Science.gov

Sample records for additional power consumption

  1. Power consumption monitoring using additional monitoring device

    SciTech Connect

    Truşcă, M. R. C. Albert, Ş. Tudoran, C. Soran, M. L. Fărcaş, F.; Abrudean, M.

    2013-11-13

    Today, emphasis is placed on reducing power consumption. Computers are large consumers; therefore it is important to know the total consumption of computing systems. Since their optimal functioning requires quite strict environmental conditions, without much variation in temperature and humidity, reducing energy consumption cannot be made without monitoring environmental parameters. Thus, the present work uses a multifunctional electric meter UPT 210 for power consumption monitoring. Two applications were developed: software which carries meter readings provided by electronic and programming facilitates remote device and a device for temperature monitoring and control. Following temperature variations that occur both in the cooling system, as well as the ambient, can reduce energy consumption. For this purpose, some air conditioning units or some computers are stopped in different time slots. These intervals were set so that the economy is high, but the work's Datacenter is not disturbed.

  2. Low power consumption current transducer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, W. T. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A low power consumption current transducer utilizes a saturable core reactor which includes a pair of opposed gate windings and a control winding. The control winding of the saturable reactor is arranged to receive the current to be measured. A square wave generator is connected to the gate winding of the transformer connected across the square wave generator and the secondary connected in series with the gate windings of the reactor. A full wave rectifier is connected to the gate windings and a resistor is connected across the rectifier to provide a DC voltage to cross it representative of the current flow through the control winding. A DC power supply is provided to supply power to the square wave voltage source. A diode is connected between each end of the primary winding of the transformer and one polarity of the DC power supply to commutate the reactive current resulting from the counter emf generated in the reactor back to the DC supply to eliminate potentially damaging reactive voltage spikes which would otherwise appear at the output of the square wave generator and conserve energy.

  3. Exploring human inactivity in computer power consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candrawati, Ria; Hashim, Nor Laily Binti

    2016-08-01

    Managing computer power consumption has become an important challenge in computer society and this is consistent with a trend where a computer system is more important to modern life together with a request for increased computing power and functions continuously. Unfortunately, previous approaches are still inadequately designed to handle the power consumption problem due to unpredictable workload of a system caused by unpredictable human behaviors. This is happens due to lack of knowledge in a software system and the software self-adaptation is one approach in dealing with this source of uncertainty. Human inactivity is handled by adapting the behavioral changes of the users. This paper observes human inactivity in the computer usage and finds that computer power usage can be reduced if the idle period can be intelligently sensed from the user activities. This study introduces Control, Learn and Knowledge model that adapts the Monitor, Analyze, Planning, Execute control loop integrates with Q Learning algorithm to learn human inactivity period to minimize the computer power consumption. An experiment to evaluate this model was conducted using three case studies with same activities. The result show that the proposed model obtained those 5 out of 12 activities shows the power decreasing compared to others.

  4. Reducing power consumption in zinc electrowinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parada T, F.; Asselin, E.

    2009-10-01

    Approximately 7 million tons per annum of zinc are produced globally by traditional electrowinning which is a power intensive process. Power consumption is directly proportional to cell voltage which is thermodynamically limited to the potential difference between the oxygen evolution and zinc reduction reactions. This article summarizes several novel approaches which are currently under investigation/or the reduction of power consumption in zinc electrowinning and which focus on alternative anode reactions. In particular, methanol, formic acid, ferrous to ferric and hydrogen oxidation as anodic reactions are examined. There remain several important materials, engineering, and process challenges associated with the new approaches which are reviewed in this article. However, given the current and anticipated future cost of energy, further research is warranted.

  5. 76 FR 41687 - Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption; Hydroxypropyl Cellulose

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-15

    ... In a notice published in the Federal Register of April 8, 2010 (75 FR 17928), FDA announced that... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 172 Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption; Hydroxypropyl Cellulose AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration,...

  6. Power Play: Calculating Home Electricity Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2007-01-01

    With both energy usage and energy costs rising rapidly, people can benefit from paying closer attention to their consumption of energy. Students can gain greater awareness of their personal use of electricity and get some excellent experience with the practical application of mathematics by studying their families' consumption of electricity. A…

  7. 15 CFR 713.4 - Advance declaration requirements for additionally planned production, processing, or consumption...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... additionally planned production, processing, or consumption of Schedule 2 chemicals. 713.4 Section 713.4..., processing, or consumption of Schedule 2 chemicals. (a) Declaration requirements for additionally planned activities. (1) You must declare additionally planned production, processing, or consumption of Schedule...

  8. 15 CFR 713.4 - Advance declaration requirements for additionally planned production, processing, or consumption...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... additionally planned production, processing, or consumption of Schedule 2 chemicals. 713.4 Section 713.4..., processing, or consumption of Schedule 2 chemicals. (a) Declaration requirements for additionally planned activities. (1) You must declare additionally planned production, processing, or consumption of Schedule...

  9. Adaptive prefetching on POWER7: Improving performance and power consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez, Victor; Cazorla, Francisco; Gioiosa, Roberto; Buyuktosunoglu, Alper; Bose, Pradip; O'Connel, Francis P.; Mealey, Bruce G.

    2014-10-03

    Hardware data prefetch engines are integral parts of many general purpose server-class microprocessors in the field today. Some prefetch engines allow users to change some of their parameters. But, the prefetcher is usually enabled in a default configuration during system bring-up, and dynamic reconfiguration of the prefetch engine is not an autonomic feature of current machines. Conceptually, however, it is easy to infer that commonly used prefetch algorithms—when applied in a fixed mode—will not help performance in many cases. In fact, they may actually degrade performance due to useless bus bandwidth consumption and cache pollution, which in turn, will also waste power. We present an adaptive prefetch scheme that dynamically modifies the prefetch settings in order to adapt to workloads

  10. CROSS-DISCIPLINARY PHYSICS AND RELATED AREAS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Simulation of SET Operation in Phase-Change Random Access Memories with Heater Addition and Ring-Type Contactor for Low-Power Consumption by Finite Element Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Yue-Feng; Song, Zhi-Tang; Ling, Yun; Liu, Yan; Feng, Song-Lin

    2009-11-01

    A three-dimensional finite element model for phase change random access memory (PCRAM) is established for comprehensive electrical and thermal analysis during SET operation. The SET behaviours of the heater addition structure (HS) and the ring-type contact in bottom electrode (RIB) structure are compared with each other. There are two ways to reduce the RESET current, applying a high resistivity interfacial layer and building a new device structure. The simulation results indicate that the variation of SET current with different power reduction ways is little. This study takes the RESET and SET operation current into consideration, showing that the RIB structure PCRAM cell is suitable for future devices with high heat efficiency and high-density, due to its high heat efficiency in RESET operation.

  11. Reducing Stepping-Motor Power Consumption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, C. J.

    1985-01-01

    Direct-current stepping motors used in computer peripherals, process control, and precision remote-positioning equipment constantly dissipate power and create heat even when not moving. Circuit design energizes stepper motor only when pulses are present on control input.

  12. 15 CFR 713.4 - Advance declaration requirements for additionally planned production, processing, or consumption...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SCHEDULE 2 CHEMICALS § 713.4 Advance declaration requirements for additionally planned production... additionally planned production, processing, or consumption of Schedule 2 chemicals. 713.4 Section...

  13. 15 CFR 713.4 - Advance declaration requirements for additionally planned production, processing, or consumption...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SCHEDULE 2 CHEMICALS § 713.4 Advance declaration requirements for additionally planned production... additionally planned production, processing, or consumption of Schedule 2 chemicals. 713.4 Section...

  14. 15 CFR 713.4 - Advance declaration requirements for additionally planned production, processing, or consumption...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SCHEDULE 2 CHEMICALS § 713.4 Advance declaration requirements for additionally planned production... additionally planned production, processing, or consumption of Schedule 2 chemicals. 713.4 Section...

  15. Profiling an application for power consumption during execution on a compute node

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J; Blocksome, Michael A; Peters, Amanda E; Ratterman, Joseph D; Smith, Brian E

    2013-09-17

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for profiling an application for power consumption during execution on a compute node that include: receiving an application for execution on a compute node; identifying a hardware power consumption profile for the compute node, the hardware power consumption profile specifying power consumption for compute node hardware during performance of various processing operations; determining a power consumption profile for the application in dependence upon the application and the hardware power consumption profile for the compute node; and reporting the power consumption profile for the application.

  16. Profiling an application for power consumption during execution on a plurality of compute nodes

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael A.; Peters, Amanda E.; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian E.

    2012-08-21

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for profiling an application for power consumption during execution on a compute node that include: receiving an application for execution on a compute node; identifying a hardware power consumption profile for the compute node, the hardware power consumption profile specifying power consumption for compute node hardware during performance of various processing operations; determining a power consumption profile for the application in dependence upon the application and the hardware power consumption profile for the compute node; and reporting the power consumption profile for the application.

  17. Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption; Folic Acid. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-04-15

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is amending the food additive regulations to provide for the safe use of folic acid in corn masa flour. We are taking this action in response to a food additive petition filed jointly by Gruma Corporation, Spina Bifida Association, March of Dimes Foundation, American Academy of Pediatrics, Royal DSM N.V., and National Council of La Raza.

  18. Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption; Folic Acid. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-04-15

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is amending the food additive regulations to provide for the safe use of folic acid in corn masa flour. We are taking this action in response to a food additive petition filed jointly by Gruma Corporation, Spina Bifida Association, March of Dimes Foundation, American Academy of Pediatrics, Royal DSM N.V., and National Council of La Raza. PMID:27101640

  19. Reducing power consumption during execution of an application on a plurality of compute nodes

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael A.; Peters, Amanda E.; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian E.

    2012-06-05

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for reducing power consumption during execution of an application on a plurality of compute nodes that include: executing, by each compute node, an application, the application including power consumption directives corresponding to one or more portions of the application; identifying, by each compute node, the power consumption directives included within the application during execution of the portions of the application corresponding to those identified power consumption directives; and reducing power, by each compute node, to one or more components of that compute node according to the identified power consumption directives during execution of the portions of the application corresponding to those identified power consumption directives.

  20. Environmental effects of interstate power trading on electricity consumption mixes

    SciTech Connect

    Joe Marriott; H. Scott Matthews

    2005-11-15

    Although many studies of electricity generation use national or state average generation mix assumptions, in reality a great deal of electricity is transferred between states with very different mixes of fossil and renewable fuels, and using the average numbers could result in incorrect conclusions in these studies. The authors create electricity consumption profiles for each state and for key industry sectors in the U.S. based on existing state generation profiles, net state power imports, industry presence by state, and an optimization model to estimate interstate electricity trading. Using these 'consumption mixes' can provide a more accurate assessment of electricity use in life-cycle analyses. It is concluded that the published generation mixes for states that import power are misleading, since the power consumed in-state has a different makeup than the power that was generated. And, while most industry sectors have consumption mixes similar to the U.S. average, some of the most critical sectors of the economy - such as resource extraction and material processing sectors - are very different. This result does validate the average mix assumption made in many environmental assessments, but it is important to accurately quantify the generation methods for electricity used when doing life-cycle analyses. 16 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Environmental effects of interstate power trading on electricity consumption mixes.

    PubMed

    Marriott, Joe; Matthews, H Scott

    2005-11-15

    Although many studies of electricity generation use national or state average generation mix assumptions, in reality a great deal of electricity is transferred between states with very different mixes of fossil and renewable fuels, and using the average numbers could result in incorrect conclusions in these studies. We create electricity consumption profiles for each state and for key industry sectors in the U.S. based on existing state generation profiles, net state power imports, industry presence by state, and an optimization model to estimate interstate electricity trading. Using these "consumption mixes" can provide a more accurate assessment of electricity use in life-cycle analyses. We conclude that the published generation mixes for states that import power are misleading, since the power consumed in-state has a different makeup than the power that was generated. And, while most industry sectors have consumption mixes similar to the U.S. average, some of the most critical sectors of the economy--such as resource extraction and material processing sectors--are very different. This result does validate the average mix assumption made in many environmental assessments, but it is important to accurately quantify the generation methods for electricity used when doing life-cycle analyses.

  2. Power Consumption Analysis of Operating Systems for Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Lajara, Rafael; Pelegrí-Sebastiá, José; Perez Solano, Juan J.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper four wireless sensor network operating systems are compared in terms of power consumption. The analysis takes into account the most common operating systems—TinyOS v1.0, TinyOS v2.0, Mantis and Contiki—running on Tmote Sky and MICAz devices. With the objective of ensuring a fair evaluation, a benchmark composed of four applications has been developed, covering the most typical tasks that a Wireless Sensor Network performs. The results show the instant and average current consumption of the devices during the execution of these applications. The experimental measurements provide a good insight into the power mode in which the device components are running at every moment, and they can be used to compare the performance of different operating systems executing the same tasks. PMID:22219688

  3. Power consumption in gas-inducing-type mechanically agitated contactors

    SciTech Connect

    Saravanan, K.; Mundale, V.D.; Patwardhan, A.W.; Joshi, J.B.

    1996-05-01

    Power consumption was measured in 0.57, 1.0, and 1.5 m i.d. gas inducing type of mechanically agitated contactors (GIMAC) using single and multiple impellers. The ratio of impeller diameter to vessel diameter was varied in the range of 0.13 < D/T < 0.59. The effect of liquid submergence from the top and impeller clearance from the vessel bottom was investigated in detail. In the case of multiple impeller systems, six different designs were investigated. The designs included pitched blade downflow turbine (PBTD), pitched blade upflow turbine (PBTU), downflow propeller (PD), upflow propeller (PU), straight bladed turbine (SBT) and disc turbine (DT). The effect of interimpeller clearance was studied for the multiple impeller system. The effect of impeller speed was studied in the range of 0.13 < N < 13.5 rotations/s. A mathematical model has been developed for power consumption before and after the onset of gas induction.

  4. 77 FR 71695 - Secondary Direct Food Additives Permitted in Food for Human Consumption; Sodium...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-04

    ... February 2, 2012 (77 FR 5201), FDA announced that a food additive petition (FAP 2A4785) had been filed by... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 173 Secondary Direct Food Additives Permitted in Food for Human Consumption; Sodium Dodecylbenzenesulfonate AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration,...

  5. Reducing power consumption during execution of an application on a plurality of compute nodes

    SciTech Connect

    Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael A.; Peters, Amanda E.; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian E.

    2013-09-10

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for reducing power consumption during execution of an application on a plurality of compute nodes that include: powering up, during compute node initialization, only a portion of computer memory of the compute node, including configuring an operating system for the compute node in the powered up portion of computer memory; receiving, by the operating system, an instruction to load an application for execution; allocating, by the operating system, additional portions of computer memory to the application for use during execution; powering up the additional portions of computer memory allocated for use by the application during execution; and loading, by the operating system, the application into the powered up additional portions of computer memory.

  6. 50 CFR 453.06 - Additional Committee powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS ENDANGERED SPECIES EXEMPTION PROCESS ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE § 453.06 Additional Committee powers. (a) Secure information....

  7. 50 CFR 453.06 - Additional Committee powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS ENDANGERED SPECIES EXEMPTION PROCESS ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE § 453.06 Additional Committee powers. (a) Secure information....

  8. 50 CFR 453.06 - Additional Committee powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS ENDANGERED SPECIES EXEMPTION PROCESS ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE § 453.06 Additional Committee powers. (a) Secure information....

  9. 50 CFR 453.06 - Additional Committee powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS ENDANGERED SPECIES EXEMPTION PROCESS ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE § 453.06 Additional Committee powers. (a) Secure information....

  10. 50 CFR 453.06 - Additional Committee powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS ENDANGERED SPECIES EXEMPTION PROCESS ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE § 453.06 Additional Committee powers. (a) Secure information....

  11. Standby power consumption in U.S. residences

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, W.

    1997-12-01

    {open_quotes}Leaking electricity{close_quotes} is the electricity consumed by appliances while they are switched {open_quotes}off{close_quote} or not performing their principal function. Leaking electricity represents approximately 5 % of U.S. residential electricity. This is a relatively new phenomenon and is a result of proliferation of electronic equipment in homes. The standby losses in TVs, VCRs, compact audio systems, and cable boxes account for almost 40% of all leaking electricity. There is a wide range in standby losses in each appliance group. For example, standby losses in compact audio systems range from 2.1 to 28.6 W, even though their features are identical. In some cases, leaking electricity while switched off was only slightly less than energy consumption in the on mode. New features in these appliances may greatly increase leaking electricity, such as electronic program guides in TVs and cable boxes. In the standby mode, these new features require many extra components energized to permit the downloading of information. Several techniques are available to cut standby losses, most without using any new technologies. Simple redesign of circuits to avoid energizing unused components appears to save the most energy. A separate power supply, precisely designed for the actual power needed, is another solution. A switch mode power supply can substitute for the less efficient linear power supply. Switch mode power supplies cut no-load and standby losses by 60-80%. The combination of these techniques can cut leaking electricity by greater than 75%.

  12. A single lithium-ion battery protection circuit with high reliability and low power consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jinguang, Jiang; Sen, Li

    2014-11-01

    A single lithium-ion battery protection circuit with high reliability and low power consumption is proposed. The protection circuit has high reliability because the voltage and current of the battery are controlled in a safe range. The protection circuit can immediately activate a protective function when the voltage and current of the battery are beyond the safe range. In order to reduce the circuit's power consumption, a sleep state control circuit is developed. Additionally, the output frequency of the ring oscillation can be adjusted continuously and precisely by the charging capacitors and the constant-current source. The proposed protection circuit is fabricated in a 0.5 μm mixed-signal CMOS process. The measured reference voltage is 1.19 V, the overvoltage is 4.2 V and the undervoltage is 2.2 V. The total power is about 9 μW.

  13. 40 CFR 82.20 - Availability of consumption allowances in addition to baseline consumption allowances for class...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... period some quantity of consumption that the nation is permitted under the Montreal Protocol. (2) Trade... Party to the Protocol as set forth in this paragraph (b). A person may only receive consumption from... maximum consumption that the nation is allowed under the Protocol minus the quantity (in kilograms)...

  14. 40 CFR 82.20 - Availability of consumption allowances in addition to baseline consumption allowances for class...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... period some quantity of consumption that the nation is permitted under the Montreal Protocol. (2) Trade... Party to the Protocol as set forth in this paragraph (b). A person may only receive consumption from... maximum consumption that the nation is allowed under the Protocol minus the quantity (in kilograms)...

  15. Budget-based power consumption for application execution on a plurality of compute nodes

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J; Blocksome, Michael A; Peters, Amanda E; Ratterman, Joseph D; Smith, Brian E

    2013-02-05

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for budget-based power consumption for application execution on a plurality of compute nodes that include: assigning an execution priority to each of one or more applications; executing, on the plurality of compute nodes, the applications according to the execution priorities assigned to the applications at an initial power level provided to the compute nodes until a predetermined power consumption threshold is reached; and applying, upon reaching the predetermined power consumption threshold, one or more power conservation actions to reduce power consumption of the plurality of compute nodes during execution of the applications.

  16. Budget-based power consumption for application execution on a plurality of compute nodes

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J; Inglett, Todd A; Ratterman, Joseph D

    2012-10-23

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for budget-based power consumption for application execution on a plurality of compute nodes that include: assigning an execution priority to each of one or more applications; executing, on the plurality of compute nodes, the applications according to the execution priorities assigned to the applications at an initial power level provided to the compute nodes until a predetermined power consumption threshold is reached; and applying, upon reaching the predetermined power consumption threshold, one or more power conservation actions to reduce power consumption of the plurality of compute nodes during execution of the applications.

  17. Consumption of the electric power inside silent discharge reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Yehia, Ashraf

    2015-01-15

    An experimental study was made in this paper to investigate the relation between the places of the dielectric barriers, which cover the surfaces of the electrodes in the coaxial cylindrical reactors, and the rate of change of the electric power that is consumed in forming silent discharges. Therefore, silent discharges have been formed inside three coaxial cylindrical reactors. The dielectric barriers in these reactors were pasted on both the internal surface of the outer electrode in the first reactor and the external surface of the inner electrode in the second reactor as well as the surfaces of the two electrodes in the third reactor. The reactor under study has been fed by atmospheric air that flowed inside it with a constant rate at normal temperature and pressure, in parallel with the application of a sinusoidal ac voltage between the electrodes of the reactor. The electric power consumed in forming the silent discharges inside the three reactors was measured as a function of the ac peak voltage. The validity of the experimental results was investigated by applying Manley's equation on the same discharge conditions. The results have shown that the rate of consumption of the electric power relative to the ac peak voltage per unit width of the discharge gap improves by a ratio of either 26.8% or 80% or 128% depending on the places of the dielectric barriers that cover the surfaces of the electrodes inside the three reactors.

  18. The ``Green Lab'': Power Consumption by Commercial Light Bulbs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Einsporn, James A.; Zhou, Andrew F.

    2011-09-01

    Going "green" is a slogan that is very contemporary, both with industry and in the political arena. Choosing more energy-efficient devices is one way homeowners can "go green." A simple method is to change home lighting from hot incandescent bulbs to compact fluorescent lights (CFLs). But do they really save energy? How do their illuminations compare? Even if the CFLs are more energy efficient, they still add to our pollution problem because of the mercury inside them. Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) could be the answer, but they are not available at our local stores. Can LEDs be made to screw right into a standard socket? How expensive are they? What are the power consumptions of so-called "60-W" and "100-W" CFL and LED light bulbs? These are the questions that are answered during this lab activity. Students measure the voltage and current for each of the three types of bulbs, and then calculate the electrical power required by each. An optional experiment is to set the light outputs of each bulb so they are equal in intensity, and then determine the power consumed. While not practical in the home, this experiment gives students an understanding of value for their buck.

  19. USING TIME VARIANT VOLTAGE TO CALCULATE ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND POWER USE OF BUILDING SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Makhmalbaf, Atefe; Augenbroe , Godfried

    2015-12-09

    Buildings are the main consumers of electricity across the world. However, in the research and studies related to building performance assessment, the focus has been on evaluating the energy efficiency of buildings whereas the instantaneous power efficiency has been overlooked as an important aspect of total energy consumption. As a result, we never developed adequate models that capture both thermal and electrical characteristics (e.g., voltage) of building systems to assess the impact of variations in the power system and emerging technologies of the smart grid on buildings energy and power performance and vice versa. This paper argues that the power performance of buildings as a function of electrical parameters should be evaluated in addition to systems’ mechanical and thermal behavior. The main advantage of capturing electrical behavior of building load is to better understand instantaneous power consumption and more importantly to control it. Voltage is one of the electrical parameters that can be used to describe load. Hence, voltage dependent power models are constructed in this work and they are coupled with existing thermal energy models. Lack of models that describe electrical behavior of systems also adds to the uncertainty of energy consumption calculations carried out in building energy simulation tools such as EnergyPlus, a common building energy modeling and simulation tool. To integrate voltage-dependent power models with thermal models, the thermal cycle (operation mode) of each system was fed into the voltage-based electrical model. Energy consumption of systems used in this study were simulated using EnergyPlus. Simulated results were then compared with estimated and measured power data. The mean square error (MSE) between simulated, estimated, and measured values were calculated. Results indicate that estimated power has lower MSE when compared with measured data than simulated results. Results discussed in this paper will illustrate the

  20. Burst-mode optical label processor with ultralow power consumption.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Salah; Nakahara, Tatsushi; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Ryo

    2016-04-01

    A novel label processor subsystem for 100-Gbps (25-Gbps × 4λs) burst-mode optical packets is developed, in which a highly energy-efficient method is pursued for extracting and interfacing the ultrafast packet-label to a CMOS-based processor where label recognition takes place. The method involves performing serial-to-parallel conversion for the label bits on a bit-by-bit basis by using an optoelectronic converter that is operated with a set of optical triggers generated in a burst-mode manner upon packet arrival. Here we present three key achievements that enabled a significant reduction in the total power consumption and latency of the whole subsystem; 1) based on a novel operation mechanism for providing amplification with bit-level selectivity, an optical trigger pulse generator, that consumes power for a very short duration upon packet arrival, is proposed and experimentally demonstrated, 2) the energy of optical triggers needed by the optoelectronic serial-to-parallel converter is reduced by utilizing a negative-polarity signal while employing an enhanced conversion scheme entitled the discharge-or-hold scheme, 3) the necessary optical trigger energy is further cut down by half by coupling the triggers through the chip's backside, whereas a novel lens-free packaging method is developed to enable a low-cost alignment process that works with simple visual observation. PMID:27136992

  1. 40 CFR 82.20 - Availability of consumption allowances in addition to baseline consumption allowances for class...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... exported; (viii) A copy of the bill of lading and the invoice indicating the net quantity (in kilograms) of... quantity of unexpended consumption rights; (F) The control period(s) to which the trade applies; and...

  2. 40 CFR 82.10 - Availability of consumption allowances in addition to baseline consumption allowances for class I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... allowances equivalent to the level of class I controlled substances (other than used controlled substances or... to baseline consumption allowances, the exporter of the class I controlled substances must submit to... Identification Number; (iii) The names and telephone numbers of contact persons for the......

  3. 40 CFR 82.20 - Availability of consumption allowances in addition to baseline consumption allowances for class...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., consumption allowances equivalent to the quantity of class II controlled substances that the person exported... quantity of class II controlled substance was produced in the U.S. or imported into the U.S. with expended... exports; (ii) The exporter's Employer Identification Number; (iii) The names and telephone......

  4. 40 CFR 82.10 - Availability of consumption allowances in addition to baseline consumption allowances for class I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... allowances equivalent to the level of class I controlled substances (other than used controlled substances or... to baseline consumption allowances, the exporter of the class I controlled substances must submit to... Identification Number; (iii) The names and telephone numbers of contact persons for the......

  5. 40 CFR 82.20 - Availability of consumption allowances in addition to baseline consumption allowances for class...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., consumption allowances equivalent to the quantity of class II controlled substances that the person exported... quantity of class II controlled substance was produced in the U.S. or imported into the U.S. with expended... exports; (ii) The exporter's Employer Identification Number; (iii) The names and telephone......

  6. Analyzing the Energy and Power Consumption of Remote Memory Accesses in the OpenSHMEM Model

    SciTech Connect

    Jana, Siddhartha; Hernandez, Oscar R; Poole, Stephen W; Hsu, Chung-Hsing; Chapman, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    PGAS models like OpenSHMEM provide interfaces to explicitly initiate one-sided remote memory accesses among processes. In addition, the model also provides synchronizing barriers to ensure a consistent view of the distributed memory at different phases of an application. The incorrect use of such interfaces affects the scalability achievable while using a parallel programming model. This study aims at understanding the effects of these constructs on the energy and power consumption behavior of OpenSHMEM applications. Our experiments show that cost incurred in terms of the total energy and power consumed depends on multiple factors across the software and hardware stack. We conclude that there is a significant impact on the power consumed by the CPU and DRAM due to multiple factors including the design of the data transfer patterns within an application, the design of the communication protocols within a middleware, the architectural constraints laid by the interconnect solutions, and also the levels of memory hierarchy within a compute node. This work motivates treating energy and power consumption as important factors while designing compute solutions for current and future distributed systems.

  7. Additional deleterious effects of alcohol consumption on sperm parameters and DNA integrity in diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Pourentezari, M; Talebi, A R; Mangoli, E; Anvari, M; Rahimipour, M

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to survey the impact of alcohol consumption on sperm parameters and DNA integrity in experimentally induced diabetic mice. A total of 32 adult male mice were divided into four groups: mice of group 1 served as control fed on basal diet, group 2 received streptozotocin (STZ) (200 mg kg(-1) , single dose, intraperitoneal) and basal diet, group 3 received alcohol (10 mg kg(-1) , water soluble) and basal diet, and group 4 received STZ and alcohol for 35 days. The cauda epididymidis of each mouse was dissected and placed in 1 ml of pre-warm Ham's F10 culture medium for 30 min. The swim-out spermatozoa were analysed for count, motility, morphology and viability. Sperm chromatin quality was evaluated with aniline blue, toluidine blue, acridine orange and chromomycin A3 staining. The results showed that all sperm parameters had significant differences (P < 0.05), also when sperm chromatin was assessed with cytochemical tests. There were significant differences (P < 0.001) between the groups. According to our results, alcohol and diabetes can cause abnormalities in sperm parameters and chromatin quality. In addition, alcohol consumption in diabetic mice can intensify sperm chromatin/DNA damage. PMID:26358836

  8. Risk assessment of additives through soft drinks and nectars consumption on Portuguese population: a 2010 survey.

    PubMed

    Diogo, Janina S G; Silva, Liliana S O; Pena, Angelina; Lino, Celeste M

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated whether the Portuguese population is at risk of exceeding ADI levels for acesulfame-K, saccharin, aspartame, caffeine, benzoic and sorbic acid through an assessment of dietary intake of additives and specific consumption of four types of beverages, traditional soft drinks and soft drinks based on mineral waters, energetic drinks, and nectars. The highest mean levels of additives were found for caffeine in energetic drinks, 293.5mg/L, for saccharin in traditional soft drinks, 18.4 mg/L, for acesulfame-K and aspartame in nectars, with 88.2 and 97.8 mg/L, respectively, for benzoic acid in traditional soft drinks, 125.7 mg/L, and for sorbic acid in soft drinks based on mineral water, 166.5 mg/L. Traditional soft drinks presented the highest acceptable daily intake percentages (ADIs%) for acesulfame-K, aspartame, benzoic and sorbic acid and similar value for saccharin (0.5%) when compared with soft drinks based on mineral water, 0.7%, 0.08%, 7.3%, and 1.92% versus 0.2%, 0.053%, 0.6%, and 0.28%, respectively. However for saccharin the highest percentage of ADI was obtained for nectars, 0.9%, in comparison with both types of soft drinks, 0.5%. Therefore, it is concluded that the Portuguese population is not at risk of exceeding the established ADIs for the studied additives.

  9. Modeling and optimization of the line-driver power consumption in xDSL systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolkerstorfer, Martin; Trautmann, Steffen; Nordström, Tomas; Putra, Bakti D.

    2012-12-01

    Optimization of the power spectrum alleviates the crosstalk noise in digital subscriber lines (DSL) and thereby reduces their power consumption at present. In order to truly assess the DSL system power consumption, this article presents realistic line driver (LD) power consumption models. These are applicable to any DSL system and extend previous models by parameterizing various circuit-level non-idealities. Based on the model of a class-AB LD we analyze the multi-user power spectrum optimization problem and propose novel algorithms for its global or approximate solution. The thereby obtained simulation results support our claim that this problem can be simplified with negligible performance loss by neglecting the LD model. This motivates the usage of established spectral optimization algorithms, which are shown to significantly reduce the LD power consumption compared to static spectrum management.

  10. 4. FLOOR PLAN AND SECTIONS, ADDITION TO POWER HOUSE. United ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. FLOOR PLAN AND SECTIONS, ADDITION TO POWER HOUSE. United Engineering Company Ltd., Alameda Shipyard. Also includes plot plan at 1 inch to 100 feet. John Hudspeth, architect, foot of Main Street, Alameda, California. Sheet 3. Plan no. 10,548. Scale 1/4 inch and h inch to the foot. April 30, 1945, last revised 6/22/45. pencil on vellum - United Engineering Company Shipyard, Boiler House, 2900 Main Street, Alameda, Alameda County, CA

  11. 3. ELEVATIONS, ADDITION TO POWER HOUSE. United Engineering Company Ltd., ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. ELEVATIONS, ADDITION TO POWER HOUSE. United Engineering Company Ltd., Alameda Shipyard. John Hudspeth, architect, foot of Main Street, Alameda, California. Sheet 4. Plan no. 10,548. Scale 1/4 inch to the foot, elevations, and one inch to the foot, sections and details. April 30, 1945, last revised 6/19/45. pencil on vellum - United Engineering Company Shipyard, Boiler House, 2900 Main Street, Alameda, Alameda County, CA

  12. Optimal Dynamic Sub-Threshold Technique for Extreme Low Power Consumption for VLSI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duong, Tuan A.

    2012-01-01

    For miniaturization of electronics systems, power consumption plays a key role in the realm of constraints. Considering the very large scale integration (VLSI) design aspect, as transistor feature size is decreased to 50 nm and below, there is sizable increase in the number of transistors as more functional building blocks are embedded in the same chip. However, the consequent increase in power consumption (dynamic and leakage) will serve as a key constraint to inhibit the advantages of transistor feature size reduction. Power consumption can be reduced by minimizing the voltage supply (for dynamic power consumption) and/or increasing threshold voltage (V(sub th), for reducing leakage power). When the feature size of the transistor is reduced, supply voltage (V(sub dd)) and threshold voltage (V(sub th)) are also reduced accordingly; then, the leakage current becomes a bigger factor of the total power consumption. To maintain low power consumption, operation of electronics at sub-threshold levels can be a potentially strong contender; however, there are two obstacles to be faced: more leakage current per transistor will cause more leakage power consumption, and slow response time when the transistor is operated in weak inversion region. To enable low power consumption and yet obtain high performance, the CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) transistor as a basic element is viewed and controlled as a four-terminal device: source, drain, gate, and body, as differentiated from the traditional approach with three terminals: i.e., source and body, drain, and gate. This technique features multiple voltage sources to supply the dynamic control, and uses dynamic control to enable low-threshold voltage when the channel (N or P) is active, for speed response enhancement and high threshold voltage, and when the transistor channel (N or P) is inactive, to reduce the leakage current for low-leakage power consumption.

  13. High-gain amplifier has excellent stability and low power consumption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleinberg, L. L.

    1965-01-01

    Transistorized amplifier, in which an external reference voltage controls gain, combines high gain with stability and low power consumption. This circuit is useful in electronic servo and portable audio equipment.

  14. Lithium Dinitramide as an Additive in Lithium Power Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorkovenko, Alexander A.

    2007-01-01

    Lithium dinitramide, LiN(NO2)2 has shown promise as an additive to nonaqueous electrolytes in rechargeable and non-rechargeable lithium-ion-based electrochemical power cells. Such non-aqueous electrolytes consist of lithium salts dissolved in mixtures of organic ethers, esters, carbonates, or acetals. The benefits of adding lithium dinitramide (which is also a lithium salt) include lower irreversible loss of capacity on the first charge/discharge cycle, higher cycle life, lower self-discharge, greater flexibility in selection of electrolyte solvents, and greater charge capacity. The need for a suitable electrolyte additive arises as follows: The metallic lithium in the anode of a lithium-ion-based power cell is so highly reactive that in addition to the desired main electrochemical reaction, it engages in side reactions that cause formation of resistive films and dendrites, which degrade performance as quantified in terms of charge capacity, cycle life, shelf life, first-cycle irreversible capacity loss, specific power, and specific energy. The incidence of side reactions can be reduced through the formation of a solid-electrolyte interface (SEI) a thin film that prevents direct contact between the lithium anode material and the electrolyte. Ideally, an SEI should chemically protect the anode and the electrolyte from each other while exhibiting high conductivity for lithium ions and little or no conductivity for electrons. A suitable additive can act as an SEI promoter. Heretofore, most SEI promotion was thought to derive from organic molecules in electrolyte solutions. In contrast, lithium dinitramide is inorganic. Dinitramide compounds are known as oxidizers in rocket-fuel chemistry and until now, were not known as SEI promoters in battery chemistry. Although the exact reason for the improvement afforded by the addition of lithium dinitramide is not clear, it has been hypothesized that lithium dinitramide competes with other electrolyte constituents to react with

  15. Reducing power consumption while performing collective operations on a plurality of compute nodes

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael A.; Peters, Amanda E.; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian E.

    2011-10-18

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for reducing power consumption while performing collective operations on a plurality of compute nodes that include: receiving, by each compute node, instructions to perform a type of collective operation; selecting, by each compute node from a plurality of collective operations for the collective operation type, a particular collective operation in dependence upon power consumption characteristics for each of the plurality of collective operations; and executing, by each compute node, the selected collective operation.

  16. Rotary ultrasonic machining of CFRP composites: a study on power consumption.

    PubMed

    Cong, W L; Pei, Z J; Deines, T W; Srivastava, Anil; Riley, L; Treadwell, C

    2012-12-01

    Carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) composites are very difficult to machine. A large number of holes need to be drilled in CFRP for many applications. Therefore, it is important to develop cost-effective drilling processes. CFRP has been drilled by rotary ultrasonic machining (RUM) successfully. The literature has reports about the effects of input variables on output variables (including cutting force, torque, surface roughness, tool wear, and workpiece delamination) in RUM of CFRP. However, there are no reports on power consumption in RUM of CFRP. This paper reports the first study on power consumption in RUM of CFRP. It reports an experimental investigation on effects of input variables (ultrasonic power, tool rotation speed, feedrate, and type of CFRP) on power consumption of each component (including ultrasonic power supply, spindle motor, coolant pump, and air compressor) and the entire RUM system.

  17. Minimization of power consumption during charging of superconducting accelerating cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharyya, Anirban Krishna; Ziemann, Volker; Ruber, Roger; Goryashko, Vitaliy

    2015-11-01

    The radio frequency cavities, used to accelerate charged particle beams, need to be charged to their nominal voltage after which the beam can be injected into them. The standard procedure for such cavity filling is to use a step charging profile. However, during initial stages of such a filling process a substantial amount of the total energy is wasted in reflection for superconducting cavities because of their extremely narrow bandwidth. The paper presents a novel strategy to charge cavities, which reduces total energy reflection. We use variational calculus to obtain analytical expression for the optimal charging profile. Energies, reflected and required, and generator peak power are also compared between the charging schemes and practical aspects (saturation, efficiency and gain characteristics) of power sources (tetrodes, IOTs and solid state power amplifiers) are also considered and analysed. The paper presents a methodology to successfully identify the optimal charging scheme for different power sources to minimize total energy requirement.

  18. 78 FR 73434 - Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption; Acacia (Gum Arabic)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-06

    ... produce the gum. B. Regulated Food Uses In the Federal Register of September 23, 1974 (39 FR 34203), we... the Federal Register on February 13, 2003 (68 FR 7381) to amend the food additive regulations in part.... Background In a notice published in the Federal Register on December 20, 2011 (76 FR 78866), we...

  19. 77 FR 52228 - Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption; Vitamin D2

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-29

    ... the Federal Register of December 17, 2009 (74 FR 66979), FDA announced that a food additive petition... rule (74 FR 11019) for the use of vitamin D 2 in soy-based food products. Lallemand concluded that... supplement in soy-based food products (74 FR 11019, March 16, 2009). The three earlier food...

  20. Potential nanotechnology applications for reducing freshwater consumption at coal fired power plants : an early view.

    SciTech Connect

    Elcock, D.

    2010-09-17

    This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements the overall research effort of the Existing Plants Research Program by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. A growing challenge to the economic production of electricity from coal-fired power plants is the demand for freshwater, particularly in light of the projected trends for increasing demands and decreasing supplies of freshwater. Nanotechnology uses the unique chemical, physical, and biological properties that are associated with materials at the nanoscale to create and use materials, devices, and systems with new functions and properties. It is possible that nanotechnology may open the door to a variety of potentially interesting ways to reduce freshwater consumption at power plants. This report provides an overview of how applications of nanotechnology could potentially help reduce freshwater use at coal-fired power plants. It was developed by (1) identifying areas within a coal-fired power plant's operations where freshwater use occurs and could possibly be reduced, (2) conducting a literature review to identify potential applications of nanotechnology for facilitating such reductions, and (3) collecting additional information on potential applications from researchers and companies to clarify or expand on information obtained from the literature. Opportunities, areas, and processes for reducing freshwater use in coal-fired power plants considered in this report include the use of nontraditional waters in process and cooling water systems, carbon capture alternatives, more efficient processes for removing sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides, coolants that have higher thermal conductivities than water alone, energy storage options, and a variety of plant inefficiencies, which, if improved

  1. Drilling power consumption and soil conveying volume performances of lunar sampling auger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Ye; Tang, Dewei; Deng, Zongquan; Jiang, Shengyuan; Quan, Qiquan

    2015-05-01

    The sampling auger used in lunar sampling and return mission is to transmit power and convey soil, and its performance is the key factor of the whole mission. However, there is currently a lack of the optimization research on soil conveying volume and power consumption models in auger structure design. To provide the drilled object, the simulation lunar soil, whose physical and mechanical property is the same as the real soil, is made by reducing soil void ratio. The models are formulated to analyze the influence of auger structure parameters on power consumption and soil conveying volume. To obtain the optimized structure parameters of auger, the multi-objective optimization functions of the maximum soil conveying volume and minimum power consumption are developed. To verify the correctness of the models, the performances of different augers drilling simulation soil are tested. The test results demonstrate that the power consumption of optimized auger is the lowest both in theory and test, and the experimental results of soil conveying volume are in agreement with theoretical analysis. Consequently, a new method for designing a lunar sampling auger is proposed which includes the models of soil conveying volume and transportation power consumption, the optimization of structure parameters and the comparison tests. This method provides a reference for sampling auger designing of the Chinese Lunar Sample Mission.

  2. Non-additive genome-wide association scan reveals a new gene associated with habitual coffee consumption

    PubMed Central

    Pirastu, Nicola; Kooyman, Maarten; Robino, Antonietta; van der Spek, Ashley; Navarini, Luciano; Amin, Najaf; Karssen, Lennart C.; Van Duijn, Cornelia M; Gasparini, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Coffee is one of the most consumed beverages world-wide and one of the primary sources of caffeine intake. Given its important health and economic impact, the underlying genetics of its consumption has been widely studied. Despite these efforts, much has still to be uncovered. In particular, the use of non-additive genetic models may uncover new information about the genetic variants driving coffee consumption. We have conducted a genome-wide association study in two Italian populations using additive, recessive and dominant models for analysis. This has uncovered a significant association in the PDSS2 gene under the recessive model that has been replicated in an independent cohort from the Netherlands (ERF). The identified gene has been shown to negatively regulate the expression of the caffeine metabolism genes and can thus be linked to coffee consumption. Further bioinformatics analysis of eQTL and histone marks from Roadmap data has evidenced a possible role of the identified SNPs in regulating PDSS2 gene expression through enhancers present in its intron. Our results highlight a novel gene which regulates coffee consumption by regulating the expression of the genes linked to caffeine metabolism. Further studies will be needed to clarify the biological mechanism which links PDSS2 and coffee consumption. PMID:27561104

  3. Non-additive genome-wide association scan reveals a new gene associated with habitual coffee consumption.

    PubMed

    Pirastu, Nicola; Kooyman, Maarten; Robino, Antonietta; van der Spek, Ashley; Navarini, Luciano; Amin, Najaf; Karssen, Lennart C; Van Duijn, Cornelia M; Gasparini, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Coffee is one of the most consumed beverages world-wide and one of the primary sources of caffeine intake. Given its important health and economic impact, the underlying genetics of its consumption has been widely studied. Despite these efforts, much has still to be uncovered. In particular, the use of non-additive genetic models may uncover new information about the genetic variants driving coffee consumption. We have conducted a genome-wide association study in two Italian populations using additive, recessive and dominant models for analysis. This has uncovered a significant association in the PDSS2 gene under the recessive model that has been replicated in an independent cohort from the Netherlands (ERF). The identified gene has been shown to negatively regulate the expression of the caffeine metabolism genes and can thus be linked to coffee consumption. Further bioinformatics analysis of eQTL and histone marks from Roadmap data has evidenced a possible role of the identified SNPs in regulating PDSS2 gene expression through enhancers present in its intron. Our results highlight a novel gene which regulates coffee consumption by regulating the expression of the genes linked to caffeine metabolism. Further studies will be needed to clarify the biological mechanism which links PDSS2 and coffee consumption. PMID:27561104

  4. Power consumption of rotary blood pumps: pulsatile versus constant-speed mode.

    PubMed

    Pirbodaghi, Tohid; Cotter, Chris; Bourque, Kevin

    2014-12-01

    We investigated the power consumption of a HeartMate III rotary blood pump based on in vitro experiments performed in a cardiovascular simulator. To create artificial-pulse mode, we modulated the pump speed by decreasing the mean speed by 2000 rpm for 200 ms and then increasing speed by 4000 rpm (mean speeds plus 2000 rpm) for another 200 ms, creating a square waveform shape. The HeartMate III was connected to a cardiovascular simulator consisting of a hydraulic pump system to simulate left ventricle pumping action, arterial and venous compliance chambers, and an adjustable valve for peripheral resistance to facilitate the desired aortic pressure. The simulator operated based on Suga's elastance model to mimic the Starling response of the heart, thereby reproducing physiological blood flow and pressure conditions. We measured the instantaneous total electrical current and voltage of the pump to evaluate its power consumption. The aim was to answer these fundamental questions: (i) How does pump speed modulation affect pump power consumption? (ii) How does the power consumption vary in relation to external pulsatile flow? The results indicate that speed modulation and external pulsatile flow both moderately increase the power consumption. Increasing the pump speed reduces the impact of external pulsatile flow.

  5. A new bias scheme for a low power consumption ReRAM crossbar array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Wookyung; Choi, Sujin; Shin, Hyungsoon

    2016-08-01

    This paper proposes a new bias scheme for a crossbar array that can improve the power consumption and read margin. The concept of the newly proposed 5/12 bias scheme is to reduce the bias of the unselected cells for power consumption and the bias of half-selected cells for a reduced line voltage drop of the selected cell. In the 5/12 bias scheme, the unselected word line and bit line are biased to 5 × V app/12 and 7 × V app/12, respectively. The electrical characteristics of the 5/12 bias scheme are evaluated by HSPICE simulations and it is found that appropriate nonlinearity of selector can simultaneously achieve low power consumption and high read margin for 5/12 bias scheme.

  6. Power consumption of communication systems employing radio-over-fiber distributed antenna systems for railway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Tien Dat; Kanno, Atsushi; Kawanishi, Tetsuya

    2013-01-01

    Demand on high speed communication and broadband access connection for fast moving passengers is rapidly increasing. However, the current wireless access communication techniques for railway which are mainly based on GSM for rail, satellite, and macro-cell cellular networks cannot meet the requirement of communication on fast moving trains. Cellular networks with small cell size and high carrier frequencies can be realized as a promising solution to overcome the current obstacles. In that situation, a radio-over-fiber distributed antenna system using WDM technology can be an attractive means to connect small base stations along the railway track to the control centers. However, considering a huge number of base stations placed along the railway track, power consumption will become one of the main concerns. In this paper, we investigate and optimize power consumption and energy efficiency of a Radio-over-Fiber distributed antenna system (RoF DAS) for railway. Based on the model, optimum system design in terms of remote antenna cell size and number of cells in a WDM ring are derived with respect to system energy consumption and efficiency. From the model we can also determine an appropriate scheme to upgrade a currently deployed conventional cellular network to a system employing RoF DAS technology. The power consumption and energy efficiency of the conventional and the upgraded systems are compared. The results demonstrate a significant save of power consumption and remarkable enhancement of energy efficiency when using a RoF DAS system.

  7. Signal Processing for a Lunar Array: Minimizing Power Consumption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    D'Addario, Larry; Simmons, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    Motivation for the study is: (1) Lunar Radio Array for low frequency, high redshift Dark Ages/Epoch of Reionization observations (z =6-50, f=30-200 MHz) (2) High precision cosmological measurements of 21 cm H I line fluctuations (3) Probe universe before first star formation and provide information about the Intergalactic Medium and evolution of large scale structures (5) Does the current cosmological model accurately describe the Universe before reionization? Lunar Radio Array is for (1) Radio interferometer based on the far side of the moon (1a) Necessary for precision measurements, (1b) Shielding from earth-based and solar RFI (12) No permanent ionosphere, (2) Minimum collecting area of approximately 1 square km and brightness sensitivity 10 mK (3)Several technologies must be developed before deployment The power needed to process signals from a large array of nonsteerable elements is not prohibitive, even for the Moon, and even in current technology. Two different concepts have been proposed: (1) Dark Ages Radio Interferometer (DALI) (2)( Lunar Array for Radio Cosmology (LARC)

  8. Unrecorded alcohol consumption in Russia: toxic denaturants and disinfectants pose additional risks

    PubMed Central

    Solodun, Yuriy V.; Monakhova, Yulia B.; Kuballa, Thomas; Samokhvalov, Andriy V.; Rehm, Jürgen; Lachenmeier, Dirk W.

    2011-01-01

    In 2005, 30% of all alcohol consumption in Russia was unrecorded. This paper describes the chemical composition of unrecorded and low cost alcohol, including a toxicological evaluation. Alcohol products (n=22) from both recorded and unrecorded sources were obtained from three Russian cities (Saratov, Lipetsk and Irkutsk) and were chemically analyzed. Unrecorded alcohols included homemade samogons, medicinal alcohols and surrogate alcohols. Analysis included alcoholic strength, levels of volatile compounds (methanol, acetaldehyde, higher alcohols), ethyl carbamate, diethyl phthalate (DEP) and polyhexamethyleneguanidine hydrochloride (PHMG). Single samples showed contamination with DEP (275–1269 mg/l) and PHMG (515 mg/l) above levels of toxicological concern. Our detailed chemical analysis of Russian alcohols showed that the composition of vodka, samogon and medicinal alcohols generally did not raise major public health concerns other than for ethanol. It was shown, however, that concentration levels of DEP and PHMG in some surrogate alcohols make these samples unfit for human consumption as even moderate drinking would exceed acceptable daily intakes. PMID:22319254

  9. Pulsed addition of HMF and furfural to batch-grown xylose-utilizing Saccharomyces cerevisiae results in different physiological responses in glucose and xylose consumption phase

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass generates a number of undesired degradation products that can inhibit microbial metabolism. Two of these compounds, the furan aldehydes 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and 2-furaldehyde (furfural), have been shown to be an impediment for viable ethanol production. In the present study, HMF and furfural were pulse-added during either the glucose or the xylose consumption phase in order to dissect the effects of these inhibitors on energy state, redox metabolism, and gene expression of xylose-consuming Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Results Pulsed addition of 3.9 g L-1 HMF and 1.2 g L-1 furfural during either the glucose or the xylose consumption phase resulted in distinct physiological responses. Addition of furan aldehydes in the glucose consumption phase was followed by a decrease in the specific growth rate and the glycerol yield, whereas the acetate yield increased 7.3-fold, suggesting that NAD(P)H for furan aldehyde conversion was generated by acetate synthesis. No change in the intracellular levels of NAD(P)H was observed 1 hour after pulsing, whereas the intracellular concentration of ATP increased by 58%. An investigation of the response at transcriptional level revealed changes known to be correlated with perturbations in the specific growth rate, such as protein and nucleotide biosynthesis. Addition of furan aldehydes during the xylose consumption phase brought about an increase in the glycerol and acetate yields, whereas the xylitol yield was severely reduced. The intracellular concentrations of NADH and NADPH decreased by 58 and 85%, respectively, hence suggesting that HMF and furfural drained the cells of reducing power. The intracellular concentration of ATP was reduced by 42% 1 hour after pulsing of inhibitors, suggesting that energy-requiring repair or maintenance processes were activated. Transcriptome profiling showed that NADPH-requiring processes such as amino acid biosynthesis and sulfate and

  10. Power consumption analysis of priority-based service differentiation scheme for LR-WPANs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Meejoung; Hwang, Eenjun

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we investigate the effect of service differentiation on the power consumption in contention period of IEEE 802.15.4 sensor networks. Power consumption is analysed for two different service differentiation schemes under non-saturation condition. The two service differentiation schemes are the differentiation by the backoff exponent (BED) and differentiation by the contention window (CWD), which provide multilevel differentiated services in beacon-enabled mode with slotted carrier sense multiple access/collision avoidance (CSMA/CA) algorithm. The analysis is based on the stationary probabilities of a discrete-time Markov chain, which is a model of CSMA/CA describing the state of a head packet of a device. Numerical results show that CWD uses the power more efficiently and performs better in terms of throughput, while BED more differentiates the service.

  11. Optimization under Uncertainty for Water Consumption in a Pulverized Coal Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Juan M. Salazar; Stephen E. Zitney; Urmila Diwekar

    2009-01-01

    Pulverized coal (PC) power plants are widely recognized as major water consumers whose operability has started to be affected by drought conditions across some regions of the country. Water availability will further restrict the retrofitting of existing PC plants with water-expensive carbon capture technologies. Therefore, national efforts to reduce water withdrawal and consumption have been intensified. Water consumption in PC plants is strongly associated to losses from the cooling water cycle, particularly water evaporation from cooling towers. Accurate estimation of these water losses requires realistic cooling tower models, as well as the inclusion of uncertainties arising from atmospheric conditions. In this work, the cooling tower for a supercritical PC power plant was modeled as a humidification operation and used for optimization under uncertainty. Characterization of the uncertainty (air temperature and humidity) was based on available weather data. Process characteristics including boiler conditions, reactant ratios, and pressure ratios in turbines were calculated to obtain the minimum water consumption under the above mentioned uncertainties. In this study, the calculated conditions predicted up to 12% in reduction in the average water consumption for a 548 MW supercritical PC power plant simulated using Aspen Plus. Optimization under uncertainty for these large-scale PC plants cannot be solved with conventional stochastic programming algorithms because of the computational expenses involved. In this work, we discuss the use of a novel better optimization of nonlinear uncertain systems (BONUS) algorithm which dramatically decreases the computational requirements of the stochastic optimization.

  12. Optimization Under Uncertainty for Water Consumption in a Pulverized Coal Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Juan M. Salazara; Stephen E. Zitney; Urmila M. Diwekara

    2009-01-01

    Pulverized coal (PC) power plants are widely recognized as major water consumers whose operability has started to be affected by drought conditions across some regions of the country. Water availability will further restrict the retrofitting of existing PC plants with water-expensive carbon capture technologies. Therefore, national efforts to reduce water withdrawal and consumption have been intensified. Water consumption in PC plants is strongly associated to losses from the cooling water cycle, particularly water evaporation from cooling towers. Accurate estimation of these water losses requires realistic cooling tower models, as well as the inclusion of uncertainties arising from atmospheric conditions. In this work, the cooling tower for a supercritical PC power plant was modeled as a humidification operation and used for optimization under uncertainty. Characterization of the uncertainty (air temperature and humidity) was based on available weather data. Process characteristics including boiler conditions, reactant ratios, and pressure ratios in turbines were calculated to obtain the minimum water consumption under the above mentioned uncertainties. In this study, the calculated conditions predicted up to 12% in reduction in the average water consumption for a 548 MW supercritical PC power plant simulated using Aspen Plus. Optimization under uncertainty for these large-scale PC plants cannot be solved with conventional stochastic programming algorithms because of the computational expenses involved. In this work, we discuss the use of a novel better optimization of nonlinear uncertain systems (BONUS) algorithm which dramatically decreases the computational requirements of the stochastic optimization.

  13. Methods for estimating water consumption for thermoelectric power plants in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diehl, Timothy H.; Harris, Melissa; Murphy, Jennifer C.; Hutson, Susan S.; Ladd, David E.

    2013-01-01

    Heat budgets were constructed for the first four generation-type categories; data at solar thermal plants were insufficient for heat budgets. These heat budgets yielded estimates of the amount of heat transferred to the condenser. The ratio of evaporation to the heat discharged through the condenser was estimated using existing heat balance models that are sensitive to environmental data; this feature allows estimation of consumption under different climatic conditions. These two estimates were multiplied to yield an estimate of consumption at each power plant.

  14. HPC Server Performance and Power Consumption for Atmospheric Modeling on GPUs Configured with Different CPU Platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posey, Stan; Messmer, Peter; Appleyard, Jeremy

    2015-04-01

    Current trends in high performance computing (HPC) are moving towards the use of graphics processing units (GPUs) to achieve speedups through the extraction of fine-grain parallelism of application software. GPUs have been developed exclusively for computational tasks as massively-parallel co-processors to the CPU, and during 2014 the latest NVIDIA GPU architecture can operate with as many as three CPU platforms. In addition to the conventional use of the x86 CPU architecture with GPUs starting from the mid-2000's, the POWER and ARM-64 architectures have recently become available as x86 alternatives. Today computational efficiency and increased performance per energy-cost are key drivers behind HPC decisions to implement GPU-based servers for atmospheric modeling. The choice of a server CPU platform will influence performance and overall power consumption of a system, and also the available configurations of CPU-to-GPU ratio. It follows that such system design configurations continue to be a critical factor behind scientific decisions to implement models at higher resolutions and possibly with an increased use of ensembles. This presentation will examine the current state of GPU developments for atmospheric modeling with examples from the COSMO dycore and from various WRF physics, and for different CPU platforms. The examples provided will be relevant to science-scale HPC practice of CPU-GPU system configurations based on model resolution requirements of a particular simulation. Performance results will compare use of the latest available CPUs from the three available CPU architectures, both with and without GPU acceleration. Finally a GPU outlook is provided on GPU hardware, software, tools, and programmability for each of the available CPU platforms.

  15. Resonator-Based Silicon Electro-Optic Modulator with Low Power Consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Maoqing; Danner, Aaron J.; Eng Png, Ching; Thor Lim, Soon

    2009-04-01

    This paper demonstrates, via simulation, an electro-optic modulator based on a subwavelength Fabry-Perot resonator cavity with low power consumption of 86 µW/µm. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the lowest power reported for silicon photonic bandgap modulators. The device is modulated at a doped p-i-n junction overlapping the cavity in a silicon waveguide perforated with etched holes, with the doping area optimized for minimum power consumption. The surface area of the entire device is only 2.1 µm2, which compares favorably to other silicon-based modulators. A modulation speed of at least 300 MHz is detected from the electrical simulator after sidewall doping is introduced which is suitable for sensing or fiber to the home (FTTH) technologies, where speed can be traded for low cost and power consumption. The device does not rely on ultra-high Q, and could serve as a sensor, modulator, or passive filter with built-in calibration.

  16. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  17. The ROM Design with Half Grouping Compression Method for Chip Area and Power Consumption Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Ki-Sang; Kim, Kang-Jik; Kim, Young-Eun; Chung, Jin-Gyun; Pyun, Ki-Hyun; Lee, Jong-Yeol; Jeong, Hang-Geun; Cho, Seong-Ik

    In memory design, the issue is smaller size and low power. Most power used in the ROM is consumed in line capacitance such as address lines, word lines, bit lines, and decoder. This paper presents ROM design of a novel HG (Half Grouping) compression method so as to reduce the parasitic capacitance of bit lines and the area of the row decoder for power consumption and chip area reduction. ROM design result of 512 point FFT block shows that the proposed method reduces 40.6% area, 42.12% power, and 37.82% transistor number respectively in comparison with the conventional method. The designed ROM with proposed method is implemented in a 0.35µm CMOS process. It consumes 5.8mW at 100MHz with a single 3.3V power supply.

  18. Measured effect of wind generation on the fuel consumption of an isolated diesel power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stiller, P. H.; Scott, G. W.; Shaltens, R. K.

    1983-01-01

    The Block Island Power Company (BIPCO), on Block Island, Rhode Island, operates an isolated electric power system consisting of diesel generation and an experimental wind turbine. The 150-kW wind turbine, designated MOD-OA by the U.S. Department of Energy is typically operated in parallel with two diesel generators to serve an average winter load of 350 kW. Wind generation serves up to 60 percent of the system demand depending on wind speed and total system load. Results of diesel fuel consumption measurements are given for the diesel units operated in parallel with the wind turbine and again without the wind turbine. The fuel consumption data are used to calculate the amount of fuel displaced by wind energy. Results indicate that the wind turbine displaced 25,700 lbs. of the diesel fuel during the test period, representing a calculated reduction in fuel consumption of 6.7 percent while generating 11 percent of the total electric energy. The amount of displaced fuel depends on operating conditions and system load. It is also shown that diesel engine throttle activity resulting from wind gusts which rapidly change the wind turbine output do not significantly influence fuel consumption.

  19. System and method for high power diode based additive manufacturing

    DOEpatents

    El-Dasher, Bassem S.; Bayramian, Andrew; Demuth, James A.; Farmer, Joseph C.; Torres, Sharon G.

    2016-04-12

    A system is disclosed for performing an Additive Manufacturing (AM) fabrication process on a powdered material forming a substrate. The system may make use of a diode array for generating an optical signal sufficient to melt a powdered material of the substrate. A mask may be used for preventing a first predetermined portion of the optical signal from reaching the substrate, while allowing a second predetermined portion to reach the substrate. At least one processor may be used for controlling an output of the diode array.

  20. A highly sensitive in-situ turbidity sensor with low power consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yi; Sun, Lei; Ye, Shuming; Chen, Hang; Jiang, Kai; Pan, Jianming

    2014-03-01

    A highly sensitive in-situ turbidity sensor with the low power consumption was proposed and evaluated in this study. To meet the practical requirements of the in-situ detection, we have designed the light scattering path, watertight mechanical structure, and ultra-weak scattering light detecting method. Experiments showed that the sensor had a sensitivity of 0.0076 FTU with the concentration range of 0-25 FTU and the R-square of 0.9999. The sensor could withstand the water pressure in depth of 1000 m and had the low power consumption in the active mode 10.4 mA, sleep mode 65 μA with a supply voltage of 8.4 V. Southern China Sea buoy experiments indicated that the sensor could work well in the actual in-situ environment. In comparison with sensors of other companies, our sensor had relatively more comprehensive performance.

  1. Low Power Consumption Design and Fabrication of Thin Film Core for Micro Fluxgate.

    PubMed

    Lv, Hui; Liu, Shibin

    2016-03-01

    The soft magnetic characteristic of core is a critical factor to performance of the micro fluxgate. Porous thin film core can be effectively used to decrease the value of saturation magnetic field strength (H(s)) and improve soft magnetic behavior. It is conducive to impelling the micro fluxgate toward the direction of low power consumption. In this work, negative photoresist is used to fabricate a porous core by MEMS technology. Through the processes of ultraviolet-lithography, the porous pattern transfer from the mask to the microstructure on silicon substrate. The experiment result complies with the anticipation and indicates that this MEMS technique can be applied to improve the characteristic of thin film core and decrease power consumption of fluxgate sensor. PMID:27455686

  2. Design of Voltage-Mode MAX-MIN Circuits with Low Area and Low Power Consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soleimani, Mohammad; Khoei, Abdollah; Hadidi, Khayrollah; Dinavari, Vahid Fagih

    In this paper, new structure of Voltage-Mode MAX-MIN circuit are presented for nonlinear systems, fuzzy applications, neural network and etc. A differential pair with improved cascode current mirror is used to choose the desired input. The advantages of the proposed structure are high operating frequency, high precision, low power consumption, low area and simple expansion for multiple inputs by adding only three transistors for each extra input. The proposed circuit which is simulated by HSPICE in 0.35µm CMOS process shows the total power consumption of 85µW in 5MHz operating frequency from a single 3.3-V supply. Also, the total area of the proposed circuit is about 420µm2 for two input voltages, and would be negligibly increased for each extra input.

  3. High-brightness low-power consumption microLED arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonar, James R.; Valentine, Gareth J.; Gong, Zheng; Small, James; Gorton, Steve

    2016-03-01

    microLED arrays are a route to providing emissive displays with high brightness and low power consumption performance. In this talk we will discuss results pertaining to sub 10 μm LED pixels, the challenges posed and performance achieved in forming microLED arrays. In particular, pixel pitch, backplane capabilities and colourisation. The applications which can benefit from this approach will also be discussed.

  4. Power-law relationships for estimating mass, fuel consumption and costs of energy conversion equipments.

    PubMed

    Caduff, Marloes; Huijbregts, Mark A J; Althaus, Hans-Joerg; Hendriks, A Jan

    2011-01-15

    To perform life-cycle assessment studies, data on the production and use of the products is required. However, often only few data or measurements are available. Estimation of properties can be performed by applying scaling relationships. In many disciplines, they are used to either predict data or to search for underlying patterns, but they have not been considered in the context of product assessments hitherto. The goal of this study was to explore size scaling for commonly used energy conversion equipment, that is, boilers, engines, and generators. The variables mass M, fuel consumption Q, and costs C were related to power P. The established power-law relationships were M = 10(0.73.. 1.89)P(0.64.. 1.23) (R(2) ≥ 0.94), Q = 10(0.06.. 0.68)P(0.82.. 1.02) (R(2) ≥ 0.98) and C = 10(2.46.. 2.86)P(0.83.. 0.85) (R(2) ≥ 0.83). Mass versus power and costs versus power showed that none of the equipment types scaled isometrically, that is, with a slope of 1. Fuel consumption versus power scaled approximately isometrically for steam boilers, the other equipments scaled significantly lower than 1. This nonlinear scaling behavior induces a significant size effect. The power laws we established can be applied to scale the mass, fuel consumption and costs of energy conversion equipments up or down. Our findings suggest that empirical scaling laws can be used to estimate properties, particularly relevant in studies focusing on early product development for which generally only little information is available. PMID:21133374

  5. Power-law relationships for estimating mass, fuel consumption and costs of energy conversion equipments.

    PubMed

    Caduff, Marloes; Huijbregts, Mark A J; Althaus, Hans-Joerg; Hendriks, A Jan

    2011-01-15

    To perform life-cycle assessment studies, data on the production and use of the products is required. However, often only few data or measurements are available. Estimation of properties can be performed by applying scaling relationships. In many disciplines, they are used to either predict data or to search for underlying patterns, but they have not been considered in the context of product assessments hitherto. The goal of this study was to explore size scaling for commonly used energy conversion equipment, that is, boilers, engines, and generators. The variables mass M, fuel consumption Q, and costs C were related to power P. The established power-law relationships were M = 10(0.73.. 1.89)P(0.64.. 1.23) (R(2) ≥ 0.94), Q = 10(0.06.. 0.68)P(0.82.. 1.02) (R(2) ≥ 0.98) and C = 10(2.46.. 2.86)P(0.83.. 0.85) (R(2) ≥ 0.83). Mass versus power and costs versus power showed that none of the equipment types scaled isometrically, that is, with a slope of 1. Fuel consumption versus power scaled approximately isometrically for steam boilers, the other equipments scaled significantly lower than 1. This nonlinear scaling behavior induces a significant size effect. The power laws we established can be applied to scale the mass, fuel consumption and costs of energy conversion equipments up or down. Our findings suggest that empirical scaling laws can be used to estimate properties, particularly relevant in studies focusing on early product development for which generally only little information is available.

  6. Effectiveness of Taste Lessons with and without additional experiential learning activities on children's psychosocial determinants of vegetables consumption.

    PubMed

    Battjes-Fries, Marieke C E; Haveman-Nies, Annemien; van Dongen, Ellen J I; Meester, Hante J; van den Top-Pullen, Rinelle; de Graaf, Kees; van 't Veer, Pieter

    2016-10-01

    Experiential learning methods seem to be promising to enhance healthy eating behaviour in children. Therefore, this study compared the effectiveness of the Dutch programme Taste Lessons with and without additional experiential learning activities on children's psychosocial determinants of vegetable consumption. In a quasi-experimental design, 800 children aged 8-11 years old from 34 elementary schools participated in a Taste Lessons (TL: 5 lessons) group, a Taste Lessons Vegetable Menu (TLVM: TL with 3 added experiential learning activities) group, and a control group. During a baseline and follow-up measurement, children completed a questionnaire on psychosocial determinants towards vegetables consumption. Multilevel regression analyses were conducted to compare changes in the determinants between the TLVM group and the TL group, and between the two intervention groups and the control group. The TLVM group showed a significantly higher increase in knowledge (p < 0.001), attitude and subjective norm of the teacher (both p < 0.05), whereas the TL group only showed a significantly higher increase in knowledge (p < 0.001) compared to the control group. Increases in knowledge (p < 0.10), subjective norm (p < 0.10) and cooking self-efficacy (p < 0.05) were higher in the TLVM group than in the TL group. Therefore, more and stronger effects were found in children who participated in the additional hands-on activities. PMID:27317617

  7. Flexoelectric effect in an in-plane switching (IPS) liquid crystal cell for low-power consumption display devices

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Su; Bos, Philip J.; Kim, Dong-Woo; Yang, Deng-Ke; Lee, Joong Hee; Lee, Seung Hee

    2016-01-01

    Technology of displaying static images in portable displays, advertising panels and price tags pursues significant reduction in power consumption and in product cost. Driving at a low-frequency electric field in fringe-field switching (FFS) mode can be one of the efficient ways to save powers of the recent portable devices, but a serious drop of image-quality, so-called image-flickering, has been found in terms of the coupling of elastic deformation to not only quadratic dielectric effect but linear flexoelectric effect. Despite of the urgent requirement of solving the issue, understanding of such a phenomenon is yet vague. Here, we thoroughly analyze and firstly report the flexoelectric effect in in-plane switching (IPS) liquid crystal cell. The effect takes place on the area above electrodes due to splay and bend deformations of nematic liquid crystal along oblique electric fields, so that the obvious spatial shift of the optical transmittance is experimentally observed and is clearly demonstrated based on the relation between direction of flexoelectric polarization and electric field polarity. In addition, we report that the IPS mode has inherent characteristics to solve the image-flickering issue in the low-power consumption display in terms of the physical property of liquid crystal material and the electrode structure. PMID:27731372

  8. Flexoelectric effect in an in-plane switching (IPS) liquid crystal cell for low-power consumption display devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Min Su; Bos, Philip J.; Kim, Dong-Woo; Yang, Deng-Ke; Lee, Joong Hee; Lee, Seung Hee

    2016-10-01

    Technology of displaying static images in portable displays, advertising panels and price tags pursues significant reduction in power consumption and in product cost. Driving at a low-frequency electric field in fringe-field switching (FFS) mode can be one of the efficient ways to save powers of the recent portable devices, but a serious drop of image-quality, so-called image-flickering, has been found in terms of the coupling of elastic deformation to not only quadratic dielectric effect but linear flexoelectric effect. Despite of the urgent requirement of solving the issue, understanding of such a phenomenon is yet vague. Here, we thoroughly analyze and firstly report the flexoelectric effect in in-plane switching (IPS) liquid crystal cell. The effect takes place on the area above electrodes due to splay and bend deformations of nematic liquid crystal along oblique electric fields, so that the obvious spatial shift of the optical transmittance is experimentally observed and is clearly demonstrated based on the relation between direction of flexoelectric polarization and electric field polarity. In addition, we report that the IPS mode has inherent characteristics to solve the image-flickering issue in the low-power consumption display in terms of the physical property of liquid crystal material and the electrode structure.

  9. Reducing power consumption while synchronizing a plurality of compute nodes during execution of a parallel application

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael A.; Peters, Amanda A.; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian E.

    2012-01-10

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for reducing power consumption while synchronizing a plurality of compute nodes during execution of a parallel application that include: beginning, by each compute node, performance of a blocking operation specified by the parallel application, each compute node beginning the blocking operation asynchronously with respect to the other compute nodes; reducing, for each compute node, power to one or more hardware components of that compute node in response to that compute node beginning the performance of the blocking operation; and restoring, for each compute node, the power to the hardware components having power reduced in response to all of the compute nodes beginning the performance of the blocking operation.

  10. Reducing power consumption while synchronizing a plurality of compute nodes during execution of a parallel application

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael A.; Peters, Amanda E.; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian E.

    2012-04-17

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for reducing power consumption while synchronizing a plurality of compute nodes during execution of a parallel application that include: beginning, by each compute node, performance of a blocking operation specified by the parallel application, each compute node beginning the blocking operation asynchronously with respect to the other compute nodes; reducing, for each compute node, power to one or more hardware components of that compute node in response to that compute node beginning the performance of the blocking operation; and restoring, for each compute node, the power to the hardware components having power reduced in response to all of the compute nodes beginning the performance of the blocking operation.

  11. Microwatt power consumption maximum power point tracking circuit using an analogue differentiator for piezoelectric energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chew, Z. J.; Zhu, M.

    2015-12-01

    A maximum power point tracking (MPPT) scheme by tracking the open-circuit voltage from a piezoelectric energy harvester using a differentiator is presented in this paper. The MPPT controller is implemented by using a low-power analogue differentiator and comparators without the need of a sensing circuitry and a power hungry controller. This proposed MPPT circuit is used to control a buck converter which serves as a power management module in conjunction with a full-wave bridge diode rectifier. Performance of this MPPT control scheme is verified by using the prototyped circuit to track the maximum power point of a macro-fiber composite (MFC) as the piezoelectric energy harvester. The MFC was bonded on a composite material and the whole specimen was subjected to various strain levels at frequency from 10 to 100 Hz. Experimental results showed that the implemented full analogue MPPT controller has a tracking efficiency between 81% and 98.66% independent of the load, and consumes an average power of 3.187 μW at 3 V during operation.

  12. Very low power consumption Viterbi decoder LSIC employing the SST (Scarce State Transition) scheme for multimedia mobile communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seki, K.; Kubota, S.; Mizoguchi, M.; Kato, S.

    1994-04-01

    A very low power consumption Viterbi decoder LSIC has been developed by using a low supply voltage 0.8 micron CMOS master slice process technology. By employing the scarce state transition (SST) scheme, this LSIC achieves a drastic reduction in power consumption below 600 mu W at a supply voltage of IV when the data rate is 1152 kbit/s and the bit error rate is less than 10(exp - 3). This excellent performance has paved the way to employing the strong forward error correction and low power consumption portable terminals for personal communications, mobile multimedia communications, and digital and audio broadcasting.

  13. A nightly conditioning method to reduce parasitic power consumption in molten-salt central-receiver solar-power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Pacheco, J.E.

    1995-06-01

    A method to reduce nightly parasitic power consumption in a molten salt central receiver is discussed where salt is drained from the piping and heat tracing is turned off to allow the piping to cool to ambient overnight, then in the morning the pipes are filled while they are cold. Since the piping and areas of the receiver in a molten-nitrate salt central-receiver solar power plant must be electrically heated to maintain their temperatures above the nitrate salt freezing point (430{degrees}F, 221{degrees}C), considerable energy could be used to maintain such temperatures during nightly shut down and bad weather. Experiments and analyses have been conducted to investigate cold filling receiver panels and piping as a way of reducing parasitic electrical power consumption and increasing the availability of the plant. The two major concerns with cold filling are: (1) how far can the molten salt penetrate cold piping before freezing closed and (2) what thermal stresses develop during the associated thermal shock. Experiments and analysis are discussed.

  14. Reducing water freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants : approaches used outside the United States.

    SciTech Connect

    Elcock, D.

    2011-05-09

    Coal-fired power plants consume huge quantities of water, and in some water-stressed areas, power plants compete with other users for limited supplies. Extensive use of coal to generate electricity is projected to continue for many years. Faced with increasing power demands and questionable future supplies, industries and governments are seeking ways to reduce freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants. As the United States investigates various freshwater savings approaches (e.g., the use of alternative water sources), other countries are also researching and implementing approaches to address similar - and in many cases, more challenging - water supply and demand issues. Information about these non-U.S. approaches can be used to help direct near- and mid-term water-consumption research and development (R&D) activities in the United States. This report summarizes the research, development, and deployment (RD&D) status of several approaches used for reducing freshwater consumption by coal-fired power plants in other countries, many of which could be applied, or applied more aggressively, at coal-fired power plants in the United States. Information contained in this report is derived from literature and Internet searches, in some cases supplemented by communication with the researchers, authors, or equipment providers. Because there are few technical, peer-reviewed articles on this topic, much of the information in this report comes from the trade press and other non-peer-reviewed references. Reducing freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants can occur directly or indirectly. Direct approaches are aimed specifically at reducing water consumption, and they include dry cooling, dry bottom ash handling, low-water-consuming emissions-control technologies, water metering and monitoring, reclaiming water from in-plant operations (e.g., recovery of cooling tower water for boiler makeup water, reclaiming water from flue gas desulfurization [FGD] systems), and

  15. How hybrid-electric vehicles are different from conventional vehicles: the effect of weight and power on fuel consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, C.; Kandlikar, M.

    2007-01-01

    An increasingly diverse set of hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) is now available in North America. The recent generation of HEVs have higher fuel consumption, are heavier, and are significantly more powerful than the first generation of HEVs. We compare HEVs for sale in the United States in 2007 to equivalent conventional vehicles and determine how vehicle weight and system power affects fuel consumption within each vehicle set. We find that heavier and more powerful hybrid-electric vehicles are eroding the fuel consumption benefit of this technology. Nonetheless, the weight penalty for fuel consumption in HEVs is significantly lower than in equivalent conventional internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs). A 100 kg change in vehicle weight increases fuel consumption by 0.7 l/100 km in ICEVs compared with 0.4 l/100 km in HEVs. When the HEVs are compared with their ICEV counterparts in an equivalence model that differentiates between cars and sports-utility vehicles, the average fuel consumption benefit was 2.7 l/100 km. This analysis further reveals that a HEV which is 100 kg heavier than an identical ICEV would have a fuel consumption penalty of 0.15 l/100 km. Likewise, an increase in the HEV's power by 10 kW results in a fuel consumption penalty of 0.27 l/100 km.

  16. Progress Toward Accurate Measurements of Power Consumptions of DBD Plasma Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashpis, David E.; Laun, Matthew C.; Griebeler, Elmer L.

    2012-01-01

    The accurate measurement of power consumption by Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) plasma actuators is a challenge due to the characteristics of the actuator current signal. Micro-discharges generate high-amplitude, high-frequency current spike transients superimposed on a low-amplitude, low-frequency current. We have used a high-speed digital oscilloscope to measure the actuator power consumption using the Shunt Resistor method and the Monitor Capacitor method. The measurements were performed simultaneously and compared to each other in a time-accurate manner. It was found that low signal-to-noise ratios of the oscilloscopes used, in combination with the high dynamic range of the current spikes, make the Shunt Resistor method inaccurate. An innovative, nonlinear signal compression circuit was applied to the actuator current signal and yielded excellent agreement between the two methods. The paper describes the issues and challenges associated with performing accurate power measurements. It provides insights into the two methods including new insight into the Lissajous curve of the Monitor Capacitor method. Extension to a broad range of parameters and further development of the compression hardware will be performed in future work.

  17. Thermal dissipation modeling in optical components modules for electrical power consumption optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabot, Germain; Chaudenson, Julien; Raulin, Franck; Jacquet, Jo"l.

    2010-02-01

    In a semi-conductor optical amplifier (SOA) as in any other optical devices, the performances that can be reached is strongly dependent on the chip temperature. For example, the optical output power of a laser or the optical gain in a SOA is reduced when the temperature of the junction increases. This latter can be controlled or monitored thanks to a thermo-electronic cooler (or a Peltier element) and a thermistor. In this paper, we first have calculated the thermal resistance of various semiconductor structures such as buried or ridge waveguides lasers. We then calculate the Peltier consumption necessary to maintain a given temperature. The influence of the thermistor position as well as the module conception have been investigated in these calculation. The size of the different mechanical elements, the nature and thermal properties of the material use for the module fabrication have been found to play an important role in the thermal performance of the optical modules. The Peltier size is defined by maximizing its efficiency. It depends on the power to be dissipated as well as the temperature operation of the device. The latter depends on the performance expected by the optical devices. We discussed the optimization of the device structure associated to its packaging to find the best compromise between performance and electrical consumption. The trade-off found depends on the temperature at which the device operates as well as on the thermal power to be dissipated.

  18. Experimental copper and chromium deficiency and additional molybdenum supplementation in goats. I. Feed consumption and weight development.

    PubMed

    Frank, A; Anke, M; Danielsson, R

    2000-04-17

    Secondary Cu deficiency, Cr deficiency and molybdenosis were suggested causes of the 'mysterious' disease afflicting moose (Alces alces L.) in a region in south-west Sweden affected by acid rain. A model experiment with goats was performed to study the clinical chemical parameters, determine the tissue contents of trace and minor elements, to perform pathological and histopathological investigations and to compare the findings with those in moose disease. Twenty 3-month-old male goats were assigned to four dietary treatments (five animals each) in an experiment lasting for 20 months. The four groups in the study were: control group, Cu-deficient group (group 1), Cr-deficient group (group 2), and Cu- and Cr-deficient group (group 3). The animals were fed a basic semi-synthetic diet. At the end of the study the three surviving animals of group 3 were supplemented with additional tetrathiomolybdate (TTM) during the last 2 months. Feed consumption and weight development of the animals were monitored and are presented. The feed consumption of the two Cu-deficient groups of goats (group 1 and group 3) supported the previously described observations in copper deficiency in ruminants, e.g. decreased appetite and feed intake. A previously unreported effect of Cr deficiency in ruminants is now described in goats. Chromium deficiency at adequate Cu supplementation (group 2), caused increased lipid synthesis and a weight gain of 32 kg compared with that of the control group (20 kg). A possible explanation for this unexpected weight increase in only Cr deficiency is discussed. It is concluded that the feeding experiment does not support the hypothesis concerning the relation of Cr deficiency to the moose disease.

  19. Evaluation of Surface Roughness and Power Consumption in Machining FCD 450 Cast Iron using Coated and Uncoated Irregular Milling Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razlan Yusoff, Ahmad; Arsyad, Fitriyanti

    2016-02-01

    In this project, the effects of different cutting parameters on surface roughness and power consumption when machining FCD450 cast iron were studied using coated and uncoated irregular milling tool geometry of variable helix and pitch. Their responses on roughness and power consumption were evaluated based on the spindle speed, feed rate, and depth of cut, machining length and machining time. Results showed that except spindle speed and machining length, other parameters such as feed rate, axial and radial depth of cut and also machining time proportionate with surface roughness. The power consumption proportionately increase for all cutting parameters except feedrate. It is showed that the average decrement 27.92 percent for surface roughness and average decrement 9.32 percent for power consumption by using coated compared to uncoated tool. Optimum cutting parameters for both minimum surface roughness and power consumption can be determined. The coated tools performed better than uncoated milling tools for responses of surface roughness and power consumption to increase machining productivity and profit.

  20. Fuel consumption and fire emissions estimates using Fire Radiative Power, burned area and statistical modelling on the fire event scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruecker, Gernot; Leimbach, David; Guenther, Felix; Barradas, Carol; Hoffmann, Anja

    2016-04-01

    Fire Radiative Power (FRP) retrieved by infrared sensors, such as flown on several polar orbiting and geostationary satellites, has been shown to be proportional to fuel consumption rates in vegetation fires, and hence the total radiative energy released by a fire (Fire Radiative Energy, FRE) is proportional to the total amount of biomass burned. However, due to the sparse temporal coverage of polar orbiting and the coarse spatial resolution of geostationary sensors, it is difficult to estimate fuel consumption for single fire events. Here we explore an approach for estimating FRE through temporal integration of MODIS FRP retrievals over MODIS-derived burned areas. Temporal integration is aided by statistical modelling to estimate missing observations using a generalized additive model (GAM) and taking advantage of additional information such as land cover and a global dataset of the Canadian Fire Weather Index (FWI), as well as diurnal and annual FRP fluctuation patterns. Based on results from study areas located in savannah regions of Southern and Eastern Africa and Brazil, we compare this method to estimates based on simple temporal integration of FRP retrievals over the fire lifetime, and estimate the potential variability of FRP integration results across a range of fire sizes. We compare FRE-based fuel consumption against a database of field experiments in similar landscapes. Results show that for larger fires, this method yields realistic estimates and is more robust when only a small number of observations is available than the simple temporal integration. Finally, we offer an outlook on the integration of data from other satellites, specifically FireBird, S-NPP VIIRS and Sentinel-3, as well as on using higher resolution burned area data sets derived from Landsat and similar sensors.

  1. Power consumption evaluation of different fed-batch strategies for enzymatic hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse.

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Luciano Jacob; Badino, Alberto Colli; Cruz, Antonio José Gonçalves

    2016-05-01

    The minimization of costs in the distillation step of lignocellulosic ethanol production requires the use of a high solids loading during the enzymatic hydrolysis to obtain a more concentrated glucose liquor. However, this increase in biomass can lead to problems including increased mass and heat transfer resistance, decreased cellulose conversion, and increased apparent viscosity with the associated increase in power consumption. The use of fed-batch operation offers a promising way to circumvent these problems. In this study, one batch and four fed-batch strategies for solids and/or enzyme feeding during the enzymatic hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse were evaluated. Determinations of glucose concentration, power consumption, and apparent viscosity were made throughout the experiments, and the different strategies were compared in terms of energy efficiency (mass of glucose produced according to the energy consumed). The best energy efficiency was obtained for the strategy in which substrate and enzyme were added simultaneously (0.35 kg(glucose) kWh⁻¹). This value was 52% higher than obtained in batch operation.

  2. A high speed, low power consumption LVDS interface for CMOS pixel sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Zhan; Tang, Zhenan; Tian, Yong; Pham, Hung; Valin, Isabelle; Jaaskelainen, Kimmo

    2015-01-01

    The use of CMOS Pixel Sensors (CPSs) offers a promising approach to the design of vertex detectors in High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments. As the CPS equipping the upgraded Solenoidal Tracker at RHIC (STAR) pixel detector, ULTIMATE perfectly illustrates the potential of CPSs for HEP applications. However, further development of CPSs with respect to readout speed is required to fulfill the readout time requirement of the next generation HEP detectors, such as the upgrade of A Large Ion Collider Experiment (ALICE) Inner Tracking System (ITS), the International Linear Collider (ILC), and the Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) vertex detectors. One actual limitation of CPSs is related to the speed of the Low-Voltage Differential Signaling (LVDS) circuitry implementing the interface between the sensor and the Data Acquisition (DAQ) system. To improve the transmission rate while keeping the power consumption at a low level, a source termination technique and a special current comparator were adopted for the LVDS driver and receiver, respectively. Moreover, hardening techniques are used. The circuitry was designed and submitted for fabrication in a 0.18-μm CMOS Image Sensor (CIS) process at the end of 2011. The test results indicated that the LVDS driver and receiver can operate properly at the data rate of 1.2 Gb/s with power consumption of 19.6 mW.

  3. Chip Scale Atomic Resonator Frequency Stabilization System With Ultra-Low Power Consumption for Optoelectronic Oscillators.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jianye; Zhang, Yaolin; Lu, Haoyuan; Hou, Dong; Zhang, Shuangyou; Wang, Zhong

    2016-07-01

    We present a long-term chip scale stabilization scheme for optoelectronic oscillators (OEOs) based on a rubidium coherent population trapping (CPT) atomic resonator. By locking a single mode of an OEO to the (85)Rb 3.035-GHz CPT resonance utilizing an improved phase-locked loop (PLL) with a PID regulator, we achieved a chip scale frequency stabilization system for the OEO. The fractional frequency stability of the stabilized OEO by overlapping Allan deviation reaches 6.2 ×10(-11) (1 s) and  ∼ 1.45 ×10 (-11) (1000 s). This scheme avoids a decrease in the extra phase noise performance induced by the electronic connection between the OEO and the microwave reference in common injection locking schemes. The total physical package of the stabilization system is [Formula: see text] and the total power consumption is 400 mW, which provides a chip scale and portable frequency stabilization approach with ultra-low power consumption for OEOs. PMID:26529751

  4. Effect of heating strategy on power consumption and performance of a pilot plant anaerobic digester.

    PubMed

    Espinosa-Solares, Teodoro; Valle-Guadarrama, Salvador; Bombardiere, John; Domaschko, Max; Easter, Michael

    2009-05-01

    The effect of heating strategy on power consumption and performance of a pilot plant anaerobic digester treating chicken litter, under thermophilic conditions, has been studied. Heating strategy was evaluated using three different spans (0.2 degrees C, 0.6 degrees C, and 1.0 degree C) for triggering the temperature control system from target temperature (56.7 degrees C). The hydraulic retention time in the pilot plant digester was in the range of 32 to 37 days, varying the total solids concentration fed from 5% to 6%. The results showed that under the experimental conditions, heating was the most energy-demanding process with 95.5% of the energy used. Increments up to 7.5% and 3.8%, respectively, on mechanical and heating power consumption, were observed as the span, for triggering the temperature control system from target temperature, was increased. Under the experimental conditions studied here, an increment of 30.6% on the global biodigester performance index was observed when a span of 1.0 degree C was compared to the one of 0.2 degrees C.

  5. A thirst for power: A global analysis of water consumption for energy production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spang, Edward

    Producing energy resources requires significant quantities of freshwater. As an energy sector changes or expands, the mix of technologies deployed to produce fuels and electricity determines the associated burden on regional water resources. A number of reports exist that specify water consumption by discrete energy production technologies. This research synthesizes and expands this previous work by examining the global distribution of water consumption intensity of national-level energy portfolios. By defining and calculating indicators to quantify the relative water use intensity of national energy systems, it was possible to highlight potentially problematic areas of high water use intensity while also providing examples of water-efficient energy production. The results of the research show a high variability in the national water consumption of energy production (WCEP) for the 158 countries that were assessed. However, looking across the indicators for WCEP internationally, the countries that were heavily producing fossil fuel or biofuels demonstrated the greatest intensity of energy-based water consumption. The economic imperative to develop fossil fuels drives high water consumption in countries that already lack sufficient water supplies. Meanwhile, biofuels require so much water over their lifecycle per unit of produced energy that any modest commitment to producing biofuels has significant water consumption ramifications for the country. While these results are based on a comprehensive review of available data, future research in this area could be significantly enhanced through better data and widespread adoption of consistent reporting mechanisms. Additional opportunities to expand the field include increasing the resolution of the study regions, tracking these indicators over time, and exploring innovative policy approaches to managing national WCEP effectively. For nations facing the greatest limitations in the availability of local water and energy

  6. Lowering the power consumption of Ni-Ti shape memory alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villanueva, Alex; Gupta, Shashaak; Priya, Shashank

    2012-04-01

    Shape memory alloy (SMA) wires are capable of providing contractile strain mimicking the functionality of muscle fibers. They are promising for the development of biomimetic robots due to their high power density and desired form factor. However, they suffer from significantly high power consumption. The focus of this paper was to address this drawback associated with SMAs. Two different parameters were investigated in this study: i) lowering of the martensite to austentite phase transition temperatures and ii) the reduction of the thermal hysteresis. For an equiatomic Ni-Ti alloy, replacing nickel with 10 at% copper reduces the thermal hysteresis by 50% or more. For Ni- Ti alloys with nickel content greater than 50 at%, transition temperature decreases linearly at a rate of 100 °C/Ni at%. Given these two power reducing factors, an alloy with composition of Ni40+xTi50-xCu10 was synthesized with x = 0, +/-1, +/-2, +/-3, +/-4, +/-5. Metal powders were melted in an argon atmosphere using an RF induction furnace to produce ingots. All the synthesized samples were characterized by differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) analysis to reveal martensite to austenite and austenite to martensite transition temperatures during heating and cooling cycles respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was conducted to identify the density and microstructure of the fractured samples. The alloy composition and synthesis method presented in this preliminary work shows the possibility of achieving low power consuming, high performance SMAs.

  7. Effects of network node consolidation in optical access and aggregation networks on costs and power consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, Christoph; Hülsermann, Ralf; Kosiankowski, Dirk; Geilhardt, Frank; Gladisch, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    The increasing demand for higher bit rates in access networks requires fiber deployment closer to the subscriber resulting in fiber-to-the-home (FTTH) access networks. Besides higher access bit rates optical access network infrastructure and related technologies enable the network operator to establish larger service areas resulting in a simplified network structure with a lower number of network nodes. By changing the network structure network operators want to benefit from a changed network cost structure by decreasing in short and mid term the upfront investments for network equipment due to concentration effects as well as by reducing the energy costs due to a higher energy efficiency of large network sites housing a high amount of network equipment. In long term also savings in operational expenditures (OpEx) due to the closing of central office (CO) sites are expected. In this paper different architectures for optical access networks basing on state-of-the-art technology are analyzed with respect to network installation costs and power consumption in the context of access node consolidation. Network planning and dimensioning results are calculated for a realistic network scenario of Germany. All node consolidation scenarios are compared against a gigabit capable passive optical network (GPON) based FTTH access network operated from the conventional CO sites. The results show that a moderate reduction of the number of access nodes may be beneficial since in that case the capital expenditures (CapEx) do not rise extraordinarily and savings in OpEx related to the access nodes are expected. The total power consumption does not change significantly with decreasing number of access nodes but clustering effects enable a more energyefficient network operation and optimized power purchase order quantities leading to benefits in energy costs.

  8. Super low power consumption middle infrared LED-PD optopairs for chemical sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoyanov, Nikolay D.; Salikhov, Khafiz M.; Kalinina, Karina V.; Kizhaev, Sergey S.; Chernyaev, Anton V.

    2014-03-01

    The new photodiodes with cut-off wavelengths at 3640 nm, 4600 nm and 5150 nm have been recently developed in a high-tech company LED Microsensor NT (St.Petersburg, Russia) in cooperation with Aalto University (Espoo, Finland). Photodiode (PD) heterostructures InAsSb/InAsSbP were grown by MOVPE on InAs substrates. For the PDs with a cutoff wavelength at 3640 nm at room temperature the responsivity at 3300 nm reached 1.46 A/W and, detectivity was 1.56*1010 cm.Hz1/2/W. For the PDs with a cut-off 4600 nm the same parameters were: 1.91 A/W and 6.7*109 cm.Hz1/2/W respectively (lambda=4100 nm). For the third type of PDs with a cut-off at 5150 nm responsivity was 0.29 A/W, detectivity was 4.2*108 cm.Hz1/2/W (lambda=5000 nm). Creation of photodiodes for the spectral range 2500-5200 nm with acceptable efficiency in photovoltaic operation mode (with no reverse bias) and using them in a pair with spectrally matched LEDs driven by very short current pulses allows developing optical cells with very low power consumption (less than 1 mW). Small size of the LED and PD dies (0.4-0.8 mm) and low heating makes it possible to design very thin optical cells (less than 2 mm) for measuring CH4, CO2, CO, H2O and other substances [1]. Mounting of a few LED dies that emit at different wavelengths in such a small cell allows measuring different chemical substances simultaneously. Direct coating of optical filters on the LED or PD surface during post-growth process allows improving selectivity and sensitivity of the sensor. Super low power consumption of the diode-based optical cells makes them promising candidates for the wireless mesh sensor networks for various gas monitoring purposes as well as for HVAC systems. Combination of the low power consumption and thin size of the cells opens possibility to embed them in mobile devices.

  9. Local muscle oxygen consumption related to external and joint specific power.

    PubMed

    Skovereng, Knut; Ettema, Gertjan; van Beekvelt, Mireille

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of external work rate on joint specific power and the relationship between knee extension power and vastus lateralis muscle oxygen consumption (mVO2). We measured kinematics and pedal forces and used inverse dynamics to calculate joint power for the hip, knee and ankle joints during an incremental cycling protocol performed by 21 recreational cyclists. Vastus lateralis mVO2 was estimated using near-infrared spectroscopy with an arterial occlusion. The main finding was a non-linear relationship between vastus lateralis mVO2 and external work rate that was characterised by an increase followed by a tendency for a levelling off (R(2)=0.99 and 0.94 for the quadratic and linear models respectively, p<0.05). When comparing 100W and 225W, there was a ∼43W increase in knee extension but still a ∼9% decrease in relative contribution of knee extension to external work rate resulting from a ∼47W increase in hip extension. When vastus lateralis mVO2 was related to knee extension power, the relationship was still non-linear (R(2)=0.99 and 0.97 for the quadratic and linear models respectively, p<0.05). These results demonstrate a non-linear response in mVO2 relative to a change in external work rate. Relating vastus lateralis mVO2 to knee extension power showed a better fit to a linear equation compared to external work rate, but it is not a straight line.

  10. System and method for controlling power consumption in a computer system based on user satisfaction

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Lei; Dick, Robert P; Chen, Xi; Memik, Gokhan; Dinda, Peter A; Shy, Alex; Ozisikyilmaz, Berkin; Mallik, Arindam; Choudhary, Alok

    2014-04-22

    Systems and methods for controlling power consumption in a computer system. For each of a plurality of interactive applications, the method changes a frequency at which a processor of the computer system runs, receives an indication of user satisfaction, determines a relationship between the changed frequency and the user satisfaction of the interactive application, and stores the determined relationship information. The determined relationship can distinguish between different users and different interactive applications. A frequency may be selected from the discrete frequencies at which the processor of the computer system runs based on the determined relationship information for a particular user and a particular interactive application running on the processor of the computer system. The processor may be adapted to run at the selected frequency.

  11. Methods of reducing energy consumption of the oxidant supply system for MHD/steam power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, A. J.

    1983-01-01

    An in-depth study was conducted to identify possible improvements to the oxidant supply system for combined cycle MHD power plants which would lead to higher thermal efficiency and reduction in the cost of electricity, COE. Results showed that the oxidant system energy consumption could be minimized when the process was designed to deliver a product O2 concentration of 70 mole percent. The study also led to the development of a new air separation process, referred to as 'liquid pumping and internal compression'. MHD system performance calculations show that the new process would permit an increase in plant thermal efficiency of 0.6 percent while allowing more favorable tradeoffs between magnetic energy and oxidant system capacity requirements.

  12. Methods of reducing energy consumption of the oxidant supply system for MHD/steam power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, A. J.

    1983-01-01

    An in-depth study was conducted to identify possible improvements to the oxidant supply system for combined cycle MHD power plants which would lead to higher thermal efficiency and reduction in the cost of electricity, COE. Results showed that the oxidant system energy consumption could be minimized when the process was designed to deliver a product O2 concentration of 70 mole percent. The study also led to the development of a new air separation process, referred to as liquid pumping and internal compression. MHD system performance calculations show that the new process would permit an increase in plant thermal efficiency of 0.6 percent while allowing more favorable tradeoffs between magnetic energy and oxidant system capacity requirements.

  13. Adaptive one-dimensional dimming technique for liquid crystal displays with low power consumption and high image quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seung-Ryeol; Lee, Seung-Woo

    2015-07-01

    An adaptive one-dimensional (1-D) dimming technique for liquid crystal displays that compensates for nonuniform backlight distribution is proposed. Dimming techniques that do not consider luminance distribution may cause severe visual artifacts, such as a block artifact. However, an adaptive 1-D dimming technique that considers luminance distribution can reduce power consumption without causing any visual artifacts. Hardware implementation results verified that our method achieved lower power consumption compared to nondimming techniques and removed block artifacts from International Electrotechnical Commission 62087 standard images. The power consumption using the proposed method ranged from 85.5% to 94.7% compared to nondimming techniques. Furthermore, the contrast ratio increased by up to 231% and 165% on average compared to nondimming techniques.

  14. Effects of Village Power Quality on Fuel Consumption and Operating Expenses

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Wies; Ron Johnson

    2008-12-31

    Alaska's rural village electric utilities are isolated from the Alaska railbelt electrical grid intertie and from each other. Different strategies have been developed for providing power to meet demand in each of these rural communities. Many of these communities rely on diesel electric generators (DEGs) for power. Some villages have also installed renewable power sources and automated generation systems for controlling the DEGs and other sources of power. For example, Lime Village has installed a diesel battery photovoltaic hybrid system, Kotzebue and Wales have wind-diesel hybrid systems, and McGrath has installed a highly automated system for controlling diesel generators. Poor power quality and diesel engine efficiency in village power systems increases the cost of meeting the load. Power quality problems may consist of poor power factor (PF) or waveform disturbances, while diesel engine efficiency depends primarily on loading, the fuel type, the engine temperature, and the use of waste heat for nearby buildings. These costs take the form of increased fuel use, increased generator maintenance, and decreased reliability. With the cost of bulk fuel in some villages approaching $1.32/liter ($5.00/gallon) a modest 5% decrease in fuel use can result in substantial savings with short payback periods depending on the village's load profile and the cost of corrective measures. This project over its five year history has investigated approaches to improving power quality and implementing fuel savings measures through the use of performance assessment software tools developed in MATLAB{reg_sign} Simulink{reg_sign} and the implementation of remote monitoring, automated generation control, and the addition of renewable energy sources in select villages. The results have shown how many of these communities would benefit from the use of automated generation control by implementing a simple economic dispatch scheme and the integration of renewable energy sources such as wind

  15. Power consumption and byproducts in electron beam and electrical discharge processing of volatile organic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Penetrante, B.M.; Hsiao, M.C.; Bardsley, J.N.

    1996-02-20

    Among the new methods being investigated for the post-process reduction of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in atmospheric-pressure air streams are based on non-thermal plasmas. Electron beam, pulsed corona and dielectric-barrier discharge methods are among the more extensively investigated techniques for producing non-thermal plasmas. In order to apply non-thermal plasmas in an industrial scale, it is important to establish the electrical power requirements and byproducts of the process. In this paper the authors present experimental results using a compact electron beam reactor, a pulsed corona and a dielectric-barrier discharge reactor. They have used these reactors to study the removal of a wide variety of VOCs. The effects of background gas composition and gas temperature on the decomposition chemistry have been studied. They present a description of the reactions that control the efficiency of the plasma process. They have found that pulsed corona and other types of electrical discharge reactors are most suitable only for processes requiring O radicals. For VOCs requiring copious amounts of electrons, ions, N atoms or OH radicals, the use of electron beam reactors is generally the best way of minimizing the electrical power consumption. Electron beam processing is remarkably more effective for all of the VOCs tested. For control of VOC emissions from dilute, large volume sources such as paint spray booths, cost analysis shows that the electron beam method is cost-competitive to thermal and catalytic methods that employ heat recovery or hybrid techniques.

  16. A Rotating Space Interferometer with Variable Baselines and Low Power Consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gezari, D.

    A large (100-m class) multi-aperture imaging spatial interferometer for space astronomy applications presents numerous daunting technical design challenges, not the least of which is satisfying the requirement that power consumption for the maneuvering the spacecraft be reduced to levels which can be provided by stored or collected energy (fuels, propellants, solar electric power, etc.). This requirement can be severe in the case of a rotating interferometer with variable baselines because large amounts of power could be required to counteract inertial effects, primarily centrifugal force on the collectors in a rotating structure. The SPECS submillimeter interferometer concept being studied at Goddard would rely on tethers to hold three 3-meter apertures in position radially against centrifugal force on the rotating system. But tethers have significant limitations which might prove unsurmountable. Unfortunately, changing the dimensions of a simple rotating structure can cause its angular velocity to change since angular momentum is conserved. A design where the baselines change uniformly while the angular velocities of the components remained unchanged would be optimum. An alternate concept is presented here for a three-aperture,variable baseline interferometer, where the telescope baselines change continuously as a result of the uniform rotation of rigid structural elements. Since the components rotate about their respective centers of gravity and all angular velocities are constant, no fuel (energy) need be expended to compensate for rotational effects (forces), station keeping, changing baselines or maintaining acceptable baseline scan rates. Reasonably uniform u,v plane coverage and integration times can be approximated with various combinations of constant angular velocities and phases of the rotating structural elements.

  17. Numerical simulation and analysis of power consumption and Metzner-Otto constant for impeller of 6PBT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luan, Deyu; Chen, Qiao; Zhou, Shenjie

    2014-05-01

    Majority of non-Newtonian fluids are pseudoplastic with shear-thinning property, which means that the viscosity will be different in different parts of the stirred tank. In such mixing process, it is difficult to predict accurately the power consumption and mean shear rate for designing novel impeller. Metzner-Otto method is a widely accepted method to solve these questions in mixing non-Newtonian fluids. As a result, Metzner-Otto constant will become a key factor to achieve an optimum way of economical mixing. In this paper, taking glycerine and xanthan gum solutions as research system, the power consumption, stirred by the impeller composed of perturbed six-bent-bladed turbine (6PBT) with differently geometrical characteristics in a cylindrical vessel, is studied by means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The flow is modeled as laminar and a multiple reference frame (MRF) approach is used to solve the discretized equations of motion. In order to determine the capability of CFD to forecast the flow process, the torque test experiment is used to measure the glycerine solution power consumption. The rheological properties of the xanthan gum solutions are determined by a Brookfield rheometer. It is observed that the power consumption predicted by numerical simulation agrees well with those measured using torque experiment method in stirring glycerine solution, which validate the numerical model. Metzner-Otto constant is almost not correlated with the flow behavior index of pseudoplastic fluids. This paper establishes the complete correlations of power constant and Metzner-Otto constant with impeller geometrical characteristics through linear regression analysis, which provides the valuable instructions and references for accurately predicting the power consumption and mean shear rate of pseudoplastic fluids in laminar flow, comparatively.

  18. Optimal Self-Tuning PID Controller Based on Low Power Consumption for a Server Fan Cooling System

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chengming; Chen, Rongshun

    2015-01-01

    Recently, saving the cooling power in servers by controlling the fan speed has attracted considerable attention because of the increasing demand for high-density servers. This paper presents an optimal self-tuning proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller, combining a PID neural network (PIDNN) with fan-power-based optimization in the transient-state temperature response in the time domain, for a server fan cooling system. Because the thermal model of the cooling system is nonlinear and complex, a server mockup system simulating a 1U rack server was constructed and a fan power model was created using a third-order nonlinear curve fit to determine the cooling power consumption by the fan speed control. PIDNN with a time domain criterion is used to tune all online and optimized PID gains. The proposed controller was validated through experiments of step response when the server operated from the low to high power state. The results show that up to 14% of a server’s fan cooling power can be saved if the fan control permits a slight temperature response overshoot in the electronic components, which may provide a time-saving strategy for tuning the PID controller to control the server fan speed during low fan power consumption. PMID:26007725

  19. Optimal Self-Tuning PID Controller Based on Low Power Consumption for a Server Fan Cooling System.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chengming; Chen, Rongshun

    2015-05-20

    Recently, saving the cooling power in servers by controlling the fan speed has attracted considerable attention because of the increasing demand for high-density servers. This paper presents an optimal self-tuning proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller, combining a PID neural network (PIDNN) with fan-power-based optimization in the transient-state temperature response in the time domain, for a server fan cooling system. Because the thermal model of the cooling system is nonlinear and complex, a server mockup system simulating a 1U rack server was constructed and a fan power model was created using a third-order nonlinear curve fit to determine the cooling power consumption by the fan speed control. PIDNN with a time domain criterion is used to tune all online and optimized PID gains. The proposed controller was validated through experiments of step response when the server operated from the low to high power state. The results show that up to 14% of a server's fan cooling power can be saved if the fan control permits a slight temperature response overshoot in the electronic components, which may provide a time-saving strategy for tuning the PID controller to control the server fan speed during low fan power consumption.

  20. Plasmonics-Based Multifunctional Electrodes for Low-Power-Consumption Compact Color-Image Sensors.

    PubMed

    Lin, Keng-Te; Chen, Hsuen-Li; Lai, Yu-Sheng; Chi, Yi-Min; Chu, Ting-Wei

    2016-03-01

    High pixel density, efficient color splitting, a compact structure, superior quantum efficiency, and low power consumption are all important features for contemporary color-image sensors. In this study, we developed a surface plasmonics-based color-image sensor displaying a high photoelectric response, a microlens-free structure, and a zero-bias working voltage. Our compact sensor comprised only (i) a multifunctional electrode based on a single-layer structured aluminum (Al) film and (ii) an underlying silicon (Si) substrate. This approach significantly simplifies the device structure and fabrication processes; for example, the red, green, and blue color pixels can be prepared simultaneously in a single lithography step. Moreover, such Schottky-based plasmonic electrodes perform multiple functions, including color splitting, optical-to-electrical signal conversion, and photogenerated carrier collection for color-image detection. Our multifunctional, electrode-based device could also avoid the interference phenomenon that degrades the color-splitting spectra found in conventional color-image sensors. Furthermore, the device took advantage of the near-field surface plasmonic effect around the Al-Si junction to enhance the optical absorption of Si, resulting in a significant photoelectric current output even under low-light surroundings and zero bias voltage. These plasmonic Schottky-based color-image devices could convert a photocurrent directly into a photovoltage and provided sufficient voltage output for color-image detection even under a light intensity of only several femtowatts per square micrometer. Unlike conventional color image devices, using voltage as the output signal decreases the area of the periphery read-out circuit because it does not require a current-to-voltage conversion capacitor or its related circuit. Therefore, this strategy has great potential for direct integration with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS)-compatible circuit

  1. Plasmonics-Based Multifunctional Electrodes for Low-Power-Consumption Compact Color-Image Sensors.

    PubMed

    Lin, Keng-Te; Chen, Hsuen-Li; Lai, Yu-Sheng; Chi, Yi-Min; Chu, Ting-Wei

    2016-03-01

    High pixel density, efficient color splitting, a compact structure, superior quantum efficiency, and low power consumption are all important features for contemporary color-image sensors. In this study, we developed a surface plasmonics-based color-image sensor displaying a high photoelectric response, a microlens-free structure, and a zero-bias working voltage. Our compact sensor comprised only (i) a multifunctional electrode based on a single-layer structured aluminum (Al) film and (ii) an underlying silicon (Si) substrate. This approach significantly simplifies the device structure and fabrication processes; for example, the red, green, and blue color pixels can be prepared simultaneously in a single lithography step. Moreover, such Schottky-based plasmonic electrodes perform multiple functions, including color splitting, optical-to-electrical signal conversion, and photogenerated carrier collection for color-image detection. Our multifunctional, electrode-based device could also avoid the interference phenomenon that degrades the color-splitting spectra found in conventional color-image sensors. Furthermore, the device took advantage of the near-field surface plasmonic effect around the Al-Si junction to enhance the optical absorption of Si, resulting in a significant photoelectric current output even under low-light surroundings and zero bias voltage. These plasmonic Schottky-based color-image devices could convert a photocurrent directly into a photovoltage and provided sufficient voltage output for color-image detection even under a light intensity of only several femtowatts per square micrometer. Unlike conventional color image devices, using voltage as the output signal decreases the area of the periphery read-out circuit because it does not require a current-to-voltage conversion capacitor or its related circuit. Therefore, this strategy has great potential for direct integration with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS)-compatible circuit

  2. Improving the predictive accuracy of hurricane power outage forecasts using generalized additive models.

    PubMed

    Han, Seung-Ryong; Guikema, Seth D; Quiring, Steven M

    2009-10-01

    Electric power is a critical infrastructure service after hurricanes, and rapid restoration of electric power is important in order to minimize losses in the impacted areas. However, rapid restoration of electric power after a hurricane depends on obtaining the necessary resources, primarily repair crews and materials, before the hurricane makes landfall and then appropriately deploying these resources as soon as possible after the hurricane. This, in turn, depends on having sound estimates of both the overall severity of the storm and the relative risk of power outages in different areas. Past studies have developed statistical, regression-based approaches for estimating the number of power outages in advance of an approaching hurricane. However, these approaches have either not been applicable for future events or have had lower predictive accuracy than desired. This article shows that a different type of regression model, a generalized additive model (GAM), can outperform the types of models used previously. This is done by developing and validating a GAM based on power outage data during past hurricanes in the Gulf Coast region and comparing the results from this model to the previously used generalized linear models.

  3. On-Board Prediction of Power Consumption in Automobile Active Suspension SYSTEMS—I: Predictor Design Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Mrad, R.; Fassois, S. D.; Levitt, J. A.; Bachrach, B. I.

    1996-03-01

    On-board prediction of automobile active suspension power consumption is considered important in securing fast engine response and avoiding potential vehicle hesitation or surge. In this study the problem is considered within the context of a broad-bandwidth hydraulic active suspension design, with the following main objectives: (a) power consumption prediction feasibility assessment, (b) examination of predictor design options, and (c) achievable prediction accuracy assessment. In this part I the first two objectives are pursued based on a detailed, non-linear, mathematical system model. The power consumption signal is found to be non-stationary, but stationarily is shown to be possible to impose through a moving-average transformation. Predictor design options are then considered: first, the wheel vertical acceleration is shown to be ineffective as a prediction leading indicator; second, the relative merits of time/step-recursive and time-recursive predictor realizations are examined, and the latter are shown to be presently preferable from the point of view of computational complexity, error propagation, and predictor stability; third, indirect (standard) vs. direct predictor types are considered, and a direct predictor is developed based on a novel estimator characterised by features important for on-board implementation.

  4. Computational fluid dynamics study on mixing mode and power consumption in anaerobic mono- and co-digestion.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuan; Yu, Guangren; Yu, Liang; Siddhu, Muhammad Abdul Hanan; Gao, Mengjiao; Abdeltawab, Ahmed A; Al-Deyab, Salem S; Chen, Xiaochun

    2016-03-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was applied to investigate mixing mode and power consumption in anaerobic mono- and co-digestion. Cattle manure (CM) and corn stover (CS) were used as feedstock and stirred tank reactor (STR) was used as digester. Power numbers obtained by the CFD simulation were compared with those from the experimental correlation. Results showed that the standard k-ε model was more appropriate than other turbulence models. A new index, net power production instead of gas production, was proposed to optimize feedstock ratio for anaerobic co-digestion. Results showed that flow field and power consumption were significantly changed in co-digestion of CM and CS compared with those in mono-digestion of either CM or CS. For different mixing modes, the optimum feedstock ratio for co-digestion changed with net power production. The best option of CM/CS ratio for continuous mixing, intermittent mixing I, and intermittent mixing II were 1:1, 1:1 and 1:3, respectively. PMID:26722816

  5. Withdrawal and consumption of water by thermoelectric power plants in the United States, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diehl, Timothy H.; Harris, Melissa A.

    2014-01-01

    An analysis of 2005 and 2010 EIA-reported water use indicated that withdrawal and consumption declined 18 percent and 34 percent, respectively. Alternative water types (types other than freshwater) accounted for approximately 25 percent of all withdrawals in 2010, most of which occurred at plants with once-through cooling systems using saline and brackish tidal waters. Differences among withdrawal and consumption coefficients based on EIA-reported water use for 2005 and 2010 and heat-budget model results for 2010 reveal opportunities for improving consistency and accuracy of reporting of water-use information at the plant scale.

  6. Using architecture information and real-time resource state to reduce power consumption and communication costs in parallel applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, James M.; Devine, Karen Dragon; Gentile, Ann C.; Leung, Vitus Joseph; Olivier, Stephen Lecler; Pedretti, Kevin; Rajamanickam, Sivasankaran; Bunde, David P.; Deveci, Mehmet; Catalyurek, Umit V.

    2014-09-01

    As computer systems grow in both size and complexity, the need for applications and run-time systems to adjust to their dynamic environment also grows. The goal of the RAAMP LDRD was to combine static architecture information and real-time system state with algorithms to conserve power, reduce communication costs, and avoid network contention. We devel- oped new data collection and aggregation tools to extract static hardware information (e.g., node/core hierarchy, network routing) as well as real-time performance data (e.g., CPU uti- lization, power consumption, memory bandwidth saturation, percentage of used bandwidth, number of network stalls). We created application interfaces that allowed this data to be used easily by algorithms. Finally, we demonstrated the benefit of integrating system and application information for two use cases. The first used real-time power consumption and memory bandwidth saturation data to throttle concurrency to save power without increasing application execution time. The second used static or real-time network traffic information to reduce or avoid network congestion by remapping MPI tasks to allocated processors. Results from our work are summarized in this report; more details are available in our publications [2, 6, 14, 16, 22, 29, 38, 44, 51, 54].

  7. Power to the Plug: An Introduction to Energy, Electricity, Consumption and Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    DOE / EERE / NEED Project

    2011-06-07

    The NEED Project and the U.S. Department of Energy have collaborated to bring you this educational four-page guide to energy, electricity, consumption and efficiency. It includes, on the last page, a home energy survey to help you analyze your home energy use.

  8. Dynamic effect of sodium-water reaction in fast flux test facility power addition sodium pipes

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, S.N.; Anderson, M.J.

    1990-03-01

    The Fast Flux Facility (FFTF) is a demonstration and test facility of the sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor. A power addition'' to the facility is being considered to convert some of the dumped, unused heat into electricity generation. Components and piping systems to be added are sodium-water steam generators, sodium loop extensions from existing dump heat exchangers to sodium-water steam generators, and conventional water/steam loops. The sodium loops can be subjected to the dynamic loadings of pressure pulses that are caused by postulated sodium leaks and subsequent sodium-water reaction in the steam generator. The existing FFTF secondary pipes and the new power addition sodium loops were evaluated for exposure to the dynamic effect of the sodium-water reaction. Elastic and simplified inelastic dynamic analyses were used in this feasibility study. The results indicate that both the maximum strain and strain range are within the allowable limits. Several cycles of the sodium-water reaction can be sustained by the sodium pipes that are supported by ordinary pipe supports and seismic restraints. Expensive axial pipe restraints to withstand the sodium-water reaction loads are not needed, because the pressure-pulse-induced alternating bending stresses act as secondary stresses and the pressure pulse dynamic effect is a deformation-controlled quantity and is self-limiting. 14 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Estimation of daily aluminum intake in Japan based on food consumption inspection results: impact of food additives

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Kyoko; Suzuki, Ippei; Kubota, Hiroki; Furusho, Noriko; Inoue, Tomoyuki; Yasukouchi, Yoshikazu; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Dietary aluminum (Al) intake by young children, children, youths, and adults in Japan was estimated using the market basket method. The Al content of food category (I–VII) samples for each age group was determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The Al content in processed foods and unprocessed foods ranged from 0.40 to 21.7 mg/kg and from 0.32 to 0.54 mg/kg, respectively. For processed foods in all age groups, the Al content in food category VI samples, sugar and confections/savories, was the highest, followed by those in category II, cereals. The daily dietary Al intake from processed foods was much larger than that from unprocessed foods. The mean weekly percentages of the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI, established by the joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives in 2011) from processed foods for all age groups are 43.1, 22.4, 17.6 and 15.1%, respectively. Only the highest consumer Al exposure value (>P95) of the young children group exceeded the PTWI. PMID:25473496

  10. Estimation of daily aluminum intake in Japan based on food consumption inspection results: impact of food additives.

    PubMed

    Sato, Kyoko; Suzuki, Ippei; Kubota, Hiroki; Furusho, Noriko; Inoue, Tomoyuki; Yasukouchi, Yoshikazu; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2014-07-01

    Dietary aluminum (Al) intake by young children, children, youths, and adults in Japan was estimated using the market basket method. The Al content of food category (I-VII) samples for each age group was determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The Al content in processed foods and unprocessed foods ranged from 0.40 to 21.7 mg/kg and from 0.32 to 0.54 mg/kg, respectively. For processed foods in all age groups, the Al content in food category VI samples, sugar and confections/savories, was the highest, followed by those in category II, cereals. The daily dietary Al intake from processed foods was much larger than that from unprocessed foods. The mean weekly percentages of the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI, established by the joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives in 2011) from processed foods for all age groups are 43.1, 22.4, 17.6 and 15.1%, respectively. Only the highest consumer Al exposure value (>P 95) of the young children group exceeded the PTWI.

  11. Saturated fat consumption and the Theory of Planned Behaviour: exploring additive and interactive effects of habit strength.

    PubMed

    de Bruijn, Gert-Jan; Kroeze, Willemieke; Oenema, Anke; Brug, Johannes

    2008-09-01

    The additive and interactive effects of habit strength in the explanation of saturated fat intake were explored within the framework of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). Cross-sectional data were gathered in a Dutch adult sample (n=764) using self-administered questionnaires and analyzed using hierarchical regression analyses and simple slope analyses. Results showed that habit strength was a significant correlate of fat intake (beta=-0.11) and significantly increased the amount of explained variance in fat intake (R(2-change)=0.01). Furthermore, based on a significant interaction effect (beta=0.11), simple slope analyses revealed that intention was a significant correlate of fat intake for low levels (beta=-0.29) and medium levels (beta=-0.19) of habit strength, but a weaker and non-significant correlate for high levels (beta=-0.07) of habit strength. Higher habit strength may thus make limiting fat intake a non-intentional behaviour. Implications for information and motivation-based interventions are discussed. PMID:18471932

  12. A fast, ultra-low and frequency-scalable power consumption, 10-bit SAR ADC for particle physics detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firlej, M.; Fiutowski, T.; Idzik, M.; Kulis, S.; Moron, J.; Swientek, K.

    2015-11-01

    The design and measurements results of a fast 10-bit SAR ADC with ultra-low and scalable with frequency power consumption, developed for readout systems for detectors at future particle physics colliders (ILC, CLIC, LHC Upgrade), are described. A prototype ASIC was designed and fabricated in 130 nm CMOS technology and a wide spectrum of static (INLlesssim0.5 LSB, DNLlesssim0.5 LSB) and dynamic (SINAD ~58 dB, ENOB~9.3) measurements was performed to study and quantify the ADC performance. The ADC works in wide 10 kS/s - 40 MS/s sampling frequency range, covering more than three orders of magnitude. In most of the range the power consumption scales linearly with sampling rate with a factor of about 22 μW/MS/s. A dynamic and asynchronous internal logic makes the ADC very well suited not only for commonly used synchronous sampling but also for applications with asynchronous sampling and/or the ones requiring power cycling, like the experiments at future linear collider (ILC/CLIC). The ADC layout is drawn with a small pitch of 146 μm to facilitate multi-channel integration. The obtained figure of Merit is in range 32-37 fJ/conversion for sampling frequencies 10-40 MS/s, placing the ADC among the best State of the Art designs with similar technology and specifications.

  13. How to produce personality neuroscience research with high statistical power and low additional cost.

    PubMed

    Mar, Raymond A; Spreng, R Nathan; Deyoung, Colin G

    2013-09-01

    Personality neuroscience involves examining relations between cognitive or behavioral variability and neural variables like brain structure and function. Such studies have uncovered a number of fascinating associations but require large samples, which are expensive to collect. Here, we propose a system that capitalizes on neuroimaging data commonly collected for separate purposes and combines it with new behavioral data to test novel hypotheses. Specifically, we suggest that groups of researchers compile a database of structural (i.e., anatomical) and resting-state functional scans produced for other task-based investigations and pair these data with contact information for the participants who contributed the data. This contact information can then be used to collect additional cognitive, behavioral, or individual-difference data that are then reassociated with the neuroimaging data for analysis. This would allow for novel hypotheses regarding brain-behavior relations to be tested on the basis of large sample sizes (with adequate statistical power) for low additional cost. This idea can be implemented at small scales at single institutions, among a group of collaborating researchers, or perhaps even within a single lab. It can also be implemented at a large scale across institutions, although doing so would entail a number of additional complications.

  14. Complex additive systems for Mn-Zn ferrites with low power loss

    SciTech Connect

    Töpfer, J. Angermann, A.

    2015-05-07

    Mn-Zn ferrites were prepared via an oxalate-based wet-chemical synthesis process. Nanocrystalline ferrite powders with particle size of 50 nm were sintered at 1150 °C with 500 ppm CaO and 100 ppm SiO{sub 2} as standard additives. A fine-grained, dense microstructure with grain size of 4–5 μm was obtained. Simultaneous addition of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}, ZrO{sub 2}, V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, and SnO{sub 2} results low power losses, e.g., 65 mW/cm{sup 3} (500 kHz, 50 mT, 80 °C) and 55 mW/cm{sup 3} (1 MHz, 25 mT, 80 °C). Loss analysis shows that eddy current and residual losses were minimized through formation of insulating grain boundary phases, which is confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. Addition of SnO{sub 2} increases the ferrous ion concentration and affects anisotropy as reflected in permeability measurements μ(T)

  15. Tool for a configurable integrated circuit that uses determination of dynamic power consumption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    French, Matthew C. (Inventor); Wang, Li (Inventor); Agarwal, Deepak (Inventor); Davoodi, Azadeh (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A configurable logic tool that allows minimization of dynamic power within an FPGA design without changing user-entered specifications. The minimization of power may use minimized clock nets as a first order operation, and a second order operation that minimizes other factors, such as area of placement, area of clocks and/or slack.

  16. Power conversion efficiency enhancement in OPV devices using spin 1/2 molecular additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basel, Tek; Vardeny, Valy; Yu, Luping

    2014-03-01

    We investigated the power conversion efficiency of bulk heterojunction OPV cells based on the low bandgap polymer PTB7, blend with C61-PCBM. We also employed the technique of photo-induced absorption, PA; electrical and magneto-PA (MPA) techniques to understand the details of the photocurrent generation process in this blend. We found that spin 1/2 molecular additives, such as Galvinoxyl (Gxl) radicals dramatically enhance the cell efficiency; we obtained 20% increase in photocurrent upon Gxl doping with 2% weight. We explain our finding by the ability of the spin 1/2 radicals to interfere with the known major loss mechanism in the cell due to recombination of charge transfer exciton at the D-A interface via triplet excitons in the polymer donors. Supported by National Science Foundation-Material Science & Engineering Center (NSF-MRSEC), University of Utah.

  17. Regrowth-free single-mode quantum cascade lasers with power consumption below 1 W

    SciTech Connect

    Briggs, Ryan M. Frez, Clifford; Borgentun, Carl E.; Forouhar, Siamak

    2014-10-06

    We report on single-mode distributed-feedback quantum cascade lasers emitting at 4.8 μm with continuous-wave threshold power consumption as low as 0.76 W at 20 °C and 0.98 W at 50 °C. Following growth of the laser active region and semiconductor cladding layers by a single molecular beam epitaxy process, devices with 4-μm-wide ridges and vertical sidewall gratings were fabricated using plasma etching and standard dielectric and metal deposition processes. In terms of mode stability, output power, and efficiency, we show that lasers with 1-mm cavity length and high-reflectivity back-facet coatings can match the performance of buried heterostructure devices, but with the advantage of requiring only a single epitaxial growth step.

  18. Compact CH4 sensor system based on a continuous-wave, low power consumption, room temperature interband cascade laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Lei; Li, Chunguang; Sanchez, Nancy P.; Gluszek, Aleksander K.; Griffin, Robert J.; Tittel, Frank K.

    2016-01-01

    A tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy-based methane sensor, employing a dense-pattern multi-pass gas cell and a 3.3 μm, CW, DFB, room temperature interband cascade laser (ICL), is reported. The optical integration based on an advanced folded optical path design and an efficient ICL control system with appropriate electrical power management resulted in a CH4 sensor with a small footprint (32 × 20 × 17 cm3) and low-power consumption (6 W). Polynomial and least-squares fit algorithms are employed to remove the baseline of the spectral scan and retrieve CH4 concentrations, respectively. An Allan-Werle deviation analysis shows that the measurement precision can reach 1.4 ppb for a 60 s averaging time. Continuous measurements covering a seven-day period were performed to demonstrate the stability and robustness of the reported CH4 sensor system.

  19. Methodologies for assessing the use-phase power consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of telecommunications network services.

    PubMed

    Chan, Chien A; Gygax, André F; Wong, Elaine; Leckie, Christopher A; Nirmalathas, Ampalavanapillai; Kilper, Daniel C

    2013-01-01

    Internet traffic has grown rapidly in recent years and is expected to continue to expand significantly over the next decade. Consequently, the resulting greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of telecommunications service-supporting infrastructures have become an important issue. In this study, we develop a set of models for assessing the use-phase power consumption and carbon dioxide emissions of telecom network services to help telecom providers gain a better understanding of the GHG emissions associated with the energy required for their networks and services. Due to the fact that measuring the power consumption and traffic in a telecom network is a challenging task, these models utilize different granularities of available network information. As the granularity of the network measurement information decreases, the corresponding models have the potential to produce larger estimation errors. Therefore, we examine the accuracy of these models under various network scenarios using two approaches: (i) a sensitivity analysis through simulations and (ii) a case study of a deployed network. Both approaches show that the accuracy of the models depends on the network size, the total amount of network service traffic (i.e., for the service under assessment), and the number of network nodes used to process the service.

  20. On-Board Prediction of Power Consumption in Automobile Active Suspension SYSTEMS—II: Validation and Performance Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Mrad, R.; Fassois, S. D.; Levitt, J. A.; Bachrach, B. I.

    1996-03-01

    The focus of this part of the paper is on validation and performance evaluation. The indirect (standard) and novel direct predictors or part I, which use time-recursive realisations and no leading indicators, are critically compared by using the non-linear active suspension system model. The results, constituting the first known comparison between indirect and direct schemes, show similar performance with a slight superiority of the former. Experimental validation is based on an especially developed active suspension vehicle. The power consumption non-stationarity is, in this case, shown to be of the homogeneous type, and completely "masking" the signal's second-order characteristics, which revealed only after the non-stationarity's effective removal. The analysis leads to two distinct types of indirect predictors: An explicit type, based on non-stationary integrated autoregressive moving average models, and an implicit type, based on stationary autoregressive moving average model. The explicit predictor is shown to be uniformly better than the implicit, although the difference is small for short prediction horizons. The experimental results indicate that accurate power consumption prediction is possible, with errors ranging from 2.22% for a prediction horizon of 0.156 s, to still less than 10% for horizons that are up to 0.470 s long, and about 25% for 1.563 s long horizons.

  1. Highly-Ordered 3D Vertical Resistive Switching Memory Arrays with Ultralow Power Consumption and Ultrahigh Density.

    PubMed

    Al-Haddad, Ahmed; Wang, Chengliang; Qi, Haoyuan; Grote, Fabian; Wen, Liaoyong; Bernhard, Jörg; Vellacheri, Ranjith; Tarish, Samar; Nabi, Ghulam; Kaiser, Ute; Lei, Yong

    2016-09-01

    Resistive switching random access memories (RRAM) have attracted great scientific and industrial attention for next generation data storage because of their advantages of nonvolatile properties, high density, low power consumption, fast writing/erasing speed, good endurance, and simple and small operation system. Here, by using a template-assisted technique, we demonstrate a three-dimensional highly ordered vertical RRAM device array with density as high as that of the nanopores of the template (10(8)-10(9) cm(-2)), which can also be fabricated in large area. The high crystallinity of the materials, the large contact area and the intimate semiconductor/electrode interface (3 nm interfacial layer) make the ultralow voltage operation (millivolt magnitude) and ultralow power consumption (picowatt) possible. Our procedure for fabrication of the nanodevice arrays in large area can be used for producing many other different materials and such three-dimensional electronic device arrays with the capability to adjust the device densities can be extended to other applications of the next generation nanodevice technology. PMID:27525738

  2. Tobacco talk: reflections on corporate power and the legal framing of consumption.

    PubMed

    Benson, Peter

    2010-12-01

    This article examines how North Carolina tobacco farmers think about the moral ambiguities of tobacco business. Drawing on ethnographic research with tobacco farmers and archival research on the tobacco industry, I specify the core psychological defense mechanisms that tobacco companies have crafted for people associated with the industry. I also document local social, cultural, and economic factors in rural North Carolina that underpin ongoing rural dependence on tobacco despite the negativity that surrounds tobacco and structural adjustments. This article contributes to our knowledge about tobacco farmers and tobacco farming communities, which is important for tobacco-control strategies. I reflect on ethical and economic paradoxes related to the rise of corporate social responsibility in the tobacco industry, where an official legal framing of consumption, focused on informed adult consumer autonomy and health education, is promoted to undermine more robust public health prevention efforts. PMID:21322408

  3. Circuit for reducing power consumption in battery operated microprocessor based systems

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, J.C.

    1980-05-13

    In a microprocessor based system, wherein at least one microprocessor is battery powered, a power strobe circuit includes an analog switch for connecting the battery to the microprocessor only during programmed task performance. Upon completion of task performance, the microprocessor generates signals which trigger the analog switch to open, thereby deenergizing the microprocessor and to enable an external timer. After a predetermined period of time, which may be fixed in the timer or programmed, the timer causes the switch to reclose, thereby energizing the microprocessor for performance of another programmed task.

  4. Fast response and low power consumption 1×2 thermo-optic switch based on dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Zhipeng; Hu, Guohua; Yun, Binfeng; Zhang, Xiong; Cui, Yiping

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we present a 1 × 2 thermo-optic (TO) switch based on the integration of the dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton (SPP) waveguides with the silicon nanowires. Liquid-curable fluorinated resin (LFR) made of perfluorinated polymer was adopted as the ridge, which has a TO coefficient twice more than that of polymethyl methacrylate, leading to a significant decrease in the power consumption. It was shown that the response time of the dielectric-loaded SPP waveguide could be improved through optimizing the dimensions of the LFR polymer ridge without loss of relative high figure of merit and large confinement factor. Performance characteristics of such a 1 × 2 TO switch operating at a telecom wavelength of 1550 nm was investigated theoretically from the analysis of both heat and optical fields. The results reveal that a switching power as low as 7 mW and an extremely short switching time (with rise time of 3 μs and fall time of 6.7 μs) could be achieved with the proposed dielectric-loaded SPP-based 1 × 2 TO switch. In addition, the crosstalk could be enhanced to at least 40 dB with the applied power of 7 mW at the wavelength of 1550 nm, and it could be retained to be above 20 dB in the wavelength spectrum of 1500-1600 nm during the on/off state.

  5. Low Power Consumption Lasers for Miniature Optical Spectrometers for Trace Gas Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forouhar, S.; Frez, C.; Franz, K. J.; Ksendzov, A.; Qiu, Y.; Soibel, K. A.; Chen, J.; Hosoda, T.; Kipshidze, G.; Shterengas, L.; Belenky, G.

    2011-01-01

    The air quality of any manned spacecraft needs to be continuously monitored in order to safeguard the health of the crew. Air quality monitoring grows in importance as mission duration increases. Due to the small size, low power draw, and performance reliability, semiconductor laser-based instruments are viable candidates for this purpose. Achieving a minimum instrument size requires lasers with emission wavelength coinciding with the absorption of the fundamental absorption lines of the target gases, which are mostly in the 3.0-5.0 micron wavelength range. In this paper we report on our progress developing high wall plug efficiency type-I quantum-well GaSb-based diode lasers operating at room temperatures in the spectral region near 3.0-3.5 micron and quantum cascade (QC) lasers in the 4.0-5.0 micron range. These lasers will enable the development of miniature, low-power laser spectrometers for environmental monitoring of the spacecraft.

  6. Wing-wake interaction reduces power consumption in insect tandem wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, Fritz-Olaf

    Insects are capable of a remarkable diversity of flight techniques. Dragonflies, in particular, are notable for their powerful aerial manoeuvres and endurance during prey catching or territory flights. While most insects such as flies, bees and wasps either reduced their hinds wings or mechanically coupled fore and hind wings, dragonflies have maintained two independent-controlled pairs of wings throughout their evolution. An extraordinary feature of dragonfly wing kinematics is wing phasing, the shift in flapping phase between the fore and hind wing periods. Wing phasing has previously been associated with an increase in thrust production, readiness for manoeuvrability and hunting performance. Recent studies have shown that wing phasing in tandem wings produces a twofold modulation in hind wing lift, but slightly reduces the maximum combined lift of fore and hind wings, compared to two wings flapping in isolation. Despite this disadvantage, however, wing phasing is effective in improving aerodynamic efficiency during flight by the removal of kinetic energy from the wake. Computational analyses demonstrate that this increase in flight efficiency may save up to 22% aerodynamic power expenditure compared to insects flapping only two wings. In terms of engineering, energetic benefits in four-wing flapping are of substantial interest in the field of biomimetic aircraft design, because the performance of man-made air vehicles is often limited by high-power expenditure rather than by lift production. This manuscript provides a summary on power expenditures and aerodynamic efficiency in flapping tandem wings by investigating wing phasing in a dynamically scaled robotic model of a hovering dragonfly.

  7. Wing-wake interaction reduces power consumption in insect tandem wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, Fritz-Olaf

    2009-05-01

    Insects are capable of a remarkable diversity of flight techniques. Dragonflies, in particular, are notable for their powerful aerial manoeuvres and endurance during prey catching or territory flights. While most insects such as flies, bees and wasps either reduced their hinds wings or mechanically coupled fore and hind wings, dragonflies have maintained two independent-controlled pairs of wings throughout their evolution. An extraordinary feature of dragonfly wing kinematics is wing phasing, the shift in flapping phase between the fore and hind wing periods. Wing phasing has previously been associated with an increase in thrust production, readiness for manoeuvrability and hunting performance. Recent studies have shown that wing phasing in tandem wings produces a twofold modulation in hind wing lift, but slightly reduces the maximum combined lift of fore and hind wings, compared to two wings flapping in isolation. Despite this disadvantage, however, wing phasing is effective in improving aerodynamic efficiency during flight by the removal of kinetic energy from the wake. Computational analyses demonstrate that this increase in flight efficiency may save up to 22% aerodynamic power expenditure compared to insects flapping only two wings. In terms of engineering, energetic benefits in four-wing flapping are of substantial interest in the field of biomimetic aircraft design, because the performance of man-made air vehicles is often limited by high-power expenditure rather than by lift production. This manuscript provides a summary on power expenditures and aerodynamic efficiency in flapping tandem wings by investigating wing phasing in a dynamically scaled robotic model of a hovering dragonfly.

  8. Measurement of Fine Particles From Mobile and Stationary Sources, and Reducing the Air Conditioner Power Consumption in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, Eli Henry

    We study the PM2.5and ultrafine exhaust emissions from a new natural gas-fired turbine power facility to better understand air pollution in California. To characterize the emissions from new natural gas turbines, a series of tests were performed on a GE LMS100 gas turbine. These tests included PM2.5 and wet chemical tests for SO2/SO 3 and NH3, as well as ultrafine (less than 100 nm in diameter) particulate matter measurements. The turbine exhaust had an average particle number concentration that was 2.3x103 times higher than ambient air. The majority of these particles were nanoparticles; at the 100 nm size, stack particle concentrations were about 20 times higher than ambient, and increased to 3.9x104 times higher on average in the 2.5 - 3 nm particle size range. This study also found that ammonia emissions were higher than expected, but in compliance with permit conditions. This was possibly due to an ammonia imbalance entering the catalyst, some flue gas bypassing the catalyst, or not enough catalyst volume. SO3 accounted for an average of 23% of the total sulfur oxides emissions measured. Some of the SO3 is formed in the combustion process, it is likely that the majority formed as the SO2 in the combustion products passed across the oxidizing CO catalyst and SCR catalyst. The 100 MW turbine sampled in this study emitted particle loadings similar to those previously measured from turbines in the SCAQMD area, however, the turbine exhaust contained far more particles than ambient air. The power consumed by an air conditioner accounts for a significant fraction of the total power used by hybrid and electric vehicles especially during summer. This study examined the effect of recirculation of cabin air on power consumption of mobile air conditioners both in-lab and on-road. Real time power consumption and vehicle mileage were recorded by an On Board Diagnostic monitor and carbon balance method. Vehicle mileage improved with increased cabin air recirculation. The

  9. Optimization of PHEV Power Split Gear Ratio to Minimize Fuel Consumption and Operation Cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yanhe

    A Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) is a vehicle powered by a combination of an internal combustion engine and an electric motor with a battery pack. The battery pack can be charged by plugging the vehicle to the electric grid and from using excess engine power. The research activity performed in this thesis focused on the development of an innovative optimization approach of PHEV Power Split Device (PSD) gear ratio with the aim to minimize the vehicle operation costs. Three research activity lines have been followed: • Activity 1: The PHEV control strategy optimization by using the Dynamic Programming (DP) and the development of PHEV rule-based control strategy based on the DP results. • Activity 2: The PHEV rule-based control strategy parameter optimization by using the Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II). • Activity 3: The comprehensive analysis of the single mode PHEV architecture to offer the innovative approach to optimize the PHEV PSD gear ratio.

  10. Power consumption, discharge capacitance and light emission as measures for thrust production of dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators

    SciTech Connect

    Kriegseis, J.; Grundmann, S.; Tropea, C.

    2011-07-01

    A new procedure of determining the time resolved capacitance of a plasma actuator during operation is introduced, representing a simple diagnostic tool that provides insight into the phenomenological behavior of plasma actuators. The procedure is demonstrated by presenting example correlations between consumed electrical energy, size of the plasma region, and the operating voltage. It is shown that the capacitance of a plasma actuator is considerably increased by the presence of the plasma; hence a system that has previously been impedance matched can be considerably de-tuned when varying the operating voltage of the actuator. Such information is fundamental for any attempts to increase the energy efficiency of plasma-actuator systems. A combined analysis of the capacitance, light emission, size of the plasma region, force production, and power consumption is presented.

  11. A Rotating Space Interferometer with Variable Baselines and Low Power Consumption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gezari, Daniel Y.

    1999-01-01

    A new concept is presented here for a large, rotating space interferometer which would achieve full u, v plane coverage with reasonably uniform integration times, yet once set in motion no additional energy would be required to change collector separations, maintain constant baseline rotation rates, or to counteract centrifugal forces on the collectors.

  12. Low Power Consumption Laser for Next Generation Miniature Optical Spectrometers for Trace Gas Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forouhar, S.; Frez, C.; Franz, K. J.; Ksendzov, A.; Qiu, Y.; Soibel, K. A.; Chen, J.; Hosoda, T.; Kipshidze, G.; Shterengas, L.; Belenky, G.

    2011-01-01

    The air quality of any manned spacecraft needs to be continuously monitored in order to safeguard the health of the crew. Air quality monitoring grows in importance as mission duration increases. Due to the small size, low power draw, and performance reliability, semiconductor laser-based instruments are viable candidates for this purpose. Achieving a minimum instrument size requires lasers with emission wavelength coinciding with the absorption of the fundamental absorption lines of the target gases, which are mostly in the 3.0-5.0 mu m wavelength range. In this paper we report on our progress developing high wall plug efficiency type-I quantum-well GaSb-based diode lasers operating at room temperatures in the spectral region near 3.0-3.5 mu m and quantum cascade (QC) lasers in the 4.0-5.0 mu m range. These lasers will enable the development of miniature, low-power laser spectrometers for environmental monitoring of the spacecraft

  13. Development of highly compact and low power consumption athermal military laser designators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sijan, A.

    2012-10-01

    The utility of military lasers, particularly in the area of laser designation for laser-guided weapons, is well understood. Laser systems based on Nd:YAG have been fielded since the 1980's and over the last three decades have introduced incremental technology steps to improve performance and weight. The most recent technology step has been the introduction of athermal lasers based on laser-diode pumping of Nd:YAG and products are now emerging for use on the battlefield. The technical performance, efficiency, size, weight and power for these lasers, has been key to driving the new production designs. In this paper, we review the development of the laser designs and their introduction since the advent of laser designation. In particular, we compare the relative performance and characteristics over the evolution of fielded laser designators. Moreover, we will review the key building blocks for the design of athermal lasers and describe some critical design issues for engineering and productionisation of a military laser system, including removal of thermal lensing, novel diode-pumping schemes and robustness over the environment. These will be exemplified using results from the development of the SELEX Galileo Type 163 Laser Target Designators. These will cover not only technical performance, power and efficiency, but also thermal management, mass, volume, cost and overall complexity for manufacture.

  14. Digital Signal Processing for Large Radio Telescopes: The Challenge of Power Consumption and How To Solve It

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Addario, Larry

    2014-04-01

    Radio astronomy is on the verge of a huge expansion of capabilities as we move toward the SKA era. This is happening in three ways simultaneously: building more collecting aperture; increasing field of view to support surveys, sometimes covering the entire sky at once; and increasing instantaneous bandwidth from 30% (original VLA) to 300%. All of these put increased demands on the signal processing needed to combine and analyze the signals so as to produce products that facilitate scientific interpretation. A straightforward scaling of what has previously been done leads to machines that are not only large and expensive, but that consume more power than can be provided within a reasonable telescope operating budget. For example, the largest correlator so far built is that of the ALMA telescope in Chile. It handles N=64 antennas at a bandwidth of B=8 GHz and consumes about 65 kW (correlation only). If the same technology were used to build a correlator for N=3000, B=1 GHz, and 100 simultaneous beams, as is desired in SKA Phase 2, it would use about 1.8 GW. At present rates, that power would cost more than $2 billion per year. That does not include power to drive the antennas nor for post-correlation processing. This paper discusses only the digital electronics of a large telescope, starting at the A-to-D converters and including filter banks, beam formers, and correlators. It is shown that their power consumption can be reduced to a small fraction of the total used by the telescope. We get some help from Moore's Law, but it is not nearly enough; two more things must be done. First, careful attention must be paid to the signal processing architecture so as to minimize power-wasting operations. It turns out that much more power is used to move data from place to place and to store and retrieve it in temporary buffers than for arithmetic operations. Minimizing power does not necessarily minimize construction cost, but it is likely to minimize life-cycle cost. Second

  15. Overview of existing European food consumption databases: critical aspects in relation to their use for the assessment of dietary exposure to additives, flavourings and residues of food contact materials.

    PubMed

    Le Donne, Cinzia; Piccinelli, Raffaela; Sette, Stefania; Leclercq, Catherine

    2011-03-01

    A critical analysis of existing food consumption databases was performed with particular regard for their current and potential use for the assessment of dietary exposure to additives, flavourings and residues of food contact materials. Within the European Food Consumption Validation project (EFCOVAL), a questionnaire on critical aspects of such datasets was developed and administered to researchers responsible for the collection/analysis of national food consumption data in European countries. Information collected was complemented through a review of the literature and of grey publications in order to provide an inventory of the main food consumption surveys performed in Europe from 1994 to 2007, for a total of 23 countries and 37 surveys. It appeared that existing European food consumption surveys have as a main objective the assessment of nutrient intake in the population. On the other hand, most of the databases were shown to be used also for the purpose of dietary exposure assessment.

  16. Stable single-mode distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers at λ ∼ 4.25 μm with low power consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Zhiwei; Wang, Lijun; Zhang, Jinchuan; Liu, Fengqi; Zhuo, Ning; Zhai, Shenqiang; Liu, Junqi; Wang, Zhanguo

    2016-10-01

    Short-wavelength (4.25 μm) distributed-feedback quantum cascade laser operating in continuous wave (cw) mode at room temperature with low power consumption was presented. Stable single-mode operation with a side-mode-suppression-ratio above 25 dB was maintained for the whole measured current and temperature range by enlarging gain difference and strong grating coupling. Because of the strong coupling, very low threshold current and power consumption were achieved. For a device of 9-μm-wide and 2-mm-long, the cw threshold current and power consumption at 293 K were as low as 126 mA and 1.45 W, respectively. All results above were from the device without using buried heterostructure geometry.

  17. Harmonic Resonance in Power Transmission Systems due to the Addition of Shunt Capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Hardik U.

    Shunt capacitors are often added in transmission networks at suitable locations to improve the voltage profile. In this thesis, the transmission system in Arizona is considered as a test bed. Many shunt capacitors already exist in the Arizona transmission system and more are planned to be added. Addition of these shunt capacitors may create resonance conditions in response to harmonic voltages and currents. Such resonance, if it occurs, may create problematic issues in the system. It is main objective of this thesis to identify potential problematic effects that could occur after placing new shunt capacitors at selected buses in the Arizona network. Part of the objective is to create a systematic plan for avoidance of resonance issues. For this study, a method of capacitance scan is proposed. The bus admittance matrix is used as a model of the networked transmission system. The calculations on the admittance matrix were done using Matlab. The test bed is the actual transmission system in Arizona; however, for proprietary reasons, bus names are masked in the thesis copy intended for the public domain. The admittance matrix was obtained from data using the PowerWorld Simulator after equivalencing the 2016 summer peak load (planning case). The full Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) system data were used. The equivalencing procedure retains only the Arizona portion of the WECC. The capacitor scan results for single capacitor placement and multiple capacitor placement cases are presented. Problematic cases are identified in the form of 'forbidden response. The harmonic voltage impact of known sources of harmonics, mainly large scale HVDC sources, is also presented. Specific key results for the study indicated include: (1) The forbidden zones obtained as per the IEEE 519 standard indicates the bus 10 to be the most problematic bus. (2) The forbidden zones also indicate that switching values for the switched shunt capacitor (if used) at bus 3 should be

  18. Bulk-micromachined submicroliter-volume PCR chip with very rapid thermal response and low power consumption.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dae-Sik; Park, Se Ho; Yang, Haesik; Chung, Kwang-Hyo; Yoon, Tae Hwan; Kim, Sung-Jin; Kim, Kyuwon; Kim, Youn Tae

    2004-08-01

    The current paper describes the design, fabrication, and testing of a micromachined submicroliter-volume polymerase chain reaction (PCR) chip with a fast thermal response and very low power consumption. The chip consists of a bulk-micromachined Si component and hot-embossed poly(methyl methacrylate)(PMMA) component. The Si component contains an integral microheater and temperature sensor on a thermally well-isolated membrane, while the PMMA component contains a submicroliter-volume PCR chamber, valves, and channels. The micro hot membrane under the submicroliter-volume chamber is a silicon oxide/silicon nitride/silicon oxide (O/N/O) diaphragm with a thickness of 1.9 microm, resulting in a very low thermal mass. In experiments, the proposed chip only required 45 mW to heat the reaction chamber to 92 degrees C, the denaturation temperature of DNA, plus the heating and cooling rates are about 80 degrees C s(-1) and 60 degrees C s(-1), respectively. We validated, from the fluorescence results from DNA stained with SYBR Green I, that the proposed chip amplified the DNA from vector clone, containing tumor suppressor gene BRCA 1 (127 base pairs at 11th exon), after 30 thermal cycles of 3 s, 5 s, and 5 s at 92 degrees C, 55 degrees C, and 72 degrees C, respectively, in a 200 nL-volume chamber. As for specificity of DNA products, owing to difficulty in analyzing the very small volume PCR results from the micro chip, we vicariously employed the larger volume PCR products after cycling with the same sustaining temperatures as with the micro chip but with much slower ramping rates (3.3 degrees C s(-1) when rising, 2.5 degrees C s(-1) when cooling) within circa 20 minutes on a commercial PCR machine and confirmed the specificity to BRCA 1 (127 base pairs) with agarose gel electrophoresis. Accordingly, the fabricated micro chip demonstrated a very low power consumption and rapid thermal response, both of which are crucial to the development of a fully integrated and battery-powered

  19. PowerPoint Presentations: A Creative Addition to the Research Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Alan E.

    2003-01-01

    Contends that the requirement of a PowerPoint presentation as part of the research process would benefit students in the following ways: learning how to conduct research; starting their research project sooner; honing presentation and public speaking skills; improving cooperative and social skills; and enhancing technology skills. Outlines the…

  20. Numerical investigation of power consumption and mixing time in a stirred vessel with regular and multiscale impellers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basbug, Salur; Papadakis, George; Vassilicos, Christos

    2015-11-01

    The flow field inside a stirred tank is obtained by means of direct numerical simulation based on finite volume method at Re =500. Two different types of four-bladed radial impellers are considered: the first one is a regular type with rectangular blades and the second one is a modified version of the former with irregular blade edges, having the same thickness and the surface area. The shaft power is averaged over more than sixty revolutions and the comparison between the two cases shows that the impeller with irregular blades has lower energy consumption. Moreover, a passive scalar is injected into the vessel for a quarter period of revolution and the scalar transport equation is solved to investigate the mixing times. The coefficient of variation of the passive scalar is averaged over the whole volume in order to obtain a quantitative indicator of the mixing progress. The homogenization curves depend on the instantaneous flow conditions due to the transient nature of the mixing process, therefore multiple curves are averaged to obtain a representative result. There are indications that irregular blades can decrease mixing time with respect to regular ones.

  1. The effectiveness of power-generating complexes constructed on the basis of nuclear power plants combined with additional sources of energy determined taking risk factors into account

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aminov, R. Z.; Khrustalev, V. A.; Portyankin, A. V.

    2015-02-01

    The effectiveness of combining nuclear power plants equipped with water-cooled water-moderated power-generating reactors (VVER) with other sources of energy within unified power-generating complexes is analyzed. The use of such power-generating complexes makes it possible to achieve the necessary load pickup capability and flexibility in performing the mandatory selective primary and emergency control of load, as well as participation in passing the night minimums of electric load curves while retaining high values of the capacity utilization factor of the entire power-generating complex at higher levels of the steam-turbine part efficiency. Versions involving combined use of nuclear power plants with hydrogen toppings and gas turbine units for generating electricity are considered. In view of the fact that hydrogen is an unsafe energy carrier, the use of which introduces additional elements of risk, a procedure for evaluating these risks under different conditions of implementing the fuel-and-hydrogen cycle at nuclear power plants is proposed. Risk accounting technique with the use of statistical data is considered, including the characteristics of hydrogen and gas pipelines, and the process pipelines equipment tightness loss occurrence rate. The expected intensities of fires and explosions at nuclear power plants fitted with hydrogen toppings and gas turbine units are calculated. In estimating the damage inflicted by events (fires and explosions) occurred in nuclear power plant turbine buildings, the US statistical data were used. Conservative scenarios of fires and explosions of hydrogen-air mixtures in nuclear power plant turbine buildings are presented. Results from calculations of the introduced annual risk to the attained net annual profit ratio in commensurable versions are given. This ratio can be used in selecting projects characterized by the most technically attainable and socially acceptable safety.

  2. Evaluation of Different Power of Near Addition in Two Different Multifocal Intraocular Lenses

    PubMed Central

    Unsal, Ugur; Baser, Gonen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To compare near, intermediate, and distance vision and quality of vision, when refractive rotational multifocal intraocular lenses with 3.0 diopters or diffractive multifocal intraocular lenses with 2.5 diopters near addition are implanted. Methods. 41 eyes of 41 patients in whom rotational +3.0 diopters near addition IOLs were implanted and 30 eyes of 30 patients in whom diffractive +2.5 diopters near addition IOLs were implanted after cataract surgery were reviewed. Uncorrected and corrected distance visual acuity, intermediate visual acuity, near visual acuity, and patient satisfaction were evaluated 6 months later. Results. The corrected and uncorrected distance visual acuity were the same between both groups (p = 0.50 and p = 0.509, resp.). The uncorrected intermediate and corrected intermediate and near vision acuities were better in the +2.5 near vision added intraocular lens implanted group (p = 0.049, p = 0.005, and p = 0.001, resp.) and the uncorrected near vision acuity was better in the +3.0 near vision added intraocular lens implanted group (p = 0.001). The patient satisfactions of both groups were similar. Conclusion. The +2.5 diopters near addition could be a better choice in younger patients with more distance and intermediate visual requirements (driving, outdoor activities), whereas the + 3.0 diopters should be considered for patients with more near vision correction (reading). PMID:27340560

  3. EXAMINING PLANNED U.S. POWER PLANT CAPACITY ADDITIONS IN THE CONTEXT OF CLIMATE CHANGE

    SciTech Connect

    Dooley, James J.; Dahowski, Robert T.; Gale, J.; Kaya, Y.

    2003-01-01

    This paper seeks to assess the degree to which the 471 planned fossil fired power plants announced to be built within the next decade in the continental U.S. are amenable to significant carbon dioxide emissions mitigation via carbon dioxide capture and disposal in geologic reservoirs. The combined generating capacity of these 471 planned plants is 320 GW. In particular, we seek to assess the looming ''carbon liability'' (i.e., the nearly 1 billion tons of CO2 these plants are likely to emit annually) that these power plants represent for their owners and for the nation as the U.S. begins to address climate change. Significant emission reductions will likely be brought about through the use of advanced technologies such as carbon capture and disposal. We find that less than half of these plants are located in the immediate vicinity of potentially suitable geologic carbon dioxide disposal reservoirs. The authors discuss the implications of this potential carbon liability that these plants may come to represent.

  4. Energy resolution and power consumption of Timepix detector for different detector settings and saturation of front-end electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroupa, M.; Hoang, S.; Stoffle, N.; Soukup, P.; Jakubek, J.; Pinsky, L. S.

    2014-05-01

    An ongoing research project in the area of radiation monitoring employing the Timepix technology from the CERN-based Medipix2 Collaboration profits greatly from optimizing the precision of the position and energy information obtained for the detected quanta. Wider applications of the Timepix technology as a radiation monitor also puts new demands on the precision and speed of the energy calibration. We compare the analog signal in pixel front-end electronics for different sources used during detector evaluation and energy calibration. We use the direct measurement of the analog signal from the pixel preamplifier and comparator to characterize pulse shape differences for different sources, e.g. internal test pulses, external test pulses, ionizing radiation, etc. and study their interchangeability. Accurate per-pixel energy calibration of the Timepix detector enables the direct measurement of the energy deposited by different types of ionizing radiation. The energy calibration process requires the application of a known charge to front-end electronics of each pixel. The small pixel size limits use of the radioactive sources. The 59.54 keV line from 241Am is commonly used as the highest point in calibration curve. The heavy ion dosimetry as encountered in the space radiation environment requires a considerable extrapolation to the energies in the MeV range. We have observed that for energies around and beyond 1 MeV the response of the Timepix's front-end electronics no longer follows the extrapolated calibration function. We have investigated this non-linearity and identified its source. We also propose both hardware and software solutions to suppress this effect. In this paper we show the impact on pixel calibration and the subsequent energy resolution for different detector settings as well as the resulting power consumptions. We discuss the parameter optimization for several different real-world applications.

  5. Fourier, Gegenbauer and Jacobi Expansions for a Power-Law Fundamental Solution of the Polyharmonic Equation and Polyspherical Addition Theorems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohl, Howard S.

    2013-06-01

    We develop complex Jacobi, Gegenbauer and Chebyshev polynomial expansions for the kernels associated with power-law fundamental solutions of the polyharmonic equation on d-dimensional Euclidean space. From these series representations we derive Fourier expansions in certain rotationally-invariant coordinate systems and Gegenbauer polynomial expansions in Vilenkin's polyspherical coordinates. We compare both of these expansions to generate addition theorems for the azimuthal Fourier coefficients.

  6. Application of calcium chloride as an additive for secondary refrigerant in the air conditioning system type chiller to minimized energy consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suwono, A.; Indartono, Y. S.; Irsyad, M.; Al-Afkar, I. C.

    2015-09-01

    One way to resolve the energy problem is to increase the efficiency of energy use. Air conditioning system is one of the equipment that needs to be considered, because it is the biggest energy user in commercial building sector. Research currently developing is the use of phase change materials (PCM) as thermal energy storage (TES) in the air conditioning system to reduce energy consumption. Salt hydrates have been great potential to be developed because they have been high latent heat and thermal conductivity. This study has used a salt hydrate from calcium chloride to be tested in air conditioning systems type chiller. Thermal characteristics were examined using temperature history (T-history) test and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The test results showed that the thermal characteristics of the salt hydrate has been a high latent heat and in accordance with the evaporator temperature. The use of salt hydrates in air conditioning system type chiller can reduce energy consumption by 51.5%.

  7. Enhancing Specific Energy and Power in Asymmetric Supercapacitors - A Synergetic Strategy based on the Use of Redox Additive Electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Arvinder; Chandra, Amreesh

    2016-05-01

    The strategy of using redox additive electrolyte in combination with multiwall carbon nanotubes/metal oxide composites leads to a substantial improvements in the specific energy and power of asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs). When the pure electrolyte is optimally modified with a redox additive viz., KI, ~105% increase in the specific energy is obtained with good cyclic stability over 3,000 charge-discharge cycles and ~14.7% capacitance fade. This increase is a direct consequence of the iodine/iodide redox pairs that strongly modifies the faradaic and non-faradaic type reactions occurring on the surface of the electrodes. Contrary to what is shown in few earlier reports, it is established that indiscriminate increase in the concentration of redox additives will leads to performance loss. Suitable explanations are given based on theoretical laws. The specific energy or power values being reported in the fabricated ASCs are comparable or higher than those reported in ASCs based on toxic acetonitrile or expensive ionic liquids. The paper shows that the use of redox additive is economically favorable strategy for obtaining cost effective and environmentally friendly ASCs.

  8. Enhancing Specific Energy and Power in Asymmetric Supercapacitors - A Synergetic Strategy based on the Use of Redox Additive Electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Singh, Arvinder; Chandra, Amreesh

    2016-01-01

    The strategy of using redox additive electrolyte in combination with multiwall carbon nanotubes/metal oxide composites leads to a substantial improvements in the specific energy and power of asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs). When the pure electrolyte is optimally modified with a redox additive viz., KI, ~105% increase in the specific energy is obtained with good cyclic stability over 3,000 charge-discharge cycles and ~14.7% capacitance fade. This increase is a direct consequence of the iodine/iodide redox pairs that strongly modifies the faradaic and non-faradaic type reactions occurring on the surface of the electrodes. Contrary to what is shown in few earlier reports, it is established that indiscriminate increase in the concentration of redox additives will leads to performance loss. Suitable explanations are given based on theoretical laws. The specific energy or power values being reported in the fabricated ASCs are comparable or higher than those reported in ASCs based on toxic acetonitrile or expensive ionic liquids. The paper shows that the use of redox additive is economically favorable strategy for obtaining cost effective and environmentally friendly ASCs. PMID:27184260

  9. Enhancing Specific Energy and Power in Asymmetric Supercapacitors - A Synergetic Strategy based on the Use of Redox Additive Electrolytes

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Arvinder; Chandra, Amreesh

    2016-01-01

    The strategy of using redox additive electrolyte in combination with multiwall carbon nanotubes/metal oxide composites leads to a substantial improvements in the specific energy and power of asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs). When the pure electrolyte is optimally modified with a redox additive viz., KI, ~105% increase in the specific energy is obtained with good cyclic stability over 3,000 charge-discharge cycles and ~14.7% capacitance fade. This increase is a direct consequence of the iodine/iodide redox pairs that strongly modifies the faradaic and non-faradaic type reactions occurring on the surface of the electrodes. Contrary to what is shown in few earlier reports, it is established that indiscriminate increase in the concentration of redox additives will leads to performance loss. Suitable explanations are given based on theoretical laws. The specific energy or power values being reported in the fabricated ASCs are comparable or higher than those reported in ASCs based on toxic acetonitrile or expensive ionic liquids. The paper shows that the use of redox additive is economically favorable strategy for obtaining cost effective and environmentally friendly ASCs. PMID:27184260

  10. Characterization of Steel-Ta Dissimilar Metal Builds Made Using Very High Power Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing (VHP-UAM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sridharan, Niyanth; Norfolk, Mark; Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh

    2016-05-01

    Ultrasonic additive manufacturing is a solid-state additive manufacturing technique that utilizes ultrasonic vibrations to bond metal tapes into near net-shaped components. The major advantage of this process is the ability to manufacture layered structures with dissimilar materials without any intermetallic formation. Majority of the published literature had focused only on the bond formation mechanism in Aluminum alloys. The current work pertains to explain the microstructure evolution during dissimilar joining of iron and tantalum using very high power ultrasonic additive manufacturing and characterization of the interfaces using electron back-scattered diffraction and Nano-indentation measurement. The results showed extensive grain refinement at the bonded interfaces of these metals. This phenomenon was attributed to continuous dynamic recrystallization process driven by the high strain rate plastic deformation and associated adiabatic heating that is well below 50 pct of melting point of both iron and Ta.

  11. Thermo-optically driven silicon microring-resonator-loaded Mach-Zehnder modulator for low-power consumption and multiple-wavelength modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautam, Rajdeep; Kaneshige, Hiroki; Yamada, Hitoshi; Katouf, Redouane; Arakawa, Taro; Kokubun, Yasuo

    2014-02-01

    Low-power-consumption thermo-optically controlled silicon-microring-resonator loaded Mach-Zehnder modulators (MRR-loaded MZMs) are demonstrated. We experimentally characterized a single microring and cascaded-multiple-microring resonators coupled to one arm of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI). The driving power consumption of the proposed MZM is significantly reduced owing to the enhanced phase shift in the MRR. The device was fabricated on a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) waveguide structure, and each microring is equipped with TiN microheater for thermo-optic tuning. The coupling efficiency between the microring and a busline waveguide was regulated by varying the gap between two waveguides at a directional coupler. The power consumption of single microring and cascaded MRR-loaded MZMs was approximately 0.4 and 1 mW, respectively. The phase-shift enhancement factor of up to 19 with a maximum extinction ratio of 18 dB was obtained experimentally. Multiple-wavelength operation was also demonstrated in the cascaded MRR-loaded MZM.

  12. 10 CFR Appendix Z to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of External Power Supplies

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., of the total real output power produced by a power supply to the real input power required to produce...-voltage output. j. Nameplate input frequency means the AC input frequency of the power supply as specified... supply that is designed to convert line voltage AC input into lower voltage AC output and is able...

  13. 10 CFR Appendix Z to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of External Power Supplies

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... power supply that is designed to convert line voltage AC input into more than one simultaneous lower-voltage output. j. Nameplate input frequency means the AC input frequency of the power supply as specified on the manufacturer's label on the power supply housing. k. Nameplate input voltage means the...

  14. Mechanism of power consumption inhibitive multi-layer Zn:SiO2/SiO2 structure resistance random access memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Rui; Tsai, Tsung-Ming; Chang, Ting-Chang; Chang, Kuan-Chang; Chen, Kai-Huang; Lou, Jen-Chung; Young, Tai-Fa; Chen, Jung-Hui; Huang, Syuan-Yong; Chen, Min-Chen; Shih, Chih-Cheng; Chen, Hsin-Lu; Pan, Jhih-Hong; Tung, Cheng-Wei; Syu, Yong-En; Sze, Simon M.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, multi-layer Zn:SiO2/SiO2 structure is introduced to reduce the operation power consumption of resistive random access memory (RRAM) device by modifying the filament formation process. And the configuration of multi-layer Zn:SiO2/SiO2 structure is confirmed and demonstrated by auger electron spectrum. Material analysis together with conduction current fitting is applied to qualitatively evaluate the carrier conduction mechanism on both low resistance state and high resistance state. Finally, single layer and multilayer conduction models are proposed, respectively, to clarify the corresponding conduction characteristics of two types of RRAM devices.

  15. Building ceramics with an addition of pulverized combustion fly ash from the thermal power plant Nováky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Húlan, Tomáš; Trník, Anton; Medved, Igor; Štubňa, Igor; Kaljuvee, Tiit

    2016-07-01

    Pulverized combustion fly ash (PFA) from the Power plant Nováky (Slovakia) is analyzed for its potential use in the production of building ceramics. Three materials are used to prepare the mixtures: illite-rich clay (IRC), PFA and IRC fired at 1000 °C (called grog). The mixtures contain 60 % of IRC and 40 % of a non-plastic compound (grog or PFA). A various amount of the grog is replaced by PFA and the effect of this substitution is studied. Thermal analyses (TGA, DTA, thermodilatometry, and dynamical thermomechanical analysis) are used to analyze the processes occurring during firing. The flexural strength and thermal conductivity are determined at room temperature after firing in the temperature interval from 800 to 1100 °C. The results show that an addition of PFA slightly decreases the flexural strength. The thermal conductivity and porosity are practically unaffected by the presence of PFA. Thus, PFA from the Power plant Nováky is a convenient non-plastic component for manufacturing building ceramics.

  16. Optimal welding parameters for very high power ultrasonic additive manufacturing of smart structures with aluminum 6061 matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolcott, Paul J.; Hehr, Adam; Dapino, Marcelo J.

    2014-03-01

    Ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM) is a recent solid state manufacturing process that combines ad- ditive joining of thin metal tapes with subtractive milling operations to generate near net shape metallic parts. Due to the minimal heating during the process, UAM is a proven method of embedding Ni-Ti, Fe-Ga, and PVDF to create active metal matrix composites. Recently, advances in the UAM process utilizing 9 kW very high power (VHP) welding has improved bonding properties, enabling joining of high strength materials previously unweldable with 1 kW low power UAM. Consequently, a design of experiments study was conducted to optimize welding conditions for aluminum 6061 components. This understanding is critical in the design of UAM parts containing smart materials. Build parameters, including weld force, weld speed, amplitude, and temperature were varied based on a Taguchi experimental design matrix and tested for me- chanical strength. Optimal weld parameters were identi ed with statistical methods including a generalized linear model for analysis of variance (ANOVA), mean e ects plots, and interaction e ects plots.

  17. Efficient and Reliable Reactive Power Supply and Consumption --Insights from an Integrated Program of Engineering and EconomicResearch

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Robert J.; Mount, Timothy D.; Schuler, Richard; Schulze,William; Zimmerman, Ray; Alvarado, Fernando; Lesieutre, Bernard C.; Overholt, Philip N.; Eto, Joseph H.

    2008-01-01

    In 2005, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) began discussing regulatory policy for reactive-power procurement and pricing in competitive electricity markets. This paper summarizes findings from a unique, interdisciplinary program of public-interest research that lays a formal foundation for evaluating aspects of FERC staff recommendations and offers early insights that should be useful in guiding policy implementation, specifically by: (1) clarifying the consumers and economic characteristics of reactive power as a basis for creating incentives to appropriately price it, (2) defining specific challenges in creating a competitive market for reactive power as well as new tools needed to help ensure such a market functions efficiently, and (3) demonstrating the importance of accounting for the physical characteristics of the transmission network in planning for reactive power and avoiding the exercise of market power by suppliers.

  18. Revealing Water Stress by the Thermal Power Industry in China Based on a High Spatial Resolution Water Withdrawal and Consumption Inventory.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Zhong, Lijin; Fu, Xiaotian; Wang, Jiao; Wu, Zhixuan

    2016-02-16

    This study reveals the spatial distribution of water withdrawal and consumption by thermal power generation and the associated water stress at catchment level in China based on a high-resolution geodatabase of electric generating units and power plants. We identified three groups of regions where the baseline water stress exerted by thermal power generation is comparatively significant: (1) the Hai River Basin/East Yellow River Basin in the north; (2) some arid catchments in Xinjiang Autonomous Region in the northwest; and (3) the coastal city clusters in the Yangtze River Delta, Pearly River Delta, and Zhejiang Province. Groundwater stress is also detected singularly in a few aquifers mainly in the Hai River Basin and the lower reaches of the Yellow River Basin. As China accelerates its pace of coal mining and coal-fired power generation in the arid northwest regions, the energy/water priorities in catchments under high water stress are noteworthy. We conclude that promotion of advanced water-efficient technologies in the energy industry and more systematic analysis of the water stress of thermal power capacity expansion in water scarce regions in inland China are needed. More comprehensive and transparent data monitoring and reporting are essential to facilitate such water stress assessment. PMID:26789286

  19. Revealing Water Stress by the Thermal Power Industry in China Based on a High Spatial Resolution Water Withdrawal and Consumption Inventory.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Zhong, Lijin; Fu, Xiaotian; Wang, Jiao; Wu, Zhixuan

    2016-02-16

    This study reveals the spatial distribution of water withdrawal and consumption by thermal power generation and the associated water stress at catchment level in China based on a high-resolution geodatabase of electric generating units and power plants. We identified three groups of regions where the baseline water stress exerted by thermal power generation is comparatively significant: (1) the Hai River Basin/East Yellow River Basin in the north; (2) some arid catchments in Xinjiang Autonomous Region in the northwest; and (3) the coastal city clusters in the Yangtze River Delta, Pearly River Delta, and Zhejiang Province. Groundwater stress is also detected singularly in a few aquifers mainly in the Hai River Basin and the lower reaches of the Yellow River Basin. As China accelerates its pace of coal mining and coal-fired power generation in the arid northwest regions, the energy/water priorities in catchments under high water stress are noteworthy. We conclude that promotion of advanced water-efficient technologies in the energy industry and more systematic analysis of the water stress of thermal power capacity expansion in water scarce regions in inland China are needed. More comprehensive and transparent data monitoring and reporting are essential to facilitate such water stress assessment.

  20. A 10-kW SiC Inverter with A Novel Printed Metal Power Module With Integrated Cooling Using Additive Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Chinthavali, Madhu Sudhan; Ayers, Curtis William; Campbell, Steven L; Wiles, Randy H; Ozpineci, Burak

    2014-01-01

    With efforts to reduce the cost, size, and thermal management systems for the power electronics drivetrain in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), wide band gap semiconductors including silicon carbide (SiC) have been identified as possibly being a partial solution. This paper focuses on the development of a 10-kW all SiC inverter using a high power density, integrated printed metal power module with integrated cooling using additive manufacturing techniques. This is the first ever heat sink printed for a power electronics application. About 50% of the inverter was built using additive manufacturing techniques.

  1. Investigation of thermal resistance and power consumption in Ga-doped indium oxide (In{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanowire phase change random access memory

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Bo; Lee, Jeong-Soo E-mail: ljs6951@postech.ac.kr; Lim, Taekyung; Ju, Sanghyun; Latypov, Marat I.; Pi, Dong-Hai; Seop Kim, Hyoung; Meyyappan, M. E-mail: ljs6951@postech.ac.kr

    2014-03-10

    The resistance stability and thermal resistance of phase change memory devices using ∼40 nm diameter Ga-doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanowires (Ga:In{sub 2}O{sub 3} NW) with different Ga-doping concentrations have been investigated. The estimated resistance stability (R(t)/R{sub 0} ratio) improves with higher Ga concentration and is dependent on annealing temperature. The extracted thermal resistance (R{sub th}) increases with higher Ga-concentration and thus the power consumption can be reduced by ∼90% for the 11.5% Ga:In{sub 2}O{sub 3} NW, compared to the 2.1% Ga:In{sub 2}O{sub 3} NW. The excellent characteristics of Ga-doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanowire devices offer an avenue to develop low power and reliable phase change random access memory applications.

  2. Low Power Consumption Complementary Inverters with n-MoS2 and p-WSe2 Dichalcogenide Nanosheets on Glass for Logic and Light-Emitting Diode Circuits.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Pyo Jin; Kim, Jin Sung; Lim, June Yeong; Cho, Youngsuk; Pezeshki, Atiye; Lee, Hee Sung; Yu, Sanghyuck; Min, Sung-Wook; Im, Seongil

    2015-10-14

    Two-dimensional (2D) semiconductor materials with discrete bandgap become important because of their interesting physical properties and potentials toward future nanoscale electronics. Many 2D-based field effect transistors (FETs) have thus been reported. Several attempts to fabricate 2D complementary (CMOS) logic inverters have been made too. However, those CMOS devices seldom showed the most important advantage of typical CMOS: low power consumption. Here, we adopted p-WSe2 and n-MoS2 nanosheets separately for the channels of bottom-gate-patterned FETs, to fabricate 2D dichalcogenide-based hetero-CMOS inverters on the same glass substrate. Our hetero-CMOS inverters with electrically isolated FETs demonstrate novel and superior device performances of a maximum voltage gain as ∼27, sub-nanowatt power consumption, almost ideal noise margin approaching 0.5VDD (supply voltage, VDD=5 V) with a transition voltage of 2.3 V, and ∼800 μs for switching delay. Moreover, our glass-substrate CMOS device nicely performed digital logic (NOT, OR, and AND) and push-pull circuits for organic light-emitting diode switching, directly displaying the prospective of practical applications.

  3. 100 nm AlSb/InAs HEMT for Ultra-Low-Power Consumption, Low-Noise Applications

    PubMed Central

    Bagumako, Sonia; Desplanque, Ludovic; Wichmann, Nicolas; Bollaert, Sylvain; Danneville, François; Wallart, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    We report on high frequency (HF) and noise performances of AlSb/InAs high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) with 100 nm gate length at room temperature in low-power regime. Extrinsic cut-off frequencies fT/fmax of 100/125 GHz together with minimum noise figure NFmin = 0.5 dB and associated gain Gass = 12 dB at 12 GHz have been obtained at drain bias of only 80 mV, corresponding to 4 mW/mm DC power dissipation. This demonstrates the great ability of AlSb/InAs HEMT for high-frequency operation combined with low-noise performances in ultra-low-power regime. PMID:24707193

  4. Rebalancing of internally generated carriers for mid-infrared interband cascade lasers with very low power consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vurgaftman, I.; Bewley, W. W.; Canedy, C. L.; Kim, C. S.; Kim, M.; Merritt, C. D.; Abell, J.; Lindle, J. R.; Meyer, J. R.

    2011-12-01

    The interband cascade laser differs from any other class of semiconductor laser, conventional or cascaded, in that most of the carriers producing population inversion are generated internally, at semimetallic interfaces within each stage of the active region. Here we present simulations demonstrating that all previous interband cascade laser performance has suffered from a significant imbalance of electron and hole densities in the active wells. We further confirm experimentally that correcting this imbalance with relatively heavy n-type doping in the electron injectors substantially reduces the threshold current and power densities relative to all earlier devices. At room temperature, the redesigned devices require nearly two orders of magnitude less input power to operate in continuous-wave mode than the quantum cascade laser. The interband cascade laser is consequently the most attractive option for gas sensing and other spectroscopic applications requiring low output power and minimum heat dissipation at wavelengths extending from 3 μm to beyond 6 μm.

  5. 100 nm AlSb/InAs HEMT for ultra-low-power consumption, low-noise applications.

    PubMed

    Gardès, Cyrille; Bagumako, Sonia; Desplanque, Ludovic; Wichmann, Nicolas; Bollaert, Sylvain; Danneville, François; Wallart, Xavier; Roelens, Yannick

    2014-01-01

    We report on high frequency (HF) and noise performances of AlSb/InAs high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) with 100 nm gate length at room temperature in low-power regime. Extrinsic cut-off frequencies fT/f max of 100/125 GHz together with minimum noise figure NF(min) = 0.5 dB and associated gain G(ass) = 12 dB at 12 GHz have been obtained at drain bias of only 80 mV, corresponding to 4 mW/mm DC power dissipation. This demonstrates the great ability of AlSb/InAs HEMT for high-frequency operation combined with low-noise performances in ultra-low-power regime.

  6. Rebalancing of internally generated carriers for mid-infrared interband cascade lasers with very low power consumption.

    PubMed

    Vurgaftman, I; Bewley, W W; Canedy, C L; Kim, C S; Kim, M; Merritt, C D; Abell, J; Lindle, J R; Meyer, J R

    2011-12-13

    The interband cascade laser differs from any other class of semiconductor laser, conventional or cascaded, in that most of the carriers producing population inversion are generated internally, at semimetallic interfaces within each stage of the active region. Here we present simulations demonstrating that all previous interband cascade laser performance has suffered from a significant imbalance of electron and hole densities in the active wells. We further confirm experimentally that correcting this imbalance with relatively heavy n-type doping in the electron injectors substantially reduces the threshold current and power densities relative to all earlier devices. At room temperature, the redesigned devices require nearly two orders of magnitude less input power to operate in continuous-wave mode than the quantum cascade laser. The interband cascade laser is consequently the most attractive option for gas sensing and other spectroscopic applications requiring low output power and minimum heat dissipation at wavelengths extending from 3 μm to beyond 6 μm.

  7. Influences of Bi 2O 3 additive on the microstructure, permeability, and power loss characteristics of Ni-Zn ferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Hua; Tang, Xiaoli; Zhang, Huaiwu; Jia, Lijun; Zhong, Zhiyong

    2009-10-01

    Nickel-zinc ferrite materials containing different Bi 2O 3 concentrations have been prepared by the conventional ceramic technique. Micrographs have clearly revealed that the Bi 2O 3 additive promoted grain growth. When the Bi 2O 3 content reached 0.15 wt%, a dual microstructure with both small grains (<5 μm) and some extremely large grains (>50 μm) appeared. With higher Bi 2O 3 content, the samples exhibited a very large average grain size of more than 30 μm. The initial permeability gradually decreased with increasing Bi 2O 3 content. When the Bi 2O 3 content exceeded 0.15 wt%, the permeability gradually decreased with frequency due to the low-frequency resonance induced by the large grain size. Neither the sintering density nor the saturation magnetization was obviously influenced by the Bi 2O 3 content or microstructure of the samples. However, power loss (Pcv) characteristics were evidently influenced. At low flux density, the sample with 0.10 wt% Bi 2O 3, which was characterized by an average grain size of 3-4 μm and few closed pores, displayed the lowest Pcv, irrespective of frequency. When the flux density was equal to or greater than the critical value of 40 mT, the sample with 0.20 wt% Bi 2O 3, which had the largest average grain size, displayed the lowest Pcv.

  8. Unraveling the Fundamental Mechanisms of Solvent-Additive-Induced Optimization of Power Conversion Efficiencies in Organic Photovoltaic Devices.

    PubMed

    Herath, Nuradhika; Das, Sanjib; Zhu, Jiahua; Kumar, Rajeev; Chen, Jihua; Xiao, Kai; Gu, Gong; Browning, James F; Sumpter, Bobby G; Ivanov, Ilia N; Lauter, Valeria

    2016-08-10

    The realization of controllable morphologies of bulk heterojunctions (BHJ) in organic photovoltaics (OPVs) is one of the key factors enabling high-efficiency devices. We provide new insights into the fundamental mechanisms essential for the optimization of power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) with additive processing to PBDTTT-CF:PC71BM system. We have studied the underlying mechanisms by monitoring the 3D nanostructural modifications in BHJs and correlated the modifications with the optical analysis and theoretical modeling of charge transport. Our results demonstrate profound effects of diiodooctane (DIO) on morphology and charge transport in the active layers. For small amounts of DIO (<3 vol %), DIO promotes the formation of a well-mixed donor-acceptor compact film and augments charge transfer and PCE. In contrast, for large amounts of DIO (>3 vol %), DIO facilitates a loosely packed mixed morphology with large clusters of PC71BM, leading to deterioration in PCE. Theoretical modeling of charge transport reveals that DIO increases the mobility of electrons and holes (the charge carriers) by affecting the energetic disorder and electric field dependence of the mobility. Our findings show the implications of phase separation and carrier transport pathways to achieve optimal device performances. PMID:27403964

  9. Unraveling the Fundamental Mechanisms of Solvent-Additive-Induced Optimization of Power Conversion Efficiencies in Organic Photovoltaic Devices.

    PubMed

    Herath, Nuradhika; Das, Sanjib; Zhu, Jiahua; Kumar, Rajeev; Chen, Jihua; Xiao, Kai; Gu, Gong; Browning, James F; Sumpter, Bobby G; Ivanov, Ilia N; Lauter, Valeria

    2016-08-10

    The realization of controllable morphologies of bulk heterojunctions (BHJ) in organic photovoltaics (OPVs) is one of the key factors enabling high-efficiency devices. We provide new insights into the fundamental mechanisms essential for the optimization of power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) with additive processing to PBDTTT-CF:PC71BM system. We have studied the underlying mechanisms by monitoring the 3D nanostructural modifications in BHJs and correlated the modifications with the optical analysis and theoretical modeling of charge transport. Our results demonstrate profound effects of diiodooctane (DIO) on morphology and charge transport in the active layers. For small amounts of DIO (<3 vol %), DIO promotes the formation of a well-mixed donor-acceptor compact film and augments charge transfer and PCE. In contrast, for large amounts of DIO (>3 vol %), DIO facilitates a loosely packed mixed morphology with large clusters of PC71BM, leading to deterioration in PCE. Theoretical modeling of charge transport reveals that DIO increases the mobility of electrons and holes (the charge carriers) by affecting the energetic disorder and electric field dependence of the mobility. Our findings show the implications of phase separation and carrier transport pathways to achieve optimal device performances.

  10. Low power consumption high speed CMOS dual-modulus 15/16 prescaler for optical and wireless communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hui-Min; Zhang, Xiao-Xing; Dai, Yu-Jie; Lv, Ying-Jie

    2011-09-01

    Frequency synthesizer is an important part of optical and wireless communication system. Low power comsumption prescaler is one of the most critical unit of frequency synthesizer. For the frequency divider, it must be programmable for channel selection in multi-channel communication systems. A dual-modulus prescaler (DMP) is needed to provide variable division ratios. DMP is considered as a critical power dissipative block since it always operates at full speed. This paper introduces a high speed and low power complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) 15/16 DMP based on true single-phase-clock (TSPC) and transmission gates (TGs) cell. A conventional TSPC is optimized in terms of devices size, and it is resimulated. The TSPC is used in the synchronous and asynchronous counter. TGs are used in the control logic. The DMP circuit is implemented in 0.18 μm CMOS process. The simulation results are provided. The results show wide operating frequency range from 7.143 MHz to 4.76 GHz and it comsumes 3.625 mW under 1.8 V power supply voltage at 4.76 GHz.

  11. Low Power Consumption Lasers for Next Generation Miniature Optical Spectrometers for Major Constituent and Trace Gas Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forouhar, Siamak; Soibel, Alexander; Frez, Clifford; Qiu, Yueming; Chen, J.; Hosoda, T.; Kipshidze, G.; Shterengas, L.; Tsvid, G.; Belenky, G.; Franz, Kale J.; Gmachl, Claire; Scherer, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    The air quality of any manned spacecraft needs to be continuously monitored in order to safeguard the health of the crew. Air quality monitoring grows in importance as mission duration increases. Due to the small size, low power draw, and performance reliability, semiconductor laser-based instruments are viable candidates for this purpose. The minimum instrument size requires lasers with emission wavelength coinciding with the absorption of the fundamental frequency of the target gases which are mostly in the 3.0-5.0 micrometers wavelength range. In this paper we report on our progress developing high wall plug efficiency type-I quantum-well GaSb-based diode lasers operating at room temperatures in the spectral region near 3.0-3.5 micrometers and quantum cascade (QC) lasers in the 4.0-5.0 micrometers range. These lasers will enable the development of miniature, low-power laser spectrometers for environmental monitoring of the spacecraft.

  12. 10 CFR Appendix Z to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of External Power Supplies

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... level. The power measurement instrument shall have a resolution of: (1) 0.01 W or better for measurements up to 10 W; (2) 0.1 W or better for measurements of 10 to 100 W; or (3) 1 W or better for... uncertainty of ≤ 2 °C at the 95 percent confidence level. (C) All equipment used to conduct the tests must...

  13. 10 CFR Appendix Z to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of External Power Supplies

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... level. The power measurement instrument shall have a resolution of: (1) 0.01 W or better for measurements up to 10 W; (2) 0.1 W or better for measurements of 10 to 100 W; or (3) 1 W or better for... uncertainty of ≤ 2 °C at the 95 percent confidence level. (C) All equipment used to conduct the tests must...

  14. 10 CFR Appendix Z to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of External Power Supplies

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... level. The power measurement instrument shall have a resolution of: (1) 0.01 W or better for measurements up to 10 W; (2) 0.1 W or better for measurements of 10 to 100 W; or (3) 1 W or better for... uncertainty of ≤2 °C at the 95 percent confidence level. (C) All equipment used to conduct the tests must...

  15. High-Performance electronics at ultra-low power consumption for space applications: From superconductor to nanoscale semiconductor technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, Robert V.; Simmons, Jerry; Kupferman, Stuart; McWhorter, Paul; Dunlap, David; Kovanis, V.

    1995-01-01

    A detailed review of Sandia's work in ultralow power dissipation electronics for space flight applications, including superconductive electronics, new advances in quantum well structures, and ultra-high purity 3-5 materials, and recent advances in micro-electro-optical-mechanical systems (MEMS) is presented. The superconductive electronics and micromechanical devices are well suited for application in micro-robotics, micro-rocket engines, and advanced sensors.

  16. Relationships between mechanical power, O(2) consumption, O(2) deficit and high-energy phosphates during calf exercise in humans.

    PubMed

    Francescato, M P; Cettolo, V; Di Prampero, P E

    2003-02-01

    Whole-body O(2) uptake ( VO(2)), O(2) deficit and the concentration of high-energy phosphates (determined by (31)P spectroscopy) in human calf muscle were measured during moderate aerobic square-wave exercise of increasing intensity in ten volunteers. Net VO(2) (above resting) increased linearly with mechanical power, yielding a delta efficiency of 13.1%. "Gross" O(2) deficit increased linearly with net VO(2). The fraction of phosphocreatine (PC) split at steady state increased linearly with the mechanical power and with the O(2) deficit. If the [PC] in resting muscle is known, the slope of the regression between PC split and O(2) deficit (in millimoles) yields the P/O(2) ratio. To calculate this, the O(2) deficit was corrected for the amount of O(2) derived from the body stores, as obtained from literature data. The value so obtained, for a resting [PC] of 30 mM was 5.9, consistent with canonical textbook values. Furthermore, the ratio of "true" O(2) deficit to steady-state VO(2) is a measure of the time constant of VO(2) kinetics at work onset at the muscle level: assuming a monoexponential time course without time delays it amounted to about 17 s, close to the value that can be expected in mammalian muscle at 37 degrees C.

  17. Experimental investigation of the flow field and power consumption characteristics of regular and fractal blade impellers in a dynamic mixer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiros, K.; Bruce, P. J. K.; Buxton, O. R. H.; Vassilicos, J. C.

    2015-11-01

    Experiments have been performed in an octagonal un-baffled water tank, stirred by three radial turbines with different geometry impellers: (1) regular rectangular blades; (2) single-iteration fractal blades; (3) two-iteration fractal blades. Shaft torque was monitored and the power number calculated for each case. Both impellers with fractal geometry blades exhibited a decrease of turbine power number compared to the regular one (15% decrease for single-iteration and 19% for two iterations). Phase locked PIV in the discharge region of the blades revealed that the vortices emanating from the regular blades are more coherent, have higher kinetic energy, and advect faster towards the tank's walls where they are dissipated, compared to their fractal counterparts. This suggests a strong link between vortex production and behaviour and the energy input for the different impellers. Planar PIV measurements in the bulk of the tank showed an increase of turbulence intensity of over 20% for the fractal geometry blades, suggesting higher mixing efficiency. Experiments with pressure measurements on the different geometry blade surfaces are ongoing to investigate the distribution of forces, and calculate hydrodynamic centres of pressure. The authors would like to acknowledge the financial support given by European Union FP7 Marie Curie MULTISOLVE project (Grant Agreement No. 317269).

  18. Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems

    DOEpatents

    Donnelly, Matthew K.; Chassin, David P.; Dagle, Jeffery E.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael; Winiarski, David W.; Pratt, Robert G.; Boberly-Bartis, Anne Marie

    2008-09-02

    Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems are described. In one aspect, an electrical appliance energy consumption control method includes providing an electrical appliance coupled with a power distribution system, receiving electrical energy within the appliance from the power distribution system, consuming the received electrical energy using a plurality of loads of the appliance, monitoring electrical energy of the power distribution system, and adjusting an amount of consumption of the received electrical energy via one of the loads of the appliance from an initial level of consumption to an other level of consumption different than the initial level of consumption responsive to the monitoring.

  19. Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems

    DOEpatents

    Donnelly, Matthew K.; Chassin, David P.; Dagle, Jeffery E.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael; Winiarski, David W.; Pratt, Robert G.; Boberly-Bartis, Anne Marie

    2006-03-07

    Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems are described. In one aspect, an electrical appliance energy consumption control method includes providing an electrical appliance coupled with a power distribution system, receiving electrical energy within the appliance from the power distribution system, consuming the received electrical energy using a plurality of loads of the appliance, monitoring electrical energy of the power distribution system, and adjusting an amount of consumption of the received electrical energy via one of the loads of the appliance from an initial level of consumption to an other level of consumption different than the initial level of consumption responsive to the monitoring.

  20. Additive Manufacturing/Diagnostics via the High Frequency Induction Heating of Metal Powders: The Determination of the Power Transfer Factor for Fine Metallic Spheres

    SciTech Connect

    Rios, Orlando; Radhakrishnan, Balasubramaniam; Caravias, George; Holcomb, Matthew

    2015-03-11

    Grid Logic Inc. is developing a method for sintering and melting fine metallic powders for additive manufacturing using spatially-compact, high-frequency magnetic fields called Micro-Induction Sintering (MIS). One of the challenges in advancing MIS technology for additive manufacturing is in understanding the power transfer to the particles in a powder bed. This knowledge is important to achieving efficient power transfer, control, and selective particle heating during the MIS process needed for commercialization of the technology. The project s work provided a rigorous physics-based model for induction heating of fine spherical particles as a function of frequency and particle size. This simulation improved upon Grid Logic s earlier models and provides guidance that will make the MIS technology more effective. The project model will be incorporated into Grid Logic s power control circuit of the MIS 3D printer product and its diagnostics technology to optimize the sintering process for part quality and energy efficiency.

  1. Optimization of Acetylene Black Conductive Additive andPolyvinylidene Difluoride Composition for High Power RechargeableLithium-Ion Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, G.; Zheng, H.; Battaglia, V.S.; Simens, A.S.; Minor, A.M.; Song, X.

    2007-07-01

    Fundamental electrochemical methods were applied to study the effect of the acetylene black (AB) and the polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) polymer binder on the performance of high-power designed rechargeable lithium ion cells. A systematic study of the AB/PVDF long-range electronic conductivity at different weight ratios is performed using four-probe direct current tests and the results reported. There is a wide range of AB/PVDF ratios that satisfy the long-range electronic conductivity requirement of the lithium-ion cathode electrode; however, a significant cell power performance improvement is observed at small AB/PVDF composition ratios that are far from the long-range conductivity optimum of 1 to 1.25. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) tests indicate that the interfacial impedance decreases significantly with increase in binder content. The hybrid power pulse characterization results agree with the EIS tests and also show improvement for cells with a high PVDF content. The AB to PVDF composition plays a significant role in the interfacial resistance. We believe the higher binder contents lead to a more cohesive conductive carbon particle network that results in better overall all local electronic conductivity on the active material surface and hence reduced charge transfer impedance.

  2. Microstructure and properties of the low-power-laser clad coatings on magnesium alloy with different amount of rare earth addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Rundong; Li, Zhiyong; Li, Xiaoxi; Sun, Qi

    2015-10-01

    Due to the low-melting-point and high evaporation rate of magnesium at elevated temperature, high power laser clad coating on magnesium always causes subsidence and deterioration in the surface. Low power laser can reduce the evaporation effect while brings problems such as decreased thickness, incomplete fusion and unsatisfied performance. Therefore, low power laser with selected parameters was used in our research work to obtain Al-Cu coatings with Y2O3 addition on AZ91D magnesium alloy. The addition of Y2O3 obviously increases thickness of the coating and improves the melting efficiency. Furthermore, the effect of Y2O3 addition on the microstructure of laser clad Al-Cu coatings was investigated by scanning electron microscopy. The energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and X-ray diffractometer (XRD) were used to examine the elemental and phase compositions of the coatings. The properties were investigated by micro-hardness test, dry wear test and electrochemical corrosion. It was found that the addition of Y2O3 refined the microstructure. The micro-hardness, abrasion resistance and corrosion resistance of the coatings was greatly improved compared with the magnesium matrix, especially for the Al-Cu coating with Y2O3 addition.

  3. Effects of light-emitting diodes under capped daily energy consumption with combinations of electric power and photoperiod on cultivation of Chlorella pyrenoidosa.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinhao; Bin, Hui; Lin, Jian; Chen, Feng; Miao, Xiaoling

    2016-04-01

    Effects of white light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with different light intensities at photoperiod of 18:6h on Chlorella pyrenoidosa growth were investigated. The microalgae exhibited the highest growth rate 89.0mgL(-1)d(-1) and growth efficiency 97.8mgL(-1)KWh(-1) at 110 and 90μmolm(-2)s(-1), respectively. Based on the discovery of this asynchronous phenomenon between growth rate and growth efficiency, influences of LEDs (red, blue and white) under capped daily energy consumption (0.80KWh d(-1)) with combinations of electric power (33.3, 44.4 and 66.6w) and photoperiod (24:0, 18:6 and 12:12h) were further investigated. The highest growth efficiency 106.4mgL(-1)KWh(-1) and growth rate 85.1mgL(-1)d(-1) were both obtained under white-33.3w-24h. Growth efficiency and growth rate were simultaneously improved 1.1 times through this method above. The order of growth efficiency under different LEDs were white>blue>red.

  4. Effects of light-emitting diodes under capped daily energy consumption with combinations of electric power and photoperiod on cultivation of Chlorella pyrenoidosa.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinhao; Bin, Hui; Lin, Jian; Chen, Feng; Miao, Xiaoling

    2016-04-01

    Effects of white light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with different light intensities at photoperiod of 18:6h on Chlorella pyrenoidosa growth were investigated. The microalgae exhibited the highest growth rate 89.0mgL(-1)d(-1) and growth efficiency 97.8mgL(-1)KWh(-1) at 110 and 90μmolm(-2)s(-1), respectively. Based on the discovery of this asynchronous phenomenon between growth rate and growth efficiency, influences of LEDs (red, blue and white) under capped daily energy consumption (0.80KWh d(-1)) with combinations of electric power (33.3, 44.4 and 66.6w) and photoperiod (24:0, 18:6 and 12:12h) were further investigated. The highest growth efficiency 106.4mgL(-1)KWh(-1) and growth rate 85.1mgL(-1)d(-1) were both obtained under white-33.3w-24h. Growth efficiency and growth rate were simultaneously improved 1.1 times through this method above. The order of growth efficiency under different LEDs were white>blue>red. PMID:26826572

  5. Lean consumption.

    PubMed

    Womack, James P; Jones, Daniel T

    2005-03-01

    During the past 20 years, the real price of most consumer goods has fallen worldwide, the variety of goods and the range of sales channels offering them have continued to grow, and product quality has steadily improved. So why is consumption often so frustrating? It doesn't have to be--and shouldn't be--the authors say. They argue that it's time to apply lean thinking to the processes of consumption--to give consumers the full value they want from goods and services with the greatest efficiency and the least pain. Companies may think they save time and money by off-loading work to the consumer but, in fact, the opposite is true. By streamlining their systems for providing goods and services, and by making it easier for customers to buy and use those products and services, a growing number of companies are actually lowering costs while saving everyone time. In the process, these businesses are learning more about their customers, strengthening consumer loyalty, and attracting new customers who are defecting from less user-friendly competitors. The challenge lies with the retailers, service providers, manufacturers, and suppliers that are not used to looking at total cost from the standpoint of the consumer and even less accustomed to working with customers to optimize the consumption process. Lean consumption requires a fundamental shift in the way companies think about the relationship between provision and consumption, and the role their customers play in these processes. It also requires consumers to change the nature of their relationships with the companies they patronize. Lean production has clearly triumphed over similar obstacles in recent years to become the dominant global manufacturing model. Lean consumption, its logical companion, can't be far behind.

  6. First-order electroweak phase transition powered by additional F-term loop effects in an extended supersymmetric Higgs sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanemura, Shinya; Senaha, Eibun; Shindou, Tetsuo

    2011-11-01

    We investigate the one-loop effect of new charged scalar bosons on the Higgs potential at finite temperatures in the supersymmetric standard model with four Higgs doublet chiral superfields as well as a pair of charged singlet chiral superfields. In this model, the mass of the lightest Higgs boson h is determined only by the D-term in the Higgs potential at the tree-level, while the triple Higgs boson coupling for hhh can receive a significant radiative correction due to nondecoupling one-loop contributions of the additional charged scalar bosons. We find that the same nondecoupling mechanism can also contribute to realize stronger first order electroweak phase transition than that in the minimal supersymmetric standard model, which is definitely required for a successful scenario of electroweak baryogenesis. Therefore, this model can be a new candidate for a model in which the baryon asymmetry of the Universe is explained at the electroweak scale.

  7. Mercury and other trace elements in Ohio River fish collected near coal-fired power plants: Interspecific patterns and consideration of consumption risks.

    PubMed

    Reash, Robin J; Brown, Lauren; Merritt, Karen

    2015-07-01

    Many coal-fired electric generating facilities in the United States are discharging higher loads of Hg, Se, and other chemicals to receiving streams due to the installation of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) air pollution control units. There are regulatory concerns about the potential increased uptake of these bioaccumulative trace elements into food webs. We evaluated the concentrations of As, total Hg (THg), methylmercury (MeHg), and Se in Ohio River fish collected proximal to coal-fired power plants, of which 75% operate FGD systems. Fillet samples (n = 50) from 6 fish species representing 3 trophic levels were analyzed. Geometric mean fillet concentrations of THg (wet wt), MeHg (wet wt), and Se (dry wt) in 3 species were 0.136, 0.1181, and 3.19 mg/kg (sauger); 0.123, 0.1013, and 1.56 mg/kg (channel catfish); and 0.127, 0.0914, and 3.30 mg/kg (hybrid striped bass). For all species analyzed, only 3 fillet samples (6% of total) had MeHg concentrations that exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) human health criterion (0.3 mg/kg wet wt); all of these were freshwater drum aged ≥ 19 y. None of the samples analyzed exceeded the USEPA proposed muscle and whole body Se thresholds for protection against reproductive effects in freshwater fish. All but 8 fillet samples had a total As concentration less than 1.0 mg/kg dry wt. Mean Se health benefit values (HBVSe ) for all species were ≥ 4, indicating that potential Hg-related health risks associated with consumption of Ohio River fish are likely to be offset by adequate Se concentrations. Overall, we observed no measurable evidence of enhanced trace element bioaccumulation associated with proximity to power plant FGD facilities, however, some enhanced bioaccumulation could have occurred in the wastewater mixing zones. Furthermore, available evidence indicates that, due to hydraulic and physical factors, the main stem Ohio River appears to have low net Hg methylation potential. PMID:25586716

  8. Mercury and other trace elements in Ohio River fish collected near coal-fired power plants: Interspecific patterns and consideration of consumption risks.

    PubMed

    Reash, Robin J; Brown, Lauren; Merritt, Karen

    2015-07-01

    Many coal-fired electric generating facilities in the United States are discharging higher loads of Hg, Se, and other chemicals to receiving streams due to the installation of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) air pollution control units. There are regulatory concerns about the potential increased uptake of these bioaccumulative trace elements into food webs. We evaluated the concentrations of As, total Hg (THg), methylmercury (MeHg), and Se in Ohio River fish collected proximal to coal-fired power plants, of which 75% operate FGD systems. Fillet samples (n = 50) from 6 fish species representing 3 trophic levels were analyzed. Geometric mean fillet concentrations of THg (wet wt), MeHg (wet wt), and Se (dry wt) in 3 species were 0.136, 0.1181, and 3.19 mg/kg (sauger); 0.123, 0.1013, and 1.56 mg/kg (channel catfish); and 0.127, 0.0914, and 3.30 mg/kg (hybrid striped bass). For all species analyzed, only 3 fillet samples (6% of total) had MeHg concentrations that exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) human health criterion (0.3 mg/kg wet wt); all of these were freshwater drum aged ≥ 19 y. None of the samples analyzed exceeded the USEPA proposed muscle and whole body Se thresholds for protection against reproductive effects in freshwater fish. All but 8 fillet samples had a total As concentration less than 1.0 mg/kg dry wt. Mean Se health benefit values (HBVSe ) for all species were ≥ 4, indicating that potential Hg-related health risks associated with consumption of Ohio River fish are likely to be offset by adequate Se concentrations. Overall, we observed no measurable evidence of enhanced trace element bioaccumulation associated with proximity to power plant FGD facilities, however, some enhanced bioaccumulation could have occurred in the wastewater mixing zones. Furthermore, available evidence indicates that, due to hydraulic and physical factors, the main stem Ohio River appears to have low net Hg methylation potential.

  9. Effect of impeller type and mechanical agitation on the mass transfer and power consumption aspects of ASBR operation treating synthetic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Michelan, Rogério; Zimmer, Thiago R; Rodrigues, José A D; Ratusznei, Suzana M; de Moraes, Deovaldo; Zaiat, Marcelo; Foresti, Eugenio

    2009-03-01

    The effect of flow type and rotor speed was investigated in a round-bottom reactor with 5 L useful volume containing 2.0 L of granular biomass. The reactor treated 2.0 L of synthetic wastewater with a concentration of 800 mgCOD/L in 8-h cycles at 30 degrees C. Five impellers, commonly used in biological processes, have been employed to this end, namely: a turbine and a paddle impeller with six-vertical-flat-blades, a turbine and a paddle impeller with six-45 degrees -inclined-flat-blades and a three-blade-helix impeller. Results showed that altering impeller type and rotor speed did not significantly affect system stability and performance. Average organic matter removal efficiency was about 84% for filtered samples, total volatile acids concentration was below 20 mgHAc/L and bicarbonate alkalinity a little less than 400 mgCaCO3/L for most of the investigated conditions. However, analysis of the first-order kinetic model constants showed that alteration in rotor speed resulted in an increase in the values of the kinetic constants (for instance, from 0.57 h(-1) at 50 rpm to 0.84 h(-1) at 75 rpm when the paddle impeller with six-45 degrees -inclined-flat-blades was used) and that axial flow in mechanically stirred reactors is preferable over radial-flow when the vertical-flat-blade impeller is compared to the inclined-flat-blade impeller (for instance at 75 rpm, from 0.52 h(-1) with the six-flat-blade-paddle impeller to 0.84 h(-1) with the six-45 degrees -inclined-flat-blade-paddle impeller), demonstrating that there is a rotor speed and an impeller type that maximize solid-liquid mass transfer in the reaction medium. Furthermore, power consumption studies in this reduced reactor volume showed that no high power transfer is required to improve mass transfer (less than 0.6 kW/10(3)m3). PMID:18814952

  10. Assessment of the Annual Additional Effective Doses amongst Minamisoma Children during the Second Year after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Disaster

    PubMed Central

    Tsubokura, Masaharu; Kato, Shigeaki; Morita, Tomohiro; Nomura, Shuhei; Kami, Masahiro; Sakaihara, Kikugoro; Hanai, Tatsuo; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi; Kanazawa, Yukio

    2015-01-01

    An assessment of the external and internal radiation exposure levels, which includes calculation of effective doses from chronic radiation exposure and assessment of long-term radiation-related health risks, has become mandatory for residents living near the nuclear power plant in Fukushima, Japan. Data for all primary and secondary children in Minamisoma who participated in both external and internal screening programs were employed to assess the annual additional effective dose acquired due to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant disaster. In total, 881 children took part in both internal and external radiation exposure screening programs between 1st April 2012 to 31st March 2013. The level of additional effective doses ranged from 0.025 to 3.49 mSv/year with the median of 0.70 mSv/year. While 99.7% of the children (n = 878) were not detected with internal contamination, 90.3% of the additional effective doses was the result of external radiation exposure. This finding is relatively consistent with the doses estimated by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). The present study showed that the level of annual additional effective doses among children in Minamisoma has been low, even after the inter-individual differences were taken into account. The dose from internal radiation exposure was negligible presumably due to the success of contaminated food control. PMID:26053271

  11. Assessment of the Annual Additional Effective Doses amongst Minamisoma Children during the Second Year after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Disaster.

    PubMed

    Tsubokura, Masaharu; Kato, Shigeaki; Morita, Tomohiro; Nomura, Shuhei; Kami, Masahiro; Sakaihara, Kikugoro; Hanai, Tatsuo; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi; Kanazawa, Yukio

    2015-01-01

    An assessment of the external and internal radiation exposure levels, which includes calculation of effective doses from chronic radiation exposure and assessment of long-term radiation-related health risks, has become mandatory for residents living near the nuclear power plant in Fukushima, Japan. Data for all primary and secondary children in Minamisoma who participated in both external and internal screening programs were employed to assess the annual additional effective dose acquired due to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant disaster. In total, 881 children took part in both internal and external radiation exposure screening programs between 1st April 2012 to 31st March 2013. The level of additional effective doses ranged from 0.025 to 3.49 mSv/year with the median of 0.70 mSv/year. While 99.7% of the children (n = 878) were not detected with internal contamination, 90.3% of the additional effective doses was the result of external radiation exposure. This finding is relatively consistent with the doses estimated by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). The present study showed that the level of annual additional effective doses among children in Minamisoma has been low, even after the inter-individual differences were taken into account. The dose from internal radiation exposure was negligible presumably due to the success of contaminated food control. PMID:26053271

  12. Impact of high microwave power on hydrogen impurity trapping in nanocrystalline diamond films grown with simultaneous nitrogen and oxygen addition into methane/hydrogen plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, C. J.; Fernandes, A. J. S.; Jiang, X. F.; Pinto, J. L.; Ye, H.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we study for the first time the influence of microwave power higher than 2.0 kW on bonded hydrogen impurity incorporation (form and content) in nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) films grown in a 5 kW MPCVD reactor. The NCD samples of different thickness ranging from 25 to 205 μm were obtained through a small amount of simultaneous nitrogen and oxygen addition into conventional about 4% methane in hydrogen reactants by keeping the other operating parameters in the same range as that typically used for the growth of large-grained polycrystalline diamond films. Specific hydrogen point defect in the NCD films is analyzed by using Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. When the other operating parameters are kept constant (mainly the input gases), with increasing of microwave power from 2.0 to 3.2 kW (the pressure was increased slightly in order to stabilize the plasma ball of the same size), which simultaneously resulting in the rise of substrate temperature more than 100 °C, the growth rate of the NCD films increases one order of magnitude from 0.3 to 3.0 μm/h, while the content of hydrogen impurity trapped in the NCD films during the growth process decreases with power. It has also been found that a new H related infrared absorption peak appears at 2834 cm-1 in the NCD films grown with a small amount of nitrogen and oxygen addition at power higher than 2.0 kW and increases with power higher than 3.0 kW. According to these new experimental results, the role of high microwave power on diamond growth and hydrogen impurity incorporation is discussed based on the standard growth mechanism of CVD diamonds using CH4/H2 gas mixtures. Our current experimental findings shed light into the incorporation mechanism of hydrogen impurity in NCD films grown with a small amount of nitrogen and oxygen addition into methane/hydrogen plasma.

  13. Impact of the flame retardant additive triphenyl phosphate (TPP) on the performance of graphite/LiFePO4 cells in high power applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciosek Högström, Katarzyna; Lundgren, Henrik; Wilken, Susanne; Zavalis, Tommy G.; Behm, Mårten; Edström, Kristina; Jacobsson, Per; Johansson, Patrik; Lindbergh, Göran

    2014-06-01

    This study presents an extensive characterization of a standard Li-ion battery (LiB) electrolyte containing different concentrations of the flame retardant triphenyl phosphate (TPP) in the context of high power applications. Electrolyte characterization shows only a minor decrease in the electrolyte flammability for low TPP concentrations. The addition of TPP to the electrolyte leads to increased viscosity and decreased conductivity. The solvation of the lithium ion charge carriers seem to be directly affected by the TPP addition - as evidenced by Raman spectroscopy and increased mass-transport resistivity. Graphite/LiFePO4 full cell tests show the energy efficiency to decrease with the addition of TPP. Specifically, diffusion resistivity is observed to be the main source of increased losses. Furthermore, TPP influences the interface chemistry on both the positive and the negative electrode. Higher concentrations of TPP lead to thicker interface layers on LiFePO4. Even though TPP is not electrochemically reduced on graphite, it does participate in SEI formation. TPP cannot be considered a suitable flame retardant for high power applications as there is only a minor impact of TPP on the flammability of the electrolyte for low concentrations of TPP, and a significant increase in polarization is observed for higher concentrations of TPP.

  14. High SO{sub 2} removal efficiency testing: Results of DBA and sodium formate additive tests at Southwestern Electric Power company`s Pirkey Station

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-30

    Tests were conducted at Southwestern Electric Power Company`s (SWEPCo) Henry W. Pirkey Station wet limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system to evaluate options for achieving high sulfur dioxide removal efficiency. The Pirkey FGD system includes four absorber modules, each with dual slurry recirculation loops and with a perforated plate tray in the upper loop. The options tested involved the use of dibasic acid (DBA) or sodium formate as a performance additive. The effectiveness of other potential options was simulated with the Electric Power Research Institute`s (EPRI) FGD PRocess Integration and Simulation Model (FGDPRISM) after it was calibrated to the system. An economic analysis was done to determine the cost effectiveness of the high-efficiency options. Results are-summarized below.

  15. Highly efficient welding power supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thommes, J. M.

    1980-09-01

    The results and findings of an energy efficient welding power development project are presented. The power source developed is to be used for electric arc welding processes in which 3.5 trillion Btu of energy can be saved annually. The power source developed incorporates the use of switch mode power supply techniques in order to convert industrial supply mains to appropriate welding voltages and currents. A series capacitor switch mode power circuit was the circuit technique chosen in order to optimize energy efficiency, costs, reliability, size/weight, and welding performance. Test results demonstrated an effective efficiency (taking into account idle power consumption) of 80 to 91 percent for the energy efficient power source while the conventional types of power sources tested ranged from 41 to 74 percent efficiency. Line power factor was also improved for the energy efficient power source. Field tests indicated additional refinements of weld process performance and power source audible noise emission reduction could be beneficial.

  16. Caffeine consumption.

    PubMed

    Barone, J J; Roberts, H R

    1996-01-01

    Scientific literature cites a wide range of values for caffeine content in food products. The authors suggest the following standard values for the United States: coffee (5 oz) 85 mg for ground roasted coffee, 60 mg for instant and 3 mg for decaffeinated; tea (5 oz): 30 mg for leaf/bag and 20 mg for instant; colas: 18 mg/6 oz serving; cocoa/hot chocolate: 4 mg/5 oz; chocolate milk: 4 mg/6 oz; chocolate candy: 1.5-6.0 mg/oz. Some products from the United Kingdom and Denmark have higher caffeine content. Caffeine consumption survey data are limited. Based on product usage and available consumption data, the authors suggest a mean daily caffeine intake for US consumers of 4 mg/kg. Among children younger than 18 years of age who are consumers of caffeine-containing foods, the mean daily caffeine intake is about 1 mg/kg. Both adults and children in Denmark and UK have higher levels of caffeine intake. PMID:8603790

  17. Extremely low losses 14xx single mode laser diode leading to 550-mW output power module with 0-75°C case temperature and 10-W consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burie, J.-R.; Garabedian, P.; Starck, C.; Pagnod-Rossiaux, P.; Bettiati, M.; Do Nascimento, M.; Reygrobellet, J.-N.; Bertreux, J.-C.; Laruelle, F.

    2012-03-01

    High power 14xx laser pumps are more and more required for eye safe industrial, medical, safety and defense applications as well as for increased telecom network capability (e.g. for 100 Gb Ethernet). However, this need of high power requires to control the overall power consumption in a range in line with systems requirements. In this respect, 3S PHOTONICS has developed a 14xx nm single mode laser diode with record internal losses of 1.5 cm-1 compared to the 2.7 cm-1 reported up to now. These lasers are based on p/nBH technology and use the asymmetric waveguide concept to reduce internal losses. The record loss value, coupled to an internal efficiency higher than 0.8, allows realization lasers of 3 mm length with external efficiency higher than 0.5 W.A-1 at 25°C in AR/HR coating configuration. Modules using direct coupling technology were realized. High coupling efficiency is obtained thanks to the 8° x 14° far field pattern of the diode. Output power of 550 mW at 1.8 A is thus obtained, with or without FBG stabilization, with maximum output power above 700mW. Thanks to the lasers' length, voltage at this current level is below 1.9 V, which gives a reduced thermal load. Thus, the overall modules electrical consumption remains lower than 10 W at case temperatures ranging from 0°C to 75°C. The 3 mm length also guaranties high reliability of these laser diodes.

  18. Compact, low power consumption methane sensor based on a novel miniature multipass gas cell and a CW, room temperature interband cascade laser emitting at 3.3 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Lei; Li, Chunguang; Sanchez, Nancy P.; Gluszek, Aleksander K.; Griffin, Robert J.; Tittel, Frank K.

    2016-02-01

    A tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS)-based methane sensor, employing a miniature dense-pattern multi-pass gas cell (MPGC) and a continuous wave, room temperature interband cascade laser (ICL), is reported. The optical integration based on an advanced folded optical path design and an efficient ICL control system with appropriate electrical power management results in a methane sensor with a small footprint (32 × 20 × 17 cm3) and low-power consumption (6W). The direct absorption measurement strategy allows absolute quantitative assessments without any calibration. Polynomial and least-squares fit algorithms are employed to remove the baseline of the spectral scan and retrieve CH4 concentrations, respectively. An Allan-Werle deviation analysis shows that the measurement precision can reach 1.4 ppb for a 60 s averaging time. Continuous measurements lasting seven days were performed to demonstrate the stability and robustness of the reported methane sensor.

  19. Piezoelectric Power Requirements for Active Vibration Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brennan, Matthew C.; McGowan, Anna-Maria Rivas

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a method for predicting the power consumption of piezoelectric actuators utilized for active vibration control. Analytical developments and experimental tests show that the maximum power required to control a structure using surface-bonded piezoelectric actuators is independent of the dynamics between the piezoelectric actuator and the host structure. The results demonstrate that for a perfectly-controlled system, the power consumption is a function of the quantity and type of piezoelectric actuators and the voltage and frequency of the control law output signal. Furthermore, as control effectiveness decreases, the power consumption of the piezoelectric actuators decreases. In addition, experimental results revealed a non-linear behavior in the material properties of piezoelectric actuators. The material non- linearity displayed a significant increase in capacitance with an increase in excitation voltage. Tests show that if the non-linearity of the capacitance was accounted for, a conservative estimate of the power can easily be determined.

  20. Fuel consumption reduction for diesel power generator sets through the application of an advanced turbocharger operating at constant speed. Final report 30 Mar-8 Oct 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Arvin, J.R.

    1982-10-01

    The objective of the current research is to demonstrate that a 30KW-400Hz precision gen set, equipped with a VATN (variable area turbine nozzles) turbocharger, can comply with DoD gen set transient specifications. Heretofore poor turbocharger transient response (turbo lag) caused the turbocharged, DED gen set to lose frequency beyond acceptable DoD limits during an instantaneous change in load from 0 to full load. Engine operating conditions were calculated using a computer math model. The turbocharger, with controller, was installed on a four cylinder diesel engine and tested at the engine manufacturer's (White Engine Co.) facility. Fuel consumption data was used to further refine the engine math model. Calculations confirmed at least a 9% fuel savings for the 30KW-400Hz gen set. From the effort of this contract, it can be concluded that a DED precision gen set equipped with a VATN turbocharger can comply with DoD transient requirements.

  1. A miniature on-chip multi-functional ECG signal processor with 30 µW ultra-low power consumption.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Zheng, Yuan Jin; Phyu, Myint Wai; Zhao, Bin; Je, Minkyu; Yuan, Xiao Jun

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a miniature low-power Electrocardiogram (ECG) signal processing application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) chip is proposed. This chip provides multiple critical functions for ECG analysis using a systematic wavelet transform algorithm and a novel SRAM-based ASIC architecture, while achieves low cost and high performance. Using 0.18 µm CMOS technology and 1 V power supply, this ASIC chip consumes only 29 µW and occupies an area of 3 mm(2). This on-chip ECG processor is highly suitable for reliable real-time cardiac status monitoring applications.

  2. Electric power monthly

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Sandra R.; Johnson, Melvin; McClevey, Kenneth; Calopedis, Stephen; Bolden, Deborah

    1992-05-01

    The Electric Power Monthly is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fuel are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Additionally, statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, new generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel.

  3. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  4. Accumulation of heavy metals and human health risk assessment via the consumption of freshwater fish Mastacembelus armatus inhabiting, thermal power plant effluent loaded canal.

    PubMed

    Javed, Mehjbeen; Usmani, Nazura

    2016-01-01

    Bioaccumulation of six heavy metals (Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn) in the muscle of highly consumed fish species (Mastacembelus armatus) were measured using atomic absorption spectrometer. Fe (213.29 mg/kg dry weight) concentration was the most, followed by Zn (186.19 mg/kg dry weight), Ni (58.98 mg/kg dry weight), Cu (41.36 mg/kg dry weight), Co (9.06 mg/kg dry weight) and Mn (9.03 mg/kg dry weight). Estimated daily intake of heavy metals was calculated by mean fish consumption rate 19.5 × 10(-3) kg/day, on the basis of a calculation of the amount of fish consumed by adult individuals (male and female). The studied fish species pose non carcinogenic risk for Co and Ni [target hazard quotient (THQ) > 1] only. Hazard index (HI) was high. Carcinogenic risk (TR) posed by this fish for male and female was 3.43 × 10(-3) and 3.91 × 10(-3), respectively for Ni (the carcinogenic potency slope factor was available for Ni only). The study is an alert indicating that inhabitants who consume these fishes (particularly females) were at risk of Co and Ni toxicity. In India recommended guidelines have yet not been established for these heavy metals, which is essential for setting of toxicological standards. PMID:27386262

  5. Adolescent energy drink consumption: An Australian perspective.

    PubMed

    Costa, Beth M; Hayley, Alexa; Miller, Peter

    2016-10-01

    Caffeinated Energy Drinks (EDs) are not recommended for consumption by children, yet there is a lack of age-specific recommendations and restrictions on the marketing and sale of EDs. EDs are increasingly popular among adolescents despite growing evidence of their negative health effects. In the current study we examined ED consumption patterns among 399 Australian adolescents aged 12-18 years. Participants completed a self-report survey of consumption patterns, physiological symptoms, and awareness of current ED consumption guidelines. Results indicated that ED consumption was common among the sample; 56% reported lifetime ED consumption, with initial consumption at mean age 10 (SD = 2.97). Twenty-eight percent of the sample consumed EDs at least monthly, 36% had exceeded the recommended two standard EDs/day, and 56% of consumers had experienced negative physiological health effects following ED consumption. The maximum number of EDs/day considered appropriate for children, adolescents, and adults varied, indicating a lack of awareness of current consumption recommendations. These findings add to the growing body of international evidence of adolescent ED consumption, and the detrimental impact of EDs to adolescent health. Enforced regulation and restriction of EDs for children's and adolescents' consumption is urgently needed in addition to greater visibility of ED consumption recommendations. PMID:27389033

  6. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and passive sampling: powerful tools for the determination of emerging pollutants in water for human consumption.

    PubMed

    Mirasole, Cristiana; Di Carro, Marina; Tanwar, Shivani; Magi, Emanuele

    2016-09-01

    Among the wide range of emerging pollutants, perfluorinated compounds and various pharmaceuticals, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, are showing growing concern. These contaminants can be found in freshwater ecosystems because of their incomplete removal during wastewater treatments so, their water solubility and poor degradability result in their continuous discharge and pseudo-persistent contamination. Usually, expected levels of these analytes are particularly low; therefore, sensitive and selective analytical techniques are required for their determination. Moreover, sampling and preconcentration are fundamental steps to reach the low detection limits required. The polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS) represents a modern sampling approach that allows the in-situ preconcentration of ultra-trace pollutants. In this work, a fast liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) method was developed for the determination of diclofenac, ketoprofen, mefenamic acid, naproxen, ibuprofen, perfluorooctanoic acid, perfluorooctanesulfonate and caffeine in water for human consumption. The chromatographic separation of analytes was achieved in less than 6 min. Quantitative analysis was performed in multiple reaction monitoring mode using ketoprofen-d3 as internal standard. Two different sites of Northern Italy were studied deploying POCIS for four weeks in both inlet and outlet of two drinking water treatment plants. The evaluation of time-weighted average concentration of contaminants was accomplished after the calibration of POCIS; to this aim, the sampling rate values for each compound were obtained by means of a simple calibration system developed in our laboratory. Ketoprofen, perfluorooctane sulfonate, perfluorooctanoate and caffeine were measured in both sites at the ng l(-1) level. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and passive sampling: powerful tools for the determination of emerging pollutants in water for human consumption.

    PubMed

    Mirasole, Cristiana; Di Carro, Marina; Tanwar, Shivani; Magi, Emanuele

    2016-09-01

    Among the wide range of emerging pollutants, perfluorinated compounds and various pharmaceuticals, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, are showing growing concern. These contaminants can be found in freshwater ecosystems because of their incomplete removal during wastewater treatments so, their water solubility and poor degradability result in their continuous discharge and pseudo-persistent contamination. Usually, expected levels of these analytes are particularly low; therefore, sensitive and selective analytical techniques are required for their determination. Moreover, sampling and preconcentration are fundamental steps to reach the low detection limits required. The polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS) represents a modern sampling approach that allows the in-situ preconcentration of ultra-trace pollutants. In this work, a fast liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) method was developed for the determination of diclofenac, ketoprofen, mefenamic acid, naproxen, ibuprofen, perfluorooctanoic acid, perfluorooctanesulfonate and caffeine in water for human consumption. The chromatographic separation of analytes was achieved in less than 6 min. Quantitative analysis was performed in multiple reaction monitoring mode using ketoprofen-d3 as internal standard. Two different sites of Northern Italy were studied deploying POCIS for four weeks in both inlet and outlet of two drinking water treatment plants. The evaluation of time-weighted average concentration of contaminants was accomplished after the calibration of POCIS; to this aim, the sampling rate values for each compound were obtained by means of a simple calibration system developed in our laboratory. Ketoprofen, perfluorooctane sulfonate, perfluorooctanoate and caffeine were measured in both sites at the ng l(-1) level. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27416547

  8. Evaluation of power costs in applying TMR to FPGA designs.

    SciTech Connect

    Rollins, Nathaniel; Wirthlin, M. J.; Graham, P. S.

    2004-01-01

    Triple modular redundancy (TMR) is a technique commonly used to mitigate against design failures caused by single event upsets (SEUs). The SEU immunity that TMR provides comes at the cost of increased design area and decreased speed. Additionally, the cost of increased power due to TMR must be considered. This paper evaluates the power costs of TMR and validates the evaluations with actual measurements. Sensitivity to design placement is another important part of this study. Power consumption costs due to TMR are also evaluated in different FPGA architectures. This study shows that power consumption rises in the range of 3x to 7x when TMR is applied to a design.

  9. EEG, ERPs and food consumption.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, L D; Polich, J

    1998-06-01

    Baseline electroencephalographic (EEG) and auditory event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were assessed in subjects before and after consuming food and under eyes open and closed recording conditions in an attempt to replicate and extend previous food--ERP effects. Subjects were assessed the morning after fasting from the previous night, before and after eating a standard lunch. Delta- band EEG spectral power decreased and theta- and early alpha-band frequency increased after food consumption. However, in contrast to previous reports, P300 amplitude was unaffected by food consumption and peak latency increased. The strength of the correlational association between background EEG activity and P300 measures decreased for the delta- and theta- bands, but increased for the early and late alpha- bands. The findings suggest that food consumption affects general arousal, rather than specific cognitive EEG or ERP factors and are discussed with respect to previous EEG-ERP findings on food intake.

  10. State energy data report 1996: Consumption estimates

    SciTech Connect

    1999-02-01

    The State Energy Data Report (SEDR) provides annual time series estimates of State-level energy consumption by major economic sectors. The estimates are developed in the Combined State Energy Data System (CSEDS), which is maintained and operated by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The goal in maintaining CSEDS is to create historical time series of energy consumption by State that are defined as consistently as possible over time and across sectors. CSEDS exists for two principal reasons: (1) to provide State energy consumption estimates to Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, and the general public and (2) to provide the historical series necessary for EIA`s energy models. To the degree possible, energy consumption has been assigned to five sectors: residential, commercial, industrial, transportation, and electric utility sectors. Fuels covered are coal, natural gas, petroleum, nuclear electric power, hydroelectric power, biomass, and other, defined as electric power generated from geothermal, wind, photovoltaic, and solar thermal energy. 322 tabs.

  11. Determinants of Fast Food Consumption among Iranian High School Students Based on Planned Behavior Theory

    PubMed Central

    Sharifirad, Gholamreza; Yarmohammadi, Parastoo; Azadbakht, Leila; Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Hassanzadeh, Akbar

    2013-01-01

    Objective. This study was conducted to identify some factors (beliefs and norms) which are related to fast food consumption among high school students in Isfahan, Iran. We used the framework of the theory planned behavior (TPB) to predict this behavior. Subjects & Methods. Cross-sectional data were available from high school students (n = 521) who were recruited by cluster randomized sampling. All of the students completed a questionnaire assessing variables of standard TPB model including attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavior control (PBC), and the additional variables past behavior, actual behavior control (ABC). Results. The TPB variables explained 25.7% of the variance in intentions with positive attitude as the strongest (β = 0.31, P < 0.001) and subjective norms as the weakest (β = 0.29, P < 0.001) determinant. Concurrently, intentions accounted for 6% of the variance for fast food consumption. Past behavior and ABC accounted for an additional amount of 20.4% of the variance in fast food consumption. Conclusion. Overall, the present study suggests that the TPB model is useful in predicting related beliefs and norms to the fast food consumption among adolescents. Subjective norms in TPB model and past behavior in TPB model with additional variables (past behavior and actual behavior control) were the most powerful predictors of fast food consumption. Therefore, TPB model may be a useful framework for planning intervention programs to reduce fast food consumption by students. PMID:23936635

  12. An Evaluation of the Additional Acoustic Power Needed to Overcome the Effects of a Test-Articles Absorption During Reverberant Chamber Acoustic Testing of Spaceflight Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hozman, Aron D.; Hughes, William O.

    2014-01-01

    It is important to realize that some test-articles may have significant sound absorption that may challenge the acoustic power capabilities of a test facility. Therefore, to mitigate this risk of not being able to meet the customers target spectrum, it is prudent to demonstrate early-on an increased acoustic power capability which compensates for this test-article absorption. This paper describes a concise method to reduce this risk when testing aerospace test-articles which have significant absorption. This method was successfully applied during the SpaceX Falcon 9 Payload Fairing acoustic test program at the NASA Glenn Research Center Plum Brook Stations RATF.

  13. Study of the consumption of the additive prop-1-ene-1,3-sultone in Li[Ni0.33Mn0.33Co0.33]O2/graphite pouch cells and evidence of positive-negative electrode interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petibon, R.; Madec, L.; Rotermund, L. M.; Dahn, J. R.

    2016-05-01

    The consumption of the additive prop-1-ene-1,3-sultone (PES) in Li[Ni0.33Mn0.33Co0.33]O2/graphite (NMC(111)/graphite) pouch cells during the first cycle and after hold periods at different cell potentials was measured using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). GC-MS measurements of the electrolyte of NMC(111)/graphite pouch cells during the first charge showed that the amount of PES consumed, and the cell impedance, increased with increasing starting concentration up to a starting concentration of 5 wt% and then seemed to slow down at higher starting concentration. Additive consumption measurements after holding periods showed that PES is consumed in measurable amounts at the positive electrode, suggesting that PES oxidizes at potentials as low as 4.27 V vs. Li/Li+ on the NMC(111) surface. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy on symmetric cells as well as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of electrodes salvaged from NMC(111)/graphite cells after hold periods at various cell potentials strongly support the existence of a positive-negative electrode interaction.

  14. Postmarketing surveillance of food additives.

    PubMed

    Butchko, H H; Tschanz, C; Kotsonis, F N

    1994-08-01

    Postmarketing surveillance of consumption and of anecdotal reports of adverse health effects has been recognized by a number of regulatory authorities as a potentially useful method to provide further assurance of the safety of new food additives. Surveillance of consumption is used to estimate more reliably actual consumption levels relative to the acceptable daily intake of a food additive. Surveillance of anecdotal reports of adverse health effects is used to determine the presence of infrequent idiosyncratic responses that may not be predictable from premarket evaluations. The high-intensity sweetner, aspartame, is a food additive that has been the subject of extensive evaluation during the postmarketing period and is thus used as an example to discuss postmarketing surveillance.

  15. Phosphazene additives

    DOEpatents

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  16. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  17. An Evaluation of the Additional Acoustic Power Needed to Overcome the Effects of a Test-Article's Absorption During Reverberant Chamber Acoustic Testing of Spaceflight Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hozman, Aron D.; Hughes, William O.

    2014-01-01

    The exposure of a customer's aerospace test-article to a simulated acoustic launch environment is typically performed in a reverberant acoustic test chamber. The acoustic pre-test runs that will ensure that the sound pressure levels of this environment can indeed be met by a test facility are normally performed without a test-article dynamic simulator of representative acoustic absorption and size. If an acoustic test facility's available acoustic power capability becomes maximized with the test-article installed during the actual test then the customer's environment requirement may become compromised. In order to understand the risk of not achieving the customer's in-tolerance spectrum requirement with the test-article installed, an acoustic power margin evaluation as a function of frequency may be performed by the test facility. The method for this evaluation of acoustic power will be discussed in this paper. This method was recently applied at the NASA Glenn Research Center Plum Brook Station's Reverberant Acoustic Test Facility for the SpaceX Falcon 9 Payload Fairing acoustic test program.

  18. An Evaluation of the Additional Acoustic Power Needed to Overcome the Effects of a Test-Article's Absorption during Reverberant Chamber Acoustic Testing of Spaceflight Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hozman, Aron D.; Hughes, William O.

    2014-01-01

    The exposure of a customers aerospace test-article to a simulated acoustic launch environment is typically performed in a reverberant acoustic test chamber. The acoustic pre-test runs that will ensure that the sound pressure levels of this environment can indeed be met by a test facility are normally performed without a test-article dynamic simulator of representative acoustic absorption and size. If an acoustic test facilitys available acoustic power capability becomes maximized with the test-article installed during the actual test then the customers environment requirement may become compromised. In order to understand the risk of not achieving the customers in-tolerance spectrum requirement with the test-article installed, an acoustic power margin evaluation as a function of frequency may be performed by the test facility. The method for this evaluation of acoustic power will be discussed in this paper. This method was recently applied at the NASA Glenn Research Center Plum Brook Stations Reverberant Acoustic Test Facility for the SpaceX Falcon 9 Payload Fairing acoustic test program.

  19. Mapping water consumption for energy production around the Pacific Rim

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tidwell, Vincent; Moreland, Barbie

    2016-09-01

    World energy demand is projected to increase by more than a third by 2035 and with it the use of water to extract and process fuels and generate electricity. Management of this energy-water nexus requires a clear understanding of the inter-related demands of these resources as well as their regional distribution. Toward this need the fresh water consumed for energy production was mapped for almost 12 000 watersheds distributed across the 21-economies comprising the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation. Fresh water consumption was estimated for ten different sectors including thermoelectric and hydroelectric power; energy extraction including coal, oil, natural gas, uranium and unconventional oil/gas; energy processing including oil and biofuels; and biofuel feedstock irrigation. These measures of water consumption were put in context by drawing comparison with published measures of water risk. In total 791 watersheds (32%) of the 2511 watersheds where energy related water consumption occurred were also characterized by high to extreme water risk, these watersheds were designated as being at energy-water risk. For six economies watersheds at energy-water risk represented half or more of all basins where energy related water consumption occurred, while four additional economies exceeded 30%.

  20. Power and weight considerations in small, agile quadrotors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulgaonkar, Yash; Whitzer, Michael; Morgan, Brian; Kroninger, Christopher M.; Harrington, Aaron M.; Kumar, Vijay

    2014-06-01

    The development of autonomous Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAVs) is significantly constrained by their size, weight and power consumption. In this paper, we explore the energetics of quadrotor platforms and study the scaling of mass, inertia, lift and drag with their characteristic length. The effects of length scale on masses and inertias associated with various components are also investigated. Additionally, a study of Lithium Polymer battery performance is presented in terms of specific power and specific energy. Finally, we describe the power and energy consumption for different quadrotors and explore the dependence on size and mass for static hover tests as well as representative maneuvers.

  1. Electric power monthly, March 1998 with data for December 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and US levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity retail sales, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. In addition, data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. 63 tabs.

  2. State energy data report 1994: Consumption estimates

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    This document provides annual time series estimates of State-level energy consumption by major economic sector. The estimates are developed in the State Energy Data System (SEDS), operated by EIA. SEDS provides State energy consumption estimates to members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, and the general public, and provides the historical series needed for EIA`s energy models. Division is made for each energy type and end use sector. Nuclear electric power is included.

  3. Ti-direct, powerful, stereoselective aldol-type additions of esters and thioesters to carbonyl compounds: application to the synthesis and evaluation of lactone analogs of jasmone perfumes.

    PubMed

    Nagase, Ryohei; Matsumoto, Noriaki; Hosomi, Kohei; Higashi, Takahiro; Funakoshi, Syunsuke; Misaki, Tomonori; Tanabe, Yoo

    2007-01-01

    An efficient TiCl(4)-Et(3)N or Bu(3)N-promoted aldol-type addition of phenyl and thiophenyl esters or thioaryl esters with aldehydes and ketones was performed (total 46 examples). The present method is advantageous from atom-economical and cost-effective viewpoints; good to excellent yields, moderate to good syn-selectivity, substrate variations, reagent availability, and simple procedures. Utilizing the present reaction as the key step, an efficient short synthesis of three lactone [2(5H)-furanone] analogs of jasmine perfumes was performed. Among them, the lactone analog of cis-jasmone had a unique perfume property (tabac).

  4. Optimal Consumption When Consumption Takes Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Norman C.

    2009-01-01

    A classic article by Gary Becker (1965) showed that when it takes time to consume, the first order conditions for optimal consumption require the marginal rate of substitution between any two goods to equal their relative full costs. These include the direct money price and the money value of the time needed to consume each good. This important…

  5. A novel material detection algorithm based on 2D GMM-based power density function and image detail addition scheme in dual energy X-ray images.

    PubMed

    Pourghassem, Hossein

    2012-01-01

    Material detection is a vital need in dual energy X-ray luggage inspection systems at security of airport and strategic places. In this paper, a novel material detection algorithm based on statistical trainable models using 2-Dimensional power density function (PDF) of three material categories in dual energy X-ray images is proposed. In this algorithm, the PDF of each material category as a statistical model is estimated from transmission measurement values of low and high energy X-ray images by Gaussian Mixture Models (GMM). Material label of each pixel of object is determined based on dependency probability of its transmission measurement values in the low and high energy to PDF of three material categories (metallic, organic and mixed materials). The performance of material detection algorithm is improved by a maximum voting scheme in a neighborhood of image as a post-processing stage. Using two background removing and denoising stages, high and low energy X-ray images are enhanced as a pre-processing procedure. For improving the discrimination capability of the proposed material detection algorithm, the details of the low and high energy X-ray images are added to constructed color image which includes three colors (orange, blue and green) for representing the organic, metallic and mixed materials. The proposed algorithm is evaluated on real images that had been captured from a commercial dual energy X-ray luggage inspection system. The obtained results show that the proposed algorithm is effective and operative in detection of the metallic, organic and mixed materials with acceptable accuracy.

  6. Minimizing water consumption when producing hydropower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leon, A. S.

    2015-12-01

    In 2007, hydropower accounted for only 16% of the world electricity production, with other renewable sources totaling 3%. Thus, it is not surprising that when alternatives are evaluated for new energy developments, there is strong impulse for fossil fuel or nuclear energy as opposed to renewable sources. However, as hydropower schemes are often part of a multipurpose water resources development project, they can often help to finance other components of the project. In addition, hydropower systems and their associated dams and reservoirs provide human well-being benefits, such as flood control and irrigation, and societal benefits such as increased recreational activities and improved navigation. Furthermore, hydropower due to its associated reservoir storage, can provide flexibility and reliability for energy production in integrated energy systems. The storage capability of hydropower systems act as a regulating mechanism by which other intermittent and variable renewable energy sources (wind, wave, solar) can play a larger role in providing electricity of commercial quality. Minimizing water consumption for producing hydropower is critical given that overuse of water for energy production may result in a shortage of water for other purposes such as irrigation, navigation or fish passage. This paper presents a dimensional analysis for finding optimal flow discharge and optimal penstock diameter when designing impulse and reaction water turbines for hydropower systems. The objective of this analysis is to provide general insights for minimizing water consumption when producing hydropower. This analysis is based on the geometric and hydraulic characteristics of the penstock, the total hydraulic head and the desired power production. As part of this analysis, various dimensionless relationships between power production, flow discharge and head losses were derived. These relationships were used to withdraw general insights on determining optimal flow discharge and

  7. Electric power monthly, February 1998 with data for November 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and US levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity retail sales, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. In addition, data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source; consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant. 63 tabs.

  8. Electric vehicle's electricity consumption on a road with different slope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, S. C.; Li, M.; Lin, Y.; Tang, T. Q.

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we propose an extended car-following model and an electricity consumption model to study the effects of the road's slope on the electric vehicle's electricity consumption. The numerical results show that each electric vehicle's electricity consumption increases with the uphill's tilt angle and decreases with the downhill's tilt angle. In addition, each electric vehicle's electricity consumption increases with the uphill's (downhill's) length under a certain tilt angle.

  9. Compound Semiconductor Devices for Low-Power High-Efficiency Radio Frequency Electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Baca, A.G.; Chang, P.C.; Hietala, V.M.; Sloan, L.R.

    1999-02-18

    The power consumption of Radio Frequency (RF) electronics is a significant issue for Wireless systems. Since most wireless systems are portable and thus battery operated, reductions in DC power consumption can significantly reduce the weight and/or increase the battery lifetime of the system. As transmission consumes significantly more power than reception for most Wireless applications, previous efforts have been focused on increasing the efficiency of RF power amplification. These efforts have resulted in large increases in transmit efficiencies with research-grade amplifier efficiencies approaching 100%. In this paper, they describe their efforts on reducing power consumption of reception and other small signal RF functions. Additionally, recent power efficiency measurements on InP HEMT devices for transmission are presented. This work focuses on the needs of today's typical portable Wireless systems, which operate at frequencies up to several GHz.

  10. Modeling Addictive Consumption as an Infectious Disease*

    PubMed Central

    Alamar, Benjamin; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2011-01-01

    The dominant model of addictive consumption in economics is the theory of rational addiction. The addict in this model chooses how much they are going to consume based upon their level of addiction (past consumption), the current benefits and all future costs. Several empirical studies of cigarette sales and price data have found a correlation between future prices and consumption and current consumption. These studies have argued that the correlation validates the rational addiction model and invalidates any model in which future consumption is not considered. An alternative to the rational addiction model is one in which addiction spreads through a population as if it were an infectious disease, as supported by the large body of empirical research of addictive behaviors. In this model an individual's probability of becoming addicted to a substance is linked to the behavior of their parents, friends and society. In the infectious disease model current consumption is based only on the level of addiction and current costs. Price and consumption data from a simulation of the infectious disease model showed a qualitative match to the results of the rational addiction model. The infectious disease model can explain all of the theoretical results of the rational addiction model with the addition of explaining initial consumption of the addictive good. PMID:21339848

  11. Tackling the Knowledge: Action Gap in Sustainable Consumption--Insights from a Participatory School Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barth, Matthias; Fischer, Daniel; Michelsen, Gerd; Nemnich, Claudia; Rode, Horst

    2012-01-01

    In the international policy discourse on sustainable consumption and production, education is acknowledged to be a powerful tool in changing unsustainable patterns of consumption. Current educational policies and programmes have responded to the consumption challenge mainly by including and addressing consumption issues in formal tuition in…

  12. Bat consumption in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Suwannarong, Kanokwan; Schuler, Sidney

    2016-01-01

    Background Human consumption of bats poses an increasing public health threat globally. Communities in which bat guano is mined from caves have extensive exposure to bat excreta, often harvest bats for consumption, and are at risk for bat-borne diseases. Methods This rapid ethnographic study was conducted in four provinces of Thailand (Ratchaburi, Sakaeo, Nakorn Sawan, and Phitsanulok), where bat guano was mined and sold during the period April–August 2014. The aim of this study was to understand behaviors and risk perceptions associated with bat conservation, exposure to bats and their excreta, and bat consumption. Sixty-seven respondents playing various roles in bat guano mining, packaging, sale, and use as fertilizer participated in the study. Data were collected through interviews and/or focus group discussions. Results In spite of a bat conservation program dating back to the 1980s, the benefits of conserving bats and the risks associated with bat consumption were not clear and infrequently articulated by study respondents. Discussion Since bat consumption continues, albeit covertly, the risk of bat-borne diseases remains high. There is an opportunity to reduce the risk of bat-borne diseases in guano-mining communities by strengthening bat conservation efforts and raising awareness of the health risks of bat consumption. Further research is suggested to test behavior change strategies for reducing bat consumption. PMID:26806167

  13. 27 CFR 5.33 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... English, and for products bottled for consumption within Puerto Rico the required information may be... cannot be removed without thorough application of water or other solvents. (f) Additional information...

  14. 27 CFR 5.33 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... English, and for products bottled for consumption within Puerto Rico the required information may be... cannot be removed without thorough application of water or other solvents. (f) Additional information...

  15. 27 CFR 5.33 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... English, and for products bottled for consumption within Puerto Rico the required information may be... cannot be removed without thorough application of water or other solvents. (f) Additional information...

  16. 27 CFR 5.33 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... English, and for products bottled for consumption within Puerto Rico the required information may be... cannot be removed without thorough application of water or other solvents. (f) Additional information...

  17. Energy-consumption modelling

    SciTech Connect

    Reiter, E.R.

    1980-01-01

    A highly sophisticated and accurate approach is described to compute on an hourly or daily basis the energy consumption for space heating by individual buildings, urban sectors, and whole cities. The need for models and specifically weather-sensitive models, composite models, and space-heating models are discussed. Development of the Colorado State University Model, based on heat-transfer equations and on a heuristic, adaptive, self-organizing computation learning approach, is described. Results of modeling energy consumption by the city of Minneapolis and Cheyenne are given. Some data on energy consumption in individual buildings are included.

  18. 18 CFR 806.22 - Standards for consumptive uses of water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Standards for consumptive uses of water. 806.22 Section 806.22 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER... for consumptive uses of water. (a) The project sponsors of all consumptive water uses subject...

  19. 18 CFR 806.22 - Standards for consumptive uses of water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Standards for consumptive uses of water. 806.22 Section 806.22 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER... for consumptive uses of water. (a) The project sponsors of all consumptive water uses subject...

  20. Tidal power in Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Aisiks, E.G.

    1993-03-01

    This presentation describes the tidal power potential of Argentina and the current status of its utilization. The topics of the presentation include tidal power potential, electric production of the region and the Argentine share of production and consumption, conventional hydroelectric potential, economic feasibility of tidal power production, and the general design and feasibility of a tidal power plant planned for the San Jose Gulf.

  1. 76 FR 16285 - Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption; Bacteriophage...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... August 18, 2006 (71 FR 47729) confirmed: August 18, 2006. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: James C... published a notice in the Federal Register of July 22, 2002 (67 FR 47823), announcing the filing of...

  2. Overview of Alcohol Consumption

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Alcohol & Your Health Overview of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol ... other questions about alcohol. Here’s what we know: Alcohol’s effects vary from person to person, depending on a ...

  3. Human Biomass Consumption

    NASA Video Gallery

    Humans are using an increasing amount of Earth’s annual production of plants. Research shows that, from 1995 to 2005, consumption rose from 20 to 25 percent of the planet's annual production. Wha...

  4. Rituals enhance consumption.

    PubMed

    Vohs, Kathleen D; Wang, Yajin; Gino, Francesca; Norton, Michael I

    2013-09-01

    Four experiments tested the novel hypothesis that ritualistic behavior potentiates and enhances ensuing consumption--an effect found for chocolates, lemonade, and even carrots. Experiment 1 showed that participants who engaged in ritualized behavior, compared with those who did not, evaluated chocolate as more flavorful, valuable, and deserving of behavioral savoring. Experiment 2 demonstrated that random gestures do not boost consumption as much as ritualistic gestures do. It further showed that a delay between a ritual and the opportunity to consume heightens enjoyment, which attests to the idea that ritual behavior stimulates goal-directed action (to consume). Experiment 3 found that performing a ritual oneself enhances consumption more than watching someone else perform the same ritual, suggesting that personal involvement is crucial for the benefits of rituals to emerge. Finally, Experiment 4 provided direct evidence of the underlying process: Rituals enhance the enjoyment of consumption because of the greater involvement in the experience that they prompt.

  5. Baseline tests of the power-train electric delivery van

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lumannick, S.; Dustin, M. O.; Bozek, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    Vehicle maximum speed, range at constant speed, range over stop-and-go driving schedules, maximum acceleration, gradeability, gradeability limit, road energy consumption, road power, indicated energy consumption, braking capability, battery charger efficiency, and battery characteristics were determined for a modified utility van powered by sixteen 6-volt batteries connected in series. A chopper controller actuated by a foot accelerator pedal changes the voltage applied to the 22-kilowatt (30-hp) series-wound drive motor. In addition to the conventional hydraulic braking system, the vehicle has hydraulic regenerative braking. Cycle tests and acceleration tests were conducted with and without hydraulic regeneration.

  6. Automated Power-Distribution System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashworth, Barry; Riedesel, Joel; Myers, Chris; Miller, William; Jones, Ellen F.; Freeman, Kenneth; Walsh, Richard; Walls, Bryan K.; Weeks, David J.; Bechtel, Robert T.

    1992-01-01

    Autonomous power-distribution system includes power-control equipment and automation equipment. System automatically schedules connection of power to loads and reconfigures itself when it detects fault. Potential terrestrial applications include optimization of consumption of power in homes, power supplies for autonomous land vehicles and vessels, and power supplies for automated industrial processes.

  7. Household vehicles energy consumption 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    Household Vehicles Energy Consumption 1994 reports on the results of the 1994 Residential Transportation Energy Consumption Survey (RTECS). The RTECS is a national sample survey that has been conducted every 3 years since 1985. For the 1994 survey, more than 3,000 households that own or use some 6,000 vehicles provided information to describe vehicle stock, vehicle-miles traveled, energy end-use consumption, and energy expenditures for personal vehicles. The survey results represent the characteristics of the 84.9 million households that used or had access to vehicles in 1994 nationwide. (An additional 12 million households neither owned or had access to vehicles during the survey year.) To be included in then RTECS survey, vehicles must be either owned or used by household members on a regular basis for personal transportation, or owned by a company rather than a household, but kept at home, regularly available for the use of household members. Most vehicles included in the RTECS are classified as {open_quotes}light-duty vehicles{close_quotes} (weighing less than 8,500 pounds). However, the RTECS also includes a very small number of {open_quotes}other{close_quotes} vehicles, such as motor homes and larger trucks that are available for personal use.

  8. NodePM: A Remote Monitoring Alert System for Energy Consumption Using Probabilistic Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Filho, Geraldo P. R.; Ueyama, Jó; Villas, Leandro A.; Pinto, Alex R.; Gonçalves, Vinícius P.; Pessin, Gustavo; Pazzi, Richard W.; Braun, Torsten

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an intelligent method, named the Novelty Detection Power Meter (NodePM), to detect novelties in electronic equipment monitored by a smart grid. Considering the entropy of each device monitored, which is calculated based on a Markov chain model, the proposed method identifies novelties through a machine learning algorithm. To this end, the NodePM is integrated into a platform for the remote monitoring of energy consumption, which consists of a wireless sensors network (WSN). It thus should be stressed that the experiments were conducted in real environments different from many related works, which are evaluated in simulated environments. In this sense, the results show that the NodePM reduces by 13.7% the power consumption of the equipment we monitored. In addition, the NodePM provides better efficiency to detect novelties when compared to an approach from the literature, surpassing it in different scenarios in all evaluations that were carried out. PMID:24399157

  9. NodePM: a remote monitoring alert system for energy consumption using probabilistic techniques.

    PubMed

    Filho, Geraldo P R; Ueyama, Jó; Villas, Leandro A; Pinto, Alex R; Gonçalves, Vinícius P; Pessin, Gustavo; Pazzi, Richard W; Braun, Torsten

    2014-01-06

    In this paper, we propose an intelligent method, named the Novelty Detection Power Meter (NodePM), to detect novelties in electronic equipment monitored by a smart grid. Considering the entropy of each device monitored, which is calculated based on a Markov chain model, the proposed method identifies novelties through a machine learning algorithm. To this end, the NodePM is integrated into a platform for the remote monitoring of energy consumption, which consists of a wireless sensors network (WSN). It thus should be stressed that the experiments were conducted in real environments different from many related works, which are evaluated in simulated environments. In this sense, the results show that the NodePM reduces by 13.7% the power consumption of the equipment we monitored. In addition, the NodePM provides better efficiency to detect novelties when compared to an approach from the literature, surpassing it in different scenarios in all evaluations that were carried out.

  10. Health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis. Modification of models resulting from addition of effects of exposure to alpha-emitting radionuclides: Revision 1, Part 2, Scientific bases for health effects models, Addendum 2

    SciTech Connect

    Abrahamson, S.; Bender, M.A.; Boecker, B.B.; Scott, B.R.; Gilbert, E.S.

    1993-05-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has sponsored several studies to identify and quantify, through the use of models, the potential health effects of accidental releases of radionuclides from nuclear power plants. The Reactor Safety Study provided the basis for most of the earlier estimates related to these health effects. Subsequent efforts by NRC-supported groups resulted in improved health effects models that were published in the report entitled {open_quotes}Health Effects Models for Nuclear Power Plant Consequence Analysis{close_quotes}, NUREG/CR-4214, 1985 and revised further in the 1989 report NUREG/CR-4214, Rev. 1, Part 2. The health effects models presented in the 1989 NUREG/CR-4214 report were developed for exposure to low-linear energy transfer (LET) (beta and gamma) radiation based on the best scientific information available at that time. Since the 1989 report was published, two addenda to that report have been prepared to (1) incorporate other scientific information related to low-LET health effects models and (2) extend the models to consider the possible health consequences of the addition of alpha-emitting radionuclides to the exposure source term. The first addendum report, entitled {open_quotes}Health Effects Models for Nuclear Power Plant Accident Consequence Analysis, Modifications of Models Resulting from Recent Reports on Health Effects of Ionizing Radiation, Low LET Radiation, Part 2: Scientific Bases for Health Effects Models,{close_quotes} was published in 1991 as NUREG/CR-4214, Rev. 1, Part 2, Addendum 1. This second addendum addresses the possibility that some fraction of the accident source term from an operating nuclear power plant comprises alpha-emitting radionuclides. Consideration of chronic high-LET exposure from alpha radiation as well as acute and chronic exposure to low-LET beta and gamma radiations is a reasonable extension of the health effects model.

  11. Estimation of food consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Callaway, J.M. Jr.

    1992-04-01

    The research reported in this document was conducted as a part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project. The objective of the HEDR Project is to estimate the radiation doses that people could have received from operations at the Hanford Site. Information required to estimate these doses includes estimates of the amounts of potentially contaminated foods that individuals in the region consumed during the study period. In that general framework, the objective of the Food Consumption Task was to develop a capability to provide information about the parameters of the distribution(s) of daily food consumption for representative groups in the population for selected years during the study period. This report describes the methods and data used to estimate food consumption and presents the results developed for Phase I of the HEDR Project.

  12. Influence of Holy Month Ramadan on Alcohol Consumption in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Çelen, Aydın

    2015-12-01

    This study utilizes a balanced panel data set covering 50 monthly observations regarding the brewery products to examine the impact of holy month Ramadan on alcohol consumption in Turkey. In addition to the Ramadan, temperature, prices of the products and disposable income are other demand factors which are taken into account in this study. As expected, the Ramadan has been found to be associated with lower alcohol usage. As price of alcoholic drinks increases, the alcohol consumption decreases significantly. In addition, alcohol consumption rises with the enhancements in the disposable income. However, surprisingly, the temperature has not any significant effect on alcohol consumption in Turkey. PMID:24810139

  13. Transition Metal Diborides as Electrode Material for MHD Direct Power Extraction: High-temperature Oxidation of ZrB2-HfB2 Solid Solution with LaB6 Addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitler, Steven; Hill, Cody; Raja, Krishnan S.; Charit, Indrajit

    2016-06-01

    Transition metal borides are being considered for use as potential electrode coating materials in magnetohydrodynamic direct power extraction plants from coal-fired plasma. These electrode materials will be exposed to aggressive service conditions at high temperatures. Therefore, high-temperature oxidation resistance is an important property. Consolidated samples containing an equimolar solid solution of ZrB2-HfB2 with and without the addition of 1.8 mol pct LaB6 were prepared by ball milling of commercial boride material followed by spark plasma sintering. These samples were oxidized at 1773 K (1500 °C) in two different conditions: (1) as-sintered and (2) anodized (10 V in 0.1 M KOH electrolyte). Oxidation studies were carried out in 0.3 × 105 and 0.1 Pa oxygen partial pressures. The anodic oxide layers showed hafnium enrichment on the surface of the samples, whereas the high-temperature oxides showed zirconium enrichment. The anodized samples without LaB6 addition showed about 2.5 times higher oxidation resistance in high-oxygen partial pressures than the as-sintered samples. Addition of LaB6 improved the oxidation resistance in the as-sintered condition by about 30 pct in the high-oxygen partial pressure tests.

  14. An electricity consumption model for electric vehicular flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Hong; Huang, Hai-Jun; Tang, Tie-Qiao

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we apply the relationships between the macro and micro variables of traffic flow to develop an electricity consumption model for electric vehicular flow. We use the proposed model to study the quantitative relationships between the electricity consumption/total power and speed/density under uniform flow, and the electricity consumptions during the evolution processes of shock, rarefaction wave and small perturbation. The numerical results indicate that the proposed model can perfectly describe the electricity consumption for electric vehicular flow, which shows that the proposed model is reasonable.

  15. Raw Milk Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Lucey, John A.

    2015-01-01

    There continues to be considerable public debate on the possible benefits regarding the growing popularity of the consumption of raw milk. However, there are significant concerns by regulatory, or public health, organizations like the Food and Drug Administration and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention because of risk of contracting milkborne illnesses if the raw milk is contaminated with human pathogens. This review describes why pasteurization of milk was introduced more than 100 years ago, how pasteurization helped to reduce the incidence of illnesses associated with raw milk consumption, and the prevalence of pathogens in raw milk. In some studies, up to a third of all raw milk samples contained pathogens, even when sourced from clinically healthy animals or from milk that appeared to be of good quality. This review critically evaluates some of the popularly suggested benefits of raw milk. Claims related to improved nutrition, prevention of lactose intolerance, or provision of “good” bacteria from the consumption of raw milk have no scientific basis and are myths. There are some epidemiological data that indicate that children growing up in a farming environment are associated with a decreased risk of allergy and asthma; a variety of environmental factors may be involved and there is no direct evidence that raw milk consumption is involved in any “protective” effect. PMID:27340300

  16. Eating green. Consumers' willingness to adopt ecological food consumption behaviors.

    PubMed

    Tobler, Christina; Visschers, Vivianne H M; Siegrist, Michael

    2011-12-01

    Food consumption is associated with various environmental impacts, and consumers' food choices therefore represent important environmental decisions. In a large-scale survey, we examined consumers' beliefs about ecological food consumption and their willingness to adopt such behaviors. Additionally, we investigated in more detail how different motives and food-related attitudes influenced consumers' willingness to reduce meat consumption and to buy seasonal fruits and vegetables. We found consumers believed avoiding excessive packaging had the strongest impact on the environment, whereas they rated purchasing organic food and reducing meat consumption as least environmentally beneficial. Similarly, respondents appeared to be most unwilling to reduce meat consumption and purchase organic food. Taste and environmental motives influenced consumers' willingness to eat seasonal fruits and vegetables, whereas preparedness to reduce meat consumption was influenced by health and ethical motives. Women and respondents who preferred natural foods were more willing to adopt ecological food consumption patterns. PMID:21896294

  17. Field power measurements of imaging equipment

    SciTech Connect

    McWhinney, Marla; Homan, Gregory; Brown, Richard; Roberson, Judy; Nordman, Bruce; Busch, John

    2004-05-14

    According to the U.S. Department of Energy, electricity use by non-PC commercial office equipment is growing at an annual rate of nearly 5 percent (AEO 2003). To help address this growth in consumption, U.S. EPA periodically updates its ENERGY STAR specifications as products and markets change. This report presents background research conducted to help EPA update the ENERGY STAR specification for imaging equipment, which covers printers, fax machines, copiers, scanners, and multifunction devices (MFDs). We first estimated the market impact of the current ENERGY STAR imaging specification, finding over 90 percent of the current market complies with the specification. We then analyzed a sample of typical new imaging products, including 11 faxes, 57 printers and 19 copiers/MFD. For these devices we metered power levels in the most common modes: active/ready/sleep/off, and recorded features that would most likely affect energy consumption. Our metering indicates that for many products and speed bins, current models consume substantially less power than the current specification. We also found that for all product categories, power consumption varied most considerably across technology (i.e. inkjet vs. laser). Although inkjet printers consumed less energy than laser printers in active, ready and sleep-mode, they consumed more power on average while off, mostly due to the use of external power supplies. Based on these findings, we developed strategies for the ENERGY STAR program to achieve additional energy reductions. Finally, we present an assessment of manufacturer's ENERGY STAR labeling practices.

  18. Fermi Observations of GRB 090510: A Short-Hard Gamma-ray Burst with an Additional, Hard Power-law Component from 10 keV TO GeV Energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackermann, M.; Asano, K.; Atwood, W. B.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Baring, M. G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Bhat, P. N.; Bissaldi, E.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A. W.; Bouvier, A.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Briggs, M. S.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caraveo, P. A.; Carrigan, S.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cecchi, C.; Çelik, Ö.; Charles, E.; Chiang, J.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Connaughton, V.; Conrad, J.; Dermer, C. D.; de Palma, F.; Dingus, B. L.; Silva, E. do Couto e.; Drell, P. S.; Dubois, R.; Dumora, D.; Farnier, C.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Finke, J.; Focke, W. B.; Frailis, M.; Fukazawa, Y.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Gehrels, N.; Germani, S.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Granot, J.; Grenier, I. A.; Grondin, M.-H.; Grove, J. E.; Guiriec, S.; Hadasch, D.; Harding, A. K.; Hays, E.; Horan, D.; Hughes, R. E.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, W. N.; Kamae, T.; Katagiri, H.; Kataoka, J.; Kawai, N.; Kippen, R. M.; Knödlseder, J.; Kocevski, D.; Kouveliotou, C.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Latronico, L.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Llena Garde, M.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lott, B.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Makeev, A.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McEnery, J. E.; McGlynn, S.; Meegan, C.; Mészáros, P.; Michelson, P. F.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Moiseev, A. A.; Monte, C.; Monzani, M. E.; Moretti, E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Nakajima, H.; Nakamori, T.; Nolan, P. L.; Norris, J. P.; Nuss, E.; Ohno, M.; Ohsugi, T.; Omodei, N.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Ozaki, M.; Paciesas, W. S.; Paneque, D.; Panetta, J. H.; Parent, D.; Pelassa, V.; Pepe, M.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Piron, F.; Preece, R.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Razzaque, S.; Reimer, A.; Ritz, S.; Rodriguez, A. Y.; Roth, M.; Ryde, F.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Sander, A.; Scargle, J. D.; Schalk, T. L.; Sgrò, C.; Siskind, E. J.; Smith, P. D.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Stamatikos, M.; Stecker, F. W.; Strickman, M. S.; Suson, D. J.; Tajima, H.; Takahashi, H.; Takahashi, T.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J. B.; Thayer, J. G.; Thompson, D. J.; Tibaldo, L.; Toma, K.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Tramacere, A.; Uchiyama, Y.; Uehara, T.; Usher, T. L.; van der Horst, A. J.; Vasileiou, V.; Vilchez, N.; Vitale, V.; von Kienlin, A.; Waite, A. P.; Wang, P.; Wilson-Hodge, C.; Winer, B. L.; Wu, X. F.; Yamazaki, R.; Yang, Z.; Ylinen, T.; Ziegler, M.

    2010-06-01

    We present detailed observations of the bright short-hard gamma-ray burst GRB 090510 made with the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) and Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi observatory. GRB 090510 is the first burst detected by the LAT that shows strong evidence for a deviation from a Band spectral fitting function during the prompt emission phase. The time-integrated spectrum is fit by the sum of a Band function with E peak = 3.9 ± 0.3 MeV, which is the highest yet measured, and a hard power-law component with photon index -1.62 ± 0.03 that dominates the emission below ≈20 keV and above ≈100 MeV. The onset of the high-energy spectral component appears to be delayed by ~0.1 s with respect to the onset of a component well fit with a single Band function. A faint GBM pulse and a LAT photon are detected 0.5 s before the main pulse. During the prompt phase, the LAT detected a photon with energy 30.5+5.8 -2.6 GeV, the highest ever measured from a short GRB. Observation of this photon sets a minimum bulk outflow Lorentz factor, Γgsim 1200, using simple γγ opacity arguments for this GRB at redshift z = 0.903 and a variability timescale on the order of tens of ms for the ≈100 keV-few MeV flux. Stricter high confidence estimates imply Γ >~ 1000 and still require that the outflows powering short GRBs are at least as highly relativistic as those of long-duration GRBs. Implications of the temporal behavior and power-law shape of the additional component on synchrotron/synchrotron self-Compton, external-shock synchrotron, and hadronic models are considered.

  19. An Efficient Power Saving Mechanism for Delay-Guaranteed Services in IEEE 802.16e

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Yunju; Hwang, Gang Uk

    As the IEEE 802.16e Wireless Metropolitan Access Network (WMAN) supports the mobility of a mobile station (MS), increasing MS power efficiency has become an important issue. In this paper, we analyze the sleep-mode operation for an efficient power saving mechanism for delay-guaranteed services in the IEEE 802.16e WMAN and observe the effects of the operating parameters related to this operation. For the analysis we use the M/GI/1/K queueing system with multiple vacations, exhaustive services and setup times. In the analysis, we consider the power consumption during the wake-mode period as well as the sleep-mode period. As a performance measure for the power consumption, we propose the power consumption per unit time per effective arrival which considers the power consumption and the packet blocking probability simultaneously. In addition, since we consider delay-guaranteed services, the average packet response delay is also considered as a performance measure. Based on the performance measures, we obtain the optimal sleep-mode operation which minimizes the power consumption per unit time per effective arrival with a given delay requirement. Numerical studies are also provided to investigate the system performance and to show how to achieve our objective.

  20. Limits to Global Groundwater Consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graaf, I. D.; Van Beek, R.; Sutanudjaja, E.; Wada, Y.; Bierkens, M. F.

    2015-12-01

    In regions with frequent water stress and large aquifer systems, groundwater is often used as an additional fresh water source. For many regions of the world groundwater abstraction exceeds groundwater recharge and persistent groundwater depletion occurs. The most direct effect of groundwater depletion is declining of water tables, leading to reduced groundwater discharge needed to sustain base-flow to e.g. rivers. Next to that, pumping costs increase, wells dry up and land subsidence occurs. These problems are expected to increase in the near future due to growing population and climate changes. This poses the urgent question of what the limits are of groundwater consumption worldwide. We simulate global water availability (5 arc-minute resolution, for 1960-2050) using the hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB (van Beek et al. 2011), coupled to a groundwater model based on MODFLOW (de Graaf et al. 2015), allowing for groundwater - surface water interactions. The groundwater model includes a parameterization of world's confined and unconfined aquifer systems needed for a realistic simulation of groundwater head dynamics. Water demands are included (from Wada et al. 2014). We study the limits to water consumption, focusing on locally attainable groundwater and groundwater levels critical to rivers to sustain low flows. We show an increasing trend (1960-2050) in groundwater head declines, due to increase in groundwater demand. Also, stream flow will decrease and low flow conditions will occur more frequent and will be longer in duration in the near future, especially for irrigated areas. Next to that, we provide a global overview of the years it takes until groundwater gets unattainable for e.g. a local farmer (100 m below land-surface used as a proxy), and estimate the increase in pumping cost for the near future. The results show where and when limits of groundwater consumption are reached globally.

  1. Design of power balance SRAM for DPA-resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keji, Zhou; Pengjun, Wang; Liang, Wen

    2016-04-01

    A power balance static random-access memory (SRAM) for resistance to differential power analysis (DPA) is proposed. In the proposed design, the switch power consumption and short-circuit power consumption are balanced by discharging and pre-charging the key nodes of the output circuit and adding an additional short-circuit current path. Thus, the power consumption is constant in every read cycle. As a result, the DPA-resistant ability of the SRAM is improved. In 65 nm CMOS technology, the power balance SRAM is fully custom designed with a layout area of 5863.6 μm2. The post-simulation results show that the normalized energy deviation (NED) and normalized standard deviation (NSD) are 0.099% and 0.04%, respectively. Compared to existing power balance circuits, the power balance ability of the proposed SRAM has improved 53%. Project supported by the Zhejiang Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China (No. LQ14F040001), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61274132, 61234002), and the K. C. Wong Magna Fund in Ningbo University, China.

  2. Price and cigarette consumption in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Gallus, S; Schiaffino, A; Vecchia, C La; Townsend, J; Fernandez, E

    2006-01-01

    Objective To analyse the variation in demand for tobacco according to price of cigarettes across the European region. Design Cross‐sectional study. Setting All the 52 countries of the European region. Participants For each European country, data were collected on annual per adult cigarette consumption (2000), smoking prevalence (most recent), retail price of a pack of local and foreign brand cigarettes (around 2000), the gross domestic product adjusted by purchasing power parities, and the adult population (2000). Main outcome measure Price elasticity of demand for cigarettes (that is, the change in cigarette consumption according to a change in tobacco price) across all the European countries, estimated by double‐log multiple linear regression. Results Controlling for male to female prevalence ratio, price elasticities for consumption were −0.46 (95% confidence interval (CI) −0.74 to −0.17) and −0.74 (95% CI −1.13 to −0.35) for local and foreign brand, respectively. The inverse relation between cigarette price and consumption was stronger in countries not in the European Union (price elasticity for foreign brand cigarettes of −0.8) as compared to European Union countries (price elasticity of −0.4). Conclusions The result that, on average, in Europe smoking consumption decreases 5–7% for a 10% increase in the real price of cigarettes strongly supports an inverse association between price and cigarette smoking. PMID:16565459

  3. Oxygen consumption in weakly electric Neotropical fishes.

    PubMed

    Julian, David; Crampton, William G R; Wohlgemuth, Stephanie E; Albert, James S

    2003-12-01

    Weakly electric gymnotiform fishes with wave-type electric organ discharge (EOD) are less hypoxia-tolerant and are less likely to be found in hypoxic habitats than weakly electric gymnotiforms with pulse-type EOD, suggesting that differences in metabolism resulting from EOD type affects habitat choice. Although gymnotiform fishes are common in most Neotropical freshwaters and represent the dominant vertebrates in some habitats, the metabolic rates of these unique fishes have never been determined. In this study, O(2) consumption rates during EOD generation are reported for 34 gymnotiforms representing 23 species, all five families and 17 (59%) of the 28 genera. Over the size range sampled (0.4 g to 125 g), O(2) consumption of gymnotiform fishes was dependent on body mass, as expected, fitting a power function with a scaling exponent of 0.74, but the O(2) consumption rate was generally about 50% of that expected by extrapolation of temperate teleost metabolic rates to a similar ambient temperature (26 degrees C). O(2) consumption rate was not dependent on EOD type, but maintenance of "scan swimming" (continuous forwards and backwards swimming), which is characteristic only of gymnotiforms with wave-type EODs, increased O(2) consumption 2.83+/-0.49-fold (mean+/-SD). This suggests that the increased metabolic cost of scan swimming could restrict gymnotiforms with wave-type EODs from hypoxic habitats.

  4. The energetics of nut consumption.

    PubMed

    Mattes, Richard D

    2008-01-01

    Nuts are a nutrient-rich food group. Depending on the type, they may provide substantive concentrations of Vitamin E, magnesium, folate, essential fatty acids, fiber and protein to the diet. They also contain potentially important phytochemicals. By mechanisms yet to be identified, they are reported to improve postprandial lipid profiles and may hold other health benefits. However, they are also energy dense so a theoretical contributor to positive energy balance and weight gain. However, epidemiological studies have consistently revealed an inverse association between the frequency of nut consumption and BMI. Further, intervention trials demonstrate less than predicted weight gain following inclusion of nuts in the diet. The mechanisms for these observations are currently under study. Candidates include strong satiety effects, promotion of energy expenditure and/or inefficient energy utilization. Recent trials have revealed support for each. Inclusion of nuts in the diet results in strong satiety effects as revealed by robust compensatory dietary responses that offset approximately 65-75% of the energy they provide. Several trials note increased energy expenditure that may account for an additional 10% of their energy yield. Limited bioaccessibility results in a loss of 5-15% of energy. Taken together, these findings largely account for the energy provided by nuts and explain the epidemiological and clinical observations. Thus, current knowledge suggests moderate nut consumption does not pose a threat for weight gain.

  5. Electric Power Monthly, July 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-12

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) is prepared by the Electric Power Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation are also displayed at the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) region level. Additionally, company and plant level information are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost in fuel. Quantity, quality, and cost of fuel data lag the net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, electricity sales, and average revenue per kilowatthour data by 1 month. This difference in reporting appears in the national, Census division, and State level tables. However, at the plant level, all statistics presented are for the earlier month for the purpose of comparison. 12 refs., 4 figs., 48 tabs.

  6. Brand switching or reduced consumption? A study of how cigarette taxes affect tobacco consumption.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chiang-Ming; Chang, Kuo-Liang; Lin, Lin; Lee, Jwo-Leun

    2014-12-01

    We examined the influence of cigarette taxes on tobacco consumption, with an emphasis on smokers' choice between reducing cigarette consumption and switching brands. We constructed three scenario-based models to study the following two subjects: (1) the relationship between deciding whether to reduce one's cigarette consumption and to practice brand switching (simultaneous or sequential); (2) the key determinants that affect smokers' decisions in terms of their consumption and brand switching when facing higher taxes. We applied data collected from a survey in Taiwan, and the results indicated that both independent and two-stage decision-making models generated very similar conclusions. We also found that gender difference contributed to reduce cigarette consumption. In addition, this study indicated that high-income smokers were less likely to switch brands, whereas well-educated smokers were more likely to switch brands. Most importantly, we questioned the effectiveness of cigarette tax policy, as our results suggested that higher price did not necessarily reduce consumption. Indeed, data indicated that <24 % of smokers actually reduced their cigarette consumption after the tax on cigarettes increased.

  7. Power management system

    DOEpatents

    Algrain, Marcelo C.; Johnson, Kris W.; Akasam, Sivaprasad; Hoff, Brian D.

    2007-10-02

    A method of managing power resources for an electrical system of a vehicle may include identifying enabled power sources from among a plurality of power sources in electrical communication with the electrical system and calculating a threshold power value for the enabled power sources. A total power load placed on the electrical system by one or more power consumers may be measured. If the total power load exceeds the threshold power value, then a determination may be made as to whether one or more additional power sources is available from among the plurality of power sources. At least one of the one or more additional power sources may be enabled, if available.

  8. Electric power monthly, July 1999, with data for April 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-07-01

    The Electric Power Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy prepares the Electric Power Monthly (EPM). This publication provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and US levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity retail sales, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatt hour of electricity sold. In addition, data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source; consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant. 1 fig., 64 tabs.

  9. Metal Additive Manufacturing: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazier, William E.

    2014-06-01

    This paper reviews the state-of-the-art of an important, rapidly emerging, manufacturing technology that is alternatively called additive manufacturing (AM), direct digital manufacturing, free form fabrication, or 3D printing, etc. A broad contextual overview of metallic AM is provided. AM has the potential to revolutionize the global parts manufacturing and logistics landscape. It enables distributed manufacturing and the productions of parts-on-demand while offering the potential to reduce cost, energy consumption, and carbon footprint. This paper explores the material science, processes, and business consideration associated with achieving these performance gains. It is concluded that a paradigm shift is required in order to fully exploit AM potential.

  10. Evaluation of parasitic consumption for a CSP plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramorakane, Relebohile John; Dinter, Frank

    2016-05-01

    With the continuous development and desire to build alternative effective and efficient power plants, Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plants (and more specifically the Parabolic Trough CSP Plants) have proven to be one of the alternative energy resources for the future. On this regard more emphasis and research is being employed to better this power plant technology, where one of the main challenges to these plants is to improve their efficiency by optimizing the parasitic load, wherein one of the major causes of the power plants' reduced overall efficiency arises from their parasitic load consumption. This project is therefore aimed at evaluating the parasitic load on Andasol 3 Power Plant, which is a 50 MW Parabolic Trough Power Plant with a 7.5 hours of full load storage system. It was hence determined that the total power plant's parasitic load consumption is about 12% in summer season and between 16% and 24% in winter season. In an effort to improve the power plant's efficiency, a couple of measures to reduce the parasitic load consumption were recommended, and also an alternative and cheaper source of parasitic load feeding plant, during the day (when the parasitic load consumption is highest) was proposed/recommended.

  11. Computer usage and national energy consumption: Results from a field-metering study

    SciTech Connect

    Desroches, Louis-Benoit; Fuchs, Heidi; Greenblatt, Jeffery; Pratt, Stacy; Willem, Henry; Claybaugh, Erin; Beraki, Bereket; Nagaraju, Mythri; Price, Sarah; Young, Scott

    2014-12-01

    The electricity consumption of miscellaneous electronic loads (MELs) in the home has grown in recent years, and is expected to continue rising. Consumer electronics, in particular, are characterized by swift technological innovation, with varying impacts on energy use. Desktop and laptop computers make up a significant share of MELs electricity consumption, but their national energy use is difficult to estimate, given uncertainties around shifting user behavior. This report analyzes usage data from 64 computers (45 desktop, 11 laptop, and 8 unknown) collected in 2012 as part of a larger field monitoring effort of 880 households in the San Francisco Bay Area, and compares our results to recent values from the literature. We find that desktop computers are used for an average of 7.3 hours per day (median = 4.2 h/d), while laptops are used for a mean 4.8 hours per day (median = 2.1 h/d). The results for laptops are likely underestimated since they can be charged in other, unmetered outlets. Average unit annual energy consumption (AEC) for desktops is estimated to be 194 kWh/yr (median = 125 kWh/yr), and for laptops 75 kWh/yr (median = 31 kWh/yr). We estimate national annual energy consumption for desktop computers to be 20 TWh. National annual energy use for laptops is estimated to be 11 TWh, markedly higher than previous estimates, likely reflective of laptops drawing more power in On mode in addition to greater market penetration. This result for laptops, however, carries relatively higher uncertainty compared to desktops. Different study methodologies and definitions, changing usage patterns, and uncertainty about how consumers use computers must be considered when interpreting our results with respect to existing analyses. Finally, as energy consumption in On mode is predominant, we outline several energy savings opportunities: improved power management (defaulting to low-power modes after periods of inactivity as well as power scaling), matching the rated power

  12. A Frequency Control Approach by Decentralized Controllable Loads in Small Power Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senjyu, Tomonobu; Tokudome, Motoki; Yona, Atsushi; Funabashi, Toshihisa

    From depletion of energy resources and consideration to natural environment, dispersed power system such as wind power generator is scheduled for introduction. Additionally, all electrification apartment house or residence and electric vehicles are increase in recent years. However, due to the fluctuating power from renewable energy sources and loads, frequency fluctuation of power system become problematic. This paper presents a methodology for grid frequency control by distributed controllable loads. This system consists of diesel generator, wind farm, and loads. By applying power consumption controller with H∞ control theory, grid frequency fluctuation is maintained around rated value. In order to verify the effectiveness of the proposed system, MATLAB/Simulink is used in simulations.

  13. Energy Consumption of Die Casting Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Jerald Brevick; clark Mount-Campbell; Carroll Mobley

    2004-03-15

    Molten metal processing is inherently energy intensive and roughly 25% of the cost of die-cast products can be traced to some form of energy consumption [1]. The obvious major energy requirements are for melting and holding molten alloy in preparation for casting. The proper selection and maintenance of melting and holding equipment are clearly important factors in minimizing energy consumption in die-casting operations [2]. In addition to energy consumption, furnace selection also influences metal loss due to oxidation, metal quality, and maintenance requirements. Other important factors influencing energy consumption in a die-casting facility include geographic location, alloy(s) cast, starting form of alloy (solid or liquid), overall process flow, casting yield, scrap rate, cycle times, number of shifts per day, days of operation per month, type and size of die-casting form of alloy (solid or liquid), overall process flow, casting yield, scrap rate, cycle times, number of shifts per day, days of operation per month, type and size of die-casting machine, related equipment (robots, trim presses), and downstream processing (machining, plating, assembly, etc.). Each of these factors also may influence the casting quality and productivity of a die-casting enterprise. In a die-casting enterprise, decisions regarding these issues are made frequently and are based on a large number of factors. Therefore, it is not surprising that energy consumption can vary significantly from one die-casting enterprise to the next, and within a single enterprise as function of time.

  14. Community Energy Consumption Analysis

    1992-02-21

    The TDIST3 program performs an analysis of large integrated community total energy systems (TES) supplying thermal and electrical energy from one or more power stations. The program models the time-dependent energy demands of a group of representative building types, distributes the thermal demands within a thermal utility system (TUS), simulates the dynamic response of a group of power stations in meeting the TUS demands, and designs an optimal base-loaded (electrically) power plant and thermal energymore » storage reservoir combination. The capital cost of the TES is evaluated. The program was developed primarily to analyze thermal utility systems supplied with high temperature water (HTW) from more than one power plant. The TUS consists of a transmission loop and secondary loops with a heat exchanger linking each secondary loop to the transmission loop. The power stations electrical output supplies all community buildings and the HTW supplies the thermal demand of the buildings connected through the TUS, a piping network. Basic components of the TES model are one or more power stations connected to the transmission loop. These may be dual-purpose, producing electricity and HTW, or just heating plants producing HTW. A thermal storage reservoir is located at one power station. The secondary loops may have heating plants connected to them. The transmission loop delivers HTW to local districts; the secondary loops deliver the energy to the individual buildings in a district.« less

  15. Energy and resource consumption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The present and projected energy requirements for the United States are discussed. The energy consumption and demand sectors are divided into the categories: residential and commercial, transportation, and industrial and electrical generation (utilities). All sectors except electrical generation use varying amounts of fossile fuel resources for non-energy purposes. The highest percentage of non-energy use by sector is industrial with 71.3 percent. The household and commercial sector uses 28.4 percent, and transportation about 0.3 percent. Graphs are developed to project fossil fuel demands for non-energy purposes and the perdentage of the total fossil fuel used for non-energy needs.

  16. Which Fish Should I Eat? Perspectives Influencing Fish Consumption Choices

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Anna L.; Karagas, Margaret R.; Mariën, Koenraad; Rheinberger, Christoph M.; Schoeny, Rita; Sunderland, Elsie; Korrick, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Diverse perspectives have influenced fish consumption choices. Objectives: We summarized the issue of fish consumption choice from toxicological, nutritional, ecological, and economic points of view; identified areas of overlap and disagreement among these viewpoints; and reviewed effects of previous fish consumption advisories. Methods: We reviewed published scientific literature, public health guidelines, and advisories related to fish consumption, focusing on advisories targeted at U.S. populations. However, our conclusions apply to groups having similar fish consumption patterns. Discussion: There are many possible combinations of matters related to fish consumption, but few, if any, fish consumption patterns optimize all domains. Fish provides a rich source of protein and other nutrients, but because of contamination by methylmercury and other toxicants, higher fish intake often leads to greater toxicant exposure. Furthermore, stocks of wild fish are not adequate to meet the nutrient demands of the growing world population, and fish consumption choices also have a broad economic impact on the fishing industry. Most guidance does not account for ecological and economic impacts of different fish consumption choices. Conclusion: Despite the relative lack of information integrating the health, ecological, and economic impacts of different fish choices, clear and simple guidance is necessary to effect desired changes. Thus, more comprehensive advice can be developed to describe the multiple impacts of fish consumption. In addition, policy and fishery management inter-ventions will be necessary to ensure long-term availability of fish as an important source of human nutrition. PMID:22534056

  17. Radiative properties of ceramic metal-halide high intensity discharge lamps containing additives in argon plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cressault, Yann; Teulet, Philippe; Zissis, Georges

    2016-07-01

    The lighting represents a consumption of about 19% of the world electricity production. We are thus searching new effective and environment-friendlier light sources. The ceramic metal-halide high intensity lamps (C-MHL) are one of the options for illuminating very high area. The new C-MHL lamps contain additives species that reduce mercury inside and lead to a richer spectrum in specific spectral intervals, a better colour temperature or colour rendering index. This work is particularly focused on the power radiated by these lamps, estimated using the net emission coefficient, and depending on several additives (calcium, sodium, tungsten, dysprosium, and thallium or strontium iodides). The results show the strong influence of the additives on the power radiated despite of their small quantity in the mixtures and the increase of visible radiation portion in presence of dysprosium.

  18. Rebreathing method for the simultaneous measurement of oxygen consumption and effective pulmonary blood flow during exercise.

    PubMed

    Bush, A; Busst, C M; Johnson, S; Denison, D M

    1988-04-01

    This paper describes a rebreathing method for the simultaneous measurement of oxygen consumption (VO2) and effective pulmonary blood flow (QP. eff) at rest and during exercise. Subjects rebreathed a test gas consisting of 35% oxygen, 3.5% chlorodifluoromethane (freon-22), and 10% argon in nitrogen for 30 seconds or until the respired oxygen tension fell to below 13.3 kPa. Sixty normal subjects were studied on a motorized treadmill, the Bruce protocol being used. The rebreathing manoeuvre was performed at three minute intervals, and was initially practised sitting down. Measurements were then made with the subjects standing at rest, and subsequently during the last minute of each stage of the Bruce exercise protocol until the subjects were exhausted. Heart rate was recorded from the electrocardiogram. Oxygen uptake plotted against calculated power (watts) showed a discontinuity between resting and exercise values, probably because power output during treadmill exercise is underestimated. The arbitrary addition of 30 watts to the exercise power output abolished this discontinuity. There was good agreement between rebreathing estimates of oxygen consumption and values measured during a second exercise test by the conventional open circuit argon dilution method. Coefficients of variation of oxygen consumption and effective pulmonary blood flow measured by rebreathing were usually less than 10% even during maximal exertion. At rest mean (SD) effective pulmonary blood flow corrected for body surface area was 2.2 (0.46) l/min/m2. Effective pulmonary blood flow rose linearly with oxygen consumption. At rest the arteriovenous oxygen content difference for pulmonary blood (VO2/QP eff) was 9.1 (1.6) ml/dl, rising to a maximum of 16.4 (1.8) ml/dl. The stroke volume index was 27.5 (6.8) ml/m2, rising to a maximum of 46.5 (7.1) ml/m2 during exertion.

  19. Rebreathing method for the simultaneous measurement of oxygen consumption and effective pulmonary blood flow during exercise.

    PubMed Central

    Bush, A; Busst, C M; Johnson, S; Denison, D M

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes a rebreathing method for the simultaneous measurement of oxygen consumption (VO2) and effective pulmonary blood flow (QP. eff) at rest and during exercise. Subjects rebreathed a test gas consisting of 35% oxygen, 3.5% chlorodifluoromethane (freon-22), and 10% argon in nitrogen for 30 seconds or until the respired oxygen tension fell to below 13.3 kPa. Sixty normal subjects were studied on a motorized treadmill, the Bruce protocol being used. The rebreathing manoeuvre was performed at three minute intervals, and was initially practised sitting down. Measurements were then made with the subjects standing at rest, and subsequently during the last minute of each stage of the Bruce exercise protocol until the subjects were exhausted. Heart rate was recorded from the electrocardiogram. Oxygen uptake plotted against calculated power (watts) showed a discontinuity between resting and exercise values, probably because power output during treadmill exercise is underestimated. The arbitrary addition of 30 watts to the exercise power output abolished this discontinuity. There was good agreement between rebreathing estimates of oxygen consumption and values measured during a second exercise test by the conventional open circuit argon dilution method. Coefficients of variation of oxygen consumption and effective pulmonary blood flow measured by rebreathing were usually less than 10% even during maximal exertion. At rest mean (SD) effective pulmonary blood flow corrected for body surface area was 2.2 (0.46) l/min/m2. Effective pulmonary blood flow rose linearly with oxygen consumption. At rest the arteriovenous oxygen content difference for pulmonary blood (VO2/QP eff) was 9.1 (1.6) ml/dl, rising to a maximum of 16.4 (1.8) ml/dl. The stroke volume index was 27.5 (6.8) ml/m2, rising to a maximum of 46.5 (7.1) ml/m2 during exertion. PMID:3406913

  20. Queueing Delay and Energy Efficiency Analyses of Sleep Based Power Saving Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Fan; Wu, Yiqun; Niu, Zhisheng

    In wireless networks, sleep mode based power saving mechanisms can reduce the energy consumption at the expense of additional packet delay. This letter analyzes its packet queueing delay and wireless terminals' energy efficiency. Based on the analysis, optimal sleep window size can be derived to optimize terminal energy efficiency with delay constraint.

  1. Electrical energy consumption control apparatuses and electrical energy consumption control methods

    DOEpatents

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.

    2012-09-04

    Electrical energy consumption control apparatuses and electrical energy consumption control methods are described. According to one aspect, an electrical energy consumption control apparatus includes processing circuitry configured to receive a signal which is indicative of current of electrical energy which is consumed by a plurality of loads at a site, to compare the signal which is indicative of current of electrical energy which is consumed by the plurality of loads at the site with a desired substantially sinusoidal waveform of current of electrical energy which is received at the site from an electrical power system, and to use the comparison to control an amount of the electrical energy which is consumed by at least one of the loads of the site.

  2. Electric power annual 1997. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    The Electric Power Annual presents a summary of electric power industry statistics at national, regional, and State levels. The objective of the publication is to provide industry decisionmakers, government policy-makers, analysts, and the general public with data that may be used in understanding US electricity markets. The Electric Power Annual is prepared by the Electric Power Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. Volume 1 -- with a focus on US electric utilities -- contains final 1997 data on net generation and fossil fuel consumption, stocks, receipts, and cost; preliminary 1997 data on generating unit capability, and retail sales of electricity, associated revenue, and the average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold (based on a monthly sample: Form EIA-826, ``Monthly Electric Utility Sales and Revenue Report with State Distributions``). Additionally, information on net generation from renewable energy sources and on the associated generating capability is included in Volume 1 of the EPA.

  3. Improvement of reliability and power consumption for SnSb{sub 4} phase change film composited with Ga{sub 3}Sb{sub 7} by superlattice-like method

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Yifeng; Zhai, Jiwei; Zeng, Huarong; Song, Sannian; Song, Zhitang

    2015-05-07

    Superlattice-like (SLL) SnSb{sub 4}/Ga{sub 3}Sb{sub 7} (SS/GS) thin films were investigated through in-situ film resistance measurement. The optical band gap was derived from the transmittance spectra by using a UV-visible-NIR (ultraviolet-visible-near infrared) spectrophotometer. Transmission electron microscopy was used to observe the micro-structure before and after annealing. Phase change memory cells based on the SLL [SS(3 nm)/GS(4.5 nm)]{sub 7} thin films were fabricated to test and verify the operation consumption and switching endurance. The scanning thermal microscopy was used to probe the nanoscale thermal property.

  4. Clinical effects of sulphite additives.

    PubMed

    Vally, H; Misso, N L A; Madan, V

    2009-11-01

    Sulphites are widely used as preservative and antioxidant additives in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Topical, oral or parenteral exposure to sulphites has been reported to induce a range of adverse clinical effects in sensitive individuals, ranging from dermatitis, urticaria, flushing, hypotension, abdominal pain and diarrhoea to life-threatening anaphylactic and asthmatic reactions. Exposure to the sulphites arises mainly from the consumption of foods and drinks that contain these additives; however, exposure may also occur through the use of pharmaceutical products, as well as in occupational settings. While contact sensitivity to sulphite additives in topical medications is increasingly being recognized, skin reactions also occur after ingestion of or parenteral exposure to sulphites. Most studies report a 3-10% prevalence of sulphite sensitivity among asthmatic subjects following ingestion of these additives. However, the severity of these reactions varies, and steroid-dependent asthmatics, those with marked airway hyperresponsiveness, and children with chronic asthma, appear to be at greater risk. In addition to episodic and acute symptoms, sulphites may also contribute to chronic skin and respiratory symptoms. To date, the mechanisms underlying sulphite sensitivity remain unclear, although a number of potential mechanisms have been proposed. Physicians should be aware of the range of clinical manifestations of sulphite sensitivity, as well as the potential sources of exposure. Minor modifications to diet or behaviour lead to excellent clinical outcomes for sulphite-sensitive individuals.

  5. 18 CFR 1314.10 - Additional provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional provisions. 1314.10 Section 1314.10 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY BOOK-ENTRY... attachment for TVA Power Securities in Book-entry System. The interest of a debtor in a Security...

  6. 18 CFR 1314.10 - Additional provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Additional provisions. 1314.10 Section 1314.10 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY BOOK-ENTRY... attachment for TVA Power Securities in Book-entry System. The interest of a debtor in a Security...

  7. 18 CFR 1314.10 - Additional provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional provisions. 1314.10 Section 1314.10 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY BOOK-ENTRY... attachment for TVA Power Securities in Book-entry System. The interest of a debtor in a Security...

  8. 18 CFR 1314.10 - Additional provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Additional provisions. 1314.10 Section 1314.10 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY BOOK-ENTRY... attachment for TVA Power Securities in Book-entry System. The interest of a debtor in a Security...

  9. 18 CFR 1314.10 - Additional provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Additional provisions. 1314.10 Section 1314.10 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY BOOK-ENTRY... attachment for TVA Power Securities in Book-entry System. The interest of a debtor in a Security...

  10. 21 CFR 170.18 - Tolerances for related food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.18 Tolerances for related food additives. (a) Food additives that cause similar or related pharmacological effects will be... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Tolerances for related food additives....

  11. 21 CFR 170.38 - Determination of food additive status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Determination of food additive status. 170.38... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive Safety § 170.38 Determination of food additive status. (a) The Commissioner may, in accordance with § 170.35(b)(4) or...

  12. Effects of nutrient enrichment on channel catfish growth and consumption in Mount Storm Lake, West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blanc, T.J.; Margraf, F.J.

    2002-01-01

    With the objective of augmenting fish production in Mount Storm Lake, Virginia Electric and Power Company initiated a programme of phosphorus addition to increase primary production, and ultimately, channel catfish (Ictaturus punctatus) growth in the 486 ha cooling reservoir. We simulated channel catfish growth dynamics using two bioenergetics modelling scenarios: (i) effects of average reservoir temperature on growth, conversion efficiency and consumption; and (ii) effects of reservoir enrichment on growth, which is simulated by increasing feeding rates. During 1991-1993, fish were sampled monthly, but sampling was increased to every 2 weeks during the peak growing season (June-September). Most of the channel catfish collected were aged 0 year and aged 1 year with rapid annual growth rates ranging from 9.0 to 13.7 J/g. We found many age 1 250-300 mm catfish, but few beyond this size. Conversion efficiency (joules gained/joules consumed) was low at approximately 18-19%. High algae consumption (40%) was evident, but consumption of zooplankton and Asiatic clam (Corbicula sp.) increased over the study. Simulated increased feeding rates showed that channel catfish were food limited in summer and fall (July-December). Weight gains with 5 and 10% feeding increases were 6-13% and 18-38%, respectively, from the baseline. Catfish of all sizes should benefit from phosphorus additions.

  13. 21 CFR 170.50 - Glycine (aminoacetic acid) in food for human consumption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... consumption. 170.50 Section 170.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 170.50 Glycine (aminoacetic acid) in food for human consumption. (a) Heretofore,...

  14. Electric Power Monthly, June 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-13

    The EPM is prepared by the Electric Power Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, electricity sales, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation are also displayed at the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) region level. Additionally, company and plant level information are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel. Quantity, quality, and cost of fuel data lag the net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, electricity sales, and average revenue per kilowatthour data by 1 month. This difference in reporting appears in the national, Census division, and State level tables. However, at the plant level, all statistics presented are for the earlier month for the purpose of comparison. 40 tabs.

  15. 21 CFR 172.5 - General provisions for direct food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true General provisions for direct food additives. 172.5... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION General Provisions § 172.5 General provisions for direct food additives....

  16. 21 CFR 172.5 - General provisions for direct food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false General provisions for direct food additives. 172... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION General Provisions § 172.5 General provisions for direct food additives....

  17. 21 CFR 172.5 - General provisions for direct food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false General provisions for direct food additives. 172... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION General Provisions § 172.5 General provisions for direct food additives....

  18. 21 CFR 172.5 - General provisions for direct food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false General provisions for direct food additives. 172... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION General Provisions § 172.5 General provisions for direct food additives....

  19. Impact of electric cars on U.S. petroleum consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, M. M.; Carriere, W. M.

    1980-02-01

    A computer model that forecasts electricity demand and capacity on an hourly basis for each major electric power company in the United States is used to analyze the potential impact of electric cars on national petroleum consumption in 1980, 1990, and 2000. The analysis, based on 1978 and 1979 growth projections by the industry, shows that if all cars were electrified in the year 2000, autombile petroleum use would be cut by 75 percent, saving 2.5 million barrels of crude oil a day, or 14 percent of future national petroleum consumption. Most cars could be charged overnight from otherwise idle coal and nuclear power plants.

  20. Factors influencing the frequency of children's consumption of soft drinks.

    PubMed

    Pettigrew, Simone; Jongenelis, Michelle; Chapman, Kathy; Miller, Caroline

    2015-08-01

    Among other focus areas, interventions designed to improve children's diets need to address key factors contributing to children's consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. The present study employed structural equation modelling to investigate the relationship between a broad range of predictor variables and the frequency with which Australian children consume soft drinks. In total, 1302 parents of children aged 8 to 14 years responded to an online survey about their children's food consumption behaviours. Soft drink consumption frequency was primarily influenced by parents' attitudes to soft drinks, children's pestering behaviours, and perceived social norms relating to children's consumption of these products. Importantly, pestering and social norms had significant direct effects on consumption frequency in addition to indirect effects via their impact on parents' attitudes to soft drink. PMID:25953597

  1. Fundamental principles of energy consumption for gene expression.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lifang; Yuan, Zhanjiang; Yu, Jianshe; Zhou, Tianshou

    2015-12-01

    How energy is consumed in gene expression is largely unknown mainly due to complexity of non-equilibrium mechanisms affecting expression levels. Here, by analyzing a representative gene model that considers complexity of gene expression, we show that negative feedback increases energy consumption but positive feedback has an opposite effect; promoter leakage always reduces energy consumption; generating more bursts needs to consume more energy; and the speed of promoter switching is at the cost of energy consumption. We also find that the relationship between energy consumption and expression noise is multi-mode, depending on both the type of feedback and the speed of promoter switching. Altogether, these results constitute fundamental principles of energy consumption for gene expression, which lay a foundation for designing biologically reasonable gene modules. In addition, we discuss possible biological implications of these principles by combining experimental facts.

  2. Neurobehavioral effects of aspartame consumption.

    PubMed

    Lindseth, Glenda N; Coolahan, Sonya E; Petros, Thomas V; Lindseth, Paul D

    2014-06-01

    Despite its widespread use, the artificial sweetener aspartame remains one of the most controversial food additives, due to mixed evidence on its neurobehavioral effects. Healthy adults who consumed a study-prepared high-aspartame diet (25 mg/kg body weight/day) for 8 days and a low-aspartame diet (10 mg/kg body weight/day) for 8 days, with a 2-week washout between the diets, were examined for within-subject differences in cognition, depression, mood, and headache. Measures included weight of foods consumed containing aspartame, mood and depression scales, and cognitive tests for working memory and spatial orientation. When consuming high-aspartame diets, participants had more irritable mood, exhibited more depression, and performed worse on spatial orientation tests. Aspartame consumption did not influence working memory. Given that the higher intake level tested here was well below the maximum acceptable daily intake level of 40-50 mg/kg body weight/day, careful consideration is warranted when consuming food products that may affect neurobehavioral health.

  3. Intergenerational Linkages in Consumption Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldkirch, Andreas; Ng, Serena; Cox, Donald

    2004-01-01

    We investigate familial relationships in consumption patterns using a sample of parents and their children from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. We find a positive and statistically significant parent-specific effect on children's consumption even after controlling for the effect of parental income. This correlation is found in different…

  4. Sustainable Consumption and Life Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiao, Jing Jian; Li, Haifeng

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between sustainable consumption and life satisfaction. One aspect of sustainable consumption focused on in this study is the environment friendly purchase or green purchase. Using data collected from consumers in 14 cities in China, we found that consumers who reported green purchase…

  5. Power system

    DOEpatents

    Hickam, Christopher Dale

    2008-03-18

    A power system includes a prime mover, a transmission, and a fluid coupler having a selectively engageable lockup clutch. The fluid coupler may be drivingly connected between the prime mover and the transmission. Additionally, the power system may include a motor/generator drivingly connected to at least one of the prime mover and the transmission. The power-system may also include power-system controls configured to execute a control method. The control method may include selecting one of a plurality of modes of operation of the power system. Additionally, the control method may include controlling the operating state of the lockup clutch dependent upon the mode of operation selected. The control method may also include controlling the operating state of the motor/generator dependent upon the mode of operation selected.

  6. Urinary isoxanthohumol is a specific and accurate biomarker of beer consumption.

    PubMed

    Quifer-Rada, Paola; Martínez-Huélamo, Miriam; Chiva-Blanch, Gemma; Jáuregui, Olga; Estruch, Ramon; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa M

    2014-04-01

    Biomarkers of food consumption are a powerful tool to obtain more objective measurements of dietary exposure and to monitor compliance in clinical trials. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of urinary isoxanthohumol (IX) excretion as an accurate biomarker of beer consumption. A dose-response clinical trial, a randomized, crossover clinical trial, and a cohort study were performed. In the dose-response trial, 41 young volunteers (males and females, aged 28 ± 3 y) consumed different doses of beer at night and a spot urine sample was collected the following morning. In the clinical trial, 33 males with high cardiovascular risk (aged 61 ± 7 y) randomly were administered 30 g of ethanol/d as gin or beer, or an equivalent amount of polyphenols as nonalcoholic beer for 4 wk. Additionally, a subsample of 46 volunteers from the PREDIMED (Prevenciόn con Dieta Mediterránea) study (males and females, aged 63 ± 5 y) was also evaluated. Prenylflavonoids were quantified in urine samples by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. IX urinary recovery increased linearly with the size of the beer dose in male volunteers. A significant increase in IX excretion (4.0 ± 1.6 μg/g creatinine) was found after consumption of beer and nonalcoholic beer for 4 wk (P < 0.001). Receiver operating characteristic curves showed that IX is able to discriminate between beer consumers and abstainers with a sensitivity of 67% and specificity of 100% (positive predictive value = 70%, negative predictive value = 100% in real-life conditions). IX in urine samples was found to be a specific and accurate biomarker of beer consumption and may be a powerful tool in epidemiologic studies. PMID:24477299

  7. Urinary isoxanthohumol is a specific and accurate biomarker of beer consumption.

    PubMed

    Quifer-Rada, Paola; Martínez-Huélamo, Miriam; Chiva-Blanch, Gemma; Jáuregui, Olga; Estruch, Ramon; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa M

    2014-04-01

    Biomarkers of food consumption are a powerful tool to obtain more objective measurements of dietary exposure and to monitor compliance in clinical trials. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of urinary isoxanthohumol (IX) excretion as an accurate biomarker of beer consumption. A dose-response clinical trial, a randomized, crossover clinical trial, and a cohort study were performed. In the dose-response trial, 41 young volunteers (males and females, aged 28 ± 3 y) consumed different doses of beer at night and a spot urine sample was collected the following morning. In the clinical trial, 33 males with high cardiovascular risk (aged 61 ± 7 y) randomly were administered 30 g of ethanol/d as gin or beer, or an equivalent amount of polyphenols as nonalcoholic beer for 4 wk. Additionally, a subsample of 46 volunteers from the PREDIMED (Prevenciόn con Dieta Mediterránea) study (males and females, aged 63 ± 5 y) was also evaluated. Prenylflavonoids were quantified in urine samples by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. IX urinary recovery increased linearly with the size of the beer dose in male volunteers. A significant increase in IX excretion (4.0 ± 1.6 μg/g creatinine) was found after consumption of beer and nonalcoholic beer for 4 wk (P < 0.001). Receiver operating characteristic curves showed that IX is able to discriminate between beer consumers and abstainers with a sensitivity of 67% and specificity of 100% (positive predictive value = 70%, negative predictive value = 100% in real-life conditions). IX in urine samples was found to be a specific and accurate biomarker of beer consumption and may be a powerful tool in epidemiologic studies.

  8. Analysis of Household Electricity Consumption Patterns and Economy of Water Heating Shifting and Saving Bulbs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosin, Argo; Moller, Taavi; Lehtla, Madis; Hoimoja, Hardi

    2010-01-01

    This article analyses household electricity consumption based on an object in Estonia. Energy consumption of workday and holiday by loads (including high and low tariff energy consumption) is discussed. The final part describes the evaluation of profitability of common investments of consumption shifting and replacing inefficient devices with more efficient ones. Additionally it describes shifting problems and shifting equipment profitability in real-time tariff system.

  9. Water withdrawal and consumption reduction analysis for electrical energy generation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nouri, Narjes

    There is an increasing concern over shrinking water resources. Water use in the energy sector primarily occurs in electricity generation. Anticipating scarcer supplies, the value of water is undoubtedly on the rise and design, implementation, and utilization of water saving mechanisms in energy generation systems are becoming inevitable. Most power plants generate power by boiling water to produce steam to spin electricity-generating turbines. Large quantities of water are often used to cool the steam in these plants. As a consequence, most fossil-based power plants in addition to consuming water, impact the water resources by raising the temperature of water withdrawn for cooling. A comprehensive study is conducted in this thesis to analyze and quantify water withdrawals and consumption of various electricity generation sources such as coal, natural gas, renewable sources, etc. Electricity generation for the state of California is studied and presented as California is facing a serious drought problem affecting more than 30 million people. Integrated planning for the interleaved energy and water sectors is essential for both water and energy savings. A linear model is developed to minimize the water consumption while considering several limitations and restrictions. California has planned to shut down some of its hydro and nuclear plants due to environmental concerns. Studies have been performed for various electricity generation and water saving scenarios including no-hydro and no-nuclear plant and the results are presented. Modifications to proposed different scenarios have been applied and discussed to meet the practical and reliability constraints.

  10. Organotin intake through fish consumption in Finland

    SciTech Connect

    Airaksinen, Riikka; Rantakokko, Panu; Turunen, Anu W.; Vartiainen, Terttu; Vuorinen, Pekka J.; Lappalainen, Antti; Vihervuori, Aune; Mannio, Jaakko; Hallikainen, Anja

    2010-08-15

    Background: Organotin compounds (OTCs) are a large class of synthetic chemicals with widely varying properties. Due to their potential adverse health effects, their use has been restricted in many countries. Humans are exposed to OTCs mostly through fish consumption. Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe OTC exposure through fish consumption and to assess the associated potential health risks in a Finnish population. Methods: An extensive sampling of Finnish domestic fish was carried out in the Baltic Sea and freshwater areas in 2005-2007. In addition, samples of imported seafood were collected in 2008. The chemical analysis was performed in an accredited testing laboratory during 2005-2008. Average daily intake of the sum of dibutyltin (DBT), tributyltin (TBT), triphenyltin (TPhT) and dioctyltin (DOT) ({Sigma}OTCs) for the Finnish population was calculated on the basis of the measured concentrations and fish consumption rates. Results: The average daily intake of {Sigma}OTCs through fish consumption was 3.2 ng/kg bw day{sup -1}, which is 1.3% from the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) of 250 ng/kg bw day{sup -1} set by the European Food Safety Authority. In total, domestic wild fish accounted for 61% of the {Sigma}OTC intake, while the intake through domestic farmed fish was 4.0% and the intake through imported fish was 35%. The most important species were domestic perch and imported salmon and rainbow trout. Conclusions: The Finnish consumers are not likely to exceed the threshold level for adverse health effects due to OTC intake through fish consumption.

  11. Consumption Patterns and Perception Analyses of Hangwa

    PubMed Central

    Kwock, Chang Geun; Lee, Min A; Park, So Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Hangwa is a traditional food, corresponding to the current consumption trend, in need of marketing strategies to extend its consumption. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze consumers’ consumption patterns and perception of Hangwa to increase consumption in the market. A questionnaire was sent to 250 consumers by e-mail from Oct 8∼23, 2009 and the data from 231 persons were analyzed in this study. Statistical, descriptive, paired samples t-test, and importance-performance analyses were conducted using SPSS WIN 17.0. According to the results, Hangwa was purchased mainly ‘for present’ (39.8%) and the main reasons for buying it were ‘traditional image’ (33.3%) and ‘taste’ (22.5%). When importance and performance of attributes considered in purchasing Hangwa were evaluated, performance was assessed to be lower than importance for all attributes. The attributes in the first quadrant with a high importance and a high performance were ‘a sanitary process’, ‘a rigorous quality mark’ and ‘taste’, which were related with quality of the products. In addition, those with a high importance but a low performance were ‘popularization through advertisement’, ‘promotion through mass media’, ‘conversion of thought on traditional foods’, ‘a reasonable price’ and ‘a wide range of price’. In conclusion, Hangwa manufacturers need to diversify products and extend the expiration date based on technologies to promote its consumption. In terms of price, Hangwa should become more available by lowering the price barrier for consumers who are sensitive to price. PMID:24471065

  12. Methodology for reconstruction of historical food consumption estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.M.

    1992-05-01

    This report was written to provide the food consumption methodology to be used in the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HDER) Project beyond Phase I (which ended in July 1990). In Phase I (Callaway 1992), baseline food consumption estimates (grams per day) for 10 primary food types in the original 10-county study region were derived from the 1977--1978 National Food Consumption Survey (USDA 1983). The baseline estimates were multiplied by the 1945:1977 ratios to produce consumption estimates for 1945. This ratio backcasting method used in Phase I to project consumption estimates from 1977 back to 1945 will be refined using additional USDA data to improve and document the acceptability of the ratios for deriving backcast consumption estimates. The number of food types and population groups will be expanded to provide more disaggregated estimates of food consumption. Food consumption estimates will be developed for 1945, 1951, and 1957. A database of individual diets will be created from which daily diets will be randomly selected for use in the dose model to calculate doses for reference individuals.

  13. Power limits for microbial life

    PubMed Central

    LaRowe, Douglas E.; Amend, Jan P.

    2015-01-01

    To better understand the origin, evolution, and extent of life, we seek to determine the minimum flux of energy needed for organisms to remain viable. Despite the difficulties associated with direct measurement of the power limits for life, it is possible to use existing data and models to constrain the minimum flux of energy required to sustain microorganisms. Here, a we apply a bioenergetic model to a well characterized marine sedimentary environment in order to quantify the amount of power organisms use in an ultralow-energy setting. In particular, we show a direct link between power consumption in this environment and the amount of biomass (cells cm-3) found in it. The power supply resulting from the aerobic degradation of particular organic carbon (POC) at IODP Site U1370 in the South Pacific Gyre is between ∼10-12 and 10-16 W cm-3. The rates of POC degradation are calculated using a continuum model while Gibbs energies have been computed using geochemical data describing the sediment as a function of depth. Although laboratory-determined values of maintenance power do a poor job of representing the amount of biomass in U1370 sediments, the number of cells per cm-3 can be well-captured using a maintenance power, 190 zW cell-1, two orders of magnitude lower than the lowest value reported in the literature. In addition, we have combined cell counts and calculated power supplies to determine that, on average, the microorganisms at Site U1370 require 50–3500 zW cell-1, with most values under ∼300 zW cell-1. Furthermore, we carried out an analysis of the absolute minimum power requirement for a single cell to remain viable to be on the order of 1 zW cell-1. PMID:26236299

  14. Power limits for microbial life.

    PubMed

    LaRowe, Douglas E; Amend, Jan P

    2015-01-01

    To better understand the origin, evolution, and extent of life, we seek to determine the minimum flux of energy needed for organisms to remain viable. Despite the difficulties associated with direct measurement of the power limits for life, it is possible to use existing data and models to constrain the minimum flux of energy required to sustain microorganisms. Here, a we apply a bioenergetic model to a well characterized marine sedimentary environment in order to quantify the amount of power organisms use in an ultralow-energy setting. In particular, we show a direct link between power consumption in this environment and the amount of biomass (cells cm(-3)) found in it. The power supply resulting from the aerobic degradation of particular organic carbon (POC) at IODP Site U1370 in the South Pacific Gyre is between ∼10(-12) and 10(-16) W cm(-3). The rates of POC degradation are calculated using a continuum model while Gibbs energies have been computed using geochemical data describing the sediment as a function of depth. Although laboratory-determined values of maintenance power do a poor job of representing the amount of biomass in U1370 sediments, the number of cells per cm(-3) can be well-captured using a maintenance power, 190 zW cell(-1), two orders of magnitude lower than the lowest value reported in the literature. In addition, we have combined cell counts and calculated power supplies to determine that, on average, the microorganisms at Site U1370 require 50-3500 zW cell(-1), with most values under ∼300 zW cell(-1). Furthermore, we carried out an analysis of the absolute minimum power requirement for a single cell to remain viable to be on the order of 1 zW cell(-1). PMID:26236299

  15. Soy consumption during menopause.

    PubMed

    Bolca, S; Bracke, M; Depypere, H

    2012-01-01

    In developed countries, the life expectancy of women is currently extending more than 30 years beyond the age of menopause. The menopausal transition is often associated with complaints. The conflicting results on the effectivity of phytoestrogens to alleviate menopausal symptoms. This discrepancy in treatment effect may be due to the large interindividual variation in isoflavone bioavailability in general and equol production in particular. Equol, a microbial metabolite of daidzein, has been hypothesized as a clue to the effectiveness of soy and its isoflavones, but only about 30-50% of the population harbor an intestinal microbial ecosystem supporting the conversion of daidzein into equol. There is much concern on breast cancer, since this incidence of this disease increases with age. There is indication that soy phytoestrogens may decrease this breast cancer incidence. In order to evaluate the estrogenic potential of these exposure levels, we studied the isoflavone-derived E2α- and E2β-equivalents (i.e. 17β-estradiol (E2)-equivalents towards ERα and ERβ, respectively) in human breast tissue. Total isoflavones showed a breast adipose/glandular tissue distribution of 40/60 and their derived E2β-equivalents exceeded on average 21 ± 4 and 40 ± 10 times the endogenous E2 concentrations in corresponding adipose and glandular biopsies, respectively, whereas the E2α/E2 ratios were 0.4 ± 0.1 and 0.8 ± 0.2 in adipose and glandular breast tissue, respectively. These calculations suggest that, at least in this case, soy consumption could elicit partial ERβ agonistic effects in human breast tissue. We are currently characterizing the differential activation of estrogen-responsive genes between dietary isoflavones, the chemopreventive selective ER modulators tamoxifen and raloxifene and exogenous estrogens in a controlled dietary intervention trial that integrates data on the exposure to estrogenically active compounds, expression of isoflavone

  16. Alcohol consumption and plasma homocysteine.

    PubMed

    Sakuta, Hidenari; Suzuki, Takashi

    2005-10-01

    A few reports show that consumption of spirits and of wine correlate with elevated plasma total homocysteine (tHcy), which is associated with the risk of cardiovascular disease. We analyzed the relation between tHcy and current daily ethanol consumption cross-sectionally in middle-aged Japanese men (n = 974, age 51-59 years). Plasma tHcy was positively associated with consumption of whiskey but not with consumption of shochu (Japanese spirits), sake, beer, or wine. Odds ratios of an increase in daily intake of 30 ml ethanol (approximately 1 standard deviation) for hyperhomocysteinemia (>14.0 micromol/l) were 2.58 (95% confidence interval, 1.29-5.14) for whiskey, 1.08 (0.78-1.50) for shochu, 0.99 (0.59-1.66) for sake, 0.98 (0.58-1.63) for beer, and 1.70 (0.31-9.50) for wine in a multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for the daily number of cigarettes smoked, physical activity, vegetable consumption, and serum creatinine levels. After inclusion of plasma folate and vitamin B12 in the multivariate analysis model, the association between whiskey ethanol consumption and hyperhomocysteinemia remained significant with odds ratio of 2.79 (1.36-5.72). These results suggest that whiskey consumption correlates with hyperhomocysteinemia independently of plasma folate or vitamin B12 or lifestyle factors in the population studied.

  17. Alcohol consumption and plasma homocysteine.

    PubMed

    Sakuta, Hidenari; Suzuki, Takashi

    2005-10-01

    A few reports show that consumption of spirits and of wine correlate with elevated plasma total homocysteine (tHcy), which is associated with the risk of cardiovascular disease. We analyzed the relation between tHcy and current daily ethanol consumption cross-sectionally in middle-aged Japanese men (n = 974, age 51-59 years). Plasma tHcy was positively associated with consumption of whiskey but not with consumption of shochu (Japanese spirits), sake, beer, or wine. Odds ratios of an increase in daily intake of 30 ml ethanol (approximately 1 standard deviation) for hyperhomocysteinemia (>14.0 micromol/l) were 2.58 (95% confidence interval, 1.29-5.14) for whiskey, 1.08 (0.78-1.50) for shochu, 0.99 (0.59-1.66) for sake, 0.98 (0.58-1.63) for beer, and 1.70 (0.31-9.50) for wine in a multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for the daily number of cigarettes smoked, physical activity, vegetable consumption, and serum creatinine levels. After inclusion of plasma folate and vitamin B12 in the multivariate analysis model, the association between whiskey ethanol consumption and hyperhomocysteinemia remained significant with odds ratio of 2.79 (1.36-5.72). These results suggest that whiskey consumption correlates with hyperhomocysteinemia independently of plasma folate or vitamin B12 or lifestyle factors in the population studied. PMID:16584970

  18. Electric power monthly, December 1997 with data for September 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. This publication provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and US levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity retail sales, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. In addition, data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source; consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant. 63 tabs.

  19. Power Generation: The Next 30 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holcomb, Robert W.

    1970-01-01

    Discusses pollution problems associated with power production. Estimates power consumption in the 1980's and the availability of fossil and nuclear fuel resources. Emphasizes needed research on air pollution, nuclear pollution, and thermal pollution. (EB)

  20. Application of the thermoelectric MEMS microwave power sensor in a power radiation monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bo, Gao; Jing, Yang; Si, Jiang; Debo, Wang

    2016-08-01

    A power radiation monitoring system based on thermoelectric MEMS microwave power sensors is studied. This monitoring system consists of three modules: a data acquisition module, a data processing and display module, and a data sharing module. It can detect the power radiation in the environment and the date information can be processed and shared. The measured results show that the thermoelectric MEMS microwave power sensor and the power radiation monitoring system both have a relatively good linearity. The sensitivity of the thermoelectric MEMS microwave power sensor is about 0.101 mV/mW, and the sensitivity of the monitoring system is about 0.038 V/mW. The voltage gain of the monitoring system is about 380 times, which is relatively consistent with the theoretical value. In addition, the low-frequency and low-power module in the monitoring system is adopted in order to reduce the electromagnetic pollution and the power consumption, and this work will extend the application of the thermoelectric MEMS microwave power sensor in more areas. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11304158), the Province Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu (No. BK20140890), the Open Research Fund of the Key Laboratory of MEMS of Ministry of Education, Southeast University (No. 3206005302), and the Scientific Research Foundation of Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications (Nos. NY213024, NY215139).

  1. Influence of Educational Attainment on Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Xuemin; He, Youning

    2007-01-01

    In market economy, man is both the essential productive factor and the consuming subject. Education promotes the two aspects. As shown by investigations on the influence of educational attainment on consumption, education has great influences on people's consumption level, consumption structure, consumption modes and consumption concepts. The…

  2. 21 CFR 170.38 - Determination of food additive status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Determination of food additive status. 170.38 Section 170.38 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive Safety § 170.38...

  3. 21 CFR 170.38 - Determination of food additive status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Determination of food additive status. 170.38 Section 170.38 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive Safety § 170.38...

  4. 21 CFR 170.38 - Determination of food additive status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Determination of food additive status. 170.38 Section 170.38 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive Safety § 170.38...

  5. Chronic Ethanol Consumption Inhibits Postlactational Anabolic Rebuilding in Female Rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite significant loss of bone during lactation, bone mineral density (BMD) is restored by a powerful anabolic rebuilding process following weaning. A significant number of women resume alcohol consumption after weaning their offspring from breast feeding. The objectives of the present study were ...

  6. Alcohol consumption on pancreatic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Herreros-Villanueva, Marta; Hijona, Elizabeth; Bañales, Jesus Maria; Cosme, Angel; Bujanda, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Although the association between alcohol and pancreatic diseases has been recognized for a long time, the impact of alcohol consumption on pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer (PC) remains poorly defined. Nowadays there is not consensus about the epidemiology and the beverage type, dose and duration of alcohol consumption causing these diseases. The objective of this study was to review the epidemiology described in the literature for pancreatic diseases as a consequence of alcoholic behavior trying to understand the association between dose, type and frequency of alcohol consumption and risk of pancreatitis and PC. The majority of the studies conclude that high alcohol intake was associated with a higher risk of pancreatitis (around 2.5%-3% between heavy drinkers and 1.3% between non drinkers). About 70% of pancreatitis are due to chronic heavy alcohol consumption. Although this incidence rate differs between countries, it is clear that the risk of developing pancreatitis increases with increasing doses of alcohol and the average of alcohol consumption vary since 80 to 150 g/d for 10-15 years. With regard to PC, the role of alcohol consumption remains less clear, and low to moderate alcohol consumption do not appear to be associated with PC risk, and only chronic heavy drinking increase the risk compared with lightly drinkers. In a population of 10%-15% of heavy drinkers, 2%-5% of all PC cases could be attributed to alcohol consumption. However, as only a minority (less than 10% for pancreatitis and 5% for PC) of heavily drinkers develops these pancreatic diseases, there are other predisposing factors besides alcohol involved. Genetic variability and environmental exposures such as smoking and diet modify the risk and should be considered for further investigations. PMID:23429423

  7. Manufacturing consumption of energy 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    This report provides estimates on energy consumption in the manufacturing sector of the US economy. These estimates are based on data from the 1991 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS). This survey--administered by the Energy End Use and Integrated Statistics Division, Office of Energy Markets and End Use, Energy Information Administration (EIA)--is the most comprehensive source of national-level data on energy-related information for the manufacturing industries.

  8. Comparison of Overall Resource Consumption of Biosolids Management System Processes Using Exergetic Life Cycle Assessment.

    PubMed

    Alanya, Sevda; Dewulf, Jo; Duran, Metin

    2015-08-18

    This study focused on the evaluation of biosolids management systems (BMS) from a natural resource consumption point of view. Additionally, the environmental impact of the facilities was benchmarked using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to provide a comprehensive assessment. This is the first study to apply a Cumulative Exergy Extraction from the Natural Environment (CEENE) method for an in-depth resource use assessment of BMS where two full-scale BMS and seven system variations were analyzed. CEENE allows better system evaluation and understanding of how much benefit is achievable from the products generated by BMS, which have valorization potential. LCA results showed that environmental burden is mostly from the intense electricity consumption. The CEENE analysis further revealed that the environmental burden is due to the high consumption of fossil and nuclear-based natural resources. Using Cumulative Degree of Perfection, higher resource-use efficiency, 53%, was observed in the PTA-2 where alkaline stabilization rather than anaerobic digestion is employed. However, an anaerobic digestion process is favorable over alkaline stabilization, with 35% lower overall natural resource use. The most significant reduction of the resource footprint occurred when the output biogas was valorized in a combined heat and power system. PMID:26218291

  9. Comparison of Overall Resource Consumption of Biosolids Management System Processes Using Exergetic Life Cycle Assessment.

    PubMed

    Alanya, Sevda; Dewulf, Jo; Duran, Metin

    2015-08-18

    This study focused on the evaluation of biosolids management systems (BMS) from a natural resource consumption point of view. Additionally, the environmental impact of the facilities was benchmarked using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to provide a comprehensive assessment. This is the first study to apply a Cumulative Exergy Extraction from the Natural Environment (CEENE) method for an in-depth resource use assessment of BMS where two full-scale BMS and seven system variations were analyzed. CEENE allows better system evaluation and understanding of how much benefit is achievable from the products generated by BMS, which have valorization potential. LCA results showed that environmental burden is mostly from the intense electricity consumption. The CEENE analysis further revealed that the environmental burden is due to the high consumption of fossil and nuclear-based natural resources. Using Cumulative Degree of Perfection, higher resource-use efficiency, 53%, was observed in the PTA-2 where alkaline stabilization rather than anaerobic digestion is employed. However, an anaerobic digestion process is favorable over alkaline stabilization, with 35% lower overall natural resource use. The most significant reduction of the resource footprint occurred when the output biogas was valorized in a combined heat and power system.

  10. Alcohol Consumption in Demographic Subpopulations

    PubMed Central

    Delker, Erin; Brown, Qiana; Hasin, Deborah S.

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is common across subpopulations in the United States. However, the health burden associated with alcohol consumption varies across groups, including those defined by demographic characteristics such as age, race/ethnicity, and gender. Large national surveys, such as the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions and the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, found that young adults ages 18–25 were at particularly high risk of alcohol use disorder and unintentional injury caused by drinking. These surveys furthermore identified significant variability in alcohol consumption and its consequences among racial/ethnic groups. White respondents reported the highest prevalence of current alcohol consumption, whereas alcohol abuse and dependence were most prevalent among Native Americans. Native Americans and Blacks also were most vulnerable to alcohol-related health consequences. Even within ethnic groups, there was variability between and among different subpopulations. With respect to gender, men reported more alcohol consumption and binge drinking than women, especially in older cohorts. Men also were at greater risk of alcohol abuse and dependence, liver cirrhosis, homicide after alcohol consumption, and drinking and driving. Systematic identification and measurement of the variability across demographics will guide prevention and intervention efforts, as well as future research. PMID:27159807

  11. Storage format for personalized broadcasting content consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Sung Ho; Jang, Jea-Seok; Min, Hyun-Seok; Ro, Yong Man; Kim, Hui Yong

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a storage format which binds digital broadcasts with related data such as TV-Anytime metadata, additional multimedia resources, and personal viewing history. The goal of the proposed format is to make it possible to offer personalized content consumption after recording broadcasting contents to storage devices, e.g., HD-DVD and Blu-ray Disc. To achieve that, we adopt MPEG-4 file format as a container and apply a binary format for scenes (BIFS) for representing and rendering personal viewing history. In addition, TV-Anytime metadata is used to describe broadcasts and to refer to the additional multimedia resources, e.g, images, audio clips, and short video clips. To demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed format, we introduce an application scenario and test it on that scenario.

  12. [Food additives and healthiness].

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects.

  13. Rat splanchnic net oxygen consumption, energy implications.

    PubMed Central

    Casado, J; Fernández-López, J A; Esteve, M; Rafecas, I; Argilés, J M; Alemany, M

    1990-01-01

    1. The blood flow, PO2, pH and PCO2 have been estimated in portal and suprahepatic veins as well as in hepatic artery of fed and overnight starved rats given an oral glucose load. From these data the net intestinal, hepatic and splanchnic balances for oxygen and bicarbonate were calculated. The oxygen consumption of the intact animal has also been measured under comparable conditions. 2. The direct utilization of oxygen balances as energy equivalents when establishing the contribution of energy metabolism of liver and intestine to the overall energy expenses of the rat, has been found to be incorrect, since it incorporates the intrinsic error of interorgan proton transfer through bicarbonate. Liver and intestine produced high net bicarbonate balances in all situations tested, implying the elimination (by means of oxidative pathways, i.e. consuming additional oxygen) of high amounts of H+ generated with bicarbonate. The equivalence in energy output of the oxygen balances was then corrected for bicarbonate production to 11-54% lower values. 3. Intestine and liver consume a high proportion of available oxygen, about one-half in basal (fed or starved) conditions and about one-third after gavage, the intestine consumption being about 15% in all situations tested and the liver decreasing its oxygen consumption with gavage. PMID:2129230

  14. Design and experimental demonstration of low-power CMOS magnetic cell manipulation platform using charge recycling technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niitsu, Kiichi; Yoshida, Kohei; Nakazato, Kazuo

    2016-03-01

    We present the world’s first charge-recycling-based low-power technique of complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) magnetic cell manipulation. CMOS magnetic cell manipulation associated with magnetic beads is a promissing tool for on-chip biomedical-analysis applications such as drug screening because CMOS can integrate control electronics and electro-chemical sensors. However, the conventional CMOS cell manipulation requires considerable power consumption. In this work, by concatenating multiple unit circuits and recycling electric charge among them, power consumption is reduced by a factor of the number of the concatenated unit circuits (1/N). For verifying the effectiveness, test chip was fabricated in a 0.6-µm CMOS. The chip successfully manipulates magnetic microbeads with achieving 49% power reduction (from 51 to 26.2 mW). Even considering the additional serial resistance of the concatenated inductors, nearly theoretical power reduction effect can be confirmed.

  15. Monitoring sweetener consumption in Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Hinson, A L; Nicol, W M

    1992-01-01

    A comprehensive survey of the consumption of intense sweeteners in Great Britain in 1988 quantified the levels of usage of different sweeteners and identified their distribution between food categories and population subgroups. Saccharin was found to be the most widely used intense sweetener. Beverages were the most common source of intense sweeteners. The quantities consumed of all sweeteners were found to be below the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) values established by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives, the European Commission Scientific Committee for Food or the UK Committee on Toxicity of Chemicals in Food, Consumer Products and the Environment.

  16. 40 CFR 82.10 - Availability of consumption allowances in addition to baseline consumption allowances for class I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... this subpart (Parties to the Montreal Protocol) must agree to transfer to the person for the current control period some amount of production that the nation is permitted under the Montreal Protocol. If the... Protocol for class I, Group I through Group V and Group VII controlled substances until January 1, 1996...

  17. 40 CFR 82.10 - Availability of consumption allowances in addition to baseline consumption allowances for class I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... this subpart (Parties to the Montreal Protocol) must agree to transfer to the person for the current control period some amount of production that the nation is permitted under the Montreal Protocol. If the... Protocol for class I, Group I through Group V and Group VII controlled substances until January 1, 1996...

  18. 40 CFR 82.10 - Availability of consumption allowances in addition to baseline consumption allowances for class I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... this subpart (Parties to the Montreal Protocol) must agree to transfer to the person for the current control period some amount of production that the nation is permitted under the Montreal Protocol. If the... Protocol for class I, Group I through Group V and Group VII controlled substances until January 1, 1996...

  19. Inconsistent Investment and Consumption Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Kronborg, Morten Tolver; Steffensen, Mogens

    2015-06-15

    In a traditional Black–Scholes market we develop a verification theorem for a general class of investment and consumption problems where the standard dynamic programming principle does not hold. The theorem is an extension of the standard Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman equation in the form of a system of non-linear differential equations. We derive the optimal investment and consumption strategy for a mean-variance investor without pre-commitment endowed with labor income. In the case of constant risk aversion it turns out that the optimal amount of money to invest in stocks is independent of wealth. The optimal consumption strategy is given as a deterministic bang-bang strategy. In order to have a more realistic model we allow the risk aversion to be time and state dependent. Of special interest is the case were the risk aversion is inversely proportional to present wealth plus the financial value of future labor income net of consumption. Using the verification theorem we give a detailed analysis of this problem. It turns out that the optimal amount of money to invest in stocks is given by a linear function of wealth plus the financial value of future labor income net of consumption. The optimal consumption strategy is again given as a deterministic bang-bang strategy. We also calculate, for a general time and state dependent risk aversion function, the optimal investment and consumption strategy for a mean-standard deviation investor without pre-commitment. In that case, it turns out that it is optimal to take no risk at all.

  20. Application Power Signature Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, Chung-Hsing; Combs, Jacob; Nazor, Jolie; Santiago, Fabian; Thysell, Rachelle; Rivoire, Suzanne; Poole, Stephen W

    2014-01-01

    The high-performance computing (HPC) community has been greatly concerned about energy efficiency. To address this concern, it is essential to understand and characterize the electrical loads of HPC applications. In this work, we study whether HPC applications can be distinguished by their power-consumption patterns using quantitative measures in an automatic manner. Using a collection of 88 power traces from 4 different systems, we find that basic statistical measures do a surprisingly good job of summarizing applications' distinctive power behavior. Moreover, this study opens up a new area of research in power-aware HPC that has a multitude of potential applications.

  1. Becoming Economic Subjects: Agency, Consumption and Popular Culture in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saltmarsh, Sue

    2009-01-01

    This paper considers how young children in early childhood education draw on popular texts and consumer goods in their constitution of subjectivities and social relations. The paper draws on poststructuralist theories of subjectivity, agency, consumption and power, to explore how performative practices of consumption figure in the constitution of…

  2. [Personality factors as predictors of alcohol consumption by university students].

    PubMed

    Natividade, Jean Carlos; Aguirre, Alba Recalde; Bizarro, Lisiane; Hutz, Claudio Simon

    2012-06-01

    This study aimed to verify differences in personality factors between abstainers and drinkers and between individuals with higher versus lower levels of alcohol consumption in the previous three months, and to test the predictive power of factors for any lifetime alcohol consumption and for at least monthly alcohol consumption. A total of 169 university students participated, of whom 66.7% were women, with a mean age of 21.2 years. Lifetime alcohol consumption was 90.1%; 42.3% had consumed at least twice in the previous three months; and 57.7% consumed alcohol at least monthly. Participants with less frequent consumption in the previous three months showed higher mean scores for personality factors involving socialization and achievement, while those that consumed more frequently scored higher on extroversion. A predictive model showed that increments in extroversion contributed to increased odds of drinking alcohol, while increments in achievement decreased the odds of drinking. Personality characteristics were able to distinguish between different groups of drinkers and predict the frequency of alcohol consumption. PMID:22666813

  3. Meat Consumption Culture in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Cheorun

    2014-01-01

    The consumption of animal flesh food in Ethiopia has associated with cultural practices. Meat plays pivotal and vital parts in special occasions and its cultural symbolic weight is markedly greater than that accorded to most other food. Processing and cooking of poultry is a gender based duty and has socio-cultural roles. Ethiopians are dependent on limited types of animals for meats due to the taboo associated culturally. Moreover, the consumption of meat and meat products has a very tidy association with religious beliefs, and are influenced by religions. The main religions of Ethiopia have their own peculiar doctrines of setting the feeding habits and customs of their followers. They influence meat products consumption through dictating the source animals that should be used or not be used for food, and scheduling the days of the years in periodical permeation and restriction of consumptions which in turn influences the pattern of meat consumption in the country. In Ethiopia, a cow or an ox is commonly butchered for the sole purpose of selling within the community. In special occasions, people have a cultural ceremony of slaughtering cow or ox and sharing among the group, called Kircha, which is a very common option of the people in rural area where access of meat is challenging frequently. PMID:26760739

  4. NOAA OTEC CWP (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Cold Water Pipe) at-sea test. Volume 3: Additional tabulation of the power spectra, part 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1983-12-01

    Data collected during the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Cold Water Pipe At Sea Test are analyzed. Also included are the following ittems: (1) sensor factors and offsets, and the data processing algorithms used to convert the recorded sensor measurements from electrical to engineering units; (2) plots of the power spectra estimates obtained from a fast fourier transform (FFT) analysis of selected channels; (3) plots of selected sensor measurements as a function of time; and (4) plots of bending strain along the pipe using statistics and values presented.

  5. Controlled cooling of an electronic system for reduced energy consumption

    DOEpatents

    David, Milnes P.; Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Schmidt, Roger R.

    2016-08-09

    Energy efficient control of a cooling system cooling an electronic system is provided. The control includes automatically determining at least one adjusted control setting for at least one adjustable cooling component of a cooling system cooling the electronic system. The automatically determining is based, at least in part, on power being consumed by the cooling system and temperature of a heat sink to which heat extracted by the cooling system is rejected. The automatically determining operates to reduce power consumption of the cooling system and/or the electronic system while ensuring that at least one targeted temperature associated with the cooling system or the electronic system is within a desired range. The automatically determining may be based, at least in part, on one or more experimentally obtained models relating the targeted temperature and power consumption of the one or more adjustable cooling components of the cooling system.

  6. Risks and Benefits of Consumption of Great Lakes Fish

    PubMed Central

    Bhavsar, Satyendra P.; Bowerman, William; Boysen, Eric; Clark, Milton; Diamond, Miriam; Mergler, Donna; Pantazopoulos, Peter; Schantz, Susan; Carpenter, David O.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Beneficial effects of fish consumption on early cognitive development and cardiovascular health have been attributed to the omega-3 fatty acids in fish and fish oils, but toxic chemicals in fish may adversely affect these health outcomes. Risk–benefit assessments of fish consumption have frequently focused on methylmercury and omega-3 fatty acids, not persistent pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls, and none have evaluated Great Lakes fish consumption. Objectives: The risks and benefits of fish consumption have been established primarily for marine fish. Here, we examine whether sufficient data are available to evaluate the risks and benefits of eating freshwater fish from the Great Lakes. Methods: We used a scoping review to integrate information from multiple state, provincial, and federal agency sources regarding the contaminants and omega-3 fatty acids in Great Lakes fish and fish consumers, consumption rates and fish consumption advisories, and health effects of contaminants and omega-3 fatty acids. Data synthesis: Great Lakes fish contain persistent contaminants—many of which have documented adverse health effects —that accumulate in humans consuming them. In contrast, data are sparse on omega-3 fatty acids in the fish and their consumers. Moreover, few studies have documented the social and cultural benefits of Great Lakes fish consumption, particularly for subsistence fishers and native communities. At this time, federal and state/provincial governments provide fish consumption advisories based solely on risk. Conclusions: Our knowledge of Great Lakes fish has critical gaps, particularly regarding the benefits of consumption. A risk–benefit analysis requires more information than is currently available on the concentration of omega-3 fatty acids in Great Lakes fish and their absorption by fish eaters in addition to more information on the social, cultural, and health consequences of changes in the amount of fish consumed. PMID

  7. Optimizing Baseload Power of Interconnected Wind Farms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobrin, B. H.

    2010-12-01

    Interconnecting wind farms has been proposed as a way to reduce the natural unreliability of wind power caused by the intermittency of winds. In a previous study, the benefits of interconnecting up to 19 sites in the Midwestern United States were evaluated with the assumption that the same number of turbines would be installed at each site. The goal of this study was to avoid this assumption and examine the advantages of optimizing the ratio of turbines at each site. An optimization algorithm based on the gradient method was used to maximize the baseload power, or guaranteed power 87.5% of the year, using hourly wind speed data for the same 19 sites. The result was a significant improvement in the reliability of the array, increasing the baseload power by 38% compared to the array with equally-weighted sites. Further analysis showed that the turbines were generally distributed according to the average wind power at each site and the wind correlation among sites. In addition to optimizing the average baseload of the array, this study examined the benefits of optimizing the baseload for peak usage time (between noon and 7 p.m), and thus a simplified model was created to analyze how interconnecting wind farms could increase correlation with energy consumption. Optimization for peak usage hours, however, provided no additional benefit over the original optimized array because the variation of average hourly wind speeds was well-correlated among the sites.

  8. Assessing the Energy Consumption of Smartphone Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abousaleh, Mustafa M.

    Mobile devices are increasingly becoming essential in people's lives. The advancement in technology and mobility factor are allowing users to utilize mobile devices for communication, entertainment, financial planning, fitness tracking, etc. As a result, mobile applications are also becoming important factors contributing to user utility. However, battery capacity is the limiting factor impacting the quality of user experience. Hence, it is imperative to understand how much energy impact do mobile apps have on the system relative to other device activities. This thesis presents a systematic studying of the energy impact of mobile apps features. Time-series electrical current measurements are collected from 4 different modern smartphones. Statistical analysis methodologies are used to calculate the energy impact of each app feature by identifying and extracting mobile app-feature events from the overall current signal. In addition, the app overhead energy costs are also computed. Total energy consumption equations for each component is developed and an overall total energy consumption equation is presented. Minutes Lost (ML) of normal phone operations due to the energy consumption of the mobile app functionality is computed for cases where the mobile app is simulated to run on the various devices for 30 minutes. Tutela Technologies Inc. mobile app, NAT, is used for this study. NAT has two main features: QoS and Throughput. The impact of the QoS feature is indistinguishable, i.e. ML is zero, relative to other phone activities. The ML with only the TP feature enabled is on average 2.1 minutes. Enabling the GPS increases the ML on average to 11.5 minutes. Displaying the app GUI interface in addition to running the app features and enabling the GPS results in an average ML of 12.4 minutes. Amongst the various mobile app features and components studied, the GPS consumes the highest amount of energy. It is estimated that the GPS increases the ML by about 448%.

  9. Moral Violations Reduce Oral Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Cindy; Van Boven, Leaf; Andrade, Eduardo B.; Ariely, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Consumers frequently encounter moral violations in everyday life. They watch movies and television shows about crime and deception, hear news reports of corporate fraud and tax evasion, and hear gossip about cheaters and thieves. How does exposure to moral violations influence consumption? Because moral violations arouse disgust and because disgust is an evolutionarily important signal of contamination that should provoke a multi-modal response, we hypothesize that moral violations affect a key behavioral response to disgust: reduced oral consumption. In three experiments, compared with those in control conditions, people drank less water and chocolate milk while (a) watching a film portraying the moral violations of incest, (b) writing about moral violations of cheating or theft, and (c) listening to a report about fraud and manipulation. These findings imply that “moral disgust” influences consumption in ways similar to core disgust, and thus provide evidence for the associations between moral violations, emotions, and consumer behavior. PMID:25125931

  10. Moral Violations Reduce Oral Consumption.

    PubMed

    Chan, Cindy; Van Boven, Leaf; Andrade, Eduardo B; Ariely, Dan

    2014-07-01

    Consumers frequently encounter moral violations in everyday life. They watch movies and television shows about crime and deception, hear news reports of corporate fraud and tax evasion, and hear gossip about cheaters and thieves. How does exposure to moral violations influence consumption? Because moral violations arouse disgust and because disgust is an evolutionarily important signal of contamination that should provoke a multi-modal response, we hypothesize that moral violations affect a key behavioral response to disgust: reduced oral consumption. In three experiments, compared with those in control conditions, people drank less water and chocolate milk while (a) watching a film portraying the moral violations of incest, (b) writing about moral violations of cheating or theft, and (c) listening to a report about fraud and manipulation. These findings imply that "moral disgust" influences consumption in ways similar to core disgust, and thus provide evidence for the associations between moral violations, emotions, and consumer behavior.

  11. Experimental Energy Consumption of Frame Slotted ALOHA and Distributed Queuing for Data Collection Scenarios

    PubMed Central

    Tuset-Peiro, Pere; Vazquez-Gallego, Francisco; Alonso-Zarate, Jesus; Alonso, Luis; Vilajosana, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Data collection is a key scenario for the Internet of Things because it enables gathering sensor data from distributed nodes that use low-power and long-range wireless technologies to communicate in a single-hop approach. In this kind of scenario, the network is composed of one coordinator that covers a particular area and a large number of nodes, typically hundreds or thousands, that transmit data to the coordinator upon request. Considering this scenario, in this paper we experimentally validate the energy consumption of two Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols, Frame Slotted ALOHA (FSA) and Distributed Queuing (DQ). We model both protocols as a state machine and conduct experiments to measure the average energy consumption in each state and the average number of times that a node has to be in each state in order to transmit a data packet to the coordinator. The results show that FSA is more energy efficient than DQ if the number of nodes is known a priori because the number of slots per frame can be adjusted accordingly. However, in such scenarios the number of nodes cannot be easily anticipated, leading to additional packet collisions and a higher energy consumption due to retransmissions. Contrarily, DQ does not require to know the number of nodes in advance because it is able to efficiently construct an ad hoc network schedule for each collection round. This kind of a schedule ensures that there are no packet collisions during data transmission, thus leading to an energy consumption reduction above 10% compared to FSA. PMID:25061839

  12. Nuclear Power in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, John W.

    1983-01-01

    Energy consumption in Japan has grown at a faster rate than in any other major industrial country. To maintain continued prosperity, the government has embarked on a crash program for nuclear power. Current progress and issues/reactions to the plan are discussed. (JN)

  13. Consumption: Challenge to sustainable development

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, N.

    1997-04-04

    This editorial about sustainable development points to consumption as one of the four interlinked global problems including population, environment, and development, and the least tractable of the four. Consumption patterns and expectations are deeply entrenched in most cultures, and hard to change, though change will come whether by design or defaults. Among the topics commented on are artificially priced fossil fuels, toxic pollutants, use of nonrenewable resources, etc. Also discussed are policy options and the role of science. A response is included. 21 refs.

  14. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, James C. (Inventor); Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  15. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of the additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  16. Analysis and Optimization of Building Energy Consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuah, Jun Wei

    Energy is one of the most important resources required by modern human society. In 2010, energy expenditures represented 10% of global gross domestic product (GDP). By 2035, global energy consumption is expected to increase by more than 50% from current levels. The increased pace of global energy consumption leads to significant environmental and socioeconomic issues: (i) carbon emissions, from the burning of fossil fuels for energy, contribute to global warming, and (ii) increased energy expenditures lead to reduced standard of living. Efficient use of energy, through energy conservation measures, is an important step toward mitigating these effects. Residential and commercial buildings represent a prime target for energy conservation, comprising 21% of global energy consumption and 40% of the total energy consumption in the United States. This thesis describes techniques for the analysis and optimization of building energy consumption. The thesis focuses on building retrofits and building energy simulation as key areas in building energy optimization and analysis. The thesis first discusses and evaluates building-level renewable energy generation as a solution toward building energy optimization. The thesis next describes a novel heating system, called localized heating. Under localized heating, building occupants are heated individually by directed radiant heaters, resulting in a considerably reduced heated space and significant heating energy savings. To support localized heating, a minimally-intrusive indoor occupant positioning system is described. The thesis then discusses occupant-level sensing (OLS) as the next frontier in building energy optimization. OLS captures the exact environmental conditions faced by each building occupant, using sensors that are carried by all building occupants. The information provided by OLS enables fine-grained optimization for unprecedented levels of energy efficiency and occupant comfort. The thesis also describes a retrofit

  17. Energy consumption of personal computer workstations

    SciTech Connect

    Szydlowski, R.F.; Chvala, W.D. Jr.

    1994-08-01

    A field study directly measured the electric demand of 189 personal computer workstations for 1-week intervals, and a survey recorded the connected equipment at 1,846 workstations in six buildings. Each separate workstation component (e.g., computer, monitor, printer, modem, and other peripheral) was individually monitored to obtain detailed electric demand profiles. Other analyses included comparison of nameplate power rating with measured power consumption and the energy savings potential and cost-effectiveness of a controller that automatically turns off computer workstation equipment during inactivity. An important outcome of the work is the development of a standard workstation demand profile and a technique for estimating a whole-building demand profile. Together, these provide a method for transferring this information to utility energy analysts, design engineers, building energy modelers, and others. A life-cycle cost analysis was used to determine the cost-effectiveness of three energy conservation measures: (1) energy awareness education, (2) retrofit power controller installation, and (3) purchase of energy-efficient PCs.

  18. Power Measurement Methods for Energy Efficient Applications

    PubMed Central

    Calandrini, Guilherme; Gardel, Alfredo; Bravo, Ignacio; Revenga, Pedro; Lázaro, José L.; Toledo-Moreo, F. Javier

    2013-01-01

    Energy consumption constraints on computing systems are more important than ever. Maintenance costs for high performance systems are limiting the applicability of processing devices with large dissipation power. New solutions are needed to increase both the computation capability and the power efficiency. Moreover, energy efficient applications should balance performance vs. consumption. Therefore power data of components are important. This work presents the most remarkable alternatives to measure the power consumption of different types of computing systems, describing the advantages and limitations of available power measurement systems. Finally, a methodology is proposed to select the right power consumption measurement system taking into account precision of the measure, scalability and controllability of the acquisition system. PMID:23778191

  19. Comprehensive European dietary exposure model (CEDEM) for food additives.

    PubMed

    Tennant, David R

    2016-05-01

    European methods for assessing dietary exposures to nutrients, additives and other substances in food are limited by the availability of detailed food consumption data for all member states. A proposed comprehensive European dietary exposure model (CEDEM) applies summary data published by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) in a deterministic model based on an algorithm from the EFSA intake method for food additives. The proposed approach can predict estimates of food additive exposure provided in previous EFSA scientific opinions that were based on the full European food consumption database.

  20. Secondary power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    In aeronautical engineering secondary power systems have long played second fiddle to the airframe, the engine, and indeed, the avionics. This collection of papers is thus timely, and its publication by the Institution of Mechanical Engineers appropriate, as secondary power systems in modern aircraft present challenging mechanical engineering problems. In military aircraft demands for electrical and hydraulic power and high pressure air have grown over the past two decades. To these basic needs are added requirements for emergency power, ground power, and independent engine starting. Additionally increased reliability and maintainability is demanded from all secondary power systems. Complete contents: What is a secondary power system. Modern technology secondary power systems for next generation military aircraft; Integrated power units; Secondary power system gearbox; Starting the system - air turbine starters; Auxiliary and emergency power system; Secondary hydraulic power generation; Advanced technology electrical power generation equipment.

  1. Additional Types of Neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... A A Listen En Español Additional Types of Neuropathy Charcot's Joint Charcot's Joint, also called neuropathic arthropathy, ... can stop bone destruction and aid healing. Cranial Neuropathy Cranial neuropathy affects the 12 pairs of nerves ...

  2. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wender, Ester H.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that food additives are causally associated with hyperkinesis and learning disabilities in children is reviewed, and available data are summarized. Available from: American Medical Association 535 North Dearborn Street Chicago, Illinois 60610. (JG)

  3. Smog control fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Lundby, W.

    1993-06-29

    A method is described of controlling, reducing or eliminating, ozone and related smog resulting from photochemical reactions between ozone and automotive or industrial gases comprising the addition of iodine or compounds of iodine to hydrocarbon-base fuels prior to or during combustion in an amount of about 1 part iodine per 240 to 10,000,000 parts fuel, by weight, to be accomplished by: (a) the addition of these inhibitors during or after the refining or manufacturing process of liquid fuels; (b) the production of these inhibitors for addition into fuel tanks, such as automotive or industrial tanks; or (c) the addition of these inhibitors into combustion chambers of equipment utilizing solid fuels for the purpose of reducing ozone.

  4. Power optimization of digital baseband WCDMA receiver components on algorithmic and architectural level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schämann, M.; Bücker, M.; Hessel, S.; Langmann, U.

    2008-05-01

    High data rates combined with high mobility represent a challenge for the design of cellular devices. Advanced algorithms are required which result in higher complexity, more chip area and increased power consumption. However, this contrasts to the limited power supply of mobile devices. This presentation discusses the application of an HSDPA receiver which has been optimized regarding power consumption with the focus on the algorithmic and architectural level. On algorithmic level the Rake combiner, Prefilter-Rake equalizer and MMSE equalizer are compared regarding their BER performance. Both equalizer approaches provide a significant increase of performance for high data rates compared to the Rake combiner which is commonly used for lower data rates. For both equalizer approaches several adaptive algorithms are available which differ in complexity and convergence properties. To identify the algorithm which achieves the required performance with the lowest power consumption the algorithms have been investigated using SystemC models regarding their performance and arithmetic complexity. Additionally, for the Prefilter Rake equalizer the power estimations of a modified Griffith (LMS) and a Levinson (RLS) algorithm have been compared with the tool ORINOCO supplied by ChipVision. The accuracy of this tool has been verified with a scalable architecture of the UMTS channel estimation described both in SystemC and VHDL targeting a 130 nm CMOS standard cell library. An architecture combining all three approaches combined with an adaptive control unit is presented. The control unit monitors the current condition of the propagation channel and adjusts parameters for the receiver like filter size and oversampling ratio to minimize the power consumption while maintaining the required performance. The optimization strategies result in a reduction of the number of arithmetic operations up to 70% for single components which leads to an estimated power reduction of up to 40

  5. Using LEDs to reduce energy consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eweni, Chukwuebuka E.

    The most popularly used light bulb in homes is the incandescent. It is also the least energy efficient. The filament in the bulb is so thin that it causes resistance in the electricity, which in turn causes the electricity's energy to form heat. This causes the incandescent to waste a lot of energy forming heat rather than forming the light. It uses 15 lumens per watt of input power. A recorded MATLAB demonstration showcased LED versatility and how it can be used by an Arduino UNO board. The objective of this thesis is to showcase how LEDs can reduce energy consumption through the use of an Arduino UNO board and MATLAB and to discuss the applications of LED. LED will be the future of lighting homes and will eventually completely incandescent bulbs when companies begin to make the necessary improvements to the LED.

  6. Predicting ship fuel consumption: Update. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Schrady, D.A.; Smyth, G.K.; Vassian, R.B.

    1996-07-01

    This report is concerned with the prediction of ship propulsion fuel consumption as a function of ship speed for U.S. Navy combatant and auxiliary ships. Prediction is based on fitting an analytic function to published ship class speed-fuel use data using nonlinear regression. The form of the analytic function fitted is motivated by the literature on ship powering and resistance. The report discusses data sources and data issues, and the impact of ship propulsion plant configuration on fuel use. The regression coefficients of the exponential function fitted, tabular numerical comparison of predicted and actual fuel use data, the standard error of the estimate, and plots of actual and fitted data are given for 22 classes of Navy ships.

  7. An ultralow power athermal silicon modulator

    PubMed Central

    Timurdogan, Erman; Sorace-Agaskar, Cheryl M.; Sun, Jie; Shah Hosseini, Ehsan; Biberman, Aleksandr; Watts, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Silicon photonics has emerged as the leading candidate for implementing ultralow power wavelength–division–multiplexed communication networks in high-performance computers, yet current components (lasers, modulators, filters and detectors) consume too much power for the high-speed femtojoule-class links that ultimately will be required. Here we demonstrate and characterize the first modulator to achieve simultaneous high-speed (25 Gb s−1), low-voltage (0.5 VPP) and efficient 0.9 fJ per bit error-free operation. This low-energy high-speed operation is enabled by a record electro-optic response, obtained in a vertical p–n junction device that at 250 pm V−1 (30 GHz V−1) is up to 10 times larger than prior demonstrations. In addition, this record electro-optic response is used to compensate for thermal drift over a 7.5 °C temperature range with little additional energy consumption (0.24 fJ per bit for a total energy consumption below 1.03 J per bit). The combined results of highly efficient modulation and electro-optic thermal compensation represent a new paradigm in modulator development and a major step towards single-digit femtojoule-class communications. PMID:24915772

  8. 21 CFR 170.10 - Food additives in standardized foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Food additives in standardized foods. 170.10 Section 170.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.10 Food...

  9. 21 CFR 170.18 - Tolerances for related food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tolerances for related food additives. 170.18 Section 170.18 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.18 Tolerances...

  10. 21 CFR 170.10 - Food additives in standardized foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Food additives in standardized foods. 170.10 Section 170.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.10 Food...

  11. 21 CFR 170.18 - Tolerances for related food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tolerances for related food additives. 170.18 Section 170.18 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.18 Tolerances...

  12. 21 CFR 170.10 - Food additives in standardized foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Food additives in standardized foods. 170.10 Section 170.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.10 Food...

  13. 21 CFR 170.18 - Tolerances for related food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tolerances for related food additives. 170.18 Section 170.18 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.18 Tolerances...

  14. 21 CFR 170.10 - Food additives in standardized foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Food additives in standardized foods. 170.10 Section 170.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.10 Food...

  15. Survey data on household electricity consumption and living status in Northwestern China.

    PubMed

    Niu, Shuwen; Jia, Yanqin; Ye, Liqiong; Dai, Runqi; Li, Na

    2016-06-01

    Based on 1128 survey questionnaires, main information on urban and rural household electricity consumption was obtained. Original data included household income, the price of electricity, all kinds of electrical appliances, purchase price of main appliances, household size, electricity consumption, as well as power, daily use time of electrical appliances in this data article. These data fully reflected behavior, preferences and living pattern of sample households in electricity use and provided the basis for analyzing the relationship between household electricity consumption and the quality of life ("Does electricity consumption improve residential living status in less developed regions? An empirical analysis using the quantile regression approach" [1]). PMID:27115023

  16. Survey data on household electricity consumption and living status in Northwestern China

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Shuwen; Jia, Yanqin; Ye, Liqiong; Dai, Runqi; Li, Na

    2016-01-01

    Based on 1128 survey questionnaires, main information on urban and rural household electricity consumption was obtained. Original data included household income, the price of electricity, all kinds of electrical appliances, purchase price of main appliances, household size, electricity consumption, as well as power, daily use time of electrical appliances in this data article. These data fully reflected behavior, preferences and living pattern of sample households in electricity use and provided the basis for analyzing the relationship between household electricity consumption and the quality of life (“Does electricity consumption improve residential living status in less developed regions? An empirical analysis using the quantile regression approach” [1]). PMID:27115023

  17. Survey data on household electricity consumption and living status in Northwestern China.

    PubMed

    Niu, Shuwen; Jia, Yanqin; Ye, Liqiong; Dai, Runqi; Li, Na

    2016-06-01

    Based on 1128 survey questionnaires, main information on urban and rural household electricity consumption was obtained. Original data included household income, the price of electricity, all kinds of electrical appliances, purchase price of main appliances, household size, electricity consumption, as well as power, daily use time of electrical appliances in this data article. These data fully reflected behavior, preferences and living pattern of sample households in electricity use and provided the basis for analyzing the relationship between household electricity consumption and the quality of life ("Does electricity consumption improve residential living status in less developed regions? An empirical analysis using the quantile regression approach" [1]).

  18. OCT-based quantification of flow velocity, shear force, and power generated by a biological ciliated surface (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Brendan K.; Khokha, Mustafa K.; Loewenberg, Michael; Choma, Michael A.

    2016-03-01

    In cilia-driven fluid flow physiology, quantification of flow velocity, shearing force, and power dissipation is important in defining abnormal ciliary function. The capacity to generate flow can be robustly described in terms of shearing force. Dissipated power can be related to net ATP consumption by ciliary molecular motors. To date, however, only flow velocity can be routinely quantified in a non-invasive, non-contact manner. Additionally, traditional power-based metrics rely on metabolic consumption that reflects energy consumption not just from cilia but also from all active cellular processes. Here, we demonstrate the estimation of all three of these quantities (flow velocity, shear force, and power dissipation) using only optical coherence tomography (OCT). Specifically, we develop a framework that can extract force and power information from vectorial flow velocity fields obtained using OCT-based methods. We do so by (a) estimating the viscous stress tensor from flow velocity fields to estimate shearing force and (b) using the viscous stress tensor to estimate the power dissipation function to infer total mechanical power. These estimates have the advantage of (a) requiring only a single modality, (b) being non-invasive in nature, and (c) being reflective of only the net power work generated by a ciliated surface. We demonstrate our all-optical approach to the estimation of these parameters in the Xenopus animal model system under normal and increased viscous loading. Our preliminary data support the hypothesis that the Xenopus ciliated surface can increase force output under loading conditions.

  19. Market-Based Decision Guidance Framework for Power and Alternative Energy Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altaleb, Hesham

    With the introduction of power energy markets deregulation, innovations have transformed once a static network into a more flexible grid. Microgrids have also been deployed to serve various purposes (e.g., reliability, sustainability, etc.). With the rapid deployment of smart grid technologies, it has become possible to measure and record both, the quantity and time of the consumption of electrical power. In addition, capabilities for controlling distributed supply and demand have resulted in complex systems where inefficiencies are possible and where improvements can be made. Electric power like other volatile resources cannot be stored efficiently, therefore, managing such resource requires considerable attention. Such complex systems present a need for decisions that can streamline consumption, delay infrastructure investments, and reduce costs. When renewable power resources and the need for limiting harmful emissions are added to the equation, the search space for decisions becomes increasingly complex. As a result, the need for a comprehensive decision guidance system for electrical power resources consumption and productions becomes evident. In this dissertation, I formulate and implement a comprehensive framework that addresses different aspect of the electrical power generation and consumption using optimization models and utilizing collaboration concepts. Our solution presents a two-prong approach: managing interaction in real-time for the short-term immediate consumption of already allocated resources; and managing the operational planning for the long-run consumption. More specifically, in real-time, we present and implement a model of how to organize a secondary market for peak-demand allocation and describe the properties of the market that guarantees efficient execution and a method for the fair distribution of collaboration gains. We also propose and implement a primary market for peak demand bounds determination problem with the assumption that

  20. Raw milk consumption and health.

    PubMed

    Vranješ, Anka Popović; Popović, Milka; Jevtić, Marija

    2015-01-01

    Contrary to the safe practices of milk pasteurization or sterilization, which effectively reduce foodborne outbreaks incidence associated with raw milk and dairy products use, outbreaks caused by such products continue to occur. Despite this fact, a worldwide movement advocating for the rights of raw milk and cheese selling and consumption, due to their specific nutritive characteristics, has strengthened significantly in recent years. Traditional agricultural manufacturers from Serbia still sell products related to thermally unprocessed milk, such as cottage cheese and raw cream. In AP Vojvodina during the period of 1981-2010 a total of 179 foodborne outbreaks were reported, where the incriminated cause of the outbreak were milk or diary. In 126 (70.39%) outbreaks, totaling 2276 sick individuals and one casualty, it was confirmed that the incriminated food was from the group of dairy products. In 48 instances (26.82%), bacteriological tests confirmed that milk and dairy products were excluded as the outbreak causes, while in another 5 (2.79%) outbreaks, microbiological analysis of food failed to confirm any relation to the actual epidemiological instances. In some cases, bacteriological testing of incriminated foods was not possible. In the cases of outbreaks associated with the consumption of milk and dairy products, traditional raw milk products were cited as being used. Consumption of unpasteurized milk and cheese represents public health threat. National and international rules ensuring use of safe products for human consumption have to set rules of trade of thermally processed milk and products on the market.

  1. Food consumption trends and drivers

    PubMed Central

    Kearney, John

    2010-01-01

    A picture of food consumption (availability) trends and projections to 2050, both globally and for different regions of the world, along with the drivers largely responsible for these observed consumption trends are the subject of this review. Throughout the world, major shifts in dietary patterns are occurring, even in the consumption of basic staples towards more diversified diets. Accompanying these changes in food consumption at a global and regional level have been considerable health consequences. Populations in those countries undergoing rapid transition are experiencing nutritional transition. The diverse nature of this transition may be the result of differences in socio-demographic factors and other consumer characteristics. Among other factors including urbanization and food industry marketing, the policies of trade liberalization over the past two decades have implications for health by virtue of being a factor in facilitating the ‘nutrition transition’ that is associated with rising rates of obesity and chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. Future food policies must consider both agricultural and health sectors, thereby enabling the development of coherent and sustainable policies that will ultimately benefit agriculture, human health and the environment. PMID:20713385

  2. Caffeine Consumption by College Undergraduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loke, Wing Hong

    1988-01-01

    Surveyed 542 undergraduates concerning their caffeine consumption. Found that subjects consumed less caffeine than average caffeine-drinking population. Coffee was main beverage used. Subjects reported drinking more caffeine when preparing for examinations. Suggests that caffeine may have some beneficial effects on learning. (Author/NB)

  3. Resource Consumption of the Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKitric, Eloise J.

    This study examines the consumption of resources by retired persons by distinguishing between institutionally controlled resources (social security, medicare, prescription discounts, medicaid, heating subsidy, supplemental security income, veterans' benefits, disability income, and meals-on-wheels) and personally controlled resources (gardens,…

  4. Sales promotions and food consumption.

    PubMed

    Hawkes, Corinna

    2009-06-01

    Sales promotions are widely used to market food to adults, children, and youth. Yet, in contrast to advertising, practically no attention has been paid to their impacts on dietary behaviors, or to how they may be used more effectively to promote healthy eating. This review explores the available literature on the subject. The objective is to identify if and what literature exists, examine the nature of this literature, and analyze what can be learned from it about the effects of sales promotions on food consumption. The review finds that while sales promotions lead to significant sales increases over the short-term, this does not necessarily lead to changes in food-consumption patterns. Nevertheless, there is evidence from econometric modeling studies indicating that sales promotions can influence consumption patterns by influencing the purchasing choices of consumers and encouraging them to eat more. These effects depend on the characteristics of the food product, sales promotion, and consumer. The complexity of the effects means that sales promotions aiming to encourage consumption of nutritious foods need to be carefully designed. These conclusions are based on studies that use mainly sales data as a proxy for dietary intake. The nutrition (and economics) research communities should add to this existing body of research to provide evidence on the impact of sales promotions on dietary intake and related behaviors. This would help support the development of a sales promotion environment conducive to healthy eating. PMID:19519674

  5. Power Distribution of Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Kenta; Morimoto, Masayuki

    In this paper, the fuel consumption of the hybrid electric vehicles is analyzed by the rated power of the engine and the motor. The analysis was based on the published data only. Hybrid ratio and normalized fuel consumption are defined. As the result, the key for the high mileage of hybrid electric vehicle is to use the high power motor and the low power engine.

  6. Liquid chromatography coupled to different atmospheric pressure ionization sources-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry and post-column addition of metal salt solutions as a powerful tool for the metabolic profiling of Fusarium oxysporum.

    PubMed

    Cirigliano, Adriana M; Rodriguez, M Alejandra; Gagliano, M Laura; Bertinetti, Brenda V; Godeas, Alicia M; Cabrera, Gabriela M

    2016-03-25

    Fusarium oxysporum L11 is a non-pathogenic soil-borne fungal strain that yielded an extract that showed antifungal activity against phytopathogens. In this study, reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) coupled to different atmospheric pressure ionization sources-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (API-QTOF-MS) was applied for the comprehensive profiling of the metabolites from the extract. The employed sources were electrospray (ESI), atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) and atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI). Post-column addition of metal solutions of Ca, Cu and Zn(II) was also tested using ESI. A total of 137 compounds were identified or tentatively identified by matching their accurate mass signals, suggested molecular formulae and MS/MS analysis with previously reported data. Some compounds were isolated and identified by NMR. The extract was rich in cyclic peptides like cyclosporins, diketopiperazines and sansalvamides, most of which were new, and are reported here for the first time. The use of post-column addition of metals resulted in a useful strategy for the discrimination of compound classes since specific adducts were observed for the different compound families. This technique also allowed the screening for compounds with metal binding properties. Thus, the applied methodology is a useful choice for the metabolic profiling of extracts and also for the selection of metabolites with potential biological activities related to interactions with metal ions.

  7. Liquid chromatography coupled to different atmospheric pressure ionization sources-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry and post-column addition of metal salt solutions as a powerful tool for the metabolic profiling of Fusarium oxysporum.

    PubMed

    Cirigliano, Adriana M; Rodriguez, M Alejandra; Gagliano, M Laura; Bertinetti, Brenda V; Godeas, Alicia M; Cabrera, Gabriela M

    2016-03-25

    Fusarium oxysporum L11 is a non-pathogenic soil-borne fungal strain that yielded an extract that showed antifungal activity against phytopathogens. In this study, reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) coupled to different atmospheric pressure ionization sources-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (API-QTOF-MS) was applied for the comprehensive profiling of the metabolites from the extract. The employed sources were electrospray (ESI), atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) and atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI). Post-column addition of metal solutions of Ca, Cu and Zn(II) was also tested using ESI. A total of 137 compounds were identified or tentatively identified by matching their accurate mass signals, suggested molecular formulae and MS/MS analysis with previously reported data. Some compounds were isolated and identified by NMR. The extract was rich in cyclic peptides like cyclosporins, diketopiperazines and sansalvamides, most of which were new, and are reported here for the first time. The use of post-column addition of metals resulted in a useful strategy for the discrimination of compound classes since specific adducts were observed for the different compound families. This technique also allowed the screening for compounds with metal binding properties. Thus, the applied methodology is a useful choice for the metabolic profiling of extracts and also for the selection of metabolites with potential biological activities related to interactions with metal ions. PMID:26655791

  8. Beverage consumption and adult weight management: A review.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Elizabeth A; Flack, Kyle D; Davy, Brenda M

    2009-12-01

    Total energy consumption among United States adults has increased in recent decades, and energy-containing beverages are a significant contributor to this increase. Because beverages are less satiating than solid foods, consumption of energy-containing beverages may increase energy intake and lead to weight gain; trends in food and beverage consumption coinciding with increases in overweight and obesity support this possibility. The purpose of this review is to present what is known about the effect of beverage consumption on short-term (i.e., meal) energy intake, as well as longer-term effects on body weight. Specific beverages addressed include water, other energy-free beverages (diet soft drinks, coffee and tea), and energy-containing beverages (soft drinks, juices and juice drinks, milk and soy beverages, alcohol). Existing evidence, albeit limited, suggests that encouraging water consumption, and substituting water and other energy-free beverages (diet soft drinks, coffee and tea) for energy-containing beverages may facilitate weight management. Energy-containing beverages acutely increase energy intake, however long-term effects on body weight are uncertain. While there may be health benefits for some beverage categories, additional energy provided by beverages should be compensated for by reduced consumption of other foods in the diet.

  9. Beverage consumption and adult weight management: A review.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Elizabeth A; Flack, Kyle D; Davy, Brenda M

    2009-12-01

    Total energy consumption among United States adults has increased in recent decades, and energy-containing beverages are a significant contributor to this increase. Because beverages are less satiating than solid foods, consumption of energy-containing beverages may increase energy intake and lead to weight gain; trends in food and beverage consumption coinciding with increases in overweight and obesity support this possibility. The purpose of this review is to present what is known about the effect of beverage consumption on short-term (i.e., meal) energy intake, as well as longer-term effects on body weight. Specific beverages addressed include water, other energy-free beverages (diet soft drinks, coffee and tea), and energy-containing beverages (soft drinks, juices and juice drinks, milk and soy beverages, alcohol). Existing evidence, albeit limited, suggests that encouraging water consumption, and substituting water and other energy-free beverages (diet soft drinks, coffee and tea) for energy-containing beverages may facilitate weight management. Energy-containing beverages acutely increase energy intake, however long-term effects on body weight are uncertain. While there may be health benefits for some beverage categories, additional energy provided by beverages should be compensated for by reduced consumption of other foods in the diet. PMID:19778754

  10. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapid prototyping technology that allows parts to be built in a series of thin layers from plastic, ceramics, and metallics. Metallic additive manufacturing is an emerging form of rapid prototyping that allows complex structures to be built using various metallic powders. Significant time and cost savings have also been observed using the metallic additive manufacturing compared with traditional techniques. Development of the metallic additive manufacturing technology has advanced significantly over the last decade, although many of the techniques to inspect parts made from these processes have not advanced significantly or have limitations. Several external geometry inspection techniques exist such as Coordinate Measurement Machines (CMM), Laser Scanners, Structured Light Scanning Systems, or even traditional calipers and gages. All of the aforementioned techniques are limited to external geometry and contours or must use a contact probe to inspect limited internal dimensions. This presentation will document the development of a process for real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record of the additive manufacturing process using Infrared camera imaging and processing techniques.

  11. Water use at pulverized coal power plants with postcombustion carbon capture and storage.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Haibo; Rubin, Edward S; Versteeg, Peter L

    2011-03-15

    Coal-fired power plants account for nearly 50% of U.S. electricity supply and about a third of U.S. emissions of CO(2), the major greenhouse gas (GHG) associated with global climate change. Thermal power plants also account for 39% of all freshwater withdrawals in the U.S. To reduce GHG emissions from coal-fired plants, postcombustion carbon capture and storage (CCS) systems are receiving considerable attention. Current commercial amine-based capture systems require water for cooling and other operations that add to power plant water requirements. This paper characterizes and quantifies water use at coal-burning power plants with and without CCS and investigates key parameters that influence water consumption. Analytical models are presented to quantify water use for major unit operations. Case study results show that, for power plants with conventional wet cooling towers, approximately 80% of total plant water withdrawals and 86% of plant water consumption is for cooling. The addition of an amine-based CCS system would approximately double the consumptive water use of the plant. Replacing wet towers with air-cooled condensers for dry cooling would reduce plant water use by about 80% (without CCS) to about 40% (with CCS). However, the cooling system capital cost would approximately triple, although costs are highly dependent on site-specific characteristics. The potential for water use reductions with CCS is explored via sensitivity analyses of plant efficiency and other key design parameters that affect water resource management for the electric power industry.

  12. The "Green Lab": Power Consumption by Commercial Light Bulbs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Einsporn, James A.; Zhou, Andrew F.

    2011-01-01

    Going "green" is a slogan that is very contemporary, both with industry and in the political arena. Choosing more energy-efficient devices is one way homeowners can "go green." A simple method is to change home lighting from hot incandescent bulbs to compact fluorescent lights (CFLs). But do they really save energy? How do their illuminations…

  13. Quantitative electroencephalography analysis in university students with hazardous alcohol consumption, but not alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Núñez-Jaramillo, Luis; Vega-Perera, Paulo; Ramírez-Lugo, Leticia; Reyes-López, Julián V; Santiago-Rodríguez, Efraín; Herrera-Morales, Wendy V

    2015-07-01

    Hazardous alcohol consumption is a pattern of consumption that leads to a higher risk of harmful consequences either for the user or for others. This pattern of alcohol consumption has been linked to risky behaviors, accidents, and injuries. Individuals with hazardous alcohol consumption do not necessarily present alcohol dependence; thus, a study of particular neurophysiological correlates of this alcohol consumption pattern needs to be carried out in nondependent individuals. Here, we carried out a quantitative electroencephalography analysis in health sciences university students with hazardous alcohol consumption, but not alcohol dependence (HAC), and control participants without hazardous alcohol consumption or alcohol dependence (NHAC). We analyzed Absolute Power (AP), Relative Power (RP), and Mean Frequency (MF) for beta and theta frequency bands under both eyes closed and eyes open conditions. We found that participants in the HAC group presented higher beta AP at centroparietal region, as well as lower beta MF at frontal and centroparietal regions in the eyes closed condition. Interestingly, participants did not present any change in theta activity (AP, RP, or MF), whereas previous reports indicate an increase in theta AP in alcohol-dependent individuals. Our results partially resemble those found in alcohol-dependent individuals, although are not completely identical, suggesting a possible difference in the underlying neuronal mechanism behind alcohol dependence and hazardous alcohol consumption. Similarities could be explained considering that both hazardous alcohol consumption and alcohol dependence are manifestations of behavioral disinhibition. PMID:26035281

  14. Quantitative electroencephalography analysis in university students with hazardous alcohol consumption, but not alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Núñez-Jaramillo, Luis; Vega-Perera, Paulo; Ramírez-Lugo, Leticia; Reyes-López, Julián V; Santiago-Rodríguez, Efraín; Herrera-Morales, Wendy V

    2015-07-01

    Hazardous alcohol consumption is a pattern of consumption that leads to a higher risk of harmful consequences either for the user or for others. This pattern of alcohol consumption has been linked to risky behaviors, accidents, and injuries. Individuals with hazardous alcohol consumption do not necessarily present alcohol dependence; thus, a study of particular neurophysiological correlates of this alcohol consumption pattern needs to be carried out in nondependent individuals. Here, we carried out a quantitative electroencephalography analysis in health sciences university students with hazardous alcohol consumption, but not alcohol dependence (HAC), and control participants without hazardous alcohol consumption or alcohol dependence (NHAC). We analyzed Absolute Power (AP), Relative Power (RP), and Mean Frequency (MF) for beta and theta frequency bands under both eyes closed and eyes open conditions. We found that participants in the HAC group presented higher beta AP at centroparietal region, as well as lower beta MF at frontal and centroparietal regions in the eyes closed condition. Interestingly, participants did not present any change in theta activity (AP, RP, or MF), whereas previous reports indicate an increase in theta AP in alcohol-dependent individuals. Our results partially resemble those found in alcohol-dependent individuals, although are not completely identical, suggesting a possible difference in the underlying neuronal mechanism behind alcohol dependence and hazardous alcohol consumption. Similarities could be explained considering that both hazardous alcohol consumption and alcohol dependence are manifestations of behavioral disinhibition.

  15. The growth pattern and fuel life cycle analysis of the electricity consumption of Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    To, W M; Lai, T M; Lo, W C; Lam, K H; Chung, W L

    2012-06-01

    As the consumption of electricity increases, air pollutants from power generation increase. In metropolitans such as Hong Kong and other Asian cities, the surge of electricity consumption has been phenomenal over the past decades. This paper presents a historical review about electricity consumption, population, and change in economic structure in Hong Kong. It is hypothesized that the growth of electricity consumption and change in gross domestic product can be modeled by 4-parameter logistic functions. The accuracy of the functions was assessed by Pearson's correlation coefficient, mean absolute percent error, and root mean squared percent error. The paper also applies the life cycle approach to determine carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen oxide emissions for the electricity consumption of Hong Kong. Monte Carlo simulations were applied to determine the confidence intervals of pollutant emissions. The implications of importing more nuclear power are discussed.

  16. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamine, containing phenylethvnvl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynviphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pvrrolidinone to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  17. Electricity's "Disappearing Act": Understanding Energy Consumption and Phantom Loads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rusk, Bryan; Mahfouz, Tarek; Jones, James

    2011-01-01

    Energy exists in many forms and can be converted from one form to another. However, this conversion is not 100% efficient, and energy is lost in the form of heat during conversion. In addition, approximately 6% of the monthly consumption of the average American household's electricity is neither lost nor used by its residents. These losses are…

  18. Business opportunity for geothermal power plants in Indonesia: A case study at southern Bandung industrial center, West Java

    SciTech Connect

    Ganda, S.; Sulaiman, S.; Tandrerung, S.A.

    1995-12-31

    This study would solve some problems, such as the electricity demand, especially in the Southern Bandung area, how big should the geothermal power plants to operate economically and what is the financial advantage to operate geothermal power plants. Three geothermal areas in Southern Bandung, which have reserve potential of 1467 MW are ready to be developed for private sector. In the 6th Five-Year Development Plan the total geothermal power will be installed is 135 MW. Other opportunities, from survey shows that additional power of more than 100 MW is needed to support industries during peak load time in Southern Bandung. The consumption forecasting was less than the actual growth on the market demand, because shortage of supply were covered by other sources for internal consumption.

  19. Life cycle assessment of sewage sludge co-incineration in a coal-based power station.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jingmin; Xu, Changqing; Hong, Jinglan; Tan, Xianfeng; Chen, Wei

    2013-09-01

    A life cycle assessment was conducted to evaluate the environmental and economic effects of sewage sludge co-incineration in a coal-fired power plant. The general approach employed by a coal-fired power plant was also assessed as control. Sewage sludge co-incineration technology causes greater environmental burden than does coal-based energy production technology because of the additional electricity consumption and wastewater treatment required for the pretreatment of sewage sludge, direct emissions from sludge incineration, and incinerated ash disposal processes. However, sewage sludge co-incineration presents higher economic benefits because of electricity subsidies and the income generating potential of sludge. Environmental assessment results indicate that sewage sludge co-incineration is unsuitable for mitigating the increasing pressure brought on by sewage sludge pollution. Reducing the overall environmental effect of sludge co-incineration power stations necessitates increasing net coal consumption efficiency, incinerated ash reuse rate, dedust system efficiency, and sludge water content rate.

  20. Optimization of the oxidant supply system for combined cycle MHD power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, A. J.

    1982-01-01

    An in-depth study was conducted to determine what, if any, improvements could be made on the oxidant supply system for combined cycle MHD power plants which could be reflected in higher thermal efficiency and a reduction in the cost of electricity, COE. A systematic analysis of air separation process varitions which showed that the specific energy consumption could be minimized when the product stream oxygen concentration is about 70 mole percent was conducted. The use of advanced air compressors, having variable speed and guide vane position control, results in additional power savings. The study also led to the conceptual design of a new air separation process, sized for a 500 MW sub e MHD plant, referred to a internal compression is discussed. In addition to its lower overall energy consumption, potential capital cost savings were identified for air separation plants using this process when constructed in a single large air separation train rather than multiple parallel trains, typical of conventional practice.

  1. Multifunctional fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Baillargeon, D.J.; Cardis, A.B.; Heck, D.B.

    1991-03-26

    This paper discusses a composition comprising a major amount of a liquid hydrocarbyl fuel and a minor low-temperature flow properties improving amount of an additive product of the reaction of a suitable diol and product of a benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride and a long-chain hydrocarbyl aminoalcohol.

  2. Biobased lubricant additives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fully biobased lubricants are those formulated using all biobased ingredients, i.e. biobased base oils and biobased additives. Such formulations provide the maximum environmental, safety, and economic benefits expected from a biobased product. Currently, there are a number of biobased base oils that...

  3. Exploring maternal patterns of dietary caffeine consumption before conception and during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Bell, Erin M; Browne, Marilyn L; Druschel, Charlotte M; Romitti, Paul A

    2014-12-01

    We describe patterns of dietary caffeine consumption before and after pregnancy recognition in a cohort of women who recently gave birth. This study included 8,347 mothers of non-malformed liveborn control infants who participated in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study during 1997-2007. Maternal self-reported consumption of beverages (caffeinated coffee, tea, and soda) and chocolate the year before pregnancy was used to estimate caffeine intake. The proportions of prepregnancy caffeine consumption stratified by maternal characteristics are reported. In addition, patterns of reported change in consumption before and after pregnancy were examined by maternal and pregnancy characteristics. Adjusted prevalence ratios were estimated to assess factors most associated with change in consumption. About 97 % of mothers reported any caffeine consumption (average intake of 129.9 mg/day the year before pregnancy) and soda was the primary source of caffeine. The proportion of mothers reporting dietary caffeine intake of more than 300 mg/day was significantly increased among those who smoked cigarettes or drank alcohol. Most mothers stopped or decreased their caffeinated beverage consumption during pregnancy. Young maternal age and unintended pregnancy were associated with increases in consumption during pregnancy. Dietary caffeine consumption during pregnancy is still common in the US. A high level of caffeine intake was associated with known risk factors for adverse reproductive outcomes. Future studies may improve the maternal caffeine exposure assessment by acquiring additional information regarding the timing and amount of change in caffeine consumption after pregnancy recognition.

  4. Understanding college students' fruit consumption. Integrating habit strength in the theory of planned behaviour.

    PubMed

    de Bruijn, Gert-Jan

    2010-02-01

    The additive and interactive effect of habit strength in the explanation of young adults' fruit consumption was studied within the context of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB). Additionally, behavioural and control beliefs were modelled as predictors of profile membership based on current fruit consumption, motivation and habit strength towards fruit consumption. Cross-sectional data were available from undergraduate students (n=538; mean age=21.19; S.D.=2.57) who completed measures of fruit consumption, habit strength, TPB-concepts, and behavioural and control beliefs. Data were analyzed using stepwise regression analysis, simple slope analysis, and discriminant function analysis. Results showed that, based on a significant intention x habit interaction (beta=.13), the intention-fruit consumption relationship was more than twice as strong at low levels of habit strength (beta=.39) than at high levels of habit strength (beta=.16). Furthermore, beliefs regarding health and weight management were relatively unable to distinguish profiles created from motivation, habit strength and current fruit consumption. Rather, beliefs about controllability of fruit consumption were amongst the most consistent discriminating beliefs. Findings suggest that stronger fruit consumption habits make fruit consumption less intentional and that interventions aiming to increase fruit consumption may need to develop persuasive messages focusing on situational beliefs, rather than emphasizing health outcomes.

  5. Understanding college students' fruit consumption. Integrating habit strength in the theory of planned behaviour.

    PubMed

    de Bruijn, Gert-Jan

    2010-02-01

    The additive and interactive effect of habit strength in the explanation of young adults' fruit consumption was studied within the context of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB). Additionally, behavioural and control beliefs were modelled as predictors of profile membership based on current fruit consumption, motivation and habit strength towards fruit consumption. Cross-sectional data were available from undergraduate students (n=538; mean age=21.19; S.D.=2.57) who completed measures of fruit consumption, habit strength, TPB-concepts, and behavioural and control beliefs. Data were analyzed using stepwise regression analysis, simple slope analysis, and discriminant function analysis. Results showed that, based on a significant intention x habit interaction (beta=.13), the intention-fruit consumption relationship was more than twice as strong at low levels of habit strength (beta=.39) than at high levels of habit strength (beta=.16). Furthermore, beliefs regarding health and weight management were relatively unable to distinguish profiles created from motivation, habit strength and current fruit consumption. Rather, beliefs about controllability of fruit consumption were amongst the most consistent discriminating beliefs. Findings suggest that stronger fruit consumption habits make fruit consumption less intentional and that interventions aiming to increase fruit consumption may need to develop persuasive messages focusing on situational beliefs, rather than emphasizing health outcomes. PMID:19712718

  6. Wireless network interface energy consumption implications of popular streaming formats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Surendar

    2001-12-01

    With the proliferation of mobile streaming multimedia, available battery capacity constrains the end-user experience. Since streaming applications tend to be long running, wireless network interface card's (WNIC) energy consumption is particularly an acute problem. In this work, we explore the WNIC energy consumption implications of popular multimedia streaming formats from Microsoft (Windows media), Real (Real media) and Apple (Quick Time). We investigate the energy consumption under varying stream bandwidth and network loss rates. We also explore history-based client-side strategies to reduce the energy consumed by transitioning the WNICs to a lower power consuming sleep state. We show that Microsoft media tends to transmit packets at regular intervals; streams optimized for 28.8 Kbps can save over 80% in energy consumption with 2% data loss. A high bandwidth stream (768 Kbps) can still save 57% in energy consumption with less than 0.3% data loss. For high bandwidth streams, Microsoft media exploits network-level packet fragmentation, which can lead to excessive packet loss (and wasted energy) in a lossy network. Real stream packets tend to be sent closer to each other, especially at higher bandwidths. Quicktime packets sometimes arrive in quick succession; most likely an application level fragmentation mechanism. Such packets are harder to predict at the network level without understanding the packet semantics.

  7. Food production and consumption near the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hamby, D.M.

    1991-01-01

    Routine operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) result in the release of radionuclides to the atmosphere and to the Savannah River. The resulting radiological doses to the off-site maximum individual and the 80-km population are estimated on a yearly basis. These estimates are generated using dose models prescribed in the NRC Reg. Guide 1.109 for the commercial nuclear power industry. A study of land and water usage characteristics in the region of the Savannah River Site has been conducted to determine site-specific values of the NRC dose model parameters. The study's scope included local characteristics of meat, milk, vegetable production; Savannah River recreational activities and fish harvests; meat, milk, vegetable, and seafood consumption rates; and Savannah River drinking-water populations. Average and maximum consumption rates of beef, milk, vegetables, and fish have been determined for individuals residing in the southern United States. The study suggest that many of the consumption rates provided by the NRC may not be appropriate for residents of the South. Average consumption rates are slightly higher than the defaults provided by the NRC. Maximum consumption rates, however, are typically lower than NRC values. Agricultural productivity in the SRS region was found to be quite different than NRC recommendations. Off-site doses have been predicted using both NRC and SRS parameter values to demonstrate the significance of site-specific data.

  8. Food production and consumption near the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hamby, D.M.

    1991-12-31

    Routine operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) result in the release of radionuclides to the atmosphere and to the Savannah River. The resulting radiological doses to the off-site maximum individual and the 80-km population are estimated on a yearly basis. These estimates are generated using dose models prescribed in the NRC Reg. Guide 1.109 for the commercial nuclear power industry. A study of land and water usage characteristics in the region of the Savannah River Site has been conducted to determine site-specific values of the NRC dose model parameters. The study`s scope included local characteristics of meat, milk, vegetable production; Savannah River recreational activities and fish harvests; meat, milk, vegetable, and seafood consumption rates; and Savannah River drinking-water populations. Average and maximum consumption rates of beef, milk, vegetables, and fish have been determined for individuals residing in the southern United States. The study suggest that many of the consumption rates provided by the NRC may not be appropriate for residents of the South. Average consumption rates are slightly higher than the defaults provided by the NRC. Maximum consumption rates, however, are typically lower than NRC values. Agricultural productivity in the SRS region was found to be quite different than NRC recommendations. Off-site doses have been predicted using both NRC and SRS parameter values to demonstrate the significance of site-specific data.

  9. Ciguatera caused by consumption of humphead wrasse.

    PubMed

    Chan, Thomas Y K

    2013-12-15

    Humphead wrasse (Cheilinus undulatus) is an apex predator from coral reefs of the Indo-Pacific region. A food surveillance project using a validated mouse bioassay revealed the presence of ciguatoxins in significantly greater amounts in its flesh than in groupers and other coral reef fishes commonly available in Hong Kong wholesale market. Humphead wrasse has long been known to cause ciguatera, but there was a lack of clinical reports. A 45-year-old woman developed ciguatera after eating humphead wrasse. She required ICU care and infusions of intravenous fluids and dopamine for management of severe hypotension. All 5 published case series are also reviewed to characterise the types, severity and chronicity of ciguatera symptoms after its consumption. In addition to the gastrointestinal, neurological and other features that were typical of ciguatera, some subjects developed sinus bradycardia, hypotension, shock, neuropsychiatric features (e.g. mental exhaustion, depression, insomnia and memory loss), other central nervous system symptoms (e.g. coma, convulsions and ataxia) and myocardial ischaemia. Other subjects still experienced residual symptoms 6 months later; these were mainly neurological or neuropsychiatric complaints and skin pruritus. To prevent ciguatera, the public should avoid eating humphead wrasse and other large coral reef fishes. They should realise that consumption of the high-risk fish may result in more severe and chronic illness, including life-threatening complications and neuropsychiatric features.

  10. Ciguatera caused by consumption of humphead wrasse.

    PubMed

    Chan, Thomas Y K

    2013-12-15

    Humphead wrasse (Cheilinus undulatus) is an apex predator from coral reefs of the Indo-Pacific region. A food surveillance project using a validated mouse bioassay revealed the presence of ciguatoxins in significantly greater amounts in its flesh than in groupers and other coral reef fishes commonly available in Hong Kong wholesale market. Humphead wrasse has long been known to cause ciguatera, but there was a lack of clinical reports. A 45-year-old woman developed ciguatera after eating humphead wrasse. She required ICU care and infusions of intravenous fluids and dopamine for management of severe hypotension. All 5 published case series are also reviewed to characterise the types, severity and chronicity of ciguatera symptoms after its consumption. In addition to the gastrointestinal, neurological and other features that were typical of ciguatera, some subjects developed sinus bradycardia, hypotension, shock, neuropsychiatric features (e.g. mental exhaustion, depression, insomnia and memory loss), other central nervous system symptoms (e.g. coma, convulsions and ataxia) and myocardial ischaemia. Other subjects still experienced residual symptoms 6 months later; these were mainly neurological or neuropsychiatric complaints and skin pruritus. To prevent ciguatera, the public should avoid eating humphead wrasse and other large coral reef fishes. They should realise that consumption of the high-risk fish may result in more severe and chronic illness, including life-threatening complications and neuropsychiatric features. PMID:24141055

  11. Gourmet coffee beverage consumption among college women.

    PubMed

    Shields, Deborah H; Corrales, Kattia M; Metallinos-Katsaras, Elizabeth

    2004-04-01

    Gourmet coffee beverages (GCBs) are relatively new products in the foodservice industry that consist of high-energy coffee drinks. A descriptive study was conducted to evaluate the frequency of consumption of GCBs and their energy and fat contribution to overall dietary intake in college women using a beverage questionnaire and a 3-day food diary. A convenience sample of 165 undergraduate and graduate women attending Simmons College completed a beverage questionnaire, and a subsample of 41 women completed a 3-day food diary. Mean reported GCB consumption was 2.5 times/week for the entire sample and 7 times/week for the food diary subsample. A comparison of GCB consumers and nonconsumers indicated that GCB drinkers had a 206 kcal/day higher intake (P=.250) and a 32 g higher sugar intake than nonconsumers (P<.05). A significant percentage of college women consume GCBs, which contributes additional energy and fat to dietary intake. Over time, this could potentially affect weight status.

  12. Fuel consumption in optimal control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redmond, Jim; Silverberg, Larry

    1992-01-01

    A method has been developed for comparing three optimal control strategies based on fuel consumption. A general cost function minimization procedure was developed by applying two theorems associated with convex sets. Three cost functions associated with control saturation, pseudofuel, and absolute fuel are introduced and minimized. The first two cost functions led to the bang-bang and continuous control strategies, and the minimization of absolute fuel led to an impulsive strategy. The three control strategies were implemented on two elementary systems and a comparison of fuel consumption was made. The impulse control strategy consumes significantly less fuel than the continuous and bang-bang control strategies. This comparison suggests a potential for fuel savings in higher-order systems using impulsive control strategies. However, since exact solutions to fuel-optimal control for large-order systems are difficult if not impossible to achieve, the alternative is to develop near-optimal control strategies.

  13. Manufacturing consumption of energy 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    This report provides estimates on energy consumption in the manufacturing sector of the U.S. economy based on data from the Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey. The sample used in this report represented about 250,000 of the largest manufacturing establishments which account for approximately 98 percent of U.S. economic output from manufacturing, and an expected similar proportion of manufacturing energy use. The amount of energy use was collected for all operations of each establishment surveyed. Highlights of the report include profiles for the four major energy-consuming industries (petroleum refining, chemical, paper, and primary metal industries), and an analysis of the effects of changes in the natural gas and electricity markets on the manufacturing sector. Seven appendices are included to provide detailed background information. 10 figs., 51 tabs.

  14. Adverse reactions to the sulphite additives

    PubMed Central

    Misso, Neil LA

    2012-01-01

    Sulphites are widely used as preservative and antioxidant additives in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Exposure to sulphites has been reported to induce a range of adverse clinical effects in sensitive individuals, ranging from dermatitis, urticaria, flushing, hypotension, abdominal pain and diarrhoea to life-threatening anaphylactic and asthmatic reactions. Exposure to the sulphites arises mainly from the consumption of foods and drinks that contain these additives; however exposure may also occur through the use of pharmaceutical products, as well as in occupational settings. Most studies report a prevalence of sulphite sensitivity of 3 to 10% among asthmatic subjects who ingest these additives. However, the severity of these reactions varies, and steroid-dependent asthmatics, those with marked airway hyperresponsiveness, and children with chronic asthma, appear to be at greater risk. Although a number of potential mechanisms have been proposed, the precise mechanisms underlying sulphite sensitivity remain unclear. PMID:24834193

  15. Vinyl capped addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D. (Inventor); Malarik, Diane C. (Inventor); Delvigs, Peter (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Polyimide resins (PMR) are generally useful where high strength and temperature capabilities are required (at temperatures up to about 700 F). Polyimide resins are particularly useful in applications such as jet engine compressor components, for example, blades, vanes, air seals, air splitters, and engine casing parts. Aromatic vinyl capped addition polyimides are obtained by reacting a diamine, an ester of tetracarboxylic acid, and an aromatic vinyl compound. Low void materials with improved oxidative stability when exposed to 700 F air may be fabricated as fiber reinforced high molecular weight capped polyimide composites. The aromatic vinyl capped polyimides are provided with a more aromatic nature and are more thermally stable than highly aliphatic, norbornenyl-type end-capped polyimides employed in PMR resins. The substitution of aromatic vinyl end-caps for norbornenyl end-caps in addition polyimides results in polymers with improved oxidative stability.

  16. Tackifier for addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, J. M.; St.clair, T. L.

    1980-01-01

    A modification to the addition polyimide, LaRC-160, was prepared to improve tack and drape and increase prepeg out-time. The essentially solventless, high viscosity laminating resin is synthesized from low cost liquid monomers. The modified version takes advantage of a reactive, liquid plasticizer which is used in place of solvent and helps solve a major problem of maintaining good prepeg tack and drape, or the ability of the prepeg to adhere to adjacent plies and conform to a desired shape during the lay up process. This alternate solventless approach allows both longer life of the polymer prepeg and the processing of low void laminates. This approach appears to be applicable to all addition polyimide systems.

  17. Electrophilic addition of astatine

    SciTech Connect

    Norseev, Yu.V.; Vasaros, L.; Nhan, D.D.; Huan, N.K.

    1988-03-01

    It has been shown for the first time that astatine is capable of undergoing addition reactions to unsaturated hydrocarbons. A new compound of astatine, viz., ethylene astatohydrin, has been obtained, and its retention numbers of squalane, Apiezon, and tricresyl phosphate have been found. The influence of various factors on the formation of ethylene astatohydrin has been studied. It has been concluded on the basis of the results obtained that the univalent cations of astatine in an acidic medium is protonated hypoastatous acid.

  18. [Alcohol consumption by university students].

    PubMed

    Pedrosa, Adriano Antonio da Silva; Camacho, Luiz Antonio Bastos; Passos, Sônia Regina Lambert; Oliveira, Raquel de Vasconcellos Carvalhaes de

    2011-08-01

    Consumption of alcoholic beverages is widely encouraged by the mass media, despite the related health risks. Today's students in the health fields are the professionals of tomorrow who will be providing advice and serving as role models for patients. The aim of this study was to analyze alcohol consumption and related factors among these students. A total of 608 male and female university students from Maceió, the capital of Alagoas State, Brazil, completed a self-administered questionnaire. Data analysis included Poisson regression and multinomial logistic models. Prevalence of lifetime use of alcohol was 90.4%. Prevalence of alcohol abuse was 18.3% in men and 6.1% in women. Heavier alcohol consumption and alcohol abuse were observed in males, older students, non-natives of Maceió, smokers, and those exposed to alcohol advertising. The results emphasized the vulnerability of these young people to risky health behaviors. Their future social role highlights distinct needs in their university education to enable them to act professionally in this area.

  19. Coffee Consumption and Cardiovascular Health.

    PubMed

    Chrysant, Steven G

    2015-09-01

    Coffee is the most widely consumed beverage worldwide and is only second to water drinking and is consumed by 83% of adults in the United States. The long-held controversy regarding the association of coffee consumption with an increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and hypertension has been reversed by several recent prospective cohort studies and meta-analyses, which have demonstrated that coffee consumption is not associated with increased incidence of CVDs and hypertension and instead it could have a beneficial effect. To get a better understanding of the effects of coffee consumption on cardiovascular health, a Medline search of the English language literature was conducted from 2010 to early 2015 and 25 pertinent reports with information on the effects of coffee drinking, the incidence of CVDs, and hypertension and its mechanism of action were selected for inclusion in this commentary. These studies have shown either a neutral or beneficial effect of coffee on cardiovascular health. In conclusion, coffee is safe to drink by both normal subjects and by those with preexisting CVDs and hypertension.

  20. ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION AND BODY WEIGHT

    PubMed Central

    FRENCH, MICHAEL T.; NORTON, EDWARD C.; FANG, HAI; MACLEAN, JOHANNA CATHERINE

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY The number of Americans who are overweight or obese has reached epidemic proportions. Elevated weight is associated with health problems and increased medical expenditures. This paper analyzes Waves 1 and 2 of the National Epidemiological Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) to investigate the role of alcohol consumption in weight gain. Alcohol is not only an addictive substance but also a high-calorie beverage that can interfere with metabolic function and cognitive processes. Because men and women differ in the type and amount of alcohol they consume, in the biological effects they experience as a result of alcohol consumption, and in the consequences they face as a result of obesity, we expect our results to differ by gender. We use first-difference models of body mass index (BMI) and alcohol consumption (frequency and intensity) to control for time-invariant unobservable factors that may influence changes in both alcohol use and weight status. Increasing frequency and intensity of alcohol use is associated with statistically significant yet quantitatively small weight gain for men but not for women. Moreover, the first-difference results are much smaller in magnitude and sometimes different in sign compared to the benchmark pooled cross-sectional estimates. PMID:19548203

  1. Health Benefits of Nut Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Ros, Emilio

    2010-01-01

    Nuts (tree nuts and peanuts) are nutrient dense foods with complex matrices rich in unsaturated fatty and other bioactive compounds: high-quality vegetable protein, fiber, minerals, tocopherols, phytosterols, and phenolic compounds. By virtue of their unique composition, nuts are likely to beneficially impact health outcomes. Epidemiologic studies have associated nut consumption with a reduced incidence of coronary heart disease and gallstones in both genders and diabetes in women. Limited evidence also suggests beneficial effects on hypertension, cancer, and inflammation. Interventional studies consistently show that nut intake has a cholesterol-lowering effect, even in the context of healthy diets, and there is emerging evidence of beneficial effects on oxidative stress, inflammation, and vascular reactivity. Blood pressure, visceral adiposity and the metabolic syndrome also appear to be positively influenced by nut consumption. Thus it is clear that nuts have a beneficial impact on many cardiovascular risk factors. Contrary to expectations, epidemiologic studies and clinical trials suggest that regular nut consumption is unlikely to contribute to obesity and may even help in weight loss. Safety concerns are limited to the infrequent occurrence of nut allergy in children. In conclusion, nuts are nutrient rich foods with wide-ranging cardiovascular and metabolic benefits, which can be readily incorporated into healthy diets. PMID:22254047

  2. Municipal water consumption forecast accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fullerton, Thomas M.; Molina, Angel L.

    2010-06-01

    Municipal water consumption planning is an active area of research because of infrastructure construction and maintenance costs, supply constraints, and water quality assurance. In spite of that, relatively few water forecast accuracy assessments have been completed to date, although some internal documentation may exist as part of the proprietary "grey literature." This study utilizes a data set of previously published municipal consumption forecasts to partially fill that gap in the empirical water economics literature. Previously published municipal water econometric forecasts for three public utilities are examined for predictive accuracy against two random walk benchmarks commonly used in regional analyses. Descriptive metrics used to quantify forecast accuracy include root-mean-square error and Theil inequality statistics. Formal statistical assessments are completed using four-pronged error differential regression F tests. Similar to studies for other metropolitan econometric forecasts in areas with similar demographic and labor market characteristics, model predictive performances for the municipal water aggregates in this effort are mixed for each of the municipalities included in the sample. Given the competitiveness of the benchmarks, analysts should employ care when utilizing econometric forecasts of municipal water consumption for planning purposes, comparing them to recent historical observations and trends to insure reliability. Comparative results using data from other markets, including regions facing differing labor and demographic conditions, would also be helpful.

  3. Worldwide Asbestos Supply and Consumption Trends from 1900 through 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, Robert L.

    2006-01-01

    This Circular updates and supersedes U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Open-File Report 03–083, "Worldwide Asbestos Supply and Consumption Trends from 1900 to 2000," with the addition of supply and consumption estimates and analysis from 2001 through 2003 and revisions to the consumption estimates for 1998 through 2000. The text from Open-File Report 03–083 also has been updated in this Circular to include revisions to and expansion of the time-series coverage. The use of asbestos is one of the most controversial issues surrounding the industrial minerals industry. Its carcinogenic nature, an overall lack of knowledge of minimum safe exposure levels, its widespread use for more than 100 years, and the long latency for the development of lung cancer and mesothelioma are the main contributing factors to these controversies. Another factor is that, despite decades of research, the mechanisms responsible for its carcinogenic properties are still largely unknown. The United States produced about 3.29 million metric tons (Mt) of asbestos and used approximately 31.5 Mt between 1900 and 2003. About half of this amount was used after 1960. In 2002, the last asbestos mine in the United States closed, marking the end of more than 110 years of U.S. asbestos production. Cumulative world production from 1900 through 2003 was about 181 Mt. If one assumes that unusually large stocks were not maintained and that world consumption roughly equaled production, then about half of the world production and consumption occurred between the end of 1976 and the end of 2003. The United States and Western European nations were the largest consumers of asbestos during the first two-thirds of the 20th century. They were surpassed by the collective production and consumption of Kazakhstan and Russia by the 1970s. After the onset of the health issues concerning asbestos in the late 1960s and early 1970s, the decline in world production and consumption began to be evident in the late 1970s and

  4. Functional Generalized Additive Models.

    PubMed

    McLean, Mathew W; Hooker, Giles; Staicu, Ana-Maria; Scheipl, Fabian; Ruppert, David

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the functional generalized additive model (FGAM), a novel regression model for association studies between a scalar response and a functional predictor. We model the link-transformed mean response as the integral with respect to t of F{X(t), t} where F(·,·) is an unknown regression function and X(t) is a functional covariate. Rather than having an additive model in a finite number of principal components as in Müller and Yao (2008), our model incorporates the functional predictor directly and thus our model can be viewed as the natural functional extension of generalized additive models. We estimate F(·,·) using tensor-product B-splines with roughness penalties. A pointwise quantile transformation of the functional predictor is also considered to ensure each tensor-product B-spline has observed data on its support. The methods are evaluated using simulated data and their predictive performance is compared with other competing scalar-on-function regression alternatives. We illustrate the usefulness of our approach through an application to brain tractography, where X(t) is a signal from diffusion tensor imaging at position, t, along a tract in the brain. In one example, the response is disease-status (case or control) and in a second example, it is the score on a cognitive test. R code for performing the simulations and fitting the FGAM can be found in supplemental materials available online.

  5. The Spatial and Temporal Consumptive Water Use Impacts of Rapid Shale Gas Development and Use in Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacsi, A. P.; Allen, D.

    2013-12-01

    Over the past several years, the development of shale gas resources has proceeded rapidly in many areas of the United States, and this shale gas development requires the use of millions of gallons of water, per well, for hydraulic fracturing. Recent life cycle assessments of natural gas from shale formations have calculated the potential for water use reduction when water use is integrated along the entire natural gas supply chain, if the shale gas is used in natural-gas power plants to displace coal-fired electricity generation. Actual grid operation, however, is more complicated and would require both that sufficient unused natural gas generation capacity exists for the displacement of coal-fired power generation and that the natural gas price is low enough that the switching is financially feasible. In addition, water savings, which would occur mainly from a reduction in the cooling water demand at coal-fired power plants, may occur in different regions and at different times than water used in natural gas production. Thus, consumptive water impacts may be spatial and temporally disparate, which is not a consideration in current life-cycle literature. The development of shale gas resources in Texas in August 2008 through December 2009 was chosen as a case study for characterizing this phenomenon since Texas accounted for two-thirds of the shale gas produced in the United States during this period and since the price of natural gas for electricity generation dropped significantly over the episode. Changes to the Texas self-contained electric grid (ERCOT) for a scenario with actual natural gas production and prices was estimated using a constrained grid model, rather than assuming that natural gas generation would displace coal-fired power plant usage. The actual development scenario was compared to an alternative development scenario in which natural gas prices remained elevated throughout the episode. Upstream changes in water consumption from lignite (coal

  6. Electrical power generating system. [for windpowered generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, F. J. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    An alternating current power generation system adopted to inject power in an already powered power line is discussed. The power generating system solves to adjustably coup an induction motor, as a generator, to an ac power line wherein the motor and power line are connected through a triac. The triac is regulated to normally turn on at a relatively late point in each half cycle of its operation, whereby at less than operating speed, and thus when the induction motor functions as a motor rather than as a generator, power consumption from the line is substantially reduced. The principal application will be for windmill powered generation.

  7. Power without nukes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-03-01

    Nuclear power is good at producing large quantities of electricity. Barring a big change in the world's pattern of energy consumption, that is the kind of energy that will be most in demand if economic growth is to remain rapid. What are the options if we abandon nuclear power. By the year 2000, even on conservative estimates of economic growth, OECD countries would be generating 25% of their electricity from nuclear power. Total nuclear capacity would be about 400,000 MW. That is the size of the gap that would have to be filled. The rate of economic growth and the progress of conservation both depend partly on the price of energy - and the price of energy depends on the speed and extent of any nuclear phase-out. But if nuclear power stations were shut overnight, power cuts would be impossible to avoid in several countries, and electricity-generating costs would osar. Only oil, gas, and coal could fill the gap. Consumption of either oil or coal would have to rise by 10%. Replacing nuclear power over say 20 years would be less disruptive, but still costly. Some new sources - oil from tar sands and shale, more hydroelectric power, perhaps fuel cells - would fill the gap. But they would not prevent energy prices from rising to at least double their present levels in real terms. Indeed, they would require such a rise, because without it they would make no commercial sense.

  8. Short-term water consumption dynamics in El Paso, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fullerton, Thomas M.; ElíAs, Arturo

    2004-08-01

    Time series analysis of water consumption patterns has been the subject of increasing attention in recent years. For many municipalities such efforts offer a means for developing potentially useful planning tools. Because data requirements are not extensive, model development is feasible for markets where information is limited. The work at hand examines the applicability of such a tool in El Paso, Texas, a growing metropolitan economy located in a semiarid region. Sample data are from January 1994 through December 2002. In addition to estimating a linear transfer function equation of water consumption in this city the model is subjected to a series of simulation benchmark tests.

  9. [Moderate wine consumption and prevention of coronary heart disease].

    PubMed

    Worm, N; Belz, G G; Stein-Hammer, C

    2013-12-01

    Moderate alcohol consumption and in particular wine consumption, is associated with a significant reduction in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in epidemiological studies. Although no randomized placebo-controlled studies with wine intervention exist - and will probably never exist - the observed association can be interpreted as causal due to the existing high biological plausibility. There is more and more evidence that ethanol per se contributes to the most relevant preventive effects. When consumed in moderation the health benefits outweigh the health risks. Whether and to what extend the numerous plant compounds of wine (polyphenolic substances) can provide additional health benefits is still under investigation.

  10. Satellite control of electric power distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergen, L.

    1981-01-01

    An L-band frequencies satellite link providing the medium for direct control of electrical loads at individual customer sites from remote central locations is described. All loads supplied under interruptible-service contracts are likely condidates for such control, and they can be cycled or switched off to reduce system loads. For every kW of load eliminated or deferred to off-peak hours, the power company reduces its need for additional generating capacity. In addition, the satellite could switch meter registers so that their readings automatically reflected the time of consumption. The system would perform load-shedding operations during emergencies, disconnecting large blocks of load according to predetermined priorities. Among the distribution operations conducted by the satellite in real time would be: load reconfiguration, voltage regulation, fault isolation, and capacitor and feeder load control.

  11. Seafood Consumption and Components for Health

    PubMed Central

    Hosomi, Ryota; Yoshida, Munehiro; Fukunaga, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, in developed countries and around the world, lifestyle-related diseases have become a serious problem. Numerous epidemiological studies and clinical trials have demonstrated that diet is one of the major factors that influence susceptibility to lifestyle-related diseases, especially the middle-senile state. Studies examining dietary habits have revealed the health benefits of seafood consumption. Seafood contains functional components that are not present in terrestrial organisms. These components include n-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexsaenoic acid, which aid in the prevention of arteriosclerotic and thrombotic disease. In addition, seafood is a superior source of various nutrients, such as protein, amino acids, fiber, vitamins, and minerals. This review focuses on the components derived from seafood and examines the significant role they play in the maintenance and promotion of health. PMID:22980234

  12. Global implications of standby power use

    SciTech Connect

    Lebot, Benoit; Meier, Alan; Anglade, Alain

    2000-05-01

    Separate studies indicate that standby power is responsible for 20-60 W per home in developed countries. Standby power is responsible for about 2% of OECD countries total electricity consumption and the related power generation generates almost 1% of their carbon emissions. Replacement of existing appliances with those appliances having the lowest standby would reduce total standby power consumption by over 70%. The resulting reductions in carbon emissions would meet over 3% of OECD's total Kyoto commitments. Other strategies may cut more carbon emissions, but standby power is unique in that the reductions are best accomplished through international collaboration and whose costs and large benefits would be spread over all countries.

  13. Characteristics of sunflower seed drying and microwave energy consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darvishi, H.; Hadi Khoshtaghaza, M.; Najafi, G.; Zarein, M.

    2013-03-01

    The effect of the microwave-convective drying technique on the moisture ratio, drying rate, drying time, effective moisture diffusivity, microwave specific energy consumption, and energy efficiency of sunflower seedswere investigated.Drying took place in the falling rate period. Increasing the microwave power caused a significant decrease in the drying time. The drying data were fitted to four thin-layer drying models. The performance of these models was compared using the coefficient of determination, reduced chi-square and root mean square error between the observed and predicted moisture ratios. The results showed that the Page model was found to satisfactorily describe themicrowave-convective drying curves of sunflower seeds. The effective moisture diffusivity values were estimated from Fick diffusion model and varied from 1.73 10-7 to 4.76 10-7m2s-1. Increasing the microwave power resulted in a considerable increase in drying efficiency and a significant decrease in microwave specific energy consumption. The highest energy efficiency and the lowestmicrowave specific energy consumption were obtained at the microwave power of 300 W.

  14. Consumption and Subjective Wellbeing: Exploring Basic Needs, Social Comparison, Social Integration and Hedonism in Peru

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guillen-Royo, Monica

    2008-01-01

    Within material poverty contexts, consumption and subjective wellbeing are positively and strongly related. This is usually explained in terms of the increased possibilities to satisfy basic needs that additional spending provides. Other important aspects of consumption, such as its relative, symbolic and hedonic dimensions are not generally…

  15. 21 CFR 170.50 - Glycine (aminoacetic acid) in food for human consumption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Glycine (aminoacetic acid) in food for human consumption. 170.50 Section 170.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Specific Administrative...

  16. 21 CFR 170.50 - Glycine (aminoacetic acid) in food for human consumption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Glycine (aminoacetic acid) in food for human consumption. 170.50 Section 170.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Specific Administrative...

  17. Electric power monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares the Electric Power Monthly (EPM) for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. This publication provides monthly statistics for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source, consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead.

  18. State energy data report 1992: Consumption estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    This is a report of energy consumption by state for the years 1960 to 1992. The report contains summaries of energy consumption for the US and by state, consumption by source, comparisons to other energy use reports, consumption by energy use sector, and describes the estimation methodologies used in the preparation of the report. Some years are not listed specifically although they are included in the summary of data.

  19. Smart energy management and low-power design of sensor and actuator nodes on algorithmic level for self-powered sensorial materials and robotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosse, Stefan; Behrmann, Thomas

    2011-06-01

    We propose and demonstrate a design methodology for embedded systems satisfying low power requirements suitable for self-powered sensor and actuator nodes. This design methodology focuses on 1. smart energy management at runtime and 2. application-specific System-On- Chip (SoC) design at design time, contributing to low-power systems on both algorithmic and technology level. Smart energy management is performed spatially at runtime by a behaviour-based or state-action-driven selection from a set of different (implemented) algorithms classified by their demand of computation power, and temporally by varying data processing rates. It can be shown that power/energy consumption of an application-specific SoC design depends strongly on computation complexity. Signal and control processing is modelled on abstract level using signal flow diagrams. These signal flow graphs are mapped to Petri Nets to enable direct high-level synthesis of digital SoC circuits using a multi-process architecture with the Communicating-Sequential-Process model on execution level. Power analysis using simulation techniques on gatelevel provides input for the algorithmic selection during runtime of the system, leading to a closed-loop design flow. Additionally, the signal-flow approach enables power management by varying the signal flow and data processing rates depending on actual energy consumption, estimated energy deposit, and required Quality-of-Service.

  20. Power quality load management for large spacecraft electrical power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lollar, Louis F.

    1988-01-01

    In December, 1986, a Center Director's Discretionary Fund (CDDF) proposal was granted to study power system control techniques in large space electrical power systems. Presented are the accomplishments in the area of power system control by power quality load management. In addition, information concerning the distortion problems in a 20 kHz ac power system is presented.

  1. Consumptive water use to feed humanity - curing a blind spot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falkenmark, M.; Lannerstad, M.

    2004-11-01

    Since in large parts of the world it is getting difficult to meet growing water demands by mobilising more water, the discourse has turned its focus to demand management, governance and the necessary concern for aquatic ecosystems by reserving an "environmental flow" in the river. The latter calls for attention to river depletion which may be expected in response to changes in consumptive water use by both natural and anthropogenic systems. Basically, consumptive use has three faces: runoff generation influenced by land cover changes; consumptive use of water withdrawn; and evaporation from water systems (reservoirs, canals, river based cooling). After demonstrating the vulnerability to changes in consumptive use under savanna region conditions - representative of many poverty and hunger prone developing countries subject to attention in the Millennium Development Goal activities - the paper exemplifies 1) changes in runoff generation in response to regional scale land cover changes; 2) consumptive use in large scale irrigation systems. It goes on to analyse the implications of seeing food as a human right by estimating the additional consumptive use requirements to produce food for the next two generations. Attention is paid to remaining degrees of freedom in terms of uncommitted water beyond an environmental flow reserve and to potential food trade consequences (so-called virtual water). The paper concludes that a human-right-to-food principle will have major consequences in terms of altered consumptive water use. It will therefore be essential for humanity to address river depletion to avoid loss of resilience of the life support system. This will demand a deep-going cooperation between hydrology, ecology and water governance.

  2. Consumptive water use to feed humanity - curing a blind spot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falkenmark, M.; Lannerstad, M.

    2005-06-01

    Since in large parts of the world it is getting difficult to meet growing water demands by mobilising more water, the discourse has turned its focus to demand management, governance and the necessary concern for aquatic ecosystems by reserving an "environmental flow" in the river. The latter calls for attention to river depletion which may be expected in response to changes in consumptive water use by both natural and anthropogenic systems. Basically, consumptive use has three faces: runoff generation influenced by land cover changes; consumptive use of water withdrawn; and evaporation from water systems (reservoirs, canals, river based cooling). After demonstrating the vulnerability to changes in consumptive use under savanna region conditions - representative of many poverty and hunger prone developing countries subject to attention in the Millennium Development Goal activities - the paper exemplifies; 1) changes in runoff generation in response to regional scale land cover changes; 2) consumptive use in large scale irrigation systems. It goes on to analyse the implications of seeing food as a human right by estimating the additional consumptive use requirements to produce food for the next two generations. Attention is paid to remaining degrees of freedom in terms of uncommitted water beyond an environmental flow reserve and to potential food trade consequences (so-called virtual water). The paper concludes that a human-right-to-food principle will have major consequences in terms of altered consumptive water use. It will therefore be essential for humanity to address river depletion to avoid loss of resilience of the life support system. This will demand a deep-going cooperation between hydrology, ecology and water governance.

  3. Genetical genomic determinants of alcohol consumption in rats and humans

    PubMed Central

    Tabakoff, Boris; Saba, Laura; Printz, Morton; Flodman, Pam; Hodgkinson, Colin; Goldman, David; Koob, George; Richardson, Heather N; Kechris, Katerina; Bell, Richard L; Hübner, Norbert; Heinig, Matthias; Pravenec, Michal; Mangion, Jonathan; Legault, Lucie; Dongier, Maurice; Conigrave, Katherine M; Whitfield, John B; Saunders, John; Grant, Bridget; Hoffman, Paula L

    2009-01-01

    Background We have used a genetical genomic approach, in conjunction with phenotypic analysis of alcohol consumption, to identify candidate genes that predispose to varying levels of alcohol intake by HXB/BXH recombinant inbred rat strains. In addition, in two populations of humans, we assessed genetic polymorphisms associated with alcohol consumption using a custom genotyping array for 1,350 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Our goal was to ascertain whether our approach, which relies on statistical and informatics techniques, and non-human animal models of alcohol drinking behavior, could inform interpretation of genetic association studies with human populations. Results In the HXB/BXH recombinant inbred (RI) rats, correlation analysis of brain gene expression levels with alcohol consumption in a two-bottle choice paradigm, and filtering based on behavioral and gene expression quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses, generated a list of candidate genes. A literature-based, functional analysis of the interactions of the products of these candidate genes defined pathways linked to presynaptic GABA release, activation of dopamine neurons, and postsynaptic GABA receptor trafficking, in brain regions including the hypothalamus, ventral tegmentum and amygdala. The analysis also implicated energy metabolism and caloric intake control as potential influences on alcohol consumption by the recombinant inbred rats. In the human populations, polymorphisms in genes associated with GABA synthesis and GABA receptors, as well as genes related to dopaminergic transmission, were associated with alcohol consumption. Conclusion Our results emphasize the importance of the signaling pathways identified using the non-human animal models, rather than single gene products, in identifying factors responsible for complex traits such as alcohol consumption. The results suggest cross-species similarities in pathways that influence predisposition to consume alcohol by rats and humans

  4. Handrub Consumption Mirrors Hand Hygiene Compliance.

    PubMed

    Haubitz, Sebastian; Atkinson, Andrew; Kaspar, Tanja; Nydegger, Doris; Eichenberger, Anne; Sommerstein, Rami; Marschall, Jonas

    2016-06-01

    We assessed handrub consumption as a surrogate marker for hand hygiene compliance from 2007 to 2014. Handrub consumption varied substantially between departments but correlated in a mixed effects regression model with the number of patient-days and the observed hand hygiene compliance. Handrub consumption may supplement traditional hand hygiene observations. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;37:707-710.

  5. AC power systems handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Whitaker, J.

    1991-01-01

    Transient disturbances are what headaches are made of. Whatever you call them-spikes, surges, are power bumps-they can take your equipment down and leave you with a complicated and expensive repair job. Protection against transient disturbances is a science that demands attention to detail. This book explains how the power distribution system works, what can go wrong with it, and how to protect a facility against abnormalities. system grounding and shielding are covered in detail. Each major method of transient protection is analyzed and its relative merits discussed. The book provides a complete look at the critical elements of the ac power system. Provides a complete look at the ac power system from generation to consumption. Discusses the mechanisms that produce transient disturbances and how to protect against them. Presents diagrams to facilitate system design. Covers new areas, such as the extent of the transient disturbance problem, transient protection options, and stand-by power systems.

  6. Increased vulnerability to ethanol consumption in adolescent maternal separated mice.

    PubMed

    García-Gutiérrez, María S; Navarrete, Francisco; Aracil, Auxiliadora; Bartoll, Adrián; Martínez-Gras, Isabel; Lanciego, José L; Rubio, Gabriel; Manzanares, Jorge

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of early life stress on the vulnerability to ethanol consumption in adolescence. To this aim, mice were separated from their mothers for 12 hours/day on postnatal days 8 and 12. Emotional behavior (light-dark box, elevated plus maze and tail suspension tests) and pre-attentional deficit (pre-pulse inhibition) were evaluated in adolescent maternal separated (MS) mice. Alterations of the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), mu-opioid receptor (MOr), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neuronal nuclei (NeuN), microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) and neurofilament heavy (NF200)-immunoreactive fibers were studied in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), ventral tegmental area (VTA), nucleus accumbens (NAc) or hippocampus (HIP). The effects of maternal separation (alone or in combination with additional stressful stimuli) on ethanol consumption during adolescence were evaluated using the oral ethanol self-administration paradigm. MS mice presented mood-related alterations and pre-attentional deficit. Increased CRF, MOr and TH, and reduced BDNF, NR3C1, NeuN, MAP2 and NF200-immunoreactive fibers were observed in the PVN, NAc and HIP of adolescent MS mice. In the oral ethanol self-administration test, adolescent MS mice presented higher ethanol consumption and motivation. Exposure to additional new stressful stimuli during adolescence significantly increased the vulnerability to ethanol consumption induced by maternal separation. These results clearly demonstrated that exposure to early life stress increased the vulnerability to ethanol consumption, potentiated the effects of stressful stimuli exposure during adolescence on ethanol consumption and modified the expression of key targets involved in the response to stress, ethanol reinforcing properties and cognitive processes. PMID:25988842

  7. Performance Boosting Additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Mainstream Engineering Corporation was awarded Phase I and Phase II contracts from Goddard Space Flight Center's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program in early 1990. With support from the SBIR program, Mainstream Engineering Corporation has developed a unique low cost additive, QwikBoost (TM), that increases the performance of air conditioners, heat pumps, refrigerators, and freezers. Because of the energy and environmental benefits of QwikBoost, Mainstream received the Tibbetts Award at a White House Ceremony on October 16, 1997. QwikBoost was introduced at the 1998 International Air Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Exposition. QwikBoost is packaged in a handy 3-ounce can (pressurized with R-134a) and will be available for automotive air conditioning systems in summer 1998.

  8. Sewage sludge additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

  9. Perspectives on Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourell, David L.

    2016-07-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has skyrocketed in visibility commercially and in the public sector. This article describes the development of this field from early layered manufacturing approaches of photosculpture, topography, and material deposition. Certain precursors to modern AM processes are also briefly described. The growth of the field over the last 30 years is presented. Included is the standard delineation of AM technologies into seven broad categories. The economics of AM part generation is considered, and the impacts of the economics on application sectors are described. On the basis of current trends, the future outlook will include a convergence of AM fabricators, mass-produced AM fabricators, enabling of topology optimization designs, and specialization in the AM legal arena. Long-term developments with huge impact are organ printing and volume-based printing.

  10. Sarks as additional fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Jyoti; Frampton, Paul H.; Jack Ng, Y.; Nishino, Hitoshi; Yasuda, Osamu

    1991-03-01

    An extension of the standard model is proposed. The gauge group is SU(2) X ⊗ SU(3) C ⊗ SU(2) S ⊗ U(1) Q, where all gauge symmetries are unbroken. The colour and electric charge are combined with SU(2) S which becomes strongly coupled at approximately 500 GeV and binds preons to form fermionic and vector bound states. The usual quarks and leptons are singlets under SU(2) X but additional fermions, called sarks. transform under it and the electroweak group. The present model explains why no more than three light quark-lepton families can exist. Neutral sark baryons, called narks, are candidates for the cosmological dark matter having the characteristics designed for WIMPS. Further phenomenological implications of sarks are analyzed i including electron-positron annihilation. Z 0 decay, flavor-changing neutral currents. baryon-number non-conservation, sarkonium and the neutron electric dipole moment.

  11. Effect of cigarette tax increase on cigarette consumption in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Lee, J; Liao, D; Ye, C; Liao, W

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: This study evaluates the effect of a 5 New Taiwan Dollar (NT$5) Health and Welfare Tax increase on the consumption of domestic and imported cigarettes and cigars. Methods: Using statistics published annually from 1971 through 2000, we set up a model based on the Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS) demand model to estimate price and expenditure elasticity coefficients of cigarettes and cigars. Results: Our results showed that the price elasticity coefficients for domestic and imported cigarettes were –0.644 and –0.822. The consumption of imported cigarettes was reduced by 7.51 packs per capita, and the consumption of domestic cigarettes was reduced by 15.21 packs per capita. Total per capita consumption of cigarettes was reduced by 22.72 packs (18%). Conclusions: From the public health and financial perspectives, the increase in this excise tax on tobacco to the Taiwan government will have significant effect in reducing cigarette consumption; it will also generate additional tax revenues. PMID:15923453

  12. Giffen Behavior and Subsistence Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Robert T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides the first real-world evidence of Giffen behavior, i.e., upward sloping demand. Subsidizing the prices of dietary staples for extremely poor households in two provinces of China, we find strong evidence of Giffen behavior for rice in Hunan, and weaker evidence for wheat in Gansu. The data provide new insight into the consumption behavior of the poor, who act as though maximizing utility subject to subsistence concerns. We find that their elasticity of demand depends significantly, and nonlinearly, on the severity of their poverty. Understanding this heterogeneity is important for the effective design of welfare programs for the poor. (JEL D12, O12) PMID:21031158

  13. Sociological Ambivalence and Funeral Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Canning, Louise

    2015-01-01

    This article builds on Hillcoat-Nallétamby and Phillips’ (2011) conceptualization of sociological ambivalence within the relational framework to examine a particular consumption practice, the funeral. We develop understanding of social, cultural and relational issues that arise from the experience associated with funeral-arranging. This is not a voluntary behaviour but one engaged with through force of circumstance and which involves commercial and relational decisions. Drawing on data from 10 interviews from a larger UK study, we focus on ambivalence surrounding choice and its impact on relations, showing how sentiments including love, obligation, regret and revenge evolve and transform past and future relationships. PMID:26236046

  14. The Consumption of Bicarbonate-Rich Mineral Water Improves Glycemic Control.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Shinnosuke; Goto, Yasuaki; Ito, Kyo; Hayasaka, Shinya; Kurihara, Shigeo; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Tomita, Masaru; Fukuda, Shinji

    2015-01-01

    Hot spring water and natural mineral water have been therapeutically used to prevent or improve various diseases. Specifically, consumption of bicarbonate-rich mineral water (BMW) has been reported to prevent or improve type 2 diabetes (T2D) in humans. However, the molecular mechanisms of the beneficial effects behind mineral water consumption remain unclear. To elucidate the molecular level effects of BMW consumption on glycemic control, blood metabolome analysis and fecal microbiome analysis were applied to the BMW consumption test. During the study, 19 healthy volunteers drank 500 mL of commercially available tap water (TW) or BMW daily. TW consumption periods and BMW consumption periods lasted for a week each and this cycle was repeated twice. Biochemical tests indicated that serum glycoalbumin levels, one of the indexes of glycemic controls, decreased significantly after BMW consumption. Metabolome analysis of blood samples revealed that 19 metabolites including glycolysis-related metabolites and 3 amino acids were significantly different between TW and BMW consumption periods. Additionally, microbiome analysis demonstrated that composition of lean-inducible bacteria was increased after BMW consumption. Our results suggested that consumption of BMW has the possible potential to prevent and/or improve T2D through the alterations of host metabolism and gut microbiota composition. PMID:26798400

  15. The Consumption of Bicarbonate-Rich Mineral Water Improves Glycemic Control

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Shinnosuke; Goto, Yasuaki; Ito, Kyo; Hayasaka, Shinya; Kurihara, Shigeo; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Tomita, Masaru; Fukuda, Shinji

    2015-01-01

    Hot spring water and natural mineral water have been therapeutically used to prevent or improve various diseases. Specifically, consumption of bicarbonate-rich mineral water (BMW) has been reported to prevent or improve type 2 diabetes (T2D) in humans. However, the molecular mechanisms of the beneficial effects behind mineral water consumption remain unclear. To elucidate the molecular level effects of BMW consumption on glycemic control, blood metabolome analysis and fecal microbiome analysis were applied to the BMW consumption test. During the study, 19 healthy volunteers drank 500 mL of commercially available tap water (TW) or BMW daily. TW consumption periods and BMW consumption periods lasted for a week each and this cycle was repeated twice. Biochemical tests indicated that serum glycoalbumin levels, one of the indexes of glycemic controls, decreased significantly after BMW consumption. Metabolome analysis of blood samples revealed that 19 metabolites including glycolysis-related metabolites and 3 amino acids were significantly different between TW and BMW consumption periods. Additionally, microbiome analysis demonstrated that composition of lean-inducible bacteria was increased after BMW consumption. Our results suggested that consumption of BMW has the possible potential to prevent and/or improve T2D through the alterations of host metabolism and gut microbiota composition. PMID:26798400

  16. Neuroticism, conscientiousness and fruit consumption: exploring mediator and moderator effects in the theory of planned behaviour.

    PubMed

    de Bruijn, Gert-Jan; Brug, Johannes; Van Lenthe, Frank J

    2009-11-01

    Integrating the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) with the five-factor model (FFM) of personality may provide insight into the cognitive and motivational mechanisms linking personality with health behaviour, but this issue has received very little attention regarding fruit consumption. Mediator effects of TPB concepts in the personality-fruit consumption link, as well as moderator effects of personality in the intention-fruit consumption link, were therefore investigated in the present study. Data on fruit consumption, TPB concepts and FFM dimensions were gathered among 405 respondents in face-to-face interviews using questionnaires. Structural equation modelling was used to investigate the mediator and moderator effects. The direct effect of conscientiousness on fruit consumption was mediated by attitude and perceived behavioural control, while no direct effect of neuroticism on fruit consumption was found. Neuroticism moderated the intention-fruit consumption relationship with the weakest relationship for those scoring high on neuroticism. Conscientiousness did not moderate the intention-fruit consumption relationship. TPB variables are mediators in the conscientiousness-fruit consumption link. Whether fruit consumption is intentional may be dependent upon the personality dimension neuroticism. Personality dimensions may be a useful addition to the TPB and should be considered in health behaviour change interventions.

  17. Triboelectric generators and sensors for self-powered wearable electronics.

    PubMed

    Ha, Minjeong; Park, Jonghwa; Lee, Youngoh; Ko, Hyunhyub

    2015-04-28

    In recent years, the field of wearable electronics has evolved at a rapid pace, requiring continued innovation in technologies in the fields of electronics, energy devices, and sensors. In particular, wearable devices have multiple applications in healthcare monitoring, identification, and wireless communications, and they are required to perform well while being lightweight and having small size, flexibility, low power consumption, and reliable sensing performances. In this Perspective, we introduce two recent reports on the triboelectric generators with high-power generation achieved using flexible and lightweight textiles or miniaturized and hybridized device configurations. In addition, we present a brief overview of recent developments and future prospects of triboelectric energy harvesters and sensors, which may enable fully self-powered wearable devices with significantly improved sensing capabilities.

  18. Energy consumption estimation of an OMAP-based Android operating system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, Gabriel; Juárez, Eduardo; Castro, Juan José; Sanz, César

    2011-05-01

    System-level energy optimization of battery-powered multimedia embedded systems has recently become a design goal. The poor operational time of multimedia terminals makes computationally demanding applications impractical in real scenarios. For instance, the so-called smart-phones are currently unable to remain in operation longer than several hours. The OMAP3530 processor basically consists of two processing cores, a General Purpose Processor (GPP) and a Digital Signal Processor (DSP). The former, an ARM Cortex-A8 processor, is aimed to run a generic Operating System (OS) while the latter, a DSP core based on the C64x+, has architecture optimized for video processing. The BeagleBoard, a commercial prototyping board based on the OMAP processor, has been used to test the Android Operating System and measure its performance. The board has 128 MB of SDRAM external memory, 256 MB of Flash external memory and several interfaces. Note that the clock frequency of the ARM and DSP OMAP cores is 600 MHz and 430 MHz, respectively. This paper describes the energy consumption estimation of the processes and multimedia applications of an Android v1.6 (Donut) OS on the OMAP3530-Based BeagleBoard. In addition, tools to communicate the two processing cores have been employed. A test-bench to profile the OS resource usage has been developed. As far as the energy estimates concern, the OMAP processor energy consumption model provided by the manufacturer has been used. The model is basically divided in two energy components. The former, the baseline core energy, describes the energy consumption that is independent of any chip activity. The latter, the module active energy, describes the energy consumed by the active modules depending on resource usage.

  19. Socio-Demographic Differences in Energy Drink Consumption and Reasons for Consumption among US College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poulos, Natalie S.; Pasch, Keryn E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Energy drink consumption has become increasingly prevalent among US college students, yet little is known about current rates of consumption and reasons for consumption among current energy drink users, particularly differences related to gender and race/ethnicity. Objectives: To better understand energy drink consumption alone and…

  20. Electric power monthly, August 1998, with data for May 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-08-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. This publication provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and US levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity retail sales, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. In addition, data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. 9 refs., 57 tabs.

  1. Electric power monthly, May 1998, with data for February 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974. The EPM provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and US levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity retail sales, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. In addition, data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. 30 refs., 58 tabs.

  2. Electric power monthly, March 1999 with data for December 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1999-03-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be sued in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. This publication provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and US levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity retail sales, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. In addition, data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. 63 tabs.

  3. Investigating Data Motion Power Trends to Enable Power-Efficient OpenSHMEM Implementations

    SciTech Connect

    Mintz, Tiffany M; D'Azevedo, Eduardo F.; Gorentla Venkata, Manjunath; Hsu, Chung-Hsing

    2016-01-01

    As we continue to develop extreme-scale systems, it is becoming increasingly important to be mindful and more in control of power consumed by these systems. With high performance requirements being more constrained by power and data movement quickly becoming the critical concern for both power and performance, now is an opportune time for OpenSHMEM implementations to address the need for more power-efficient data movement. In order to enable power efficient OpenSHMEM implementations, we have formulated power trend studies that emphasize power consumption for one-sided communications and the disparities in power consumption across multiple implementations. In this paper, we present power trend analysis, generate targeted hypotheses for increasing power efficiency with OpenSHMEM, and discuss prospective research for power efficient OpenSHMEM implementations.

  4. 76 FR 11328 - Secondary Direct Food Additives Permitted in Food for Human Consumption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ... hydrogen peroxide as an antimicrobial agent in the manufacture of modified whey by ultrafiltration methods... use of hydrogen peroxide as an antimicrobial agent in the manufacture of modified whey by... residual hydrogen peroxide be removed from the whey during processing by appropriate chemical and...

  5. 75 FR 2122 - Additional Guidance Regarding Application of Current Procedures for Testing Energy Consumption of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-14

    ...) standard HRF-1-1979 (HRF-1). See Appendix A1, section 2.2; 47 FR 34517 (Aug. 10, 1982). HRF-1 specifies... ensure the consistent application of DOE's current test procedure to refrigerator-freezers with French doors, bottom-mounted freezers, and through-the-door (TTD) ice service (French door TTD models)....

  6. Estimating the Global Public Health Implications of Electricity and Coal Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Reuben; Woodward, Alistair; Campbell-Lendrum, Diarmid; Prüss-üstün, Annette; Hales, Simon; Portier, Christopher J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The growing health risks associated with greenhouse gas emissions highlight the need for new energy policies that emphasize efficiency and low-carbon energy intensity. Objectives: We assessed the relationships among electricity use, coal consumption, and health outcomes. Methods: Using time-series data sets from 41 countries with varying development trajectories between 1965 and 2005, we developed an autoregressive model of life expectancy (LE) and infant mortality (IM) based on electricity consumption, coal consumption, and previous year’s LE or IM. Prediction of health impacts from the Greenhouse Gas and Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies (GAINS) integrated air pollution emissions health impact model for coal-fired power plants was compared with the time-series model results. Results: The time-series model predicted that increased electricity consumption was associated with reduced IM for countries that started with relatively high IM (> 100/1,000 live births) and low LE (< 57 years) in 1965, whereas LE was not significantly associated with electricity consumption regardless of IM and LE in 1965. Increasing coal consumption was associated with increased IM and reduced LE after accounting for electricity consumption. These results are consistent with results based on the GAINS model and previously published estimates of disease burdens attributable to energy-related environmental factors, including indoor and outdoor air pollution and water and sanitation. Conclusions: Increased electricity consumption in countries with IM < 100/1,000 live births does not lead to greater health benefits, whereas coal consumption has significant detrimental health impacts. PMID:21339091

  7. Electric Power: Decisions for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardon, Phillip L.; Preston, John

    2003-01-01

    Reviews the past 25 years of electricity consumption in the United States and considers the implications for the near future. Discusses strategies for energy conservation and provides a student activity for measuring and conserving electric power. (Author/JOW)

  8. FISH CONSUMPTION, METHYLMERCURY, AND HUMAN HEART DISEASE.

    SciTech Connect

    LIPFERT, F.W.; SULLIVAN, T.M.

    2005-09-21

    /wk), which had mercury exposures (mean hair content of 3.9 ppm) much higher than those seen in the United States. As an adjunct to this cursory review, we also present some new ''ecological'' analyses based on international statistics on hair Hg, fish consumption, other dietary and lifestyle factors, and selected cardiovascular health endpoints. We searched for consistent differences between primarily fish-consuming nations, like Japan or the Seychelles, and others who traditionally eat much less fish , such as in central Europe, for example. We use data on cigarette sales, smoking prevalence surveys, and national lung cancer mortality rates to control for the effects of smoking on heart disease. These ecological analyses do not find significant adverse associations of either fish consumption or hair Hg with cardiovascular health; instead, there is a consistent trend towards beneficial effects, some of which are statistically significant. However, such ecological studies cannot distinguish differences due to variations in individual rates of fish consumption. We conclude that the extant epidemiological evidence does not support the existence of significant heart disease risks associated with mercury in fish, for the United States. The most prudent advice would continue to be that of maintaining a well-balanced diet, including fish or shellfish at least once per week. There may be additional benefits from fatty fish.

  9. Additive lattice kirigami

    PubMed Central

    Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M.; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D.

    2016-01-01

    Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes. PMID:27679822

  10. Additive lattice kirigami

    PubMed Central

    Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M.; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D.

    2016-01-01

    Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes.

  11. [Salt consumption and cerebrovascular diseases].

    PubMed

    Demarin, Vida; Morović, Sandra

    2010-05-01

    Stroke is the second leading cause of death and disability in Croatia. Risk factors for cerebrovascular disease can be divided into evidence-based risk factors and those with supposed relationship. Strong evidence suggests that current salt consumption is one of the most important factors influencing the increase in blood pressure, along with the risk of cerebrovascular disease. Hypertension is an important modifiable risk factor for stroke. Studies on salt have shown that a decrease in blood pressure is in correlation with lower salt intake. Over-consumption of salt carries a higher risk of cerebrovascular disease in overweight individuals. Conservative estimates suggest that salt intake reduction by 3 g/day could reduce the stroke rate by 13%; this percentage would be almost double if salt intake be reduced by 6 g/day and triple with a 9 g/day reduction. Salt intake reduction by 9 g/day could reduce the stroke rate by almost 30%. This corresponds to about 20,500 prevented strokes each year. There is evidence supporting a positive correlation of salt intake and stroke, independent of hypertension. The introduction of salt reduction proposal should be considered in future updates of recommendations for stroke prevention.

  12. [Trends in the utilization of food additives].

    PubMed

    Szűcs, Viktória; Bánáti, Diána

    2013-11-17

    The frequent media reports on food additives weakened consumers' trust in food producers and food control authorities as well. Furthermore, consumers' uncertainty is also raised by the fact that they obtain their information from inadequate, mistrustful sources and, therefore, consumers might avoid the consumption of certain foodstuffs. While food producers may react by replacing artificial components by natural ones, they try to emphasize the favourable characteristics of their products. The authors describe the main trends and efforts related to food additives. On the basis of the overview it can be concluded that - besides taking into consideration consumers' needs - product development and research directions are promising. Food producers' efforts may help to restore consumer confidence and trust and they may help them to have informed choice. PMID:24212041

  13. [Trends in the utilization of food additives].

    PubMed

    Szűcs, Viktória; Bánáti, Diána

    2013-11-17

    The frequent media reports on food additives weakened consumers' trust in food producers and food control authorities as well. Furthermore, consumers' uncertainty is also raised by the fact that they obtain their information from inadequate, mistrustful sources and, therefore, consumers might avoid the consumption of certain foodstuffs. While food producers may react by replacing artificial components by natural ones, they try to emphasize the favourable characteristics of their products. The authors describe the main trends and efforts related to food additives. On the basis of the overview it can be concluded that - besides taking into consideration consumers' needs - product development and research directions are promising. Food producers' efforts may help to restore consumer confidence and trust and they may help them to have informed choice.

  14. Task scheduling on multicore embedded systems under power and thermal constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salamy, Hassan

    2015-12-01

    The trend nowadays is to utilise multiple processors to overcome the limited additional power that can be extracted from a single core. This adds to the challenge of task scheduling on such architectures. Task scheduling should consider the power consumption of concurrently running tasks to avoid going over the maximum power limit. However, often scheduling with power awareness does not guarantee thermal safety. Thermal safety is intended to keep the temperatures of all system components under the maximum allowable temperature at all times. High temperatures can reduce the reliability and the overall functionality of the system. This implies that thermal-aware task scheduling is essential to reduce the system hotspots. In this article, we propose effective solutions to power and thermal-aware scheduling based on an integer linear formulation and genetic algorithms. Results on benchmarks proved the effectiveness and usefulness of our provided techniques.

  15. Power-Aware Compiler Controllable Chip Multiprocessor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shikano, Hiroaki; Shirako, Jun; Wada, Yasutaka; Kimura, Keiji; Kasahara, Hironori

    A power-aware compiler controllable chip multiprocessor (CMP) is presented and its performance and power consumption are evaluated with the optimally scheduled advanced multiprocessor (OSCAR) parallelizing compiler. The CMP is equipped with power control registers that change clock frequency and power supply voltage to functional units including processor cores, memories, and an interconnection network. The OSCAR compiler carries out coarse-grain task parallelization of programs and reduces power consumption using architectural power control support and the compiler's power saving scheme. The performance evaluation shows that MPEG-2 encoding on the proposed CMP with four CPUs results in 82.6% power reduction in real-time execution mode with a deadline constraint on its sequential execution time. Furthermore, MP3 encoding on a heterogeneous CMP with four CPUs and four accelerators results in 53.9% power reduction at 21.1-fold speed-up in performance against its sequential execution in the fastest execution mode.

  16. Addiction surplus: the add-on margin that makes addictive consumptions difficult to contain.

    PubMed

    Adams, Peter J; Livingstone, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Addictive consumptions generate financial surpluses over-and-above non-addictive consumptions because of the excessive consumption of addicted consumers. This add-on margin or 'addiction surplus' provides a powerful incentive for beneficiaries to protect their income by ensuring addicted consumers keep consuming. Not only that, addiction surplus provides the financial base that enables producers to sponsor activities which aim to prevent public health initiatives from reducing consumption. This paper examines the potency of addiction surplus to engage industry, governments and communities in an on-going reliance on addiction surplus. It then explores how neo-liberal constructions of a rational consumer disguise the ethical and exploitative dynamics of addiction surplus by examining ways in which addictive consumptions fail to conform to notions of autonomy and rationality. Four measures are identified to contain the distorting effects of addiction surplus.

  17. Preliminary assessment of power-generating tethers in space and of propulsion for their orbit maintenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    English, R. E.; Finnegan, P. M.

    1985-01-01

    The concept of generating power in space by means of a conducting tether deployed from a spacecraft was studied. Using hydrogen and oxygen as the rocket propellant to overcome the drag of such a power-generating tether would yield more benefit than if used in a fuel cell. The mass consumption would be 25 percent less than the reactant consumption of fuel cells. Residual hydrogen and oxygen in the external tank and in the orbiter could be used very effectively for this purpose. Many other materials (such as waste from life support) could be used as the propellant. Electrical propulsion using tether generated power can compensate for the drag of a power-generating tether, half the power going to the useful load and the rest for electric propulsion. In addition, the spacecraft's orbital energy is a large energy reservoir that permits load leveling and a ratio of peak to average power equal to 2. Critical technologies to be explored before a power-generating tether can be used in space are delineated.

  18. Electric power monthly, September 1998, with data for June 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The Electric Power Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy prepares the EPM. This publication provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and US levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity retail sales, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. In addition, data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source; consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant.

  19. Electric power monthly, October 1998, with data for July 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The Electric Power Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy prepares the EPM. This publication provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and US levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity retail sales, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. In addition, data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source; consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant. 57 tabs.

  20. Electric power monthly, June 1999, with data for March 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-06-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The Electric Power Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy prepares the EPM. This publication provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and US levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity retail sales, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. In addition, data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source; consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant. 57 tabs.