Science.gov

Sample records for additional power consumption

  1. Power consumption monitoring using additional monitoring device

    SciTech Connect

    Truşcă, M. R. C. Albert, Ş. Tudoran, C. Soran, M. L. Fărcaş, F.; Abrudean, M.

    2013-11-13

    Today, emphasis is placed on reducing power consumption. Computers are large consumers; therefore it is important to know the total consumption of computing systems. Since their optimal functioning requires quite strict environmental conditions, without much variation in temperature and humidity, reducing energy consumption cannot be made without monitoring environmental parameters. Thus, the present work uses a multifunctional electric meter UPT 210 for power consumption monitoring. Two applications were developed: software which carries meter readings provided by electronic and programming facilitates remote device and a device for temperature monitoring and control. Following temperature variations that occur both in the cooling system, as well as the ambient, can reduce energy consumption. For this purpose, some air conditioning units or some computers are stopped in different time slots. These intervals were set so that the economy is high, but the work's Datacenter is not disturbed.

  2. Exploring human inactivity in computer power consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candrawati, Ria; Hashim, Nor Laily Binti

    2016-08-01

    Managing computer power consumption has become an important challenge in computer society and this is consistent with a trend where a computer system is more important to modern life together with a request for increased computing power and functions continuously. Unfortunately, previous approaches are still inadequately designed to handle the power consumption problem due to unpredictable workload of a system caused by unpredictable human behaviors. This is happens due to lack of knowledge in a software system and the software self-adaptation is one approach in dealing with this source of uncertainty. Human inactivity is handled by adapting the behavioral changes of the users. This paper observes human inactivity in the computer usage and finds that computer power usage can be reduced if the idle period can be intelligently sensed from the user activities. This study introduces Control, Learn and Knowledge model that adapts the Monitor, Analyze, Planning, Execute control loop integrates with Q Learning algorithm to learn human inactivity period to minimize the computer power consumption. An experiment to evaluate this model was conducted using three case studies with same activities. The result show that the proposed model obtained those 5 out of 12 activities shows the power decreasing compared to others.

  3. Ultra-low power consumption military communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowy, Menahem; Chin, Chi-Yuan; Tiemann, Jerome J.

    The authors present general techniques to reduce the power consumption while increasing the clock rate and maximizing the silicon area of CMOS circuits. Modern digital signal processing implementations suffer from high power dissipation while requiring large silicon area. A technique based on the use of additional transistors with a modified threshold is described. This technique lowers the power-delay product of transmission-gate intensive CMOS circuits compared to standard CMOS technology. Resulting circuits exhibit a reduced power dissipation while enabling increased clock rate and reduced implementation area by a factor of 2. Use of additional circuit optimization techniques improves the efficiency of CMOS circuits by a factor of 3 to 4.

  4. Low power-consumption quantum cascade lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsuyama, Tsukuru; Hashimoto, Jun-ichi; Yoshinaga, Hiroyuki; Mori, Hiroki; Tsuji, Yukihiro; Murata, Makoto; Ekawa, Mitsuru; Tanahashi, Toshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) are promising light sources for real time high-sensitivity gas sensing in the mid-infrared region. For the practical use of QCLs as a compact and portable gas sensor, their power-consumption needs to be reduced. We report a successful operation of a low power-consumption distributed feedback (DFB) QCL. For the reduction of power consumption, we introduced a vertical-transition structure in a core region to improve carrier transition efficiency and reduced the core volume. DFB-QCL epitaxial structure was grown by low-pressure OMVPE. The core region consists of AlInAs/GaInAs superlattices lattice-matched to InP. A first-order Bragg-grating was formed near the core region to obtain a large coupling coefficiency. A mesa-strip was formed by reactive ion etching and a buried-heterostructure was fabricated by the regrowth of semi-insulating InP. High-reflective facet coatings were also performed to decrease the mirror loss for the reduction of the threshold current. A device (5x500μm) operated with a single mode in the wavelength region from 7.23μm to 7.27μm. The threshold current and threshold voltage under CW operation at 20 °C were 52mA and 8.4V respectively. A very low threshold power-consumption as low as 0.44 W was achieved, which is among the lowest values at room temperature to our knowledge.

  5. Power consumption analysis DBD plasma ozone generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nur, M.; Restiwijaya, M.; Muchlisin, Z.; Susan, I. A.; Arianto, F.; Widyanto, S. A.

    2016-11-01

    Studies on the consumption of energy by an ozone generator with various constructions electrodes of dielectric barrier discharge plasma (DBDP) reactor has been carried out. This research was done to get the configuration of the reactor, that is capable to produce high ozone concentrations with low energy consumption. BDBP reactors were constructed by spiral- cylindrical configuration, plasma ozone was generated by high voltage AC voltage up to 25 kV and maximum frequency of 23 kHz. The reactor consists of an active electrode in the form of a spiral-shaped with variation diameter Dc, and it was made by using copper wire with diameter Dw. In this research, we variated number of loops coil windings N as well as Dc and Dw. Ozone concentrations greater when the wire's diameter Dw and the diameter of the coil windings applied was greater. We found that impedance greater will minimize the concentration of ozone, in contrary to the greater capacitance will increase the concentration of ozone. The ozone concentrations increase with augmenting of power. Maximum power is effective at DBD reactor spiral-cylinder is on the Dc = 20 mm, Dw = 1.2 mm, and the number of coil windings N = 10 loops with the resulting concentration is greater than 20 ppm and it consumes energy of 177.60 watts

  6. The power-consumption-controlled extruder: a tool for pellet production.

    PubMed

    Kleinebudde, P; Sølvberg, A J; Lindner, H

    1994-07-01

    Based on the assumption that there is a link between power consumption of an extruder and pellet properties, a control circuit for power consumption was developed. Powder and granulation liquid are fed separately into a twin-screw extruder. The power consumption is controlled by varying the pump rate at a given powder-feed rate; consequently each level of power consumption results in a specific water content of the extrudate for a particular formulation. The shape of pellets depends almost entirely on the level of power consumption irrespective of formulation. The size of dry pellets is additionally affected by a shrinking factor which depends on the water content. The power-consumption-controlled extruder is an appropriate tool for the production of pellets. The system is able to adapt the water content for a formulation automatically.

  7. Power Play: Calculating Home Electricity Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2007-01-01

    With both energy usage and energy costs rising rapidly, people can benefit from paying closer attention to their consumption of energy. Students can gain greater awareness of their personal use of electricity and get some excellent experience with the practical application of mathematics by studying their families' consumption of electricity. A…

  8. Liner shape and power consumption in rotary mills

    SciTech Connect

    Valderrama, W.; Grandela, P.; Magne, L.

    1995-12-31

    The effect of liner shape on power consumption was studied in a small laboratory mill under various operating conditions. It was found that the angle subtended between the lifter front face and the face in contact with the mill case has the most significant influence. The increasing height of lifter reduced power consumption, whereas the lifter spacing did not show any influence. The effect of height is less relevant at lower front angles. Highest power consumption is achieved with a 450 front angle. A comparison of cylinders and balls under identical conditions gives higher power consumption for ball charges. The data does suggest that, for maximum power draw, slip in the outer layers of the charge and the early recirculation of energy to the mill case should be avoided. Both factors prevent an efficient energy transfer to the mill charge.

  9. CROSS-DISCIPLINARY PHYSICS AND RELATED AREAS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Simulation of SET Operation in Phase-Change Random Access Memories with Heater Addition and Ring-Type Contactor for Low-Power Consumption by Finite Element Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Yue-Feng; Song, Zhi-Tang; Ling, Yun; Liu, Yan; Feng, Song-Lin

    2009-11-01

    A three-dimensional finite element model for phase change random access memory (PCRAM) is established for comprehensive electrical and thermal analysis during SET operation. The SET behaviours of the heater addition structure (HS) and the ring-type contact in bottom electrode (RIB) structure are compared with each other. There are two ways to reduce the RESET current, applying a high resistivity interfacial layer and building a new device structure. The simulation results indicate that the variation of SET current with different power reduction ways is little. This study takes the RESET and SET operation current into consideration, showing that the RIB structure PCRAM cell is suitable for future devices with high heat efficiency and high-density, due to its high heat efficiency in RESET operation.

  10. Whole-house measurements of standby power consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, J.P.; Meier, Alan

    2000-09-15

    We investigated the variation in standby power consumption in ten California homes. Total standby power in the homes ranged from 14-169W, with an average of 67 W. This corresponded to 5 percent-26 percent of the homes' annual electricity use. The appliances with the largest standby losses were televisions, set-top boxes and printers. The large variation in the standby power of appliances providing the same service demonstrates that manufacturers are able to reduce standby losses without degrading performance. Replacing existing units with appliances with 1 W or less of standby power would reduce standby losses by 68 percent.

  11. Profiling an application for power consumption during execution on a compute node

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J; Blocksome, Michael A; Peters, Amanda E; Ratterman, Joseph D; Smith, Brian E

    2013-09-17

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for profiling an application for power consumption during execution on a compute node that include: receiving an application for execution on a compute node; identifying a hardware power consumption profile for the compute node, the hardware power consumption profile specifying power consumption for compute node hardware during performance of various processing operations; determining a power consumption profile for the application in dependence upon the application and the hardware power consumption profile for the compute node; and reporting the power consumption profile for the application.

  12. Profiling an application for power consumption during execution on a plurality of compute nodes

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael A.; Peters, Amanda E.; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian E.

    2012-08-21

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for profiling an application for power consumption during execution on a compute node that include: receiving an application for execution on a compute node; identifying a hardware power consumption profile for the compute node, the hardware power consumption profile specifying power consumption for compute node hardware during performance of various processing operations; determining a power consumption profile for the application in dependence upon the application and the hardware power consumption profile for the compute node; and reporting the power consumption profile for the application.

  13. 76 FR 11328 - Secondary Direct Food Additives Permitted in Food for Human Consumption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 173 Secondary Direct Food Additives Permitted in Food for Human Consumption AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The... Direct Food Additives Permitted in Food for Human Consumption (21 CFR part 173) to provide for the...

  14. 15 CFR 713.4 - Advance declaration requirements for additionally planned production, processing, or consumption...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SCHEDULE 2 CHEMICALS § 713.4 Advance declaration requirements for additionally planned production... additionally planned production, processing, or consumption of Schedule 2 chemicals. 713.4 Section...

  15. 15 CFR 713.4 - Advance declaration requirements for additionally planned production, processing, or consumption...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SCHEDULE 2 CHEMICALS § 713.4 Advance declaration requirements for additionally planned production... additionally planned production, processing, or consumption of Schedule 2 chemicals. 713.4 Section...

  16. 15 CFR 713.4 - Advance declaration requirements for additionally planned production, processing, or consumption...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SCHEDULE 2 CHEMICALS § 713.4 Advance declaration requirements for additionally planned production... additionally planned production, processing, or consumption of Schedule 2 chemicals. 713.4 Section...

  17. 15 CFR 713.4 - Advance declaration requirements for additionally planned production, processing, or consumption...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SCHEDULE 2 CHEMICALS § 713.4 Advance declaration requirements for additionally planned production... additionally planned production, processing, or consumption of Schedule 2 chemicals. 713.4 Section...

  18. 77 FR 52228 - Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption; Vitamin D2

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 172 Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption; Vitamin D2 Bakers Yeast AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the food...

  19. Reducing power consumption during execution of an application on a plurality of compute nodes

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J [Rochester, MN; Blocksome, Michael A [Rochester, MN; Peters, Amanda E [Rochester, MN; Ratterman, Joseph D [Rochester, MN; Smith, Brian E [Rochester, MN

    2012-06-05

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for reducing power consumption during execution of an application on a plurality of compute nodes that include: executing, by each compute node, an application, the application including power consumption directives corresponding to one or more portions of the application; identifying, by each compute node, the power consumption directives included within the application during execution of the portions of the application corresponding to those identified power consumption directives; and reducing power, by each compute node, to one or more components of that compute node according to the identified power consumption directives during execution of the portions of the application corresponding to those identified power consumption directives.

  20. Environmental effects of interstate power trading on electricity consumption mixes

    SciTech Connect

    Joe Marriott; H. Scott Matthews

    2005-11-15

    Although many studies of electricity generation use national or state average generation mix assumptions, in reality a great deal of electricity is transferred between states with very different mixes of fossil and renewable fuels, and using the average numbers could result in incorrect conclusions in these studies. The authors create electricity consumption profiles for each state and for key industry sectors in the U.S. based on existing state generation profiles, net state power imports, industry presence by state, and an optimization model to estimate interstate electricity trading. Using these 'consumption mixes' can provide a more accurate assessment of electricity use in life-cycle analyses. It is concluded that the published generation mixes for states that import power are misleading, since the power consumed in-state has a different makeup than the power that was generated. And, while most industry sectors have consumption mixes similar to the U.S. average, some of the most critical sectors of the economy - such as resource extraction and material processing sectors - are very different. This result does validate the average mix assumption made in many environmental assessments, but it is important to accurately quantify the generation methods for electricity used when doing life-cycle analyses. 16 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Environmental effects of interstate power trading on electricity consumption mixes.

    PubMed

    Marriott, Joe; Matthews, H Scott

    2005-11-15

    Although many studies of electricity generation use national or state average generation mix assumptions, in reality a great deal of electricity is transferred between states with very different mixes of fossil and renewable fuels, and using the average numbers could result in incorrect conclusions in these studies. We create electricity consumption profiles for each state and for key industry sectors in the U.S. based on existing state generation profiles, net state power imports, industry presence by state, and an optimization model to estimate interstate electricity trading. Using these "consumption mixes" can provide a more accurate assessment of electricity use in life-cycle analyses. We conclude that the published generation mixes for states that import power are misleading, since the power consumed in-state has a different makeup than the power that was generated. And, while most industry sectors have consumption mixes similar to the U.S. average, some of the most critical sectors of the economy--such as resource extraction and material processing sectors--are very different. This result does validate the average mix assumption made in many environmental assessments, but it is important to accurately quantify the generation methods for electricity used when doing life-cycle analyses.

  2. Power consumption analysis of operating systems for wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Lajara, Rafael; Pelegrí-Sebastiá, José; Perez Solano, Juan J

    2010-01-01

    In this paper four wireless sensor network operating systems are compared in terms of power consumption. The analysis takes into account the most common operating systems--TinyOS v1.0, TinyOS v2.0, Mantis and Contiki--running on Tmote Sky and MICAz devices. With the objective of ensuring a fair evaluation, a benchmark composed of four applications has been developed, covering the most typical tasks that a Wireless Sensor Network performs. The results show the instant and average current consumption of the devices during the execution of these applications. The experimental measurements provide a good insight into the power mode in which the device components are running at every moment, and they can be used to compare the performance of different operating systems executing the same tasks.

  3. Power Consumption Analysis of Operating Systems for Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Lajara, Rafael; Pelegrí-Sebastiá, José; Perez Solano, Juan J.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper four wireless sensor network operating systems are compared in terms of power consumption. The analysis takes into account the most common operating systems—TinyOS v1.0, TinyOS v2.0, Mantis and Contiki—running on Tmote Sky and MICAz devices. With the objective of ensuring a fair evaluation, a benchmark composed of four applications has been developed, covering the most typical tasks that a Wireless Sensor Network performs. The results show the instant and average current consumption of the devices during the execution of these applications. The experimental measurements provide a good insight into the power mode in which the device components are running at every moment, and they can be used to compare the performance of different operating systems executing the same tasks. PMID:22219688

  4. 78 FR 73434 - Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption; Acacia (Gum Arabic)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-06

    ... to Food for Human Consumption; Acacia (Gum Arabic) AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... regulations to provide for the expanded safe use of acacia (gum arabic) in foods. This action is in response... ] additive regulations in Sec. 172.780, Acacia (gum arabic) (21 CFR 172.780) to provide for the expanded...

  5. Reducing power consumption during execution of an application on a plurality of compute nodes

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael A.; Peters, Amanda E.; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian E.

    2013-09-10

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for reducing power consumption during execution of an application on a plurality of compute nodes that include: powering up, during compute node initialization, only a portion of computer memory of the compute node, including configuring an operating system for the compute node in the powered up portion of computer memory; receiving, by the operating system, an instruction to load an application for execution; allocating, by the operating system, additional portions of computer memory to the application for use during execution; powering up the additional portions of computer memory allocated for use by the application during execution; and loading, by the operating system, the application into the powered up additional portions of computer memory.

  6. Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption; Folic Acid. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-04-15

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is amending the food additive regulations to provide for the safe use of folic acid in corn masa flour. We are taking this action in response to a food additive petition filed jointly by Gruma Corporation, Spina Bifida Association, March of Dimes Foundation, American Academy of Pediatrics, Royal DSM N.V., and National Council of La Raza.

  7. Standby power consumption in U.S. residences

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, W.

    1997-12-01

    {open_quotes}Leaking electricity{close_quotes} is the electricity consumed by appliances while they are switched {open_quotes}off{close_quote} or not performing their principal function. Leaking electricity represents approximately 5 % of U.S. residential electricity. This is a relatively new phenomenon and is a result of proliferation of electronic equipment in homes. The standby losses in TVs, VCRs, compact audio systems, and cable boxes account for almost 40% of all leaking electricity. There is a wide range in standby losses in each appliance group. For example, standby losses in compact audio systems range from 2.1 to 28.6 W, even though their features are identical. In some cases, leaking electricity while switched off was only slightly less than energy consumption in the on mode. New features in these appliances may greatly increase leaking electricity, such as electronic program guides in TVs and cable boxes. In the standby mode, these new features require many extra components energized to permit the downloading of information. Several techniques are available to cut standby losses, most without using any new technologies. Simple redesign of circuits to avoid energizing unused components appears to save the most energy. A separate power supply, precisely designed for the actual power needed, is another solution. A switch mode power supply can substitute for the less efficient linear power supply. Switch mode power supplies cut no-load and standby losses by 60-80%. The combination of these techniques can cut leaking electricity by greater than 75%.

  8. 50 CFR 453.06 - Additional Committee powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS ENDANGERED SPECIES EXEMPTION PROCESS ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE § 453.06 Additional Committee powers. (a) Secure information....

  9. 50 CFR 453.06 - Additional Committee powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS ENDANGERED SPECIES EXEMPTION PROCESS ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE § 453.06 Additional Committee powers. (a) Secure information....

  10. 50 CFR 453.06 - Additional Committee powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS ENDANGERED SPECIES EXEMPTION PROCESS ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE § 453.06 Additional Committee powers. (a) Secure information....

  11. 50 CFR 453.06 - Additional Committee powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS ENDANGERED SPECIES EXEMPTION PROCESS ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE § 453.06 Additional Committee powers. (a) Secure information....

  12. 50 CFR 453.06 - Additional Committee powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS ENDANGERED SPECIES EXEMPTION PROCESS ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE § 453.06 Additional Committee powers. (a) Secure information....

  13. Budget-based power consumption for application execution on a plurality of compute nodes

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J; Inglett, Todd A; Ratterman, Joseph D

    2012-10-23

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for budget-based power consumption for application execution on a plurality of compute nodes that include: assigning an execution priority to each of one or more applications; executing, on the plurality of compute nodes, the applications according to the execution priorities assigned to the applications at an initial power level provided to the compute nodes until a predetermined power consumption threshold is reached; and applying, upon reaching the predetermined power consumption threshold, one or more power conservation actions to reduce power consumption of the plurality of compute nodes during execution of the applications.

  14. Budget-based power consumption for application execution on a plurality of compute nodes

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J; Blocksome, Michael A; Peters, Amanda E; Ratterman, Joseph D; Smith, Brian E

    2013-02-05

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for budget-based power consumption for application execution on a plurality of compute nodes that include: assigning an execution priority to each of one or more applications; executing, on the plurality of compute nodes, the applications according to the execution priorities assigned to the applications at an initial power level provided to the compute nodes until a predetermined power consumption threshold is reached; and applying, upon reaching the predetermined power consumption threshold, one or more power conservation actions to reduce power consumption of the plurality of compute nodes during execution of the applications.

  15. The ``Green Lab'': Power Consumption by Commercial Light Bulbs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Einsporn, James A.; Zhou, Andrew F.

    2011-09-01

    Going "green" is a slogan that is very contemporary, both with industry and in the political arena. Choosing more energy-efficient devices is one way homeowners can "go green." A simple method is to change home lighting from hot incandescent bulbs to compact fluorescent lights (CFLs). But do they really save energy? How do their illuminations compare? Even if the CFLs are more energy efficient, they still add to our pollution problem because of the mercury inside them. Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) could be the answer, but they are not available at our local stores. Can LEDs be made to screw right into a standard socket? How expensive are they? What are the power consumptions of so-called "60-W" and "100-W" CFL and LED light bulbs? These are the questions that are answered during this lab activity. Students measure the voltage and current for each of the three types of bulbs, and then calculate the electrical power required by each. An optional experiment is to set the light outputs of each bulb so they are equal in intensity, and then determine the power consumed. While not practical in the home, this experiment gives students an understanding of value for their buck.

  16. Consumption of the electric power inside silent discharge reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Yehia, Ashraf

    2015-01-15

    An experimental study was made in this paper to investigate the relation between the places of the dielectric barriers, which cover the surfaces of the electrodes in the coaxial cylindrical reactors, and the rate of change of the electric power that is consumed in forming silent discharges. Therefore, silent discharges have been formed inside three coaxial cylindrical reactors. The dielectric barriers in these reactors were pasted on both the internal surface of the outer electrode in the first reactor and the external surface of the inner electrode in the second reactor as well as the surfaces of the two electrodes in the third reactor. The reactor under study has been fed by atmospheric air that flowed inside it with a constant rate at normal temperature and pressure, in parallel with the application of a sinusoidal ac voltage between the electrodes of the reactor. The electric power consumed in forming the silent discharges inside the three reactors was measured as a function of the ac peak voltage. The validity of the experimental results was investigated by applying Manley's equation on the same discharge conditions. The results have shown that the rate of consumption of the electric power relative to the ac peak voltage per unit width of the discharge gap improves by a ratio of either 26.8% or 80% or 128% depending on the places of the dielectric barriers that cover the surfaces of the electrodes inside the three reactors.

  17. USING TIME VARIANT VOLTAGE TO CALCULATE ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND POWER USE OF BUILDING SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Makhmalbaf, Atefe; Augenbroe , Godfried

    2015-12-09

    Buildings are the main consumers of electricity across the world. However, in the research and studies related to building performance assessment, the focus has been on evaluating the energy efficiency of buildings whereas the instantaneous power efficiency has been overlooked as an important aspect of total energy consumption. As a result, we never developed adequate models that capture both thermal and electrical characteristics (e.g., voltage) of building systems to assess the impact of variations in the power system and emerging technologies of the smart grid on buildings energy and power performance and vice versa. This paper argues that the power performance of buildings as a function of electrical parameters should be evaluated in addition to systems’ mechanical and thermal behavior. The main advantage of capturing electrical behavior of building load is to better understand instantaneous power consumption and more importantly to control it. Voltage is one of the electrical parameters that can be used to describe load. Hence, voltage dependent power models are constructed in this work and they are coupled with existing thermal energy models. Lack of models that describe electrical behavior of systems also adds to the uncertainty of energy consumption calculations carried out in building energy simulation tools such as EnergyPlus, a common building energy modeling and simulation tool. To integrate voltage-dependent power models with thermal models, the thermal cycle (operation mode) of each system was fed into the voltage-based electrical model. Energy consumption of systems used in this study were simulated using EnergyPlus. Simulated results were then compared with estimated and measured power data. The mean square error (MSE) between simulated, estimated, and measured values were calculated. Results indicate that estimated power has lower MSE when compared with measured data than simulated results. Results discussed in this paper will illustrate the

  18. 40 CFR 82.20 - Availability of consumption allowances in addition to baseline consumption allowances for class...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... period some quantity of consumption that the nation is permitted under the Montreal Protocol. (2) Trade... Party to the Protocol as set forth in this paragraph (b). A person may only receive consumption from... maximum consumption that the nation is allowed under the Protocol minus the quantity (in kilograms)...

  19. 40 CFR 82.20 - Availability of consumption allowances in addition to baseline consumption allowances for class...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... period some quantity of consumption that the nation is permitted under the Montreal Protocol. (2) Trade... Party to the Protocol as set forth in this paragraph (b). A person may only receive consumption from... maximum consumption that the nation is allowed under the Protocol minus the quantity (in kilograms)...

  20. 40 CFR 82.20 - Availability of consumption allowances in addition to baseline consumption allowances for class...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... period some quantity of consumption that the nation is permitted under the Montreal Protocol. (2) Trade... Party to the Protocol as set forth in this paragraph (b). A person may only receive consumption from... maximum consumption that the nation is allowed under the Protocol minus the quantity (in kilograms)...

  1. 40 CFR 82.20 - Availability of consumption allowances in addition to baseline consumption allowances for class...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... period some quantity of consumption that the nation is permitted under the Montreal Protocol. (2) Trade... Party to the Protocol as set forth in this paragraph (b). A person may only receive consumption from... maximum consumption that the nation is allowed under the Protocol minus the quantity (in kilograms)...

  2. Optimizing electrical power consumption in SOA based optical packet switching nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shaotang; Hu, Weisheng; Sun, Weiqiang; He, Hao

    2011-12-01

    Since the underlying demand for network capacity can be satisfied only by extremely increasing transmission bit rate, processing speed, and switching capacity, it definitely will lead to increased power consumption of network nodes. Energy crisis is global crisis nowadays and it has brought up many problems. Power consumption is becoming a crucial issue in designing high-performance network devices. This paper studies the power consumption model of a kind of Optical Packet Switching (OPS) node based on Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers (SOA). Our results show that by dynamically adjusting the bias current of SOAs, the power consumption on an OPS node can be reduced considerably, especially when the traffic distribution across multiple ports is not balanced and inter-nodal distances vary. The total electrical power consumption can be cut off significantly. We also show the power consumption can be further reduced by jointly optimizing the thermoelectric cooler current.

  3. Power wheelchair range testing and energy consumption during fatigue testing.

    PubMed

    Cooper, R A; VanSickle, D P; Albright, S J; Stewart, K J; Flannery, M; Robertson, R N

    1995-10-01

    The range of a power wheelchair depends on many factors including: battery type, battery state, wheelchair/rider weight, terrain, the efficiency of the drive train, and driving behavior. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of three methods of estimating power wheelchair range. Another significant purpose was to compare the current draw on pavement to current draw on an International Standards Organization (ISO) Double Drum tester at one m/sec. Tests were performed on seven different power wheelchairs unloaded, and loaded with an ISO 100 kg test dummy. Each chair was configured according to the manufacturer's specifications, and tires were properly inflated. Experienced test technicians were used for the tennis court tests, and treadmill tests. An ISO 100 kg test dummy was used for the ISO Double Drum test. Energy consumption was measured over a distance of 1500 m for each of the three test conditions. The rolling surface was level in all cases. Repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed a significant difference (p = 0.0001) between the predicted range at maximum speed for the three tests. Post hoc analysis demonstrated a significant difference (p < 0.01) in estimated range at maximum speed between the Double Drum test and the treadmill test, as well as between the Double Drum test and the tennis court test. Our results indicate no significant difference (p > 0.05) between the predicted range at maximal speed between the treadmill and tennis court tests. A simple relationship does not exist between the results of range testing with the Double Drum tester and the tennis court. An alternative would be to permit the use of a treadmill for range testing as simple relationships between all pertinent treadmill and tennis court range data were found. For the Double Drum tester used, the current demand is higher than under normal usage. This presents a problem as current is related to load torque in a power wheelchair. Hence, the Double

  4. 12. POWER PLANT PART OF BUILDING SHOWING RELATION TO ADDITION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. POWER PLANT PART OF BUILDING SHOWING RELATION TO ADDITION AND EQUIPMENT PART OF BUILDING - Boswell Bay White Alice Site, Radio Relay Building, Chugach National Forest, Cordova, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

  5. Measurements and modelling of base station power consumption under real traffic loads.

    PubMed

    Lorincz, Josip; Garma, Tonko; Petrovic, Goran

    2012-01-01

    Base stations represent the main contributor to the energy consumption of a mobile cellular network. Since traffic load in mobile networks significantly varies during a working or weekend day, it is important to quantify the influence of these variations on the base station power consumption. Therefore, this paper investigates changes in the instantaneous power consumption of GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) and UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System) base stations according to their respective traffic load. The real data in terms of the power consumption and traffic load have been obtained from continuous measurements performed on a fully operated base station site. Measurements show the existence of a direct relationship between base station traffic load and power consumption. According to this relationship, we develop a linear power consumption model for base stations of both technologies. This paper also gives an overview of the most important concepts which are being proposed to make cellular networks more energy-efficient.

  6. Measurements and Modelling of Base Station Power Consumption under Real Traffic Loads †

    PubMed Central

    Lorincz, Josip; Garma, Tonko; Petrovic, Goran

    2012-01-01

    Base stations represent the main contributor to the energy consumption of a mobile cellular network. Since traffic load in mobile networks significantly varies during a working or weekend day, it is important to quantify the influence of these variations on the base station power consumption. Therefore, this paper investigates changes in the instantaneous power consumption of GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) and UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System) base stations according to their respective traffic load. The real data in terms of the power consumption and traffic load have been obtained from continuous measurements performed on a fully operated base station site. Measurements show the existence of a direct relationship between base station traffic load and power consumption. According to this relationship, we develop a linear power consumption model for base stations of both technologies. This paper also gives an overview of the most important concepts which are being proposed to make cellular networks more energy-efficient. PMID:22666026

  7. Analyzing the Energy and Power Consumption of Remote Memory Accesses in the OpenSHMEM Model

    SciTech Connect

    Jana, Siddhartha; Hernandez, Oscar R; Poole, Stephen W; Hsu, Chung-Hsing; Chapman, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    PGAS models like OpenSHMEM provide interfaces to explicitly initiate one-sided remote memory accesses among processes. In addition, the model also provides synchronizing barriers to ensure a consistent view of the distributed memory at different phases of an application. The incorrect use of such interfaces affects the scalability achievable while using a parallel programming model. This study aims at understanding the effects of these constructs on the energy and power consumption behavior of OpenSHMEM applications. Our experiments show that cost incurred in terms of the total energy and power consumed depends on multiple factors across the software and hardware stack. We conclude that there is a significant impact on the power consumed by the CPU and DRAM due to multiple factors including the design of the data transfer patterns within an application, the design of the communication protocols within a middleware, the architectural constraints laid by the interconnect solutions, and also the levels of memory hierarchy within a compute node. This work motivates treating energy and power consumption as important factors while designing compute solutions for current and future distributed systems.

  8. Optimal Dynamic Sub-Threshold Technique for Extreme Low Power Consumption for VLSI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duong, Tuan A.

    2012-01-01

    For miniaturization of electronics systems, power consumption plays a key role in the realm of constraints. Considering the very large scale integration (VLSI) design aspect, as transistor feature size is decreased to 50 nm and below, there is sizable increase in the number of transistors as more functional building blocks are embedded in the same chip. However, the consequent increase in power consumption (dynamic and leakage) will serve as a key constraint to inhibit the advantages of transistor feature size reduction. Power consumption can be reduced by minimizing the voltage supply (for dynamic power consumption) and/or increasing threshold voltage (V(sub th), for reducing leakage power). When the feature size of the transistor is reduced, supply voltage (V(sub dd)) and threshold voltage (V(sub th)) are also reduced accordingly; then, the leakage current becomes a bigger factor of the total power consumption. To maintain low power consumption, operation of electronics at sub-threshold levels can be a potentially strong contender; however, there are two obstacles to be faced: more leakage current per transistor will cause more leakage power consumption, and slow response time when the transistor is operated in weak inversion region. To enable low power consumption and yet obtain high performance, the CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) transistor as a basic element is viewed and controlled as a four-terminal device: source, drain, gate, and body, as differentiated from the traditional approach with three terminals: i.e., source and body, drain, and gate. This technique features multiple voltage sources to supply the dynamic control, and uses dynamic control to enable low-threshold voltage when the channel (N or P) is active, for speed response enhancement and high threshold voltage, and when the transistor channel (N or P) is inactive, to reduce the leakage current for low-leakage power consumption.

  9. Measurement and Characterization of Haswell Power and Energy Consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Song; Lang, Michael Kenneth; Pakin, Scott D.; Fu, Song

    2016-02-19

    This is a presentation intended for the NMC seminar. Its primary objective was to understand power-performance of Haswell EP for HPC; test four benchmark programs on PowerEdge R730 with control knobs; as well as test more applications, use more compute nodes, examine the effects of control knobs, and implement power capping.

  10. 3. ELEVATIONS, ADDITION TO POWER HOUSE. United Engineering Company Ltd., ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. ELEVATIONS, ADDITION TO POWER HOUSE. United Engineering Company Ltd., Alameda Shipyard. John Hudspeth, architect, foot of Main Street, Alameda, California. Sheet 4. Plan no. 10,548. Scale 1/4 inch to the foot, elevations, and one inch to the foot, sections and details. April 30, 1945, last revised 6/19/45. pencil on vellum - United Engineering Company Shipyard, Boiler House, 2900 Main Street, Alameda, Alameda County, CA

  11. 4. FLOOR PLAN AND SECTIONS, ADDITION TO POWER HOUSE. United ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. FLOOR PLAN AND SECTIONS, ADDITION TO POWER HOUSE. United Engineering Company Ltd., Alameda Shipyard. Also includes plot plan at 1 inch to 100 feet. John Hudspeth, architect, foot of Main Street, Alameda, California. Sheet 3. Plan no. 10,548. Scale 1/4 inch and h inch to the foot. April 30, 1945, last revised 6/22/45. pencil on vellum - United Engineering Company Shipyard, Boiler House, 2900 Main Street, Alameda, Alameda County, CA

  12. Differences in oxygen consumption and external power between male and female speed skaters during supramaximal cycling.

    PubMed

    van Ingen Schenau, G J; de Groot, G

    1983-01-01

    Differences in performance levels between elite male and female endurance athletes are often explained by differences found in VO2 max even when expressed in VO2 max per kilogram lean body mass (VO2/LBM). Such an explanation is only a matter of course when less or no difference exists in mechanical efficiency, anaerobic power and technical variables like friction constants between males and females. Particularly during supramaximal exercises. In this study five elite male speed skaters were compared with five elite female speed skaters with respect to oxygen consumption and external power during a 3 min supramaximal bicycle ergometer test. The training background and training history of both groups were comparable. Although the elite males showed a 20% higher VO2/BW and 8% higher VO2/LBM (71.0 versus 65.01 x min-1 . kg-1) than the females, the female group showed the same mean external power Pc per kilogram body weight, and a surprising 12% higher Pc/LBM than the males (6.47 versus 5.79 W x kg-1). Hence the female group delivered 22% more external power per liter of oxygen consumption. With the help of additional data from 14 male and 11 female sub-elite skaters it is shown that the differences between the elite groups are mainly due to sex differences. In the light of differences between men and women reported in other studies, it seems likely that the differences found in this study are due to a difference in mechanical efficiency which particularly occurs in supramaximal tasks.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Reducing power consumption while performing collective operations on a plurality of compute nodes

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael A.; Peters, Amanda E.; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian E.

    2011-10-18

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for reducing power consumption while performing collective operations on a plurality of compute nodes that include: receiving, by each compute node, instructions to perform a type of collective operation; selecting, by each compute node from a plurality of collective operations for the collective operation type, a particular collective operation in dependence upon power consumption characteristics for each of the plurality of collective operations; and executing, by each compute node, the selected collective operation.

  14. Risk assessment of additives through soft drinks and nectars consumption on Portuguese population: a 2010 survey.

    PubMed

    Diogo, Janina S G; Silva, Liliana S O; Pena, Angelina; Lino, Celeste M

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated whether the Portuguese population is at risk of exceeding ADI levels for acesulfame-K, saccharin, aspartame, caffeine, benzoic and sorbic acid through an assessment of dietary intake of additives and specific consumption of four types of beverages, traditional soft drinks and soft drinks based on mineral waters, energetic drinks, and nectars. The highest mean levels of additives were found for caffeine in energetic drinks, 293.5mg/L, for saccharin in traditional soft drinks, 18.4 mg/L, for acesulfame-K and aspartame in nectars, with 88.2 and 97.8 mg/L, respectively, for benzoic acid in traditional soft drinks, 125.7 mg/L, and for sorbic acid in soft drinks based on mineral water, 166.5 mg/L. Traditional soft drinks presented the highest acceptable daily intake percentages (ADIs%) for acesulfame-K, aspartame, benzoic and sorbic acid and similar value for saccharin (0.5%) when compared with soft drinks based on mineral water, 0.7%, 0.08%, 7.3%, and 1.92% versus 0.2%, 0.053%, 0.6%, and 0.28%, respectively. However for saccharin the highest percentage of ADI was obtained for nectars, 0.9%, in comparison with both types of soft drinks, 0.5%. Therefore, it is concluded that the Portuguese population is not at risk of exceeding the established ADIs for the studied additives.

  15. Minimization of power consumption during charging of superconducting accelerating cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharyya, Anirban Krishna; Ziemann, Volker; Ruber, Roger; Goryashko, Vitaliy

    2015-11-01

    The radio frequency cavities, used to accelerate charged particle beams, need to be charged to their nominal voltage after which the beam can be injected into them. The standard procedure for such cavity filling is to use a step charging profile. However, during initial stages of such a filling process a substantial amount of the total energy is wasted in reflection for superconducting cavities because of their extremely narrow bandwidth. The paper presents a novel strategy to charge cavities, which reduces total energy reflection. We use variational calculus to obtain analytical expression for the optimal charging profile. Energies, reflected and required, and generator peak power are also compared between the charging schemes and practical aspects (saturation, efficiency and gain characteristics) of power sources (tetrodes, IOTs and solid state power amplifiers) are also considered and analysed. The paper presents a methodology to successfully identify the optimal charging scheme for different power sources to minimize total energy requirement.

  16. Rotary ultrasonic machining of CFRP composites: a study on power consumption.

    PubMed

    Cong, W L; Pei, Z J; Deines, T W; Srivastava, Anil; Riley, L; Treadwell, C

    2012-12-01

    Carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) composites are very difficult to machine. A large number of holes need to be drilled in CFRP for many applications. Therefore, it is important to develop cost-effective drilling processes. CFRP has been drilled by rotary ultrasonic machining (RUM) successfully. The literature has reports about the effects of input variables on output variables (including cutting force, torque, surface roughness, tool wear, and workpiece delamination) in RUM of CFRP. However, there are no reports on power consumption in RUM of CFRP. This paper reports the first study on power consumption in RUM of CFRP. It reports an experimental investigation on effects of input variables (ultrasonic power, tool rotation speed, feedrate, and type of CFRP) on power consumption of each component (including ultrasonic power supply, spindle motor, coolant pump, and air compressor) and the entire RUM system.

  17. Evaluating the Power Consumption of Wireless Sensor Network Applications Using Models

    PubMed Central

    Dâmaso, Antônio; Freitas, Davi; Rosa, Nelson; Silva, Bruno; Maciel, Paulo

    2013-01-01

    Power consumption is the main concern in developing Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) applications. Consequently, several strategies have been proposed for investigating the power consumption of this kind of application. These strategies can help to predict the WSN lifetime, provide recommendations to application developers and may optimize the energy consumed by the WSN applications. While measurement is a known and precise strategy for power consumption evaluation, it is very costly, tedious and may be unfeasible considering the (usual) large number of WSN nodes. Furthermore, due to the inherent dynamism of WSNs, the instrumentation required by measurement techniques makes difficult their use in several different scenarios. In this context, this paper presents an approach for evaluating the power consumption of WSN applications by using simulation models along with a set of tools to automate the proposed approach. Starting from a programming language code, we automatically generate consumption models used to predict the power consumption of WSN applications. In order to evaluate the proposed approach, we compare the results obtained by using the generated models against ones obtained by measurement. PMID:23486217

  18. Evaluating the power consumption of wireless sensor network applications using models.

    PubMed

    Dâmaso, Antônio; Freitas, Davi; Rosa, Nelson; Silva, Bruno; Maciel, Paulo

    2013-03-13

    Power consumption is the main concern in developing Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) applications. Consequently, several strategies have been proposed for investigating the power consumption of this kind of application. These strategies can help to predict the WSN lifetime, provide recommendations to application developers and may optimize the energy consumed by the WSN applications. While measurement is a known and precise strategy for power consumption evaluation, it is very costly, tedious and may be unfeasible considering the (usual) large number of WSN nodes. Furthermore, due to the inherent dynamism of WSNs, the instrumentation required by measurement techniques makes difficult their use in several different scenarios. In this context, this paper presents an approach for evaluating the power consumption of WSN applications by using simulation models along with a set of tools to automate the proposed approach. Starting from a programming language code, we automatically generate consumption models used to predict the power consumption of WSN applications. In order to evaluate the proposed approach, we compare the results obtained by using the generated models against ones obtained by measurement.

  19. Adding simultaneous stimulating channels to reduce power consumption in cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Langner, Florian; Saoji, Aniket A; Büchner, Andreas; Nogueira, Waldo

    2017-03-01

    Sound coding strategies for Cochlear Implant (CI) listeners can be used to control the trade-off between speech performance and power consumption. Most commercial CI strategies use non-simultaneous channel stimulation, stimulating only one electrode at a time. One could add parallel simultaneous stimulating channels such that the electrical interaction between channels is increased. This would produce spectral smearing, because the electrical fields of the simultaneous stimulated channels interact, but also power savings. The parallel channels produce a louder sensation than sequential stimulation. To test this hypothesis we implemented different sound coding strategies using a research interface from Advanced Bionics: the commercial F120 strategy using sequential channel stimulation (one channel equals two electrodes with current steering) and the Paired strategy, consisting of simultaneous stimulation with two channels. Here, the electrical field of both channels will interact, requiring less current on each channel to perceive the same loudness as with F120. However, channel interaction between the independent channels may reduce speech recognition or understanding. This can be diminished by adding an inverse-polarity stimulation channel between both channels. This strategy is termed Paired with Flanks. Additionally, Triplet with three channels and an adjacent Flank style was investigated. For each strategy we measured speech intelligibility with the Hochmair-Schulz-Moser sentence test. Spectral resolution was assessed using a spectral modulation depth detection task. Results show that Paired without Flanks obtains similar performance while reducing the current by 20% on average compared to F120. Triplet with and without Flanks shows overall poorer performance when compared to F120. All strategies inhibit the option to increase the pulse width which would result in even further decreased power consumption.

  20. Novel Self-Heated Gas Sensors Using on-Chip Networked Nanowires with Ultralow Power Consumption.

    PubMed

    Tan, Ha Minh; Manh Hung, Chu; Ngoc, Trinh Minh; Nguyen, Hugo; Duc Hoa, Nguyen; Van Duy, Nguyen; Hieu, Nguyen Van

    2017-02-22

    The length of single crystalline nanowires (NWs) offers a perfect pathway for electron transfer, while the small diameter of the NWs hampers thermal losses to tje environment, substrate, and metal electrodes. Therefore, Joule self-heating effect is nearly ideal for operating NW gas sensors at ultralow power consumption, without additional heaters. The realization of the self-heated NW sensors using the "pick and place" approach is complex, hardly reproducible, low yield, and not applicable for mass production. Here, we present the sensing capability of the self-heated networked SnO2 NWs effectively prepared by on-chip growth. Our developed self-heated sensors exhibit a good response of 25.6 to 2.5 ppm NO2 gas, while the response to 500 ppm H2, 100 ppm NH3, 100 ppm H2S, and 500 ppm C2H5OH is very low, indicating the good selectivity of the sensors to NO2 gas. Furthermore, the detection limit is very low, down to 82 parts-per-trillion. As-obtained sensing performance under self-heating mode is nearly identical to that under external heating mode. While the power consumption under self-heating mode is extremely low, around hundreds of microwatts, as scaled-down the size of the electrode is below 10 μm. The selectivity of the sensors can be controlled simply by tuning the loading power that enables simple detection of NO2 in mixed gases. Remarkable performance together with a significantly facile fabrication process of the present sensors enhances the potential application of NW sensors in next generation technologies such as electronic noses, the Internet of Things, and smartphone sensing.

  1. Potential nanotechnology applications for reducing freshwater consumption at coal fired power plants : an early view.

    SciTech Connect

    Elcock, D.

    2010-09-17

    This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements the overall research effort of the Existing Plants Research Program by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. A growing challenge to the economic production of electricity from coal-fired power plants is the demand for freshwater, particularly in light of the projected trends for increasing demands and decreasing supplies of freshwater. Nanotechnology uses the unique chemical, physical, and biological properties that are associated with materials at the nanoscale to create and use materials, devices, and systems with new functions and properties. It is possible that nanotechnology may open the door to a variety of potentially interesting ways to reduce freshwater consumption at power plants. This report provides an overview of how applications of nanotechnology could potentially help reduce freshwater use at coal-fired power plants. It was developed by (1) identifying areas within a coal-fired power plant's operations where freshwater use occurs and could possibly be reduced, (2) conducting a literature review to identify potential applications of nanotechnology for facilitating such reductions, and (3) collecting additional information on potential applications from researchers and companies to clarify or expand on information obtained from the literature. Opportunities, areas, and processes for reducing freshwater use in coal-fired power plants considered in this report include the use of nontraditional waters in process and cooling water systems, carbon capture alternatives, more efficient processes for removing sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides, coolants that have higher thermal conductivities than water alone, energy storage options, and a variety of plant inefficiencies, which, if improved

  2. Lithium Dinitramide as an Additive in Lithium Power Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorkovenko, Alexander A.

    2007-01-01

    Lithium dinitramide, LiN(NO2)2 has shown promise as an additive to nonaqueous electrolytes in rechargeable and non-rechargeable lithium-ion-based electrochemical power cells. Such non-aqueous electrolytes consist of lithium salts dissolved in mixtures of organic ethers, esters, carbonates, or acetals. The benefits of adding lithium dinitramide (which is also a lithium salt) include lower irreversible loss of capacity on the first charge/discharge cycle, higher cycle life, lower self-discharge, greater flexibility in selection of electrolyte solvents, and greater charge capacity. The need for a suitable electrolyte additive arises as follows: The metallic lithium in the anode of a lithium-ion-based power cell is so highly reactive that in addition to the desired main electrochemical reaction, it engages in side reactions that cause formation of resistive films and dendrites, which degrade performance as quantified in terms of charge capacity, cycle life, shelf life, first-cycle irreversible capacity loss, specific power, and specific energy. The incidence of side reactions can be reduced through the formation of a solid-electrolyte interface (SEI) a thin film that prevents direct contact between the lithium anode material and the electrolyte. Ideally, an SEI should chemically protect the anode and the electrolyte from each other while exhibiting high conductivity for lithium ions and little or no conductivity for electrons. A suitable additive can act as an SEI promoter. Heretofore, most SEI promotion was thought to derive from organic molecules in electrolyte solutions. In contrast, lithium dinitramide is inorganic. Dinitramide compounds are known as oxidizers in rocket-fuel chemistry and until now, were not known as SEI promoters in battery chemistry. Although the exact reason for the improvement afforded by the addition of lithium dinitramide is not clear, it has been hypothesized that lithium dinitramide competes with other electrolyte constituents to react with

  3. A Network Selection Algorithm Considering Power Consumption in Hybrid Wireless Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joe, Inwhee; Kim, Won-Tae; Hong, Seokjoon

    In this paper, we propose a novel network selection algorithm considering power consumption in hybrid wireless networks for vertical handover. CDMA, WiBro, WLAN networks are candidate networks for this selection algorithm. This algorithm is composed of the power consumption prediction algorithm and the final network selection algorithm. The power consumption prediction algorithm estimates the expected lifetime of the mobile station based on the current battery level, traffic class and power consumption for each network interface card of the mobile station. If the expected lifetime of the mobile station in a certain network is not long enough compared the handover delay, this particular network will be removed from the candidate network list, thereby preventing unnecessary handovers in the preprocessing procedure. On the other hand, the final network selection algorithm consists of AHP (Analytic Hierarchical Process) and GRA (Grey Relational Analysis). The global factors of the network selection structure are QoS, cost and lifetime. If user preference is lifetime, our selection algorithm selects the network that offers longest service duration due to low power consumption. Also, we conduct some simulations using the OPNET simulation tool. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm provides longer lifetime in the hybrid wireless network environment.

  4. Power consumption of rotary blood pumps: pulsatile versus constant-speed mode.

    PubMed

    Pirbodaghi, Tohid; Cotter, Chris; Bourque, Kevin

    2014-12-01

    We investigated the power consumption of a HeartMate III rotary blood pump based on in vitro experiments performed in a cardiovascular simulator. To create artificial-pulse mode, we modulated the pump speed by decreasing the mean speed by 2000 rpm for 200 ms and then increasing speed by 4000 rpm (mean speeds plus 2000 rpm) for another 200 ms, creating a square waveform shape. The HeartMate III was connected to a cardiovascular simulator consisting of a hydraulic pump system to simulate left ventricle pumping action, arterial and venous compliance chambers, and an adjustable valve for peripheral resistance to facilitate the desired aortic pressure. The simulator operated based on Suga's elastance model to mimic the Starling response of the heart, thereby reproducing physiological blood flow and pressure conditions. We measured the instantaneous total electrical current and voltage of the pump to evaluate its power consumption. The aim was to answer these fundamental questions: (i) How does pump speed modulation affect pump power consumption? (ii) How does the power consumption vary in relation to external pulsatile flow? The results indicate that speed modulation and external pulsatile flow both moderately increase the power consumption. Increasing the pump speed reduces the impact of external pulsatile flow.

  5. AC Power Consumption of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Interconnects: Non-Equilibrium Green's Function Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Takahiro; Sasaoka, Kenji; Watanabe, Satoshi

    2012-04-01

    We theoretically investigate the emittance and dynamic dissipation of a nanoscale interconnect consisting of a metallic single-walled carbon nanotube using the non-equilibrium Green's function technique for AC electronic transport. We show that the emittance and dynamic dissipation depend strongly on the contact conditions of the interconnect and that the power consumption can be reduced by adjusting the contact conditions. We propose an appropriate condition of contact that yields a high power factor and low apparent power.

  6. Power-law distributions from additive preferential redistributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ree, Suhan

    2006-02-01

    We introduce a nongrowth model that generates the power-law distribution with the Zipf exponent. There are N elements, each of which is characterized by a quantity, and at each time step these quantities are redistributed through binary random interactions with a simple additive preferential rule, while the sum of quantities is conserved. The situation described by this model is similar to those of closed N -particle systems when conservative two-body collisions are only allowed. We obtain stationary distributions of these quantities both analytically and numerically while varying parameters of the model, and find that the model exhibits the scaling behavior for some parameter ranges. Unlike well-known growth models, this alternative mechanism generates the power-law distribution when the growth is not expected and the dynamics of the system is based on interactions between elements. This model can be applied to some examples such as personal wealths, city sizes, and the generation of scale-free networks when only rewiring is allowed.

  7. A new bias scheme for a low power consumption ReRAM crossbar array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Wookyung; Choi, Sujin; Shin, Hyungsoon

    2016-08-01

    This paper proposes a new bias scheme for a crossbar array that can improve the power consumption and read margin. The concept of the newly proposed 5/12 bias scheme is to reduce the bias of the unselected cells for power consumption and the bias of half-selected cells for a reduced line voltage drop of the selected cell. In the 5/12 bias scheme, the unselected word line and bit line are biased to 5 × V app/12 and 7 × V app/12, respectively. The electrical characteristics of the 5/12 bias scheme are evaluated by HSPICE simulations and it is found that appropriate nonlinearity of selector can simultaneously achieve low power consumption and high read margin for 5/12 bias scheme.

  8. Signal Processing for a Lunar Array: Minimizing Power Consumption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    D'Addario, Larry; Simmons, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    Motivation for the study is: (1) Lunar Radio Array for low frequency, high redshift Dark Ages/Epoch of Reionization observations (z =6-50, f=30-200 MHz) (2) High precision cosmological measurements of 21 cm H I line fluctuations (3) Probe universe before first star formation and provide information about the Intergalactic Medium and evolution of large scale structures (5) Does the current cosmological model accurately describe the Universe before reionization? Lunar Radio Array is for (1) Radio interferometer based on the far side of the moon (1a) Necessary for precision measurements, (1b) Shielding from earth-based and solar RFI (12) No permanent ionosphere, (2) Minimum collecting area of approximately 1 square km and brightness sensitivity 10 mK (3)Several technologies must be developed before deployment The power needed to process signals from a large array of nonsteerable elements is not prohibitive, even for the Moon, and even in current technology. Two different concepts have been proposed: (1) Dark Ages Radio Interferometer (DALI) (2)( Lunar Array for Radio Cosmology (LARC)

  9. 77 FR 71695 - Secondary Direct Food Additives Permitted in Food for Human Consumption; Sodium...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-04

    ... Food for Human Consumption; Sodium Dodecylbenzenesulfonate AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... regulations to provide for the safe use of sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (CAS No. 25155-30-0) as an...'' (21 CFR part 173), to provide for the safe use of sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS) as...

  10. Non-additive genome-wide association scan reveals a new gene associated with habitual coffee consumption

    PubMed Central

    Pirastu, Nicola; Kooyman, Maarten; Robino, Antonietta; van der Spek, Ashley; Navarini, Luciano; Amin, Najaf; Karssen, Lennart C.; Van Duijn, Cornelia M; Gasparini, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Coffee is one of the most consumed beverages world-wide and one of the primary sources of caffeine intake. Given its important health and economic impact, the underlying genetics of its consumption has been widely studied. Despite these efforts, much has still to be uncovered. In particular, the use of non-additive genetic models may uncover new information about the genetic variants driving coffee consumption. We have conducted a genome-wide association study in two Italian populations using additive, recessive and dominant models for analysis. This has uncovered a significant association in the PDSS2 gene under the recessive model that has been replicated in an independent cohort from the Netherlands (ERF). The identified gene has been shown to negatively regulate the expression of the caffeine metabolism genes and can thus be linked to coffee consumption. Further bioinformatics analysis of eQTL and histone marks from Roadmap data has evidenced a possible role of the identified SNPs in regulating PDSS2 gene expression through enhancers present in its intron. Our results highlight a novel gene which regulates coffee consumption by regulating the expression of the genes linked to caffeine metabolism. Further studies will be needed to clarify the biological mechanism which links PDSS2 and coffee consumption. PMID:27561104

  11. Cognitive radio adaptation for power consumption minimization using biogeography-based optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Pei-Han; Zheng, Shi-Lian; Yang, Xiao-Niu; Zhao, Zhi-Jin

    2016-12-01

    Adaptation is one of the key capabilities of cognitive radio, which focuses on how to adjust the radio parameters to optimize the system performance based on the knowledge of the radio environment and its capability and characteristics. In this paper, we consider the cognitive radio adaptation problem for power consumption minimization. The problem is formulated as a constrained power consumption minimization problem, and the biogeography-based optimization (BBO) is introduced to solve this optimization problem. A novel habitat suitability index (HSI) evaluation mechanism is proposed, in which both the power consumption minimization objective and the quality of services (QoS) constraints are taken into account. The results show that under different QoS requirement settings corresponding to different types of services, the algorithm can minimize power consumption while still maintaining the QoS requirements. Comparison with particle swarm optimization (PSO) and cat swarm optimization (CSO) reveals that BBO works better, especially at the early stage of the search, which means that the BBO is a better choice for real-time applications. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61501356), the Fundamental Research Funds of the Ministry of Education, China (Grant No. JB160101), and the Postdoctoral Fund of Shaanxi Province, China.

  12. Power consumption analysis of priority-based service differentiation scheme for LR-WPANs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Meejoung; Hwang, Eenjun

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we investigate the effect of service differentiation on the power consumption in contention period of IEEE 802.15.4 sensor networks. Power consumption is analysed for two different service differentiation schemes under non-saturation condition. The two service differentiation schemes are the differentiation by the backoff exponent (BED) and differentiation by the contention window (CWD), which provide multilevel differentiated services in beacon-enabled mode with slotted carrier sense multiple access/collision avoidance (CSMA/CA) algorithm. The analysis is based on the stationary probabilities of a discrete-time Markov chain, which is a model of CSMA/CA describing the state of a head packet of a device. Numerical results show that CWD uses the power more efficiently and performs better in terms of throughput, while BED more differentiates the service.

  13. Methods for estimating water consumption for thermoelectric power plants in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diehl, Timothy H.; Harris, Melissa; Murphy, Jennifer C.; Hutson, Susan S.; Ladd, David E.

    2013-01-01

    Heat budgets were constructed for the first four generation-type categories; data at solar thermal plants were insufficient for heat budgets. These heat budgets yielded estimates of the amount of heat transferred to the condenser. The ratio of evaporation to the heat discharged through the condenser was estimated using existing heat balance models that are sensitive to environmental data; this feature allows estimation of consumption under different climatic conditions. These two estimates were multiplied to yield an estimate of consumption at each power plant.

  14. Unrecorded alcohol consumption in Russia: toxic denaturants and disinfectants pose additional risks

    PubMed Central

    Solodun, Yuriy V.; Monakhova, Yulia B.; Kuballa, Thomas; Samokhvalov, Andriy V.; Rehm, Jürgen; Lachenmeier, Dirk W.

    2011-01-01

    In 2005, 30% of all alcohol consumption in Russia was unrecorded. This paper describes the chemical composition of unrecorded and low cost alcohol, including a toxicological evaluation. Alcohol products (n=22) from both recorded and unrecorded sources were obtained from three Russian cities (Saratov, Lipetsk and Irkutsk) and were chemically analyzed. Unrecorded alcohols included homemade samogons, medicinal alcohols and surrogate alcohols. Analysis included alcoholic strength, levels of volatile compounds (methanol, acetaldehyde, higher alcohols), ethyl carbamate, diethyl phthalate (DEP) and polyhexamethyleneguanidine hydrochloride (PHMG). Single samples showed contamination with DEP (275–1269 mg/l) and PHMG (515 mg/l) above levels of toxicological concern. Our detailed chemical analysis of Russian alcohols showed that the composition of vodka, samogon and medicinal alcohols generally did not raise major public health concerns other than for ethanol. It was shown, however, that concentration levels of DEP and PHMG in some surrogate alcohols make these samples unfit for human consumption as even moderate drinking would exceed acceptable daily intakes. PMID:22319254

  15. Evaluation of power consumption of paddle wheel in an open raceway pond.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanxi; Zhang, Qinghua; Wang, Zhihui; Wu, Xia; Cong, Wei

    2014-07-01

    Open raceway ponds are widely adopted in microalgae cultivation. Paddle wheels consume the most part of power during the process of cultivation in open raceway ponds. The configuration of blades directly determines power consumption for paddle wheels. In this work, power consumption of four blades configurations was determined in a bench-scale open raceway pond of 2.2 m(2). The effect of blades configuration, the influence of filling levels from 5 to 15 cm and influence of rotational speeds from 7 to 15 r min(-1) on shaft power consumption (P(S)), fluid velocity (U(c)) and paddle wheel efficiency (η) was investigated. Results demonstrated that flat blades were the most efficient configuration. Higher culture depth led to larger U(c), more P(s) and larger η, especially when blades were not totally immerged in water. Under the same filling level and rotational speed, the value of P(S) decreases in the order: zigzagged, flat, forward-curved and back-curved, respectively. The zigzagged blades led to a larger U(c) at the culture depth of 5 cm, while flat and forward-curved blades drove a larger U(c) when culture depth was higher than 5 cm. The maximum value of η was 0.50 with flat blades at 11 r min(-1) and 15 cm of culture depth. Empirical correlations of non-dimensional numbers related to operation parameters and blades geometry for four paddle wheel blades were also proposed.

  16. Influence of the timing of nitrogen additions during synthetic grape must fermentations on fermentation kinetics and nitrogen consumption.

    PubMed

    Beltran, Gemma; Esteve-Zarzoso, Braulio; Rozès, Nicolas; Mas, Albert; Guillamón, José M

    2005-02-23

    Nitrogen deficiencies in grape musts are one of the main causes of stuck or sluggish wine fermentations. In the present study, we have supplemented nitrogen-deficient fermentations with a mixture of ammonium and amino acids at various stages throughout the alcoholic fermentation. The timing of the nitrogen additions influenced the biomass yield, the fermentation performance, the patterns of ammonium and amino acid consumption, and the production of secondary metabolites. These nitrogen additions induced a nitrogen-repressed situation in the cells, and this situation determined which nitrogen sources were selected. Glutamine and tryptophan were the main amino acids consumed in all the fermentations. Ammonium is the preferred nitrogen source for biomass production but was hardly consumed when it was added in the final stages of the fermentation. The higher ammonium consumption in some fermentations correlated with a greater synthesis of glycerol, acetate, and acetaldehyde but with a lower synthesis of higher alcohols.

  17. 18 CFR 385.705 - Additional powers of presiding officer with respect to briefs (Rule 705).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Additional powers of presiding officer with respect to briefs (Rule 705). 385.705 Section 385.705 Conservation of Power and Water... PROCEDURE Decisions § 385.705 Additional powers of presiding officer with respect to briefs (Rule 705)....

  18. 18 CFR 385.705 - Additional powers of presiding officer with respect to briefs (Rule 705).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional powers of presiding officer with respect to briefs (Rule 705). 385.705 Section 385.705 Conservation of Power and Water... PROCEDURE Decisions § 385.705 Additional powers of presiding officer with respect to briefs (Rule 705)....

  19. Measured effect of wind generation on the fuel consumption of an isolated diesel power system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiller, P. H.; Scott, G. W.; Shaltens, R. K.

    1983-06-01

    The Block Island Power Company (BIPCO), on Block Island, Rhode Island, operates an isolated electric power system consisting of diesel generation and an experimental wind turbine. The 150-kW wind turbine, designated MOD-OA by the U.S. Department of Energy is typically operated in parallel with two diesel generators to serve an average winter load of 350 kW. Wind generation serves up to 60 percent of the system demand depending on wind speed and total system load. Results of diesel fuel consumption measurements are given for the diesel units operated in parallel with the wind turbine and again without the wind turbine. The fuel consumption data are used to calculate the amount of fuel displaced by wind energy. Results indicate that the wind turbine displaced 25,700 lbs. of the diesel fuel during the test period, representing a calculated reduction in fuel consumption of 6.7 percent while generating 11 percent of the total electric energy. The amount of displaced fuel depends on operating conditions and system load. It is also shown that diesel engine throttle activity resulting from wind gusts which rapidly change the wind turbine output do not significantly influence fuel consumption.

  20. Measured effect of wind generation on the fuel consumption of an isolated diesel power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stiller, P. H.; Scott, G. W.; Shaltens, R. K.

    1983-01-01

    The Block Island Power Company (BIPCO), on Block Island, Rhode Island, operates an isolated electric power system consisting of diesel generation and an experimental wind turbine. The 150-kW wind turbine, designated MOD-OA by the U.S. Department of Energy is typically operated in parallel with two diesel generators to serve an average winter load of 350 kW. Wind generation serves up to 60 percent of the system demand depending on wind speed and total system load. Results of diesel fuel consumption measurements are given for the diesel units operated in parallel with the wind turbine and again without the wind turbine. The fuel consumption data are used to calculate the amount of fuel displaced by wind energy. Results indicate that the wind turbine displaced 25,700 lbs. of the diesel fuel during the test period, representing a calculated reduction in fuel consumption of 6.7 percent while generating 11 percent of the total electric energy. The amount of displaced fuel depends on operating conditions and system load. It is also shown that diesel engine throttle activity resulting from wind gusts which rapidly change the wind turbine output do not significantly influence fuel consumption.

  1. Pulsed addition of HMF and furfural to batch-grown xylose-utilizing Saccharomyces cerevisiae results in different physiological responses in glucose and xylose consumption phase

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass generates a number of undesired degradation products that can inhibit microbial metabolism. Two of these compounds, the furan aldehydes 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and 2-furaldehyde (furfural), have been shown to be an impediment for viable ethanol production. In the present study, HMF and furfural were pulse-added during either the glucose or the xylose consumption phase in order to dissect the effects of these inhibitors on energy state, redox metabolism, and gene expression of xylose-consuming Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Results Pulsed addition of 3.9 g L-1 HMF and 1.2 g L-1 furfural during either the glucose or the xylose consumption phase resulted in distinct physiological responses. Addition of furan aldehydes in the glucose consumption phase was followed by a decrease in the specific growth rate and the glycerol yield, whereas the acetate yield increased 7.3-fold, suggesting that NAD(P)H for furan aldehyde conversion was generated by acetate synthesis. No change in the intracellular levels of NAD(P)H was observed 1 hour after pulsing, whereas the intracellular concentration of ATP increased by 58%. An investigation of the response at transcriptional level revealed changes known to be correlated with perturbations in the specific growth rate, such as protein and nucleotide biosynthesis. Addition of furan aldehydes during the xylose consumption phase brought about an increase in the glycerol and acetate yields, whereas the xylitol yield was severely reduced. The intracellular concentrations of NADH and NADPH decreased by 58 and 85%, respectively, hence suggesting that HMF and furfural drained the cells of reducing power. The intracellular concentration of ATP was reduced by 42% 1 hour after pulsing of inhibitors, suggesting that energy-requiring repair or maintenance processes were activated. Transcriptome profiling showed that NADPH-requiring processes such as amino acid biosynthesis and sulfate and

  2. Power-law relationships for estimating mass, fuel consumption and costs of energy conversion equipments.

    PubMed

    Caduff, Marloes; Huijbregts, Mark A J; Althaus, Hans-Joerg; Hendriks, A Jan

    2011-01-15

    To perform life-cycle assessment studies, data on the production and use of the products is required. However, often only few data or measurements are available. Estimation of properties can be performed by applying scaling relationships. In many disciplines, they are used to either predict data or to search for underlying patterns, but they have not been considered in the context of product assessments hitherto. The goal of this study was to explore size scaling for commonly used energy conversion equipment, that is, boilers, engines, and generators. The variables mass M, fuel consumption Q, and costs C were related to power P. The established power-law relationships were M = 10(0.73.. 1.89)P(0.64.. 1.23) (R(2) ≥ 0.94), Q = 10(0.06.. 0.68)P(0.82.. 1.02) (R(2) ≥ 0.98) and C = 10(2.46.. 2.86)P(0.83.. 0.85) (R(2) ≥ 0.83). Mass versus power and costs versus power showed that none of the equipment types scaled isometrically, that is, with a slope of 1. Fuel consumption versus power scaled approximately isometrically for steam boilers, the other equipments scaled significantly lower than 1. This nonlinear scaling behavior induces a significant size effect. The power laws we established can be applied to scale the mass, fuel consumption and costs of energy conversion equipments up or down. Our findings suggest that empirical scaling laws can be used to estimate properties, particularly relevant in studies focusing on early product development for which generally only little information is available.

  3. Carbon emission intensity of power consumption in India: A detailed study of its indicators

    SciTech Connect

    Nag, B.; Kulshreshtha, M.

    2000-03-01

    This paper analyzes the trends and components of carbon emission intensity of power consumption in India by economic activity for the period 1974--1994 using the Divisia decomposition to quantify the relative influences of its three major indicators, viz., emission coefficient of power, electricity intensity, and structural shift. The authors further analyze the causes for the variations of emission coefficient for power consumption by deriving the relative influences of fuel mix, fuel intensity, and generation mix on emission coefficient and hence carbon intensity. The study explicitly accounts for fuel quality variations, generation, and transmission and distribution (T and D) losses and auxiliary consumption variations. Results show major increases in both emission intensity and emission coefficient during the 1980s. The authors find electricity intensity to be the major contributing factor behind the 40% emission intensity rise during this period. The emission coefficient increased by 13% during this period, the major contributing factor being generation mix effects, which increased by 27.6%, offsetting the effect of fuel quality, whose index declined by 10%.

  4. Flexible low-power-consumption OLED displays for a universal communication device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hack, Michael G.; Chwang, Anna B.; Lu, Min-Hao M.; Kwong, Raymond C.; Weaver, Michael S.; Tung, Yeh-Jiun; Brown, Julie J.

    2003-09-01

    In this paper we will outline the technical challenges and progress towards enabling a novel communication device based on a roll-out, low power consumption, OLED display. Advanced mobile communication devices require a bright, high information content display in a small, light-weight, low power consumption package. We believe that phosphorescent OLED (PHOLED) technology fabricated on a truly flexible substrate, enables a mobile Universal Communication Device (UCD) to offer a high information content display in an extendable form, while rolling up into a small form factor when not in use. This communication device is of great interest for a range of both consumer and military applications. From the display perspective, the key component is achieving a long-lived, low power consumption display. We believe the OLEDs are the preferred display media, and in this talk we will outline our flexible phosphorescent OLED technology. The key to reliable operation is to ensure that the organic materials are fully encapsulated in a package designed for repetitive flexing. UDC has been developing long-lived flexible OLED (FOLED) displays based on plastic substrates and multi-layer monolithic encapsulation. Recent progress in this area will also be reported. Finally, we will outline the backplane requirements for flexible OLED displays and compare the various technology options that can be used to fabricate the UCD.

  5. Reducing power consumption while synchronizing a plurality of compute nodes during execution of a parallel application

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J [Rochester, MN; Blocksome, Michael A [Rochester, MN; Peters, Amanda E [Cambridge, MA; Ratterman, Joseph D [Rochester, MN; Smith, Brian E [Rochester, MN

    2012-04-17

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for reducing power consumption while synchronizing a plurality of compute nodes during execution of a parallel application that include: beginning, by each compute node, performance of a blocking operation specified by the parallel application, each compute node beginning the blocking operation asynchronously with respect to the other compute nodes; reducing, for each compute node, power to one or more hardware components of that compute node in response to that compute node beginning the performance of the blocking operation; and restoring, for each compute node, the power to the hardware components having power reduced in response to all of the compute nodes beginning the performance of the blocking operation.

  6. Reducing power consumption while synchronizing a plurality of compute nodes during execution of a parallel application

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J [Rochester, MN; Blocksome, Michael A [Rochester, MN; Peters, Amanda A [Rochester, MN; Ratterman, Joseph D [Rochester, MN; Smith, Brian E [Rochester, MN

    2012-01-10

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for reducing power consumption while synchronizing a plurality of compute nodes during execution of a parallel application that include: beginning, by each compute node, performance of a blocking operation specified by the parallel application, each compute node beginning the blocking operation asynchronously with respect to the other compute nodes; reducing, for each compute node, power to one or more hardware components of that compute node in response to that compute node beginning the performance of the blocking operation; and restoring, for each compute node, the power to the hardware components having power reduced in response to all of the compute nodes beginning the performance of the blocking operation.

  7. Flexoelectric effect in an in-plane switching (IPS) liquid crystal cell for low-power consumption display devices

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Su; Bos, Philip J.; Kim, Dong-Woo; Yang, Deng-Ke; Lee, Joong Hee; Lee, Seung Hee

    2016-01-01

    Technology of displaying static images in portable displays, advertising panels and price tags pursues significant reduction in power consumption and in product cost. Driving at a low-frequency electric field in fringe-field switching (FFS) mode can be one of the efficient ways to save powers of the recent portable devices, but a serious drop of image-quality, so-called image-flickering, has been found in terms of the coupling of elastic deformation to not only quadratic dielectric effect but linear flexoelectric effect. Despite of the urgent requirement of solving the issue, understanding of such a phenomenon is yet vague. Here, we thoroughly analyze and firstly report the flexoelectric effect in in-plane switching (IPS) liquid crystal cell. The effect takes place on the area above electrodes due to splay and bend deformations of nematic liquid crystal along oblique electric fields, so that the obvious spatial shift of the optical transmittance is experimentally observed and is clearly demonstrated based on the relation between direction of flexoelectric polarization and electric field polarity. In addition, we report that the IPS mode has inherent characteristics to solve the image-flickering issue in the low-power consumption display in terms of the physical property of liquid crystal material and the electrode structure. PMID:27731372

  8. Flexoelectric effect in an in-plane switching (IPS) liquid crystal cell for low-power consumption display devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Min Su; Bos, Philip J.; Kim, Dong-Woo; Yang, Deng-Ke; Lee, Joong Hee; Lee, Seung Hee

    2016-10-01

    Technology of displaying static images in portable displays, advertising panels and price tags pursues significant reduction in power consumption and in product cost. Driving at a low-frequency electric field in fringe-field switching (FFS) mode can be one of the efficient ways to save powers of the recent portable devices, but a serious drop of image-quality, so-called image-flickering, has been found in terms of the coupling of elastic deformation to not only quadratic dielectric effect but linear flexoelectric effect. Despite of the urgent requirement of solving the issue, understanding of such a phenomenon is yet vague. Here, we thoroughly analyze and firstly report the flexoelectric effect in in-plane switching (IPS) liquid crystal cell. The effect takes place on the area above electrodes due to splay and bend deformations of nematic liquid crystal along oblique electric fields, so that the obvious spatial shift of the optical transmittance is experimentally observed and is clearly demonstrated based on the relation between direction of flexoelectric polarization and electric field polarity. In addition, we report that the IPS mode has inherent characteristics to solve the image-flickering issue in the low-power consumption display in terms of the physical property of liquid crystal material and the electrode structure.

  9. Flexoelectric effect in an in-plane switching (IPS) liquid crystal cell for low-power consumption display devices.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Su; Bos, Philip J; Kim, Dong-Woo; Yang, Deng-Ke; Lee, Joong Hee; Lee, Seung Hee

    2016-10-12

    Technology of displaying static images in portable displays, advertising panels and price tags pursues significant reduction in power consumption and in product cost. Driving at a low-frequency electric field in fringe-field switching (FFS) mode can be one of the efficient ways to save powers of the recent portable devices, but a serious drop of image-quality, so-called image-flickering, has been found in terms of the coupling of elastic deformation to not only quadratic dielectric effect but linear flexoelectric effect. Despite of the urgent requirement of solving the issue, understanding of such a phenomenon is yet vague. Here, we thoroughly analyze and firstly report the flexoelectric effect in in-plane switching (IPS) liquid crystal cell. The effect takes place on the area above electrodes due to splay and bend deformations of nematic liquid crystal along oblique electric fields, so that the obvious spatial shift of the optical transmittance is experimentally observed and is clearly demonstrated based on the relation between direction of flexoelectric polarization and electric field polarity. In addition, we report that the IPS mode has inherent characteristics to solve the image-flickering issue in the low-power consumption display in terms of the physical property of liquid crystal material and the electrode structure.

  10. Microwatt power consumption maximum power point tracking circuit using an analogue differentiator for piezoelectric energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chew, Z. J.; Zhu, M.

    2015-12-01

    A maximum power point tracking (MPPT) scheme by tracking the open-circuit voltage from a piezoelectric energy harvester using a differentiator is presented in this paper. The MPPT controller is implemented by using a low-power analogue differentiator and comparators without the need of a sensing circuitry and a power hungry controller. This proposed MPPT circuit is used to control a buck converter which serves as a power management module in conjunction with a full-wave bridge diode rectifier. Performance of this MPPT control scheme is verified by using the prototyped circuit to track the maximum power point of a macro-fiber composite (MFC) as the piezoelectric energy harvester. The MFC was bonded on a composite material and the whole specimen was subjected to various strain levels at frequency from 10 to 100 Hz. Experimental results showed that the implemented full analogue MPPT controller has a tracking efficiency between 81% and 98.66% independent of the load, and consumes an average power of 3.187 μW at 3 V during operation.

  11. Development of a protocol to optimize electric power consumption and life cycle environmental impacts for operation of wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Piao, Wenhua; Kim, Changwon; Cho, Sunja; Kim, Hyosoo; Kim, Minsoo; Kim, Yejin

    2016-12-01

    In wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), the portion of operating costs related to electric power consumption is increasing. If the electric power consumption decreased, however, it would be difficult to comply with the effluent water quality requirements. A protocol was proposed to minimize the environmental impacts as well as to optimize the electric power consumption under the conditions needed to meet the effluent water quality standards in this study. This protocol was comprised of six phases of procedure and was tested using operating data from S-WWTP to prove its applicability. The 11 major operating variables were categorized into three groups using principal component analysis and K-mean cluster analysis. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted for each group to deduce the optimal operating conditions for each operating state. Then, employing mathematical modeling, six improvement plans to reduce electric power consumption were deduced. The electric power consumptions for suggested plans were estimated using an artificial neural network. This was followed by a second round of LCA conducted on the plans. As a result, a set of optimized improvement plans were derived for each group that were able to optimize the electric power consumption and life cycle environmental impact, at the same time. Based on these test results, the WWTP operating management protocol presented in this study is deemed able to suggest optimal operating conditions under which power consumption can be optimized with minimal life cycle environmental impact, while allowing the plant to meet water quality requirements.

  12. THCVA-A - a new additional marker for illegal cannabis consumption.

    PubMed

    Radünz, Lars; Westphal, Folker; Maser, Edmund; Rochholz, Gertrud

    2012-02-10

    The aim of the present investigations was to find markers for differentiating between the consumption of illegal cannabis products and legal medication containing fully synthetic Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), e.g., Marinol capsules. Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid A (Δ9-THCA-A) and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarinic acid A (Δ9-THCVA-A) were taken into consideration for analysis, because these substances are the precursors of Δ9-THC and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin (Δ9-THCV) in plant material of Cannabis sativa and are not contained in medical THC formulations. Whereas Δ9-THCA-A is an already well investigated substance, there is little analytical data on Δ9-THCVA-A. The reason for the presented investigations was a case in which a man was tested positive for Δ9-THC during a routine traffic control claiming that the positive serum sample resulted from the intake of a THC medication (Marinol) and not from consuming illegal cannabis products. Sample preparation consisted of a protein precipitation with acetonitrile. Analysis was carried out on a Thermo Fisher LCQ Deca ion trap LC-MS-MS-system using electron spray ionization (ESI) in negative mode. MS(2)- and MS(3)-full scan spectra were recorded for Δ9-THCA-A and Δ9-THCVA-A starting from [M-H](-). Reference spectra were obtained by measuring a Δ9-THCA-A reference solution and an ethanolic cannabis extract for Δ9-THCVA-A as there is no reference material for this cannabinoid available on the market yet. Main transitions for Δ9-THCA-A were m/z 357→313 and 339 in the MS(2)-spectrum and m/z 313→245 and 191 in the MS(3)-spectrum. Fragmentation pattern of Δ9-THCVA-A was identical with a difference of 28 amu less for the precursor ion as well as the fragments due to a shorter alkyl side chain in the molecule (MS(2): m/z 329→285 and 311; MS(3): m/z 285→217 and 163). The two plant cannabinoids Δ9-THCA-A and Δ9-THCVA-A could be detected in the serum sample by LC-MS-MS which proved the intake of illegal

  13. Effects on Fuel Consumption and Diesel Engine Deposits from Nano-Particle Oil Additive

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    Products HTBCT High Temperature Benchtop Corrosion Test HwFET Highway Fuel Economy Test IF Inorganic Fullerene JP-8 A kerosene based jet fuel lbs...engine crankcase lubricants at the request of TARDEC. This additive contains inorganic fullerene -like (IF) nano- particles of WS2 which were claimed...volume and hardness change are shown in Table 4 with MIL-PRF-46167D specified limits. Table 4: Seal Compatibility Test Results Material Property

  14. System and method for high power diode based additive manufacturing

    DOEpatents

    El-Dasher, Bassem S.; Bayramian, Andrew; Demuth, James A.; Farmer, Joseph C.; Torres, Sharon G.

    2016-04-12

    A system is disclosed for performing an Additive Manufacturing (AM) fabrication process on a powdered material forming a substrate. The system may make use of a diode array for generating an optical signal sufficient to melt a powdered material of the substrate. A mask may be used for preventing a first predetermined portion of the optical signal from reaching the substrate, while allowing a second predetermined portion to reach the substrate. At least one processor may be used for controlling an output of the diode array.

  15. Reducing water freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants : approaches used outside the United States.

    SciTech Connect

    Elcock, D.

    2011-05-09

    Coal-fired power plants consume huge quantities of water, and in some water-stressed areas, power plants compete with other users for limited supplies. Extensive use of coal to generate electricity is projected to continue for many years. Faced with increasing power demands and questionable future supplies, industries and governments are seeking ways to reduce freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants. As the United States investigates various freshwater savings approaches (e.g., the use of alternative water sources), other countries are also researching and implementing approaches to address similar - and in many cases, more challenging - water supply and demand issues. Information about these non-U.S. approaches can be used to help direct near- and mid-term water-consumption research and development (R&D) activities in the United States. This report summarizes the research, development, and deployment (RD&D) status of several approaches used for reducing freshwater consumption by coal-fired power plants in other countries, many of which could be applied, or applied more aggressively, at coal-fired power plants in the United States. Information contained in this report is derived from literature and Internet searches, in some cases supplemented by communication with the researchers, authors, or equipment providers. Because there are few technical, peer-reviewed articles on this topic, much of the information in this report comes from the trade press and other non-peer-reviewed references. Reducing freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants can occur directly or indirectly. Direct approaches are aimed specifically at reducing water consumption, and they include dry cooling, dry bottom ash handling, low-water-consuming emissions-control technologies, water metering and monitoring, reclaiming water from in-plant operations (e.g., recovery of cooling tower water for boiler makeup water, reclaiming water from flue gas desulfurization [FGD] systems), and

  16. How hybrid-electric vehicles are different from conventional vehicles: the effect of weight and power on fuel consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, C.; Kandlikar, M.

    2007-01-01

    An increasingly diverse set of hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) is now available in North America. The recent generation of HEVs have higher fuel consumption, are heavier, and are significantly more powerful than the first generation of HEVs. We compare HEVs for sale in the United States in 2007 to equivalent conventional vehicles and determine how vehicle weight and system power affects fuel consumption within each vehicle set. We find that heavier and more powerful hybrid-electric vehicles are eroding the fuel consumption benefit of this technology. Nonetheless, the weight penalty for fuel consumption in HEVs is significantly lower than in equivalent conventional internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs). A 100 kg change in vehicle weight increases fuel consumption by 0.7 l/100 km in ICEVs compared with 0.4 l/100 km in HEVs. When the HEVs are compared with their ICEV counterparts in an equivalence model that differentiates between cars and sports-utility vehicles, the average fuel consumption benefit was 2.7 l/100 km. This analysis further reveals that a HEV which is 100 kg heavier than an identical ICEV would have a fuel consumption penalty of 0.15 l/100 km. Likewise, an increase in the HEV's power by 10 kW results in a fuel consumption penalty of 0.27 l/100 km.

  17. Progress Toward Accurate Measurements of Power Consumptions of DBD Plasma Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashpis, David E.; Laun, Matthew C.; Griebeler, Elmer L.

    2012-01-01

    The accurate measurement of power consumption by Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) plasma actuators is a challenge due to the characteristics of the actuator current signal. Micro-discharges generate high-amplitude, high-frequency current spike transients superimposed on a low-amplitude, low-frequency current. We have used a high-speed digital oscilloscope to measure the actuator power consumption using the Shunt Resistor method and the Monitor Capacitor method. The measurements were performed simultaneously and compared to each other in a time-accurate manner. It was found that low signal-to-noise ratios of the oscilloscopes used, in combination with the high dynamic range of the current spikes, make the Shunt Resistor method inaccurate. An innovative, nonlinear signal compression circuit was applied to the actuator current signal and yielded excellent agreement between the two methods. The paper describes the issues and challenges associated with performing accurate power measurements. It provides insights into the two methods including new insight into the Lissajous curve of the Monitor Capacitor method. Extension to a broad range of parameters and further development of the compression hardware will be performed in future work.

  18. Reducing pump power consumption by 40% (1000 kw) through improved pump management in a central plant

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, S.; Liu, M.; Turner, D.

    1998-07-01

    Chilled water system data collection and field measurements performed at the Central Utility Plant of Texas A and M University (TAMU) in College Station, Texas revealed that 30--50 % of the primary pump head is consumed by manual and automatic valves being operated in a partially-opened condition. A comprehensive analysis was performed to develop an improved pump management schedule. The results show potential savings of up to 40% of the pump power consumption without any capital investment. The optimized schedule is being implemented. This paper describes the method and presents results of the analysis and implementation.

  19. Low power consumption resistance random access memory with Pt/InOx/TiN structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jyun-Bao; Chang, Ting-Chang; Huang, Jheng-Jie; Chen, Yu-Ting; Tseng, Hsueh-Chih; Chu, Ann-Kuo; Sze, Simon M.; Tsai, Ming-Jinn

    2013-09-01

    In this study, the resistance switching characteristics of a resistive random access memory device with Pt/InOx/TiN structure is investigated. Unstable bipolar switching behavior is observed during the initial switching cycle, which then stabilizes after several switching cycles. Analyses indicate that the current conduction mechanism in the resistance state is dominated by Ohmic conduction. The decrease in electrical conductance can be attributed to the reduction of the cross-sectional area of the conduction path. Furthermore, the device exhibits low operation voltage and power consumption.

  20. Very Low-Power Consumption Analog Pulse Processing ASIC for Semiconductor Radiation Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Wessendorf, K.O.; Lund, J.C.; Brunett, B.A.; Laguna, G.R.; Clements, J.W.

    1999-08-23

    We describe a very-low power consumption circuit for processing the pulses from a semiconductor radiation detector. The circuit was designed for use with a cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) detector for unattended monitoring of stored nuclear materials. The device is intended to be battery powered and operate at low duty-cycles over a long period of time. This system will provide adequate performance for medium resolution gamma-ray pulse-height spectroscopy applications. The circuit incorporates the functions of a charge sensitive preamplifier, shaping amplifier, and peak sample and hold circuit. An application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) version of the design has been designed, built and tested. With the exception of the input field effect transistor (FET), the circuit is constructed using bipolar components. In this paper the design philosophy and measured performance characteristics of the circuit are described.

  1. FUEL CONSUMPTION AND COST SAVINGS OF CLASS 8 HEAVY-DUTY TRUCKS POWERED BY NATURAL GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Zhiming; LaClair, Tim J; Daw, C Stuart; Smith, David E

    2013-01-01

    We compare the fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of natural gas and diesel heavy-duty (HD) class 8 trucks under consistent simulated drive cycle conditions. Our study included both conventional and hybrid HD trucks operating with either natural gas or diesel engines, and we compare the resulting simulated fuel efficiencies, fuel costs, and payback periods. While trucks powered by natural gas engines have lower fuel economy, their CO2 emissions and costs are lower than comparable diesel trucks. Both diesel and natural gas powered hybrid trucks have significantly improved fuel economy, reasonable cost savings and payback time, and lower CO2 emissions under city driving conditions. However, under freeway-dominant driving conditions, the overall benefits of hybridization are considerably less. Based on payback period alone, non-hybrid natural gas trucks appear to be the most economic option for both urban and freeway driving environments.

  2. 650-nm 1 × 2 polymeric thermo-optic switch with low power consumption.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xi-Bin; Sun, Jian; Liu, Yu-Fen; Sun, Jing-Wen; Chen, Chang-Ming; Sun, Xiao-Qiang; Wang, Fei; Zhang, Da-Ming

    2014-05-05

    In this paper, a low-power 1 × 2 polymeric thermo-optic switch operating at the polymer optical fiber low-loss window of 650 nm was studied. The characteristic parameters of the switch were carefully designed and simulated. The fabrication was done by using standard semiconductor fabrication techniques such as spin-coating, photolithography, and dry etching. The device was fabricated based on poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)-based materials with the Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) structure. The device shows an extinction ratio of over 23.4 dB at 650 nm with a very low-power consumption of 5.3 mW. The measured switching rise time and fall time are 464.4 and 448.0 µs, respectively.

  3. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  4. Fuel consumption and fire emissions estimates using Fire Radiative Power, burned area and statistical modelling on the fire event scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruecker, Gernot; Leimbach, David; Guenther, Felix; Barradas, Carol; Hoffmann, Anja

    2016-04-01

    Fire Radiative Power (FRP) retrieved by infrared sensors, such as flown on several polar orbiting and geostationary satellites, has been shown to be proportional to fuel consumption rates in vegetation fires, and hence the total radiative energy released by a fire (Fire Radiative Energy, FRE) is proportional to the total amount of biomass burned. However, due to the sparse temporal coverage of polar orbiting and the coarse spatial resolution of geostationary sensors, it is difficult to estimate fuel consumption for single fire events. Here we explore an approach for estimating FRE through temporal integration of MODIS FRP retrievals over MODIS-derived burned areas. Temporal integration is aided by statistical modelling to estimate missing observations using a generalized additive model (GAM) and taking advantage of additional information such as land cover and a global dataset of the Canadian Fire Weather Index (FWI), as well as diurnal and annual FRP fluctuation patterns. Based on results from study areas located in savannah regions of Southern and Eastern Africa and Brazil, we compare this method to estimates based on simple temporal integration of FRP retrievals over the fire lifetime, and estimate the potential variability of FRP integration results across a range of fire sizes. We compare FRE-based fuel consumption against a database of field experiments in similar landscapes. Results show that for larger fires, this method yields realistic estimates and is more robust when only a small number of observations is available than the simple temporal integration. Finally, we offer an outlook on the integration of data from other satellites, specifically FireBird, S-NPP VIIRS and Sentinel-3, as well as on using higher resolution burned area data sets derived from Landsat and similar sensors.

  5. Chip Scale Atomic Resonator Frequency Stabilization System With Ultra-Low Power Consumption for Optoelectronic Oscillators.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jianye; Zhang, Yaolin; Lu, Haoyuan; Hou, Dong; Zhang, Shuangyou; Wang, Zhong

    2016-07-01

    We present a long-term chip scale stabilization scheme for optoelectronic oscillators (OEOs) based on a rubidium coherent population trapping (CPT) atomic resonator. By locking a single mode of an OEO to the (85)Rb 3.035-GHz CPT resonance utilizing an improved phase-locked loop (PLL) with a PID regulator, we achieved a chip scale frequency stabilization system for the OEO. The fractional frequency stability of the stabilized OEO by overlapping Allan deviation reaches 6.2 ×10(-11) (1 s) and  ∼ 1.45 ×10 (-11) (1000 s). This scheme avoids a decrease in the extra phase noise performance induced by the electronic connection between the OEO and the microwave reference in common injection locking schemes. The total physical package of the stabilization system is [Formula: see text] and the total power consumption is 400 mW, which provides a chip scale and portable frequency stabilization approach with ultra-low power consumption for OEOs.

  6. A high speed, low power consumption LVDS interface for CMOS pixel sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Zhan; Tang, Zhenan; Tian, Yong; Pham, Hung; Valin, Isabelle; Jaaskelainen, Kimmo

    2015-01-01

    The use of CMOS Pixel Sensors (CPSs) offers a promising approach to the design of vertex detectors in High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments. As the CPS equipping the upgraded Solenoidal Tracker at RHIC (STAR) pixel detector, ULTIMATE perfectly illustrates the potential of CPSs for HEP applications. However, further development of CPSs with respect to readout speed is required to fulfill the readout time requirement of the next generation HEP detectors, such as the upgrade of A Large Ion Collider Experiment (ALICE) Inner Tracking System (ITS), the International Linear Collider (ILC), and the Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) vertex detectors. One actual limitation of CPSs is related to the speed of the Low-Voltage Differential Signaling (LVDS) circuitry implementing the interface between the sensor and the Data Acquisition (DAQ) system. To improve the transmission rate while keeping the power consumption at a low level, a source termination technique and a special current comparator were adopted for the LVDS driver and receiver, respectively. Moreover, hardening techniques are used. The circuitry was designed and submitted for fabrication in a 0.18-μm CMOS Image Sensor (CIS) process at the end of 2011. The test results indicated that the LVDS driver and receiver can operate properly at the data rate of 1.2 Gb/s with power consumption of 19.6 mW.

  7. Low-power consumption seamless wireless and wired links using transparent waveform transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawanishi, Tetsuya

    2014-12-01

    This paper describes wired and wireless seamless networks consisting of radiowave and optical fiber links. Digital coherent technology developed for high-speed optical fiber transmission can mitigate signal deformation in radiowave links in the air as well as in optical fibers. Radio-over-fiber (RoF) technique, which transmits radio waveforms on intensity envelops of optical signals, can provide direct waveform transfer between optical and radio signals by using optical-to-electric or electric-to-optical conversion devices. Combination of RoF in millimeter-wave bands and digital coherent with high-performance digital signal processing (DSP) can provide wired and wireless seamless links where bit rate of wireless links would be close to 100 Gb/s. Millimeter-wave transmission distance would be shorter than a few kilometers due to large atmospheric attenuation, so that many moderate distance wireless links, which are seamlessly connected to optical fiber networks should be required to provide high-speed mobile-capable networks. In such systems, reduction of power consumption at media converters connecting wired and wireless links would be very important to pursue both low-power consumption and large capacity.

  8. Effect of heating strategy on power consumption and performance of a pilot plant anaerobic digester.

    PubMed

    Espinosa-Solares, Teodoro; Valle-Guadarrama, Salvador; Bombardiere, John; Domaschko, Max; Easter, Michael

    2009-05-01

    The effect of heating strategy on power consumption and performance of a pilot plant anaerobic digester treating chicken litter, under thermophilic conditions, has been studied. Heating strategy was evaluated using three different spans (0.2 degrees C, 0.6 degrees C, and 1.0 degree C) for triggering the temperature control system from target temperature (56.7 degrees C). The hydraulic retention time in the pilot plant digester was in the range of 32 to 37 days, varying the total solids concentration fed from 5% to 6%. The results showed that under the experimental conditions, heating was the most energy-demanding process with 95.5% of the energy used. Increments up to 7.5% and 3.8%, respectively, on mechanical and heating power consumption, were observed as the span, for triggering the temperature control system from target temperature, was increased. Under the experimental conditions studied here, an increment of 30.6% on the global biodigester performance index was observed when a span of 1.0 degree C was compared to the one of 0.2 degrees C.

  9. Reflective dual-mode liquid crystal display possessing low power consumption and high contrast ratio under ambient light.

    PubMed

    Kim, Taehyung; Lee, Joong Ha; Yoon, Tae-Hoon; Choi, Suk-Won

    2012-07-02

    We propose a reflective dual-mode liquid crystal display (RD-LCD) which has advantages of long memory retention time and high contrast ratio. The proposed device adopts ideal bistable characteristics, a cell thickness over pitch (d/p) of 0.25. It can realize long memory retention time, thereby reducing power consumption. In addition, an optical configuration for the RD-LCD makes low light leakages at dark state and shows good dispersion characteristics in both dark and bright states over the entire visible ranges. We experimentally confirmed retention time over 6 months in memory mode and memory and dynamic contrast ratios of 47:1 and 43:1 under ambient light, respectively. As a result, the proposed RD-LCD demonstrates convincingly that it is a candidate for green display.

  10. Review of Millimeter-Wave Integrated Circuits With Low Power Consumption for High Speed Wireless Communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellinger, Frank; Fritsche, David; Tretter, Gregor; Leufker, Jan Dirk; Yodprasit, Uroschanit; Carta, C.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we review high-speed radio-frequency integrated circuits operating up to 210 GHz and present selected state-of-the-art circuits with leading-edge performance, which we have designed at our chair. The following components are discussed employing bipolar complementary metal oxide semiconductors (BiCMOS) technologies: a 200 GHz amplifier with 17 dB gain and around 9 dB noise figure consuming only 18 mW, a 200 GHz down mixer with 5.5 dB conversion gain and 40 mW power consumption, a 190 GHz receiver with 47 dB conversion gain and 11 dB noise figure and a 60 GHz power amplifier with 24.5 dBm output power and 12.9 % power added efficiency (PAE). Moreover, we report on a single-core flash CMOS analogue-to-digital converter (ADC) with 3 bit resolution and a speed of 24 GS/s. Finally, we discuss a 60 GHz on-off keying (OOK) BiCMOS transceiver chip set. The wireless transmission of data with 5 Gb/s at 42 cm distance between transmitter and receiver was verified by experiments. The complete transceiver consumes 396 mW.

  11. A thirst for power: A global analysis of water consumption for energy production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spang, Edward

    Producing energy resources requires significant quantities of freshwater. As an energy sector changes or expands, the mix of technologies deployed to produce fuels and electricity determines the associated burden on regional water resources. A number of reports exist that specify water consumption by discrete energy production technologies. This research synthesizes and expands this previous work by examining the global distribution of water consumption intensity of national-level energy portfolios. By defining and calculating indicators to quantify the relative water use intensity of national energy systems, it was possible to highlight potentially problematic areas of high water use intensity while also providing examples of water-efficient energy production. The results of the research show a high variability in the national water consumption of energy production (WCEP) for the 158 countries that were assessed. However, looking across the indicators for WCEP internationally, the countries that were heavily producing fossil fuel or biofuels demonstrated the greatest intensity of energy-based water consumption. The economic imperative to develop fossil fuels drives high water consumption in countries that already lack sufficient water supplies. Meanwhile, biofuels require so much water over their lifecycle per unit of produced energy that any modest commitment to producing biofuels has significant water consumption ramifications for the country. While these results are based on a comprehensive review of available data, future research in this area could be significantly enhanced through better data and widespread adoption of consistent reporting mechanisms. Additional opportunities to expand the field include increasing the resolution of the study regions, tracking these indicators over time, and exploring innovative policy approaches to managing national WCEP effectively. For nations facing the greatest limitations in the availability of local water and energy

  12. Super low power consumption middle infrared LED-PD optopairs for chemical sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoyanov, Nikolay D.; Salikhov, Khafiz M.; Kalinina, Karina V.; Kizhaev, Sergey S.; Chernyaev, Anton V.

    2014-03-01

    The new photodiodes with cut-off wavelengths at 3640 nm, 4600 nm and 5150 nm have been recently developed in a high-tech company LED Microsensor NT (St.Petersburg, Russia) in cooperation with Aalto University (Espoo, Finland). Photodiode (PD) heterostructures InAsSb/InAsSbP were grown by MOVPE on InAs substrates. For the PDs with a cutoff wavelength at 3640 nm at room temperature the responsivity at 3300 nm reached 1.46 A/W and, detectivity was 1.56*1010 cm.Hz1/2/W. For the PDs with a cut-off 4600 nm the same parameters were: 1.91 A/W and 6.7*109 cm.Hz1/2/W respectively (lambda=4100 nm). For the third type of PDs with a cut-off at 5150 nm responsivity was 0.29 A/W, detectivity was 4.2*108 cm.Hz1/2/W (lambda=5000 nm). Creation of photodiodes for the spectral range 2500-5200 nm with acceptable efficiency in photovoltaic operation mode (with no reverse bias) and using them in a pair with spectrally matched LEDs driven by very short current pulses allows developing optical cells with very low power consumption (less than 1 mW). Small size of the LED and PD dies (0.4-0.8 mm) and low heating makes it possible to design very thin optical cells (less than 2 mm) for measuring CH4, CO2, CO, H2O and other substances [1]. Mounting of a few LED dies that emit at different wavelengths in such a small cell allows measuring different chemical substances simultaneously. Direct coating of optical filters on the LED or PD surface during post-growth process allows improving selectivity and sensitivity of the sensor. Super low power consumption of the diode-based optical cells makes them promising candidates for the wireless mesh sensor networks for various gas monitoring purposes as well as for HVAC systems. Combination of the low power consumption and thin size of the cells opens possibility to embed them in mobile devices.

  13. Local muscle oxygen consumption related to external and joint specific power.

    PubMed

    Skovereng, Knut; Ettema, Gertjan; van Beekvelt, Mireille

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of external work rate on joint specific power and the relationship between knee extension power and vastus lateralis muscle oxygen consumption (mVO2). We measured kinematics and pedal forces and used inverse dynamics to calculate joint power for the hip, knee and ankle joints during an incremental cycling protocol performed by 21 recreational cyclists. Vastus lateralis mVO2 was estimated using near-infrared spectroscopy with an arterial occlusion. The main finding was a non-linear relationship between vastus lateralis mVO2 and external work rate that was characterised by an increase followed by a tendency for a levelling off (R(2)=0.99 and 0.94 for the quadratic and linear models respectively, p<0.05). When comparing 100W and 225W, there was a ∼43W increase in knee extension but still a ∼9% decrease in relative contribution of knee extension to external work rate resulting from a ∼47W increase in hip extension. When vastus lateralis mVO2 was related to knee extension power, the relationship was still non-linear (R(2)=0.99 and 0.97 for the quadratic and linear models respectively, p<0.05). These results demonstrate a non-linear response in mVO2 relative to a change in external work rate. Relating vastus lateralis mVO2 to knee extension power showed a better fit to a linear equation compared to external work rate, but it is not a straight line.

  14. Design optimizations of phase noise, power consumption and frequency tuning for VCO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nan, Chen; Shengxi, Diao; Lu, Huang; Xuefei, Bai; Fujiang, Lin

    2013-09-01

    To meet the requirements of the low power Zigbee system, VCO design optimizations of phase noise, power consumption and frequency tuning are discussed in this paper. Both flicker noise of tail bias transistors and up-conversion of flicker noise from cross-coupled pair are reduced by improved self-switched biasing technology, leading to low close-in phase noise. Low power is achieved by low supply voltage and triode region biasing. To linearly tune the frequency and get constant gain, distributed varactor structure is adopted. The proposed VCO is fabricated in SMIC 0.18-μm CMOS process. The measured linear tuning range is from 2.38 to 2.61 GHz. The oscillator exhibits low phase noise of -77.5 dBc/Hz and -122.8 dBc/Hz at 10 kHz and 1 MHz offset, respectively, at 2.55 GHz oscillation frequency while dissipating 2.7 mA from 1.2 V supply voltage, which well meet design specifications.

  15. Low Power Consumption Digital Clock Recovery Circuit Based on Threshold Crossing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perić, Dragana; Perić, Miroslav

    2016-12-01

    In this paper a new structure of digital clock recovery — DCR circuit is presented. The main features of this DCR are: low complexity design, low power consumption and a single system clock operation. Thus, multiple instantiation of this type of DCR on a single chip is not complex. Due to this, such DCR can target application in energy-efficient cognitive radio systems with carrier aggregation. For performance evaluation, we have derived Markov chain based mathematical model for peak-to-peak and root mean square jitter performance analysis. The stability problem of this model, rising from the fact that some phase error states have several orders of magnitude lower probabilities than the others, is solved using mathematical apparatus for symbolic analysis. The mathematical model validity is examined by laboratorial measurements of proposed DCR for 4-PAM signal. The measurement methodology and results are described in details.

  16. Methods of reducing energy consumption of the oxidant supply system for MHD/steam power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, A. J.

    1983-01-01

    An in-depth study was conducted to identify possible improvements to the oxidant supply system for combined cycle MHD power plants which would lead to higher thermal efficiency and reduction in the cost of electricity, COE. Results showed that the oxidant system energy consumption could be minimized when the process was designed to deliver a product O2 concentration of 70 mole percent. The study also led to the development of a new air separation process, referred to as liquid pumping and internal compression. MHD system performance calculations show that the new process would permit an increase in plant thermal efficiency of 0.6 percent while allowing more favorable tradeoffs between magnetic energy and oxidant system capacity requirements.

  17. System and method for controlling power consumption in a computer system based on user satisfaction

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Lei; Dick, Robert P; Chen, Xi; Memik, Gokhan; Dinda, Peter A; Shy, Alex; Ozisikyilmaz, Berkin; Mallik, Arindam; Choudhary, Alok

    2014-04-22

    Systems and methods for controlling power consumption in a computer system. For each of a plurality of interactive applications, the method changes a frequency at which a processor of the computer system runs, receives an indication of user satisfaction, determines a relationship between the changed frequency and the user satisfaction of the interactive application, and stores the determined relationship information. The determined relationship can distinguish between different users and different interactive applications. A frequency may be selected from the discrete frequencies at which the processor of the computer system runs based on the determined relationship information for a particular user and a particular interactive application running on the processor of the computer system. The processor may be adapted to run at the selected frequency.

  18. Methods of reducing energy consumption of the oxidant supply system for MHD/steam power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, A. J.

    1983-01-01

    An in-depth study was conducted to identify possible improvements to the oxidant supply system for combined cycle MHD power plants which would lead to higher thermal efficiency and reduction in the cost of electricity, COE. Results showed that the oxidant system energy consumption could be minimized when the process was designed to deliver a product O2 concentration of 70 mole percent. The study also led to the development of a new air separation process, referred to as 'liquid pumping and internal compression'. MHD system performance calculations show that the new process would permit an increase in plant thermal efficiency of 0.6 percent while allowing more favorable tradeoffs between magnetic energy and oxidant system capacity requirements.

  19. A durable, non power consumptive, simple seal for rotary blood pumps.

    PubMed

    Mitamura, Y; Sekine, K; Asakawa, M; Yozu, R; Kawada, S; Okamoto, E

    2001-01-01

    One of the key technologic requirements for rotary blood pumps is the sealing of the motor shaft. A mechanical seal, a journal bearing, magnetic coupling, and magnetic suspension have been developed, but they have drawbacks such as wear, thrombus formation, and power consumption. A magnetic fluid seal was developed for an axial flow pump. A magnetic fluid seal is durable, simple, and non power consumptive. Long-term experiments and finite element modeling (FEM) analyses confirmed these advantages. The seal body was composed of a Ned-Fe magnet and two pole pieces; the seal was formed by injecting ferrofluid into the gap (50 microm) between the pole pieces and the motor shaft. To contain the ferrofluid in the seal and to minimize the possibility of ferrofluid making contact with blood, a shield with a small cavity was attached to the pole piece. While submerged in blood, the sealing pressure of the seal was measured and found to be 188 mm Hg with ferrofluid LS-40 (saturated magnetization, 24.3 kA/m) at a motor speed of 10,000 rpm and 225 mm Hg under static conditions. The magnetic fluid seals performed perfectly at a pressure of 100 mm Hg for 594 + days in a static condition, and 51, 39+, and 34+ days at a motor speed of 8,000 rpm. FEM analyses indicated a theoretical sealing pressure of 260 mm Hg. The state of the magnetic fluid in the seal in water was observed with a microscope. Neither splashing of magnetic fluid nor mixing of the magnetic fluid and water was observed. The specially designed magnetic fluid seal for keeping liquids out is useful for axial flow blood pumps. The magnetic fluid seal was incorporated into an intracardiac axial flow pump.

  20. Effects of Village Power Quality on Fuel Consumption and Operating Expenses

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Wies; Ron Johnson

    2008-12-31

    Alaska's rural village electric utilities are isolated from the Alaska railbelt electrical grid intertie and from each other. Different strategies have been developed for providing power to meet demand in each of these rural communities. Many of these communities rely on diesel electric generators (DEGs) for power. Some villages have also installed renewable power sources and automated generation systems for controlling the DEGs and other sources of power. For example, Lime Village has installed a diesel battery photovoltaic hybrid system, Kotzebue and Wales have wind-diesel hybrid systems, and McGrath has installed a highly automated system for controlling diesel generators. Poor power quality and diesel engine efficiency in village power systems increases the cost of meeting the load. Power quality problems may consist of poor power factor (PF) or waveform disturbances, while diesel engine efficiency depends primarily on loading, the fuel type, the engine temperature, and the use of waste heat for nearby buildings. These costs take the form of increased fuel use, increased generator maintenance, and decreased reliability. With the cost of bulk fuel in some villages approaching $1.32/liter ($5.00/gallon) a modest 5% decrease in fuel use can result in substantial savings with short payback periods depending on the village's load profile and the cost of corrective measures. This project over its five year history has investigated approaches to improving power quality and implementing fuel savings measures through the use of performance assessment software tools developed in MATLAB{reg_sign} Simulink{reg_sign} and the implementation of remote monitoring, automated generation control, and the addition of renewable energy sources in select villages. The results have shown how many of these communities would benefit from the use of automated generation control by implementing a simple economic dispatch scheme and the integration of renewable energy sources such as wind

  1. Power consumption and byproducts in electron beam and electrical discharge processing of volatile organic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Penetrante, B.M.; Hsiao, M.C.; Bardsley, J.N.

    1996-02-20

    Among the new methods being investigated for the post-process reduction of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in atmospheric-pressure air streams are based on non-thermal plasmas. Electron beam, pulsed corona and dielectric-barrier discharge methods are among the more extensively investigated techniques for producing non-thermal plasmas. In order to apply non-thermal plasmas in an industrial scale, it is important to establish the electrical power requirements and byproducts of the process. In this paper the authors present experimental results using a compact electron beam reactor, a pulsed corona and a dielectric-barrier discharge reactor. They have used these reactors to study the removal of a wide variety of VOCs. The effects of background gas composition and gas temperature on the decomposition chemistry have been studied. They present a description of the reactions that control the efficiency of the plasma process. They have found that pulsed corona and other types of electrical discharge reactors are most suitable only for processes requiring O radicals. For VOCs requiring copious amounts of electrons, ions, N atoms or OH radicals, the use of electron beam reactors is generally the best way of minimizing the electrical power consumption. Electron beam processing is remarkably more effective for all of the VOCs tested. For control of VOC emissions from dilute, large volume sources such as paint spray booths, cost analysis shows that the electron beam method is cost-competitive to thermal and catalytic methods that employ heat recovery or hybrid techniques.

  2. Regrowth-free mid-infrared distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers with sub-watt power consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, Ryan M.; Frez, Clifford; Fradet, Mathieu; Forouhar, Siamak; Blanchard, Romain; Pflügl, Christian

    2016-03-01

    We report on room-temperature, continuous-wave operation of single-mode quantum cascade lasers designed for minimal threshold power consumption in the 4 to 10 μm spectral range. Narrow-ridge distributed feedback lasers were developed with plasma-etched sidewall corrugations and infrared-transparent dielectric cladding, enabling fabrication without any epitaxial steps beyond the initial growth of the planar laser wafer. The devices exhibit single-mode emission with stable, mode-hop-free tuning and side-mode suppression greater than 25 dB. We demonstrate packaged single-mode devices with continuous-wave threshold power consumption near 1 W above room temperature.

  3. Note: Ultra-high frequency ultra-low dc power consumption HEMT amplifier for quantum measurements in millikelvin temperature range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korolev, A. M.; Shnyrkov, V. I.; Shulga, V. M.

    2011-01-01

    We have presented theory and experimentally demonstrated an efficient method for drastically reducing the power consumption of the rf/microwave amplifiers based on HEMT in unsaturated dc regime. Conceptual one-stage 10 dB-gain amplifier showed submicrowatt level of the power consumption (0.95 μW at frequency of 0.5 GHz) when cooled down to 300 mK. Proposed technique has a great potential to design the readout amplifiers for ultra-deep-cooled cryoelectronic quantum devices.

  4. Note: Ultra-high frequency ultra-low dc power consumption HEMT amplifier for quantum measurements in millikelvin temperature range.

    PubMed

    Korolev, A M; Shnyrkov, V I; Shulga, V M

    2011-01-01

    We have presented theory and experimentally demonstrated an efficient method for drastically reducing the power consumption of the rf/microwave amplifiers based on HEMT in unsaturated dc regime. Conceptual one-stage 10 dB-gain amplifier showed submicrowatt level of the power consumption (0.95 μW at frequency of 0.5 GHz) when cooled down to 300 mK. Proposed technique has a great potential to design the readout amplifiers for ultra-deep-cooled cryoelectronic quantum devices.

  5. SoftExplorer: Estimating and Optimizing the Power and Energy Consumption of a C Program for DSP Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senn, Eric; Laurent, Johann; Julien, Nathalie; Martin, Eric

    2005-12-01

    We present a method to estimate the power and energy consumption of an algorithm directly from the C program. Three models are involved: a model for the targeted processor (the power model), a model for the algorithm, and a model for the compiler (the prediction model). A functional-level power analysis is performed to obtain the power model. Five power models have been developed so far, for different architectures, from the simple RISC ARM7 to the very complex VLIW DSP TI C64. Important phenomena are taken into account, like cache misses, pipeline stalls, and internal/external memory accesses. The model for the algorithm expresses the algorithm's influence over the processor's activity. The prediction model represents the behavior of the compiler, and how it will allow the algorithm to use the processor's resources. The data mapping is considered at that stage. We have developed a tool, SoftExplorer, which performs estimation both at the C-level and the assembly level. Estimations are performed on real-life digital signal processing applications with average errors of[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.]% at the C-level and[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.]% at the assembly level. We present how SoftExplorer can be used to optimize the consumption of an application. We first show how to find the best data mapping for an algorithm. Then we demonstrate a method to choose the processor and its operating frequency in order to minimize the global energy consumption.

  6. Influence of edge additions on the synchronizability of oscillatory power networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Li-xin; Jiang, Jun; Liu, Xiao-jun

    2016-12-01

    The influence of edge-adding number and edge-adding distance on synchronization of oscillatory power network is investigated. Here we study how the addition of new links impacts the emergence of synchrony in oscillatory power network, focusing on ring, and tree-like topologies. Numerical simulations show that the impact of distance of adding edges whether homogeneous (generators to generators or consumers to consumers) or heterogeneous (generators to consumer nodes and vice versa) edges is not obvious on the synchronizability of oscillatory power network. However, for the edge-adding number, it is observed that the bigger heterogeneous edge-adding number, the stronger synchronizability of power network will be. Furthermore, the homogeneous edge-adding number does not affect the synchronizability of oscillatory power network.

  7. Optimal Self-Tuning PID Controller Based on Low Power Consumption for a Server Fan Cooling System.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chengming; Chen, Rongshun

    2015-05-20

    Recently, saving the cooling power in servers by controlling the fan speed has attracted considerable attention because of the increasing demand for high-density servers. This paper presents an optimal self-tuning proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller, combining a PID neural network (PIDNN) with fan-power-based optimization in the transient-state temperature response in the time domain, for a server fan cooling system. Because the thermal model of the cooling system is nonlinear and complex, a server mockup system simulating a 1U rack server was constructed and a fan power model was created using a third-order nonlinear curve fit to determine the cooling power consumption by the fan speed control. PIDNN with a time domain criterion is used to tune all online and optimized PID gains. The proposed controller was validated through experiments of step response when the server operated from the low to high power state. The results show that up to 14% of a server's fan cooling power can be saved if the fan control permits a slight temperature response overshoot in the electronic components, which may provide a time-saving strategy for tuning the PID controller to control the server fan speed during low fan power consumption.

  8. Optimal Self-Tuning PID Controller Based on Low Power Consumption for a Server Fan Cooling System

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chengming; Chen, Rongshun

    2015-01-01

    Recently, saving the cooling power in servers by controlling the fan speed has attracted considerable attention because of the increasing demand for high-density servers. This paper presents an optimal self-tuning proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller, combining a PID neural network (PIDNN) with fan-power-based optimization in the transient-state temperature response in the time domain, for a server fan cooling system. Because the thermal model of the cooling system is nonlinear and complex, a server mockup system simulating a 1U rack server was constructed and a fan power model was created using a third-order nonlinear curve fit to determine the cooling power consumption by the fan speed control. PIDNN with a time domain criterion is used to tune all online and optimized PID gains. The proposed controller was validated through experiments of step response when the server operated from the low to high power state. The results show that up to 14% of a server’s fan cooling power can be saved if the fan control permits a slight temperature response overshoot in the electronic components, which may provide a time-saving strategy for tuning the PID controller to control the server fan speed during low fan power consumption. PMID:26007725

  9. Plasmonics-Based Multifunctional Electrodes for Low-Power-Consumption Compact Color-Image Sensors.

    PubMed

    Lin, Keng-Te; Chen, Hsuen-Li; Lai, Yu-Sheng; Chi, Yi-Min; Chu, Ting-Wei

    2016-03-01

    High pixel density, efficient color splitting, a compact structure, superior quantum efficiency, and low power consumption are all important features for contemporary color-image sensors. In this study, we developed a surface plasmonics-based color-image sensor displaying a high photoelectric response, a microlens-free structure, and a zero-bias working voltage. Our compact sensor comprised only (i) a multifunctional electrode based on a single-layer structured aluminum (Al) film and (ii) an underlying silicon (Si) substrate. This approach significantly simplifies the device structure and fabrication processes; for example, the red, green, and blue color pixels can be prepared simultaneously in a single lithography step. Moreover, such Schottky-based plasmonic electrodes perform multiple functions, including color splitting, optical-to-electrical signal conversion, and photogenerated carrier collection for color-image detection. Our multifunctional, electrode-based device could also avoid the interference phenomenon that degrades the color-splitting spectra found in conventional color-image sensors. Furthermore, the device took advantage of the near-field surface plasmonic effect around the Al-Si junction to enhance the optical absorption of Si, resulting in a significant photoelectric current output even under low-light surroundings and zero bias voltage. These plasmonic Schottky-based color-image devices could convert a photocurrent directly into a photovoltage and provided sufficient voltage output for color-image detection even under a light intensity of only several femtowatts per square micrometer. Unlike conventional color image devices, using voltage as the output signal decreases the area of the periphery read-out circuit because it does not require a current-to-voltage conversion capacitor or its related circuit. Therefore, this strategy has great potential for direct integration with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS)-compatible circuit

  10. Graphene as conductive additives in binderless activated carbon electrodes for power enhancement of supercapacitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nor, N. S. M.; Deraman, M.; Suleman, M.; Norizam, M. D. M.; Basri, N. H.; Sazali, N. E. S.; Hamdan, E.; Hanappi, M. F. Y. M.; Tajuddin, N. S. M.; Othman, M. A. R.; Shamsudin, S. A.; Omar, R.

    2016-11-01

    Carbon based supercapacitor electrodes from composite of binderless activated carbon and graphene as a conductive additive were fabricated with various amount of graphene (0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 wt%). Graphene was mixed in self-adhesive carbon grains produced from pre-carbonized powder derived from fibers of oil palm empty fruit bunches and converted into green monoliths (GMs). The GMs were carbonized (N2) and activated (CO2) to produce activated carbon monoliths (ACMs) electrodes. Porosity characterizations by nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherm method shows that the pore characteristics of the ACMs are influenced by the graphene additive. The results of galvanostatic charge-discharge tests carried out on the supercapacitor cells fabricated using these electrodes shows that the addition of graphene additive (even in small amount) decreases the equivalent series resistance and enhances the specific power of the cells but significantly lowers the specific capacitance. The supercapacitor cell constructed with the electrode containing 4 wt % of graphene offers the maximum power (175 W kg-1) which corresponds to an improvement of 55%. These results demonstrate that the addition of graphene as conductive additive in activated carbon electrodes can enhance the specific power of the supercapacitor.

  11. Additivity property and emergence of power laws in nonequilibrium steady states.

    PubMed

    Das, Arghya; Chatterjee, Sayani; Pradhan, Punyabrata; Mohanty, P K

    2015-11-01

    We show that an equilibriumlike additivity property can remarkably lead to power-law distributions observed frequently in a wide class of out-of-equilibrium systems. The additivity property can determine the full scaling form of the distribution functions and the associated exponents. The asymptotic behavior of these distributions is solely governed by branch-cut singularity in the variance of subsystem mass. To substantiate these claims, we explicitly calculate, using the additivity property, subsystem mass distributions in a wide class of previously studied mass aggregation models as well as in their variants. These results could help in the thermodynamic characterization of nonequilibrium critical phenomena.

  12. Low-power-Consumption metal oxide NO2 gas sensor based on micro-heater and screen printing technology.

    PubMed

    Moon, S E; Lee, H K; Choi, N J; Lee, J; Yang, W S; Kim, J; Jong, J J; Yoo, D J

    2012-07-01

    An NO2 micro gas sensor was fabricated based on a micro-heater using tin oxide nano-powders for effective gas detection and monitoring system with low power consumption and high sensitivity. The processes of the fabrication were acceptable to the conventional CMOS processes for mass-production. Semiconducting SnO2 nano-powders were synthesized via the co-precipitation method; and to increase the sensitivity of the NO2 gas rare metal dopants were added. In the structure of the micro-heater, the resistances of two semi-circular Pt heaters were connected to the spreader for thermal uniformity. The resistance of each heater becomes an electrically equal Wheatstone-bridge, which was divided in half by the heat spreading structure. Based on the aforementioned design, a low-power-consumption micro-heater was fabricated using the CMOS-compatible MEMS processes. A bridge-type micro-heater based on the Si substrate was fabricated via surface micro-machining. The NO2 sensing properties of a screen-printed tin oxide thick film device were measured The micro gas sensors showed substantial sensitivity down to 0.5 ppm NO2 at a low power consumption (34.2 mW).

  13. Reduction in the Electric Power Consumption of a Thermoelectric Refrigerator by Experimental Optimization of the Temperature Controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, A.; Astrain, D.; Rodríguez, A.; Pérez, G.

    2013-07-01

    Most thermoelectric refrigerators used for food conservation are operated by on/off temperature controllers, because of their simplicity and low cost. This type of controller poses a major problem: when the inner temperature reaches the lower setpoint and the thermoelectric modules are switched off, a great amount of the heat stored in the heat exchanger at the hot end of the modules goes back into the refrigerator, by heat conduction through the modules and the heat extender. This effect significantly increases the electric power consumption of the refrigerator. This work studies experimentally the influence of different temperature control systems on the electric power consumption and coefficient of performance of a thermoelectric refrigerator: an on/off controller, a proportional-integral-derivative controller, and a novel operating system based on idling voltages. The latter provides voltage to the modules once the inner temperature reaches the lower setpoint, instead of switching them off, preventing heat from going back. A prototype has been constructed to compare these operating systems. Results prove that the controller based on idling voltages reduces the electric power consumption of the refrigerator by 32% and increases the coefficient of performance by 64%, compared with the on/off controller.

  14. Improving the predictive accuracy of hurricane power outage forecasts using generalized additive models.

    PubMed

    Han, Seung-Ryong; Guikema, Seth D; Quiring, Steven M

    2009-10-01

    Electric power is a critical infrastructure service after hurricanes, and rapid restoration of electric power is important in order to minimize losses in the impacted areas. However, rapid restoration of electric power after a hurricane depends on obtaining the necessary resources, primarily repair crews and materials, before the hurricane makes landfall and then appropriately deploying these resources as soon as possible after the hurricane. This, in turn, depends on having sound estimates of both the overall severity of the storm and the relative risk of power outages in different areas. Past studies have developed statistical, regression-based approaches for estimating the number of power outages in advance of an approaching hurricane. However, these approaches have either not been applicable for future events or have had lower predictive accuracy than desired. This article shows that a different type of regression model, a generalized additive model (GAM), can outperform the types of models used previously. This is done by developing and validating a GAM based on power outage data during past hurricanes in the Gulf Coast region and comparing the results from this model to the previously used generalized linear models.

  15. Computational fluid dynamics study on mixing mode and power consumption in anaerobic mono- and co-digestion.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuan; Yu, Guangren; Yu, Liang; Siddhu, Muhammad Abdul Hanan; Gao, Mengjiao; Abdeltawab, Ahmed A; Al-Deyab, Salem S; Chen, Xiaochun

    2016-03-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was applied to investigate mixing mode and power consumption in anaerobic mono- and co-digestion. Cattle manure (CM) and corn stover (CS) were used as feedstock and stirred tank reactor (STR) was used as digester. Power numbers obtained by the CFD simulation were compared with those from the experimental correlation. Results showed that the standard k-ε model was more appropriate than other turbulence models. A new index, net power production instead of gas production, was proposed to optimize feedstock ratio for anaerobic co-digestion. Results showed that flow field and power consumption were significantly changed in co-digestion of CM and CS compared with those in mono-digestion of either CM or CS. For different mixing modes, the optimum feedstock ratio for co-digestion changed with net power production. The best option of CM/CS ratio for continuous mixing, intermittent mixing I, and intermittent mixing II were 1:1, 1:1 and 1:3, respectively.

  16. Withdrawal and consumption of water by thermoelectric power plants in the United States, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diehl, Timothy H.; Harris, Melissa A.

    2014-01-01

    An analysis of 2005 and 2010 EIA-reported water use indicated that withdrawal and consumption declined 18 percent and 34 percent, respectively. Alternative water types (types other than freshwater) accounted for approximately 25 percent of all withdrawals in 2010, most of which occurred at plants with once-through cooling systems using saline and brackish tidal waters. Differences among withdrawal and consumption coefficients based on EIA-reported water use for 2005 and 2010 and heat-budget model results for 2010 reveal opportunities for improving consistency and accuracy of reporting of water-use information at the plant scale.

  17. Using architecture information and real-time resource state to reduce power consumption and communication costs in parallel applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, James M.; Devine, Karen Dragon; Gentile, Ann C.; Leung, Vitus Joseph; Olivier, Stephen Lecler; Pedretti, Kevin; Rajamanickam, Sivasankaran; Bunde, David P.; Deveci, Mehmet; Catalyurek, Umit V.

    2014-09-01

    As computer systems grow in both size and complexity, the need for applications and run-time systems to adjust to their dynamic environment also grows. The goal of the RAAMP LDRD was to combine static architecture information and real-time system state with algorithms to conserve power, reduce communication costs, and avoid network contention. We devel- oped new data collection and aggregation tools to extract static hardware information (e.g., node/core hierarchy, network routing) as well as real-time performance data (e.g., CPU uti- lization, power consumption, memory bandwidth saturation, percentage of used bandwidth, number of network stalls). We created application interfaces that allowed this data to be used easily by algorithms. Finally, we demonstrated the benefit of integrating system and application information for two use cases. The first used real-time power consumption and memory bandwidth saturation data to throttle concurrency to save power without increasing application execution time. The second used static or real-time network traffic information to reduce or avoid network congestion by remapping MPI tasks to allocated processors. Results from our work are summarized in this report; more details are available in our publications [2, 6, 14, 16, 22, 29, 38, 44, 51, 54].

  18. Power to the Plug: An Introduction to Energy, Electricity, Consumption and Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    DOE / EERE / NEED Project

    2011-06-07

    The NEED Project and the U.S. Department of Energy have collaborated to bring you this educational four-page guide to energy, electricity, consumption and efficiency. It includes, on the last page, a home energy survey to help you analyze your home energy use.

  19. High Operating Temperature and Low Power Consumption Boron Nitride Nanosheets Based Broadband UV Photodetector.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Manuel; Velázquez, Rafael; Aldalbahi, Ali; Zhou, Andrew F; Feng, Peter

    2017-03-03

    We extend our work on the use of digitally controlled pulsed laser plasma deposition (PLPD) technique to synthesize high quality, 2-dimensional single crystalline boron nitride nanosheets (BNNSs) at a low substrate temperature for applications in high-performance deep UV photodetectors. The obtained sample consists of a large amount of BNNSs partially overlapping one another with random orientations. Each sheet is composed of a few (from 2 to 10) stacked atomic layers exhibiting high transparency due to its highly ordered hBN crystallinity. Deep UV detectors based on the obtained BNNSs were designed, fabricated, and tested. The bias and temperature effects on the photocurrent strength and the signal-to-noise ratio have been carefully characterized and discussed. A significant shift in the cut off wavelength of the BNNSs based photodetectors was observed suggesting a band gap reduction as a result of the BNNSs' collective structure. The newly designed photodetector presented exceptional properties: a high sensitivity to weak intensities of radiation in both UVC and UVB range while remaining visible-blind, and a high signal-to-noise ratio operation even at temperatures as high as 400 °C. In addition, the BNNSs based photodetector exhibited potential for self-powered operation.

  20. High Operating Temperature and Low Power Consumption Boron Nitride Nanosheets Based Broadband UV Photodetector

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, Manuel; Velázquez, Rafael; Aldalbahi, Ali; Zhou, Andrew F.; Feng, Peter

    2017-01-01

    We extend our work on the use of digitally controlled pulsed laser plasma deposition (PLPD) technique to synthesize high quality, 2-dimensional single crystalline boron nitride nanosheets (BNNSs) at a low substrate temperature for applications in high-performance deep UV photodetectors. The obtained sample consists of a large amount of BNNSs partially overlapping one another with random orientations. Each sheet is composed of a few (from 2 to 10) stacked atomic layers exhibiting high transparency due to its highly ordered hBN crystallinity. Deep UV detectors based on the obtained BNNSs were designed, fabricated, and tested. The bias and temperature effects on the photocurrent strength and the signal-to-noise ratio have been carefully characterized and discussed. A significant shift in the cut off wavelength of the BNNSs based photodetectors was observed suggesting a band gap reduction as a result of the BNNSs’ collective structure. The newly designed photodetector presented exceptional properties: a high sensitivity to weak intensities of radiation in both UVC and UVB range while remaining visible-blind, and a high signal-to-noise ratio operation even at temperatures as high as 400 °C. In addition, the BNNSs based photodetector exhibited potential for self-powered operation. PMID:28256507

  1. High Operating Temperature and Low Power Consumption Boron Nitride Nanosheets Based Broadband UV Photodetector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, Manuel; Velázquez, Rafael; Aldalbahi, Ali; Zhou, Andrew F.; Feng, Peter

    2017-03-01

    We extend our work on the use of digitally controlled pulsed laser plasma deposition (PLPD) technique to synthesize high quality, 2-dimensional single crystalline boron nitride nanosheets (BNNSs) at a low substrate temperature for applications in high-performance deep UV photodetectors. The obtained sample consists of a large amount of BNNSs partially overlapping one another with random orientations. Each sheet is composed of a few (from 2 to 10) stacked atomic layers exhibiting high transparency due to its highly ordered hBN crystallinity. Deep UV detectors based on the obtained BNNSs were designed, fabricated, and tested. The bias and temperature effects on the photocurrent strength and the signal-to-noise ratio have been carefully characterized and discussed. A significant shift in the cut off wavelength of the BNNSs based photodetectors was observed suggesting a band gap reduction as a result of the BNNSs’ collective structure. The newly designed photodetector presented exceptional properties: a high sensitivity to weak intensities of radiation in both UVC and UVB range while remaining visible-blind, and a high signal-to-noise ratio operation even at temperatures as high as 400 °C. In addition, the BNNSs based photodetector exhibited potential for self-powered operation.

  2. A High Dynamic Range and Low Power Consumption Audio Delta-Sigma Modulator with Opamp Sharing Technique among Three Integrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanemoto, Daisuke; Ido, Toru; Taniguchi, Kenji

    A low power and high performance with third order delta-sigma modulator for audio applications, fabricated in a 0.18µm CMOS process, is presented. The modulator utilizes a third order noise shaping with only one opamp by using an opamp sharing technique. The opamp sharing among three integrator stages is achieved through the optimal operation timing, which makes use of the load capacitance differences between the three integrator stages. The designed modulator achieves 101.1dB signal-to-noise ratio (A-weighted) and 101.5dB dynamic range (A-weighted) with 7.5mW power consumption from a 3.3V supply. The die area is 1.27mm2. The fabricated delta-sigma modulator achieves the highest figure-of-merit among published high performance low power audio delta-sigma modulators.

  3. Mitigating an increase of specific power consumption in a cryogenic air separation unit at reduced oxygen production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singla, Rohit; Chowdhury, Kanchan

    2017-02-01

    Specific power consumed in a Linde double column air separation unit (ASU) increases as the quantity of oxygen produced at a given purity is decreased due to the changes of system requirement or market demand. As the plant operates in part load condition, the specific power consumption (SPC) increases as the total power consumption remains the same. In order to mitigate the increase of SPC at lower oxygen production, the operating pressure of high pressure column (HPC) can be lowered by extending the low pressure column (LPC) by a few trays and adding a second reboiler. As the duty of second reboiler in LPC is increased, the recovery of oxygen decreases with a lowering of the HPC pressure. This results in mitigation of the increase of SPC of the plant. A Medium pressure ASU with dual reboiler that produces pressurised gaseous and liquid products of oxygen and nitrogen is simulated in Aspen Hysys 8.6®, a commercial process simulator to determine SPC at varying oxygen production. The effects of reduced pressure of air feed into the cold box on the size of heat exchangers (HX) are analysed. Operation strategy to obtain various oxygen production rates at varying demand is also proposed.

  4. A fast, ultra-low and frequency-scalable power consumption, 10-bit SAR ADC for particle physics detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firlej, M.; Fiutowski, T.; Idzik, M.; Kulis, S.; Moron, J.; Swientek, K.

    2015-11-01

    The design and measurements results of a fast 10-bit SAR ADC with ultra-low and scalable with frequency power consumption, developed for readout systems for detectors at future particle physics colliders (ILC, CLIC, LHC Upgrade), are described. A prototype ASIC was designed and fabricated in 130 nm CMOS technology and a wide spectrum of static (INLlesssim0.5 LSB, DNLlesssim0.5 LSB) and dynamic (SINAD ~58 dB, ENOB~9.3) measurements was performed to study and quantify the ADC performance. The ADC works in wide 10 kS/s - 40 MS/s sampling frequency range, covering more than three orders of magnitude. In most of the range the power consumption scales linearly with sampling rate with a factor of about 22 μW/MS/s. A dynamic and asynchronous internal logic makes the ADC very well suited not only for commonly used synchronous sampling but also for applications with asynchronous sampling and/or the ones requiring power cycling, like the experiments at future linear collider (ILC/CLIC). The ADC layout is drawn with a small pitch of 146 μm to facilitate multi-channel integration. The obtained figure of Merit is in range 32-37 fJ/conversion for sampling frequencies 10-40 MS/s, placing the ADC among the best State of the Art designs with similar technology and specifications.

  5. Optimal Topology Control and Power Allocation for Minimum Energy Consumption in Consensus Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-16

    network topology can be modeled as a random graph model. It can be shown [22], [23] that the system in (3) converges to consensus almost surely, i.e...Terms— Consensus algorithms, minimum energy con- sumption, random graphs, sensor networks, topology control. I. INTRODUCTION A VERAGE consensus ...network context, it is necessary to minimize the en- ergy consumption necessary to reach consensus . Clearly, the network topology plays a fundamental role

  6. The pulling power of chocolate: Effects of approach-avoidance training on approach bias and consumption.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Hugh; Kavanagh, David J; MacLeod, Colin

    2016-04-01

    Previous research has shown that action tendencies to approach alcohol may be modified using computerized Approach-Avoidance Task (AAT), and that this impacted on subsequent consumption. A recent paper in this journal (Becker, Jostman, Wiers, & Holland, 2015) failed to show significant training effects for food in three studies: Nor did it find effects on subsequent consumption. However, avoidance training to high calorie foods was tested against a control rather than Approach training. The present study used a more comparable paradigm to the alcohol studies. It randomly assigned 90 participants to 'approach' or 'avoid' chocolate images on the AAT, and then asked them to taste and rate chocolates. A significant interaction of condition and time showed that training to avoid chocolate resulted in faster avoidance responses to chocolate images, compared with training to approach it. Consistent with Becker et al.'s Study 3, no effect was found on amounts of chocolate consumed, although a newly published study in this journal (Schumacher, Kemps, & Tiggemann, 2016) did do so. The collective evidence does not as yet provide solid basis for the application of AAT training to reduction of problematic food consumption, although clinical trials have yet to be conducted.

  7. A Thirst for Power: Measuring the Water Consumption of National Energy Production Portfolios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spang, E.

    2011-12-01

    Discussion of the environmental implications of worldwide energy demand is currently dominated by the effects of CO2 emissions on our global climate. However, at the regional scale, the water resource requirements associated with energy systems are a growing concern. While much of the research in this area (commonly referred to as the "water-energy nexus") has focused on estimating the water consumption of discrete energy technologies, this research synthesizes and expands the existing work in the field to explore the comprehensive water consumption of national level energy portfolios. Understanding the system-wide coupled demand for these resources is crucial for regional governments seeking to improve and protect both water and energy security. To provide a new perspective on the topic, I defined a set of water intensity metrics for national energy production, calculated indicator values for over 150 countries, and digitally mapped the results to create the first global representation of the geographic distribution of water-intensive energy systems. The results demonstrate a high level of variation in the composition and quantities of water consumption across nations as well as across the suite of indicators that were applied. This suggests that meaningful evaluation of water-energy systems fundamentally requires the consideration of spatial and regional characteristics, as well as the application of multiple indicators to define the intensity of the coupled relationship.

  8. Tool for a configurable integrated circuit that uses determination of dynamic power consumption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    French, Matthew C. (Inventor); Wang, Li (Inventor); Agarwal, Deepak (Inventor); Davoodi, Azadeh (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A configurable logic tool that allows minimization of dynamic power within an FPGA design without changing user-entered specifications. The minimization of power may use minimized clock nets as a first order operation, and a second order operation that minimizes other factors, such as area of placement, area of clocks and/or slack.

  9. Reducing theatre energy consumption.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Tom; Morris, Gemma; Parker, Beena

    2014-03-01

    As little has been written to describe the electrical energy required to deliver anaesthesia, we undertook to measure the total electrical energy consumption for a day's clinical anaesthesia. Daily energy consumption related to anaesthesia was measured with commercially available 'plug-in' power and energy meters, and additional in-use energy estimates were based on direct observation made in theatre and from measuring the power consumption of anaesthetic gas scavenging system (AGSS) pumps. Total energy use for anaesthesia per day was 28 kWh, and cost the modest sum of around pound 2.24 per day. Disproportionately large amounts of energy were required to run the anaesthetic gas scavenging pumps and the overhead radiant heaters. Energy saving can be safely obtained by switching off AGSS out of hours, and placing radiant heaters on timing or thermostatic controls.

  10. Bragg's rule of stopping power additivity: a compilation and summary of results

    SciTech Connect

    Thwaites, D.I.

    1983-09-01

    Stopping power additivity, as expressed by Bragg's rule, is an important concept in many practical situations involving charged particles. Its validity has been investigated in a large number of studies and the wide range of data is confusing and at times conflicting. No previous comprehensive survey of the data has been undertaken. Thus a compilation is attempted here of a hundred or so papers which have included tests of Bragg's rule. Their main results are indicated and a summary is given of the effects of chemical binding and phase on the stopping power of heavy charged particles. Such effects are confirmed on the evidence available. Chemical binding effects become more significant for materials containing low-Z constituents and as energy falls into and through the transition region. Deviations of up to 50% have been observed in atomic stopping cross sections extracted from measurements on hydrocarbons. There is still some conflicting evidence appearing on phase effects. However, in general a broad consensus is emerging indicating significant differences in H/sub 2/O and organic and similar materials. Stopping cross sections in the vapor phase are greater by up to approx. 5 or 10% at energies around those of the stopping power maximum for protons and He ions. The effects decrease as energy increases.

  11. Thermoelectric Power Generation from Lanthanum Strontium Titanium Oxide at Room Temperature through the Addition of Graphene.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yue; Norman, Colin; Srivastava, Deepanshu; Azough, Feridoon; Wang, Li; Robbins, Mark; Simpson, Kevin; Freer, Robert; Kinloch, Ian A

    2015-07-29

    The applications of strontium titanium oxide based thermoelectric materials are currently limited by their high operating temperatures of >700 °C. Herein, we show that the thermal operating window of lanthanum strontium titanium oxide (LSTO) can be reduced to room temperature by the addition of a small amount of graphene. This increase in operating performance will enable future applications such as generators in vehicles and other sectors. The LSTO composites incorporated one percent or less of graphene and were sintered under an argon/hydrogen atmosphere. The resultant materials were reduced and possessed a multiphase structure with nanosized grains. The thermal conductivity of the nanocomposites decreased upon the addition of graphene, whereas the electrical conductivity and power factor both increased significantly. These factors, together with a moderate Seebeck coefficient, meant that a high power factor of ∼2500 μWm(-1)K(-2) was reached at room temperature at a loading of 0.6 wt % graphene. The highest thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) was achieved when 0.6 wt % graphene was added (ZT = 0.42 at room temperature and 0.36 at 750 °C), with >280% enhancement compared to that of pure LSTO. A preliminary 7-couple device was produced using bismuth strontium cobalt oxide/graphene-LSTO pucks. This device had a Seebeck coefficient of ∼1500 μV/K and an open voltage of 600 mV at a mean temperature of 219 °C.

  12. Compact CH4 sensor system based on a continuous-wave, low power consumption, room temperature interband cascade laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Lei; Li, Chunguang; Sanchez, Nancy P.; Gluszek, Aleksander K.; Griffin, Robert J.; Tittel, Frank K.

    2016-01-01

    A tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy-based methane sensor, employing a dense-pattern multi-pass gas cell and a 3.3 μm, CW, DFB, room temperature interband cascade laser (ICL), is reported. The optical integration based on an advanced folded optical path design and an efficient ICL control system with appropriate electrical power management resulted in a CH4 sensor with a small footprint (32 × 20 × 17 cm3) and low-power consumption (6 W). Polynomial and least-squares fit algorithms are employed to remove the baseline of the spectral scan and retrieve CH4 concentrations, respectively. An Allan-Werle deviation analysis shows that the measurement precision can reach 1.4 ppb for a 60 s averaging time. Continuous measurements covering a seven-day period were performed to demonstrate the stability and robustness of the reported CH4 sensor system.

  13. Regrowth-free single-mode quantum cascade lasers with power consumption below 1 W

    SciTech Connect

    Briggs, Ryan M. Frez, Clifford; Borgentun, Carl E.; Forouhar, Siamak

    2014-10-06

    We report on single-mode distributed-feedback quantum cascade lasers emitting at 4.8 μm with continuous-wave threshold power consumption as low as 0.76 W at 20 °C and 0.98 W at 50 °C. Following growth of the laser active region and semiconductor cladding layers by a single molecular beam epitaxy process, devices with 4-μm-wide ridges and vertical sidewall gratings were fabricated using plasma etching and standard dielectric and metal deposition processes. In terms of mode stability, output power, and efficiency, we show that lasers with 1-mm cavity length and high-reflectivity back-facet coatings can match the performance of buried heterostructure devices, but with the advantage of requiring only a single epitaxial growth step.

  14. Highly-Ordered 3D Vertical Resistive Switching Memory Arrays with Ultralow Power Consumption and Ultrahigh Density.

    PubMed

    Al-Haddad, Ahmed; Wang, Chengliang; Qi, Haoyuan; Grote, Fabian; Wen, Liaoyong; Bernhard, Jörg; Vellacheri, Ranjith; Tarish, Samar; Nabi, Ghulam; Kaiser, Ute; Lei, Yong

    2016-09-07

    Resistive switching random access memories (RRAM) have attracted great scientific and industrial attention for next generation data storage because of their advantages of nonvolatile properties, high density, low power consumption, fast writing/erasing speed, good endurance, and simple and small operation system. Here, by using a template-assisted technique, we demonstrate a three-dimensional highly ordered vertical RRAM device array with density as high as that of the nanopores of the template (10(8)-10(9) cm(-2)), which can also be fabricated in large area. The high crystallinity of the materials, the large contact area and the intimate semiconductor/electrode interface (3 nm interfacial layer) make the ultralow voltage operation (millivolt magnitude) and ultralow power consumption (picowatt) possible. Our procedure for fabrication of the nanodevice arrays in large area can be used for producing many other different materials and such three-dimensional electronic device arrays with the capability to adjust the device densities can be extended to other applications of the next generation nanodevice technology.

  15. Methodologies for assessing the use-phase power consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of telecommunications network services.

    PubMed

    Chan, Chien A; Gygax, André F; Wong, Elaine; Leckie, Christopher A; Nirmalathas, Ampalavanapillai; Kilper, Daniel C

    2013-01-02

    Internet traffic has grown rapidly in recent years and is expected to continue to expand significantly over the next decade. Consequently, the resulting greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of telecommunications service-supporting infrastructures have become an important issue. In this study, we develop a set of models for assessing the use-phase power consumption and carbon dioxide emissions of telecom network services to help telecom providers gain a better understanding of the GHG emissions associated with the energy required for their networks and services. Due to the fact that measuring the power consumption and traffic in a telecom network is a challenging task, these models utilize different granularities of available network information. As the granularity of the network measurement information decreases, the corresponding models have the potential to produce larger estimation errors. Therefore, we examine the accuracy of these models under various network scenarios using two approaches: (i) a sensitivity analysis through simulations and (ii) a case study of a deployed network. Both approaches show that the accuracy of the models depends on the network size, the total amount of network service traffic (i.e., for the service under assessment), and the number of network nodes used to process the service.

  16. Exposure assessment of PCDD/Fs for the population living in the vicinity of municipal waste incinerator: Additional exposure via local vegetable consumption.

    PubMed

    Ben, Yujie; Li, Tong; Wan, Yi; Dong, Zhaomin; Hu, Jianying

    2017-05-01

    While the exposure assessment of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDD/Fs) for people living in the vicinity of municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWI) has been investigated, indirect exposure to MSWI-emitted PCDD/Fs via consumption of local foods has not been well assessed. In this study, the PCDD/F concentration in the local vegetables grown near a MSWI located in Shenzhen, South China, was determined to be 0.92 ± 0.59 pg/g wet weight (ww), significantly higher than that (0.25 ± 0.35 pg/g ww) in commercial vegetables (p < 0.05). The PCDD/F concentrations in Banyan leaf (Ficus microcarpa) samples collected from 5 sampling sites at 1 km intervals from the MSWI were found to be significantly decreased with increasing distance, suggesting that the local plants would be impacted by emissions from the MSWI. The exposure assessment of PCDD/Fs for the population living in the vicinity of MSWI was carried out by simultaneously analyzing PCDD/Fs in other food groups that were commonly consumed by the residents. If only the local vegetables were consumed and other foods were acquired commercially, the total dietary intake for a general adult was 0.94 ± 0.41 pg TEQ/kg bw/day, of which consumption of local vegetables accounted for 52.3%. If all foods consumed including vegetables were from a commercial source, the total dietary intake was 0.56 ± 0.30 pg TEQ/kg bw/day, of which consumption of commercial vegetables accounted for 20.1%. The present study for the first time reported the additional human exposure to PCDD/Fs via consumption of local vegetables impacted by emissions from MSWI.

  17. Complex additive systems for Mn-Zn ferrites with low power loss

    SciTech Connect

    Töpfer, J. Angermann, A.

    2015-05-07

    Mn-Zn ferrites were prepared via an oxalate-based wet-chemical synthesis process. Nanocrystalline ferrite powders with particle size of 50 nm were sintered at 1150 °C with 500 ppm CaO and 100 ppm SiO{sub 2} as standard additives. A fine-grained, dense microstructure with grain size of 4–5 μm was obtained. Simultaneous addition of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}, ZrO{sub 2}, V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, and SnO{sub 2} results low power losses, e.g., 65 mW/cm{sup 3} (500 kHz, 50 mT, 80 °C) and 55 mW/cm{sup 3} (1 MHz, 25 mT, 80 °C). Loss analysis shows that eddy current and residual losses were minimized through formation of insulating grain boundary phases, which is confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. Addition of SnO{sub 2} increases the ferrous ion concentration and affects anisotropy as reflected in permeability measurements μ(T)

  18. Tobacco talk: reflections on corporate power and the legal framing of consumption.

    PubMed

    Benson, Peter

    2010-12-01

    This article examines how North Carolina tobacco farmers think about the moral ambiguities of tobacco business. Drawing on ethnographic research with tobacco farmers and archival research on the tobacco industry, I specify the core psychological defense mechanisms that tobacco companies have crafted for people associated with the industry. I also document local social, cultural, and economic factors in rural North Carolina that underpin ongoing rural dependence on tobacco despite the negativity that surrounds tobacco and structural adjustments. This article contributes to our knowledge about tobacco farmers and tobacco farming communities, which is important for tobacco-control strategies. I reflect on ethical and economic paradoxes related to the rise of corporate social responsibility in the tobacco industry, where an official legal framing of consumption, focused on informed adult consumer autonomy and health education, is promoted to undermine more robust public health prevention efforts.

  19. Estimation of daily aluminum intake in Japan based on food consumption inspection results: impact of food additives

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Kyoko; Suzuki, Ippei; Kubota, Hiroki; Furusho, Noriko; Inoue, Tomoyuki; Yasukouchi, Yoshikazu; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Dietary aluminum (Al) intake by young children, children, youths, and adults in Japan was estimated using the market basket method. The Al content of food category (I–VII) samples for each age group was determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The Al content in processed foods and unprocessed foods ranged from 0.40 to 21.7 mg/kg and from 0.32 to 0.54 mg/kg, respectively. For processed foods in all age groups, the Al content in food category VI samples, sugar and confections/savories, was the highest, followed by those in category II, cereals. The daily dietary Al intake from processed foods was much larger than that from unprocessed foods. The mean weekly percentages of the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI, established by the joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives in 2011) from processed foods for all age groups are 43.1, 22.4, 17.6 and 15.1%, respectively. Only the highest consumer Al exposure value (>P95) of the young children group exceeded the PTWI. PMID:25473496

  20. Power conversion efficiency enhancement in OPV devices using spin 1/2 molecular additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basel, Tek; Vardeny, Valy; Yu, Luping

    2014-03-01

    We investigated the power conversion efficiency of bulk heterojunction OPV cells based on the low bandgap polymer PTB7, blend with C61-PCBM. We also employed the technique of photo-induced absorption, PA; electrical and magneto-PA (MPA) techniques to understand the details of the photocurrent generation process in this blend. We found that spin 1/2 molecular additives, such as Galvinoxyl (Gxl) radicals dramatically enhance the cell efficiency; we obtained 20% increase in photocurrent upon Gxl doping with 2% weight. We explain our finding by the ability of the spin 1/2 radicals to interfere with the known major loss mechanism in the cell due to recombination of charge transfer exciton at the D-A interface via triplet excitons in the polymer donors. Supported by National Science Foundation-Material Science & Engineering Center (NSF-MRSEC), University of Utah.

  1. Increasing addition of autochthonous to allochthonous carbon in nutrient-rich aquatic systems stimulates carbon consumption but does not alter bacterial community composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attermeyer, K.; Hornick, T.; Kayler, Z. E.; Bahr, A.; Zwirnmann, E.; Grossart, H.-P.; Premke, K.

    2013-08-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations - mainly of terrestrial origin - are increasing worldwide in inland waters. The biodegradability of the DOC varies depending on quantity and chemical quality. Heterotrophic bacteria are the main consumers of DOC and thus determine DOC temporal dynamics and availability for higher trophic levels. It is therefore crucial to understand the processes controlling the bacterial turnover of additional allochthonous and autochthonous DOC in aquatic systems. Our aim was to study bacterial carbon (C) turnover with respect to DOC quantity and chemical quality using both allochthonous and autochthonous DOC sources. We incubated a natural bacterial community with allochthonous C (13C-labeled beech leachate) and increased concentrations and pulses (intermittent occurrence of organic matter input) of autochthonous C (algae lysate). We then determined bacterial carbon consumption, activities, and community composition together with the carbon flow through bacteria using stable C isotopes. The chemical analysis of single sources revealed differences in aromaticity and fractions of low and high molecular weight substances (LMWS and HMWS, respectively) between allochthonous and autochthonous C sources. In parallel to these differences in chemical composition, we observed a higher availability of allochthonous C as evidenced by increased DOC consumption and bacterial growth efficiencies (BGE) when solely allochthonous C was provided. In treatments with mixed sources, rising concentrations of added autochthonous DOC resulted in a further, significant increase in bacterial DOC consumption from 52 to 68% when nutrients were not limiting. This rise was accompanied by a decrease in the humic substances (HS) fraction and an increase in bacterial biomass. Stable C isotope analyses of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) and respired dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) supported a preferential assimilation of autochthonous C and respiration of the

  2. Fast response and low power consumption 1×2 thermo-optic switch based on dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Zhipeng; Hu, Guohua; Yun, Binfeng; Zhang, Xiong; Cui, Yiping

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we present a 1 × 2 thermo-optic (TO) switch based on the integration of the dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton (SPP) waveguides with the silicon nanowires. Liquid-curable fluorinated resin (LFR) made of perfluorinated polymer was adopted as the ridge, which has a TO coefficient twice more than that of polymethyl methacrylate, leading to a significant decrease in the power consumption. It was shown that the response time of the dielectric-loaded SPP waveguide could be improved through optimizing the dimensions of the LFR polymer ridge without loss of relative high figure of merit and large confinement factor. Performance characteristics of such a 1 × 2 TO switch operating at a telecom wavelength of 1550 nm was investigated theoretically from the analysis of both heat and optical fields. The results reveal that a switching power as low as 7 mW and an extremely short switching time (with rise time of 3 μs and fall time of 6.7 μs) could be achieved with the proposed dielectric-loaded SPP-based 1 × 2 TO switch. In addition, the crosstalk could be enhanced to at least 40 dB with the applied power of 7 mW at the wavelength of 1550 nm, and it could be retained to be above 20 dB in the wavelength spectrum of 1500-1600 nm during the on/off state.

  3. Low Power Consumption Lasers for Miniature Optical Spectrometers for Trace Gas Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forouhar, S.; Frez, C.; Franz, K. J.; Ksendzov, A.; Qiu, Y.; Soibel, K. A.; Chen, J.; Hosoda, T.; Kipshidze, G.; Shterengas, L.; Belenky, G.

    2011-01-01

    The air quality of any manned spacecraft needs to be continuously monitored in order to safeguard the health of the crew. Air quality monitoring grows in importance as mission duration increases. Due to the small size, low power draw, and performance reliability, semiconductor laser-based instruments are viable candidates for this purpose. Achieving a minimum instrument size requires lasers with emission wavelength coinciding with the absorption of the fundamental absorption lines of the target gases, which are mostly in the 3.0-5.0 micron wavelength range. In this paper we report on our progress developing high wall plug efficiency type-I quantum-well GaSb-based diode lasers operating at room temperatures in the spectral region near 3.0-3.5 micron and quantum cascade (QC) lasers in the 4.0-5.0 micron range. These lasers will enable the development of miniature, low-power laser spectrometers for environmental monitoring of the spacecraft.

  4. Wing-wake interaction reduces power consumption in insect tandem wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, Fritz-Olaf

    2009-05-01

    Insects are capable of a remarkable diversity of flight techniques. Dragonflies, in particular, are notable for their powerful aerial manoeuvres and endurance during prey catching or territory flights. While most insects such as flies, bees and wasps either reduced their hinds wings or mechanically coupled fore and hind wings, dragonflies have maintained two independent-controlled pairs of wings throughout their evolution. An extraordinary feature of dragonfly wing kinematics is wing phasing, the shift in flapping phase between the fore and hind wing periods. Wing phasing has previously been associated with an increase in thrust production, readiness for manoeuvrability and hunting performance. Recent studies have shown that wing phasing in tandem wings produces a twofold modulation in hind wing lift, but slightly reduces the maximum combined lift of fore and hind wings, compared to two wings flapping in isolation. Despite this disadvantage, however, wing phasing is effective in improving aerodynamic efficiency during flight by the removal of kinetic energy from the wake. Computational analyses demonstrate that this increase in flight efficiency may save up to 22% aerodynamic power expenditure compared to insects flapping only two wings. In terms of engineering, energetic benefits in four-wing flapping are of substantial interest in the field of biomimetic aircraft design, because the performance of man-made air vehicles is often limited by high-power expenditure rather than by lift production. This manuscript provides a summary on power expenditures and aerodynamic efficiency in flapping tandem wings by investigating wing phasing in a dynamically scaled robotic model of a hovering dragonfly.

  5. Wing-wake interaction reduces power consumption in insect tandem wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, Fritz-Olaf

    Insects are capable of a remarkable diversity of flight techniques. Dragonflies, in particular, are notable for their powerful aerial manoeuvres and endurance during prey catching or territory flights. While most insects such as flies, bees and wasps either reduced their hinds wings or mechanically coupled fore and hind wings, dragonflies have maintained two independent-controlled pairs of wings throughout their evolution. An extraordinary feature of dragonfly wing kinematics is wing phasing, the shift in flapping phase between the fore and hind wing periods. Wing phasing has previously been associated with an increase in thrust production, readiness for manoeuvrability and hunting performance. Recent studies have shown that wing phasing in tandem wings produces a twofold modulation in hind wing lift, but slightly reduces the maximum combined lift of fore and hind wings, compared to two wings flapping in isolation. Despite this disadvantage, however, wing phasing is effective in improving aerodynamic efficiency during flight by the removal of kinetic energy from the wake. Computational analyses demonstrate that this increase in flight efficiency may save up to 22% aerodynamic power expenditure compared to insects flapping only two wings. In terms of engineering, energetic benefits in four-wing flapping are of substantial interest in the field of biomimetic aircraft design, because the performance of man-made air vehicles is often limited by high-power expenditure rather than by lift production. This manuscript provides a summary on power expenditures and aerodynamic efficiency in flapping tandem wings by investigating wing phasing in a dynamically scaled robotic model of a hovering dragonfly.

  6. Measurement of Fine Particles From Mobile and Stationary Sources, and Reducing the Air Conditioner Power Consumption in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, Eli Henry

    We study the PM2.5and ultrafine exhaust emissions from a new natural gas-fired turbine power facility to better understand air pollution in California. To characterize the emissions from new natural gas turbines, a series of tests were performed on a GE LMS100 gas turbine. These tests included PM2.5 and wet chemical tests for SO2/SO 3 and NH3, as well as ultrafine (less than 100 nm in diameter) particulate matter measurements. The turbine exhaust had an average particle number concentration that was 2.3x103 times higher than ambient air. The majority of these particles were nanoparticles; at the 100 nm size, stack particle concentrations were about 20 times higher than ambient, and increased to 3.9x104 times higher on average in the 2.5 - 3 nm particle size range. This study also found that ammonia emissions were higher than expected, but in compliance with permit conditions. This was possibly due to an ammonia imbalance entering the catalyst, some flue gas bypassing the catalyst, or not enough catalyst volume. SO3 accounted for an average of 23% of the total sulfur oxides emissions measured. Some of the SO3 is formed in the combustion process, it is likely that the majority formed as the SO2 in the combustion products passed across the oxidizing CO catalyst and SCR catalyst. The 100 MW turbine sampled in this study emitted particle loadings similar to those previously measured from turbines in the SCAQMD area, however, the turbine exhaust contained far more particles than ambient air. The power consumed by an air conditioner accounts for a significant fraction of the total power used by hybrid and electric vehicles especially during summer. This study examined the effect of recirculation of cabin air on power consumption of mobile air conditioners both in-lab and on-road. Real time power consumption and vehicle mileage were recorded by an On Board Diagnostic monitor and carbon balance method. Vehicle mileage improved with increased cabin air recirculation. The

  7. Low power consumption and continuously tunable all-optical microwave filter based on an opto-mechanical microring resonator.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Yang, Yue; Li, Zhihua; Jin, Xing; Mo, Wenqin; Liu, Xing

    2017-01-23

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a continuously tunable all-optical microwave filter using a silicon opto-mechanical microring resonator (MRR). By finely adjusting the pump light with submilliwatt power level, transmission spectrum of the MRR could be continuously shifted based on the nonlinear effects, including the opto-mechanical effect and thermo-optic effect. Therefore, in the case of optical single sideband (OSSB) modulation, the frequency intervals between the optical carrier (near one MRR resonance) and the corresponding resonance could be flexibly manipulated, which is the critical factor to achieve continuously tunable microwave photonic filter (MPF). In the experiment, the central frequency of the MPF could be continuously tuned from 6 GHz to 19 GHz with the pump power lower than -2.5 dBm. The proposed opto-mechanical device is competent to process microwave signals with dominant advantages, such as compact footprint, all-optical control and low power consumption. In the future, using light to control light, the opto-mechanical structure on silicon platforms might have many other potential applications in microwave systems, such as microwave switch.

  8. Power consumption, discharge capacitance and light emission as measures for thrust production of dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators

    SciTech Connect

    Kriegseis, J.; Grundmann, S.; Tropea, C.

    2011-07-01

    A new procedure of determining the time resolved capacitance of a plasma actuator during operation is introduced, representing a simple diagnostic tool that provides insight into the phenomenological behavior of plasma actuators. The procedure is demonstrated by presenting example correlations between consumed electrical energy, size of the plasma region, and the operating voltage. It is shown that the capacitance of a plasma actuator is considerably increased by the presence of the plasma; hence a system that has previously been impedance matched can be considerably de-tuned when varying the operating voltage of the actuator. Such information is fundamental for any attempts to increase the energy efficiency of plasma-actuator systems. A combined analysis of the capacitance, light emission, size of the plasma region, force production, and power consumption is presented.

  9. Compact, lower-power-consumption wavelength tunable laser fabricated with silicon photonic-wire waveguide micro-ring resonators.

    PubMed

    Chu, Tao; Fujioka, Nobuhide; Ishizaka, Masashige

    2009-08-03

    A wavelength tunable laser with an SOA and external double micro-ring resonator, which is fabricated with silicon photonic-wire waveguides, is demonstrated. To date, it is the first wavelength tunable laser fabricated with silicon photonic technology. The device is ultra compact, and its external resonator footprint is 700 x 450 microm, which is about 1/25 that of conventional tunable lasers fabricated with SiON waveguides. The silicon resonator shows a wide tuning range covering the C or L bands for DWDM optical communication. We obtained a maximum tuning span of 38 nm at a tuning power consumption of 26 mW, which is about 1/8 that of SiON-type resonators.

  10. Monitoring of a micro-smart grid: Power consumption data of some machineries of an agro-industrial test site.

    PubMed

    Fabrizio, Enrico; Biglia, Alessandro; Branciforti, Valeria; Filippi, Marco; Barbero, Silvia; Tecco, Giuseppe; Mollo, Paolo; Molino, Andrea

    2017-02-01

    For the management of a (micro)-smart grid it is important to know the patters of the load profiles and of the generators. In this article the power consumption data obtained through a monitoring activity developed on a micro-smart grid in an agro-industrial test-site are presented. In particular, this reports the synthesis of the monitoring results of 5 loads (5 industrial machineries for crop micronization, corncob crashing and other similar processes). How these data were used within a monitoring and managing scheme of a micro-smart grid can be found in (E. Fabrizio, V. Branciforti, A. Costantino, M. Filippi, S. Barbero, G. Tecco, P. Mollo, A. Molino, 2017) [1]. The data can be useful for other researchers in order to create benchmarks of energy use input appropriate energy demand values in optimization tools for the industrial sector.

  11. Undulatory Swimming in Shear-Thinning Fluids: Flow Fields & Power Consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagnon, David; Montenegro-Johnson, Thomas; Lauga, Eric; Arratia, Paulo

    2016-11-01

    In this talk, we investigate the flow and dynamics of the undulatory swimmer Caenorhabditis elegans in shear-thinning fluids. Recent theoretical and numerical studies have shown that the cost of swimming, or mechanical power, for a 2D waving sheet is reduced in shear-thinning fluids. Here, we use velocimetry and tracking techniques to experimentally investigate this hypothesis using two methods: (i) an estimate of the mechanical power of the swimmer and (ii) the viscous dissipation rate of the flow field. We find the cost of swimming for C. elegans in shear-thinning fluids is reduced when compared to the cost of swimming in Newtonian fluids, scales with a fluid's effective viscosity, and can be predicted using fluid rheology and simple swimming kinematics. These results, however, have a caveat: only a planar (2D) slice of the 3D flow field around swimmer is accessible for analysis. In order to better interpret our flow measurements, we compare our planar velocimetry to a full 3D boundary element method simulation. We find that nearly all deviations between experiments and simulations can be accounted for by a simple correction factor involving the out-of-plane velocity gradient, which can be computed directly from planar experimental data using incompressibility.

  12. Low Power Consumption Laser for Next Generation Miniature Optical Spectrometers for Trace Gas Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forouhar, S.; Frez, C.; Franz, K. J.; Ksendzov, A.; Qiu, Y.; Soibel, K. A.; Chen, J.; Hosoda, T.; Kipshidze, G.; Shterengas, L.; Belenky, G.

    2011-01-01

    The air quality of any manned spacecraft needs to be continuously monitored in order to safeguard the health of the crew. Air quality monitoring grows in importance as mission duration increases. Due to the small size, low power draw, and performance reliability, semiconductor laser-based instruments are viable candidates for this purpose. Achieving a minimum instrument size requires lasers with emission wavelength coinciding with the absorption of the fundamental absorption lines of the target gases, which are mostly in the 3.0-5.0 mu m wavelength range. In this paper we report on our progress developing high wall plug efficiency type-I quantum-well GaSb-based diode lasers operating at room temperatures in the spectral region near 3.0-3.5 mu m and quantum cascade (QC) lasers in the 4.0-5.0 mu m range. These lasers will enable the development of miniature, low-power laser spectrometers for environmental monitoring of the spacecraft

  13. Development of highly compact and low power consumption athermal military laser designators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sijan, A.

    2012-10-01

    The utility of military lasers, particularly in the area of laser designation for laser-guided weapons, is well understood. Laser systems based on Nd:YAG have been fielded since the 1980's and over the last three decades have introduced incremental technology steps to improve performance and weight. The most recent technology step has been the introduction of athermal lasers based on laser-diode pumping of Nd:YAG and products are now emerging for use on the battlefield. The technical performance, efficiency, size, weight and power for these lasers, has been key to driving the new production designs. In this paper, we review the development of the laser designs and their introduction since the advent of laser designation. In particular, we compare the relative performance and characteristics over the evolution of fielded laser designators. Moreover, we will review the key building blocks for the design of athermal lasers and describe some critical design issues for engineering and productionisation of a military laser system, including removal of thermal lensing, novel diode-pumping schemes and robustness over the environment. These will be exemplified using results from the development of the SELEX Galileo Type 163 Laser Target Designators. These will cover not only technical performance, power and efficiency, but also thermal management, mass, volume, cost and overall complexity for manufacture.

  14. A Rotating Space Interferometer with Variable Baselines and Low Power Consumption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gezari, Daniel Y.

    1999-01-01

    A new concept is presented here for a large, rotating space interferometer which would achieve full u, v plane coverage with reasonably uniform integration times, yet once set in motion no additional energy would be required to change collector separations, maintain constant baseline rotation rates, or to counteract centrifugal forces on the collectors.

  15. Stable single-mode distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers at λ ∼ 4.25 μm with low power consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Zhiwei; Wang, Lijun; Zhang, Jinchuan; Liu, Fengqi; Zhuo, Ning; Zhai, Shenqiang; Liu, Junqi; Wang, Zhanguo

    2016-10-01

    Short-wavelength (4.25 μm) distributed-feedback quantum cascade laser operating in continuous wave (cw) mode at room temperature with low power consumption was presented. Stable single-mode operation with a side-mode-suppression-ratio above 25 dB was maintained for the whole measured current and temperature range by enlarging gain difference and strong grating coupling. Because of the strong coupling, very low threshold current and power consumption were achieved. For a device of 9-μm-wide and 2-mm-long, the cw threshold current and power consumption at 293 K were as low as 126 mA and 1.45 W, respectively. All results above were from the device without using buried heterostructure geometry.

  16. RETRACTED — Preparation of helical biphenyl polyurethane and its low power consumption thermo-optic switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qing; Qiu, Fengxian; Yang, Dongya; Cao, Guorong; Guan, Yijun; Shen, Qiang; Zhuang, Lin; Cao, Zhijuan; Ye, Feiyan

    2013-04-01

    Azo chromophore molecule (NDPD) and helical biphenyl polyurethane (HBPU) were prepared. The chemical structures of NDPD and HBPU were characterized by FTIR and UV-vis spectroscopy. The measurements of refractive index, thermo-optic coefficient (dn/dT), transmission loss, refractive index dispersions and Sellmeyer coefficients of HBPU were measured using ATR technique, CCD digital imaging devices and Sellmeyer equation. The results showed that HBPU would be useful for the design of high performance digital optical switch. The prepared HBPU was utilized as core material to propose a Y-branch thermo-optic switch, which was based on thermo-optic effect of HBPU at the infrared communication wavelength of 1.55 μm. With branching angle of 0.143° and the finite difference beam propagation method (FD-BPM), the polymeric thermo-optic switch was simulated. The simulation results indicated that the device has a low switching power of 1.68 mW and a switching response time of 7.0 ms.

  17. Bulk-micromachined submicroliter-volume PCR chip with very rapid thermal response and low power consumption.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dae-Sik; Park, Se Ho; Yang, Haesik; Chung, Kwang-Hyo; Yoon, Tae Hwan; Kim, Sung-Jin; Kim, Kyuwon; Kim, Youn Tae

    2004-08-01

    The current paper describes the design, fabrication, and testing of a micromachined submicroliter-volume polymerase chain reaction (PCR) chip with a fast thermal response and very low power consumption. The chip consists of a bulk-micromachined Si component and hot-embossed poly(methyl methacrylate)(PMMA) component. The Si component contains an integral microheater and temperature sensor on a thermally well-isolated membrane, while the PMMA component contains a submicroliter-volume PCR chamber, valves, and channels. The micro hot membrane under the submicroliter-volume chamber is a silicon oxide/silicon nitride/silicon oxide (O/N/O) diaphragm with a thickness of 1.9 microm, resulting in a very low thermal mass. In experiments, the proposed chip only required 45 mW to heat the reaction chamber to 92 degrees C, the denaturation temperature of DNA, plus the heating and cooling rates are about 80 degrees C s(-1) and 60 degrees C s(-1), respectively. We validated, from the fluorescence results from DNA stained with SYBR Green I, that the proposed chip amplified the DNA from vector clone, containing tumor suppressor gene BRCA 1 (127 base pairs at 11th exon), after 30 thermal cycles of 3 s, 5 s, and 5 s at 92 degrees C, 55 degrees C, and 72 degrees C, respectively, in a 200 nL-volume chamber. As for specificity of DNA products, owing to difficulty in analyzing the very small volume PCR results from the micro chip, we vicariously employed the larger volume PCR products after cycling with the same sustaining temperatures as with the micro chip but with much slower ramping rates (3.3 degrees C s(-1) when rising, 2.5 degrees C s(-1) when cooling) within circa 20 minutes on a commercial PCR machine and confirmed the specificity to BRCA 1 (127 base pairs) with agarose gel electrophoresis. Accordingly, the fabricated micro chip demonstrated a very low power consumption and rapid thermal response, both of which are crucial to the development of a fully integrated and battery-powered

  18. Design and fabrication of micro-hotplates made on a polyimide foil: electrothermal simulation and characterization to achieve power consumption in the low mW range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courbat, J.; Canonica, M.; Teyssieux, D.; Briand, D.; de Rooij, N. F.

    2011-01-01

    The design of ultra-low power micro-hotplates on a polyimide (PI) substrate supported by thermal simulations and characterization is presented. By establishing a method for the thermal simulation of very small scale heating elements, the goal of this study was to decrease the power consumption of PI micro-hotplates to a few milliwatts to make them suitable for very low power applications. To this end, the mean heat transfer coefficients in air of the devices were extracted by finite element analysis combined with very precise thermographic measurements. A simulation model was implemented for these hotplates to investigate both the influence of their downscaling and the bulk micromachining of the polyimide substrate to lower their power consumptions. Simulations were in very good agreement with the experimental results. The main parameters influencing significantly the power consumption at such dimensions were identified and guidelines were defined allowing the design of very small (15 × 15 µm) and ultra-low power heating elements (6 mW at 300 °C). These very low power heating structures enable the realization of flexible sensors, such as gas, flow or wind sensors, for applications in autonomous wireless sensors networks or RFID applications and make them compatible with large-scale production on foil such as roll-to-roll or printing processes.

  19. Harmonic Resonance in Power Transmission Systems due to the Addition of Shunt Capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Hardik U.

    Shunt capacitors are often added in transmission networks at suitable locations to improve the voltage profile. In this thesis, the transmission system in Arizona is considered as a test bed. Many shunt capacitors already exist in the Arizona transmission system and more are planned to be added. Addition of these shunt capacitors may create resonance conditions in response to harmonic voltages and currents. Such resonance, if it occurs, may create problematic issues in the system. It is main objective of this thesis to identify potential problematic effects that could occur after placing new shunt capacitors at selected buses in the Arizona network. Part of the objective is to create a systematic plan for avoidance of resonance issues. For this study, a method of capacitance scan is proposed. The bus admittance matrix is used as a model of the networked transmission system. The calculations on the admittance matrix were done using Matlab. The test bed is the actual transmission system in Arizona; however, for proprietary reasons, bus names are masked in the thesis copy intended for the public domain. The admittance matrix was obtained from data using the PowerWorld Simulator after equivalencing the 2016 summer peak load (planning case). The full Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) system data were used. The equivalencing procedure retains only the Arizona portion of the WECC. The capacitor scan results for single capacitor placement and multiple capacitor placement cases are presented. Problematic cases are identified in the form of 'forbidden response. The harmonic voltage impact of known sources of harmonics, mainly large scale HVDC sources, is also presented. Specific key results for the study indicated include: (1) The forbidden zones obtained as per the IEEE 519 standard indicates the bus 10 to be the most problematic bus. (2) The forbidden zones also indicate that switching values for the switched shunt capacitor (if used) at bus 3 should be

  20. High-gain subnanowatt power consumption hybrid complementary logic inverter with WSe2 nanosheet and ZnO nanowire transistors on glass.

    PubMed

    Shokouh, Seyed Hossein Hosseini; Pezeshki, Atiye; Ali Raza, Syed Raza; Lee, Hee Sung; Min, Sung-Wook; Jeon, Pyo Jin; Shin, Jae Min; Im, Seongil

    2015-01-07

    A 1D-2D hybrid complementary logic inverter comprising of ZnO nanowire and WSe2 nanosheet field-effect transistors (FETs) is fabricated on glass, which shows excellent static and dynamic electrical performances with a voltage gain of ≈60, sub-nanowatt power consumption, and at least 1 kHz inverting speed.

  1. The Effect of Cadence on Shank Muscle Oxygen Consumption and Deoxygenation in Relation to Joint Specific Power and Cycling Kinematics

    PubMed Central

    Ettema, Gertjan; van Beekvelt, Mireille

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of cadence on joint specific power and cycling kinematics in the ankle joint in addition to muscle oxygenation and muscle VO2 in the gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior. Thirteen cyclists cycled at a cadence of 60, 70, 80, 90, 100 and 110 rpm at a constant external work rate of 160.1 ± 21.3 W. Increasing cadence led to a decrease in ankle power in the dorsal flexion phase and to an increase in ankle joint angular velocity above 80 rpm. In addition, increasing cadence increased deoxygenation and desaturation for both the gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior muscles. Muscle VO2 increased following increased cadence but only in the tibialis anterior and only at cadences above 80 rpm, thus coinciding with the increase in ankle joint angular velocity. There was no effect of cadence in the gastrocnemius. This study demonstrates that high cadences lead to increased mVO2 in the TA muscles that cannot be explained by power in the dorsal flexion phase. PMID:28060894

  2. Overview of existing European food consumption databases: critical aspects in relation to their use for the assessment of dietary exposure to additives, flavourings and residues of food contact materials.

    PubMed

    Le Donne, Cinzia; Piccinelli, Raffaela; Sette, Stefania; Leclercq, Catherine

    2011-03-01

    A critical analysis of existing food consumption databases was performed with particular regard for their current and potential use for the assessment of dietary exposure to additives, flavourings and residues of food contact materials. Within the European Food Consumption Validation project (EFCOVAL), a questionnaire on critical aspects of such datasets was developed and administered to researchers responsible for the collection/analysis of national food consumption data in European countries. Information collected was complemented through a review of the literature and of grey publications in order to provide an inventory of the main food consumption surveys performed in Europe from 1994 to 2007, for a total of 23 countries and 37 surveys. It appeared that existing European food consumption surveys have as a main objective the assessment of nutrient intake in the population. On the other hand, most of the databases were shown to be used also for the purpose of dietary exposure assessment.

  3. Numerical investigation of power consumption and mixing time in a stirred vessel with regular and multiscale impellers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basbug, Salur; Papadakis, George; Vassilicos, Christos

    2015-11-01

    The flow field inside a stirred tank is obtained by means of direct numerical simulation based on finite volume method at Re =500. Two different types of four-bladed radial impellers are considered: the first one is a regular type with rectangular blades and the second one is a modified version of the former with irregular blade edges, having the same thickness and the surface area. The shaft power is averaged over more than sixty revolutions and the comparison between the two cases shows that the impeller with irregular blades has lower energy consumption. Moreover, a passive scalar is injected into the vessel for a quarter period of revolution and the scalar transport equation is solved to investigate the mixing times. The coefficient of variation of the passive scalar is averaged over the whole volume in order to obtain a quantitative indicator of the mixing progress. The homogenization curves depend on the instantaneous flow conditions due to the transient nature of the mixing process, therefore multiple curves are averaged to obtain a representative result. There are indications that irregular blades can decrease mixing time with respect to regular ones.

  4. Stack and dump: Peak-power scaling by coherent pulse addition in passive cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breitkopf, S.; Eidam, T.; Klenke, A.; Carstens, H.; Holzberger, S.; Fill, E.; Schreiber, T.; Krausz, F.; Tünnermann, A.; Pupeza, I.; Limpert, J.

    2015-10-01

    During the last decades femtosecond lasers have proven their vast benefit in both scientific and technological tasks. Nevertheless, one laser feature bearing the tremendous potential for high-field applications, delivering extremely high peak and average powers simultaneously, is still not accessible. This is the performance regime several upcoming applications such as laser particle acceleration require, and therefore, challenge laser technology to the fullest. On the one hand, some state-of-the-art canonical bulk amplifier systems provide pulse peak powers in the range of multi-terawatt to petawatt. On the other hand, concepts for advanced solid-state-lasers, specifically thin disk, slab or fiber systems have shown their capability of emitting high average powers in the kilowatt range with a high wall-plug-efficiency while maintaining an excellent spatial and temporal quality of the output beam. In this article, a brief introduction to a concept for a compact laser system capable of simultaneously providing high peak and average powers all along with a high wall-plug efficiency will be given. The concept relies on the stacking of a pulse train emitted from a high-repetitive femtosecond laser system in a passive enhancement cavity, also referred to as temporal coherent combining. In this manner, the repetition rate is decreased in favor of a pulse energy enhancement by the same factor while the average power is almost preserved. The key challenge of this concept is a fast, purely reflective switching element that allows for the dumping of the enhanced pulse out of the cavity. Addressing this challenge could, for the first time, allow for the highly efficient extraction of joule-class pulses at megawatt average power levels and thus lead to a whole new area of applications for ultra-fast laser systems.

  5. Effects of dietary addition of capsicum extract on intake, water consumption, and rumen fermentation of fattening heifers fed a high-concentrate diet.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Prado, M; Ferret, A; Zwieten, J; Gonzalez, L; Bravo, D; Calsamiglia, S

    2012-06-01

    Four beef Holstein heifers (BW = 438 ± 71 kg) fitted with a 1-cm i.d. plastic ruminal trocars were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design to evaluate the effect of 3 doses of capsicum extract (CAP) on intake, water consumption, and ruminal fermentation in heifers fed a high-concentrate diet. Animals were fed (DM basis) 10% barley straw and 90% concentrate (32.2% barley grain, 27.9% ground corn, 7.5% wheat bran, 10.7% soybean meal, 10.7% soybean hulls, 7.2% corn gluten feed, 3.1% mineral-vitamin mix; 16.6% CP, 18.3% NDF). Treatments were no additive (CTR), 125 (CAP125), 250 (CAP250), and 500 (CAP500) mg/d of capsicum oleoresin standardized with 6% of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin (XTract 6933, Pancosma, Geneva, Switzerland). Each experimental period consisted of 25 d (15 d for adaptation, 5 d of continuous measurement of DMI, and 3 d for rumen sample collection). Animals had ad libitum access to water and feed offered once daily at 0800 h. Data were analyzed by the MIXED procedure of SAS. The model included the fixed effects of period and treatment, the random effect of heifer, and the residual error. The effects were tested for linear and quadratic effects. A linear response was observed (CTR, CAP125, CAP250, and CAP500, respectively) for DMI (8.56, 9.84, 8.68, and 9.40 kg/d; P < 0.04), ruminal pH (6.03, 5.84, 5.96, and 5.86; P < 0.08) and total VFA (134.3, 144.8, 140.1, and 142.8 mM; P < 0.08). There was a strong correlation between water consumption and DMI (R(2) = 0.98). Dry matter intake in the first 2 h after feeding was reduced (P < 0.05) in all CAP treatments compared with control. The molar proportion of acetate tended to decrease linearly (from 59.6 to 55.5 mol/100 mol; P < 0.06), and ammonia N concentration tended to increase linearly (from 14.4 to 16.0 mg N/dL; P < 0.08). In contrast, the molar proportion of propionate (23.8 mol/100 mol), butyrate (14.2 mol/100 mol), and lactate (0.28 mol/100 mol) were not affected by treatments. Results indicate that

  6. PowerPoint Presentations: A Creative Addition to the Research Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Alan E.

    2003-01-01

    Contends that the requirement of a PowerPoint presentation as part of the research process would benefit students in the following ways: learning how to conduct research; starting their research project sooner; honing presentation and public speaking skills; improving cooperative and social skills; and enhancing technology skills. Outlines the…

  7. The effectiveness of power-generating complexes constructed on the basis of nuclear power plants combined with additional sources of energy determined taking risk factors into account

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aminov, R. Z.; Khrustalev, V. A.; Portyankin, A. V.

    2015-02-01

    The effectiveness of combining nuclear power plants equipped with water-cooled water-moderated power-generating reactors (VVER) with other sources of energy within unified power-generating complexes is analyzed. The use of such power-generating complexes makes it possible to achieve the necessary load pickup capability and flexibility in performing the mandatory selective primary and emergency control of load, as well as participation in passing the night minimums of electric load curves while retaining high values of the capacity utilization factor of the entire power-generating complex at higher levels of the steam-turbine part efficiency. Versions involving combined use of nuclear power plants with hydrogen toppings and gas turbine units for generating electricity are considered. In view of the fact that hydrogen is an unsafe energy carrier, the use of which introduces additional elements of risk, a procedure for evaluating these risks under different conditions of implementing the fuel-and-hydrogen cycle at nuclear power plants is proposed. Risk accounting technique with the use of statistical data is considered, including the characteristics of hydrogen and gas pipelines, and the process pipelines equipment tightness loss occurrence rate. The expected intensities of fires and explosions at nuclear power plants fitted with hydrogen toppings and gas turbine units are calculated. In estimating the damage inflicted by events (fires and explosions) occurred in nuclear power plant turbine buildings, the US statistical data were used. Conservative scenarios of fires and explosions of hydrogen-air mixtures in nuclear power plant turbine buildings are presented. Results from calculations of the introduced annual risk to the attained net annual profit ratio in commensurable versions are given. This ratio can be used in selecting projects characterized by the most technically attainable and socially acceptable safety.

  8. Improving Performance of Power Systems with Large-scale Variable Generation Additions

    SciTech Connect

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Etingov, Pavel V.; Samaan, Nader A.; Lu, Ning; Ma, Jian; Subbarao, Krishnappa; Du, Pengwei; Kannberg, Landis D.

    2012-07-22

    A power system with large-scale renewable resources, like wind and solar generation, creates significant challenges to system control performance and reliability characteristics because of intermittency and uncertainties associated with variable generation. It is important to quantify these uncertainties, and then incorporate this information into decision-making processes and power system operations. This paper presents three approaches to evaluate the flexibility needed from conventional generators and other resources in the presence of variable generation as well as provide this flexibility from a non-traditional resource – wide area energy storage system. These approaches provide operators with much-needed information on the likelihood and magnitude of ramping and capacity problems, and the ability to dispatch available resources in response to such problems.

  9. Coherent addition of high power laser diode array with a V-shape external Talbot cavity.

    PubMed

    Liu, B; Liu, Y; Braiman, Y

    2008-12-08

    We designed a V-shape external Talbot cavity for a broad-area laser diode array and demonstrated coherent laser beam combining at high power with narrow spectral linewidth. The V-shape external Talbot cavity provides good mode-discrimination and does not require a spatial filter. A multi-lobe far-field profile generated by a low filling-factor phase-locked array is confirmed by our numerical simulation.

  10. Zero-Power-Consumption Solar-Blind Photodetector Based on β-Ga2O3/NSTO Heterojunction.

    PubMed

    Guo, Daoyou; Liu, Han; Li, Peigang; Wu, Zhenping; Wang, Shunli; Cui, Can; Li, Chaorong; Tang, Weihua

    2017-01-18

    A solar-blind photodetector based on β-Ga2O3/NSTO (NSTO = Nb:SrTiO3) heterojunctions were fabricated for the first time, and its photoelectric properties were investigated. The device presents a typical positive rectification in the dark, while under 254 nm UV light illumination, it shows a negative rectification, which might be caused by the generation of photoinduced electron-hole pairs in the β-Ga2O3 film layer. With zero bias, that is, zero power consumption, the photodetector shows a fast photoresponse time (decay time τd = 0.07 s) and the ratio Iphoto/Idark ≈ 20 under 254 nm light illumination with a light intensity of 45 μW/cm(2). Such behaviors are attributed to the separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs driven by the built-in electric field in the depletion region of β-Ga2O3 and the NSTO interface, and the subsequent transport toward corresponding electrodes. The photocurrent increases linearly with increasing the light intensity and applied bias, while the response time decreases with the increase of the light intensity. Under -10 V bias and 45 μW/cm(2) of 254 nm light illumination, the photodetector exhibits a responsivity Rλ of 43.31 A/W and an external quantum efficiency of 2.1 × 10(4) %. The photo-to-electric conversion mechanism in the β-Ga2O3/NSTO heterojunction photodetector is explained in detail by energy band diagrams. The results strongly suggest that a photodetector based on β-Ga2O3 thin-film heterojunction structure can be practically used to detect weak solar-blind signals because of its high photoconductive gain.

  11. Energy resolution and power consumption of Timepix detector for different detector settings and saturation of front-end electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroupa, M.; Hoang, S.; Stoffle, N.; Soukup, P.; Jakubek, J.; Pinsky, L. S.

    2014-05-01

    An ongoing research project in the area of radiation monitoring employing the Timepix technology from the CERN-based Medipix2 Collaboration profits greatly from optimizing the precision of the position and energy information obtained for the detected quanta. Wider applications of the Timepix technology as a radiation monitor also puts new demands on the precision and speed of the energy calibration. We compare the analog signal in pixel front-end electronics for different sources used during detector evaluation and energy calibration. We use the direct measurement of the analog signal from the pixel preamplifier and comparator to characterize pulse shape differences for different sources, e.g. internal test pulses, external test pulses, ionizing radiation, etc. and study their interchangeability. Accurate per-pixel energy calibration of the Timepix detector enables the direct measurement of the energy deposited by different types of ionizing radiation. The energy calibration process requires the application of a known charge to front-end electronics of each pixel. The small pixel size limits use of the radioactive sources. The 59.54 keV line from 241Am is commonly used as the highest point in calibration curve. The heavy ion dosimetry as encountered in the space radiation environment requires a considerable extrapolation to the energies in the MeV range. We have observed that for energies around and beyond 1 MeV the response of the Timepix's front-end electronics no longer follows the extrapolated calibration function. We have investigated this non-linearity and identified its source. We also propose both hardware and software solutions to suppress this effect. In this paper we show the impact on pixel calibration and the subsequent energy resolution for different detector settings as well as the resulting power consumptions. We discuss the parameter optimization for several different real-world applications.

  12. Evaluation of Different Power of Near Addition in Two Different Multifocal Intraocular Lenses

    PubMed Central

    Unsal, Ugur; Baser, Gonen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To compare near, intermediate, and distance vision and quality of vision, when refractive rotational multifocal intraocular lenses with 3.0 diopters or diffractive multifocal intraocular lenses with 2.5 diopters near addition are implanted. Methods. 41 eyes of 41 patients in whom rotational +3.0 diopters near addition IOLs were implanted and 30 eyes of 30 patients in whom diffractive +2.5 diopters near addition IOLs were implanted after cataract surgery were reviewed. Uncorrected and corrected distance visual acuity, intermediate visual acuity, near visual acuity, and patient satisfaction were evaluated 6 months later. Results. The corrected and uncorrected distance visual acuity were the same between both groups (p = 0.50 and p = 0.509, resp.). The uncorrected intermediate and corrected intermediate and near vision acuities were better in the +2.5 near vision added intraocular lens implanted group (p = 0.049, p = 0.005, and p = 0.001, resp.) and the uncorrected near vision acuity was better in the +3.0 near vision added intraocular lens implanted group (p = 0.001). The patient satisfactions of both groups were similar. Conclusion. The +2.5 diopters near addition could be a better choice in younger patients with more distance and intermediate visual requirements (driving, outdoor activities), whereas the + 3.0 diopters should be considered for patients with more near vision correction (reading). PMID:27340560

  13. Effect of ferrite addition above the base ferrite on the coupling factor of wireless power transfer for vehicle applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batra, T.; Schaltz, E.; Ahn, S.

    2015-05-01

    Power transfer capability of wireless power transfer systems is highly dependent on the magnetic design of the primary and secondary inductors and is measured quantitatively by the coupling factor. The inductors are designed by placing the coil over a ferrite base to increase the coupling factor and reduce magnetic emissions to the surroundings. Effect of adding extra ferrite above the base ferrite at different physical locations on the self-inductance, mutual inductance, and coupling factor is under investigation in this paper. The addition can increase or decrease the mutual inductance depending on the placement of ferrite. Also, the addition of ferrite increases the self-inductance of the coils, and there is a probability for an overall decrease in the coupling factor. Correct placement of ferrite, on the other hand, can increase the coupling factor relatively higher than the base ferrite as it is closer to the other inductor. Ferrite being a heavy compound of iron increases the inductor weight significantly and needs to be added judiciously. Four zones have been identified in the paper, which shows different sensitivity to addition of ferrite in terms of the two inductances and coupling factor. Simulation and measurement results are presented for different air gaps between the coils and at different gap distances between the ferrite base and added ferrite. This paper is beneficial in improving the coupling factor while adding minimum weight to wireless power transfer system.

  14. Enhancing Specific Energy and Power in Asymmetric Supercapacitors - A Synergetic Strategy based on the Use of Redox Additive Electrolytes

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Arvinder; Chandra, Amreesh

    2016-01-01

    The strategy of using redox additive electrolyte in combination with multiwall carbon nanotubes/metal oxide composites leads to a substantial improvements in the specific energy and power of asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs). When the pure electrolyte is optimally modified with a redox additive viz., KI, ~105% increase in the specific energy is obtained with good cyclic stability over 3,000 charge-discharge cycles and ~14.7% capacitance fade. This increase is a direct consequence of the iodine/iodide redox pairs that strongly modifies the faradaic and non-faradaic type reactions occurring on the surface of the electrodes. Contrary to what is shown in few earlier reports, it is established that indiscriminate increase in the concentration of redox additives will leads to performance loss. Suitable explanations are given based on theoretical laws. The specific energy or power values being reported in the fabricated ASCs are comparable or higher than those reported in ASCs based on toxic acetonitrile or expensive ionic liquids. The paper shows that the use of redox additive is economically favorable strategy for obtaining cost effective and environmentally friendly ASCs. PMID:27184260

  15. Enhancing Specific Energy and Power in Asymmetric Supercapacitors - A Synergetic Strategy based on the Use of Redox Additive Electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Singh, Arvinder; Chandra, Amreesh

    2016-05-17

    The strategy of using redox additive electrolyte in combination with multiwall carbon nanotubes/metal oxide composites leads to a substantial improvements in the specific energy and power of asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs). When the pure electrolyte is optimally modified with a redox additive viz., KI, ~105% increase in the specific energy is obtained with good cyclic stability over 3,000 charge-discharge cycles and ~14.7% capacitance fade. This increase is a direct consequence of the iodine/iodide redox pairs that strongly modifies the faradaic and non-faradaic type reactions occurring on the surface of the electrodes. Contrary to what is shown in few earlier reports, it is established that indiscriminate increase in the concentration of redox additives will leads to performance loss. Suitable explanations are given based on theoretical laws. The specific energy or power values being reported in the fabricated ASCs are comparable or higher than those reported in ASCs based on toxic acetonitrile or expensive ionic liquids. The paper shows that the use of redox additive is economically favorable strategy for obtaining cost effective and environmentally friendly ASCs.

  16. Enhancing Specific Energy and Power in Asymmetric Supercapacitors - A Synergetic Strategy based on the Use of Redox Additive Electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Arvinder; Chandra, Amreesh

    2016-05-01

    The strategy of using redox additive electrolyte in combination with multiwall carbon nanotubes/metal oxide composites leads to a substantial improvements in the specific energy and power of asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs). When the pure electrolyte is optimally modified with a redox additive viz., KI, ~105% increase in the specific energy is obtained with good cyclic stability over 3,000 charge-discharge cycles and ~14.7% capacitance fade. This increase is a direct consequence of the iodine/iodide redox pairs that strongly modifies the faradaic and non-faradaic type reactions occurring on the surface of the electrodes. Contrary to what is shown in few earlier reports, it is established that indiscriminate increase in the concentration of redox additives will leads to performance loss. Suitable explanations are given based on theoretical laws. The specific energy or power values being reported in the fabricated ASCs are comparable or higher than those reported in ASCs based on toxic acetonitrile or expensive ionic liquids. The paper shows that the use of redox additive is economically favorable strategy for obtaining cost effective and environmentally friendly ASCs.

  17. Characterization of Steel-Ta Dissimilar Metal Builds Made Using Very High Power Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing (VHP-UAM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sridharan, Niyanth; Norfolk, Mark; Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh

    2016-05-01

    Ultrasonic additive manufacturing is a solid-state additive manufacturing technique that utilizes ultrasonic vibrations to bond metal tapes into near net-shaped components. The major advantage of this process is the ability to manufacture layered structures with dissimilar materials without any intermetallic formation. Majority of the published literature had focused only on the bond formation mechanism in Aluminum alloys. The current work pertains to explain the microstructure evolution during dissimilar joining of iron and tantalum using very high power ultrasonic additive manufacturing and characterization of the interfaces using electron back-scattered diffraction and Nano-indentation measurement. The results showed extensive grain refinement at the bonded interfaces of these metals. This phenomenon was attributed to continuous dynamic recrystallization process driven by the high strain rate plastic deformation and associated adiabatic heating that is well below 50 pct of melting point of both iron and Ta.

  18. Application of calcium chloride as an additive for secondary refrigerant in the air conditioning system type chiller to minimized energy consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suwono, A.; Indartono, Y. S.; Irsyad, M.; Al-Afkar, I. C.

    2015-09-01

    One way to resolve the energy problem is to increase the efficiency of energy use. Air conditioning system is one of the equipment that needs to be considered, because it is the biggest energy user in commercial building sector. Research currently developing is the use of phase change materials (PCM) as thermal energy storage (TES) in the air conditioning system to reduce energy consumption. Salt hydrates have been great potential to be developed because they have been high latent heat and thermal conductivity. This study has used a salt hydrate from calcium chloride to be tested in air conditioning systems type chiller. Thermal characteristics were examined using temperature history (T-history) test and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The test results showed that the thermal characteristics of the salt hydrate has been a high latent heat and in accordance with the evaporator temperature. The use of salt hydrates in air conditioning system type chiller can reduce energy consumption by 51.5%.

  19. Multi-heat addition turbine engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franciscus, Leo C. (Inventor); Brabbs, Theodore A. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A multi-heat addition turbine engine (MHATE) incorporates a plurality of heat addition devices to transfer energy to air and a plurality of turbines to extract energy from the air while converting it to work. The MHATE provides dry power and lower fuel consumption or lower combustor exit temperatures.

  20. Mechanism of power consumption inhibitive multi-layer Zn:SiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} structure resistance random access memory

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Rui; Lou, Jen-Chung; Tsai, Tsung-Ming E-mail: tcchang@mail.phys.nsysu.edu.tw; Chang, Kuan-Chang; Huang, Syuan-Yong; Shih, Chih-Cheng; Pan, Jhih-Hong; Tung, Cheng-Wei; Chang, Ting-Chang E-mail: tcchang@mail.phys.nsysu.edu.tw; Chen, Kai-Huang; Young, Tai-Fa; Chen, Hsin-Lu; Chen, Jung-Hui; Chen, Min-Chen; Syu, Yong-En; Sze, Simon M.

    2013-12-21

    In this paper, multi-layer Zn:SiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} structure is introduced to reduce the operation power consumption of resistive random access memory (RRAM) device by modifying the filament formation process. And the configuration of multi-layer Zn:SiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} structure is confirmed and demonstrated by auger electron spectrum. Material analysis together with conduction current fitting is applied to qualitatively evaluate the carrier conduction mechanism on both low resistance state and high resistance state. Finally, single layer and multilayer conduction models are proposed, respectively, to clarify the corresponding conduction characteristics of two types of RRAM devices.

  1. Improving Read Disturb Characteristics by Using Double Common Source Line and Dummy Switch Architecture in Multi Level Cell NAND Flash Memory with Low Power Consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Myounggon; Park, Ki-Tae; Song, Youngsun; Lim, Youngho; Suh, Kang-Deog; Shin, Hyungcheol

    2011-04-01

    Two new NAND structures using double common source line (CSL) and dummy switch and their read operation schemes as a solution for NAND flash memories have been proposed. Compared with conventional scheme, the proposed read schemes improves read disturb characteristics beyond sub-30 nm technology node. By using proposed read scheme, the number of fail bits of proposed NAND was decreased than those of conventional NAND at read cycles. Also, it was proven that they contribute to improve the performance and suppress the power consumption. The proposed NAND was verified by both simulation and experimental measurements in a fabricated 40 nm multi level cell (MLC) NAND device.

  2. 10 CFR Appendix Z to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of External Power Supplies

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... it. (Reference for guidance only, see IEEE Standard 1515-2000, 4.3.1.1, § 430.4.) c. Active power... IEEE Standard 100. (Reference for guidance only, see § 430.4.) a. Active mode means the mode of... multiple-voltage external power supply). b. Active mode efficiency is the ratio, expressed as a...

  3. 10 CFR Appendix Z to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of External Power Supplies

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... multiple-voltage external power supply). b. Active mode efficiency is the ratio, expressed as a percentage..., “General Conditions for Measurement,” of the CEC's “Test Method for Calculating the Energy Efficiency of... separately powered fans, air conditioners, or heat sinks. The UUT shall be conditioned, rested, and tested...

  4. 10 CFR Appendix Z to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of External Power Supplies

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... multiple-voltage external power supply). b. Active mode efficiency is the ratio, expressed as a percentage..., “General Conditions for Measurement,” of the CEC's “Test Method for Calculating the Energy Efficiency of... separately powered fans, air conditioners, or heat sinks. The UUT shall be conditioned, rested, and tested...

  5. 10 CFR Appendix Z to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of External Power Supplies

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... multiple-voltage external power supply). b. Active mode efficiency is the ratio, expressed as a percentage..., “General Conditions for Measurement,” of the CEC's “Test Method for Calculating the Energy Efficiency of... separately powered fans, air conditioners, or heat sinks. The UUT shall be conditioned, rested, and tested...

  6. Analysis of contingency tables based on generalised median polish with power transformations and non-additive models.

    PubMed

    Klawonn, Frank; Jayaram, Balasubramaniam; Crull, Katja; Kukita, Akiko; Pessler, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Contingency tables are a very common basis for the investigation of effects of different treatments or influences on a disease or the health state of patients. Many journals put a strong emphasis on p-values to support the validity of results. Therefore, even small contingency tables are analysed by techniques like t-test or ANOVA. Both these concepts are based on normality assumptions for the underlying data. For larger data sets, this assumption is not so critical, since the underlying statistics are based on sums of (independent) random variables which can be assumed to follow approximately a normal distribution, at least for a larger number of summands. But for smaller data sets, the normality assumption can often not be justified. Robust methods like the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney-U test or the Kruskal-Wallis test do not lead to statistically significant p-values for small samples. Median polish is a robust alternative to analyse contingency tables providing much more insight than just a p-value. Median polish is a technique that provides more information than just a p-value. It explains the contingency table in terms of an overall effect, row and columns effects and residuals. The underlying model for median polish is an additive model which is sometimes too restrictive. In this paper, we propose two related approach to generalise median polish. A power transformation can be applied to the values in the table, so that better results for median polish can be achieved. We propose a graphical method how to find a suitable power transformation. If the original data should be preserved, one can apply other transformations - based on so-called additive generators - that have an inverse transformation. In this way, median polish can be applied to the original data, but based on a non-additive model. The non-linearity of such a model can also be visualised to better understand the joint effects of rows and columns in a contingency table.

  7. Revealing Water Stress by the Thermal Power Industry in China Based on a High Spatial Resolution Water Withdrawal and Consumption Inventory.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Zhong, Lijin; Fu, Xiaotian; Wang, Jiao; Wu, Zhixuan

    2016-02-16

    This study reveals the spatial distribution of water withdrawal and consumption by thermal power generation and the associated water stress at catchment level in China based on a high-resolution geodatabase of electric generating units and power plants. We identified three groups of regions where the baseline water stress exerted by thermal power generation is comparatively significant: (1) the Hai River Basin/East Yellow River Basin in the north; (2) some arid catchments in Xinjiang Autonomous Region in the northwest; and (3) the coastal city clusters in the Yangtze River Delta, Pearly River Delta, and Zhejiang Province. Groundwater stress is also detected singularly in a few aquifers mainly in the Hai River Basin and the lower reaches of the Yellow River Basin. As China accelerates its pace of coal mining and coal-fired power generation in the arid northwest regions, the energy/water priorities in catchments under high water stress are noteworthy. We conclude that promotion of advanced water-efficient technologies in the energy industry and more systematic analysis of the water stress of thermal power capacity expansion in water scarce regions in inland China are needed. More comprehensive and transparent data monitoring and reporting are essential to facilitate such water stress assessment.

  8. Investigation of thermal resistance and power consumption in Ga-doped indium oxide (In{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanowire phase change random access memory

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Bo; Lee, Jeong-Soo E-mail: ljs6951@postech.ac.kr; Lim, Taekyung; Ju, Sanghyun; Latypov, Marat I.; Pi, Dong-Hai; Seop Kim, Hyoung; Meyyappan, M. E-mail: ljs6951@postech.ac.kr

    2014-03-10

    The resistance stability and thermal resistance of phase change memory devices using ∼40 nm diameter Ga-doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanowires (Ga:In{sub 2}O{sub 3} NW) with different Ga-doping concentrations have been investigated. The estimated resistance stability (R(t)/R{sub 0} ratio) improves with higher Ga concentration and is dependent on annealing temperature. The extracted thermal resistance (R{sub th}) increases with higher Ga-concentration and thus the power consumption can be reduced by ∼90% for the 11.5% Ga:In{sub 2}O{sub 3} NW, compared to the 2.1% Ga:In{sub 2}O{sub 3} NW. The excellent characteristics of Ga-doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanowire devices offer an avenue to develop low power and reliable phase change random access memory applications.

  9. Building ceramics with an addition of pulverized combustion fly ash from the thermal power plant Nováky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Húlan, Tomáš; Trník, Anton; Medved, Igor; Štubňa, Igor; Kaljuvee, Tiit

    2016-07-01

    Pulverized combustion fly ash (PFA) from the Power plant Nováky (Slovakia) is analyzed for its potential use in the production of building ceramics. Three materials are used to prepare the mixtures: illite-rich clay (IRC), PFA and IRC fired at 1000 °C (called grog). The mixtures contain 60 % of IRC and 40 % of a non-plastic compound (grog or PFA). A various amount of the grog is replaced by PFA and the effect of this substitution is studied. Thermal analyses (TGA, DTA, thermodilatometry, and dynamical thermomechanical analysis) are used to analyze the processes occurring during firing. The flexural strength and thermal conductivity are determined at room temperature after firing in the temperature interval from 800 to 1100 °C. The results show that an addition of PFA slightly decreases the flexural strength. The thermal conductivity and porosity are practically unaffected by the presence of PFA. Thus, PFA from the Power plant Nováky is a convenient non-plastic component for manufacturing building ceramics.

  10. 100 nm AlSb/InAs HEMT for Ultra-Low-Power Consumption, Low-Noise Applications

    PubMed Central

    Bagumako, Sonia; Desplanque, Ludovic; Wichmann, Nicolas; Bollaert, Sylvain; Danneville, François; Wallart, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    We report on high frequency (HF) and noise performances of AlSb/InAs high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) with 100 nm gate length at room temperature in low-power regime. Extrinsic cut-off frequencies fT/fmax of 100/125 GHz together with minimum noise figure NFmin = 0.5 dB and associated gain Gass = 12 dB at 12 GHz have been obtained at drain bias of only 80 mV, corresponding to 4 mW/mm DC power dissipation. This demonstrates the great ability of AlSb/InAs HEMT for high-frequency operation combined with low-noise performances in ultra-low-power regime. PMID:24707193

  11. Rebalancing of internally generated carriers for mid-infrared interband cascade lasers with very low power consumption.

    PubMed

    Vurgaftman, I; Bewley, W W; Canedy, C L; Kim, C S; Kim, M; Merritt, C D; Abell, J; Lindle, J R; Meyer, J R

    2011-12-13

    The interband cascade laser differs from any other class of semiconductor laser, conventional or cascaded, in that most of the carriers producing population inversion are generated internally, at semimetallic interfaces within each stage of the active region. Here we present simulations demonstrating that all previous interband cascade laser performance has suffered from a significant imbalance of electron and hole densities in the active wells. We further confirm experimentally that correcting this imbalance with relatively heavy n-type doping in the electron injectors substantially reduces the threshold current and power densities relative to all earlier devices. At room temperature, the redesigned devices require nearly two orders of magnitude less input power to operate in continuous-wave mode than the quantum cascade laser. The interband cascade laser is consequently the most attractive option for gas sensing and other spectroscopic applications requiring low output power and minimum heat dissipation at wavelengths extending from 3 μm to beyond 6 μm.

  12. 100 nm AlSb/InAs HEMT for ultra-low-power consumption, low-noise applications.

    PubMed

    Gardès, Cyrille; Bagumako, Sonia; Desplanque, Ludovic; Wichmann, Nicolas; Bollaert, Sylvain; Danneville, François; Wallart, Xavier; Roelens, Yannick

    2014-01-01

    We report on high frequency (HF) and noise performances of AlSb/InAs high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) with 100 nm gate length at room temperature in low-power regime. Extrinsic cut-off frequencies fT/f max of 100/125 GHz together with minimum noise figure NF(min) = 0.5 dB and associated gain G(ass) = 12 dB at 12 GHz have been obtained at drain bias of only 80 mV, corresponding to 4 mW/mm DC power dissipation. This demonstrates the great ability of AlSb/InAs HEMT for high-frequency operation combined with low-noise performances in ultra-low-power regime.

  13. 10 CFR Appendix Z to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of External Power Supplies

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... IEEE Standard 100. (Reference for guidance only, see § 430.4.) a. Active mode means the mode of... it. (Reference for guidance only, see IEEE Standard 1515-2000, 4.3.1.1, § 430.4.) c. Active power... period. (Reference for guidance only, see IEEE Standard 1515-2000, § 430.4.) d. Ambient temperature...

  14. Low power consumption high speed CMOS dual-modulus 15/16 prescaler for optical and wireless communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hui-Min; Zhang, Xiao-Xing; Dai, Yu-Jie; Lv, Ying-Jie

    2011-09-01

    Frequency synthesizer is an important part of optical and wireless communication system. Low power comsumption prescaler is one of the most critical unit of frequency synthesizer. For the frequency divider, it must be programmable for channel selection in multi-channel communication systems. A dual-modulus prescaler (DMP) is needed to provide variable division ratios. DMP is considered as a critical power dissipative block since it always operates at full speed. This paper introduces a high speed and low power complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) 15/16 DMP based on true single-phase-clock (TSPC) and transmission gates (TGs) cell. A conventional TSPC is optimized in terms of devices size, and it is resimulated. The TSPC is used in the synchronous and asynchronous counter. TGs are used in the control logic. The DMP circuit is implemented in 0.18 μm CMOS process. The simulation results are provided. The results show wide operating frequency range from 7.143 MHz to 4.76 GHz and it comsumes 3.625 mW under 1.8 V power supply voltage at 4.76 GHz.

  15. A 10-kW SiC Inverter with A Novel Printed Metal Power Module With Integrated Cooling Using Additive Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Chinthavali, Madhu Sudhan; Ayers, Curtis William; Campbell, Steven L; Wiles, Randy H; Ozpineci, Burak

    2014-01-01

    With efforts to reduce the cost, size, and thermal management systems for the power electronics drivetrain in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), wide band gap semiconductors including silicon carbide (SiC) have been identified as possibly being a partial solution. This paper focuses on the development of a 10-kW all SiC inverter using a high power density, integrated printed metal power module with integrated cooling using additive manufacturing techniques. This is the first ever heat sink printed for a power electronics application. About 50% of the inverter was built using additive manufacturing techniques.

  16. Low Power Consumption Lasers for Next Generation Miniature Optical Spectrometers for Major Constituent and Trace Gas Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forouhar, Siamak; Soibel, Alexander; Frez, Clifford; Qiu, Yueming; Chen, J.; Hosoda, T.; Kipshidze, G.; Shterengas, L.; Tsvid, G.; Belenky, G.; Franz, Kale J.; Gmachl, Claire; Scherer, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    The air quality of any manned spacecraft needs to be continuously monitored in order to safeguard the health of the crew. Air quality monitoring grows in importance as mission duration increases. Due to the small size, low power draw, and performance reliability, semiconductor laser-based instruments are viable candidates for this purpose. The minimum instrument size requires lasers with emission wavelength coinciding with the absorption of the fundamental frequency of the target gases which are mostly in the 3.0-5.0 micrometers wavelength range. In this paper we report on our progress developing high wall plug efficiency type-I quantum-well GaSb-based diode lasers operating at room temperatures in the spectral region near 3.0-3.5 micrometers and quantum cascade (QC) lasers in the 4.0-5.0 micrometers range. These lasers will enable the development of miniature, low-power laser spectrometers for environmental monitoring of the spacecraft.

  17. High-Performance electronics at ultra-low power consumption for space applications: From superconductor to nanoscale semiconductor technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, Robert V.; Simmons, Jerry; Kupferman, Stuart; McWhorter, Paul; Dunlap, David; Kovanis, V.

    1995-01-01

    A detailed review of Sandia's work in ultralow power dissipation electronics for space flight applications, including superconductive electronics, new advances in quantum well structures, and ultra-high purity 3-5 materials, and recent advances in micro-electro-optical-mechanical systems (MEMS) is presented. The superconductive electronics and micromechanical devices are well suited for application in micro-robotics, micro-rocket engines, and advanced sensors.

  18. A power comparison of generalized additive models and the spatial scan statistic in a case-control setting

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A common, important problem in spatial epidemiology is measuring and identifying variation in disease risk across a study region. In application of statistical methods, the problem has two parts. First, spatial variation in risk must be detected across the study region and, second, areas of increased or decreased risk must be correctly identified. The location of such areas may give clues to environmental sources of exposure and disease etiology. One statistical method applicable in spatial epidemiologic settings is a generalized additive model (GAM) which can be applied with a bivariate LOESS smoother to account for geographic location as a possible predictor of disease status. A natural hypothesis when applying this method is whether residential location of subjects is associated with the outcome, i.e. is the smoothing term necessary? Permutation tests are a reasonable hypothesis testing method and provide adequate power under a simple alternative hypothesis. These tests have yet to be compared to other spatial statistics. Results This research uses simulated point data generated under three alternative hypotheses to evaluate the properties of the permutation methods and compare them to the popular spatial scan statistic in a case-control setting. Case 1 was a single circular cluster centered in a circular study region. The spatial scan statistic had the highest power though the GAM method estimates did not fall far behind. Case 2 was a single point source located at the center of a circular cluster and Case 3 was a line source at the center of the horizontal axis of a square study region. Each had linearly decreasing logodds with distance from the point. The GAM methods outperformed the scan statistic in Cases 2 and 3. Comparing sensitivity, measured as the proportion of the exposure source correctly identified as high or low risk, the GAM methods outperformed the scan statistic in all three Cases. Conclusions The GAM permutation testing methods

  19. Experimental investigation of the flow field and power consumption characteristics of regular and fractal blade impellers in a dynamic mixer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiros, K.; Bruce, P. J. K.; Buxton, O. R. H.; Vassilicos, J. C.

    2015-11-01

    Experiments have been performed in an octagonal un-baffled water tank, stirred by three radial turbines with different geometry impellers: (1) regular rectangular blades; (2) single-iteration fractal blades; (3) two-iteration fractal blades. Shaft torque was monitored and the power number calculated for each case. Both impellers with fractal geometry blades exhibited a decrease of turbine power number compared to the regular one (15% decrease for single-iteration and 19% for two iterations). Phase locked PIV in the discharge region of the blades revealed that the vortices emanating from the regular blades are more coherent, have higher kinetic energy, and advect faster towards the tank's walls where they are dissipated, compared to their fractal counterparts. This suggests a strong link between vortex production and behaviour and the energy input for the different impellers. Planar PIV measurements in the bulk of the tank showed an increase of turbulence intensity of over 20% for the fractal geometry blades, suggesting higher mixing efficiency. Experiments with pressure measurements on the different geometry blade surfaces are ongoing to investigate the distribution of forces, and calculate hydrodynamic centres of pressure. The authors would like to acknowledge the financial support given by European Union FP7 Marie Curie MULTISOLVE project (Grant Agreement No. 317269).

  20. Unraveling the fundamental mechanisms of solvent-additive-induced optimization of power conversion efficiencies in organic photovoltaic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Herath, Nuradhika; Das, Sanjib; Zhu, Jiahua; Kumar, Rajeev; Chen, Jihua; Xiao, Kai; Gu, Gong; Browning, James F.; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Lauter, Valeria

    2016-07-12

    The realization of controllable morphologies of bulk heterojunction (BHJ) in organic photovoltics (OPVs) is one of the key factors in obtaining high-efficiency devices. Here via simultaneous monitoring of the three-dimensional nanostructural modifications in BHJ correlated with the optical analysis and theoretical modeling of charge transport, we provide new insights into the fundamental mechanisms essential for the optimization of (power conversion efficiency) PCEs with additive processing. Our results demonstrate how a trace amount of diiodooctane (DIO) remarkably changes the vertical phase morphology of the active layers resulting in formation of a well-mixed donor-acceptor compact film, augments charge transfer and PCEs. In contrast, excess amount of DIO promotes a massive reordering and results loosely packed mixed phase vertical phase morphology with large clusters leading to deterioration in PCEs. Theoretical modeling of charge transport reveals that DIO increases the mobility of electrons and holes (the charge carriers) by affecting the energetic disorder and electric field dependence of the mobility. Our results show the significant of phase separation and carrier transport pathways to achieve optimal device performances.

  1. Unraveling the fundamental mechanisms of solvent-additive-induced optimization of power conversion efficiencies in organic photovoltaic devices

    DOE PAGES

    Herath, Nuradhika; Das, Sanjib; Zhu, Jiahua; ...

    2016-07-12

    The realization of controllable morphologies of bulk heterojunction (BHJ) in organic photovoltics (OPVs) is one of the key factors in obtaining high-efficiency devices. Here via simultaneous monitoring of the three-dimensional nanostructural modifications in BHJ correlated with the optical analysis and theoretical modeling of charge transport, we provide new insights into the fundamental mechanisms essential for the optimization of (power conversion efficiency) PCEs with additive processing. Our results demonstrate how a trace amount of diiodooctane (DIO) remarkably changes the vertical phase morphology of the active layers resulting in formation of a well-mixed donor-acceptor compact film, augments charge transfer and PCEs. Inmore » contrast, excess amount of DIO promotes a massive reordering and results loosely packed mixed phase vertical phase morphology with large clusters leading to deterioration in PCEs. Theoretical modeling of charge transport reveals that DIO increases the mobility of electrons and holes (the charge carriers) by affecting the energetic disorder and electric field dependence of the mobility. Our results show the significant of phase separation and carrier transport pathways to achieve optimal device performances.« less

  2. Methadone dosage and its relationship to quality of life, satisfaction, psychopathology, cognitive performance and additional consumption of non-prescribed drugs.

    PubMed

    Pedrero-Pérez, Eduardo J; MethaQoL, Grupo

    2016-06-14

    The effectiveness of methadone maintenance treatment is beyond any doubt, but there remains some incertitude about the appropriate and effective dosage and the objectives that should be achieved by this therapy. Some authors maintain that only doses higher than 50-60 mg/day ought to be considered effective, since only these block all the opioid receptors. But others propose the use of doses adjusted to the needs of the patient, based on their recovery process. Quality of life, satisfaction with treatment, psychopathological symptoms, cognitive performance and additional intake of illegal and unprescribed drugs were evaluated in a representative sample of all patients treated with opioid agonists in the Addiction Institute of Madrid (N = 1898, n = 450) and the Junta de Extremadura (N = 100, n = 65). The results revealed a negative relationship between dose and quality of life, psychopathological symptoms and cognitive performance. Satisfaction with treatment, based on doses negotiated together by doctor and patient, was very high, regardless of the dose. To establish hypothetical causal dependencies among the studied variables structural equation modelling was performed. The results reject the need for high dosage if not required by the patient, and highlight the benefits of other psychosocial interventions that lead to recovery, despite the chronification that could imply the use of high doses. Whereas high dosage programmes provide better indicators of social control, the patient's quality of life must be one of the main indicators of a successful treatment, as in any other health problem.

  3. Power of screening tests for colorectal cancer enhanced by high levels of M2-PK in addition to FOBT.

    PubMed

    Zaccaro, Cristina; Saracino, Ilaria Maria; Fiorini, Giulia; Figura, Natale; Holton, John; Castelli, Valentina; Pesci, Valeria; Gatta, Luigi; Vaira, Dino

    2017-02-02

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a multistep process that involves adenoma-carcinoma sequence. CRC can be prevented by routine screening, which can detect precancerous lesions. The aim of this study is to clarify whether faecal occult blood test (i-FOBT), tumor M2 pyruvate kinase (t-M2-PK), and endocannabinoid system molecules (cannabinoid receptors type 1-CB1, type 2-CB2, and fatty acid amide hydrolase-FAAH) might represent better diagnostic tools, alone or in combination, for an early diagnosis of CRC. An immunochemical FOB test (i-FOBT) and quantitative ELISA stool test for t-M2-PK were performed in 127 consecutive patients during a 12 month period. Endocannabinoid system molecules and t-M2-PK expression were detected by immunostaining in healthy tissues and normal mucosa surrounding adenomatous and cancerous colon lesions. i-FOBT and t-M2-PK combination leads to a better diagnostic accuracy for pre-neoplastic and neoplastic colon lesions. T-M2-PK quantification in stool samples and in biopsy samples (immunostaining) correlates with tumourigenesis stages. CB1 and CB2 are well expressed in healthy tissues, and their expression decreases in the presence of advanced stages of carcinogenesis and disappears in CRC. FAAH signal is well expressed in normal mucosa and low-risk adenoma, and increased in high-risk adenoma and carcinoma adjacent tissues. This study shows that high levels of t-M2-PK in addition to FOBT enhance the power of a CRC screening test. Endocannabinoid system molecule expression correlates with colon carcinogenesis stages. Developing future faecal tests for their quantification must be undertaken to obtain a more accurate early non-invasive diagnosis for CRC.

  4. Compact CH{sub 4} sensor system based on a continuous-wave, low power consumption, room temperature interband cascade laser

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Lei; Li, Chunguang; Gluszek, Aleksander K.; Tittel, Frank K.; Sanchez, Nancy P.; Griffin, Robert J.

    2016-01-04

    A tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy-based methane sensor, employing a dense-pattern multi-pass gas cell and a 3.3 μm, CW, DFB, room temperature interband cascade laser (ICL), is reported. The optical integration based on an advanced folded optical path design and an efficient ICL control system with appropriate electrical power management resulted in a CH{sub 4} sensor with a small footprint (32 × 20 × 17 cm{sup 3}) and low-power consumption (6 W). Polynomial and least-squares fit algorithms are employed to remove the baseline of the spectral scan and retrieve CH{sub 4} concentrations, respectively. An Allan-Werle deviation analysis shows that the measurement precision can reach 1.4 ppb for a 60 s averaging time. Continuous measurements covering a seven-day period were performed to demonstrate the stability and robustness of the reported CH{sub 4} sensor system.

  5. Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems

    DOEpatents

    Donnelly, Matthew K.; Chassin, David P.; Dagle, Jeffery E.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael; Winiarski, David W.; Pratt, Robert G.; Boberly-Bartis, Anne Marie

    2006-03-07

    Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems are described. In one aspect, an electrical appliance energy consumption control method includes providing an electrical appliance coupled with a power distribution system, receiving electrical energy within the appliance from the power distribution system, consuming the received electrical energy using a plurality of loads of the appliance, monitoring electrical energy of the power distribution system, and adjusting an amount of consumption of the received electrical energy via one of the loads of the appliance from an initial level of consumption to an other level of consumption different than the initial level of consumption responsive to the monitoring.

  6. Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems

    DOEpatents

    Donnelly, Matthew K.; Chassin, David P.; Dagle, Jeffery E.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael; Winiarski, David W.; Pratt, Robert G.; Boberly-Bartis, Anne Marie

    2008-09-02

    Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems are described. In one aspect, an electrical appliance energy consumption control method includes providing an electrical appliance coupled with a power distribution system, receiving electrical energy within the appliance from the power distribution system, consuming the received electrical energy using a plurality of loads of the appliance, monitoring electrical energy of the power distribution system, and adjusting an amount of consumption of the received electrical energy via one of the loads of the appliance from an initial level of consumption to an other level of consumption different than the initial level of consumption responsive to the monitoring.

  7. Effects of light-emitting diodes under capped daily energy consumption with combinations of electric power and photoperiod on cultivation of Chlorella pyrenoidosa.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinhao; Bin, Hui; Lin, Jian; Chen, Feng; Miao, Xiaoling

    2016-04-01

    Effects of white light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with different light intensities at photoperiod of 18:6h on Chlorella pyrenoidosa growth were investigated. The microalgae exhibited the highest growth rate 89.0mgL(-1)d(-1) and growth efficiency 97.8mgL(-1)KWh(-1) at 110 and 90μmolm(-2)s(-1), respectively. Based on the discovery of this asynchronous phenomenon between growth rate and growth efficiency, influences of LEDs (red, blue and white) under capped daily energy consumption (0.80KWh d(-1)) with combinations of electric power (33.3, 44.4 and 66.6w) and photoperiod (24:0, 18:6 and 12:12h) were further investigated. The highest growth efficiency 106.4mgL(-1)KWh(-1) and growth rate 85.1mgL(-1)d(-1) were both obtained under white-33.3w-24h. Growth efficiency and growth rate were simultaneously improved 1.1 times through this method above. The order of growth efficiency under different LEDs were white>blue>red.

  8. Development of a bidirectional transcutaneous optical data transmission system for artificial hearts allowing long-distance data communication with low electric power consumption.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Eiji; Yamamoto, Yoshiro; Inoue, Yusuke; Makino, Tsutomu; Mitamura, Yoshinori

    2005-01-01

    We have developed a wavelength division bidirectional transcutaneous optical data transmission system using amplitude shift keying (ASK) modulation. The bidirectional optical data transmission system consists of two kinds of light emitting diodes (LEDs) having different wavelengths and an ASK modulator and demodulator. Two narrow directional visible LEDs with a peak output wavelength of 590 nm were used to transmit data from inside the body to outside the body, and a narrow directional near-infrared LED with a peak output wavelength of 940 nm was used for transmission from outside the body to inside the body. The ASK modulator employs a carrier pulse signal (50 kHz) to support a maximum data transmission rate of 9600 bps. An in vitro experiment showed that the maximum tissue thickness of near-infrared optical data transmission without error was 45 mm; the figure was 20 mm for visible optical data transmission. There was no interference between the signals under full-duplex data transmission. Electric power consumption for the data transmission links was 122 mW for near-infrared light and 162 mW (81 mW x 2) for visible light. From the above results, a bidirectional transcutaneous optical data transmission system promises adequate performance for monitoring and control of an artificial heart.

  9. Additive Manufacturing/Diagnostics via the High Frequency Induction Heating of Metal Powders: The Determination of the Power Transfer Factor for Fine Metallic Spheres

    SciTech Connect

    Rios, Orlando; Radhakrishnan, Balasubramaniam; Caravias, George; Holcomb, Matthew

    2015-03-11

    Grid Logic Inc. is developing a method for sintering and melting fine metallic powders for additive manufacturing using spatially-compact, high-frequency magnetic fields called Micro-Induction Sintering (MIS). One of the challenges in advancing MIS technology for additive manufacturing is in understanding the power transfer to the particles in a powder bed. This knowledge is important to achieving efficient power transfer, control, and selective particle heating during the MIS process needed for commercialization of the technology. The project s work provided a rigorous physics-based model for induction heating of fine spherical particles as a function of frequency and particle size. This simulation improved upon Grid Logic s earlier models and provides guidance that will make the MIS technology more effective. The project model will be incorporated into Grid Logic s power control circuit of the MIS 3D printer product and its diagnostics technology to optimize the sintering process for part quality and energy efficiency.

  10. Electrical power consumption of the emitter for a non-guided optoelectronic link Optimisation de la consommation électrique d'un émetteur pour une liaison optoélectronique non-guidée

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benaouda, A.; Lescure, M.; Bensalah, R.

    1998-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to determine the best value of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for a non-guided optoelectronic link with minimum electrical power consumption by the emitter. Transmitter structures have been analysed and optimized as a function of the bit error rate (BER) of the link in order to give either the highest autonomy or a lower number of emitter components. The application requirement for the transmitter is consequently to offer a flexible and secure communication solution. The transmitter provides non-guided infrared communication inside a limited cell size. The thermal effects, the rise and fall times of the optical power output of the emission and the characteristics of component devices have been taken into consideration in order to evaluate the SNR. We demonstrate that, for a given electrical consumption, the emitted optical power of the transmitter circuit increases with the logarithm of the total number of light emitting diodes.

  11. Optimization of Acetylene Black Conductive Additive andPolyvinylidene Difluoride Composition for High Power RechargeableLithium-Ion Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, G.; Zheng, H.; Battaglia, V.S.; Simens, A.S.; Minor, A.M.; Song, X.

    2007-07-01

    Fundamental electrochemical methods were applied to study the effect of the acetylene black (AB) and the polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) polymer binder on the performance of high-power designed rechargeable lithium ion cells. A systematic study of the AB/PVDF long-range electronic conductivity at different weight ratios is performed using four-probe direct current tests and the results reported. There is a wide range of AB/PVDF ratios that satisfy the long-range electronic conductivity requirement of the lithium-ion cathode electrode; however, a significant cell power performance improvement is observed at small AB/PVDF composition ratios that are far from the long-range conductivity optimum of 1 to 1.25. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) tests indicate that the interfacial impedance decreases significantly with increase in binder content. The hybrid power pulse characterization results agree with the EIS tests and also show improvement for cells with a high PVDF content. The AB to PVDF composition plays a significant role in the interfacial resistance. We believe the higher binder contents lead to a more cohesive conductive carbon particle network that results in better overall all local electronic conductivity on the active material surface and hence reduced charge transfer impedance.

  12. Effects of TiO2 and Co2O3 combination additions on the elemental distribution and electromagnetic properties of Mn-Zn power ferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, W. D.; Wang, Y. G.

    2015-06-01

    The effects of TiO2 and Co2O3 combination additions on the elemental distribution and electromagnetic properties of Mn-Zn power ferrites are investigated. TiO2 addition can promote Co2O3 transfer from grain boundaries to the bulk of the grains. The temperature at which the highest initial permeability μi and the lowest power losses PL appear shifts to low temperature range with the increase of Co2O3 content. Compared with the reference sample without TiO2 and Co2O3 addition, the microstructure and electromagnetic properties of Mn-Zn power ferrites can be considerably improved with suitable amounts of TiO2 and Co2O3 combination additions. At the peak temperature, the sample with the 0.1 wt% TiO2 and 0.08 wt% Co2O3 additions has an increase of 15.8% in μi to 3951, and a decrease of 22.9% in PL to 286 kW/m3. The saturation magnetic induction Bs and electrical resistivity ρ at 25 °C reach the highest values of 532 mT and 8.12 Ω m, respectively.

  13. Effect of impeller type and mechanical agitation on the mass transfer and power consumption aspects of ASBR operation treating synthetic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Michelan, Rogério; Zimmer, Thiago R; Rodrigues, José A D; Ratusznei, Suzana M; de Moraes, Deovaldo; Zaiat, Marcelo; Foresti, Eugenio

    2009-03-01

    The effect of flow type and rotor speed was investigated in a round-bottom reactor with 5 L useful volume containing 2.0 L of granular biomass. The reactor treated 2.0 L of synthetic wastewater with a concentration of 800 mgCOD/L in 8-h cycles at 30 degrees C. Five impellers, commonly used in biological processes, have been employed to this end, namely: a turbine and a paddle impeller with six-vertical-flat-blades, a turbine and a paddle impeller with six-45 degrees -inclined-flat-blades and a three-blade-helix impeller. Results showed that altering impeller type and rotor speed did not significantly affect system stability and performance. Average organic matter removal efficiency was about 84% for filtered samples, total volatile acids concentration was below 20 mgHAc/L and bicarbonate alkalinity a little less than 400 mgCaCO3/L for most of the investigated conditions. However, analysis of the first-order kinetic model constants showed that alteration in rotor speed resulted in an increase in the values of the kinetic constants (for instance, from 0.57 h(-1) at 50 rpm to 0.84 h(-1) at 75 rpm when the paddle impeller with six-45 degrees -inclined-flat-blades was used) and that axial flow in mechanically stirred reactors is preferable over radial-flow when the vertical-flat-blade impeller is compared to the inclined-flat-blade impeller (for instance at 75 rpm, from 0.52 h(-1) with the six-flat-blade-paddle impeller to 0.84 h(-1) with the six-45 degrees -inclined-flat-blade-paddle impeller), demonstrating that there is a rotor speed and an impeller type that maximize solid-liquid mass transfer in the reaction medium. Furthermore, power consumption studies in this reduced reactor volume showed that no high power transfer is required to improve mass transfer (less than 0.6 kW/10(3)m3).

  14. Mercury and other trace elements in Ohio River fish collected near coal-fired power plants: Interspecific patterns and consideration of consumption risks.

    PubMed

    Reash, Robin J; Brown, Lauren; Merritt, Karen

    2015-07-01

    Many coal-fired electric generating facilities in the United States are discharging higher loads of Hg, Se, and other chemicals to receiving streams due to the installation of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) air pollution control units. There are regulatory concerns about the potential increased uptake of these bioaccumulative trace elements into food webs. We evaluated the concentrations of As, total Hg (THg), methylmercury (MeHg), and Se in Ohio River fish collected proximal to coal-fired power plants, of which 75% operate FGD systems. Fillet samples (n = 50) from 6 fish species representing 3 trophic levels were analyzed. Geometric mean fillet concentrations of THg (wet wt), MeHg (wet wt), and Se (dry wt) in 3 species were 0.136, 0.1181, and 3.19 mg/kg (sauger); 0.123, 0.1013, and 1.56 mg/kg (channel catfish); and 0.127, 0.0914, and 3.30 mg/kg (hybrid striped bass). For all species analyzed, only 3 fillet samples (6% of total) had MeHg concentrations that exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) human health criterion (0.3 mg/kg wet wt); all of these were freshwater drum aged ≥ 19 y. None of the samples analyzed exceeded the USEPA proposed muscle and whole body Se thresholds for protection against reproductive effects in freshwater fish. All but 8 fillet samples had a total As concentration less than 1.0 mg/kg dry wt. Mean Se health benefit values (HBVSe ) for all species were ≥ 4, indicating that potential Hg-related health risks associated with consumption of Ohio River fish are likely to be offset by adequate Se concentrations. Overall, we observed no measurable evidence of enhanced trace element bioaccumulation associated with proximity to power plant FGD facilities, however, some enhanced bioaccumulation could have occurred in the wastewater mixing zones. Furthermore, available evidence indicates that, due to hydraulic and physical factors, the main stem Ohio River appears to have low net Hg methylation potential.

  15. Lean consumption.

    PubMed

    Womack, James P; Jones, Daniel T

    2005-03-01

    During the past 20 years, the real price of most consumer goods has fallen worldwide, the variety of goods and the range of sales channels offering them have continued to grow, and product quality has steadily improved. So why is consumption often so frustrating? It doesn't have to be--and shouldn't be--the authors say. They argue that it's time to apply lean thinking to the processes of consumption--to give consumers the full value they want from goods and services with the greatest efficiency and the least pain. Companies may think they save time and money by off-loading work to the consumer but, in fact, the opposite is true. By streamlining their systems for providing goods and services, and by making it easier for customers to buy and use those products and services, a growing number of companies are actually lowering costs while saving everyone time. In the process, these businesses are learning more about their customers, strengthening consumer loyalty, and attracting new customers who are defecting from less user-friendly competitors. The challenge lies with the retailers, service providers, manufacturers, and suppliers that are not used to looking at total cost from the standpoint of the consumer and even less accustomed to working with customers to optimize the consumption process. Lean consumption requires a fundamental shift in the way companies think about the relationship between provision and consumption, and the role their customers play in these processes. It also requires consumers to change the nature of their relationships with the companies they patronize. Lean production has clearly triumphed over similar obstacles in recent years to become the dominant global manufacturing model. Lean consumption, its logical companion, can't be far behind.

  16. First-order electroweak phase transition powered by additional F-term loop effects in an extended supersymmetric Higgs sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanemura, Shinya; Senaha, Eibun; Shindou, Tetsuo

    2011-11-01

    We investigate the one-loop effect of new charged scalar bosons on the Higgs potential at finite temperatures in the supersymmetric standard model with four Higgs doublet chiral superfields as well as a pair of charged singlet chiral superfields. In this model, the mass of the lightest Higgs boson h is determined only by the D-term in the Higgs potential at the tree-level, while the triple Higgs boson coupling for hhh can receive a significant radiative correction due to nondecoupling one-loop contributions of the additional charged scalar bosons. We find that the same nondecoupling mechanism can also contribute to realize stronger first order electroweak phase transition than that in the minimal supersymmetric standard model, which is definitely required for a successful scenario of electroweak baryogenesis. Therefore, this model can be a new candidate for a model in which the baryon asymmetry of the Universe is explained at the electroweak scale.

  17. Assessment of the Annual Additional Effective Doses amongst Minamisoma Children during the Second Year after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Disaster.

    PubMed

    Tsubokura, Masaharu; Kato, Shigeaki; Morita, Tomohiro; Nomura, Shuhei; Kami, Masahiro; Sakaihara, Kikugoro; Hanai, Tatsuo; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi; Kanazawa, Yukio

    2015-01-01

    An assessment of the external and internal radiation exposure levels, which includes calculation of effective doses from chronic radiation exposure and assessment of long-term radiation-related health risks, has become mandatory for residents living near the nuclear power plant in Fukushima, Japan. Data for all primary and secondary children in Minamisoma who participated in both external and internal screening programs were employed to assess the annual additional effective dose acquired due to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant disaster. In total, 881 children took part in both internal and external radiation exposure screening programs between 1st April 2012 to 31st March 2013. The level of additional effective doses ranged from 0.025 to 3.49 mSv/year with the median of 0.70 mSv/year. While 99.7% of the children (n = 878) were not detected with internal contamination, 90.3% of the additional effective doses was the result of external radiation exposure. This finding is relatively consistent with the doses estimated by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). The present study showed that the level of annual additional effective doses among children in Minamisoma has been low, even after the inter-individual differences were taken into account. The dose from internal radiation exposure was negligible presumably due to the success of contaminated food control.

  18. Assessment of the Annual Additional Effective Doses amongst Minamisoma Children during the Second Year after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Disaster

    PubMed Central

    Tsubokura, Masaharu; Kato, Shigeaki; Morita, Tomohiro; Nomura, Shuhei; Kami, Masahiro; Sakaihara, Kikugoro; Hanai, Tatsuo; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi; Kanazawa, Yukio

    2015-01-01

    An assessment of the external and internal radiation exposure levels, which includes calculation of effective doses from chronic radiation exposure and assessment of long-term radiation-related health risks, has become mandatory for residents living near the nuclear power plant in Fukushima, Japan. Data for all primary and secondary children in Minamisoma who participated in both external and internal screening programs were employed to assess the annual additional effective dose acquired due to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant disaster. In total, 881 children took part in both internal and external radiation exposure screening programs between 1st April 2012 to 31st March 2013. The level of additional effective doses ranged from 0.025 to 3.49 mSv/year with the median of 0.70 mSv/year. While 99.7% of the children (n = 878) were not detected with internal contamination, 90.3% of the additional effective doses was the result of external radiation exposure. This finding is relatively consistent with the doses estimated by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). The present study showed that the level of annual additional effective doses among children in Minamisoma has been low, even after the inter-individual differences were taken into account. The dose from internal radiation exposure was negligible presumably due to the success of contaminated food control. PMID:26053271

  19. Impact of high microwave power on hydrogen impurity trapping in nanocrystalline diamond films grown with simultaneous nitrogen and oxygen addition into methane/hydrogen plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, C. J.; Fernandes, A. J. S.; Jiang, X. F.; Pinto, J. L.; Ye, H.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we study for the first time the influence of microwave power higher than 2.0 kW on bonded hydrogen impurity incorporation (form and content) in nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) films grown in a 5 kW MPCVD reactor. The NCD samples of different thickness ranging from 25 to 205 μm were obtained through a small amount of simultaneous nitrogen and oxygen addition into conventional about 4% methane in hydrogen reactants by keeping the other operating parameters in the same range as that typically used for the growth of large-grained polycrystalline diamond films. Specific hydrogen point defect in the NCD films is analyzed by using Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. When the other operating parameters are kept constant (mainly the input gases), with increasing of microwave power from 2.0 to 3.2 kW (the pressure was increased slightly in order to stabilize the plasma ball of the same size), which simultaneously resulting in the rise of substrate temperature more than 100 °C, the growth rate of the NCD films increases one order of magnitude from 0.3 to 3.0 μm/h, while the content of hydrogen impurity trapped in the NCD films during the growth process decreases with power. It has also been found that a new H related infrared absorption peak appears at 2834 cm-1 in the NCD films grown with a small amount of nitrogen and oxygen addition at power higher than 2.0 kW and increases with power higher than 3.0 kW. According to these new experimental results, the role of high microwave power on diamond growth and hydrogen impurity incorporation is discussed based on the standard growth mechanism of CVD diamonds using CH4/H2 gas mixtures. Our current experimental findings shed light into the incorporation mechanism of hydrogen impurity in NCD films grown with a small amount of nitrogen and oxygen addition into methane/hydrogen plasma.

  20. High SO{sub 2} removal efficiency testing: Results of DBA and sodium formate additive tests at Southwestern Electric Power company`s Pirkey Station

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-30

    Tests were conducted at Southwestern Electric Power Company`s (SWEPCo) Henry W. Pirkey Station wet limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system to evaluate options for achieving high sulfur dioxide removal efficiency. The Pirkey FGD system includes four absorber modules, each with dual slurry recirculation loops and with a perforated plate tray in the upper loop. The options tested involved the use of dibasic acid (DBA) or sodium formate as a performance additive. The effectiveness of other potential options was simulated with the Electric Power Research Institute`s (EPRI) FGD PRocess Integration and Simulation Model (FGDPRISM) after it was calibrated to the system. An economic analysis was done to determine the cost effectiveness of the high-efficiency options. Results are-summarized below.

  1. The search of the best mode of the reserve power supply consumption during the nuclear reactor’s emergency shutdown procedures in case of force majeure circumstances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagrebaev, A. M.; Trifonenkov, A. V.

    2017-01-01

    This article deals with the problem of the control mode choice for a power supply system in case of force majeure circumstances. It is not known precisely, when a force majeure incident occurs, but the threatened period is given, when the incident is expected. It is supposed, that force majeure circumstances force nuclear reactor shutdown at the moment of threat coming. In this article the power supply system is considered, which consists of a nuclear reactor and a reserve power supply, for example, a hydroelectric pumped storage power station. The reserve power supply has limited capacity and it doesn’t undergo the threatened incident. The problem of the search of the best reserve supply time-distribution in case of force majeure circumstances is stated. The search is performed according to minimization of power loss and damage to the infrastructure. The software has been developed, which performs automatic numerical search of the approximate optimal control modes for the reserve power supply.

  2. Extremely low losses 14xx single mode laser diode leading to 550-mW output power module with 0-75°C case temperature and 10-W consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burie, J.-R.; Garabedian, P.; Starck, C.; Pagnod-Rossiaux, P.; Bettiati, M.; Do Nascimento, M.; Reygrobellet, J.-N.; Bertreux, J.-C.; Laruelle, F.

    2012-03-01

    High power 14xx laser pumps are more and more required for eye safe industrial, medical, safety and defense applications as well as for increased telecom network capability (e.g. for 100 Gb Ethernet). However, this need of high power requires to control the overall power consumption in a range in line with systems requirements. In this respect, 3S PHOTONICS has developed a 14xx nm single mode laser diode with record internal losses of 1.5 cm-1 compared to the 2.7 cm-1 reported up to now. These lasers are based on p/nBH technology and use the asymmetric waveguide concept to reduce internal losses. The record loss value, coupled to an internal efficiency higher than 0.8, allows realization lasers of 3 mm length with external efficiency higher than 0.5 W.A-1 at 25°C in AR/HR coating configuration. Modules using direct coupling technology were realized. High coupling efficiency is obtained thanks to the 8° x 14° far field pattern of the diode. Output power of 550 mW at 1.8 A is thus obtained, with or without FBG stabilization, with maximum output power above 700mW. Thanks to the lasers' length, voltage at this current level is below 1.9 V, which gives a reduced thermal load. Thus, the overall modules electrical consumption remains lower than 10 W at case temperatures ranging from 0°C to 75°C. The 3 mm length also guaranties high reliability of these laser diodes.

  3. Developing a high-resolution vehicular emission inventory by integrating an emission model and a traffic model: Part 1--Modeling fuel consumption and emissions based on speed and vehicle-specific power.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haikun; Fu, Lixin

    2010-12-01

    To improve the accuracy and applicability of vehicular emission models, this study proposes a speed and vehicle-specific power (VSP) modeling method to estimate vehicular emissions and fuel consumption using data gathered by a portable emissions monitoring system (PEMS). The PEMS data were categorized into discrete speed-VSP bins on the basis of the characteristics of vehicle driving conditions and emissions in Chinese cities. Speed-VSP modal average rates of emissions (or fuel consumption) and the time spent in the corresponding speed-VSP bins were then used to calculate the total trip emissions (or fuel consumption) and emission factors (or fuel economy) under specific average link speeds. The model approach was validated by comparing it against measured data with prediction errors within 20% for trip emissions and link-speed-based emission factors. This analysis is based on the data of light-duty gasoline vehicles in China; however, this research approach could be generalized to other vehicle fleets in other countries. This modeling method could also be coupled with traffic demand models to establish high-resolution emissions inventories and evaluate the impacts of traffic-related emission control measures.

  4. Piezoelectric Power Requirements for Active Vibration Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brennan, Matthew C.; McGowan, Anna-Maria Rivas

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a method for predicting the power consumption of piezoelectric actuators utilized for active vibration control. Analytical developments and experimental tests show that the maximum power required to control a structure using surface-bonded piezoelectric actuators is independent of the dynamics between the piezoelectric actuator and the host structure. The results demonstrate that for a perfectly-controlled system, the power consumption is a function of the quantity and type of piezoelectric actuators and the voltage and frequency of the control law output signal. Furthermore, as control effectiveness decreases, the power consumption of the piezoelectric actuators decreases. In addition, experimental results revealed a non-linear behavior in the material properties of piezoelectric actuators. The material non- linearity displayed a significant increase in capacitance with an increase in excitation voltage. Tests show that if the non-linearity of the capacitance was accounted for, a conservative estimate of the power can easily be determined.

  5. Compact, low power consumption methane sensor based on a novel miniature multipass gas cell and a CW, room temperature interband cascade laser emitting at 3.3 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Lei; Li, Chunguang; Sanchez, Nancy P.; Gluszek, Aleksander K.; Griffin, Robert J.; Tittel, Frank K.

    2016-02-01

    A tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS)-based methane sensor, employing a miniature dense-pattern multi-pass gas cell (MPGC) and a continuous wave, room temperature interband cascade laser (ICL), is reported. The optical integration based on an advanced folded optical path design and an efficient ICL control system with appropriate electrical power management results in a methane sensor with a small footprint (32 × 20 × 17 cm3) and low-power consumption (6W). The direct absorption measurement strategy allows absolute quantitative assessments without any calibration. Polynomial and least-squares fit algorithms are employed to remove the baseline of the spectral scan and retrieve CH4 concentrations, respectively. An Allan-Werle deviation analysis shows that the measurement precision can reach 1.4 ppb for a 60 s averaging time. Continuous measurements lasting seven days were performed to demonstrate the stability and robustness of the reported methane sensor.

  6. A short fuse after alcohol: implicit power associations predict aggressiveness after alcohol consumption in young heavy drinkers with limited executive control.

    PubMed

    Wiers, Reinout W; Beckers, Leen; Houben, Katrijn; Hofmann, Wilhelm

    2009-09-01

    This study tested a hypothesis derived from recent dual-process models, which conceptualize behavior as the interplay of associative and Executive Control (EC) processes. This general logic was applied here to the phenomenon of aggressiveness after drinking alcohol. Specifically, we predicted that automatic associations between alcohol and power would predict aggressiveness after drinking in men with relatively weak EC. Participants were 57 heavy drinking male students, who completed two versions of the Implicit Association Test (IAT), one assessing alcohol-power associations (hypothesized critical associations) and one alcohol-arousal associations (control-test), a classical Stroop test (measure of EC) and a number of alcohol-related questionnaires, including four questions on aggressiveness after drinking (dependent variable). As predicted, automatic alcohol-power associations significantly predicted self-reported aggressiveness after drinking in low but not in high EC individuals. As expected, this interaction was specific for alcohol-power associations since it was not found with regard to alcohol-arousal associations. We argue that this finding, together with a recent related findings, indicates that specific instances of "impulsivity" can be conceptualized as the joint outcome of two processes: a general weak EC and an associative process that predicts the impulsive behavior under study when not inhibited by EC processes.

  7. Electric power monthly

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Sandra R.; Johnson, Melvin; McClevey, Kenneth; Calopedis, Stephen; Bolden, Deborah

    1992-05-01

    The Electric Power Monthly is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fuel are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Additionally, statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, new generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel.

  8. Accumulation of heavy metals and human health risk assessment via the consumption of freshwater fish Mastacembelus armatus inhabiting, thermal power plant effluent loaded canal.

    PubMed

    Javed, Mehjbeen; Usmani, Nazura

    2016-01-01

    Bioaccumulation of six heavy metals (Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn) in the muscle of highly consumed fish species (Mastacembelus armatus) were measured using atomic absorption spectrometer. Fe (213.29 mg/kg dry weight) concentration was the most, followed by Zn (186.19 mg/kg dry weight), Ni (58.98 mg/kg dry weight), Cu (41.36 mg/kg dry weight), Co (9.06 mg/kg dry weight) and Mn (9.03 mg/kg dry weight). Estimated daily intake of heavy metals was calculated by mean fish consumption rate 19.5 × 10(-3) kg/day, on the basis of a calculation of the amount of fish consumed by adult individuals (male and female). The studied fish species pose non carcinogenic risk for Co and Ni [target hazard quotient (THQ) > 1] only. Hazard index (HI) was high. Carcinogenic risk (TR) posed by this fish for male and female was 3.43 × 10(-3) and 3.91 × 10(-3), respectively for Ni (the carcinogenic potency slope factor was available for Ni only). The study is an alert indicating that inhabitants who consume these fishes (particularly females) were at risk of Co and Ni toxicity. In India recommended guidelines have yet not been established for these heavy metals, which is essential for setting of toxicological standards.

  9. Ferric-reducing ability power of selected plant polyphenols and their metabolites: implications for clinical studies on the antioxidant effects of fruits and vegetable consumption.

    PubMed

    deGraft-Johnson, Jeffrey; Kolodziejczyk, Krzysztof; Krol, Maciej; Nowak, Piotr; Krol, Boguslaw; Nowak, Dariusz

    2007-05-01

    Undeniably, low sensitivities in the ferric-reducing ability power (FRAP) is evident in the detection of the augmentation of plasma antioxidant activity, relative to the rise in circulating polyphenols after ingestion of fruits and vegetables. We investigated in vitro the FRAP of 17 plant polyphenols and their metabolites at submicromolar concentrations commensurate in human plasma. We then explored the in vitro effects of polyphenols and purified apple quercetin glycosides on plasma FRAP. We found that apple quercetin glycosides along with various polyphenols observed this distinct power at submicromolar concentrations. The presence of a catechol structure in the compound molecule was positively associated with FRAP (r = 0.60, P < 0.05). An aliphatic substitute at a catechol ring and a double bond in an aliphatic substitute conjugated with an aromatic ring of catechol contributed to 37% of the variance in the FRAP of compounds with catechol in the backbone structure (n = 11). Plasma supplementation with 0.2 microM mixtures of seven of the most active compounds (catechin, 3,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid, 3,4-dihydroxyhydrocinnamic acid, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, ferulic acid, gallic acid and quercetin) initiated a placid rise in FRAP (23.3 +/- 1.2 versus 28.1 +/- 1.3 nmol of Fe(3+), P < 0.05). Apple quercetin glycosides at 0.5 microM did not elevate plasma FRAP. Plasma alone had 30 times higher power than quercetin glycosides at 0.5 microM. Abounding of FRAP exhibited in human plasma as compared to polyphenols at submicromolar concentrations, may offer elucidation to previous incongruities implicated in insignificant rises of plasma FRAP several days after ingestion of fruits or vegetables. This suggests that intake of food products and/or supplements rich in polyphenols containing a catechol ring with an aliphatic substitute augments the plasma FRAP in human beings.

  10. US energy consumption and supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanatta, C. M.

    1981-01-01

    Energy consumption and cost in 1978 and 1979 are discussed with emphasis on the effect of imported oil on the economy of the United States. Some of the international aspects of energy supply are described, and actions to meet the probability of a cutoff of oil imports from the Persian Gulf area are suggested. Short and long range strategies for ensuring energy self sufficiency are discussed. A rationale for major, long range dependence on fission and fusion power is given, and the possible advantages of a nearly all electric energy system are mentioned. Projection of energy consumption and supply to the year 2020 based upon economic and demographic models is discussed.

  11. Third-Harmonic Envelope Feedback Method for High-Efficiency Linear Power Amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshima, Shoichi; Ugajin, Mamoru; Harada, Mitsuru

    A new low-power feedback structure for a power amplifier (PA) reduces signal distortion while keeping the power efficiency of the PA high. The feedback structure injects the envelope of the third-order harmonics into the input signal. In adopting this method for a class-A amplifier, we obtain over 10% higher efficiency while maintaining the same adjacent channel power ratio (ACPR). The power consumption of additional circuit is 200µW.

  12. State energy data report 1996: Consumption estimates

    SciTech Connect

    1999-02-01

    The State Energy Data Report (SEDR) provides annual time series estimates of State-level energy consumption by major economic sectors. The estimates are developed in the Combined State Energy Data System (CSEDS), which is maintained and operated by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The goal in maintaining CSEDS is to create historical time series of energy consumption by State that are defined as consistently as possible over time and across sectors. CSEDS exists for two principal reasons: (1) to provide State energy consumption estimates to Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, and the general public and (2) to provide the historical series necessary for EIA`s energy models. To the degree possible, energy consumption has been assigned to five sectors: residential, commercial, industrial, transportation, and electric utility sectors. Fuels covered are coal, natural gas, petroleum, nuclear electric power, hydroelectric power, biomass, and other, defined as electric power generated from geothermal, wind, photovoltaic, and solar thermal energy. 322 tabs.

  13. Determinants of Fast Food Consumption among Iranian High School Students Based on Planned Behavior Theory

    PubMed Central

    Sharifirad, Gholamreza; Yarmohammadi, Parastoo; Azadbakht, Leila; Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Hassanzadeh, Akbar

    2013-01-01

    Objective. This study was conducted to identify some factors (beliefs and norms) which are related to fast food consumption among high school students in Isfahan, Iran. We used the framework of the theory planned behavior (TPB) to predict this behavior. Subjects & Methods. Cross-sectional data were available from high school students (n = 521) who were recruited by cluster randomized sampling. All of the students completed a questionnaire assessing variables of standard TPB model including attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavior control (PBC), and the additional variables past behavior, actual behavior control (ABC). Results. The TPB variables explained 25.7% of the variance in intentions with positive attitude as the strongest (β = 0.31, P < 0.001) and subjective norms as the weakest (β = 0.29, P < 0.001) determinant. Concurrently, intentions accounted for 6% of the variance for fast food consumption. Past behavior and ABC accounted for an additional amount of 20.4% of the variance in fast food consumption. Conclusion. Overall, the present study suggests that the TPB model is useful in predicting related beliefs and norms to the fast food consumption among adolescents. Subjective norms in TPB model and past behavior in TPB model with additional variables (past behavior and actual behavior control) were the most powerful predictors of fast food consumption. Therefore, TPB model may be a useful framework for planning intervention programs to reduce fast food consumption by students. PMID:23936635

  14. An Evaluation of the Additional Acoustic Power Needed to Overcome the Effects of a Test-Articles Absorption During Reverberant Chamber Acoustic Testing of Spaceflight Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hozman, Aron D.; Hughes, William O.

    2014-01-01

    It is important to realize that some test-articles may have significant sound absorption that may challenge the acoustic power capabilities of a test facility. Therefore, to mitigate this risk of not being able to meet the customers target spectrum, it is prudent to demonstrate early-on an increased acoustic power capability which compensates for this test-article absorption. This paper describes a concise method to reduce this risk when testing aerospace test-articles which have significant absorption. This method was successfully applied during the SpaceX Falcon 9 Payload Fairing acoustic test program at the NASA Glenn Research Center Plum Brook Stations RATF.

  15. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  16. A Hierarchical Examination of the Immigrant Achievement Gap: The Additional Explanatory Power of Nationality and Educational Selectivity over Traditional Explorations of Race and Socioeconomic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simms, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    This study compared immigrant and nonimmigrant educational achievement (i.e., the immigrant gap) in math by reexamining the explanatory power of race and socioeconomic status (SES)--two variables, perhaps, most commonly considered in educational research. Four research questions were explored through growth curve modeling, factor analysis, and…

  17. An Evaluation of the Additional Acoustic Power Needed to Overcome the Effects of a Test-Article's Absorption during Reverberant Chamber Acoustic Testing of Spaceflight Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hozman, Aron D.; Hughes, William O.

    2014-01-01

    The exposure of a customers aerospace test-article to a simulated acoustic launch environment is typically performed in a reverberant acoustic test chamber. The acoustic pre-test runs that will ensure that the sound pressure levels of this environment can indeed be met by a test facility are normally performed without a test-article dynamic simulator of representative acoustic absorption and size. If an acoustic test facilitys available acoustic power capability becomes maximized with the test-article installed during the actual test then the customers environment requirement may become compromised. In order to understand the risk of not achieving the customers in-tolerance spectrum requirement with the test-article installed, an acoustic power margin evaluation as a function of frequency may be performed by the test facility. The method for this evaluation of acoustic power will be discussed in this paper. This method was recently applied at the NASA Glenn Research Center Plum Brook Stations Reverberant Acoustic Test Facility for the SpaceX Falcon 9 Payload Fairing acoustic test program.

  18. An Evaluation of the Additional Acoustic Power Needed to Overcome the Effects of a Test-Article's Absorption During Reverberant Chamber Acoustic Testing of Spaceflight Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hozman, Aron D.; Hughes, William O.

    2014-01-01

    The exposure of a customer's aerospace test-article to a simulated acoustic launch environment is typically performed in a reverberant acoustic test chamber. The acoustic pre-test runs that will ensure that the sound pressure levels of this environment can indeed be met by a test facility are normally performed without a test-article dynamic simulator of representative acoustic absorption and size. If an acoustic test facility's available acoustic power capability becomes maximized with the test-article installed during the actual test then the customer's environment requirement may become compromised. In order to understand the risk of not achieving the customer's in-tolerance spectrum requirement with the test-article installed, an acoustic power margin evaluation as a function of frequency may be performed by the test facility. The method for this evaluation of acoustic power will be discussed in this paper. This method was recently applied at the NASA Glenn Research Center Plum Brook Station's Reverberant Acoustic Test Facility for the SpaceX Falcon 9 Payload Fairing acoustic test program.

  19. Electric power monthly, March 1998 with data for December 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and US levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity retail sales, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. In addition, data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. 63 tabs.

  20. Mapping water consumption for energy production around the Pacific Rim

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tidwell, Vincent; Moreland, Barbie

    2016-09-01

    World energy demand is projected to increase by more than a third by 2035 and with it the use of water to extract and process fuels and generate electricity. Management of this energy-water nexus requires a clear understanding of the inter-related demands of these resources as well as their regional distribution. Toward this need the fresh water consumed for energy production was mapped for almost 12 000 watersheds distributed across the 21-economies comprising the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation. Fresh water consumption was estimated for ten different sectors including thermoelectric and hydroelectric power; energy extraction including coal, oil, natural gas, uranium and unconventional oil/gas; energy processing including oil and biofuels; and biofuel feedstock irrigation. These measures of water consumption were put in context by drawing comparison with published measures of water risk. In total 791 watersheds (32%) of the 2511 watersheds where energy related water consumption occurred were also characterized by high to extreme water risk, these watersheds were designated as being at energy-water risk. For six economies watersheds at energy-water risk represented half or more of all basins where energy related water consumption occurred, while four additional economies exceeded 30%.

  1. Mapping water consumption for energy production around the Pacific Rim

    DOE PAGES

    Tidwell, Vincent; Moreland, Barbie

    2016-09-07

    World energy demand is projected to increase by more than a third by 2035 and with it the use of water to extract and process fuels and generate electricity. Management of this energy-water nexus requires a clear understanding of the inter-related demands of these resources as well as their regional distribution. Toward this need the fresh water consumed for energy production was mapped for almost 12 000 watersheds distributed across the 21-economies comprising the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation. Fresh water consumption was estimated for ten different sectors including thermoelectric and hydroelectric power; energy extraction including coal, oil, natural gas, uranium andmore » unconventional oil/gas; energy processing including oil and biofuels; and biofuel feedstock irrigation. These measures of water consumption were put in context by drawing comparison with published measures of water risk. In total 791 watersheds (32%) of the 2511 watersheds where energy related water consumption occurred were also characterized by high to extreme water risk, these watersheds were designated as being at energy-water risk. Furthermore, for six economies watersheds at energy-water risk represented half or more of all basins where energy related water consumption occurred, while four additional economies exceeded 30%.« less

  2. Mapping water consumption for energy production around the Pacific Rim

    SciTech Connect

    Tidwell, Vincent; Moreland, Barbie

    2016-09-07

    World energy demand is projected to increase by more than a third by 2035 and with it the use of water to extract and process fuels and generate electricity. Management of this energy-water nexus requires a clear understanding of the inter-related demands of these resources as well as their regional distribution. Toward this need the fresh water consumed for energy production was mapped for almost 12 000 watersheds distributed across the 21-economies comprising the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation. Fresh water consumption was estimated for ten different sectors including thermoelectric and hydroelectric power; energy extraction including coal, oil, natural gas, uranium and unconventional oil/gas; energy processing including oil and biofuels; and biofuel feedstock irrigation. These measures of water consumption were put in context by drawing comparison with published measures of water risk. In total 791 watersheds (32%) of the 2511 watersheds where energy related water consumption occurred were also characterized by high to extreme water risk, these watersheds were designated as being at energy-water risk. Furthermore, for six economies watersheds at energy-water risk represented half or more of all basins where energy related water consumption occurred, while four additional economies exceeded 30%.

  3. Additional considerations and recommendations for the quantification of hand-grip strength in the measurement of leg power during high-intensity cycle ergometry.

    PubMed

    Baker, Julien Steven; Davies, Bruce

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to further examine the influence of hand-grip strength on power profiles and blood lactate values during high-intensity cycle ergometry. Fifteen male subjects each completed a 20-second cycle ergometer test twice, in a random manner, using two protocols, with a hand grip (WG), and without hand grip (WOHG). Hand-grip strength was quantified prior to exercise using a hand-grip dynamometer. Capillary (earlobe) blood was collected at rest, immediately following exercise, and 5 minutes postexercise. In the WG protocol, mean (+/-SD) blood lactate concentrations were 1.11 +/- 0.7 mmol.l( -1), 3.68 +/- 1.2 mmol.l( -1), and 8.14 +/- 1.3 mmol.l( -1), respectively. During the WOHG protocol, blood lactate values recorded were 0.99 +/- 0.9 mmol.l( -1), 3.68 +/- 1.1 mmol.l( -1), and 6.62 +/- 0.9 mmol.l( -1), respectively. Differences in lactate concentrations were found (P < 0.05) from rest to 5 minutes postexercise for both groups. Differences in concentrations also were observed between groups at the 5-minutes postexercise stage. Peak power output and fatigue index values also were greater using the WG protocol (792 +/- 73 W vs. 624 +/- 66 W; 38 +/- 6 vs. 24 +/- 8 W respectively; P< 0.05). No differences were recorded for mean power output (MPO) or work done (WD) between experimental conditions. These findings suggest that the performance of traditional style leg cycle ergometry is influenced by a muscular contribution from the upper body and by upper body strength.

  4. Effect of organic additives on the mitigation of volatility of 1-nitro-3,3'-dinitroazetidine (TNAZ): next generation powerful melt cast able high energy material.

    PubMed

    Talawar, M B; Singh, Alok; Naik, N H; Polke, B G; Gore, G M; Asthana, S N; Gandhe, B R

    2006-06-30

    1-Nitro-3,3'-dinitroazetidine (TNAZ) was synthesized based on the lines of reported method. Thermolysis studies on synthesized and characterized TNAZ using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and hyphenated TG-FT-IR techniques were undertaken to generate data on decomposition pattern. FT-IR of decomposition products of TNAZ revealed the evolution of oxides of nitrogen and HCN containing species suggesting the cleavage of C/N-NO(2) bond accompanied with the collapse of ring structure. The effect of incorporation of 15% additives namely, 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (AT), 3,5-diamino-1,2,4-triazole (DAT), carbohydrazide (CHZ), 5,7-dinitrobenzofuroxan (DNBF), bis (2,2-dinitropropyl) succinate (BNPS), triaminoguanidinium nitrate (TAGN), 2,4,6-trinitrobenzoic acid (TNBA) and nitroguanidine (NQ) on the volatility of TNAZ was investigated by undertaking thermogravimetric analysis. The TG pattern brings out the potential of BNPS and TAGN as additives to mitigate the volatility of TNAZ. The influence of additives on thermal decomposition of pattern of TNAZ was also investigated by DSC. The DSC results indicated that the additives did not have appreciable effect on the melting point of TNAZ. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) studies were carried out to investigate the effect of additives on morphology of TNAZ. This paper also discusses the possible mechanism involved in between the TNAZ and TAGN and BNPS. It appears that the formation of charge transfer complex formation between the TNAZ and TAGN/BNPS. The effect of addition of high explosives such as CL-20, HMX and RDX on thermo-physical characteristics of TNAZ is also reported in this paper.

  5. State energy data report 1994: Consumption estimates

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    This document provides annual time series estimates of State-level energy consumption by major economic sector. The estimates are developed in the State Energy Data System (SEDS), operated by EIA. SEDS provides State energy consumption estimates to members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, and the general public, and provides the historical series needed for EIA`s energy models. Division is made for each energy type and end use sector. Nuclear electric power is included.

  6. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    ... or natural. Natural food additives include: Herbs or spices to add flavor to foods Vinegar for pickling ... Certain colors improve the appearance of foods. Many spices, as well as natural and man-made flavors, ...

  7. Electric power monthly, February 1998 with data for November 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and US levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity retail sales, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. In addition, data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source; consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant. 63 tabs.

  8. Tidal power in Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Aisiks, E.G.

    1993-03-01

    This presentation describes the tidal power potential of Argentina and the current status of its utilization. The topics of the presentation include tidal power potential, electric production of the region and the Argentine share of production and consumption, conventional hydroelectric potential, economic feasibility of tidal power production, and the general design and feasibility of a tidal power plant planned for the San Jose Gulf.

  9. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  10. Phosphazene additives

    DOEpatents

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  11. Results from expert tests of the TP-100A boiler at the Lugansk thermal power station during the combustion of lean coal and anthracite culm with addition of RA-GEN-F anaklarid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailov, V. E.; Tupitsyn, S. P.; Sokolov, V. V.; Chebakova, G. F.; Malygin, V. I.; Yazykov, Yu. V.; Kharchenko, A. V.; Chetverikov, A. N.

    2012-08-01

    Results from expert tests of separated combustion of Grade T and Grade ASh anthracite culm in the TP-100A boiler No. 15 at the Lugansk thermal power station carried out with and without addition of RA-GEN-F anaklarid are presented. The possibility of extending the boiler load adjustment range and excluding the use of natural gas for supporting the flame at minimal loads is considered.

  12. Minimizing water consumption when producing hydropower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leon, A. S.

    2015-12-01

    In 2007, hydropower accounted for only 16% of the world electricity production, with other renewable sources totaling 3%. Thus, it is not surprising that when alternatives are evaluated for new energy developments, there is strong impulse for fossil fuel or nuclear energy as opposed to renewable sources. However, as hydropower schemes are often part of a multipurpose water resources development project, they can often help to finance other components of the project. In addition, hydropower systems and their associated dams and reservoirs provide human well-being benefits, such as flood control and irrigation, and societal benefits such as increased recreational activities and improved navigation. Furthermore, hydropower due to its associated reservoir storage, can provide flexibility and reliability for energy production in integrated energy systems. The storage capability of hydropower systems act as a regulating mechanism by which other intermittent and variable renewable energy sources (wind, wave, solar) can play a larger role in providing electricity of commercial quality. Minimizing water consumption for producing hydropower is critical given that overuse of water for energy production may result in a shortage of water for other purposes such as irrigation, navigation or fish passage. This paper presents a dimensional analysis for finding optimal flow discharge and optimal penstock diameter when designing impulse and reaction water turbines for hydropower systems. The objective of this analysis is to provide general insights for minimizing water consumption when producing hydropower. This analysis is based on the geometric and hydraulic characteristics of the penstock, the total hydraulic head and the desired power production. As part of this analysis, various dimensionless relationships between power production, flow discharge and head losses were derived. These relationships were used to withdraw general insights on determining optimal flow discharge and

  13. Predicting Ship Fuel Consumption: Update.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-07-01

    ship propulsion fuel consumption as a function of ship speed for U.S. Navy combatant and auxiliary ships. Prediction is based on fitting an analytic function to published ship class speed-fuel use data using nonlinear regression. The form of the analytic function fitted is motivated by the literature on ship powering and resistance. The report discusses data sources and data issues, and the impact of ship propulsion plant configuration on fuel use. The regression coefficients of the exponential function fitted, tabular numerical comparison of

  14. Overview of Alcohol Consumption

    MedlinePlus

    ... Work Our Funding Our Staff Jobs & Training Our Location Contact Us You are here Home » Alcohol & Your Health » Overview of Alcohol Consumption In this Section Alcohol Facts & Statistics What Is A Standard Drink? Drinking Levels Defined Overview of Alcohol Consumption ...

  15. Automated Power-Distribution System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashworth, Barry; Riedesel, Joel; Myers, Chris; Miller, William; Jones, Ellen F.; Freeman, Kenneth; Walsh, Richard; Walls, Bryan K.; Weeks, David J.; Bechtel, Robert T.

    1992-01-01

    Autonomous power-distribution system includes power-control equipment and automation equipment. System automatically schedules connection of power to loads and reconfigures itself when it detects fault. Potential terrestrial applications include optimization of consumption of power in homes, power supplies for autonomous land vehicles and vessels, and power supplies for automated industrial processes.

  16. Consumptive Water Use from Electricity Generation in the Southwest under Alternative Climate, Technology, and Policy Futures.

    PubMed

    Talati, Shuchi; Zhai, Haibo; Kyle, G Page; Morgan, M Granger; Patel, Pralit; Liu, Lu

    2016-11-15

    This research assesses climate, technological, and policy impacts on consumptive water use from electricity generation in the Southwest over a planning horizon of nearly a century. We employed an integrated modeling framework taking into account feedbacks between climate change, air temperature and humidity, and consequent power plant water requirements. These direct impacts of climate change on water consumption by 2095 differ with technology improvements, cooling systems, and policy constraints, ranging from a 3-7% increase over scenarios that do not incorporate ambient air impacts. Upon additional factors being changed that alter electricity generation, water consumption increases by up to 8% over the reference scenario by 2095. With high penetration of wet recirculating cooling, consumptive water required for low-carbon electricity generation via fossil fuels will likely exacerbate regional water pressure as droughts become more common and population increases. Adaptation strategies to lower water use include the use of advanced cooling technologies and greater dependence on solar and wind. Water consumption may be reduced by 50% in 2095 from the reference, requiring an increase in dry cooling shares to 35-40%. Alternatively, the same reduction could be achieved through photovoltaic and wind power generation constituting 60% of the grid, consistent with an increase of over 250% in technology learning rates.

  17. Consumptive Water Use from Electricity Generation in the Southwest under Alternative Climate, Technology, and Policy Futures

    SciTech Connect

    Talati, Shuchi; Zhai, Haibo; Kyle, G. Page; Morgan, M. Granger; Patel, Pralit; Liu, Lu

    2016-10-21

    This research assesses climate, technological, and policy impacts on consumptive water use from electricity generation in the Southwest over a planning horizon of nearly a century. We employed an integrated modeling framework taking into account feedbacks between climate change, air temperature and humidity, and consequent power plant water requirements. These direct impacts of climate change on water consumption by 2095 differ with technology improvements, cooling systems, and policy constraints, ranging from a 3–7% increase over scenarios that do not incorporate ambient air impacts. Upon additional factors being changed that alter electricity generation, water consumption increases by up to 8% over the reference scenario by 2095. With high penetration of wet recirculating cooling, consumptive water required for low-carbon electricity generation via fossil fuels will likely exacerbate regional water pressure as droughts become more common and population increases. Adaptation strategies to lower water use include the use of advanced cooling technologies and greater dependence on solar and wind. Water consumption may be reduced by 50% in 2095 from the reference, requiring an increase in dry cooling shares to 35–40%. Alternatively, the same reduction could be achieved through photovoltaic and wind power generation constituting 60% of the grid, consistent with an increase of over 250% in technology learning rates.

  18. Tackling the Knowledge: Action Gap in Sustainable Consumption--Insights from a Participatory School Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barth, Matthias; Fischer, Daniel; Michelsen, Gerd; Nemnich, Claudia; Rode, Horst

    2012-01-01

    In the international policy discourse on sustainable consumption and production, education is acknowledged to be a powerful tool in changing unsustainable patterns of consumption. Current educational policies and programmes have responded to the consumption challenge mainly by including and addressing consumption issues in formal tuition in…

  19. Electric vehicle's electricity consumption on a road with different slope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, S. C.; Li, M.; Lin, Y.; Tang, T. Q.

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we propose an extended car-following model and an electricity consumption model to study the effects of the road's slope on the electric vehicle's electricity consumption. The numerical results show that each electric vehicle's electricity consumption increases with the uphill's tilt angle and decreases with the downhill's tilt angle. In addition, each electric vehicle's electricity consumption increases with the uphill's (downhill's) length under a certain tilt angle.

  20. Modeling Addictive Consumption as an Infectious Disease.

    PubMed

    Alamar, Benjamin; Glantz, Stanton A

    2006-03-17

    The dominant model of addictive consumption in economics is the theory of rational addiction. The addict in this model chooses how much they are going to consume based upon their level of addiction (past consumption), the current benefits and all future costs. Several empirical studies of cigarette sales and price data have found a correlation between future prices and consumption and current consumption. These studies have argued that the correlation validates the rational addiction model and invalidates any model in which future consumption is not considered. An alternative to the rational addiction model is one in which addiction spreads through a population as if it were an infectious disease, as supported by the large body of empirical research of addictive behaviors. In this model an individual's probability of becoming addicted to a substance is linked to the behavior of their parents, friends and society. In the infectious disease model current consumption is based only on the level of addiction and current costs. Price and consumption data from a simulation of the infectious disease model showed a qualitative match to the results of the rational addiction model. The infectious disease model can explain all of the theoretical results of the rational addiction model with the addition of explaining initial consumption of the addictive good.

  1. Bat consumption in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Suwannarong, Kanokwan; Schuler, Sidney

    2016-01-01

    Background Human consumption of bats poses an increasing public health threat globally. Communities in which bat guano is mined from caves have extensive exposure to bat excreta, often harvest bats for consumption, and are at risk for bat-borne diseases. Methods This rapid ethnographic study was conducted in four provinces of Thailand (Ratchaburi, Sakaeo, Nakorn Sawan, and Phitsanulok), where bat guano was mined and sold during the period April–August 2014. The aim of this study was to understand behaviors and risk perceptions associated with bat conservation, exposure to bats and their excreta, and bat consumption. Sixty-seven respondents playing various roles in bat guano mining, packaging, sale, and use as fertilizer participated in the study. Data were collected through interviews and/or focus group discussions. Results In spite of a bat conservation program dating back to the 1980s, the benefits of conserving bats and the risks associated with bat consumption were not clear and infrequently articulated by study respondents. Discussion Since bat consumption continues, albeit covertly, the risk of bat-borne diseases remains high. There is an opportunity to reduce the risk of bat-borne diseases in guano-mining communities by strengthening bat conservation efforts and raising awareness of the health risks of bat consumption. Further research is suggested to test behavior change strategies for reducing bat consumption. PMID:26806167

  2. Baseline tests of the power-train electric delivery van

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lumannick, S.; Dustin, M. O.; Bozek, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    Vehicle maximum speed, range at constant speed, range over stop-and-go driving schedules, maximum acceleration, gradeability, gradeability limit, road energy consumption, road power, indicated energy consumption, braking capability, battery charger efficiency, and battery characteristics were determined for a modified utility van powered by sixteen 6-volt batteries connected in series. A chopper controller actuated by a foot accelerator pedal changes the voltage applied to the 22-kilowatt (30-hp) series-wound drive motor. In addition to the conventional hydraulic braking system, the vehicle has hydraulic regenerative braking. Cycle tests and acceleration tests were conducted with and without hydraulic regeneration.

  3. Energy-consumption modelling

    SciTech Connect

    Reiter, E.R.

    1980-01-01

    A highly sophisticated and accurate approach is described to compute on an hourly or daily basis the energy consumption for space heating by individual buildings, urban sectors, and whole cities. The need for models and specifically weather-sensitive models, composite models, and space-heating models are discussed. Development of the Colorado State University Model, based on heat-transfer equations and on a heuristic, adaptive, self-organizing computation learning approach, is described. Results of modeling energy consumption by the city of Minneapolis and Cheyenne are given. Some data on energy consumption in individual buildings are included.

  4. Rituals enhance consumption.

    PubMed

    Vohs, Kathleen D; Wang, Yajin; Gino, Francesca; Norton, Michael I

    2013-09-01

    Four experiments tested the novel hypothesis that ritualistic behavior potentiates and enhances ensuing consumption--an effect found for chocolates, lemonade, and even carrots. Experiment 1 showed that participants who engaged in ritualized behavior, compared with those who did not, evaluated chocolate as more flavorful, valuable, and deserving of behavioral savoring. Experiment 2 demonstrated that random gestures do not boost consumption as much as ritualistic gestures do. It further showed that a delay between a ritual and the opportunity to consume heightens enjoyment, which attests to the idea that ritual behavior stimulates goal-directed action (to consume). Experiment 3 found that performing a ritual oneself enhances consumption more than watching someone else perform the same ritual, suggesting that personal involvement is crucial for the benefits of rituals to emerge. Finally, Experiment 4 provided direct evidence of the underlying process: Rituals enhance the enjoyment of consumption because of the greater involvement in the experience that they prompt.

  5. Human Biomass Consumption

    NASA Video Gallery

    Humans are using an increasing amount of Earth’s annual production of plants. Research shows that, from 1995 to 2005, consumption rose from 20 to 25 percent of the planet's annual production. Wha...

  6. Household vehicles energy consumption 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    Household Vehicles Energy Consumption 1994 reports on the results of the 1994 Residential Transportation Energy Consumption Survey (RTECS). The RTECS is a national sample survey that has been conducted every 3 years since 1985. For the 1994 survey, more than 3,000 households that own or use some 6,000 vehicles provided information to describe vehicle stock, vehicle-miles traveled, energy end-use consumption, and energy expenditures for personal vehicles. The survey results represent the characteristics of the 84.9 million households that used or had access to vehicles in 1994 nationwide. (An additional 12 million households neither owned or had access to vehicles during the survey year.) To be included in then RTECS survey, vehicles must be either owned or used by household members on a regular basis for personal transportation, or owned by a company rather than a household, but kept at home, regularly available for the use of household members. Most vehicles included in the RTECS are classified as {open_quotes}light-duty vehicles{close_quotes} (weighing less than 8,500 pounds). However, the RTECS also includes a very small number of {open_quotes}other{close_quotes} vehicles, such as motor homes and larger trucks that are available for personal use.

  7. Beverage consumption and paediatric NAFLD.

    PubMed

    Mosca, Antonella; Della Corte, Claudia; Sartorelli, Maria Rita; Ferretti, Francesca; Nicita, Francesco; Vania, Andrea; Nobili, Valerio

    2016-12-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in children and adolescents, due to the increased worldwide incidence of obesity among children. It is now clear enough that of diet high in carbohydrates and simple sugars are associated with hepatic steatosis and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Several studies have shown that an increased consumption of simple sugars is also positively associated with overweight and obesity, and related co-morbidities, such as type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome and NAFLD. It is difficult to define the role of the various components of soft drinks and energy drinks in the pathogenesis of NAFLD and its progression in NASH, but the major role is played by high calorie and high sugar consumption, mainly fructose. In addition, other components of these beverages (e.g. xanthine) seem to have an important role in the pathogenesis of metabolic disorders, crucial pathways involved in NAFLD/NASH. The drastic reduction in the consumption of energy drinks and soft drinks is an appropriate intervention for the prevention of obesity and NAFLD in young people.

  8. NodePM: a remote monitoring alert system for energy consumption using probabilistic techniques.

    PubMed

    Filho, Geraldo P R; Ueyama, Jó; Villas, Leandro A; Pinto, Alex R; Gonçalves, Vinícius P; Pessin, Gustavo; Pazzi, Richard W; Braun, Torsten

    2014-01-06

    In this paper, we propose an intelligent method, named the Novelty Detection Power Meter (NodePM), to detect novelties in electronic equipment monitored by a smart grid. Considering the entropy of each device monitored, which is calculated based on a Markov chain model, the proposed method identifies novelties through a machine learning algorithm. To this end, the NodePM is integrated into a platform for the remote monitoring of energy consumption, which consists of a wireless sensors network (WSN). It thus should be stressed that the experiments were conducted in real environments different from many related works, which are evaluated in simulated environments. In this sense, the results show that the NodePM reduces by 13.7% the power consumption of the equipment we monitored. In addition, the NodePM provides better efficiency to detect novelties when compared to an approach from the literature, surpassing it in different scenarios in all evaluations that were carried out.

  9. NodePM: A Remote Monitoring Alert System for Energy Consumption Using Probabilistic Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Filho, Geraldo P. R.; Ueyama, Jó; Villas, Leandro A.; Pinto, Alex R.; Gonçalves, Vinícius P.; Pessin, Gustavo; Pazzi, Richard W.; Braun, Torsten

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an intelligent method, named the Novelty Detection Power Meter (NodePM), to detect novelties in electronic equipment monitored by a smart grid. Considering the entropy of each device monitored, which is calculated based on a Markov chain model, the proposed method identifies novelties through a machine learning algorithm. To this end, the NodePM is integrated into a platform for the remote monitoring of energy consumption, which consists of a wireless sensors network (WSN). It thus should be stressed that the experiments were conducted in real environments different from many related works, which are evaluated in simulated environments. In this sense, the results show that the NodePM reduces by 13.7% the power consumption of the equipment we monitored. In addition, the NodePM provides better efficiency to detect novelties when compared to an approach from the literature, surpassing it in different scenarios in all evaluations that were carried out. PMID:24399157

  10. 27 CFR 5.33 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... English, and for products bottled for consumption within Puerto Rico the required information may be... cannot be removed without thorough application of water or other solvents. (f) Additional information...

  11. 27 CFR 5.33 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... English, and for products bottled for consumption within Puerto Rico the required information may be... cannot be removed without thorough application of water or other solvents. (f) Additional information...

  12. 27 CFR 5.33 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... English, and for products bottled for consumption within Puerto Rico the required information may be... cannot be removed without thorough application of water or other solvents. (f) Additional information...

  13. 27 CFR 5.33 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... English, and for products bottled for consumption within Puerto Rico the required information may be... cannot be removed without thorough application of water or other solvents. (f) Additional information...

  14. 27 CFR 5.33 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... English, and for products bottled for consumption within Puerto Rico the required information may be... cannot be removed without thorough application of water or other solvents. (f) Additional information...

  15. 76 FR 16285 - Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption; Bacteriophage...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... following factors: Inactivation of LLO by cholesterol that is present in RTE meat and poultry products... Acid and Cholesterol FWW contends that FDA relies on conjecture in concluding that foods treated with a... any residual LLO will be inactivated by factors such as cholesterol in the meat or poultry,...

  16. 76 FR 41687 - Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption; Hydroxypropyl Cellulose

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-15

    ... accordance with good manufacturing practice, as an emulsifier, film former, protective colloid, stabilizer..., protective colloid, stabilizer, suspending agent, or thickener in food, in accordance with good...

  17. Field power measurements of imaging equipment

    SciTech Connect

    McWhinney, Marla; Homan, Gregory; Brown, Richard; Roberson, Judy; Nordman, Bruce; Busch, John

    2004-05-14

    According to the U.S. Department of Energy, electricity use by non-PC commercial office equipment is growing at an annual rate of nearly 5 percent (AEO 2003). To help address this growth in consumption, U.S. EPA periodically updates its ENERGY STAR specifications as products and markets change. This report presents background research conducted to help EPA update the ENERGY STAR specification for imaging equipment, which covers printers, fax machines, copiers, scanners, and multifunction devices (MFDs). We first estimated the market impact of the current ENERGY STAR imaging specification, finding over 90 percent of the current market complies with the specification. We then analyzed a sample of typical new imaging products, including 11 faxes, 57 printers and 19 copiers/MFD. For these devices we metered power levels in the most common modes: active/ready/sleep/off, and recorded features that would most likely affect energy consumption. Our metering indicates that for many products and speed bins, current models consume substantially less power than the current specification. We also found that for all product categories, power consumption varied most considerably across technology (i.e. inkjet vs. laser). Although inkjet printers consumed less energy than laser printers in active, ready and sleep-mode, they consumed more power on average while off, mostly due to the use of external power supplies. Based on these findings, we developed strategies for the ENERGY STAR program to achieve additional energy reductions. Finally, we present an assessment of manufacturer's ENERGY STAR labeling practices.

  18. Estimation of food consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Callaway, J.M. Jr.

    1992-04-01

    The research reported in this document was conducted as a part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project. The objective of the HEDR Project is to estimate the radiation doses that people could have received from operations at the Hanford Site. Information required to estimate these doses includes estimates of the amounts of potentially contaminated foods that individuals in the region consumed during the study period. In that general framework, the objective of the Food Consumption Task was to develop a capability to provide information about the parameters of the distribution(s) of daily food consumption for representative groups in the population for selected years during the study period. This report describes the methods and data used to estimate food consumption and presents the results developed for Phase I of the HEDR Project.

  19. Health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis. Modification of models resulting from addition of effects of exposure to alpha-emitting radionuclides: Revision 1, Part 2, Scientific bases for health effects models, Addendum 2

    SciTech Connect

    Abrahamson, S.; Bender, M.A.; Boecker, B.B.; Scott, B.R.; Gilbert, E.S.

    1993-05-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has sponsored several studies to identify and quantify, through the use of models, the potential health effects of accidental releases of radionuclides from nuclear power plants. The Reactor Safety Study provided the basis for most of the earlier estimates related to these health effects. Subsequent efforts by NRC-supported groups resulted in improved health effects models that were published in the report entitled {open_quotes}Health Effects Models for Nuclear Power Plant Consequence Analysis{close_quotes}, NUREG/CR-4214, 1985 and revised further in the 1989 report NUREG/CR-4214, Rev. 1, Part 2. The health effects models presented in the 1989 NUREG/CR-4214 report were developed for exposure to low-linear energy transfer (LET) (beta and gamma) radiation based on the best scientific information available at that time. Since the 1989 report was published, two addenda to that report have been prepared to (1) incorporate other scientific information related to low-LET health effects models and (2) extend the models to consider the possible health consequences of the addition of alpha-emitting radionuclides to the exposure source term. The first addendum report, entitled {open_quotes}Health Effects Models for Nuclear Power Plant Accident Consequence Analysis, Modifications of Models Resulting from Recent Reports on Health Effects of Ionizing Radiation, Low LET Radiation, Part 2: Scientific Bases for Health Effects Models,{close_quotes} was published in 1991 as NUREG/CR-4214, Rev. 1, Part 2, Addendum 1. This second addendum addresses the possibility that some fraction of the accident source term from an operating nuclear power plant comprises alpha-emitting radionuclides. Consideration of chronic high-LET exposure from alpha radiation as well as acute and chronic exposure to low-LET beta and gamma radiations is a reasonable extension of the health effects model.

  20. Amtrak fuel consumption study

    SciTech Connect

    Hitz, J.

    1981-02-01

    This report documents a study of fuel consumption on National Railroad Passenger Corporation (Amtrak) trains and is part of an effort to determine effective ways of conserving fuel on the Amtrak system. The study was performed by the Transportation Systems Center (TSC). A series of 26 test runs were conducted on Amtrak trains operating between Boston, Massachusetts, and New Haven, Connecticut, to measure fuel consumption, trip time and other fuel-use-related parameters. The test data were analyzed and compared with results of the TSC Train Performance Simulator replicating the same operations.

  1. An Efficient Power Saving Mechanism for Delay-Guaranteed Services in IEEE 802.16e

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Yunju; Hwang, Gang Uk

    As the IEEE 802.16e Wireless Metropolitan Access Network (WMAN) supports the mobility of a mobile station (MS), increasing MS power efficiency has become an important issue. In this paper, we analyze the sleep-mode operation for an efficient power saving mechanism for delay-guaranteed services in the IEEE 802.16e WMAN and observe the effects of the operating parameters related to this operation. For the analysis we use the M/GI/1/K queueing system with multiple vacations, exhaustive services and setup times. In the analysis, we consider the power consumption during the wake-mode period as well as the sleep-mode period. As a performance measure for the power consumption, we propose the power consumption per unit time per effective arrival which considers the power consumption and the packet blocking probability simultaneously. In addition, since we consider delay-guaranteed services, the average packet response delay is also considered as a performance measure. Based on the performance measures, we obtain the optimal sleep-mode operation which minimizes the power consumption per unit time per effective arrival with a given delay requirement. Numerical studies are also provided to investigate the system performance and to show how to achieve our objective.

  2. Design of power balance SRAM for DPA-resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keji, Zhou; Pengjun, Wang; Liang, Wen

    2016-04-01

    A power balance static random-access memory (SRAM) for resistance to differential power analysis (DPA) is proposed. In the proposed design, the switch power consumption and short-circuit power consumption are balanced by discharging and pre-charging the key nodes of the output circuit and adding an additional short-circuit current path. Thus, the power consumption is constant in every read cycle. As a result, the DPA-resistant ability of the SRAM is improved. In 65 nm CMOS technology, the power balance SRAM is fully custom designed with a layout area of 5863.6 μm2. The post-simulation results show that the normalized energy deviation (NED) and normalized standard deviation (NSD) are 0.099% and 0.04%, respectively. Compared to existing power balance circuits, the power balance ability of the proposed SRAM has improved 53%. Project supported by the Zhejiang Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China (No. LQ14F040001), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61274132, 61234002), and the K. C. Wong Magna Fund in Ningbo University, China.

  3. Power management system

    DOEpatents

    Algrain, Marcelo C.; Johnson, Kris W.; Akasam, Sivaprasad; Hoff, Brian D.

    2007-10-02

    A method of managing power resources for an electrical system of a vehicle may include identifying enabled power sources from among a plurality of power sources in electrical communication with the electrical system and calculating a threshold power value for the enabled power sources. A total power load placed on the electrical system by one or more power consumers may be measured. If the total power load exceeds the threshold power value, then a determination may be made as to whether one or more additional power sources is available from among the plurality of power sources. At least one of the one or more additional power sources may be enabled, if available.

  4. An electricity consumption model for electric vehicular flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Hong; Huang, Hai-Jun; Tang, Tie-Qiao

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we apply the relationships between the macro and micro variables of traffic flow to develop an electricity consumption model for electric vehicular flow. We use the proposed model to study the quantitative relationships between the electricity consumption/total power and speed/density under uniform flow, and the electricity consumptions during the evolution processes of shock, rarefaction wave and small perturbation. The numerical results indicate that the proposed model can perfectly describe the electricity consumption for electric vehicular flow, which shows that the proposed model is reasonable.

  5. Influence of Holy Month Ramadan on Alcohol Consumption in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Çelen, Aydın

    2015-12-01

    This study utilizes a balanced panel data set covering 50 monthly observations regarding the brewery products to examine the impact of holy month Ramadan on alcohol consumption in Turkey. In addition to the Ramadan, temperature, prices of the products and disposable income are other demand factors which are taken into account in this study. As expected, the Ramadan has been found to be associated with lower alcohol usage. As price of alcoholic drinks increases, the alcohol consumption decreases significantly. In addition, alcohol consumption rises with the enhancements in the disposable income. However, surprisingly, the temperature has not any significant effect on alcohol consumption in Turkey.

  6. Transition Metal Diborides as Electrode Material for MHD Direct Power Extraction: High-temperature Oxidation of ZrB2-HfB2 Solid Solution with LaB6 Addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitler, Steven; Hill, Cody; Raja, Krishnan S.; Charit, Indrajit

    2016-06-01

    Transition metal borides are being considered for use as potential electrode coating materials in magnetohydrodynamic direct power extraction plants from coal-fired plasma. These electrode materials will be exposed to aggressive service conditions at high temperatures. Therefore, high-temperature oxidation resistance is an important property. Consolidated samples containing an equimolar solid solution of ZrB2-HfB2 with and without the addition of 1.8 mol pct LaB6 were prepared by ball milling of commercial boride material followed by spark plasma sintering. These samples were oxidized at 1773 K (1500 °C) in two different conditions: (1) as-sintered and (2) anodized (10 V in 0.1 M KOH electrolyte). Oxidation studies were carried out in 0.3 × 105 and 0.1 Pa oxygen partial pressures. The anodic oxide layers showed hafnium enrichment on the surface of the samples, whereas the high-temperature oxides showed zirconium enrichment. The anodized samples without LaB6 addition showed about 2.5 times higher oxidation resistance in high-oxygen partial pressures than the as-sintered samples. Addition of LaB6 improved the oxidation resistance in the as-sintered condition by about 30 pct in the high-oxygen partial pressure tests.

  7. Electric Power Monthly, July 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-12

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) is prepared by the Electric Power Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation are also displayed at the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) region level. Additionally, company and plant level information are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost in fuel. Quantity, quality, and cost of fuel data lag the net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, electricity sales, and average revenue per kilowatthour data by 1 month. This difference in reporting appears in the national, Census division, and State level tables. However, at the plant level, all statistics presented are for the earlier month for the purpose of comparison. 12 refs., 4 figs., 48 tabs.

  8. Reduction of poloidal magnetic flux consumption during plasma current ramp-up in DEMO relevant plasma regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakatsuki, T.; Suzuki, T.; Hayashi, N.; Shiraishi, J.; Sakamoto, Y.; Ide, S.; Kubo, H.; Kamada, Y.

    2017-01-01

    The method for reducing a poloidal magnetic flux consumption of external coils is investigated to reduce the size of the central solenoid (CS) in the DEMO reactor. The reduction of the poloidal magnetic flux consumption during a plasma current ramp-up phase by electron cyclotron (EC) heating is investigated using an integrated modeling code suite, TOPICS. A strongly reversed shear q profile tends to be produced if intense off-axis EC heating is applied to obtain a large reduction of the flux consumption. In order to overcome this tendency, we find a method to obtain the optimum temperature profile which minimizes the poloidal flux consumption for a wide range of the q profile. We try to reproduce the optimum temperature profile for a weakly reversed shear q profile using six EC rays of 20 MW. As a result, the resistive flux consumption during the current ramp-up can be reduced by 63% from the estimation using the Ejima constant of 0.45 and the total flux consumption can be reduced by 20% from the conventional estimation. In addition, we find that the resistive flux consumption is closely related to the volume averaged electron temperature and not to the profile shape. Using this relation, the required heating power is estimated to be 31 MW based on a well established global confinement scaling, ITER L-89P. As a result, it is clarified that the poloidal magnetic flux consumption can be reduced by 20% using 20-31 MW of EC heating for a weakly reversed shear q profile. This reduction of the flux consumption accounts for 10% reduction of the CS radius.

  9. Fermi Observations of GRB 090510: A Short-Hard Gamma-ray Burst with an Additional, Hard Power-law Component from 10 keV TO GeV Energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackermann, M.; Asano, K.; Atwood, W. B.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Baring, M. G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Bhat, P. N.; Bissaldi, E.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A. W.; Bouvier, A.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Briggs, M. S.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caraveo, P. A.; Carrigan, S.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cecchi, C.; Çelik, Ö.; Charles, E.; Chiang, J.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Connaughton, V.; Conrad, J.; Dermer, C. D.; de Palma, F.; Dingus, B. L.; Silva, E. do Couto e.; Drell, P. S.; Dubois, R.; Dumora, D.; Farnier, C.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Finke, J.; Focke, W. B.; Frailis, M.; Fukazawa, Y.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Gehrels, N.; Germani, S.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Granot, J.; Grenier, I. A.; Grondin, M.-H.; Grove, J. E.; Guiriec, S.; Hadasch, D.; Harding, A. K.; Hays, E.; Horan, D.; Hughes, R. E.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, W. N.; Kamae, T.; Katagiri, H.; Kataoka, J.; Kawai, N.; Kippen, R. M.; Knödlseder, J.; Kocevski, D.; Kouveliotou, C.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Latronico, L.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Llena Garde, M.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lott, B.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Makeev, A.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McEnery, J. E.; McGlynn, S.; Meegan, C.; Mészáros, P.; Michelson, P. F.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Moiseev, A. A.; Monte, C.; Monzani, M. E.; Moretti, E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Nakajima, H.; Nakamori, T.; Nolan, P. L.; Norris, J. P.; Nuss, E.; Ohno, M.; Ohsugi, T.; Omodei, N.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Ozaki, M.; Paciesas, W. S.; Paneque, D.; Panetta, J. H.; Parent, D.; Pelassa, V.; Pepe, M.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Piron, F.; Preece, R.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Razzaque, S.; Reimer, A.; Ritz, S.; Rodriguez, A. Y.; Roth, M.; Ryde, F.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Sander, A.; Scargle, J. D.; Schalk, T. L.; Sgrò, C.; Siskind, E. J.; Smith, P. D.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Stamatikos, M.; Stecker, F. W.; Strickman, M. S.; Suson, D. J.; Tajima, H.; Takahashi, H.; Takahashi, T.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J. B.; Thayer, J. G.; Thompson, D. J.; Tibaldo, L.; Toma, K.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Tramacere, A.; Uchiyama, Y.; Uehara, T.; Usher, T. L.; van der Horst, A. J.; Vasileiou, V.; Vilchez, N.; Vitale, V.; von Kienlin, A.; Waite, A. P.; Wang, P.; Wilson-Hodge, C.; Winer, B. L.; Wu, X. F.; Yamazaki, R.; Yang, Z.; Ylinen, T.; Ziegler, M.

    2010-06-01

    We present detailed observations of the bright short-hard gamma-ray burst GRB 090510 made with the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) and Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi observatory. GRB 090510 is the first burst detected by the LAT that shows strong evidence for a deviation from a Band spectral fitting function during the prompt emission phase. The time-integrated spectrum is fit by the sum of a Band function with E peak = 3.9 ± 0.3 MeV, which is the highest yet measured, and a hard power-law component with photon index -1.62 ± 0.03 that dominates the emission below ≈20 keV and above ≈100 MeV. The onset of the high-energy spectral component appears to be delayed by ~0.1 s with respect to the onset of a component well fit with a single Band function. A faint GBM pulse and a LAT photon are detected 0.5 s before the main pulse. During the prompt phase, the LAT detected a photon with energy 30.5+5.8 -2.6 GeV, the highest ever measured from a short GRB. Observation of this photon sets a minimum bulk outflow Lorentz factor, Γgsim 1200, using simple γγ opacity arguments for this GRB at redshift z = 0.903 and a variability timescale on the order of tens of ms for the ≈100 keV-few MeV flux. Stricter high confidence estimates imply Γ >~ 1000 and still require that the outflows powering short GRBs are at least as highly relativistic as those of long-duration GRBs. Implications of the temporal behavior and power-law shape of the additional component on synchrotron/synchrotron self-Compton, external-shock synchrotron, and hadronic models are considered.

  10. Dietary fiber consumption and risk of stroke.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhizhong; Xu, Gelin; Liu, Dezhi; Zhu, Wusheng; Fan, Xinying; Liu, Xinfeng

    2013-02-01

    Observational studies suggest an association between dietary fiber consumption and risk of stroke, but the results are inconclusive. The authors conducted a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies to evaluate the relation between dietary fiber consumption and stroke risk and mortality. Relevant studies were identified by searching PubMed, Embase, and ISI Web of Science through February 2013. We included prospective studies that reported relative risks (RRs) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between dietary fiber consumption and stroke risk and mortality. Both fixed- and random-effects models were used to calculate the summary risk estimates. Eleven prospective studies involving 325,627 participants were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled RR of stroke for the highest compared with the lowest dietary fiber consumption was 0.83 (95 % CI 0.74, 0.93). In addition, the increment in dietary fiber consumption was associated with decreased stroke risk in a dose-response manner. Sensitivity analysis restricted to studies with control for conventional risk factors yielded similar results, and omission of any single study had little effect on the combined risk estimate. Moreover, there was a trend toward an inverse association between higher fiber consumption and stroke mortality (RR 0.85; 95 % CI 0.60, 1.20), although it is not significant. This meta-analysis indicated that dietary fiber consumption is inversely associated with stroke risk, and the effect is probably independent of conventional risk factors. Our results support recommendations for higher consumption of fiber-rich foods to prevent stroke.

  11. Limits to Global Groundwater Consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graaf, I. D.; Van Beek, R.; Sutanudjaja, E.; Wada, Y.; Bierkens, M. F.

    2015-12-01

    In regions with frequent water stress and large aquifer systems, groundwater is often used as an additional fresh water source. For many regions of the world groundwater abstraction exceeds groundwater recharge and persistent groundwater depletion occurs. The most direct effect of groundwater depletion is declining of water tables, leading to reduced groundwater discharge needed to sustain base-flow to e.g. rivers. Next to that, pumping costs increase, wells dry up and land subsidence occurs. These problems are expected to increase in the near future due to growing population and climate changes. This poses the urgent question of what the limits are of groundwater consumption worldwide. We simulate global water availability (5 arc-minute resolution, for 1960-2050) using the hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB (van Beek et al. 2011), coupled to a groundwater model based on MODFLOW (de Graaf et al. 2015), allowing for groundwater - surface water interactions. The groundwater model includes a parameterization of world's confined and unconfined aquifer systems needed for a realistic simulation of groundwater head dynamics. Water demands are included (from Wada et al. 2014). We study the limits to water consumption, focusing on locally attainable groundwater and groundwater levels critical to rivers to sustain low flows. We show an increasing trend (1960-2050) in groundwater head declines, due to increase in groundwater demand. Also, stream flow will decrease and low flow conditions will occur more frequent and will be longer in duration in the near future, especially for irrigated areas. Next to that, we provide a global overview of the years it takes until groundwater gets unattainable for e.g. a local farmer (100 m below land-surface used as a proxy), and estimate the increase in pumping cost for the near future. The results show where and when limits of groundwater consumption are reached globally.

  12. Price and cigarette consumption in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Gallus, S; Schiaffino, A; Vecchia, C La; Townsend, J; Fernandez, E

    2006-01-01

    Objective To analyse the variation in demand for tobacco according to price of cigarettes across the European region. Design Cross‐sectional study. Setting All the 52 countries of the European region. Participants For each European country, data were collected on annual per adult cigarette consumption (2000), smoking prevalence (most recent), retail price of a pack of local and foreign brand cigarettes (around 2000), the gross domestic product adjusted by purchasing power parities, and the adult population (2000). Main outcome measure Price elasticity of demand for cigarettes (that is, the change in cigarette consumption according to a change in tobacco price) across all the European countries, estimated by double‐log multiple linear regression. Results Controlling for male to female prevalence ratio, price elasticities for consumption were −0.46 (95% confidence interval (CI) −0.74 to −0.17) and −0.74 (95% CI −1.13 to −0.35) for local and foreign brand, respectively. The inverse relation between cigarette price and consumption was stronger in countries not in the European Union (price elasticity for foreign brand cigarettes of −0.8) as compared to European Union countries (price elasticity of −0.4). Conclusions The result that, on average, in Europe smoking consumption decreases 5–7% for a 10% increase in the real price of cigarettes strongly supports an inverse association between price and cigarette smoking. PMID:16565459

  13. Electric power monthly, July 1999, with data for April 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-07-01

    The Electric Power Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy prepares the Electric Power Monthly (EPM). This publication provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and US levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity retail sales, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatt hour of electricity sold. In addition, data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source; consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant. 1 fig., 64 tabs.

  14. Frigate Fuel Consumption Indicator

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-20

    Report DRDC-RDDC-2014- C50 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of information is...estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the...number. 1 . REPORT DATE 20 SEP 2010 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Frigate Fuel Consumption

  15. Brand switching or reduced consumption? A study of how cigarette taxes affect tobacco consumption.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chiang-Ming; Chang, Kuo-Liang; Lin, Lin; Lee, Jwo-Leun

    2014-12-01

    We examined the influence of cigarette taxes on tobacco consumption, with an emphasis on smokers' choice between reducing cigarette consumption and switching brands. We constructed three scenario-based models to study the following two subjects: (1) the relationship between deciding whether to reduce one's cigarette consumption and to practice brand switching (simultaneous or sequential); (2) the key determinants that affect smokers' decisions in terms of their consumption and brand switching when facing higher taxes. We applied data collected from a survey in Taiwan, and the results indicated that both independent and two-stage decision-making models generated very similar conclusions. We also found that gender difference contributed to reduce cigarette consumption. In addition, this study indicated that high-income smokers were less likely to switch brands, whereas well-educated smokers were more likely to switch brands. Most importantly, we questioned the effectiveness of cigarette tax policy, as our results suggested that higher price did not necessarily reduce consumption. Indeed, data indicated that <24 % of smokers actually reduced their cigarette consumption after the tax on cigarettes increased.

  16. Green Secure Processors: Towards Power-Efficient Secure Processor Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chhabra, Siddhartha; Solihin, Yan

    With the increasing wealth of digital information stored on computer systems today, security issues have become increasingly important. In addition to attacks targeting the software stack of a system, hardware attacks have become equally likely. Researchers have proposed Secure Processor Architectures which utilize hardware mechanisms for memory encryption and integrity verification to protect the confidentiality and integrity of data and computation, even from sophisticated hardware attacks. While there have been many works addressing performance and other system level issues in secure processor design, power issues have largely been ignored. In this paper, we first analyze the sources of power (energy) increase in different secure processor architectures. We then present a power analysis of various secure processor architectures in terms of their increase in power consumption over a base system with no protection and then provide recommendations for designs that offer the best balance between performance and power without compromising security. We extend our study to the embedded domain as well. We also outline the design of a novel hybrid cryptographic engine that can be used to minimize the power consumption for a secure processor. We believe that if secure processors are to be adopted in future systems (general purpose or embedded), it is critically important that power issues are considered in addition to performance and other system level issues. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work to examine the power implications of providing hardware mechanisms for security.

  17. Evaluation of parasitic consumption for a CSP plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramorakane, Relebohile John; Dinter, Frank

    2016-05-01

    With the continuous development and desire to build alternative effective and efficient power plants, Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plants (and more specifically the Parabolic Trough CSP Plants) have proven to be one of the alternative energy resources for the future. On this regard more emphasis and research is being employed to better this power plant technology, where one of the main challenges to these plants is to improve their efficiency by optimizing the parasitic load, wherein one of the major causes of the power plants' reduced overall efficiency arises from their parasitic load consumption. This project is therefore aimed at evaluating the parasitic load on Andasol 3 Power Plant, which is a 50 MW Parabolic Trough Power Plant with a 7.5 hours of full load storage system. It was hence determined that the total power plant's parasitic load consumption is about 12% in summer season and between 16% and 24% in winter season. In an effort to improve the power plant's efficiency, a couple of measures to reduce the parasitic load consumption were recommended, and also an alternative and cheaper source of parasitic load feeding plant, during the day (when the parasitic load consumption is highest) was proposed/recommended.

  18. 19 CFR 144.38 - Withdrawal for consumption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY (CONTINUED) WAREHOUSE AND REWAREHOUSE ENTRIES AND WITHDRAWALS Withdrawals from Warehouse § 144.38 Withdrawal for consumption. (a) Form. Withdrawals for consumption of merchandise in bonded warehouses shall... any correction thereof reported after the filing of the warehouse entry. Additionally, on...

  19. Computer usage and national energy consumption: Results from a field-metering study

    SciTech Connect

    Desroches, Louis-Benoit; Fuchs, Heidi; Greenblatt, Jeffery; Pratt, Stacy; Willem, Henry; Claybaugh, Erin; Beraki, Bereket; Nagaraju, Mythri; Price, Sarah; Young, Scott

    2014-12-01

    The electricity consumption of miscellaneous electronic loads (MELs) in the home has grown in recent years, and is expected to continue rising. Consumer electronics, in particular, are characterized by swift technological innovation, with varying impacts on energy use. Desktop and laptop computers make up a significant share of MELs electricity consumption, but their national energy use is difficult to estimate, given uncertainties around shifting user behavior. This report analyzes usage data from 64 computers (45 desktop, 11 laptop, and 8 unknown) collected in 2012 as part of a larger field monitoring effort of 880 households in the San Francisco Bay Area, and compares our results to recent values from the literature. We find that desktop computers are used for an average of 7.3 hours per day (median = 4.2 h/d), while laptops are used for a mean 4.8 hours per day (median = 2.1 h/d). The results for laptops are likely underestimated since they can be charged in other, unmetered outlets. Average unit annual energy consumption (AEC) for desktops is estimated to be 194 kWh/yr (median = 125 kWh/yr), and for laptops 75 kWh/yr (median = 31 kWh/yr). We estimate national annual energy consumption for desktop computers to be 20 TWh. National annual energy use for laptops is estimated to be 11 TWh, markedly higher than previous estimates, likely reflective of laptops drawing more power in On mode in addition to greater market penetration. This result for laptops, however, carries relatively higher uncertainty compared to desktops. Different study methodologies and definitions, changing usage patterns, and uncertainty about how consumers use computers must be considered when interpreting our results with respect to existing analyses. Finally, as energy consumption in On mode is predominant, we outline several energy savings opportunities: improved power management (defaulting to low-power modes after periods of inactivity as well as power scaling), matching the rated power

  20. Electric power annual 1997. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    The Electric Power Annual presents a summary of electric power industry statistics at national, regional, and State levels. The objective of the publication is to provide industry decisionmakers, government policy-makers, analysts, and the general public with data that may be used in understanding US electricity markets. The Electric Power Annual is prepared by the Electric Power Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. Volume 1 -- with a focus on US electric utilities -- contains final 1997 data on net generation and fossil fuel consumption, stocks, receipts, and cost; preliminary 1997 data on generating unit capability, and retail sales of electricity, associated revenue, and the average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold (based on a monthly sample: Form EIA-826, ``Monthly Electric Utility Sales and Revenue Report with State Distributions``). Additionally, information on net generation from renewable energy sources and on the associated generating capability is included in Volume 1 of the EPA.

  1. 18 CFR 33.10 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional information. 33.10 Section 33.10 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT APPLICATIONS UNDER FEDERAL POWER ACT SECTION...

  2. Fuel Consumption Impacts of Auto Roof Racks

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yuche; Meier, Alan

    2016-05-01

    The after-market roof rack is one of the most common components attached to a vehicle for carrying over-sized items, such as bicycles and skis. It is important to understand these racks' fuel consumption impacts on both individual vehicles and the national fleet because they are widely used. We estimate the national fuel consumption impacts of roof racks using a bottom-up approach. Our model incorporates real-world data and vehicle stock information to enable assessing fuel consumption impacts for several categories of vehicles, rack configurations, and usage conditions. In addition, the model draws on two new data-gathering techniques, on-line forums and crowd-sourcing. The results show that nationwide, roof racks are responsible for 0.8% of light duty vehicle fuel consumption in 2015, corresponding to 100 million gallons of gasoline per year. Sensitivity analyses show that results are most sensitive to the fraction of vehicles with installed roof racks but carrying no equipment. The aerodynamic efficiency of typical roof racks can be greatly improved and reduce individual vehicle fuel consumption; however, government policies to minimize extensive driving with empty racks--if successful--could save more fuel nationally.

  3. Fuel consumption impacts of auto roof racks

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yuche; Meier, Alan

    2016-03-23

    The after-market roof rack is one of the most common components attached to a vehicle for carrying over-sized items, such as bicycles and skis. It is important to understand these racks' fuel consumption impacts on both individual vehicles and the national fleet because they are widely used. We estimate the national fuel consumption impacts of roof racks using a bottom-up approach. Our model incorporates real-world data and vehicle stock information to enable assessing fuel consumption impacts for several categories of vehicles, rack configurations, and usage conditions. In addition, the model draws on two new data-gathering techniques, on-line forums and crowd-sourcing. The results show that nationwide, roof racks are responsible for 0.8‰ of light duty vehicle fuel consumption in 2015, corresponding to 100 million gallons of gasoline per year. Sensitivity analyses show that results are most sensitive to the fraction of vehicles with installed roof racks but carrying no equipment. Here, the aerodynamic efficiency of typical roof racks can be greatly improved and reduce individual vehicle fuel consumption; however, government policies to minimize extensive driving with empty racks--if successful--could save more fuel nationally.

  4. Consumption patterns and perception analyses of hangwa.

    PubMed

    Kwock, Chang Geun; Lee, Min A; Park, So Hyun

    2012-03-01

    Hangwa is a traditional food, corresponding to the current consumption trend, in need of marketing strategies to extend its consumption. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze consumers' consumption patterns and perception of Hangwa to increase consumption in the market. A questionnaire was sent to 250 consumers by e-mail from Oct 8∼23, 2009 and the data from 231 persons were analyzed in this study. Statistical, descriptive, paired samples t-test, and importance-performance analyses were conducted using SPSS WIN 17.0. According to the results, Hangwa was purchased mainly 'for present' (39.8%) and the main reasons for buying it were 'traditional image' (33.3%) and 'taste' (22.5%). When importance and performance of attributes considered in purchasing Hangwa were evaluated, performance was assessed to be lower than importance for all attributes. The attributes in the first quadrant with a high importance and a high performance were 'a sanitary process', 'a rigorous quality mark' and 'taste', which were related with quality of the products. In addition, those with a high importance but a low performance were 'popularization through advertisement', 'promotion through mass media', 'conversion of thought on traditional foods', 'a reasonable price' and 'a wide range of price'. In conclusion, Hangwa manufacturers need to diversify products and extend the expiration date based on technologies to promote its consumption. In terms of price, Hangwa should become more available by lowering the price barrier for consumers who are sensitive to price.

  5. Fuel consumption impacts of auto roof racks

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Yuche; Meier, Alan

    2016-03-23

    The after-market roof rack is one of the most common components attached to a vehicle for carrying over-sized items, such as bicycles and skis. It is important to understand these racks' fuel consumption impacts on both individual vehicles and the national fleet because they are widely used. We estimate the national fuel consumption impacts of roof racks using a bottom-up approach. Our model incorporates real-world data and vehicle stock information to enable assessing fuel consumption impacts for several categories of vehicles, rack configurations, and usage conditions. In addition, the model draws on two new data-gathering techniques, on-line forums and crowd-sourcing.more » The results show that nationwide, roof racks are responsible for 0.8‰ of light duty vehicle fuel consumption in 2015, corresponding to 100 million gallons of gasoline per year. Sensitivity analyses show that results are most sensitive to the fraction of vehicles with installed roof racks but carrying no equipment. Here, the aerodynamic efficiency of typical roof racks can be greatly improved and reduce individual vehicle fuel consumption; however, government policies to minimize extensive driving with empty racks--if successful--could save more fuel nationally.« less

  6. Energy Consumption of Die Casting Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Jerald Brevick; clark Mount-Campbell; Carroll Mobley

    2004-03-15

    Molten metal processing is inherently energy intensive and roughly 25% of the cost of die-cast products can be traced to some form of energy consumption [1]. The obvious major energy requirements are for melting and holding molten alloy in preparation for casting. The proper selection and maintenance of melting and holding equipment are clearly important factors in minimizing energy consumption in die-casting operations [2]. In addition to energy consumption, furnace selection also influences metal loss due to oxidation, metal quality, and maintenance requirements. Other important factors influencing energy consumption in a die-casting facility include geographic location, alloy(s) cast, starting form of alloy (solid or liquid), overall process flow, casting yield, scrap rate, cycle times, number of shifts per day, days of operation per month, type and size of die-casting form of alloy (solid or liquid), overall process flow, casting yield, scrap rate, cycle times, number of shifts per day, days of operation per month, type and size of die-casting machine, related equipment (robots, trim presses), and downstream processing (machining, plating, assembly, etc.). Each of these factors also may influence the casting quality and productivity of a die-casting enterprise. In a die-casting enterprise, decisions regarding these issues are made frequently and are based on a large number of factors. Therefore, it is not surprising that energy consumption can vary significantly from one die-casting enterprise to the next, and within a single enterprise as function of time.

  7. Fish consumption, methylmercury and child neurodevelopment

    PubMed Central

    Oken, Emily; Bellinger, David C.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose of review To summarize recent evidence regarding associations of early life exposure to mercury from maternal fish consumption during pregnancy, thimerosal in vaccines and dental amalgam with child neurodevelopment. Recent findings Recent publications have built upon previous evidence demonstrating mild detrimental neurocognitive effects from prenatal methylmercury exposure from maternal fish consumption during pregnancy. New studies examining the effects of prenatal fish consumption as well as methylmercury suggest there are benefits from prenatal fish consumption, but also that consumption of fish high in mercury should be avoided. Future studies incorporating information on both the methylmercury and the docosahexaenoic acid contained within fish will help to refine recommendations to optimize outcomes for mothers and children. Additional recent studies have supported the safety of vaccines containing thimerosal and of dental amalgam for repair of dental caries in children. Summary Exposure to mercury may harm child development. Interventions intended to reduce exposure to low levels of mercury in early life must, however, be carefully evaluated in consideration of the potential attendant harm from resultant behavior changes, such as reduced docosahexaenoic acid exposure from lower seafood intake, reduced uptake of childhood vaccinations and suboptimal dental care. PMID:18332715

  8. Improvement of reliability and power consumption for SnSb{sub 4} phase change film composited with Ga{sub 3}Sb{sub 7} by superlattice-like method

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Yifeng; Zhai, Jiwei; Zeng, Huarong; Song, Sannian; Song, Zhitang

    2015-05-07

    Superlattice-like (SLL) SnSb{sub 4}/Ga{sub 3}Sb{sub 7} (SS/GS) thin films were investigated through in-situ film resistance measurement. The optical band gap was derived from the transmittance spectra by using a UV-visible-NIR (ultraviolet-visible-near infrared) spectrophotometer. Transmission electron microscopy was used to observe the micro-structure before and after annealing. Phase change memory cells based on the SLL [SS(3 nm)/GS(4.5 nm)]{sub 7} thin films were fabricated to test and verify the operation consumption and switching endurance. The scanning thermal microscopy was used to probe the nanoscale thermal property.

  9. Which Fish Should I Eat? Perspectives Influencing Fish Consumption Choices

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Anna L.; Karagas, Margaret R.; Mariën, Koenraad; Rheinberger, Christoph M.; Schoeny, Rita; Sunderland, Elsie; Korrick, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Diverse perspectives have influenced fish consumption choices. Objectives: We summarized the issue of fish consumption choice from toxicological, nutritional, ecological, and economic points of view; identified areas of overlap and disagreement among these viewpoints; and reviewed effects of previous fish consumption advisories. Methods: We reviewed published scientific literature, public health guidelines, and advisories related to fish consumption, focusing on advisories targeted at U.S. populations. However, our conclusions apply to groups having similar fish consumption patterns. Discussion: There are many possible combinations of matters related to fish consumption, but few, if any, fish consumption patterns optimize all domains. Fish provides a rich source of protein and other nutrients, but because of contamination by methylmercury and other toxicants, higher fish intake often leads to greater toxicant exposure. Furthermore, stocks of wild fish are not adequate to meet the nutrient demands of the growing world population, and fish consumption choices also have a broad economic impact on the fishing industry. Most guidance does not account for ecological and economic impacts of different fish consumption choices. Conclusion: Despite the relative lack of information integrating the health, ecological, and economic impacts of different fish choices, clear and simple guidance is necessary to effect desired changes. Thus, more comprehensive advice can be developed to describe the multiple impacts of fish consumption. In addition, policy and fishery management inter-ventions will be necessary to ensure long-term availability of fish as an important source of human nutrition. PMID:22534056

  10. Population growth and consumption.

    PubMed

    Chalkley, K

    1997-04-01

    The relationship between population growth, resource consumption, and environmental degradation is complex. The rise in "greenhouse gases" that will cause climatic change is clearly due to human activity, and pollutants are often concentrated in densely populated areas. However, even an area with a negative population growth, such as Russia, can experience severe environmental degradation due to poor management. Consumption patterns have the most effect on ozone depletion, while population growth threatens biodiversity of and within species through the destruction of ecosystems. Migration joins population growth and social factors, such as land inequality, as major causes of deforestation, and global demand for water is expected to increase faster than the rate of population growth. Coastal development and over-fishing threaten to deplete the oceans, while soil quality is threatened by inappropriate land use. Estimates of the earth's carrying capacity range from less than 3 billion to more than 44 billion people, indicating how difficult it is to assess this figure. Development efforts throughout the world may lead to human gains that will ultimately be negated by environmental losses. These factors have led to growing support for environmentally sustainable development.

  11. Patterns of chocolate consumption.

    PubMed

    Seligson, F H; Krummel, D A; Apgar, J L

    1994-12-01

    Although consumed in some form since at least 460 AD, cacao (Theobroma cacao) was not used in confectionery until the 19th century when the cocoa press was invented. Per capita consumption of chocolate confectionery in the United States is moderate (approximately 4.6-4.8 kg/y) compared with that of many northern European countries (approximately 7-10 kg/y). Eleven percent of the US population reported consuming chocolate candy on > or = 1 of the 3 d of recorded food intake in the US Department of Agriculture Nationwide Food Consumption Survey 1987-1988; < 1.0% consumed chocolate every day. The Western region of the United States contained the highest proportion of chocolate consumers. More whites than other racial groups were consumers. Chocolate was consumed by more people in the winter than in other seasons and more was consumed at snacks than at meals. The mean amount of chocolate consumed was approximately 30-90 g/d, depending on sex and age group. Chocolate candy was only a minor contributor (0.7-3.4%) to the overall dietary intake of total energy, fat, saturated fatty acids, and stearic acid.

  12. Synchrotron-Based X-ray Microtomography Characterization of the Effect of Processing Variables on Porosity Formation in Laser Power-Bed Additive Manufacturing of Ti-6Al-4V

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Ross; Narra, Sneha P.; Montgomery, Colt; Beuth, Jack; Rollett, A. D.

    2017-01-01

    The porosity observed in additively manufactured (AM) parts is a potential concern for components intended to undergo high-cycle fatigue without post-processing to remove such defects. The morphology of pores can help identify their cause: irregularly shaped lack of fusion or key-holing pores can usually be linked to incorrect processing parameters, while spherical pores suggest trapped gas. Synchrotron-based x-ray microtomography was performed on laser powder-bed AM Ti-6Al-4V samples over a range of processing conditions to investigate the effects of processing parameters on porosity. The process mapping technique was used to control melt pool size. Tomography was also performed on the powder to measure porosity within the powder that may transfer to the parts. As observed previously in experiments with electron beam powder-bed fabrication, significant variations in porosity were found as a function of the processing parameters. A clear connection between processing parameters and resulting porosity formation mechanism was observed in that inadequate melt pool overlap resulted in lack-of-fusion pores whereas excess power density produced keyhole pores.

  13. Synchrotron-Based X-ray Microtomography Characterization of the Effect of Processing Variables on Porosity Formation in Laser Power-Bed Additive Manufacturing of Ti-6Al-4V

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Ross; Narra, Sneha P.; Montgomery, Colt; Beuth, Jack; Rollett, A. D.

    2017-03-01

    The porosity observed in additively manufactured (AM) parts is a potential concern for components intended to undergo high-cycle fatigue without post-processing to remove such defects. The morphology of pores can help identify their cause: irregularly shaped lack of fusion or key-holing pores can usually be linked to incorrect processing parameters, while spherical pores suggest trapped gas. Synchrotron-based x-ray microtomography was performed on laser powder-bed AM Ti-6Al-4V samples over a range of processing conditions to investigate the effects of processing parameters on porosity. The process mapping technique was used to control melt pool size. Tomography was also performed on the powder to measure porosity within the powder that may transfer to the parts. As observed previously in experiments with electron beam powder-bed fabrication, significant variations in porosity were found as a function of the processing parameters. A clear connection between processing parameters and resulting porosity formation mechanism was observed in that inadequate melt pool overlap resulted in lack-of-fusion pores whereas excess power density produced keyhole pores.

  14. Power system

    DOEpatents

    Hickam, Christopher Dale

    2008-03-18

    A power system includes a prime mover, a transmission, and a fluid coupler having a selectively engageable lockup clutch. The fluid coupler may be drivingly connected between the prime mover and the transmission. Additionally, the power system may include a motor/generator drivingly connected to at least one of the prime mover and the transmission. The power-system may also include power-system controls configured to execute a control method. The control method may include selecting one of a plurality of modes of operation of the power system. Additionally, the control method may include controlling the operating state of the lockup clutch dependent upon the mode of operation selected. The control method may also include controlling the operating state of the motor/generator dependent upon the mode of operation selected.

  15. Electrical energy consumption control apparatuses and electrical energy consumption control methods

    DOEpatents

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.

    2012-09-04

    Electrical energy consumption control apparatuses and electrical energy consumption control methods are described. According to one aspect, an electrical energy consumption control apparatus includes processing circuitry configured to receive a signal which is indicative of current of electrical energy which is consumed by a plurality of loads at a site, to compare the signal which is indicative of current of electrical energy which is consumed by the plurality of loads at the site with a desired substantially sinusoidal waveform of current of electrical energy which is received at the site from an electrical power system, and to use the comparison to control an amount of the electrical energy which is consumed by at least one of the loads of the site.

  16. Electric Power Monthly, June 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-13

    The EPM is prepared by the Electric Power Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, electricity sales, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation are also displayed at the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) region level. Additionally, company and plant level information are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel. Quantity, quality, and cost of fuel data lag the net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, electricity sales, and average revenue per kilowatthour data by 1 month. This difference in reporting appears in the national, Census division, and State level tables. However, at the plant level, all statistics presented are for the earlier month for the purpose of comparison. 40 tabs.

  17. Radiative properties of ceramic metal-halide high intensity discharge lamps containing additives in argon plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cressault, Yann; Teulet, Philippe; Zissis, Georges

    2016-07-01

    The lighting represents a consumption of about 19% of the world electricity production. We are thus searching new effective and environment-friendlier light sources. The ceramic metal-halide high intensity lamps (C-MHL) are one of the options for illuminating very high area. The new C-MHL lamps contain additives species that reduce mercury inside and lead to a richer spectrum in specific spectral intervals, a better colour temperature or colour rendering index. This work is particularly focused on the power radiated by these lamps, estimated using the net emission coefficient, and depending on several additives (calcium, sodium, tungsten, dysprosium, and thallium or strontium iodides). The results show the strong influence of the additives on the power radiated despite of their small quantity in the mixtures and the increase of visible radiation portion in presence of dysprosium.

  18. Metal Additive Manufacturing: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazier, William E.

    2014-06-01

    This paper reviews the state-of-the-art of an important, rapidly emerging, manufacturing technology that is alternatively called additive manufacturing (AM), direct digital manufacturing, free form fabrication, or 3D printing, etc. A broad contextual overview of metallic AM is provided. AM has the potential to revolutionize the global parts manufacturing and logistics landscape. It enables distributed manufacturing and the productions of parts-on-demand while offering the potential to reduce cost, energy consumption, and carbon footprint. This paper explores the material science, processes, and business consideration associated with achieving these performance gains. It is concluded that a paradigm shift is required in order to fully exploit AM potential.

  19. Power limits for microbial life

    PubMed Central

    LaRowe, Douglas E.; Amend, Jan P.

    2015-01-01

    To better understand the origin, evolution, and extent of life, we seek to determine the minimum flux of energy needed for organisms to remain viable. Despite the difficulties associated with direct measurement of the power limits for life, it is possible to use existing data and models to constrain the minimum flux of energy required to sustain microorganisms. Here, a we apply a bioenergetic model to a well characterized marine sedimentary environment in order to quantify the amount of power organisms use in an ultralow-energy setting. In particular, we show a direct link between power consumption in this environment and the amount of biomass (cells cm-3) found in it. The power supply resulting from the aerobic degradation of particular organic carbon (POC) at IODP Site U1370 in the South Pacific Gyre is between ∼10-12 and 10-16 W cm-3. The rates of POC degradation are calculated using a continuum model while Gibbs energies have been computed using geochemical data describing the sediment as a function of depth. Although laboratory-determined values of maintenance power do a poor job of representing the amount of biomass in U1370 sediments, the number of cells per cm-3 can be well-captured using a maintenance power, 190 zW cell-1, two orders of magnitude lower than the lowest value reported in the literature. In addition, we have combined cell counts and calculated power supplies to determine that, on average, the microorganisms at Site U1370 require 50–3500 zW cell-1, with most values under ∼300 zW cell-1. Furthermore, we carried out an analysis of the absolute minimum power requirement for a single cell to remain viable to be on the order of 1 zW cell-1. PMID:26236299

  20. Effects of nutrient enrichment on channel catfish growth and consumption in Mount Storm Lake, West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blanc, T.J.; Margraf, F.J.

    2002-01-01

    With the objective of augmenting fish production in Mount Storm Lake, Virginia Electric and Power Company initiated a programme of phosphorus addition to increase primary production, and ultimately, channel catfish (Ictaturus punctatus) growth in the 486 ha cooling reservoir. We simulated channel catfish growth dynamics using two bioenergetics modelling scenarios: (i) effects of average reservoir temperature on growth, conversion efficiency and consumption; and (ii) effects of reservoir enrichment on growth, which is simulated by increasing feeding rates. During 1991-1993, fish were sampled monthly, but sampling was increased to every 2 weeks during the peak growing season (June-September). Most of the channel catfish collected were aged 0 year and aged 1 year with rapid annual growth rates ranging from 9.0 to 13.7 J/g. We found many age 1 250-300 mm catfish, but few beyond this size. Conversion efficiency (joules gained/joules consumed) was low at approximately 18-19%. High algae consumption (40%) was evident, but consumption of zooplankton and Asiatic clam (Corbicula sp.) increased over the study. Simulated increased feeding rates showed that channel catfish were food limited in summer and fall (July-December). Weight gains with 5 and 10% feeding increases were 6-13% and 18-38%, respectively, from the baseline. Catfish of all sizes should benefit from phosphorus additions.

  1. Dynamic power flow controllers

    DOEpatents

    Divan, Deepakraj M.; Prasai, Anish

    2017-03-07

    Dynamic power flow controllers are provided. A dynamic power flow controller may comprise a transformer and a power converter. The power converter is subject to low voltage stresses and not floated at line voltage. In addition, the power converter is rated at a fraction of the total power controlled. A dynamic power flow controller controls both the real and the reactive power flow between two AC sources having the same frequency. A dynamic power flow controller inserts a voltage with controllable magnitude and phase between two AC sources; thereby effecting control of active and reactive power flows between two AC sources.

  2. Power Generation: The Next 30 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holcomb, Robert W.

    1970-01-01

    Discusses pollution problems associated with power production. Estimates power consumption in the 1980's and the availability of fossil and nuclear fuel resources. Emphasizes needed research on air pollution, nuclear pollution, and thermal pollution. (EB)

  3. Impact of electric cars on U.S. petroleum consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, M. M.; Carriere, W. M.

    1980-02-01

    A computer model that forecasts electricity demand and capacity on an hourly basis for each major electric power company in the United States is used to analyze the potential impact of electric cars on national petroleum consumption in 1980, 1990, and 2000. The analysis, based on 1978 and 1979 growth projections by the industry, shows that if all cars were electrified in the year 2000, autombile petroleum use would be cut by 75 percent, saving 2.5 million barrels of crude oil a day, or 14 percent of future national petroleum consumption. Most cars could be charged overnight from otherwise idle coal and nuclear power plants.

  4. Application of the thermoelectric MEMS microwave power sensor in a power radiation monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bo, Gao; Jing, Yang; Si, Jiang; Debo, Wang

    2016-08-01

    A power radiation monitoring system based on thermoelectric MEMS microwave power sensors is studied. This monitoring system consists of three modules: a data acquisition module, a data processing and display module, and a data sharing module. It can detect the power radiation in the environment and the date information can be processed and shared. The measured results show that the thermoelectric MEMS microwave power sensor and the power radiation monitoring system both have a relatively good linearity. The sensitivity of the thermoelectric MEMS microwave power sensor is about 0.101 mV/mW, and the sensitivity of the monitoring system is about 0.038 V/mW. The voltage gain of the monitoring system is about 380 times, which is relatively consistent with the theoretical value. In addition, the low-frequency and low-power module in the monitoring system is adopted in order to reduce the electromagnetic pollution and the power consumption, and this work will extend the application of the thermoelectric MEMS microwave power sensor in more areas. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11304158), the Province Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu (No. BK20140890), the Open Research Fund of the Key Laboratory of MEMS of Ministry of Education, Southeast University (No. 3206005302), and the Scientific Research Foundation of Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications (Nos. NY213024, NY215139).

  5. A Solar-Powered Enceladus Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon-Miller, Amy A.; Reuter, Dennis C.

    2008-01-01

    We present the results of a concept design study for a New Frontiers or small Flagship-class mission to Enceladus, using solar power. By concentrating on the science objectives most critical for a Cassini follow-on, this mission maximizes the science return while maintaining a power consumption level that can be provided by a practical solar power system. The optimized instrument payload is the product of a broad science community-based Science Definition Team Study. The spacecraft and mission designs are the products of studies carried out by the GSFC Mission Design Lab and Ball Aerospace. In addition to the low isolation at Enceladus, its location deep in Saturn's gravity well makes it a challenging target to reach, meaning that careful consideration must be given to spacecraft mass and the potential mission types. This presentation summarizes the mission science objectives and payload, the dynamical work, and the notional operations plan of this mission.

  6. Sustainable Consumption and Life Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiao, Jing Jian; Li, Haifeng

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between sustainable consumption and life satisfaction. One aspect of sustainable consumption focused on in this study is the environment friendly purchase or green purchase. Using data collected from consumers in 14 cities in China, we found that consumers who reported green purchase…

  7. Intergenerational Linkages in Consumption Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldkirch, Andreas; Ng, Serena; Cox, Donald

    2004-01-01

    We investigate familial relationships in consumption patterns using a sample of parents and their children from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. We find a positive and statistically significant parent-specific effect on children's consumption even after controlling for the effect of parental income. This correlation is found in different…

  8. Neurobehavioral effects of aspartame consumption.

    PubMed

    Lindseth, Glenda N; Coolahan, Sonya E; Petros, Thomas V; Lindseth, Paul D

    2014-06-01

    Despite its widespread use, the artificial sweetener aspartame remains one of the most controversial food additives, due to mixed evidence on its neurobehavioral effects. Healthy adults who consumed a study-prepared high-aspartame diet (25 mg/kg body weight/day) for 8 days and a low-aspartame diet (10 mg/kg body weight/day) for 8 days, with a 2-week washout between the diets, were examined for within-subject differences in cognition, depression, mood, and headache. Measures included weight of foods consumed containing aspartame, mood and depression scales, and cognitive tests for working memory and spatial orientation. When consuming high-aspartame diets, participants had more irritable mood, exhibited more depression, and performed worse on spatial orientation tests. Aspartame consumption did not influence working memory. Given that the higher intake level tested here was well below the maximum acceptable daily intake level of 40-50 mg/kg body weight/day, careful consideration is warranted when consuming food products that may affect neurobehavioral health.

  9. Electric power monthly, December 1997 with data for September 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. This publication provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and US levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity retail sales, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. In addition, data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source; consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant. 63 tabs.

  10. Factors influencing the frequency of children's consumption of soft drinks.

    PubMed

    Pettigrew, Simone; Jongenelis, Michelle; Chapman, Kathy; Miller, Caroline

    2015-08-01

    Among other focus areas, interventions designed to improve children's diets need to address key factors contributing to children's consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. The present study employed structural equation modelling to investigate the relationship between a broad range of predictor variables and the frequency with which Australian children consume soft drinks. In total, 1302 parents of children aged 8 to 14 years responded to an online survey about their children's food consumption behaviours. Soft drink consumption frequency was primarily influenced by parents' attitudes to soft drinks, children's pestering behaviours, and perceived social norms relating to children's consumption of these products. Importantly, pestering and social norms had significant direct effects on consumption frequency in addition to indirect effects via their impact on parents' attitudes to soft drink.

  11. Fundamental principles of energy consumption for gene expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Lifang; Yuan, Zhanjiang; Yu, Jianshe; Zhou, Tianshou

    2015-12-01

    How energy is consumed in gene expression is largely unknown mainly due to complexity of non-equilibrium mechanisms affecting expression levels. Here, by analyzing a representative gene model that considers complexity of gene expression, we show that negative feedback increases energy consumption but positive feedback has an opposite effect; promoter leakage always reduces energy consumption; generating more bursts needs to consume more energy; and the speed of promoter switching is at the cost of energy consumption. We also find that the relationship between energy consumption and expression noise is multi-mode, depending on both the type of feedback and the speed of promoter switching. Altogether, these results constitute fundamental principles of energy consumption for gene expression, which lay a foundation for designing biologically reasonable gene modules. In addition, we discuss possible biological implications of these principles by combining experimental facts.

  12. 18 CFR 5.21 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Additional information. 5.21 Section 5.21 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT INTEGRATED LICENSE APPLICATION PROCESS §...

  13. 18 CFR 5.21 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional information. 5.21 Section 5.21 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT INTEGRATED LICENSE APPLICATION PROCESS §...

  14. 18 CFR 5.21 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional information. 5.21 Section 5.21 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT INTEGRATED LICENSE APPLICATION PROCESS §...

  15. 18 CFR 5.21 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Additional information. 5.21 Section 5.21 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT INTEGRATED LICENSE APPLICATION PROCESS §...

  16. 18 CFR 5.21 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional information. 5.21 Section 5.21 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT INTEGRATED LICENSE APPLICATION PROCESS §...

  17. Water withdrawal and consumption reduction analysis for electrical energy generation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nouri, Narjes

    There is an increasing concern over shrinking water resources. Water use in the energy sector primarily occurs in electricity generation. Anticipating scarcer supplies, the value of water is undoubtedly on the rise and design, implementation, and utilization of water saving mechanisms in energy generation systems are becoming inevitable. Most power plants generate power by boiling water to produce steam to spin electricity-generating turbines. Large quantities of water are often used to cool the steam in these plants. As a consequence, most fossil-based power plants in addition to consuming water, impact the water resources by raising the temperature of water withdrawn for cooling. A comprehensive study is conducted in this thesis to analyze and quantify water withdrawals and consumption of various electricity generation sources such as coal, natural gas, renewable sources, etc. Electricity generation for the state of California is studied and presented as California is facing a serious drought problem affecting more than 30 million people. Integrated planning for the interleaved energy and water sectors is essential for both water and energy savings. A linear model is developed to minimize the water consumption while considering several limitations and restrictions. California has planned to shut down some of its hydro and nuclear plants due to environmental concerns. Studies have been performed for various electricity generation and water saving scenarios including no-hydro and no-nuclear plant and the results are presented. Modifications to proposed different scenarios have been applied and discussed to meet the practical and reliability constraints.

  18. A consumption value-gap analysis for sustainable consumption.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Aindrila

    2017-01-26

    Recent studies on consumption behavior have depicted environmental apprehension resulting from across wide consumer segments. However, this has not been widely reflected upon the growth in the market shares for green or environment-friendly products mostly because gaps exist between consumers' expectations and perceptions for those products. Previous studies have highlighted the impact of perceived value on potential demand, consumer satisfaction and behavioral intentions. The necessity to understand the effects of gaps in expected and perceived values on consumers' behavioral intention and potential demand for green products cannot be undermined as it shapes the consumers' inclination to repeated purchase and consumption and thus foster potential market demand. Pertaining to this reason, the study aims to adopt a consumption value-gap model based on the theory of consumption values to assess their impact on sustainable consumption behavior and market demand of green products. Consumption value refers to the level of fulfillment of consumer needs by assessment of net utility derived after effective comparison between the benefits (financial or emotional) and the gives (money, time, or energy). The larger the gaps the higher will be the adversarial impact on behavioral intentions. A structural equation modeling was applied to assess data collected through questionnaire survey. The results indicate that functional value-gap and environmental value-gap has the most adversarial impact on sustainable consumption behavior and market demand for green products.

  19. Urinary isoxanthohumol is a specific and accurate biomarker of beer consumption.

    PubMed

    Quifer-Rada, Paola; Martínez-Huélamo, Miriam; Chiva-Blanch, Gemma; Jáuregui, Olga; Estruch, Ramon; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa M

    2014-04-01

    Biomarkers of food consumption are a powerful tool to obtain more objective measurements of dietary exposure and to monitor compliance in clinical trials. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of urinary isoxanthohumol (IX) excretion as an accurate biomarker of beer consumption. A dose-response clinical trial, a randomized, crossover clinical trial, and a cohort study were performed. In the dose-response trial, 41 young volunteers (males and females, aged 28 ± 3 y) consumed different doses of beer at night and a spot urine sample was collected the following morning. In the clinical trial, 33 males with high cardiovascular risk (aged 61 ± 7 y) randomly were administered 30 g of ethanol/d as gin or beer, or an equivalent amount of polyphenols as nonalcoholic beer for 4 wk. Additionally, a subsample of 46 volunteers from the PREDIMED (Prevenciόn con Dieta Mediterránea) study (males and females, aged 63 ± 5 y) was also evaluated. Prenylflavonoids were quantified in urine samples by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. IX urinary recovery increased linearly with the size of the beer dose in male volunteers. A significant increase in IX excretion (4.0 ± 1.6 μg/g creatinine) was found after consumption of beer and nonalcoholic beer for 4 wk (P < 0.001). Receiver operating characteristic curves showed that IX is able to discriminate between beer consumers and abstainers with a sensitivity of 67% and specificity of 100% (positive predictive value = 70%, negative predictive value = 100% in real-life conditions). IX in urine samples was found to be a specific and accurate biomarker of beer consumption and may be a powerful tool in epidemiologic studies.

  20. 21 CFR 172.894 - Modified cottonseed products intended for human consumption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Modified cottonseed products intended for human... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.894 Modified cottonseed...

  1. 21 CFR 172.894 - Modified cottonseed products intended for human consumption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Modified cottonseed products intended for human... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.894 Modified cottonseed...

  2. Organotin intake through fish consumption in Finland

    SciTech Connect

    Airaksinen, Riikka; Rantakokko, Panu; Turunen, Anu W.; Vartiainen, Terttu; Vuorinen, Pekka J.; Lappalainen, Antti; Vihervuori, Aune; Mannio, Jaakko; Hallikainen, Anja

    2010-08-15

    Background: Organotin compounds (OTCs) are a large class of synthetic chemicals with widely varying properties. Due to their potential adverse health effects, their use has been restricted in many countries. Humans are exposed to OTCs mostly through fish consumption. Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe OTC exposure through fish consumption and to assess the associated potential health risks in a Finnish population. Methods: An extensive sampling of Finnish domestic fish was carried out in the Baltic Sea and freshwater areas in 2005-2007. In addition, samples of imported seafood were collected in 2008. The chemical analysis was performed in an accredited testing laboratory during 2005-2008. Average daily intake of the sum of dibutyltin (DBT), tributyltin (TBT), triphenyltin (TPhT) and dioctyltin (DOT) ({Sigma}OTCs) for the Finnish population was calculated on the basis of the measured concentrations and fish consumption rates. Results: The average daily intake of {Sigma}OTCs through fish consumption was 3.2 ng/kg bw day{sup -1}, which is 1.3% from the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) of 250 ng/kg bw day{sup -1} set by the European Food Safety Authority. In total, domestic wild fish accounted for 61% of the {Sigma}OTC intake, while the intake through domestic farmed fish was 4.0% and the intake through imported fish was 35%. The most important species were domestic perch and imported salmon and rainbow trout. Conclusions: The Finnish consumers are not likely to exceed the threshold level for adverse health effects due to OTC intake through fish consumption.

  3. Analysis of Household Electricity Consumption Patterns and Economy of Water Heating Shifting and Saving Bulbs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosin, Argo; Moller, Taavi; Lehtla, Madis; Hoimoja, Hardi

    2010-01-01

    This article analyses household electricity consumption based on an object in Estonia. Energy consumption of workday and holiday by loads (including high and low tariff energy consumption) is discussed. The final part describes the evaluation of profitability of common investments of consumption shifting and replacing inefficient devices with more efficient ones. Additionally it describes shifting problems and shifting equipment profitability in real-time tariff system.

  4. Wavelet modulation: An alternative modulation with low energy consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chafii, Marwa; Palicot, Jacques; Gribonval, Rémi

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents wavelet modulation, based on the discrete wavelet transform, as an alternative modulation with low energy consumption. The transmitted signal has low envelope variations, which induces a good efficiency for the power amplifier. Wavelet modulation is analyzed and compared for different wavelet families with orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) in terms of peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR), power spectral density (PSD) properties, and the impact of the power amplifier on the spectral regrowth. The performance in terms of bit error rate and complexity of implementation are also evaluated, and several trade-offs are characterized. xml:lang="fr"

  5. Application Power Signature Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, Chung-Hsing; Combs, Jacob; Nazor, Jolie; Santiago, Fabian; Thysell, Rachelle; Rivoire, Suzanne; Poole, Stephen W

    2014-01-01

    The high-performance computing (HPC) community has been greatly concerned about energy efficiency. To address this concern, it is essential to understand and characterize the electrical loads of HPC applications. In this work, we study whether HPC applications can be distinguished by their power-consumption patterns using quantitative measures in an automatic manner. Using a collection of 88 power traces from 4 different systems, we find that basic statistical measures do a surprisingly good job of summarizing applications' distinctive power behavior. Moreover, this study opens up a new area of research in power-aware HPC that has a multitude of potential applications.

  6. Energy consumption testing of innovative refrigerator-freezers

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, M.T.; Howell, B.T.; Jones, W.R.; Long, D.L.

    1995-12-31

    The high ambient temperature of the Canadian Standards Association (CSA) and the AHAM/DOE Refrigerator-Freezer Energy Consumption Standards is intended to compensate for the lack of door openings and other heat loads. Recently published results by Meier and Jansky (1993) indicate labeled consumption overpredicting typical field consumption by 15%. In-house field studies on conventional models showed labeled consumption overpredicting by about 22%. The Refrigerator-Freezer Technology Assessment (RFTA) test was developed to more accurately predict field consumption. This test has ambient temperature and humidity, door openings, and condensation control set at levels intended to typify Canadian household conditions. It also assesses consumption at exactly defined compartment rating temperatures. Ten conventional and energy-efficient production models were laboratory tested. The RFTA results were about 30% lower than labeled. Similarly, the four innovative refrigerator-freezer models, when field tested, also had an average of 30% lower consumption than labeled. Thus, the results of the limited testing suggest that the RFTA test may be a more accurate predictor of field use. Further testing with a larger sample is recommended. Experimental results also indicated that some innovative models could save up to 50% of the energy consumption compared with similar conventional units. The technologies that contributed to this performance included dual compressors, more efficient compressors and fan motors, off-state refrigerant control valve, fuzzy logic control, and thicker insulation. The larger savings were on limited production models, for which additional production engineering is required for full marketability.

  7. Methodology for reconstruction of historical food consumption estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.M.

    1992-05-01

    This report was written to provide the food consumption methodology to be used in the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HDER) Project beyond Phase I (which ended in July 1990). In Phase I (Callaway 1992), baseline food consumption estimates (grams per day) for 10 primary food types in the original 10-county study region were derived from the 1977--1978 National Food Consumption Survey (USDA 1983). The baseline estimates were multiplied by the 1945:1977 ratios to produce consumption estimates for 1945. This ratio backcasting method used in Phase I to project consumption estimates from 1977 back to 1945 will be refined using additional USDA data to improve and document the acceptability of the ratios for deriving backcast consumption estimates. The number of food types and population groups will be expanded to provide more disaggregated estimates of food consumption. Food consumption estimates will be developed for 1945, 1951, and 1957. A database of individual diets will be created from which daily diets will be randomly selected for use in the dose model to calculate doses for reference individuals.

  8. Knowledge and barriers relating to fish consumption in older Australians.

    PubMed

    Grieger, Jessica A; Miller, Michelle; Cobiac, Lynne

    2012-10-01

    Among 854 Australians ≥ 51 years of age, this cross-sectional survey explored knowledge regarding finfish consumption, sources of information on fish and omega 3 fatty acids, what barriers limit finfish consumption and what factors predict its consumption. The survey consisted of a validated quantitative fish frequency questionnaire with additional questions on barriers and knowledge relating to finfish. Twelve percent of respondents consumed oily fish ≥ 2 times per week. Cost was the most frequently (37%) reported barrier for fresh finfish consumption. In multiple regression analysis, respondents' exposure to multiple sources of information (odds ratio (95% confidence interval): 1.135 (1.01, 1.28), who correctly identified the current recommendations for fish consumption; 1.87 (1.13, 3.07), agreed that fish improves general health; 3.57 (1.13, 11.30), and reported fewer barriers towards canned fish consumption; 0.59 (0.41, 0.84) were more likely to consume ≥ 2 servings of fresh finfish per week. Education and health programs need to be readily available highlighting current recommendations for fish consumption and how targets can be achieved. Meal plans with various finfish/seafood and amounts of omega 3 fatty acids required to achieve recommendations, and within a suitable budget, is likely to be an important strategy to target older consumers to increase consumption.

  9. Alcohol consumption and plasma homocysteine.

    PubMed

    Sakuta, Hidenari; Suzuki, Takashi

    2005-10-01

    A few reports show that consumption of spirits and of wine correlate with elevated plasma total homocysteine (tHcy), which is associated with the risk of cardiovascular disease. We analyzed the relation between tHcy and current daily ethanol consumption cross-sectionally in middle-aged Japanese men (n = 974, age 51-59 years). Plasma tHcy was positively associated with consumption of whiskey but not with consumption of shochu (Japanese spirits), sake, beer, or wine. Odds ratios of an increase in daily intake of 30 ml ethanol (approximately 1 standard deviation) for hyperhomocysteinemia (>14.0 micromol/l) were 2.58 (95% confidence interval, 1.29-5.14) for whiskey, 1.08 (0.78-1.50) for shochu, 0.99 (0.59-1.66) for sake, 0.98 (0.58-1.63) for beer, and 1.70 (0.31-9.50) for wine in a multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for the daily number of cigarettes smoked, physical activity, vegetable consumption, and serum creatinine levels. After inclusion of plasma folate and vitamin B12 in the multivariate analysis model, the association between whiskey ethanol consumption and hyperhomocysteinemia remained significant with odds ratio of 2.79 (1.36-5.72). These results suggest that whiskey consumption correlates with hyperhomocysteinemia independently of plasma folate or vitamin B12 or lifestyle factors in the population studied.

  10. 21 CFR 170.18 - Tolerances for related food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Tolerances for related food additives. 170.18... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.18 Tolerances for related food additives. (a) Food additives that cause similar or related pharmacological effects will...

  11. 21 CFR 170.38 - Determination of food additive status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Determination of food additive status. 170.38... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive Safety § 170.38 Determination of food additive status. (a) The Commissioner may, in accordance with § 170.35(b)(4) or...

  12. 21 CFR 170.38 - Determination of food additive status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Determination of food additive status. 170.38... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive Safety § 170.38 Determination of food additive status. (a) The Commissioner may, in accordance with § 170.35(b)(4) or...

  13. 21 CFR 173.310 - Boiler water additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Boiler water additives. 173.310 Section 173.310... CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.310 Boiler water additives. Boiler water additives may be safely... water. Copolymer contains not more than 0.5 percent by weight of acrylic acid monomer (dry weight...

  14. 21 CFR 173.310 - Boiler water additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Boiler water additives. 173.310 Section 173.310... CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.310 Boiler water additives. Boiler water additives may be safely... water. Copolymer contains not more than 0.5 percent by weight of acrylic acid monomer (dry weight...

  15. 21 CFR 173.310 - Boiler water additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Boiler water additives. 173.310 Section 173.310... CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.310 Boiler water additives. Boiler water additives may be safely... water. Copolymer contains not more than 0.5 percent by weight of acrylic acid monomer (dry weight...

  16. 21 CFR 173.310 - Boiler water additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Boiler water additives. 173.310 Section 173.310... CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.310 Boiler water additives. Boiler water additives may be safely... water. Copolymer contains not more than 0.5 percent by weight of acrylic acid monomer (dry weight...

  17. Ground Vehicle Power and Mobility

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-17

    foreign oil – Alternative sources sought – wind, solar , bio-mass, waste to energy • Operational issues – Battery usage & limitations – energy & power...Inefficient management/ distribution of power – Demand for soldier- wearable power • Increased emphasis on system power metrics (KPPs, low consumption...Full Vehicle Environmental Test Cell – Ambient temperature control to 160°F – Solar load simulation – Wind speeds up to 20mph in eight possible

  18. Design and experimental demonstration of low-power CMOS magnetic cell manipulation platform using charge recycling technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niitsu, Kiichi; Yoshida, Kohei; Nakazato, Kazuo

    2016-03-01

    We present the world’s first charge-recycling-based low-power technique of complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) magnetic cell manipulation. CMOS magnetic cell manipulation associated with magnetic beads is a promissing tool for on-chip biomedical-analysis applications such as drug screening because CMOS can integrate control electronics and electro-chemical sensors. However, the conventional CMOS cell manipulation requires considerable power consumption. In this work, by concatenating multiple unit circuits and recycling electric charge among them, power consumption is reduced by a factor of the number of the concatenated unit circuits (1/N). For verifying the effectiveness, test chip was fabricated in a 0.6-µm CMOS. The chip successfully manipulates magnetic microbeads with achieving 49% power reduction (from 51 to 26.2 mW). Even considering the additional serial resistance of the concatenated inductors, nearly theoretical power reduction effect can be confirmed.

  19. 21 CFR 172.5 - General provisions for direct food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true General provisions for direct food additives. 172.5... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION General Provisions § 172.5 General provisions for direct food additives....

  20. 21 CFR 172.5 - General provisions for direct food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false General provisions for direct food additives. 172... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION General Provisions § 172.5 General provisions for direct food additives....

  1. 21 CFR 172.5 - General provisions for direct food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false General provisions for direct food additives. 172... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION General Provisions § 172.5 General provisions for direct food additives....

  2. 21 CFR 172.5 - General provisions for direct food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false General provisions for direct food additives. 172... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION General Provisions § 172.5 General provisions for direct food additives....

  3. Nuclear Power in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, John W.

    1983-01-01

    Energy consumption in Japan has grown at a faster rate than in any other major industrial country. To maintain continued prosperity, the government has embarked on a crash program for nuclear power. Current progress and issues/reactions to the plan are discussed. (JN)

  4. Radiative properties of Ceramic Metal-Halide High Intensity Discharge lamps (CMH) containing additives in argon plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cressault, Yann; Teulet, Philippe; Zissis, Georges; Laplace Team

    2015-09-01

    The lighting represents a consumption of about 19% of the world electricity production. We are thus searching new effective and environment-friendlier light sources. The Ceramic Metal-Halide High Intensity Lamps (CMH) are one of the options for illuminating very high area. The new CMH lamps are mercury free and contain additives species which lead to a richer spectrum in specific spectral intervals, a better colour temperature or colour rendering index. This work is particularly focused on the power radiated by these lamps, estimated using the Net Emission Coefficient, and depending on several additives (calcium, sodium, tungsten, dysprosium, thallium or strontium).

  5. Alcohol consumption on pancreatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Herreros-Villanueva, Marta; Hijona, Elizabeth; Bañales, Jesus Maria; Cosme, Angel; Bujanda, Luis

    2013-02-07

    Although the association between alcohol and pancreatic diseases has been recognized for a long time, the impact of alcohol consumption on pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer (PC) remains poorly defined. Nowadays there is not consensus about the epidemiology and the beverage type, dose and duration of alcohol consumption causing these diseases. The objective of this study was to review the epidemiology described in the literature for pancreatic diseases as a consequence of alcoholic behavior trying to understand the association between dose, type and frequency of alcohol consumption and risk of pancreatitis and PC. The majority of the studies conclude that high alcohol intake was associated with a higher risk of pancreatitis (around 2.5%-3% between heavy drinkers and 1.3% between non drinkers). About 70% of pancreatitis are due to chronic heavy alcohol consumption. Although this incidence rate differs between countries, it is clear that the risk of developing pancreatitis increases with increasing doses of alcohol and the average of alcohol consumption vary since 80 to 150 g/d for 10-15 years. With regard to PC, the role of alcohol consumption remains less clear, and low to moderate alcohol consumption do not appear to be associated with PC risk, and only chronic heavy drinking increase the risk compared with lightly drinkers. In a population of 10%-15% of heavy drinkers, 2%-5% of all PC cases could be attributed to alcohol consumption. However, as only a minority (less than 10% for pancreatitis and 5% for PC) of heavily drinkers develops these pancreatic diseases, there are other predisposing factors besides alcohol involved. Genetic variability and environmental exposures such as smoking and diet modify the risk and should be considered for further investigations.

  6. Caffeine consumption in young children.

    PubMed

    Warzak, William J; Evans, Shelby; Floress, Margaret T; Gross, Amy C; Stoolman, Sharon

    2011-03-01

    Two hundred twenty-eight surveyed parents reported that their 5 to 7 year old children drank approximately 52 mg of caffeine daily and their 8 to 12 year old children drank 109 mg daily. Caffeine consumption and hours slept were significantly negatively correlated, but caffeine consumption and enuresis were not significantly correlated. Spanish-speaking parents reported fewer bedwetting events than their English-speaking peers.

  7. Manufacturing consumption of energy 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    This report provides estimates on energy consumption in the manufacturing sector of the US economy. These estimates are based on data from the 1991 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS). This survey--administered by the Energy End Use and Integrated Statistics Division, Office of Energy Markets and End Use, Energy Information Administration (EIA)--is the most comprehensive source of national-level data on energy-related information for the manufacturing industries.

  8. On increasing network lifetime in body area networks using global routing with energy consumption balancing.

    PubMed

    Tsouri, Gill R; Prieto, Alvaro; Argade, Nikhil

    2012-09-26

    Global routing protocols in wireless body area networks are considered. Global routing is augmented with a novel link cost function designed to balance energy consumption across the network. The result is a substantial increase in network lifetime at the expense of a marginal increase in energy per bit. Network maintenance requirements are reduced as well, since balancing energy consumption means all batteries need to be serviced at the same time and less frequently. The proposed routing protocol is evaluated using a hardware experimental setup comprising multiple nodes and an access point. The setup is used to assess network architectures, including an on-body access point and an off-body access point with varying number of antennas. Real-time experiments are conducted in indoor environments to assess performance gains. In addition, the setup is used to record channel attenuation data which are then processed in extensive computer simulations providing insight on the effect of protocol parameters on performance. Results demonstrate efficient balancing of energy consumption across all nodes, an average increase of up to 40% in network lifetime corresponding to a modest average increase of 0.4 dB in energy per bit, and a cutoff effect on required transmission power to achieve reliable connectivity.

  9. Comparison of Overall Resource Consumption of Biosolids Management System Processes Using Exergetic Life Cycle Assessment.

    PubMed

    Alanya, Sevda; Dewulf, Jo; Duran, Metin

    2015-08-18

    This study focused on the evaluation of biosolids management systems (BMS) from a natural resource consumption point of view. Additionally, the environmental impact of the facilities was benchmarked using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to provide a comprehensive assessment. This is the first study to apply a Cumulative Exergy Extraction from the Natural Environment (CEENE) method for an in-depth resource use assessment of BMS where two full-scale BMS and seven system variations were analyzed. CEENE allows better system evaluation and understanding of how much benefit is achievable from the products generated by BMS, which have valorization potential. LCA results showed that environmental burden is mostly from the intense electricity consumption. The CEENE analysis further revealed that the environmental burden is due to the high consumption of fossil and nuclear-based natural resources. Using Cumulative Degree of Perfection, higher resource-use efficiency, 53%, was observed in the PTA-2 where alkaline stabilization rather than anaerobic digestion is employed. However, an anaerobic digestion process is favorable over alkaline stabilization, with 35% lower overall natural resource use. The most significant reduction of the resource footprint occurred when the output biogas was valorized in a combined heat and power system.

  10. Daily practices, consumption and citizenship.

    PubMed

    Mazzarino, Jane M; Morigi, Valdir J; Kaufmann, Cristine; Farias, Alessandra M B; Fernandes, Diefersom A

    2011-12-01

    This paper promotes a reflection on the relationship between daily practices and consumption. Understanding how conflicts, resistance and consensus are generated from daily consumption practices opens up possibilities for reflecting on the construction of sustainability in the context of diversity, one of the landmarks of the globalized world. Within this socio-cultural context, the central issue is: can consumption generate citizenship practices? The concepts of subject and agent help one think about collective action and subjectivation processes and their interferences on the collective consuming behavior. Based on empirical data from a research carried out in the municipality of Estrela in 2007, in the Taquari Valley - Rio Grande do Sul (Southern Brazil) on local reality consumption practices, it was possible to conclude that various reasoning mechanisms and values underlie the daily consumption practices. Citizenship construction, based on consumption practices, depends on the subject's reflection capacity on his/her daily practices or on what goes through the circulation of environmental information based on sociability spaces.

  11. Alcohol Consumption in Demographic Subpopulations

    PubMed Central

    Delker, Erin; Brown, Qiana; Hasin, Deborah S.

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is common across subpopulations in the United States. However, the health burden associated with alcohol consumption varies across groups, including those defined by demographic characteristics such as age, race/ethnicity, and gender. Large national surveys, such as the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions and the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, found that young adults ages 18–25 were at particularly high risk of alcohol use disorder and unintentional injury caused by drinking. These surveys furthermore identified significant variability in alcohol consumption and its consequences among racial/ethnic groups. White respondents reported the highest prevalence of current alcohol consumption, whereas alcohol abuse and dependence were most prevalent among Native Americans. Native Americans and Blacks also were most vulnerable to alcohol-related health consequences. Even within ethnic groups, there was variability between and among different subpopulations. With respect to gender, men reported more alcohol consumption and binge drinking than women, especially in older cohorts. Men also were at greater risk of alcohol abuse and dependence, liver cirrhosis, homicide after alcohol consumption, and drinking and driving. Systematic identification and measurement of the variability across demographics will guide prevention and intervention efforts, as well as future research. PMID:27159807

  12. Optimizing Baseload Power of Interconnected Wind Farms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobrin, B. H.

    2010-12-01

    Interconnecting wind farms has been proposed as a way to reduce the natural unreliability of wind power caused by the intermittency of winds. In a previous study, the benefits of interconnecting up to 19 sites in the Midwestern United States were evaluated with the assumption that the same number of turbines would be installed at each site. The goal of this study was to avoid this assumption and examine the advantages of optimizing the ratio of turbines at each site. An optimization algorithm based on the gradient method was used to maximize the baseload power, or guaranteed power 87.5% of the year, using hourly wind speed data for the same 19 sites. The result was a significant improvement in the reliability of the array, increasing the baseload power by 38% compared to the array with equally-weighted sites. Further analysis showed that the turbines were generally distributed according to the average wind power at each site and the wind correlation among sites. In addition to optimizing the average baseload of the array, this study examined the benefits of optimizing the baseload for peak usage time (between noon and 7 p.m), and thus a simplified model was created to analyze how interconnecting wind farms could increase correlation with energy consumption. Optimization for peak usage hours, however, provided no additional benefit over the original optimized array because the variation of average hourly wind speeds was well-correlated among the sites.

  13. SELF-POWERED WIRELESS SENSOR NODE POWER MODELING BASED ON IEEE 802.11 COMMUNICATION PROTOCOL

    SciTech Connect

    Vivek Agarwal; Raymond A. DeCarlo; Lefteri H. Tsoukalas

    2016-04-01

    Design and technical advancements in sensing, processing, and wireless communication capabilities of small, portable devices known as wireless sensor nodes (WSNs) have drawn extensive research attention and are vastly applied in science and engineering applications. The WSNs are typically powered by a chemical battery source that has a load dependent finite lifetime. Most applications, including the nuclear industry applications, require WSNs to operate for an extended period of time beginning with their deployment. To ensure longevity, it is important to develop self-powered WSNs. The benefit of self-powered WSNs goes far beyond the cost savings of removing the need for cable installation and maintenance. Self-powered WSNs will potentially offer significant expansion in remote monitoring of nuclear facilities, and provide important data on plant equipment and component status during normal operation, as well as in case of abnormal operation, station blackouts or post-accident evaluation. Advancements in power harvesting technologies enable electric energy generation from many sources, including kinetic, thermal, and radiated energy. For the ongoing research at Idaho National Laboratory, a solid-state thermoelectric-based technology, the thermoelectric generator (TEG), is used to convert thermal energy to power a WSN. The design and development of TEGs to power WSNs that would remain active for a long period of time requires comprehensive understanding of WSN operational. This motivates the research in modeling the lifetime, i.e., power consumption, of a WSN by taking into consideration various node and network level activities. A WSN must perform three essential tasks: sense events, perform quick local information processing of sensed events, and wirelessly exchange locally processed data with the base station or with other WSNs in the network. Each task has a power cost per unit tine and an additional cost when switching between tasks. There are number of other

  14. Assessment of Housing Energy Consumption in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yerel Kandemir, Suheyla; Erdem Çerçevik, Ali; Ankara, Huseyin; Ozgur Yayli, M.

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we analyze housing energy consumption in Turkey. The energy consumption is evaluated by using the multivariate techniques such as cluster analysis and multidimensional scaling (MDS) analysis. The number of clusters for housing energy consumption was selected as five years. Finally, cluster and MDS analysis results show that the 2009 and 2010 was the most similar consumption years in housing energy consumption. Finally, this paper present that the usefulness of cluster and MDS analysis for assessment in the energy consumption.

  15. Rat splanchnic net oxygen consumption, energy implications.

    PubMed Central

    Casado, J; Fernández-López, J A; Esteve, M; Rafecas, I; Argilés, J M; Alemany, M

    1990-01-01

    1. The blood flow, PO2, pH and PCO2 have been estimated in portal and suprahepatic veins as well as in hepatic artery of fed and overnight starved rats given an oral glucose load. From these data the net intestinal, hepatic and splanchnic balances for oxygen and bicarbonate were calculated. The oxygen consumption of the intact animal has also been measured under comparable conditions. 2. The direct utilization of oxygen balances as energy equivalents when establishing the contribution of energy metabolism of liver and intestine to the overall energy expenses of the rat, has been found to be incorrect, since it incorporates the intrinsic error of interorgan proton transfer through bicarbonate. Liver and intestine produced high net bicarbonate balances in all situations tested, implying the elimination (by means of oxidative pathways, i.e. consuming additional oxygen) of high amounts of H+ generated with bicarbonate. The equivalence in energy output of the oxygen balances was then corrected for bicarbonate production to 11-54% lower values. 3. Intestine and liver consume a high proportion of available oxygen, about one-half in basal (fed or starved) conditions and about one-third after gavage, the intestine consumption being about 15% in all situations tested and the liver decreasing its oxygen consumption with gavage. PMID:2129230

  16. Freshwater savings from marine protein consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gephart, Jessica A.; Pace, Michael L.; D'Odorico, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Marine fisheries provide an essential source of protein for many people around the world. Unlike alternative terrestrial sources of protein, marine fish production requires little to no freshwater inputs. Consuming marine fish protein instead of terrestrial protein therefore represents freshwater savings (equivalent to an avoided water cost) and contributes to a low water footprint diet. These water savings are realized by the producers of alternative protein sources, rather than the consumers of marine protein. This study quantifies freshwater savings from marine fish consumption around the world by estimating the water footprint of replacing marine fish with terrestrial protein based on current consumption patterns. An estimated 7 600 km3 yr-1 of water is used for human food production. Replacing marine protein with terrestrial protein would require an additional 350 km3 yr-1 of water, meaning that marine protein provides current water savings of 4.6%. The importance of these freshwater savings is highly uneven around the globe, with savings ranging from as little as 0 to as much as 50%. The largest savings as a per cent of current water footprints occur in Asia, Oceania, and several coastal African nations. The greatest national water savings from marine fish protein occur in Southeast Asia and the United States. As the human population increases, future water savings from marine fish consumption will be increasingly important to food and water security and depend on sustainable harvest of capture fisheries and low water footprint growth of marine aquaculture.

  17. Power Measurement Methods for Energy Efficient Applications

    PubMed Central

    Calandrini, Guilherme; Gardel, Alfredo; Bravo, Ignacio; Revenga, Pedro; Lázaro, José L.; Toledo-Moreo, F. Javier

    2013-01-01

    Energy consumption constraints on computing systems are more important than ever. Maintenance costs for high performance systems are limiting the applicability of processing devices with large dissipation power. New solutions are needed to increase both the computation capability and the power efficiency. Moreover, energy efficient applications should balance performance vs. consumption. Therefore power data of components are important. This work presents the most remarkable alternatives to measure the power consumption of different types of computing systems, describing the advantages and limitations of available power measurement systems. Finally, a methodology is proposed to select the right power consumption measurement system taking into account precision of the measure, scalability and controllability of the acquisition system. PMID:23778191

  18. Additive Manufacturing Integrated Energy Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Roderick; Lee, Brian; Love, Lonnie; Mabe, Gavin; Keller, Martin; Curran, Scott; Chinthavali, Madhu; Green, Johney; Sawyer, Karma; Enquist, Phil

    2016-02-05

    Meet AMIE - the Additive Manufacturing Integrated Energy demonstration project. Led by Oak Ridge National Laboratory and many industry partners, the AMIE project changes the way we think about generating, storing, and using electrical power. AMIE uses an integrated energy system that shares energy between a building and a vehicle. And, utilizing advanced manufacturing and rapid innovation, it only took one year from concept to launch.

  19. Additive Manufacturing Integrated Energy Demonstration

    ScienceCinema

    Jackson, Roderick; Lee, Brian; Love, Lonnie; Mabe, Gavin; Keller, Martin; Curran, Scott; Chinthavali, Madhu; Green, Johney; Sawyer, Karma; Enquist, Phil

    2016-07-12

    Meet AMIE - the Additive Manufacturing Integrated Energy demonstration project. Led by Oak Ridge National Laboratory and many industry partners, the AMIE project changes the way we think about generating, storing, and using electrical power. AMIE uses an integrated energy system that shares energy between a building and a vehicle. And, utilizing advanced manufacturing and rapid innovation, it only took one year from concept to launch.

  20. Monitoring sweetener consumption in Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Hinson, A L; Nicol, W M

    1992-01-01

    A comprehensive survey of the consumption of intense sweeteners in Great Britain in 1988 quantified the levels of usage of different sweeteners and identified their distribution between food categories and population subgroups. Saccharin was found to be the most widely used intense sweetener. Beverages were the most common source of intense sweeteners. The quantities consumed of all sweeteners were found to be below the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) values established by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives, the European Commission Scientific Committee for Food or the UK Committee on Toxicity of Chemicals in Food, Consumer Products and the Environment.

  1. Inconsistent Investment and Consumption Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Kronborg, Morten Tolver; Steffensen, Mogens

    2015-06-15

    In a traditional Black–Scholes market we develop a verification theorem for a general class of investment and consumption problems where the standard dynamic programming principle does not hold. The theorem is an extension of the standard Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman equation in the form of a system of non-linear differential equations. We derive the optimal investment and consumption strategy for a mean-variance investor without pre-commitment endowed with labor income. In the case of constant risk aversion it turns out that the optimal amount of money to invest in stocks is independent of wealth. The optimal consumption strategy is given as a deterministic bang-bang strategy. In order to have a more realistic model we allow the risk aversion to be time and state dependent. Of special interest is the case were the risk aversion is inversely proportional to present wealth plus the financial value of future labor income net of consumption. Using the verification theorem we give a detailed analysis of this problem. It turns out that the optimal amount of money to invest in stocks is given by a linear function of wealth plus the financial value of future labor income net of consumption. The optimal consumption strategy is again given as a deterministic bang-bang strategy. We also calculate, for a general time and state dependent risk aversion function, the optimal investment and consumption strategy for a mean-standard deviation investor without pre-commitment. In that case, it turns out that it is optimal to take no risk at all.

  2. Controlled cooling of an electronic system for reduced energy consumption

    DOEpatents

    David, Milnes P.; Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Schmidt, Roger R.

    2016-08-09

    Energy efficient control of a cooling system cooling an electronic system is provided. The control includes automatically determining at least one adjusted control setting for at least one adjustable cooling component of a cooling system cooling the electronic system. The automatically determining is based, at least in part, on power being consumed by the cooling system and temperature of a heat sink to which heat extracted by the cooling system is rejected. The automatically determining operates to reduce power consumption of the cooling system and/or the electronic system while ensuring that at least one targeted temperature associated with the cooling system or the electronic system is within a desired range. The automatically determining may be based, at least in part, on one or more experimentally obtained models relating the targeted temperature and power consumption of the one or more adjustable cooling components of the cooling system.

  3. [Personality factors as predictors of alcohol consumption by university students].

    PubMed

    Natividade, Jean Carlos; Aguirre, Alba Recalde; Bizarro, Lisiane; Hutz, Claudio Simon

    2012-06-01

    This study aimed to verify differences in personality factors between abstainers and drinkers and between individuals with higher versus lower levels of alcohol consumption in the previous three months, and to test the predictive power of factors for any lifetime alcohol consumption and for at least monthly alcohol consumption. A total of 169 university students participated, of whom 66.7% were women, with a mean age of 21.2 years. Lifetime alcohol consumption was 90.1%; 42.3% had consumed at least twice in the previous three months; and 57.7% consumed alcohol at least monthly. Participants with less frequent consumption in the previous three months showed higher mean scores for personality factors involving socialization and achievement, while those that consumed more frequently scored higher on extroversion. A predictive model showed that increments in extroversion contributed to increased odds of drinking alcohol, while increments in achievement decreased the odds of drinking. Personality characteristics were able to distinguish between different groups of drinkers and predict the frequency of alcohol consumption.

  4. Meat Consumption Culture in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Cheorun

    2014-01-01

    The consumption of animal flesh food in Ethiopia has associated with cultural practices. Meat plays pivotal and vital parts in special occasions and its cultural symbolic weight is markedly greater than that accorded to most other food. Processing and cooking of poultry is a gender based duty and has socio-cultural roles. Ethiopians are dependent on limited types of animals for meats due to the taboo associated culturally. Moreover, the consumption of meat and meat products has a very tidy association with religious beliefs, and are influenced by religions. The main religions of Ethiopia have their own peculiar doctrines of setting the feeding habits and customs of their followers. They influence meat products consumption through dictating the source animals that should be used or not be used for food, and scheduling the days of the years in periodical permeation and restriction of consumptions which in turn influences the pattern of meat consumption in the country. In Ethiopia, a cow or an ox is commonly butchered for the sole purpose of selling within the community. In special occasions, people have a cultural ceremony of slaughtering cow or ox and sharing among the group, called Kircha, which is a very common option of the people in rural area where access of meat is challenging frequently. PMID:26760739

  5. Process for Generating Engine Fuel Consumption Map: Future Atkinson Engine with Cooled EGR and Cylinder Deactivation

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document summarizes the process followed to utilize GT-POWER modeled engine and laboratory engine dyno test data to generate a full engine fuel consumption map which can be used by EPA's ALPHA vehicle simulations.

  6. Market-Based Decision Guidance Framework for Power and Alternative Energy Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altaleb, Hesham

    With the introduction of power energy markets deregulation, innovations have transformed once a static network into a more flexible grid. Microgrids have also been deployed to serve various purposes (e.g., reliability, sustainability, etc.). With the rapid deployment of smart grid technologies, it has become possible to measure and record both, the quantity and time of the consumption of electrical power. In addition, capabilities for controlling distributed supply and demand have resulted in complex systems where inefficiencies are possible and where improvements can be made. Electric power like other volatile resources cannot be stored efficiently, therefore, managing such resource requires considerable attention. Such complex systems present a need for decisions that can streamline consumption, delay infrastructure investments, and reduce costs. When renewable power resources and the need for limiting harmful emissions are added to the equation, the search space for decisions becomes increasingly complex. As a result, the need for a comprehensive decision guidance system for electrical power resources consumption and productions becomes evident. In this dissertation, I formulate and implement a comprehensive framework that addresses different aspect of the electrical power generation and consumption using optimization models and utilizing collaboration concepts. Our solution presents a two-prong approach: managing interaction in real-time for the short-term immediate consumption of already allocated resources; and managing the operational planning for the long-run consumption. More specifically, in real-time, we present and implement a model of how to organize a secondary market for peak-demand allocation and describe the properties of the market that guarantees efficient execution and a method for the fair distribution of collaboration gains. We also propose and implement a primary market for peak demand bounds determination problem with the assumption that

  7. OCT-based quantification of flow velocity, shear force, and power generated by a biological ciliated surface (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Brendan K.; Khokha, Mustafa K.; Loewenberg, Michael; Choma, Michael A.

    2016-03-01

    In cilia-driven fluid flow physiology, quantification of flow velocity, shearing force, and power dissipation is important in defining abnormal ciliary function. The capacity to generate flow can be robustly described in terms of shearing force. Dissipated power can be related to net ATP consumption by ciliary molecular motors. To date, however, only flow velocity can be routinely quantified in a non-invasive, non-contact manner. Additionally, traditional power-based metrics rely on metabolic consumption that reflects energy consumption not just from cilia but also from all active cellular processes. Here, we demonstrate the estimation of all three of these quantities (flow velocity, shear force, and power dissipation) using only optical coherence tomography (OCT). Specifically, we develop a framework that can extract force and power information from vectorial flow velocity fields obtained using OCT-based methods. We do so by (a) estimating the viscous stress tensor from flow velocity fields to estimate shearing force and (b) using the viscous stress tensor to estimate the power dissipation function to infer total mechanical power. These estimates have the advantage of (a) requiring only a single modality, (b) being non-invasive in nature, and (c) being reflective of only the net power work generated by a ciliated surface. We demonstrate our all-optical approach to the estimation of these parameters in the Xenopus animal model system under normal and increased viscous loading. Our preliminary data support the hypothesis that the Xenopus ciliated surface can increase force output under loading conditions.

  8. 21 CFR 170.38 - Determination of food additive status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Determination of food additive status. 170.38 Section 170.38 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive Safety § 170.38...

  9. 21 CFR 170.38 - Determination of food additive status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Determination of food additive status. 170.38 Section 170.38 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive Safety § 170.38...

  10. Intertemporal consumption with directly measured welfare functions and subjective expectations

    PubMed Central

    Kapteyn, Arie; Kleinjans, Kristin J.; van Soest, Arthur

    2010-01-01

    Euler equation estimation of intertemporal consumption models requires many, often unverifiable assumptions. These include assumptions on expectations and preferences. We aim at reducing some of these requirements by using direct subjective information on respondents’ preferences and expectations. The results suggest that individually measured welfare functions and expectations have predictive power for the variation in consumption across households. Furthermore, estimates of the intertemporal elasticity of substitution based on the estimated welfare functions are plausible and of a similar order of magnitude as other estimates found in the literature. The model favored by the data only requires cross-section data for estimation. PMID:20442798

  11. 40 CFR 82.20 - Availability of consumption allowances in addition to baseline consumption allowances for class...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Poland or Norway, or both, and only if the nation agrees to trade to the person for the current control... Poland or Norway must also submit to the Administrator a true copy of the document that sets forth...

  12. 40 CFR 82.10 - Availability of consumption allowances in addition to baseline consumption allowances for class I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... this subpart (Parties to the Montreal Protocol) must agree to transfer to the person for the current control period some amount of production that the nation is permitted under the Montreal Protocol. If the... Protocol for class I, Group I through Group V and Group VII controlled substances until January 1, 1996...

  13. 40 CFR 82.10 - Availability of consumption allowances in addition to baseline consumption allowances for class I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... this subpart (Parties to the Montreal Protocol) must agree to transfer to the person for the current control period some amount of production that the nation is permitted under the Montreal Protocol. If the... Protocol for class I, Group I through Group V and Group VII controlled substances until January 1, 1996...

  14. 40 CFR 82.10 - Availability of consumption allowances in addition to baseline consumption allowances for class I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... this subpart (Parties to the Montreal Protocol) must agree to transfer to the person for the current control period some amount of production that the nation is permitted under the Montreal Protocol. If the... Protocol for class I, Group I through Group V and Group VII controlled substances until January 1, 1996...

  15. 40 CFR 82.10 - Availability of consumption allowances in addition to baseline consumption allowances for class I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... this subpart (Parties to the Montreal Protocol) must agree to transfer to the person for the current control period some amount of production that the nation is permitted under the Montreal Protocol. If the... Protocol for class I, Group I through Group V and Group VII controlled substances until January 1, 1996...

  16. 40 CFR 82.10 - Availability of consumption allowances in addition to baseline consumption allowances for class I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... this subpart (Parties to the Montreal Protocol) must agree to transfer to the person for the current control period some amount of production that the nation is permitted under the Montreal Protocol. If the... Protocol for class I, Group I through Group V and Group VII controlled substances until January 1, 1996...

  17. NOAA OTEC CWP (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Cold Water Pipe) at-sea test. Volume 3: Additional tabulation of the power spectra, part 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1983-12-01

    Data collected during the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Cold Water Pipe At Sea Test are analyzed. Also included are the following ittems: (1) sensor factors and offsets, and the data processing algorithms used to convert the recorded sensor measurements from electrical to engineering units; (2) plots of the power spectra estimates obtained from a fast fourier transform (FFT) analysis of selected channels; (3) plots of selected sensor measurements as a function of time; and (4) plots of bending strain along the pipe using statistics and values presented.

  18. Moral Violations Reduce Oral Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Cindy; Van Boven, Leaf; Andrade, Eduardo B.; Ariely, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Consumers frequently encounter moral violations in everyday life. They watch movies and television shows about crime and deception, hear news reports of corporate fraud and tax evasion, and hear gossip about cheaters and thieves. How does exposure to moral violations influence consumption? Because moral violations arouse disgust and because disgust is an evolutionarily important signal of contamination that should provoke a multi-modal response, we hypothesize that moral violations affect a key behavioral response to disgust: reduced oral consumption. In three experiments, compared with those in control conditions, people drank less water and chocolate milk while (a) watching a film portraying the moral violations of incest, (b) writing about moral violations of cheating or theft, and (c) listening to a report about fraud and manipulation. These findings imply that “moral disgust” influences consumption in ways similar to core disgust, and thus provide evidence for the associations between moral violations, emotions, and consumer behavior. PMID:25125931

  19. Moral Violations Reduce Oral Consumption.

    PubMed

    Chan, Cindy; Van Boven, Leaf; Andrade, Eduardo B; Ariely, Dan

    2014-07-01

    Consumers frequently encounter moral violations in everyday life. They watch movies and television shows about crime and deception, hear news reports of corporate fraud and tax evasion, and hear gossip about cheaters and thieves. How does exposure to moral violations influence consumption? Because moral violations arouse disgust and because disgust is an evolutionarily important signal of contamination that should provoke a multi-modal response, we hypothesize that moral violations affect a key behavioral response to disgust: reduced oral consumption. In three experiments, compared with those in control conditions, people drank less water and chocolate milk while (a) watching a film portraying the moral violations of incest, (b) writing about moral violations of cheating or theft, and (c) listening to a report about fraud and manipulation. These findings imply that "moral disgust" influences consumption in ways similar to core disgust, and thus provide evidence for the associations between moral violations, emotions, and consumer behavior.

  20. Experimental energy consumption of Frame Slotted ALOHA and Distributed Queuing for data collection scenarios.

    PubMed

    Tuset-Peiro, Pere; Vazquez-Gallego, Francisco; Alonso-Zarate, Jesus; Alonso, Luis; Vilajosana, Xavier

    2014-07-24

    Data collection is a key scenario for the Internet of Things because it enables gathering sensor data from distributed nodes that use low-power and long-range wireless technologies to communicate in a single-hop approach. In this kind of scenario, the network is composed of one coordinator that covers a particular area and a large number of nodes, typically hundreds or thousands, that transmit data to the coordinator upon request. Considering this scenario, in this paper we experimentally validate the energy consumption of two Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols, Frame Slotted ALOHA (FSA) and Distributed Queuing (DQ). We model both protocols as a state machine and conduct experiments to measure the average energy consumption in each state and the average number of times that a node has to be in each state in order to transmit a data packet to the coordinator. The results show that FSA is more energy efficient than DQ if the number of nodes is known a priori because the number of slots per frame can be adjusted accordingly. However, in such scenarios the number of nodes cannot be easily anticipated, leading to additional packet collisions and a higher energy consumption due to retransmissions. Contrarily, DQ does not require to know the number of nodes in advance because it is able to efficiently construct an ad hoc network schedule for each collection round. This kind of a schedule ensures that there are no packet collisions during data transmission, thus leading to an energy consumption reduction above 10% compared to FSA.

  1. Experimental Energy Consumption of Frame Slotted ALOHA and Distributed Queuing for Data Collection Scenarios

    PubMed Central

    Tuset-Peiro, Pere; Vazquez-Gallego, Francisco; Alonso-Zarate, Jesus; Alonso, Luis; Vilajosana, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Data collection is a key scenario for the Internet of Things because it enables gathering sensor data from distributed nodes that use low-power and long-range wireless technologies to communicate in a single-hop approach. In this kind of scenario, the network is composed of one coordinator that covers a particular area and a large number of nodes, typically hundreds or thousands, that transmit data to the coordinator upon request. Considering this scenario, in this paper we experimentally validate the energy consumption of two Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols, Frame Slotted ALOHA (FSA) and Distributed Queuing (DQ). We model both protocols as a state machine and conduct experiments to measure the average energy consumption in each state and the average number of times that a node has to be in each state in order to transmit a data packet to the coordinator. The results show that FSA is more energy efficient than DQ if the number of nodes is known a priori because the number of slots per frame can be adjusted accordingly. However, in such scenarios the number of nodes cannot be easily anticipated, leading to additional packet collisions and a higher energy consumption due to retransmissions. Contrarily, DQ does not require to know the number of nodes in advance because it is able to efficiently construct an ad hoc network schedule for each collection round. This kind of a schedule ensures that there are no packet collisions during data transmission, thus leading to an energy consumption reduction above 10% compared to FSA. PMID:25061839

  2. Assessing the Energy Consumption of Smartphone Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abousaleh, Mustafa M.

    Mobile devices are increasingly becoming essential in people's lives. The advancement in technology and mobility factor are allowing users to utilize mobile devices for communication, entertainment, financial planning, fitness tracking, etc. As a result, mobile applications are also becoming important factors contributing to user utility. However, battery capacity is the limiting factor impacting the quality of user experience. Hence, it is imperative to understand how much energy impact do mobile apps have on the system relative to other device activities. This thesis presents a systematic studying of the energy impact of mobile apps features. Time-series electrical current measurements are collected from 4 different modern smartphones. Statistical analysis methodologies are used to calculate the energy impact of each app feature by identifying and extracting mobile app-feature events from the overall current signal. In addition, the app overhead energy costs are also computed. Total energy consumption equations for each component is developed and an overall total energy consumption equation is presented. Minutes Lost (ML) of normal phone operations due to the energy consumption of the mobile app functionality is computed for cases where the mobile app is simulated to run on the various devices for 30 minutes. Tutela Technologies Inc. mobile app, NAT, is used for this study. NAT has two main features: QoS and Throughput. The impact of the QoS feature is indistinguishable, i.e. ML is zero, relative to other phone activities. The ML with only the TP feature enabled is on average 2.1 minutes. Enabling the GPS increases the ML on average to 11.5 minutes. Displaying the app GUI interface in addition to running the app features and enabling the GPS results in an average ML of 12.4 minutes. Amongst the various mobile app features and components studied, the GPS consumes the highest amount of energy. It is estimated that the GPS increases the ML by about 448%.

  3. Water use at pulverized coal power plants with postcombustion carbon capture and storage.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Haibo; Rubin, Edward S; Versteeg, Peter L

    2011-03-15

    Coal-fired power plants account for nearly 50% of U.S. electricity supply and about a third of U.S. emissions of CO(2), the major greenhouse gas (GHG) associated with global climate change. Thermal power plants also account for 39% of all freshwater withdrawals in the U.S. To reduce GHG emissions from coal-fired plants, postcombustion carbon capture and storage (CCS) systems are receiving considerable attention. Current commercial amine-based capture systems require water for cooling and other operations that add to power plant water requirements. This paper characterizes and quantifies water use at coal-burning power plants with and without CCS and investigates key parameters that influence water consumption. Analytical models are presented to quantify water use for major unit operations. Case study results show that, for power plants with conventional wet cooling towers, approximately 80% of total plant water withdrawals and 86% of plant water consumption is for cooling. The addition of an amine-based CCS system would approximately double the consumptive water use of the plant. Replacing wet towers with air-cooled condensers for dry cooling would reduce plant water use by about 80% (without CCS) to about 40% (with CCS). However, the cooling system capital cost would approximately triple, although costs are highly dependent on site-specific characteristics. The potential for water use reductions with CCS is explored via sensitivity analyses of plant efficiency and other key design parameters that affect water resource management for the electric power industry.

  4. Energy-Filtered Tunnel Transistor: A New Device Concept Toward Extremely-Low Energy Consumption Electronics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-17

    single-electron transistor, tunnel transistor, energy- efficient electronics 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: a. REPORT u b. ABSTRACT U c. THIS PAGE...Publications/Patents p.39 III.B. Presentations p.39 . 9 . I. Introduction and Background Excessive heat dissipation (or power consumption) of modem...of heat dissipation/power consumption of smart phones, tablets, and laptops is such that it prohibits a continuous and prolonged operation of these

  5. The "Green Lab": Power Consumption by Commercial Light Bulbs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Einsporn, James A.; Zhou, Andrew F.

    2011-01-01

    Going "green" is a slogan that is very contemporary, both with industry and in the political arena. Choosing more energy-efficient devices is one way homeowners can "go green." A simple method is to change home lighting from hot incandescent bulbs to compact fluorescent lights (CFLs). But do they really save energy? How do their illuminations…

  6. Power Management System Design for Solar-Powered UAS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    extreme aerodynamic efficiency in order to minimize the power required to maintain flight, and a recognition that every sub- system in this system of... systems into a lightweight module for particular mission sets. 14. SUBJECT TERMS solar efficiency , maximum power point tracker, solar array, unmanned...requirements. This ultimately contributes to the overall energy efficiency of the system . 3. Power Consumption Considering this research topic, perhaps

  7. Power without nukes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-03-01

    Nuclear power is good at producing large quantities of electricity. Barring a big change in the world's pattern of energy consumption, that is the kind of energy that will be most in demand if economic growth is to remain rapid. What are the options if we abandon nuclear power. By the year 2000, even on conservative estimates of economic growth, OECD countries would be generating 25% of their electricity from nuclear power. Total nuclear capacity would be about 400,000 MW. That is the size of the gap that would have to be filled. The rate of economic growth and the progress of conservation both depend partly on the price of energy - and the price of energy depends on the speed and extent of any nuclear phase-out. But if nuclear power stations were shut overnight, power cuts would be impossible to avoid in several countries, and electricity-generating costs would osar. Only oil, gas, and coal could fill the gap. Consumption of either oil or coal would have to rise by 10%. Replacing nuclear power over say 20 years would be less disruptive, but still costly. Some new sources - oil from tar sands and shale, more hydroelectric power, perhaps fuel cells - would fill the gap. But they would not prevent energy prices from rising to at least double their present levels in real terms. Indeed, they would require such a rise, because without it they would make no commercial sense.

  8. Analysis and Optimization of Building Energy Consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuah, Jun Wei

    Energy is one of the most important resources required by modern human society. In 2010, energy expenditures represented 10% of global gross domestic product (GDP). By 2035, global energy consumption is expected to increase by more than 50% from current levels. The increased pace of global energy consumption leads to significant environmental and socioeconomic issues: (i) carbon emissions, from the burning of fossil fuels for energy, contribute to global warming, and (ii) increased energy expenditures lead to reduced standard of living. Efficient use of energy, through energy conservation measures, is an important step toward mitigating these effects. Residential and commercial buildings represent a prime target for energy conservation, comprising 21% of global energy consumption and 40% of the total energy consumption in the United States. This thesis describes techniques for the analysis and optimization of building energy consumption. The thesis focuses on building retrofits and building energy simulation as key areas in building energy optimization and analysis. The thesis first discusses and evaluates building-level renewable energy generation as a solution toward building energy optimization. The thesis next describes a novel heating system, called localized heating. Under localized heating, building occupants are heated individually by directed radiant heaters, resulting in a considerably reduced heated space and significant heating energy savings. To support localized heating, a minimally-intrusive indoor occupant positioning system is described. The thesis then discusses occupant-level sensing (OLS) as the next frontier in building energy optimization. OLS captures the exact environmental conditions faced by each building occupant, using sensors that are carried by all building occupants. The information provided by OLS enables fine-grained optimization for unprecedented levels of energy efficiency and occupant comfort. The thesis also describes a retrofit

  9. Using LEDs to reduce energy consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eweni, Chukwuebuka E.

    The most popularly used light bulb in homes is the incandescent. It is also the least energy efficient. The filament in the bulb is so thin that it causes resistance in the electricity, which in turn causes the electricity's energy to form heat. This causes the incandescent to waste a lot of energy forming heat rather than forming the light. It uses 15 lumens per watt of input power. A recorded MATLAB demonstration showcased LED versatility and how it can be used by an Arduino UNO board. The objective of this thesis is to showcase how LEDs can reduce energy consumption through the use of an Arduino UNO board and MATLAB and to discuss the applications of LED. LED will be the future of lighting homes and will eventually completely incandescent bulbs when companies begin to make the necessary improvements to the LED.

  10. Life cycle assessment of sewage sludge co-incineration in a coal-based power station.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jingmin; Xu, Changqing; Hong, Jinglan; Tan, Xianfeng; Chen, Wei

    2013-09-01

    A life cycle assessment was conducted to evaluate the environmental and economic effects of sewage sludge co-incineration in a coal-fired power plant. The general approach employed by a coal-fired power plant was also assessed as control. Sewage sludge co-incineration technology causes greater environmental burden than does coal-based energy production technology because of the additional electricity consumption and wastewater treatment required for the pretreatment of sewage sludge, direct emissions from sludge incineration, and incinerated ash disposal processes. However, sewage sludge co-incineration presents higher economic benefits because of electricity subsidies and the income generating potential of sludge. Environmental assessment results indicate that sewage sludge co-incineration is unsuitable for mitigating the increasing pressure brought on by sewage sludge pollution. Reducing the overall environmental effect of sludge co-incineration power stations necessitates increasing net coal consumption efficiency, incinerated ash reuse rate, dedust system efficiency, and sludge water content rate.

  11. Survey data on household electricity consumption and living status in Northwestern China

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Shuwen; Jia, Yanqin; Ye, Liqiong; Dai, Runqi; Li, Na

    2016-01-01

    Based on 1128 survey questionnaires, main information on urban and rural household electricity consumption was obtained. Original data included household income, the price of electricity, all kinds of electrical appliances, purchase price of main appliances, household size, electricity consumption, as well as power, daily use time of electrical appliances in this data article. These data fully reflected behavior, preferences and living pattern of sample households in electricity use and provided the basis for analyzing the relationship between household electricity consumption and the quality of life (“Does electricity consumption improve residential living status in less developed regions? An empirical analysis using the quantile regression approach” [1]). PMID:27115023

  12. Survey data on household electricity consumption and living status in Northwestern China.

    PubMed

    Niu, Shuwen; Jia, Yanqin; Ye, Liqiong; Dai, Runqi; Li, Na

    2016-06-01

    Based on 1128 survey questionnaires, main information on urban and rural household electricity consumption was obtained. Original data included household income, the price of electricity, all kinds of electrical appliances, purchase price of main appliances, household size, electricity consumption, as well as power, daily use time of electrical appliances in this data article. These data fully reflected behavior, preferences and living pattern of sample households in electricity use and provided the basis for analyzing the relationship between household electricity consumption and the quality of life ("Does electricity consumption improve residential living status in less developed regions? An empirical analysis using the quantile regression approach" [1]).

  13. Additive Similarity Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sattath, Shmuel; Tversky, Amos

    1977-01-01

    Tree representations of similarity data are investigated. Hierarchical clustering is critically examined, and a more general procedure, called the additive tree, is presented. The additive tree representation is then compared to multidimensional scaling. (Author/JKS)

  14. Food consumption trends and drivers

    PubMed Central

    Kearney, John

    2010-01-01

    A picture of food consumption (availability) trends and projections to 2050, both globally and for different regions of the world, along with the drivers largely responsible for these observed consumption trends are the subject of this review. Throughout the world, major shifts in dietary patterns are occurring, even in the consumption of basic staples towards more diversified diets. Accompanying these changes in food consumption at a global and regional level have been considerable health consequences. Populations in those countries undergoing rapid transition are experiencing nutritional transition. The diverse nature of this transition may be the result of differences in socio-demographic factors and other consumer characteristics. Among other factors including urbanization and food industry marketing, the policies of trade liberalization over the past two decades have implications for health by virtue of being a factor in facilitating the ‘nutrition transition’ that is associated with rising rates of obesity and chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. Future food policies must consider both agricultural and health sectors, thereby enabling the development of coherent and sustainable policies that will ultimately benefit agriculture, human health and the environment. PMID:20713385

  15. Energy Consumption vs. Energy Requirement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, L. T.; Zhang, Tengyan; Schlup, John R.

    2006-01-01

    Energy is necessary for any phenomenon to occur or any process to proceed. Nevertheless, energy is never consumed; instead, it is conserved. What is consumed is available energy, or exergy, accompanied by an increase in entropy. Obviously, the terminology, "energy consumption" is indeed a misnomer although it is ubiquitous in the…

  16. Sales promotions and food consumption.

    PubMed

    Hawkes, Corinna

    2009-06-01

    Sales promotions are widely used to market food to adults, children, and youth. Yet, in contrast to advertising, practically no attention has been paid to their impacts on dietary behaviors, or to how they may be used more effectively to promote healthy eating. This review explores the available literature on the subject. The objective is to identify if and what literature exists, examine the nature of this literature, and analyze what can be learned from it about the effects of sales promotions on food consumption. The review finds that while sales promotions lead to significant sales increases over the short-term, this does not necessarily lead to changes in food-consumption patterns. Nevertheless, there is evidence from econometric modeling studies indicating that sales promotions can influence consumption patterns by influencing the purchasing choices of consumers and encouraging them to eat more. These effects depend on the characteristics of the food product, sales promotion, and consumer. The complexity of the effects means that sales promotions aiming to encourage consumption of nutritious foods need to be carefully designed. These conclusions are based on studies that use mainly sales data as a proxy for dietary intake. The nutrition (and economics) research communities should add to this existing body of research to provide evidence on the impact of sales promotions on dietary intake and related behaviors. This would help support the development of a sales promotion environment conducive to healthy eating.

  17. Caffeine Consumption by College Undergraduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loke, Wing Hong

    1988-01-01

    Surveyed 542 undergraduates concerning their caffeine consumption. Found that subjects consumed less caffeine than average caffeine-drinking population. Coffee was main beverage used. Subjects reported drinking more caffeine when preparing for examinations. Suggests that caffeine may have some beneficial effects on learning. (Author/NB)

  18. Shifting Preferences in Pornography Consumption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zillmann, Dolf; Bryant, Jennings

    1986-01-01

    Concludes that subjects with considerable prior exposure to common, nonviolent pornography preferred to watch uncommon pornography. Male nonstudents preferred it almost exclusively, as did male students to a lesser extent. Females also exhibited this consumption preference, though it was far less pronounced, especially in female students. (JD)

  19. Gender Commitment and Alcohol Consumption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabow, Jerome; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Categorized 179 college students as masculine, feminine, androgynous, or undifferentiated. Found gender orientations related to overall quantity-frequency index of alcohol consumption and beverage type. Androgynous respondents consumed less total alcohol than other groups; undifferentiated subjects drank more than feminine or androgynous subjects;…

  20. Voluntary co-consumption of alcohol and nicotine: Effects of abstinence, intermittency, and withdrawal in mice.

    PubMed

    O'Rourke, Kyu Y; Touchette, Jillienne C; Hartell, Elizabeth C; Bade, Elizabeth J; Lee, Anna M

    2016-10-01

    Alcohol and nicotine are often used together, and there is a high rate of co-occurrence between alcohol and nicotine addiction. Most animal models studying alcohol and nicotine interactions have utilized passive drug administration, which may not be relevant to human co-addiction. In addition, the interactions between alcohol and nicotine in female animals have been understudied, as most studies have used male animals. To address these issues, we developed models of alcohol and nicotine co-consumption in male and female mice that utilized voluntary, oral consumption of unsweetened alcohol, nicotine and water. We first examined drug consumption and preference in single-drug, sequential alcohol and nicotine consumption tests in male and female C57BL/6 and DBA/2J mice. We then tested chronic continuous and intermittent access alcohol and nicotine co-consumption procedures. We found that male and female C57BL/6 mice readily co-consumed unsweetened alcohol and nicotine. In our continuous co-consumption procedures, we found that varying the available nicotine concentration during an alcohol abstinence period affected compensatory nicotine consumption during alcohol abstinence, and affected rebound alcohol consumption when alcohol was re-introduced. Consumption of alcohol and nicotine in an intermittent co-consumption procedure produced higher alcohol consumption levels, but not nicotine consumption levels, compared with the continuous co-consumption procedures. Finally, we found that intermittent alcohol and nicotine co-consumption resulted in physical dependence. Our data show that these voluntary co-consumption procedures can be easily performed in mice and can be used to study behavioral interactions between alcohol and nicotine consumption, which may better model human alcohol and nicotine co-addiction.

  1. Optimization of the oxidant supply system for combined cycle MHD power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, A. J.

    1982-01-01

    An in-depth study was conducted to determine what, if any, improvements could be made on the oxidant supply system for combined cycle MHD power plants which could be reflected in higher thermal efficiency and a reduction in the cost of electricity, COE. A systematic analysis of air separation process varitions which showed that the specific energy consumption could be minimized when the product stream oxygen concentration is about 70 mole percent was conducted. The use of advanced air compressors, having variable speed and guide vane position control, results in additional power savings. The study also led to the conceptual design of a new air separation process, sized for a 500 MW sub e MHD plant, referred to a internal compression is discussed. In addition to its lower overall energy consumption, potential capital cost savings were identified for air separation plants using this process when constructed in a single large air separation train rather than multiple parallel trains, typical of conventional practice.

  2. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. R.; St. Clair, T. L.; Burks, H. D.; Stoakley, D. M.

    1987-01-01

    A method has been found for enhancing the melt flow of thermoplastic polyimides during processing. A high molecular weight 422 copoly(amic acid) or copolyimide was fused with approximately 0.05 to 5 pct by weight of a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive, and this melt was studied by capillary rheometry. Excellent flow and improved composite properties on graphite resulted from the addition of a PMDA-aniline additive to LARC-TPI. Solution viscosity studies imply that amic acid additives temporarily lower molecular weight and, hence, enlarge the processing window. Thus, compositions containing the additive have a lower melt viscosity for a longer time than those unmodified.

  3. [Food additives and healthiness].

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects.

  4. Global implications of standby power use

    SciTech Connect

    Lebot, Benoit; Meier, Alan; Anglade, Alain

    2000-05-01

    Separate studies indicate that standby power is responsible for 20-60 W per home in developed countries. Standby power is responsible for about 2% of OECD countries total electricity consumption and the related power generation generates almost 1% of their carbon emissions. Replacement of existing appliances with those appliances having the lowest standby would reduce total standby power consumption by over 70%. The resulting reductions in carbon emissions would meet over 3% of OECD's total Kyoto commitments. Other strategies may cut more carbon emissions, but standby power is unique in that the reductions are best accomplished through international collaboration and whose costs and large benefits would be spread over all countries.

  5. Electric power monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares the Electric Power Monthly (EPM) for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. This publication provides monthly statistics for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source, consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead.

  6. The growth pattern and fuel life cycle analysis of the electricity consumption of Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    To, W M; Lai, T M; Lo, W C; Lam, K H; Chung, W L

    2012-06-01

    As the consumption of electricity increases, air pollutants from power generation increase. In metropolitans such as Hong Kong and other Asian cities, the surge of electricity consumption has been phenomenal over the past decades. This paper presents a historical review about electricity consumption, population, and change in economic structure in Hong Kong. It is hypothesized that the growth of electricity consumption and change in gross domestic product can be modeled by 4-parameter logistic functions. The accuracy of the functions was assessed by Pearson's correlation coefficient, mean absolute percent error, and root mean squared percent error. The paper also applies the life cycle approach to determine carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen oxide emissions for the electricity consumption of Hong Kong. Monte Carlo simulations were applied to determine the confidence intervals of pollutant emissions. The implications of importing more nuclear power are discussed.

  7. Power quality load management for large spacecraft electrical power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lollar, Louis F.

    1988-01-01

    In December, 1986, a Center Director's Discretionary Fund (CDDF) proposal was granted to study power system control techniques in large space electrical power systems. Presented are the accomplishments in the area of power system control by power quality load management. In addition, information concerning the distortion problems in a 20 kHz ac power system is presented.

  8. New Online Tool for Exploring Global Opioid Consumption Data.

    PubMed

    Maurer, Martha A

    2017-03-01

    Each year for nearly two decades, the Pain & Policy Studies Group (PPSG) has received from the International Narcotics Control Board, the global monitoring body for the implementation of the United Nations international drug control conventions, consumption data for six principal opioids used to treat moderate and severe pain: fentanyl, hydromorphone, methadone, morphine, oxycodone, and pethidine. To provide these statistics to a wider audience, PPSG developed an extensive section of its Web site featuring these data in the form of global, regional, and individual country graphs. In recent years, PPSG developed and launched three new interactive Web features for exploring opioid consumption data and generating hypotheses about patterns of opioid consumption. In July 2016, PPSG announced the addition of a new tool on its Web site to explore opioid consumption data: custom consumption graphs for opioid medicines. This tool allows users to select, customize, and create charts of the opioid consumption data and download them for use in presentations or publications. PPSG encourages colleagues to use these tools to explore and study these data to inform their work to improve the accessibility and availability of these important medicines.

  9. Satellite control of electric power distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergen, L.

    1981-01-01

    An L-band frequencies satellite link providing the medium for direct control of electrical loads at individual customer sites from remote central locations is described. All loads supplied under interruptible-service contracts are likely condidates for such control, and they can be cycled or switched off to reduce system loads. For every kW of load eliminated or deferred to off-peak hours, the power company reduces its need for additional generating capacity. In addition, the satellite could switch meter registers so that their readings automatically reflected the time of consumption. The system would perform load-shedding operations during emergencies, disconnecting large blocks of load according to predetermined priorities. Among the distribution operations conducted by the satellite in real time would be: load reconfiguration, voltage regulation, fault isolation, and capacitor and feeder load control.

  10. Liquid chromatography coupled to different atmospheric pressure ionization sources-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry and post-column addition of metal salt solutions as a powerful tool for the metabolic profiling of Fusarium oxysporum.

    PubMed

    Cirigliano, Adriana M; Rodriguez, M Alejandra; Gagliano, M Laura; Bertinetti, Brenda V; Godeas, Alicia M; Cabrera, Gabriela M

    2016-03-25

    Fusarium oxysporum L11 is a non-pathogenic soil-borne fungal strain that yielded an extract that showed antifungal activity against phytopathogens. In this study, reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) coupled to different atmospheric pressure ionization sources-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (API-QTOF-MS) was applied for the comprehensive profiling of the metabolites from the extract. The employed sources were electrospray (ESI), atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) and atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI). Post-column addition of metal solutions of Ca, Cu and Zn(II) was also tested using ESI. A total of 137 compounds were identified or tentatively identified by matching their accurate mass signals, suggested molecular formulae and MS/MS analysis with previously reported data. Some compounds were isolated and identified by NMR. The extract was rich in cyclic peptides like cyclosporins, diketopiperazines and sansalvamides, most of which were new, and are reported here for the first time. The use of post-column addition of metals resulted in a useful strategy for the discrimination of compound classes since specific adducts were observed for the different compound families. This technique also allowed the screening for compounds with metal binding properties. Thus, the applied methodology is a useful choice for the metabolic profiling of extracts and also for the selection of metabolites with potential biological activities related to interactions with metal ions.

  11. A quantitative analysis of fish consumption and stroke risk.

    PubMed

    Bouzan, Colleen; Cohen, Joshua T; Connor, William E; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Gray, George M; König, Ariane; Lawrence, Robert S; Savitz, David A; Teutsch, Steven M

    2005-11-01

    Although a rich source of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) that may confer multiple health benefits, some fish contain methyl mercury (MeHg), which may harm the developing fetus. U.S. government recommendations for women of childbearing age are to modify consumption of high-MeHg fish to reduce MeHg exposure, while recommendations encourage fish consumption among the general population because of the nutritional benefits. The Harvard Center for Risk Analysis convened an expert panel (see acknowledgements) to quantify the net impact of resulting hypothetical changes in fish consumption across the population. This paper estimates the impact of fish consumption on stroke risk. Other papers quantify coronary heart disease mortality risk and the impacts of both prenatal MeHg exposure and maternal intake of n-3 PUFAs on cognitive development. This analysis identified articles in a recent qualitative literature review that are appropriate for the development of a dose-response relationship between fish consumption and stroke risk. Studies had to satisfy quality criteria, quantify fish intake, and report the precision of the relative risk estimates. The analysis combined the relative risk results, weighting each proportionately to its precision. Six studies were identified as appropriate for inclusion in this analysis, including five prospective cohort studies and one case-control study (total of 24 exposure groups). Our analysis indicates that any fish consumption confers substantial relative risk reduction compared to no fish consumption (12% for the linear model), with the possibility that additional consumption confers incremental benefits (central estimate of 2.0% per serving per week).

  12. Atmospheric Pressure Low Temperature Plasma System for Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnette, Matthew; Staack, David

    2016-09-01

    There is growing interest in using plasmas for additive manufacturing, however these methods use high temperature plasmas to melt the material. We have developed a novel technique of additive manufacturing using a low temperature dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) jet. The jet is attached to the head of a 3D printer to allow for precise control of the plasma's location. Various methods are employed to deposit the material, including using a vaporized precursor or depositing a liquid precursor directly onto the substrate or into the plasma via a nebulizer. Various materials can be deposited including metals (copper using copper (II) acetylacetonate), polymers (PMMA using the liquid monomer), and various hydrocarbon compounds (using alcohols or a 100% methane DBD jet). The rastering pattern for the 3D printer was modified for plasma deposition, since it was originally designed for thermoplastic extrusion. The design constraints for fill pattern selection for the plasma printer are influenced by substrate heating, deposition area, and precursor consumption. Depositions onto pressure and/or temperature sensitive substrates can be easily achieved. Deposition rates range up to 0.08 cm3/hr using tris(2-methoxyethoxy)(vinyl)silane, however optimization can still be done on the system to improve the deposition rate. For example higher concentration of precursor can be combined with faster motion and higher discharge powers to increase the deposition rate without overheating the substrate.

  13. [Food in the contemporary context: consumption, political action and sustainability].

    PubMed

    Portilho, Fátima; Castañeda, Marcelo; de Castro, Inês Rugani Ribeiro

    2011-01-01

    The interdisciplinary field of reflections on food as politics goes through a process of expansion and overflow to the private sphere, and routine daily food consumption. This process seems to be a reflection of transformations in the global agrifood markets, the wide publicity and awareness of food hazards and the politicization of consumption. To the extent that individuals are to assume responsibility for the environmental and social consequences of their everyday choices, the specificity of political power in contemporary societies goes beyond the institutional level (food security and nutrition, social inequalities in access to food, agricultural policies and regulations advertising of food) to meet the private sphere. This paper shows, initially, some of the recent debates about the process of politicization of consumption and then explores a theoretical reflection on the ethical, political and ideological habits that relate to food consumption, including the locations and ways of acquiring and food preparation, the values of environmental preservation, solidarity with local producers and reflexive caution against food risks. Finally, points to a research agenda capable of capturing the processes of politicization of food and consumer practices in the field of political power.

  14. Wireless network interface energy consumption implications of popular streaming formats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Surendar

    2001-12-01

    With the proliferation of mobile streaming multimedia, available battery capacity constrains the end-user experience. Since streaming applications tend to be long running, wireless network interface card's (WNIC) energy consumption is particularly an acute problem. In this work, we explore the WNIC energy consumption implications of popular multimedia streaming formats from Microsoft (Windows media), Real (Real media) and Apple (Quick Time). We investigate the energy consumption under varying stream bandwidth and network loss rates. We also explore history-based client-side strategies to reduce the energy consumed by transitioning the WNICs to a lower power consuming sleep state. We show that Microsoft media tends to transmit packets at regular intervals; streams optimized for 28.8 Kbps can save over 80% in energy consumption with 2% data loss. A high bandwidth stream (768 Kbps) can still save 57% in energy consumption with less than 0.3% data loss. For high bandwidth streams, Microsoft media exploits network-level packet fragmentation, which can lead to excessive packet loss (and wasted energy) in a lossy network. Real stream packets tend to be sent closer to each other, especially at higher bandwidths. Quicktime packets sometimes arrive in quick succession; most likely an application level fragmentation mechanism. Such packets are harder to predict at the network level without understanding the packet semantics.

  15. Food production and consumption near the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hamby, D.M.

    1991-12-31

    Routine operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) result in the release of radionuclides to the atmosphere and to the Savannah River. The resulting radiological doses to the off-site maximum individual and the 80-km population are estimated on a yearly basis. These estimates are generated using dose models prescribed in the NRC Reg. Guide 1.109 for the commercial nuclear power industry. A study of land and water usage characteristics in the region of the Savannah River Site has been conducted to determine site-specific values of the NRC dose model parameters. The study`s scope included local characteristics of meat, milk, vegetable production; Savannah River recreational activities and fish harvests; meat, milk, vegetable, and seafood consumption rates; and Savannah River drinking-water populations. Average and maximum consumption rates of beef, milk, vegetables, and fish have been determined for individuals residing in the southern United States. The study suggest that many of the consumption rates provided by the NRC may not be appropriate for residents of the South. Average consumption rates are slightly higher than the defaults provided by the NRC. Maximum consumption rates, however, are typically lower than NRC values. Agricultural productivity in the SRS region was found to be quite different than NRC recommendations. Off-site doses have been predicted using both NRC and SRS parameter values to demonstrate the significance of site-specific data.

  16. Food production and consumption near the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hamby, D.M.

    1991-01-01

    Routine operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) result in the release of radionuclides to the atmosphere and to the Savannah River. The resulting radiological doses to the off-site maximum individual and the 80-km population are estimated on a yearly basis. These estimates are generated using dose models prescribed in the NRC Reg. Guide 1.109 for the commercial nuclear power industry. A study of land and water usage characteristics in the region of the Savannah River Site has been conducted to determine site-specific values of the NRC dose model parameters. The study's scope included local characteristics of meat, milk, vegetable production; Savannah River recreational activities and fish harvests; meat, milk, vegetable, and seafood consumption rates; and Savannah River drinking-water populations. Average and maximum consumption rates of beef, milk, vegetables, and fish have been determined for individuals residing in the southern United States. The study suggest that many of the consumption rates provided by the NRC may not be appropriate for residents of the South. Average consumption rates are slightly higher than the defaults provided by the NRC. Maximum consumption rates, however, are typically lower than NRC values. Agricultural productivity in the SRS region was found to be quite different than NRC recommendations. Off-site doses have been predicted using both NRC and SRS parameter values to demonstrate the significance of site-specific data.

  17. Electricity's "Disappearing Act": Understanding Energy Consumption and Phantom Loads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rusk, Bryan; Mahfouz, Tarek; Jones, James

    2011-01-01

    Energy exists in many forms and can be converted from one form to another. However, this conversion is not 100% efficient, and energy is lost in the form of heat during conversion. In addition, approximately 6% of the monthly consumption of the average American household's electricity is neither lost nor used by its residents. These losses are…

  18. Smart energy management and low-power design of sensor and actuator nodes on algorithmic level for self-powered sensorial materials and robotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosse, Stefan; Behrmann, Thomas

    2011-06-01

    We propose and demonstrate a design methodology for embedded systems satisfying low power requirements suitable for self-powered sensor and actuator nodes. This design methodology focuses on 1. smart energy management at runtime and 2. application-specific System-On- Chip (SoC) design at design time, contributing to low-power systems on both algorithmic and technology level. Smart energy management is performed spatially at runtime by a behaviour-based or state-action-driven selection from a set of different (implemented) algorithms classified by their demand of computation power, and temporally by varying data processing rates. It can be shown that power/energy consumption of an application-specific SoC design depends strongly on computation complexity. Signal and control processing is modelled on abstract level using signal flow diagrams. These signal flow graphs are mapped to Petri Nets to enable direct high-level synthesis of digital SoC circuits using a multi-process architecture with the Communicating-Sequential-Process model on execution level. Power analysis using simulation techniques on gatelevel provides input for the algorithmic selection during runtime of the system, leading to a closed-loop design flow. Additionally, the signal-flow approach enables power management by varying the signal flow and data processing rates depending on actual energy consumption, estimated energy deposit, and required Quality-of-Service.

  19. Manufacturing consumption of energy 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    This report provides estimates on energy consumption in the manufacturing sector of the U.S. economy based on data from the Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey. The sample used in this report represented about 250,000 of the largest manufacturing establishments which account for approximately 98 percent of U.S. economic output from manufacturing, and an expected similar proportion of manufacturing energy use. The amount of energy use was collected for all operations of each establishment surveyed. Highlights of the report include profiles for the four major energy-consuming industries (petroleum refining, chemical, paper, and primary metal industries), and an analysis of the effects of changes in the natural gas and electricity markets on the manufacturing sector. Seven appendices are included to provide detailed background information. 10 figs., 51 tabs.

  20. Research of Tianjin's future water consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yinhe

    2017-03-01

    Water shortage has been a great issue in nowadays. Thus, the prediction of future water consumption situation in an area appears especially important. The water demand includes industrial water, agricultural water and domestic water. The paper take Tianjin, China as the study object to predict the Tianjin's water consumption in future 15 years. To get more accurate result, we use Grey Forecasting Model, to get the correlation degree between water consumption, domestic water consumption, industrial water consumption and agricultural water consumption, we successfully figure out the water demand in 2030 will be 2.47 billion cubic meters.

  1. Investigating Data Motion Power Trends to Enable Power-Efficient OpenSHMEM Implementations

    SciTech Connect

    Mintz, Tiffany M; D'Azevedo, Eduardo F.; Gorentla Venkata, Manjunath; Hsu, Chung-Hsing

    2016-01-01

    As we continue to develop extreme-scale systems, it is becoming increasingly important to be mindful and more in control of power consumed by these systems. With high performance requirements being more constrained by power and data movement quickly becoming the critical concern for both power and performance, now is an opportune time for OpenSHMEM implementations to address the need for more power-efficient data movement. In order to enable power efficient OpenSHMEM implementations, we have formulated power trend studies that emphasize power consumption for one-sided communications and the disparities in power consumption across multiple implementations. In this paper, we present power trend analysis, generate targeted hypotheses for increasing power efficiency with OpenSHMEM, and discuss prospective research for power efficient OpenSHMEM implementations.

  2. Exploring maternal patterns of dietary caffeine consumption before conception and during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Bell, Erin M; Browne, Marilyn L; Druschel, Charlotte M; Romitti, Paul A

    2014-12-01

    We describe patterns of dietary caffeine consumption before and after pregnancy recognition in a cohort of women who recently gave birth. This study included 8,347 mothers of non-malformed liveborn control infants who participated in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study during 1997-2007. Maternal self-reported consumption of beverages (caffeinated coffee, tea, and soda) and chocolate the year before pregnancy was used to estimate caffeine intake. The proportions of prepregnancy caffeine consumption stratified by maternal characteristics are reported. In addition, patterns of reported change in consumption before and after pregnancy were examined by maternal and pregnancy characteristics. Adjusted prevalence ratios were estimated to assess factors most associated with change in consumption. About 97 % of mothers reported any caffeine consumption (average intake of 129.9 mg/day the year before pregnancy) and soda was the primary source of caffeine. The proportion of mothers reporting dietary caffeine intake of more than 300 mg/day was significantly increased among those who smoked cigarettes or drank alcohol. Most mothers stopped or decreased their caffeinated beverage consumption during pregnancy. Young maternal age and unintended pregnancy were associated with increases in consumption during pregnancy. Dietary caffeine consumption during pregnancy is still common in the US. A high level of caffeine intake was associated with known risk factors for adverse reproductive outcomes. Future studies may improve the maternal caffeine exposure assessment by acquiring additional information regarding the timing and amount of change in caffeine consumption after pregnancy recognition.

  3. The Spatial and Temporal Consumptive Water Use Impacts of Rapid Shale Gas Development and Use in Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacsi, A. P.; Allen, D.

    2013-12-01

    Over the past several years, the development of shale gas resources has proceeded rapidly in many areas of the United States, and this shale gas development requires the use of millions of gallons of water, per well, for hydraulic fracturing. Recent life cycle assessments of natural gas from shale formations have calculated the potential for water use reduction when water use is integrated along the entire natural gas supply chain, if the shale gas is used in natural-gas power plants to displace coal-fired electricity generation. Actual grid operation, however, is more complicated and would require both that sufficient unused natural gas generation capacity exists for the displacement of coal-fired power generation and that the natural gas price is low enough that the switching is financially feasible. In addition, water savings, which would occur mainly from a reduction in the cooling water demand at coal-fired power plants, may occur in different regions and at different times than water used in natural gas production. Thus, consumptive water impacts may be spatial and temporally disparate, which is not a consideration in current life-cycle literature. The development of shale gas resources in Texas in August 2008 through December 2009 was chosen as a case study for characterizing this phenomenon since Texas accounted for two-thirds of the shale gas produced in the United States during this period and since the price of natural gas for electricity generation dropped significantly over the episode. Changes to the Texas self-contained electric grid (ERCOT) for a scenario with actual natural gas production and prices was estimated using a constrained grid model, rather than assuming that natural gas generation would displace coal-fired power plant usage. The actual development scenario was compared to an alternative development scenario in which natural gas prices remained elevated throughout the episode. Upstream changes in water consumption from lignite (coal

  4. Ciguatera caused by consumption of humphead wrasse.

    PubMed

    Chan, Thomas Y K

    2013-12-15

    Humphead wrasse (Cheilinus undulatus) is an apex predator from coral reefs of the Indo-Pacific region. A food surveillance project using a validated mouse bioassay revealed the presence of ciguatoxins in significantly greater amounts in its flesh than in groupers and other coral reef fishes commonly available in Hong Kong wholesale market. Humphead wrasse has long been known to cause ciguatera, but there was a lack of clinical reports. A 45-year-old woman developed ciguatera after eating humphead wrasse. She required ICU care and infusions of intravenous fluids and dopamine for management of severe hypotension. All 5 published case series are also reviewed to characterise the types, severity and chronicity of ciguatera symptoms after its consumption. In addition to the gastrointestinal, neurological and other features that were typical of ciguatera, some subjects developed sinus bradycardia, hypotension, shock, neuropsychiatric features (e.g. mental exhaustion, depression, insomnia and memory loss), other central nervous system symptoms (e.g. coma, convulsions and ataxia) and myocardial ischaemia. Other subjects still experienced residual symptoms 6 months later; these were mainly neurological or neuropsychiatric complaints and skin pruritus. To prevent ciguatera, the public should avoid eating humphead wrasse and other large coral reef fishes. They should realise that consumption of the high-risk fish may result in more severe and chronic illness, including life-threatening complications and neuropsychiatric features.

  5. Polylactides in additive biomanufacturing.

    PubMed

    Poh, Patrina S P; Chhaya, Mohit P; Wunner, Felix M; De-Juan-Pardo, Elena M; Schilling, Arndt F; Schantz, Jan-Thorsten; van Griensven, Martijn; Hutmacher, Dietmar W

    2016-12-15

    New advanced manufacturing technologies under the alias of additive biomanufacturing allow the design and fabrication of a range of products from pre-operative models, cutting guides and medical devices to scaffolds. The process of printing in 3 dimensions of cells, extracellular matrix (ECM) and biomaterials (bioinks, powders, etc.) to generate in vitro and/or in vivo tissue analogue structures has been termed bioprinting. To further advance in additive biomanufacturing, there are many aspects that we can learn from the wider additive manufacturing (AM) industry, which have progressed tremendously since its introduction into the manufacturing sector. First, this review gives an overview of additive manufacturing and both industry and academia efforts in addressing specific challenges in the AM technologies to drive toward AM-enabled industrial revolution. After which, considerations of poly(lactides) as a biomaterial in additive biomanufacturing are discussed. Challenges in wider additive biomanufacturing field are discussed in terms of (a) biomaterials; (b) computer-aided design, engineering and manufacturing; (c) AM and additive biomanufacturing printers hardware; and (d) system integration. Finally, the outlook for additive biomanufacturing was discussed.

  6. Additive Manufactured Product Integrity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waller, Jess; Wells, Doug; James, Steve; Nichols, Charles

    2017-01-01

    NASA is providing key leadership in an international effort linking NASA and non-NASA resources to speed adoption of additive manufacturing (AM) to meet NASA's mission goals. Participants include industry, NASA's space partners, other government agencies, standards organizations and academia. Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) is identified as a universal need for all aspects of additive manufacturing.

  7. Municipal water consumption forecast accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fullerton, Thomas M.; Molina, Angel L.

    2010-06-01

    Municipal water consumption planning is an active area of research because of infrastructure construction and maintenance costs, supply constraints, and water quality assurance. In spite of that, relatively few water forecast accuracy assessments have been completed to date, although some internal documentation may exist as part of the proprietary "grey literature." This study utilizes a data set of previously published municipal consumption forecasts to partially fill that gap in the empirical water economics literature. Previously published municipal water econometric forecasts for three public utilities are examined for predictive accuracy against two random walk benchmarks commonly used in regional analyses. Descriptive metrics used to quantify forecast accuracy include root-mean-square error and Theil inequality statistics. Formal statistical assessments are completed using four-pronged error differential regression F tests. Similar to studies for other metropolitan econometric forecasts in areas with similar demographic and labor market characteristics, model predictive performances for the municipal water aggregates in this effort are mixed for each of the municipalities included in the sample. Given the competitiveness of the benchmarks, analysts should employ care when utilizing econometric forecasts of municipal water consumption for planning purposes, comparing them to recent historical observations and trends to insure reliability. Comparative results using data from other markets, including regions facing differing labor and demographic conditions, would also be helpful.

  8. Health benefits of nut consumption.

    PubMed

    Ros, Emilio

    2010-07-01

    Nuts (tree nuts and peanuts) are nutrient dense foods with complex matrices rich in unsaturated fatty and other bioactive compounds: high-quality vegetable protein, fiber, minerals, tocopherols, phytosterols, and phenolic compounds. By virtue of their unique composition, nuts are likely to beneficially impact health outcomes. Epidemiologic studies have associated nut consumption with a reduced incidence of coronary heart disease and gallstones in both genders and diabetes in women. Limited evidence also suggests beneficial effects on hypertension, cancer, and inflammation. Interventional studies consistently show that nut intake has a cholesterol-lowering effect, even in the context of healthy diets, and there is emerging evidence of beneficial effects on oxidative stress, inflammation, and vascular reactivity. Blood pressure, visceral adiposity and the metabolic syndrome also appear to be positively influenced by nut consumption. Thus it is clear that nuts have a beneficial impact on many cardiovascular risk factors. Contrary to expectations, epidemiologic studies and clinical trials suggest that regular nut consumption is unlikely to contribute to obesity and may even help in weight loss. Safety concerns are limited to the infrequent occurrence of nut allergy in children. In conclusion, nuts are nutrient rich foods with wide-ranging cardiovascular and metabolic benefits, which can be readily incorporated into healthy diets.

  9. Alcohol consumption and body weight.

    PubMed

    French, Michael T; Norton, Edward C; Fang, Hai; Maclean, Johanna Catherine

    2010-07-01

    The number of Americans who are overweight or obese has reached epidemic proportions. Elevated weight is associated with health problems and increased medical expenditures. This paper analyzes Waves 1 and 2 of the National Epidemiological Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions to investigate the role of alcohol consumption in weight gain. Alcohol is not only an addictive substance but also a high-calorie beverage that can interfere with metabolic function and cognitive processes. Because men and women differ in the type and amount of alcohol they consume, in the biological effects they experience as a result of alcohol consumption, and in the consequences they face as a result of obesity, we expect our results to differ by gender. We use first-difference models of body mass index (BMI) and alcohol consumption (frequency and intensity) to control for time-invariant unobservable factors that may influence changes in both alcohol use and weight status. Increasing frequency and intensity of alcohol use is associated with statistically significant yet quantitatively small weight gain for men but not for women. Moreover, the first-difference results are much smaller in magnitude and sometimes different in sign compared with the benchmark pooled cross-sectional estimates.

  10. Health Benefits of Nut Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Ros, Emilio

    2010-01-01

    Nuts (tree nuts and peanuts) are nutrient dense foods with complex matrices rich in unsaturated fatty and other bioactive compounds: high-quality vegetable protein, fiber, minerals, tocopherols, phytosterols, and phenolic compounds. By virtue of their unique composition, nuts are likely to beneficially impact health outcomes. Epidemiologic studies have associated nut consumption with a reduced incidence of coronary heart disease and gallstones in both genders and diabetes in women. Limited evidence also suggests beneficial effects on hypertension, cancer, and inflammation. Interventional studies consistently show that nut intake has a cholesterol-lowering effect, even in the context of healthy diets, and there is emerging evidence of beneficial effects on oxidative stress, inflammation, and vascular reactivity. Blood pressure, visceral adiposity and the metabolic syndrome also appear to be positively influenced by nut consumption. Thus it is clear that nuts have a beneficial impact on many cardiovascular risk factors. Contrary to expectations, epidemiologic studies and clinical trials suggest that regular nut consumption is unlikely to contribute to obesity and may even help in weight loss. Safety concerns are limited to the infrequent occurrence of nut allergy in children. In conclusion, nuts are nutrient rich foods with wide-ranging cardiovascular and metabolic benefits, which can be readily incorporated into healthy diets. PMID:22254047

  11. Energy sustainability: consumption, efficiency, and ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    One of the critical challenges in achieving sustainability is finding a way to meet the energy consumption needs of a growing population in the face of increasing economic prosperity and finite resources. According to ecological footprint computations, the global resource consumption began exceeding planetary supply in 1977 and by 2030, global energy demand, population, and gross domestic product are projected to greatly increase over 1977 levels. With the aim of finding sustainable energy solutions, we present a simple yet rigorous procedure for assessing and counterbalancing the relationship between energy demand, environmental impact, population, GDP, and energy efficiency. Our analyses indicated that infeasible increases in energy efficiency (over 100 %) would be required by 2030 to return to 1977 environmental impact levels and annual reductions (2 and 3 %) in energy demand resulted in physical, yet impractical requirements; hence, a combination of policy and technology approaches is needed to tackle this critical challenge. This work emphasizes the difficulty in moving toward energy sustainability and helps to frame possible solutions useful for policy and management. Based on projected energy consumption, environmental impact, human population, gross domestic product (GDP), and energy efficiency, for this study, we explore the increase in energy-use efficiency and the decrease in energy use intensity required to achieve sustainable environmental impact le

  12. Caffeine consumption among medical students.

    PubMed

    Mino, Y; Yasuda, N; Fujimura, T; Ohara, H

    1990-12-01

    Recently, caffeine consumption in Japan is thought to have increased. Although caffeine had been considered to be harmless, there have been studies which suggests an association between caffeine and health and give rise to vigorous discussion. However, in Japan, there have been few epidemiological studies on caffeine consumption among a general population. A questionnaire survey was conducted among medical students and the results were as follows: 1) High dose users (estimated daily caffeine use is 250 mg or more) were observed in 15.2% and the proportion was higher in males than in females. 2) The respondents gave sleepiness, dry mouth and so on, as reasons for taking caffeine beverages, and gave, as the effects of caffeine, becoming clear-headed, shaking off sleepiness, and epigastric discomfort or pain. 3) A third of respondents have experienced taking caffeine tablets and ampules to shake off sleepiness and, in males, the more caffeine they had daily, the more who reported the experience. 4) Caffeine consumption has an association with alcohol use and smoking habit among males.

  13. Coffee Consumption and Cardiovascular Health.

    PubMed

    Chrysant, Steven G

    2015-09-01

    Coffee is the most widely consumed beverage worldwide and is only second to water drinking and is consumed by 83% of adults in the United States. The long-held controversy regarding the association of coffee consumption with an increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and hypertension has been reversed by several recent prospective cohort studies and meta-analyses, which have demonstrated that coffee consumption is not associated with increased incidence of CVDs and hypertension and instead it could have a beneficial effect. To get a better understanding of the effects of coffee consumption on cardiovascular health, a Medline search of the English language literature was conducted from 2010 to early 2015 and 25 pertinent reports with information on the effects of coffee drinking, the incidence of CVDs, and hypertension and its mechanism of action were selected for inclusion in this commentary. These studies have shown either a neutral or beneficial effect of coffee on cardiovascular health. In conclusion, coffee is safe to drink by both normal subjects and by those with preexisting CVDs and hypertension.

  14. Comprehensive European dietary exposure model (CEDEM) for food additives.

    PubMed

    Tennant, David R

    2016-05-01

    European methods for assessing dietary exposures to nutrients, additives and other substances in food are limited by the availability of detailed food consumption data for all member states. A proposed comprehensive European dietary exposure model (CEDEM) applies summary data published by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) in a deterministic model based on an algorithm from the EFSA intake method for food additives. The proposed approach can predict estimates of food additive exposure provided in previous EFSA scientific opinions that were based on the full European food consumption database.

  15. Electric Power: Decisions for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardon, Phillip L.; Preston, John

    2003-01-01

    Reviews the past 25 years of electricity consumption in the United States and considers the implications for the near future. Discusses strategies for energy conservation and provides a student activity for measuring and conserving electric power. (Author/JOW)

  16. Worldwide Asbestos Supply and Consumption Trends from 1900 through 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, Robert L.

    2006-01-01

    This Circular updates and supersedes U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Open-File Report 03–083, "Worldwide Asbestos Supply and Consumption Trends from 1900 to 2000," with the addition of supply and consumption estimates and analysis from 2001 through 2003 and revisions to the consumption estimates for 1998 through 2000. The text from Open-File Report 03–083 also has been updated in this Circular to include revisions to and expansion of the time-series coverage. The use of asbestos is one of the most controversial issues surrounding the industrial minerals industry. Its carcinogenic nature, an overall lack of knowledge of minimum safe exposure levels, its widespread use for more than 100 years, and the long latency for the development of lung cancer and mesothelioma are the main contributing factors to these controversies. Another factor is that, despite decades of research, the mechanisms responsible for its carcinogenic properties are still largely unknown. The United States produced about 3.29 million metric tons (Mt) of asbestos and used approximately 31.5 Mt between 1900 and 2003. About half of this amount was used after 1960. In 2002, the last asbestos mine in the United States closed, marking the end of more than 110 years of U.S. asbestos production. Cumulative world production from 1900 through 2003 was about 181 Mt. If one assumes that unusually large stocks were not maintained and that world consumption roughly equaled production, then about half of the world production and consumption occurred between the end of 1976 and the end of 2003. The United States and Western European nations were the largest consumers of asbestos during the first two-thirds of the 20th century. They were surpassed by the collective production and consumption of Kazakhstan and Russia by the 1970s. After the onset of the health issues concerning asbestos in the late 1960s and early 1970s, the decline in world production and consumption began to be evident in the late 1970s and

  17. Triboelectric generators and sensors for self-powered wearable electronics.

    PubMed

    Ha, Minjeong; Park, Jonghwa; Lee, Youngoh; Ko, Hyunhyub

    2015-04-28

    In recent years, the field of wearable electronics has evolved at a rapid pace, requiring continued innovation in technologies in the fields of electronics, energy devices, and sensors. In particular, wearable devices have multiple applications in healthcare monitoring, identification, and wireless communications, and they are required to perform well while being lightweight and having small size, flexibility, low power consumption, and reliable sensing performances. In this Perspective, we introduce two recent reports on the triboelectric generators with high-power generation achieved using flexible and lightweight textiles or miniaturized and hybridized device configurations. In addition, we present a brief overview of recent developments and future prospects of triboelectric energy harvesters and sensors, which may enable fully self-powered wearable devices with significantly improved sensing capabilities.

  18. Reducing power usage on demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbett, G.; Dewhurst, A.

    2016-10-01

    The Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC) datacentre provides large- scale High Performance Computing facilities for the scientific community. It currently consumes approximately 1.5MW and this has risen by 25% in the past two years. STFC has been investigating leveraging preemption in the Tier 1 batch farm to save power. HEP experiments are increasing using jobs that can be killed to take advantage of opportunistic CPU resources or novel cost models such as Amazon's spot pricing. Additionally, schemes from energy providers are available that offer financial incentives to reduce power consumption at peak times. Under normal operating conditions, 3% of the batch farm capacity is wasted due to draining machines. By using preempt-able jobs, nodes can be rapidly made available to run multicore jobs without this wasted resource. The use of preempt-able jobs has been extended so that at peak times machines can be hibernated quickly to save energy. This paper describes the implementation of the above and demonstrates that STFC could in future take advantage of such energy saving schemes.

  19. 21 CFR 170.18 - Tolerances for related food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tolerances for related food additives. 170.18 Section 170.18 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.18 Tolerances...

  20. 21 CFR 170.10 - Food additives in standardized foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Food additives in standardized foods. 170.10 Section 170.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.10 Food...

  1. 21 CFR 170.10 - Food additives in standardized foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Food additives in standardized foods. 170.10 Section 170.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.10 Food...

  2. 21 CFR 170.18 - Tolerances for related food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tolerances for related food additives. 170.18 Section 170.18 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.18 Tolerances...

  3. 21 CFR 170.10 - Food additives in standardized foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Food additives in standardized foods. 170.10 Section 170.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.10 Food...

  4. 21 CFR 170.18 - Tolerances for related food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tolerances for related food additives. 170.18 Section 170.18 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.18 Tolerances...

  5. 21 CFR 170.10 - Food additives in standardized foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Food additives in standardized foods. 170.10 Section 170.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.10 Food...

  6. Short-term water consumption dynamics in El Paso, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fullerton, Thomas M.; ElíAs, Arturo

    2004-08-01

    Time series analysis of water consumption patterns has been the subject of increasing attention in recent years. For many municipalities such efforts offer a means for developing potentially useful planning tools. Because data requirements are not extensive, model development is feasible for markets where information is limited. The work at hand examines the applicability of such a tool in El Paso, Texas, a growing metropolitan economy located in a semiarid region. Sample data are from January 1994 through December 2002. In addition to estimating a linear transfer function equation of water consumption in this city the model is subjected to a series of simulation benchmark tests.

  7. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, James C. (Inventor); Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  8. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of the additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  9. Electric power monthly, August 1998, with data for May 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-08-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. This publication provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and US levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity retail sales, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. In addition, data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. 9 refs., 57 tabs.

  10. Electric power monthly, May 1998, with data for February 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974. The EPM provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and US levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity retail sales, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. In addition, data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. 30 refs., 58 tabs.

  11. Electric power monthly, March 1999 with data for December 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1999-03-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be sued in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. This publication provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and US levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity retail sales, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. In addition, data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. 63 tabs.

  12. Seafood Consumption and Components for Health

    PubMed Central

    Hosomi, Ryota; Yoshida, Munehiro; Fukunaga, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, in developed countries and around the world, lifestyle-related diseases have become a serious problem. Numerous epidemiological studies and clinical trials have demonstrated that diet is one of the major factors that influence susceptibility to lifestyle-related diseases, especially the middle-senile state. Studies examining dietary habits have revealed the health benefits of seafood consumption. Seafood contains functional components that are not present in terrestrial organisms. These components include n-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexsaenoic acid, which aid in the prevention of arteriosclerotic and thrombotic disease. In addition, seafood is a superior source of various nutrients, such as protein, amino acids, fiber, vitamins, and minerals. This review focuses on the components derived from seafood and examines the significant role they play in the maintenance and promotion of health. PMID:22980234

  13. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wender, Ester H.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that food additives are causally associated with hyperkinesis and learning disabilities in children is reviewed, and available data are summarized. Available from: American Medical Association 535 North Dearborn Street Chicago, Illinois 60610. (JG)

  14. Smog control fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Lundby, W.

    1993-06-29

    A method is described of controlling, reducing or eliminating, ozone and related smog resulting from photochemical reactions between ozone and automotive or industrial gases comprising the addition of iodine or compounds of iodine to hydrocarbon-base fuels prior to or during combustion in an amount of about 1 part iodine per 240 to 10,000,000 parts fuel, by weight, to be accomplished by: (a) the addition of these inhibitors during or after the refining or manufacturing process of liquid fuels; (b) the production of these inhibitors for addition into fuel tanks, such as automotive or industrial tanks; or (c) the addition of these inhibitors into combustion chambers of equipment utilizing solid fuels for the purpose of reducing ozone.

  15. State energy data report 1992: Consumption estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    This is a report of energy consumption by state for the years 1960 to 1992. The report contains summaries of energy consumption for the US and by state, consumption by source, comparisons to other energy use reports, consumption by energy use sector, and describes the estimation methodologies used in the preparation of the report. Some years are not listed specifically although they are included in the summary of data.

  16. Consumption and Subjective Wellbeing: Exploring Basic Needs, Social Comparison, Social Integration and Hedonism in Peru

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guillen-Royo, Monica

    2008-01-01

    Within material poverty contexts, consumption and subjective wellbeing are positively and strongly related. This is usually explained in terms of the increased possibilities to satisfy basic needs that additional spending provides. Other important aspects of consumption, such as its relative, symbolic and hedonic dimensions are not generally…

  17. Potential cardiovascular implications of Sea Buckthorn berry consumption in humans.

    PubMed

    Sayegh, Marietta; Miglio, Cristiana; Ray, Sumantra

    2014-08-01

    Diets rich in fruits and vegetables have been correlated with decreased risks of cardiovascular disease. Particularly, berry consumption has been associated with reductions in cardiovascular risk. Despite the range of potentially beneficial phytochemical components (vitamins, polyphenols, carotenoids, and fatty acids), there is little evidence underpinning the cardiovascular effects of sea buckthorn (SB) berries. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the benefits of SB consumption on cardiovascular health in human trials. Only six human studies were found, which examine the effect of SB berries on cardiovascular outcomes (i.e., lipid metabolism, platelet aggregation, and inflammation). Although there appears to be an inverse association between SB consumption and cardiovascular risk factors, the evidence is still scarce and the results are inconsistent. In addition, limitations in study design made it difficult to form firm conclusions. More "high-quality" human clinical trials are needed in order to establish the cardio-protective benefits of SB berries.

  18. Israel 2000: immigration and gender differences in alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Schiff, Miriam; Rahav, Giora; Teichman, Meir

    2005-01-01

    The present study addresses the association between immigration from the former Soviet Union (FSU) and gender and alcohol consumption among a representative sample of young adults in Israel 2000. Previous studies that were conducted on FSU immigrants to Israel indicate higher consumption than that of resident Israelis and immigrants of earlier periods. The current study aims to assess alcohol consumption among FSU and resident Israelis five years later to determine whether the discrepancy in alcohol consumption stays consistent or reduces. In addition, gender differences in alcohol consumption among the Israeli society were examined as well, as a special case of socio-culture differences. The data came from the 2000 national survey of drinking in Israel. Of 5,004 Jewish Israelis, 532 were immigrants from the FSU who arrived since 1989, and 4,472 were resident Israelis. The FSU group was compared with resident Israelis, and males were compared to females on several drinking variables. Logistic regression was the principal method of analysis. Demographics and cultural variables as main effects or in interaction with FSU and gender were controlled. The FSU group was significantly more likely to report drinking in the last twelve months plus drinking in the last thirty days than resident Israelis. Women's reported drinking in the last twelve months was one fourth of men's and during the past thirty days was one fifth of men's. Further investigation on the associations between the success of FSU acculturation in the Israeli society and drinking patterns as well as attitudes toward women and gender differences in alcohol consumption may provide explanations for gender and immigration gaps in alcohol consumption.

  19. Consumptive water use to feed humanity - curing a blind spot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falkenmark, M.; Lannerstad, M.

    2004-11-01

    Since in large parts of the world it is getting difficult to meet growing water demands by mobilising more water, the discourse has turned its focus to demand management, governance and the necessary concern for aquatic ecosystems by reserving an "environmental flow" in the river. The latter calls for attention to river depletion which may be expected in response to changes in consumptive water use by both natural and anthropogenic systems. Basically, consumptive use has three faces: runoff generation influenced by land cover changes; consumptive use of water withdrawn; and evaporation from water systems (reservoirs, canals, river based cooling). After demonstrating the vulnerability to changes in consumptive use under savanna region conditions - representative of many poverty and hunger prone developing countries subject to attention in the Millennium Development Goal activities - the paper exemplifies 1) changes in runoff generation in response to regional scale land cover changes; 2) consumptive use in large scale irrigation systems. It goes on to analyse the implications of seeing food as a human right by estimating the additional consumptive use requirements to produce food for the next two generations. Attention is paid to remaining degrees of freedom in terms of uncommitted water beyond an environmental flow reserve and to potential food trade consequences (so-called virtual water). The paper concludes that a human-right-to-food principle will have major consequences in terms of altered consumptive water use. It will therefore be essential for humanity to address river depletion to avoid loss of resilience of the life support system. This will demand a deep-going cooperation between hydrology, ecology and water governance.

  20. Consumptive water use to feed humanity - curing a blind spot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falkenmark, M.; Lannerstad, M.

    2005-06-01

    Since in large parts of the world it is getting difficult to meet growing water demands by mobilising more water, the discourse has turned its focus to demand management, governance and the necessary concern for aquatic ecosystems by reserving an "environmental flow" in the river. The latter calls for attention to river depletion which may be expected in response to changes in consumptive water use by both natural and anthropogenic systems. Basically, consumptive use has three faces: runoff generation influenced by land cover changes; consumptive use of water withdrawn; and evaporation from water systems (reservoirs, canals, river based cooling). After demonstrating the vulnerability to changes in consumptive use under savanna region conditions - representative of many poverty and hunger prone developing countries subject to attention in the Millennium Development Goal activities - the paper exemplifies; 1) changes in runoff generation in response to regional scale land cover changes; 2) consumptive use in large scale irrigation systems. It goes on to analyse the implications of seeing food as a human right by estimating the additional consumptive use requirements to produce food for the next two generations. Attention is paid to remaining degrees of freedom in terms of uncommitted water beyond an environmental flow reserve and to potential food trade consequences (so-called virtual water). The paper concludes that a human-right-to-food principle will have major consequences in terms of altered consumptive water use. It will therefore be essential for humanity to address river depletion to avoid loss of resilience of the life support system. This will demand a deep-going cooperation between hydrology, ecology and water governance.