thought to be exacerbated during school holidays. To address this issue, some schools and community groups have chosen to roll out holiday clubs, though research into the effectiveness of such interventions is limited and no studies to date have evaluated holiday clubs being organized through schools. In an effort to address some of the limitations in the research literature, the current qualitative investigation utilized semi-structured interviews with staff involved in holiday clubs in school and community venues with the aim of gaging their views on the need for and benefits of holiday food provision in addition to potential areas for development. The investigation revealed that staff perceived many families to be facing food insecurity and isolation during the school holidays, which may be alleviated through holiday club provision. Holiday clubs were viewed as a valuable source of support for children and adults, providing food, activities, and learning experiences. Staff were keen to see them implemented on a wider scale in future but suggested some areas that require attention in any future development of such provision. Findings are discussed in relation to current research, policy, and practice surrounding the health and wellbeing of children and families.

  14. School Holiday Food Provision in the UK: A Qualitative Investigation of Needs, Benefits, and Potential for Development

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Pamela Louise; Crilley, Eilish; Stretesky, Paul B.; Long, Michael A.; Palmer, Katie Jane; Steinbock, Eileen; Defeyter, Margaret Anne

    2016-01-01

    Access to an adequate supply of nutritious food has been recognized as a basic human right. However, many families across the UK face food insecurity, which is thought to be exacerbated during school holidays. To address this issue, some schools and community groups have chosen to roll out holiday clubs, though research into the effectiveness of such interventions is limited and no studies to date have evaluated holiday clubs being organized through schools. In an effort to address some of the limitations in the research literature, the current qualitative investigation utilized semi-structured interviews with staff involved in holiday clubs in school and community venues with the aim of gaging their views on the need for and benefits of holiday food provision in addition to potential areas for development. The investigation revealed that staff perceived many families to be facing food insecurity and isolation during the school holidays, which may be alleviated through holiday club provision. Holiday clubs were viewed as a valuable source of support for children and adults, providing food, activities, and learning experiences. Staff were keen to see them implemented on a wider scale in future but suggested some areas that require attention in any future development of such provision. Findings are discussed in relation to current research, policy, and practice surrounding the health and wellbeing of children and families. PMID:27597938

  15. School Holiday Food Provision in the UK: A Qualitative Investigation of Needs, Benefits, and Potential for Development.

    PubMed

    Graham, Pamela Louise; Crilley, Eilish; Stretesky, Paul B; Long, Michael A; Palmer, Katie Jane; Steinbock, Eileen; Defeyter, Margaret Anne

    2016-01-01

    Access to an adequate supply of nutritious food has been recognized as a basic human right. However, many families across the UK face food insecurity, which is thought to be exacerbated during school holidays. To address this issue, some schools and community groups have chosen to roll out holiday clubs, though research into the effectiveness of such interventions is limited and no studies to date have evaluated holiday clubs being organized through schools. In an effort to address some of the limitations in the research literature, the current qualitative investigation utilized semi-structured interviews with staff involved in holiday clubs in school and community venues with the aim of gaging their views on the need for and benefits of holiday food provision in addition to potential areas for development. The investigation revealed that staff perceived many families to be facing food insecurity and isolation during the school holidays, which may be alleviated through holiday club provision. Holiday clubs were viewed as a valuable source of support for children and adults, providing food, activities, and learning experiences. Staff were keen to see them implemented on a wider scale in future but suggested some areas that require attention in any future development of such provision. Findings are discussed in relation to current research, policy, and practice surrounding the health and wellbeing of children and families. PMID:27597938

  16. Potential benefits of genomic selection on genetic gain of small ruminant breeding programs.

    PubMed

    Shumbusho, F; Raoul, J; Astruc, J M; Palhiere, I; Elsen, J M

    2013-08-01

    In conventional small ruminant breeding programs, only pedigree and phenotype records are used to make selection decisions but prospects of including genomic information are now under consideration. The objective of this study was to assess the potential benefits of genomic selection on the genetic gain in French sheep and goat breeding designs of today. Traditional and genomic scenarios were modeled with deterministic methods for 3 breeding programs. The models included decisional variables related to male selection candidates, progeny testing capacity, and economic weights that were optimized to maximize annual genetic gain (AGG) of i) a meat sheep breeding program that improved a meat trait of heritability (h(2)) = 0.30 and a maternal trait of h(2) = 0.09 and ii) dairy sheep and goat breeding programs that improved a milk trait of h(2) = 0.30. Values of ±0.20 of genetic correlation between meat and maternal traits were considered to study their effects on AGG. The Bulmer effect was accounted for and the results presented here are the averages of AGG after 10 generations of selection. Results showed that current traditional breeding programs provide an AGG of 0.095 genetic standard deviation (σa) for meat and 0.061 σa for maternal trait in meat breed and 0.147 σa and 0.120 σa in sheep and goat dairy breeds, respectively. By optimizing decisional variables, the AGG with traditional selection methods increased to 0.139 σa for meat and 0.096 σa for maternal traits in meat breeding programs and to 0.174 σa and 0.183 σa in dairy sheep and goat breeding programs, respectively. With a medium-sized reference population (nref) of 2,000 individuals, the best genomic scenarios gave an AGG that was 17.9% greater than with traditional selection methods with optimized values of decisional variables for combined meat and maternal traits in meat sheep, 51.7% in dairy sheep, and 26.2% in dairy goats. The superiority of genomic schemes increased with the size of the

  17. Education Websites and Their Benefits to Potential International Students: A Case Study of Higher Education Service Providers in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ooi, Teik Chooi; Ho, Henry Wai Leong; Amri, Siti

    2010-01-01

    This paper looks at criteria on how education service providers' websites could benefit their potential students from overseas. Effective design of education website is important as web users are typically fastidious and want information fast--this serves as the background of this study. The study focuses on three selected education institutions'…

  18. 12 Years of NPK Addition Diminishes Carbon Sink Potential of a Nutrient Limited Peatland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larmola, T.; Bubier, J. L.; Juutinen, S.; Moore, T. R.

    2011-12-01

    Peatlands store about a third of global soil carbon. Our aim was to study whether the vegetation feedbacks of nitrogen (N) deposition lead to stronger carbon sink or source in a nutrient limited peatland ecosystem. We investigated vegetation structure and ecosystem CO2 exchange at Mer Bleue Bog, Canada, that has been fertilized for 7-12 years. We have applied 5 and 20 times ambient annual wet N deposition (0.8 g N m-2) with or without phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). Gross photosynthesis, ecosystem respiration and net CO2 exchange (NEE) were measured weekly during the growing season using chamber technique. Under the highest N(PK) treatments, the light saturated photosynthesis (PSmax) was reduced by 20-30% compared to the control treatment, whereas under moderate N and PK additions PSmax slightly increased or was similar to the control. The ecosystem respiration showed similar trends among the treatments, but changes in the rates were less pronounced. High nutrient additions led to up to 65% lower net CO2 uptake than that in the control: In the NPK plots with cumulative N additions of 70, 19, and 0 g N m-2, the daytime NEE in May-July 2011 averaged 0.8 (se. 0.3), 2.0 (se. 0.4), and 2.4 (se. 0.3) μmol m-2 s-1, respectively. In the N only plots with cumulative N additions of 45, 19, and 0 g N m-2, the daytime NEE in May-July 2011 averaged 0.8 (se. 0.2), 2.6 (se. 0.4), and 1.8 (se. 0.3) μmol m-2 s-1, respectively. The reduced plant photosynthetic capacity and diminished carbon sink potential in the highest nutrient treatments correlated with the loss of peat mosses and were not compensated for by the increased vascular plant biomass that has mainly been allocated to woody shrub stems.

  19. Characterization of fruit development and potential health benefits of arrayan (Luma apiculata), a native berry of South America.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Lida; Valdenegro, Mónika; Gómez, María-Graciela; Ayala-Raso, Aníbal; Quiroga, Evelyn; Martínez, Juan-Pablo; Vinet, Raúl; Caballero, Eduardo; Figueroa, Carlos R

    2016-04-01

    The arrayan berry (Luma apiculata) is a native fruit from South America that belongs to the Myrtaceae family. To elucidate and characterize the developmental process and the potential health benefits of this edible fruit, quality and physiological parameters, along with antioxidant capacity, were evaluated during four clearly defined developmental stages of the fruit in two seasons. Fruit firmness slowly decreases during fruit development, whereas the solid soluble content/titratable acidity ratio (SSC/TA) increases significantly in the final stages of development. The measurement of low respiration rates and low ethylene production during growth and ripening suggested that the arrayan berry should be classified as a non-climacteric fruit. Arrayan berries show a significant increase in their antioxidant capacity from small green to black ripe fruit. FRAP and TEAC assays showed high correlations with total polyphenolic content (TPC) during ripening and high antioxidant capacity at all fruit stages, showing greater values in ripe fruit (FRAP: 24 ± 2 and 28 ± 3 μM FeSO4/gFW; TEAC: 18 ± 2 and 20 ± 1 Eq. Trolox/gFW for each season, respectively) than those observed in the blueberry (FRAP: 10 ± 2 and 19 ± 3 μM FeSO4/gFW; TEAC: 10 ± 2 and 17 ± 3). In addition, bioactive assays using ripe fruit extracts show presence of flavonol and anthocyanins, a high ORAC value (62,500 ± 7000 μmol/gDW) and a concentration-dependent vascular protection under high glucose conditions. The results obtained show that these endemic berry fruits have a promising potential as functional food.

  20. Characterization of fruit development and potential health benefits of arrayan (Luma apiculata), a native berry of South America.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Lida; Valdenegro, Mónika; Gómez, María-Graciela; Ayala-Raso, Aníbal; Quiroga, Evelyn; Martínez, Juan-Pablo; Vinet, Raúl; Caballero, Eduardo; Figueroa, Carlos R

    2016-04-01

    The arrayan berry (Luma apiculata) is a native fruit from South America that belongs to the Myrtaceae family. To elucidate and characterize the developmental process and the potential health benefits of this edible fruit, quality and physiological parameters, along with antioxidant capacity, were evaluated during four clearly defined developmental stages of the fruit in two seasons. Fruit firmness slowly decreases during fruit development, whereas the solid soluble content/titratable acidity ratio (SSC/TA) increases significantly in the final stages of development. The measurement of low respiration rates and low ethylene production during growth and ripening suggested that the arrayan berry should be classified as a non-climacteric fruit. Arrayan berries show a significant increase in their antioxidant capacity from small green to black ripe fruit. FRAP and TEAC assays showed high correlations with total polyphenolic content (TPC) during ripening and high antioxidant capacity at all fruit stages, showing greater values in ripe fruit (FRAP: 24 ± 2 and 28 ± 3 μM FeSO4/gFW; TEAC: 18 ± 2 and 20 ± 1 Eq. Trolox/gFW for each season, respectively) than those observed in the blueberry (FRAP: 10 ± 2 and 19 ± 3 μM FeSO4/gFW; TEAC: 10 ± 2 and 17 ± 3). In addition, bioactive assays using ripe fruit extracts show presence of flavonol and anthocyanins, a high ORAC value (62,500 ± 7000 μmol/gDW) and a concentration-dependent vascular protection under high glucose conditions. The results obtained show that these endemic berry fruits have a promising potential as functional food. PMID:26593612

  1. Use of clinically available PPAR agonists for heart failure; do the risks outweigh the potential benefits?

    PubMed

    Sarma, Satyam

    2012-06-01

    PPAR agonists represent a heterogeneous group of compounds that have been used in the treatment of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases for over thirty years. While the primary indications for PPAR agonist therapy focus on hyperlipidemia and diabetes, there is a growing body of pre-clinical data that suggests they may be beneficial in the treatment of heart failure; a disease marked by abnormal myocardial metabolism, fibrosis and insulin insensitivity. PPAR agonist treatment in numerous animal models of systolic heart failure have demonstrated improvement in cardiac function with decreased fibrosis, improved contractility and endothelial function. However, considerable controversy exists on the cardiac safety profile of PPAR agonists, particularly concern for inducing lipotoxicty and precipitating or worsening heart failure. In addition during pre-clinical testing, many compounds have been associated with increased death and adverse cardiovascular outcomes casting a pall over their future use for treating disorders of myocardial function. This article will review cardiac pathways involved in PPAR activation and their potential regulation of maladaptive pathways involved in heart failure and highlight molecular mechanisms that may contribute to adverse events and raise safety concerns. Specific attention will be focused on PPAR alpha and gamma, subtypes for which commercially available PPAR agonists are currently available.

  2. Potential maternal symptomatic benefit of gabapentin and review of its safety in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Guttuso, Thomas; Shaman, Majid; Thornburg, Loralei L

    2014-10-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) and nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP) are both common maternal conditions affecting quality of life. Gabapentin is currently FDA-approved for treating RLS and preliminary results have shown it may be effective for treating the most severe form of NVP, hyperemesis gravidarum (HG). Because NVP and HG symptoms peak early in pregnancy, the potential teratogenicity of gabapentin needs to be considered. We reviewed published pregnancy registries and cohorts for pregnancy outcomes associated with maternal gabapentin use. Gabapentin exposures from 5 pregnancy registries, 1 HG pilot study and 2 additional cases were reviewed. Among 294 first trimester gabapentin-monotherapy exposures, there were 5 major congenital malformations (MCMs) reported (1.7%), which favorably compares to the MCM rate in the general population (1.6-2.2%). Two of the registries reported maternal gabapentin use among 261 singleton pregnancies to be associated with roughly equivalent rates of premature birth, birth weight after correction for gestational age at delivery and maternal hypertension/eclampsia as those that have been reported in the general population. These data support the safety of gabapentin use in pregnancy; however, the number of exposures to date is still small. If future pregnancy registry data confirm this positive safety profile, gabapentin therapy would likely be a safe and effective treatment for RLS during pregnancy. Controlled, clinical trials are needed to assess gabapentin's effectiveness for HG.

  3. Metabolic effects of mulberry leaves: exploring potential benefits in type 2 diabetes and hyperuricemia.

    PubMed

    Hunyadi, A; Liktor-Busa, E; Márki, A; Martins, A; Jedlinszki, N; Hsieh, T J; Báthori, M; Hohmann, J; Zupkó, I

    2013-01-01

    The leaves of Morus alba L. have a long history in Traditional Chinese Medicine and also became valued by the ethnopharmacology of many other cultures. The worldwide known antidiabetic use of the drug has been suggested to arise from a complex combination effect of various constituents. Moreover, the drug is also a potential antihyperuricemic agent. Considering that type 2 diabetes and hyperuricemia are vice-versa in each other's important risk factors, the use of mulberry originated phytotherapeutics might provide an excellent option for the prevention and/or treatment of both conditions. Here we report a series of relevant in vitro and in vivo studies on the bioactivity of an extract of mulberry leaves and its fractions obtained by a stepwise gradient on silica gel. In vivo antihyperglycemic and antihyperuricemic activity, plasma antioxidant status, as well as in vitro glucose consumption by adipocytes in the presence or absence of insulin, xanthine oxidase inhibition, free radical scavenging activity, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation were tested. Known bioactive constituents of M. alba (chlorogenic acid, rutin, isoquercitrin, and loliolide) were identified and quantified from the HPLC-DAD fingerprint chromatograms. Iminosugar contents were investigated by MS/MS, 1-deoxynojirimycin was quantified, and amounts of 2-O-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-1-deoxynojirimicin and fagomine were additionally estimated.

  4. Potential Benefit of the Charge-Stabilized Nanostructure Saline RNS60 for Myelin Maintenance and Repair.

    PubMed

    Rao, Vijayaraghava T S; Khan, Damla; Jones, Russell G; Nakamura, Diane S; Kennedy, Timothy E; Cui, Qiao-Ling; Rone, Malena B; Healy, Luke M; Watson, Richard; Ghosh, Supurna; Antel, Jack P

    2016-01-01

    Myelin injury in multiple sclerosis (MS) has been attributed both to "outside-in" primary immune mediated and "inside-out" metabolic stress of oligodendrocyte (OL) related mechanisms. Subsequent remyelination is dependent on recruitment and differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs). RNS60 is a physically-modified saline containing charge-stabilized nanobubbles generated by subjecting normal saline to Taylor-Couette-Poiseuille (TCP) flow under elevated oxygen pressure. Administration of RNS60 has been shown to reduce the severity of EAE by dampening the immune response and myelin loss. Additionally, RNS60 has been demonstrated to enhance mitochondrial ATP synthesis in neurons. Here, we used post-natal rat derived OLs and OPCs to assess the impact of RNS60 on the response of OLs to metabolic stress in vitro (glucose-nutrient deprivation, referred to as 'NG') and on OPC differentiation capacity. Under the NG condition, our findings indicate that RNS60 decreases caspases 3/7 activation. Respirometric analyses revealed that RNS60 increased spare glycolytic capacity (SGC) under normal culture conditions. However, RNS60 enhanced OL spare respiratory capacity (SRC) when a metabolic stress was present. Furthermore, we show that RNS60 promotes OPC differentiation under physiological conditions. Our findings provide evidence for the potential therapeutic efficacy of RNS60 through the promotion of OL survival and OPC differentiation. PMID:27451946

  5. Potential Benefit of the Charge-Stabilized Nanostructure Saline RNS60 for Myelin Maintenance and Repair

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Vijayaraghava T. S.; Khan, Damla; Jones, Russell G.; Nakamura, Diane S.; Kennedy, Timothy E.; Cui, Qiao-Ling; Rone, Malena B.; Healy, Luke M.; Watson, Richard; Ghosh, Supurna; Antel, Jack P.

    2016-01-01

    Myelin injury in multiple sclerosis (MS) has been attributed both to “outside-in” primary immune mediated and “inside-out” metabolic stress of oligodendrocyte (OL) related mechanisms. Subsequent remyelination is dependent on recruitment and differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs). RNS60 is a physically-modified saline containing charge-stabilized nanobubbles generated by subjecting normal saline to Taylor-Couette-Poiseuille (TCP) flow under elevated oxygen pressure. Administration of RNS60 has been shown to reduce the severity of EAE by dampening the immune response and myelin loss. Additionally, RNS60 has been demonstrated to enhance mitochondrial ATP synthesis in neurons. Here, we used post-natal rat derived OLs and OPCs to assess the impact of RNS60 on the response of OLs to metabolic stress in vitro (glucose-nutrient deprivation, referred to as ‘NG’) and on OPC differentiation capacity. Under the NG condition, our findings indicate that RNS60 decreases caspases 3/7 activation. Respirometric analyses revealed that RNS60 increased spare glycolytic capacity (SGC) under normal culture conditions. However, RNS60 enhanced OL spare respiratory capacity (SRC) when a metabolic stress was present. Furthermore, we show that RNS60 promotes OPC differentiation under physiological conditions. Our findings provide evidence for the potential therapeutic efficacy of RNS60 through the promotion of OL survival and OPC differentiation. PMID:27451946

  6. Potential Benefit of the Charge-Stabilized Nanostructure Saline RNS60 for Myelin Maintenance and Repair.

    PubMed

    Rao, Vijayaraghava T S; Khan, Damla; Jones, Russell G; Nakamura, Diane S; Kennedy, Timothy E; Cui, Qiao-Ling; Rone, Malena B; Healy, Luke M; Watson, Richard; Ghosh, Supurna; Antel, Jack P

    2016-01-01

    Myelin injury in multiple sclerosis (MS) has been attributed both to "outside-in" primary immune mediated and "inside-out" metabolic stress of oligodendrocyte (OL) related mechanisms. Subsequent remyelination is dependent on recruitment and differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs). RNS60 is a physically-modified saline containing charge-stabilized nanobubbles generated by subjecting normal saline to Taylor-Couette-Poiseuille (TCP) flow under elevated oxygen pressure. Administration of RNS60 has been shown to reduce the severity of EAE by dampening the immune response and myelin loss. Additionally, RNS60 has been demonstrated to enhance mitochondrial ATP synthesis in neurons. Here, we used post-natal rat derived OLs and OPCs to assess the impact of RNS60 on the response of OLs to metabolic stress in vitro (glucose-nutrient deprivation, referred to as 'NG') and on OPC differentiation capacity. Under the NG condition, our findings indicate that RNS60 decreases caspases 3/7 activation. Respirometric analyses revealed that RNS60 increased spare glycolytic capacity (SGC) under normal culture conditions. However, RNS60 enhanced OL spare respiratory capacity (SRC) when a metabolic stress was present. Furthermore, we show that RNS60 promotes OPC differentiation under physiological conditions. Our findings provide evidence for the potential therapeutic efficacy of RNS60 through the promotion of OL survival and OPC differentiation.

  7. Conjugated Linoleic Acid: Potential Health Benefits as a Functional Food Ingredient.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun Ho; Kim, Yoo; Kim, Young Jun; Park, Yeonhwa

    2016-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has drawn significant attention since the 1980s for its various biological activities. CLA consists mainly of two isomers, cis-9,trans-11 and trans-10,cis-12, and the mixture of these two (CLA mix or 50:50) has been approved for food as GRAS (generally recognized as safe) in the United States since 2008. Along with its original discovery as an anticancer component, CLA has been shown to prevent the development of atherosclerosis, reduce body fat while improving lean body mass, and modulate immune and/or inflammatory responses. This review summarizes the clinical trials involving CLA since 2012; additional uses of CLA for age-associated health issues are discussed; and CLA's potential health concerns, including glucose homeostasis, oxidative stress, hepatic steatosis, and milk-fat depression, are examined. With ongoing applications to food products, CLA consumption is expected to rise and close monitoring of not only its efficacy but also its known and unknown consequences are required to ensure proper applications of CLA.

  8. Realizing the Potential of Ecosystem Services: A Framework for Relating Ecological Changes to Economic Benefits

    EPA Science Inventory

    An analysis framework to link ecological change to economic benefits for multiple stakeholders requires several key components. First, since we aim to support policy decisions, the framework should link a factor that can be controlled or influenced by policy (discharge limit, ca...

  9. Cost/Benefit Evaluation of Three English Language Training Programs for Potential Navy Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swope, William M.; And Others

    As part of its plans to recruit Hispanic personnel who speak English as a second language, the U.S. Navy will have to provide English language training as well as technical training to prepare these personnel for fleet duty. A cost/benefit analysis was conducted of three English language training programs: the English Technical Language School…

  10. Kinship Care and "Child-Only" Welfare Grants: Low Participation despite Potential Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Justine G.; Gibson, Priscilla A.; Bauer, Jean W.

    2010-01-01

    Several U.S. social policies identify kinship care as the preferred out-of-home placement. However, financial assistance to defray the cost of kinship caregiving is limited. One option is the child-only welfare grant. This study investigates kinship households' eligibility for, utilization of, and educational benefits associated with these grants.…

  11. Does sow reproduction and piglet performance benefit from the addition of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids to the maternal diet?

    PubMed

    Tanghe, Sofie; De Smet, Stefaan

    2013-09-01

    Good sow reproductive performance and piglet survival are essential for the profitability of the pig industry. Based on basic research of fatty acid and endocrine metabolism, it has been suggested that dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) could enhance reproductive outcome. However, proper requirements for these nutrients in sow diets have not been established. This review examines the literature on the effect of n-3 PUFA in the maternal diet on sow reproduction and piglet performance. Few reported studies have included biochemical analyses, e.g. eicosanoid concentrations or gene expression data, which could help elucidate any link between dietary n-3 PUFA supplementation and reproduction. Additionally, most studies used relatively low numbers of pigs, limiting the validity of the conclusions which can be drawn. In pregnant pigs, supplementing with n-3 PUFA has not been shown to increase significantly the number of embryos (in gilts) or (in most studies) the total number of piglets born (live and/or stillborn), but may prolong gestation, although the literature is not consistent. Most studies found no effect of n-3 PUFA on piglet birth weight, although positive effects on piglet vitality and pre- and post-weaning growth have been reported. In contrast to the impact during pregnancy, low amounts of n-3 PUFA in the lactation diet may increase litter size in the subsequent gestation.

  12. The Potential for Renewable Energy Development to Benefit Restoration of the Salton Sea. Analysis of Technical and Market Potential

    SciTech Connect

    Gagne, Douglas; Haase, Scott; Oakleaf, Brett; Hurlbut, David; Akar, Sertac; Wall, Anna; Turchi, Craig; Pienkos, Philip; Melius, Jennifer; Melaina, Marc

    2015-11-01

    This report summarizes the potential for renewable energy development in the Salton Sea region, as well as the potential for revenues from this development to contribute financially to Salton Sea restoration costs. It considers solar, geothermal, biofuels or nutraceutical production from algae pond cultivation, desalination using renewable energy, and mineral recovery from geothermal fluids.


  13. Assessment of Nano Cellulose from Peach Palm Residue as Potential Food Additive: Part II: Preliminary Studies.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Dayanne Regina Mendes; Mendonça, Márcia Helena; Helm, Cristiane Vieira; Magalhães, Washington L E; de Muniz, Graciela Ines Bonzon; Kestur, Satyanarayana G

    2015-09-01

    High consumption of dietary fibers in the diet is related to the reduction of the risk of non-transmitting of chronic diseases, prevention of the constipation etc. Rich diets in dietary fibers promote beneficial effects for the metabolism. Considering the above and recognizing the multifaceted advantages of nano materials, there have been many attempts in recent times to use the nano materials in the food sector including as food additive. However, whenever new product for human and animal consumption is developed, it has to be tested for their effectiveness regarding improvement in the health of consumers, safety aspects and side effects. However, before it is tried with human beings, normally such materials would be assessed through biological tests on a living organism to understand its effect on health condition of the consumer. Accordingly, based on the authors' finding reported in a previous paper, this paper presents body weight, biochemical (glucose, cholesterol and lipid profile in blood, analysis of feces) and histological tests carried out with biomass based cellulose nano fibrils prepared by the authors for its possible use as food additive. Preliminary results of the study with mice have clearly brought out potential of these fibers for the said purpose. PMID:26344977

  14. Refined liquid smoke: a potential antilisterial additive to cold-smoked sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka).

    PubMed

    Montazeri, Naim; Himelbloom, Brian H; Oliveira, Alexandra C M; Leigh, Mary Beth; Crapo, Charles A

    2013-05-01

    Cold-smoked salmon (CSS) is a potentially hazardous ready-to-eat food product due to the high risk of contamination with Listeria monocytogenes and lack of a listericidal step. We investigated the antilisterial property of liquid smokes (LS) against Listeria innocua ATCC 33090 (surrogate to L. monocytogenes) as a potential supplement to vacuum-packaged CSS. A full-strength LS (Code 10-Poly), and three commercially refined fractions (AM-3, AM-10, and 1291) having less color and flavor (lower content of phenols and carbonyl-containing compounds) were tested. In vitro assays showed strong inhibition for all LS except for 1291. The CSS strips were surface coated with AM-3 and AM-10 at 1% LS (vol/wt) with an L-shaped glass rod and then inoculated with L. innocua at 3.5 log CFU/g, vacuum packaged, and stored at 4°C. The LS did not completely eliminate L. innocua but provided a 2-log reduction by day 14, with no growth up to 35 days of refrigerated storage. A simple difference sensory test by 180 untrained panelists showed the application of AM-3 did not significantly influence the overall sensorial quality of CSS. In essence, the application of the refined LS as an antilisterial additive to CSS is recommended.

  15. Refined liquid smoke: a potential antilisterial additive to cold-smoked sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka).

    PubMed

    Montazeri, Naim; Himelbloom, Brian H; Oliveira, Alexandra C M; Leigh, Mary Beth; Crapo, Charles A

    2013-05-01

    Cold-smoked salmon (CSS) is a potentially hazardous ready-to-eat food product due to the high risk of contamination with Listeria monocytogenes and lack of a listericidal step. We investigated the antilisterial property of liquid smokes (LS) against Listeria innocua ATCC 33090 (surrogate to L. monocytogenes) as a potential supplement to vacuum-packaged CSS. A full-strength LS (Code 10-Poly), and three commercially refined fractions (AM-3, AM-10, and 1291) having less color and flavor (lower content of phenols and carbonyl-containing compounds) were tested. In vitro assays showed strong inhibition for all LS except for 1291. The CSS strips were surface coated with AM-3 and AM-10 at 1% LS (vol/wt) with an L-shaped glass rod and then inoculated with L. innocua at 3.5 log CFU/g, vacuum packaged, and stored at 4°C. The LS did not completely eliminate L. innocua but provided a 2-log reduction by day 14, with no growth up to 35 days of refrigerated storage. A simple difference sensory test by 180 untrained panelists showed the application of AM-3 did not significantly influence the overall sensorial quality of CSS. In essence, the application of the refined LS as an antilisterial additive to CSS is recommended. PMID:23643122

  16. Non-additivity of molecule-surface van der Waals potentials from force measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tautz, Stefan

    2014-03-01

    Van der Waals (vdW) forces act ubiquitously in condensed matter. Their description as an inherently quantum mechanical phenomenon was developed for single atoms and homogeneous macroscopic bodies by London, Casimir, and Lifshitz. For intermediate-sized objects like organic molecules an atomistic description is required, but explicit first principles calculations are very difficult since correlations between many interacting electrons have to be considered. Hence, semi-empirical correction schemes are often used that simplify the vdW interaction to a sum over atom-pair potentials. A similar gap exists between successful measurements of vdW and Casimir forces for single atoms on the one hand and macroscopic bodies on the other, as comparable experiments for molecules are absent. I will present experiments in which long-range vdW potentials between a series of related molecules and a metal surface have been determined experimentally. The experiments rely on the extremely sensitive force detection of an atomic force microscope in combination with its molecular manipulation capabilities. The results allow us to confirm the asymptotic force law and to quantify the non-additive part of the vdW interaction which is particularly challenging for theory. In the present case, cooperative effects account for 10% of the total interaction. This effect is of general validity in molecules and thus relevant at the intersection of chemistry, physics, biology, and materials science.

  17. Non-additive benefit or cost? Disentangling the indirect effects that occur when plants bearing extrafloral nectaries and honeydew-producing insects share exotic ant mutualists

    PubMed Central

    Savage, Amy M.; Rudgers, Jennifer A.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims In complex communities, organisms often form mutualisms with multiple different partners simultaneously. Non-additive effects may emerge among species linked by these positive interactions. Ants commonly participate in mutualisms with both honeydew-producing insects (HPI) and their extrafloral nectary (EFN)-bearing host plants. Consequently, HPI and EFN-bearing plants may experience non-additive benefits or costs when these groups co-occur. The outcomes of these interactions are likely to be influenced by variation in preferences among ants for honeydew vs. nectar. In this study, a test was made for non-additive effects on HPI and EFN-bearing plants resulting from sharing exotic ant guards. Preferences of the dominant exotic ant species for nectar vs. honeydew resources were also examined. Methods Ant access, HPI and nectar availability were manipulated on the EFN-bearing shrub, Morinda citrifolia, and ant and HPI abundances, herbivory and plant growth were assessed. Ant-tending behaviours toward HPI across an experimental gradient of nectar availability were also tracked in order to investigate mechanisms underlying ant responses. Key Results The dominant ant species, Anoplolepis gracilipes, differed from less invasive ants in response to multiple mutualists, with reductions in plot-wide abundances when nectar was reduced, but no response to HPI reduction. Conversely, at sites where A. gracilipes was absent or rare, abundances of less invasive ants increased when nectar was reduced, but declined when HPI were reduced. Non-additive benefits were found at sites dominated by A. gracilipes, but only for M. citrifolia plants. Responses of HPI at these sites supported predictions of the non-additive cost model. Interestingly, the opposite non-additive patterns emerged at sites dominated by other ants. Conclusions It was demonstrated that strong non-additive benefits and costs can both occur when a plant and herbivore share mutualist partners. These

  18. Coexistence of congeneric spiny lobsters on coral reefs: differences in conspecific aggregation patterns and their potential antipredator benefits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briones-Fourzán, P.; Lozano-Álvarez, E.

    2008-06-01

    Den sharing by conspecific spiny lobsters (aggregation) is modulated by chemical attraction but may confer several, not necessarily mutually exclusive, antipredator byproduct benefits: a “guide effect”, which only benefits the individual attracted to a sheltered conspecific; a “dilution effect”, which reduces per-capita risk of predation simply through aggregation; or active “group defense”. Each potential benefit has a different set of predictors (relationships between aggregation and conspecific or predator densities), but conflicting results could suggest the simultaneous operation of more than one benefit. These predictions were tested for coexisting Panulirus guttatus (a reef-obligate) and Panulirus argus (a temporary reef-dweller) using data collected during 11 surveys on fixed sites over a coral reef in Mexico. P. guttatus greatly outnumbered P. argus, but P. argus showed a greater tendency to aggregate. All three benefits of den sharing operated for the more social P. argus, with “group defense” being of the most benefit for larger individuals, and the “guide” and “dilution” effects for smaller individuals recently immigrating into the reef habitat and sharing dens with larger conspecifics. P. guttatus did not display “group defense” and its aggregations appeared to be modulated by the interplay between attraction and aggressive behaviors. This species relied more on solitary crypticity, especially at larger sizes, but appeared to benefit from a “guide effect” at high conspecific densities. In experimental tanks, each species tended to aggregate when tested separately, but when tested jointly, aggregation among P. guttatus was significantly reduced. The experimental results reflect the differential patterns of aggregation between the fore-reef, where P. guttatus dominated, and the back-reef, where coexistence of both species was greater.

  19. Clinical Observations About the Potential Benefits and Pitfalls of Between-Session Contacts with Borderline Patients.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Karen L

    2016-01-01

    Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) has a reputation for being a challenging disorder to treat due to the nature of the illness. With the development of evidence-based treatments, therapists are becoming more skilled at successfully helping this cohort of patients. A common factor associated with all validated treatments for BPD is the active involvement of therapists. For example, DBT is one treatment where therapists are expected to be available to patients for coaching outside of sessions. However, understanding the benefits and pitfalls associated with therapists' accessibility in between sessions is relevant to any treatment with intersession contact. In this article, three benefits of intersession contact are described: to generalize the use of skills, to improve understanding of the patient's needs, and to facilitate an alliance. This article also addresses the pitfalls of therapists being so accessible to patients. Both the benefits and pitfalls of intersession contact are illustrated using case vignettes. Assessing the function served by a patient's contact in between sessions is an important way to determine whether such contact is a productive part of treatment. Recommendations are provided to avoid detrimental outcomes for both the therapist (therapist burnout) and the patient. PMID:27603746

  20. Patients With Proneural Glioblastoma May Derive Overall Survival Benefit From the Addition of Bevacizumab to First-Line Radiotherapy and Temozolomide: Retrospective Analysis of the AVAglio Trial

    PubMed Central

    Sandmann, Thomas; Bourgon, Richard; Garcia, Josep; Li, Congfen; Cloughesy, Timothy; Chinot, Olivier L.; Wick, Wolfgang; Nishikawa, Ryo; Mason, Warren; Henriksson, Roger; Saran, Frank; Lai, Albert; Moore, Nicola; Kharbanda, Samir; Peale, Franklin; Hegde, Priti; Abrey, Lauren E.; Phillips, Heidi S.; Bais, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The AVAglio (Avastin in Glioblastoma) and RTOG-0825 randomized, placebo-controlled phase III trials in newly diagnosed glioblastoma reported prolonged progression-free survival (PFS), but not overall survival (OS), with the addition of bevacizumab to radiotherapy plus temozolomide. To establish whether certain patient subgroups derived an OS benefit from the addition of bevacizumab to first-line standard-of-care therapy, AVAglio patients were retrospectively evaluated for molecular subtype, and bevacizumab efficacy was assessed for each patient subgroup. Patients and Methods A total of 349 pretreatment specimens (bevacizumab arm, n = 171; placebo arm, n = 178) from AVAglio patients (total, N = 921) were available for biomarker analysis. Samples were profiled for gene expression and isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) mutation status and classified into previously identified molecular subtypes. PFS and OS were assessed within each subtype. Results A multivariable analysis accounting for prognostic covariates revealed that bevacizumab conferred a significant OS advantage versus placebo for patients with proneural IDH1 wild-type tumors (17.1 v 12.8 months, respectively; hazard ratio, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.26 to 0.73; P = .002). This analysis also revealed an interaction between the proneural subtype biomarker and treatment arm (P = .023). The group of patients with mesenchymal and proneural tumors derived a PFS benefit from bevacizumab compared with placebo; however, this translated to an OS benefit in the proneural subset only. Conclusion Retrospective analysis of AVAglio data suggests that patients with IDH1 wild-type proneural glioblastoma may derive an OS benefit from first-line bevacizumab treatment. The predictive value of the proneural subtype observed in AVAglio should be validated in an independent data set. PMID:26124478

  1. Addressing the stimulant treatment gap: A call to investigate the therapeutic benefits potential of cannabinoids for crack-cocaine use.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Benedikt; Kuganesan, Sharan; Gallassi, Andrea; Malcher-Lopes, Renato; van den Brink, Wim; Wood, Evan

    2015-12-01

    Crack-cocaine use is prevalent in numerous countries, yet concentrated primarily - largely within urban contexts - in the Northern and Southern regions of the Americas. It is associated with a variety of behavioral, physical and mental health and social problems which gravely affect users and their environments. Few evidence-based treatments for crack-cocaine use exist and are available to users in the reality of street drug use. Numerous pharmacological treatments have been investigated but with largely disappointing results. An important therapeutic potential for crack-cocaine use may rest in cannabinoids, which have recently seen a general resurgence for varied possible therapeutic usages for different neurological diseases. Distinct potential therapeutic benefits for crack-cocaine use and common related adverse symptoms may come specifically from cannabidiol (CBD) - one of the numerous cannabinoid components found in cannabis - with its demonstrated anxiolytic, anti-psychotic, anti-convulsant effects and potential benefits for sleep and appetite problems. The possible therapeutic prospects of cannabinoids are corroborated by observational studies from different contexts documenting crack-cocaine users' 'self-medication' efforts towards coping with crack-cocaine-related problems, including withdrawal and craving, impulsivity and paranoia. Cannabinoid therapeutics offer further benefits of being available in multiple formulations, are low in adverse risk potential, and may easily be offered in community-based settings which may add to their feasibility as interventions for - predominantly marginalized - crack-cocaine user populations. Supported by the dearth of current therapeutic options for crack-cocaine use, we are advocating for the implementation of a rigorous research program investigating the potential therapeutic benefits of cannabinoids for crack-cocaine use. Given the high prevalence of this grave substance use problem in the Americas, opportunities for

  2. Modeling the potential benefits of catch-crop introduction in fodder crop rotations in a Western Europe landscape.

    PubMed

    Moreau, P; Ruiz, L; Raimbault, T; Vertès, F; Cordier, M O; Gascuel-Odoux, C; Masson, V; Salmon-Monviola, J; Durand, P

    2012-10-15

    Among possible mitigation options to reduce agricultural-borne nitrate fluxes to water bodies, introduction of catch crop before spring crops is acknowledged as a cost-efficient solution at the plot scale, but it was rarely assessed at the catchment level. This study aims to evaluate a set of catch crop implantation scenarios and their consequences in a coastal catchment prone to eutrophication. The objectives are (i) to discuss the potential benefits of catch crop introduction taking into account the limitations due to the physiographic and agricultural context of the area (ii) to propose a multicriteria classification of these scenarios as a basis for discussion with stakeholders. We used the distributed agro-hydrological model TNT2 to simulate 25 scenarios of catch crop management, differing in length of catch crop growing period, place in the crop rotation and residue management. The scenarios were classified considering the variations in main crop yields and either nitrogen fluxes in stream or the global nitrogen mass balance at the catchment level. The simulations showed that in the catchment studied, little improvement can be expected from increasing the catch crop surface. Catch crop cultivation was always beneficial to reduce nitrogen losses, but led to adverse effects on main crop yields in some cases. Among the scenarios involving additional catch crop surface, introducing catch crop between two winter cereals appeared as the most promising. The classification of scenarios depended on the chosen criteria: when considering only the reduction of nitrogen fluxes in streams, exporting catch crop residues was the most efficient while when considering the global nitrogen mass balance, soil incorporation of catch crop residues was the most beneficial. This work highlights the interest, while using integrated models, of assessing simulated scenarios with multicriteria approach to provide stakeholder with a picture as complete as possible of the consequences of

  3. Non-additivity of molecule-surface van der Waals potentials from force measurements

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Christian; Fournier, Norman; Ruiz, Victor G.; Li, Chen; Müllen, Klaus; Rohlfing, Michael; Tkatchenko, Alexandre; Temirov, Ruslan; Tautz, F. Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Van der Waals (vdW) forces act ubiquitously in condensed matter. Despite being weak on an atomic level, they substantially influence molecular and biological systems due to their long range and system-size scaling. The difficulty to isolate and measure vdW forces on a single-molecule level causes our present understanding to be strongly theory based. Here we show measurements of the attractive potential between differently sized organic molecules and a metal surface using an atomic force microscope. Our choice of molecules and the large molecule-surface separation cause this attraction to be purely of vdW type. The experiment allows testing the asymptotic vdW force law and its validity range. We find a superlinear growth of the vdW attraction with molecular size, originating from the increased deconfinement of electrons in the molecules. Because such non-additive vdW contributions are not accounted for in most first-principles or empirical calculations, we suggest further development in that direction. PMID:25424490

  4. Non-additivity of molecule-surface van der Waals potentials from force measurements.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Christian; Fournier, Norman; Ruiz, Victor G; Li, Chen; Müllen, Klaus; Rohlfing, Michael; Tkatchenko, Alexandre; Temirov, Ruslan; Tautz, F Stefan

    2014-11-26

    Van der Waals (vdW) forces act ubiquitously in condensed matter. Despite being weak on an atomic level, they substantially influence molecular and biological systems due to their long range and system-size scaling. The difficulty to isolate and measure vdW forces on a single-molecule level causes our present understanding to be strongly theory based. Here we show measurements of the attractive potential between differently sized organic molecules and a metal surface using an atomic force microscope. Our choice of molecules and the large molecule-surface separation cause this attraction to be purely of vdW type. The experiment allows testing the asymptotic vdW force law and its validity range. We find a superlinear growth of the vdW attraction with molecular size, originating from the increased deconfinement of electrons in the molecules. Because such non-additive vdW contributions are not accounted for in most first-principles or empirical calculations, we suggest further development in that direction.

  5. Balance times of multidimensional quasi-additive potentials for a measure-preserving semiflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Xiongping

    2013-12-01

    Let \\theta\\colon X\\times{T}\\rightarrow X;\\ (x,t)\\mapsto{x{\\boldsymbol\\cdot} t} , where {T}={Z}_+ or {R}_+ , be a measure-preserving semiflow on a probability space (X,\\mathscr{F},\\mu) and given a d-dimensional measurable potential p\\colon X\\times{T}\\rightarrow{R}^d which is δ-quasi-additive with respect to θ, where δ ⩾ 0 namely, for μ-a.e. x ∈ X and for all s,t\\in{T} , \\begin{equation*}|p(x,t+s)-(p(x,t)+p(x{\\boldsymbol\\cdot} t,s))|\\le\\delta. \\end{equation*} We prove that if there exists a measurable {R}^d -valued function p*(x) such that \\begin{equation*}\\lim_{t\\to\\infty}\\frac{1}{t}p(x,t)=p^*(x)\\tqs for~\\mu-a.e.\\, x\\in X, \\end{equation*} then for μ-a.e. x ∈ X and any ε > 0, there holds the following tight control by p*(x): \\begin{equation*}{\\bf mes}\\left\\{t\\in{T}\\colon|p(x,t)-p^*(x)t|\\le\\varepsilon+ \\delta\\right\\}=\\infty, \\end{equation*} where mes{·} stands for the Lebesgue measure in the real line {R} or the counting measure in {Z} . This can be applied to the study of ergodic forced monotonic circle maps and of the normal numbers.

  6. Levothyroxine treatment of mild subclinical hypothyroidism: a review of potential risks and benefits

    PubMed Central

    Javed, Zeeshan; Sathyapalan, Thozhukat

    2016-01-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) is defined as elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) with normal levels of free triiodothyronine (FT3) and free thyroxine (FT4). SCH is further classified into a milder condition with TSH levels between 4.0 and 10.0 milli-international units (mIU)/l (mild-SCH) and a severe form with TSH >10.0 mIU/l (severe-SCH). SCH is a common problem (prevalence is greater in women than men), which increases further with increasing age and TSH levels. Even though the risk of progression to overt hypothyroidism is higher in patients with severe-SCH, the risk is also significant in patients having mild-SCH; it has been suggested that every twofold rise in serum TSH would increase the risk from 1 to 4%, which further increases to 38% if thyroid antibodies are positive. Current data have shown increased cardiovascular risk in patients with mild-SCH and have demonstrated some benefits of levothyroxine treatment in reducing these events. However, evidence on the association of mild-SCH and musculoskeletal system, cognitive dysfunction, mood disorders, dyslipidaemia, diabetes and goitre is conflicting. Similarly, the discussion regarding the exact upper limit of normal for serum TSH remains controversial. The data have also shown increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes in patient with mild-SCH, with some benefits of thyroxine treatment. The recent available guidelines related to management of patients with serum TSH <10 mIU/l have suggested decisions should be made taking into account the age of the patient, associated risk factors and comorbid conditions. This chronicle review assesses current evidence regarding the risks associated and the recommendations related to benefits of levothyroxine treatment in patients having mild-SCH. PMID:26885359

  7. Potential benefits of a ceramic thermal barrier coating on large power generation gas turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, J. S.; Nainiger, J. J.

    1977-01-01

    Thermal barrier coating design option offers benefit in terms of reduced electricity costs when used in utility gas turbines. Options considered include: increased firing temperature, increased component life, reduced cooling air requirements, and increased corrosion resistance (resulting in increased tolerance for dirty fuels). Performance and cost data were obtained. Simple, recuperated and combined cycle applications were considered, and distillate and residual fuels were assumed. The results indicate that thermal barrier coatings could produce large electricity cost savings if these coatings permit turbine operation with residual fuels at distillate-rated firing temperatures. The results also show that increased turbine inlet temperature can result in substantial savings in fuel and capital costs.

  8. Time-lapse in the IVF-lab: how should we assess potential benefit?

    PubMed

    Armstrong, S; Vail, A; Mastenbroek, S; Jordan, V; Farquhar, C

    2015-01-01

    Time-lapse imaging of embryos has been widely introduced to fertility laboratories worldwide with the aim of identifying the best quality embryos to transfer that will ultimately improve IVF success rates. In this opinion paper, we explore the lack of evidence of benefit of this novel intervention, analyse the methodological flaws of current studies, offer ideal study designs that assess the various features of time-lapse imaging, and discuss forthcoming studies. In particular, we emphasize the ethical aspects of hastily adopting a costly technology without current high level evidence of improved live birth rates, safety and cost effectiveness.

  9. Health Benefits of Anthocyanins and Their Encapsulation for Potential Use in Food Systems: A Review.

    PubMed

    Yousuf, Basharat; Gul, Khalid; Wani, Ali Abas; Singh, Preeti

    2016-10-01

    Anthocyanins are one of the six subgroups of large and widespread group of plant constituents known as flavonoids. These are responsible for the bright and attractive orange, red, purple, and blue colors of most fruits, vegetables, flowers and some cereal grains. More than 600 structurally distinct anthocyanins have been identified in nature. Earlier, anthocyanins were only known for their coloring properties but now interest in anthocyanin pigments has intensified because of their possible health benefits as dietary antioxidants, which help to prevent neuronal diseases, cardiovascular illnesses, cancer, diabetes, inflammation, and many such others diseases. Ability of anthocyanins to counter oxidants makes them atherosclerosis fighters. Therefore, anthocyanin-rich foods may help to boost overall health by offering an array of nutrients. However, the incorporation of anthocyanins into food and medical products is a challenging task due to their low stability toward environmental conditions during processing and storage. Encapsulation seems to be an efficient way to introduce such compounds into these products. Encapsulating agents act as a protector coat against ambient adverse conditions such as light, humidity, and oxygen. Encapsulated bioactive compounds are easier to handle and offer improved stability. The main objective of this review is to explore health benefits of anthocyanins and their extraction, characterization, encapsulation, and delivery.

  10. Realizing the Potential of Ecosystem Services: A Framework for Relating Ecological Changes to Economic Benefits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wainger, Lisa; Mazzotta, Marisa

    2011-10-01

    Increasingly government agencies are seeking to quantify the outcomes of proposed policy options in terms of ecosystem service benefits, yet conflicting definitions and ad hoc approaches to measuring ecosystem services have created confusion regarding how to rigorously link ecological change to changes in human well-being. Here, we describe a step-by-step framework for producing ecological models and metrics that can effectively serve an economic-benefits assessment of a proposed change in policy or management. A focus of the framework is developing comparable units of ecosystem goods and services to support decision-making, even if outcomes cannot be monetized. Because the challenges to translating ecological changes to outcomes appropriate for economic analyses are many, we discuss examples that demonstrate practical methods and approaches to overcoming data limitations. The numerous difficult decisions that government agencies must make to fairly use and allocate natural resources provides ample opportunity for interdisciplinary teams of natural and social scientists to improve methods for quantifying changes in ecosystem services and their effects on human well-being. This framework is offered with the intent of promoting the success of such teams as they support managers in evaluating the equivalency of ecosystem service offsets and trades, establishing restoration and preservation priorities, and more generally, in developing environmental policy that effectively balances multiple perspectives.

  11. The genetic architecture of fitness in a seed beetle: assessing the potential for indirect genetic benefits of female choice

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Quantifying the amount of standing genetic variation in fitness represents an empirical challenge. Unfortunately, the shortage of detailed studies of the genetic architecture of fitness has hampered progress in several domains of evolutionary biology. One such area is the study of sexual selection. In particular, the evolution of adaptive female choice by indirect genetic benefits relies on the presence of genetic variation for fitness. Female choice by genetic benefits fall broadly into good genes (additive) models and compatibility (non-additive) models where the strength of selection is dictated by the genetic architecture of fitness. To characterize the genetic architecture of fitness, we employed a quantitative genetic design (the diallel cross) in a population of the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, which is known to exhibit post-copulatory female choice. From reciprocal crosses of inbred lines, we assayed egg production, egg-to-adult survival, and lifetime offspring production of the outbred F1 daughters (F1 productivity). Results We used the bio model to estimate six components of genetic and environmental variance in fitness. We found sizeable additive and non-additive genetic variance in F1 productivity, but lower genetic variance in egg-to-adult survival, which was strongly influenced by maternal and paternal effects. Conclusion Our results show that, in order to gain a relevant understanding of the genetic architecture of fitness, measures of offspring fitness should be inclusive and should include quantifications of offspring reproductive success. We note that our estimate of additive genetic variance in F1 productivity (CVA = 14%) is sufficient to generate indirect selection on female choice. However, our results also show that the major determinant of offspring fitness is the genetic interaction between parental genomes, as indicated by large amounts of non-additive genetic variance (dominance and/or epistasis) for F1 productivity. We

  12. Bioactive sterols from marine resources and their potential benefits for human health.

    PubMed

    Kim, Se-Kwon; Van Ta, Quang

    2012-01-01

    Bioactive agents from marine resources have shown their valuable health beneficial effects. Therefore, increase knowledge on novel functional ingredients with biological activities from marine animal and microbe has gained much attention. Sterols are recognized as potential in development functional food ingredients and pharmaceutical agents. Marine resources, with a great diversity, can be a very interesting natural resource of sterols. This chapter focuses on biological activities of marine animal and microbe sterols with potential health beneficial applications in functional foods and pharmaceuticals.

  13. Extracellular matrix protein in calcified endoskeleton: a potential additive for crystal growth and design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azizur Rahman, M.; Fujimura, Hiroyuki; Shinjo, Ryuichi; Oomori, Tamotsu

    2011-06-01

    In this study, we demonstrate a key function of extracellular matrix proteins (ECMPs) on seed crystals, which are isolated from calcified endoskeletons of soft coral and contain only CaCO 3 without any living cells. This is the first report that an ECMP protein extracted from a marine organism could potentially influence in modifying the surface of a substrate for designing materials via crystallization. We previously studied with the ECMPs from a different type of soft coral ( Sinularia polydactyla) without introducing any seed crystals in the process , which showed different results. Thus, crystallization on the seed in the presence of ECMPs of present species is an important first step toward linking function to individual proteins from soft coral. For understanding this interesting phenomenon, in vitro crystallization was initiated in a supersaturated solution on seed particles of calcite (1 0 4) with and without ECMPs. No change in the crystal growth shape occurred without ECMPs present during the crystallization process. However, with ECMPs, the morphology and phase of the crystals in the crystallization process changed dramatically. Upon completion of crystallization with ECMPs, an attractive crystal morphology was found. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was utilized to observe the crystal morphologies on the seeds surface. The mineral phases of crystals nucleated by ECMPs on the seeds surface were examined by Raman spectroscopy. Although 50 mM Mg 2+ is influential in making aragonite in the crystallization process, the ECMPs significantly made calcite crystals even when 50 mM Mg 2+ was present in the process. Crystallization with the ECMP additive seems to be a technically attractive strategy to generate assembled micro crystals that could be used in crystals growth and design in the Pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries.

  14. [Prevention of HPV cancer related through HPV-9: state of the art, potential benefits and open issues].

    PubMed

    Mariani, Luciano; Bonanni, Paolo; Castiglia, Paolo; Chiamenti, Giampietro; Conforti, Giorgio; Conversano, Michele; Icardi, Giancarlo; Maio, Tommasa; Mennini, Francesco; Prato, Rosa; Scotti, Silvestro; Signorelli, Carlo; Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    HPV vaccines currently marketed in Italy (bivalent and quadrivalent against HPV 16-18 and HPV and 6,11,16,18 respectively) are an extraordinary tool for the primary prevention of HPV related diseases, particularly of the cervical cancer. Although the implementation of the organized vaccination programs has already translated (for some endpoint) in confirmation of clinical efficacy, remains excluded a significant proportion of the diseases linked to non-vaccine HPV types. The new nonavalent vaccine (HPV9), of impending commercialization, represents an evolution of the quadrivalent, the composition of which are added five high-risk HPV types (HPV 31,33,45,52,58). The high clinical-immunological efficacy in experimental trials against the new genotypes (> 96% for CIN2 +), and the equivalence immunogenic to the four already present in the previous vaccine, will render the use of HPV9 a tool able to control in an even more effective HPV disease. The potential of the new vaccine is linked to the reduction of the HPV cancer burden by 2-20% according to anatomical site, with major benefits for cervical cancer, vulvo-vaginal, penile and more limited benefits for anal tumours. Moreover, the potential benefits could be also linked to the reduction of incidence of pre-neoplastic lesions arising in the lower-genital tract, especially in the cervix (CIN2-3), so often cause lengthy and expensive diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. In the face of this broad provision of benefit from HPV9 vaccine, we have also to consider all the variables related to its introduction in the vaccination calendars: the market price, the schedule of administration (currently in three doses) and data regarding the cost-effectiveness. The authors recognize the new vaccine (currently registered only in the US) a lot of potential in the prevention of HPV-related diseases.

  15. Potential Benefits from Improved Energy Efficiency of KeyElectrical Products: The Case of India

    SciTech Connect

    McNeil, Michael; Iyer, Maithili; Meyers, Stephen; Letschert,Virginie; McMahon, James E.

    2005-12-20

    The goal of this project was to estimate the net benefits that cost-effective improvements in energy efficiency can bring to developing countries. The study focused on four major electrical products in the world's second largest developing country, India. These products--refrigerators, room air conditioners, electric motors, and distribution transformers--are important targets for efficiency improvement in India and in other developing countries. India is an interesting subject of study because of it's size and rapid economic growth. Implementation of efficient technologies in India would save billions in energy costs, and avoid hundreds of megatons of greenhouse gas emissions. India also serves as an example of the kinds of improvement opportunities that could be pursued in other developing countries.

  16. Potential crash reduction benefits of shoulder rumble strips in two-lane rural highways.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mubassira; Abdel-Rahim, Ahmed; Williams, Christopher J

    2015-02-01

    This paper reports the findings from a study aimed at examining the effectiveness of shoulder rumble strips in reducing run-off-the-road (ROR) crashes on two-lane rural highways using the empirical Bayes (EB) before-and-after analysis method. Specifically, the study analyzed the effects of traffic volume, roadway geometry and paved right shoulder width on the effectiveness of shoulder rumble strips. The results of this study demonstrate the safety benefits of shoulder rumble strips in reducing the ROR crashes on two-lane rural highways using the state of Idaho 2001-2009 crash data. This study revealed a 14% reduction in all ROR crashes after the installation of shoulder rumble strips on 178.63miles of two-lane rural highways in Idaho. The results indicate that shoulder rumble strips were most effective on roads with relatively moderate curvature and right paved shoulder width of 3 feet and more.

  17. No Additional Benefit of Repeat-Sprint Training in Hypoxia than in Normoxia on Sea-Level Repeat-Sprint Ability

    PubMed Central

    Goods, Paul S.R.; Dawson, Brian; Landers, Grant J.; Gore, Christopher J.; Peeling, Peter

    2015-01-01

    To assess the impact of ‘top-up’ normoxic or hypoxic repeat-sprint training on sea-level repeat-sprint ability, thirty team sport athletes were randomly split into three groups, which were matched in running repeat-sprint ability (RSA), cycling RSA and 20 m shuttle run performance. Two groups then performed 15 maximal cycling repeat-sprint training sessions over 5 weeks, in either normoxia (NORM) or hypoxia (HYP), while a third group acted as a control (CON). In the post-training cycling RSA test, both NORM (13.6%; p = 0.0001, and 8.6%; p = 0.001) and HYP (10.3%; p = 0.007, and 4.7%; p = 0.046) significantly improved overall mean and peak power output, respectively, whereas CON did not change (1.4%; p = 0.528, and -1.1%; p = 0.571, respectively); with only NORM demonstrating a moderate effect for improved mean and peak power output compared to CON. Running RSA demonstrated no significant between group differences; however, the mean sprint times improved significantly from pre- to post-training for CON (1.1%), NORM (1.8%), and HYP (2.3%). Finally, there were no group differences in 20 m shuttle run performance. In conclusion, ‘top-up’ training improved performance in a task-specific activity (i.e. cycling); however, there was no additional benefit of conducting this ‘top-up’ training in hypoxia, since cycle RSA improved similarly in both HYP and NORM conditions. Regardless, the ‘top-up’ training had no significant impact on running RSA, therefore the use of cycle repeat-sprint training should be discouraged for team sport athletes due to limitations in specificity. Key points ‘Top-up’ repeat-sprint training performed on a cycle ergometer enhances cycle repeat-sprint ability compared to team sport training only in football players. The addition of moderate hypoxia to repeat-sprint training provides no additional performance benefits to sea-level repeat-sprint ability or endurance performance than normoxic repeat-sprint training.

  18. No Additional Benefit of Repeat-Sprint Training in Hypoxia than in Normoxia on Sea-Level Repeat-Sprint Ability.

    PubMed

    Goods, Paul S R; Dawson, Brian; Landers, Grant J; Gore, Christopher J; Peeling, Peter

    2015-09-01

    To assess the impact of 'top-up' normoxic or hypoxic repeat-sprint training on sea-level repeat-sprint ability, thirty team sport athletes were randomly split into three groups, which were matched in running repeat-sprint ability (RSA), cycling RSA and 20 m shuttle run performance. Two groups then performed 15 maximal cycling repeat-sprint training sessions over 5 weeks, in either normoxia (NORM) or hypoxia (HYP), while a third group acted as a control (CON). In the post-training cycling RSA test, both NORM (13.6%; p = 0.0001, and 8.6%; p = 0.001) and HYP (10.3%; p = 0.007, and 4.7%; p = 0.046) significantly improved overall mean and peak power output, respectively, whereas CON did not change (1.4%; p = 0.528, and -1.1%; p = 0.571, respectively); with only NORM demonstrating a moderate effect for improved mean and peak power output compared to CON. Running RSA demonstrated no significant between group differences; however, the mean sprint times improved significantly from pre- to post-training for CON (1.1%), NORM (1.8%), and HYP (2.3%). Finally, there were no group differences in 20 m shuttle run performance. In conclusion, 'top-up' training improved performance in a task-specific activity (i.e. cycling); however, there was no additional benefit of conducting this 'top-up' training in hypoxia, since cycle RSA improved similarly in both HYP and NORM conditions. Regardless, the 'top-up' training had no significant impact on running RSA, therefore the use of cycle repeat-sprint training should be discouraged for team sport athletes due to limitations in specificity. Key points'Top-up' repeat-sprint training performed on a cycle ergometer enhances cycle repeat-sprint ability compared to team sport training only in football players.The addition of moderate hypoxia to repeat-sprint training provides no additional performance benefits to sea-level repeat-sprint ability or endurance performance than normoxic repeat-sprint training.'Top-up' cycling repeat-sprint training

  19. Intergenerational Preschool Experiences and the Young Child: Potential Benefits to Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Femia, Elia E.; Zarit, Steven H.; Blair, Clancy; Jarrott, Shannon E.; Bruno, Kelly

    2008-01-01

    We conducted an exploratory study evaluating the potential impact of intergenerational programming (IG) on children's socio-emotional development, behavior, school performance, and attitudes and behavior toward older adults. Children currently in kindergarten through second grade (age range: 6-8 years old) who previously attended one of two…

  20. Type 2 diabetes diminishes the benefits of dietary antioxidants: Evidence from the different free radical scavenging potential.

    PubMed

    Cao, Hui; Xie, Yixi; Chen, Xiaoqing

    2015-11-01

    The development of food fortified with polyphenols and polyphenol-rich foods represents a novel approach for preventing or managing type 2 diabetes. Herein, taking advantage of several radical scavenging, the impact of plasma proteins in diabetes on the benefits of dietary polyphenols was investigated. It illustrated that plasma proteins masked the dietary polyphenols, thus reducing their radical scavenging potential. The plasma proteins from type 2 diabetics bind and protect (i.e., mask) the polyphenol antioxidants less effectively than the non-glycosylated ones in healthy blood do. In the blood of diabetics the less-protected (non-masked) antioxidants react with free radicals before being delivered to the tissues that need them. We should pay more attention to in vivo benefits of dietary polyphenols for type 2 diabetics.

  1. Natural Products from Chinese Medicines with Potential Benefits to Bone Health.

    PubMed

    Che, Chun-Tao; Wong, Man Sau; Lam, Christopher Wai Kei

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a progressive, systemic bone disorder characterized by loss of bone mass and microstructure, leading to reduced bone strength and increased risk of fracture. It is often associated with reduced quality of life and other medical complications. The disease is common in the aging population, particularly among postmenopausal women and patients who receive long-term steroidal therapy. Given the rapid growth of the aging population, increasing life expectancy, the prevalence of bone loss, and financial burden to the healthcare system and individuals, demand for new therapeutic agents and nutritional supplements for the management and promotion of bone health is pressing. With the advent of global interest in complementary and alternative medicine and natural products, Chinese medicine serves as a viable source to offer benefits for the improvement and maintenance of bone health. This review summarizes the scientific information obtained from recent literatures on the chemical ingredients of Chinese medicinal plants that have been reported to possess osteoprotective and related properties in cell-based and/or animal models. Some of these natural products (or their derivatives) may become promising leads for development into dietary supplements or therapeutic drugs. PMID:26927052

  2. Early childhood healthy and obese weight status: potentially protective benefits of breastfeeding and delaying solid foods.

    PubMed

    Moss, Brian G; Yeaton, William H

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between breastfeeding and postponing introduction to solid food (SF) on children's obesity and healthy weight status (WS), at 2 and 4 years. Drawing upon a nationally representative sample of children from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort, we estimated the magnitude of the relationship between children's WS and early feeding practices. Contingency tables and multinomial logistic regression were used to analyze obese and healthy WS for breastfed and never breastfed children and examine three timing categories for SF introduction. With both percentages and odds, breastfeeding and delaying introduction to SF until 4 months were associated with lower obesity rates and higher, healthy WS rates (typically 5-10%). Analyses of feeding practice combinations revealed that when children were not breastfed, obesity odds decreased when SF introduction was postponed until 4 months. Obesity odds were further reduced when SF delay was combined with breastfeeding. Consistent increases in healthy WS were also observed. Benefits were stable across both follow-up periods. Breastfeeding and delaying complementary foods yielded consistently and substantially lower likelihood of obesity and greater probability of healthy WS. Health policies targeting early feeding practices represent promising interventions to decrease preschool obesity and promote healthy WS. PMID:24057991

  3. Endometriosis and ovarian cancer: potential benefits and harms of screening and risk-reducing surgery.

    PubMed

    Guo, Sun-Wei

    2015-10-01

    Although endometriosis is well recognized as a benign gynecologic condition, its association with ovarian cancer (OVCA) has frequently been reported. Review articles on this topic are voluminous, yet there seems to be no consensus as to whether endometriosis is truly a precursor of OVCA and whether any screening or risk-reducing surgery should be instituted, on the basis of our current knowledge. In this review, published data are compiled and critically appraised. Through this critical appraisal, it seems clear that the strongest evidence seems to come from prevalence data. This type of data also suggests a reduced risk of certain histotypes (mainly type II) of OVCA in women with endometriosis. This may explain the rather moderate increase in risk as shown in epidemiologic studies. Even with this moderate increase in OVCA risk, caution should be exercised because of apparent bias in favor of publication of positive results, extensive heterogeneities among prevalence estimates, and inverse relationship between estimates and sizes of the studies. Many molecular studies are conflicting, and earlier studies showing molecular aberrations involved in genomic instability and mutation that enable malignant transformation are not replicated in later studies. Given the low incidence of OVCA and the rather moderate increase in risk of mostly type I tumors, screening seems to be ill-advised, and risk-reducing surgery such as salpingectomy with or without oophorectomy does not seem to yield any substantial benefit to women with endometriosis.

  4. Assessing the potential visibility benefits of Clean Air Act Title IV emission reductions

    SciTech Connect

    Trexler, E.C. Jr.; Shannon, J.D.

    1995-06-01

    Assessments are made of the benefits of the 1990 Clean Air Act Title IV (COVE), Phase 2, SO2 and NOX reduction provisions, to the visibility in typical eastern and western Class 1 areas. Probable bands of visibility impairment distribution curves are developed for Shenandoah National Park, Smoky Mountain National Park and the Grand Canyon National Park, based on the existing emissions, ``Base Case``, and for the COVE emission reductions, ``CAAA Case``. Emission projections for 2010 are developed with improved versions of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program emission projection models. Source-receptor transfer matrices created with the Advanced Statistical Trajectory Regional Air Pollution (ASTRAP) model are used with existing emission inventories and with the emission projections to calculate atmospheric concentrations of sulfate and nitrate at the receptors of interest for existing and projected emission scenarios. The Visibility Assessment Scoping Model (VASM) is then used to develop distributions of visibility impairment. VASM combines statistics of observed concentrations of particulate species and relative humidity with ASTRAP calculations of the relative changes in atmospheric sulfate and nitrate particulate concentrations in a Monte Carlo approach to produce expected distributions of hourly particulate concentrations and RH. Light extinction relationships developed in theoretical and field studies are then used to calculate the resulting distribution of visibility impairment. Successive Monte Carlo studies are carried out to develop sets of visibility impairment distributions with and without the COVE emission reductions to gain insight into the detectability of expected visibility improvements.

  5. Potentially useful polyolester lubricant additives an overview of antioxidants, antiwear and antiseize compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Cavestri, R.C.

    1996-11-01

    Reliable service lubrication of compressors with polyolesters that do not contain additives is the optimal goal for hermetic compressor use. Chlorine derived from CFC and HCFC refrigerants is reported to have effective antiwear properties and negates the widespread use of additives in mineral oil lubricated systems. The use of antioxidants for mineral oil and polyolesters have been reported; antioxidant additive activity seems essential for polyolesters.- Antiwear and antiseize additives seem to be a short term goal for use with polyolesters. High silicone aluminum to steel wear seems to be a primary target for additive use. The interaction of specific heteroatom organic compounds with highly polar surface active synthetic polyolester lubricants is complex. Results of an extensive literature search describe results from a service base determined at ambient conditions. Known lubricant additives used in the hermetic compressor industry, the. mode of action of several types of additives and some lubricant additive chemistry that demonstrates selective thermal stability in conjunction with the chemical structure are examined.

  6. The potential benefits of red beetroot supplementation in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Clifford, Tom; Howatson, Glyn; West, Daniel J; Stevenson, Emma J

    2015-04-01

    In recent years there has been a growing interest in the biological activity of red beetroot (Beta vulgaris rubra) and its potential utility as a health promoting and disease preventing functional food. As a source of nitrate, beetroot ingestion provides a natural means of increasing in vivo nitric oxide (NO) availability and has emerged as a potential strategy to prevent and manage pathologies associated with diminished NO bioavailability, notably hypertension and endothelial function. Beetroot is also being considered as a promising therapeutic treatment in a range of clinical pathologies associated with oxidative stress and inflammation. Its constituents, most notably the betalain pigments, display potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and chemo-preventive activity in vitro and in vivo. The purpose of this review is to discuss beetroot's biological activity and to evaluate evidence from studies that specifically investigated the effect of beetroot supplementation on inflammation, oxidative stress, cognition and endothelial function. PMID:25875121

  7. Potential benefits for propfan technology on derivatives of future short- to medium-range transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldsmith, I. M.; Bowles, J. V.

    1980-01-01

    It is noted that several NASA-sponsored studies have identified a substantial potential fuel savings for high subsonic speed aircraft utilizing the propfan concept compared to the equivalent technology turbofan aircraft. Attention is given to a feasibility study for propfan-powered short- to medium-haul commercial transport aircraft conducted to evaluate potential fuel savings and identify critical technology requirements using the latest propfan performance data. An analysis is made of the design and performance characteristics of a wing-mounted and two-aft-mounted derivative propfan aircraft configurations, based on a DC-9 Super 80 airframe, which are compared to the baseline turbofan design. Finally, recommendations for further research efforts are also made.

  8. The Potential Benefits of Red Beetroot Supplementation in Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Clifford, Tom; Howatson, Glyn; West, Daniel J.; Stevenson, Emma J.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years there has been a growing interest in the biological activity of red beetroot (Beta vulgaris rubra) and its potential utility as a health promoting and disease preventing functional food. As a source of nitrate, beetroot ingestion provides a natural means of increasing in vivo nitric oxide (NO) availability and has emerged as a potential strategy to prevent and manage pathologies associated with diminished NO bioavailability, notably hypertension and endothelial function. Beetroot is also being considered as a promising therapeutic treatment in a range of clinical pathologies associated with oxidative stress and inflammation. Its constituents, most notably the betalain pigments, display potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and chemo-preventive activity in vitro and in vivo. The purpose of this review is to discuss beetroot’s biological activity and to evaluate evidence from studies that specifically investigated the effect of beetroot supplementation on inflammation, oxidative stress, cognition and endothelial function. PMID:25875121

  9. Herbal Medicines and Epilepsy: The Potential for Benefit and Adverse Effects.

    PubMed

    Spinella, Marcello

    2001-12-01

    The widespread availability and use of herbal medicines raise the potential for adverse effects in the epilepsy population. Herbal sedatives (kava, valerian, chamomile, passionflower) may potentiate the effects of antiepileptic medications, increasing their sedative and cognitive effects. Despite some antiseizure effects in animal models, they should not be used in place of standard seizure medications because efficacy has not been established. Anecdotal, uncontrolled observations suggest that herbal stimulants containing ephedrine (ephedra or ma huang) and caffeine (cocoa, coffee, tea, maté, guarana, cola or kola) can exacerbate seizures in people with epilepsy, especially when taken in combination. Ginkgo and ginseng may also exacerbate seizures although the evidence for this is similarly anecdotal and uncertain. St. John's wort has the potential to alter medication pharmacokinetics and the seizure threshold. The essential oils of many plants contain epileptogenic compounds. There is mixed evidence for evening primrose and borage lowering the seizure threshold. Education of both health care providers and patients is the best way to avoid unintentional and unnecessary adverse reactions to herbal medicines. PMID:12609386

  10. Texas State Building Energy Code: Analysis of Potential Benefits and Costs of Commercial Lighting Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Richman, Eric E.; Belzer, David B.; Winiarski, David W.

    2005-09-15

    The State Energy Conservation Office of Texas has asked the U.S. Department of Energy to analyze the potential energy effect and cost-effectiveness of the lighting requirements in the 2003 IECC as they consider adoption of this energy code. The new provisions of interest in the lighting section of IECC 2003 include new lighting power densities (LPD) and requirements for automatic lighting shutoff controls. The potential effect of the new LPD values is analyzed as a comparison with previous values in the nationally available IECC codes and ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1. The basis for the analysis is a set of lighting models developed as part of the ASHRAE/IES code process, which is the basis for IECC 2003 LPD values. The use of the models allows for an effective comparison of values for various building types of interest to Texas state. Potential effects from control requirements are discussed, and available case study analysis results are provided but no comprehensive numerical evaluation is provided in this limited analysis effort.

  11. Carbon nanotubes as delivery systems for respiratory disease: do the dangers outweigh the potential benefits?

    PubMed Central

    Bonner, James C

    2012-01-01

    Nanoparticle drug-delivery systems offer the potential for improved efficacy of treatment, and yet there are also potential risks associated with these novel therapeutic strategies. An attractive property of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is that the tube- or fiber-like structure allows for extensive functionalization and loading of cargo. However, a large body of evidence indicates that CNTs may have adverse effects if used in drug delivery as they have been shown to cause pulmonary fibrosis and exacerbate lung disease in rodents with pre-existing lung diseases. Major factors that cause these toxic effects are the high aspect ratio, durability and residual metal content that generate reactive oxygen species. Therefore, careful consideration should be given to the possibility that lung inflammation or fibrosis could be significant side effects caused by a CNT-based drug-delivery system, thereby outweighing any potential beneficial effects of therapeutic treatment. However, functionalization of CNTs to modulate aspect ratio, biodegradability and to remove residual metals could allow for safe design of CNTs for use in drug delivery in certain circumstances. PMID:22082164

  12. Energy Saving Potentials and Air Quality Benefits of Urban Heat Island Mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Akbari, Hashem

    2005-08-23

    Urban areas tend to have higher air temperatures than their rural surroundings as a result of gradual surface modifications that include replacing the natural vegetation with buildings and roads. The term ''Urban Heat Island'' describes this phenomenon. The surfaces of buildings and pavements absorb solar radiation and become extremely hot, which in turn warm the surrounding air. Cities that have been ''paved over'' do not receive the benefit of the natural cooling effect of vegetation. As the air temperature rises, so does the demand for air-conditioning (a/c). This leads to higher emissions from power plants, as well as increased smog formation as a result of warmer temperatures. In the United States, we have found that this increase in air temperature is responsible for 5-10% of urban peak electric demand for a/c use, and as much as 20% of population-weighted smog concentrations in urban areas. Simple ways to cool the cities are the use of reflective surfaces (rooftops and pavements) and planting of urban vegetation. On a large scale, the evapotranspiration from vegetation and increased reflection of incoming solar radiation by reflective surfaces will cool a community a few degrees in the summer. As an example, computer simulations for Los Angeles, CA show that resurfacing about two-third of the pavements and rooftops with reflective surfaces and planting three trees per house can cool down LA by an average of 2-3K. This reduction in air temperature will reduce urban smog exposure in the LA basin by roughly the same amount as removing the basin entire onroad vehicle exhaust. Heat island mitigation is an effective air pollution control strategy, more than paying for itself in cooling energy cost savings. We estimate that the cooling energy savings in U.S. from cool surfaces and shade trees, when fully implemented, is about $5 billion per year (about $100 per air-conditioned house).

  13. Systematic review of fibrinolytic-facilitated percutaneous coronary intervention: Potential benefits and future challenges

    PubMed Central

    Afilalo, Jonathan; Roy, Arup Michael; Eisenberg, Mark J

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Facilitated percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is defined as the administration of fibrinolytic therapy and/or glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa inhibitors to minimize myocardial ischemia time while waiting for PCI. A pooled meta-analysis suggested that facilitated PCI was associated with higher rates of mortality and morbidity compared with nonfacilitated PCI. OBJECTIVE: The heterogeneous and complex trials of facilitated PCI were systematically reviewed to identify where this strategy may be beneficial and deserving of further research. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane database, the Internet and conference proceedings were searched to obtain relevant trials. Human studies that randomly assigned patients to fibrinolytic-facilitated PCI (administration of fibrinolytic therapy alone or in combination with GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors before angiography) versus nonfacilitated PCI were included. RESULTS: Nine trials encompassing 3836 patients were reviewed. The facilitated PCI strategy was fibrinolytic therapy alone in seven trials and half-dose fibrinolytic therapy plus GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors in two trials. In patients who had fibrinolysis less than 2 h after symptom onset (mainly in the prehospital setting) and/or slightly delayed PCI 3 h to 24 h after fibrinolysis, facilitated PCI was associated with the greatest Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) grade 3 flow and a trend toward reduced mortality. Overall, facilitated PCI was associated with increased intracranial hemorrhage and reinfarction. Combining half-dose fibrinolytic therapy and GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors reduced reinfarction but increased major bleeding. CONCLUSIONS: Facilitated PCI cannot be recommended outside of experimental protocols at this time. Further research should focus on selecting patients with higher benefit-to-risk ratios and performing prehospital fibrinolysis with optimal antiplatelet or antithrombin therapy, as well as slightly delayed PCI in patients who are stable or

  14. Lack of Benefit for the Addition of Androgen Deprivation Therapy to Dose-Escalated Radiotherapy in the Treatment of Intermediate- and High-Risk Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Krauss, Daniel; Kestin, Larry; Ye, Hong; Brabbins, Donald; Ghilezan, Michel; Gustafson, Gary; Vicini, Frank; Martinez, Alvaro

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: Assessment of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) benefits for prostate cancer treated with dose-escalated radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: From 1991 to 2004, 1,044 patients with intermediate- (n = 782) or high-risk (n = 262) prostate cancer were treated with dose-escalated RT at William Beaumont Hospital. Patients received external-beam RT (EBRT) alone, brachytherapy (high or low dose rate), or high dose rate brachytherapy plus pelvic EBRT. Intermediate-risk patients had Gleason score 7, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) 10.0-19.9 ng/mL, or Stage T2b-T2c. High-risk patients had Gleason score 8-10, PSA {>=}20, or Stage T3. Patients were additionally divided specifically by Gleason score, presence of palpable disease, and PSA level to further define subgroups benefitting from ADT. Results: Median follow-up was 5 years; 420 patients received ADT + dose-escalated RT, and 624 received dose-escalated RT alone. For all patients, no advantages in any clinical endpoints at 8 years were associated with ADT administration. No differences in any endpoints were associated with ADT administration based on intermediate- vs. high-risk group or RT modality when analyzed separately. Patients with palpable disease plus Gleason {>=}8 demonstrated improved clinical failure rates and a trend toward improved survival with ADT. Intermediate-risk patients treated with brachytherapy alone had improved biochemical control when ADT was given. Conclusion: Benefits of ADT in the setting of dose-escalated RT remain poorly defined. This question must continue to be addressed in prospective study.

  15. Potential benefits and limitations of utilizing chondroprogenitors in cell-based cartilage therapy

    PubMed Central

    Jayasuriya, Chathuraka T.

    2016-01-01

    Chondroprogenitor cells are a subpopulation of multipotent progenitors that are primed for chondrogenesis. They are believed to have the biological repertoire to be ideal for cell-based cartilage therapy. In addition to summarizing recent advances in chondroprogenitor cell characterization, this review discusses the projected pros and cons of utilizing chondroprogenitors in regenerative medicine and compares them to that of preexisting methods, including autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) and the utilization of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for the purpose of cartilage tissue repair. PMID:26075411

  16. Potential benefits and limitations of utilizing chondroprogenitors in cell-based cartilage therapy.

    PubMed

    Jayasuriya, Chathuraka T; Chen, Qian

    2015-01-01

    Chondroprogenitor cells are a subpopulation of multipotent progenitors that are primed for chondrogenesis. They are believed to have the biological repertoire to be ideal for cell-based cartilage therapy. In addition to summarizing recent advances in chondroprogenitor cell characterization, this review discusses the projected pros and cons of utilizing chondroprogenitors in regenerative medicine and compares them with that of pre-existing methods, including autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) and the utilization of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for the purpose of cartilage tissue repair.

  17. The need for health impact assessment in China: Potential benefits for public health and steps forward

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Liming; Rutherford, Shannon; Chu, Cordia

    2011-07-15

    Health impact assessment (HIA) is a useful tool to predict and estimate the potential health impact associated with programs, projects, and policies by comprehensively identifying relevant health determinants and their consequences. China is undergoing massive and rapid socio-economic changes leading to environment and population health challenges such as a large increase in non-communicable diseases, the emergence and re-emergence of infectious diseases, new health risks associated with environmental pollutants and escalating health inequality. These health issues are affected by multiple determinants which can be influenced by planned policies, programs, and projects. This paper discusses the needs for health impact assessment in China in order to minimize the negative health consequences from projects, programs and policies associated with rapid social and economic development. It first describes the scope of China's current impact assessment system and points out its inadequacy in meeting the requirements of population health protection and promotion. It then analyses the potential use of HIA and why China needs to develop and apply HIA as a tool to identify potential health impacts of proposed programs, projects and policies so as to influence decision-making early in the planning process. Thus, the paper recommends the development of HIA as a useful tool in China to enhance decision-making for the protection and promotion of population health. For this to happen, the paper outlines steps necessary for the establishment and successful implementation of HIA in China: beginning with the establishment of a HIA framework, followed by workforce capacity building, methodology design, and intersectoral collaboration and stakeholder engagement.

  18. Nanotechnology and in Situ Remediation: A Review of the Benefits and Potential Risks

    PubMed Central

    Karn, Barbara; Kuiken, Todd; Otto, Martha

    2009-01-01

    Objective Although industrial sectors involving semiconductors; memory and storage technologies; display, optical, and photonic technologies; energy; biotechnology; and health care produce the most products that contain nanomaterials, nanotechnology is also used as an environmental technology to protect the environment through pollution prevention, treatment, and cleanup. In this review, we focus on environmental cleanup and provide a background and overview of current practice; research findings; societal issues; potential environment, health, and safety implications; and future directions for nanoremediation. We do not present an exhaustive review of chemistry/engineering methods of the technology but rather an introduction and summary of the applications of nanotechnology in remediation. We also discuss nanoscale zerovalent iron in detail. Data sources We searched the Web of Science for research studies and accessed recent publicly available reports from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and other agencies and organizations that addressed the applications and implications associated with nanoremediation techniques. We also conducted personal interviews with practitioners about specific site remediations. Data synthesis We aggregated information from 45 sites, a representative portion of the total projects under way, to show nanomaterials used, types of pollutants addressed, and organizations responsible for each site. Conclusions Nanoremediation has the potential not only to reduce the overall costs of cleaning up large-scale contaminated sites but also to reduce cleanup time, eliminate the need for treatment and disposal of contaminated soil, and reduce some contaminant concentrations to near zero—all in situ. Proper evaluation of nanoremediation, particularly full-scale ecosystem-wide studies, needs to be conducted to prevent any potential adverse environmental impacts. PMID:20049198

  19. Air Quality and Population Exposure in Urban Areas: Potential Co-Benefits of Alternative Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikolajczyk, U.; Suppan, P.; Forkel, R.; Williams, M.

    2014-12-01

    life-years lost. The health benefits that we assume with introducing alternative air quality strategies can be used to provide options for future policy decisions to achieve the reduction of emissions and thereby premature deaths.

  20. Potential treatment benefits and safety of roflumilast in COPD: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Lianfang; Dai, Xuan; Yang, Meng; Cai, Qiling; Shao, Na

    2016-01-01

    Background Current evidence suggests that roflumilast is efficacious in treating COPD, especially in preventing the acute exacerbation of COPD. Objectives This study was designed to evaluate the clinical effects and safety of roflumilast in the treatment of stable COPD using randomized clinical trial (RCT) data. Methods A MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Controlled Trials Register search was carried out. RCTs reporting the treatment effects of roflumilast in COPD were identified. Relevant data were extracted and a meta-analysis was performed. Results A total of nine articles and 13 RCT studies were identified. Overall, 29.1% of the subjects in the roflumilast group showed evidence of exacerbation. The corresponding figure was 32.2% in the placebo group. According to pooled analysis, the use of roflumilast reduced COPD exacerbations in comparison to placebo (odds ratio [OR] =0.82, 95% confidence interval [CI] =0.75–0.9). The quality of life and spirometry were improved. For patients receiving baseline pre-bronchodilators, their average forced expiratory volume in the first second showed evidence of change when they took roflumilast (64.88 mL; 95% CI =54.09–75.66). Those who took placebo showed no evidence of change. Similar result was observed in patients receiving baseline (54.49 mL; 95% CI =44.04–64.94). As for the safety of roflumilast treatment, the overall cumulative incidence of adverse drug reaction was 54.2% in the roflumilast group and 48.2% in the placebo group (OR =1.36, 95% CI =1.13–1.65). The adverse effects included diarrhea, headache, nausea, weight loss, and insomnia. Conclusion The efficacy of roflumilast in the prevention of acute exacerbation of COPD is obvious. Roflumilast is proved to be able to improve spirometry of COPD patients. The adverse drug reaction did not increase significantly in the roflumilast group compared with the control group. COPD patients can benefit from roflumilast therapy. However, our results are limited by the

  1. The benefits of an additional worker are task-dependent: assessing low-back injury risks during prefabricated (panelized) wall construction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunwook; Nussbaum, Maury A; Jia, Bochen

    2012-09-01

    Team manual material handling is a common practice in residential construction where prefabricated building components (e.g., wall panels) are increasingly used. As part of a larger effort to enable proactive control of ergonomic exposures among workers handling panels, this study explored the effects of additional workers on injury risks during team-based panel erection tasks, specifically by quantifying how injury risks are affected by increasing the number of workers (by one, above the nominal or most common number). Twenty-four participants completed panel erection tasks with and without an additional worker under different panel mass and size conditions. Four risk assessment methods were employed that emphasized the low back. Though including an additional worker generally reduced injury risk across several panel masses and sizes, the magnitude of these benefits varied depending on the specific task and exhibited somewhat high variability within a given task. These results suggest that a simple, generalizable recommendation regarding team-based panel erection tasks is not warranted. Rather, a more systems-level approach accounting for both injury risk and productivity (a strength of panelized wall systems) should be undertaken.

  2. Benefits of Leapfrogging to Superefficiency and Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants in Room Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, Nihar K.; Wei, Max; Letschert, Virginie; Phadke, Amol A.

    2015-10-01

    Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) emitted from uses such as refrigerants and thermal insulating foam, are now the fastest growing greenhouse gases (GHGs), with global warming potentials (GWP) thousands of times higher than carbon dioxide (CO2). Because of the short lifetime of these molecules in the atmosphere,1 mitigating the amount of these short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs) provides a faster path to climate change mitigation than control of CO2 alone. This has led to proposals from Africa, Europe, India, Island States, and North America to amend the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (Montreal Protocol) to phase-down high-GWP HFCs. Simultaneously, energy efficiency market transformation programs such as standards, labeling and incentive programs are endeavoring to improve the energy efficiency for refrigeration and air conditioning equipment to provide life cycle cost, energy, GHG, and peak load savings. In this paper we provide an estimate of the magnitude of such GHG and peak electric load savings potential, for room air conditioning, if the refrigerant transition and energy efficiency improvement policies are implemented either separately or in parallel.

  3. A review of the bioactivity and potential health benefits of peppermint tea (Mentha piperita L.).

    PubMed

    McKay, Diane L; Blumberg, Jeffrey B

    2006-08-01

    Peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) is one of the most widely consumed single ingredient herbal teas, or tisanes. Peppermint tea, brewed from the plant leaves, and the essential oil of peppermint are used in traditional medicines. Evidence-based research regarding the bioactivity of this herb is reviewed. The phenolic constituents of the leaves include rosmarinic acid and several flavonoids, primarily eriocitrin, luteolin and hesperidin. The main volatile components of the essential oil are menthol and menthone. In vitro, peppermint has significant antimicrobial and antiviral activities, strong antioxidant and antitumor actions, and some antiallergenic potential. Animal model studies demonstrate a relaxation effect on gastrointestinal (GI) tissue, analgesic and anesthetic effects in the central and peripheral nervous system, immunomodulating actions and chemopreventive potential. Human studies on the GI, respiratory tract and analgesic effects of peppermint oil and its constituents have been reported. Several clinical trials examining the effects of peppermint oil on irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms have been conducted. However, human studies of peppermint leaf are limited and clinical trials of peppermint tea are absent. Adverse reactions to peppermint tea have not been reported, although caution has been urged for peppermint oil therapy in patients with GI reflux, hiatal hernia or kidney stones.

  4. Potential benefits of probiotics--main findings of an in-depth review.

    PubMed

    Weichselbaum, Elisabeth

    2010-03-01

    Media reports on probiotics have been conflicting which has led to increased confusion among the general population and also among health professionals. To disentangle myths and reality, the British Nutrition Foundation has carried out a review on probiotics and health. There is good evidence that probiotics are effective in preventing antibiotic-associated diarrhoea and, although only few studies have been carried out so far, probiotic microorganisms also seem to have the potential to prevent the potentially fatal Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea. A limited number of studies that are available on the effectiveness of probiotics on constipation have shown conflicting results, but promising results have been found for certain strains. Irritable bowel syndrome symptoms have been found to be reduced by consuming probiotic strains, although a high placebo effect has been observed in some of the studies. The field of probiotics is relatively new and more studies will be needed to allow firm conclusions on the effectiveness of probiotic microorganisms for certain health issues. PMID:20220625

  5. From cannabis to the endocannabinoid system: refocussing attention on potential clinical benefits.

    PubMed

    Youssef, F F; Irving, A J

    2012-06-01

    Cannabis sativa is one of the oldest herbal remedies known to man. Over the past four thousand years, it has been used for the treatment of numerous diseases but due to its psychoactive properties, its current medicinal usage is highly restricted. In this review, we seek to highlight advances made over the last forty years in the understanding of the mechanisms responsible for the effects of cannabis on the human body and how these can potentially be utilized in clinical practice. During this time, the primary active ingredients in cannabis have been isolated, specific cannabinoid receptors have been discovered and at least five endogenous cannabinoid neurotransmitters (endocannabinoids) have been identified. Together, these form the framework of a complex endocannabinoid signalling system that has widespread distribution in the body and plays a role in regulating numerous physiological processes within the body. Cannabinoid ligands are therefore thought to display considerable therapeutic potential and the drive to develop compounds that can be targeted to specific neuronal systems at low enough doses so as to eliminate cognitive side effects remains the 'holy grail' of endocannabinoid research.

  6. Additional {alpha}-particle optical potential tests below the Coulomb barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Avrigeanu, M.; Avrigeanu, V.

    2010-03-15

    New results of ({alpha},{gamma}) and ({alpha},n) reaction cross section measurements close to the reaction thresholds support the setting up of recent parameters of the {alpha}-particle optical model potential (OMP) below the Coulomb barrier. Particular features of the {alpha}-particle optical potential at energies below the Coulomb barrier explain the failure of using the OMP parameters obtained by analysis of only {alpha}-particle elastic scattering at higher energies.

  7. Leachate treatment before injection into a bioreactor landfill: clogging potential reduction and benefits of using methanogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lozecznik, Stanislaw; Sparling, Richard; Oleszkiewicz, Jan A; Clark, Shawn; VanGulck, Jamie F

    2010-11-01

    In this study, an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) was operated with leachate from Brady Road Municipal Landfill in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. Leachate was collected twice from the same cell at the landfill, during the first and 70th day of the study, and then fed into the ASBR. The ASBR was seeded at the start-up with biosolids from the anaerobic digester from Winnipeg's North End Water Pollution Control Center (NEWPCC). Due to the higher COD and VFA removal rates measured with the second batch of leachate, an increase of approximately 0.3 pH units was observed during each cycle (from pH 7.2 to 7.5). In addition, CO(2) was produced between cycles at constant temperature where a fraction of the CO(2) became dissolved, shifting the CO(2)/bicarbonate/carbonate equilibrium. Concurrent with the increase in pH and carbonate, an accumulation of fixed suspend solids (FSS) was observed within the ASBR, indicating a buildup of inorganic material over time. From it, Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) were measured within the reactor on day 140, indicating that most of the dissolved Ca(2+) was removed within cycles. There is precedence from past researches of clogging in leachate-collection systems (Rowe et al., 2004) that changes in pH and carbonate content combined with high concentrations of metals such as Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) result in carbonate mineral precipitants. A parallel study investigated this observation, indicating that leachate with high concentration of Ca(2+) under CO(2) saturation conditions can precipitate out CaCO(3) at the pH values obtained between digestion cycles. These studies presented show that methanogenesis of leachate impacts the removal of organic (COD, VFA) as well as inorganic (FSS, Ca(2+)) clog constituents from the leachate, that otherwise will accumulate inside of the recirculation pipe in bioreactor landfills. In addition, a robust methanogenesis of leachate was achieved, averaging rates of 0.35 L CH(4) produced/g COD removed which is similar to the

  8. The Relationship Between Gratitude and Loneliness: The Potential Benefits of Gratitude for Promoting Social Bonds.

    PubMed

    Caputo, Andrea

    2015-05-01

    This paper explores the potential role of gratitude on the reduction of loneliness feelings, even controlling for several variables related to social desirability, well-being (subjective happiness and life satisfaction) and socio-demographic characteristics. Through a web-based survey a convenience sample of 197 participants completed an online questionnaire including these measures. Correlation analyses and four-step hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted. The results show a negative correlation between gratitude and loneliness; specifically, gratitude succeeds in accounting for up to almost one-fifth of the total variability of loneliness even controlling for further variables. Being female, not having a stable and consolidated relationship and not participating in the labor force represent some risk factors affecting loneliness which should be taken into account in further research.

  9. The Relationship Between Gratitude and Loneliness: The Potential Benefits of Gratitude for Promoting Social Bonds

    PubMed Central

    Caputo, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the potential role of gratitude on the reduction of loneliness feelings, even controlling for several variables related to social desirability, well-being (subjective happiness and life satisfaction) and socio-demographic characteristics. Through a web-based survey a convenience sample of 197 participants completed an online questionnaire including these measures. Correlation analyses and four-step hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted. The results show a negative correlation between gratitude and loneliness; specifically, gratitude succeeds in accounting for up to almost one-fifth of the total variability of loneliness even controlling for further variables. Being female, not having a stable and consolidated relationship and not participating in the labor force represent some risk factors affecting loneliness which should be taken into account in further research. PMID:27247660

  10. The Relationship Between Gratitude and Loneliness: The Potential Benefits of Gratitude for Promoting Social Bonds.

    PubMed

    Caputo, Andrea

    2015-05-01

    This paper explores the potential role of gratitude on the reduction of loneliness feelings, even controlling for several variables related to social desirability, well-being (subjective happiness and life satisfaction) and socio-demographic characteristics. Through a web-based survey a convenience sample of 197 participants completed an online questionnaire including these measures. Correlation analyses and four-step hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted. The results show a negative correlation between gratitude and loneliness; specifically, gratitude succeeds in accounting for up to almost one-fifth of the total variability of loneliness even controlling for further variables. Being female, not having a stable and consolidated relationship and not participating in the labor force represent some risk factors affecting loneliness which should be taken into account in further research. PMID:27247660

  11. The potential risks and benefits of insulin treatment in hyperglycaemic preterm neonates.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Colin

    2015-11-01

    Preterm hyperglycaemia in the first 2 weeks of life is common under 29 weeks gestation and is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. While the definition of hyperglycaemia is reasonably consistent (>8 mmol/L) the treatment threshold varies widely in clinical practice. Insulin therapy is the most common approach despite international guidance urging caution because of hypoglycaemia. Significant hypoglycaemia is unusual outside studies targeting normoglycaemia. Insulin treatment also forms part of a nutritional strategy aiming to optimise early protein and energy intake so minimising the risk of preterm postnatal growth failure. Early parenteral amino acids also improve blood glucose control. There is some evidence of improved postnatal head growth with this approach but longer term neurodevelopmental studies are required. Glucose reduction is the alternative approach. This compromises early nutritional intake but avoids the potential for long-term cardiovascular and metabolic complications linked with high postnatal nutritional intakes and theoretically, insulin treatment.

  12. Delivery of therapeutic radioisotopes using nanoparticle platforms: potential benefit in systemic radiation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Longjiang; Chen, Hongwei; Wang, Liya; Liu, Tian; Yeh, Julie; Lu, Guangming; Yang, Lily; Mao, Hui

    2010-01-01

    Radiation therapy is an effective cancer treatment option in conjunction with chemotherapy and surgery. Emerging individualized internal and systemic radiation treatment promises significant improvement in efficacy and reduction of normal tissue damage; however, it requires cancer cell targeting platforms for efficient delivery of radiation sources. With recent advances in nanoscience and nanotechnology, there is great interest in developing nanomaterials as multifunctional carriers to deliver therapeutic radioisotopes for tumor targeted radiation therapy, to monitor their delivery and tumor response to the treatment. This paper provides an overview on developing nanoparticles for carrying and delivering therapeutic radioisotopes for systemic radiation treatment. Topics discussed in the review include: selecting nanoparticles and radiotherapy isotopes, strategies for targeting nanoparticles to cancers, together with challenges and potential solutions for the in vivo delivery of nanoparticles. Some examples of using nanoparticle platforms for the delivery of therapeutic radioisotopes in preclinical studies of cancer treatment are also presented. PMID:24198480

  13. Generation of a complete set of additive shape-invariant potentials from an Euler equation.

    PubMed

    Bougie, Jonathan; Gangopadhyaya, Asim; Mallow, Jeffry V

    2010-11-19

    In supersymmetric quantum mechanics, shape invariance is a sufficient condition for solvability. We show that all conventional additive shape-invariant superpotentials that are independent of ℏ can be generated from two partial differential equations. One of these is equivalent to the one-dimensional Euler equation expressing momentum conservation for inviscid fluid flow, and it is closed by the other. We solve these equations, generate the set of all conventional shape-invariant superpotentials, and show that there are no others in this category. We then develop an algorithm for generating all additive shape-invariant superpotentials including those that depend on ℏ explicitly. PMID:21231274

  14. Generation of a Complete Set of Additive Shape-Invariant Potentials from an Euler Equation

    SciTech Connect

    Bougie, Jonathan; Gangopadhyaya, Asim; Mallow, Jeffry V.

    2010-11-19

    In supersymmetric quantum mechanics, shape invariance is a sufficient condition for solvability. We show that all conventional additive shape-invariant superpotentials that are independent of ({h_bar}/2{pi}) can be generated from two partial differential equations. One of these is equivalent to the one-dimensional Euler equation expressing momentum conservation for inviscid fluid flow, and it is closed by the other. We solve these equations, generate the set of all conventional shape-invariant superpotentials, and show that there are no others in this category. We then develop an algorithm for generating all additive shape-invariant superpotentials including those that depend on ({h_bar}/2{pi}) explicitly.

  15. Generation of a complete set of additive shape-invariant potentials from an Euler equation.

    PubMed

    Bougie, Jonathan; Gangopadhyaya, Asim; Mallow, Jeffry V

    2010-11-19

    In supersymmetric quantum mechanics, shape invariance is a sufficient condition for solvability. We show that all conventional additive shape-invariant superpotentials that are independent of ℏ can be generated from two partial differential equations. One of these is equivalent to the one-dimensional Euler equation expressing momentum conservation for inviscid fluid flow, and it is closed by the other. We solve these equations, generate the set of all conventional shape-invariant superpotentials, and show that there are no others in this category. We then develop an algorithm for generating all additive shape-invariant superpotentials including those that depend on ℏ explicitly.

  16. Potential benefits of solar reflective car shells: cooler cabins, fuel savings and emission reductions

    SciTech Connect

    Levinson, Ronnen; Pan, Heng; Ban-Weiss, George; Rosado, Pablo; Paolini, Riccardo; Akbari, Hashem

    2011-05-11

    Abstract: Vehicle thermal loads and air conditioning ancillary loads are strongly influenced by the absorption of solar energy. The adoption of solar reflective coatings for opaque surfaces of the vehicle shell can decrease the ?soak? temperature of the air in the cabin of a vehicle parked in the sun, potentially reducing the vehicle?s ancillary load and improving its fuel economy by permitting the use of a smaller air conditioner. An experimental comparison of otherwise identical black and silver compact sedans indicated that increasing the solar reflectance (?) of the car?s shell by about 0.5 lowered the soak temperature of breath-level air by about 5?6?C. Thermal analysis predicts that the air conditioning capacity required to cool the cabin air in the silver car to 25?C within 30min is 13percent less than that required in the black car. Assuming that potential reductions in AC capacity and engine ancillary load scale linearly with increase in shell solar reflectance, ADVISOR simulations of the SC03 driving cycle indicate that substituting a typical cool-colored shell (?=0.35) for a black shell (?=0.05) would reduce fuel consumption by 0.12L per 100km (1.1percent), increasing fuel economy by 0.10kmL?1 [0.24mpg] (1.1percent). It would also decrease carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions by 2.7gkm?1 (1.1percent), nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions by 5.4mgkm?1 (0.44percent), carbon monoxide (CO) emissions by 17mgkm?1 (0.43percent), and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions by 4.1mgkm?1 (0.37percent). Selecting a typical white or silver shell (?=0.60) instead of a black shell would lower fuel consumption by 0.21L per 100km (1.9percent), raising fuel economy by 0.19kmL?1 [0.44mpg] (2.0percent). It would also decrease CO2 emissions by 4.9gkm?1 (1.9percent), NOx emissions by 9.9mgkm?1 (0.80percent), CO emissions by 31mgkm?1 (0.79percent), and HC emissions by 7.4mgkm?1 (0.67percent). Our simulations may underestimate emission reductions because emissions in standardized driving cycles are

  17. The potential benefits of low-molecular-weight heparins in cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Cancer patients are at increased risk of venous thromboembolism due to a range of factors directly related to their disease and its treatment. Given the high incidence of post-surgical venous thromboembolism in cancer patients and the poor outcomes associated with its development, thromboprophylaxis is warranted. A number of evidence-based guidelines delineate anticoagulation regimens for venous thromboembolism treatment, primary and secondary prophylaxis, and long-term anticoagulation in cancer patients. However, many give equal weight to several different drugs and do not make specific recommendations regarding duration of therapy. In terms of their efficacy and safety profiles, practicality of use, and cost-effectiveness the low-molecular-weight heparins are at least comparable to, and offer several advantages over, other available antithrombotics in cancer patients. In addition, data are emerging that the antithrombotics, and particularly low-molecular-weight heparins, may exert an antitumor effect which could contribute to improved survival in cancer patients when given for long-term prophylaxis. Such findings reinforce the importance of thromboprophylaxis with low-molecular-weight heparin in cancer patients. PMID:20074349

  18. Building a DoD Biorepository for the Future: Potential Benefits and Way Forward.

    PubMed

    Lindler, Luther E

    2015-10-01

    Significant advances have been made in the molecular analyses of the human physiological state. In general, these techniques have been termed "omics" because of their requirements for sophisticated analyses of large datasets. Application of these new omics technologies has led to advances in medical practice related to public health as well as a new field termed personalized medicine. The Department of Defense (DoD) consistently needs the ability to identify people who have been exposed to environmental hazards during deployments and in their day-to-day jobs. The department currently has a biorepository of sera collected from military service members and has used that repository to study potential environmental exposures (toxins and infectious diseases) since 1987. The DoD Serum Repository is also linked to service member health records, making it a very powerful tool for studies related to force health protection and public health practice. However, this repository does not contain a reliable source of nucleic acid. Accordingly, to take advantage of modern molecular omics technologies, the DoD should establish an enhanced biospecimen repository that can support future questions related to force health protection. This article briefly discusses the various omics techniques, and how they can be used for analyses to support medical practice and public health. PMID:26444898

  19. Potential human cholesterol esterase inhibitor design: benefits from the molecular dynamics simulations and pharmacophore modeling studies.

    PubMed

    John, Shalini; Thangapandian, Sundarapandian; Lee, Keun Woo

    2012-01-01

    Human pancreatic cholesterol esterase (hCEase) is one of the lipases found to involve in the digestion of large and broad spectrum of substrates including triglycerides, phospholipids, cholesteryl esters, etc. The presence of bile salts is found to be very important for the activation of hCEase. Molecular dynamic simulations were performed for the apoform and bile salt complexed form of hCEase using the co-ordinates of two bile salts from bovine CEase. The stability of the systems throughout the simulation time was checked and two representative structures from the highly populated regions were selected using cluster analysis. These two representative structures were used in pharmacophore model generation. The generated pharmacophore models were validated and used in database screening. The screened hits were refined for their drug-like properties based on Lipinski's rule of five and ADMET properties. The drug-like compounds were further refined by molecular docking simulation using GOLD program based on the GOLD fitness score, mode of binding, and molecular interactions with the active site amino acids. Finally, three hits of novel scaffolds were selected as potential leads to be used in novel and potent hCEase inhibitor design. The stability of binding modes and molecular interactions of these final hits were re-assured by molecular dynamics simulations. PMID:22292952

  20. Effects of Beverages on Alcohol Metabolism: Potential Health Benefits and Harmful Impacts

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fang; Zhang, Yu-Jie; Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Zhou, Tong; Zheng, Jie; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Li, Sha; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic beverages are usually consumed accompanying alcoholic drinks, and their effects on alcohol metabolism are unclear in vivo. In this study, the effects of 20 nonalcoholic beverages on alcohol metabolism and liver injury caused by alcohol were evaluated in mice. Kunming mice were orally fed with alcohol (52%, v/v) and beverages. The concentrations of ethanol and acetaldehyde in blood as well as the activities of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) in liver were assessed to indicate alcohol metabolism. The levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) in serum as well as the levels of malonaldehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in liver were measured to reflect the alcohol-induced liver injury. The results showed that the treatment of soda water, green tea and honey chrysanthemum tea could accelerate ethanol metabolism and prevent liver injuries caused by alcohol when companied with excessive alcohol drinking. They might be potential dietary supplements for the alleviation of harmful effects from excessive alcohol consumption. On the contrary, some beverages such as fresh orange juice and red bull are not advised to drink when companied with alcohol consumption due to their adverse effects on ethanol induced liver injury. PMID:27005619

  1. GHG Mitigation Potential, Costs and Benefits in Global Forests: ADynamic Partial Equilibrium Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Sathaye, Jayant; Makundi, Willy; Dale, Larry; Chan, Peter; Andrasko, Kenneth

    2005-03-22

    This paper reports on the global potential for carbonsequestration in forest plantations, and the reduction of carbonemissions from deforestation, in response to six carbon price scenariosfrom 2000 to 2100. These carbon price scenarios cover a range typicallyseen in global integrated assessment models. The world forest sector wasdisaggregated into tenregions, four largely temperate, developedregions: the European Union, Oceania, Russia, and the United States; andsix developing, mostly tropical, regions: Africa, Central America, China,India, Rest of Asia, and South America. Three mitigation options -- long-and short-rotation forestry, and the reduction of deforestation -- wereanalyzed using a global dynamic partial equilibrium model (GCOMAP). Keyfindings of this work are that cumulative carbon gain ranges from 50.9 to113.2 Gt C by 2100, higher carbon prices early lead to earlier carbongain and vice versa, and avoided deforestation accounts for 51 to 78percent of modeled carbon gains by 2100. The estimated present value ofcumulative welfare change in the sector ranges from a decline of $158billion to a gain of $81 billion by 2100. The decline is associated witha decrease in deforestation.

  2. Ketamine-Based Anesthetic Protocols and Evoked Potential Monitoring: A Risk/Benefit Overview

    PubMed Central

    Stoicea, Nicoleta; Versteeg, Gregory; Florescu, Diana; Joseph, Nicholas; Fiorda-Diaz, Juan; Navarrete, Víctor; Bergese, Sergio D.

    2016-01-01

    Since its discovery, ketamine, a non-competitive N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist related to phencyclidine, has been linked to multiple adverse reactions sometimes described as “out of body” and “near death experiences,” including emergence phenomena, delusions, hallucinations, delirium, and confusion. Due to these effects, ketamine has been withdrawn from mainstream anesthetic use in adult patients. Evoked potentials (EPs) are utilized to monitor neural pathways during surgery, detect intraoperative stress or damage, detect and define the level of neural lesions, and define abnormalities. Unfortunately, many of the volatile anesthetics commonly used during spinal and neurologic procedures suppress EP amplitude and monitoring. Ketamine has been found in several preclinical and clinical studies to actually increase EP amplitude and thus has been used as an analgesic adjunct in procedures where EP monitoring is critical. Once the gap in our knowledge of ketamine's risks has been sufficiently addressed in animal models, informed clinical trials should be conducted in order to properly incorporate ketamine-based anesthetic regimens during EP-monitored neurosurgeries. PMID:26909017

  3. Ketamine-Based Anesthetic Protocols and Evoked Potential Monitoring: A Risk/Benefit Overview.

    PubMed

    Stoicea, Nicoleta; Versteeg, Gregory; Florescu, Diana; Joseph, Nicholas; Fiorda-Diaz, Juan; Navarrete, Víctor; Bergese, Sergio D

    2016-01-01

    Since its discovery, ketamine, a non-competitive N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist related to phencyclidine, has been linked to multiple adverse reactions sometimes described as "out of body" and "near death experiences," including emergence phenomena, delusions, hallucinations, delirium, and confusion. Due to these effects, ketamine has been withdrawn from mainstream anesthetic use in adult patients. Evoked potentials (EPs) are utilized to monitor neural pathways during surgery, detect intraoperative stress or damage, detect and define the level of neural lesions, and define abnormalities. Unfortunately, many of the volatile anesthetics commonly used during spinal and neurologic procedures suppress EP amplitude and monitoring. Ketamine has been found in several preclinical and clinical studies to actually increase EP amplitude and thus has been used as an analgesic adjunct in procedures where EP monitoring is critical. Once the gap in our knowledge of ketamine's risks has been sufficiently addressed in animal models, informed clinical trials should be conducted in order to properly incorporate ketamine-based anesthetic regimens during EP-monitored neurosurgeries. PMID:26909017

  4. Effects of Beverages on Alcohol Metabolism: Potential Health Benefits and Harmful Impacts.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Zhang, Yu-Jie; Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Zhou, Tong; Zheng, Jie; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Li, Sha; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic beverages are usually consumed accompanying alcoholic drinks, and their effects on alcohol metabolism are unclear in vivo. In this study, the effects of 20 nonalcoholic beverages on alcohol metabolism and liver injury caused by alcohol were evaluated in mice. Kunming mice were orally fed with alcohol (52%, v/v) and beverages. The concentrations of ethanol and acetaldehyde in blood as well as the activities of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) in liver were assessed to indicate alcohol metabolism. The levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) in serum as well as the levels of malonaldehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in liver were measured to reflect the alcohol-induced liver injury. The results showed that the treatment of soda water, green tea and honey chrysanthemum tea could accelerate ethanol metabolism and prevent liver injuries caused by alcohol when companied with excessive alcohol drinking. They might be potential dietary supplements for the alleviation of harmful effects from excessive alcohol consumption. On the contrary, some beverages such as fresh orange juice and red bull are not advised to drink when companied with alcohol consumption due to their adverse effects on ethanol induced liver injury. PMID:27005619

  5. Digibind attenuates cytokine TNFα-induced endothelial inflammatory response: potential benefit role of Digibind in preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Y; Lewis, DF; Adair, CD; Gu, Y; Mason, L; Kipikasa, JH

    2011-01-01

    Objective Exaggerated inflammatory response occurs in preeclampsia. Preeclampsia is also associated with elevated endogenous digoxin-like factors (EDLFs). Clinical data suggest that Digibind (a polyclonal sheep digoxin binding Fab fragment) binds to EDLF and may have the potential to attenuate vasoconstriction and other clinical symptoms of preeclampsia. This study was undertaken to determine if Digibind could attenuate increased endothelial inflammatory response induced by tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα). Study Design Confluent endothelial cells were treated with TNFα at different concentrations with or without Digibind in culture. Endothelial adhesion molecule ICAM, VCAM and E-selectin expressions were determined by an immunoassay directly detected on the endothelial surface. Effects of Digibind on TNFα-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase and Na+/K+-ATPase expressions were also examined. Result (1) TNFα induced dose-dependent increases in ICAM, VCAM and E-selectin expressions in endothelial cells; (2) Digibind could attenuate and reduce TNFα-induced upregulation of endothelial E-selectin, ICAM and VCAM expressions. The blocking effect was in a concentration dependent manner; (3) Digibind had no effects on TNFα-induced upregulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation, but could block TNFα-induced downregulation of Na+/K+-ATPase β1 expression. Conclusion Digibind may exert beneficial effects by preserving cell membrane Na+/K+-ATPase function and consequently to offset increased inflammatory response in endothelial cells. PMID:19148111

  6. Effects of Beverages on Alcohol Metabolism: Potential Health Benefits and Harmful Impacts.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Zhang, Yu-Jie; Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Zhou, Tong; Zheng, Jie; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Li, Sha; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic beverages are usually consumed accompanying alcoholic drinks, and their effects on alcohol metabolism are unclear in vivo. In this study, the effects of 20 nonalcoholic beverages on alcohol metabolism and liver injury caused by alcohol were evaluated in mice. Kunming mice were orally fed with alcohol (52%, v/v) and beverages. The concentrations of ethanol and acetaldehyde in blood as well as the activities of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) in liver were assessed to indicate alcohol metabolism. The levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) in serum as well as the levels of malonaldehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in liver were measured to reflect the alcohol-induced liver injury. The results showed that the treatment of soda water, green tea and honey chrysanthemum tea could accelerate ethanol metabolism and prevent liver injuries caused by alcohol when companied with excessive alcohol drinking. They might be potential dietary supplements for the alleviation of harmful effects from excessive alcohol consumption. On the contrary, some beverages such as fresh orange juice and red bull are not advised to drink when companied with alcohol consumption due to their adverse effects on ethanol induced liver injury.

  7. A Guide to the Ingredients and Potential Benefits of Over-the-Counter Cleansers and Moisturizers for Rosacea Patients

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Richard

    2011-01-01

    It is difficult for rosacea patients to discern which products and ingredients will be beneficial to their skin and which products will lead to an exacerbation of the signs and symptoms of rosacea. In this paper, the authors provide a brief overview of rosacea, its pathogenesis, signs and symptoms, and the management of the two major rosacea subtypes—erythematotelangiectatic rosacea and papular pustular rosacea. Reviewed in greater detail are the common ingredients used in over-the-counter cleansers and moisturizers with discussion of how these ingredients potentially benefit or harm the skin of patients with rosacea. Clinical studies investigating the benefits of using certain over-the-counter cleansers and moisturizers in patients with erythematotelangiectatic rosacea and papular pustular rosacea with or without topical prescription therapy are also reviewed. The specific formulas used in the clinical studies include a sensitive skin synthetic detergent bar, a nonalkaline cleanser and moisturizer, polyhydroxy acid containing cleanser and moisturizer, and a ceramide-based cleanser and moisturizer formulated in a multivesicular emulsion. Based on review of available data, the authors conclude that the use of mild over-the-counter cleansers and moisturizers is beneficial for patients with erythematotelangiectatic rosacea and papular pustular rosacea. The properties of over-the-counter cleansers and moisturizers that contribute to their mildness include an acidic-neutral pH to minimize the flux in skin pH; surfactants or emulsifiers that will not strip the skin of its moisture or strip the lipids and proteins of the stratum corneum; moisturizing ingredients such as emollients, humectants, and occlusives; and formulas without potential irritants and allergens. The most consistent clinical benefits demonstrated in the reviewed studies were a subjectively perceived improvement in subjective symptoms of dryness and irritation as well as an objective improvement in

  8. 76 FR 5370 - Potential Addition of Vapor Intrusion Component to the Hazard Ranking System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-31

    ... accurate in assessing relative risk. The revisions included the addition of the human food chain and... this pathway include drinking water, the human food chain (i.e., contaminants build up in the aquatic... (NPL). To implement CERCLA, EPA promulgated the revised NCP, 40 CFR Part 300, on July 16, 1982 (47...

  9. Impact of field exposure on greenhouse gas production potentials from biochar additions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A potential abatement strategy to increasing atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) is to sequester atmospheric CO2 into a more stable form through the pyrolysis of biomass. Biomass feed stocks are used to generate a more stable carbon form (biochar) that when added to soils can act place atmosp...

  10. Effects of Additional Tasks on Language Perception: An Event-Related Brain Potential Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohlfeld, Annette; Sangals, Jorg; Sommer, Werner

    2004-01-01

    The authors investigated effects of task and overlapping processing load on semantic processing. In 3 experiments the brain potential component N400 was elicited by synonymous and nonsynonymous spoken noun pairs that were to be classified according to semantic relatedness. The time course of the N=400 component to the nouns was delayed, and its…

  11. The potential benefits of herbicide regulation: a cautionary note for the Great Barrier Reef catchment area.

    PubMed

    Davis, A M; Lewis, S E; Brodie, J E; Benson, Ash

    2014-08-15

    Industry transitions away from traditional photosystem II inhibiting (PSII) herbicides towards an 'alternative' herbicide suite are now widely advocated as a key component of improved environmental outcomes for Australia's Great Barrier Reef and improved environmental stewardship on the part of the Queensland sugar industry. A systematic desktop risk analysis found that based on current farming practices, traditional PSII herbicides can pose significant environmental risks. Several of the 'alternatives' that can directly fill a specific pre-emergent ('soil residual') weed control function similar to regulated PSII herbicides also, however, presented a similar environmental risk profile, regardless of farming systems and bio-climatic zones being considered. Several alternatives with a pre-emergent residual function as well as alternative post-emergent (contact or 'knockdown') herbicides were, predicted to pose lower environmental risks than the regulated PSII herbicides to most trophic levels, although environmental risks could still be present. While several herbicides may well be viable alternatives in terms of weed control, they can still present equal or possibly higher risks to the environment. Imposing additional regulations (or even de-registrations) on particular herbicides could result in marginal, and possibly perverse environmental impacts in the long term, if usage shifts to alternative herbicides with similar risk profiles. Regardless of any regulatory efforts, improved environmental sustainability outcomes in pesticide practices within the Great Barrier Reef catchment area will hinge primarily on the continuing adoption of integrated, strategic pest management systems and technologies applied to both traditional and 'alternative' herbicides. One of the emerging policy challenges is ensuring the requisite technical and extension support for cane growers to ensure effective adoption of rapidly evolving farming system technologies, in a very dynamic and

  12. The potential benefits of herbicide regulation: a cautionary note for the Great Barrier Reef catchment area.

    PubMed

    Davis, A M; Lewis, S E; Brodie, J E; Benson, Ash

    2014-08-15

    Industry transitions away from traditional photosystem II inhibiting (PSII) herbicides towards an 'alternative' herbicide suite are now widely advocated as a key component of improved environmental outcomes for Australia's Great Barrier Reef and improved environmental stewardship on the part of the Queensland sugar industry. A systematic desktop risk analysis found that based on current farming practices, traditional PSII herbicides can pose significant environmental risks. Several of the 'alternatives' that can directly fill a specific pre-emergent ('soil residual') weed control function similar to regulated PSII herbicides also, however, presented a similar environmental risk profile, regardless of farming systems and bio-climatic zones being considered. Several alternatives with a pre-emergent residual function as well as alternative post-emergent (contact or 'knockdown') herbicides were, predicted to pose lower environmental risks than the regulated PSII herbicides to most trophic levels, although environmental risks could still be present. While several herbicides may well be viable alternatives in terms of weed control, they can still present equal or possibly higher risks to the environment. Imposing additional regulations (or even de-registrations) on particular herbicides could result in marginal, and possibly perverse environmental impacts in the long term, if usage shifts to alternative herbicides with similar risk profiles. Regardless of any regulatory efforts, improved environmental sustainability outcomes in pesticide practices within the Great Barrier Reef catchment area will hinge primarily on the continuing adoption of integrated, strategic pest management systems and technologies applied to both traditional and 'alternative' herbicides. One of the emerging policy challenges is ensuring the requisite technical and extension support for cane growers to ensure effective adoption of rapidly evolving farming system technologies, in a very dynamic and

  13. ICD restudy: results and potential benefit from routine predischarge and 2-month evaluation.

    PubMed

    Higgins, S L; Rich, D H; Haygood, J R; Barone, J; Greer, S L; Meyer, D B

    1998-02-01

    Evaluation of ICD function can now be performed noninvasively with intravenous sedation. To determine the value of follow-up electrophysiological studies for ICD implants, we performed a retrospective review of predischarge and 2-month ICD re studies, identifying critical problems uncovered. Of the 123 patients implanted, 122 had a predischarge study, 105 had both predischarge and elective 2-month follow-up studies, and 1 patient expired prior to restudy. Patients who underwent 2-month studies for nonelective indications (e.g., frequent shocks) were excluded from analysis. Programming changes were made in 62% of the predischarge studies (n = 122) and 70% of the elective 2-month studies (n = 105). The average number of programming changes per study was 1.3 for predischarge testing and 1.1 for 2-month testing. The most common changes at predischarge testing were adjustment of the tachyarrhythmia rate cutoff (35%) and at 2-month study, reprogramming of bradycardia pacing parameters (41%). Of the patients who underwent both predischarge and 2-month testing, 91% had programming changes in at least one of their re studies. Of 227 re studies performed, 18 studies in 14 patients yielded 24 critical findings which included: DFT increases to > or = 25 J (n = 13); sensing abnormalities of induced ventricular arrhythmia (n = 6); dislodged lead (n = 2); and serious pacemaker interactions (n = 3). Six of these critical cases (5% of total patients) required reoperation. The data suggests that routine ICD restudy is a valuable tool for management of the ICD patient. Additionally, ICD restudy is likely to increase the diagnostic yield of clinically silent critical system problems that could result in device failure.

  14. Inspiratory and expiratory respiratory muscle training as an adjunct to concurrent strength and endurance training provides no additional 2000 m performance benefits to rowers.

    PubMed

    Bell, Gordon J; Game, Alex; Jones, Richard; Webster, Travis; Forbes, Scott C; Syrotuik, Dan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine respiratory muscle training (RMT) combined with 9 weeks of resistance and endurance training on rowing performance and cardiopulmonary responses. Twenty-seven rowers (mean ± SD: age = 27 ± 9 years; height = 176.9 ± 10.8 cm; and body mass = 76.1 ± 12.6 kg) were randomly assigned to an inspiratory only (n = 13) or expiratory only (n = 14) training group. Both RMT programs were 3 sets of 10 reps, 6 d/wk in addition to an identical 3 d/wk resistance and 3 d/wk endurance training program. Both groups showed similar improvements in 2000 m rowing performance, cardiorespiratory fitness, strength, and maximum inspiratory (PImax) and expiratory (PEmax) pressures (p < .05). It was concluded that there were no additional benefits of 9 weeks of inspiratory or expiratory RMT on simulated 2000 m rowing performance or cardiopulmonary responses when combined with resistance and endurance training in rowers.

  15. Potential economic benefits of adapting agricultural production systems to future climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fagre, Daniel B.; Pederson, Gregory; Bengtson, Lindsey E.; Prato, Tony; Qui, Zeyuan; Williams, Jimmie R.

    2010-01-01

    Potential economic impacts of future climate change on crop enterprise net returns and annual net farm income (NFI) are evaluated for small and large representative farms in Flathead Valley in Northwest Montana. Crop enterprise net returns and NFI in an historical climate period (1960–2005) and future climate period (2006–2050) are compared when agricultural production systems (APSs) are adapted to future climate change. Climate conditions in the future climate period are based on the A1B, B1, and A2 CO2 emission scenarios from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report. Steps in the evaluation include: (1) specifying crop enterprises and APSs (i.e., combinations of crop enterprises) in consultation with locals producers; (2) simulating crop yields for two soils, crop prices, crop enterprises costs, and NFIs for APSs; (3) determining the dominant APS in the historical and future climate periods in terms of NFI; and (4) determining whether NFI for the dominant APS in the historical climate period is superior to NFI for the dominant APS in the future climate period. Crop yields are simulated using the Environmental/Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model and dominance comparisons for NFI are based on the stochastic efficiency with respect to a function (SERF) criterion. Probability distributions that best fit the EPIC-simulated crop yields are used to simulate 100 values for crop yields for the two soils in the historical and future climate periods. Best-fitting probability distributions for historical inflation-adjusted crop prices and specified triangular probability distributions for crop enterprise costs are used to simulate 100 values for crop prices and crop enterprise costs. Averaged over all crop enterprises, farm sizes, and soil types, simulated net return per ha averaged over all crop enterprises decreased 24% and simulated mean NFI for APSs decreased 57% between the historical and future climate periods. Although adapting

  16. Potential economic benefits of adapting agricultural production systems to future climate change.

    PubMed

    Prato, Tony; Zeyuan, Qiu; Pederson, Gregory; Fagre, Dan; Bengtson, Lindsey E; Williams, Jimmy R

    2010-03-01

    Potential economic impacts of future climate change on crop enterprise net returns and annual net farm income (NFI) are evaluated for small and large representative farms in Flathead Valley in Northwest Montana. Crop enterprise net returns and NFI in an historical climate period (1960-2005) and future climate period (2006-2050) are compared when agricultural production systems (APSs) are adapted to future climate change. Climate conditions in the future climate period are based on the A1B, B1, and A2 CO(2) emission scenarios from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report. Steps in the evaluation include: (1) specifying crop enterprises and APSs (i.e., combinations of crop enterprises) in consultation with locals producers; (2) simulating crop yields for two soils, crop prices, crop enterprises costs, and NFIs for APSs; (3) determining the dominant APS in the historical and future climate periods in terms of NFI; and (4) determining whether NFI for the dominant APS in the historical climate period is superior to NFI for the dominant APS in the future climate period. Crop yields are simulated using the Environmental/Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model and dominance comparisons for NFI are based on the stochastic efficiency with respect to a function (SERF) criterion. Probability distributions that best fit the EPIC-simulated crop yields are used to simulate 100 values for crop yields for the two soils in the historical and future climate periods. Best-fitting probability distributions for historical inflation-adjusted crop prices and specified triangular probability distributions for crop enterprise costs are used to simulate 100 values for crop prices and crop enterprise costs. Averaged over all crop enterprises, farm sizes, and soil types, simulated net return per ha averaged over all crop enterprises decreased 24% and simulated mean NFI for APSs decreased 57% between the historical and future climate periods. Although adapting APSs

  17. An Approach to the Classification of Potential Reserve Additions of Giant Oil Fields of the World

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, T.R.; Tennyson, M.E.

    2008-01-01

    This report contains slides and notes for slides for a presentation given to the Committee on Sustainable Energy and the Ad Hoc Group of Experts on Harmonization of Fossil Energy and Mineral Resources Terminology on 17 October 2007 in Geneva, Switzerland. The presentation describes the U.S. Geological Survey study to characterize and quantify petroleum-reserve additions, and the application of this study to help classify the quantities.

  18. Acidization of a Direct Heat Hydrothermal Well and its Potential in Developing Additional Direct Heat Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Dolenc, M.R.; Strawn, J. A.; Prestwich, S.M.

    1981-01-01

    A matrix acid treatment on a limestone formation in a low temperature hydrothermal production well in South Dakota has resulted in a 40% increase in heat (BTU) available for use in space heating a hospital. The results of this experimental treatment on the Madison Limestone suggest a significant potential may exist for similar applications, particularly throughout the western United States. This paper presents the results of the acid treatment, suggests other possible areas for similar application, and analyzes the economics for successful treatments.

  19. Non-additive simple potentials for pre-programmed self-assembly.

    PubMed

    Salgado-Blanco, Daniel; Mendoza, Carlos I

    2015-02-01

    A major goal in nanoscience and nanotechnology is the self-assembly of any desired complex structure with a system of particles interacting through simple potentials. To achieve this objective, intense experimental and theoretical efforts are currently concentrated in the development of the so-called "patchy" particles. Here we follow a completely different approach and introduce a very accessible model to produce a large variety of pre-programmed two-dimensional (2D) complex structures. Our model consists of a binary mixture of particles that interact through isotropic interactions that enable them to self-assemble into targeted lattices by the appropriate choice of a small number of geometrical parameters and interaction strengths. We study the system using Monte Carlo computer simulations and, despite its simplicity, we are able to self-assemble potentially useful structures such as chains, stripes, and Kagomé, twisted Kagomé, honeycomb, square, Archimedean and quasicrystalline tilings. Our model is designed in such a way that it may be implemented using discotic particles or, alternatively, using exclusively spherical particles interacting isotropically. Thus, it represents a promising strategy for bottom-up nano-fabrication.

  20. Non-additive simple potentials for pre-programmed self-assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, Carlos

    2015-03-01

    A major goal in nanoscience and nanotechnology is the self-assembly of any desired complex structure with a system of particles interacting through simple potentials. To achieve this objective, intense experimental and theoretical efforts are currently concentrated in the development of the so called ``patchy'' particles. Here we follow a completely different approach and introduce a very accessible model to produce a large variety of pre-programmed two-dimensional (2D) complex structures. Our model consists of a binary mixture of particles that interact through isotropic interactions that is able to self-assemble into targeted lattices by the appropriate choice of a small number of geometrical parameters and interaction strengths. We study the system using Monte Carlo computer simulations and, despite its simplicity, we are able to self assemble potentially useful structures such as chains, stripes, Kagomé, twisted Kagomé, honeycomb, square, Archimedean and quasicrystalline tilings. Our model is designed such that it may be implemented using discotic particles or, alternatively, using exclusively spherical particles interacting isotropically. Thus, it represents a promising strategy for bottom-up nano-fabrication. Partial Financial Support: DGAPA IN-110613.

  1. Non-additive simple potentials for pre-programmed self-assembly.

    PubMed

    Salgado-Blanco, Daniel; Mendoza, Carlos I

    2015-02-01

    A major goal in nanoscience and nanotechnology is the self-assembly of any desired complex structure with a system of particles interacting through simple potentials. To achieve this objective, intense experimental and theoretical efforts are currently concentrated in the development of the so-called "patchy" particles. Here we follow a completely different approach and introduce a very accessible model to produce a large variety of pre-programmed two-dimensional (2D) complex structures. Our model consists of a binary mixture of particles that interact through isotropic interactions that enable them to self-assemble into targeted lattices by the appropriate choice of a small number of geometrical parameters and interaction strengths. We study the system using Monte Carlo computer simulations and, despite its simplicity, we are able to self-assemble potentially useful structures such as chains, stripes, and Kagomé, twisted Kagomé, honeycomb, square, Archimedean and quasicrystalline tilings. Our model is designed in such a way that it may be implemented using discotic particles or, alternatively, using exclusively spherical particles interacting isotropically. Thus, it represents a promising strategy for bottom-up nano-fabrication. PMID:25489904

  2. Lotus seed epicarp extract as potential antioxidant and anti-obesity additive in Chinese Cantonese Sausage.

    PubMed

    Qi, Suijian; Zhou, Delong

    2013-02-01

    The antioxidative activities of a lotus seed epicarp extract in different concentrations (6.25, 12.5, 25, 50 and 100 μg.mL(-1)) in pork homogenates representative of Chinese Cantonese Sausage were evaluated using three methods: thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) values, peroxide values (POVs) and acid values (AVs). Also the cytotoxic and anti-obesity effects of the lotus seed epicarp extracts were evaluated using an in vitro 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cell model. Results showed that the lotus seed epicarp extracts were non-toxic and effective in inhibiting preadipocyte differentiation. Supplementation of pork homogenate with lotus seed epicarp extracts was effective in retarding lipid oxidation. Moreover, the antioxidative and preadipocyte differentiation inhibition effects of the lotus seed epicarp extracts were dose-dependent. Thus, the lotus seed epicarp extract might be a good candidate as an antioxidant and anti-obesity natural additive in Chinese Cantonese Sausage.

  3. Potential of Hazardous Waste Encapsulation in Concrete Compound Combination with Coal Ash and Quarry Fine Additives.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Roy Nir; Anker, Yaakov; Font, Oriol; Querol, Xavier; Mastai, Yitzhak; Knop, Yaniv; Cohen, Haim

    2015-12-15

    Coal power plants are producing huge amounts of coal ash that may be applied to a variety of secondary uses. Class F fly ash may act as an excellent scrubber and fixation reagent for highly acidic wastes, which might also contain several toxic trace elements. This paper evaluates the potential of using Class F fly ashes (<20% CaO), in combination with excessive fines from the limestone quarry industry as a fixation reagent. The analysis included leaching experiments (EN12457-2) and several analytical techniques (ICP, SEM, XRD, etc.), which were used in order to investigate the fixation procedure. The fine sludge is used as a partial substitute in concrete that can be used in civil engineering projects, as it an environmentally safe product. PMID:26510011

  4. Potential of Hazardous Waste Encapsulation in Concrete Compound Combination with Coal Ash and Quarry Fine Additives.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Roy Nir; Anker, Yaakov; Font, Oriol; Querol, Xavier; Mastai, Yitzhak; Knop, Yaniv; Cohen, Haim

    2015-12-15

    Coal power plants are producing huge amounts of coal ash that may be applied to a variety of secondary uses. Class F fly ash may act as an excellent scrubber and fixation reagent for highly acidic wastes, which might also contain several toxic trace elements. This paper evaluates the potential of using Class F fly ashes (<20% CaO), in combination with excessive fines from the limestone quarry industry as a fixation reagent. The analysis included leaching experiments (EN12457-2) and several analytical techniques (ICP, SEM, XRD, etc.), which were used in order to investigate the fixation procedure. The fine sludge is used as a partial substitute in concrete that can be used in civil engineering projects, as it an environmentally safe product.

  5. Addition of visual noise boosts evoked potential-based brain-computer interface.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jun; Xu, Guanghua; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Sicong; Zhang, Feng; Li, Yeping; Han, Chengcheng; Li, Lili

    2014-05-14

    Although noise has a proven beneficial role in brain functions, there have not been any attempts on the dedication of stochastic resonance effect in neural engineering applications, especially in researches of brain-computer interfaces (BCIs). In our study, a steady-state motion visual evoked potential (SSMVEP)-based BCI with periodic visual stimulation plus moderate spatiotemporal noise can achieve better offline and online performance due to enhancement of periodic components in brain responses, which was accompanied by suppression of high harmonics. Offline results behaved with a bell-shaped resonance-like functionality and 7-36% online performance improvements can be achieved when identical visual noise was adopted for different stimulation frequencies. Using neural encoding modeling, these phenomena can be explained as noise-induced input-output synchronization in human sensory systems which commonly possess a low-pass property. Our work demonstrated that noise could boost BCIs in addressing human needs.

  6. Assessment of Potential Aerodynamic Benefits from Spanwise Blowing at the Wing Tip. Ph.D. Thesis - George Washington Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mineck, Raymond Edward

    1992-01-01

    A comprehensive set of experimental and analytical investigations have been conducted to assess the potential aerodynamic benefits from spanwise blowing at the tip of a moderate aspect ratio, swept wing. An analytical model has been developed to simulate a jet exhausting from the wing tip. An experimental study of a subsonic jet exhausting from the wing tip was conducted to investigate the effect of spanwise blowing from the tip on the aerodynamic characteristics of a moderate aspect ratio, swept wing. Wing force and moment data and surface pressure data were measured at Mach numbers up to 0.72. Results indicate that small amounts of blowing from small jets increase the lift curve slope a small amount, but have no effect on drag. Larger amounts of blowing from longer jets blowing increases lift near the tip and reduce drag at low Mach numbers. These benefits decrease with increasing Mach number, and vanish at Mach 0.5. A Navier-Stokes solver with modified boundary conditions at the tip was used to extrapolate the results to a Mach number of 0.72. With current technology and conventional wing shapes, spanwise blowing at the wing tip does not appear to be a practical means of reducing drag of moderate aspect ratio wings at high subsonic Mach numbers.

  7. Phenolic compounds and biological effects of edible Rumex scutatus and Pseudosempervivum sempervivum: potential sources of natural agents with health benefits.

    PubMed

    Savran, Ahmet; Zengin, Gokhan; Aktumsek, Abdurrahman; Mocan, Andrei; Glamoćlija, Jasmina; Ćirić, Ana; Soković, Marina

    2016-07-13

    The present study outlines a chemical characterization and further effects beneficial to health of edible Rumex scutatus and Pseudosempervivum sempervivum, in addition to presenting the antioxidant, enzyme inhibitory effects and antimicrobial properties of different extracts. The phenolic compounds composition of the extracts was assessed by RP-HPLC-DAD, outlining benzoic acid and rutin as major constituents in P. sempervivum and rutin and hesperidin in R. scutatus. Moreover, further biological effects were tested on key enzymes involved in diabetes mellitus, Alzheimer's disease and skin melanogenesis revealing an important tyrosinase inhibitory effect of Pseudosempervivum water extract. Moreover, both species possessed antimicrobial properties towards bacteria and fungi relevant to public health. Accordingly, we find that R. scutatus and P. sempervivum can be considered as novel functional foods because they are rich sources of biologically active compounds that provide health benefits. PMID:27364042

  8. Membrane Bioreactor Technology for the Development of Functional Materials from Sea-Food Processing Wastes and Their Potential Health Benefits

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Se-Kwon; Senevirathne, Mahinda

    2011-01-01

    Sea-food processing wastes and underutilized species of fish are a potential source of functional and bioactive compounds. A large number of bioactive substances can be produced through enzyme-mediated hydrolysis. Suitable enzymes and the appropriate bioreactor system are needed to incubate the waste materials. Membrane separation is a useful technique to extract, concentrate, separate or fractionate the compounds. The use of membrane bioreactors to integrate a reaction vessel with a membrane separation unit is emerging as a beneficial method for producing bioactive materials such as peptides, chitooligosaccharides and polyunsaturated fatty acids from diverse seafood-related wastes. These bioactive compounds from membrane bioreactor technology show diverse biological activities such as antihypertensive, antimicrobial, antitumor, anticoagulant, antioxidant and radical scavenging properties. This review discusses the application of membrane bioreactor technology for the production of value-added functional materials from sea-food processing wastes and their biological activities in relation to health benefits. PMID:24957872

  9. An investigation of the biochemical properties of tetrazines as potential coating additives.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Swarna; Varma, P C Rajath; O'Neill, Luke; Duffy, Brendan; McHale, Patrick

    2013-05-01

    1,2,4,5-Tetrazine and its 3,6-disubstituted derivatives are currently used for a range of industrial and medical applications as they exhibit particular coordination chemistries, characterised by electron and charge transfer phenomena. The aim of the present work is to synthesise two tetrazine derivatives, namely 3,6-dihydrazino-1,2,4,5-tetrazine (DHDTZ) and 1,2,4,5-tetrazine dicarboxylic acid (DCTZ), and determine their antibacterial, antioxidant and anticorrosion characteristics as additives in a sol-gel coating on SS316L steel. The structure of the tetrazines was confirmed by NMR and FTIR while the surface morphology of bacterial cells in their presence was observed by AFM. Their ability to inhibit corrosion on 316L stainless steel was electrochemically determined using a potentiodynamic scanning (PDS) technique. The corrosion inhibition results showed that the acidic DCTZ provided the best corrosion protection. The concentration-dependent antioxidant capacity of the tetrazines was confirmed by both DPPH radical scavenging activity and FRAP assays, showing higher activity for DHDTZ than DCTZ. Furthermore, a DHDTZ doped sol-gel solution was prepared and curing parameter (temperature and time) was optimised for coating on microtitre wells and stainless steel panel. The antibacterial activity of the coated surfaces against Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and the biofilm forming bacteria Staphylococcus epidermidis CSF 41498 was determined. DHDTZ showed significantly higher antibacterial activities with MIC as low as 31 ppm compared to 250 ppm for DCTZ. PMID:23498214

  10. Potential environmental impact of effluents from the artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) byproduct ensiling process using additives.

    PubMed

    Megías, M D; Martínez-Teruel, A; Hérnandez, M R

    1999-06-01

    Three treatments have been tested on canned artichoke byproduct after 50 days of ensilage: formic acid at 20% in doses of 2 mL. kg(-)(1) (FA), cane sugar molasses at 50 g.kg(-)(1) (M), and sodium chloride at 30 g.kg(-)(1) (SC). A fourth batch acted as a control group (C). The nutritive value, fermentation characteristics, environmental pollution effect, and total volume of effluents released have been studied. The highest nutritive value recorded was with SC silage. The use of the additives did not significantly improve the fermentation stability of the silage, but the total production of effluents in each treatment-52.7 (FA), 46.9 (M), and 55.2 (SC)-was significantly lower (P < 0.01) than that of the control group (70.1 L.Tm(-)(1)). The chemical oxygen demand (COD), 117300 mg of O(2).L(-)(1), and the conductivity, 46.4 microOmega(-)(1). cm(-)(1), were significantly higher (P < 0.01) in M and SC, respectively, than in the other group.

  11. Number line estimation and mental addition: examining the potential roles of language and education.

    PubMed

    Laski, Elida V; Yu, Qingyi

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the relative importance of language and education to the development of numerical knowledge. Consistent with previous research suggesting that counting systems that transparently reflect the base-10 system facilitate an understanding of numerical concepts, Chinese and Chinese American kindergartners' and second graders' number line estimation (0-100 and 0-1000) was 1 to 2 years more advanced than that of American children tested in previous studies. However, Chinese children performed better than their Chinese American peers, who were fluent in Chinese but had been educated in America, at kindergarten on 0-100 number lines, at second grade on 0-1000 number lines, and at both time points on complex addition problems. Overall, the pattern of findings suggests that educational approach may have a greater influence on numerical development than the linguistic structure of the counting system. The findings also demonstrate that, despite generating accurate estimates of numerical magnitude on 0-100 number lines earlier, it still takes Chinese children approximately 2 years to demonstrate accurate estimates on 0-1000 number lines, which raises questions about how to promote the mapping of knowledge across numerical scales. PMID:24135313

  12. Erythorbyl laurate as a potential food additive with multi-functionalities: Interfacial characteristics and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyung-Min; Lee, Min Joo; Jo, Su-Kyung; Choi, Seung Jun; Lee, JaeHwan; Chang, Pahn-Shick

    2017-01-15

    The interfacial characteristics and antioxidant activities of erythorbyl laurate were investigated to provide information on practical applications as a multi-functional food additive. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) of erythorbyl laurate was 0.101mM and its foam stability was three times (half-life 24.33±0.94h) higher than that of Tween 20 (8.00±1.63h). In free radical scavenging assay, the negligible decrease in EC50 of erythorbyl laurate compared to erythorbic acid manifested that C-5 selective esterification of erythorbic acid with an acyl group (lauric acid) did not reduce the inherent antioxidant activity of the donor (erythorbic acid). Erythorbyl laurate formed lipid peroxides slower (i.e. retarded oxidation) in an emulsion system than did erythorbic acid. The localization of erythorbyl laurate as an emulsifier allowed the antioxidant molecules to be concentrated at the oil-water interface where oxidation is prevalent, which led to more effective retardation of lipid oxidation. PMID:27542455

  13. Number line estimation and mental addition: examining the potential roles of language and education.

    PubMed

    Laski, Elida V; Yu, Qingyi

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the relative importance of language and education to the development of numerical knowledge. Consistent with previous research suggesting that counting systems that transparently reflect the base-10 system facilitate an understanding of numerical concepts, Chinese and Chinese American kindergartners' and second graders' number line estimation (0-100 and 0-1000) was 1 to 2 years more advanced than that of American children tested in previous studies. However, Chinese children performed better than their Chinese American peers, who were fluent in Chinese but had been educated in America, at kindergarten on 0-100 number lines, at second grade on 0-1000 number lines, and at both time points on complex addition problems. Overall, the pattern of findings suggests that educational approach may have a greater influence on numerical development than the linguistic structure of the counting system. The findings also demonstrate that, despite generating accurate estimates of numerical magnitude on 0-100 number lines earlier, it still takes Chinese children approximately 2 years to demonstrate accurate estimates on 0-1000 number lines, which raises questions about how to promote the mapping of knowledge across numerical scales.

  14. Erythorbyl laurate as a potential food additive with multi-functionalities: Interfacial characteristics and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyung-Min; Lee, Min Joo; Jo, Su-Kyung; Choi, Seung Jun; Lee, JaeHwan; Chang, Pahn-Shick

    2017-01-15

    The interfacial characteristics and antioxidant activities of erythorbyl laurate were investigated to provide information on practical applications as a multi-functional food additive. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) of erythorbyl laurate was 0.101mM and its foam stability was three times (half-life 24.33±0.94h) higher than that of Tween 20 (8.00±1.63h). In free radical scavenging assay, the negligible decrease in EC50 of erythorbyl laurate compared to erythorbic acid manifested that C-5 selective esterification of erythorbic acid with an acyl group (lauric acid) did not reduce the inherent antioxidant activity of the donor (erythorbic acid). Erythorbyl laurate formed lipid peroxides slower (i.e. retarded oxidation) in an emulsion system than did erythorbic acid. The localization of erythorbyl laurate as an emulsifier allowed the antioxidant molecules to be concentrated at the oil-water interface where oxidation is prevalent, which led to more effective retardation of lipid oxidation.

  15. β-Lactam antibiotics and vancomycin inhibit the growth of planktonic and biofilm Candida spp.: an additional benefit of antibiotic-lock therapy?

    PubMed

    Sidrim, José J C; Teixeira, Carlos E C; Cordeiro, Rossana A; Brilhante, Raimunda S N; Castelo-Branco, Débora S C M; Bandeira, Silviane P; Alencar, Lucas P; Oliveira, Jonathas S; Monteiro, André J; Moreira, José L B; Bandeira, Tereza J P G; Rocha, Marcos F G

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of cefepime, meropenem, piperacillin/tazobactam (TZP) and vancomycin on strains of Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis in planktonic and biofilm forms. Twenty azole-derivative-resistant strains of C. albicans (n=10) and C. tropicalis (n=10) were tested. The susceptibility of planktonic Candida spp. to the antibacterial agents was investigated by broth microdilution. The XTT reduction assay was performed to evaluate the viability of growing and mature biofilms following exposure to these drugs. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranged from 0.5 mg/mL to 2 mg/mL for cefepime, TZP and vancomycin and from 0.5 mg/mL to 1 mg/mL for meropenem and the drugs also caused statistically significant reductions in biofilm cellular activity both in growing and mature biofilm. Since all of the tested drugs are commonly used in patients with hospital-acquired infections and in those with catheter-related infections under antibiotic-lock therapy, it may be possible to obtain an additional benefit from antibiotic-lock therapy with these drugs, namely the control of Candida biofilm formation.

  16. Maize Benefits the Predatory Beetle, Propylea japonica (Thunberg), to Provide Potential to Enhance Biological Control for Aphids in Cotton

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, Fang; Men, Xingyuan; Yang, Bing; Su, Jianwei; Zhang, Yongsheng; Zhao, Zihua; Ge, Feng

    2012-01-01

    Background Biological control provided by natural enemies play an important role in integrated pest management. Generalist insect predators provide an important biological service in the regulation of agricultural insect pests. Our goal is to understand the explicit process of oviposition preference, habitat selection and feeding behavior of predators in farmland ecosystem consisting of multiple crops, which is central to devising and delivering an integrated pest management program. Methodology The hypotheses was that maize can serve as habitat for natural enemies and benefits predators to provide potential to enhance biological control for pest insects in cotton. This explicit process of a predatory beetle, Propylea japonica, in agricultural ecosystem composed of cotton and maize were examined by field investigation and stable carbon isotope analysis during 2008–2010. Principal Finding Field investigation showed that P. japonica adults will search host plants for high prey abundance before laying eggs, indicating indirectly that P. japonica adults prefer to inhabit maize plants and travel to cotton plants to actively prey on aphids. The δ13C values of adult P. japonica in a dietary shift experiment found that individual beetles were shifting from a C3- to a C4-based diet of aphids reared on maize or cotton, respectively, and began to reflect the isotope ratio of their new C4 resources within one week. Approximately 80–100% of the diet of P. japonica adults in maize originated from a C3-based resource in June, July and August, while approximately 80% of the diet originated from a C4-based resource in September. Conclusion/Significance Results suggest that maize can serve as a habitat or refuge source for the predatory beetle, P. japonica, and benefits predators to provide potential to enhance biological control for insect pests in cotton. PMID:22984499

  17. The emotion potential of simple sentences: additive or interactive effects of nouns and adjectives?

    PubMed Central

    Lüdtke, Jana; Jacobs, Arthur M.

    2015-01-01

    The vast majority of studies on affective processes in reading focus on single words. The most robust finding is a processing advantage for positively valenced words, which has been replicated in the rare studies investigating effects of affective features of words during sentence or story comprehension. Here we were interested in how the different valences of words in a sentence influence its processing and supralexical affective evaluation. Using a sentence verification task we investigated how comprehension of simple declarative sentences containing a noun and an adjective depends on the valences of both words. The results are in line with the assumed general processing advantage for positive words. We also observed a clear interaction effect, as can be expected from the affective priming literature: sentences with emotionally congruent words (e.g., The grandpa is clever) were verified faster than sentences containing emotionally incongruent words (e.g., The grandpa is lonely). The priming effect was most prominent for sentences with positive words suggesting that both, early processing as well as later meaning integration and situation model construction, is modulated by affective processing. In a second rating task we investigated how the emotion potential of supralexical units depends on word valence. The simplest hypothesis predicts that the supralexical affective structure is a linear combination of the valences of the nouns and adjectives (Bestgen, 1994). Overall, our results do not support this: The observed clear interaction effect on ratings indicate that especially negative adjectives dominated supralexical evaluation, i.e., a sort of negativity bias in sentence evaluation. Future models of sentence processing thus should take interactive affective effects into account. PMID:26321975

  18. Increasing dietary phosphorus intake from food additives: potential for negative impact on bone health.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Eiji; Yamamoto, Hironori; Yamanaka-Okumura, Hisami; Taketani, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    It is important to consider whether habitual high phosphorus intake adversely affects bone health, because phosphorus intake has been increasing, whereas calcium intake has been decreasing in dietary patterns. A higher total habitual dietary phosphorus intake has been associated with higher serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and lower serum calcium concentrations in healthy individuals. Higher serum PTH concentrations have been shown in those who consume foods with phosphorus additives. These findings suggest that long-term dietary phosphorus loads and long-term hyperphosphatemia may have important negative effects on bone health. In contrast, PTH concentrations did not increase as a result of high dietary phosphorus intake when phosphorus was provided with adequate amounts of calcium. Intake of foods with a ratio of calcium to phosphorus close to that found in dairy products led to positive effects on bone health. Several randomized controlled trials have shown positive relations between dairy intake and bone mineral density. In our loading test with a low-calcium, high-phosphorus lunch provided to healthy young men, serum PTH concentrations showed peaks at 1 and 6 h, and serum fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) concentrations increased significantly at 8 h after the meal. In contrast, the high-calcium, high-phosphorus meal suppressed the second PTH and FGF23 elevations until 8 h after the meal. This implies that adequate dietary calcium intake is needed to overcome the interfering effects of high phosphorus intake on PTH and FGF23 secretion. FGF23 acts on the parathyroid gland to decrease PTH mRNA and PTH secretion in rats with normal kidney function. However, increased serum FGF23 is an early alteration of mineral metabolism in chronic kidney disease, causing secondary hyperthyroidism, and implying resistance of the parathyroid gland to the action of FGF23 in chronic kidney disease. These findings suggest that long-term high-phosphorus diets may impair bone health

  19. Increasing dietary phosphorus intake from food additives: potential for negative impact on bone health.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Eiji; Yamamoto, Hironori; Yamanaka-Okumura, Hisami; Taketani, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    It is important to consider whether habitual high phosphorus intake adversely affects bone health, because phosphorus intake has been increasing, whereas calcium intake has been decreasing in dietary patterns. A higher total habitual dietary phosphorus intake has been associated with higher serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and lower serum calcium concentrations in healthy individuals. Higher serum PTH concentrations have been shown in those who consume foods with phosphorus additives. These findings suggest that long-term dietary phosphorus loads and long-term hyperphosphatemia may have important negative effects on bone health. In contrast, PTH concentrations did not increase as a result of high dietary phosphorus intake when phosphorus was provided with adequate amounts of calcium. Intake of foods with a ratio of calcium to phosphorus close to that found in dairy products led to positive effects on bone health. Several randomized controlled trials have shown positive relations between dairy intake and bone mineral density. In our loading test with a low-calcium, high-phosphorus lunch provided to healthy young men, serum PTH concentrations showed peaks at 1 and 6 h, and serum fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) concentrations increased significantly at 8 h after the meal. In contrast, the high-calcium, high-phosphorus meal suppressed the second PTH and FGF23 elevations until 8 h after the meal. This implies that adequate dietary calcium intake is needed to overcome the interfering effects of high phosphorus intake on PTH and FGF23 secretion. FGF23 acts on the parathyroid gland to decrease PTH mRNA and PTH secretion in rats with normal kidney function. However, increased serum FGF23 is an early alteration of mineral metabolism in chronic kidney disease, causing secondary hyperthyroidism, and implying resistance of the parathyroid gland to the action of FGF23 in chronic kidney disease. These findings suggest that long-term high-phosphorus diets may impair bone health

  20. Addition theorems for Slater-type orbitals and their application to multicenter multielectron integrals of central and noncentral interaction potentials.

    PubMed

    Guseinov, Israfil

    2003-06-01

    By the use of complete orthonormal sets of psi(alpha)-ETOs (alpha=1, 0, m1, m2,...) introduced by the author, new addition theorems are derived for STOs and arbitrary central and noncentral interaction potentials (CIPs and NCIPs). The expansion coefficients in these addition theorems are expressed through the Gaunt and Gegenbauer coefficients. Using the addition theorems obtained for STOs and potentials, general formulae in terms of three-center overlap integrals are established for the multicenter t-electron integrals of CIPs and NCIPs that arise in the solution of the N-electron atomic and molecular problem (2hthN) when a Hylleraas approximation in Hartree-Fock-Roothaan theory is employed. With the help of expansion formulae for translation of STOs, the three-center overlap integrals are expressed through the two-center overlap integrals. The formulae obtained are valid for arbitrary quantum numbers, screening constants and location of orbitals. PMID:12750966

  1. Kinesio Taping Does Not Provide Additional Benefits in Patients With Chronic Low Back Pain Who Receive Exercise and Manual Therapy: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Added, Marco Aurélio Nemitalla; Costa, Leonardo Oliveira Pena; de Freitas, Diego Galace; Fukuda, Thiago Yukio; Monteiro, Renan Lima; Salomão, Evelyn Cassia; de Medeiros, Flávia Cordeiro; Costa, Lucíola da Cunha Menezes

    2016-07-01

    Study Design Randomized controlled trial. Background Many clinical practice guidelines endorse both manual therapy and exercise as effective treatment options for patients with low back pain. To optimize the effects of the treatments recommended by the guidelines, a new intervention known as Kinesio Taping is being widely used in these patients. Objectives To determine the effectiveness of Kinesio Taping in patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain when added to a physical therapy program consisting of exercise and manual therapy. Methods One hundred forty-eight patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain were randomly allocated to receive 10 (twice weekly) sessions of physical therapy, consisting of exercise and manual therapy, or the same treatment with the addition of Kinesio Taping applied to the lower back. The primary outcomes were pain intensity and disability (5 weeks after randomization) and the secondary outcomes were pain intensity, disability (3 months and 6 months after randomization), global perceived effect, and satisfaction with care (5 weeks after treatment). Data were collected by a blinded assessor. Results No between-group differences were observed in the primary outcomes of pain intensity (mean difference, -0.01 points; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.88, 0.85) or disability (mean difference, 1.14 points; 95% CI: -0.85, 3.13) at 5 weeks' follow-up. In addition, no between-group differences were observed for any of the other outcomes evaluated, except for disability 6 months after randomization (mean difference, 2.01 points; 95% CI: 0.03, 4.00) in favor of the control group. Conclusion Patients who received a physical therapy program consisting of exercise and manual therapy did not get additional benefit from the use of Kinesio Taping. Level of Evidence Therapy, level 1b. Prospectively registered May 28, 2013 at www.ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01866332). J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(7):506-513. Epub 6 Jun 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.6590.

  2. Kinesio Taping Does Not Provide Additional Benefits in Patients With Chronic Low Back Pain Who Receive Exercise and Manual Therapy: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Added, Marco Aurélio Nemitalla; Costa, Leonardo Oliveira Pena; de Freitas, Diego Galace; Fukuda, Thiago Yukio; Monteiro, Renan Lima; Salomão, Evelyn Cassia; de Medeiros, Flávia Cordeiro; Costa, Lucíola da Cunha Menezes

    2016-07-01

    Study Design Randomized controlled trial. Background Many clinical practice guidelines endorse both manual therapy and exercise as effective treatment options for patients with low back pain. To optimize the effects of the treatments recommended by the guidelines, a new intervention known as Kinesio Taping is being widely used in these patients. Objectives To determine the effectiveness of Kinesio Taping in patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain when added to a physical therapy program consisting of exercise and manual therapy. Methods One hundred forty-eight patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain were randomly allocated to receive 10 (twice weekly) sessions of physical therapy, consisting of exercise and manual therapy, or the same treatment with the addition of Kinesio Taping applied to the lower back. The primary outcomes were pain intensity and disability (5 weeks after randomization) and the secondary outcomes were pain intensity, disability (3 months and 6 months after randomization), global perceived effect, and satisfaction with care (5 weeks after treatment). Data were collected by a blinded assessor. Results No between-group differences were observed in the primary outcomes of pain intensity (mean difference, -0.01 points; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.88, 0.85) or disability (mean difference, 1.14 points; 95% CI: -0.85, 3.13) at 5 weeks' follow-up. In addition, no between-group differences were observed for any of the other outcomes evaluated, except for disability 6 months after randomization (mean difference, 2.01 points; 95% CI: 0.03, 4.00) in favor of the control group. Conclusion Patients who received a physical therapy program consisting of exercise and manual therapy did not get additional benefit from the use of Kinesio Taping. Level of Evidence Therapy, level 1b. Prospectively registered May 28, 2013 at www.ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01866332). J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(7):506-513. Epub 6 Jun 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016

  3. Commercial squids: characterization, assessment of potential health benefits/risks and discrimination based on mineral, lipid and vitamin E concentrations.

    PubMed

    Torrinha, A; Gomes, F; Oliveira, M; Cruz, R; Mendes, E; Delerue-Matos, C; Casal, S; Morais, S

    2014-05-01

    The most consumed squid species worldwide were characterized regarding their concentrations of minerals, fatty acids, cholesterol and vitamin E. Interspecific comparisons were assessed among species and geographical origin. The health benefits derived from squid consumption were assessed based on daily minerals intake and on nutritional lipid quality indexes. Squids contribute significantly to daily intake of several macro (Na, K, Mg and P) and micronutrients (Cu, Zn and Ni). Despite their low fat concentration, they are rich in long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, particularly docosahexaenoic (DHA) and eicosapentanoic (EPA) acids, with highly favorable ω-3/ω-6 ratios (from 5.7 to 17.7), reducing the significance of their high cholesterol concentration (140-549 mg/100g ww). Assessment of potential health risks based on minerals intake, non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks indicated that Loligo gahi (from Atlantic Ocean), Loligo opalescens (from Pacific Ocean) and Loligo duvaucelii (from Indic Ocean) should be eaten with moderation due to the high concentrations of Cu and/or Cd. Canonical discriminant analysis identified the major fatty acids (C14:0, C18:0, C18:1, C18:3ω-3, C20:4ω-6 and C22:5ω-6), P, K, Cu and vitamin E as chemical discriminators for the selected species. These elements and compounds exhibited the potential to prove authenticity of the commercially relevant squid species.

  4. Potential impact of legislation mandating breast density notification: benefits, harms, and cost effectiveness of supplemental ultrasound screening

    PubMed Central

    Sprague, Brian L.; Stout, Natasha K.; Schechter, Clyde; van Ravesteyn, Nicolien T.; Cevik, Mucahit; Alagoz, Oguzhan; Lee, Christoph I.; van den Broek, Jeroen J.; Miglioretti, Diana L.; Mandelblatt, Jeanne S.; de Koning, Harry J.; Kerlikowske, Karla; Lehman, Constance D.; Tosteson, Anna N. A.

    2014-01-01

    Background At least nineteen states have laws that require telling women with dense breasts and a negative screening mammogram to consider supplemental screening. The most readily available supplemental screening modality is ultrasound, yet little is known about its effectiveness. Objective To evaluate the benefits, harms, and cost-effectiveness of supplemental ultrasound screening for women with dense breasts. Design Comparative modeling with 3 validated simulation models. Data Sources Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program; Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium; the medical literature. Target Population A contemporary cohort of women eligible for routine screening. Time Horizon Lifetime. Perspective Payer. Interventions Supplemental ultrasound screening for women with dense breasts following a negative screening mammogram. Outcome Measures Breast cancer deaths averted, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained, false positive ultrasound biopsy recommendations, costs, costs per QALY gained. Results of Base-Case Analysis Supplemental ultrasound screening after a negative mammogram for women aged 50–74 with heterogeneously or extremely dense breasts averted 0.36 additional breast cancer deaths (range across models: 0.14–0.75), gained 1.7 QALYs (0.9–4.7), and resulted in 354 false-positive ultrasound biopsy recommendations (345–421) per 1000 women with dense breasts compared with biennial screening by mammography alone. The cost-effectiveness ratio was $325,000 per QALY gained ($112,000-$766,000). Restricting supplemental ultrasound screening to women with extremely dense breasts cost $246,000 per QALY gained ($74,000-$535,000). Results of Sensitivity Analysis The conclusions were not sensitive to ultrasound performance characteristics, screening frequency, or starting age. Limitations Provider costs for coordinating supplemental ultrasound were not considered. Conclusions Supplemental ultrasound screening for women with dense breasts undergoing

  5. Survival benefit and additional value of preoperative chemoradiotherapy in resectable gastric and gastro-oesophageal junction cancer: a direct and adjusted indirect comparison meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, K; Rouvelas, I; Tsai, J A; Mariosa, D; Lind, P A; Lindblad, M; Ye, W; Lundell, L; Schuhmacher, C; Mauer, M; Burmeister, B H; Thomas, J M; Stahl, M; Nilsson, M

    2015-03-01

    Several phase I/II studies of chemoradiotherapy for gastric cancer have reported promising results, but the significance of preoperative radiotherapy in addition to chemotherapy has not been proven. In this study, a systematic literature search was performed to capture survival and postoperative morbidity and mortality data in randomised clinical studies comparing preoperative (chemo)radiotherapy or chemotherapy versus surgery alone, or preoperative chemoradiotherapy versus chemotherapy for gastric and/or gastro-oesophageal junction (GOJ) cancer. Hazard ratios (HRs) for overall mortality were extracted from the original studies, individual patient data provided from the principal investigators of eligible studies or the earlier published meta-analysis. The incidences of postoperative morbidities and mortalities were also analysed. In total 18 studies were eligible and data were available from 14 of these. The meta-analysis on overall survival yielded HRs of 0.75 (95% CI 0.65-0.86, P < 0.001) for preoperative (chemo)radiotherapy and 0.83 (95% CI 0.67-1.01, P = 0.065) for preoperative chemotherapy when compared to surgery alone. Direct comparison between preoperative chemoradiotherapy and chemotherapy resulted in an HR of 0.71 (95% CI 0.45-1.12, P = 0.146). Combination of direct and adjusted indirect comparisons yielded an HR of 0.86 (95% CI 0.69-1.07, P = 0.171). No statistically significant differences were seen in the risk for postoperative morbidity or mortality between preoperative treatments and surgery alone, or preoperative (chemo)radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Preoperative (chemo)radiotherapy for gastric and GOJ cancer showed significant survival benefit over surgery alone. In comparisons between preoperative chemotherapy and (chemo)radiotherapy, there is a trend towards improved survival when adding radiotherapy, without increased postoperative morbidity or mortality.

  6. Energy storage for the electricity grid : benefits and market potential assessment guide : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.

    SciTech Connect

    Eyer, James M.; Corey, Garth P.

    2010-02-01

    This guide describes a high-level, technology-neutral framework for assessing potential benefits from and economic market potential for energy storage used for electric-utility-related applications. The overarching theme addressed is the concept of combining applications/benefits into attractive value propositions that include use of energy storage, possibly including distributed and/or modular systems. Other topics addressed include: high-level estimates of application-specific lifecycle benefit (10 years) in $/kW and maximum market potential (10 years) in MW. Combined, these criteria indicate the economic potential (in $Millions) for a given energy storage application/benefit. The benefits and value propositions characterized provide an important indication of storage system cost targets for system and subsystem developers, vendors, and prospective users. Maximum market potential estimates provide developers, vendors, and energy policymakers with an indication of the upper bound of the potential demand for storage. The combination of the value of an individual benefit (in $/kW) and the corresponding maximum market potential estimate (in MW) indicates the possible impact that storage could have on the U.S. economy. The intended audience for this document includes persons or organizations needing a framework for making first-cut or high-level estimates of benefits for a specific storage project and/or those seeking a high-level estimate of viable price points and/or maximum market potential for their products. Thus, the intended audience includes: electric utility planners, electricity end users, non-utility electric energy and electric services providers, electric utility regulators and policymakers, intermittent renewables advocates and developers, Smart Grid advocates and developers, storage technology and project developers, and energy storage advocates.

  7. Trans-saccadic parafoveal preview benefits in fluent reading: a study with fixation-related brain potentials.

    PubMed

    Dimigen, Olaf; Kliegl, Reinhold; Sommer, Werner

    2012-08-01

    During natural reading, a parafoveal preview of the upcoming word facilitates its subsequent recognition (e.g., shorter fixation durations compared to masked preview) but nothing is known about the neural correlates of this so-called preview benefit. Furthermore, while the evidence is strong that readers preprocess orthographic features of upcoming words, it is controversial whether word meaning can also be accessed parafoveally. We investigated the timing, scope, and electrophysiological correlates of parafoveal information use in reading by simultaneously recording eye movements and fixation-related brain potentials (FRPs) while participants read word lists fluently from left to right. For one word-the target-(e.g., "blade") parafoveal information was manipulated by showing an identical ("blade"), semantically related ("knife"), or unrelated ("sugar") word as preview. In boundary trials, the preview was shown parafoveally but changed to the correct target word during the incoming saccade. Replicating classic findings, target words were fixated shorter after identical previews. In the EEG, this benefit was reflected in an occipitotemporal preview positivity between 200 and 280 ms. In contrast, there was no facilitation from related previews. In parafoveal-on-foveal trials, preview and target were embedded at neighboring list positions without a display change. Consecutive fixation of two related words produced N400 priming effects, but only shortly (160 ms) after the second word was directly fixated. Results demonstrate that neural responses to words are substantially altered by parafoveal preprocessing under normal reading conditions. We found no evidence that word meaning contributes to these effects. Saccade-contingent display manipulations can be combined with EEG recordings to study extrafoveal perception in vision.

  8. Trans-saccadic parafoveal preview benefits in fluent reading: a study with fixation-related brain potentials.

    PubMed

    Dimigen, Olaf; Kliegl, Reinhold; Sommer, Werner

    2012-08-01

    During natural reading, a parafoveal preview of the upcoming word facilitates its subsequent recognition (e.g., shorter fixation durations compared to masked preview) but nothing is known about the neural correlates of this so-called preview benefit. Furthermore, while the evidence is strong that readers preprocess orthographic features of upcoming words, it is controversial whether word meaning can also be accessed parafoveally. We investigated the timing, scope, and electrophysiological correlates of parafoveal information use in reading by simultaneously recording eye movements and fixation-related brain potentials (FRPs) while participants read word lists fluently from left to right. For one word-the target-(e.g., "blade") parafoveal information was manipulated by showing an identical ("blade"), semantically related ("knife"), or unrelated ("sugar") word as preview. In boundary trials, the preview was shown parafoveally but changed to the correct target word during the incoming saccade. Replicating classic findings, target words were fixated shorter after identical previews. In the EEG, this benefit was reflected in an occipitotemporal preview positivity between 200 and 280 ms. In contrast, there was no facilitation from related previews. In parafoveal-on-foveal trials, preview and target were embedded at neighboring list positions without a display change. Consecutive fixation of two related words produced N400 priming effects, but only shortly (160 ms) after the second word was directly fixated. Results demonstrate that neural responses to words are substantially altered by parafoveal preprocessing under normal reading conditions. We found no evidence that word meaning contributes to these effects. Saccade-contingent display manipulations can be combined with EEG recordings to study extrafoveal perception in vision. PMID:22521255

  9. Evidence of the antiepileptic potential of amiloride with neuropharmacological benefits in rodent models of epilepsy and behavior.

    PubMed

    Ali, Atif; Ahmad, Farhan Jalees; Pillai, K K; Vohora, Divya

    2004-06-01

    Sodium-hydrogen exchangers (NHEs) in the brain play a key role in regulating neuronal pH and, hence, modulate bioelectric and seizure activity. In this study, we investigated the anticonvulsant effect of amiloride (a NHE inhibitor) on increasing current electroshock (ICES) and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures in mice. Further, the effect of amiloride on mood, memory, grip strength, and rotarod performance was also evaluated. The forced swimming test (FST) and spontaneous alternation behavior (SAB) models were employed to assess the effects on mood and memory, respectively. Amiloride produced a dose-dependent increase in seizure threshold in both rodent models of epilepsy. It was observed that amiloride reduced behavioral depression in the FST in mice. In addition, it resulted in memory improvement in the SAB model. Amiloride did not affect grip strength and rotarod performance, suggesting it is devoid of behavioral impairment. The results indicate the potential antiseizure activity of amiloride along with additional neurological advantages.

  10. No correlation is found for vegetables between antioxidant capacity and potential benefits in improving antioxidant function in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Ji, Linlin; Gao, Weina; Wei, Jingyu; Wu, Jianquan; Yang, Jijun; Meng, Bin; Guo, Changjiang

    2014-05-01

    Vegetables vary greatly in antioxidant capacity in vitro. This study was to investigate the actions of three vegetables different remarkably in antioxidant capacity in vitro on antioxidant function in aged rats. Sixty female aged Wistar rats were randomly assigned to the control, lotus root, rape and cucumber (high, moderate and low in antioxidant capacity, respectively) treated groups. After 6 weeks of feeding, there were no significant differences in plasma FRAP value and contents of vitamin C, vitamin E, uric acid and total phenolics among different groups, whereas the content of reduced glutathione was significantly higher in the rape and cucumber groups. Plasma superoxide dismutase activity also was significantly increased in the rape and cucumber groups. Plasma contents of malondialdehyde, carbonyls and hemolysis were decreased significantly in 3 vegetable-treated groups. Meanwhile, urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine excretion was lower significantly in the rape group and the ratio of comet tail length to total length of blood mononuclear cells was decreased significantly in 3 vegetables treated groups. These results suggest that 3 vegetables tested are effective in improving antioxidant function to some extent in aged rats and no correlation is found between antioxidant capacity in vitro and improvements of antioxidant function. The benefits observed in this study may come from additive or synergistic combinations of antioxidants contained in vegetables.

  11. The Potential Benefits of Advanced Casing Treatment for Noise Attenuation in Utra-High Bypass Ratio Turbofan Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, David

    2007-01-01

    In order to increase stall margin in a high-bypass ratio turbofan engine, an advanced casing treatment was developed that extracted a small amount of flow from the casing behind the fan and injected it back in front of the fan. Several different configurations of this casing treatment were designed by varying the distance of the extraction and injection points, as well as varying the amount of flow. These casing treatments were tested on a 55.9 cm (22 in.) scale model of the Pratt & Whitney Advanced Ducted Propulsor in the NASA Glenn 9 by 15 Low Speed Wind Tunnel. While all of the casing treatment configurations showed the expected increase in stall margin, a few of the designs showed a potential noise benefit for certain engine speeds. This paper will show the casing treatments and the results of the testing as well as propose further research in this area. With better prediction and design techniques, future casing treatment configurations could be developed that may result in an optimized casing treatment that could conceivably reduce the noise further.

  12. Cost-benefit analysis potential in feeding behavior of a predatory snail by integration of hunger, taste, and pain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillette, Rhanor; Huang, Rong-Chi; Hatcher, Nathan; Moroz, Leonid L.

    2000-03-01

    Hunger/satiation state interacts with appetitive and noxious stimuli to determine feeding and avoidance responses. In the predatory marine snail Pleurobranchaea californica, food chemostimuli induced proboscis extension and biting at concentration thresholds that varied directly with satiation state. However, food stimuli also tended to elicit avoidance behavior (withdrawal and avoidance turns) at concentration thresholds that were relatively low and fixed. When the feeding threshold for active feeding (proboscis extension with biting) was exceeded, ongoing avoidance and locomotion were interrupted and suppressed. Noxious chemostimuli usually stimulated avoidance, but, in animals with lower feeding thresholds for food stimuli, they often elicited feeding behavior. Thus, sensory pathways mediating appetitive and noxious stimuli may have dual access to neural networks of feeding and avoidance behavior, but their final effects are regulated by satiation state. These observations suggest that a simple cost-benefit computation regulates behavioral switching in the animal's foraging behavior, where food stimuli above or below the incentive level for feeding tend to induce feeding or avoidance, respectively. This decision mechanism can weigh the animal's need for nutrients against the potential risk from other predators and the cost of relative energy outlay in an attack on prey. Stimulation of orienting and attack by low-level noxious stimuli in the hungriest animals may reflect risk-taking that can enhance prey capture success. A simple, hedonically structured neural network model captures this computation.

  13. Evidence-based evaluation of potential benefits and safety of beta-alanine supplementation for military personnel.

    PubMed

    Ko, Richard; Low Dog, Tieraona; Gorecki, Dennis K J; Cantilena, Louis R; Costello, Rebecca B; Evans, William J; Hardy, Mary L; Jordan, Scott A; Maughan, Ronald J; Rankin, Janet W; Smith-Ryan, Abbie E; Valerio, Luis G; Jones, Donnamaria; Deuster, Patricia; Giancaspro, Gabriel I; Sarma, Nandakumara D

    2014-03-01

    This Department of Defense-sponsored evidence-based review evaluates the safety and putative outcomes of enhancement of athletic performance or improved recovery from exhaustion in studies involving beta-alanine alone or in combination with other ingredients. Beta-alanine intervention studies and review articles were collected from 13 databases, and safety information was collected from adverse event reporting portals. Due to the lack of systematic studies involving military populations, all the available literature was assessed with a subgroup analysis of studies on athletes to determine if beta-alanine would be suitable for the military. Available literature provided only limited evidence concerning the benefits of beta-alanine use, and a majority of the studies were not designed to address safety. Overall, the strength of evidence in terms of the potential for risk of bias in the quality of the available literature, consistency, directness, and precision did not support the use of beta-alanine by military personnel. The strength of evidence for a causal relation between beta-alanine and paresthesia was moderate.

  14. Study of potential aerodynamic benefits from spanwise blowing at wingtip. Ph.D. Thesis - George Washington Univ., 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mineck, Raymond E.

    1995-01-01

    Comprehensive experimental and analytical studies have been conducted to assess the potential aerodynamic benefits from spanwise blowing at the tip of a moderate-aspect-ratio swept wing. Previous studies on low-aspect-ratio wings indicated that blowing from the wingtip can diffuse the tip vortex and displace it outward. The diffused and displaced vortex will induce a smaller downwash at the wing, and consequently the wing will have increased lift and decreased induced drag at a given angle of attack. Results from the present investigation indicated that blowing from jets with a short chord had little effect on lift or drag, but blowing from jets with a longer chord increased lift near the tip and reduced drag at low Mach numbers. A Navier-Stokes solver with modified boundary conditions at the tip was used to extrapolate the results to a Mach number of 0.72. Calculations indicated that lift and drag increase with increasing jet momentum coefficient. Because the momentum of the jet is typically greater than the reduction in the wing drag and the increase in the wing lift due to spanwise blowing is small, spanwise blowing at the wingtip does not appear to be a practical means of improving the aerodynamic efficiency of moderate-aspectratio swept wings at high subsonic Mach numbers.

  15. Meditation as a therapeutic intervention for adults at risk for Alzheimer's disease - potential benefits and underlying mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Innes, Kim E; Selfe, Terry Kit

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic, progressive, brain disorder that affects at least 5.3 million Americans at an estimated cost of $148 billion, figures that are expected to rise steeply in coming years. Despite decades of research, there is still no cure for AD, and effective therapies for preventing or slowing progression of cognitive decline in at-risk populations remain elusive. Although the etiology of AD remains uncertain, chronic stress, sleep deficits, and mood disturbance, conditions common in those with cognitive impairment, have been prospectively linked to the development and progression of both chronic illness and memory loss and are significant predictors of AD. Therapies such as meditation that specifically target these risk factors may thus hold promise for slowing and possibly preventing cognitive decline in those at risk. In this study, we briefly review the existing evidence regarding the potential utility of meditation as a therapeutic intervention for those with and at risk for AD, discuss possible mechanisms underlying the observed benefits of meditation, and outline directions for future research.

  16. Potential therapeutic benefit of C1-esterase inhibitor in neuromyelitis optica evaluated in vitro and in an experimental rat model.

    PubMed

    Tradtrantip, Lukmanee; Asavapanumas, Nithi; Phuan, Puay-Wah; Verkman, A S

    2014-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune demyelinating disease of the central nervous system in which binding of anti-aquaporin-4 (AQP4) autoantibodies (NMO-IgG) to astrocytes causes complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) and inflammation resulting in oligodendrocyte and neuronal injury. There is compelling evidence for a central role of complement in NMO pathogenesis. Here, we evaluated the potential of C1-esterase inhibitor (C1-inh) for complement-targeted therapy of NMO. C1-inh is an anti-inflammatory plasma protein with serine protease inhibition activity that has a broad range of biological activities on the contact (kallikrein), coagulation, fibrinolytic and complement systems. C1-inh is approved for therapy of hereditary angioedema (HAE) and has been studied in a small safety trial in acute NMO relapses (NCT 01759602). In vitro assays of NMO-IgG-dependent CDC showed C1-inh inhibition of human and rat complement, but with predicted minimal complement inhibition activity at a dose of 2000 units in humans. Inhibition of complement by C1-inh was potentiated by ∼10-fold by polysulfated macromolecules including heparin and dextran sulfate. In rats, intravenous C1-inh at a dose 30-fold greater than that approved to treat HAE inhibited serum complement activity by <5%, even when supplemented with heparin. Also, high-dose C1-inh did not reduce pathology in a rat model of NMO produced by intracerebral injection of NMO-IgG. Therefore, although C1r and C1s are targets of C1-inh, our in vitro data with human serum and in vivo data in rats suggest that the complement inhibition activity of C1-inh in serum is too low to confer clinical benefit in NMO.

  17. Potential Benefits, Limitations and Target Product-Profiles of Odor-Baited Mosquito Traps for Malaria Control in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Okumu, Fredros O.; Govella, Nicodem J.; Moore, Sarah J.; Chitnis, Nakul; Killeen, Gerry F.

    2010-01-01

    Background Traps baited with synthetic human odors have been proposed as suitable technologies for controlling malaria and other mosquito-borne diseases. We investigated the potential benefits of such traps for preventing malaria transmission in Africa and the essential characteristics that they should possess so as to be effective. Methods and Principal Findings An existing mathematical model was reformulated to distinguish availability of hosts for attack by mosquitoes from availability of blood per se. This adaptation allowed the effects of pseudo-hosts such as odor-baited mosquito traps, which do not yield blood but which can nonetheless be attacked by the mosquitoes, to be simulated considering communities consisting of users and non-users of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs), currently the primary malaria prevention method. We determined that malaria transmission declines as trap coverage (proportion of total availability of all hosts and pseudo hosts that traps constitute) increases. If the traps are more attractive than humans and are located in areas where mosquitoes are most abundant, 20–130 traps per 1000 people would be sufficient to match the impact of 50% community-wide ITN coverage. If such traps are used to complement ITNs, malaria transmission can be reduced by 99% or more in most scenarios representative of Africa. However, to match cost-effectiveness of ITNs, the traps delivery, operation and maintenance would have to cost a maximum of US$4.25 to 27.61 per unit per year. Conclusions and Significance Odor-baited mosquito traps might potentially be effective and affordable tools for malaria control in Africa, particularly if they are used to complement, rather than replace, existing methods. We recommend that developers should focus on super-attractive baits and cheaper traps to enhance cost-effectiveness, and that the most appropriate way to deploy such technologies is through vertical delivery mechanisms. PMID:20644731

  18. Analysis of Potential Benefits and Costs of Adopting ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1999 as a Commercial Building Energy Code in Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Cort, Katherine A.; Belzer, David B.; Halverson, Mark A.; Richman, Eric E.; Winiarski, David W.

    2002-09-30

    The state of Michigan is considering adpoting ASHRAE 90.1-1999 as its commercial building energy code. In an effort to evaluate whether or not this is an appropraite code for the state, the potential benefits and costs of adopting this standard are considered. Both qualitative and quantitative benefits are assessed. The energy simulation and economic results suggest that adopting ASHRAE 90.1-1999 would provide postitive net benefits to the state relative to the building and design requirements currently in place.

  19. 38 CFR 3.361 - Benefits under 38 U.S.C. 1151(a) for additional disability or death due to hospital care, medical...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Ratings for Special Purposes § 3.361 Benefits under 38 U.S.C..., error in judgment, or similar instance of fault on VA's part in furnishing hospital care, medical...

  20. Making oxidation potentials predictable: coordination of additives applied to the electronic fine tuning of an iron(II) complex.

    PubMed

    Haslinger, Stefan; Kück, Jens W; Hahn, Eva M; Cokoja, Mirza; Pöthig, Alexander; Basset, Jean-Marie; Kühn, Fritz E

    2014-11-01

    This work examines the impact of axially coordinating additives on the electronic structure of a bioinspired octahedral low-spin iron(II) N-heterocyclic carbene (Fe-NHC) complex. Bearing two labile trans-acetonitrile ligands, the Fe-NHC complex, which is also an excellent oxidation catalyst, is prone to axial ligand exchange. Phosphine- and pyridine-based additives are used for substitution of the acetonitrile ligands. On the basis of the resulting defined complexes, predictability of the oxidation potentials is demonstrated, based on a correlation between cyclic voltammetry experiments and density functional theory calculated molecular orbital energies. Fundamental insights into changes of the electronic properties upon axial ligand exchange and the impact on related attributes will finally lead to target-oriented manipulation of the electronic properties and consequently to the effective tuning of the reactivity of bioinspired systems.

  1. The atom-surface interaction potential for He-NaCl: A model based on pairwise additivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutson, Jeremy M.; Fowler, P. W.

    1986-08-01

    The recently developed semi-empirical model of Fowler and Hutson is applied to the He-NaCl atom-surface interaction potential. Ab initio self-consistent field calculations of the repulsive interactions between He atoms and in-crystal Cl - and Na + ions are performed. Dispersion coefficients involving in-crystal ions are also calculated. The atom-surface potential is constructed using a model based on pairwise additivity of atom-ion forces. With a small adjustment of the repulsive part, this potential gives good agreement with the experimental bound state energies obtained from selective adsorption resonances in low-energy atom scattering experiments. Close-coupling calculations of the resonant scattering are performed, and good agreement with the experimental peak positions and intensity patterns is obtained. It is concluded that there are no bound states deeper than those observed in the selective adsorption experiments, and that the well depth of the He-NaCl potential is 6.0 ± 0.2 meV.

  2. Systems Medicine 2.0: Potential Benefits of Combining Electronic Health Care Records With Systems Science Models

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Alexander R; Scott, Gregory; Harrison, Oliver; Dominiczak, Anna; Hanlon, Phil

    2015-01-01

    Background The global burden of disease is increasingly dominated by non-communicable diseases.These diseases are less amenable to curative and preventative interventions than communicable disease. This presents a challenge to medical practice and medical research, both of which are experiencing diminishing returns from increasing investment. Objective Our aim was to (1) review how medical knowledge is generated, and its limitations, (2) assess the potential for emerging technologies and ideas to improve medical research, and (3) suggest solutions and recommendations to increase medical research efficiency on non-communicable diseases. Methods We undertook an unsystematic review of peer-reviewed literature and technology websites. Results Our review generated the following conclusions and recommendations. (1) Medical knowledge continues to be generated in a reductionist paradigm. This oversimplifies our models of disease, rendering them ineffective to sufficiently understand the complex nature of non-communicable diseases. (2) Some of these failings may be overcome by adopting a “Systems Medicine” paradigm, where the human body is modeled as a complex adaptive system. That is, a system with multiple components and levels interacting in complex ways, wherein disease emerges from slow changes to the system set-up. Pursuing systems medicine research will require larger datasets. (3) Increased data sharing between researchers, patients, and clinicians could provide this unmet need for data. The recent emergence of electronic health care records (EHR) could potentially facilitate this in real-time and at a global level. (4) Efforts should continue to aggregate anonymous EHR data into large interoperable data silos and release this to researchers. However, international collaboration, data linkage, and obtaining additional information from patients will remain challenging. (5) Efforts should also continue towards “Medicine 2.0”. Patients should be given access to

  3. Assessment of the micro-structure and depletion potentials in two-dimensional binary mixtures of additive hard-disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perera-Burgos, Jorge Adrián; Méndez-Alcaraz, José Miguel; Pérez-Ángel, Gabriel; Castañeda-Priego, Ramón

    2016-09-01

    Depletion forces are a particular class of effective interactions that have been mainly investigated in binary mixtures of hard-spheres in bulk. Although there are a few contributions that point toward the effects of confinement on the depletion potential, little is known about such entropic potentials in two-dimensional colloidal systems. From theoretical point of view, the problem resides in the fact that there is no general formulation of depletion forces in arbitrary dimensions and, typically, any approach that works well in three dimensions has to be reformulated for lower dimensionality. However, we have proposed a theoretical framework, based on the formalism of contraction of the description within the integral equations theory of simple liquids, to account for effective interactions in colloidal liquids, whose main feature is that it does not need to be readapted to the problem under consideration. We have also shown that such an approach allows one to determine the depletion pair potential in three-dimensional colloidal mixtures even near to the demixing transition, provided the bridge functions are sufficiently accurate to correctly describe the spatial correlation between colloids [E. López-Sánchez et al., J. Chem. Phys. 139, 104908 (2013)]. We here report an extensive analysis of the structure and the entropic potentials in binary mixtures of additive hard-disks. In particular, we show that the same functional form of the modified-Verlet closure relation used in three dimensions can be straightforwardly employed to obtain an accurate solution for two-dimensional colloidal mixtures in a wide range of packing fractions, molar fractions, and size asymmetries. Our theoretical results are explicitly compared with the ones obtained by means of event-driven molecular dynamics simulations and recent experimental results. Furthermore, to assess the accuracy of our predictions, the depletion potentials are used in an effective one-component model to reproduce

  4. Assessment of the micro-structure and depletion potentials in two-dimensional binary mixtures of additive hard-disks.

    PubMed

    Perera-Burgos, Jorge Adrián; Méndez-Alcaraz, José Miguel; Pérez-Ángel, Gabriel; Castañeda-Priego, Ramón

    2016-09-14

    Depletion forces are a particular class of effective interactions that have been mainly investigated in binary mixtures of hard-spheres in bulk. Although there are a few contributions that point toward the effects of confinement on the depletion potential, little is known about such entropic potentials in two-dimensional colloidal systems. From theoretical point of view, the problem resides in the fact that there is no general formulation of depletion forces in arbitrary dimensions and, typically, any approach that works well in three dimensions has to be reformulated for lower dimensionality. However, we have proposed a theoretical framework, based on the formalism of contraction of the description within the integral equations theory of simple liquids, to account for effective interactions in colloidal liquids, whose main feature is that it does not need to be readapted to the problem under consideration. We have also shown that such an approach allows one to determine the depletion pair potential in three-dimensional colloidal mixtures even near to the demixing transition, provided the bridge functions are sufficiently accurate to correctly describe the spatial correlation between colloids [E. López-Sánchez et al., J. Chem. Phys. 139, 104908 (2013)]. We here report an extensive analysis of the structure and the entropic potentials in binary mixtures of additive hard-disks. In particular, we show that the same functional form of the modified-Verlet closure relation used in three dimensions can be straightforwardly employed to obtain an accurate solution for two-dimensional colloidal mixtures in a wide range of packing fractions, molar fractions, and size asymmetries. Our theoretical results are explicitly compared with the ones obtained by means of event-driven molecular dynamics simulations and recent experimental results. Furthermore, to assess the accuracy of our predictions, the depletion potentials are used in an effective one-component model to reproduce

  5. Intestinal Alkaline Phosphatase: Potential Roles in Promoting Gut Health in Weanling Piglets and Its Modulation by Feed Additives - A Review.

    PubMed

    Melo, A D B; Silveira, H; Luciano, F B; Andrade, C; Costa, L B; Rostagno, M H

    2016-01-01

    The intestinal environment plays a critical role in maintaining swine health. Many factors such as diet, microbiota, and host intestinal immune response influence the intestinal environment. Intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) is an important apical brush border enzyme that is influenced by these factors. IAP dephosphorylates bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS), unmethylated cytosine-guanosine dinucleotides, and flagellin, reducing bacterial toxicity and consequently regulating toll-like receptors (TLRs) activation and inflammation. It also desphosphorylates extracellular nucleotides such as uridine diphosphate and adenosine triphosphate, consequently reducing inflammation, modulating, and preserving the homeostasis of the intestinal microbiota. The apical localization of IAP on the epithelial surface reveals its role on LPS (from luminal bacteria) detoxification. As the expression of IAP is reported to be downregulated in piglets at weaning, LPS from commensal and pathogenic gram-negative bacteria could increase inflammatory processes by TLR-4 activation, increasing diarrhea events during this phase. Although some studies had reported potential IAP roles to promote gut health, investigations about exogenous IAP effects or feed additives modulating IAP expression and activity yet are necessary. However, we discussed in this paper that the critical assessment reported can suggest that exogenous IAP or feed additives that could increase its expression could show beneficial effects to reduce diarrhea events during the post weaning phase. Therefore, the main goals of this review are to discuss IAP's role in intestinal inflammatory processes and present feed additives used as growth promoters that may modulate IAP expression and activity to promote gut health in piglets. PMID:26732323

  6. A Longitudinal Study of the TEACCH Program in Different Settings: The Potential Benefits of Low Intensity Intervention in Preschool Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Elia, Lidia; Valeri, Giovanni; Sonnino, Fabiana; Fontana, Ilaria; Mammone, Alessia; Vicari, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a longitudinal study of 30 preschool children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) to evaluate the potential benefits of the Treatment and Education of Autistic and related Communication Handicapped Children (TEACCH). Fifteen children following a low intensity TEACCH program were assessed four times for autism severity, adaptive…

  7. Did the No Child Left Behind Act Miss the Mark? Assessing the Potential Benefits from an Accountability System for Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Lawrence J.; Smith, Stephanie C.

    2011-01-01

    With growing evidence that human capital investment is more efficiently spent on younger children coupled with wide variation in preschool access across states, this article uses a neoliberal approach to examine the potential social costs and benefits that could accrue should the United States decide to implement a centralized preschool…

  8. The Romance and the Reality between Pre-Service Teachers' Beliefs about the Potential Benefits of a Short-Term Study Abroad Programme and Their Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tam, Angela Choi Fung

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study aimed to explore Hong Kong pre-service teachers' beliefs about the potential benefits of a short-term study abroad programme and their practices. Pre- and post-programme semi-structured interviews and reflective journals were employed to collect data. The findings suggest that the transformation of beliefs into practices…

  9. Catalytic Destruction of a Surrogate Organic Hazardous Air Pollutant as a Potential Co-benefit for Coal-fired Selective Catalyst Reduction Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Catalytic destruction of benzene (C6H6), a surrogate for organic hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) produced from coal combustion, was investigated using a commercial selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst for evaluating the potential co-benefit of the SCR technology for reduc...

  10. Hydrothermally Treated Chitosan Hydrogel Loaded with Copper and Zinc Particles as a Potential Micronutrient-Based Antimicrobial Feed Additive

    PubMed Central

    Rajasekaran, Parthiban; Santra, Swadeshmukul

    2015-01-01

    Large-scale use of antibiotics in food animal farms as growth promoters is considered as one of the driving factors behind increasing incidence of microbial resistance. Several alternatives are under investigation to reduce the amount of total antibiotics used in order to avoid any potential transmission of drug resistant microbes to humans through food chain. Copper sulfate and zinc oxide salts are used as feed supplement as they exhibit antimicrobial properties in addition to being micronutrients. However, higher dosage of copper and zinc (often needed for growth promoting effect) to animals is not advisable because of potential environmental toxicity arising from excreta. Innovative strategies are needed to utilize the complete potential of trace minerals as growth promoting feed supplements. To this end, we describe here the development and preliminary characterization of hydrothermally treated chitosan as a delivery vehicle for copper and zinc nanoparticles that could act as a micronutrient-based antimicrobial feed supplement. Material characterization studies showed that hydrothermal treatment makes a chitosan hydrogel that rearranged to capture the copper and zinc metal particles. Systemic antimicrobial assays showed that this chitosan biopolymer matrix embedded with copper (57.6 μg/ml) and zinc (800 μg/ml) reduced the load of model gut bacteria (target organisms of growth promoting antibiotics), such as Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Lactobacillus fermentum under in vitro conditions. Particularly, the chitosan/copper/zinc hydrogel exhibited significantly higher antimicrobial effect against L. fermentum, one of the primary targets of antibiotic growth promoters. Additionally, the chitosan matrix ameliorated the cytotoxicity levels of metal supplements when screened against a murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 and in TE-71, a murine thymic epithelial cell line. In this proof-of-concept study, we show that by using

  11. Hydrothermally Treated Chitosan Hydrogel Loaded with Copper and Zinc Particles as a Potential Micronutrient-Based Antimicrobial Feed Additive.

    PubMed

    Rajasekaran, Parthiban; Santra, Swadeshmukul

    2015-01-01

    Large-scale use of antibiotics in food animal farms as growth promoters is considered as one of the driving factors behind increasing incidence of microbial resistance. Several alternatives are under investigation to reduce the amount of total antibiotics used in order to avoid any potential transmission of drug resistant microbes to humans through food chain. Copper sulfate and zinc oxide salts are used as feed supplement as they exhibit antimicrobial properties in addition to being micronutrients. However, higher dosage of copper and zinc (often needed for growth promoting effect) to animals is not advisable because of potential environmental toxicity arising from excreta. Innovative strategies are needed to utilize the complete potential of trace minerals as growth promoting feed supplements. To this end, we describe here the development and preliminary characterization of hydrothermally treated chitosan as a delivery vehicle for copper and zinc nanoparticles that could act as a micronutrient-based antimicrobial feed supplement. Material characterization studies showed that hydrothermal treatment makes a chitosan hydrogel that rearranged to capture the copper and zinc metal particles. Systemic antimicrobial assays showed that this chitosan biopolymer matrix embedded with copper (57.6 μg/ml) and zinc (800 μg/ml) reduced the load of model gut bacteria (target organisms of growth promoting antibiotics), such as Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Lactobacillus fermentum under in vitro conditions. Particularly, the chitosan/copper/zinc hydrogel exhibited significantly higher antimicrobial effect against L. fermentum, one of the primary targets of antibiotic growth promoters. Additionally, the chitosan matrix ameliorated the cytotoxicity levels of metal supplements when screened against a murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 and in TE-71, a murine thymic epithelial cell line. In this proof-of-concept study, we show that by using

  12. 38 CFR 3.361 - Benefits under 38 U.S.C. 1151(a) for additional disability or death due to hospital care, medical...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., error in judgment, or similar instance of fault on VA's part in furnishing hospital care, medical or.... 1151(a) for additional disability or death due to hospital care, medical or surgical treatment.... 1151(a) for additional disability or death due to hospital care, medical or surgical...

  13. 38 CFR 3.361 - Benefits under 38 U.S.C. 1151(a) for additional disability or death due to hospital care, medical...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., error in judgment, or similar instance of fault on VA's part in furnishing hospital care, medical or.... 1151(a) for additional disability or death due to hospital care, medical or surgical treatment.... 1151(a) for additional disability or death due to hospital care, medical or surgical...

  14. 38 CFR 3.361 - Benefits under 38 U.S.C. 1151(a) for additional disability or death due to hospital care, medical...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... 1151(a) for additional disability or death due to hospital care, medical or surgical treatment.... 1151(a) for additional disability or death due to hospital care, medical or surgical treatment..., VA compares the veteran's condition immediately before the beginning of the hospital care, medical...

  15. 38 CFR 3.361 - Benefits under 38 U.S.C. 1151(a) for additional disability or death due to hospital care, medical...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... 1151(a) for additional disability or death due to hospital care, medical or surgical treatment.... 1151(a) for additional disability or death due to hospital care, medical or surgical treatment..., VA compares the veteran's condition immediately before the beginning of the hospital care, medical...

  16. How much benefit does Intelligent Speed Adaptation deliver: an analysis of its potential contribution to safety and environment.

    PubMed

    Lai, Frank; Carsten, Oliver; Tate, Fergus

    2012-09-01

    The UK Intelligent Speed Adaptation (ISA) project produced a rich database with high-resolution data on driver behaviour covering a comprehensive range of road environment. The field trials provided vital information on driver behaviour in the presence of ISA. The purpose of this paper is to exploit the information gathered in the field trials to predict the impacts of various forms of ISA and to assess whether ISA is viable in terms of benefit-to-cost ratio. ISA is predicted to save up to 33% of accidents on urban roads, and to reduce CO(2) emissions by up to 5.8% on 70 mph roads. In order to investigate the long-term impacts of ISA, two hypothetical deployment scenarios were envisaged covering a 60-year appraisal period. The results indicate that ISA could deliver a very healthy benefit-to-cost ratio, ranging from 3.4 to 7.4, depending on the deployment scenarios. Under both deployment scenarios, ISA has recovered its implementation costs in less than 15 years. It can be concluded that implementation of ISA is clearly justified from a social cost and benefit perspective. Of the two deployment scenarios, the Market Driven one is substantially outperformed by the Authority Driven one. The benefits of ISA on fuel saving and emission reduction are real but not substantial, in comparison with the benefits on accident reduction; up to 98% of benefits are attributable to accident savings. Indeed, ISA is predicted to lead to a savings of 30% in fatal crashes and 25% in serious crashes over the 60-year period modelled.

  17. A Potential Benefit of Albinism in Astyanax Cavefish: Downregulation of the oca2 Gene Increases Tyrosine and Catecholamine Levels as an Alternative to Melanin Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Parkhurst, Amy; Jeffery, William R.

    2013-01-01

    Albinism, the loss of melanin pigmentation, has evolved in a diverse variety of cave animals but the responsible evolutionary mechanisms are unknown. In Astyanax mexicanus, which has a pigmented surface dwelling form (surface fish) and several albino cave-dwelling forms (cavefish), albinism is caused by loss of function mutations in the oca2 gene, which operates during the first step of the melanin synthesis pathway. In addition to albinism, cavefish have evolved differences in behavior, including feeding and sleep, which are under the control of the catecholamine system. The catecholamine and melanin synthesis pathways diverge after beginning with the same substrate, L-tyrosine. Here we describe a novel relationship between the catecholamine and melanin synthesis pathways in Astyanax. Our results show significant increases in L-tyrosine, dopamine, and norepinephrine in pre-feeding larvae and adult brains of Pachón cavefish relative to surface fish. In addition, norepinephrine is elevated in cavefish adult kidneys, which contain the teleost homologs of catecholamine synthesizing adrenal cells. We further show that the oca2 gene is expressed during surface fish development but is downregulated in cavefish embryos. A key finding is that knockdown of oca2 expression in surface fish embryos delays the development of pigmented melanophores and simultaneously increases L-tyrosine and dopamine. We conclude that a potential evolutionary benefit of albinism in Astyanax cavefish may be to provide surplus L-tyrosine as a precursor for the elevated catecholamine synthesis pathway, which could be important for adaptation to the challenging cave environment. PMID:24282555

  18. A potential benefit of albinism in Astyanax cavefish: downregulation of the oca2 gene increases tyrosine and catecholamine levels as an alternative to melanin synthesis.

    PubMed

    Bilandžija, Helena; Ma, Li; Parkhurst, Amy; Jeffery, William R

    2013-01-01

    Albinism, the loss of melanin pigmentation, has evolved in a diverse variety of cave animals but the responsible evolutionary mechanisms are unknown. In Astyanax mexicanus, which has a pigmented surface dwelling form (surface fish) and several albino cave-dwelling forms (cavefish), albinism is caused by loss of function mutations in the oca2 gene, which operates during the first step of the melanin synthesis pathway. In addition to albinism, cavefish have evolved differences in behavior, including feeding and sleep, which are under the control of the catecholamine system. The catecholamine and melanin synthesis pathways diverge after beginning with the same substrate, L-tyrosine. Here we describe a novel relationship between the catecholamine and melanin synthesis pathways in Astyanax. Our results show significant increases in L-tyrosine, dopamine, and norepinephrine in pre-feeding larvae and adult brains of Pachón cavefish relative to surface fish. In addition, norepinephrine is elevated in cavefish adult kidneys, which contain the teleost homologs of catecholamine synthesizing adrenal cells. We further show that the oca2 gene is expressed during surface fish development but is downregulated in cavefish embryos. A key finding is that knockdown of oca2 expression in surface fish embryos delays the development of pigmented melanophores and simultaneously increases L-tyrosine and dopamine. We conclude that a potential evolutionary benefit of albinism in Astyanax cavefish may be to provide surplus L-tyrosine as a precursor for the elevated catecholamine synthesis pathway, which could be important for adaptation to the challenging cave environment. PMID:24282555

  19. Non-valvular atrial fibrillation patients with none or one additional risk factor of the CHA2DS2-VASc score. A comprehensive net clinical benefit analysis for warfarin, aspirin, or no therapy.

    PubMed

    Lip, Gregory Y H; Skjøth, Flemming; Nielsen, Peter B; Larsen, Torben Bjerregaard

    2015-10-01

    Oral anticoagulation (OAC) to prevent stroke has to be balanced against the potential harm of serious bleeding, especially intracranial haemorrhage (ICH). We determined the net clinical benefit (NCB) balancing effectiveness and safety of no antithrombotic therapy, aspirin and warfarin in AF patients with none or one stroke risk factor. Using Danish registries, we determined NCB using various definitions intrinsic to our cohort (Danish weights at 1 and 5 year follow-up), with risk weights which were derived from the hazard ratio (HR) of death following an event, relative to HR of death after ischaemic stroke. When aspirin was compared to no treatment, NCB was neutral or negative for both risk strata. For warfarin vs no treatment, NCB using Danish weights was neutral where no risk factors were present and using five years follow-up. For one stroke risk factor, NCB was positive for warfarin vs no treatment, for one year and five year follow-up. For warfarin vs aspirin use in patients with no risk factors, NCB was positive with one year follow-up, but neutral with five year follow-up. With one risk factor, NCB was generally positive for warfarin vs aspirin. In conclusion, we show a positive overall advantage (i.e. positive NCB) of effective stroke prevention with OAC, compared to no therapy or aspirin with one additional stroke risk factor, using Danish weights. 'Low risk' AF patients with no additional stroke risk factors (i.e.CHA2DS2-VASc 0 in males, 1 in females) do not derive any advantage (neutral or negative NCB) with aspirin, nor with warfarin therapy in the long run.

  20. Treatment of Anemia in Heart Failure: Potential Risks and Benefits of Intravenous Iron Therapy in Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Jelani, Qurat-ul-ain; Katz, Stuart D.

    2010-01-01

    Iron-deficiency anemia is common is patients with heart failure (HF), but the optimum diagnostic tests to detect iron deficiency and the treatment options to replete iron have not been fully characterized. Recent studies in patients with HF indicate that intravenous iron can rapidly replenish iron stores in patients having iron-deficiency anemia, with resultant increased hemoglobin levels and improved functional capacity. Preliminary data from a sub-group analysis also suggests that supplemental intravenous iron therapy can improve functional capacity even in those subjects without anemia. The mechanisms responsible for this observation are not fully characterized, but may be related to beneficial effects of iron supplementation on mitochondrial respiration in skeletal muscle. The long-term safety of using intravenous iron supplementation in HF populations is not known. Iron is a known pro-oxidant factor that can inhibit nitric oxide signaling and irreversibly injury cells. Increased iron stores are associated with vascular endothelial dysfunction and increased risk of coronary heart disease events. Additional clinical trials are needed to more fully characterize the therapeutic potential and safety of intravenous iron in HF patients. PMID:20699672

  1. Assessment of the micro-structure and depletion potentials in two-dimensional binary mixtures of additive hard-disks.

    PubMed

    Perera-Burgos, Jorge Adrián; Méndez-Alcaraz, José Miguel; Pérez-Ángel, Gabriel; Castañeda-Priego, Ramón

    2016-09-14

    Depletion forces are a particular class of effective interactions that have been mainly investigated in binary mixtures of hard-spheres in bulk. Although there are a few contributions that point toward the effects of confinement on the depletion potential, little is known about such entropic potentials in two-dimensional colloidal systems. From theoretical point of view, the problem resides in the fact that there is no general formulation of depletion forces in arbitrary dimensions and, typically, any approach that works well in three dimensions has to be reformulated for lower dimensionality. However, we have proposed a theoretical framework, based on the formalism of contraction of the description within the integral equations theory of simple liquids, to account for effective interactions in colloidal liquids, whose main feature is that it does not need to be readapted to the problem under consideration. We have also shown that such an approach allows one to determine the depletion pair potential in three-dimensional colloidal mixtures even near to the demixing transition, provided the bridge functions are sufficiently accurate to correctly describe the spatial correlation between colloids [E. López-Sánchez et al., J. Chem. Phys. 139, 104908 (2013)]. We here report an extensive analysis of the structure and the entropic potentials in binary mixtures of additive hard-disks. In particular, we show that the same functional form of the modified-Verlet closure relation used in three dimensions can be straightforwardly employed to obtain an accurate solution for two-dimensional colloidal mixtures in a wide range of packing fractions, molar fractions, and size asymmetries. Our theoretical results are explicitly compared with the ones obtained by means of event-driven molecular dynamics simulations and recent experimental results. Furthermore, to assess the accuracy of our predictions, the depletion potentials are used in an effective one-component model to reproduce

  2. Energy deposition by heavy ions: additivity of kinetic and potential energy contributions in hillock formation on CaF2.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y Y; Grygiel, C; Dufour, C; Sun, J R; Wang, Z G; Zhao, Y T; Xiao, G Q; Cheng, R; Zhou, X M; Ren, J R; Liu, S D; Lei, Y; Sun, Y B; Ritter, R; Gruber, E; Cassimi, A; Monnet, I; Bouffard, S; Aumayr, F; Toulemonde, M

    2014-07-18

    Modification of surface and bulk properties of solids by irradiation with ion beams is a widely used technique with many applications in material science. In this study, we show that nano-hillocks on CaF2 crystal surfaces can be formed by individual impact of medium energy (3 and 5 MeV) highly charged ions (Xe(22+) to Xe(30+)) as well as swift (kinetic energies between 12 and 58 MeV) heavy xenon ions. For very slow highly charged ions the appearance of hillocks is known to be linked to a threshold in potential energy (Ep) while for swift heavy ions a minimum electronic energy loss per unit length (Se) is necessary. With our results we bridge the gap between these two extreme cases and demonstrate, that with increasing energy deposition via Se the Ep-threshold for hillock production can be lowered substantially. Surprisingly, both mechanisms of energy deposition in the target surface seem to contribute in an additive way, which can be visualized in a phase diagram. We show that the inelastic thermal spike model, originally developed to describe such material modifications for swift heavy ions, can be extended to the case where both kinetic and potential energies are deposited into the surface.

  3. Energy deposition by heavy ions: additivity of kinetic and potential energy contributions in hillock formation on CaF2.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y Y; Grygiel, C; Dufour, C; Sun, J R; Wang, Z G; Zhao, Y T; Xiao, G Q; Cheng, R; Zhou, X M; Ren, J R; Liu, S D; Lei, Y; Sun, Y B; Ritter, R; Gruber, E; Cassimi, A; Monnet, I; Bouffard, S; Aumayr, F; Toulemonde, M

    2014-01-01

    Modification of surface and bulk properties of solids by irradiation with ion beams is a widely used technique with many applications in material science. In this study, we show that nano-hillocks on CaF2 crystal surfaces can be formed by individual impact of medium energy (3 and 5 MeV) highly charged ions (Xe(22+) to Xe(30+)) as well as swift (kinetic energies between 12 and 58 MeV) heavy xenon ions. For very slow highly charged ions the appearance of hillocks is known to be linked to a threshold in potential energy (Ep) while for swift heavy ions a minimum electronic energy loss per unit length (Se) is necessary. With our results we bridge the gap between these two extreme cases and demonstrate, that with increasing energy deposition via Se the Ep-threshold for hillock production can be lowered substantially. Surprisingly, both mechanisms of energy deposition in the target surface seem to contribute in an additive way, which can be visualized in a phase diagram. We show that the inelastic thermal spike model, originally developed to describe such material modifications for swift heavy ions, can be extended to the case where both kinetic and potential energies are deposited into the surface. PMID:25034006

  4. Enhancing the Benefit of the Chemical Mixture Methodology: A Report on Methodology Testing and Potential Approaches for Improving Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Xiao-Ying; Yao, Juan; He, Hua; Glantz, Clifford S.; Booth, Alexander E.

    2012-01-01

    Extensive testing shows that the current version of the Chemical Mixture Methodology (CMM) is meeting its intended mission to provide conservative estimates of the health effects from exposure to airborne chemical mixtures. However, the current version of the CMM could benefit from several enhancements that are designed to improve its application of Health Code Numbers (HCNs) and employ weighting factors to reduce over conservatism.

  5. Reducing the risk of injury from table saw use: the potential benefits and costs of automatic protection.

    PubMed

    Graham, John D; Chang, Joice

    2015-02-01

    The use of table saws in the United States is associated with approximately 28,000 emergency department (ED) visits and 2,000 cases of finger amputation per year. This article provides a quantitative estimate of the economic benefits of automatic protection systems that could be designed into new table saw products. Benefits are defined as reduced health-care costs, enhanced production at work, and diminished pain and suffering. The present value of the benefits of automatic protection over the life of the table saw are interpreted as the switch-point cost value, the maximum investment in automatic protection that can be justified by benefit-cost comparison. Using two alternative methods for monetizing pain and suffering, the study finds switch-point cost values of $753 and $561 per saw. These point estimates are sensitive to the values of inputs, especially the average cost of injury. The various switch-point cost values are substantially higher than rough estimates of the incremental cost of automatic protection systems. Uncertainties and future research needs are discussed.

  6. Stimulation of methane oxidation potential and effects on vegetation growth by bottom ash addition in a landfill final evapotranspiration cover.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gil Won; Ho, Adrian; Kim, Pil Joo; Kim, Sang Yoon

    2016-09-01

    The landfilling of municipal solid waste is a significant source of atmospheric methane (CH4), contributing up to 20% of total anthropogenic CH4 emissions. The evapotranspiration (ET) cover system, an alternative final cover system in waste landfills, has been considered to be a promising way to mitigate CH4 emissions, as well as to prevent water infiltration using vegetation on landfill cover soils. In our previous studies, bottom ash from coal-fired power plants was selected among several industrial residues (blast furnace slag, bottom ash, construction waste, steel manufacture slag, stone powder sludge, and waste gypsum) as the best additive for ET cover systems, with the highest mechanical performance achieved for a 35% (wtwt(-1)) bottom ash content in soil. In this study, to evaluate the field applicability of bottom ash mixed soil as ET cover, four sets of lysimeters (height 1.2m×width 2m×length 6m) were constructed in 2007, and four different treatments were installed: (i) soil+bottom ash (35% wtwt(-1)) (SB); (ii) soil+compost (2% wtwt(-1), approximately corresponding to 40Mgha(-1) in arable field scale) (SC); (iii) soil+bottom ash+compost (SBC); and (iv) soil only as the control (S). The effects of bottom ash mixing in ET cover soil on CH4 oxidation potential and vegetation growth were evaluated in a pilot ET cover system in the 5th year after installation by pilot experiments using the treatments. Our results showed that soil properties were significantly improved by bottom ash mixing, resulting in higher plant growth. Bottom ash addition significantly increased the CH4 oxidation potential of the ET cover soil, mainly due to improved organic matter and available copper concentration, enhancing methanotrophic abundances in soil amended with bottom ash. Conclusively, bottom ash could be a good alternative as a soil additive in the ET cover system to improve vegetation growth and mitigate CH4 emission impact in the waste landfill system. PMID:27067424

  7. Addition of Autologous Mesenchymal Stem Cells to Whole Blood for Bio-Enhanced ACL Repair has No Benefit in the Porcine Model

    PubMed Central

    Proffen, Benedikt L.; Vavken, Patrick; Haslauer, Carla M.; Fleming, Braden C.; Harris, Chad E.; Machan, Jason T.; Murray, Martha M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Co-culture of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from the retropatellar fat pad and peripheral blood has been shown to stimulate anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) fibroblast proliferation and collagen production in vitro. Current techniques of bio-enhanced ACL repair in animal studies involve adding a biologic scaffold, in this case an extracellular matrix based scaffold saturated with autologous whole blood, to a simple suture repair of the ligament. Whether the enrichment of whole blood with MSCs would further improve the in vivo results of bio-enhanced ACL repair was investigated. Hypothesis/Purpose The hypothesis was that the addition of MSCs derived from adipose tissue or peripheral blood to the blood-extracellular matrix composite, which is used in bio-enhanced ACL repair to stimulate healing, would improve the biomechanical properties of a bio-enhanced ACL repair after 15 weeks of healing. Study Design Controlled laboratory study. Methods Twenty-four adolescent Yucatan mini-pigs underwent ACL transection followed by: 1) bio-enhanced ACL repair, 2) bio-enhanced ACL repair with the addition of autologous adipose-derived MSCs and 3) bio-enhanced ACL repair with the addition of autologous peripheral blood derived MSCs. After fifteen weeks of healing, structural properties of the ACL (yield & failure load, linear stiffness) were measured. Cell and vascular density were measured in the repaired ACL via histology, and its tissue structure was qualitatively evaluated using the Advanced Ligament Maturity Index. Results After fifteen weeks of healing, there were no significant improvements in the biomechanical or histological properties with the addition of adipose-derived MSCs. The only significant change with the addition of peripheral blood MSCs was an increase in knee anteroposterior (AP) laxity when measured at 30 degrees of flexion. Conclusions These findings suggest that the addition of adipose or peripheral blood MSCs to whole blood prior to saturation of

  8. Modelling the potential benefits of different strategies to control infection with Trypanosoma evansi in camels in Somaliland.

    PubMed

    Salah, Abdirahman; Robertson, Ian; Mohamed, Abdullahi Sheikh

    2016-01-01

    Trypanosoma evansi (T. evansi), the protozoan parasitic cause of camel trypanosomosis (Surra), constitutes one of the major veterinary problems worldwide. An infectious disease model of camel trypanosomosis (Surra) was adopted from one developed for buffalo and applied to study the impact of T. evansi infection on camel production. The model contained deterministic and stochastic components and the seroprevalence based on a survey conducted in Somaliland in 2011 and 2012 to simulate and estimate the economic benefits of four different control options against T. evansi infection in camels (1, 2, 3 and 4 regimens). The mean benefit per animal of controlling surra was calculated at US$354 (the treatment of all camels biannually), US$426 (the monthly targeted treatment of clinically sick camels) and US$287 (biannual targeted treatment of seropositive camels), respectively, compared with US$137 for untreated camels. Consequently, the model predicted that the total net benefit loss to a camel herd or village that was not applying the recommended effective surra control strategy was US$115,605 (69.4 billion shilling per annum). PMID:26519146

  9. Modelling the potential benefits of different strategies to control infection with Trypanosoma evansi in camels in Somaliland.

    PubMed

    Salah, Abdirahman; Robertson, Ian; Mohamed, Abdullahi Sheikh

    2016-01-01

    Trypanosoma evansi (T. evansi), the protozoan parasitic cause of camel trypanosomosis (Surra), constitutes one of the major veterinary problems worldwide. An infectious disease model of camel trypanosomosis (Surra) was adopted from one developed for buffalo and applied to study the impact of T. evansi infection on camel production. The model contained deterministic and stochastic components and the seroprevalence based on a survey conducted in Somaliland in 2011 and 2012 to simulate and estimate the economic benefits of four different control options against T. evansi infection in camels (1, 2, 3 and 4 regimens). The mean benefit per animal of controlling surra was calculated at US$354 (the treatment of all camels biannually), US$426 (the monthly targeted treatment of clinically sick camels) and US$287 (biannual targeted treatment of seropositive camels), respectively, compared with US$137 for untreated camels. Consequently, the model predicted that the total net benefit loss to a camel herd or village that was not applying the recommended effective surra control strategy was US$115,605 (69.4 billion shilling per annum).

  10. The potential of oceanic transport and onshore leaching of additive-derived lead by marine macro-plastic debris.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Etsuko; Isobe, Atsuhiko; Kako, Shin'ichiro; Itai, Takaaki; Takahashi, Shin; Guo, Xinyu

    2016-06-15

    The long-distance transport potential of toxic lead (Pb) by plastic marine debris was examined by pure water leaching experiments using plastic fishery floats containing high level of additive-Pb such as 5100±74.3mgkg(-1). The leaching of Pb ended after sequential 480-h leaching experiments, and the total leaching amount is equivalent to approximately 0.1% of total Pb in a float. But it recovered when the float was scratched using sandpaper. We propose that a "low-Pb layer," in which Pb concentration is negligibly small, be generated on the float surface by the initial leaching process. Thickness of the layer is estimated at 2.5±1.2μm, much shallower than flaws on floats scratched by sandpaper and floats littering beaches. The result suggests that the low-Pb layer is broken by physical abrasion when floats are washed ashore, and that Pb inside the floats can thereafter leach into beaches.

  11. The potential of oceanic transport and onshore leaching of additive-derived lead by marine macro-plastic debris.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Etsuko; Isobe, Atsuhiko; Kako, Shin'ichiro; Itai, Takaaki; Takahashi, Shin; Guo, Xinyu

    2016-06-15

    The long-distance transport potential of toxic lead (Pb) by plastic marine debris was examined by pure water leaching experiments using plastic fishery floats containing high level of additive-Pb such as 5100±74.3mgkg(-1). The leaching of Pb ended after sequential 480-h leaching experiments, and the total leaching amount is equivalent to approximately 0.1% of total Pb in a float. But it recovered when the float was scratched using sandpaper. We propose that a "low-Pb layer," in which Pb concentration is negligibly small, be generated on the float surface by the initial leaching process. Thickness of the layer is estimated at 2.5±1.2μm, much shallower than flaws on floats scratched by sandpaper and floats littering beaches. The result suggests that the low-Pb layer is broken by physical abrasion when floats are washed ashore, and that Pb inside the floats can thereafter leach into beaches. PMID:27095373

  12. Exendin-4 therapy still offered an additional benefit on reducing transverse aortic constriction-induced cardiac hypertrophy-caused myocardial damage in DPP-4 deficient rats.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hung-I; Chung, Sheng-Ying; Chen, Yi-Ling; Huang, Tein-Hung; Zhen, Yen-Yi; Liu, Chu-Feng; Chang, Meng-Wei; Chen, Yung-Lung; Sheu, Jiunn-Jye; Chua, Sarah; Yip, Hon-Kan; Lee, Fan-Yen

    2016-01-01

    Inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-4) enzyme activity has been revealed to protect myocardium from ischemia-reperfusion through enhancing the endogenous glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) level. However, whether exogenous supply of exendin-4, an analogue of GLP-1, would still offer benefit for protecting myocardial damage from trans-aortic constriction (TAC)-induced hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in preexistence of DPP-4 deficiency (DPP-4(D)) remained unclear. Male-adult (DPP-4(D)) rats (n = 32) were randomized into group 1 [sham control (SC)], group 2 (DPP-4(D) + TAC), group 3 [DPP-4(D) + TAC + exendin-4 10 µg/day], and group 4 [DPP-4(D) + TAC + exendin-4 10 µg + exendin-9-39 10 µg/day]. The rats were sacrificed by day 60 after last echocardiographic examination. By day 60 after TAC, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (%) was highest in group 1 and lowest in group 2, and significantly lower in group 4 than that in group 3 (all p < 0.001). The protein expressions of oxidative stress (oxidized protein, NOX-1, NOX-2), inflammatory (MMP-9, TNF-α, NF-κB), apoptotic (Bax, cleaved caspase 3 and PARP), fibrotic (TGF-β, Smad3), heart failure (BNP, β-MHC), DNA damaged (γ-H2AX) and ischemic stress (p-P38, p-Akt, p53, ATM) biomarkers showed an opposite pattern of LVEF among the four groups (all p < 0.03). Fibrotic area (by Masson's trichrome, Sirius red), and cellular expressions of DNA-damaged markers (Ki-67+, γ-H2AX+, CD90+/53BP1+) displayed an identical pattern, whereas cellular expressions of angiogenesis (CD31+, α-SMA+) and sarcomere length exhibited an opposite pattern compared to that of oxidative stress among the four groups (all p < 0.001). Take altogether, Exendin-4 effectively suppressed TAC-induced pathological cardiac hypertrophy in DPP-4(D) rat.

  13. Inhibition of β2-adrenergic receptor reduces triple-negative breast cancer brain metastases: The potential benefit of perioperative β-blockade.

    PubMed

    Choy, Cecilia; Raytis, John L; Smith, David D; Duenas, Matthew; Neman, Josh; Jandial, Rahul; Lew, Michael W

    2016-06-01

    In response to recent studies, we investigated an association between perioperative β-blockade and breast cancer metastases. First, a retrospective study examining perioperative β-blocker use and cancer recurrence and metastases was conducted on 1,029 patients who underwent breast cancer surgery at the City of Hope Cancer Center between 2000 and 2010. We followed the clinical study and examined proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro of primary and brain-metastatic breast cancer cells in response to β2-activation and inhibition. We also investigated in vivo the metastatic potential of propranolol-treated metastatic cells. For stage II breast cancer patients, perioperative β-blockade was associated with decreased cancer recurrence using Cox regression analysis (hazard's ratio =0.51; 95% CI: 0.23-0.97; p=0.041). Triple-negative (TN) brain-metastatic cells were found to have increased β2-adrenergic receptor mRNA and protein expression relative to TN primary cells. In response to β2-adrenergic receptor activation, TN brain-metastatic cells also exhibited increased cell proliferation and migration relative to the control. These effects were abrogated by propranolol. Propranolol decreased β2-adrenergic receptor-activated invasion. In vivo, propranolol treatment of TN brain-metastatic cells decreased establishment of brain metastases. Our results suggest that stress and corresponding β2-activation may promote the establishment of brain metastases of TN breast cancer cells. In addition, our data suggest a benefit to perioperative β-blockade during surgery-induced stress with respect to breast cancer recurrence and metastases.

  14. Expectations of benefit and tolerance to risk of individuals with spinal cord injury regarding potential participation in clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Brian K; Ghag, Arvindera; Dvorak, Marcel F; Tetzlaff, Wolfram; Illes, Judy

    2012-12-10

    We conducted a survey of individuals living with spinal cord injury (SCI) to determine their receptivity to participating in clinical trials of drug therapies or stem cell therapies, their anticipation of therapeutic benefits, and their tolerance to risk. A 46-item questionnaire was administered to individuals with cervical or thoracic SCI identified through a provincial database. The average age was 42 years and the individuals were, on average, 5.5 years post-injury. Receptivity to neuroprotective drug trials in the acute setting was very high, but somewhat less so for stem cell trials in the subacute or chronic (current) setting. With respect to expectation of functional benefit, approximately one third of the respondents indicated that they would want a 5-25% chance of achieving some functional recovery if enrolling in a stem cell therapy clinical trial in the current, chronic injury state. Whereas the majority typically would require the risk of spinal cord damage, cancer, infection, and nerve pain from invasive cell transplantation trials to be ≤1%, 15-30% would participate regardless of the risk of these complications. The factors associated with this high risk tolerance were gender (males>females), age (elderly>young), and self-reported knowledge of SCI research (greater knowledge>less knowledge). Injury severity or chronicity did not have a significant correlation with risk tolerance. Whereas previous studies have shown that the understanding of stem cell science is limited among individuals with SCI, here we show that many still have high hopes for the possibility of neurological benefit, are anxious to participate in invasive stem cell trials, and, in many cases, have high tolerance for risk in such trials. Taken together, the data underscore the need for careful communication with individuals with SCI to avoid unrealistic expectations and therapeutic misconception in experimental trials.

  15. Detecting a Potential Collapse of the North Atlantic Thermohaline Circulation: the Benefit of an Improved Ocean Observation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deutsch, C.; Bradford, D. F.; Keller, K.

    2001-12-01

    Many climate models predict a collapse of the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation (THC) as a result of anthropogenic climate change. The economic damages attending such a global change are likely to be non-negligible. Detecting such a THC collapse --- should it happen in the future --- would certainly affect climate policy. We argue that the present observation system would not detect a diminishing North Atlantic THC before it reaches a level below which models indicate it would not recover for centuries (we refer to this as the point of no return). Our simple analysis suggests that detection with 90% confidence would occur only after the point of no return because the present ocean observation system observes too infrequently and/or the inferred ocean circulation is too uncertain. This conclusion holds for a variety of analysis methods, both from a Bayesian and from a frequentist point of view. Detection of a THC collapse before the point of no return could be achieved in our model by more frequent observations. A crude cost-benefit analysis suggests that the benefits of such an improved ocean observation system would considerably exceed the costs.

  16. Costs and potential benefits of parental care in the nocturnal fat-tailed dwarf lemur (Cheirogaleus medius).

    PubMed

    Fietz, Joanna; Dausmann, Kathrin H

    2003-01-01

    Parental care should evolve only if fitness benefits exceed fitness costs. In Cheirogaleus medius, a small nocturnal lemur of western Madagascar, we found the peculiar situation of considerable parental care by both sexes, combined with an extremely high rate of extra-pair young (EPY). In this paper, we try to elucidate the costs and benefits of parental care in C. medius, and we discuss hypotheses as to why males might actively participate in raising young, especially with regard to the high rate of EPY. The study was carried out in the dry deciduous forest of western Madagascar between 1996 and 2001. The most important components of parental care in C. medius are babysitting and guarding of the young. Observational data suggest that thermoregulatory demands during the first days after birth and defence from predators may be the driving factors selecting for this infant care behaviour. The reproducing individuals of both sexes incur considerable energetic costs by this behaviour, resulting in reduced fat stores and body condition in comparison to non-reproducing individuals. The reason why males also care for EPY remains elusive. We propose that males might not be able to detect individual relatedness and that they would jeopardise the survival of their own young if they gave no parental care. Alternatively, they might gain advantages other than direct fitness from raising EPY, for example if caring behaviour increases their chances in further reproduction, or if EPY are fathered by close kin.

  17. Optimizing Production of Two Potential Probiotic Lactobacilli Strains Isolated from Piglet Feces as Feed Additives for Weaned Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Ming-Lun; Chen, Hsi-Chia; Chen, Kun-Nan; Lin, Yu-Chun; Lin, Ya-Ting; Chen, Ming-Ju

    2015-01-01

    Two probiotic strains, Lactobacillus johnsonii x-1d-2 and Lactobacillus mucosae x-4w-1, originally isolated from piglet feces, have been demonstrated to possess antimicrobial activities, antibiotic resistances and interleukin-6 induction ability in RAW 267.4 macrophages in our previous study. These characteristics make L. johnsonii x-1d-2 and L. mucosae x-4w-1 good candidates for application in feed probiotics. In this study, soybeal meal, molasses and sodium acetate were selected to optimize the growth medium for cultivation of L. johnsonii x-1d-2 and L. mucosae x-4w-1. These two strains were then freeze-dried and mixed into the basal diet to feed the weaned piglets. The effects of L. johnsonii x-1d-2 and L. mucosae x-4w-1 on the growth performance and fecal microflora of weaned piglets were investigated. The results showed that the bacterial numbers of L. johnsonii x-1d-2 and L. mucosae x-4w-1 reached a maximum of 8.90 and 9.30 log CFU/mL, respectively, when growing in optimal medium consisting of 5.5% (wt/vol) soybean meal, 1.0% (wt/vol) molasses and 1.0% (wt/vol) sodium acetate. The medium cost was 96% lower than the commercial de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe medium. In a further feeding study, the weaned piglets fed basal diet supplemented with freeze-dried probiotic cultures exhibited higher (p<0.05) body weight gain, feed intake, and gain/feed ratio than weaned piglets fed basal diet. Probiotic feeding also increased the numbers of lactobacilli and decreased the numbers of E. coli in the feces of weaned piglets. This study demonstrates that L. johnsonii x-1d-2 and L. mucosae x-4w-1 have high potential to be used as feed additives in the pig industry. PMID:26104525

  18. Broad-Spectrum Antimicrobial Effects of Photocatalysis Using Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles Are Strongly Potentiated by Addition of Potassium Iodide.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying-Ying; Choi, Hwanjun; Kushida, Yu; Bhayana, Brijesh; Wang, Yuguang; Hamblin, Michael R

    2016-09-01

    Photocatalysis describes the excitation of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (a wide-band gap semiconductor) by UVA light to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can destroy many organic molecules. This photocatalysis process is used for environmental remediation, while antimicrobial photocatalysis can kill many classes of microorganisms and can be used to sterilize water and surfaces and possibly to treat infections. Here we show that addition of the nontoxic inorganic salt potassium iodide to TiO2 (P25) excited by UVA potentiated the killing of Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, and fungi by up to 6 logs. The microbial killing depended on the concentration of TiO2, the fluence of UVA light, and the concentration of KI (the best effect was at 100 mM). There was formation of long-lived antimicrobial species (probably hypoiodite and iodine) in the reaction mixture (detected by adding bacteria after light), but short-lived antibacterial reactive species (bacteria present during light) produced more killing. Fluorescent probes for ROS (hydroxyl radical and singlet oxygen) were quenched by iodide. Tri-iodide (which has a peak at 350 nm and a blue product with starch) was produced by TiO2-UVA-KI but was much reduced when methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) cells were also present. The model tyrosine substrate N-acetyl tyrosine ethyl ester was iodinated in a light dose-dependent manner. We conclude that UVA-excited TiO2 in the presence of iodide produces reactive iodine intermediates during illumination that kill microbial cells and long-lived oxidized iodine products that kill after light has ended.

  19. Broad-Spectrum Antimicrobial Effects of Photocatalysis Using Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles Are Strongly Potentiated by Addition of Potassium Iodide.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying-Ying; Choi, Hwanjun; Kushida, Yu; Bhayana, Brijesh; Wang, Yuguang; Hamblin, Michael R

    2016-09-01

    Photocatalysis describes the excitation of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (a wide-band gap semiconductor) by UVA light to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can destroy many organic molecules. This photocatalysis process is used for environmental remediation, while antimicrobial photocatalysis can kill many classes of microorganisms and can be used to sterilize water and surfaces and possibly to treat infections. Here we show that addition of the nontoxic inorganic salt potassium iodide to TiO2 (P25) excited by UVA potentiated the killing of Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, and fungi by up to 6 logs. The microbial killing depended on the concentration of TiO2, the fluence of UVA light, and the concentration of KI (the best effect was at 100 mM). There was formation of long-lived antimicrobial species (probably hypoiodite and iodine) in the reaction mixture (detected by adding bacteria after light), but short-lived antibacterial reactive species (bacteria present during light) produced more killing. Fluorescent probes for ROS (hydroxyl radical and singlet oxygen) were quenched by iodide. Tri-iodide (which has a peak at 350 nm and a blue product with starch) was produced by TiO2-UVA-KI but was much reduced when methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) cells were also present. The model tyrosine substrate N-acetyl tyrosine ethyl ester was iodinated in a light dose-dependent manner. We conclude that UVA-excited TiO2 in the presence of iodide produces reactive iodine intermediates during illumination that kill microbial cells and long-lived oxidized iodine products that kill after light has ended. PMID:27381399

  20. Optimizing Production of Two Potential Probiotic Lactobacilli Strains Isolated from Piglet Feces as Feed Additives for Weaned Piglets.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Ming-Lun; Chen, Hsi-Chia; Chen, Kun-Nan; Lin, Yu-Chun; Lin, Ya-Ting; Chen, Ming-Ju

    2015-08-01

    Two probiotic strains, Lactobacillus johnsonii x-1d-2 and Lactobacillus mucosae x-4w-1, originally isolated from piglet feces, have been demonstrated to possess antimicrobial activities, antibiotic resistances and interleukin-6 induction ability in RAW 267.4 macrophages in our previous study. These characteristics make L. johnsonii x-1d-2 and L. mucosae x-4w-1 good candidates for application in feed probiotics. In this study, soybeal meal, molasses and sodium acetate were selected to optimize the growth medium for cultivation of L. johnsonii x-1d-2 and L. mucosae x-4w-1. These two strains were then freeze-dried and mixed into the basal diet to feed the weaned piglets. The effects of L. johnsonii x-1d-2 and L. mucosae x-4w-1 on the growth performance and fecal microflora of weaned piglets were investigated. The results showed that the bacterial numbers of L. johnsonii x-1d-2 and L. mucosae x-4w-1 reached a maximum of 8.90 and 9.30 log CFU/mL, respectively, when growing in optimal medium consisting of 5.5% (wt/vol) soybean meal, 1.0% (wt/vol) molasses and 1.0% (wt/vol) sodium acetate. The medium cost was 96% lower than the commercial de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe medium. In a further feeding study, the weaned piglets fed basal diet supplemented with freeze-dried probiotic cultures exhibited higher (p<0.05) body weight gain, feed intake, and gain/feed ratio than weaned piglets fed basal diet. Probiotic feeding also increased the numbers of lactobacilli and decreased the numbers of E. coli in the feces of weaned piglets. This study demonstrates that L. johnsonii x-1d-2 and L. mucosae x-4w-1 have high potential to be used as feed additives in the pig industry.

  1. Aortic arch calcification on chest X-ray combined with coronary calcium score show additional benefit for diagnosis and outcome in patients with angina

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Jong Shin; Kim, Weon; Kwon, Se Hwan; Youn, Hyo Chul; Kim, Hyun Soo; Kim, Jin Bae; Kim, Soo Joong; Kim, Woo-Shik; Kim, Kwon Sam

    2016-01-01

    Background The coronary artery calcium (CAC) and aortic arch calcification (AoAC) are individually associated with cardiovascular disease and outcome. This study investigated the predictive value of AoAC combined with CAC for cardiovascular diagnosis and outcome in patients with angina. Methods A total of 2018 stable angina patients who underwent chest X-ray and cardiac multi-detector computed tomography were followed up for four years to assess adverse events, which were categorized as cardiac death, stroke, myocardial infarction, or repeated revascularization. The extent of AoAC on chest X-ray was graded on a scale from 0 to 3. Results During the four years of follow-up, 620 patients were treated by coronary stenting and 153 (7%) adverse events occurred. A higher grade of AoAC was associated with a higher CAC score. Cox regression showed that the CAC score, but not AoAC, were associated with adverse events. In patients with CAC score < 400, AoAC showed an additive predictive value in detecting significant coronary artery disease (CAD). A gradual increases in the risk of adverse events were noted if AoAC was present in patients with similar CAC score. Conclusions As AoAC is strongly correlated with the CAC score regardless of age or gender, careful evaluation of CAD would be required in patients with AoAC on conventional chest X-rays. PMID:27103916

  2. The electrochemical reactions of pure In with Li and Na: anomalous electrolyte decomposition, benefits of FEC additive, phase transitions and electrode performance

    SciTech Connect

    Hawks, Samantha A; Baggetto, Loic; Bridges, Craig A; Veith, Gabriel M

    2014-01-01

    Indium thin films are evaluated as an anode material for Li-ion and Na-ion batteries (theoretical capacities of 1012 mAh g-1 for Li and 467 mAh g-1 for Na). The native surface oxides are responsible for the anomalous electrolyte decomposition during the first cycle while oxidized In species are found to be responsible for the electrolyte decomposition during the subsequent cycles. The presence of 5wt% FEC electrolyte additive suppresses the occurrence of the anomalous electrolyte decomposition during the first cycle but is not sufficient to prevent the decomposition upon further cycling from 0 to 2 V. Prevention of the anomalous decomposition can be achieved by restricting the charge cut-off, for instance at 1.1 V, or by using larger amounts of FEC. The In films show moderately good capacity retention with storage capacities when cycled with Li (950 mAh g-1) but significantly less when cycled with Na (125 mAh g-1). XRD data reveal that several known Li-In phases (i.e LiIn, Li3In2, LiIn2 and Li13In3) form during the electrochemical reaction. In contrast, the reaction with Na is severely limited. The largest amount of inserted Na is evidenced for cells short-circuited 40 hrs at 65C, for which the XRD data show the coexistence of NaIn, In, and an unknown phase. During cycling, mechanical degradation due to repeated expansion/shrinkage, evidenced by SEM, coupled with SEI formation is the primary source of the capacity fade. Finally, we show that the In thin films exhibit very high rate capability for both Li (100 C) and Na (30 C).

  3. The Potential Impact of Preventive HIV Vaccines in China: Results and Benefits of a Multi-Province Modeling Collaboration.

    PubMed

    Harmon, Thomas; Guo, Wei; Stover, John; Wu, Zunyou; Kaufman, Joan; Schneider, Kammerle; Liu, Li; Feng, Liao; Schwartländer, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    China's commitment to implementing established and emerging HIV/AIDS prevention and control strategies has led to substantial gains in terms of access to antiretroviral treatment and prevention services, but the evolving and multifaceted HIV/AIDS epidemic in China highlights the challenges of maintaining that response. This study presents modeling results exploring the potential impact of HIV vaccines in the Chinese context at varying efficacy and coverage rates, while further exploring the potential implications of vaccination programs aimed at reaching populations at highest risk of HIV infection. A preventive HIV vaccine would add a powerful tool to China's response, even if not 100% efficacious or available to the full population.

  4. Genome-wide meta-analysis of maize heterosis reveals the potential role of additive gene expression at pericentromeric loci

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    QTL, and also suggests a model for the potential role of additive expression in the formation and conservation of heterosis for GY via dominant, multigenic quantitative trait loci. Our findings contribute to a deeper understanding of the multifactorial phenomenon of heterosis, and thus to the breeding of new high yielding varieties. PMID:24693880

  5. Potential benefits to fisheries and biodiversity of the Chagos Archipelago/British Indian Ocean Territory as a no-take marine reserve.

    PubMed

    Koldewey, Heather J; Curnick, David; Harding, Simon; Harrison, Lucy R; Gollock, Matthew

    2010-11-01

    On 1st April 2010, the British Government announced designation of the British Indian Ocean Territory--or Chagos Archipelago--as the world's largest marine protected area (MPA). This near pristine ocean ecosystem now represents 16% of the worlds fully protected coral reef, 60% of the world's no-take protected areas and an uncontaminated reference site for ecological studies. In addition these gains for biodiversity conservation, the Chagos/BIOT MPA also offers subsidiary opportunities to act as a fisheries management tool for the western Indian Ocean, considering its size and location. While the benefits of MPAs for coral-reef dwelling species are established, there is uncertainty about their effects on pelagic migratory species. This paper reviews the increasing body of evidence to demonstrate that positive, measurable reserve effects exist for pelagic populations and that migratory species can benefit from no-take marine reserves. PMID:20965522

  6. Technology Benefits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haller, William

    2001-01-01

    An assessment was recently performed by NASA s Inter-Center Systems Analysis Team to quantify the potential emission reduction benefits from technologies being developed under UEET. The CO2 and LTO NO, reductions were estimated for 4 vehicles: a 50-passenger regional jet, a twin-engine, long-range subsonic transport, a high-speed (Mach 2.4) civil transport and a supersonic (Mach 2) business jet. The results of the assessment confirm that the current portfolio of technologies within the UEET program provides an opportunity for substantial reductions in CO2 and NO, emissions.

  7. The Revised SAT Score and Its Potential Benefits for the Admission of Minority Students to Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santelices, Maria Veronica; Wilson, Mark

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the predictive validity of the Revised SAT (R-SAT) score, proposed by Freedle (2003) as an alternative to compensate minority students for the potential harm caused by the relationship between item difficulty and ethnic DIF observed in the SAT. The R-SAT score is the score minority students would have received if only the…

  8. Guidance on determining indispensability and balancing potential benefits of animal experiments with costs to the animals with specific consideration of EU directive 2010/63/EU.

    PubMed

    Lindl, Toni; Gross, Ulrike; Ruhdel, Irmela; von Aulock, Sonja; Völkel, Manfred

    2012-01-01

    Within the context of a workshop, a concept and practical guidance were developed that seek to balance potential benefits of animal experiments to humans, other animals, and the environment against the pain, suffering, and distress caused to the experimental animals. The aim was to achieve transparent decisions that can be communicated in a concise manner that is accessible to a layperson and is in accordance with German national law and EU Directive 2010/63/EU. The steps of the resulting decision process deal with the classification of procedures into the four severity levels, the consideration of humane endpoints, determination of the indispensability of the procedure on the basis of sound scientific argument, classification into applied or basic research, determination of the probability of success in the case of applied research, and the cost-benefit analysis, culminating in a decision on the approval or denial of the procedure.

  9. Optimistic bias and Facebook use: self-other discrepancies about potential risks and benefits of Facebook use.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunny Jung; Hancock, Jeffrey T

    2015-04-01

    Despite the accumulating evidence on the positive and negative outcomes of Facebook use, how people perceive themselves to be subject to these outcomes as well as the consequences and mechanisms of these perceptions are underexplored. According to optimistic bias, Facebook users may perceive that bad things are more likely to happen to others than to themselves, while good things are more likely to happen to them than to others. The findings from an online survey among Facebook users indicate that the negative psychological and social outcomes of using Facebook were perceived to be more likely to happen to other Facebook users than to themselves, p<0.001. These self-other discrepant perceptions toward negative social events (e.g., Facebook cyberbullying and scams) significantly mediated one's willingness to support Internet regulation, Sobel z=2.49, p=0.01. For positive outcomes of Facebook use, the direction of optimistic bias was reversed, t(235) = -5.52, p<0.01, indicating that people minimized the likelihoods of experiencing positive events from Facebook while assessing that other Facebook users are prone to encounter those positive events. This reversal pattern emerged among those with negative attitudes toward, and low involvement with, Facebook. These findings demonstrate important and novel self-other discrepant perceptions concerning the risks and benefits of Facebook use. PMID:25879379

  10. Optimistic bias and Facebook use: self-other discrepancies about potential risks and benefits of Facebook use.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunny Jung; Hancock, Jeffrey T

    2015-04-01

    Despite the accumulating evidence on the positive and negative outcomes of Facebook use, how people perceive themselves to be subject to these outcomes as well as the consequences and mechanisms of these perceptions are underexplored. According to optimistic bias, Facebook users may perceive that bad things are more likely to happen to others than to themselves, while good things are more likely to happen to them than to others. The findings from an online survey among Facebook users indicate that the negative psychological and social outcomes of using Facebook were perceived to be more likely to happen to other Facebook users than to themselves, p<0.001. These self-other discrepant perceptions toward negative social events (e.g., Facebook cyberbullying and scams) significantly mediated one's willingness to support Internet regulation, Sobel z=2.49, p=0.01. For positive outcomes of Facebook use, the direction of optimistic bias was reversed, t(235) = -5.52, p<0.01, indicating that people minimized the likelihoods of experiencing positive events from Facebook while assessing that other Facebook users are prone to encounter those positive events. This reversal pattern emerged among those with negative attitudes toward, and low involvement with, Facebook. These findings demonstrate important and novel self-other discrepant perceptions concerning the risks and benefits of Facebook use.

  11. It’s alive: microbes and cells in human milk and their potential benefits to mother and infant.

    PubMed

    Bode, Lars; McGuire, Mark; Rodriguez, Juan M; Geddes, Donna T; Hassiotou, Foteini; Hartmann, Peter E; McGuire, Michelle K

    2014-09-01

    Human milk is the optimal source of nutrition for the nursing infant. Classically, the nutrients (water, protein, lipid, carbohydrate, vitamins, and minerals) were studied as the critical components of milk serving the growth needs of the infant for optimum growth. However, human milk contains factors other than the classically defined nutrients for which researchers are investigating potential roles in infant and maternal health, development, and well-being. The symposium addressed some of the exciting factors being studied, including microbes and maternal cells found within milk. Drs. Michelle McGuire and Juan M. Rodríguez addressed the presence of a bacterial community in human milk produced by healthy and mastitic mothers, potential sources of those bacteria, and the impact of milk-derived bacteria on the nursing infant. Drs. Donna Geddes, Peter Hartmann, and Foteini Hassiotou discussed the potential importance of maternal cells. For years, immune cells were known to be present in human milk, but recent evidence suggests that their impact is as much on the infant as on the health of the lactating mammary gland. Finally, the existence of highly plastic stem cells in human milk opens doors for previously unforeseen developmental “training” of the nursing infant.

  12. Potential benefits of oxygen-enriched intake air in a vehicle powered by a spark-ignition engine

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, H.K.; Sekar, R.R.

    1994-04-01

    A production vehicle powered by a spark-ignition engine (3.1-L Chevrolet Lumina, model year 1990) was tested. The test used oxygen-enriched intake air containing 25 and 28% oxygen by volume to determine (1) if the vehicle would run without difficulties and (2) if emissions benefits would result. Standard Federal Test Procedure (FTP) emissions test cycles were run satisfactorily. Test results of catalytic converter-out emissions (emissions out of the converter) showed that both carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons were reduced significantly in all three phases of the emissions test cycle. Test results of engine-out emissions (emissions straight out of the engine, with the converter removed) showed that carbon monoxide was significantly reduced in the cold phase. All emission test results were compared with those for normal air (21% oxygen). The catalytic converter also had an improved carbon monoxide conversion efficiency under the oxygen-enriched-air conditions. Detailed results of hydrocarbon speciation indicated large reductions in 1,3-butadiene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and benzene from the engine with the oxygen-enriched air. Catalytic converter-out ozone was reduced by 60% with 25%-oxygen-content air. Although NO{sub x} emissions increased significantly, both for engine-out and catalytic converter-out emissions, we anticipate that they can be ameliorated in the near future with new control technologies. The automotive industry currently is developing exhaust-gas control technologies for an oxidizing environment; these technologies should reduce NO{sub x} emissions more efficiently in vehicles that use oxygen-enriched intake air. On the basis of estimates made from current data, several production vehicles that had low NO{sub x} emissions could meet the 2004 Tier II emissions standards with 25%-oxygen-content air.

  13. Experience of an incontinence clinic for older women: no apparent age limit for potential physical and psychological benefits.

    PubMed

    Tannenbaum, C; Bachand, G; Dubeau, C E; Kuchel, G A

    2001-10-01

    Urinary incontinence (UI) is a common but undertreated condition in older women. Although a variety of noninvasive interventions is available, older women may be hesitant to seek care for UI because of misconceptions about normal aging and treatment futility. We sought to evaluate the effectiveness of a UI clinic specifically tailored to the needs of older women to promote a sense of empowerment and to enhance satisfaction with treatment and outcome. We describe a case series of 52 women between the ages of 65 and 98 who were evaluated at the Geriatric Incontinence Clinic at the McGill University Health Centre over a 1-year period. A standardized telephone questionnaire was administered by a nurse consultant 6 months after each subject's final visit to assess patient satisfaction and current incontinence status. Forty-five women (86%) were available for telephone follow-up and completed the questionnaire. Mean age was 80 years, with urge incontinence in 45%, mixed incontinence (stress and urge) in 33%, impaired bladder emptying with urge symptoms in 10%, and other diagnoses in 12%. Overall, a mean reduction of 1.4 incontinent episodes per day was reported. At follow-up, 30% of the subjects reported being cured of their incontinence, 30% had improved, 20% were the same, and 20% were worse. Over 85% of all women reported satisfaction with their new incontinence status. Women of all ages, independent of the type of UI, type of treatment, and cognitive status, were able to achieve reductions in incontinence symptoms. All patients who had worsened were noncompliant with treatment recommendations at follow-up. Older women can derive significant benefit from a UI assessment. Neither advanced age nor category of incontinence precludes improvements or enhanced satisfaction with treatment. Efforts to improve targeting and compliance may improve outcomes. PMID:11703887

  14. Potential Benefits and Harms of a Peer Support Social Network Service on the Internet for People With Depressive Tendencies: Qualitative Content Analysis and Social Network Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Yoshimitsu; Uchida, Chiyoko; Miyaki, Koichi; Sakai, Michi; Shimbo, Takuro

    2009-01-01

    Background Internet peer support groups for depression are becoming popular and could be affected by an increasing number of social network services (SNSs). However, little is known about participant characteristics, social relationships in SNSs, and the reasons for usage. In addition, the effects of SNS participation on people with depression are rather unknown. Objective The aim was to explore the potential benefits and harms of an SNS for depression based on a concurrent triangulation design of mixed methods strategy, including qualitative content analysis and social network analysis. Methods A cross-sectional Internet survey of participants, which involved the collection of SNS log files and a questionnaire, was conducted in an SNS for people with self-reported depressive tendencies in Japan in 2007. Quantitative data, which included user demographics, depressive state, and assessment of the SNS (positive vs not positive), were statistically analyzed. Descriptive contents of responses to open-ended questions concerning advantages and disadvantages of SNS participation were analyzed using the inductive approach of qualitative content analysis. Contents were organized into codes, concepts, categories, and a storyline based on the grounded theory approach. Social relationships, derived from data of “friends,” were analyzed using social network analysis, in which network measures and the extent of interpersonal association were calculated based on the social network theory. Each analysis and integration of results were performed through a concurrent triangulation design of mixed methods strategy. Results There were 105 participants. Median age was 36 years, and 51% (36/71) were male. There were 37 valid respondents; their number of friends and frequency of accessing the SNS were significantly higher than for invalid/nonrespondents (P = .008 and P = .003). Among respondents, 90% (28/31) were mildly, moderately, or severely depressed. Assessment of the SNS was

  15. Soil Organic Carbon for Global Benefits - assessing potential SOC increase under SLM technologies worldwide and evaluating tradeoffs and gains of upscaling SLM technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfgramm, Bettina; Hurni, Hans; Liniger, Hanspeter; Ruppen, Sebastian; Milne, Eleanor; Bader, Hans-Peter; Scheidegger, Ruth; Amare, Tadele; Yitaferu, Birru; Nazarmavloev, Farrukh; Conder, Malgorzata; Ebneter, Laura; Qadamov, Aslam; Shokirov, Qobiljon; Hergarten, Christian; Schwilch, Gudrun

    2013-04-01

    There is a fundamental mutual interest between enhancing soil organic carbon (SOC) in the world's soils and the objectives of the major global environmental conventions (UNFCCC, UNCBD, UNCCD). While there is evidence at the case study level that sustainable land management (SLM) technologies increase SOC stocks and SOC related benefits, there is no quantitative data available on the potential for increasing SOC benefits from different SLM technologies and especially from case studies in the developing countries, and a clear understanding of the trade-offs related to SLM up-scaling is missing. This study aims at assessing the potential increase of SOC under SLM technologies worldwide, evaluating tradeoffs and gains in up-scaling SLM for case studies in Tajikistan, Ethiopia and Switzerland. It makes use of the SLM technologies documented in the online database of the World Overview of Conservation Approaches and Technologies (WOCAT). The study consists of three components: 1) Identifying SOC benefits contributing to the major global environmental issues for SLM technologies worldwide as documented in the WOCAT global database 2) Validation of SOC storage potentials and SOC benefit predictions for SLM technologies from the WOCAT database using results from existing comparative case studies at the plot level, using soil spectral libraries and standardized documentations of ecosystem service from the WOCAT database. 3) Understanding trade-offs and win-win scenarios of up-scaling SLM technologies from the plot to the household and landscape level using material flow analysis. This study builds on the premise that the most promising way to increase benefits from land management is to consider already existing sustainable strategies. Such SLM technologies from all over the world documented are accessible in a standardized way in the WOCAT online database. The study thus evaluates SLM technologies from the WOCAT database by calculating the potential SOC storage increase and

  16. Advanced neuroimaging applied to veterans and service personnel with traumatic brain injury: state of the art and potential benefits.

    PubMed

    Wilde, Elisabeth A; Bouix, Sylvain; Tate, David F; Lin, Alexander P; Newsome, Mary R; Taylor, Brian A; Stone, James R; Montier, James; Gandy, Samuel E; Biekman, Brian; Shenton, Martha E; York, Gerald

    2015-09-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains one of the most prevalent forms of morbidity among Veterans and Service Members, particularly for those engaged in the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. Neuroimaging has been considered a potentially useful diagnostic and prognostic tool across the spectrum of TBI generally, but may have particular importance in military populations where the diagnosis of mild TBI is particularly challenging, given the frequent lack of documentation on the nature of the injuries and mixed etiologies, and highly comorbid with other disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, and substance misuse. Imaging has also been employed in attempts to understand better the potential late effects of trauma and to evaluate the effects of promising therapeutic interventions. This review surveys the use of structural and functional neuroimaging techniques utilized in military studies published to date, including the utilization of quantitative fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI), volumetric analysis, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), magnetization transfer imaging (MTI), positron emission tomography (PET), magnetoencephalography (MEG), task-based and resting state functional MRI (fMRI), arterial spin labeling (ASL), and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). The importance of quality assurance testing in current and future research is also highlighted. Current challenges and limitations of each technique are outlined, and future directions are discussed.

  17. Advanced neuroimaging applied to veterans and service personnel with traumatic brain injury: state of the art and potential benefits.

    PubMed

    Wilde, Elisabeth A; Bouix, Sylvain; Tate, David F; Lin, Alexander P; Newsome, Mary R; Taylor, Brian A; Stone, James R; Montier, James; Gandy, Samuel E; Biekman, Brian; Shenton, Martha E; York, Gerald

    2015-09-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains one of the most prevalent forms of morbidity among Veterans and Service Members, particularly for those engaged in the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. Neuroimaging has been considered a potentially useful diagnostic and prognostic tool across the spectrum of TBI generally, but may have particular importance in military populations where the diagnosis of mild TBI is particularly challenging, given the frequent lack of documentation on the nature of the injuries and mixed etiologies, and highly comorbid with other disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, and substance misuse. Imaging has also been employed in attempts to understand better the potential late effects of trauma and to evaluate the effects of promising therapeutic interventions. This review surveys the use of structural and functional neuroimaging techniques utilized in military studies published to date, including the utilization of quantitative fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI), volumetric analysis, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), magnetization transfer imaging (MTI), positron emission tomography (PET), magnetoencephalography (MEG), task-based and resting state functional MRI (fMRI), arterial spin labeling (ASL), and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). The importance of quality assurance testing in current and future research is also highlighted. Current challenges and limitations of each technique are outlined, and future directions are discussed. PMID:26350144

  18. Celebration Meets Caution: Long Acting Reversible Contraception (LARC)’s Boons, Potential Busts, and the Benefits of a Reproductive Justice Approach

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Jenny A.

    2014-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed an outpouring of research and funding pertaining to long-acting reversible contraception (LARC). The time is ripe to contextualize LARC’s hype within our broader reproductive health goals and tools—that is, how we can best address the needs of individuals who benefit from the reproductive health services we provide. After reviewing LARC’s major benefits, this commentary presents three potentially problematic aspects of LARC promotion: 1) the notion that increasing LARC use could singlehandedly end unintended pregnancies and their associations with poverty, 2) the clinical emphasis on LARC methods over all others, and 3) inadvertently failing to acknowledge the ways in which poor women of color will experience LARC promotion through legacies of racism and eugenics. The comment concludes by highlighting the benefits of a reproductive justice approach to LARC: an approach devoted to making LARC affordable and accessible while simultaneously respecting women’s decisions not to use LARC, their ability to have LARC removed when they wish, and their ability to determine for themselves where contraception and pregnancies fit into their lives. PMID:24582293

  19. Analysis of Potential Benefits and Costs of Adopting ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2001 as the Commercial Building Energy Code in Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Cort, Katherine A.; Winiarski, David W.; Belzer, David B.; Richman, Eric E.

    2004-09-30

    ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2001 Energy Standard for Buildings except Low-Rise Residential Buildings (hereafter referred to as ASHRAE 90.1-2001 or 90.1-2001) was developed in an effort to set minimum requirements for the energy efficient design and construction of new commercial buildings. The State of Tennessee is considering adopting ASHRAE 90.1-2001 as its commercial building energy code. In an effort to evaluate whether or not this is an appropriate code for the state, the potential benefits and costs of adopting this standard are considered in this report. Both qualitative and quantitative benefits and costs are assessed. Energy and economic impacts are estimated using the Building Loads Analysis and System Thermodynamics (BLAST) simulations combined with a Life-Cycle Cost (LCC) approach to assess corresponding economic costs and benefits. Tennessee currently has ASHRAE Standard 90A-1980 as the statewide voluntary/recommended commercial energy standard; however, it is up to the local jurisdiction to adopt this code. Because 90A-1980 is the recommended standard, many of the requirements of ASHRAE 90A-1980 were used as a baseline for simulations.

  20. Potential benefits of physical activity during pregnancy for the reduction of gestational diabetes prevalence and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Cid, Marcela; González, Marcelo

    2016-03-01

    Changes in quality of nutrition, habits, and physical activity in modern societies increase susceptibility to obesity, which can deleteriously affect pregnancy outcome. In particular, a sedentary lifestyle causes dysfunction in blood flow, which impacts the cardiovascular function of pregnant women. The main molecular mechanism responsible for this effect is the synthesis and bioavailability of nitric oxide, a phenomenon regulated by the antioxidant capacity of endothelial cells. These alterations affect the vascular health of the mother and vascular performance of the placenta, the key organ responsible for the healthy development of the fetus. In addition to the increases in systemic vascular resistance in the mother, placental oxidative stress also affects the feto-placental blood flow. These changes can be integrated into the proteomics and metabolomics of newborns.

  1. An evidence-based review of the potential benefits of taliglucerase alfa in the treatment of patients with Gaucher disease

    PubMed Central

    Hollak, Carla EM

    2012-01-01

    Gaucher disease is an inherited lysosomal storage disorder, characterized by deficient activity of glucocerebrosidase leading to storage of glucocerebroside in tissue macrophages. Type I disease, the most prevalent form, lacks central nervous system involvement but presents primarily with variable degrees of hepatosplenomegaly, cytopenia, and bone disease. Intravenous enzyme replacement therapy can reverse these manifestations. In addition to the two enzymes currently authorized for use, the newest enzyme, taliglucerase alfa, is at the late stages of clinical development. Taliglucerase alfa is a unique product, as it is the first plant cell–based recombinant enzyme therapy. This review considers the existing evidence for therapeutic efficacy of taliglucerase alfa in the treatment of the non-neuronopathic manifestations of Gaucher disease. Clinical studies encompass one phase I trial in healthy volunteers, one phase III trial, and preliminary results from both an extension study and a switch study. In the 9-month, randomized, double-blind phase III trial, treatment-naïve patients with type I Gaucher disease were treated with either 30 or 60 U/kg every 2 weeks. Dose-dependent improvements were achieved after 6 and 9 months of therapy, with reductions in spleen and liver volumes and improvements in hemoglobin levels. Platelet counts improved initially only in the higher-dose group, but preliminary results from the extension study also show significant increases in the lower-dose group. Bone marrow involvement, as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging, improved in almost all patients. Taliglucerase alfa has shown a good safety profile, with few patients experiencing hypersensitivity reactions and developing antibodies. An additional enzyme replacement therapy for Gaucher disease would enable the treatment of more patients and would provide backup for unexpected production problems. Furthermore, it is expected that this new treatment would reduce the costs of

  2. Effect of N and P addition on soil organic C potential mineralization in forest soils in South China.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Xuejun; Zhou, Guoyi; Huang, Zhongliang; Zhou, Cunyu; Li, Jiong; Shi, Junhui; Zhang, Deqiang

    2008-01-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen deposition is at a high level in some forests of South China. The effects of addition of exogenous N and P on soil organic carbon mineralization were studied to address: (1) if the atmospheric N deposition promotes soil C storage through decreasing mineralization; (2) if the soil available P is a limitation to organic carbon mineralization. Soils (0-10 cm) was sampled from monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest (MEBF), coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest (CBMF), and Pinus massoniana forest (PMF) in Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve (located in Guangdong Province, China). The soils were incubated at 25 degrees C for 45 weeks, with addition of N (NH4NO3 solution) or P (KH2PO4 solution). CO2-C emission and the inorganic N (NH4(+)-N and NO3(-)-N) of the soils were determined during the incubation. The results showed that CO2-C emission decreased with the N addition. The addition of P led to a short-term sharp increase in CO2 emission after P application, and the responses of CO2-C evolution to P addition in the later period of incubation related to forest types. Strong P inhibition to CO2 emission occurred in both PMF and CBMF soils in the later incubation. The two-pool kinetic model was fitted well to the data for C turnover in this experiment. The model analysis demonstrated that the addition of N and P changed the distribution of soil organic C between the labile and recalcitrant pool, as well as their mineralization rates. In our experiment, soil pH can not completely explain the negative effect of N addition on CO2-C emission. The changes of soil inorganic N during incubation seemed to support the hypothesis that the polymerization of added nitrogen with soil organic compound by abiotic reactions during incubation made the added nitrogen retard the soil organic carbon mineralization. We conclude that atmospheric N deposition contributes to soil C accretion in the three subtropical forest ecosystems, however, the shortage of soil available P in

  3. The Potential Health Benefits of Polyphenol-Rich Extracts from Cichorium intybus L. Studied on Caco-2 Cells Model

    PubMed Central

    Azzini, Elena; Maiani, Giuseppe; Garaguso, Ivana; Polito, Angela; Foddai, Maria S.; Venneria, Eugenia; Durazzo, Alessandra; Intorre, Federica; Palomba, Lara; Rauseo, Maria L.; Lombardi-Boccia, Ginevra; Nobili, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Phytochemicals can exert their bioactivity without reaching the systemic circulation; scarcely absorbed antioxidants might reach the large bowel contributing to protection from oxidative damage-induced gastrointestinal diseases. In the present work, we aimed to study the relationship between potential activity of polyphenol-rich extracts from Cichorium intybus L. and changes in morphological characteristics on Caco-2 cells. Phytochemicals content (carotenoids and flavonoids) and total antioxidant activity of Red Chicory of Treviso and Variegated Chicory of Castelfranco were evaluated. The bioactivity of polyphenol-rich extracts from chicories was studied in in vitro Caco-2 cell monolayers model. Morphological characteristics changes to test the antioxidant and/or prooxidant effect were verified by histological analysis and observed by Electronic Scansion Microscopy (SEM). On Caco-2 cell model, the polyphenols fractions from chicories have indicated a moderate antioxidant behavior until 17 μM concentration, while 70 μM and 34 μM exert cytotoxic effects for Treviso's and Castelfranco's Chicory, respectively, highlighted by TEER decreasing, increased permeability, and alteration of epithelium. Our findings support the beneficial effects of these products in counteracting the oxidative stress and cellular damage, induced in vitro on Caco-2 cell model, through interaction with the mucopolysaccharide complexes in the glycocalyx, maintaining in vivo a healthy and effective intestinal barrier. PMID:26843906

  4. Molecular and cellular mechanisms of bone morphogenetic proteins and activins in the skin: potential benefits for wound healing.

    PubMed

    Moura, J; da Silva, L; Cruz, M T; Carvalho, E

    2013-09-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and activins are phylogenetically conserved proteins, belonging to the transforming growth factor-β superfamily, that signal through the phosphorylation of receptor-regulated Smad proteins, activating different cell responses. They are involved in various steps of skin morphogenesis and wound repair, as can be evidenced by the fact that their expression is increased in skin injuries. BMPs play not only a role in bone regeneration but are also involved in cartilage, tendon-like tissue and epithelial regeneration, maintain vascular integrity, capillary sprouting, proliferation/migration of endothelial cells and angiogenesis, promote neuron and dendrite formation, alter neuropeptide levels and are involved in immune response modulation, at least in animal models. On the other hand, activins are involved in wound repair through the regulation of skin and immune cell migration and differentiation, re-epithelialization and granulation tissue formation, and also promote the expression of collagens by fibroblasts and modulate scar formation. This review aims at enunciating the effects of BMPs and activins in the skin, namely in skin development, as well as in crucial phases of skin wound healing, such as inflammation, angiogenesis and repair, and will focus on the effects of these proteins on skin cells and their signaling pathways, exploring the potential therapeutic approach of the application of BMP-2, BMP-6 and activin A in chronic wounds, particularly diabetic foot ulcerations.

  5. The Potential Health Benefits of Polyphenol-Rich Extracts from Cichorium intybus L. Studied on Caco-2 Cells Model.

    PubMed

    Azzini, Elena; Maiani, Giuseppe; Garaguso, Ivana; Polito, Angela; Foddai, Maria S; Venneria, Eugenia; Durazzo, Alessandra; Intorre, Federica; Palomba, Lara; Rauseo, Maria L; Lombardi-Boccia, Ginevra; Nobili, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Phytochemicals can exert their bioactivity without reaching the systemic circulation; scarcely absorbed antioxidants might reach the large bowel contributing to protection from oxidative damage-induced gastrointestinal diseases. In the present work, we aimed to study the relationship between potential activity of polyphenol-rich extracts from Cichorium intybus L. and changes in morphological characteristics on Caco-2 cells. Phytochemicals content (carotenoids and flavonoids) and total antioxidant activity of Red Chicory of Treviso and Variegated Chicory of Castelfranco were evaluated. The bioactivity of polyphenol-rich extracts from chicories was studied in in vitro Caco-2 cell monolayers model. Morphological characteristics changes to test the antioxidant and/or prooxidant effect were verified by histological analysis and observed by Electronic Scansion Microscopy (SEM). On Caco-2 cell model, the polyphenols fractions from chicories have indicated a moderate antioxidant behavior until 17 μM concentration, while 70 μM and 34 μM exert cytotoxic effects for Treviso's and Castelfranco's Chicory, respectively, highlighted by TEER decreasing, increased permeability, and alteration of epithelium. Our findings support the beneficial effects of these products in counteracting the oxidative stress and cellular damage, induced in vitro on Caco-2 cell model, through interaction with the mucopolysaccharide complexes in the glycocalyx, maintaining in vivo a healthy and effective intestinal barrier. PMID:26843906

  6. Innovation in the role of the Office of the Ombudsman of the Unified Health System (SUS) - reflections and potential benefits.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Fernando Manuel Bessa; Moreira, Marcelo Rasga; Ribeiro, José Mendes; Ouverney, Assis Mafort; Oliveira, Flávio José Fonseca de; Moro, Maria Francisca Abritta

    2016-08-01

    This article seeks to reflect on the potential of innovative practices in the design and work of the government bodies that comprise the National System of Offices of the Ombudsman of the Unified Health System. It is divided into two parts, seeking to answer the following question: How to think of and implement innovative practices - which include sustainability - when the people are voicing their urgent demands and these are being heard by the public authorities? These grievances are all the more urgent as they involve the area of Health and can they be promptly discussed, attended and resolved? In the first part, the article discusses the polysemic concept of innovation, focusing on its application in the three spheres of public administration, and highlights the importance of its close correlation with the different notions of information and knowledge in a society such as the one we live in. In the second, it develops a task-force of ideas for the office of the ombudsman and based on this, a draft operational concept of innovation in the role of the office of the ombudsman, considering the context of high speed change and transformations and the complexity inherent to contemporary life and the need for resource management and expertise development in information management. PMID:27557027

  7. Innovation in the role of the Office of the Ombudsman of the Unified Health System (SUS) - reflections and potential benefits.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Fernando Manuel Bessa; Moreira, Marcelo Rasga; Ribeiro, José Mendes; Ouverney, Assis Mafort; Oliveira, Flávio José Fonseca de; Moro, Maria Francisca Abritta

    2016-08-01

    This article seeks to reflect on the potential of innovative practices in the design and work of the government bodies that comprise the National System of Offices of the Ombudsman of the Unified Health System. It is divided into two parts, seeking to answer the following question: How to think of and implement innovative practices - which include sustainability - when the people are voicing their urgent demands and these are being heard by the public authorities? These grievances are all the more urgent as they involve the area of Health and can they be promptly discussed, attended and resolved? In the first part, the article discusses the polysemic concept of innovation, focusing on its application in the three spheres of public administration, and highlights the importance of its close correlation with the different notions of information and knowledge in a society such as the one we live in. In the second, it develops a task-force of ideas for the office of the ombudsman and based on this, a draft operational concept of innovation in the role of the office of the ombudsman, considering the context of high speed change and transformations and the complexity inherent to contemporary life and the need for resource management and expertise development in information management.

  8. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia: potential benefit of medium-dose etoposide conditioning.

    PubMed

    Imamura, Masahiro; Shigematsu, Akio

    2015-01-01

    The outcomes of adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients with chemotherapy or autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are unsatisfactory. Therefore, allogeneic (allo) HSCT has been applied to those patients in first complete remission (CR1), and has shown a long-term survival rate of approximately 50 %. In terms of myeloablative conditioning (MAC) regimen, higher dose of cyclophosphamide (CY) and total body irradiation (TBI) (the standard CY + TBI) has been generally applied to allo HSCT. Other MAC regimens such as busulfan-based or etoposide-based regimens have also been used. Among those, medium-dose etoposide (ETP) in addition to the standard CY + TBI conditioning regimen appears to be promising for allo HSCT in adult ALL when transplanted in ALL patients aged under 50 years in CR1 and also in CR2, showing an excellent outcome without increasing relapse or transplant-related mortality (TRM) rates. By contrast, reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) regimens have also been applied to adult ALL patients and favorable outcomes have been obtained; however, relapse and TRM rates remain high. Therefore, an allo HSCT conditioning regimen which deserves further study for adult ALL patients aged under 50 years in CR1 and CR2 appears to be medium-dose ETP + CY + TBI and RIC is suitable for patients aged over 50 years or for younger patients with comorbid conditions. On the contrary, new therapeutic strategies for adult ALL patients are increasingly utilized with better outcomes; namely, various tyrosine kinase inhibitors for Philadelphia chromosome (Ph)-positive ALL, human leukocyte antigen-haploidentical HSCT, and pediatric-inspired regimens for Ph-negative ALL. Therefore, the optimal treatment modality should be selected considering patient's age, Ph-positivity, donor availability, risk classification, efficacy, and safety. PMID:26322249

  9. Assessing potential human health hazards and benefits from subtherapeutic antibiotics in the United States: tetracyclines as a case study.

    PubMed

    Cox, Louis Anthony Tony; Popken, Douglas A

    2010-03-01

    Many scientists, activists, regulators, and politicians have expressed urgent concern that using antibiotics in food animals selects for resistant strains of bacteria that harm human health and bring nearer a "postantibiotic era" of multidrug resistant "super-bugs." Proposed political solutions, such as the Preservation of Antibiotics for Medical Treatment Act (PAMTA), would ban entire classes of subtherapeutic antibiotics (STAs) now used for disease prevention and growth promotion in food animals. The proposed bans are not driven by formal quantitative risk assessment (QRA), but by a perceived need for immediate action to prevent potential catastrophe. Similar fears led to STA phase-outs in Europe a decade ago. However, QRA and empirical data indicate that continued use of STAs in the United States has not harmed human health, and bans in Europe have not helped human health. The fears motivating PAMTA contrast with QRA estimates of vanishingly small risks. As a case study, examining specific tetracycline uses and resistance patterns suggests that there is no significant human health hazard from continued use of tetracycline in food animals. Simple hypothetical calculations suggest an unobservably small risk (between 0 and 1.75E-11 excess lifetime risk of a tetracycline-resistant infection), based on the long history of tetracycline use in the United States without resistance-related treatment failures. QRAs for other STA uses in food animals also find that human health risks are vanishingly small. Whether such QRA calculations will guide risk management policy for animal antibiotics in the United States remains to be seen. PMID:20136749

  10. Emerging cardiovascular actions of the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1: potential therapeutic benefits beyond glycaemic control?

    PubMed Central

    Grieve, David J; Cassidy, Roslyn S; Green, Brian D

    2009-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone secreted by the small intestine in response to nutrient ingestion. It has wide-ranging effects on glucose metabolism, including stimulation of insulin release, inhibition of glucagon secretion, reduction of gastric emptying and augmentation of satiety. Importantly, the insulinotropic actions of GLP-1 are uniquely dependent on ambient glucose concentrations, and it is this particular characteristic which has led to its recent emergence as a treatment for type 2 diabetes. Although the major physiological function of GLP-1 appears to be in relation to glycaemic control, there is growing evidence to suggest that it may also play an important role in the cardiovascular system. GLP-1 receptors (GLP-1Rs) are expressed in the heart and vasculature of both rodents and humans, and recent studies have demonstrated that GLP-1R agonists have wide-ranging cardiovascular actions, such as modulation of heart rate, blood pressure, vascular tone and myocardial contractility. Importantly, it appears that these agents may also have beneficial effects in the setting of cardiovascular disease (CVD). For example, GLP-1 has been found to exert cardioprotective actions in experimental models of dilated cardiomyopathy, hypertensive heart failure and myocardial infarction (MI). Preliminary clinical studies also indicate that GLP-1 infusion may improve cardiac contractile function in chronic heart failure patients with and without diabetes, and in MI patients after successful angioplasty. This review will discuss the current understanding of GLP-1 biology, examine its emerging cardiovascular actions in both health and disease and explore the potential use of GLP-1 as a novel treatment for CVD. PMID:19681866

  11. Benefits of a European Project on Diagnostics of Highly Pathogenic Agents and Assessment of Potential “Dual Use” Issues

    PubMed Central

    Grunow, Roland; Ippolito, G.; Jacob, D.; Sauer, U.; Rohleder, A.; Di Caro, A.; Iacovino, R.

    2014-01-01

    Quality assurance exercises and networking on the detection of highly infectious pathogens (QUANDHIP) is a joint action initiative set up in 2011 that has successfully unified the primary objectives of the European Network on Highly Pathogenic Bacteria (ENHPB) and of P4-laboratories (ENP4-Lab) both of which aimed to improve the efficiency, effectiveness, and response capabilities of laboratories directed at protecting the health of European citizens against high consequence bacteria and viruses of significant public health concern. Both networks have established a common collaborative consortium of 37 nationally and internationally recognized institutions with laboratory facilities from 22 European countries. The specific objectives and achievements include the initiation and establishment of a recognized and acceptable quality assurance scheme, including practical external quality assurance exercises, comprising living agents, that aims to improve laboratory performance, accuracy, and detection capabilities in support of patient management and public health responses; recognized training schemes for diagnostics and handling of highly pathogenic agents; international repositories comprising highly pathogenic bacteria and viruses for the development of standardized reference material; a standardized and transparent Biosafety and Biosecurity strategy protecting healthcare personnel and the community in dealing with high consequence pathogens; the design and organization of response capabilities dealing with cross-border events with highly infectious pathogens including the consideration of diagnostic capabilities of individual European laboratories. The project tackled several sensitive issues regarding Biosafety, Biosecurity and “dual use” concerns. The article will give an overview of the project outcomes and discuss the assessment of potential “dual use” issues. PMID:25426479

  12. Investigating the potential benefits of on-site food safety training for Folklorama, a temporary food service event.

    PubMed

    Mancini, Roberto; Murray, Leigh; Chapman, Benjamin J; Powell, Douglas A

    2012-10-01

    Folklorama in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, is a 14-day temporary food service event that explores the many different cultural realms of food, food preparation, and entertainment. In 2010, the Russian pavilion at Folklorama was implicated in a foodborne outbreak of Escherichia coli O157 that caused 37 illnesses and 18 hospitalizations. The ethnic nature and diversity of foods prepared within each pavilion presents a unique problem for food inspectors, as each culture prepares food in their own very unique way. The Manitoba Department of Health and Folklorama Board of Directors realized a need to implement a food safety information delivery program that would be more effective than a 2-h food safety course delivered via PowerPoint slides. The food operators and event coordinators of five randomly chosen pavilions selling potentially hazardous food were trained on-site, in their work environment, focusing on critical control points specific to their menu. A control group (five pavilions) did not receive on-site food safety training and were assessed concurrently. Public health inspections for all 10 pavilions were performed by Certified Public Health Inspectors employed with Manitoba Health. Critical infractions were assessed by means of standardized food protection inspection reports. The results suggest no statistically significant difference in food inspection scores between the trained and control groups. However, it was found that inspection report results increased for both the control and trained groups from the first inspection to the second, implying that public health inspections are necessary in correcting unsafe food safety practices. The results further show that in this case, the 2-h food safety course delivered via slides was sufficient to pass public health inspections. Further evaluations of alternative food safety training approaches are warranted.

  13. Assessing potential human health hazards and benefits from subtherapeutic antibiotics in the United States: tetracyclines as a case study.

    PubMed

    Cox, Louis Anthony Tony; Popken, Douglas A

    2010-03-01

    Many scientists, activists, regulators, and politicians have expressed urgent concern that using antibiotics in food animals selects for resistant strains of bacteria that harm human health and bring nearer a "postantibiotic era" of multidrug resistant "super-bugs." Proposed political solutions, such as the Preservation of Antibiotics for Medical Treatment Act (PAMTA), would ban entire classes of subtherapeutic antibiotics (STAs) now used for disease prevention and growth promotion in food animals. The proposed bans are not driven by formal quantitative risk assessment (QRA), but by a perceived need for immediate action to prevent potential catastrophe. Similar fears led to STA phase-outs in Europe a decade ago. However, QRA and empirical data indicate that continued use of STAs in the United States has not harmed human health, and bans in Europe have not helped human health. The fears motivating PAMTA contrast with QRA estimates of vanishingly small risks. As a case study, examining specific tetracycline uses and resistance patterns suggests that there is no significant human health hazard from continued use of tetracycline in food animals. Simple hypothetical calculations suggest an unobservably small risk (between 0 and 1.75E-11 excess lifetime risk of a tetracycline-resistant infection), based on the long history of tetracycline use in the United States without resistance-related treatment failures. QRAs for other STA uses in food animals also find that human health risks are vanishingly small. Whether such QRA calculations will guide risk management policy for animal antibiotics in the United States remains to be seen.

  14. Potential of aeration flow rate and bio-char addition to reduce greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions during manure composting.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Md Albarune; de Neergaard, Andreas; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2014-02-01

    Aeration is an important factor influencing CO2, CH4, N2O and NH3 emissions from the composting process. Both CH4 and N2O are potent greenhouse gases (GHG) of high importance. Here, we examined the effects of high and low aeration rates together with addition of barley straw with and without bio-char on GHG and NH3 emissions from composting cattle slurry and hen manure in small-scale laboratory composters. Depending on treatment, cumulative C losses via CO2 and CH4 emissions accounted for 11.4-22.5% and 0.004-0.2% of initial total carbon, while N losses as N2O and NH3 emissions comprised 0.05-0.1% and 0.8-26.5% of initial total nitrogen, respectively. Decreasing the flow rate reduced cumulative NH3 losses non-significantly (by 88%) but significantly increased CH4 losses (by 51%) from composting of cattle slurry with barley straw. Among the hen manure treatments evaluated, bio-char addition to composting hen manure and barley straw at low flow rates proved most effective in reducing cumulative NH3 and CH4 losses. Addition of bio-char in combination with barley straw to hen manure at both high and low flow rates reduced total GHG emissions (as CO2-equivalents) by 27-32% compared with barley straw addition alone. Comparisons of flow rates showed that low flow could be an alternative strategy for reducing NH3 losses without any significant change in N2O emissions, pointing to the need for well-controlled composting conditions if gaseous emissions are to be minimised.

  15. The potential benefits of creatine and conjugated linoleic acid as adjuncts to resistance training in older adults.

    PubMed

    Tarnopolsky, Mark A; Safdar, Adeel

    2008-02-01

    Human aging is associated with a significant reduction in muscle mass (sarcopenia) resulting in muscle weakness and functional limitations in the elderly. Sarcopenia has been associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and the accumulation of mtDNA deletions. Resistance training increases muscle strength and size and can increase mitochondrial capacity and decrease oxidative stress in older adults. Creatine monohydrate (CrM) and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) have biological effects that could enhance some of the beneficial effects of resistance training in older adults (i.e., up arrow fat-free mass, down arrow total body fat). We have completed two resistance-training studies with CrM alone and CrM+CLA supplementation in older adults to evaluate the independent effects of exercise and dietary supplements, as well as their interactive effects. Our studies, and several others, have found that CrM enhanced the resistance exercise mediated gains in fat-free mass and strength. More recently, we found that the addition of CLA also lead to a significant reduction of body fat after six months of resistance training in older adults. Older adults have fewer wild-type mtDNA copies and higher amounts of mtDNA deletions as compared with younger adults in mature skeletal muscle; however, these deletions are not seen in the satellite cell-derived myoblast cultures. These findings, and the fact that mtDNA deletions are lower and wild-type mtDNA copy number is higher after resistance training in older adults, suggests that activation of satellite cells secondary to resistance exercise-induced muscle damage can dilute or "shift" the proportion of mtDNA genotype towards that of a younger adult. Recent evidence suggests that CrM supplementation in combination with strength training can enhance satellite cell activation and total myonuclei number per muscle fiber in young men. Future studies are required to determine whether the mitochondrial adaptations to resistance exercise in older

  16. Assessment of the potential health benefits of certain total extracts from Vitis vinifera, Aesculus hyppocastanum and Curcuma longa

    PubMed Central

    MARGINĂ, DENISA; OLARU, OCTAVIAN TUDOREL; ILIE, MIHAELA; GRĂDINARU, DANIELA; GUȚU, CLAUDIA; VOICU, SORINA; DINISCHIOTU, ANCA; SPANDIDOS, DEMETRIOS A.; TSATSAKIS, ARISTIDIS M.

    2015-01-01

    A number of recent studies have illustrated the active role of food/natural components in the prevention of chronic diseases and in the improvement of the quality of life. In the present study, we aimed to obtain and characterize certain extracts from Vitis vinifera L., Aesculus hippocastanum L. and Curcuma longa L., focusing on their antioxidant effects in vitro. Three vegetal extracts were obtained for each plant: in water, 50% water-alcohol and in 96% ethanol. These extracts were then analyzed for their qualitative composition by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) and total phenolic content by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry (UV-VIS). The antioxidant activity of the extracts was assessed in vitro by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay; the effects of lipid peroxidation on the cell membrane were evaluated using Jurkat cells in two experimental models: normoglycemic and hyperglycemic medium, in order for the results to be able to be translated into clinical practice. In addition, the resistance of the extracts to acid and alkaline hydrolysis was investigated. The obtained extracts had 0.4–39 µg phenolics/mg total extract. The largest amount of phenolics was found in the Cucurma longa extracts, while the lowest was found in the Aesculus hippocastanum extacts. HPTLC analysis identified the main phenolic compounds in the extracts which were ferulic acid, gallic acid, caffeic acid and coumaric acid, as well as quercetin, kaempferol, apigenin, curcumin, luteolin and esculetin. The Aesculus hippocastanum extracts had a low antioxidant efficacy, while both the Curcuma longa and Vitis vinifera extracts had a high antioxidant activity; the products resulting from alkaline hydrolisis were significantly more efficient in scavenging DPPH radicals compared to the products resulting from acid hydrolisis. The antioxidant effects of the Curcuma longa extracts exerted on the membranes of Jurkat cells were the most prominent under both normal and

  17. Reducing the risk of xerostomia and mandibular osteoradionecrosis: the potential benefits of intensity modulated radiotherapy in advanced oral cavity carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Merina; Hansen, Vibeke N; Harrington, Kevin J; Nutting, Christopher M

    2009-01-01

    Radiation therapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity may be curative, but carries a risk of permanent damage to bone, salivary glands, and other soft tissues. We studied the potential of intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) to improve target volume coverage, and normal tissue sparing for advanced oral cavity carcinoma (OCC). Six patients with advanced OCC requiring bilateral irradiation to the oral cavity and neck were studied. Standard 3D conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) and inverse-planned IMRT dose distributions were compared by using dose-volume histograms. Doses to organs at risk, including spinal cord, parotid glands, and mandible, were assessed as surrogates of radiation toxicity. PTV1 mean dose was 60.8 +/- 0.8 Gy for 3DCRT and 59.8 +/- 0.1 Gy for IMRT (p = 0.04). PTV1 dose range was 24.7 +/- 6 Gy for 3DCRT and 15.3 +/- 4 Gy for IMRT (p = 0.001). PTV2 mean dose was 54.5 +/- 0.8 Gy for 3DCRT and for IMRT was 54.2 +/- 0.2 Gy (p = 0.34). PTV2 dose range was improved by IMRT (7.8 +/- 3.2 Gy vs. 30.7 +/- 12.8 Gy, p = 0.006). Homogeneity index (HI) values for PTV2 were closer to unity using IMRT (p = 0.0003). Mean parotid doses were 25.6 +/- 2.7 Gy for IMRT and 42.0 +/- 8.8 Gy with 3DCRT (p = 0.002). The parotid V30 in all IMRT plans was <45%. The mandible V50, V55, and V60 were significantly lower for the IMRT plans. Maximum spinal cord and brain stem doses were similar for the 2 techniques. IMRT provided superior target volume dose homogeneity and sparing of organs at risk. The magnitude of reductions in dose to the salivary glands and mandible are likely to translate into reduced incidence of xerostomia and osteoradionecrosis for patients with OCC.

  18. Reducing the Risk of Xerostomia and Mandibular Osteoradionecrosis: The Potential Benefits of Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy in Advanced Oral Cavity Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, Merina; Hansen, Vibeke N.; Harrington, Kevin J.; Nutting, Christopher M.

    2009-10-01

    Radiation therapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity may be curative, but carries a risk of permanent damage to bone, salivary glands, and other soft tissues. We studied the potential of intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) to improve target volume coverage, and normal tissue sparing for advanced oral cavity carcinoma (OCC). Six patients with advanced OCC requiring bilateral irradiation to the oral cavity and neck were studied. Standard 3D conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) and inverse-planned IMRT dose distributions were compared by using dose-volume histograms. Doses to organs at risk, including spinal cord, parotid glands, and mandible, were assessed as surrogates of radiation toxicity. PTV1 mean dose was 60.8 {+-} 0.8 Gy for 3DCRT and 59.8 {+-} 0.1 Gy for IMRT (p = 0.04). PTV1 dose range was 24.7 {+-} 6 Gy for 3DCRT and 15.3 {+-} 4 Gy for IMRT (p = 0.001). PTV2 mean dose was 54.5 {+-} 0.8 Gy for 3DCRT and for IMRT was 54.2 {+-} 0.2 Gy (p = 0.34). PTV2 dose range was improved by IMRT (7.8 {+-} 3.2 Gy vs. 30.7 {+-} 12.8 Gy, p = 0.006). Homogeneity index (HI) values for PTV2 were closer to unity using IMRT (p = 0.0003). Mean parotid doses were 25.6 {+-} 2.7 Gy for IMRT and 42.0 {+-} 8.8 Gy with 3DCRT (p = 0.002). The parotid V30 in all IMRT plans was <45%. The mandible V50, V55, and V60 were significantly lower for the IMRT plans. Maximum spinal cord and brain stem doses were similar for the 2 techniques. IMRT provided superior target volume dose homogeneity and sparing of organs at risk. The magnitude of reductions in dose to the salivary glands and mandible are likely to translate into reduced incidence of xerostomia and osteoradionecrosis for patients with OCC.

  19. Potential benefits of minimum unit pricing for alcohol versus a ban on below cost selling in England 2014: modelling study

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Yang; Holmes, John; Hill-McManus, Daniel; Meier, Petra S

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the potential impact of two alcohol control policies under consideration in England: banning below cost selling of alcohol and minimum unit pricing. Design Modelling study using the Sheffield Alcohol Policy Model version 2.5. Setting England 2014-15. Population Adults and young people aged 16 or more, including subgroups of moderate, hazardous, and harmful drinkers. Interventions Policy to ban below cost selling, which means that the selling price to consumers could not be lower than tax payable on the product, compared with policies of minimum unit pricing at £0.40 (€0.57; $0.75), 45p, and 50p per unit (7.9 g/10 mL) of pure alcohol. Main outcome measures Changes in mean consumption in terms of units of alcohol, drinkers’ expenditure, and reductions in deaths, illnesses, admissions to hospital, and quality adjusted life years. Results The proportion of the market affected is a key driver of impact, with just 0.7% of all units estimated to be sold below the duty plus value added tax threshold implied by a ban on below cost selling, compared with 23.2% of units for a 45p minimum unit price. Below cost selling is estimated to reduce harmful drinkers’ mean annual consumption by just 0.08%, around 3 units per year, compared with 3.7% or 137 units per year for a 45p minimum unit price (an approximately 45 times greater effect). The ban on below cost selling has a small effect on population health—saving an estimated 14 deaths and 500 admissions to hospital per annum. In contrast, a 45p minimum unit price is estimated to save 624 deaths and 23 700 hospital admissions. Most of the harm reductions (for example, 89% of estimated deaths saved per annum) are estimated to occur in the 5.3% of people who are harmful drinkers. Conclusions The ban on below cost selling, implemented in the England in May 2014, is estimated to have small effects on consumption and health harm. The previously announced policy of a minimum unit price, if set at

  20. [Benefit assessment of drugs].

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Thomas; Vervölgyi, V; Wieseler, B

    2015-03-01

    In Germany, new drugs are subject to a benefit assessment at the time of their market access. This "early benefit assessment" is the method primarily used for the benefit assessment of pharmaceuticals in Germany. While for the authorization of a drug a positive risk-benefit ratio is sufficient, early benefit assessment examines whether the new drug has an added benefit compared with other therapies, and thus differs significantly from authorization. For the evaluation, the manufacturer is required to submit a dossier, which must contain all the relevant studies. Early benefit assessment is very transparent in international comparisons, because all the relevant data and the evaluation report will be published. The assessment is carried out with regard to the evidence-based standard of care (the "appropriate comparator"). If the new drug is found to have an additional benefit, the extent of this added benefit is assessed. In addition, groups of patients should be identified with the particular extent of the added benefit. Therefore, subgroup analyses have to be carried out frequently. Often, for new drugs, only registration studies are available. General requirements for such studies (e.g., placebo comparison, endpoints) and decisions regarding the approval process (e.g., dosage regimens) can affect the level of confidence of these studies in the benefit assessment. Joint scientific advice by regulatory authorities and HTA (health technology assessment) agencies are provided to solve this problem. However, this is not possible without additional expense for the pharmaceutical companies. PMID:25566842

  1. Pomegranate and mint syrup addition to green tea beverage stabilized its polyphenolic content and biofunctional potentials during refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    Dhaouadi, Karima; Belkhir, Manel; Raboudi, Faten; Mecha, Elsa; Ghommeme, Imen; Bronze, Maria Do Rosario; Ammar, Hajer; Fattouch, Sami

    2016-02-01

    The chemical stability of the green tea (GT) preparation during refrigerated storage was investigated following the addition of mint (MS) or pomegranate (PS) syrups, a common habit in the Mediterranean countries that improves the savor of this popular beverage. The supernatants recovered by centrifuging GT supplemented or not with mint (GTMS) or pomegranate (GTPS) syrup were examined for their polyphenolic profiles using the high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. Following storage at 4 °C for 15 days, not-supplemented GT showed a significant decrease (≈92 %) of its phenolic content. However, the decrease was relatively lesser in GTPS (≈36 %) and in GTMS (≈40 %). The observed slight increase of the extractable polyphenolics in PS and MS during the storage might explain in part the relatively limited decrease of GTPS and GTMS total phenolic content. However, chromatographic examination proved that some tea compounds, particularly caffeine, were preserved following PS and MS supplementation. Likewise, syrups'addition to GT significantly (P < 0.5) limited the reduction of its antioxidant capacity as revealed by the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenz-thialzoline-6-sulfonic acid)) assays. As expected, the antimicrobial trials showed that Gram (+) Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis were the most sensitive strains to tea polyphenols. The syrups supplementation noticeably preserved the tea bacteriostatic and bactericide activities during storage. The obtained analytical results demonstrate that MS or PS addition to green tea beverage stabilized its polyphenolic content and biofunctional properties during refrigerated storage, thus, scientifically supporting this popular practice in the Mediterranean countries. PMID:27162396

  2. Potentials of mathematical modeling and use of GIS in catchment management and the benefits for the Water Framework Directive fulfilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dostal, T.; Krasa, J.

    2009-04-01

    - to estimate phosphorus loads from non-point sources and to define potential prevention measures in most endangered areas. The map is nowadays accessible for any Czech region at the internet as a WMS link. It can be easily downloaded from national metadata portal http://mis.cenia.cz using a key word „eroze"to search for the map. This map can be easily updated using high precision soil map (1:5000 scale) existing for the whole Czech territory. Unfortunately the soil map was not available for the recent assessment. Next example of application, generation of the map of rainfall-runoff conditions for sub catchments with area of ca 5 - 10 km2 can be mentioned. This Map classifies individual sub catchments according to their surface runoff production as response to causal rainfall event (Vrana et al, 2004). This material helps since 2004 for decision making related to state financial subsidy policy for flood control prevention in upper parts of the catchments. Related example are also Assessments of retention capacity of riverine floodplains or urban areas flood risk by surface runoff from agricultural land, which are recently processed for entire territory of The Czech Republic. One of the basic obstructions for wider implementation of simulation models and other mathematic-based tools in practice and especially for decision making support is relatively weak coordination within EU countries. There exist valid and relatively strict regulative on entire EU level on one hand, but the methods, which should be used to determine fixed values and limits are not specified properly. The approach within individual countries is very different regarding to both of methodologies recommended or accepted and input data availability for desired calculations and designs. The third problem is insufficient foreknowledge of important decision makers (local governments and state authorities) about current state of the art in mathematical modeling and GIS application in watershed and water

  3. [Effects of technological additives and heating range on some chemical and physical changes in canned meat. 2. Changes in redox potentials and selected quality characteristics].

    PubMed

    Wojciechowski, J; Pikul, J; Janitz, W

    1976-01-01

    The influence of technological additives and the range of heating on the redox potential, as well as on some quality features of canned meat was examined. The experiments showed, that the time of storage and the degree of heating of model preserves of meat influence on the redox potential. The technological additions as polyphosphates, ascorbic acid, gelatine and mixtures of these substances influence less on the redox potential. The analysis of each experimental factor showed, that on the secretion of meat juice occurring during can pasteurization or sterilization influence all experimental factors, as the kind of heating, the time of storage as well as the kind and the quantity of technological additives. The highest secretion of meat juice was found in cans with addition of ascorbic acid. Cans with addition of gelatine had the smallest content of jelly and consequently the lowest secretion of meat juice. It was also found a certain relation between the level of redox potential and the tested quality features of the model meat preserves.

  4. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  5. The potential application of red mud and soil mixture as additive to the surface layer of a landfill cover system.

    PubMed

    Ujaczki, Éva; Feigl, Viktória; Molnár, Mónika; Vaszita, Emese; Uzinger, Nikolett; Erdélyi, Attila; Gruiz, Katalin

    2016-06-01

    Red mud, the by-product of aluminum production, has been regarded as a problematic residue all over the world. Its storage involves risks as evidenced by the Ajka red mud spill, an accident in Hungary where the slurry broke free, flooding the surrounding areas. As an immediate remediation measure more than 5cm thick red mud layer was removed from the flooded soil surface. The removed red mud and soil mixture (RMSM) was transferred into the reservoirs for storage. In this paper the application of RMSM is evaluated in a field study aiming at re-utilizing waste, decreasing cost of waste disposal and providing a value-added product. The purpose was to investigate the applicability of RMSM as surface layer component of landfill cover systems. The field study was carried out in two steps: in lysimeters and in field plots. The RMSM was mixed at ratios ranging between 0 and 50% w/w with low quality subsoil (LQS) originally used as surface layer of an interim landfill cover. The characteristics of the LQS+RMSM mixtures compared to the subsoil (LQS) and the RMSM were determined by physical-chemical, biological and ecotoxicological methods. The addition of RMSM to the subsoil (LQS) at up to 20% did not result any ecotoxic effect, but it increased the water holding capacity. In addition, the microbial substrate utilization became about triple of subsoil (LQS) after 10months. According to our results the RMSM mixed into subsoil (LQS) at 20% w/w dose may be applied as surface layer of landfill cover systems. PMID:27266315

  6. Use of Antimicrobial Food Additives as Potential Dipping Solutions to Control Pseudomonas spp. Contamination in the Frankfurters and Ham

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Mi-Hwa; Park, Beom-Young; Choi, Kyoung-Hee

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of sodium diacetate and sodium lactate solutions for reducing the cell count of Pseudomonas spp. in frankfurters and hams. A mixture of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (NCCP10338, NCCP10250, and NCCP11229), and Pseudomonas fluorescens (KACC10323 and KACC10326) was inoculated on cooked frankfurters and ham. The inoculated samples were immersed into control (sterile distilled water), sodium diacetate (5 and 10%), sodium lactate (5 and 10%), 5% sodium diacetate + 5% sodium lactate, and 10% sodium diacetate + 10% sodium lactate for 0-10 min. Inoculated frankfurters and ham were also immersed into acidified (pH 3.0) solutions such as acidified sodium diacetate (5 and 10%), and acidified sodium lactate (5 and 10%) in addition to control (acidified distilled water) for 0-10 min. Total aerobic plate counts for Pseudomonas spp. were enumerated on Cetrimide agar. Significant reductions (ca. 2 Log CFU/g) in Pseudomonas spp. cells on frankfurters and ham were observed only for a combination treatment of 10% sodium lactate + 10% sodium diacetate. When the solutions were acidified to pH 3.0, the total reductions of Pseudomonas spp. were 1.5-4.0 Log CFU/g. The order of reduction amounts of Pseudomonas spp. cell counts was 10% sodium lactate > 5% sodium lactate ≥ 10% sodium diacetate > 5% sodium diacetate > control for frankfurters, and 10% sodium lactate > 5% sodium lactate > 10% sodium diacetate > 5% sodium diacetate > control for ham. The results suggest that using acidified food additive antimicrobials, as dipping solutions, should be useful in reducing Pseudomonas spp. on frankfurters and ham. PMID:26761492

  7. An Additional Potential Factor for Kidney Stone Formation during Space Flights: Calcifying Nanoparticles (Nanobacteria): A Case Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jeffrey A.; Ciftcioglu, Neva; Schmid, Joseph; Griffith, Donald

    2007-01-01

    Spaceflight-induced microgravity appears to be a risk factor for the development of urinary calculi due to skeletal calcium liberation and other undefined factors, resulting in stone disease in crewmembers during and after spaceflight. Calcifying nanoparticles, or nanobacteria, reproduce at a more rapid rate in simulated microgravity conditions and create external shells of calcium phosphate in the form of apatite. The questions arises whether calcifying nanoparticles are niduses for calculi and contribute to the development of clinical stone disease in humans, who possess environmental factors predisposing to the development of urinary calculi and potentially impaired immunological defenses during spaceflight. A case of a urinary calculus passed from an astronaut post-flight with morphological characteristics of calcifying nanoparticles and staining positive for a calcifying nanoparticle unique antigen, is presented.

  8. Identifying food proteins with allergenic potential: evolution of approaches to safety assessment and research to provide additional tools.

    PubMed

    Ladics, Gregory S; Selgrade, MaryJane K

    2009-08-01

    A safety assessment process exists for genetically engineered crops that includes the evaluation of the expressed protein for allergenic potential. The objectives of this evaluation are twofold: (1) to protect allergic consumers from exposure to known allergenic or cross-reactive proteins, and (2) protect the general population from risks associated with the introduction of genes encoding proteins that are likely to become food allergens. The first systematic approach to address these concerns was formulated by Metcalfe et al. [Metcalfe, D.D., Astwood, J.D., Townsend, R., Sampson, H.A., Taylor, S.L., and Fuchs, R.L. 1996. Assessment of the allergenic potential of foods from genetically engineered crop plants. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 36(5), 165-186.] and subsequently Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) [FAO/WHO, 2001. Evaluation of allergenicity of genetically modified foods. Report of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation on Allergenicity of Foods Derived from Biotechnology. January 22-25, 2001. Rome, Italy]. More recently, Codex [Codex Alimentarius Commission, 2003. Alinorm 03/34: Joint FAO/WHO Food Standard Programme, Codex Alimentarius Commission, Twenty-Fifth Session, Rome, Italy, 30 June-5 July, 2003. Appendix III, Guideline for the conduct of food safety assessment of foods derived from recombinant-DNA plants, and Appendix IV, Annex on the assessment of possible allergenicity. pp. 47-60], noting that no single factor is recognized as an identifier for protein allergenicity, suggested a weight of evidence approach be conducted that takes into account a variety of factors and approaches for an overall assessment of allergenic potential. These various recommendations are based on what is known about allergens, including the history of exposure and safety of the gene(s) source; amino acid sequence identity to human allergens; stability to pepsin digestion in vitro; protein abundance in the crop and

  9. Elevated contaminants contrasted with potential benefits of ω-3 fatty acids in wild food consumers of two remote first nations communities in northern Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Seabert, Timothy A; Pal, Shinjini; Pinet, Bernard M; Haman, Francois; Robidoux, Michael A; Imbeault, Pascal; Krümmel, Eva M; Kimpe, Linda E; Blais, Jules M

    2014-01-01

    Indigenous communities in Boreal environments rely on locally-harvested wild foods for sustenance. These foods provide many nutritional benefits including higher levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs; such as ω-3) than what is commonly found in store-bought foods. However, wild foods can be a route of exposure to dietary mercury and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Here, we show a strong association between the frequency of wild food consumption in adults (N=72) from two remote First Nations communities of Northern Ontario and environmental contaminants in blood (POPs) and hair (mercury). We observed that POPs and mercury were on average 3.5 times higher among those consuming wild foods more often, with many frequent wild food consumers exceeding Canadian and international health guidelines for PCB and mercury exposures. Contaminants in locally-harvested fish and game from these communities were sufficiently high that many participants exceeded the monthly consumption limits for methylmercury and PCBs. Those consuming more wild foods also had higher proportions of potentially beneficial ω-3 fatty acids including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). These results show that the benefits of traditional dietary choices in Boreal regions of Canada must be weighed against the inherent risks of contaminant exposure from these foods. PMID:24598815

  10. Elevated Contaminants Contrasted with Potential Benefits of ω-3 Fatty Acids in Wild Food Consumers of Two Remote First Nations Communities in Northern Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Seabert, Timothy A.; Pal, Shinjini; Pinet, Bernard M.; Haman, Francois; Robidoux, Michael A.; Imbeault, Pascal; Krümmel, Eva M.; Kimpe, Linda E.; Blais, Jules M.

    2014-01-01

    Indigenous communities in Boreal environments rely on locally-harvested wild foods for sustenance. These foods provide many nutritional benefits including higher levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs; such as ω-3) than what is commonly found in store-bought foods. However, wild foods can be a route of exposure to dietary mercury and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Here, we show a strong association between the frequency of wild food consumption in adults (N = 72) from two remote First Nations communities of Northern Ontario and environmental contaminants in blood (POPs) and hair (mercury). We observed that POPs and mercury were on average 3.5 times higher among those consuming wild foods more often, with many frequent wild food consumers exceeding Canadian and international health guidelines for PCB and mercury exposures. Contaminants in locally-harvested fish and game from these communities were sufficiently high that many participants exceeded the monthly consumption limits for methylmercury and PCBs. Those consuming more wild foods also had higher proportions of potentially beneficial ω-3 fatty acids including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). These results show that the benefits of traditional dietary choices in Boreal regions of Canada must be weighed against the inherent risks of contaminant exposure from these foods. PMID:24598815

  11. Elevated contaminants contrasted with potential benefits of ω-3 fatty acids in wild food consumers of two remote first nations communities in northern Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Seabert, Timothy A; Pal, Shinjini; Pinet, Bernard M; Haman, Francois; Robidoux, Michael A; Imbeault, Pascal; Krümmel, Eva M; Kimpe, Linda E; Blais, Jules M

    2014-01-01

    Indigenous communities in Boreal environments rely on locally-harvested wild foods for sustenance. These foods provide many nutritional benefits including higher levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs; such as ω-3) than what is commonly found in store-bought foods. However, wild foods can be a route of exposure to dietary mercury and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Here, we show a strong association between the frequency of wild food consumption in adults (N=72) from two remote First Nations communities of Northern Ontario and environmental contaminants in blood (POPs) and hair (mercury). We observed that POPs and mercury were on average 3.5 times higher among those consuming wild foods more often, with many frequent wild food consumers exceeding Canadian and international health guidelines for PCB and mercury exposures. Contaminants in locally-harvested fish and game from these communities were sufficiently high that many participants exceeded the monthly consumption limits for methylmercury and PCBs. Those consuming more wild foods also had higher proportions of potentially beneficial ω-3 fatty acids including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). These results show that the benefits of traditional dietary choices in Boreal regions of Canada must be weighed against the inherent risks of contaminant exposure from these foods.

  12. Strategies to Reduce the Tampering and Subsequent Abuse of Long-acting Opioids: Potential Risks and Benefits of Formulations With Physical or Pharmacologic Deterrents to Tampering

    PubMed Central

    Stanos, Steven P.; Bruckenthal, Patricia; Barkin, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    Increased prescribing of opioid analgesics for chronic noncancer pain may reflect acceptance that opioid benefits outweigh risks of adverse events for a broadening array of indications and patient populations; however, a parallel increase in the abuse, misuse, and diversion of prescription opioids has resulted. There is an urgent need to reduce opioid tampering and subsequent abuse without creating barriers to safe, effective analgesia. Similar to the “magic bullet” concept of antibiotic development (kill the bacteria without harming the patient), the idea behind reformulating opioid analgesics is to make them more difficult to tamper with and abuse by drug abusers but innocuous to the compliant patient. As antibiotics exploit differences in bacterial and human physiology, tamper-resistant formulations depend on differences in the way drug abusers and compliant patients consume opioids. Most opioid abusers tamper with tablets to facilitate oral, intranasal, or intravenous administration, whereas compliant patients usually take intact tablets. Pharmaceutical strategies to deter opioid abuse predominantly focus on tablet tampering, incorporating physical barriers (eg, crush resistance) or embedded chemicals that render tampered tablets inert, unusable, or noxious. Deterring tampering and abuse of intact tablets is more challenging. At present, only a few formulations with characteristics designed to oppose tampering for abuse have received approval by the US Food and Drug Administration, and none has been permitted to include claims of abuse deterrence or tamper resistance in their labeling. This review discusses the potential benefits, risks, and limitations associated with available tamper-resistant opioids and those in development. PMID:22766088

  13. MODEL HARMONIZATION POTENTIAL AND BENEFITS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The IPCS Harmonization Project, which is currently ongoing under the auspices of the WHO, in the context of chemical risk assessment or exposure modeling, does not imply global standardization. Instead, harmonization is thought of as an effort to strive for consistency among appr...

  14. Green tea: potential health benefits.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Craig; Segre, Tiffany

    2009-04-01

    Green tea has been used widely and in high doses for centuries as a health tonic in many societies. Evidence suggests that green tea is effective for treating genital warts. There is some supportive evidence for the use of green tea in cancer prevention. Drinking green tea is associated with a decrease in all-cause mortality, but not in cancer-related mortality. Small clinical studies have found that green tea may also be helpful in losing and managing weight, and lowering cholesterol. Epidemiologic evidence suggests that green tea may prevent stroke and cardiovascular disease. Green tea appears to be safe, although there have been case reports of hepatotoxicity possibly related to a specific extract in pill or beverage form. Green tea seems to be a low-risk complementary therapy for a number of conditions, but more studies are needed.

  15. Mechanical properties and phase composition of potential biodegradable Mg-Zn-Mn-base alloys with addition of rare earth elements

    SciTech Connect

    Stulikova, Ivana; Smola, Bohumil

    2010-10-15

    Mechanical properties and creep resistance of the MgY4Zn1Mn1 alloy in the as cast as well as in the T5 condition were compared to those of the MgCe4Zn1Mn1 alloy in the same conditions. Yield tensile stress and ultimate tensile strength of the MgY4Zn1Mn1 alloy are slightly better in the temperature range 20 deg. C-400 deg. C than these of the MgCe4Zn1Mn1 alloy. Better thermal stability of ultimate tensile strength was observed in the T5 treated MgCe4Zn1Mn1 alloy than in this material in the as cast condition. An outstanding creep resistance at 225 deg. C-350 deg. C found in the MgY4Zn1Mn1 alloy is due to the existence of the 18R long period stacking structure persisting in this alloy even a long heat treatment of 500 deg. C/32 h. No similar stacking effects happen when Ce substitutes Y in approximately the same concentration. The creep resistance deteriorates considerably in the MgCe4Zn1Mn1 alloy. Rectangular particles of the equilibrium Mg{sub 12}Ce phase dominate in the microstructure of as cast as well as of high temperature heat-treated MgCe4Zn1Mn1 alloy. A population of small oval particles containing Mg and Zn develops additionally during annealing of this alloy. These particles pin effectively dislocations and can be responsible for the better thermal stability of the T5 treated material.

  16. Use of different spices as potential natural antioxidant additives on cooked beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). Increase of DPPH radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Marina Pelincer; Tavano, Olga Luisa

    2014-12-01

    Herbs and spices, excellent sources of phenolic compounds, can be considered potential antioxidant additives. The use of spices must strike a balance between their potential antioxidant capabilities during preparation and the flavor acceptance, in order to avoid rejection of the food. The aimed of this study is to evaluate the influence of different spices and their concentrations on cooked common beans, focusing its potential as antioxidant additives. Onion, parsley, spring onion, laurel and coriander increased the antioxidant activity of preparation when used at 7.96 g of onion, 1.06 g parsley, 3.43 g spring onion, 0.25 g laurel (dry leaves), and 0.43 g coriander/100 g of cooked beans. Besides, these spices concentrations enhance total phenolics and alter the mixture protein digestibility minimally. For garlic samples it was not possible to establish a concentration that increases the antioxidant activity of cooked beans. PMID:25179942

  17. Use of different spices as potential natural antioxidant additives on cooked beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). Increase of DPPH radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Marina Pelincer; Tavano, Olga Luisa

    2014-12-01

    Herbs and spices, excellent sources of phenolic compounds, can be considered potential antioxidant additives. The use of spices must strike a balance between their potential antioxidant capabilities during preparation and the flavor acceptance, in order to avoid rejection of the food. The aimed of this study is to evaluate the influence of different spices and their concentrations on cooked common beans, focusing its potential as antioxidant additives. Onion, parsley, spring onion, laurel and coriander increased the antioxidant activity of preparation when used at 7.96 g of onion, 1.06 g parsley, 3.43 g spring onion, 0.25 g laurel (dry leaves), and 0.43 g coriander/100 g of cooked beans. Besides, these spices concentrations enhance total phenolics and alter the mixture protein digestibility minimally. For garlic samples it was not possible to establish a concentration that increases the antioxidant activity of cooked beans.

  18. An in depth proteomic analysis based on ProteoMiner, affinity chromatography and nano-HPLC-MS/MS to explain the potential health benefits of bovine colostrum.

    PubMed

    Altomare, Alessandra; Fasoli, Elisa; Colzani, Mara; Parra, Ximena Maria Paredes; Ferrari, Marina; Cilurzo, Francesco; Rumio, Cristiano; Cannizzaro, Luca; Carini, Marina; Righetti, Pier Giorgio; Aldini, Giancarlo

    2016-03-20

    Bovine colostrum (BC), the initial milk secreted by the mammary gland immediately after parturition, is widely used for several health applications. We here propose an off-target method based on proteomic analysis to explain at molecular level the potential health benefits of BC. The method is based on the set-up of an exhaustive protein data bank of bovine colostrum, including the minor protein components, followed by a bioinformatic functional analysis. The proteomic approach based on ProteoMiner technology combined to a highly selective affinity chromatography approach for the immunoglobulins depletion, identified 1786 proteins (medium confidence; 634 when setting high confidence), which were then clustered on the basis of their biological function. Protein networks were then created on the basis of the biological functions or health claims as input. A set of 93 proteins involved in the wound healing process was identified. Such an approach also permits the exploration of novel biological functions of BC by searching in the database the presence of proteins characterized by innovative functions. In conclusion an advanced approach based on an in depth proteomic analysis is reported which permits an explanation of the wound healing effect of bovine colostrum at molecular level and allows the search of novel potential beneficial effects. PMID:26809613

  19. An in depth proteomic analysis based on ProteoMiner, affinity chromatography and nano-HPLC-MS/MS to explain the potential health benefits of bovine colostrum.

    PubMed

    Altomare, Alessandra; Fasoli, Elisa; Colzani, Mara; Parra, Ximena Maria Paredes; Ferrari, Marina; Cilurzo, Francesco; Rumio, Cristiano; Cannizzaro, Luca; Carini, Marina; Righetti, Pier Giorgio; Aldini, Giancarlo

    2016-03-20

    Bovine colostrum (BC), the initial milk secreted by the mammary gland immediately after parturition, is widely used for several health applications. We here propose an off-target method based on proteomic analysis to explain at molecular level the potential health benefits of BC. The method is based on the set-up of an exhaustive protein data bank of bovine colostrum, including the minor protein components, followed by a bioinformatic functional analysis. The proteomic approach based on ProteoMiner technology combined to a highly selective affinity chromatography approach for the immunoglobulins depletion, identified 1786 proteins (medium confidence; 634 when setting high confidence), which were then clustered on the basis of their biological function. Protein networks were then created on the basis of the biological functions or health claims as input. A set of 93 proteins involved in the wound healing process was identified. Such an approach also permits the exploration of novel biological functions of BC by searching in the database the presence of proteins characterized by innovative functions. In conclusion an advanced approach based on an in depth proteomic analysis is reported which permits an explanation of the wound healing effect of bovine colostrum at molecular level and allows the search of novel potential beneficial effects.

  20. Dynamic Response of Pseudomonas putida S12 to Sudden Addition of Toluene and the Potential Role of the Solvent Tolerance Gene trgI

    PubMed Central

    Volkers, Rita J. M.; Snoek, L. Basten; Ruijssenaars, Harald J.; de Winde, Johannes H.

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida S12 is exceptionally tolerant to various organic solvents. To obtain further insight into this bacterium’s primary defence mechanisms towards these potentially harmful substances, we studied its genome wide transcriptional response to sudden addition of toluene. Global gene expression profiles were monitored for 30 minutes after toluene addition. During toluene exposure, high oxygen-affinity cytochrome c oxidase is specifically expressed to provide for an adequate proton gradient supporting solvent efflux mechanisms. Concomitantly, the glyoxylate bypass route was up-regulated, to repair an apparent toluene stress-induced redox imbalance. A knock-out mutant of trgI, a recently identified toluene-repressed gene, was investigated in order to identify TrgI function. Remarkably, upon addition of toluene the number of differentially expressed genes initially was much lower in the trgI-mutant than in the wild-type strain. This suggested that after deletion of trgI cells were better prepared for sudden organic solvent stress. Before, as well as after, addition of toluene many genes of highly diverse functions were differentially expressed in trgI-mutant cells as compared to wild-type cells. This led to the hypothesis that TrgI may not only be involved in the modulation of solvent-elicited responses but in addition may affect basal expression levels of large groups of genes. PMID:26181384

  1. Pharmacy benefits: new concepts in plan design.

    PubMed

    Goff, Veronica V

    2002-03-01

    This issue brief examines changes to prescription drug benefit coverage in large employer plans and implications for a Medicare prescription drug benefit. The brief discusses reasons behind employer benefit plan redesign and recent coverage trends, as well as potential paths to modernize benefits. Information is based on a literature review and conversations and interviews with employers, benefit consultants, and pharmacy benefit management executives.

  2. Multiple Benefits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreider, Beth

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the benefits of dome architecture for a community's middle- and high-school multi-purpose facility. The dome construction is revealed as being cost effective in construction and in maintenance and energy costs. (GR)

  3. Potential Benefits of Scanned Intensity-Modulated Proton Therapy Versus Advanced Photon Therapy With Regard to Sparing of the Salivary Glands in Oropharyngeal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Water, Tara A. van de; Bijl, Hendrik P.; Jong, Marije E. de; Schilstra, Cornelis; Langendijk, Johannes A.

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: To test the hypothesis that scanned intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) results in a significant dose reduction to the parotid and submandibular glands as compared with intensity-modulated radiotherapy with photons (IMRT) and three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) for oropharyngeal cancer. In addition, we investigated whether the achieved dose reductions would theoretically translate into a reduction of salivary dysfunction and xerostomia. Methods and Materials: Ten patients with N0 oropharyngeal carcinoma were used. The intensity-modulated plans delivered simultaneously 70 Gy to the boost planning target volume (PTV2) and 54 Gy to the elective nodal areas (PTV1). The 3D-CRT technique delivered sequentially 70 Gy and 46 Gy to PTV2 and PTV1, respectively. Normal tissue complication probabilities were calculated for salivary dysfunction and xerostomia. Results: Planning target volume coverage results were similar for IMPT and IMRT. Intensity-modulated proton therapy clearly improved the conformity. The 3D-CRT results were inferior to these results. The mean dose to the parotid glands by 3D-CRT (50.8 Gy), IMRT (25.5 Gy), and IMPT (16.8 Gy) differed significantly. For the submandibular glands no significant differences between IMRT and IMPT were found. The dose reductions obtained with IMPT theoretically translated into a significant reduction in normal tissue complication probability. Conclusion: Compared with IMRT and 3D-CRT, IMPT improved sparing of the organs at risk, while keeping similar target coverage results. The dose reductions obtained with IMPT vs. IMRT and 3D-CRT varied widely per individual patient. Intensity-modulated proton therapy theoretically translated into a clinical benefit for most cases, but this requires clinical validation.

  4. The Potential of Poly[N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide] via Reversible Addition-Fragmentation Chain Transfer Polymerization as Safe Nanocarrier.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanhong; Guo, Chunhua; Li, Shuo; Luo, Kui; Hu, Jiani; Gu, Zhongwei

    2016-06-01

    N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) copolymers have been presented as nanoscale drug/gene delivery systems and imaging probes, and the well-defined HPMA copolymers prepared via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization promote their to clinical trials, as the significant enhanced anticancer efficacy. The biosafety is another issue associated with the carriers. In this study, we prepared the linear and branched HPMA copolymers labeled with Cy5.5 via RAFT polymerization and click chemistry, and their potential biosafety was studied. The linear copolymer was prepared via RAFT polymerization mediated by the ends-functionalized peptide chain transfer agent (peptide2CTA), resulting in well-defined and block linear HPMA copolymer with molecular weight (MW) of 98 kDa. Additionally, the branched HPMA copolymer was also prepared via RAFT polymerization. Followed by Cy5.5 labeling, the two copolymers showed negative zeta potential and their accumulation into tumor was studied by in vivo optical fluorescence imaging in the nude mice with breast tumors. The biosafety studies on in vitro cytotoxicity and hemocompatibility studies, including hemolysis tests, plasma coagulation and thromboelastography assay were carried out well, demonstrating that the linear HPMA copolymer-Cy5.5 with MW around 100 kDa and biodegradable moiety in the main chain might be utilized as safe nanoscale carrier. PMID:27427626

  5. Analysis of Potential Benefits and Costs of Adopting ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1999 as a Commercial Building Energy Code in Illinois Jurisdictions

    SciTech Connect

    Belzer, David B.; Cort, Katherine A.; Winiarski, David W.; Richman, Eric E.; Friedrich, Michele

    2002-05-01

    ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1999 was developed in an effort to set minimum requirements for energy efficienty design and construction of new commercial buildings. This report assesses the benefits and costs of adopting this standard as the building energy code in Illinois. Energy and economic impacts are estimated using BLAST combined with a Life-Cycle Cost approach to assess corresponding economic costs and benefits.

  6. Intestinal Alkaline Phosphatase: Potential Roles in Promoting Gut Health in Weanling Piglets and Its Modulation by Feed Additives — A Review

    PubMed Central

    Melo, A. D. B.; Silveira, H.; Luciano, F. B.; Andrade, C.; Costa, L. B.; Rostagno, M. H.

    2016-01-01

    The intestinal environment plays a critical role in maintaining swine health. Many factors such as diet, microbiota, and host intestinal immune response influence the intestinal environment. Intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) is an important apical brush border enzyme that is influenced by these factors. IAP dephosphorylates bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS), unmethylated cytosine-guanosine dinucleotides, and flagellin, reducing bacterial toxicity and consequently regulating toll-like receptors (TLRs) activation and inflammation. It also desphosphorylates extracellular nucleotides such as uridine diphosphate and adenosine triphosphate, consequently reducing inflammation, modulating, and preserving the homeostasis of the intestinal microbiota. The apical localization of IAP on the epithelial surface reveals its role on LPS (from luminal bacteria) detoxification. As the expression of IAP is reported to be downregulated in piglets at weaning, LPS from commensal and pathogenic gram-negative bacteria could increase inflammatory processes by TLR-4 activation, increasing diarrhea events during this phase. Although some studies had reported potential IAP roles to promote gut health, investigations about exogenous IAP effects or feed additives modulating IAP expression and activity yet are necessary. However, we discussed in this paper that the critical assessment reported can suggest that exogenous IAP or feed additives that could increase its expression could show beneficial effects to reduce diarrhea events during the post weaning phase. Therefore, the main goals of this review are to discuss IAP’s role in intestinal inflammatory processes and present feed additives used as growth promoters that may modulate IAP expression and activity to promote gut health in piglets. PMID:26732323

  7. Broad-spectrum antimicrobial photocatalysis mediated by titanium dioxide and UVA is potentiated by addition of bromide ion via formation of hypobromite.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ximing; Huang, Ying-Ying; Kushida, Yu; Bhayana, Brijesh; Hamblin, Michael R

    2016-06-01

    Antimicrobial photocatalysis involves the UVA excitation of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (particularly the anatase form) to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) that kill microbial cells. For the first time we report that the addition of sodium bromide to photoactivated TiO2 (P25) potentiates the killing of Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria and fungi by up to three logs. The potentiation increased with increasing bromide concentration in the range of 0-10mM. The mechanism of potentiation is probably due to generation of both short and long-lived oxidized bromine species including hypobromite as shown by the following observations. There is some antimicrobial activity remaining in solution after switching off the light, that lasts for 30min but not 2h, and oxidizes 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine. N-acetyl tyrosine ethyl ester was brominated in a light dose-dependent manner, however no bromine or tribromide ion could be detected by spectrophotometry or LC-MS. The mechanism appears to have elements in common with the antimicrobial system (myeloperoxidase+hydrogen peroxide+bromide).

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging: A potential tool in assessing the addition of hyperthermia to neoadjuvant therapy in patients with locally advanced breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    CRACIUNESCU, OANA I.; THRALL, DONALD E.; VUJASKOVIC, ZELJKO; DEWHIRST, MARK W.

    2010-01-01

    The poor overall survival for patients with locally advanced breast cancers has led over the past decade to the introduction of numerous neoadjuvant combined therapy regimens to down-stage the disease before surgery. At the same time, more evidence suggests the need for treatment individualisation with a wide variety of new targets for cancer therapeutics and also multi modality therapies. In this context, early determination of whether the patient will fail to respond can enable the use of alternative therapies that can be more beneficial. The purpose of this review is to examine the potential role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in early prediction of treatment response and prognosis of overall survival in locally advanced breast cancer patients enrolled on multi modality therapy trials that include hyperthermia. The material is organised with a review of dynamic contrast (DCE)-MRI and diffusion weighted (DW)-MRI for characterisation of phenomenological parameters of tumour physiology and their potential role in estimating therapy response. Most of the work published in this field has focused on responses to neoadjuvant chemotherapy regimens alone, so the emphasis will be there, however the available data that involves the addition of hyperthermia to the regimen will be discussed The review will also include future directions that include the potential use of MRI imaging techniques in establishing the role of hyperthermia alone in modifying breast tumour microenvironment, together with specific challenges related to performing such studies. PMID:20849258

  9. Medicaid Benefits

    MedlinePlus

    ... Topic Eligibility Benefits Cost Sharing Waivers Long Term Services and Supports Delivery Systems Quality of Care Data and Systems Enrollment Strategies Access to Care Program Integrity Financing and ... type, amount, duration, and scope of services within broad federal guidelines. States are required to ...

  10. Potential biofuel additive from renewable sources--Kinetic study of formation of butyl acetate by heterogeneously catalyzed transesterification of ethyl acetate with butanol.

    PubMed

    Ali, Sami H; Al-Rashed, Osama; Azeez, Fadhel A; Merchant, Sabiha Q

    2011-11-01

    Butyl acetate holds great potential as a sustainable biofuel additive. Heterogeneously catalyzed transesterification of biobutanol and bioethylacetate can produce butyl acetate. This route is eco-friendly and offers several advantages over the commonly used Fischer Esterification. The Amberlite IR 120- and Amberlyst 15-catalyzed transesterification is studied in a batch reactor over a range of catalyst loading (6-12 wt.%), alcohol to ester feed ratio (1:3 to 3:1), and temperature (303.15-333.15K). A butanol mole fraction of 0.2 in the feed is found to be optimum. Amberlite IR 120 promotes faster kinetics under these conditions. The transesterifications studied are slightly exothermic. The moles of solvent sorbed per gram of catalyst decreases (ethanol>butanol>ethyl acetate>butyl acetate) with decrease in solubility parameter. The dual site models, the Langmuir Hinshelwood and Popken models, are the most successful in correlating the kinetics over Amberlite IR 120 and Amberlyst 15, respectively.

  11. Potentiation of the effect of a commercial animal feed additive mixed with different probiotic yeast strains on the adsorption of aflatoxin B1.

    PubMed

    Poloni, Valeria; Dogi, Cecilia; Pereyra, Carina Maricel; Fernández Juri, Maria G; Köhler, Pablo; Rosa, Carlos A R; Dalcero, Ana Maria; Cavaglieri, Lilia Reneé

    2015-01-01

    This study potentiates the adsorbent effect for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) of a commercial additive (CA) of animal feed, containing inactive lysate of three Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, active enzymes, adsorbents and a selenium-amino acid complex, when the additive was mixed separately with three S. cerevisiae strains. Levels of AFB1 of 20 and 50 ng g(-1) were used to determine the binding capacity of different concentrations of CA alone and in the presence of yeast strains, as well as toxin desorption, under gastrointestinal conditions. The viability of yeasts in the presence of CA was evaluated. The results show that the CA did not affect the viability of the yeast strains assayed. CA alone showed a low percentage adsorption. At 20 and at 50 ng g(-1), CA was highly efficient in adsorbing AFB1 when combined with RC016 and RC012 strains respectively. Desorption of AFB1 by CA alone and in combination with the yeasts increased with increasing levels of CA. The results demonstrate the improvement of CA in AFB1 adsorption once it is mixed with live yeasts.

  12. 38 CFR 3.650 - Rate for additional dependent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....650 Rate for additional dependent. (a) Running awards. Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this...: (1) Where benefits would be payable from a date prior to the date of filing claim, the reduction will be effective from the date of potential entitlement of the additional dependent. (2) Where...

  13. 38 CFR 3.650 - Rate for additional dependent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....650 Rate for additional dependent. (a) Running awards. Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this...: (1) Where benefits would be payable from a date prior to the date of filing claim, the reduction will be effective from the date of potential entitlement of the additional dependent. (2) Where...

  14. 38 CFR 3.650 - Rate for additional dependent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....650 Rate for additional dependent. (a) Running awards. Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this...: (1) Where benefits would be payable from a date prior to the date of filing claim, the reduction will be effective from the date of potential entitlement of the additional dependent. (2) Where...

  15. 38 CFR 3.650 - Rate for additional dependent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....650 Rate for additional dependent. (a) Running awards. Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this...: (1) Where benefits would be payable from a date prior to the date of filing claim, the reduction will be effective from the date of potential entitlement of the additional dependent. (2) Where...

  16. Topics in Microeconometrics: Estimation of a Dynamic Model of Occupational Transitions, Wage and Non-Wage Benefits Cross Validation Bandwidth Selection for Derivatives of Various Dimensional Densities Testing the Additive Separability of the Teacher Value Added Effect Semiparametrically

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, Matthew David

    2012-01-01

    I study three separate questions in this dissertation. In Chapter 1, I develop and estimate a structural dynamic model of occupation and job choice to test hypotheses of the importance of wages and non-wages and learning in occupational transitions, and find that wages are approximately 3 times as important as non-wage benefits in decisions and…

  17. Cellulolytic potential of probiotic Bacillus Subtilis AMS6 isolated from traditional fermented soybean (Churpi): An in-vitro study with regards to application as an animal feed additive.

    PubMed

    Manhar, Ajay K; Bashir, Yasir; Saikia, Devabrata; Nath, Dhrubajyoti; Gupta, Kuldeep; Konwar, Bolin K; Kumar, Rahul; Namsa, Nima D; Mandal, Manabendra

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate the probiotic attributes of Bacillus subtilis AMS6 isolated from fermented soybean (Churpi). This isolate exhibited tolerance to low pH (pH 2.0) and bile salt (0.3%), capability to autoaggregate and coaggregate. AMS6 also showed highest antibacterial activity against the pathogenic indicator strain Salmonella enterica typhimurium (MTCC 1252) and susceptibility towards different antibiotics tested. The isolate was effective in inhibiting the adherence of food borne pathogens to Caco-2 epithelial cell lines, and was also found to be non-hemolytic which further strengthen the candidature of the isolate as a potential probiotic. Further studies revealed B. subtilis AMS6 showed cellulolytic activity (0.54±0.05 filter paper units mL(-1)) at 37°C. The isolate was found to hydrolyze carboxymethyl cellulose, filter paper and maize (Zea mays) straw. The maize straw digestion was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy studies. The isolate was able to degrade filter paper within 96h of incubation. A full length cellulase gene of AMS6 was amplified using degenerate primers consisting of 1499 nucleotides. The ORF encoded for a protein of 499 amino acids residues with a predicted molecular mass of 55.04kDa. The amino acids sequence consisted of a glycosyl hydrolase family 5 domain at N-terminal; Glycosyl hydrolase catalytic core and a CBM-3 cellulose binding domain at its C terminal. The study suggests potential probiotic B. subtilis AMS6 as a promising candidate envisaging its application as an animal feed additive for enhanced fiber digestion and gut health of animal.

  18. Cellulolytic potential of probiotic Bacillus Subtilis AMS6 isolated from traditional fermented soybean (Churpi): An in-vitro study with regards to application as an animal feed additive.

    PubMed

    Manhar, Ajay K; Bashir, Yasir; Saikia, Devabrata; Nath, Dhrubajyoti; Gupta, Kuldeep; Konwar, Bolin K; Kumar, Rahul; Namsa, Nima D; Mandal, Manabendra

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate the probiotic attributes of Bacillus subtilis AMS6 isolated from fermented soybean (Churpi). This isolate exhibited tolerance to low pH (pH 2.0) and bile salt (0.3%), capability to autoaggregate and coaggregate. AMS6 also showed highest antibacterial activity against the pathogenic indicator strain Salmonella enterica typhimurium (MTCC 1252) and susceptibility towards different antibiotics tested. The isolate was effective in inhibiting the adherence of food borne pathogens to Caco-2 epithelial cell lines, and was also found to be non-hemolytic which further strengthen the candidature of the isolate as a potential probiotic. Further studies revealed B. subtilis AMS6 showed cellulolytic activity (0.54±0.05 filter paper units mL(-1)) at 37°C. The isolate was found to hydrolyze carboxymethyl cellulose, filter paper and maize (Zea mays) straw. The maize straw digestion was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy studies. The isolate was able to degrade filter paper within 96h of incubation. A full length cellulase gene of AMS6 was amplified using degenerate primers consisting of 1499 nucleotides. The ORF encoded for a protein of 499 amino acids residues with a predicted molecular mass of 55.04kDa. The amino acids sequence consisted of a glycosyl hydrolase family 5 domain at N-terminal; Glycosyl hydrolase catalytic core and a CBM-3 cellulose binding domain at its C terminal. The study suggests potential probiotic B. subtilis AMS6 as a promising candidate envisaging its application as an animal feed additive for enhanced fiber digestion and gut health of animal. PMID:27242144

  19. Potential of the waste from beer fermentation broth for bio-ethanol production without any additional enzyme, microbial cells and carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Ha, Jung Hwan; Shah, Nasrullah; Ul-Islam, Mazhar; Park, Joong Kon

    2011-08-10

    The potential of the waste from beer fermentation broth (WBFB) for the production of bio-ethanol using a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process without any extra additions of saccharification enzymes, microbial cells or carbohydrate was tested. The major microbial cells in WBFB were isolated and identified. The variations in compositions of WBFB with stock time were investigated. There was residual activity of starch hydrolyzing enzymes in WBFB. The effects of reaction modes e.g. static and shaking on bio-ethanol production were studied. After 7 days of cultivation using the supernatant of WBFB at 30 °C the ethanol concentration reached 103.8 g/L in shaking culture and 91.5 g/L in static culture. Agitation experiments conducted at a temperature-profile process in which temperature was increased from 25 to 67 °C shortened the simultaneous process time. The original WBFB was more useful than the supernatant of WBFB in getting the higher concentration of ethanol and reducing the fermentation time. From this whole study it was found that WBFB is a cheap and suitable source for bio-ethanol production. PMID:22112515

  20. Screening: the information individuals need to support their decision: per protocol analysis is better than intention-to-treat analysis at quantifying potential benefits and harms of screening

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Providing individuals with the information necessary to make informed decisions is now considered an ethical standard for health systems and general practitioners. Discussion Results from intention-to-treat analysis have thus far been used to illustrate screening benefits and harms, but intention-to-treat analysis in most screening trials compares no intervention to invitation to screening. Therefore, the intervention arm includes everyone who was invited, regardless of actual participation. These results may be misleading for individual decision-making. We propose to use a per protocol analysis that includes all subjects who presented to screening and compares them to those in control arm, adjusting for self-selection bias. Such an analysis can give more accurate and useful information for individual decision-making. Summary Correct information for individual decision to participate in screening or not should consider the efficacy, benefits, and harms observed for subjects who actually participated at least once in screening compared to the control arm, adjusting for self-selection bias. Thus, per protocol analysis, even a very conservative one, should be used, not a full intention-to-treat analysis. PMID:24678628

  1. Food additive carrageenan: Part I: A critical review of carrageenan in vitro studies, potential pitfalls, and implications for human health and safety.

    PubMed

    McKim, James M

    2014-03-01

    Carrageenan (CGN) has been used as a safe food additive for several decades. Confusion over nomenclature, basic CGN chemistry, type of CGN tested, interspecies biology, and misinterpretation of both in vivo and in vitro data has resulted in the dissemination of incorrect information regarding the human safety of CGN. The issue is exacerbated when mechanistic data obtained from in vitro experiments are directly translated to human hazard and used for risk assessment. This can lead to information that is taken out of experimental context and reported as a definitive effect in humans. In recent years, the use of cell-based models has increased and their ability to provide key information regarding chemical or drug safety is well established. In many instances, these new alternative approaches have started to replace the need to use animals altogether. In vitro systems can be extremely useful for understanding subcellular targets and mechanisms of adverse effects. However, care must be exercised when extrapolating the in vitro findings to in vivo effects. Often, issues such as chemical identity and purity, relevant dose, pharmacokinetic properties, solubility, protein binding, adsorption to plastics, and the use of cell models that are biologically and mechanistically relevant are overlooked or ignored. When this occurs, in vitro findings can provide misleading information that is not causally linked to in vivo events in animals or in humans. To date, there has not been a comprehensive review of the CGN in vitro literature, which has reported a wide range of biochemical effects related to this compound. An extensive effort has been made to evaluate as much of this literature as possible. This review focuses on the in vitro observation, the unique chemistry of CGN, and potential pitfalls of in vitro models used for hazard identification. The discussion of the in vitro studies discussed this review are supported by numerous in vivo studies. This provides a unique

  2. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  3. The potential of supplemental instruction in engineering education: creating additional peer-guided learning opportunities in difficult compulsory courses for first-year students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malm, Joakim; Bryngfors, Leif; Mörner, Lise-Lotte

    2016-09-01

    Supplemental Instruction (SI) can be an efficient way of improving student success in difficult courses. Here, a study is made on SI attached to difficult first-year engineering courses. The results show that both the percentage of students passing a difficult first-year engineering course, and scores on the course exams are considerably higher for students attending SI, compared to students not attending. The study also shows that a higher percentage of female students attend SI, compared to male students. However, both genders seem to benefit to the same degree as a result of attending SI meetings. Also all students, independent of prior academic ability, benefit from attending SI. A qualitative study suggests that SI meetings provide elements important for understanding course material, which are missing from other scheduled learning opportunities in the courses.

  4. Assessing the carbon benefit of saltmarsh restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Benjamin; Paterson, David; Hanley, Nicholas

    2016-04-01

    The quantification of carbon sequestration rates in coastal ecosystems is required to better realise their potential role in climate change mitigation. Through accurate valuation this service can be fully appreciated and perhaps help facilitate efforts to restore vulnerable ecosystems such as saltmarshes. Vegetated coastal ecosystems are suggested to account for approximately 50% of oceanic sedimentary carbon despite their 2% areal extent. Saltmarshes, conservatively estimated to store 430 ± 30 Tg C in surface sediment deposits, have experienced extensive decline in the recent past; through processes such as land use change and coastal squeeze. Saltmarsh habitats offer a range of services that benefit society and the natural world, making their conservation meaningful and beneficial. The associated costs of restoration projects could, in part, be subsidised through payment for ecosystem services, specifically Blue carbon. Additional storage is generated through the (re)vegetation of mudflat areas leading to an altered ecosystem state and function; providing similar benefits to natural saltmarsh areas. The Eden Estuary, Fife, Scotland has been a site of saltmarsh restoration since 2000; providing a temporal and spatial scale to evaluate these additional benefits. The study is being conducted to quantify the carbon benefit of restoration efforts and provide an insight into the evolution of this benefit through sites of different ages. Seasonal sediment deposition and settlement rates are measured across the estuary in: mudflat, young planted saltmarsh, old planted saltmarsh and extant high marsh areas. Carbon values being derived from loss on ignition organic content values. Samples are taken across a tidal cycle on a seasonal basis; providing data on tidal influence, vegetation condition effects and climatic factors on sedimentation and carbon sequestration rates. These data will inform on the annual characteristics of sedimentary processes in the estuary and be

  5. Biobased lubricant additives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fully biobased lubricants are those formulated using all biobased ingredients, i.e. biobased base oils and biobased additives. Such formulations provide the maximum environmental, safety, and economic benefits expected from a biobased product. Currently, there are a number of biobased base oils that...

  6. 20 CFR 802.215 - Additional briefs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional briefs. 802.215 Section 802.215 Employees' Benefits BENEFITS REVIEW BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Prereview Procedures Initial Processing § 802.215 Additional briefs. Additional briefs may be filed or ordered in...

  7. Prospective assessment of a gene signature potentially predictive of clinical benefit in metastatic melanoma patients following MAGE-A3 immunotherapeutic (PREDICT)

    PubMed Central

    Saiag, P.; Gutzmer, R.; Ascierto, P. A.; Maio, M.; Grob, J.-J.; Murawa, P.; Dreno, B.; Ross, M.; Weber, J.; Hauschild, A.; Rutkowski, P.; Testori, A.; Levchenko, E.; Enk, A.; Misery, L.; Vanden Abeele, C.; Vojtek, I.; Peeters, O.; Brichard, V. G.; Therasse, P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Genomic profiling of tumor tissue may aid in identifying predictive or prognostic gene signatures (GS) in some cancers. Retrospective gene expression profiling of melanoma and non-small-cell lung cancer led to the characterization of a GS associated with clinical benefit, including improved overall survival (OS), following immunization with the MAGE-A3 immunotherapeutic. The goal of the present study was to prospectively evaluate the predictive value of the previously characterized GS. Patients and methods An open-label prospective phase II trial (‘PREDICT’) in patients with MAGE-A3-positive unresectable stage IIIB-C/IV-M1a melanoma. Results Of 123 subjects who received the MAGE-A3 immunotherapeutic, 71 (58.7%) displayed the predictive GS (GS+). The 1-year OS rate was 83.1%/83.3% in the GS+/GS− populations. The rate of progression-free survival at 12 months was 5.8%/4.1% in GS+/GS− patients. The median time-to-treatment failure was 2.7/2.4 months (GS+/GS−). There was one complete response (GS−) and two partial responses (GS+). The MAGE-A3 immunotherapeutic was similarly immunogenic in both populations and had a clinically acceptable safety profile. Conclusion Treatment of patients with MAGE-A3-positive unresectable stage IIIB-C/IV-M1a melanoma with the MAGE-A3 immunotherapeutic demonstrated an overall 1-year OS rate of 83.5%. GS− and GS+ patients had similar 1-year OS rates, indicating that in this study, GS was not predictive of outcome. Unexpectedly, the objective response rate was lower in this study than in other studies carried out in the same setting with the MAGE-A3 immunotherapeutic. Investigation of a GS to predict clinical benefit to adjuvant MAGE-A3 immunotherapeutic treatment is ongoing in another melanoma study. This study is registered at www.clinicatrials.gov NCT00942162. PMID:27502712

  8. Who benefits from child benefit?

    PubMed

    Blow, Laura; Walker, Ian; Zhu, Yu

    2012-01-01

    Governments, over much of the developed world, make significant financial transfers to parents with dependent children. For example, in the United States the recently introduced Child Tax Credit (CTC), which goes to almost all children, costs almost $1 billion each week, or about 0.4% of GNP. The United Kingdom has even more generous transfers and spends an average of about $30 a week on each of about 8 million children—about 1% of GNP. The typical rationale given for these transfers is that they are good for our children and here we investigate the effect of such transfers on household spending patterns. In the United Kingdom such transfers, known as Child Benefit (CB), have been simple lump sum universal payments for a continuous period of more than 20 years. We do indeed find that CB is spent differently from other income—paradoxically, it appears to be spent disproportionately on adult-assignable goods. In fact, we estimate that as much as half of a marginal dollar of CB is spent on alcohol. We resolve this puzzle by showing that the effect is confined to unanticipated variation in CB so we infer that parents are sufficiently altruistic toward their children that they completely insure them against shocks. PMID:22329051

  9. Who benefits from child benefit?

    PubMed

    Blow, Laura; Walker, Ian; Zhu, Yu

    2012-01-01

    Governments, over much of the developed world, make significant financial transfers to parents with dependent children. For example, in the United States the recently introduced Child Tax Credit (CTC), which goes to almost all children, costs almost $1 billion each week, or about 0.4% of GNP. The United Kingdom has even more generous transfers and spends an average of about $30 a week on each of about 8 million children—about 1% of GNP. The typical rationale given for these transfers is that they are good for our children and here we investigate the effect of such transfers on household spending patterns. In the United Kingdom such transfers, known as Child Benefit (CB), have been simple lump sum universal payments for a continuous period of more than 20 years. We do indeed find that CB is spent differently from other income—paradoxically, it appears to be spent disproportionately on adult-assignable goods. In fact, we estimate that as much as half of a marginal dollar of CB is spent on alcohol. We resolve this puzzle by showing that the effect is confined to unanticipated variation in CB so we infer that parents are sufficiently altruistic toward their children that they completely insure them against shocks.

  10. [INVITED] Lasers in additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinkerton, Andrew J.

    2016-04-01

    Additive manufacturing is a topic of considerable ongoing interest, with forecasts predicting it to have major impact on industry in the future. This paper focusses on the current status and potential future development of the technology, with particular reference to the role of lasers within it. It begins by making clear the types and roles of lasers in the different categories of additive manufacturing. This is followed by concise reviews of the economic benefits and disadvantages of the technology, current state of the market and use of additive manufacturing in different industries. Details of these fields are referenced rather than expanded in detail. The paper continues, focusing on current indicators to the future of additive manufacturing. Barriers to its development, trends and opportunities in major industrial sectors, and wider opportunities for its development are covered. Evidence indicates that additive manufacturing may not become the dominant manufacturing technology in all industries, but represents an excellent opportunity for lasers to increase their influence in manufacturing as a whole.

  11. Quantifying the benefit of wellbore leakage potential estimates for prioritizing long-term MVA well sampling at a CO2 storage site.

    PubMed

    Azzolina, Nicholas A; Small, Mitchell J; Nakles, David V; Glazewski, Kyle A; Peck, Wesley D; Gorecki, Charles D; Bromhal, Grant S; Dilmore, Robert M

    2015-01-20

    This work uses probabilistic methods to simulate a hypothetical geologic CO2 storage site in a depleted oil and gas field, where the large number of legacy wells would make it cost-prohibitive to sample all wells for all measurements as part of the postinjection site care. Deep well leakage potential scores were assigned to the wells using a random subsample of 100 wells from a detailed study of 826 legacy wells that penetrate the basal Cambrian formation on the U.S. side of the U.S./Canadian border. Analytical solutions and Monte Carlo simulations were used to quantify the statistical power of selecting a leaking well. Power curves were developed as a function of (1) the number of leaking wells within the Area of Review; (2) the sampling design (random or judgmental, choosing first the wells with the highest deep leakage potential scores); (3) the number of wells included in the monitoring sampling plan; and (4) the relationship between a well’s leakage potential score and its relative probability of leakage. Cases where the deep well leakage potential scores are fully or partially informative of the relative leakage probability are compared to a noninformative base case in which leakage is equiprobable across all wells in the Area of Review. The results show that accurate prior knowledge about the probability of well leakage adds measurable value to the ability to detect a leaking well during the monitoring program, and that the loss in detection ability due to imperfect knowledge of the leakage probability can be quantified. This work underscores the importance of a data-driven, risk-based monitoring program that incorporates uncertainty quantification into long-term monitoring sampling plans at geologic CO2 storage sites.

  12. Quantifying the benefit of wellbore leakage potential estimates for prioritizing long-term MVA well sampling at a CO2 storage site.

    PubMed

    Azzolina, Nicholas A; Small, Mitchell J; Nakles, David V; Glazewski, Kyle A; Peck, Wesley D; Gorecki, Charles D; Bromhal, Grant S; Dilmore, Robert M

    2015-01-20

    This work uses probabilistic methods to simulate a hypothetical geologic CO2 storage site in a depleted oil and gas field, where the large number of legacy wells would make it cost-prohibitive to sample all wells for all measurements as part of the postinjection site care. Deep well leakage potential scores were assigned to the wells using a random subsample of 100 wells from a detailed study of 826 legacy wells that penetrate the basal Cambrian formation on the U.S. side of the U.S./Canadian border. Analytical solutions and Monte Carlo simulations were used to quantify the statistical power of selecting a leaking well. Power curves were developed as a function of (1) the number of leaking wells within the Area of Review; (2) the sampling design (random or judgmental, choosing first the wells with the highest deep leakage potential scores); (3) the number of wells included in the monitoring sampling plan; and (4) the relationship between a well’s leakage potential score and its relative probability of leakage. Cases where the deep well leakage potential scores are fully or partially informative of the relative leakage probability are compared to a noninformative base case in which leakage is equiprobable across all wells in the Area of Review. The results show that accurate prior knowledge about the probability of well leakage adds measurable value to the ability to detect a leaking well during the monitoring program, and that the loss in detection ability due to imperfect knowledge of the leakage probability can be quantified. This work underscores the importance of a data-driven, risk-based monitoring program that incorporates uncertainty quantification into long-term monitoring sampling plans at geologic CO2 storage sites. PMID:25551254

  13. C4F8O/O2/N-based Additive Gases for Silicon Nitride Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition Chamber Cleaning with Low Global Warming Potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ji Hwang; Bae, Jeong Woon; Oh, Chang Hyun; Kim, Ki Joon; Lee, Nae Eung; Yeom, Geun Young

    2002-11-01

    In this study, N2O and NO were added as additive gases to C4F8O/O2 for plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) silicon nitride chamber cleaning and their effects on the emission properties of perfluorocarbon compounds (PFCs) were investigated. The cleaning rate, destruction and removal efficiencies (DREs), and million metric tons of carbon equivalent (MMTCE) were studied as a function of flow rates of PFCs and additive gases. The use of C4F8O/O2 alone showed the highest cleaning rate and the lowest emission properties at the cleaning condition of 20%C4F8O/80%O2, working pressure of 500 mTorr, and 13.56 MHz rf power of 350 W. By the addition of about 20% NO or 20% N2O to the optimized C4F8O/O2, the additional reduction of MMTCE higher than 50% could be obtained. The addition of NO resulted in lower MMTCE compared to that in the case of the addition of N2O mostly due to the higher silicon nitride cleaning rate in the latter case.

  14. Capturing patient benefits of treatment.

    PubMed

    Carr, Alan; Wolfaardt, John; Garrett, Neal

    2011-01-01

    Findings from the Academy of Osseointegration State of the Science on Implant Dentistry Conference clearly demonstrate that data are lacking regarding both quality of design and adequate outcome measures (standardization, validity, and relevance to patient) to support an evidence-based systematic evaluation of implant efficacy. Despite the dearth of controlled trials and the variability in defining implant survival/success, the preponderance of evidence is viewed as lending support for consideration of dental implant therapy as a safe and predictable alternative to conventional restorations for many applications. However, this minimal conclusion undermines the best intentions of the dental profession, which is striving to substantiate to the patient, third-party providers, and the government the relative benefits and risks of various prosthetic treatment alternatives. The conclusions of multiple consensus conferences have repeatedly stressed that additional research with good strength of evidence following a broad spectrum of outcomes is vital to extend the breadth of conclusions regarding dental implant treatment efficacy. However, without a set of consensus-based core outcome measures addressing pertinent clinical and patient-centered factors, future expensive, time-consuming, and technically complex clinical studies may suffer the same critical flaws seen in the current body of research. It may be possible and useful to establish a core set of well-defined, discriminatory, and feasible outcome measures for common utilization and a hierarchy of additional recommended outcome measures for specific benefit categories. Such a standardized group of outcome measures would be likely to significantly enhance the potential for future research. In addition, with the formation of consensus guidelines, there would be an opportunity for scientific journals to promote the quality of implant dentistry research by suggesting the inclusion of these core outcome measures in

  15. Benefit adequacy among elderly Social Security retired-worker beneficiaries and the SSI federal benefit rate.

    PubMed

    Rupp, Kalman; Strand, Alexander; Davies, Paul; Sears, Jim

    2007-01-01

    administrative simplicity behind these screening errors also results in additional program cost that may be perceived as substantial. We estimate that an FBR-level minimum benefit would increase aggregate program cost for retired workers aged 65 or older by roughly 2 percent. There are two fundamental reasons for these findings. First, the concept of an FBR-level minimum benefit looks at the individual or married couple in artificial isolation; however, the family is the main consumption unit in our society. The income of an unmarried partner or family members other than a married spouse is ignored. Second, individuals and couples may also have income from sources other than Social Security or SSI, which is also ignored by a simple FBR-based minimum benefit concept. The substantial empirical magnitude of measurement error arising from these conceptual simplifications naturally leads to the assessment of the tradeoff between target effectiveness and administrative simplicity. To facilitate this analysis, we simulate the potential effect of alternative screening methods designed to increase target effectiveness; while reducing program cost, such alternatives also may increase administrative complexity. For example, considering the combined Social Security benefit of a married couple (rather than looking at the husband and wife in isolation) might substantially increase target effectiveness with a relatively small increase in administrative complexity. Adding a family income screen might increase administrative complexity to a greater degree, but also would increase target effectiveness dramatically. The results also suggest that at some point adding new screens-such as a comprehensive asset test-may drastically increase administrative complexity with diminishing returns in terms of increased target effectiveness and reduced program cost. Whether a broad-based minimum benefit concept that is not tied to previous work experience is perceived by policymakers as desirable or not may

  16. Would banning atrazine benefit farmers?

    PubMed Central

    Ackerman, Frank; Whited, Melissa; Knight, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Atrazine, an herbicide used on most of the US corn (maize) crop, is the subject of ongoing controversy, with increasing documentation of its potentially harmful health and environmental impacts. Supporters of atrazine often claim that it is of great value to farmers; most recently, Syngenta, the producer of atrazine, sponsored an “Atrazine Benefits Team” (ABT) of researchers who released a set of five papers in 2011, reporting huge economic benefits from atrazine use in US agriculture. A critical review of the ABT papers shows that they have underestimated the growing problem of atrazine-resistant weeds, offered only a partial review of the effectiveness of alternative herbicides, and ignored the promising option of non-chemical weed management techniques. In addition, the most complete economic analysis in the ABT papers implies that withdrawal of atrazine would lead to a decrease in corn yields of 4.4% and an increase in corn prices of 8.0%. The result would be an increase in corn growers’ revenues, equal to US$1.7 billion annually under ABT assumptions. Price impacts on consumers would be minimal: at current levels of ethanol production and use, gasoline prices would rise by no more than US$0.03 per gallon; beef prices would rise by an estimated US$0.01 for a 4-ounce hamburger and US$0.05 for an 8-ounce steak. Thus withdrawal of atrazine would boost farm revenues, while only changing consumer prices by pennies. PMID:24804340

  17. Space exercise and Earth benefits.

    PubMed

    Macias, Brandon R; Groppo, Eli R; Eastlack, Robert K; Watenpaugh, Donald E; Lee, Stuart M C; Schneider, Suzanne M; Boda, Wanda L; Smith, Scott M; Cutuk, Adnan; Pedowitz, Robert A; Meyer, R Scott; Hargens, Alan R

    2005-08-01

    The detrimental impact of long duration space flight on physiological systems necessitates the development of exercise countermeasures to protect work capabilities in gravity fields of Earth, Moon and Mars. The respective rates of physiological deconditioning for different organ systems during space flight has been described as a result of data collected during and after missions on the Space Shuttle, International Space Station, Mir, and bed rest studies on Earth. An integrated countermeasure that simulates the body's hydrostatic pressure gradient, provides mechanical stress to the bones and muscles, and stimulates the neurovestibular system may be critical for maintaining health and well being of crew during long-duration space travel, such as a mission to Mars. Here we review the results of our studies to date of an integrated exercise countermeasure for space flight, lower body negative pressure (LBNP) treadmill exercise, and potential benefits of its application to athletic training on Earth. Additionally, we review the benefits of Lower Body Positive Pressure (LBPP) exercise for rehabilitation of postoperative patients. Presented first are preliminary data from a 30-day bed rest study evaluating the efficacy of LBNP exercise as an integrated exercise countermeasure for the deconditioning effects of microgravity. Next, we review upright LBNP exercise as a training modality for athletes by evaluating effects on the cardiovascular system and gait mechanics. Finally, LBPP exercise as a rehabilitation device is examined with reference to gait mechanics and safety in two groups of postoperative patients.

  18. Would banning atrazine benefit farmers?

    PubMed

    Ackerman, Frank; Whited, Melissa; Knight, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Atrazine, an herbicide used on most of the US corn (maize) crop, is the subject of ongoing controversy, with increasing documentation of its potentially harmful health and environmental impacts. Supporters of atrazine often claim that it is of great value to farmers; most recently, Syngenta, the producer of atrazine, sponsored an "Atrazine Benefits Team" (ABT) of researchers who released a set of five papers in 2011, reporting huge economic benefits from atrazine use in US agriculture. A critical review of the ABT papers shows that they have underestimated the growing problem of atrazine-resistant weeds, offered only a partial review of the effectiveness of alternative herbicides, and ignored the promising option of nonchemical weed management techniques. In addition, the most complete economic analysis in the ABT papers implies that withdrawal of atrazine would lead to a decrease in corn yields of 4.4% and an increase in corn prices of 8.0%. The result would be an increase in corn growers' revenues, equal to US$1.7 billion annually under ABT assumptions. Price impacts on consumers would be minimal: at current levels of ethanol production and use, gasoline prices would rise by no more than US$0.03 per gallon; beef prices would rise by an estimated US$0.01 for a 4-ounce hamburger and US$0.05 for an 8-ounce steak. Thus withdrawal of atrazine would boost farm revenues, while only changing consumer prices by pennies.

  19. An exploratory study of the potential learning benefits for medical students in collaborative drawing: creativity, reflection and ‘critical looking’

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Building on a series of higher educational arts/medicine initiatives, an interdisciplinary drawing module themed on the human body was developed for both year 3 Craft students and year 3 Medicine degree students. This became the subject of a research project exploring how the collaborative approach to drawing adopted on this module impacted on the students’ learning. In this article, emphasis is given to issues thought to have most potential relevance to medical education. Methods Using an ethnographic research design, the methods adopted were: direct observation of all aspects of the module sessions, audio and video recordings and photographs of the sessions, the incorporation of a semi-structured discussion at the end of each session, and anonymous student questionnaires. Results A number of key themes emerged. The complex, phased and multi-sensory nature of the ‘critical looking’ skills developed through the drawing exercises was seen as of potential value in medical education, being proposed as analogous to processes involved in clinical examination and diagnosis. The experience of interdisciplinary collaborative drawing was significant to the students as a creative, participatory and responsive form of learning. The emphasis on the physical experience of drawing and the thematic use of the human body as drawing subject led to reflective discussions about bodily knowledge and understanding. There were indications that students had a meta-cognitive awareness of the learning shifts that had occurred and the sessions provoked constructive self-reflective explorations of pre-professional identity. Conclusions This preliminary study suggests, through the themes identified, that there may be potential learning outcomes for medical students in this model of interdisciplinary collaborative drawing of the human body. Further research is needed to explore their applicability and value to medical education. There is a need to explore in more depth the

  20. Potential benefits of healthy food and lifestyle policies for reducing coronary heart disease mortality in Turkish adults by 2025: a modelling study

    PubMed Central

    Sahan, Ceyda; Sozmen, Kaan; Unal, Belgin; O'Flaherty, Martin; Critchley, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study uses a modelling approach to compare the potential impact of future risk factor scenarios relating to smoking, physical activity levels, dietary salt, saturated fat intake, mean body mass index (BMI) levels, diabetes prevalence and fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption on future coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality in Turkey for year 2025. Design A CHD mortality model previously developed and validated in Turkey was extended to predict potential trends in CHD mortality from 2008 to 2025. Setting Using risk factor trends data from recent surveys as a baseline, we modelled alternative evidence-based future risk factor scenarios (modest/ideal scenarios). Probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted to account for uncertainties. Subject Projected populations in 2025 (aged 25–84) of 54 million in Turkey. Results Assuming lower mortality, modest policy changes in risk factors would result in ∼25 635 (range: 20 290–31 125) fewer CHD deaths in the year 2025; 35.6% attributed to reductions in salt consumption, 20.9% to falls in diabetes, 14.6% to declines in saturated fat intake and 13.6% to increase in F&V intake. In the ideal scenario, 45 950 (range: 36 780–55 450) CHD deaths could be prevented in 2025. Again, 33.2% of this would be attributed to reductions in salt reduction, 19.8% to increases in F&V intake, 16.7% to reductions in saturated fat intake and 14.0% to the fall in diabetes prevalence. Conclusions Only modest risk factor changes in salt, saturated/unsaturated fats and F&V intake could prevent around 16 000 CHD deaths in the year 2025 in Turkey, even assuming mortality continues to decline. Implementation of population-based, multisectoral interventions to reduce salt and saturated fat consumption and increase F&V consumption should be scaled up in Turkey. PMID:27388358

  1. Phosphazene additives

    DOEpatents

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  2. Quantification of the ultraviolet radiation (UVR) field in the human eye in vivo using novel instrumentation and the potential benefits of UVR blocking hydrogel contact lens

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, J.; Bergmanson, J.; Wallace, D.; Saldana, G.; Dempsey, H.; McEvoy, H.; Collum, L.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS—Certain degenerative eye conditions occur predominantly nasally, at the limbal region, and are associated with solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) induced damage. The relative contribution to the in vivo ocular flux of (a) the reflection of UVR incident on the skin of the nose onto the nasal limbus, and (b) the focusing of UVR incident on the temporal side of the cornea onto the nasal limbus were examined.
METHODS—A novel photodiode sensor array was used to measure the UVR field across the eye. In addition, a novel spectrometer set-up was used to measure the spectrum of radiation refracted across the cornea. The efficacy of UVR blocking hydrogel contact lenses in filtering incident UVR was assessed in vivo.
RESULTS—Qualitative and quantitative data indicated an increase nasally of UVR. Photodiode readings showed a net UVR increase from the temporal to the nasal side. Transmission curves showed that most UVR incident on the limbal region is either absorbed by, or transmitted through, the ocular tissues. This radiation is filtered by UVR blocking soft contact lens.
CONCLUSIONS—An increased UVR flux on the nasal side of the eye, due to reflection off the nasal skin, was identified in vivo. Any UVR passing through the cornea is either absorbed by the conjunctiva and/or transmitted through it onto the sclera where it is absorbed. UVR blocking hydrogel contact lenses can eliminate these sources of UVR.

 PMID:11520761

  3. Exploring the potential benefits of vaccinia virus complement control protein in controlling complement activation in pathogenesis of the central nervous system diseases.

    PubMed

    Kotwal, Girish J; Fernando, Nilisha; Zhou, Jianhua; Valter, Krisztina

    2014-10-01

    Aging is a major risk factor for the development of diseases related to the central nervous system (CNS), such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In both cases, linkage studies and genome-wide association studies found strong links with complement regulatory genes and disease risk. In AD, both CLU and CR1 genes were implicated in the late-onset form of the disease. In AMD, polymorphisms in CFH, CFB and C2 were similarly implicated. The cost of caring for patients with AD or AMD is approaching billions of dollars, and with the baby boomers reaching their 60's, this amount is likely to increase further. Intervention using complement inhibitors for individuals in their early 50s who are at a higher risk of disease development, (testing positive for genetic risk factors), could slow the progression of AD or AMD and possibly prevent the severity of late stage symptoms. Although we have used the vaccinia virus complement control protein (VCP) to elucidate the role of complement in CNS diseases, it has merely been an investigational tool but not the only possible potential therapeutic agent.

  4. Assessment of potential additions to conventional oil and gas resources in discovered fields of the United States from reserve growth, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated volumes of technically recoverable, conventional petroleum resources that have the potential to be added to reserves from reserve growth in 70 discovered oil and gas accumulations of the United States, excluding Federal offshore areas. The mean estimated volumes are 32 billion barrels of crude oil, 291 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 10 billion barrels of natural gas liquids.

  5. Boron Neutron Capture Therapty (BNCT) in an Oral Precancer Model: Therapeutic Benefits and Potential Toxicity of a Double Application of BNCT with a Six-Week Interval

    SciTech Connect

    Andrea Monti Hughes; Emiliano C.C. Pozzi; Elisa M. Heber; Silvia Thorp; Marcelo Miller; Maria E. Itoiz; Romina F. Aromando; Ana J. Molinari; Marcela A. Garabalino; David W. Nigg; Veronica A. Trivillin; Amanda E. Schwint

    2011-11-01

    Given the clinical relevance of locoregional recurrences in head and neck cancer, we developed a novel experimental model of premalignant tissue in the hamster cheek pouch for long-term studies and demonstrated the partial inhibitory effect of a single application of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) on tumor development from premalignant tissue. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a double application of BNCT with a 6 week interval in terms of inhibitory effect on tumor development, toxicity and DNA synthesis. We performed a double application, 6 weeks apart, of (1) BNCT mediated by boronophenylalanine (BPA-BNCT); (2) BNCT mediated by the combined application of decahydrodecaborate (GB-10) and BPA [(GB-10 + BPA)-BNCT] or (3) beam-only, at RA-3 nuclear reactor and followed the animals for 8 months. The control group was cancerized and sham-irradiated. BPA-BNCT, (GB- 10 + BPA)-BNCT and beam-only induced a reduction in tumor development from premalignant tissue that persisted until 8, 3, and 2 months respectively. An early maximum inhibition of 100% was observed for all 3 protocols. No normal tissue radiotoxicity was detected. Reversible mucositis was observed in premalignant tissue, peaking at 1 week and resolving by the third week after each irradiation. Mucositis after the second application was not exacerbated by the first application. DNA synthesis was significantly reduced in premalignant tissue 8 months post-BNCT. A double application of BPA-BNCT and (GB-10 + BPA)-BNCT, 6 weeks apart, could be used therapeutically at no additional cost in terms of radiotoxicity in normal and dose-limiting tissues.

  6. Scaling Up Family Planning to Reduce Maternal and Child Mortality: The Potential Costs and Benefits of Modern Contraceptive Use in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Chola, Lumbwe; McGee, Shelley; Tugendhaft, Aviva; Buchmann, Eckhart; Hofman, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Family planning contributes significantly to the prevention of maternal and child mortality. However, many women still do not use modern contraception and the numbers of unintended pregnancies, abortions and subsequent deaths are high. In this paper, we estimate the service delivery costs of scaling up modern contraception, and the potential impact on maternal, newborn and child survival in South Africa. Methods The Family Planning model in Spectrum was used to project the impact of modern contraception on pregnancies, abortions and births in South Africa (2015-2030). The contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR) was increased annually by 0.68 percentage points. The Lives Saved Tool was used to estimate maternal and child deaths, with coverage of essential maternal and child health interventions increasing by 5% annually. A scenario analysis was done to test impacts when: the change in CPR was 0.1% annually; and intervention coverage increased linearly to 99% in 2030. Results If CPR increased by 0.68% annually, the number of pregnancies would reduce from 1.3 million in 2014 to one million in 2030. Unintended pregnancies, abortions and births decrease by approximately 20%. Family planning can avert approximately 7,000 newborn and child and 600 maternal deaths. The total annual costs of providing modern contraception in 2030 are estimated to be US$33 million and the cost per user of modern contraception is US$7 per year. The incremental cost per life year gained is US$40 for children and US$1,000 for mothers. Conclusion Maternal and child mortality remain high in South Africa, and scaling up family planning together with optimal maternal, newborn and child care is crucial. A huge impact can be made on maternal and child mortality, with a minimal investment per user of modern contraception. PMID:26076482

  7. The effect of the potential fuel additive isobutanol on benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and p-xylene degradation in aerobic soil microcosms.

    PubMed

    Ding, Liang; Cupples, Alison M

    2015-01-01

    Isobutanol is being considered as a fuel additive; however, the effect of this chemical on gasoline degradation (following a spill) has yet to be fully explored. To address this, the current study investigated the effect of isobutanol on benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and p-xylene (BTEX) degradation in 14 sets of experiments in saturated soils. This involved four hydrocarbons for three soils (12 experiments) and two extra experiments with a lower level of isobutanol (for toluene only). Each soil and hydrocarbon combination involved four abiotic control microcosms and 12 sample microcosms (six with and six without isobutanol). The time for complete degradation of each hydrocarbon varied between treatments. Both toluene and ethylbenzene were rapidly degraded (5-13 days for toluene and 3-13 days for ethylbenzene). In contrast, the time for complete degradation for benzene ranged from 5 to 47 days. The hydrocarbon p-xylene was the most recalcitrant chemical (time for removal ranged from 14 to 86 days) and, in several microcosms, no p-xylene degradation was observed. The effect of isobutanol on hydrocarbon degradation was determined by comparing degradation lag times with and without isobutanol addition. From the 14 treatments, isobutanol only affected degradation lag times in three cases. In two cases (benzene and p-xylene), an enhancement of degradation (reduced lag times) was observed in the presence of isobutanol. In contrast, toluene degradation in one soil was inhibited (increased lag time). These results indicate that co-contamination with isobutanol should not inhibit aerobic BTEX degradation rates.

  8. Estimation of the limitations for surficial water addition above a potential high level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Fewell, M.E.; Sobolik, S.R.; Gauthier, J.H.

    1992-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project is studying Yucca Mountain in southwestern Nevada as a potential site for a high-level nuclear waste repository. Site characterization includes surface-based and underground testing. Analyses have been performed to design site characterization activities with minimal impact on the ability of the site to isolate waste, and on tests performed as part of the characterization process. One activity of site characterization is the construction of an Exploratory Studies Facility, consisting of underground shafts, drifts, and ramps, and the accompanying surface pad facility and roads. The information in this report addresses the following topics: (1) a discussion of the potential effects of surface construction water on repository-performance, and on surface and underground experiments; (2) one-dimensional numerical calculations predicting the maximum allowable amount of water that may infiltrate the surface of the mountain without affecting repository performance; and (3) two-dimensional numerical calculations of the movement of that amount of surface water and how the water may affect repository performance and experiments. The results contained herein should be used with other site data and scientific/engineering judgement in determining controls on water usage at Yucca Mountain. This document contains information that has been used in preparing Appendix I of the Exploratory Studies Facility Design Requirements document for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project.

  9. An Introduction to the Avian Gut Microbiota and the Effects of Yeast-Based Prebiotic-Type Compounds as Potential Feed Additives

    PubMed Central

    Roto, Stephanie M.; Rubinelli, Peter M.; Ricke, Steven C.

    2015-01-01

    The poultry industry has been searching for a replacement for antibiotic growth promoters in poultry feed as public concerns over the use of antibiotics and the appearance of antibiotic resistance has become more intense. An ideal replacement would be feed amendments that could eliminate pathogens and disease while retaining economic value via improvements on body weight and feed conversion ratios. Establishing a healthy gut microbiota can have a positive impact on growth and development of both body weight and the immune system of poultry while reducing pathogen invasion and disease. The addition of prebiotics to poultry feed represents one such recognized way to establish a healthy gut microbiota. Prebiotics are feed additives, mainly in the form of specific types of carbohydrates that are indigestible to the host while serving as substrates to select beneficial bacteria and altering the gut microbiota. Beneficial bacteria in the ceca easily ferment commonly studied prebiotics, producing short-chain fatty acids, while pathogenic bacteria and the host are unable to digest their molecular bonds. Prebiotic-like substances are less commonly studied, but show promise in their effects on the prevention of pathogen colonization, improvements on the immune system, and host growth. Inclusion of yeast and yeast derivatives as probiotic and prebiotic-like substances, respectively, in animal feed has demonstrated positive associations with growth performance and modification of gut morphology. This review will aim to link together how such prebiotics and prebiotic-like substances function to influence the native and beneficial microorganisms that result in a diverse and well-developed gut microbiota. PMID:26664957

  10. Study of the potential for improving the economics of hydrogen liquefaction through the use of centrifugal compressors and the addition of a heavy water plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, C. R.

    1977-01-01

    An approach to the liquefaction of hydrogen was developed which permits the application of standard centrifugal compressors in place of reciprocating machines. A second fluid, such as propane, is added to the hydrogen prior to compression to form a mixture having a molecular weight much greater than that of hydrogen alone, so that a standard centrifugal compressor can be used. After compression, the mixture is cooled to cryogenic temperature levels where the propane condenses out of the mixture and is separated as a liquid. Since a small amount of deuterium is produced during hydrogen liquefaction, the potential of recovering deuterium and selling it as a co-product was investigated. Deuterium, in the form of heavy water, can be used in certain nuclear reactors as a neutron moderator to reduce the neutron velocity and enhance the probability of neutron collision with uranium nucleii.

  11. Molecular and biochemical characteristics of β-propeller phytase from marine Pseudomonas sp. BS10-3 and its potential application for animal feed additives.

    PubMed

    Nam, Seung-Jeung; Kim, Young-Ok; Ko, Tae-Kyung; Kang, Jin-Ku; Chun, Kwang-Hoon; Auh, Joong-Hyuck; Lee, Chul-Soon; Lee, In-Kyu; Park, Sunghoon; Oh, Byung-Chul

    2014-10-01

    Phytate is an antinutritional factor that impacts the bioavailability of essential minerals such as Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Mn(2+), Zn(2+), and Fe(2+) by forming insoluble mineral-phytate salts. These insoluble mineral-phytate salts are hydrolyzed rarely by monogastric animals, because they lack the hydrolyzing phytases and thus excrete the majority of them. The β-propeller phytases (BPPs) hydrolyze these insoluble mineral-phytate salts efficiently. In this study, we cloned a novel BPP gene from a marine Pseudomonas sp. This Pseudomonas BPP gene (PsBPP) had low sequence identity with other known phytases and contained an extra internal repeat domain (residues 24-279) and a typical BPP domain (residues 280-634) at the C-terminus. Structurebased sequence alignment suggested that the N-terminal repeat domain did not possess the active-site residues, whereas the C-terminal BPP domain contained multiple calcium-binding sites, which provide a favorable electrostatic environment for substrate binding and catalytic activity. Thus, we overexpressed the BPP domain from Pseudomonas sp. to potentially hydrolyze insoluble mineral-phytate salts. Purified recombinant PsBPP required Ca(2+) or Fe(2+) for phytase activity, indicating that PsBPP hydrolyzes insoluble Fe(2+)-phytate or Ca2+-phytate salts. The optimal temperature and pH for the hydrolysis of Ca(2+)-phytate by PsBPP were 50°C and 6.0, respectively. Biochemical and kinetic studies clearly showed that PsBPP efficiently hydrolyzed Ca(2+)-phytate salts and yielded myo-inositol 2,4,6-trisphosphate and three phosphate groups as final products. Finally, we showed that PsBPP was highly effective for hydrolyzing rice bran with high phytate content. Taken together, our results suggest that PsBPP has great potential in the animal feed industry for reducing phytates. PMID:25112322

  12. The effects of deoxynivalenol-contaminated corn dried distillers grains with solubles in nursery pig diets and potential for mitigation by commercially available feed additives.

    PubMed

    Frobose, H L; Fruge, E D; Tokach, M D; Hansen, E L; DeRouchey, J M; Dritz, S S; Goodband, R D; Nelssen, J L

    2015-03-01

    Four experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of deoxynivalenol (DON) from naturally contaminated dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) and the efficacy of feed additives in nursery pig diets. In Exp. 1, 180 pigs (10.3 ± 0.2 kg BW) were fed 1 of 5 diets for 21 d. Diets were 1) Positive Control (PC; < 0.5 mg/kg DON), 2) Negative Control (NC; 4 mg/kg DON), 3) NC + 0.10% Biofix (Biomin Inc., Herzogenburg, Austria), 4) NC + 0.15% Cel-can (VAST Inc., Mason City, IA) and 0.50% bentonite clay, and 5) NC + 0.25% Defusion Plus (Cargill Animal Nutrition, Minneapolis, MN). Pigs fed the NC diet had poorer ( < 0.01) ADG than those fed the PC. Pigs fed Defusion Plus had improved ( < 0.03) ADG over those fed NC, whereas pigs fed Biofix or Cel-can with bentonite clay had reduced ADG ( < 0.01) compared with those fed PC. In Exp. 2, 340 pigs (11.7 ± 0.1 kg BW) were fed 1 of 8 diets for 21 d. Diets were 1) PC (< 0.5 mg/kg DON), 2) Low NC (1.5 mg/kg DON), 3) Low NC + 0.15% Biofix, 4) Low NC + 0.30% Biofix, 5) High NC (3.0 mg/kg DON), 6) High NC + 0.30% Biofix, 7) High NC + 0.45% Biofix, and 8) Diet 7 with 5% added water. Increasing the DON level reduced (linear; < 0.05) ADG, ADFI, and pig BW, and Biofix did not improve performance. In Exp. 3, 1,008 pigs (12.5 ± 0.3 kg BW) were fed 6 treatments for 24 d. Diets were 1) PC ( < 0.5 mg/kg DON), 2) NC (3 mg/kg DON), 3) NC + 0.25% Defusion, 4) NC + 0.50% Defusion, 5) Diet 3 with supplemental nutrients, and 6) Diet 5, pelleted. Pigs fed the NC had decreased ( < 0.01) ADG and ADFI, but adding Defusion improved (linear; < 0.04) ADG and ADFI over pigs fed NC. Pelleting improved ( < 0.01) both ADG and G:F, resulting in ADG above PC pigs. In Exp. 4, 980 pigs (12.0 ± 0.3 kg BW) were fed 1 of 7 diets in a 28-d trial in a 2 × 3 + 1 factorial arrangement. The 7 treatments were based on 3 diets fed in meal or pellet form: 1) PC (< 0.5 mg/kg DON), 2) NC (3 mg/kg DON), and 3) NC + 0.25% Defusion. Treatment 7 was Diet 3 with

  13. Two detergent stable alkaline serine-proteases from Bacillus mojavensis A21: purification, characterization and potential application as a laundry detergent additive.

    PubMed

    Haddar, Anissa; Agrebi, Rym; Bougatef, Ali; Hmidet, Noomen; Sellami-Kamoun, Alya; Nasri, Moncef

    2009-07-01

    Two detergent stable alkaline serine-proteases (BM1 and BM2) from Bacillus mojavensis A21 were purified. The molecular weights of BM1 and BM2 enzymes determined by SDS-PAGE were approximately 29,00 Da and 15,50 Da, respectively. The optimum pH values of BM1 and BM2 proteases were shown to be 8.0-10.0 and 10.0, respectively. Both enzymes exhibited maximal activity at 60 degrees C, using casein as a substrate. The N-terminal amino acid sequences of BM1 and BM2 proteases were AQSVPYGISQIKA and AIPDQAATTLL, respectively. Both proteases showed high stability towards non-ionic surfactants. The enzymes were found to be relatively stable towards oxidizing agents. In addition, both enzymes showed excellent stability and compatibility with a wide range of commercial liquid and solid detergents. These properties and the high activity in high alkaline pH make these proteases an ideal choice for application in detergent formulations.

  14. Purification and characterization of haloalkaline thermoactive, solvent stable and SDS-induced protease from Bacillus sp.: a potential additive for laundry detergents.

    PubMed

    Jain, Deepti; Pancha, Imran; Mishra, Sanjiv K; Shrivastav, Anupama; Mishra, Sandhya

    2012-07-01

    An extracellular haloalkaline, thermoactive, solvent stable, SDS-induced serine protease was purified and characterized from an alkali-thermo tolerant strain Bacillus sp. SM2014 isolated from reverse osmosis reject. The enzyme was purified to homogeneity with recovery of 54.4% and purity fold of 64. The purified enzyme was composed of single polypeptide of molecular mass about 71 kDa. The enzyme showed optimum activity at alkaline pH 10 and temperature 60°C. The km and Vmax for the enzyme was 0.57 mg/ml and 445.23 U/ml respectively. The enzyme showed novel catalytic ability at high pH (10), temperature (60°C) and salinity (3M). Moreover, the stability of enzyme in organic solvents (50% v/v) of logP ≥ 2 signified the prospective of this enzyme for peptide synthesis. The compatibility of the enzyme with surfactants and various detergent matrices together with wash performance test confirmed its potential applicability in laundry industry.

  15. Addition of Rice Bran Arabinoxylan to Curcumin Therapy May Be of Benefit to Patients With Early-Stage B-Cell Lymphoid Malignancies (Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance, Smoldering Multiple Myeloma, or Stage 0/1 Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia): A Preliminary Clinical Study.

    PubMed

    Golombick, Terry; Diamond, Terrence H; Manoharan, Arumugam; Ramakrishna, Rajeev

    2016-06-01

    Hypothesis Prior studies on patients with early B-cell lymphoid malignancies suggest that early intervention with curcumin may lead to delay in progressive disease and prolonged survival. These patients are characterized by increased susceptibility to infections. Rice bran arabinoxylan (Ribraxx) has been shown to have immunostimulatory, anti-inflammatory, and proapoptotic effects. We postulated that addition of Ribraxx to curcumin therapy may be of benefit. Study design Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS)/smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) or stage 0/1 chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients who had been on oral curcumin therapy for a period of 6 months or more were administered both curcumin (as Curcuforte) and Ribraxx. Methods Ten MGUS/SMM patients and 10 patients with stage 0/1 CLL were administered 6 g of curcumin and 2 g Ribraxx daily. Blood samples were collected at baseline and at 2-month intervals for a period of 6 months, and various markers were monitored. MGUS/SMM patients included full blood count (FBC); paraprotein; free light chains/ratio; C-reactive protein (CRP)and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR); B2 microglobulin and immunological markers. Markers monitored for stage 0/1 CLL were FBC, CRP and ESR, and immunological markers. Results Of 10 MGUS/SMM patients,5 (50%) were neutropenic at baseline, and the Curcuforte/Ribraxx combination therapy showed an increased neutrophil count, varying between 10% and 90% among 8 of the 10 (80%) MGUS/SMM patients. An additional benefit of the combination therapy was the potent effect in reducing the raised ESR in 4 (44%) of the MGUS/SMM patients. Conclusion Addition of Ribraxx to curcumin therapy may be of benefit to patients with early-stage B-cell lymphoid malignancies. PMID:27154182

  16. Development of cost-effective media to increase the economic potential for larger-scale bioproduction of natural food additives by Lactobacillus rhamnosus , Debaryomyces hansenii , and Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Salgado, José Manuel; Rodríguez, Noelia; Cortés, Sandra; Domínguez, José Manuel

    2009-11-11

    Yeast extract (YE) is the most common nitrogen source in a variety of bioprocesses in spite of the high cost. Therefore, the use of YE in culture media is one of the major technical hurdles to be overcome for the development of low-cost fermentation routes, making the search for alternative-cheaper nitrogen sources particularly desired. The aim of the current study is to develop cost-effective media based on corn steep liquor (CSL) and locally available vinasses in order to increase the economic potential for larger-scale bioproduction. Three microorganisms were evaluated: Lactobacillus rhamnosus , Debaryomyces hansenii , and Aspergillus niger . The amino acid profile and protein concentration was relevant for the xylitol and citric acid production by D. hansenii and A. niger , respectively. Metals also played an important role for citric acid production, meanwhile, D. hansenii showed a strong dependence with the initial amount of Mg(2+). Under the best conditions, 28.8 g lactic acid/L (Q(LA) = 0.800 g/L.h, Y(LA/S) = 0.95 g/g), 35.3 g xylitol/L (Q(xylitol) = 0.380 g/L.h, Y(xylitol/S) = 0.69 g/g), and 13.9 g citric acid/L (Q(CA) = 0.146 g/L.h, Y(CA/S) = 0.63 g/g) were obtained. The economic efficiency (E(p/euro)) parameter identify vinasses as a lower cost and more effective nutrient source in comparison to CSL.

  17. Potential Benefits of the Information Mapping Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffer, Eric M.

    1982-01-01

    A comparison of the performance of 10 employees using the current version of a Corporate Time Reporting Instruction and a revision prepared using Information Mapping (IM) indicates that subjects committed 54 percent fewer errors when using the IM version. Samples of both versions and evaluation forms used are included. (MER)

  18. Potential acoustic benefits of circulation control rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. M.; Cheeseman, I. C.

    1978-01-01

    The fundamental aeroacoustic mechanisms responsible for noise generation on a rotating blade are theoretically examined. Their contribution to the overall rotor sound pressure level is predicted. Results from a theory for airfoil trailing edge noise are presented. Modifications and extensions to other source theories are described where it is necessary to account for unique aspects of circulation control (CC) aerodynamics. The circulation control rotor (CCR), as embodied on an X-wing vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) aircraft, is used as an example for computational purposes, although many of the theoretical results presented are generally applicable to other CC applications (such as low speed rotors, propellers, compressors, and fixed wing aircraft). Using the analytical models, it is shown that the utilization CC aerodynamics theoretically makes possible unprecedented advances in rotor noise reduction. For the X-wing VTOL these reductions appear to be feasible without incurring significant attendant performance and weight penalties.

  19. Dietary fructooligosaccharides and potential benefits on health.

    PubMed

    Sabater-Molina, M; Larqué, E; Torrella, F; Zamora, S

    2009-09-01

    Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) are oligosaccharides that occur naturally in plants such as onion, chicory, garlic, asparagus, banana, artichoke, among many others. They are composed of linear chains of fructose units, linked by beta (2-1) bonds. The number of fructose units ranges from 2 to 60 and often terminate in a glucose unit. Dietary FOS are not hydrolyzed by small intestinal glycosidases and reach the cecum structurally unchanged. There, they are metabolized by the intestinal microflora to form short-chain carboxylic acids, L -lactate, CO(2), hydrogen and other metabolites. FOS have a number of interesting properties, including a low sweetness intensity; they are also calorie free, non-cariogenic and are considered as soluble dietary fibre. Furthermore, FOS have important beneficial physiological effects such as low carcinogenicity, a prebiotic effect, improved mineral absorption and decreased levels of serum cholesterol, triacylglycerols and phospholipids. Currently FOS are increasingly included in food products and infant formulas due to their prebiotic effect stimulate the growth of nonpathogenic intestinal microflora. Their consumption increases fecal bolus and the frequency of depositions, while a dose of 4-15 g/day given to healthy subjects will reduce constipation, considered one of the growing problems of modern society, and newborns during the first months of life.

  20. Conflict-Costs, Benefits, and Potentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrle, Raymond A.

    1971-01-01

    The author Concludes from the discussion that; (a) war is not yet absolute; (b) violence against persons is understandable when other channels for conflict are closed; (c) neurosis and war possess positive as well as negative pulls; and (d) normality and law and order may be verbalized goals that are rejected as achieved. (Author)