Science.gov

Sample records for additional prior information

  1. Minimally Informative Prior Distributions for PSA

    SciTech Connect

    Dana L. Kelly; Robert W. Youngblood; Kurt G. Vedros

    2010-06-01

    A salient feature of Bayesian inference is its ability to incorporate information from a variety of sources into the inference model, via the prior distribution (hereafter simply “the prior”). However, over-reliance on old information can lead to priors that dominate new data. Some analysts seek to avoid this by trying to work with a minimally informative prior distribution. Another reason for choosing a minimally informative prior is to avoid the often-voiced criticism of subjectivity in the choice of prior. Minimally informative priors fall into two broad classes: 1) so-called noninformative priors, which attempt to be completely objective, in that the posterior distribution is determined as completely as possible by the observed data, the most well known example in this class being the Jeffreys prior, and 2) priors that are diffuse over the region where the likelihood function is nonnegligible, but that incorporate some information about the parameters being estimated, such as a mean value. In this paper, we compare four approaches in the second class, with respect to their practical implications for Bayesian inference in Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA). The most commonly used such prior, the so-called constrained noninformative prior, is a special case of the maximum entropy prior. This is formulated as a conjugate distribution for the most commonly encountered aleatory models in PSA, and is correspondingly mathematically convenient; however, it has a relatively light tail and this can cause the posterior mean to be overly influenced by the prior in updates with sparse data. A more informative prior that is capable, in principle, of dealing more effectively with sparse data is a mixture of conjugate priors. A particular diffuse nonconjugate prior, the logistic-normal, is shown to behave similarly for some purposes. Finally, we review the so-called robust prior. Rather than relying on the mathematical abstraction of entropy, as does the constrained

  2. 34. VIEW OF SUBMARINE ESCAPE TRAINING TANK PRIOR TO ADDITION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. VIEW OF SUBMARINE ESCAPE TRAINING TANK PRIOR TO ADDITION OF BLISTERS IN 1959, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - U.S. Naval Submarine Base, New London Submarine Escape Training Tank, Albacore & Darter Roads, Groton, New London County, CT

  3. Community detection with and without prior information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allahverdyan, A. E.; Ver Steeg, G.; Galstyan, A.

    2010-04-01

    We study the problem of graph partitioning, or clustering, in sparse networks with prior information about the clusters. Specifically, we assume that for a fraction ρ of the nodes their true cluster assignments are known in advance. This can be understood as a semi-supervised version of clustering, in contrast to unsupervised clustering where the only available information is the graph structure. In the unsupervised case, it is known that there is a threshold of the inter-cluster connectivity beyond which clusters cannot be detected. Here we study the impact of the prior information on the detection threshold, and show that even minute (but generic) values of ρ>0 shift the threshold downwards to its lowest possible value. For weighted graphs we show that a small semi-supervising can be used for a non-trivial definition of communities.

  4. Nonsymbolic, Approximate Arithmetic in Children: Abstract Addition Prior to Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barth, Hilary; Beckmann, Lacey; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2008-01-01

    Do children draw upon abstract representations of number when they perform approximate arithmetic operations? In this study, kindergarten children viewed animations suggesting addition of a sequence of sounds to an array of dots, and they compared the sum to a second dot array that differed from the sum by 1 of 3 ratios. Children performed this…

  5. Patients' need for information prior to colonic surgery.

    PubMed

    Sjöstedt, Lisbeth; Hellström, Renee; Stomberg, Margareta Warrén

    2011-01-01

    Perioperative information and communication between patients and health professionals is central to the quality of care and patient involvement for elective colon surgery. Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) means that the care process is accelerated with comprehensive information and additional requirements on an individual. The purpose of this study was to identify nurses' and doctors' experience of patients' need for information before intraoperative care. Nurses (n = 39) with different specialties and professional experience were interviewed in focus groups. Ten anesthesiologists with differing professional experience were interviewed individually. Data were analyzed with qualitative content analysis. The result shows the need to provide information to reduce anxiety, to make the patient feel safe, to explain postoperative pain management, and to provide a comprehensive care pathway. There was no difference between the informants' perception of patients' information needs. All respondents agreed that patients generally have a great need for information. The perioperative information should be repeated at different points in time. The patients' need for information on diagnosis is recurrent. Knowledge, good communication, and attitude from a multiprofessional perspective support the patient's feeling comfortable and involved in the care prior to surgery. PMID:21979401

  6. Information Propagation in Prior-Image-Based Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Stayman, J. Webster; Prince, Jerry L.; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H.

    2016-01-01

    Advanced reconstruction methods for computed tomography include sophisticated forward models of the imaging system that capture the pertinent physical processes affecting the signal and noise in projection measurements. However, most do little to integrate prior knowledge of the subject – often relying only on very general notions of local smoothness or edges. In many cases, as in longitudinal surveillance or interventional imaging, a patient has undergone a sequence of studies prior to the current image acquisition that hold a wealth of prior information on patient-specific anatomy. While traditional techniques tend to treat each data acquisition as an isolated event and disregard such valuable patient-specific prior information, some reconstruction methods, such as PICCS[1] and PIR-PLE[2], can incorporate prior images into a reconstruction objective function. Inclusion of such information allows for dramatic reduction in the data fidelity requirements and more robustly accommodate substantial undersampling and exposure reduction with consequent benefits to imaging speed and reduced radiation dose. While such prior-image-based methods offer tremendous promise, the introduction of prior information in the reconstruction raises significant concern regarding the accurate representation of features in the image and whether those features arise from the current data acquisition or from the prior images. In this work we propose a novel framework to analyze the propagation of information in prior-image-based reconstruction by decomposing the estimation into distinct components supported by the current data acquisition and by the prior image. This decomposition quantifies the contributions from prior and current data as a spatial map and can trace specific features in the image to their source. Such “information source maps” can potentially be used as a check on confidence that a given image feature arises from the current data or from the prior and to more

  7. PET Image Reconstruction Using Information Theoretic Anatomical Priors

    PubMed Central

    Somayajula, Sangeetha; Panagiotou, Christos; Rangarajan, Anand; Li, Quanzheng; Arridge, Simon R.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a nonparametric framework for incorporating information from co-registered anatomical images into positron emission tomographic (PET) image reconstruction through priors based on information theoretic similarity measures. We compare and evaluate the use of mutual information (MI) and joint entropy (JE) between feature vectors extracted from the anatomical and PET images as priors in PET reconstruction. Scale-space theory provides a framework for the analysis of images at different levels of detail, and we use this approach to define feature vectors that emphasize prominent boundaries in the anatomical and functional images, and attach less importance to detail and noise that is less likely to be correlated in the two images. Through simulations that model the best case scenario of perfect agreement between the anatomical and functional images, and a more realistic situation with a real magnetic resonance image and a PET phantom that has partial volumes and a smooth variation of intensities, we evaluate the performance of MI and JE based priors in comparison to a Gaussian quadratic prior, which does not use any anatomical information. We also apply this method to clinical brain scan data using F18 Fallypride, a tracer that binds to dopamine receptors and therefore localizes mainly in the striatum. We present an efficient method of computing these priors and their derivatives based on fast Fourier transforms that reduce the complexity of their convolution-like expressions. Our results indicate that while sensitive to initialization and choice of hyperparameters, information theoretic priors can reconstruct images with higher contrast and superior quantitation than quadratic priors. PMID:20851790

  8. Finding A Minimally Informative Dirichlet Prior Using Least Squares

    SciTech Connect

    Dana Kelly

    2011-03-01

    In a Bayesian framework, the Dirichlet distribution is the conjugate distribution to the multinomial likelihood function, and so the analyst is required to develop a Dirichlet prior that incorporates available information. However, as it is a multiparameter distribution, choosing the Dirichlet parameters is less straightforward than choosing a prior distribution for a single parameter, such as p in the binomial distribution. In particular, one may wish to incorporate limited information into the prior, resulting in a minimally informative prior distribution that is responsive to updates with sparse data. In the case of binomial p or Poisson \\lambda, the principle of maximum entropy can be employed to obtain a so-called constrained noninformative prior. However, even in the case of p, such a distribution cannot be written down in the form of a standard distribution (e.g., beta, gamma), and so a beta distribution is used as an approximation in the case of p. In the case of the multinomial model with parametric constraints, the approach of maximum entropy does not appear tractable. This paper presents an alternative approach, based on constrained minimization of a least-squares objective function, which leads to a minimally informative Dirichlet prior distribution. The alpha-factor model for common-cause failure, which is widely used in the United States, is the motivation for this approach, and is used to illustrate the method. In this approach to modeling common-cause failure, the alpha-factors, which are the parameters in the underlying multinomial model for common-cause failure, must be estimated from data that are often quite sparse, because common-cause failures tend to be rare, especially failures of more than two or three components, and so a prior distribution that is responsive to updates with sparse data is needed.

  9. 16 CFR 1102.16 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... PUBLICLY AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE Content Requirements § 1102.16 Additional... in the Database any additional information it determines to be in the public interest,...

  10. 16 CFR 1102.16 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... PUBLICLY AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE Content Requirements § 1102.16 Additional... in the Database any additional information it determines to be in the public interest,...

  11. 16 CFR 1102.16 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... PUBLICLY AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE Content Requirements § 1102.16 Additional... in the Database any additional information it determines to be in the public interest,...

  12. Three-dimensional microwave imaging with incorporated prior structural information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golnabi, Amir H.; Meaney, Paul M.; Epstein, Neil R.; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2012-03-01

    Microwave imaging for biomedical applications, especially for early detection of breast cancer and effective treatment monitoring, has attracted increasing interest in last several decades. This fact is due to the high contrast between the dielectric properties of the normal and malignant breast tissues at microwave frequencies. The available range of dielectric properties for different soft tissue can provide important functional information about tissue health. Nonetheless, one of the limiting weaknesses of microwave imaging is that unlike conventional modalities, such as X-ray CT or MRI, it inherently cannot provide high-resolution images. The conventional modalities can produce highly resolved anatomical information but often cannot provide the functional information required for diagnoses. Previously, we have developed a regularization strategy that can incorporate prior anatomical information from MR or other sources and use it in a way to refine the resolution of the microwave images, while also retaining the functional nature of the reconstructed property values. In the present work, we extend the use of prior structural information in microwave imaging from 2D to 3D. This extra dimension adds a significant layer of complexity to the entire image reconstruction procedure. In this paper, several challenges with respect to the 3D microwave imaging will be discussed and the results of a series of 3D simulation and phantom experiments with prior structural information will be studied.

  13. 47 CFR 25.111 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional information. 25.111 Section 25.111... Applications and Licenses General Application Filing Requirements § 25.111 Additional information. (a) The Commission may request from any party at any time additional information concerning any application, or...

  14. 34 CFR 75.231 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Additional information. 75.231 Section 75.231 Education... Make A Grant § 75.231 Additional information. After selecting an application for funding, the Secretary may require the applicant to submit additional information. (Authority: 20 U.S.C. 1221e-3 and 3474)...

  15. 10 CFR 810.14 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Additional information. 810.14 Section 810.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES § 810.14 Additional information. The... activity to submit additional information....

  16. 10 CFR 725.13 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Additional information. 725.13 Section 725.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PERMITS FOR ACCESS TO RESTRICTED DATA Applications § 725.13 Additional information. The... and before the termination of the permit, require additional information in order to enable the...

  17. 10 CFR 725.13 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Additional information. 725.13 Section 725.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PERMITS FOR ACCESS TO RESTRICTED DATA Applications § 725.13 Additional information. The... and before the termination of the permit, require additional information in order to enable the...

  18. Robust meta-analytic-predictive priors in clinical trials with historical control information.

    PubMed

    Schmidli, Heinz; Gsteiger, Sandro; Roychoudhury, Satrajit; O'Hagan, Anthony; Spiegelhalter, David; Neuenschwander, Beat

    2014-12-01

    Historical information is always relevant for clinical trial design. Additionally, if incorporated in the analysis of a new trial, historical data allow to reduce the number of subjects. This decreases costs and trial duration, facilitates recruitment, and may be more ethical. Yet, under prior-data conflict, a too optimistic use of historical data may be inappropriate. We address this challenge by deriving a Bayesian meta-analytic-predictive prior from historical data, which is then combined with the new data. This prospective approach is equivalent to a meta-analytic-combined analysis of historical and new data if parameters are exchangeable across trials. The prospective Bayesian version requires a good approximation of the meta-analytic-predictive prior, which is not available analytically. We propose two- or three-component mixtures of standard priors, which allow for good approximations and, for the one-parameter exponential family, straightforward posterior calculations. Moreover, since one of the mixture components is usually vague, mixture priors will often be heavy-tailed and therefore robust. Further robustness and a more rapid reaction to prior-data conflicts can be achieved by adding an extra weakly-informative mixture component. Use of historical prior information is particularly attractive for adaptive trials, as the randomization ratio can then be changed in case of prior-data conflict. Both frequentist operating characteristics and posterior summaries for various data scenarios show that these designs have desirable properties. We illustrate the methodology for a phase II proof-of-concept trial with historical controls from four studies. Robust meta-analytic-predictive priors alleviate prior-data conflicts ' they should encourage better and more frequent use of historical data in clinical trials. PMID:25355546

  19. Incorporation of prior information on parameters into nonlinear regression groundwater flow models. l. Theory.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooley, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    Prior information on the parameters of a groundwater flow model can be used to improve parameter estimates obtained from nonlinear regression solution of a modeling problem. Two scales of prior information can be available: 1) prior information having known reliability (that is, bias and random error structure), and 2) prior information consisting of best available estimates of unknown reliability. It is shown that if both scales of prior information are available, then a combined regression analysis may be made. -from Author

  20. 12 CFR 1010.116 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Additional information. 1010.116 Section 1010...) Reporting Requirements § 1010.116 Additional information. (a) Property Owners' Association. (1) Will there... obligation to retire the debt. (c) Violations and litigations. This information need appear only if any...

  1. 24 CFR 1710.216 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional information. 1710.216... § 1710.216 Additional information. (a) Property Owners' Association. (1) If the association has been..., information on such matters as to: (i) Whether the developer will employ his own sales force or will...

  2. 12 CFR 1010.116 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Additional information. 1010.116 Section 1010...) Reporting Requirements § 1010.116 Additional information. (a) Property Owners' Association. (1) Will there... obligation to retire the debt. (c) Violations and litigations. This information need appear only if any...

  3. 12 CFR 1010.216 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Additional information. 1010.216 Section 1010...) Reporting Requirements § 1010.216 Additional information. (a) Property Owners' Association. (1) If the..., information on such matters as to: (i) Whether the developer will employ his own sales force or will...

  4. 12 CFR 1010.216 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Additional information. 1010.216 Section 1010...) Reporting Requirements § 1010.216 Additional information. (a) Property Owners' Association. (1) If the..., information on such matters as to: (i) Whether the developer will employ his own sales force or will...

  5. 42 CFR 1008.39 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... AUTHORITIES ADVISORY OPINIONS BY THE OIG Submission of a Formal Request for an Advisory Opinion § 1008.39 Additional information. (a) If the request for an advisory opinion does not contain all of the information... advisory opinion, the OIG may, at any time, request whatever additional information or documents it...

  6. 42 CFR 1008.39 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... AUTHORITIES ADVISORY OPINIONS BY THE OIG Submission of a Formal Request for an Advisory Opinion § 1008.39 Additional information. (a) If the request for an advisory opinion does not contain all of the information... advisory opinion, the OIG may, at any time, request whatever additional information or documents it...

  7. 42 CFR 1008.39 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... AUTHORITIES ADVISORY OPINIONS BY THE OIG Submission of a Formal Request for an Advisory Opinion § 1008.39 Additional information. (a) If the request for an advisory opinion does not contain all of the information... advisory opinion, the OIG may, at any time, request whatever additional information or documents it...

  8. 42 CFR 1008.39 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... AUTHORITIES ADVISORY OPINIONS BY THE OIG Submission of a Formal Request for an Advisory Opinion § 1008.39 Additional information. (a) If the request for an advisory opinion does not contain all of the information... advisory opinion, the OIG may, at any time, request whatever additional information or documents it...

  9. 42 CFR 1008.39 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... AUTHORITIES ADVISORY OPINIONS BY THE OIG Submission of a Formal Request for an Advisory Opinion § 1008.39 Additional information. (a) If the request for an advisory opinion does not contain all of the information... advisory opinion, the OIG may, at any time, request whatever additional information or documents it...

  10. 16 CFR 1102.16 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... PUBLICLY AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE (Eff. Jan. 10, 2011) Content Requirements... notices, the CPSC shall include in the Database any additional information it determines to be in...

  11. 25 CFR 214.5 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional information. 214.5 Section 214.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.5 Additional information. The officer in...

  12. 25 CFR 214.5 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Additional information. 214.5 Section 214.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.5 Additional information. The officer in charge may, at...

  13. 25 CFR 214.5 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional information. 214.5 Section 214.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.5 Additional information. The officer in...

  14. 25 CFR 214.5 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional information. 214.5 Section 214.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.5 Additional information. The officer in...

  15. 25 CFR 214.5 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Additional information. 214.5 Section 214.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.5 Additional information. The officer in...

  16. 46 CFR 502.314 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional information. 502.314 Section 502.314 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Formal Procedure for Adjudication of Small Claims § 502.314 Additional information. The administrative law...

  17. 46 CFR 502.314 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional information. 502.314 Section 502.314 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Formal Procedure for Adjudication of Small Claims § 502.314 Additional information. The administrative law...

  18. 10 CFR 810.14 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional information. 810.14 Section 810.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES § 810.14 Additional information. The Department of Energy may at any time require a person engaging in any generally or specifically...

  19. 10 CFR 810.14 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Additional information. 810.14 Section 810.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES § 810.14 Additional information. The Department of Energy may at any time require a person engaging in any generally or specifically...

  20. 47 CFR 25.111 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional information. 25.111 Section 25.111 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses General Application Filing Requirements § 25.111 Additional information. (a)...

  1. 47 CFR 25.111 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional information. 25.111 Section 25.111 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses General Application Filing Requirements § 25.111 Additional information. (a)...

  2. 10 CFR 810.14 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Additional information. 810.14 Section 810.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES § 810.14 Additional information. The Department of Energy may at any time require a person engaging in any generally or specifically...

  3. 10 CFR 810.14 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Additional information. 810.14 Section 810.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES § 810.14 Additional information. The Department of Energy may at any time require a person engaging in any generally or specifically...

  4. Iterative CT shading correction with no prior information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Pengwei; Sun, Xiaonan; Hu, Hongjie; Mao, Tingyu; Zhao, Wei; Sheng, Ke; Cheung, Alice A.; Niu, Tianye

    2015-11-01

    Shading artifacts in CT images are caused by scatter contamination, beam-hardening effect and other non-ideal imaging conditions. The purpose of this study is to propose a novel and general correction framework to eliminate low-frequency shading artifacts in CT images (e.g. cone-beam CT, low-kVp CT) without relying on prior information. The method is based on the general knowledge of the relatively uniform CT number distribution in one tissue component. The CT image is first segmented to construct a template image where each structure is filled with the same CT number of a specific tissue type. Then, by subtracting the ideal template from the CT image, the residual image from various error sources are generated. Since forward projection is an integration process, non-continuous shading artifacts in the image become continuous signals in a line integral. Thus, the residual image is forward projected and its line integral is low-pass filtered in order to estimate the error that causes shading artifacts. A compensation map is reconstructed from the filtered line integral error using a standard FDK algorithm and added back to the original image for shading correction. As the segmented image does not accurately depict a shaded CT image, the proposed scheme is iterated until the variation of the residual image is minimized. The proposed method is evaluated using cone-beam CT images of a Catphan©600 phantom and a pelvis patient, and low-kVp CT angiography images for carotid artery assessment. Compared with the CT image without correction, the proposed method reduces the overall CT number error from over 200 HU to be less than 30 HU and increases the spatial uniformity by a factor of 1.5. Low-contrast object is faithfully retained after the proposed correction. An effective iterative algorithm for shading correction in CT imaging is proposed that is only assisted by general anatomical information without relying on prior knowledge. The proposed method is thus practical

  5. An Ensemble Approach to Building Mercer Kernels with Prior Information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, Ashok N.; Schumann, Johann; Fischer, Bernd

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for automatic knowledge driven data mining based on the theory of Mercer Kernels, which are highly nonlinear symmetric positive definite mappings from the original image space to a very high, possibly dimensional feature space. we describe a new method called Mixture Density Mercer Kernels to learn kernel function directly from data, rather than using pre-defined kernels. These data adaptive kernels can encode prior knowledge in the kernel using a Bayesian formulation, thus allowing for physical information to be encoded in the model. Specifically, we demonstrate the use of the algorithm in situations with extremely small samples of data. We compare the results with existing algorithms on data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and demonstrate the method's superior performance against standard methods. The code for these experiments has been generated with the AUTOBAYES tool, which automatically generates efficient and documented C/C++ code from abstract statistical model specifications. The core of the system is a schema library which contains templates for learning and knowledge discovery algorithms like different versions of EM, or numeric optimization methods like conjugate gradient methods. The template instantiation is supported by symbolic-algebraic computations, which allows AUTOBAYES to find closed-form solutions and, where possible, to integrate them into the code.

  6. Supervised classification of solar features using prior information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Visscher, Ruben; Delouille, Véronique; Dupont, Pierre; Deledalle, Charles-Alban

    2015-10-01

    Context: The Sun as seen by Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) telescopes exhibits a variety of large-scale structures. Of particular interest for space-weather applications is the extraction of active regions (AR) and coronal holes (CH). The next generation of GOES-R satellites will provide continuous monitoring of the solar corona in six EUV bandpasses that are similar to the ones provided by the SDO-AIA EUV telescope since May 2010. Supervised segmentations of EUV images that are consistent with manual segmentations by for example space-weather forecasters help in extracting useful information from the raw data. Aims: We present a supervised segmentation method that is based on the Maximum A Posteriori rule. Our method allows integrating both manually segmented images as well as other type of information. It is applied on SDO-AIA images to segment them into AR, CH, and the remaining Quiet Sun (QS) part. Methods: A Bayesian classifier is applied on training masks provided by the user. The noise structure in EUV images is non-trivial, and this suggests the use of a non-parametric kernel density estimator to fit the intensity distribution within each class. Under the Naive Bayes assumption we can add information such as latitude distribution and total coverage of each class in a consistent manner. Those information can be prescribed by an expert or estimated with an Expectation-Maximization algorithm. Results: The segmentation masks are in line with the training masks given as input and show consistency over time. Introduction of additional information besides pixel intensity improves upon the quality of the final segmentation. Conclusions: Such a tool can aid in building automated segmentations that are consistent with some ground truth' defined by the users.

  7. 24 CFR 1710.116 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional information. 1710.116 Section 1710.116 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... URBAN DEVELOPMENT (INTERSTATE LAND SALES REGISTRATION PROGRAM) LAND REGISTRATION Reporting...

  8. 24 CFR 1710.116 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional information. 1710.116 Section 1710.116 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... URBAN DEVELOPMENT (INTERSTATE LAND SALES REGISTRATION PROGRAM) LAND REGISTRATION Reporting...

  9. 24 CFR 1710.116 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Additional information. 1710.116 Section 1710.116 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... URBAN DEVELOPMENT (INTERSTATE LAND SALES REGISTRATION PROGRAM) LAND REGISTRATION Reporting...

  10. 24 CFR 1710.216 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Additional information. 1710.216 Section 1710.216 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... URBAN DEVELOPMENT (INTERSTATE LAND SALES REGISTRATION PROGRAM) LAND REGISTRATION Reporting...

  11. 24 CFR 1710.116 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Additional information. 1710.116 Section 1710.116 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... URBAN DEVELOPMENT (INTERSTATE LAND SALES REGISTRATION PROGRAM) LAND REGISTRATION Reporting...

  12. 18 CFR 33.10 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... 33.10 Section 33.10 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT APPLICATIONS UNDER FEDERAL POWER ACT SECTION 203 § 33.10 Additional information. The Director of the Office of Energy Market Regulation, or his...

  13. 24 CFR 1710.216 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional information. 1710.216 Section 1710.216 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... URBAN DEVELOPMENT (INTERSTATE LAND SALES REGISTRATION PROGRAM) LAND REGISTRATION Reporting...

  14. 15 CFR 970.2601 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Additional information. 970.2601 Section 970.2601 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED...

  15. 24 CFR 1710.216 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Additional information. 1710.216 Section 1710.216 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... URBAN DEVELOPMENT (INTERSTATE LAND SALES REGISTRATION PROGRAM) LAND REGISTRATION Reporting...

  16. 15 CFR 970.2601 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Additional information. 970.2601 Section 970.2601 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED...

  17. 15 CFR 970.2601 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Additional information. 970.2601 Section 970.2601 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED...

  18. 15 CFR 970.2601 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional information. 970.2601 Section 970.2601 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED...

  19. Information Sharing Between Ground Motion Models from Different Regions via Dirichlet Process Priors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermkes, M.; Kuehn, N.; Riggelsen, C.; Vogel, K.

    2012-04-01

    In probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) seismic ground motion data, induced by earthquakes, are collected at different geographical regions. Instead of building ground motion models, which estimates intensity parameters, e.g. peak ground acceleration or spectral acceleration, given earthquake and site related parameters, for each region individually, it is preferable to share information across the regions to increase the overall prediction performance. One of the most important methods to share information correlation between models is Hierarchical Bayesian modeling, where parameters of the region-specific models are coupled by a common prior. As a result of learning the parameters of the model and the hyperparameters of the common prior jointly, the function estimation of a specific region is affected by its own training data and by data from the other region related through the coupled prior. Generally, the common prior is specified in a parametric form with unknown hyperparameters. A drawback of such a prior by reason of its modality is that the relationship between all ground motion models are treated equally, but it is desirable that only similar models share information to permit negative transfer. To deal with these issues we propose a nonparametric hierarchical Bayesian model where the common prior is drawn from a Dirichlet Process (DP). Such a nonparametric prior has the ability to fit the model well with respect to the data without restriction about the functional form of the prior distribution. Furthermore, the employed DP prior induces a partition of region-specific models, so that models within each cluster share the same parameterization. First of all, we present a linear regression model, for which the weights of the covariates and the model variance are drawn from a DP prior. As base distribution for the DP we have chosen a normal inverse-Gamma prior which is the natural conjugate prior to the normal likelihood of the applied regression

  20. Filtering genetic variants and placing informative priors based on putative biological function.

    PubMed

    Friedrichs, Stefanie; Malzahn, Dörthe; Pugh, Elizabeth W; Almeida, Marcio; Liu, Xiao Qing; Bailey, Julia N

    2016-01-01

    High-density genetic marker data, especially sequence data, imply an immense multiple testing burden. This can be ameliorated by filtering genetic variants, exploiting or accounting for correlations between variants, jointly testing variants, and by incorporating informative priors. Priors can be based on biological knowledge or predicted variant function, or even be used to integrate gene expression or other omics data. Based on Genetic Analysis Workshop (GAW) 19 data, this article discusses diversity and usefulness of functional variant scores provided, for example, by PolyPhen2, SIFT, or RegulomeDB annotations. Incorporating functional scores into variant filters or weights and adjusting the significance level for correlations between variants yielded significant associations with blood pressure traits in a large family study of Mexican Americans (GAW19 data set). Marker rs218966 in gene PHF14 and rs9836027 in MAP4 significantly associated with hypertension; additionally, rare variants in SNUPN significantly associated with systolic blood pressure. Variant weights strongly influenced the power of kernel methods and burden tests. Apart from variant weights in test statistics, prior weights may also be used when combining test statistics or to informatively weight p values while controlling false discovery rate (FDR). Indeed, power improved when gene expression data for FDR-controlled informative weighting of association test p values of genes was used. Finally, approaches exploiting variant correlations included identity-by-descent mapping and the optimal strategy for joint testing rare and common variants, which was observed to depend on linkage disequilibrium structure. PMID:26866982

  1. The relative importance of head, flux, and prior information in hydraulic tomography analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michael Tso, Chak-Hau; Zha, Yuanyuan; Jim Yeh, Tian-Chyi; Wen, Jet-Chau

    2016-01-01

    Using cross-correlation analysis, we demonstrate that flux measurements at observation locations during hydraulic tomography (HT) surveys carry nonredundant information about heterogeneity that are complementary to head measurements at the same locations. We then hypothesize that a joint interpretation of head and flux data, even when the same observation network as head has been used, can enhance the resolution of HT estimates. Subsequently, we use numerical experiments to test this hypothesis and investigate the impact of flux conditioning and prior information (such as correlation lengths and initial mean models (i.e., uniform mean or distributed means)) on the HT estimates of a nonstationary, layered medium. We find that the addition of flux conditioning to HT analysis improves the estimates in all of the prior models tested. While prior information on geologic structures could be useful, its influence on the estimates reduces as more nonredundant data (i.e., flux) are used in the HT analysis. Lastly, recommendations for conducting HT surveys and analysis are presented.

  2. The Effects of Prior Information upon Perceptions of Exceptional Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safran, Stephen P.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Variations in written information had significant effects upon the college subject's perceptions of children's behavior and upon the degree to which children were regarded as able to function successfully in regular classrooms. The findings suggest attitudes toward exceptional children may be influenced by the way information is presented.…

  3. TANK 40 FINAL SB5 CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION RESULTS PRIOR TO NP ADDITION

    SciTech Connect

    Bannochie, C.; Click, D.

    2010-01-06

    A sample of Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) was pulled from Tank 40 in order to obtain radionuclide inventory analyses necessary for compliance with the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS). This sample was also analyzed for chemical composition including noble metals. Prior to radionuclide inventory analyses, a final sample of the H-canyon Np stream will be added to bound the Np addition anticipated for Tank 40. These analyses along with the WAPS radionuclide analyses will help define the composition of the sludge in Tank 40 that is currently being fed to DWPF as SB5. At the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) the 3-L Tank 40 SB5 sample was transferred from the shipping container into a 4-L high density polyethylene vessel and solids allowed to settle overnight. Supernate was then siphoned off and circulated through the shipping container to complete the transfer of the sample. Following thorough mixing of the 3-L sample, a 239 g sub-sample was removed. This sub-sample was then utilized for all subsequent analytical samples. Eight separate aliquots of the slurry were digested, four with HNO{sub 3}/HCl (aqua regia) in sealed Teflon{reg_sign} vessels and four in Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} (alkali or peroxide fusion) using Zr crucibles. Due to the use of Zr crucibles and Na in the peroxide fusions, Na and Zr cannot be determined from this preparation. Additionally, other alkali metals, such as Li and K that may be contaminants in the Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} are not determined from this preparation. Three Analytical Reference Glass - 14 (ARG-1) standards were digested along with a blank for each preparation. The ARG-1 glass allows for an assessment of the completeness of each digestion. Each aqua regia digestion and blank was diluted to 1:100 mL with deionized water and submitted to Analytical Development (AD) for inductively coupled plasma - atomic emission spectroscopy (ICPAES) analysis, inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis of masses 81-209 and 230

  4. TANK 40 FINAL SB5 CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION RESULTS PRIOR TO NP ADDITION

    SciTech Connect

    Bannochie, C; Damon Click, D

    2009-02-26

    A sample of Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) was pulled from Tank 40 in order to obtain radionuclide inventory analyses necessary for compliance with the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS). This sample was also analyzed for chemical composition including noble metals. Prior to radionuclide inventory analyses, a final sample of the H-canyon Np stream will be added to bound the Np addition anticipated for Tank 40. These analyses along with the WAPS radionuclide analyses will help define the composition of the sludge in Tank 40 that is currently being fed to DWPF as SB5. At the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) the 3-L Tank 40 SB5 sample was transferred from the shipping container into a 4-L high density polyethylene vessel and solids allowed to settle overnight. Supernate was then siphoned off and circulated through the shipping container to complete the transfer of the sample. Following thorough mixing of the 3-L sample, a 239 g sub-sample was removed. This sub-sample was then utilized for all subsequent analytical samples. Eight separate aliquots of the slurry were digested, four with HNO{sub 3}/HCl (aqua regia) in sealed Teflon{reg_sign} vessels and four in Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} (alkali or peroxide fusion) using Zr crucibles. Due to the use of Zr crucibles and Na in the peroxide fusions, Na and Zr cannot be determined from this preparation. Additionally, other alkali metals, such as Li and K that may be contaminants in the Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} are not determined from this preparation. Three Analytical Reference Glass-1 (ARG-1) standards were digested along with a blank for each preparation. The ARG-1 glass allows for an assessment of the completeness of each digestion. Each aqua regia digestion and blank was diluted to 1:100 mL with deionized water and submitted to Analytical Development (AD) for inductively coupled plasma--atomic emission spectroscopy (ICPAES) analysis, inductively coupled plasma--mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis of masses 81-209 and 230

  5. 40 CFR 60.2195 - What information must I submit prior to initial startup?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... initial startup? 60.2195 Section 60.2195 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... What information must I submit prior to initial startup? You must submit the information specified in paragraphs (a) through (e) of this section prior to initial startup. (a) The type(s) of waste to be...

  6. 40 CFR 60.2953 - What information must I submit prior to initial startup?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... initial startup? 60.2953 Section 60.2953 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... and Reporting § 60.2953 What information must I submit prior to initial startup? You must submit the information specified in paragraphs (a) through (e) of this section prior to initial startup. (a) The...

  7. 40 CFR 60.2953 - What information must I submit prior to initial startup?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... initial startup? 60.2953 Section 60.2953 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... and Reporting § 60.2953 What information must I submit prior to initial startup? You must submit the information specified in paragraphs (a) through (e) of this section prior to initial startup. (a) The...

  8. 40 CFR 60.2195 - What information must I submit prior to initial startup?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... initial startup? 60.2195 Section 60.2195 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... What information must I submit prior to initial startup? You must submit the information specified in paragraphs (a) through (e) of this section prior to initial startup. (a) The type(s) of waste to be...

  9. 34 CFR 99.30 - Under what conditions is prior consent required to disclose information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Under what conditions is prior consent required to disclose information? 99.30 Section 99.30 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education FAMILY... Information From Education Records? § 99.30 Under what conditions is prior consent required to...

  10. 34 CFR 99.30 - Under what conditions is prior consent required to disclose information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Under what conditions is prior consent required to disclose information? 99.30 Section 99.30 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education FAMILY... Information From Education Records? § 99.30 Under what conditions is prior consent required to...

  11. 34 CFR 99.30 - Under what conditions is prior consent required to disclose information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Under what conditions is prior consent required to disclose information? 99.30 Section 99.30 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education FAMILY... Information From Education Records? § 99.30 Under what conditions is prior consent required to...

  12. 34 CFR 99.30 - Under what conditions is prior consent required to disclose information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Under what conditions is prior consent required to disclose information? 99.30 Section 99.30 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education FAMILY... Information From Education Records? § 99.30 Under what conditions is prior consent required to...

  13. Identification, Validation and Accreditation of Prior and Informal Learning. United Kingdom Report. National Report. CEDEFOP Panorama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, Thessaloniki (Greece).

    Current practice in accreditation of prior and informal learning in the United Kingdom was examined through a review of literature on how the accreditation of prior and informal learning is being used to gain access to higher education or toward certification of a National Vocational Qualification (NVQ) or Scottish Vocational Qualification (SVQ).…

  14. Refining Breast Cancer Risk Stratification: Additional Genes, Additional Information.

    PubMed

    Kurian, Allison W; Antoniou, Antonis C; Domchek, Susan M

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in genomic technology have enabled far more rapid, less expensive sequencing of multiple genes than was possible only a few years ago. Advances in bioinformatics also facilitate the interpretation of large amounts of genomic data. New strategies for cancer genetic risk assessment include multiplex sequencing panels of 5 to more than 100 genes (in which rare mutations are often associated with at least two times the average risk of developing breast cancer) and panels of common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), combinations of which are generally associated with more modest cancer risks (more than twofold). Although these new multiple-gene panel tests are used in oncology practice, questions remain about the clinical validity and the clinical utility of their results. To translate this increasingly complex genetic information for clinical use, cancer risk prediction tools are under development that consider the joint effects of all susceptibility genes, together with other established breast cancer risk factors. Risk-adapted screening and prevention protocols are underway, with ongoing refinement as genetic knowledge grows. Priority areas for future research include the clinical validity and clinical utility of emerging genetic tests; the accuracy of developing cancer risk prediction models; and the long-term outcomes of risk-adapted screening and prevention protocols, in terms of patients' experiences and survival. PMID:27249685

  15. Sufficient dimension reduction with additional information.

    PubMed

    Hung, Hung; Liu, Chih-Yen; Horng-Shing Lu, Henry

    2016-07-01

    Sufficient dimension reduction is widely applied to help model building between the response [Formula: see text] and covariate [Formula: see text] In some situations, we also collect additional covariate [Formula: see text] that has better performance in predicting [Formula: see text], but has a higher obtaining cost, than [Formula: see text] While constructing a predictive model for [Formula: see text] based on [Formula: see text] is straightforward, this strategy is not applicable since [Formula: see text] is not available for future observations in which the constructed model is to be applied. As a result, the aim of the study is to build a predictive model for [Formula: see text] based on [Formula: see text] only, where the available data is [Formula: see text] A naive method is to conduct analysis using [Formula: see text] directly, but ignoring [Formula: see text] can cause the problem of inefficiency. On the other hand, it is not trivial to utilize the information of [Formula: see text] to infer [Formula: see text], either. In this article, we propose a two-stage dimension reduction method for [Formula: see text] that is able to utilize the information of [Formula: see text] In the breast cancer data, the risk score constructed from the two-stage method can well separate patients with different survival experiences. In the Pima data, the two-stage method requires fewer components to infer the diabetes status, while achieving higher classification accuracy than the conventional method. PMID:26704765

  16. 47 CFR 25.111 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... information it requires for the Advance Publication, Coordination and Notification of frequency assignments... information required by the ITU Radiocommunication Bureau to advance publish, coordinate and notify...

  17. Performance of micro two-level heat devices with prior information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Rui; Liu, Wei

    2015-09-01

    The performance of micro two-level heat engines and refrigerators with prior information has been analyzed under the maximum power output and maximum χ figure of merit, respectively. Under the asymmetric limits, the Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency and Curzon-Ahlborn coefficient of performance are retrieved. However, they are independent of the probability distribution function of particle numbers. Furthermore, the results are in accord with previous literatures. They shed light on that the model proposed in this paper can describe any specified models with concrete prior probability distribution such as two-level quantum heat devices and Brownian heat devices with prior information.

  18. Bayesian extreme rainfall analysis using informative prior: A case study of Alor Setar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eli, Annazirin; Zin, Wan Zawiah Wan; Ibrahim, Kamarulzaman; Jemain, Abdul Aziz

    2014-09-01

    Bayesian analysis is an alternative approach in statistical inferences. The inclusion of other information regarding the parameter of the model is one of analysis capabilities. In the area of extreme rainfall analysis, expert opinion can be used as prior information to model the extreme events. Thus, considering previous or expert knowledge about the parameter of interest would reduce the uncertainty of the model. In this study, the annual maximum (AM) rainfall data of Alor Setar rain gauge station is modeled by the Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) distribution. A Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation is used for parameter estimation. Comparison of the outcomes between non-informative and informative priors is our main interest. The results show that there is a reduction in estimated values, which is due to informative priors.

  19. 34 CFR 99.30 - Under what conditions is prior consent required to disclose information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Under what conditions is prior consent required to disclose information? 99.30 Section 99.30 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education FAMILY EDUCATIONAL RIGHTS AND PRIVACY May an Educational Agency or Institution Disclose Personally Identifiable Information From Education Records?...

  20. Impact of Prior Knowledge of Informational Content and Organization on Learning Search Principles in a Database.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linde, Lena; Bergstrom, Monica

    1988-01-01

    The importance of prior knowledge of informational content and organization for search performance on a database was evaluated for 17 undergraduates. Pretraining related to content, and information did facilitate learning logical search principles in a relational database; contest pretraining was more efficient. (SLD)

  1. 28 CFR 80.7 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) FOREIGN CORRUPT PRACTICES ACT OPINION PROCEDURE... receipt of the opinion request, or, in the case of an incomplete response to a previous request for... requesting an FCPA Opinion must promptly provide the information requested. A request will not be...

  2. 28 CFR 80.7 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) FOREIGN CORRUPT PRACTICES ACT OPINION PROCEDURE... receipt of the opinion request, or, in the case of an incomplete response to a previous request for... requesting an FCPA Opinion must promptly provide the information requested. A request will not be...

  3. 28 CFR 80.7 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) FOREIGN CORRUPT PRACTICES ACT OPINION PROCEDURE... receipt of the opinion request, or, in the case of an incomplete response to a previous request for... requesting an FCPA Opinion must promptly provide the information requested. A request will not be...

  4. 28 CFR 80.7 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) FOREIGN CORRUPT PRACTICES ACT OPINION PROCEDURE... receipt of the opinion request, or, in the case of an incomplete response to a previous request for... requesting an FCPA Opinion must promptly provide the information requested. A request will not be...

  5. 28 CFR 80.7 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) FOREIGN CORRUPT PRACTICES ACT OPINION PROCEDURE... receipt of the opinion request, or, in the case of an incomplete response to a previous request for... requesting an FCPA Opinion must promptly provide the information requested. A request will not be...

  6. Informed Additive Literacy Instruction for ELLs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Eurydice Bouchereau

    2009-01-01

    There are numerous reasons why schools struggle to provide English-language learners (ELLs) with additive literacy instruction. One reason for this is the lack of available trained bilingual teachers, mainstream teachers who have not received adequate training on how to teach ELLs, and the current political climate that appears to support an…

  7. Chemical species tomography of turbulent flows: Discrete ill-posed and rank deficient problems and the use of prior information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daun, Kyle J.; Grauer, Samuel J.; Hadwin, Paul J.

    2016-03-01

    Due to the inherent ill-posed nature of chemical species tomography (CST) problems, additional information based on the presumed species distribution must be introduced into the reconstruction procedure. The role that this prior information plays in tomographic reconstruction differs depending on whether the CST problem is discrete ill-posed or rank-deficient. The former case arises mainly in laboratory studies involving small scale problems with high degrees of optical access and often a stationary flow field, while the later occurs when the number and arrangement of measurements are limited by the size and/or the optical access afforded by the containing geometry. This paper elucidates the difference between these two types of CST problems, and reviews various ways that prior information can be used to enhance reconstruction accuracy of CST experiments on turbulent flows.

  8. The Neural Substrate of Prior Information in Perceptual Decision Making: A Model-Based Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Forstmann, Birte U.; Brown, Scott; Dutilh, Gilles; Neumann, Jane; Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan

    2010-01-01

    Prior information biases the decision process: actions consistent with prior information are executed swiftly, whereas actions inconsistent with prior information are executed slowly. How is this bias implemented in the brain? To address this question we conducted an experiment in which people had to decide quickly whether a cloud of dots moved coherently to the left or to the right. Cues provided probabilistic information about the upcoming stimulus. Behavioral data were analyzed with the linear ballistic accumulator (LBA) model, confirming that people used the cue to bias their decisions. The functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data showed that presentation of the cue differentially activated orbitofrontal cortex, hippocampus, and the putamen. Directional cues selectively activated the contralateral putamen. The fMRI analysis yielded results only when the LBA bias parameter was included as a covariate, highlighting the practical benefits of formal modeling. Our results suggest that the human brain uses prior information by increasing cortico-striatal activation to selectively disinhibit preferred responses. PMID:20577592

  9. 29 CFR 2570.39 - Opportunities to submit additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Opportunities to submit additional information. 2570.39... Prohibited Transaction Exemption Applications § 2570.39 Opportunities to submit additional information. (a) An applicant may notify the Department of its intent to submit additional information supporting...

  10. 21 CFR 71.4 - Samples; additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Samples; additional information. 71.4 Section 71.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVE PETITIONS General Provisions § 71.4 Samples; additional information. The Commissioner may request samples of the color additive,...

  11. 40 CFR 60.2953 - What information must I submit prior to initial startup?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... initial startup? 60.2953 Section 60.2953 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... initial startup? You must submit the information specified in paragraphs (a) through (e) of this section prior to initial startup. (a) The type(s) of waste to be burned. (b) The maximum design waste...

  12. 40 CFR 60.2953 - What information must I submit prior to initial startup?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... initial startup? 60.2953 Section 60.2953 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... initial startup? You must submit the information specified in paragraphs (a) through (e) of this section prior to initial startup. (a) The type(s) of waste to be burned. (b) The maximum design waste...

  13. 40 CFR 60.2953 - What information must I submit prior to initial startup?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... initial startup? 60.2953 Section 60.2953 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... initial startup? You must submit the information specified in paragraphs (a) through (e) of this section prior to initial startup. (a) The type(s) of waste to be burned. (b) The maximum design waste...

  14. 40 CFR 60.2195 - What information must I submit prior to initial startup?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... initial startup? 60.2195 Section 60.2195 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY..., 2001 Recordkeeping and Reporting § 60.2195 What information must I submit prior to initial startup? You... startup. (a) The type(s) of waste to be burned. (b) The maximum design waste burning capacity. (c)...

  15. 78 FR 65670 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Prior Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Prior Notice of Imported Food Under the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism... May 5, 2011 (76 FR 25542), we issued an interim final rule (IFR) entitled ``Information Required in... 0910-0683. On May 30, 2013 (78 FR 32359), we published a final rule that adopts, without change,...

  16. Small-Sample Equating with Prior Information. Research Report. ETS RR-09-25

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingston, Samuel A.; Lewis, Charles

    2009-01-01

    This report proposes an empirical Bayes approach to the problem of equating scores on test forms taken by very small numbers of test takers. The equated score is estimated separately at each score point, making it unnecessary to model either the score distribution or the equating transformation. Prior information comes from equatings of other…

  17. Incorporation of prior information on parameters into nonlinear regression groundwater flow models 2. Applications.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooley, R.L.

    1983-01-01

    Investigates factors influencing the degree of improvement in estimates of parameters of a nonlinear regression groundwater flow model by incorporating prior information of unknown reliability. Consideration of expected behavior of the regression solutions and results of a hypothetical modeling problem lead to several general conclusions. -from Author

  18. Children's Emotional Reactions to a Scary Film: The Role of Prior Outcome Information and Coping Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffner, Cynthia

    1997-01-01

    Examines the influence of happy outcome information and coping style on fourth and fifth graders' emotional responses to a frightening film sequence. Finds that prior knowledge of the happy outcome reduced self-reported fear and worry for "blunters" but not for "monitors." Discusses interpretations of findings and implications for understanding…

  19. Algorithms for biomagnetic source imaging with prior anatomical and physiological information

    SciTech Connect

    Hughett, P W

    1995-12-01

    This dissertation derives a new method for estimating current source amplitudes in the brain and heart from external magnetic field measurements and prior knowledge about the probable source positions and amplitudes. The minimum mean square error estimator for the linear inverse problem with statistical prior information was derived and is called the optimal constrained linear inverse method (OCLIM). OCLIM includes as special cases the Shim-Cho weighted pseudoinverse and Wiener estimators but allows more general priors and thus reduces the reconstruction error. Efficient algorithms were developed to compute the OCLIM estimate for instantaneous or time series data. The method was tested in a simulated neuromagnetic imaging problem with five simultaneously active sources on a grid of 387 possible source locations; all five sources were resolved, even though the true sources were not exactly at the modeled source positions and the true source statistics differed from the assumed statistics.

  20. 34 CFR 303.212 - Additional information and assurances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... system as required by section 427(b) of GEPA; and (b) Other information and assurances as the Secretary... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Additional information and assurances. 303.212 Section... Additional information and assurances. Each application must contain— (a) A description of the steps...

  1. 34 CFR 303.212 - Additional information and assurances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... system as required by section 427(b) of GEPA; and (b) Other information and assurances as the Secretary... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Additional information and assurances. 303.212 Section... Additional information and assurances. Each application must contain— (a) A description of the steps...

  2. 34 CFR 303.212 - Additional information and assurances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... system as required by section 427(b) of GEPA; and (b) Other information and assurances as the Secretary... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Additional information and assurances. 303.212 Section... Additional information and assurances. Each application must contain— (a) A description of the steps...

  3. Inferring metabolic networks using the Bayesian adaptive graphical lasso with informative priors

    PubMed Central

    PETERSON, CHRISTINE; VANNUCCI, MARINA; KARAKAS, CEMAL; CHOI, WILLIAM; MA, LIHUA; MALETIĆ-SAVATIĆ, MIRJANA

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic processes are essential for cellular function and survival. We are interested in inferring a metabolic network in activated microglia, a major neuroimmune cell in the brain responsible for the neuroinflammation associated with neurological diseases, based on a set of quantified metabolites. To achieve this, we apply the Bayesian adaptive graphical lasso with informative priors that incorporate known relationships between covariates. To encourage sparsity, the Bayesian graphical lasso places double exponential priors on the off-diagonal entries of the precision matrix. The Bayesian adaptive graphical lasso allows each double exponential prior to have a unique shrinkage parameter. These shrinkage parameters share a common gamma hyperprior. We extend this model to create an informative prior structure by formulating tailored hyperpriors on the shrinkage parameters. By choosing parameter values for each hyperprior that shift probability mass toward zero for nodes that are close together in a reference network, we encourage edges between covariates with known relationships. This approach can improve the reliability of network inference when the sample size is small relative to the number of parameters to be estimated. When applied to the data on activated microglia, the inferred network includes both known relationships and associations of potential interest for further investigation. PMID:24533172

  4. 40 CFR 79.21 - Information and assurances to be provided by the additive manufacturer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... under 42 U.S.C. 7545(f)(4). (i) The manufacturer shall submit, or shall reference prior submissions... data and information as are specified in the designation of the additive in subpart D. (f) Assurances... the provisions of subpart F of this part....

  5. 40 CFR 79.21 - Information and assurances to be provided by the additive manufacturer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... under 42 U.S.C. 7545(f)(4). (i) The manufacturer shall submit, or shall reference prior submissions... data and information as are specified in the designation of the additive in subpart D. (f) Assurances... the provisions of subpart F of this part....

  6. DETAIL OF PLAQUE WITH ADDITIONAL DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION INFORMATION, SOUTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF PLAQUE WITH ADDITIONAL DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION INFORMATION, SOUTHEAST ABUTMENT - Connecticut Avenue Bridge, Spans Rock Creek & Potomac Parkway at Connecticut Avenue, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  7. A Bayesian Modelling Approach with Balancing Informative Prior for Analysing Imbalanced Data

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Kerenaftali; Hennig, Stefanie; Paul, Sanjoy Ketan

    2016-01-01

    When a dataset is imbalanced, the prediction of the scarcely-sampled subpopulation can be over-influenced by the population contributing to the majority of the data. The aim of this study was to develop a Bayesian modelling approach with balancing informative prior so that the influence of imbalance to the overall prediction could be minimised. The new approach was developed in order to weigh the data in favour of the smaller subset(s). The method was assessed in terms of bias and precision in predicting model parameter estimates of simulated datasets. Moreover, the method was evaluated in predicting optimal dose levels of tobramycin for various age groups in a motivating example. The bias estimates using the balancing informative prior approach were smaller than those generated using the conventional approach which was without the consideration for the imbalance in the datasets. The precision estimates were also superior. The method was further evaluated in a motivating example of optimal dosage prediction of tobramycin. The resulting predictions also agreed well with what had been reported in the literature. The proposed Bayesian balancing informative prior approach has shown a real potential to adequately weigh the data in favour of smaller subset(s) of data to generate robust prediction models. PMID:27070549

  8. Meta-Heuristic Combining Prior Online and Offline Information for the Quadratic Assignment Problem.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jianyong; Zhang, Qingfu; Yao, Xin

    2014-03-01

    The construction of promising solutions for NP-hard combinatorial optimization problems (COPs) in meta-heuristics is usually based on three types of information, namely a priori information, a posteriori information learned from visited solutions during the search procedure, and online information collected in the solution construction process. Prior information reflects our domain knowledge about the COPs. Extensive domain knowledge can surely make the search effective, yet it is not always available. Posterior information could guide the meta-heuristics to globally explore promising search areas, but it lacks local guidance capability. On the contrary, online information can capture local structures, and its application can help exploit the search space. In this paper, we studied the effects of using this information on metaheuristic's algorithmic performances for the COPs. The study was illustrated by a set of heuristic algorithms developed for the quadratic assignment problem. We first proposed an improved scheme to extract online local information, then developed a unified framework under which all types of information can be combined readily. Finally, we studied the benefits of the three types of information to meta-heuristics. Conclusions were drawn from the comprehensive study, which can be used as principles to guide the design of effective meta-heuristic in the future. PMID:23757559

  9. What Are Pregnant Women’s Information Needs and Information Seeking Behaviors Prior to Their Prenatal Genetic Counseling?

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Yichuan; Brennan, Patricia Flatley

    2005-01-01

    As a result of the Human Genome Project, more genetic diagnostic tests have become available to the public and genetic-related information has also grown exponentially. Pregnant women are now routinely offered tests for chromosomal disorders and screenings for genetic conditions that are relevant to their situations. In order to facilitate the information system (IS) development to support their informed decision-making, it is imperative for the IS designer to recognize their unique information needs and patterns of information seeking behavior (ISB) first. This paper presents results of a pilot study that examined pregnant women’s information needs, ISBs, and information resources used prior to their prenatal genetic counseling. Findings suggest three distinctive areas, content, format, and timing, for IS design considerations. PMID:16779061

  10. 43 CFR 3430.4-2 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) NONCOMPETITIVE LEASES Preference Right Leases § 3430.4-2 Additional information. (a) If the applicant for a preference right lease has submitted... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional information. 3430.4-2...

  11. 29 CFR 502.44 - Additional information, if required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Additional information, if required. 502.44 Section 502.44 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS... Administrative Law Judge's Decision § 502.44 Additional information, if required. Where the ARB has determined...

  12. 29 CFR 502.44 - Additional information, if required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Additional information, if required. 502.44 Section 502.44 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS... Administrative Law Judge's Decision § 502.44 Additional information, if required. Where the ARB has determined...

  13. 33 CFR 403.6 - Additional information. [Rule 6

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Additional information. 403.6 Section 403.6 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PROCEDURE OF THE JOINT TOLLS REVIEW BOARD § 403.6 Additional information. The Board...

  14. 33 CFR 403.6 - Additional information. [Rule 6

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Additional information. 403.6 Section 403.6 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PROCEDURE OF THE JOINT TOLLS REVIEW BOARD § 403.6 Additional information. The Board...

  15. 21 CFR 607.31 - Additional blood product listing information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional blood product listing information. 607... BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Procedures for Domestic Blood Product Establishments § 607.31 Additional blood... following information by letter or by Federal Register notice: (1) For a particular blood product so...

  16. 21 CFR 607.31 - Additional blood product listing information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Additional blood product listing information. 607... BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Procedures for Domestic Blood Product Establishments § 607.31 Additional blood... following information by letter or by Federal Register notice: (1) For a particular blood product so...

  17. 21 CFR 607.31 - Additional blood product listing information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional blood product listing information. 607... BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Procedures for Domestic Blood Product Establishments § 607.31 Additional blood... following information by letter or by Federal Register notice: (1) For a particular blood product so...

  18. 21 CFR 607.31 - Additional blood product listing information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Additional blood product listing information. 607... BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Procedures for Domestic Blood Product Establishments § 607.31 Additional blood... following information by letter or by Federal Register notice: (1) For a particular blood product so...

  19. 21 CFR 607.31 - Additional blood product listing information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional blood product listing information. 607... BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Procedures for Domestic Blood Product Establishments § 607.31 Additional blood... following information by letter or by Federal Register notice: (1) For a particular blood product so...

  20. 29 CFR 502.44 - Additional information, if required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Additional information, if required. 502.44 Section 502.44... ENFORCEMENT OF CONTRACTUAL OBLIGATIONS FOR TEMPORARY ALIEN AGRICULTURAL WORKERS ADMITTED UNDER SECTION 218 OF... Administrative Law Judge's Decision § 502.44 Additional information, if required. Where the ARB has determined...

  1. 29 CFR 502.44 - Additional information, if required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Additional information, if required. 502.44 Section 502.44... ENFORCEMENT OF CONTRACTUAL OBLIGATIONS FOR TEMPORARY ALIEN AGRICULTURAL WORKERS ADMITTED UNDER SECTION 218 OF... Administrative Law Judge's Decision § 502.44 Additional information, if required. Where the ARB has determined...

  2. 29 CFR 501.44 - Additional information, if required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Additional information, if required. 501.44 Section 501.44... ENFORCEMENT OF CONTRACTUAL OBLIGATIONS FOR TEMPORARY ALIEN AGRICULTURAL WORKERS ADMITTED UNDER SECTION 218 OF... Decision § 501.44 Additional information, if required. Where the ARB has determined to review such...

  3. 29 CFR 501.44 - Additional information, if required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Additional information, if required. 501.44 Section 501.44... ENFORCEMENT OF CONTRACTUAL OBLIGATIONS FOR TEMPORARY ALIEN AGRICULTURAL WORKERS ADMITTED UNDER SECTION 218 OF... Decision § 501.44 Additional information, if required. Where the ARB has determined to review such...

  4. 40 CFR 141.154 - Required additional health information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Required additional health information... Required additional health information. (a) All reports must prominently display the following language... from their health care providers. EPA/CDC guidelines on appropriate means to lessen the risk...

  5. 40 CFR 141.154 - Required additional health information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Required additional health information... Required additional health information. (a) All reports must prominently display the following language... from their health care providers. EPA/CDC guidelines on appropriate means to lessen the risk...

  6. 40 CFR 141.154 - Required additional health information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Required additional health information... Required additional health information. (a) All reports must prominently display the following language... from their health care providers. EPA/CDC guidelines on appropriate means to lessen the risk...

  7. 40 CFR 141.154 - Required additional health information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Required additional health information... Required additional health information. (a) All reports must prominently display the following language... from their health care providers. EPA/CDC guidelines on appropriate means to lessen the risk...

  8. 40 CFR 141.154 - Required additional health information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Required additional health information... Required additional health information. (a) All reports must prominently display the following language... from their health care providers. EPA/CDC guidelines on appropriate means to lessen the risk...

  9. 19 CFR 111.60 - Request for additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Request for additional information. 111.60 Section 111.60 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT... Monetary Penalty in Lieu of Suspension or Revocation § 111.60 Request for additional information. If,...

  10. 78 FR 75568 - Notice of Request for Additional Information

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION Notice of Request for Additional Information The Commission gives notice that it has formally requested that the parties to the below listed agreement provide additional information pursuant to 46 U.S.C. 40304(d). This action prevents the...

  11. 32 CFR 1698.3 - Requests for additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ADVISORY OPINIONS § 1698.3 Requests for additional information. (a) The Director may request additional appropriate information from the requester for an advisory opinion. (b) The Director will forward a copy of the request by a Federal, state or municipal governmental agency for an advisory opinion to the...

  12. 32 CFR 1698.3 - Requests for additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ADVISORY OPINIONS § 1698.3 Requests for additional information. (a) The Director may request additional appropriate information from the requester for an advisory opinion. (b) The Director will forward a copy of the request by a Federal, state or municipal governmental agency for an advisory opinion to the...

  13. 32 CFR 1698.3 - Requests for additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ADVISORY OPINIONS § 1698.3 Requests for additional information. (a) The Director may request additional appropriate information from the requester for an advisory opinion. (b) The Director will forward a copy of the request by a Federal, state or municipal governmental agency for an advisory opinion to the...

  14. 32 CFR 1698.3 - Requests for additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ADVISORY OPINIONS § 1698.3 Requests for additional information. (a) The Director may request additional appropriate information from the requester for an advisory opinion. (b) The Director will forward a copy of the request by a Federal, state or municipal governmental agency for an advisory opinion to the...

  15. 32 CFR 1698.3 - Requests for additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ADVISORY OPINIONS § 1698.3 Requests for additional information. (a) The Director may request additional appropriate information from the requester for an advisory opinion. (b) The Director will forward a copy of the request by a Federal, state or municipal governmental agency for an advisory opinion to the...

  16. Segmentation of cone-beam CT using a hidden Markov random field with informative priors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moores, M.; Hargrave, C.; Harden, F.; Mengersen, K.

    2014-03-01

    Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) has enormous potential to improve the accuracy of treatment delivery in image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT). To assist radiotherapists in interpreting these images, we use a Bayesian statistical model to label each voxel according to its tissue type. The rich sources of prior information in IGRT are incorporated into a hidden Markov random field model of the 3D image lattice. Tissue densities in the reference CT scan are estimated using inverse regression and then rescaled to approximate the corresponding CBCT intensity values. The treatment planning contours are combined with published studies of physiological variability to produce a spatial prior distribution for changes in the size, shape and position of the tumour volume and organs at risk. The voxel labels are estimated using iterated conditional modes. The accuracy of the method has been evaluated using 27 CBCT scans of an electron density phantom. The mean voxel-wise misclassification rate was 6.2%, with Dice similarity coefficient of 0.73 for liver, muscle, breast and adipose tissue. By incorporating prior information, we are able to successfully segment CBCT images. This could be a viable approach for automated, online image analysis in radiotherapy.

  17. 21 CFR 570.13 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and pet food. 570.13 Section 570.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS... prior sanctioned for animal feed and pet food. Regulations providing for the use of food...

  18. 21 CFR 570.13 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and pet food. 570.13 Section 570.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS... prior sanctioned for animal feed and pet food. Regulations providing for the use of food...

  19. 21 CFR 570.13 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and pet food. 570.13 Section 570.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS... prior sanctioned for animal feed and pet food. Regulations providing for the use of food...

  20. 21 CFR 570.13 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and pet food. 570.13 Section 570.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS... prior sanctioned for animal feed and pet food. Regulations providing for the use of food...

  1. 21 CFR 570.13 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and pet food. 570.13 Section 570.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS... prior sanctioned for animal feed and pet food. Regulations providing for the use of food...

  2. Quality of an Informed Consent Prior to a Surgical Intervention? Experience of a Teaching Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Kurt, Engin; Ucar, Muharren; Atac, Adnan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine how far the information given by the physicians for the informed consent prior to the surgical intervention is comprehended by the patients. Methods: The study was carried out between July 1st, 2012 and July 1st, 2013 at Gulhane Medical Faculty. A total of 400 patients, who were in the third postoperative day after various surgical procedures (orthopedics, urology, ophthalmology, plastic surgery and breast surgery), were included in the study. Results: Of all the patients, 73.5% stated that the operative information was provided by physicians, whereas 22.7% claimed that no information was given in this regard. The patients who knew the name of the disease was 78%, while 18.3% did not know. Of all the patients, 25.7% knew the name of the operation, in contrast to of 52.3% who did not know it. About 12.5% of patients stated that they were not informed about the likely complications during the surgery, whereas 13.7% of patients reported that they were not informed about the post-operative complications. Conclusion: The verbal information and the written texts, different approaches such as drawings and visual materials (i.e. video’s and photographs) should be considered while providing information to the patients. While doing so the level of education of the community should also be taken into account. PMID:27022376

  3. A Public Opinion Survey on Correctional Education: Does Additional Information on Efficacy Lead to Additional Support?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waterland, Keri Lynn

    2009-01-01

    Though much research has been done on the efficacy of correctional education on reducing recidivism rates for prison inmates, there is little research on the effect that information about the efficacy of correctional education has on public opinion. This study examined whether providing additional information regarding the efficacy of correctional…

  4. Correction of projective distortion in long-image-sequence mosaics without prior information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chenhui; Mao, Hongwei; Abousleman, Glen; Si, Jennie

    2010-04-01

    Image mosaicking is the process of piecing together multiple video frames or still images from a moving camera to form a wide-area or panoramic view of the scene being imaged. Mosaics have widespread applications in many areas such as security surveillance, remote sensing, geographical exploration, agricultural field surveillance, virtual reality, digital video, and medical image analysis, among others. When mosaicking a large number of still images or video frames, the quality of the resulting mosaic is compromised by projective distortion. That is, during the mosaicking process, the image frames that are transformed and pasted to the mosaic become significantly scaled down and appear out of proportion with respect to the mosaic. As more frames continue to be transformed, important target information in the frames can be lost since the transformed frames become too small, which eventually leads to the inability to continue further. Some projective distortion correction techniques make use of prior information such as GPS information embedded within the image, or camera internal and external parameters. Alternatively, this paper proposes a new algorithm to reduce the projective distortion without using any prior information whatsoever. Based on the analysis of the projective distortion, we approximate the projective matrix that describes the transformation between image frames using an affine model. Using singular value decomposition, we can deduce the affine model scaling factor that is usually very close to 1. By resetting the image scale of the affine model to 1, the transformed image size remains unchanged. Even though the proposed correction introduces some error in the image matching, this error is typically acceptable and more importantly, the final mosaic preserves the original image size after transformation. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this new correction algorithm on two real-world unmanned air vehicle (UAV) sequences. The proposed method is

  5. 17 CFR 229.1011 - (Item 1011) Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false (Item 1011) Additional....1011 (Item 1011) Additional information. (a) Agreements, regulatory requirements and legal proceedings... and the relief sought. Instruction to Item 1011(a)(5): A copy of any document relating to a...

  6. 17 CFR 229.1011 - (Item 1011) Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false (Item 1011) Additional....1011 (Item 1011) Additional information. (a) Agreements, regulatory requirements and legal proceedings... and the relief sought. Instruction to Item 1011(a)(5): A copy of any document relating to a...

  7. 17 CFR 229.1011 - (Item 1011) Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false (Item 1011) Additional....1011 (Item 1011) Additional information. (a) Agreements, regulatory requirements and legal proceedings... and the relief sought. Instruction to Item 1011(a)(5): A copy of any document relating to a...

  8. 17 CFR 229.1011 - (Item 1011) Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false (Item 1011) Additional....1011 (Item 1011) Additional information. (a) Agreements, regulatory requirements and legal proceedings... and the relief sought. Instruction to Item 1011(a)(5): A copy of any document relating to a...

  9. 17 CFR 229.1011 - (Item 1011) Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false (Item 1011) Additional....1011 (Item 1011) Additional information. (a) Agreements, regulatory requirements and legal proceedings... and the relief sought. Instruction to Item 1011(a)(5): A copy of any document relating to a...

  10. The Internet as a Source of Information for Patients Prior to Rhinoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Zieliński, Tomasz; Rykała, Jan; Kruk-Jeromin, Julia

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To determine the prevalence of Internet use by patients considering rhinoplasty and to identify the impact of such information on their decisions. Methods Prospective analysis of the impact of information received via the Internet by patients considering rhinoplasty on their decision-making prior to surgery. Eighty six patients, scheduled for post-traumatic or aesthetic rhinoplasty, received a questionnaire, consisting of 19 questions, which sought to evaluate their perception of the importance of the Internet information to them and also collected relevant demographic and sociological data. Results Respondents searched online for descriptions of medical procedures, information about how to contact other patients, pre- and post-operative pictures and making contact with a doctor. Patients considering aesthetic rhinoplasty received medical information from a third party or via the Internet. Individuals requiring post-traumatic surgical treatment were usually referred by family doctor. Conclusion Patients planning nasal aesthetic surgery form their opinions after consulting friends and searching the Internet, which can act as an important medical assistance. PMID:21949579

  11. Bayesian area-to-point kriging using expert knowledge as informative priors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truong, Phuong N.; Heuvelink, Gerard B. M.; Pebesma, Edzer

    2014-08-01

    Area-to-point (ATP) kriging is a common geostatistical framework to address the problem of spatial disaggregation or downscaling from block support observations (BSO) to point support (PoS) predictions for continuous variables. This approach requires that the PoS variogram is known. Without PoS observations, the parameters of the PoS variogram cannot be deterministically estimated from BSO, and as a result, the PoS variogram parameters are uncertain. In this research, we used Bayesian ATP conditional simulation to estimate the PoS variogram parameters from expert knowledge and BSO, and quantify uncertainty of the PoS variogram parameters and disaggregation outcomes. We first clarified that the nugget parameter of the PoS variogram cannot be estimated from only BSO. Next, we used statistical expert elicitation techniques to elicit the PoS variogram parameters from expert knowledge. These were used as informative priors in a Bayesian inference of the PoS variogram from BSO and implemented using a Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm. ATP conditional simulation was done to obtain stochastic simulations at point support. MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) atmospheric temperature profile data were used in an illustrative example. The outcomes from the Bayesian ATP inference for the Matérn variogram model parameters confirmed that the posterior distribution of the nugget parameter was effectively the same as its prior distribution; for the other parameters, the uncertainty was substantially decreased when BSO were introduced to the Bayesian ATP estimator. This confirmed that expert knowledge brought new information to infer the nugget effect at PoS while BSO only brought new information to infer the other parameters. Bayesian ATP conditional simulations provided a satisfactory way to quantify parameters and model uncertainty propagation through spatial disaggregation.

  12. Radar Constant-Modulus Waveform Design with Prior Information of the Extended Target and Clutter

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Wenzhen; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Yimin; Xie, Jingwen

    2016-01-01

    Radar waveform design is of great importance for radar system performances and has drawn considerable attention recently. Constant modulus is an important waveform design consideration, both from the point of view of hardware realization and to allow for full utilization of the transmitter’s power. In this paper, we consider the problem of constant-modulus waveform design for extended target detection with prior information about the extended target and clutter. At first, we propose an arbitrary-phase unimodular waveform design method via joint transmitter-receiver optimization. We exploit a semi-definite relaxation technique to transform an intractable non-convex problem into a convex problem, which can then be efficiently solved. Furthermore, quadrature phase shift keying waveform is designed, which is easier to implement than arbitrary-phase waveforms. Numerical results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods. PMID:27322275

  13. Real-Time Cardiac MRI using Prior Spatial-Spectral Information

    PubMed Central

    Brinegar, Cornelius; Zhang, Haosen; Wu, Yi-Jen L.; Foley, Lesley M.; Hitchens, T. Kevin; Ye, Qing; Pocci, Darren; Lam, Fan; Ho, Chien; Liang, Zhi-Pei

    2009-01-01

    Cardiac MRI performed while the patient is breathing is typically achieved using non-real-time techniques such as ECG triggering with respiratory gating; however, modern dynamic imaging techniques are beginning to enable this type of imaging in real-time. One of these dynamic imaging techniques is based on forming a Partially Separable Function (PSF) model of the data, but the model fitting process is known to be sensitive even when truncated SVD regularization is used. As a result, physiologically meaningless artifacts can appear in the dynamic images when the total number of measurements is limited. To address this issue, the dynamic imaging problem is formulated as a generalized Tikhonov regularization problem with the PSF model as a component of the forward data model, and a penalty function is used to introduce spatial-spectral prior information. This new method both reduces data acquisition requirements and improves stability relative to the original PSF based method when applied to cardiac MRI. PMID:19964109

  14. Real-time cardiac MRI using prior spatial-spectral information.

    PubMed

    Brinegar, Cornelius; Zhang, Haosen; Wu, Yi-Jen L; Foley, Lesley M; Hitchens, T; Ye, Qing; Pocci, Darren; Lam, Fan; Ho, Chien; Liang, Zhi-Pei

    2009-01-01

    Cardiac MRI performed while the patient is breathing is typically achieved using non-real-time techniques such as ECG triggering with respiratory gating; however, modern dynamic imaging techniques are beginning to enable this type of imaging in real-time. One of these dynamic imaging techniques is based on forming a Partially Separable Function (PSF) model of the data, but the model fitting process is known to be sensitive even when truncated SVD regularization is used. As a result, physiologically meaningless artifacts can appear in the dynamic images when the total number of measurements is limited. To address this issue, the dynamic imaging problem is formulated as a generalized Tikhonov regularization problem with the PSF model as a component of the forward data model, and a penalty function is used to introduce spatial-spectral prior information. This new method both reduces data acquisition requirements and improves stability relative to the original PSF based method when applied to cardiac MRI. PMID:19964109

  15. Radar Constant-Modulus Waveform Design with Prior Information of the Extended Target and Clutter.

    PubMed

    Yue, Wenzhen; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Yimin; Xie, Jingwen

    2016-01-01

    Radar waveform design is of great importance for radar system performances and has drawn considerable attention recently. Constant modulus is an important waveform design consideration, both from the point of view of hardware realization and to allow for full utilization of the transmitter's power. In this paper, we consider the problem of constant-modulus waveform design for extended target detection with prior information about the extended target and clutter. At first, we propose an arbitrary-phase unimodular waveform design method via joint transmitter-receiver optimization. We exploit a semi-definite relaxation technique to transform an intractable non-convex problem into a convex problem, which can then be efficiently solved. Furthermore, quadrature phase shift keying waveform is designed, which is easier to implement than arbitrary-phase waveforms. Numerical results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods. PMID:27322275

  16. Incorporate Seismic Activity Prior Information to Earthquake Early Warning through Bayesian Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, L.; Heaton, T. H.

    2015-12-01

    Most of the current Earthquake Early Warning technologies focus on time analysis of wave amplitudes. There are two major drawbacks of these waveform-based techniques: tradeoffs between magnitude and distance estimation for the onsite algorithms, and time latency in alerts for the network algorithms. We are proposing an alternative EEW algorithm that combines the efficiency of onsite algorithms and accuracy of network algorithms, which provides the fastest alert at the moment of station trigger. It is achieved by using observed seismicity from the network as prior information to predict short-term seismic hazards, and then use trigger information from the onsite station as likelihood information to estimate earthquake probability and hypocenter location. This algorithm has numbers of advantages. First, due to the independent data source of this algorithm, results can be directly multiplied to the results of other algorithms such as GPS and waveform data under Bayesian framework to achieve posterior probability function. Second, it is especially beneficial for regions with sparsely distributed station density where it takes longer time for the seismic signals to arrive at the near stations. Lastly, it can significantly speed up warning process during aftershock sequence, swarm earthquake sequence, and mainshocks that had foreshocks. The concept can be further extended to network-based algorithms to incorporate arrived waveform data at more stations.

  17. Computational Approaches for Developing Informative Prior Distributions for Bayesian Calibration of PBPK Models (Book Chapter)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using Bayesian statistical methods to quantify uncertainty and variability in human physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model predictions for use in risk assessments requires prior distributions (priors), which characterize what is known or believed about parameters’ val...

  18. Computational Approaches for Developing Informative Prior Distributions for Bayesian Calibration of PBPK Models

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using Bayesian statistical methods to quantify uncertainty and variability in human PBPK model predictions for use in risk assessments requires prior distributions (priors), which characterize what is known or believed about parameters’ values before observing in vivo data. Expe...

  19. The Counter-Intuitive Non-Informative Prior for the Bernoulli Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Mu; Lu, Arthur Y.

    2004-01-01

    In Bayesian statistics, the choice of the prior distribution is often controversial. Different rules for selecting priors have been suggested in the literature, which, sometimes, produce priors that are difficult for the students to understand intuitively. In this article, we use a simple heuristic to illustrate to the students the rather…

  20. 75 FR 12549 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Prior Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-16

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Prior Notice of Imported Food Under the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism... (73 FR 66294), FDA and CBP issued the prior notice final rule, which finalized the prior notice interim final rule (IFR) (October 10, 2003, 68 FR 58974)). From the IFR to the final rule, FDA removed...

  1. Evaluating the use of prior information under different pacing conditions on aircraft inspection performance: The use of virtual reality technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowling, Shannon Raye

    The aircraft maintenance industry is a complex system consisting of human and machine components, because of this; much emphasis has been placed on improving aircraft-inspection performance. One proven technique for improving inspection performance is the use of training. There are several strategies that have been implemented for training, one of which is feedforward information. The use of prior information (feedforward) is known to positively affect inspection performance. This information can consist of knowledge about defect characteristics (types, severity/criticality, and location) and the probability of occurrence. Although several studies have been conducted that demonstrate the usefulness of feedforward as a training strategy, there are certain research issues that need to be addressed. This study evaluates the effect of feedforward information in a simulated 3-dimensional environment by the use of virtual reality. A controlled study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of feedforward information in a simulated aircraft inspection environment. The study was conducted in two phases. The first phase evaluated the difference between general and detailed inspection at different pacing levels. The second phase evaluated the effect of feedforward information pertaining to severity, probability and location. Analyses of the results showed that subjects performing detailed inspection performed significantly better than while performing general inspection. Pacing also had the effect of reducing performance for both general and detailed inspection. The study also found that as the level of feedforward information increases, performance also increases. In addition to evaluating performance measures, the study also evaluated process and subjective measures. It was found that process measures such as number of fixation points, fixation groups, mean fixation duration, and percent area covered were all affected by the treatment levels. Analyses of the subjective

  2. 29 CFR 501.44 - Additional information, if required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Additional information, if required. 501.44 Section 501.44 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS ENFORCEMENT OF CONTRACTUAL OBLIGATIONS FOR TEMPORARY ALIEN AGRICULTURAL WORKERS ADMITTED UNDER SECTION 218...

  3. 29 CFR 501.44 - Additional information, if required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Additional information, if required. 501.44 Section 501.44 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS ENFORCEMENT OF CONTRACTUAL OBLIGATIONS FOR TEMPORARY ALIEN AGRICULTURAL WORKERS ADMITTED UNDER SECTION 218...

  4. 25 CFR 103.14 - Can BIA request additional information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can BIA request additional information? 103.14 Section 103.14 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES LOAN GUARANTY, INSURANCE, AND INTEREST SUBSIDY How a Lender Obtains a Loan Guaranty or Insurance Coverage § 103.14 Can...

  5. 25 CFR 215.17 - Additional information required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional information required. 215.17 Section 215.17 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEAD AND ZINC MINING... interested in lead and zinc mining leases, or land under the jurisdiction of the Quapaw Indian Agency,...

  6. 12 CFR 980.7 - Examinations; requests for additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Examinations; requests for additional information. 980.7 Section 980.7 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD NEW FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK... cooperative nature of the Bank System; and (v) Finance Board review of any contracts or agreements between...

  7. 21 CFR 207.31 - Additional drug listing information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional drug listing information. 207.31 Section 207.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL REGISTRATION OF PRODUCERS OF DRUGS AND LISTING OF DRUGS IN COMMERCIAL...

  8. 25 CFR 227.7 - Additional information from applicant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Additional information from applicant. 227.7 Section 227.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING How to Acquire...

  9. 25 CFR 227.7 - Additional information from applicant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional information from applicant. 227.7 Section 227.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING How to Acquire...

  10. 25 CFR 227.7 - Additional information from applicant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional information from applicant. 227.7 Section 227.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING How to Acquire...

  11. 25 CFR 227.7 - Additional information from applicant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Additional information from applicant. 227.7 Section 227.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING How to Acquire Leases §...

  12. 25 CFR 227.7 - Additional information from applicant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional information from applicant. 227.7 Section 227.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING How to Acquire...

  13. 21 CFR 207.31 - Additional drug listing information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Additional drug listing information. 207.31 Section 207.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL REGISTRATION OF PRODUCERS OF DRUGS AND LISTING OF DRUGS IN COMMERCIAL...

  14. 21 CFR 207.31 - Additional drug listing information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Additional drug listing information. 207.31 Section 207.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL REGISTRATION OF PRODUCERS OF DRUGS AND LISTING OF DRUGS IN COMMERCIAL...

  15. 38 CFR 39.3 - Decisionmakers, notifications, and additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Decisionmakers, notifications, and additional information. 39.3 Section 39.3 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) AID TO STATES FOR ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT...

  16. 43 CFR 3922.30 - Application-Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Application-Additional information. 3922.30 Section 3922.30 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL SHALE LEASING...

  17. 43 CFR 3922.30 - Application-Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application-Additional information. 3922.30 Section 3922.30 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) OIL SHALE LEASING...

  18. 21 CFR 207.31 - Additional drug listing information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional drug listing information. 207.31 Section 207.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL REGISTRATION OF PRODUCERS OF DRUGS AND LISTING OF DRUGS IN COMMERCIAL...

  19. 21 CFR 207.31 - Additional drug listing information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional drug listing information. 207.31 Section 207.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL REGISTRATION OF PRODUCERS OF DRUGS AND LISTING OF DRUGS IN COMMERCIAL...

  20. 21 CFR 807.31 - Additional listing information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional listing information. 807.31 Section 807.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... joint ownership and control exists, the registered establishment must provide the Food and...

  1. Ehapp2: Estimate haplotype frequencies from pooled sequencing data with prior database information.

    PubMed

    Cao, Chang-Chang; Sun, Xiao

    2016-08-01

    To reduce the cost of large-scale re-sequencing, multiple individuals are pooled together and sequenced called pooled sequencing. Pooled sequencing could provide a cost-effective alternative to sequencing individuals separately. To facilitate the application of pooled sequencing in haplotype-based diseases association analysis, the critical procedure is to accurately estimate haplotype frequencies from pooled samples. Here we present Ehapp2 for estimating haplotype frequencies from pooled sequencing data by utilizing a database which provides prior information of known haplotypes. We first translate the problem of estimating frequency for each haplotype into finding a sparse solution for a system of linear equations, where the NNREG algorithm is employed to achieve the solution. Simulation experiments reveal that Ehapp2 is robust to sequencing errors and able to estimate the frequencies of haplotypes with less than 3% average relative difference for pooled sequencing of mixture of real Drosophila haplotypes with 50× total coverage even when the sequencing error rate is as high as 0.05. Owing to the strategy that proportions for local haplotypes spanning multiple SNPs are accurately calculated first, Ehapp2 retains excellent estimation for recombinant haplotypes resulting from chromosomal crossover. Comparisons with present methods reveal that Ehapp2 is state-of-the-art for many sequencing study designs and more suitable for current massive parallel sequencing. PMID:27216711

  2. Three-dimensional choroidal segmentation in spectral OCT volumes using optic disc prior information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zhihong; Girkin, Christopher A.; Hariri, Amirhossein; Sadda, SriniVas R.

    2016-03-01

    Recently, much attention has been focused on determining the role of the peripapillary choroid - the layer between the outer retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)/Bruchs membrane (BM) and choroid-sclera (C-S) junction, whether primary or secondary in the pathogenesis of glaucoma. However, the automated choroidal segmentation in spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) images of optic nerve head (ONH) has not been reported probably due to the fact that the presence of the BM opening (BMO, corresponding to the optic disc) can deflect the choroidal segmentation from its correct position. The purpose of this study is to develop a 3D graph-based approach to identify the 3D choroidal layer in ONH-centered SD-OCT images using the BMO prior information. More specifically, an initial 3D choroidal segmentation was first performed using the 3D graph search algorithm. Note that varying surface interaction constraints based on the choroidal morphological model were applied. To assist the choroidal segmentation, two other surfaces of internal limiting membrane and innerouter segment junction were also segmented. Based on the segmented layer between the RPE/BM and C-S junction, a 2D projection map was created. The BMO in the projection map was detected by a 2D graph search. The pre-defined BMO information was then incorporated into the surface interaction constraints of the 3D graph search to obtain more accurate choroidal segmentation. Twenty SD-OCT images from 20 healthy subjects were used. The mean differences of the choroidal borders between the algorithm and manual segmentation were at a sub-voxel level, indicating a high level segmentation accuracy.

  3. Censored data treatment using additional information in intelligent medical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zenkova, Z. N.

    2015-11-01

    Statistical procedures are a very important and significant part of modern intelligent medical systems. They are used for proceeding, mining and analysis of different types of the data about patients and their diseases; help to make various decisions, regarding the diagnosis, treatment, medication or surgery, etc. In many cases the data can be censored or incomplete. It is a well-known fact that censorship considerably reduces the efficiency of statistical procedures. In this paper the author makes a brief review of the approaches which allow improvement of the procedures using additional information, and describes a modified estimation of an unknown cumulative distribution function involving additional information about a quantile which is known exactly. The additional information is used by applying a projection of a classical estimator to a set of estimators with certain properties. The Kaplan-Meier estimator is considered as an estimator of the unknown cumulative distribution function, the properties of the modified estimator are investigated for a case of a single right censorship by means of simulations.

  4. 76 FR 25542 - Information Required in Prior Notice of Imported Food

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-05

    ... rulemaking (proposed rule) in the Federal Register of February 3, 2003 (68 FR 5428), proposing requirements... the prior notice interim ] final rule (2003 IFR) (68 FR 58974) (corrected by a technical amendment on February 2, 2004; 69 FR 4851). The 2003 IFR required that prior notice be submitted to FDA...

  5. 78 FR 32359 - Information Required in Prior Notice of Imported Food

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-30

    ... Federal Register (76 FR 25542; May 5, 2011) (2011 IFR). This final rule adopts the IFR's requirement of an... Register of February 3, 2003 (68 FR 5428), proposing requirements for submission of prior notice for human..., HHS and the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) \\1\\ issued the prior notice IFR (2003 IFR) (68...

  6. Effect of preparatory information prior to elective total hip replacement on psychological coping outcomes.

    PubMed

    Gammon, J; Mulholland, C W

    1996-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of preparatory information on psychological coping outcomes among total hip replacement (THR) patients. A quasi-experimental design within an ethnographic clinical context was used. Eighty-two healthy individuals, scheduled for elective THR were recruited for the study and nonrandom selection techniques were used. The subjects in the experimental group were given procedural, sensory and coping information relating to the whole surgical procedure of a THR. In addition, written information was given to support the verbal information. Subjects in the control group received only the advice and support that would routinely be given to THR patients by ward, medical and nursing staff. The main outcomes were measured using standard questionnaires, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) measuring anxiety and depression, Rosenburg Self-Esteem Scale measuring self-esteem, and Health Illness Questionnaire measuring sense of control. Lastly, a Linear Analogue Coping Scale was developed and applied to assess a subject's personal perception of coping with a THR. Providing information had positive effects on the psychological coping outcomes measured. Subjects in the experimental group had significantly less anxiety and depression with a high self-esteem and sense of control. The Linear Analogue Coping Scale demonstrated a strong correlation between how subjects believed they were coping and that measured using the standard questionnaires. The study concluded that preparatory information of various types and in different forms appears to have positive effects on psychological coping outcomes for THR patients, which may have influenced postoperative recovery. PMID:8858434

  7. Optical and other property changes of M-50 bearing steel surfaces for different lubricants and additive prior to scuffing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauer, J. L.; Marxer, N.

    1984-01-01

    An ester lubricant base oil containing one or more standard additives to protect against wear, corrosion, and oxidation was used in an experimental ball/plate elastohydrodynamic contact under load and speed conditions such as to induce scuffing failure in short times. Both the ball and the plate were of identically treated M-50 steel. After various periods of operating time the wear track on the plate was examined with an interference microscope of plus or minus 30 A depth resolution and sometimes also with a scanning ellipsometer and an Auger spectrometer. The optically deduced surface profiles varied with wavelength, indicating the presence of surface coatings, which were confirmed by the other instruments. As scuffing was approached, a thin (approximately A) oxide layer and a carbide layer formed in the wear track in particular when tricresylphosphate antiwear additive was present in the lubricant. The rates of the formation of these layers and their reactivity toward dilute alcholic HCl depended strongly on the lubricant and additives. Based on these results suggestions for improved formulations and a test method for bearing reliability could be proposed.

  8. Optical and other properties changes of M-50 bearing steel surfaces for different lubricants and additives prior to scuffing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauer, J. L.; Marxer, N.; Jones, W. R., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    An ester lubricant base oil containing one or more standard additives to protect against wear, corrosion, and oxidation was used in an experimental ball/plate elastohydrodynamic contact under load and speed conditions such as to induce scuffing failure in short times. Both the ball and the plate were of identically treated M-50 steel. After various periods of operating time the wear track on the plate was examined with an interference microscope of plus or minus 30 A depth resolution and sometimes also with a scanning ellipsometer and an Auger spectrometer. The optically deduced surface profiles varied with wavelength, indicating the presence of surface coatings, which were confirmed by the other instruments. As scuffing was approached, a thin (approximately A) oxide layer and a carbide layer formed in the wear track in particular when tricresylphosphate antiwear additive was present in the lubricant. The rates of the formation of these layers and their reactivity toward dilute alcoholic HCl depended strongly on the lubricant and additives. Based on these results suggestions for improved formulations and a test method for bearing reliability could be proposed.

  9. "The Dose Makes the Poison": Informing Consumers About the Scientific Risk Assessment of Food Additives.

    PubMed

    Bearth, Angela; Cousin, Marie-Eve; Siegrist, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Intensive risk assessment is required before the approval of food additives. During this process, based on the toxicological principle of "the dose makes the poison,ˮ maximum usage doses are assessed. However, most consumers are not aware of these efforts to ensure the safety of food additives and are therefore sceptical, even though food additives bring certain benefits to consumers. This study investigated the effect of a short video, which explains the scientific risk assessment and regulation of food additives, on consumers' perceptions and acceptance of food additives. The primary goal of this study was to inform consumers and enable them to construct their own risk-benefit assessment and make informed decisions about food additives. The secondary goal was to investigate whether people have different perceptions of food additives of artificial (i.e., aspartame) or natural origin (i.e., steviolglycoside). To attain these research goals, an online experiment was conducted on 185 Swiss consumers. Participants were randomly assigned to either the experimental group, which was shown a video about the scientific risk assessment of food additives, or the control group, which was shown a video about a topic irrelevant to the study. After watching the video, the respondents knew significantly more, expressed more positive thoughts and feelings, had less risk perception, and more acceptance than prior to watching the video. Thus, it appears that informing consumers about complex food safety topics, such as the scientific risk assessment of food additives, is possible, and using a carefully developed information video is a successful strategy for informing consumers. PMID:25951078

  10. Evaluating the "recovery level" of endangered species without prior information before alien invasion.

    PubMed

    Watari, Yuya; Nishijima, Shota; Fukasawa, Marina; Yamada, Fumio; Abe, Shintaro; Miyashita, Tadashi

    2013-11-01

    For maintaining social and financial support for eradication programs of invasive species, quantitative assessment of recovery of native species or ecosystems is important because it provides a measurable parameter of success. However, setting a concrete goal for recovery is often difficult owing to lack of information prior to the introduction of invaders. Here, we present a novel approach to evaluate the achievement level of invasive predator management based on the carrying capacity of endangered species estimated using long-term monitoring data. In Amami-Oshima Island, Japan, where the eradication project of introduced small Indian mongoose is ongoing since 2000, we surveyed the population densities of four endangered species threatened by the mongoose (Amami rabbit, the Otton frog, Amami tip-nosed frog, and Amami Ishikawa's frog) at four time points ranging from 2003 to 2011. We estimated the carrying capacities of these species using the logistic growth model combined with the effects of mongoose predation and environmental heterogeneity. All species showed clear tendencies toward increasing their density in line with decreased mongoose density, and they exhibited density-dependent population growth. The estimated carrying capacities of three endangered species had small confidence intervals enough to measure recovery levels by the mongoose management. The population density of each endangered species has recovered to the level of the carrying capacity at about 20-40% of all sites, whereas no individuals were observed at more than 25% of all sites. We propose that the present approach involving appropriate monitoring data of native organism populations will be widely applicable to various eradication projects and provide unambiguous goals for management of invasive species. PMID:24363899

  11. The role of molybdenum additions and prior deformation on acicular ferrite formation in microalloyed Nb-Ti low-carbon line-pipe steels

    SciTech Connect

    Tang Zhenghua Stumpf, Waldo

    2008-06-15

    Microstructures in Nb-Ti-microalloyed line-pipe steels with various molybdenum additions, consisted mostly of acicular ferrite plus polygonal ferrite after hot rolling and rapid cooling. Structure-sensitive surface relief after etching on shadowed extraction replicas, allowed quantification of the acicular and polygonal ferrite contents. Continuous cooling transformation diagrams of two alloys, one Mo-free and the other containing 0.22% Mo, were determined for cooling rates from 0.1 to 40 deg. C s{sup -1} without and with prior deformation of the austenite below the nil-recrystallisation temperature. Molybdenum additions slightly enhanced the acicular ferrite formation in the strain-free austenite whereas prior deformation had a much greater effect, and strongly promoted acicular ferrite formation in both alloys. Thin foil electron microscopy of acicular ferrite in these low-inclusion content alloys showed a preference for parallel acicular ferrite laths with less 'chaotically' nucleated laths.

  12. 25 CFR 226.18 - Information to be given surface owners prior to commencement of drilling operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Information to be given surface owners prior to commencement of drilling operations. 226.18 Section 226.18 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Operations §...

  13. 25 CFR 226.18 - Information to be given surface owners prior to commencement of drilling operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Information to be given surface owners prior to commencement of drilling operations. 226.18 Section 226.18 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Operations §...

  14. 25 CFR 226.18 - Information to be given surface owners prior to commencement of drilling operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Information to be given surface owners prior to commencement of drilling operations. 226.18 Section 226.18 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Operations §...

  15. 25 CFR 226.18 - Information to be given surface owners prior to commencement of drilling operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Information to be given surface owners prior to commencement of drilling operations. 226.18 Section 226.18 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Operations §...

  16. 25 CFR 226.18 - Information to be given surface owners prior to commencement of drilling operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Information to be given surface owners prior to commencement of drilling operations. 226.18 Section 226.18 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Operations §...

  17. 10 CFR 709.24 - Other information provided to a covered person prior to a polygraph examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... polygraph examination. 709.24 Section 709.24 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COUNTERINTELLIGENCE EVALUATION... prior to a polygraph examination. Before administering the polygraph examination, the examiner must: (a) Inform the covered person that audio and video recording of each polygraph examination session will...

  18. 10 CFR 709.24 - Other information provided to a covered person prior to a polygraph examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... polygraph examination. 709.24 Section 709.24 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COUNTERINTELLIGENCE EVALUATION... prior to a polygraph examination. Before administering the polygraph examination, the examiner must: (a) Inform the covered person that audio and video recording of each polygraph examination session will...

  19. 10 CFR 709.24 - Other information provided to a covered person prior to a polygraph examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... polygraph examination. 709.24 Section 709.24 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COUNTERINTELLIGENCE EVALUATION... prior to a polygraph examination. Before administering the polygraph examination, the examiner must: (a) Inform the covered person that audio and video recording of each polygraph examination session will...

  20. 10 CFR 709.24 - Other information provided to a covered person prior to a polygraph examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... polygraph examination. 709.24 Section 709.24 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COUNTERINTELLIGENCE EVALUATION... prior to a polygraph examination. Before administering the polygraph examination, the examiner must: (a) Inform the covered person that audio and video recording of each polygraph examination session will...

  1. 10 CFR 709.24 - Other information provided to a covered person prior to a polygraph examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... polygraph examination. 709.24 Section 709.24 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COUNTERINTELLIGENCE EVALUATION... prior to a polygraph examination. Before administering the polygraph examination, the examiner must: (a) Inform the covered person that audio and video recording of each polygraph examination session will...

  2. The impact of prior knowledge from participant instructions in a mock crime P300 Concealed Information Test.

    PubMed

    Winograd, Michael R; Rosenfeld, J Peter

    2014-12-01

    In P300-Concealed Information Tests used with mock crime scenarios, the amount of detail revealed to a participant prior to the commission of the mock crime can have a serious impact on a study's validity. We predicted that exposure to crime details through instructions would bias detection rates toward enhanced sensitivity. In a 2 × 2 factorial design, participants were either informed (through mock crime instructions) or naïve as to the identity of a to-be-stolen item, and then either committed (guilty) or did not commit (innocent) the crime. Results showed that prior knowledge of the stolen item was sufficient to cause 69% of innocent-informed participants to be incorrectly classified as guilty. Further, we found a trend toward enhanced detection rate for guilty-informed participants over guilty-naïve participants. Results suggest that revealing details to participants through instructions biases detection rates in the P300-CIT toward enhanced sensitivity. PMID:25128283

  3. Bayesian statistical approaches to compositional analyses of transgenic crops 2. Application and validation of informative prior distributions.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Jay M; Breeze, Matthew L; Berman, Kristina H; Harrigan, George G

    2013-03-01

    Bayesian approaches to evaluation of crop composition data allow simpler interpretations than traditional statistical significance tests. An important advantage of Bayesian approaches is that they allow formal incorporation of previously generated data through prior distributions in the analysis steps. This manuscript describes key steps to ensure meaningful and transparent selection and application of informative prior distributions. These include (i) review of previous data in the scientific literature to form the prior distributions, (ii) proper statistical model specification and documentation, (iii) graphical analyses to evaluate the fit of the statistical model to new study data, and (iv) sensitivity analyses to evaluate the robustness of results to the choice of prior distribution. The validity of the prior distribution for any crop component is critical to acceptance of Bayesian approaches to compositional analyses and would be essential for studies conducted in a regulatory setting. Selection and validation of prior distributions for three soybean isoflavones (daidzein, genistein, and glycitein) and two oligosaccharides (raffinose and stachyose) are illustrated in a comparative assessment of data obtained on GM and non-GM soybean seed harvested from replicated field sites at multiple locations in the US during the 2009 growing season. PMID:23261475

  4. Coherence Marking, Prior Knowledge, and Comprehension of Informative and Persuasive Texts: Sorting Things out

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamalski, Judith; Sanders, Ted; Lentz, Leo

    2008-01-01

    Coherence plays a central role when readers construct meaning from a text. Previous research has shown how coherence marking affects text processing and representation. However, this effect seems to depend on reader's prior knowledge of the text content: Low knowledge readers benefit from coherence marking, whereas high knowledge readers benefit…

  5. Contributions of Student Questioning and Prior Knowledge to Construction of Knowledge from Reading Information Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taboada, Ana; Guthrie, John T.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship of student-generated questions and prior knowledge with reading comprehension. A questioning hierarchy was developed to describe the extent to which student-generated questions seek different levels of conceptual understanding. Third- and fourth-grade students (N = 360) posed questions that were related to…

  6. Do the Dynamics of Prior Information Depend on Task Context? An Analysis of Optimal Performance and an Empirical Test

    PubMed Central

    van Ravenzwaaij, Don; Mulder, Martijn J.; Tuerlinckx, Francis; Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan

    2012-01-01

    In speeded two-choice tasks, optimal performance is prescribed by the drift diffusion model. In this model, prior information or advance knowledge about the correct response can manifest itself as a shift in starting point or as a shift in drift rate criterion. These two mechanisms lead to qualitatively different choice behavior. Analyses of optimal performance (i.e., Bogacz et al., 2006; Hanks et al., 2011) have suggested that bias should manifest itself in starting point when difficulty is fixed over trials, whereas bias should (additionally) manifest itself in drift rate criterion when difficulty is variable over trials. In this article, we challenge the claim that a shift in drift criterion is necessary to perform optimally in a biased decision environment with variable stimulus difficulty. This paper consists of two parts. Firstly, we demonstrate that optimal behavior for biased decision problems is prescribed by a shift in starting point, irrespective of variability in stimulus difficulty. Secondly, we present empirical data which show that decision makers do not adopt different strategies when dealing with bias in conditions of fixed or variable across-trial stimulus difficulty. We also perform a test of specific influence for drift rate variability. PMID:22615704

  7. A novel right ventricle segmentation strategy using local spatio-temporal MRI information with a prior regularizer term

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atehortúa, Angélica; Martínez, Fabio; Romero, Eduardo

    2013-11-01

    In this work is presented a novel strategy that tracks the right ventricle (RV) shape during a whole cardiac cycle in magnetic resonance sequences (MRC). The proposed approach obtains a set of spatio-temporal observations from a bidirectional per pixel motion descriptor which are each time fused with prior learned edges. A main advantage of the proposed approach is a robust MRI heart characterization that is regularized by a prior information, obtaining in each cardiac state coherent results. The proposed approach achieves a Dice Score of 0.64 evaluated over 16 patients.

  8. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  9. Using informative priors in facies inversion: The case of C-ISR method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valakas, G.; Modis, K.

    2016-08-01

    Inverse problems involving the characterization of hydraulic properties of groundwater flow systems by conditioning on observations of the state variables are mathematically ill-posed because they have multiple solutions and are sensitive to small changes in the data. In the framework of McMC methods for nonlinear optimization and under an iterative spatial resampling transition kernel, we present an algorithm for narrowing the prior and thus producing improved proposal realizations. To achieve this goal, we cosimulate the facies distribution conditionally to facies observations and normal scores transformed hydrologic response measurements, assuming a linear coregionalization model. The approach works by creating an importance sampling effect that steers the process to selected areas of the prior. The effectiveness of our approach is demonstrated by an example application on a synthetic underdetermined inverse problem in aquifer characterization.

  10. The Influence of Baseline Marijuana Use on Treatment of Cocaine Dependence: Application of an Informative-Priors Bayesian Approach

    PubMed Central

    Green, Charles; Schmitz, Joy; Lindsay, Jan; Pedroza, Claudia; Lane, Scott; Agnelli, Rob; Kjome, Kimberley; Moeller, F. Gerard

    2012-01-01

    Background: Marijuana use is prevalent among patients with cocaine dependence and often non-exclusionary in clinical trials of potential cocaine medications. The dual-focus of this study was to (1) examine the moderating effect of baseline marijuana use on response to treatment with levodopa/carbidopa for cocaine dependence; and (2) apply an informative-priors, Bayesian approach for estimating the probability of a subgroup-by-treatment interaction effect. Method: A secondary data analysis of two previously published, double-blind, randomized controlled trials provided complete data for the historical (Study 1: N = 64 placebo), and current (Study 2: N = 113) data sets. Negative binomial regression evaluated Treatment Effectiveness Scores (TES) as a function of medication condition (levodopa/carbidopa, placebo), baseline marijuana use (days in past 30), and their interaction. Results: Bayesian analysis indicated that there was a 96% chance that baseline marijuana use predicts differential response to treatment with levodopa/carbidopa. Simple effects indicated that among participants receiving levodopa/carbidopa the probability that baseline marijuana confers harm in terms of reducing TES was 0.981; whereas the probability that marijuana confers harm within the placebo condition was 0.163. For every additional day of marijuana use reported at baseline, participants in the levodopa/carbidopa condition demonstrated a 5.4% decrease in TES; while participants in the placebo condition demonstrated a 4.9% increase in TES. Conclusion: The potential moderating effect of marijuana on cocaine treatment response should be considered in future trial designs. Applying Bayesian subgroup analysis proved informative in characterizing this patient-treatment interaction effect. PMID:23115553

  11. Novel Method for Calculating a Nonsubjective Informative Prior for a Bayesian Model in Toxicology Screening: A Theoretical Framework.

    PubMed

    Woldegebriel, Michael

    2015-11-17

    In toxicology screening (forensic, food-safety), due to several analytical errors (e.g., retention time shift, lack of repeatability in m/z scans, etc.), the ability to confidently identify/confirm a compound remains a challenge. Due to these uncertainties, a probabilistic approach is currently preferred. However, if a probabilistic approach is followed, the only statistical method that is capable of estimating the probability of whether the compound of interest (COI) is present/absent in a given sample is Bayesian statistics. Bayes' theorem can combine prior information (prior probability) with data (likelihood) to give an optimal probability (posterior probability) reflecting the presence/absence of the COI. In this work, a novel method for calculating an informative prior probability for a Bayesian model in targeted toxicology screening is introduced. In contrast to earlier proposals making use of literature citation rates and the prior knowledge of the analyst, this method presents a thorough and nonsubjective approach. The formulation approaches the probability calculation as a clustering and random draw problem that incorporates few analytical method parameters meticulously estimated to reflect sensitivity and specificity of the system. The practicality of the method has been demonstrated and validated using real data and simulated analytical techniques. PMID:26482700

  12. An Integrative Framework for Bayesian Variable Selection with Informative Priors for Identifying Genes and Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Ander, Bradley P.; Zhang, Xiaoshuai; Xue, Fuzhong; Sharp, Frank R.; Yang, Xiaowei

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of genetic or genomic markers plays a central role in the development of personalized medicine. A notable challenge exists when dealing with the high dimensionality of the data sets, as thousands of genes or millions of genetic variants are collected on a relatively small number of subjects. Traditional gene-wise selection methods using univariate analyses face difficulty to incorporate correlational, structural, or functional structures amongst the molecular measures. For microarray gene expression data, we first summarize solutions in dealing with ‘large p, small n’ problems, and then propose an integrative Bayesian variable selection (iBVS) framework for simultaneously identifying causal or marker genes and regulatory pathways. A novel partial least squares (PLS) g-prior for iBVS is developed to allow the incorporation of prior knowledge on gene-gene interactions or functional relationships. From the point view of systems biology, iBVS enables user to directly target the joint effects of multiple genes and pathways in a hierarchical modeling diagram to predict disease status or phenotype. The estimated posterior selection probabilities offer probabilitic and biological interpretations. Both simulated data and a set of microarray data in predicting stroke status are used in validating the performance of iBVS in a Probit model with binary outcomes. iBVS offers a general framework for effective discovery of various molecular biomarkers by combining data-based statistics and knowledge-based priors. Guidelines on making posterior inferences, determining Bayesian significance levels, and improving computational efficiencies are also discussed. PMID:23844055

  13. Microstructural parameter estimation in vivo using diffusion MRI and structured prior information

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, Zoltan; Weiskopf, Nikolaus; Alexander, Daniel C.; Clark, Chris A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Diffusion MRI has recently been used with detailed models to probe tissue microstructure. Much of this work has been performed ex vivo with powerful scanner hardware, to gain sensitivity to parameters such as axon radius. By contrast, performing microstructure imaging on clinical scanners is extremely challenging. Methods We use an optimized dual spin‐echo diffusion protocol, and a Bayesian fitting approach, to obtain reproducible contrast (histogram overlap of up to 92%) in estimated maps of axon radius index in healthy adults at a modest, widely‐available gradient strength (35 mT m −1). A key innovation is the use of influential priors. Results We demonstrate that our priors can improve precision in axon radius estimates—a 7‐fold reduction in voxelwise coefficient of variation in vivo—without significant bias. Our results may reflect true axon radius differences between white matter regions, but this interpretation should be treated with caution due to the complexity of the tissue relative to our model. Conclusions Some sensitivity to relatively large axons (3–15 μm) may be available at clinical field and gradient strengths. Future applications at higher gradient strength will benefit from the favorable eddy current properties of the dual spin‐echo sequence, and greater precision available with suitable priors. Magn Reson Med, 2015. © 2015 The Authors. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Magn Reson Med 75:1787–1796, 2016. © 2015 The Authors. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance. PMID:25994918

  14. Landfill leachate sludge use as soil additive prior and after electrocoagulation treatment: A cytological assessment using CHO-k1 cells.

    PubMed

    Morozesk, M; Bonomo, M M; Rocha, L D; Duarte, I D; Zanezi, E R L; Jesus, H C; Fernandes, M N; Matsumoto, S T

    2016-09-01

    Electrocoagulation has recently attracted attention as a potential technique for treating toxic effluents due to its versatility and environmental compatibility, generating a residue chemically suitable to be used as a soil additive. In the present study, landfill leachate sludge hazardous effects were investigated prior and after electrocoagulation process using in vitro assays with the mammalian cells CHO-k1. An integrated strategy for risk assessment was used to correctly estimate the possible adverse landfill leachate sludge effects on human health and ecosystem. Electrocoagulation process proved to be an effective treatment due to possibility to improve effluent adverse characteristics and produce sludge with potential to be used as soil additive. Despite low cytoxicity, the residue presented genotoxic and mutagenic effects, indicating a capacity to induce genetic damages, probably due to induction of polyploidization process in cells. The observed effects demand an improvement of waste management methods for reduce negative risks of landfill leachate sludge application. PMID:27243586

  15. Knowing in Advance: The Impact of Prior Event Information on Memory and Event Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Rachel; Pipe, Margaret-Ellen; Schick, Katherine; Murray, Janice; Gobbo, Camilla

    2003-01-01

    Examined influence of newly acquired information on 5- to 7-year-olds' memory and general representation of a personally experienced novel event. Found that advance information specific to the event led to better recall and better integration of the experience into a general event representation both soon after the event and 4 months later.…

  16. 21 CFR 71.4 - Samples; additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... samples of the color additive, articles used as components thereof, or of the food, drug, or cosmetic in... additive, or articles used as components thereof, or of the food, drug, or cosmetic in which the color... respect to the safety of the color additive or the physical or technical effect it produces. The date...

  17. 21 CFR 71.4 - Samples; additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... samples of the color additive, articles used as components thereof, or of the food, drug, or cosmetic in... additive, or articles used as components thereof, or of the food, drug, or cosmetic in which the color... respect to the safety of the color additive or the physical or technical effect it produces. The date...

  18. Knowing in advance: the impact of prior event information on memory and event knowledge.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Rachel; Pipe, Margaret-Ellen; Schick, Katherine; Murray, Janice; Gobbo, Camilla

    2003-03-01

    We examined the influence of newly acquired information on children's memory and general representation of a personally experienced event. Thirty-five children between the ages of 5 and 7 years participated in the novel event (Visiting the Pirate). The day before participating, children were: (1) provided with new information specific to the up-coming event; (2) engaged in a discussion generally related to the event topic based on existing knowledge; or (3) discussed an unrelated topic. Advance information specific to the event led to better recall and, in particular, to better integration of the experience into a general event representation both soon after the event and at a follow-up interview 4 months later, whereas general discussion of the topic without the event specific information neither enhanced memory reports nor facilitated the integration of event information. Providing information in advance can have significant effects on memory and knowledge acquisition although many variables, including those relating to the specific content of the information, will affect this relation. PMID:12706386

  19. 10 CFR 1.3 - Sources of additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .../cfr/. Final opinions made in the adjudication of cases are published in “Nuclear Regulatory Commission... Regional Offices. In addition, NRC Functional Organization Charts, NUREG-0325, contains...

  20. 7 CFR 20.11 - Additional reports and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....11 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture EXPORT SALES REPORTING REQUIREMENTS § 20.11... Administrator information with respect to sales of agricultural commodities as requested. Daily reports shall be... reports and information, including price data, as may be requested with respect to export sales...

  1. Extraction of chemical-induced diseases using prior knowledge and textual information.

    PubMed

    Pons, Ewoud; Becker, Benedikt F H; Akhondi, Saber A; Afzal, Zubair; van Mulligen, Erik M; Kors, Jan A

    2016-01-01

    We describe our approach to the chemical-disease relation (CDR) task in the BioCreative V challenge. The CDR task consists of two subtasks: automatic disease-named entity recognition and normalization (DNER), and extraction of chemical-induced diseases (CIDs) from Medline abstracts. For the DNER subtask, we used our concept recognition tool Peregrine, in combination with several optimization steps. For the CID subtask, our system, which we named RELigator, was trained on a rich feature set, comprising features derived from a graph database containing prior knowledge about chemicals and diseases, and linguistic and statistical features derived from the abstracts in the CDR training corpus. We describe the systems that were developed and present evaluation results for both subtasks on the CDR test set. For DNER, our Peregrine system reached anF-score of 0.757. For CID, the system achieved anF-score of 0.526, which ranked second among 18 participating teams. Several post-challenge modifications of the systems resulted in substantially improvedF-scores (0.828 for DNER and 0.602 for CID). RELigator is available as a web service athttp://biosemantics.org/index.php/software/religator. PMID:27081155

  2. Extraction of chemical-induced diseases using prior knowledge and textual information

    PubMed Central

    Pons, Ewoud; Becker, Benedikt F.H.; Akhondi, Saber A.; Afzal, Zubair; van Mulligen, Erik M.; Kors, Jan A.

    2016-01-01

    We describe our approach to the chemical–disease relation (CDR) task in the BioCreative V challenge. The CDR task consists of two subtasks: automatic disease-named entity recognition and normalization (DNER), and extraction of chemical-induced diseases (CIDs) from Medline abstracts. For the DNER subtask, we used our concept recognition tool Peregrine, in combination with several optimization steps. For the CID subtask, our system, which we named RELigator, was trained on a rich feature set, comprising features derived from a graph database containing prior knowledge about chemicals and diseases, and linguistic and statistical features derived from the abstracts in the CDR training corpus. We describe the systems that were developed and present evaluation results for both subtasks on the CDR test set. For DNER, our Peregrine system reached an F-score of 0.757. For CID, the system achieved an F-score of 0.526, which ranked second among 18 participating teams. Several post-challenge modifications of the systems resulted in substantially improved F-scores (0.828 for DNER and 0.602 for CID). RELigator is available as a web service at http://biosemantics.org/index.php/software/religator. PMID:27081155

  3. 21 CFR 1.281 - What information must be in a prior notice?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Section 1.281 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL... express consignment operator or carrier tracking number may be submitted in lieu of the information... issue a determination that ACS or its successor system can accommodate such transactions, the...

  4. 21 CFR 1.281 - What information must be in a prior notice?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 1.281 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL... express consignment operator or carrier tracking number may be submitted in lieu of the information... issue a determination that ACS or its successor system can accommodate such transactions, the...

  5. 21 CFR 1.281 - What information must be in a prior notice?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Section 1.281 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL... express consignment operator or carrier tracking number may be submitted in lieu of the information... issue a determination that ACS or its successor system can accommodate such transactions, the...

  6. 78 FR 51265 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Application for Additional Visa Pages or...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-20

    ... Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Application for Additional Visa Pages or Miscellaneous...: Title of Information Collection: Application for Additional Visa Pages or Miscellaneous Passport... applies for the addition of visa pages to that passport, the Department must confirm the...

  7. Small Sample Estimation in Dichotomous Item Response Models: Effect of Priors Based on Judgmental Information on the Accuracy of Item Parameter Estimates. LSAC Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swaminathan, Hariharan; Hambleton, Ronald K.; Sireci, Stephen G.; Xing, Dehui; Rizavi, Saba M.

    The primary objective of this study was to investigate how incorporating prior information improves estimation of item parameters in two small samples. The factors that were investigated were sample size and the type of prior information. To investigate the accuracy with which item parameters in the Law School Admission Test (LSAT) are estimated,…

  8. Robust Deformable Image Registration using Prior Shape Information for Atlas to Patient Registration

    PubMed Central

    Ellingsen, Lotta M.; Chintalapani, Gouthami; Taylor, Russell H.; Prince, Jerry L.

    2009-01-01

    Statistical atlases enable the individualization of atlas information for patient specific applications such as surgical planning. In this paper, a statistical atlas comprising a point distribution model defined on the vertices of a tetrahedral mesh is registered to a subject’s computed tomography scan of the human pelvis. The approach consists of a volumetric deformable registration method augmented to maintain the topology of the atlas mesh after deformation as well as incorporating the dominant three-dimensional shape modes in the atlas. Experimental results demonstrate that incorporation of the statistical shape atlas helps to stabilize the registration and improves robustness and registration accuracy. PMID:19515532

  9. Mechanisms underlying comprehension of health information in adulthood: the roles of prior knowledge and working memory capacity.

    PubMed

    Soederberg Miller, Lisa M; Gibson, Tanja N; Applegate, Elizabeth A; de Dios, Jeannette

    2011-07-01

    Prior knowledge, working memory capacity (WMC), and conceptual integration (attention allocated to integrating concepts in text) are critical within many contexts; however, their impact on the acquisition of health information (i.e. learning) is relatively unexplored.We examined how these factors impact learning about nutrition within a cross-sectional study of adults ages 18 to 81. Results showed that conceptual integration mediated the effects of knowledge and WMC on learning, confirming that attention to concepts while reading is important for learning about health. We also found that when knowledge was controlled, age declines in learning increased, suggesting that knowledge mitigates the effects of age on learning about nutrition. PMID:21346017

  10. 12 CFR 980.7 - Examinations; requests for additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... new business activity, nothing in this part shall limit the right of the Finance Board at any time to... business activity is consistent with the housing finance and community lending mission of the Banks and the... information. 980.7 Section 980.7 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD NEW FEDERAL HOME LOAN...

  11. 31 CFR 26.5 - Upgrades and additional environmental information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... than a full-fledged environmental impact assessment as defined by that MDB's own procedures, the... information is insufficient to provide an adequate basis for analyzing the environmental impact of the... determine that a project would have a significant impact on the human environment, but that the level...

  12. 31 CFR 26.5 - Upgrades and additional environmental information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... than a full-fledged environmental impact assessment as defined by that MDB's own procedures, the... information is insufficient to provide an adequate basis for analyzing the environmental impact of the... determine that a project would have a significant impact on the human environment, but that the level...

  13. 31 CFR 26.5 - Upgrades and additional environmental information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... than a full-fledged environmental impact assessment as defined by that MDB's own procedures, the... information is insufficient to provide an adequate basis for analyzing the environmental impact of the... determine that a project would have a significant impact on the human environment, but that the level...

  14. 31 CFR 26.5 - Upgrades and additional environmental information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... than a full-fledged environmental impact assessment as defined by that MDB's own procedures, the... information is insufficient to provide an adequate basis for analyzing the environmental impact of the... determine that a project would have a significant impact on the human environment, but that the level...

  15. 10 CFR 1.3 - Sources of additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .../cfr/. Final opinions made in the adjudication of cases are published in “Nuclear Regulatory Commission... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Introduction § 1.3 Sources..., assignments of responsibility, and delegations of authority is in the Nuclear Regulatory Commission...

  16. 10 CFR 1.3 - Sources of additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .../cfr/. Final opinions made in the adjudication of cases are published in “Nuclear Regulatory Commission... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Introduction § 1.3 Sources..., assignments of responsibility, and delegations of authority is in the Nuclear Regulatory Commission...

  17. 10 CFR 1.3 - Sources of additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .../cfr/. Final opinions made in the adjudication of cases are published in “Nuclear Regulatory Commission... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Introduction § 1.3 Sources..., assignments of responsibility, and delegations of authority is in the Nuclear Regulatory Commission...

  18. 10 CFR 1.3 - Sources of additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .../cfr/. Final opinions made in the adjudication of cases are published in “Nuclear Regulatory Commission... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Introduction § 1.3 Sources..., assignments of responsibility, and delegations of authority is in the Nuclear Regulatory Commission...

  19. Using Information From Prior Satellite Scans to Improve Cloud Detection Near the Day-Night Terminator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, Christopher R.; Minnis, Patrick; Trepte, Qing Z.; Palikonda, Rabindra; Ayers, Jeffrey K.; Spangenberg, Doulas A.

    2012-01-01

    With geostationary satellite data it is possible to have a continuous record of diurnal cycles of cloud properties for a large portion of the globe. Daytime cloud property retrieval algorithms are typically superior to nighttime algorithms because daytime methods utilize measurements of reflected solar radiation. However, reflected solar radiation is difficult to accurately model for high solar zenith angles where the amount of incident radiation is small. Clear and cloudy scenes can exhibit very small differences in reflected radiation and threshold-based cloud detection methods have more difficulty setting the proper thresholds for accurate cloud detection. Because top-of-atmosphere radiances are typically more accurately modeled outside the terminator region, information from previous scans can help guide cloud detection near the terminator. This paper presents an algorithm that uses cloud fraction and clear and cloudy infrared brightness temperatures from previous satellite scan times to improve the performance of a threshold-based cloud mask near the terminator. Comparisons of daytime, nighttime, and terminator cloud fraction derived from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) radiance measurements show that the algorithm greatly reduces the number of false cloud detections and smoothes the transition from the daytime to the nighttime clod detection algorithm. Comparisons with the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) data show that using this algorithm decreases the number of false detections by approximately 20 percentage points.

  20. Mitigation of Bias in Inversion of Complex Earthquake without Prior Information of Detailed Fault Geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasahara, A.; Yagi, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Rupture process of earthquake derived from geophysical observations is important information to understand nature of earthquake and assess seismic hazard. Finite fault inversion is a commonly applied method to construct seismic source model. In conventional inversion, fault is approximated by a simple fault surface even if rupture of real earthquake should propagate along non-planar complex fault. In the conventional inversion, complex rupture kinematics is approximated by limited model parameters that only represent slip on a simple fault surface. This over simplification may cause biased and hence misleading solution. MW 7.7 left-lateral strike-slip earthquake occurred in southwestern Pakistan on 2013-09-24 might be one of exemplar event to demonstrate the bias. For this earthquake, northeastward rupture propagation was suggested by a finite fault inversion of teleseismic body and long period surface waves with a single planer fault (USGS). However, surface displacement field measured from cross-correlation of optical satellite images and back-projection imaging revealed that rupture was unilaterally propagated toward southwest on a non-planer fault (Avouac et.al., 2014). To mitigate the bias, more flexible source parameterization should be employed. We extended multi-time window finite fault method to represent rupture kinematics on a complex fault. Each spatio-temporal knot has five degrees of freedom and is able to represent arbitrary strike, dip, rake, moment release rate and CLVD component. Detailed fault geometry for a source fault is not required in our method. The method considers data covariance matrix with uncertainty of Green's function (Yagi and Fukahata, 2011) to obtain stable solution. Preliminary results show southwestward rupture propagation and focal mechanism change that is consistent with fault trace. The result suggests usefulness of the flexible source parameterization for inversion of complex events.

  1. SNP Markers as Additional Information to Resolve Complex Kinship Cases

    PubMed Central

    Pontes, M. Lurdes; Fondevila, Manuel; Laréu, Maria Victoria; Medeiros, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background DNA profiling with sets of highly polymorphic autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) markers has been applied in various aspects of human identification in forensic casework for nearly 20 years. However, in some cases of complex kinship investigation, the information provided by the conventionally used STR markers is not enough, often resulting in low likelihood ratio (LR) calculations. In these cases, it becomes necessary to increment the number of loci under analysis to reach adequate LRs. Recently, it has been proposed that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) could be used as a supportive tool to STR typing, eventually even replacing the methods/markers now employed. Methods In this work, we describe the results obtained in 7 revised complex paternity cases when applying a battery of STRs, as well as 52 human identification SNPs (SNPforID 52plex identification panel) using a SNaPshot methodology followed by capillary electrophoresis. Results Our results show that the analysis of SNPs, as complement to STR typing in forensic casework applications, would at least increase by a factor of 4 total PI values and correspondent Essen-Möller's W value. Conclusions We demonstrated that SNP genotyping could be a key complement to STR information in challenging casework of disputed paternity, such as close relative individualization or complex pedigrees subject to endogamous relations. PMID:26733770

  2. 78 FR 77119 - Proposed Information Collection Request; Comment Request; Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-20

    ... AGENCY Proposed Information Collection Request; Comment Request; Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: 2011 Renewable Fuel Standards-- Petition for International Aggregate Compliance Approach AGENCY... to submit an information collection request (ICR), ``Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives:...

  3. A sub-domain based regularization method with prior information for human thorax imaging using electrical impedance tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    In Kang, Suk; Khambampati, Anil Kumar; Jeon, Min Ho; Kim, Bong Seok; Kim, Kyung Youn

    2016-02-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a non-invasive imaging technique that can be used as a bed-side monitoring tool for human thorax imaging. EIT has high temporal resolution characteristics but at the same time it suffers from poor spatial resolution due to ill-posedness of the inverse problem. Often regularization methods are used as a penalty term in the cost function to stabilize the sudden changes in resistivity. In human thorax monitoring, with conventional regularization methods employing Tikhonov type regularization, the reconstructed image is smoothed between the heart and the lungs, that is, it makes it difficult to distinguish the exact boundaries of the lungs and the heart. Sometimes, obtaining structural information of the object prior to this can be incorporated into the regularization method to improve the spatial resolution along with helping create clear and distinct boundaries between the objects. However, the boundary of the heart is changed rapidly due to the cardiac cycle hence there is no information concerning the exact boundary of the heart. Therefore, to improve the spatial resolution for human thorax monitoring during the cardiac cycle, in this paper, a sub-domain based regularization method is proposed assuming the lungs and part of background region is known. In the proposed method, the regularization matrix is modified anisotropically to include sub-domains as prior information, and the regularization parameter is assigned with different weights to each sub-domain. Numerical simulations and phantom experiments for 2D human thorax monitoring are performed to evaluate the performance of the proposed regularization method. The results show a better reconstruction performance with the proposed regularization method.

  4. 36 CFR 1290.3 - Sources of assassination records and additional records and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... records and additional records and information. 1290.3 Section 1290.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property... Sources of assassination records and additional records and information. Assassination records and additional records and information may be located at, or under the control of, without limitation:...

  5. 47 CFR 1.10017 - How can I submit additional information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How can I submit additional information? 1... International Bureau Filing System § 1.10017 How can I submit additional information? In response to an official request for information from the International Bureau, you can submit additional...

  6. Performance Evaluation of Alternative Relative Orientation Procedures for UAV-based Imagery with Prior Flight Trajectory Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, F.; Habib, A.

    2016-06-01

    Thanks to recent advances at the hardware (e.g., emergence of reliable platforms at low cost) and software (e.g., automated identification of conjugate points in overlapping images) levels, UAV-based 3D reconstruction has been widely used in various applications. However, mitigating the impact of outliers in automatically matched points in UAV imagery, especially when dealing with scenes that has poor and/or repetitive texture, remains to be a challenging task. In spite of the fact that existing literature has already demonstrated that incorporating prior motion information can play an important role in increasing the reliability of the matching process, there is a lack of methodologies that are mainly suited for UAV imagery. Assuming the availability of prior information regarding the trajectory of a UAV-platform, this paper presents a two-point approach for reliable estimation of Relative Orientation Parameters (ROPs) of UAV-based images. This approach is based on the assumption that the UAV platform is moving at a constant flying height while maintaining the camera in a nadir-looking orientation. For this flight scenario, a closed-form solution that can be derived using a minimum of two pairs of conjugate points is established. In order to evaluate the performance of the proposed approach, experimental tests using real stereo-pairs acquired from different UAV platforms have been conducted. The derived results from the comparative performance analysis against the Nistér five-point approach demonstrate that the proposed two-point approach is capable of providing reliable estimate of the ROPs from UAV-based imagery in the presence of poor and/or repetitive texture with high percentage of matching outliers.

  7. 21 CFR 71.15 - Confidentiality of data and information in color additive petitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... additive petition are available for public disclosure, unless extraordinary circumstances are shown, after... § 20.61 of this chapter. (3) Adverse reaction reports, product experience reports, consumer complaints... particular ingredient or group of ingredients shall be deleted from any such list prior to public...

  8. Preliminary Clinical Evaluation of a 4D-CBCT Estimation Technique using Prior Information and Limited-angle Projections

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, You; Yin, Fang-Fang; Pan, Tinsu; Vergalasova, Irina; Ren, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose A new technique has been previously reported to estimate high-quality 4D-CBCT using prior information and limited-angle projections. This study is to investigate its clinical feasibility through both phantom and patient studies. Materials and Methods The new technique used to estimate 4D-CBCT is called MMFD-NCC. It is based on the previously reported motion-modeling and free-form deformation (MMFD) method, with the introduction of normalized-cross-correlation (NCC) as a new similarity metric. The clinical feasibility of this technique was evaluated by assessing the accuracy of estimated anatomical structures in comparison to those in the ‘ground-truth’ reference 4D-CBCT, using data obtained from a physical phantom and three lung cancer patients. Both volume percentage error (VPE) and center-of-mass error (COME) of the estimated tumor volume were used as the evaluation metrics. Results The average VPE/COME of the tumor in the prior image was 257.1%/10.1 mm for the phantom study and 55.6%/3.8 mm for the patient study. Using only orthogonal-view 30° projections, the MMFD-NCC has reduced the corresponding values to 7.7% /1.2 mm and 9.6%/1.1 mm, respectively. Conclusions The MMFD-NCC technique is able to estimate 4D-CBCT images with geometrical accuracy of the tumor within 10% VPE and 2 mm COME, which can be used to improve the localization accuracy of radiotherapy. PMID:25818396

  9. 21 CFR 71.15 - Confidentiality of data and information in color additive petitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... additive petitions. 71.15 Section 71.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVE PETITIONS General Provisions § 71.15 Confidentiality of data and information in color additive petitions. (a) The following data and information in a...

  10. 21 CFR 71.15 - Confidentiality of data and information in color additive petitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... additive petitions. 71.15 Section 71.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVE PETITIONS General Provisions § 71.15 Confidentiality of data and information in color additive petitions. (a) The following data and information in a...

  11. 21 CFR 71.15 - Confidentiality of data and information in color additive petitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... additive petitions. 71.15 Section 71.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVE PETITIONS General Provisions § 71.15 Confidentiality of data and information in color additive petitions. (a) The following data and information in a...

  12. 40 CFR 79.21 - Information and assurances to be provided by the additive manufacturer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... provided by the additive manufacturer. 79.21 Section 79.21 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGISTRATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Additive Registration Procedures § 79.21 Information and assurances to be provided by the additive manufacturer....

  13. Experimentally Derived δ13C and δ15N Discrimination Factors for Gray Wolves and the Impact of Prior Information in Bayesian Mixing Models

    PubMed Central

    Bucci, Melanie E.; Callahan, Peggy; Koprowski, John L.; Polfus, Jean L.; Krausman, Paul R.

    2015-01-01

    Stable isotope analysis of diet has become a common tool in conservation research. However, the multiple sources of uncertainty inherent in this analysis framework involve consequences that have not been thoroughly addressed. Uncertainty arises from the choice of trophic discrimination factors, and for Bayesian stable isotope mixing models (SIMMs), the specification of prior information; the combined effect of these aspects has not been explicitly tested. We used a captive feeding study of gray wolves (Canis lupus) to determine the first experimentally-derived trophic discrimination factors of C and N for this large carnivore of broad conservation interest. Using the estimated diet in our controlled system and data from a published study on wild wolves and their prey in Montana, USA, we then investigated the simultaneous effect of discrimination factors and prior information on diet reconstruction with Bayesian SIMMs. Discrimination factors for gray wolves and their prey were 1.97‰ for δ13C and 3.04‰ for δ15N. Specifying wolf discrimination factors, as opposed to the commonly used red fox (Vulpes vulpes) factors, made little practical difference to estimates of wolf diet, but prior information had a strong effect on bias, precision, and accuracy of posterior estimates. Without specifying prior information in our Bayesian SIMM, it was not possible to produce SIMM posteriors statistically similar to the estimated diet in our controlled study or the diet of wild wolves. Our study demonstrates the critical effect of prior information on estimates of animal diets using Bayesian SIMMs, and suggests species-specific trophic discrimination factors are of secondary importance. When using stable isotope analysis to inform conservation decisions researchers should understand the limits of their data. It may be difficult to obtain useful information from SIMMs if informative priors are omitted and species-specific discrimination factors are unavailable. PMID:25803664

  14. 49 CFR 260.25 - Additional information for Applicants not having a credit rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional information for Applicants not having a... Financial Assistance § 260.25 Additional information for Applicants not having a credit rating. Each application submitted by Applicants not having a recent credit rating from one or more nationally...

  15. 49 CFR 260.25 - Additional information for Applicants not having a credit rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional information for Applicants not having a... Financial Assistance § 260.25 Additional information for Applicants not having a credit rating. Each application submitted by Applicants not having a recent credit rating from one or more nationally...

  16. 21 CFR 71.15 - Confidentiality of data and information in color additive petitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Confidentiality of data and information in color additive petitions. 71.15 Section 71.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVE PETITIONS General Provisions § 71.15 Confidentiality of data and information in color...

  17. 19 CFR 141.89 - Additional information for certain classes of merchandise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional information for certain classes of merchandise. 141.89 Section 141.89 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY OF MERCHANDISE Invoices § 141.89 Additional information for certain classes of...

  18. 26 CFR 1.852-7 - Additional information required in returns of shareholders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional information required in returns of... Investment Trusts § 1.852-7 Additional information required in returns of shareholders. Any person who fails... income tax return a statement showing, to the best of his knowledge and belief— (a) The number of...

  19. 26 CFR 1.852-7 - Additional information required in returns of shareholders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Additional information required in returns of... Investment Trusts § 1.852-7 Additional information required in returns of shareholders. Any person who fails... income tax return a statement showing, to the best of his knowledge and belief— (a) The number of...

  20. 47 CFR 25.111 - Additional information and ITU cost recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional information and ITU cost recovery. 25.111 Section 25.111 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER....111 Additional information and ITU cost recovery. (a) The Commission may request from any party at...

  1. Estimating Time of Infection Using Prior Serological and Individual Information Can Greatly Improve Incidence Estimation of Human and Wildlife Infections

    PubMed Central

    Hens, Niel; Beutels, Philippe; Leirs, Herwig; Reijniers, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Diseases of humans and wildlife are typically tracked and studied through incidence, the number of new infections per time unit. Estimating incidence is not without difficulties, as asymptomatic infections, low sampling intervals and low sample sizes can introduce large estimation errors. After infection, biomarkers such as antibodies or pathogens often change predictably over time, and this temporal pattern can contain information about the time since infection that could improve incidence estimation. Antibody level and avidity have been used to estimate time since infection and to recreate incidence, but the errors on these estimates using currently existing methods are generally large. Using a semi-parametric model in a Bayesian framework, we introduce a method that allows the use of multiple sources of information (such as antibody level, pathogen presence in different organs, individual age, season) for estimating individual time since infection. When sufficient background data are available, this method can greatly improve incidence estimation, which we show using arenavirus infection in multimammate mice as a test case. The method performs well, especially compared to the situation in which seroconversion events between sampling sessions are the main data source. The possibility to implement several sources of information allows the use of data that are in many cases already available, which means that existing incidence data can be improved without the need for additional sampling efforts or laboratory assays. PMID:27177244

  2. Estimating Time of Infection Using Prior Serological and Individual Information Can Greatly Improve Incidence Estimation of Human and Wildlife Infections.

    PubMed

    Borremans, Benny; Hens, Niel; Beutels, Philippe; Leirs, Herwig; Reijniers, Jonas

    2016-05-01

    Diseases of humans and wildlife are typically tracked and studied through incidence, the number of new infections per time unit. Estimating incidence is not without difficulties, as asymptomatic infections, low sampling intervals and low sample sizes can introduce large estimation errors. After infection, biomarkers such as antibodies or pathogens often change predictably over time, and this temporal pattern can contain information about the time since infection that could improve incidence estimation. Antibody level and avidity have been used to estimate time since infection and to recreate incidence, but the errors on these estimates using currently existing methods are generally large. Using a semi-parametric model in a Bayesian framework, we introduce a method that allows the use of multiple sources of information (such as antibody level, pathogen presence in different organs, individual age, season) for estimating individual time since infection. When sufficient background data are available, this method can greatly improve incidence estimation, which we show using arenavirus infection in multimammate mice as a test case. The method performs well, especially compared to the situation in which seroconversion events between sampling sessions are the main data source. The possibility to implement several sources of information allows the use of data that are in many cases already available, which means that existing incidence data can be improved without the need for additional sampling efforts or laboratory assays. PMID:27177244

  3. 75 FR 77645 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Color Additive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Color Additive Certification Requests and Recordkeeping AGENCY: Food and Drug... certification of color additives manufactured for use in foods, drugs, cosmetics or medical devices in the... of information technology. Color Additive Certification Requests and Recordkeeping--21 CFR Part...

  4. 23 CFR 636.401 - What types of information exchange may take place prior to the release of the RFP document?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What types of information exchange may take place prior to the release of the RFP document? 636.401 Section 636.401 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS DESIGN-BUILD CONTRACTING Exchanges §...

  5. Congruence of Prior Knowledge and Text Information as a Factor in the Reading Comprehension of Middle-Grade Children. Technical Report #16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maria, Katherine; MacGinitie, Walter H.

    Two studies using the same texts and procedures but different experimental designs (1) evaluated an instrument designed to identify children who overrely on their prior knowledge in the interpretation of written text, and (2) investigated how degree of congruency of information interacts with degree of explicitness and level of staging to affect…

  6. 30 CFR 250.418 - What additional information must I submit with my APD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Applying for A Permit to Drill § 250.418 What additional information must I submit with my...

  7. 30 CFR 250.418 - What additional information must I submit with my APD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Applying for A Permit to Drill § 250.418 What additional information must...

  8. 30 CFR 250.418 - What additional information must I submit with my APD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Applying for A Permit to Drill § 250.418 What additional information must...

  9. The Effect of Prior Subject Matter Knowledge and Text Structure on the Organization of Text Information in Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Jed

    Four text passages varying along the dimensions of the number of propositions unifying one or more text paragraphs and text length were constructed. The text content pertained to nine concepts in the area of operant conditioning psychology. Fifty-eight university students were pretested and then blocked on prior text-related knowledge, and read…

  10. Robust Bayesian hypocentre and uncertainty region estimation: the effect of heavy-tailed distributions and prior information in cases with poor, inconsistent and insufficient arrival times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinsson, J.

    2013-03-01

    We propose methods for robust Bayesian inference of the hypocentre in presence of poor, inconsistent and insufficient phase arrival times. The objectives are to increase the robustness, the accuracy and the precision by introducing heavy-tailed distributions and an informative prior distribution of the seismicity. The effects of the proposed distributions are studied under real measurement conditions in two underground mine networks and validated using 53 blasts with known hypocentres. To increase the robustness against poor, inconsistent or insufficient arrivals, a Gaussian Mixture Model is used as a hypocentre prior distribution to describe the seismically active areas, where the parameters are estimated based on previously located events in the region. The prior is truncated to constrain the solution to valid geometries, for example below the ground surface, excluding known cavities, voids and fractured zones. To reduce the sensitivity to outliers, different heavy-tailed distributions are evaluated to model the likelihood distribution of the arrivals given the hypocentre and the origin time. Among these distributions, the multivariate t-distribution is shown to produce the overall best performance, where the tail-mass adapts to the observed data. Hypocentre and uncertainty region estimates are based on simulations from the posterior distribution using Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques. Velocity graphs (equivalent to traveltime graphs) are estimated using blasts from known locations, and applied to reduce the main uncertainties and thereby the final estimation error. To focus on the behaviour and the performance of the proposed distributions, a basic single-event Bayesian procedure is considered in this study for clarity. Estimation results are shown with different distributions, with and without prior distribution of seismicity, with wrong prior distribution, with and without error compensation, with and without error description, with insufficient arrival

  11. 77 FR 58911 - Additional Identifying Information for One (1) Individual Designated Pursuant to Executive Order...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Identifying Information for One (1) Individual Designated... identifying information for one individual whose property and interests in property are blocked pursuant...

  12. 16 CFR 2.20 - Petitions for review of requests for additional information or documentary material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... or documentary material issued under 16 CFR 803.20. (b) Second request procedures—(1) Notice. Every request for additional information or documentary material issued under 16 CFR 803.20 shall inform the..., glossaries, proposed form of relief and any appendices containing only sections of statutes or...

  13. 16 CFR 2.20 - Petitions for review of requests for additional information or documentary material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... or documentary material issued under 16 CFR 803.20. (b) Second request procedures—(1) Notice. Every request for additional information or documentary material issued under 16 CFR 803.20 shall inform the..., glossaries, proposed form of relief and any appendices containing only sections of statutes or...

  14. 16 CFR 2.20 - Petitions for review of requests for additional information or documentary material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... or documentary material issued under 16 CFR 803.20. (b) Second request procedures—(1) Notice. Every request for additional information or documentary material issued under 16 CFR 803.20 shall inform the..., glossaries, proposed form of relief and any appendices containing only sections of statutes or...

  15. 16 CFR 2.20 - Petitions for review of requests for additional information or documentary material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... or documentary material issued under 16 CFR 803.20. (b) Second request procedures—(1) Notice. Every request for additional information or documentary material issued under 16 CFR 803.20 shall inform the..., glossaries, proposed form of relief and any appendices containing only sections of statutes or...

  16. 16 CFR 2.20 - Petitions for review of requests for additional information or documentary material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... or documentary material issued under 16 CFR 803.20. (b) Second request procedures—(1) Notice. Every request for additional information or documentary material issued under 16 CFR 803.20 shall inform the..., glossaries, proposed form of relief and any appendices containing only sections of statutes or...

  17. CMR Quantification of Myocardial Scar Provides Additive Prognostic Information in Nonischemic Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Neilan, Tomas G.; Coelho-Filho, Otavio R.; Danik, Stephan B.; Shah, Ravi V.; Dodson, John A.; Verdini, Daniel J.; Tokuda, Michifumi; Daly, Caroline A.; Tedrow, Usha B.; Stevenson, William G.; Jerosch-Herold, Michael; Ghoshhajra, Brian B.; Kwong, Raymond Y.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES This study sought to determine whether the extent of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) can provide additive prognostic information in patients with a nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (NIDC) with an indication for implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) therapy for the primary prevention of sudden cardiac death (SCD). BACKGROUND Data suggest that the presence of LGE is a strong discriminator of events in patients with NIDC. Limited data exist on the role of LGE quantification. METHODS The extent of LGE and clinical follow-up were assessed in 162 patients with NIDC prior to ICD insertion for primary prevention of SCD. LGE extent was quantified using both the standard deviation–based (2-SD) method and the full-width half-maximum (FWHM) method. RESULTS We studied 162 patients with NIDC (65% male; mean age: 55 years; left ventricular ejection fraction [LVEF]: 26 ± 8%) and followed up for major adverse cardiac events (MACE), including cardiovascular death and appropriate ICD therapy, for a mean of 29 ± 18 months. Annual MACE rates were substantially higher in patients with LGE (24%) than in those without LGE (2%). By univariate association, the presence and the extent of LGE demonstrated the strongest associations with MACE (LGE presence, hazard ratio [HR]: 14.5 [95% confidence interval (CI): 6.1 to 32.6; p < 0.001]; LGE extent, HR: 1.15 per 1% increase in volume of LGE [95% CI: 1.12 to 1.18; p < 0.0001]). Multivariate analyses showed that LGE extent was the strongest predictor in the best overall model for MACE, and a 7-fold hazard was observed per 10% LGE extent after adjustments for patient age, sex, and LVEF (adjusted HR: 7.61; p < 0.0001). LGE quantitation by 2-SD and FWHM both demonstrated robust prognostic association, with the highest MACE rate observed in patients with LGE involving >6.1% of LV myocardium. CONCLUSIONS LGE extent may provide further risk stratification in patients with NIDC with a current indication for ICD implantation for

  18. Multiplicative and Additive Modulation of Neuronal Tuning with Population Activity Affects Encoded Information.

    PubMed

    Arandia-Romero, Iñigo; Tanabe, Seiji; Drugowitsch, Jan; Kohn, Adam; Moreno-Bote, Rubén

    2016-03-16

    Numerous studies have shown that neuronal responses are modulated by stimulus properties and also by the state of the local network. However, little is known about how activity fluctuations of neuronal populations modulate the sensory tuning of cells and affect their encoded information. We found that fluctuations in ongoing and stimulus-evoked population activity in primate visual cortex modulate the tuning of neurons in a multiplicative and additive manner. While distributed on a continuum, neurons with stronger multiplicative effects tended to have less additive modulation and vice versa. The information encoded by multiplicatively modulated neurons increased with greater population activity, while that of additively modulated neurons decreased. These effects offset each other so that population activity had little effect on total information. Our results thus suggest that intrinsic activity fluctuations may act as a "traffic light" that determines which subset of neurons is most informative. PMID:26924437

  19. An adaptive algorithm for detection of multiple-type, positively stained nuclei in IHC images with minimal prior information: application to OLIG2 staining gliomas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akakin, Hatice C.; Gokozan, Hamza; Otero, Jose; Gurcan, Metin N.

    2015-03-01

    We propose a method to detect and segment the oligodendrocytes and gliomas in OLIG2 immunoperoxidase stained tissue sections. Segmentation of cell nuclei is essential for automatic, fast, accurate and consistent analysis of pathology images. In general, glioma cells and oligodendrocytes mostly differ in shape and size within the tissue slide. In OLIG2 stained tissue images, gliomas are represented with irregularly shaped nuclei with varying sizes and brown shades. On the other hand, oligodendrocytes have more regular round nuclei shapes and are smaller in size when compared to glioma cells found in oligodendroglioma, astrocytomas, or oligoastrocytomas. The first task is to detect the OLIG2 positive cell regions within a region of interest image selected from a whole slide. The second task is to segment each cell nucleus and count the number of cell nuclei. However, the cell nuclei belonging to glioma cases have particularly irregular nuclei shapes and form cell clusters by touching or overlapping with each other. In addition to this clustered structure, the shading of the brown stain and the texture of the nuclei differ slightly within a tissue image. The final step of the algorithm is to classify glioma cells versus oligodendrocytes. Our method starts with color segmentation to detect positively stained cells followed by the classification of single individual cells and cell clusters by K-means clustering. Detected cell clusters are segmented with the H-minima based watershed algorithm. The novel aspects of our work are: 1) the detection and segmentation of multiple-type, positively-stained nuclei by incorporating only minimal prior information; and 2) adaptively determining clustering parameters to adjust to the natural variation in staining as well as the underlying cellular structure while accommodating multiple cell types in the image. Performance of the algorithm to detect individual cells is evaluated by sensitivity and precision metrics. Promising

  20. The coseismic slip distribution of a shallow subduction fault constrained by prior information: the example of 2011 Tohoku (Mw 9.0) megathrust earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, X.; Cambiotti, G.; Sun, W.; Sabadini, R.

    2014-11-01

    In the literature, the inverted coseismic slip models from seismological and geodetic data for the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake portray significant discrepancies, in particular regarding the intensity and the distribution of the rupture near the trench. For a megathrust earthquake, it is difficult to discern the slip along the shallow part of the fault from the geodetic data, which are often acquired on land. In this paper, we discuss the uncertainties in the slip distribution inversion using the geodetic data for the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and the Fully Bayesian Inversion method. These uncertainties are due to the prior information regarding the boundary conditions at the edges of the fault, the dip subduction angle and the smoothing operator. Using continuous GPS data from the Japan Island, the results for the rigid and free boundary conditions show that they produce remarkably different slip distributions at shallow depths, with the latter producing a large slip exceeding 30 m near the surface. These results indicate that the smoothing operator (gradient or Laplacian schemes) does not severely affect the slip pattern. To better invert the coseismic slip, we then introduce the ocean bottom GPS (OB-GPS) data, which improve the resolution of the shallow part of the fault. We obtain a near-trench slip greater than 40 m that reaches the Earth's surface, regardless of which boundary condition is used. Additionally, we show that using a mean dip angle for the fault as derived from subduction models is adequate if the goal is to invert for the general features of the slip pattern of this megathrust event.

  1. Marginally specified priors for non-parametric Bayesian estimation

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, David C.; Hoff, Peter D.; Dunson, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Prior specification for non-parametric Bayesian inference involves the difficult task of quantifying prior knowledge about a parameter of high, often infinite, dimension. A statistician is unlikely to have informed opinions about all aspects of such a parameter but will have real information about functionals of the parameter, such as the population mean or variance. The paper proposes a new framework for non-parametric Bayes inference in which the prior distribution for a possibly infinite dimensional parameter is decomposed into two parts: an informative prior on a finite set of functionals, and a non-parametric conditional prior for the parameter given the functionals. Such priors can be easily constructed from standard non-parametric prior distributions in common use and inherit the large support of the standard priors on which they are based. Additionally, posterior approximations under these informative priors can generally be made via minor adjustments to existing Markov chain approximation algorithms for standard non-parametric prior distributions. We illustrate the use of such priors in the context of multivariate density estimation using Dirichlet process mixture models, and in the modelling of high dimensional sparse contingency tables. PMID:25663813

  2. 45 CFR 146.122 - Additional requirements prohibiting discrimination based on genetic information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional requirements prohibiting discrimination based on genetic information. 146.122 Section 146.122 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS REQUIREMENTS FOR THE GROUP HEALTH INSURANCE MARKET Requirements Relating to Access...

  3. 26 CFR 54.9802-3T - Additional requirements prohibiting discrimination based on genetic information (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional requirements prohibiting discrimination based on genetic information (temporary). 54.9802-3T Section 54.9802-3T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) PENSION EXCISE TAXES § 54.9802-3T...

  4. 29 CFR 2590.702-1 - Additional requirements prohibiting discrimination based on genetic information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Additional requirements prohibiting discrimination based on genetic information. 2590.702-1 Section 2590.702-1 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR GROUP HEALTH PLANS RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR GROUP HEALTH PLANS Health...

  5. 26 CFR 54.9802-3T - Additional requirements prohibiting discrimination based on genetic information (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Additional requirements prohibiting discrimination based on genetic information (temporary). 54.9802-3T Section 54.9802-3T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) PENSION EXCISE TAXES § 54.9802-3T...

  6. 26 CFR 54.9802-3T - Additional requirements prohibiting discrimination based on genetic information (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional requirements prohibiting discrimination based on genetic information (temporary). 54.9802-3T Section 54.9802-3T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) PENSION EXCISE TAXES § 54.9802-3T...

  7. 24 CFR 1710.200 - Instructions for Statement of Record, Additional Information and Documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Instructions for Statement of Record, Additional Information and Documentation. 1710.200 Section 1710.200 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR...

  8. 16 CFR 803.20 - Requests for additional information or documentary material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... documentary material. 803.20 Section 803.20 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS... RULES § 803.20 Requests for additional information or documentary material. (a)(1) Persons and... documentary material relevant to the acquisition may be required from one or more persons required to...

  9. 78 FR 52803 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Additional...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-26

    ... on April 9, 2013 (78 FR 21159). OMB authorization for an ICR cannot be for more than three (3) years...; Additional Information Collection Requirements for Special Dipping and Coating Operations ACTION: Notice... Requirements for Special Dipping and Coating Operations,'' to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB)...

  10. 30 CFR 250.418 - What additional information must I submit with my APD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What additional information must I submit with my APD? 250.418 Section 250.418 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND... plot if the well is to be directionally drilled; (d) A Hydrogen Sulfide Contingency Plan (see §...

  11. 30 CFR 250.418 - What additional information must I submit with my APD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Applying for A Permit to Drill § 250.418 What additional information must I... applicable, and not previously submitted; (e) A welding plan (see §§ 250.109 to 250.113) if not...

  12. 18 CFR 33.4 - Additional information requirements for applications involving vertical competitive impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Additional information requirements for applications involving vertical competitive impacts. 33.4 Section 33.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT APPLICATIONS...

  13. 49 CFR 260.25 - Additional information for Applicants not having a credit rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional information for Applicants not having a credit rating. 260.25 Section 260.25 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS GOVERNING LOANS AND LOAN GUARANTEES UNDER THE...

  14. 75 FR 61572 - Additional Identifying Information Associated With Persons Whose Property and Interests in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ...The Treasury Department's Office of Foreign Assets Control (``OFAC'') is publishing additional identifying information associated with the eight individuals listed in the Annex to the Executive Order of September 28, 2010, ``Blocking Property of Certain Persons With Respect to Serious Human Rights Abuses by the Government of Iran and Taking Certain Other Actions,'' whose property and interests......

  15. 18 CFR 33.3 - Additional information requirements for applications involving horizontal competitive impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional information requirements for applications involving horizontal competitive impacts. 33.3 Section 33.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT APPLICATIONS...

  16. 40 CFR Table 42 to Subpart Uuu of... - Additional Information for Initial Notification of Compliance Status

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Additional Information for Initial Notification of Compliance Status 42 Table 42 to Subpart UUU of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES...

  17. 40 CFR Table 42 to Subpart Uuu of... - Additional Information for Initial Notification of Compliance Status

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Additional Information for Initial Notification of Compliance Status 42 Table 42 to Subpart UUU of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES...

  18. 40 CFR Table 42 to Subpart Uuu of... - Additional Information for Initial Notification of Compliance Status

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Additional Information for Initial Notification of Compliance Status 42 Table 42 to Subpart UUU of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES...

  19. 40 CFR Table 42 to Subpart Uuu of... - Additional Information for Initial Notification of Compliance Status

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Additional Information for Initial Notification of Compliance Status 42 Table 42 to Subpart UUU of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES...

  20. 49 CFR 260.25 - Additional information for Applicants not having a credit rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... credit rating. 260.25 Section 260.25 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... Financial Assistance § 260.25 Additional information for Applicants not having a credit rating. Each application submitted by Applicants not having a recent credit rating from one or more nationally...

  1. 49 CFR 260.25 - Additional information for Applicants not having a credit rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... credit rating. 260.25 Section 260.25 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... Financial Assistance § 260.25 Additional information for Applicants not having a credit rating. Each application submitted by Applicants not having a recent credit rating from one or more nationally...

  2. 16 CFR 803.20 - Requests for additional information or documentary material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... documentary material. 803.20 Section 803.20 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS... RULES § 803.20 Requests for additional information or documentary material. (a)(1) Persons and... documentary material relevant to the acquisition may be required from one or more persons required to...

  3. 16 CFR 803.20 - Requests for additional information or documentary material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... documentary material. 803.20 Section 803.20 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS... RULES § 803.20 Requests for additional information or documentary material. (a)(1) Persons and... documentary material relevant to the acquisition may be required from one or more persons required to...

  4. 16 CFR 803.20 - Requests for additional information or documentary material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... documentary material. 803.20 Section 803.20 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS... RULES § 803.20 Requests for additional information or documentary material. (a)(1) Persons and... documentary material relevant to the acquisition may be required from one or more persons required to...

  5. 38 CFR 39.4 - Decision makers, notifications, and additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Decision makers, notifications, and additional information. 39.4 Section 39.4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) AID FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT, OR...

  6. 38 CFR 39.4 - Decision makers, notifications, and additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Decision makers, notifications, and additional information. 39.4 Section 39.4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) AID FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT, OR...

  7. 38 CFR 39.4 - Decision makers, notifications, and additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Decision makers, notifications, and additional information. 39.4 Section 39.4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) AID FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT, OR...

  8. 38 CFR 39.4 - Decision makers, notifications, and additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Decision makers, notifications, and additional information. 39.4 Section 39.4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) AID TO STATES FOR ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT,...

  9. 26 CFR 1.852-7 - Additional information required in returns of shareholders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... shareholders. 1.852-7 Section 1.852-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Trusts § 1.852-7 Additional information required in returns of shareholders. Any person who fails or....852-6 requires the company to demand from its shareholders shall submit as a part of his income...

  10. 76 FR 24854 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Additional Protocol Report Forms

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-03

    ... International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) on a number of commercial nuclear and nuclear-related items, materials... for a nuclear weapons program. These forms provides the IAEA with information about additional aspects...; buildings on sites of facilities selected by the IAEA from the U.S. Eligible Facilities List;...

  11. Additional sensory information reduces body sway of individuals with anterior cruciate ligament injury.

    PubMed

    Bonfim, Thatia Regina; Grossi, Débora Bevilaqua; Paccola, Cleber Antonio Jansen; Barela, José Angelo

    2008-08-29

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the additional sensory information could improve postural control in individuals with unilateral anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. Twenty-eight individuals with unilateral ACL injury (mean age 23.6, 26 males, 2 females) and 28 healthy young control subjects (mean age 22.1 years, 26 males, 2 females) participated in this study. Postural control was evaluated with subjects single-leg standing on a force platform with eyes closed under two sensory conditions: normal sensory information and light touch to a stationary bar (applied force below 1N). Three trials of 30s were performed in each single-leg stance and in each sensory condition. Mean sway amplitude and predominant frequency of center of pressure were calculated for both anterior-posterior and medial-lateral directions. Individuals with ACL injury showed greater mean sway amplitude than healthy control individuals even though the predominant frequency was similar for both groups. Additional sensory information improved postural control performance in individuals with ACL injury and healthy control, with a greater effect observed for the ACL group. Based on these results, we suggest that reduction in postural control performance in individuals with ACL injury would be due to the reduction of sensory information provided by the ACL, but when sensory information is enhanced, postural control performance improves. These results have implications for novel approaches to improve stability in individuals with ACL injury. PMID:18582536

  12. 75 FR 35119 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Form DS-4085 Application for Additional Visa...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Form DS-4085 Application for Additional Visa Pages or... the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. Title of Information Collection: Application for Additional Visa... collection: The information collected on the DS-4085 is used to facilitate the issuance of additional...

  13. SIPPI: A Matlab toolbox for sampling the solution to inverse problems with complex prior information. Part 1—Methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejer Hansen, Thomas; Skou Cordua, Knud; Caroline Looms, Majken; Mosegaard, Klaus

    2013-03-01

    From a probabilistic point-of-view, the solution to an inverse problem can be seen as a combination of independent states of information quantified by probability density functions. Typically, these states of information are provided by a set of observed data and some a priori information on the solution. The combined states of information (i.e. the solution to the inverse problem) is a probability density function typically referred to as the a posteriori probability density function. We present a generic toolbox for Matlab and Gnu Octave called SIPPI that implements a number of methods for solving such probabilistically formulated inverse problems by sampling the a posteriori probability density function. In order to describe the a priori probability density function, we consider both simple Gaussian models and more complex (and realistic) a priori models based on higher order statistics. These a priori models can be used with both linear and non-linear inverse problems. For linear inverse Gaussian problems we make use of least-squares and kriging-based methods to describe the a posteriori probability density function directly. For general non-linear (i.e. non-Gaussian) inverse problems, we make use of the extended Metropolis algorithm to sample the a posteriori probability density function. Together with the extended Metropolis algorithm, we use sequential Gibbs sampling that allow computationally efficient sampling of complex a priori models. The toolbox can be applied to any inverse problem as long as a way of solving the forward problem is provided. Here we demonstrate the methods and algorithms available in SIPPI. An application of SIPPI, to a tomographic cross borehole inverse problems, is presented in a second part of this paper.

  14. NAMER: A FORTRAN 4 program for use in optimizing designs of two-level factorial experiments given partial prior information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sidik, S. M.

    1972-01-01

    Under certain specified conditions, the Bayes procedure for designing two-level fractional factorial experiments is that which maximizes the expected utility over all possible choices of parameter-estimator matchings, physical-design variable matchings, defining parameter groups, and sequences of telescoping groups. NAMER computes the utility of all possible matchings of physical variables to design variables and parameters to estimators for a specified choice of defining parameter group or groups. The matching yielding the maximum expected utility is indicated, and detailed information is provided about the optimal matchings and utilities. Complete documentation is given; and an example illustrates input, output, and usage.

  15. PAT-1 safety analysis report addendum author responses to request for additional information.

    SciTech Connect

    Weiner, Ruth F.; Schmale, David T.; Kalan, Robert J.; Akin, Lili A.; Miller, David Russell; Knorovsky, Gerald Albert; Yoshimura, Richard Hiroyuki; Lopez, Carlos; Harding, David Cameron; Jones, Perry L.; Morrow, Charles W.

    2010-09-01

    The Plutonium Air Transportable Package, Model PAT-1, is certified under Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations Part 71 by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) per Certificate of Compliance (CoC) USA/0361B(U)F-96 (currently Revision 9). The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) submitted SAND Report SAND2009-5822 to NRC that documented the incorporation of plutonium (Pu) metal as a new payload for the PAT-1 package. NRC responded with a Request for Additional Information (RAI), identifying information needed in connection with its review of the application. The purpose of this SAND report is to provide the authors responses to each RAI. SAND Report SAND2010-6106 containing the proposed changes to the Addendum is provided separately.

  16. 36 CFR 1290.4 - Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and additional records and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... scope of assassination record and additional records and information. 1290.4 Section 1290.4 Parks... COLLECTION ACT OF 1992 (JFK ACT) § 1290.4 Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and additional records and information. The term record in assassination record and additional records...

  17. 36 CFR 1290.4 - Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and additional records and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... in scope of assassination record and additional records and information. 1290.4 Section 1290.4 Parks... COLLECTION ACT OF 1992 (JFK ACT) § 1290.4 Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and additional records and information. The term record in assassination record and additional records...

  18. 36 CFR 1290.4 - Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and additional records and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... in scope of assassination record and additional records and information. 1290.4 Section 1290.4 Parks... COLLECTION ACT OF 1992 (JFK ACT) § 1290.4 Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and additional records and information. The term record in assassination record and additional records...

  19. Multiple small RNAs act additively to integrate sensory information and control quorum sensing in Vibrio harveyi

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Kimberly C.; Bassler, Bonnie L.

    2007-01-01

    Quorum sensing is a cell–cell communication mechanism that bacteria use to collectively regulate gene expression and, at a higher level, to coordinate group behavior. In the bioluminescent marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi, sensory information from three independent quorum-sensing systems converges on the shared response regulator LuxO. When LuxO is phosphorylated, it activates the expression of a putative repressor that destabilizes the mRNA encoding the master quorum-sensing transcriptional regulator LuxR. In the closely related species Vibrio cholerae, this repressor was revealed to be the RNA chaperone Hfq together with four small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) called Qrr1–4 (quorum regulatory RNA). Here, we identify five Qrr sRNAs that control quorum sensing in V. harveyi. Mutational analysis reveals that only four of the five Qrrs are required for destabilization of the luxR mRNA. Surprisingly, unlike in V. cholerae where the sRNAs act redundantly, in V. harveyi, the Qrr sRNAs function additively to control quorum sensing. This latter mechanism produces a gradient of LuxR that, in turn, enables differential regulation of quorum-sensing target genes. Other regulators appear to be involved in control of V. harveyi qrr expression, allowing the integration of additional sensory information into the regulation of quorum-sensing gene expression. PMID:17234887

  20. Emerging Technologies in the Built Environment: Geographic Information Science (GIS), 3D Printing, and Additive Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    New, Joshua Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract 1: Geographic information systems emerged as a computer application in the late 1960s, led in part by projects at ORNL. The concept of a GIS has shifted through time in response to new applications and new technologies, and is now part of a much larger world of geospatial technology. This presentation discusses the relationship of GIS and estimating hourly and seasonal energy consumption profiles in the building sector at spatial scales down to the individual parcel. The method combines annual building energy simulations for city-specific prototypical buildings and commonly available geospatial data in a GIS framework. Abstract 2: This presentation focuses on 3D printing technologies and how they have rapidly evolved over the past couple of years. At a basic level, 3D printing produces physical models quickly and easily from 3D CAD, BIM (Building Information Models), and other digital data. Many AEC firms have adopted 3D printing as part of commercial building design development and project delivery. This presentation includes an overview of 3D printing, discusses its current use in building design, and talks about its future in relation to the HVAC industry. Abstract 3: This presentation discusses additive manufacturing and how it is revolutionizing the design of commercial and residential facilities. Additive manufacturing utilizes a broad range of direct manufacturing technologies, including electron beam melting, ultrasonic, extrusion, and laser metal deposition for rapid prototyping. While there is some overlap with the 3D printing talk, this presentation focuses on the materials aspect of additive manufacturing and also some of the more advanced technologies involved with rapid prototyping. These technologies include design of carbon fiber composites, lightweight metals processing, transient field processing, and more.

  1. Climate change inferred from borehole temperatures: How to improve the solution by using additional information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodri, L.; Čermák, V.

    Past climate changes have caused certain perturbations in the subsurface temperature field. Their inversion yields the time variations of the ground surface temperature (GST), the solution of which however may be highly non-unique. To incorporate additional information on the behaviour of the unknown function usually helps treat the non-uniqueness. The traditionally used information imposing bounding and smoothing constraints on climate history can be further significantly extended by including stochastic properties of climate. It was shown that climatic records reveal: (1) long-term persistence of climate, and (2) high intermittency of climate variations characterized by hyperbolic decrease of probability tails. We have quantified and incorporated such information into the inversion method in the form of the covariance matrix of the unknown parameters. Inversion of almost 100 temperature-depth profiles from the Czech Republic (Bodri and Čermák, 1995, 1997) provided more meaningful climatic histories in comparison with simple inversion and increased the time span that could be resolved. In present work the effectiveness of the method is illistrated on the examples of 5 selected temperature logs.

  2. Menarche: Prior Knowledge and Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skandhan, K. P.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Recorded menstruation information among 305 young women in India, assessing the differences between those who did and did not have knowledge of menstruation prior to menarche. Those with prior knowledge considered menarche to be a normal physiological function and had a higher rate of regularity, lower rate of dysmenorrhea, and earlier onset of…

  3. 17 CFR 230.496 - Contents of prospectus and statement of additional information used after nine months.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Contents of prospectus and statement of additional information used after nine months. 230.496 Section 230.496 Commodity and Securities... statement of additional information used after nine months. In the case of a registration statement filed...

  4. 17 CFR 230.496 - Contents of prospectus and statement of additional information used after nine months.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Contents of prospectus and statement of additional information used after nine months. 230.496 Section 230.496 Commodity and Securities... statement of additional information used after nine months. In the case of a registration statement filed...

  5. 41 CFR 102-79.111 - Where may Executive agencies find additional information on Integrated Workplace concepts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Where may Executive agencies find additional information on Integrated Workplace concepts? 102-79.111 Section 102-79.111 Public... Space Integrated Workplace § 102-79.111 Where may Executive agencies find additional information...

  6. 77 FR 67655 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Food Additive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-13

    ...) Moderate Category: For a food additive petition without complex chemistry, manufacturing, efficacy, or...) Complex Category: For a food additive petition with complex chemistry, manufacturing, efficacy, and/or... investigational food additive file without complex chemistry, manufacturing, efficacy, or safety issues,...

  7. Systematics of the family Plectopylidae in Vietnam with additional information on Chinese taxa (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Stylommatophora)

    PubMed Central

    Páll-Gergely, Barna; Hunyadi, András; Ablett, Jonathan; Lương, Hào Văn; Fred Naggs; Asami, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Vietnamese species from the family Plectopylidae are revised based on the type specimens of all known taxa, more than 600 historical non-type museum lots, and almost 200 newly-collected samples. Altogether more than 7000 specimens were investigated. The revision has revealed that species diversity of the Vietnamese Plectopylidae was previously overestimated. Overall, thirteen species names (anterides Gude, 1909, bavayi Gude, 1901, congesta Gude, 1898, fallax Gude, 1909, gouldingi Gude, 1909, hirsuta Möllendorff, 1901, jovia Mabille, 1887, moellendorffi Gude, 1901, persimilis Gude, 1901, pilsbryana Gude, 1901, soror Gude, 1908, tenuis Gude, 1901, verecunda Gude, 1909) were synonymised with other species. In addition to these, Gudeodiscus hemmeni sp. n. and Gudeodiscus messageri raheemi ssp. n. are described from north-western Vietnam. Sixteen species and two subspecies are recognized from Vietnam. The reproductive anatomy of eight taxa is described. Based on anatomical information, Halongella gen. n. is erected to include Plectopylis schlumbergeri and Plectopylis fruhstorferi. Additionally, the genus Gudeodiscus is subdivided into two subgenera (Gudeodiscus and Veludiscus subgen. n.) on the basis of the morphology of the reproductive anatomy and the radula. The Chinese Gudeodiscus phlyarius werneri Páll-Gergely, 2013 is moved to synonymy of Gudeodiscus phlyarius. A spermatophore was found in the organ situated next to the gametolytic sac in one specimen. This suggests that this organ in the Plectopylidae is a diverticulum. Statistically significant evidence is presented for the presence of calcareous hook-like granules inside the penis being associated with the absence of embryos in the uterus in four genera. This suggests that these probably play a role in mating periods before disappearing when embryos develop. Sicradiscus mansuyi is reported from China for the first time. PMID:25632253

  8. Lateralization of High-Frequency Clicks Based on Interaural Time: Additivity of Information across Frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenzel, Elizabeth Marie

    Lateralization performance based on interaural differences of time (IDTs) was measured for trains of Gaussian clicks which varied in spectral content. In the first experiment, thresholds ((DELTA)IDTs) were measured as a function of the number of clicks in the train (n = 1 to 32), the interclick interval (ICI = 2.5 or 5 ms), and the spectral content (1 vs. 2 or 4 carriers). Subjects' performance was compared to perfect statistical summation which predicts slopes of -.50 when log-(DELTA)IDT vs. long -n is plotted. The results showed that increasing the spectral content of the clicks decreased the intercepts of the log -log functions (decreased thresholds) while having little effect on their slopes. Shortening the ICIs caused the slopes of the functions to decrease in absolute value. To estimate the bandwidth of frequency-interaction in lateralization, d's were measured for clicks with constant IDTs (n = 1) with a fixed carrier (FF = 4000, 5200, 6000 or 7200 Hz), both alone and combined with a second click whose carrier (F) varied from 3500 to 8500 Hz. Performance in combined conditions was compared to independent summation of the information carried by the two frequency-bands. Performance improved as the separation between F and FF increased until the level predicted by independence was reached. The final experiment investigated the interaction of frequency content with IDT. d's were measured as a function of the IDT in clicks with carriers of 5200, 6000 or 7200 Hz, both alone and combined with a 4000-Hz click with a fixed IDT. Performance in combined conditions was again compared to independent additivity. The improvement with frequency was explained by an increase in the number of samples of the IDT reaching the binaural centers due to spread of excitation along the basilar membrane. Less than independent summation was explained by correlation between overlapping bands which reduced the amount of information exciting independent channels. The data also suggest that

  9. 16 CFR 803.21 - Additional information shall be supplied within reasonable time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... information or documentary material requested pursuant to section 7A(e) and § 803.20 (or, if such request is not fully complied with, the information or documentary material submitted and a statement of...

  10. 16 CFR 803.21 - Additional information shall be supplied within reasonable time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... information or documentary material requested pursuant to section 7A(e) and § 803.20 (or, if such request is not fully complied with, the information or documentary material submitted and a statement of...

  11. 16 CFR 803.21 - Additional information shall be supplied within reasonable time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... information or documentary material requested pursuant to section 7A(e) and § 803.20 (or, if such request is not fully complied with, the information or documentary material submitted and a statement of...

  12. 16 CFR 803.21 - Additional information shall be supplied within reasonable time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... information or documentary material requested pursuant to section 7A(e) and § 803.20 (or, if such request is not fully complied with, the information or documentary material submitted and a statement of...

  13. 16 CFR 803.21 - Additional information shall be supplied within reasonable time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... information or documentary material requested pursuant to section 7A(e) and § 803.20 (or, if such request is not fully complied with, the information or documentary material submitted and a statement of...

  14. 50 CFR 23.25 - What additional information is required on a non-Party CITES document?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ....25 What additional information is required on a non-Party CITES document? (a) Purpose. Under Article... Certification (1) Export (i) For Appendix-I and -II specimens, the Scientific Authority has advised that...

  15. 40 CFR 79.21 - Information and assurances to be provided by the additive manufacturer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... fuel additive will be sold, offered for sale, or introduced into commerce, and the fuel additive manufacturer's recommended range of concentration and purpose-in-use for each such type of fuel. (e) Such other... (e) of this section as provided in § 79.5(b). (g) Assurances that the additive manufacturer will...

  16. 14 CFR 121.317 - Passenger information requirements, smoking prohibitions, and additional seat belt requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Passenger information requirements, smoking... OPERATIONS Instrument and Equipment Requirements § 121.317 Passenger information requirements, smoking... command. (c) No person may operate an airplane on a flight on which smoking is prohibited by part 252...

  17. 14 CFR 121.317 - Passenger information requirements, smoking prohibitions, and additional seat belt requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Passenger information requirements, smoking... OPERATIONS Instrument and Equipment Requirements § 121.317 Passenger information requirements, smoking... command. (c) No person may operate an airplane on a flight on which smoking is prohibited by part 252...

  18. 14 CFR 121.317 - Passenger information requirements, smoking prohibitions, and additional seat belt requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Passenger information requirements, smoking... OPERATIONS Instrument and Equipment Requirements § 121.317 Passenger information requirements, smoking... command. (c) No person may operate an airplane on a flight on which smoking is prohibited by part 252...

  19. 14 CFR 121.317 - Passenger information requirements, smoking prohibitions, and additional seat belt requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Passenger information requirements, smoking... OPERATIONS Instrument and Equipment Requirements § 121.317 Passenger information requirements, smoking... command. (c) No person may operate an airplane on a flight on which smoking is prohibited by part 252...

  20. 21 CFR 803.12 - Where and how do I submit reports and additional information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES MEDICAL DEVICE REPORTING General Provisions § 803.12 Where and how do... information required under this part to FDA, CDRH, Medical Device Reporting, P.O. Box 3002, Rockville,...

  1. 10 CFR 52.158 - Contents of application; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.158 Contents of application; additional... environmental report as required by 10 CFR 51.54. (2) If the manufacturing license application references...

  2. 10 CFR 52.158 - Contents of application; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.158 Contents of application; additional... environmental report as required by 10 CFR 51.54. (2) If the manufacturing license application references...

  3. 10 CFR 52.158 - Contents of application; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.158 Contents of application; additional... environmental report as required by 10 CFR 51.54. (2) If the manufacturing license application references...

  4. 10 CFR 52.158 - Contents of application; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.158 Contents of application; additional... environmental report as required by 10 CFR 51.54. (2) If the manufacturing license application references...

  5. Twenty-five additional cases of trisomy 9 mosaic: Birth information, medical conditions, and developmental status.

    PubMed

    Bruns, Deborah A; Campbell, Emily

    2015-05-01

    Limited literature exists on children and adults diagnosed with the mosaic form of trisomy 9. Data from the Tracking Rare Incidence Syndromes (TRIS) project has provided physical characteristics and medical conditions for 14 individuals. This article provides TRIS Survey results of 25 additional cases at two data points (birth and survey completion) as well as developmental status. Results confirmed a number of phenotypic features and medical conditions. In addition, a number of cardiac anomalies were reported along with feeding and respiratory difficulties in the immediate postnatal period. In addition, developmental status data indicated a range in functioning level up to skills in the 36 and 48-month range. Strengths were also noted across the sample in language and communication, fine motor and social-emotional development. Implications for professionals caring for children with this genetic condition are offered. PMID:25755087

  6. 17 CFR 229.1118 - (Item 1118) Reports and additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Commission maintains an Internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other... electronic or paper copies of those filings and other reports free of charge upon request. ... (http://www.sec.gov). (c) Web site access to reports. (1) State whether the issuing entity's...

  7. 17 CFR 229.1118 - (Item 1118) Reports and additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Commission maintains an Internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other... electronic or paper copies of those filings and other reports free of charge upon request. ... (http://www.sec.gov). (c) Web site access to reports. (1) State whether the issuing entity's...

  8. 17 CFR 229.1118 - (Item 1118) Reports and additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Commission maintains an Internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other... electronic or paper copies of those filings and other reports free of charge upon request. ... (http://www.sec.gov). (c) Web site access to reports. (1) State whether the issuing entity's...

  9. Software for Information Storage and Retrieval Tested, Evaluated and Compared: Part VI--Various Additional Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sieverts, Eric G.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Reports on tests evaluating nine microcomputer software packages designed for information storage and retrieval: BRS-Search, dtSearch, InfoBank, Micro-OPC, Q&A, STN-PFS, Strix, TINman, and ZYindex. Tables and narrative evaluations detail results related to security, hardware, user features, search capability, indexing, input, maintenance of files,…

  10. 10 CFR 52.80 - Contents of applications; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... under 10 CFR 50.10 be issued before issuance of the combined license, the application must include the information otherwise required by 10 CFR 50.10, in accordance with either 10 CFR 2.101(a)(1) through (a)(4... environmental report, either in accordance with 10 CFR 51.50(c) if a limited work authorization under 10 CFR...

  11. 77 FR 31068 - Additional Identifying Information Associated With Persons Whose Property and Interests in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ... and Suspending Entry Into the United States of Certain Persons With Respect to Grave Human Rights... Property and Suspending Entry Into the United States of Certain Persons With Respect to Grave Human Rights... Rights Abuses by Governments of Iran and Syria via Information Technology AGENCY: Office of...

  12. 78 FR 27936 - Request for Extension and Revision of a Currently Approved Information Collection With Additional...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-13

    ..., certification and auditing services for fresh and processed fruits, vegetables, and other products on a ``user... provides a nationwide inspection, grading, and auditing service for fresh and processed fruits, vegetables... inspection, grading, or auditing services. Such information includes; the name and location of the person...

  13. Facing Facts: Can the Face-Name Mnemonic Strategy Accommodate Additional Factual Information?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carney, Russell N.; Levin, Joel R.

    2012-01-01

    In 3 experiments, undergraduates used their own best method (control) or an "imposed" face-name mnemonic strategy to associate 18 caricatured faces, names, and additional facts. On all immediate tests (prompted by the faces), and on the delayed tests of Experiments 2a and 2b combined, mnemonic students statistically outperformed control students…

  14. 18 CFR 33.3 - Additional information requirements for applications involving horizontal competitive impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the horizontal Competitive Analysis Screen. (3) The applicant may use a computer model to complete one... requirements for applications involving horizontal competitive impacts. 33.3 Section 33.3 Conservation of Power... FEDERAL POWER ACT APPLICATIONS UNDER FEDERAL POWER ACT SECTION 203 § 33.3 Additional...

  15. 30 CFR 75.1200-1 - Additional information on mine map.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps § 75.1200-1 Additional... symbols; (g) The location of railroad tracks and public highways leading to the mine, and mine buildings... permanent base line points coordinated with the underground and surface mine traverses, and the location...

  16. 30 CFR 75.1200-1 - Additional information on mine map.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps § 75.1200-1 Additional... symbols; (g) The location of railroad tracks and public highways leading to the mine, and mine buildings... permanent base line points coordinated with the underground and surface mine traverses, and the location...

  17. 30 CFR 75.1200-1 - Additional information on mine map.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps § 75.1200-1 Additional... symbols; (g) The location of railroad tracks and public highways leading to the mine, and mine buildings... permanent base line points coordinated with the underground and surface mine traverses, and the location...

  18. 30 CFR 75.1200-1 - Additional information on mine map.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps § 75.1200-1 Additional... symbols; (g) The location of railroad tracks and public highways leading to the mine, and mine buildings... permanent base line points coordinated with the underground and surface mine traverses, and the location...

  19. 10 CFR 52.80 - Contents of applications; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.80 Contents of applications; additional technical... environmental report, either in accordance with 10 CFR 51.50(c) if a limited work authorization under 10 CFR 50... under 10 CFR 50.10 be issued before issuance of the combined license, the application must include...

  20. 10 CFR 52.80 - Contents of applications; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.80 Contents of applications; additional technical... environmental report, either in accordance with 10 CFR 51.50(c) if a limited work authorization under 10 CFR 50... under 10 CFR 50.10 be issued before issuance of the combined license, the application must include...

  1. 10 CFR 52.80 - Contents of applications; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.80 Contents of applications; additional technical... environmental report, either in accordance with 10 CFR 51.50(c) if a limited work authorization under 10 CFR 50... under 10 CFR 50.10 be issued before issuance of the combined license, the application must include...

  2. 10 CFR 52.80 - Contents of applications; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.80 Contents of applications; additional technical... environmental report, either in accordance with 10 CFR 51.50(c) if a limited work authorization under 10 CFR 50... under 10 CFR 50.10 be issued before issuance of the combined license, the application must include...

  3. Implicit Priors in Galaxy Cluster Mass and Scaling Relation Determinations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mantz, A.; Allen, S. W.

    2011-01-01

    Deriving the total masses of galaxy clusters from observations of the intracluster medium (ICM) generally requires some prior information, in addition to the assumptions of hydrostatic equilibrium and spherical symmetry. Often, this information takes the form of particular parametrized functions used to describe the cluster gas density and temperature profiles. In this paper, we investigate the implicit priors on hydrostatic masses that result from this fully parametric approach, and the implications of such priors for scaling relations formed from those masses. We show that the application of such fully parametric models of the ICM naturally imposes a prior on the slopes of the derived scaling relations, favoring the self-similar model, and argue that this prior may be influential in practice. In contrast, this bias does not exist for techniques which adopt an explicit prior on the form of the mass profile but describe the ICM non-parametrically. Constraints on the slope of the cluster mass-temperature relation in the literature show a separation based the approach employed, with the results from fully parametric ICM modeling clustering nearer the self-similar value. Given that a primary goal of scaling relation analyses is to test the self-similar model, the application of methods subject to strong, implicit priors should be avoided. Alternative methods and best practices are discussed.

  4. 14 CFR 11.77 - Is there any additional information I must include in my petition for designating airspace?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Is there any additional information I must include in my petition for designating airspace? 11.77 Section 11.77 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... of the agency, office, facility, or person who would have authority to permit the use of the...

  5. 12 CFR 516.220 - If OTS requests additional information to complete my application, how will it process my...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... complete my application, how will it process my application? 516.220 Section 516.220 Banks and Banking... Standard Treatment § 516.220 If OTS requests additional information to complete my application, how will it... your response. OTS will notify you that it has extended the period before the end of the initial...

  6. 12 CFR 116.220 - If the OCC requests additional information to complete my application, how will it process my...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... complete my application, how will it process my application? 116.220 Section 116.220 Banks and Banking... Treatment § 116.220 If the OCC requests additional information to complete my application, how will it... that it has extended the period before the end of the initial 15-day period and will briefly...

  7. 12 CFR 516.220 - If OTS requests additional information to complete my application, how will it process my...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... complete my application, how will it process my application? 516.220 Section 516.220 Banks and Banking... Standard Treatment § 516.220 If OTS requests additional information to complete my application, how will it... your response. OTS will notify you that it has extended the period before the end of the initial...

  8. 12 CFR 390.128 - If the FDIC requests additional information to complete my application, how will it process my...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... complete my application, how will it process my application? 390.128 Section 390.128 Banks and Banking... additional information to complete my application, how will it process my application? (a) You may use the... will notify you that it has extended the period before the end of the initial 15-day period and...

  9. Estimating additive and dominance variances for complex traits in pigs combining genomic and pedigree information.

    PubMed

    Costa, E V; Diniz, D B; Veroneze, R; Resende, M D V; Azevedo, C F; Guimaraes, S E F; Silva, F F; Lopes, P S

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of dominance effects should improve ge-netic evaluations, provide the accurate selection of purebred animals, and enable better breeding strategies, including the exploitation of het-erosis in crossbreeds. In this study, we combined genomic and pedi-gree data to study the relative importance of additive and dominance genetic variation in growth and carcass traits in an F2 pig population. Two GBLUP models were used, a model without a polygenic effect (ADM) and a model with a polygenic effect (ADMP). Additive effects played a greater role in the control of growth and carcass traits than did dominance effects. However, dominance effects were important for all traits, particularly in backfat thickness. The narrow-sense and broad-sense heritability estimates for growth (0.06 to 0.42, and 0.10 to 0.51, respectively) and carcass traits (0.07 to 0.37, and 0.10 to 0.76, respec-tively) exhibited a wide variation. The inclusion of a polygenic effect in the ADMP model changed the broad-sense heritability estimates only for birth weight and weight at 21 days of age. PMID:26125833

  10. Inclusion of Additional Plant Species and Trait Information in Dynamic Vegetation Modeling of Arctic Tundra and Boreal Forest Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Euskirchen, E. S.; Patil, V.; Roach, J.; Griffith, B.; McGuire, A. D.

    2015-12-01

    Dynamic vegetation models (DVMs) have been developed to model the ecophysiological characteristics of plant functional types in terrestrial ecosystems. They have frequently been used to answer questions pertaining to processes such as disturbance, plant succession, and community composition under historical and future climate scenarios. While DVMs have proved useful in these types of applications, it has often been questioned if additional detail, such as including plant dynamics at the species-level and/or including species-specific traits would make these models more accurate and/or broadly applicable. A sub-question associated with this issue is, 'How many species, or what degree of functional diversity, should we incorporate to sustain ecosystem function in modeled ecosystems?' Here, we focus on how the inclusion of additional plant species and trait information may strengthen dynamic vegetation modeling in applications pertaining to: (1) forage for caribou in northern Alaska, (2) above- and belowground carbon storage in the boreal forest and lake margin wetlands of interior Alaska, and (3) arctic tundra and boreal forest leaf phenology. While the inclusion of additional information generally proved valuable in these three applications, this additional detail depends on field data that may not always be available and may also result in increased computational complexity. Therefore, it is important to assess these possible limitations against the perceived need for additional plant species and trait information in the development and application of dynamic vegetation models.

  11. Tautomers of a Fluorescent G Surrogate and Their Distinct Photophysics Provide Additional Information Channels.

    PubMed

    Sholokh, Marianna; Improta, Roberto; Mori, Mattia; Sharma, Rajhans; Kenfack, Cyril; Shin, Dongwon; Voltz, Karine; Stote, Roland H; Zaporozhets, Olga A; Botta, Maurizio; Tor, Yitzhak; Mély, Yves

    2016-07-01

    Thienoguanosine ((th) G) is an isomorphic nucleoside analogue acting as a faithful fluorescent substitute of G, with respectable quantum yield in oligonucleotides. Photophysical analysis of (th) G reveals the existence of two ground-state tautomers with significantly shifted absorption and emission wavelengths, and high quantum yield in buffer. Using (TD)-DFT calculations, the tautomers were identified as the H1 and H3 keto-amino tautomers. When incorporated into the loop of (-)PBS, the (-)DNA copy of the HIV-1 primer binding site, both tautomers are observed and show differential sensitivity to protein binding. The red-shifted H1 tautomer is strongly favored in matched (-)/(+)PBS duplexes, while the relative emission of the H3 tautomer can be used to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms. These tautomers and their distinct environmental sensitivity provide unprecedented information channels for analyzing G residues in oligonucleotides and their complexes. PMID:27273741

  12. Unconsciously elicited perceptual prior

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Raymond; Baria, Alexis T.; Flounders, Matthew W.; He, Biyu J.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence over the past decade suggests that vision is not simply a passive, feed-forward process in which cortical areas relay progressively more abstract information to those higher up in the visual hierarchy, but rather an inferential process with top-down processes actively guiding and shaping perception. However, one major question that persists is whether such processes can be influenced by unconsciously perceived stimuli. Recent psychophysics and neuroimaging studies have revealed that while consciously perceived stimuli elicit stronger responses in higher visual and frontoparietal areas than those that fail to reach conscious awareness, the latter can still drive high-level brain and behavioral responses. We investigated whether unconscious processing of a masked natural image could facilitate subsequent conscious recognition of its degraded counterpart (a black-and-white “Mooney” image) presented many seconds later. We found that this is indeed the case, suggesting that conscious vision may be influenced by priors established by unconscious processing of a fleeting image.

  13. Image-Specific Prior Adaptation for Denoising.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xin; Lin, Zhe; Jin, Hailin; Yang, Jianchao; Wang, James Z

    2015-12-01

    Image priors are essential to many image restoration applications, including denoising, deblurring, and inpainting. Existing methods use either priors from the given image (internal) or priors from a separate collection of images (external). We find through statistical analysis that unifying the internal and external patch priors may yield a better patch prior. We propose a novel prior learning algorithm that combines the strength of both internal and external priors. In particular, we first learn a generic Gaussian mixture model from a collection of training images and then adapt the model to the given image by simultaneously adding additional components and refining the component parameters. We apply this image-specific prior to image denoising. The experimental results show that our approach yields better or competitive denoising results in terms of both the peak signal-to-noise ratio and structural similarity. PMID:26316129

  14. Getting the most out of additional guidance information in deformable image registration by leveraging multi-objective optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alderliesten, Tanja; Bosman, Peter A. N.; Bel, Arjan

    2015-03-01

    Incorporating additional guidance information, e.g., landmark/contour correspondence, in deformable image registration is often desirable and is typically done by adding constraints or cost terms to the optimization function. Commonly, deciding between a "hard" constraint and a "soft" additional cost term as well as the weighting of cost terms in the optimization function is done on a trial-and-error basis. The aim of this study is to investigate the advantages of exploiting guidance information by taking a multi-objective optimization perspective. Hereto, next to objectives related to match quality and amount of deformation, we define a third objective related to guidance information. Multi-objective optimization eliminates the need to a-priori tune a weighting of objectives in a single optimization function or the strict requirement of fulfilling hard guidance constraints. Instead, Pareto-efficient trade-offs between all objectives are found, effectively making the introduction of guidance information straightforward, independent of its type or scale. Further, since complete Pareto fronts also contain less interesting parts (i.e., solutions with near-zero deformation effort), we study how adaptive steering mechanisms can be incorporated to automatically focus more on solutions of interest. We performed experiments on artificial and real clinical data with large differences, including disappearing structures. Results show the substantial benefit of using additional guidance information. Moreover, compared to the 2-objective case, additional computational cost is negligible. Finally, with the same computational budget, use of the adaptive steering mechanism provides superior solutions in the area of interest.

  15. SU-E-J-83: Ion Imaging to Better Estimate In-Vivo Relative Stopping Powers Using X-Ray CT Prior-Knowledge Information

    SciTech Connect

    Dias, M; Collins-Fekete, C; Riboldi, M; Baroni, G; Doolan, P; Hansen, D; Seco, J

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To reduce uncertainties in relative stopping power (RSP) estimates for ions (alpha and carbon) by using Ion radiographic-imaging and X-ray CT prior-knowledge. Methods: A 36×36 phantom matrix composed of 9 materials with different thicknesses and randomly placed is generated. Theoretical RSPs are calculated using stopping power (SP) data from three references (Janni, ICRU49 and Bischel). We introduced an artificial systematic error (1.5%, 2.5% or 3.5%) and a random error (<0.5%) to the SP to simulated patient ion-range errors present in clinic environment. Carbon/alpha final energy for each RSPs set (theoretical and from CT images) is obtained with a ray-tracing algorithm. A gradient descent (GD) method is used to minimize the difference in exit particle energy, between theory and X-ray CT RSP maps, by iteratively correcting the RSP map from X-ray CT. Once a new set of RSPs is obtained for a direction a new optimization is done over other direction using the RSPs from the previous optimization. Theoretical RSPs are compared with experimental RSPs obtained with Gammex Phantom. Results: Preliminary results show that optimized RSP values can be obtained with smaller uncertainties (<1%) than clinical RSPs (1.5% to 3.5%). Theoretical values from three different references show uncertainties, up to 3% from experimental values. Further investigation will consider prior-knowledge from RSP obtained with CT images and ion radiographies from Monte Carlo Simulations. Conclusion: GD and ray-tracing methods have been implemented to reduce RSP uncertainties from values obtained for clinical treatment. Experimental RSPs will be obtained using carbon/alpha beams to consider the existence of material dependent systematic errors. Based on the results, it is hoped to show that using ray-tracing optimization with ion radiography and prior knowledge on RPSs, treatment planning accuracy and cost-effectiveness can be improved.

  16. When does prior knowledge disproportionately benefit older adults' memory?

    PubMed

    Badham, Stephen P; Hay, Mhairi; Foxon, Natasha; Kaur, Kiran; Maylor, Elizabeth A

    2016-01-01

    Material consistent with knowledge/experience is generally more memorable than material inconsistent with knowledge/experience - an effect that can be more extreme in older adults. Four experiments investigated knowledge effects on memory with young and older adults. Memory for familiar and unfamiliar proverbs (Experiment 1) and for common and uncommon scenes (Experiment 2) showed similar knowledge effects across age groups. Memory for person-consistent and person-neutral actions (Experiment 3) showed a greater benefit of prior knowledge in older adults. For cued recall of related and unrelated word pairs (Experiment 4), older adults benefited more from prior knowledge only when it provided uniquely useful additional information beyond the episodic association itself. The current data and literature suggest that prior knowledge has the age-dissociable mnemonic properties of (1) improving memory for the episodes themselves (age invariant), and (2) providing conceptual information about the tasks/stimuli extrinsically to the actual episodic memory (particularly aiding older adults). PMID:26473767

  17. The power prior: theory and applications.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Joseph G; Chen, Ming-Hui; Gwon, Yeongjin; Chen, Fang

    2015-12-10

    The power prior has been widely used in many applications covering a large number of disciplines. The power prior is intended to be an informative prior constructed from historical data. It has been used in clinical trials, genetics, health care, psychology, environmental health, engineering, economics, and business. It has also been applied for a wide variety of models and settings, both in the experimental design and analysis contexts. In this review article, we give an A-to-Z exposition of the power prior and its applications to date. We review its theoretical properties, variations in its formulation, statistical contexts for which it has been used, applications, and its advantages over other informative priors. We review models for which it has been used, including generalized linear models, survival models, and random effects models. Statistical areas where the power prior has been used include model selection, experimental design, hierarchical modeling, and conjugate priors. Frequentist properties of power priors in posterior inference are established, and a simulation study is conducted to further examine the empirical performance of the posterior estimates with power priors. Real data analyses are given illustrating the power prior as well as the use of the power prior in the Bayesian design of clinical trials. PMID:26346180

  18. A new species of Neparholaspis (Acari: Parholaspididae) from Russia, with additional information on Neparholaspis evansi Krantz, 1960.

    PubMed

    Marchenko, Irina I

    2016-01-01

    Neparholaspis dubatolovi sp. nov. is described and illustrated from adult females and males collected from litter and moss in montane forest in north-eastern Sikhote-Alin Ridge in the Far East of Russia. Additional morphological information and illustrations of Neparholaspis evansi Krantz, 1960 are provided, based on examination of a paratype. A key to the world species of Neparholaspis is provided. PMID:27615851

  19. Constructing priors in synesthesia.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, Tessa M

    2014-01-01

    A new theoretical framework (PPSMC) applicable to synesthesia has been proposed, in which the discrepancy between the perceptual reality of (some) synesthetic concurrents and their subjective non-veridicality is being explained. The PPSMC framework stresses the relevance of the phenomenology of synesthesia for synesthesia research-and beyond. When describing the emergence and persistence of synesthetic concurrents under PPSMC, it is proposed that precise, high-confidence priors are crucial in synesthesia. I discuss the construction of priors in synesthesia. PMID:24702569

  20. Prior Computer Experience and Technology Acceptance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varma, Sonali

    2010-01-01

    Prior computer experience with information technology has been identified as a key variable (Lee, Kozar, & Larsen, 2003) that can influence an individual's future use of newer computer technology. The lack of a theory driven approach to measuring prior experience has however led to conceptually different factors being used interchangeably in…

  1. Review of information on the radiation chemistry of materials around waste canisters in salt and assessment of the need for additional experimental information

    SciTech Connect

    Jenks, G.H.; Baes, C.F. Jr.

    1980-03-01

    The brines, vapors, and salts precipitated from the brines will be exposed to gamma rays and to elevated temperatures in the regions close to a waste package in the salt. Accordingly, they will be subject to changes in composition brought about by reactions induced by the radiations and heat. This report reviews the status of information on the radiation chemistry of brines, gases, and solids which might be present around a waste package in salt and to assess the need for additional laboratory investigations on the radiation chemistry of these materials. The basic aspects of the radiation chemistry of water and aqueous solutions, including concentrated salt solutions, were reviewed briefly and found to be substantially unchanged from those presented in Jenks's 1972 review of radiolysis and hydrolysis in salt-mine brines. Some additional information pertaining to the radiolytic yields and reactions in brine solutions has become available since the previous review, and this information will be useful in the eventual, complete elucidation of the radiation chemistry of the salt-mine brines. 53 references.

  2. Proportion estimation using prior cluster purities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terrell, G. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The prior distribution of CLASSY component purities is studied, and this information incorporated into maximum likelihood crop proportion estimators. The method is tested on Transition Year spring small grain segments.

  3. SU-C-204-04: Patient Specific Proton Stopping Powers Estimation by Combining Proton Radiography and Prior-Knowledge X-Ray CT Information

    SciTech Connect

    Collins-Fekete, CA; Brousmiche, S; Hansen, D; Beaulieu, L; Seco, J

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The material relative stopping power (RSP) uncertainty is the highest contributor to the range uncertainty in proton therapy. The purpose of this work is to develop a robust and systematic method that yields accurate, patient specific, RSP by combining 1) pre-treatment x-ray CT and 2) daily proton radiograph of the patient. Methods: The method is formulated as a linear least-square optimization problem (min||Ax-B||2). The parameter A represents the pathlength crossed by the proton in each material. The RSPs for the materials (water equivalent thickness (WET)/physical thickness) are denoted by x. B is the proton radiograph expressed as WET crossed. The problem is minimized using a convex-conic optimization algorithm with xiprior knowledge x-ray CT demonstrates serious potential to increase the accuracy of present RSP estimates.

  4. Headaches prior to earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, L. L.

    1988-06-01

    In two surveys of headaches it was noted that their incidence had increased significantly within 48 h prior to earthquakes from an incidence of 17% to 58% in the first survey using correlated samples and from 20.4% to 44% in the second survey using independent samples. It is suggested that an increase in positive air ions from rock compression may trigger head pain via a decrease in brain levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin. The findings are presented as preliminary, with the hope of generating further research efforts in areas more prone to earthquakes.

  5. Prospective regularization design in prior-image-based reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang, Hao; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H.; Webster Stayman, J.

    2015-12-01

    Prior-image-based reconstruction (PIBR) methods leveraging patient-specific anatomical information from previous imaging studies and/or sequences have demonstrated dramatic improvements in dose utilization and image quality for low-fidelity data. However, a proper balance of information from the prior images and information from the measurements is required (e.g. through careful tuning of regularization parameters). Inappropriate selection of reconstruction parameters can lead to detrimental effects including false structures and failure to improve image quality. Traditional methods based on heuristics are subject to error and sub-optimal solutions, while exhaustive searches require a large number of computationally intensive image reconstructions. In this work, we propose a novel method that prospectively estimates the optimal amount of prior image information for accurate admission of specific anatomical changes in PIBR without performing full image reconstructions. This method leverages an analytical approximation to the implicitly defined PIBR estimator, and introduces a predictive performance metric leveraging this analytical form and knowledge of a particular presumed anatomical change whose accurate reconstruction is sought. Additionally, since model-based PIBR approaches tend to be space-variant, a spatially varying prior image strength map is proposed to optimally admit changes everywhere in the image (eliminating the need to know change locations a priori). Studies were conducted in both an ellipse phantom and a realistic thorax phantom emulating a lung nodule surveillance scenario. The proposed method demonstrated accurate estimation of the optimal prior image strength while achieving a substantial computational speedup (about a factor of 20) compared to traditional exhaustive search. Moreover, the use of the proposed prior strength map in PIBR demonstrated accurate reconstruction of anatomical changes without foreknowledge of change locations in

  6. Prospective regularization design in prior-image-based reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Dang, Hao; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H; Stayman, J Webster

    2015-12-21

    Prior-image-based reconstruction (PIBR) methods leveraging patient-specific anatomical information from previous imaging studies and/or sequences have demonstrated dramatic improvements in dose utilization and image quality for low-fidelity data. However, a proper balance of information from the prior images and information from the measurements is required (e.g. through careful tuning of regularization parameters). Inappropriate selection of reconstruction parameters can lead to detrimental effects including false structures and failure to improve image quality. Traditional methods based on heuristics are subject to error and sub-optimal solutions, while exhaustive searches require a large number of computationally intensive image reconstructions. In this work, we propose a novel method that prospectively estimates the optimal amount of prior image information for accurate admission of specific anatomical changes in PIBR without performing full image reconstructions. This method leverages an analytical approximation to the implicitly defined PIBR estimator, and introduces a predictive performance metric leveraging this analytical form and knowledge of a particular presumed anatomical change whose accurate reconstruction is sought. Additionally, since model-based PIBR approaches tend to be space-variant, a spatially varying prior image strength map is proposed to optimally admit changes everywhere in the image (eliminating the need to know change locations a priori). Studies were conducted in both an ellipse phantom and a realistic thorax phantom emulating a lung nodule surveillance scenario. The proposed method demonstrated accurate estimation of the optimal prior image strength while achieving a substantial computational speedup (about a factor of 20) compared to traditional exhaustive search. Moreover, the use of the proposed prior strength map in PIBR demonstrated accurate reconstruction of anatomical changes without foreknowledge of change locations in

  7. The effects of practice on speed of information processing using the Adjusting-Paced Serial Addition Test (Adjusting-PSAT) and the Computerized Tests of Information Processing (CTIP).

    PubMed

    Baird, B J; Tombaugh, Thomas N; Francis, M

    2007-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to determine the effects of practice on the Adjusting-Paced Serial Addition Task (Adjusting-PSAT) (Tombaugh, 1999) and the Computerized Tests of Information Processing (CTIP) (Tombaugh & Rees, 2000). The Adjusting-PSAT is a computerized modification of the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) (Gronwall, 1977) that makes the interval between digits contingent on the correctness of the response. This titration procedure permits a threshold value to be derived that represents the shortest presentation interval in which a person can process the digits to produce the correct sum. The CTIP consists of three reaction time tests that are progressively more difficult. Results showed that robust practice effects occurred with the Adjusting-PSAT, with the greatest increase in performance occurring on the first retest trial. Practice effects were equally prominent regardless of whether the first retest trial occurred 20A min, 1 week, or 3 months after the first administration. These gains were maintained for periods up to 6 months and were independent of modality of presentation (visual or auditory) and type of number list (easy or hard). In contrast to the findings with the Adjusting-PSAT, only minimal practice effects were observed with the CTIP. The major clinical implication of the study is that the high reliability coefficients for the CTIP, the lack of anxiety associated with its administration, and its insensitivity to variables such as numerical and verbal ability make the CTIP ideally suited for the serial evaluation of cognitive status. These characteristics also make the CTIP a viable alternative to the Adjusting-PSAT or PASAT for measuring speed of information processing. If the Adjusting-PSAT is administered repeatedly in clinical evaluations, a "dual baseline" or "run in" procedure should be used, with the second administration serving as the baseline measurement. PMID:17523883

  8. On the additional information content of hyperspectral remote sensing data for estimating ecosystem carbon dioxde and energy exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohlfahrt, Georg; Hammerle, Albin; Tomelleri, Enrico

    2015-04-01

    Radiation reflected back from an ecosystem carries a spectral signature resulting from the interaction of radiation with the vegetation canopy and the underlying soil and thus allows drawing conclusions about the structure and functioning of an ecosystem. When this information is linked to a model of the leaf CO2 exchange, the ecosystem-scale CO2 exchange can be simulated. A well-known and very simplistic example for this approach is the light-use efficiency (LUE) model proposed by Monteith which links the flux of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation times a LUE parameter, both of which may be estimated based on remote sensing data, to predict the ecosystem gross photosynthesis. Here we explore the ability of a more elaborate approach by using near-surface remote sensing of hyperspectral reflected radiation, eddy covariance CO2 and energy flux measurements and a coupled radiative transfer and soil-vegetation-atmosphere-transfer (SVAT) model. Our main objective is to understand to what degree the joint assimilation of hyperspectral reflected radiation and eddy covariance flux measurements into the model helps to better constrain model parameters. To this end we use the SCOPE model, a combination of the well-known PROSAIL model and a SVAT model, and the Bayesian inversion algorithm DREAM. In order to explicitly link reflectance in the visible light and the leaf CO2 exchange, a novel parameterisation of the maximum carboxylation capacity parameter (Vcmax) on the leaf a+b chlorophyll content parameter of PROSAIL is introduced. Results are discussed with respect to the additional information content the hyperspectral data yield for simulating canopy photosynthesis.

  9. 22 CFR 129.8 - Prior notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prior notification. 129.8 Section 129.8 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS REGISTRATION AND LICENSING OF...,000, except for sharing of basic marketing information (e.g., information that does not...

  10. Optimizing Inequality Constrained Priors in Bayesian Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Dawn E.

    2005-11-01

    Intelligent systems based on Bayesian networks have been successful in medical diagnosis, finance and many other areas. Updating probabilities in Bayesian networks relies on algorithms that require complete causal information. Sensitivity analysis now strongly indicates that probabilities in Bayesian networks are not robust and this reinforces the view that a sound theoretical model for finding a minimally prejudiced estimate of the prior distribution is desirable. In this paper we are concerned with how to find the optimum prior distribution, given all and only the knowledge available. In particular, we show how to integrate prior knowledge expressed in terms of inequality constraints, into a Bayesian network based intelligent system.

  11. 36 CFR 1281.12 - What information must be provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a Presidential library facility... ADMINISTRATION NARA FACILITIES PRESIDENTIAL LIBRARY FACILITIES § 1281.12 What information must be provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a Presidential library facility? (a)...

  12. 36 CFR 1281.12 - What information must be provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a Presidential library facility... ADMINISTRATION NARA FACILITIES PRESIDENTIAL LIBRARY FACILITIES § 1281.12 What information must be provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a Presidential library facility? (a)...

  13. 36 CFR 1281.12 - What information must be provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a Presidential library facility... ADMINISTRATION NARA FACILITIES PRESIDENTIAL LIBRARY FACILITIES § 1281.12 What information must be provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a Presidential library facility? (a)...

  14. 36 CFR 1281.12 - What information must be provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a Presidential library facility... ADMINISTRATION NARA FACILITIES PRESIDENTIAL LIBRARY FACILITIES § 1281.12 What information must be provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a Presidential library facility? (a)...

  15. 41 CFR 102-75.140 - In addition to the title report, and all necessary environmental information and certifications...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 40 CFR part 761, if requested by the disposal agency. If the property does contain any equipment subject to EPA regulation under 40 CFR part 761, the certification must include the landholding agency's... report, and all necessary environmental information and certifications, what information must...

  16. 41 CFR 102-75.140 - In addition to the title report, and all necessary environmental information and certifications...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 40 CFR part 761, if requested by the disposal agency. If the property does contain any equipment subject to EPA regulation under 40 CFR part 761, the certification must include the landholding agency's... report, and all necessary environmental information and certifications, what information must...

  17. The Influence of Prior Knowledge on the Retrieval-Directed Function of Note Taking in Prior Knowledge Activation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wetzels, Sandra A. J.; Kester, Liesbeth; van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.; Broers, Nick J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Prior knowledge activation facilitates learning. Note taking during prior knowledge activation (i.e., note taking directed at retrieving information from memory) might facilitate the activation process by enabling learners to build an external representation of their prior knowledge. However, taking notes might be less effective in…

  18. Objective prior distribution of climate sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pueyo, S.

    2012-04-01

    The problems posed by the choice of prior distribution constitute one of the most fundamental obstacles to assign probabilities to the possible values of climate sensitivity S. The prior is the probability distribution that we assume before introducing data. In the literature about climate sensitivity, the most frequently used prior is the uniform. On first inspection, this distribution would seem to represent absence of information, but, as is well known, this assumption leads to paradoxes. This observation has led to the widespread belief that priors are inherently subjective and should be decided by expert elicitation, even though this amounts to questioning the objective value of scientific results. In general, the climate science community is unaware of the "objective Bayesian" literature, which seeks objective criteria to determine non-informative prior distributions (or reference priors). In a recent paper (Pueyo 2011) I applied an objective Bayesian approach to climate sensitivity. I described three lines of evidence indicating that the distribution that really represents absence of information about S is log-uniform, i.e. it consists of a uniform distribution of log(S) instead of S: • In the case of S, only the log-uniform distribution satisfies Jaynes' invariant groups criterion, i.e. this distribution does not change when modifying assumptions that are not explicitly included in the enunciate of the problem (I only included the definition of S). • In terms of information theory, information about S can be identified with mutual information between changes in radiative forcing and in temperature. Absence of mutual information between these variables implies a log-uniform distribution of S. • The frequency distribution of sets of parameters formally comparable to climate sensitivity is approximately log-uniform for a broad range of values. A log-uniform distribution of S is intermediate between a uniform distribution of S and a uniform distribution

  19. When does prior knowledge disproportionately benefit older adults’ memory?

    PubMed Central

    Badham, Stephen P.; Hay, Mhairi; Foxon, Natasha; Kaur, Kiran; Maylor, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Material consistent with knowledge/experience is generally more memorable than material inconsistent with knowledge/experience – an effect that can be more extreme in older adults. Four experiments investigated knowledge effects on memory with young and older adults. Memory for familiar and unfamiliar proverbs (Experiment 1) and for common and uncommon scenes (Experiment 2) showed similar knowledge effects across age groups. Memory for person-consistent and person-neutral actions (Experiment 3) showed a greater benefit of prior knowledge in older adults. For cued recall of related and unrelated word pairs (Experiment 4), older adults benefited more from prior knowledge only when it provided uniquely useful additional information beyond the episodic association itself. The current data and literature suggest that prior knowledge has the age-dissociable mnemonic properties of (1) improving memory for the episodes themselves (age invariant), and (2) providing conceptual information about the tasks/stimuli extrinsically to the actual episodic memory (particularly aiding older adults). PMID:26473767

  20. Hippocampus segmentation using locally weighted prior based level set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achuthan, Anusha; Rajeswari, Mandava

    2015-12-01

    Segmentation of hippocampus in the brain is one of a major challenge in medical image segmentation due to its' imaging characteristics, with almost similar intensity between another adjacent gray matter structure, such as amygdala. The intensity similarity has causes the hippocampus to have weak or fuzzy boundaries. With this main challenge being demonstrated by hippocampus, a segmentation method that relies on image information alone may not produce accurate segmentation results. Therefore, it is needed an assimilation of prior information such as shape and spatial information into existing segmentation method to produce the expected segmentation. Previous studies has widely integrated prior information into segmentation methods. However, the prior information has been utilized through a global manner integration, and this does not reflect the real scenario during clinical delineation. Therefore, in this paper, a locally integrated prior information into a level set model is presented. This work utilizes a mean shape model to provide automatic initialization for level set evolution, and has been integrated as prior information into the level set model. The local integration of edge based information and prior information has been implemented through an edge weighting map that decides at voxel level which information need to be observed during a level set evolution. The edge weighting map shows which corresponding voxels having sufficient edge information. Experiments shows that the proposed integration of prior information locally into a conventional edge-based level set model, known as geodesic active contour has shown improvement of 9% in averaged Dice coefficient.

  1. An approach to prior austenite reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Abbasi, Majid; Nelson, Tracy W.; Sorensen, Carl D.; Wei Lingyun

    2012-04-15

    One area of interest in Friction Stir Welding (FSW) of steels is to understand microstructural evolution during the process. Most of the deformation occurs in the austenite temperature range. Quantitative microstructural measurements of prior austenite microstructure are needed in order to understand evolution of the microstructure. Considering the fact that room temperature microstructure in ferritic steels contains very little to no retained austenite, prior austenite microstructure needs to be recovered from the room temperature ferrite. In this paper, an approach based on Electron Backscattered Diffraction (EBSD) is introduced to detect Bain zones. Bain zone detection is used to reconstruct prior austenite grain structure. Additionally, a separate approach based on phase transformation orientation relationships is introduced in order to recover prior austenite orientation. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This approach provides a tool to reconstruct large-scale austenite microstructures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It recovers prior austenite orientation without relying on retained austenite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It utilizes EBSD data from the room temperature microstructure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Higher number of active variants leads to more accurate reconstructions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer At least two variants are needed in order to recover prior austenite orientation.

  2. Dynamic emotion perception and prior expectancy.

    PubMed

    Dzafic, Ilvana; Martin, Andrew K; Hocking, Julia; Mowry, Bryan; Burianová, Hana

    2016-06-01

    Social interactions require the ability to rapidly perceive emotion from various incoming dynamic, multisensory cues. Prior expectations reduce incoming emotional information and direct attention to cues that are aligned with what is expected. Studies to date have investigated the prior expectancy effect using static emotional images, despite the fact that dynamic stimuli would represent greater ecological validity. The objective of the study was to create a novel functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) paradigm to examine the influence of prior expectations on naturalistic emotion perception. For this purpose, we developed a dynamic emotion perception task, which consisted of audio-visual videos that carry emotional information congruent or incongruent with prior expectations. The results show that emotional congruency was associated with activity in prefrontal regions, amygdala, and putamen, whereas emotional incongruency was associated with activity in temporoparietal junction and mid-cingulate gyrus. Supported by the behavioural results, our findings suggest that prior expectations are reinforced after repeated experience and learning, whereas unexpected emotions may rely on fast change detection processes. The results from the current study are compatible with the notion that the ability to automatically detect unexpected changes in complex dynamic environments allows for adaptive behaviours in potentially advantageous or threatening situations. PMID:27126841

  3. Processing time of addition or withdrawal of single or combined balance-stabilizing haptic and visual information.

    PubMed

    Honeine, Jean-Louis; Crisafulli, Oscar; Sozzi, Stefania; Schieppati, Marco

    2015-12-01

    We investigated the integration time of haptic and visual input and their interaction during stance stabilization. Eleven subjects performed four tandem-stance conditions (60 trials each). Vision, touch, and both vision and touch were added and withdrawn. Furthermore, vision was replaced with touch and vice versa. Body sway, tibialis anterior, and peroneus longus activity were measured. Following addition or withdrawal of vision or touch, an integration time period elapsed before the earliest changes in sway were observed. Thereafter, sway varied exponentially to a new steady-state while reweighting occurred. Latencies of sway changes on sensory addition ranged from 0.6 to 1.5 s across subjects, consistently longer for touch than vision, and were regularly preceded by changes in muscle activity. Addition of vision and touch simultaneously shortened the latencies with respect to vision or touch separately, suggesting cooperation between sensory modalities. Latencies following withdrawal of vision or touch or both simultaneously were shorter than following addition. When vision was replaced with touch or vice versa, adding one modality did not interfere with the effect of withdrawal of the other, suggesting that integration of withdrawal and addition were performed in parallel. The time course of the reweighting process to reach the new steady-state was also shorter on withdrawal than addition. The effects of different sensory inputs on posture stabilization illustrate the operation of a time-consuming, possibly supraspinal process that integrates and fuses modalities for accurate balance control. This study also shows the facilitatory interaction of visual and haptic inputs in integration and reweighting of stance-stabilizing inputs. PMID:26334013

  4. 45 CFR 1351.19 - What additional information should an applicant or grantee have about a Runaway and Homeless...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Homeless Youth Program grants. These include: (1) The provisions of 45 CFR part 74 pertaining to the Administration of Grants; (2) The provisions of 45 CFR part 16, Departmental Grants Appeal Process, and the provisions of Informal Grant Appeal Procedures (Indirect Costs) in volume 45 CFR part 75; (3) The...

  5. 45 CFR 1351.19 - What additional information should an applicant or grantee have about a Runaway and Homeless...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Homeless Youth Program grants. These include: (1) The provisions of 45 CFR part 74 pertaining to the Administration of Grants; (2) The provisions of 45 CFR part 16, Departmental Grants Appeal Process, and the provisions of Informal Grant Appeal Procedures (Indirect Costs) in volume 45 CFR part 75; (3) The...

  6. 45 CFR 1351.19 - What additional information should an applicant or grantee have about a Runaway and Homeless...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Homeless Youth Program grants. These include: (1) The provisions of 45 CFR part 74 pertaining to the Administration of Grants; (2) The provisions of 45 CFR part 16, Departmental Grants Appeal Process, and the provisions of Informal Grant Appeal Procedures (Indirect Costs) in volume 45 CFR part 75; (3) The...

  7. 45 CFR 1351.19 - What additional information should an applicant or grantee have about a Runaway and Homeless...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Homeless Youth Program grants. These include: (1) The provisions of 45 CFR part 74 pertaining to the Administration of Grants; (2) The provisions of 45 CFR part 16, Departmental Grants Appeal Process, and the provisions of Informal Grant Appeal Procedures (Indirect Costs) in volume 45 CFR part 75; (3) The...

  8. 45 CFR 1351.19 - What additional information should an applicant or grantee have about a Runaway and Homeless...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Homeless Youth Program grants. These include: (1) The provisions of 45 CFR part 74 pertaining to the Administration of Grants; (2) The provisions of 45 CFR part 16, Departmental Grants Appeal Process, and the provisions of Informal Grant Appeal Procedures (Indirect Costs) in volume 45 CFR part 75; (3) The...

  9. 36 CFR 1290.4 - Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and additional records and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION JFK ASSASSINATION RECORDS... COLLECTION ACT OF 1992 (JFK ACT) § 1290.4 Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and... information includes, for purposes of interpreting and implementing the JFK Act: (a) Papers, maps, and...

  10. Space Takes Time: Concentration Dependent Output Codes from Primary Olfactory Networks Rapidly Provide Additional Information at Defined Discrimination Thresholds

    PubMed Central

    Daly, Kevin C.; Bradley, Samual; Chapman, Phillip D.; Staudacher, Erich M.; Tiede, Regina; Schachtner, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    As odor concentration increases, primary olfactory network representations expand in spatial distribution, temporal complexity and duration. However, the direct relationship between concentration dependent odor representations and the psychophysical thresholds of detection and discrimination is poorly understood. This relationship is absolutely critical as thresholds signify transition points whereby representations become meaningful to the organism. Here, we matched stimulus protocols for psychophysical assays and intracellular recordings of antennal lobe (AL) projection neurons (PNs) in the moth Manduca sexta to directly compare psychophysical thresholds and the output representations they elicit. We first behaviorally identified odor detection and discrimination thresholds across an odor dilution series for a panel of structurally similar odors. We then characterized spatiotemporal spiking patterns across a population of individually filled and identified AL PNs in response to those odors at concentrations below, at, and above identified thresholds. Using spatial and spatiotemporal based analyses we observed that each stimulus produced unique representations, even at sub-threshold concentrations. Mean response latency did not decrease and the percent glomerular activation did not increase with concentration until undiluted odor. Furthermore, correlations between spatial patterns for odor decreased, but only significantly with undiluted odor. Using time-integrated Euclidean distance (ED) measures, we determined that added spatiotemporal information was present at the discrimination but not detection threshold. This added information was evidenced by an increase in integrated distance between the sub-detection and discrimination threshold concentrations (of the same odor) that was not present in comparison of the sub-detection and detection threshold. After consideration of delays for information to reach the AL we find that it takes ~120–140 ms for the AL to

  11. Nudging toward Inquiry: Awakening and Building upon Prior Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontichiaro, Kristin, Comp.

    2010-01-01

    "Prior knowledge" (sometimes called schema or background knowledge) is information one already knows that helps him/her make sense of new information. New learning builds on existing prior knowledge. In traditional reporting-style research projects, students bypass this crucial step and plow right into answer-finding. It's no wonder that many…

  12. The Importance of Prior Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleary, Linda Miller

    1989-01-01

    Recounts a college English teacher's experience of reading and rereading Noam Chomsky, building up a greater store of prior knowledge. Argues that Frank Smith provides a theory for the importance of prior knowledge and Chomsky's work provided a personal example with which to interpret and integrate that theory. (RS)

  13. Additional evidence that rosacea pathogenesis may involve demodex: new information from the topical efficacy of ivermectin and praziquantel.

    PubMed

    Abokwidir, Manal; Fleischer, Alan B

    2015-09-01

    Additional evidence that Demodex folliculorum may contribute to the pathogenesis of papulopustular rosacea are new studies of two topical antiparasitic agents. Ivermectin and praziquantel have recently been shown to be effective in decreasing the severity of papulopustular rosacea. These two agents significantly differ in molecular structure, but yield similar antiparasitic mechanisms of action. Higher numbers of Demodex mites are found in the skin of patients with rosacea than in people with normal skin. If Demodex play a role in pathogenesis, then hypersensitivity to the mites, their flora, or their products could explain the observed efficacy of antidemodectic therapy. PMID:26437294

  14. 43 CFR 3276.13 - What additional information must I give BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... flow into the turbine in klbs; for dual flash facilities, you must separate the steam flow into high... BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam facilities? 3276.13 Section 3276.13 Public Lands... What additional information must I give BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam...

  15. 43 CFR 3276.13 - What additional information must I give BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... flow into the turbine in klbs; for dual flash facilities, you must separate the steam flow into high... BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam facilities? 3276.13 Section 3276.13 Public Lands... What additional information must I give BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam...

  16. 43 CFR 3276.13 - What additional information must I give BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What additional information must I give BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam facilities? 3276.13 Section 3276.13 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000)...

  17. 43 CFR 3276.13 - What additional information must I give BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... flow into the turbine in klbs; for dual flash facilities, you must separate the steam flow into high... BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam facilities? 3276.13 Section 3276.13 Public Lands... What additional information must I give BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam...

  18. EPA evaluation of the SYNERGY-1 fuel additive under Section 511 of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Syria, S.L.

    1981-06-01

    This document announces the conclusions of the EPA evaluation of the 'SYNERGY-1' device under provisions of Section 511 of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act. This additive is intended to improve fuel economy and exhaust emission levels of two and four cycle gasoline fueled engines.

  19. Highly informative Y-chromosomal haplotypes by the addition of three new STRs DYS437, DYS438 and DYS439.

    PubMed

    Grignani, P; Peloso, G; Fattorini, P; Previderè, C

    2000-01-01

    The Y chromosome STRs DYS437, DYS438 and DYS439 were selected from publicly available genome databases and used to analyse an Italian population sample. A tetraplex PCR reaction including the highly informative DYS385 locus, was set up and used for the analysis of 131 male samples to determine allele frequencies and STR diversity values. The number of different haplotypes and the haplotype diversity value found from the analysis of the STRs included in the tetraplex reaction were very similar to those found from the analysis of the basic set of 7 Y-STRs (DYS19, DYS389I/II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392 and DYS393) previously carried out on the same population sample. By combining the allelic states of the 11 Y-chromosomal STRs we could construct highly informative haplotypes that allowed the discrimination of 93.8% (120 out of 128) of the samples tested. This approach represents a very powerful tool for individual identification and paternity testing in forensic medicine. PMID:11197619

  20. Augmenting system reliability analyses with observation priors

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, Earl; Anderson-cook, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Occasionally, a system may fail a test without an obvious component being at fault. Instead, experts may know that at least one of a set of components has failed, but there is uncertainty about which members in the set were the actual failures. When no further information is available, this missing data may be imputed using standard data augmentation (DA). This process is already used in the current implementation of the JMP complex-system reliability modeling codes. In some cases when this situation arises, there may be some supplemental information about the nature of the failure that suggests which subset of components are more likely to have failed. the behavior of the system during the failure may make certain components more likely candidates, and lead the engineering experts to have certain prior beliefs about what occurred. In this case, it is still known that at least one of a set of components failed, but the experts have some idea that certain failure scenarios are more likely than others. This white paper addresses this situation by modifying the imputation process of data augmentation through the use of an observation prior. This prior is specific to particular observations, and a given outcome which is repeated several times could potentially have different observation priors associated with each occurrence.

  1. Randomised Controlled Feasibility Trial of an Evidence-Informed Behavioural Intervention for Obese Adults with Additional Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Sniehotta, Falko F.; Dombrowski, Stephan U.; Avenell, Alison; Johnston, Marie; McDonald, Suzanne; Murchie, Peter; Ramsay, Craig R.; Robertson, Kim; Araujo-Soares, Vera

    2011-01-01

    Background Interventions for dietary and physical activity changes in obese adults may be less effective for participants with additional obesity-related risk factors and co-morbidities than for otherwise healthy individuals. This study aimed to test the feasibility and acceptability of the recruitment, allocation, measurement, retention and intervention procedures of a randomised controlled trial of an intervention to improve physical activity and dietary practices amongst obese adults with additional obesity related risk factors. Method Pilot single centre open-labelled outcome assessor-blinded randomised controlled trial of obese (Body Mass Index (BMI)≥30 kg/m2) adults (age≥18 y) with obesity related co-morbidities such as type 2 diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance or hypertension. Participants were randomly allocated to a manual-based group intervention or a leaflet control condition in accordance to a 2∶1 allocation ratio. Primary outcome was acceptability and feasibility of trial procedures, secondary outcomes included measures of body composition, physical activity, food intake and psychological process measures. Results Out of 806 potentially eligible individuals identified through list searches in two primary care general medical practices N = 81 participants (63% female; mean-age = 56.56(11.44); mean-BMI = 36.73(6.06)) with 2.35(1.47) co-morbidities were randomised. Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation (SIMD) was the only significant predictor of providing consent to take part in the study (higher chances of consent for invitees with lower levels of deprivation). Participant flowcharts, qualitative and quantitative feedback suggested good acceptance and feasibility of intervention procedures but 34.6% of randomised participants were lost to follow-up due to overly high measurement burden and sub-optimal retention procedures. Participants in the intervention group showed positive trends for most psychological, behavioural and body

  2. Genome position specific priors for genomic prediction

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The accuracy of genomic prediction is highly dependent on the size of the reference population. For small populations, including information from other populations could improve this accuracy. The usual strategy is to pool data from different populations; however, this has not proven as successful as hoped for with distantly related breeds. BayesRS is a novel approach to share information across populations for genomic predictions. The approach allows information to be captured even where the phase of SNP alleles and casuative mutation alleles are reversed across populations, or the actual casuative mutation is different between the populations but affects the same gene. Proportions of a four-distribution mixture for SNP effects in segments of fixed size along the genome are derived from one population and set as location specific prior proportions of distributions of SNP effects for the target population. The model was tested using dairy cattle populations of different breeds: 540 Australian Jersey bulls, 2297 Australian Holstein bulls and 5214 Nordic Holstein bulls. The traits studied were protein-, fat- and milk yield. Genotypic data was Illumina 777K SNPs, real or imputed. Results Results showed an increase in accuracy of up to 3.5% for the Jersey population when using BayesRS with a prior derived from Australian Holstein compared to a model without location specific priors. The increase in accuracy was however lower than was achieved when reference populations were combined to estimate SNP effects, except in the case of fat yield. The small size of the Jersey validation set meant that these improvements in accuracy were not significant using a Hotelling-Williams t-test at the 5% level. An increase in accuracy of 1-2% for all traits was observed in the Australian Holstein population when using a prior derived from the Nordic Holstein population compared to using no prior information. These improvements were significant (P<0.05) using the Hotelling

  3. Non-Gaussian forecasts of weak lensing with and without priors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellentin, Elena; Schäfer, Björn Malte

    2016-02-01

    Including priors into a data analysis can mask the information content of a given data set alone. However, since the information content of a data set is usually estimated with the Fisher matrix, priors are added to enforce an approximately Gaussian likelihood. Here, we estimate the information content of a Euclid-like weak lensing data set with and without priors. Without priors, the Fisher matrix for 2d-weak lensing includes unphysical values of Ωm and h. The Cramer-Rao inequality then does not need to apply. We find that the new DALI expansion and Monte Carlo Markov Chains agree well and predict the presence of a dark energy with high significance, whereas a Fisher forecast also allows decelerated expansion. We find that a 2d-weak lensing analysis provides a sharp lower limit on the Hubble constant of h > 0.4, even if the equation of state of dark energy is jointly estimated. This is not predicted by the Fisher matrix and usually masked in other works by a sharp prior on h. Additionally, we find that DALI estimates Figures of Merit in the presence of non-Gaussianities better than the Fisher matrix and demonstrate how DALI allows switching to a speedy Hamiltonian Monte Carlo sampling of a highly curved likelihood with acceptance rates of ≈0.5. This shows how quick forecasts can be upgraded to accurate forecasts whenever needed. Results were gained with the public code from DALI.

  4. Prior knowledge in recalling arguments in bioethical dilemmas

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Hiemke K.; Rothgangel, Martin; Grube, Dietmar

    2015-01-01

    Prior knowledge is known to facilitate learning new information. Normally in studies confirming this outcome the relationship between prior knowledge and the topic to be learned is obvious: the information to be acquired is part of the domain or topic to which the prior knowledge belongs. This raises the question as to whether prior knowledge of various domains facilitates recalling information. In this study 79 eleventh-grade students completed a questionnaire on their prior knowledge of seven different domains related to the bioethical dilemma of prenatal diagnostics. The students read a text containing arguments for and arguments against prenatal diagnostics. After 1 week and again 12 weeks later they were asked to write down all the arguments they remembered. Prior knowledge helped them recall the arguments 1 week (r = 0.350) and 12 weeks (r = 0.316) later. Prior knowledge of three of the seven domains significantly helped them recall the arguments 1 week later (correlations between r = 0.194 and 0.394). Partial correlations with interest as a control item revealed that interest did not explain the relationship between prior knowledge and recall. Prior knowledge of different domains jointly supports the recall of arguments related to bioethical topics. PMID:26441702

  5. Validating Prior Geological Scenario Uncertainty with Geophysical Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheidt, C.; Jeong, C.; Mukerji, T.; Caers, J.

    2014-12-01

    Subsurface reservoir modelling, whether for groundwater, storage or oil/gas production relies on geophysical data for determining structure, rocks and fluid variations. The traditional approach depends on stochastic inversion of the geophysical image into subsurface models. However, in addition to geophysical data a wealth of geological information is available from analog or previous studies. Most of this information is ignored, and inversions resort to more mathematically-inspired priors often based on covariance models. In this presentation, using a real field application, we propose a method to validate a rich geological prior with geophysical data without the need for costly inversions. The result of this work is a wide, but geologically-realistic prior that can then be used in subsequent stochastic inversions. To achieve this, we propose to validate plausible geological models (from analog studies) with the observed geophysical data through a global, pattern-based measure of dissimilarity. This global dissimilarity measure is defined between the forward simulated geophysical response of a large variety of geologically plausible models and the observed field data. The proposed dissimilarity measure relies on a comparison of the wavelet decompositions between observed and forward simulated geophysical responses. The difference in frequency distribution of the wavelet coefficients is used via a JS-divergence measure to define the dissimilarity between all the subsurface models and the observed data. The proposed approach is applied to a real field offshore reservoir in West Africa, where a 3D seismic cube is available. The uncertain geological parameters defined for this case are the rock physic model, the infill channels size, depth, sinuosity, the proportion of sand/shale and the stacking patterns.

  6. Changes in frequency of recall recommendations of examinations depicting cancer with the availability of either priors or digital breast tomosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakim, Christiane M.; Bandos, Andriy I.; Ganott, Marie A.; Catullo, Victor J.; Chough, Denise M.; Kelly, Amy E.; Shinde, Dilip D.; Sumkin, Jules H.; Wallace, Luisa P.; Nishikawa, Robert M.; Gur, David

    2016-03-01

    Performance changes in a binary environment when using additional information is affected only when changes in recommendations are made due to the additional information in question. In a recent study, we have shown that, contrary to general expectation, introducing prior examinations improved recall rates, but not sensitivity. In this study, we assessed cancer detection differences when prior examinations and/or digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) were made available to the radiologist. We identified a subset of 21 cancer cases with differences in the number of radiologists who recalled these cases after reviewing either a prior examination or DBT. For the cases with differences in recommendations after viewing either priors or DBT, separately, we evaluated the total number of readers that changed their recommendations, regardless of the specific radiologist in question. Confidence intervals for the number of readers and a test for the hypothesis of no difference was performed using the non-parameteric bootstrap approach addressing both case and reader-related sources of variability by resampling cases and readers. With the addition of priors, there were 14 cancer cases (out of 15) where the number of "recalling radiologists" decreased. With the addition of DBT, the number of "recalling radiologists" decreased in only five cases (out of 15) while increasing in the remaining 9 cases. Unlike most new approaches to breast imaging DBT seems to improve both recall rates and cancer detection rates. Changes in recommendations were noted by all radiologists for all cancers by type, size, and breast density.

  7. Knowledge Modeling in Prior Art Search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, Erik; Frommholz, Ingo; Lalmas, Mounia; van Rijsbergen, Keith

    This study explores the benefits of integrating knowledge representations in prior art patent retrieval. Key to the introduced approach is the utilization of human judgment available in the form of classifications assigned to patent documents. The paper first outlines in detail how a methodology for the extraction of knowledge from such an hierarchical classification system can be established. Further potential ways of integrating this knowledge with existing Information Retrieval paradigms in a scalable and flexible manner are investigated. Finally based on these integration strategies the effectiveness in terms of recall and precision is evaluated in the context of a prior art search task for European patents. As a result of this evaluation it can be established that in general the proposed knowledge expansion techniques are particularly beneficial to recall and, with respect to optimizing field retrieval settings, further result in significant precision gains.

  8. Physical priors in virtual colonoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivaz, Hassan; Shinagawa, Yoshihisa; Liang, Jianming

    2009-02-01

    Electronic colon cleansing (ECC) aims to remove the contrast agent from the CT abdominal images so that a virtual model of the colon can be constructed. Virtual colonoscopy requires either liquid or solid preparation of the colon before CT imaging. This paper has two parts to address ECC in both preparation methods. In the first part, meniscus removal in the liquid preparation is studied. The meniscus is the curve seen at the top of a liquid in response to its container. Left on the colon wall, the meniscus can decrease the sensitivity and specificity of virtual colonoscopy. We state the differential equation that governs the profile of the meniscus and propose an algorithm for calculating the boundary of the contrast agent. We compute the surface tension of the liquid-colon wall contact using in-vivo CT data. Our results show that the surface tension can be estimated with an acceptable degree of uncertainty. Such an estimate, along with the meniscus profile differential equation will be used as an a priori knowledge to aid meniscus segmentation. In the second part, we study ECC in solid preparation of colon. Since the colon is pressurized with air before acquisition of the CT images, a prior on the shape of the colon wall can be obtained. We present such prior and investigate it using patient data. We show the shape prior is held in certain parts of the colon and propose a method that uses this prior to ease pseudoenhancement correction.

  9. Prior Distributions on Symmetric Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, Jayanti; Damien, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Fully and partially ranked data arise in a variety of contexts. From a Bayesian perspective, attention has focused on distance-based models; in particular, the Mallows model and extensions thereof. In this paper, a class of prior distributions, the "Binary Tree," is developed on the symmetric group. The attractive features of the class are: it…

  10. Image Reconstruction Using Analysis Model Prior.

    PubMed

    Han, Yu; Du, Huiqian; Lam, Fan; Mei, Wenbo; Fang, Liping

    2016-01-01

    The analysis model has been previously exploited as an alternative to the classical sparse synthesis model for designing image reconstruction methods. Applying a suitable analysis operator on the image of interest yields a cosparse outcome which enables us to reconstruct the image from undersampled data. In this work, we introduce additional prior in the analysis context and theoretically study the uniqueness issues in terms of analysis operators in general position and the specific 2D finite difference operator. We establish bounds on the minimum measurement numbers which are lower than those in cases without using analysis model prior. Based on the idea of iterative cosupport detection (ICD), we develop a novel image reconstruction model and an effective algorithm, achieving significantly better reconstruction performance. Simulation results on synthetic and practical magnetic resonance (MR) images are also shown to illustrate our theoretical claims. PMID:27379171

  11. Image Reconstruction Using Analysis Model Prior

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yu; Du, Huiqian; Lam, Fan; Mei, Wenbo; Fang, Liping

    2016-01-01

    The analysis model has been previously exploited as an alternative to the classical sparse synthesis model for designing image reconstruction methods. Applying a suitable analysis operator on the image of interest yields a cosparse outcome which enables us to reconstruct the image from undersampled data. In this work, we introduce additional prior in the analysis context and theoretically study the uniqueness issues in terms of analysis operators in general position and the specific 2D finite difference operator. We establish bounds on the minimum measurement numbers which are lower than those in cases without using analysis model prior. Based on the idea of iterative cosupport detection (ICD), we develop a novel image reconstruction model and an effective algorithm, achieving significantly better reconstruction performance. Simulation results on synthetic and practical magnetic resonance (MR) images are also shown to illustrate our theoretical claims. PMID:27379171

  12. 3. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF HOUSE FROM SOUTHEAST, PRIOR TO THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF HOUSE FROM SOUTHEAST, PRIOR TO THE ALTERATIONS OF 1908, SHOWING ADDITION OF FULL LATTICE WORK SCREENING FOUNDATIONS - Ralph M. Munroe House, 3485 Main Highway, Coconut Grove, Miami, Miami-Dade County, FL

  13. 37 CFR 1.501 - Citation of prior art and written statements in patent files.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Citation of prior art and... Reexamination of Patents Citation of Prior Art and Written Statements § 1.501 Citation of prior art and written... directed to the following information: (1) Prior art consisting of patents or printed publications...

  14. 37 CFR 1.501 - Citation of prior art and written statements in patent files.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Citation of prior art and... Reexamination of Patents Citation of Prior Art and Written Statements § 1.501 Citation of prior art and written... directed to the following information: (1) Prior art consisting of patents or printed publications...

  15. Identification of subsurface structures using electromagnetic data and shape priors

    SciTech Connect

    Tveit, Svenn; Bakr, Shaaban A.; Lien, Martha; Mannseth, Trond

    2015-03-01

    We consider the inverse problem of identifying large-scale subsurface structures using the controlled source electromagnetic method. To identify structures in the subsurface where the contrast in electric conductivity can be small, regularization is needed to bias the solution towards preserving structural information. We propose to combine two approaches for regularization of the inverse problem. In the first approach we utilize a model-based, reduced, composite representation of the electric conductivity that is highly flexible, even for a moderate number of degrees of freedom. With a low number of parameters, the inverse problem is efficiently solved using a standard, second-order gradient-based optimization algorithm. Further regularization is obtained using structural prior information, available, e.g., from interpreted seismic data. The reduced conductivity representation is suitable for incorporation of structural prior information. Such prior information cannot, however, be accurately modeled with a gaussian distribution. To alleviate this, we incorporate the structural information using shape priors. The shape prior technique requires the choice of kernel function, which is application dependent. We argue for using the conditionally positive definite kernel which is shown to have computational advantages over the commonly applied gaussian kernel for our problem. Numerical experiments on various test cases show that the methodology is able to identify fairly complex subsurface electric conductivity distributions while preserving structural prior information during the inversion.

  16. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    Food additives are substances that become part of a food product when they are added during the processing or making of that food. "Direct" food additives are often added during processing to: Add nutrients ...

  17. Predicting a prior for Planck

    SciTech Connect

    Hertog, Thomas

    2014-02-01

    The quantum state of the universe combined with the structure of the landscape potential implies a prior that specifies predictions for observations. We compute the prior for CMB related observables given by the no-boundary wave function (NBWF) in a landscape model that includes a range of inflationary patches representative of relatively simple single-field models. In this landscape the NBWF predicts our classical cosmological background emerges from a region of eternal inflation associated with a plateau-like potential. The spectra of primordial fluctuations on observable scales are characteristic of concave potentials, in excellent agreement with the Planck data. By contrast, alternative theories of initial conditions that strongly favor inflation at high values of the potential are disfavored by observations in this landscape.

  18. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  19. Tools for investigating the prior distribution in Bayesian hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yating; Marshall, Lucy; Sharma, Ashish; Smith, Tyler

    2016-07-01

    Bayesian inference is one of the most popular tools for uncertainty analysis in hydrological modeling. While much emphasis has been placed on the selection of appropriate likelihood functions within Bayesian hydrology, few researchers have evaluated the importance of the prior distribution in deriving appropriate posterior distributions. This paper describes tools for the evaluation of parameter sensitivity to the prior distribution to provide guidelines for defining meaningful priors. The tools described here consist of two measurements, the Kullback-Leibler Divergence (KLD) and the prior information elasticity. The Kullback-Leibler Divergence (KLD) is applied to calculate differences between the prior and posterior distributions for different cases. The prior information elasticity is then used to quantify the responsiveness of the KLD values to the change of prior distributions and length of available data. The tools are demonstrated via a Bayesian framework using an MCMC algorithm for a conceptual hydrologic model with both synthetic and real cases. The results of the application of this toolkit suggest the prior distribution can have a significant impact on the posterior distribution and should be more routinely assessed in hydrologic studies.

  20. Bayesian inference with adaptive fuzzy priors and likelihoods.

    PubMed

    Osoba, Osonde; Mitaim, Sanya; Kosko, Bart

    2011-10-01

    Fuzzy rule-based systems can approximate prior and likelihood probabilities in Bayesian inference and thereby approximate posterior probabilities. This fuzzy approximation technique allows users to apply a much wider and more flexible range of prior and likelihood probability density functions than found in most Bayesian inference schemes. The technique does not restrict the user to the few known closed-form conjugacy relations between the prior and likelihood. It allows the user in many cases to describe the densities with words and just two rules can absorb any bounded closed-form probability density directly into the rulebase. Learning algorithms can tune the expert rules as well as grow them from sample data. The learning laws and fuzzy approximators have a tractable form because of the convex-sum structure of additive fuzzy systems. This convex-sum structure carries over to the fuzzy posterior approximator. We prove a uniform approximation theorem for Bayesian posteriors: An additive fuzzy posterior uniformly approximates the posterior probability density if the prior or likelihood densities are continuous and bounded and if separate additive fuzzy systems approximate the prior and likelihood densities. Simulations demonstrate this fuzzy approximation of priors and posteriors for the three most common conjugate priors (as when a beta prior combines with a binomial likelihood to give a beta posterior). Adaptive fuzzy systems can also approximate non-conjugate priors and likelihoods as well as approximate hyperpriors in hierarchical Bayesian inference. The number of fuzzy rules can grow exponentially in iterative Bayesian inference if the previous posterior approximator becomes the new prior approximator. PMID:21478078

  1. How Prior Knowledge Affects Word Identification and Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Priebe, Sarah J.; Keenan, Janice M.; Miller, Amanda C.

    2011-01-01

    While prior knowledge of a passage topic is known to facilitate comprehension, little is known about how it affects word identification. We examined oral reading errors in good and poor readers when reading a passage where they either had prior knowledge of the passage topic or did not. Children who had prior knowledge of the topic were matched on decoding skill to children who did not know the topic so that the groups differed only on knowledge of the passage topic. Prior knowledge of the passage topic was found to significantly increase fluency and reduce reading errors, especially errors based on graphic information, in poor readers. Two possible mechanisms of how prior knowledge might operate to facilitate word identification were evaluated using the pattern of error types, as was the relationship of errors to comprehension. Implications of knowledge effects for assessment and educational policy are discussed. PMID:21799586

  2. Fuel characteristics pertinent to the design of aircraft fuel systems, Supplement I : additional information on MIL-F-7914(AER) grade JP-5 fuel and several fuel oils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, Henry C; Hibbard, Robert R

    1953-01-01

    Since the release of the first NACA publication on fuel characteristics pertinent to the design of aircraft fuel systems (NACA-RM-E53A21), additional information has become available on MIL-F7914(AER) grade JP-5 fuel and several of the current grades of fuel oils. In order to make this information available to fuel-system designers as quickly as possible, the present report has been prepared as a supplement to NACA-RM-E53A21. Although JP-5 fuel is of greater interest in current fuel-system problems than the fuel oils, the available data are not as extensive. It is believed, however, that the limited data on JP-5 are sufficient to indicate the variations in stocks that the designer must consider under a given fuel specification. The methods used in the preparation and extrapolation of data presented in the tables and figures of this supplement are the same as those used in NACA-RM-E53A21.

  3. Prior Experiences Shaping Family Science Conversations at a Nature Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClain, Lucy R.; Zimmerman, Heather Toomey

    2014-01-01

    Using families as the analytical focus, this study informs the field of informal science education with a focus on the role of prior experiences in family science conversations during nature walks at an outdoor-based nature center. Through video-based research, the team analyzed 16 families during walks at a nature center. Each family's prior…

  4. Food additives.

    PubMed

    Berglund, F

    1978-01-01

    The use of additives to food fulfils many purposes, as shown by the index issued by the Codex Committee on Food Additives: Acids, bases and salts; Preservatives, Antioxidants and antioxidant synergists; Anticaking agents; Colours; Emulfifiers; Thickening agents; Flour-treatment agents; Extraction solvents; Carrier solvents; Flavours (synthetic); Flavour enhancers; Non-nutritive sweeteners; Processing aids; Enzyme preparations. Many additives occur naturally in foods, but this does not exclude toxicity at higher levels. Some food additives are nutrients, or even essential nutritents, e.g. NaCl. Examples are known of food additives causing toxicity in man even when used according to regulations, e.g. cobalt in beer. In other instances, poisoning has been due to carry-over, e.g. by nitrate in cheese whey - when used for artificial feed for infants. Poisonings also occur as the result of the permitted substance being added at too high levels, by accident or carelessness, e.g. nitrite in fish. Finally, there are examples of hypersensitivity to food additives, e.g. to tartrazine and other food colours. The toxicological evaluation, based on animal feeding studies, may be complicated by impurities, e.g. orthotoluene-sulfonamide in saccharin; by transformation or disappearance of the additive in food processing in storage, e.g. bisulfite in raisins; by reaction products with food constituents, e.g. formation of ethylurethane from diethyl pyrocarbonate; by metabolic transformation products, e.g. formation in the gut of cyclohexylamine from cyclamate. Metabolic end products may differ in experimental animals and in man: guanylic acid and inosinic acid are metabolized to allantoin in the rat but to uric acid in man. The magnitude of the safety margin in man of the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) is not identical to the "safety factor" used when calculating the ADI. The symptoms of Chinese Restaurant Syndrome, although not hazardous, furthermore illustrate that the whole ADI

  5. Smog control fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Lundby, W.

    1993-06-29

    A method is described of controlling, reducing or eliminating, ozone and related smog resulting from photochemical reactions between ozone and automotive or industrial gases comprising the addition of iodine or compounds of iodine to hydrocarbon-base fuels prior to or during combustion in an amount of about 1 part iodine per 240 to 10,000,000 parts fuel, by weight, to be accomplished by: (a) the addition of these inhibitors during or after the refining or manufacturing process of liquid fuels; (b) the production of these inhibitors for addition into fuel tanks, such as automotive or industrial tanks; or (c) the addition of these inhibitors into combustion chambers of equipment utilizing solid fuels for the purpose of reducing ozone.

  6. Receptive Field Inference with Localized Priors

    PubMed Central

    Park, Mijung; Pillow, Jonathan W.

    2011-01-01

    The linear receptive field describes a mapping from sensory stimuli to a one-dimensional variable governing a neuron's spike response. However, traditional receptive field estimators such as the spike-triggered average converge slowly and often require large amounts of data. Bayesian methods seek to overcome this problem by biasing estimates towards solutions that are more likely a priori, typically those with small, smooth, or sparse coefficients. Here we introduce a novel Bayesian receptive field estimator designed to incorporate locality, a powerful form of prior information about receptive field structure. The key to our approach is a hierarchical receptive field model that flexibly adapts to localized structure in both spacetime and spatiotemporal frequency, using an inference method known as empirical Bayes. We refer to our method as automatic locality determination (ALD), and show that it can accurately recover various types of smooth, sparse, and localized receptive fields. We apply ALD to neural data from retinal ganglion cells and V1 simple cells, and find it achieves error rates several times lower than standard estimators. Thus, estimates of comparable accuracy can be achieved with substantially less data. Finally, we introduce a computationally efficient Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm for fully Bayesian inference under the ALD prior, yielding accurate Bayesian confidence intervals for small or noisy datasets. PMID:22046110

  7. Reconstructing the prior probabilities of allelic phylogenies.

    PubMed Central

    Golding, G Brian

    2002-01-01

    In general when a phylogeny is reconstructed from DNA or protein sequence data, it makes use only of the probabilities of obtaining some phylogeny given a collection of data. It is also possible to determine the prior probabilities of different phylogenies. This information can be of use in analyzing the biological causes for the observed divergence of sampled taxa. Unusually "rare" topologies for a given data set may be indicative of different biological forces acting. A recursive algorithm is presented that calculates the prior probabilities of a phylogeny for different allelic samples and for different phylogenies. This method is a straightforward extension of Ewens' sample distribution. The probability of obtaining each possible sample according to Ewens' distribution is further subdivided into each of the possible phylogenetic topologies. These probabilities depend not only on the identity of the alleles and on 4N(mu) (four times the effective population size times the neutral mutation rate) but also on the phylogenetic relationships among the alleles. Illustrations of the algorithm are given to demonstrate how different phylogenies are favored under different conditions. PMID:12072482

  8. Movement speed is biased by prior experience

    PubMed Central

    Yousif, Nada; Greenwood, Richard; Rothwell, John C.; Diedrichsen, Jörn

    2013-01-01

    How does the motor system choose the speed for any given movement? Many current models assume a process that finds the optimal balance between the costs of moving fast and the rewards of achieving the goal. Here, we show that such models also need to take into account a prior representation of preferred movement speed, which can be changed by prolonged practice. In a time-constrained reaching task, human participants made 25-cm reaching movements within 300, 500, 700, or 900 ms. They were then trained for 3 days to execute the movement at either the slowest (900-ms) or fastest (300-ms) speed. When retested on the 4th day, movements executed under all four time constraints were biased toward the speed of the trained movement. In addition, trial-to-trial variation in speed of the trained movement was significantly reduced. These findings are indicative of a use-dependent mechanism that biases the selection of speed. Reduced speed variability was also associated with reduced errors in movement amplitude for the fast training group, which generalized nearly fully to a new movement direction. In contrast, changes in perpendicular error were specific to the trained direction. In sum, our results suggest the existence of a relatively stable but modifiable prior of preferred movement speed that influences the choice of movement speed under a range of task constraints. PMID:24133220

  9. Multiparametric PET/CT-perfusion does not add significant additional information for initial staging in lung cancer compared with standard PET/CT

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship of CT-perfusion (CTP), 18F-FDG-PET/CT and histological parameters, and the possible added value of CTP to FDG-PET/CT in the initial staging of lung cancer. Methods Fifty-four consecutive patients (median age 65 years, 15 females, 39 males) with suspected lung cancer were evaluated prospectively by CT-perfusion scan and 18F-FDG-PET/CT scan. Overall, 46 tumors were identified. CTP parameters blood flow (BF), blood volume (BV), and mean transit time (MTT) of the tumor tissue were calculated. Intratumoral microvessel density (MVD) was assessed quantitatively. Differences in CTP parameters concerning tumor type, location, PET positivity of lymph nodes, TNM status, and UICC stage were analyzed. Spearman correlation analyses between CTP and 18F-FDG-PET/CT parameters (SUVmax, SUVmean, PETvol, and TLG), MVD, tumor size, and tumor stage were performed. Results The mean BF (mL/100 mL min-1), BV (mL/100 mL), and MTT (s) was 35.5, 8.4, and 14.2, respectively. The BF and BV were lower in tumors with PET-positive lymph nodes (p = 0.02). However, the CTP values were not significantly different among the N stages. The CTP values were not different, depending on tumor size and location. No significant correlation was found between CTP parameters and MVD. Conclusions Overall, the CTP information showed only little additional information for the initial staging compared with standard FDG-PET/CT. Low perfusion in lung tumors might possibly be associated with metabolically active regional lymph nodes. Apart from that, both CTP and 18F-FDG-PET/CT parameter sets may reflect different pathophysiological mechanisms in lung cancer. PMID:24450990

  10. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  11. Phosphazene additives

    SciTech Connect

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  12. Quintessence in a quandary: Prior dependence in dark energy models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, David J. E.; Bull, Philip; Ferreira, Pedro G.; Pontzen, Andrew

    2014-11-01

    The archetypal theory of dark energy is quintessence: a minimally coupled scalar field with a canonical kinetic energy and potential. By studying random potentials, we show that quintessence imposes a restricted set of priors on the equation of state of dark energy. Focusing on the commonly used parametrization, w (a )≈w0+wa(1 -a ) , we show that there is a natural scale and direction in the (w0,wa) plane that distinguishes quintessence as a general framework. We calculate the expected information gain for a given survey and show that, because of the nontrivial prior information, it is a function of more than just the figure of merit. This allows us to make a quantitative case for novel survey strategies. We show that the scale of the prior sets target observational requirements for gaining significant information. This corresponds to a figure of merit FOM ≳200 , a requirement that future galaxy redshift surveys will meet.

  13. BPI-ANCA Provides Additional Clinical Information to Anti-Pseudomonas Serology: Results from a Cohort of 117 Swedish Cystic Fibrosis Patients.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Ulrika; Carlsson, Malin; Hellmark, Thomas; Segelmark, Mårten

    2015-01-01

    Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) colonized with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) have worse prognosis compared with patients who are not. BPI-ANCA is an anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody against BPI (bactericidal/permeability increasing protein) correlating with P. aeruginosa colonization and adverse long time prognosis. Whether it provides additional information as compared to standard anti-P. aeruginosa serology tests is not known. 117 nontransplanted CF patients at the CF centre in Lund, Sweden, were followed prospectively for ten years. Bacterial colonisation was classified according to the Leeds criteria. IgA BPI-ANCA was compared with assays for antibodies against alkaline protease (AP), Elastase (ELA), and Exotoxin A (ExoA). Lung function and patient outcome, alive, lung transplanted, or dead, were registered. BPI-ANCA showed the highest correlation with lung function impairment with an r-value of 0.44. Forty-eight of the 117 patients were chronically colonized with P. aeruginosa. Twenty of these patients experienced an adverse outcome. Receiver operator curve (ROC) analysis revealed that this could be predicted by BPI-ANCA (AUC = 0.77), (p = 0.002) to a better degree compared with serology tests. BPI-ANCA correlates better with lung function impairment and long time prognosis than anti-P. aeruginosa serology and has similar ability to identify patients with chronic P. aeruginosa. PMID:26273683

  14. Training shortest-path tractography: Automatic learning of spatial priors.

    PubMed

    Kasenburg, Niklas; Liptrot, Matthew; Reislev, Nina Linde; Ørting, Silas N; Nielsen, Mads; Garde, Ellen; Feragen, Aasa

    2016-04-15

    Tractography is the standard tool for automatic delineation of white matter tracts from diffusion weighted images. However, the output of tractography often requires post-processing to remove false positives and ensure a robust delineation of the studied tract, and this demands expert prior knowledge. Here we demonstrate how such prior knowledge, or indeed any prior spatial information, can be automatically incorporated into a shortest-path tractography approach to produce more robust results. We describe how such a prior can be automatically generated (learned) from a population, and we demonstrate that our framework also retains support for conventional interactive constraints such as waypoint regions. We apply our approach to the open access, high quality Human Connectome Project data, as well as a dataset acquired on a typical clinical scanner. Our results show that the use of a learned prior substantially increases the overlap of tractography output with a reference atlas on both populations, and this is confirmed by visual inspection. Furthermore, we demonstrate how a prior learned on the high quality dataset significantly increases the overlap with the reference for the more typical yet lower quality data acquired on a clinical scanner. We hope that such automatic incorporation of prior knowledge and the obviation of expert interactive tract delineation on every subject, will improve the feasibility of large clinical tractography studies. PMID:26804779

  15. Prior Knowledge Improves Decoding of Finger Flexion from Electrocorticographic Signals

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Z.; Ji, Q.; Miller, K. J.; Schalk, Gerwin

    2011-01-01

    Brain–computer interfaces (BCIs) use brain signals to convey a user’s intent. Some BCI approaches begin by decoding kinematic parameters of movements from brain signals, and then proceed to using these signals, in absence of movements, to allow a user to control an output. Recent results have shown that electrocorticographic (ECoG) recordings from the surface of the brain in humans can give information about kinematic parameters (e.g., hand velocity or finger flexion). The decoding approaches in these studies usually employed classical classification/regression algorithms that derive a linear mapping between brain signals and outputs. However, they typically only incorporate little prior information about the target movement parameter. In this paper, we incorporate prior knowledge using a Bayesian decoding method, and use it to decode finger flexion from ECoG signals. Specifically, we exploit the constraints that govern finger flexion and incorporate these constraints in the construction, structure, and the probabilistic functions of the prior model of a switched non-parametric dynamic system (SNDS). Given a measurement model resulting from a traditional linear regression method, we decoded finger flexion using posterior estimation that combined the prior and measurement models. Our results show that the application of the Bayesian decoding model, which incorporates prior knowledge, improves decoding performance compared to the application of a linear regression model, which does not incorporate prior knowledge. Thus, the results presented in this paper may ultimately lead to neurally controlled hand prostheses with full fine-grained finger articulation. PMID:22144944

  16. Spatial prior in SVM-based classification of brain images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuingnet, Rémi; Chupin, Marie; Benali, Habib; Colliot, Olivier

    2010-03-01

    This paper introduces a general framework for spatial prior in SVM-based classification of brain images based on Laplacian regularization. Most existing methods include spatial prior by adding a feature aggregation step before the SVM classification. The problem of the aggregation step is that the individual information of each feature is lost. Our framework enables to avoid this shortcoming by including the spatial prior directly in the SVM. We demonstrate that this framework can be used to derive embedded regularization corresponding to existing methods for classification of brain images and propose an efficient way to implement them. This framework is illustrated on the classification of MR images from 55 patients with Alzheimer's disease and 82 elderly controls selected from the ADNI database. The results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm enables introducing straightforward and anatomically consistent spatial prior into the classifier.

  17. Recognition of Prior Vocational Learning in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersson, Per; Fejes, Andreas; Ahn, Song-Ee

    2004-01-01

    Initiatives in the recognition of prior learning (RPL) have been taken in Sweden in recent years, mainly focusing on prior vocational learning among immigrants. The government started different projects to find methods for recognising a person's prior learning in the field of vocational competence. This article presents a study of how these…

  18. Prior Learning Assessment Workgroup: 2014 Progress Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Legislation passed in 2011 required the Washington Student Achievement Council (WSAC) to convene a Prior Learning Assessment Workgroup. The workgroup was tasked with coordinating and implementing seven goals, described in statute, to promote the award of college credit for prior learning. Awarding college credit for prior learning increases access…

  19. 19 CFR 162.74 - Prior disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... loss of revenue finally calculated by CBP shall result in denial of the prior disclosure. (d) Effective... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prior disclosure. 162.74 Section 162.74 Customs... disclosure. (a) In general—(1) A prior disclosure is made if the person concerned discloses the...

  20. 28 CFR 2.58 - Prior orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prior orders. 2.58 Section 2.58 Judicial..., AND JUVENILE DELINQUENTS United States Code Prisoners and Parolees § 2.58 Prior orders. Any order of the United States Board of Parole entered prior to May 14, 1976, including, but not limited to,...

  1. 28 CFR 2.58 - Prior orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Prior orders. 2.58 Section 2.58 Judicial..., AND JUVENILE DELINQUENTS United States Code Prisoners and Parolees § 2.58 Prior orders. Any order of the United States Board of Parole entered prior to May 14, 1976, including, but not limited to,...

  2. 34 CFR 645.32 - How does the Secretary evaluate prior experience?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How does the Secretary evaluate prior experience? 645... Make a Grant? § 645.32 How does the Secretary evaluate prior experience? (a) In the case of an... information submitted by the applicant. (b) The Secretary evaluates the applicant's prior experience...

  3. The Effects of Activating Prior Topic and Metacognitive Knowledge on Text Comprehension Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kostons, Danny; van der Werf, Greetje

    2015-01-01

    Background: Research on prior knowledge activation has consistently shown that activating learners' prior knowledge has beneficial effects on learning. If learners activate their prior knowledge, this activated knowledge serves as a framework for establishing relationships between the knowledge they already possess and new information provided to…

  4. Comparing hard and soft prior bounds in geophysical inverse problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Backus, George E.

    1988-01-01

    In linear inversion of a finite-dimensional data vector y to estimate a finite-dimensional prediction vector z, prior information about X sub E is essential if y is to supply useful limits for z. The one exception occurs when all the prediction functionals are linear combinations of the data functionals. Two forms of prior information are compared: a soft bound on X sub E is a probability distribution p sub x on X which describes the observer's opinion about where X sub E is likely to be in X; a hard bound on X sub E is an inequality Q sub x(X sub E, X sub E) is equal to or less than 1, where Q sub x is a positive definite quadratic form on X. A hard bound Q sub x can be softened to many different probability distributions p sub x, but all these p sub x's carry much new information about X sub E which is absent from Q sub x, and some information which contradicts Q sub x. Both stochastic inversion (SI) and Bayesian inference (BI) estimate z from y and a soft prior bound p sub x. If that probability distribution was obtained by softening a hard prior bound Q sub x, rather than by objective statistical inference independent of y, then p sub x contains so much unsupported new information absent from Q sub x that conclusions about z obtained with SI or BI would seen to be suspect.

  5. Comparing hard and soft prior bounds in geophysical inverse problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Backus, George E.

    1987-01-01

    In linear inversion of a finite-dimensional data vector y to estimate a finite-dimensional prediction vector z, prior information about X sub E is essential if y is to supply useful limits for z. The one exception occurs when all the prediction functionals are linear combinations of the data functionals. Two forms of prior information are compared: a soft bound on X sub E is a probability distribution p sub x on X which describeds the observer's opinion about where X sub E is likely to be in X; a hard bound on X sub E is an inequality Q sub x(X sub E, X sub E) is equal to or less than 1, where Q sub x is a positive definite quadratic form on X. A hard bound Q sub x can be softened to many different probability distributions p sub x, but all these p sub x's carry much new information about X sub E which is absent from Q sub x, and some information which contradicts Q sub x. Both stochastic inversion (SI) and Bayesian inference (BI) estimate z from y and a soft prior bound p sub x. If that probability distribution was obtained by softening a hard prior bound Q sub x, rather than by objective statistical inference independent of y, then p sub x contains so much unsupported new information absent from Q sub x that conclusions about z obtained with SI or BI would seen to be suspect.

  6. Serum Total Bilirubin Levels Provide Additive Risk Information over the Framingham Risk Score for Identifying Asymptomatic Diabetic Patients at Higher Risk for Coronary Artery Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Leem, Jaechan; Koh, Eun Hee; Jang, Jung Eun; Woo, Chang-Yun; Oh, Jin Sun; Lee, Min Jung; Kang, Joon-Won; Lim, Tae-Hwan; Jung, Chang Hee; Lee, Woo Je; Park, Joong-Yeol

    2015-01-01

    Background The diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD) is often delayed in patients with type 2 diabetes. Serum total bilirubin levels are inversely associated with CAD. However, no studies have examined whether this can be used as a biochemical marker for identifying asymptomatic diabetic patients at higher risk for having obstructive CAD. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study of 460 consecutive asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes. All patients underwent coronary computed tomographic angiography, and their serum total bilirubin levels were measured. Obstructive CAD was defined as ≥50% diameter stenosis in at least one coronary artery. Results Serum total bilirubin tertiles showed an inverse association with the prevalence of obstructive CAD. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, the odds ratio for the highest versus the lowest tertile of total bilirubin was 0.227 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.130 to 0.398), and an increment of 1 µmol/L in serum total bilirubin level was associated with a 14.6% decrease in obstructive CAD after adjustment for confounding variables. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that the area under the curve for the Framingham Risk Score (FRS) plus serum total bilirubin level was 0.712 (95% CI, 0.668 to 0.753), which is significantly greater than that of the FRS alone (P=0.0028). Conclusion Serum total bilirubin level is inversely associated with obstructive CAD and provides additive risk information over the FRS. Serum total bilirubin may be helpful for identifying asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes who are at higher risk for obstructive CAD. PMID:26566499

  7. Randomised prior feedback modulates neural signals of outcome monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Mushtaq, Faisal; Wilkie, Richard M.; Mon-Williams, Mark A.; Schaefer, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Substantial evidence indicates that decision outcomes are typically evaluated relative to expectations learned from relatively long sequences of previous outcomes. This mechanism is thought to play a key role in general learning and adaptation processes but relatively little is known about the determinants of outcome evaluation when the capacity to learn from series of prior events is difficult or impossible. To investigate this issue, we examined how the feedback-related negativity (FRN) is modulated by information briefly presented before outcome evaluation. The FRN is a brain potential time-locked to the delivery of decision feedback and it is widely thought to be sensitive to prior expectations. We conducted a multi-trial gambling task in which outcomes at each trial were fully randomised to minimise the capacity to learn from long sequences of prior outcomes. Event-related potentials for outcomes (Win/Loss) in the current trial (Outcomet) were separated according to the type of outcomes that occurred in the preceding two trials (Outcomet-1 and Outcomet-2). We found that FRN voltage was more positive during the processing of win feedback when it was preceded by wins at Outcomet-1 compared to win feedback preceded by losses at Outcomet-1. However, no influence of preceding outcomes was found on FRN activity relative to the processing of loss feedback. We also found no effects of Outcomet-2 on FRN amplitude relative to current feedback. Additional analyses indicated that this effect was largest for trials in which participants selected a decision different to the gamble chosen in the previous trial. These findings are inconsistent with models that solely relate the FRN to prediction error computation. Instead, our results suggest that if stable predictions about future events are weak or non-existent, then outcome processing can be determined by affective systems. More specifically, our results indicate that the FRN is likely to reflect the activity of positive

  8. Randomised prior feedback modulates neural signals of outcome monitoring.

    PubMed

    Mushtaq, Faisal; Wilkie, Richard M; Mon-Williams, Mark A; Schaefer, Alexandre

    2016-01-15

    Substantial evidence indicates that decision outcomes are typically evaluated relative to expectations learned from relatively long sequences of previous outcomes. This mechanism is thought to play a key role in general learning and adaptation processes but relatively little is known about the determinants of outcome evaluation when the capacity to learn from series of prior events is difficult or impossible. To investigate this issue, we examined how the feedback-related negativity (FRN) is modulated by information briefly presented before outcome evaluation. The FRN is a brain potential time-locked to the delivery of decision feedback and it is widely thought to be sensitive to prior expectations. We conducted a multi-trial gambling task in which outcomes at each trial were fully randomised to minimise the capacity to learn from long sequences of prior outcomes. Event-related potentials for outcomes (Win/Loss) in the current trial (Outcomet) were separated according to the type of outcomes that occurred in the preceding two trials (Outcomet-1 and Outcomet-2). We found that FRN voltage was more positive during the processing of win feedback when it was preceded by wins at Outcomet-1 compared to win feedback preceded by losses at Outcomet-1. However, no influence of preceding outcomes was found on FRN activity relative to the processing of loss feedback. We also found no effects of Outcomet-2 on FRN amplitude relative to current feedback. Additional analyses indicated that this effect was largest for trials in which participants selected a decision different to the gamble chosen in the previous trial. These findings are inconsistent with models that solely relate the FRN to prediction error computation. Instead, our results suggest that if stable predictions about future events are weak or non-existent, then outcome processing can be determined by affective systems. More specifically, our results indicate that the FRN is likely to reflect the activity of positive

  9. Prior Knowledge Moderates Instructional Effects on Conceptual Understanding of Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leppink, Jimmie; Broers, Nick J.; Imbos, Tjaart; van der Vleuten, Cees P. M.; Berger, Martijn P. F.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of different teaching and learning methods for statistics for 2 levels of prior knowledge on cognitive load, propositional knowledge, and conceptual understanding. Teaching methods were whether or not to provide students with propositional information, and learning strategies were self-explaining the learning…

  10. Confidence set interference with a prior quadratic bound. [in geophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Backus, George E.

    1989-01-01

    Neyman's (1937) theory of confidence sets is developed as a replacement for Bayesian interference (BI) and stochastic inversion (SI) when the prior information is a hard quadratic bound. It is recommended that BI and SI be replaced by confidence set interference (CSI) only in certain circumstances. The geomagnetic problem is used to illustrate the general theory of CSI.

  11. Optimal Multiple Surface Segmentation With Shape and Context Priors

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Junjie; Garvin, Mona K.; Sonka, Milan; Buatti, John M.; Wu, Xiaodong

    2014-01-01

    Segmentation of multiple surfaces in medical images is a challenging problem, further complicated by the frequent presence of weak boundary evidence, large object deformations, and mutual influence between adjacent objects. This paper reports a novel approach to multi-object segmentation that incorporates both shape and context prior knowledge in a 3-D graph-theoretic framework to help overcome the stated challenges. We employ an arc-based graph representation to incorporate a wide spectrum of prior information through pair-wise energy terms. In particular, a shape-prior term is used to penalize local shape changes and a context-prior term is used to penalize local surface-distance changes from a model of the expected shape and surface distances, respectively. The globally optimal solution for multiple surfaces is obtained by computing a maximum flow in a low-order polynomial time. The proposed method was validated on intraretinal layer segmentation of optical coherence tomography images and demonstrated statistically significant improvement of segmentation accuracy compared to our earlier graph-search method that was not utilizing shape and context priors. The mean unsigned surface positioning errors obtained by the conventional graph-search approach (6.30 ± 1.58 μm) was improved to 5.14 ± 0.99 μm when employing our new method with shape and context priors. PMID:23193309

  12. Prior Learning Assessment: How Institutions Use Portfolio Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein-Collins, Becky; Hain, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    The term Prior Learning Assessment (PLA) refers not to a single kind of assessment but rather an entire family of assessment methods that can be used by institutions. Some of these methods are exam-based. In addition, there are other methods of PLA. One of the more innovative methods of offering PLA, however, is through the development of student…

  13. Low dose tomographic fluoroscopy: 4D intervention guidance with running prior

    SciTech Connect

    Flach, Barbara; Kuntz, Jan; Brehm, Marcus; Kachelrieß, Marc; Kueres, Rolf; Bartling, Sönke

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: Today's standard imaging technique in interventional radiology is the single- or biplane x-ray fluoroscopy which delivers 2D projection images as a function of time (2D+T). This state-of-the-art technology, however, suffers from its projective nature and is limited by the superposition of the patient's anatomy. Temporally resolved tomographic volumes (3D+T) would significantly improve the visualization of complex structures. A continuous tomographic data acquisition, if carried out with today's technology, would yield an excessive patient dose. Recently the authors proposed a method that enables tomographic fluoroscopy at the same dose level as projective fluoroscopy which means that if scanning time of an intervention guided by projective fluoroscopy is the same as that of an intervention guided by tomographic fluoroscopy, almost the same dose is administered to the patient. The purpose of this work is to extend authors' previous work and allow for patient motion during the intervention.Methods: The authors propose the running prior technique for adaptation of a prior image. This adaptation is realized by a combination of registration and projection replacement. In a first step the prior is deformed to the current position via affine and deformable registration. Then the information from outdated projections is replaced by newly acquired projections using forward and backprojection steps. The thus adapted volume is the running prior. The proposed method is validated by simulated as well as measured data. To investigate motion during intervention a moving head phantom was simulated. Real in vivo data of a pig are acquired by a prototype CT system consisting of a flat detector and a continuously rotating clinical gantry.Results: With the running prior technique it is possible to correct for motion without additional dose. For an application in intervention guidance both steps of the running prior technique, registration and replacement, are necessary

  14. An improved Richardson-Lucy algorithm based on local prior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yongpan, Wang; Huajun, Feng; Zhihai, Xu; Qi, Li; Chaoyue, Dai

    2010-07-01

    Ringing is one of the most common disturbing artifacts in image deconvolution. With a totally known kernel, the standard Richardson-Lucy (RL) algorithm succeeds in many motion deblurring processes, but the resulting images still contain visible ringing. When the estimated kernel is different from the real one, the result of the standard RL iterative algorithm will be worse. To suppress the ringing artifacts caused by failures in the blur kernel estimation, this paper improves the RL algorithm based on the local prior. Firstly, the standard deviation of pixels in the local window is computed to find the smooth region and the image gradient in the region is constrained to make its distribution consistent with the deblurring image gradient. Secondly, in order to suppress the ringing near the edge of a rigid body in the image, a new mask was obtained by computing the sharp edge of the image produced using the first step. If the kernel is large-scale, where the foreground is rigid and the background is smoothing, this step could produce a significant inhibitory effect on ringing artifacts. Thirdly, the boundary constraint is strengthened if the boundary is relatively smooth. As a result of the steps above, high-quality deblurred images can be obtained even when the estimated kernels are not perfectly accurate. On the basis of blurred images and the related kernel information taken by the additional hardware, our approach proved to be effective.

  15. 36 CFR 1281.12 - What information must be provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... must submit a report to Congress on a proposed physical or material change or addition to an existing... advance of the anticipated date that work will begin on the physical or material change or addition to the... standards. (2) A statement of the estimated total cost of the proposed physical or material change...

  16. Data on NAEP 2011 writing assessment prior computer use.

    PubMed

    Tate, Tamara P; Warschauer, Mark; Abedi, Jamal

    2016-09-01

    This data article contains information based on the 2011 National Assessment of Educational Progress in Writing Restricted-Use Data, available from the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES Pub. No. 2014476). https://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/researchcenter/datatools.aspx. The data include the statistical relationships between survey reports of teachers and students regarding prior use of computers and other technology and writing achievement levels on the 2011 computer-based NAEP writing assessment. This data article accompanies "The Effects of Prior Computer Use on Computer-Based Writing: The 2011 NAEP Writing Assessment" [1]. PMID:27508253

  17. Optimal duration of conservative management prior to surgery for cervical and lumbar radiculopathy: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Alentado, Vincent J; Lubelski, Daniel; Steinmetz, Michael P; Benzel, Edward C; Mroz, Thomas E

    2014-12-01

    Study Design Literature review. Objective Since the 1970s, spine surgeons have commonly required 6 weeks of failed conservative treatment prior to considering surgical intervention for various spinal pathologies. It is unclear, however, if this standard has been validated in the literature. The authors review the natural history, outcomes, and cost-effectiveness studies relating to the current standard of 6 weeks of nonoperative care prior to surgery for patients with spinal pathologies. Methods A systematic Medline search from 1953 to 2013 was performed to identify natural history, outcomes, and cost-effectiveness studies relating to the optimal period of conservative management prior to surgical intervention for both cervical and lumbar radiculopathy. Demographic information, operative indications, and clinical outcomes are reviewed for each study. Results A total of 5,719 studies were identified; of these, 13 studies were selected for inclusion. Natural history studies demonstrated that 88% of patients with cervical radiculopathy and 70% of patients with lumbar radiculopathy showed improvement within 4 weeks following onset of symptoms. Outcomes and cost-effectiveness studies supported surgical intervention within 8 weeks of symptom onset for both cervical and lumbar radiculopathy. Conclusions There are limited studies supporting any optimal duration of conservative treatment prior to surgery for cervical and lumbar radiculopathy. Therefore, evidence-based conclusions cannot be made. Based on the available literature, we suggest that an optimal timing for surgery following cervical radiculopathy is within 8 weeks of onset of symptoms. A shorter period of 4 weeks may be appropriate based on natural history studies. Additionally, we found that optimal timing for surgery following lumbar radiculopathy is between 4 and 8 weeks. A prospective study is needed to explicitly identify the optimal duration of conservative therapy prior to surgery so that costs

  18. Prolonged Instability Prior to a Regime Shift

    PubMed Central

    Spanbauer, Trisha L.; Allen, Craig R.; Angeler, David G.; Eason, Tarsha; Fritz, Sherilyn C.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.; Nash, Kirsty L.; Stone, Jeffery R.

    2014-01-01

    Regime shifts are generally defined as the point of ‘abrupt’ change in the state of a system. However, a seemingly abrupt transition can be the product of a system reorganization that has been ongoing much longer than is evident in statistical analysis of a single component of the system. Using both univariate and multivariate statistical methods, we tested a long-term high-resolution paleoecological dataset with a known change in species assemblage for a regime shift. Analysis of this dataset with Fisher Information and multivariate time series modeling showed that there was a∼2000 year period of instability prior to the regime shift. This period of instability and the subsequent regime shift coincide with regional climate change, indicating that the system is undergoing extrinsic forcing. Paleoecological records offer a unique opportunity to test tools for the detection of thresholds and stable-states, and thus to examine the long-term stability of ecosystems over periods of multiple millennia. PMID:25280010

  19. Putting Priors in Mixture Density Mercer Kernels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, Ashok N.; Schumann, Johann; Fischer, Bernd

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for automatic knowledge driven data mining based on the theory of Mercer Kernels, which are highly nonlinear symmetric positive definite mappings from the original image space to a very high, possibly infinite dimensional feature space. We describe a new method called Mixture Density Mercer Kernels to learn kernel function directly from data, rather than using predefined kernels. These data adaptive kernels can en- code prior knowledge in the kernel using a Bayesian formulation, thus allowing for physical information to be encoded in the model. We compare the results with existing algorithms on data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The code for these experiments has been generated with the AUTOBAYES tool, which automatically generates efficient and documented C/C++ code from abstract statistical model specifications. The core of the system is a schema library which contains template for learning and knowledge discovery algorithms like different versions of EM, or numeric optimization methods like conjugate gradient methods. The template instantiation is supported by symbolic- algebraic computations, which allows AUTOBAYES to find closed-form solutions and, where possible, to integrate them into the code. The results show that the Mixture Density Mercer-Kernel described here outperforms tree-based classification in distinguishing high-redshift galaxies from low- redshift galaxies by approximately 16% on test data, bagged trees by approximately 7%, and bagged trees built on a much larger sample of data by approximately 2%.

  20. Cathodic ARC surface cleaning prior to brazing

    SciTech Connect

    Dave, V. R.; Hollis, K. J.; Castro, R. G.; Smith, F. M.; Javernick, D. A.

    2002-01-01

    Surface cleanliness is one the critical process variables in vacuum furnace brazing operations. For a large number of metallic components, cleaning is usually accomplished either by water-based alkali cleaning, but may also involve acid etching or solvent cleaning / rinsing. Nickel plating may also be necessary to ensure proper wetting. All of these cleaning or plating technologies have associated waste disposal issues, and this article explores an alternative cleaning process that generates minimal waste. Cathodic arc, or reserve polarity, is well known for welding of materials with tenacious oxide layers such as aluminum alloys. In this work the reverse polarity effect is used to clean austenitic stainless steel substrates prior to brazing with Ag-28%Cu. This cleaning process is compared to acid pickling and is shown to produce similar wetting behavior as measured by dynamic contact angle experiments. Additionally, dynamic contact angle measurements with water drops are conducted to show that cathodic arc cleaning can remove organic contaminants as well. The process does have its limitations however, and alloys with high titanium and aluminum content such as nickel-based superalloys may still require plating to ensure adequate wetting.

  1. Evaluation of three MRI-based anatomical priors for quantitative PET brain imaging.

    PubMed

    Vunckx, Kathleen; Atre, Ameya; Baete, Kristof; Reilhac, Anthonin; Deroose, Christophe M; Van Laere, Koen; Nuyts, Johan

    2012-03-01

    In emission tomography, image reconstruction and therefore also tracer development and diagnosis may benefit from the use of anatomical side information obtained with other imaging modalities in the same subject, as it helps to correct for the partial volume effect. One way to implement this, is to use the anatomical image for defining the a priori distribution in a maximum-a-posteriori (MAP) reconstruction algorithm. In this contribution, we use the PET-SORTEO Monte Carlo simulator to evaluate the quantitative accuracy reached by three different anatomical priors when reconstructing positron emission tomography (PET) brain images, using volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to provide the anatomical information. The priors are: 1) a prior especially developed for FDG PET brain imaging, which relies on a segmentation of the MR-image (Baete , 2004); 2) the joint entropy-prior (Nuyts, 2007); 3) a prior that encourages smoothness within a position dependent neighborhood, computed from the MR-image. The latter prior was recently proposed by our group in (Vunckx and Nuyts, 2010), and was based on the prior presented by Bowsher (2004). The two latter priors do not rely on an explicit segmentation, which makes them more generally applicable than a segmentation-based prior. All three priors produced a compromise between noise and bias that was clearly better than that obtained with postsmoothed maximum likelihood expectation maximization (MLEM) or MAP with a relative difference prior. The performance of the joint entropy prior was slightly worse than that of the other two priors. The performance of the segmentation-based prior is quite sensitive to the accuracy of the segmentation. In contrast to the joint entropy-prior, the Bowsher-prior is easily tuned and does not suffer from convergence problems. PMID:22049363

  2. Improving Open Access through Prior Learning Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Shuangxu; Kawachi, Paul

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores and presents new data on how to improve open access in distance education through using prior learning assessments. Broadly there are three types of prior learning assessment (PLAR): Type-1 for prospective students to be allowed to register for a course; Type-2 for current students to avoid duplicating work-load to gain…

  3. 19 CFR 162.74 - Prior disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Prior disclosure. 162.74 Section 162.74 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Special Procedures for Certain Violations § 162.74 Prior disclosure. (a) In general—(1) A...

  4. Brain metabolomic profiles of lung cancer patients prior to treatment characterized by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Benveniste, Helene; Zhang, Shaonan; Reinsel, Ruth A; Li, Haifang; Lee, Hedok; Rebecchi, Mario; Moore, William; Johansen, Christoffer; Rothman, Douglas L; Bilfinger, Thomas V

    2012-01-01

    Cancer patients without evidence of brain metastases often exhibit constitutional symptoms, cognitive dysfunction and mood changes at the time of clinical diagnosis, i.e. prior to surgical and/or chemotherapy treatment. At present however, there is limited information on brain metabolic and functional status in patients with systemic cancers such as lung cancer prior to initiation of treatment. Therefore, a prospective, observational study was conducted on patients with a clinical diagnosis of lung cancer to assess the cerebral metabolic status before treatment using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1HMRS). Together with neurocognitive testing, 1HMRS was performed in the parietal and occipital cortices of patients diagnosed with a lung mass (N=17) and an age-matched control group (N=15). Glutamate concentrations in the occipital cortex were found to be lower in the patients compared to controls and the concentrations of creatine and phosphocreatine were significantly lower in the parietal cortex of the patients. The lung cancer patients were also characterized by greater fatigue scores (but not depression) prior to treatment when compared to controls. In addition, the serum concentration of interleukin-6 (proinflammatory cytokine) was higher in patients compared to controls; and the concentration of tumor-necrosis factor alpha ([TNF-α]) was positively correlated to the metabolic activity of the lung tumor as defined by the 2-deoxy-2-(18F)fluoro-D-glucose (18FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) derived maximal standardized uptake values (SUVmax). Finally, multivariate statistical modeling revealed that the concentration of N-acetyl-aspartate [NAA] in the occipital cortex was negatively associated with [TNF-α]. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that the cerebral metabolic status of patients with lung cancer is changed even prior to treatment. In addition, the association between inflammatory cytokines, SUVmax and [NAA] points towards interactions

  5. Improved estimation of reflectance spectra by utilizing prior knowledge.

    PubMed

    Dierl, Marcel; Eckhard, Timo; Frei, Bernhard; Klammer, Maximilian; Eichstädt, Sascha; Elster, Clemens

    2016-07-01

    Estimating spectral reflectance has attracted extensive research efforts in color science and machine learning, motivated through a wide range of applications. In many practical situations, prior knowledge is available that ought to be used. Here, we have developed a general Bayesian method that allows the incorporation of prior knowledge from previous monochromator and spectrophotometer measurements. The approach yields analytical expressions for fast and efficient estimation of spectral reflectance. In addition to point estimates, probability distributions are also obtained, which completely characterize the uncertainty associated with the reconstructed spectrum. We demonstrate that, through the incorporation of prior knowledge, our approach yields improved reconstruction results compared with methods that resort to training data only. Our method is particularly useful when the spectral reflectance to be recovered resides beyond the scope of the training data. PMID:27409695

  6. Bayesian 3D X-ray computed tomography image reconstruction with a scaled Gaussian mixture prior model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Li; Gac, Nicolas; Mohammad-Djafari, Ali

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve quality of 3D X-ray tomography reconstruction for Non Destructive Testing (NDT), we investigate in this paper hierarchical Bayesian methods. In NDT, useful prior information on the volume like the limited number of materials or the presence of homogeneous area can be included in the iterative reconstruction algorithms. In hierarchical Bayesian methods, not only the volume is estimated thanks to the prior model of the volume but also the hyper parameters of this prior. This additional complexity in the reconstruction methods when applied to large volumes (from 5123 to 81923 voxels) results in an increasing computational cost. To reduce it, the hierarchical Bayesian methods investigated in this paper lead to an algorithm acceleration by Variational Bayesian Approximation (VBA) [1] and hardware acceleration thanks to projection and back-projection operators paralleled on many core processors like GPU [2]. In this paper, we will consider a Student-t prior on the gradient of the image implemented in a hierarchical way [3, 4, 1]. Operators H (forward or projection) and Ht (adjoint or back-projection) implanted in multi-GPU [2] have been used in this study. Different methods will be evalued on synthetic volume "Shepp and Logan" in terms of quality and time of reconstruction. We used several simple regularizations of order 1 and order 2. Other prior models also exists [5]. Sometimes for a discrete image, we can do the segmentation and reconstruction at the same time, then the reconstruction can be done with less projections.

  7. Neural Mechanisms for Integrating Prior Knowledge and Likelihood in Value-Based Probabilistic Inference

    PubMed Central

    Ting, Chih-Chung; Yu, Chia-Chen; Maloney, Laurence T.

    2015-01-01

    In Bayesian decision theory, knowledge about the probabilities of possible outcomes is captured by a prior distribution and a likelihood function. The prior reflects past knowledge and the likelihood summarizes current sensory information. The two combined (integrated) form a posterior distribution that allows estimation of the probability of different possible outcomes. In this study, we investigated the neural mechanisms underlying Bayesian integration using a novel lottery decision task in which both prior knowledge and likelihood information about reward probability were systematically manipulated on a trial-by-trial basis. Consistent with Bayesian integration, as sample size increased, subjects tended to weigh likelihood information more compared with prior information. Using fMRI in humans, we found that the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) correlated with the mean of the posterior distribution, a statistic that reflects the integration of prior knowledge and likelihood of reward probability. Subsequent analysis revealed that both prior and likelihood information were represented in mPFC and that the neural representations of prior and likelihood in mPFC reflected changes in the behaviorally estimated weights assigned to these different sources of information in response to changes in the environment. Together, these results establish the role of mPFC in prior-likelihood integration and highlight its involvement in representing and integrating these distinct sources of information. PMID:25632152

  8. Sewage sludge additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

  9. Logarithmic Laplacian Prior Based Bayesian Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shuanghui; Liu, Yongxiang; Li, Xiang; Bi, Guoan

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar Imaging (ISAR) algorithm based on a new sparse prior, known as the logarithmic Laplacian prior. The newly proposed logarithmic Laplacian prior has a narrower main lobe with higher tail values than the Laplacian prior, which helps to achieve performance improvement on sparse representation. The logarithmic Laplacian prior is used for ISAR imaging within the Bayesian framework to achieve better focused radar image. In the proposed method of ISAR imaging, the phase errors are jointly estimated based on the minimum entropy criterion to accomplish autofocusing. The maximum a posterior (MAP) estimation and the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) are utilized to estimate the model parameters to avoid manually tuning process. Additionally, the fast Fourier Transform (FFT) and Hadamard product are used to minimize the required computational efficiency. Experimental results based on both simulated and measured data validate that the proposed algorithm outperforms the traditional sparse ISAR imaging algorithms in terms of resolution improvement and noise suppression. PMID:27136551

  10. Logarithmic Laplacian Prior Based Bayesian Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar Imaging.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuanghui; Liu, Yongxiang; Li, Xiang; Bi, Guoan

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar Imaging (ISAR) algorithm based on a new sparse prior, known as the logarithmic Laplacian prior. The newly proposed logarithmic Laplacian prior has a narrower main lobe with higher tail values than the Laplacian prior, which helps to achieve performance improvement on sparse representation. The logarithmic Laplacian prior is used for ISAR imaging within the Bayesian framework to achieve better focused radar image. In the proposed method of ISAR imaging, the phase errors are jointly estimated based on the minimum entropy criterion to accomplish autofocusing. The maximum a posterior (MAP) estimation and the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) are utilized to estimate the model parameters to avoid manually tuning process. Additionally, the fast Fourier Transform (FFT) and Hadamard product are used to minimize the required computational efficiency. Experimental results based on both simulated and measured data validate that the proposed algorithm outperforms the traditional sparse ISAR imaging algorithms in terms of resolution improvement and noise suppression. PMID:27136551

  11. Item Response Theory Equating Using Bayesian Informative Priors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de la Torre, Jimmy; Patz, Richard J.

    This paper seeks to extend the application of Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods in item response theory (IRT) to include the estimation of equating relationships along with the estimation of test item parameters. A method is proposed that incorporates estimation of the equating relationship in the item calibration phase. Item parameters from…

  12. Prior probabilities modulate cortical surprise responses: A study of event-related potentials.

    PubMed

    Seer, Caroline; Lange, Florian; Boos, Moritz; Dengler, Reinhard; Kopp, Bruno

    2016-07-01

    The human brain predicts events in its environment based on expectations, and unexpected events are surprising. When probabilistic contingencies in the environment are precisely instructed, the individual can form expectations based on quantitative probabilistic information ('inference-based learning'). In contrast, when probabilistic contingencies are imprecisely instructed, expectations are formed based on the individual's cumulative experience ('experience-based learning'). Here, we used the urn-ball paradigm to investigate how variations in prior probabilities and in the precision of information about these priors modulate choice behavior and event-related potential (ERP) correlates of surprise. In the urn-ball paradigm, participants are repeatedly forced to infer hidden states responsible for generating observable events, given small samples of factual observations. We manipulated prior probabilities of the states, and we rendered the priors calculable or incalculable, respectively. The analysis of choice behavior revealed that the tendency to consider prior probabilities when making decisions about hidden states was stronger when prior probabilities were calculable, at least in some of our participants. Surprise-related P3b amplitudes were observed in both the calculable and the incalculable prior probability condition. In contrast, calculability of prior probabilities modulated anteriorly distributed ERP amplitudes: when prior probabilities were calculable, surprising events elicited enhanced P3a amplitudes. However, when prior probabilities were incalculable, surprise was associated with enhanced N2 amplitudes. Furthermore, interindividual variability in reliance on prior probabilities was associated with attenuated P3b surprise responses under calculable in comparison to incalculable prior probabilities. Our results suggest two distinct neural systems for probabilistic learning that are recruited depending on contextual cues such as the precision of

  13. Modeling and validating Bayesian accrual models on clinical data and simulations using adaptive priors.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yu; Simon, Steve; Mayo, Matthew S; Gajewski, Byron J

    2015-02-20

    Slow recruitment in clinical trials leads to increased costs and resource utilization, which includes both the clinic staff and patient volunteers. Careful planning and monitoring of the accrual process can prevent the unnecessary loss of these resources. We propose two hierarchical extensions to the existing Bayesian constant accrual model: the accelerated prior and the hedging prior. The new proposed priors are able to adaptively utilize the researcher's previous experience and current accrual data to produce the estimation of trial completion time. The performance of these models, including prediction precision, coverage probability, and correct decision-making ability, is evaluated using actual studies from our cancer center and simulation. The results showed that a constant accrual model with strongly informative priors is very accurate when accrual is on target or slightly off, producing smaller mean squared error, high percentage of coverage, and a high number of correct decisions as to whether or not continue the trial, but it is strongly biased when off target. Flat or weakly informative priors provide protection against an off target prior but are less efficient when the accrual is on target. The accelerated prior performs similar to a strong prior. The hedging prior performs much like the weak priors when the accrual is extremely off target but closer to the strong priors when the accrual is on target or only slightly off target. We suggest improvements in these models and propose new models for future research. PMID:25376910

  14. Additive usage levels.

    PubMed

    Langlais, R

    1996-01-01

    With the adoption of the European Parliament and Council Directives on sweeteners, colours and miscellaneous additives the Commission is now embarking on the project of coordinating the activities of the European Union Member States in the collection of the data that are to make up the report on food additive intake requested by the European Parliament. This presentation looks at the inventory of available sources on additive use levels and concludes that for the time being national legislation is still the best source of information considering that the directives have yet to be transposed into national legislation. Furthermore, this presentation covers the correlation of the food categories as found in the additives directives with those used by national consumption surveys and finds that in a number of instances this correlation still leaves a lot to be desired. The intake of additives via food ingestion and the intake of substances which are chemically identical to additives but which occur naturally in fruits and vegetables is found in a number of cases to be higher than the intake of additives added during the manufacture of foodstuffs. While the difficulties are recognized in contributing to the compilation of food additive intake data, industry as a whole, i.e. the food manufacturing and food additive manufacturing industries, are confident that in a concerted effort, use data on food additives by industry can be made available. Lastly, the paper points out that with the transportation of the additives directives into national legislation and the time by which the food industry will be able to make use of the new food legislative environment several years will still go by; food additives use data by the food industry will thus have to be reviewed at the beginning of the next century. PMID:8792135

  15. 42 CFR 57.317 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... school under § 57.305, impose additional conditions prior to or at the time of any award when in his or... TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Nursing Student Loans §...

  16. 42 CFR 57.317 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... school under § 57.305, impose additional conditions prior to or at the time of any award when in his or... TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Nursing Student Loans §...

  17. 42 CFR 57.317 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... school under § 57.305, impose additional conditions prior to or at the time of any award when in his or... TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Nursing Student Loans §...

  18. 42 CFR 57.317 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... school under § 57.305, impose additional conditions prior to or at the time of any award when in his or... TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Nursing Student Loans §...

  19. 42 CFR 57.317 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... school under § 57.305, impose additional conditions prior to or at the time of any award when in his or... TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Nursing Student Loans §...

  20. A Simulation of Pell Grant Awards and Costs Using Prior-Prior Year Financial Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelchen, Robert; Jones, Gigi

    2015-01-01

    We examine the likely implications of switching from a prior year (PY) financial aid system, the current practice in which students file the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA) using income data from the previous tax year, to prior-prior year (PPY), in which data from two years before enrollment is used. While PPY allows students to…