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Sample records for additional product content

  1. Aluminium content of some foods and food products in the USA, with aluminium food additives.

    PubMed

    Saiyed, Salim M; Yokel, Robert A

    2005-03-01

    The primary objective was to determine the aluminium (Al) content of selected foods and food products in the USA which contain Al as an approved food additive. Intake of Al from the labeled serving size of each food product was calculated. The samples were acid or base digested and analysed for Al using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Quality control (QC) samples, with matrices matching the samples, were generated and used to verify the Al determinations. Food product Al content ranged from <1-27,000 mg kg(-1). Cheese in a serving of frozen pizzas had up to 14 mg of Al, from basic sodium aluminium phosphate; whereas the same amount of cheese in a ready-to-eat restaurant pizza provided 0.03-0.09 mg. Many single serving packets of non-dairy creamer had approximately 50-600 mg Al kg(-1) as sodium aluminosilicate, providing up to 1.5 mg Al per serving. Many single serving packets of salt also had sodium aluminosilicate as an additive, but the Al content was less than in single-serving non-dairy creamer packets. Acidic sodium aluminium phosphate was present in many food products, pancakes and waffles. Baking powder, some pancake/waffle mixes and frozen products, and ready-to-eat pancakes provided the most Al of the foods tested; up to 180 mg/serving. Many products provide a significant amount of Al compared to the typical intake of 3-12 mg/day reported from dietary Al studies conducted in many countries.

  2. Microbial oils as food additives: recent approaches for improving microbial oil production and its polyunsaturated fatty acid content.

    PubMed

    Bellou, Stamatia; Triantaphyllidou, Irene-Eva; Aggeli, Dimitra; Elazzazy, Ahmed Mohammed; Baeshen, Mohammed Nabih; Aggelis, George

    2016-02-01

    In this short review, we summarize the latest research in the production of polyunsaturated microbial oils that are of interest in food technology. The current research targets the productivity of oleaginous microorganisms, as well as the biosynthesis of particular polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). The most important efforts target the efficiency of the oleaginous machinery, via overexpression of key-enzymes involved in lipid biosynthesis, as well as the minimization of lipid degradation, by repressing genes involved in the β-oxidation pathway. The production of specific PUFAs is approached by homologous or heterologous expression of specific desaturases and elongases involved in PUFA biosynthesis in oleaginous microorganisms. New perspectives, such as the production of triacylglycerols of specific structure and the employment of adaptive experimental evolution for creating robust oleaginous strains able to produce PUFAs are also discussed.

  3. 10 CFR 70.65 - Additional content of applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Additional content of applications. 70.65 Section 70.65 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Additional Requirements for Certain Licensees Authorized To Possess a Critical Mass of Special...

  4. Additive manufacturing in production: challenges and opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahuja, Bhrigu; Karg, Michael; Schmidt, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Additive manufacturing, characterized by its inherent layer by layer fabrication methodology has been coined by many as the latest revolution in the manufacturing industry. Due to its diversification of Materials, processes, system technology and applications, Additive Manufacturing has been synonymized with terminology such as Rapid prototyping, 3D printing, free-form fabrication, Additive Layer Manufacturing, etc. A huge media and public interest in the technology has led to an innovative attempt of exploring the technology for applications beyond the scope of the traditional engineering industry. Nevertheless, it is believed that a critical factor for the long-term success of Additive Manufacturing would be its ability to fulfill the requirements defined by the traditional manufacturing industry. A parallel development in market trends and product requirements has also lead to a wider scope of opportunities for Additive Manufacturing. The presented paper discusses some of the key challenges which are critical to ensure that Additive Manufacturing is truly accepted as a mainstream production technology in the industry. These challenges would highlight on various aspects of production such as product requirements, process management, data management, intellectual property, work flow management, quality assurance, resource planning, etc. In Addition, changing market trends such as product life cycle, mass customization, sustainability, environmental impact and localized production will form the foundation for the follow up discussion on the current limitations and the corresponding research opportunities. A discussion on ongoing research to address these challenges would include topics like process monitoring, design complexity, process standardization, multi-material and hybrid fabrication, new material development, etc.

  5. Nicotine content and delivery across tobacco products.

    PubMed

    Djordjevic, Mirjana V; Doran, Kelly A

    2009-01-01

    Nicotine is the principal alkaloid in both commercial and homemade products (e.g., cigarettes, smokeless tobacco, bidis, waterpipes) followed by nornicotine, anabasine, anatabine, and many other basic substances that contain a cyclic nitrogenous nucleus. Tobacco types, leaf position on the plant, agricultural practices, fertilizer treatment, and degree of ripening are among some prominent factors that determine the levels of alkaloids in tobacco leaf. From a random examination of 152 cultivated varieties of Nicotiana tabacum, a range of alkaloid variation between 0.17 and 4.93% was determined. In fact, every step in tobacco production that affects plant metabolism will influence the level of alkaloid content to a certain degree. Depending on blending recipe, type and amount of additives, and product design, all types of tobacco products contain a very wide range of nicotine concentration. However, the ultimate emission of nicotine to the user, exposure, and psychophar-macological effects depend not only on the content and emission, but also on the relationship between the product and the user. PMID:19184646

  6. Nicotine content and delivery across tobacco products.

    PubMed

    Djordjevic, Mirjana V; Doran, Kelly A

    2009-01-01

    Nicotine is the principal alkaloid in both commercial and homemade products (e.g., cigarettes, smokeless tobacco, bidis, waterpipes) followed by nornicotine, anabasine, anatabine, and many other basic substances that contain a cyclic nitrogenous nucleus. Tobacco types, leaf position on the plant, agricultural practices, fertilizer treatment, and degree of ripening are among some prominent factors that determine the levels of alkaloids in tobacco leaf. From a random examination of 152 cultivated varieties of Nicotiana tabacum, a range of alkaloid variation between 0.17 and 4.93% was determined. In fact, every step in tobacco production that affects plant metabolism will influence the level of alkaloid content to a certain degree. Depending on blending recipe, type and amount of additives, and product design, all types of tobacco products contain a very wide range of nicotine concentration. However, the ultimate emission of nicotine to the user, exposure, and psychophar-macological effects depend not only on the content and emission, but also on the relationship between the product and the user.

  7. Dimethyl carbonate production for fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Okada, Y.; Kondo, T.; Asaoka, S.

    1996-12-31

    We have taken note of the transesterification reaction as a highly safe process of dimethyl carbonate (DMC) production for fuel additives. The reaction proceeds under the low corrosiveness and in the relatively mild condition. We have aimed to use an inorganic solid catalyst for this process. The inorganic solid catalyst is thermally stable and can be used in the large-scale fixed bed reactors without a catalyst separation unit. Through the transesterification of ethylene carbonate (EG) with methanol, DMC and ethylene glycol (EG) are co-generated as the products. EG is one of the bulk chemicals produced in the large scale plant comparable to one for the fuel additives. The market balance is important in the coproduction process. On the assumption that the amount of the co-production meets the market balance, the coproduction of DMC and EG is commercially viable. If we can control the amount of the EG coproduction in this process, it makes the process more flexible in the commercial production. Accordingly we have proposed a conceptual process scheme to control the amount of the EG coproduction. In this symposium, the inorganic solid catalyst system applying to the transesterification process and the conceptual process scheme how to control the amount of co-product will be discussed.

  8. Proanthocyanin content in cranberry CE medicinal products.

    PubMed

    Chrubasik-Hausmann, Sigrun; Vlachojannis, Christian; Zimmermann, Benno F

    2014-11-01

    The CE marking is a statutory marking for certain products sold within the European Economic Area. Medicinal products with a CE label are not regulated by the European Medicines Agency but are licensed according to the directives of the European Community. We have analysed the proanthocyanin (PAC) content of four cranberry CE products by both a photometric (DMAC method using 4-dimethylamino-cinnamic-aldehyde as colouring reagent) and a high-performance liquid chromatography assay and have compared the daily dosages recommended for the products by their manufacturers with benchmark doses obtained from the literature. For all CE products, the identified DMAC values for the PAC content per unit were below those declared. For two of the CE medicinal products, not even the manufacturers' maximum daily dosages have type A PAC contents that would have any chance of providing the health benefits promised on the product information sheets; the other two might have some chance, but only at maximum dosage (nine capsules per day for one of them). CE medicinal products should be better controlled by regulatory authorities to prevent consumers from buying and taking doses that are inadequate to provide the benefits claimed.

  9. Additives In Meat and Poultry Products

    MedlinePlus

    ... all cases, ingredients must be listed on the product label in the ingredients statement in order by weight, ... acid pyrophosphate, or orthophosphates, declared as "phosphates" on labels. PROPYL GALLATE - used as an antioxidant to prevent rancidity in products such as rendered fats or pork sausage. It ...

  10. Addition of Functional Content during Core Content Instruction with Students with Moderate Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Belva C.; Hager, Karen L.; Galloway, Carey Creech

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to add functional content during core content instruction of language arts, science, and math. The investigation involved three middle school students with moderate disabilities who participated in the state's alternate assessment. During instruction using a constant time delay procedure to teach required…

  11. The MODIS Vegetation Canopy Water Content product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ustin, S. L.; Riano, D.; Trombetti, M.

    2008-12-01

    Vegetation water stress drives wildfire behavior and risk, having important implications for biogeochemical cycling in natural ecosystems, agriculture, and forestry. Water stress limits plant transpiration and carbon gain. The regulation of photosynthesis creates close linkages between the carbon, water, and energy cycles and through metabolism to the nitrogen cycle. We generated systematic weekly CWC estimated for the USA from 2000-2006. MODIS measures the sunlit reflectance of the vegetation in the visible, near-infrared, and shortwave infrared. Radiative transfer models, such as PROSPECT-SAILH, determine how sunlight interacts with plant and soil materials. These models can be applied over a range of scales and ecosystem types. Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) were used to optimize the inversion of these models to determine vegetation water content. We carried out multi-scale validation of the product using field data, airborne and satellite cross-calibration. An Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document (ATBD) of the product is under evaluation by NASA. The CWC product inputs are 1) The MODIS Terra/Aqua surface reflectance product (MOD09A1/MYD09A1) 2) The MODIS land cover map product (MOD12Q1) reclassified to grassland, shrub-land and forest canopies; 3) An ANN trained with PROSPECT-SAILH; 4) A calibration file for each land cover type. The output is an ENVI file with the CWC values. The code is written in Matlab environment and is being adapted to read not only the 8 day MODIS composites, but also daily surface reflectance data. We plan to incorporate the cloud and snow mask and generate as output a geotiff file. Vegetation water content estimates will help predicting linkages between biogeochemical cycles, which will enable further understanding of feedbacks to atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. It will also serve to estimate primary productivity of the biosphere; monitor/assess natural vegetation health related to drought, pollution or diseases

  12. Topsoil organic carbon content of Europe, a new map based on a generalised additive model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Brogniez, Delphine; Ballabio, Cristiano; Stevens, Antoine; Jones, Robert J. A.; Montanarella, Luca; van Wesemael, Bas

    2014-05-01

    There is an increasing demand for up-to-date spatially continuous organic carbon (OC) data for global environment and climatic modeling. Whilst the current map of topsoil organic carbon content for Europe (Jones et al., 2005) was produced by applying expert-knowledge based pedo-transfer rules on large soil mapping units, the aim of this study was to replace it by applying digital soil mapping techniques on the first European harmonised geo-referenced topsoil (0-20 cm) database, which arises from the LUCAS (land use/cover area frame statistical survey) survey. A generalized additive model (GAM) was calibrated on 85% of the dataset (ca. 17 000 soil samples) and a backward stepwise approach selected slope, land cover, temperature, net primary productivity, latitude and longitude as environmental covariates (500 m resolution). The validation of the model (applied on 15% of the dataset), gave an R2 of 0.27. We observed that most organic soils were under-predicted by the model and that soils of Scandinavia were also poorly predicted. The model showed an RMSE of 42 g kg-1 for mineral soils and of 287 g kg-1 for organic soils. The map of predicted OC content showed the lowest values in Mediterranean countries and in croplands across Europe, whereas highest OC content were predicted in wetlands, woodlands and in mountainous areas. The map of standard error of the OC model predictions showed high values in northern latitudes, wetlands, moors and heathlands, whereas low uncertainty was mostly found in croplands. A comparison of our results with the map of Jones et al. (2005) showed a general agreement on the prediction of mineral soils' OC content, most probably because the models use some common covariates, namely land cover and temperature. Our model however failed to predict values of OC content greater than 200 g kg-1, which we explain by the imposed unimodal distribution of our model, whose mean is tilted towards the majority of soils, which are mineral. Finally, average

  13. 40 CFR 300.920 - Addition of products to Schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... additional information and/or a sample of the product in order to review and/or conduct validation sampling... not list the product. (3) Request for review of decision. (i) A manufacturer whose product was determined to be ineligible for listing on the NCP Product Schedule may request EPA's Administrator to...

  14. 40 CFR 300.920 - Addition of products to Schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... additional information and/or a sample of the product in order to review and/or conduct validation sampling... not list the product. (3) Request for review of decision. (i) A manufacturer whose product was determined to be ineligible for listing on the NCP Product Schedule may request EPA's Administrator to...

  15. Effect of sugar addition on glass transition temperatures of cassava starch with low to intermediate moisture contents.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Yetzury; Guevara, Marvilan; Pérez, Adriana; Cova, Aura; Sandoval, Aleida J; Müller, Alejandro J

    2016-08-01

    This work studies how sucrose (S) addition modifies the thermal properties of cassava starch (CS). Neat CS and CS-S blends with 4, 6 and 8% sugar contents (CS-S-4%, CS-S-6% and CS-S-8%) were prepared and analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA), in a wide range of moisture levels (2-20%). In equilibrated samples with moisture contents lower than 10%, twoendothermic steps were observed during first DSC heating scans and two corresponding relaxation maxima in tan δ were detected by DMTA. The first transition, detected at around 45-55°C by both DSC and DMTA, is frequently found in starchy foods, while the second observed at higher temperatures is associated to the glass transition temperature of the blends. At higher moisture contents, only one thermal transition was observed. Samples analyzed immediately after cooling from the melt (i.e., after erasing their thermal history), exhibited a single glass transition temperature, regardless of their moisture content. Addition of sugar promotes water plasticization of CS only at high moisture contents. In the low moisture content range, anti-plasticization was observed for both neat and sugar-added CS samples. Addition of sugar decreases the moisture content needed to achieve the maximum value of the glass transition temperature before plasticization starts. The results of this work may be valuable for the study of texture establishment in low moisture content extruded food products. PMID:27112870

  16. Effect of sugar addition on glass transition temperatures of cassava starch with low to intermediate moisture contents.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Yetzury; Guevara, Marvilan; Pérez, Adriana; Cova, Aura; Sandoval, Aleida J; Müller, Alejandro J

    2016-08-01

    This work studies how sucrose (S) addition modifies the thermal properties of cassava starch (CS). Neat CS and CS-S blends with 4, 6 and 8% sugar contents (CS-S-4%, CS-S-6% and CS-S-8%) were prepared and analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA), in a wide range of moisture levels (2-20%). In equilibrated samples with moisture contents lower than 10%, twoendothermic steps were observed during first DSC heating scans and two corresponding relaxation maxima in tan δ were detected by DMTA. The first transition, detected at around 45-55°C by both DSC and DMTA, is frequently found in starchy foods, while the second observed at higher temperatures is associated to the glass transition temperature of the blends. At higher moisture contents, only one thermal transition was observed. Samples analyzed immediately after cooling from the melt (i.e., after erasing their thermal history), exhibited a single glass transition temperature, regardless of their moisture content. Addition of sugar promotes water plasticization of CS only at high moisture contents. In the low moisture content range, anti-plasticization was observed for both neat and sugar-added CS samples. Addition of sugar decreases the moisture content needed to achieve the maximum value of the glass transition temperature before plasticization starts. The results of this work may be valuable for the study of texture establishment in low moisture content extruded food products.

  17. A review of selected chemical additives in cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Juhász, Margit Lai Wun; Marmur, Ellen S

    2014-01-01

    The addition of chemical additives to consumer cosmetic products is a common practice to increase cosmetic effectiveness, maintain cosmetic efficacy, and produce a longer-lasting, more viable product. Recently, manufacturers have come under attack for the addition of chemicals including dioxane, formaldehyde, lead/lead acetate, parabens, and phthalate, as these additives may prove harmful to consumer health. Although reports show that these products may indeed adversely affect human health, these studies are conducted using levels of the aforementioned chemicals at much higher levels of exposure than those found in cosmetic products. When cosmeceuticals are used as per manufacturer's instructions, it is estimated that the levels of harmful additives found in these products are considerably lower than reported toxic concentrations.

  18. Mechanical properties of potato starch modified by moisture content and addition of lubricant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stasiak, Mateusz; Molenda, Marek; Horabik, Józef; Mueller, Peter; Opaliński, Ireneusz

    2014-10-01

    Laboratory testing was conducted to deliver a set of characteristics of structure and mechanical properties of pure starch and starch with an addition of a lubricant - magnesium stearate. Considerable influence of moisture content of potato starch was found in the case of density, parameters of internal friction, coefficients of wall friction and flowability. Elasticity was found to be strongly influenced by water content of the material. Addition of magnesium stearate affected density and parameters of flowability, internal friction and elasticity. Bulk density increased from 604 to 774 kg m-3 with decrease in moisture content of potato starch from 17 to for 6%. Addition of magnesium stearate resulted in approximately 10% decrease in bulk density. Angle of internal friction obtained for 10 kPa of consolidation stress decreased from 33 to 24º with increase in moisture content, and to approximately 22º with addition of the lubricant. With an increase of moisture content from 6 to 18% and with addition of the lubricant, the modulus of elasticity during loading decreased from approximately 1.0 to 0.1 MPa. Modulus of elasticity during unloading was found in the range from 19 to 42 MPa and increased with increase of moisture content and amount of lubricant.

  19. Fatty acid profile, total cholesterol, vitamin content, and TBARS value of turkey breast muscle cured with the addition of lycopene.

    PubMed

    Skiepko, N; Chwastowska-Siwiecka, I; Kondratowicz, J; Mikulski, D

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of lycopene addition for curing turkey meat on the profile of fatty acids, total cholesterol, vitamin content, and the TBARS of the final products. The analyzed material comprised 64 breast muscles, of which 16 (RBM) were immediately transported to a laboratory. Another 16 (UBM) were heat treated in a convection steam oven, and 32 muscles were cured for 3 days in two types of curing mixture: without (CBM) and with (CBM+Lyc) tomato peel extract standardized for 5% lycopene content. After completed curing, samples were steamed and grilled under the same conditions as raw samples. Statistical analysis demonstrated the highest (P≤0.01) mean content of vitamin A (0.07 μg/g) in chilled muscles. The content of vitamin E was lower (P≤0.01) in UBM samples than in CBM+Lyc and RBM. The TBARS value was the lowest (P≤0.01) in RBM muscles (0.35 mg MDA/kg of meat). Although there were no differences between products, but lower TBARS were found in CBM+Lyc samples. The content of cholesterol was higher (P≤0.01) in CBM+Lyc products than in the RBM and UBM. RBM samples contained (P≤0.01) the lowest amount of saturated, monounsaturated, and hypercholesterolemic fatty acids, and the highest of unsaturated, polyunsaturated, and hypocholesterolemic fatty acids. CBM+Lyc samples contained (P≤0.01) less hypercholesterolemic and more hypocholesterolemic fatty acids than CBM group. Higher (P≤0.01) unsaturated/saturated and hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic fatty acid ratios were also found in CBM+Lyc products. The study demonstrated that the used processing technology caused reduction (P≤0.01) of n-3 and n-6 PUFA content. Findings suggest that the addition of lycopene in the process of meat curing and heat treatment in meat industry do not change the content of vitamins and cholesterol or alter the TBARS value in turkey meat products. Nevertheless, lycopene can be used to increase the content of essential

  20. Content, Process, and Product: Modeling Differentiated Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Barbara Kline

    2015-01-01

    Modeling differentiated instruction is one way to demonstrate how educators can incorporate instructional strategies to address students' needs, interests, and learning styles. This article discusses how secondary teacher candidates learn to focus on content--the "what" of instruction; process--the "how" of instruction;…

  1. FLUORIDE CONTENT OF COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE SOY MILK PRODUCTS IN THAILAND.

    PubMed

    Rirattanapong, Opas; Rirattanapong, Praphasri

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. In Thailand, the consumption of soy milk products is common but there is limited data about their fluoride content. The purpose of this study was to es- timate the fluoride content of soy milk products available in Thailand. Fluoride content was determined for 76 brands of soy milk using a F-ion-specific electrode. The fluoride concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 3.78 μg/ml. The fluoride content was not related to sugar content, soy bean content or the sterilization process. Among 3 brands of soy milk containing tea powder extract, the fluoride content was high (1.25 to 3.78 μg/ml). Most brands of soy milk tested in our study had fluoride content below the optimal daily intake but brands containing tea powder extract if consumed by children may increase their risk for fluorosis.

  2. FLUORIDE CONTENT OF COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE SOY MILK PRODUCTS IN THAILAND.

    PubMed

    Rirattanapong, Opas; Rirattanapong, Praphasri

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. In Thailand, the consumption of soy milk products is common but there is limited data about their fluoride content. The purpose of this study was to es- timate the fluoride content of soy milk products available in Thailand. Fluoride content was determined for 76 brands of soy milk using a F-ion-specific electrode. The fluoride concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 3.78 μg/ml. The fluoride content was not related to sugar content, soy bean content or the sterilization process. Among 3 brands of soy milk containing tea powder extract, the fluoride content was high (1.25 to 3.78 μg/ml). Most brands of soy milk tested in our study had fluoride content below the optimal daily intake but brands containing tea powder extract if consumed by children may increase their risk for fluorosis. PMID:27086437

  3. Biogas Production on Demand Regulated by Butyric Acid Addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasper, K.; Schiffels, J.; Krafft, S.; Kuperjans, I.; Elbers, G.; Selmer, T.

    2016-03-01

    Investigating effects of volatile fatty acids on the biogas process it was observed that butyric acid can be used for transient stimulation of the methane production in biogas plants operating with low energy substrates like cattle manure. Upon addition of butyrate the methane output of the reactors doubled within 24 h and reached almost 3-times higher methane yields within 3-4 days. Butyrate was quantitatively eliminated and the reactors returned to the original productivity state within 3 days when application of butyrate was stopped. The opportunity to use butyrate feeding for increased biogas production on demand is discussed.

  4. 10 CFR 52.80 - Contents of applications; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... 52.80 Section 52.80 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.80 Contents of applications; additional technical... environmental report, either in accordance with 10 CFR 51.50(c) if a limited work authorization under 10 CFR...

  5. 10 CFR 52.158 - Contents of application; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... 52.158 Section 52.158 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.158 Contents of application; additional... environmental report as required by 10 CFR 51.54. (2) If the manufacturing license application references...

  6. 10 CFR 52.80 - Contents of applications; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... 52.80 Section 52.80 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.80 Contents of applications; additional technical... environmental report, either in accordance with 10 CFR 51.50(c) if a limited work authorization under 10 CFR...

  7. 10 CFR 52.80 - Contents of applications; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... 52.80 Section 52.80 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.80 Contents of applications; additional technical... environmental report, either in accordance with 10 CFR 51.50(c) if a limited work authorization under 10 CFR...

  8. 10 CFR 52.80 - Contents of applications; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... 52.80 Section 52.80 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.80 Contents of applications; additional technical... environmental report, either in accordance with 10 CFR 51.50(c) if a limited work authorization under 10 CFR...

  9. 10 CFR 52.158 - Contents of application; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... 52.158 Section 52.158 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.158 Contents of application; additional... environmental report as required by 10 CFR 51.54. (2) If the manufacturing license application references...

  10. 10 CFR 52.158 - Contents of application; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... 52.158 Section 52.158 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.158 Contents of application; additional... environmental report as required by 10 CFR 51.54. (2) If the manufacturing license application references...

  11. 10 CFR 52.80 - Contents of applications; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... 52.80 Section 52.80 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.80 Contents of applications; additional technical... environmental report, either in accordance with 10 CFR 51.50(c) if a limited work authorization under 10 CFR...

  12. 10 CFR 52.158 - Contents of application; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... 52.158 Section 52.158 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.158 Contents of application; additional... environmental report as required by 10 CFR 51.54. (2) If the manufacturing license application references...

  13. 30 CFR 250.803 - Additional production system requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... reference as specified in 30 CFR 250.198). (b) Design, installation, and operation of additional production... operating pressure ranges of pressure vessels at any time when there is a change in operating pressures that... any time when there is a significant change in operating pressures. The most recent...

  14. 30 CFR 250.803 - Additional production system requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR 250.198). (b) Design, installation, and operation of additional production systems—(1) Pressure... ranges of pressure vessels at any time when there is a change in operating pressures that requires new... significant change in operating pressures. The most recent pressure-recorder charts used to...

  15. Different additives to enhance the gelation of surimi gel with reduced sodium content.

    PubMed

    Cando, Deysi; Herranz, Beatriz; Borderías, A Javier; Moreno, Helena M

    2016-04-01

    This study tested the effect of adding tetra-sodium pyrophosphate, cystine and lysine as surimi gelation enhancers (Alaska Pollock) in order to reduce the sodium content of gels up to 0.3%. These gels were compared with others that contained 3% NaCl content (the amount typically used for surimi processing). To induce protein gelation, gels were first heated and then set at 5 °C/24 h. Once the physicochemical and rheological properties of the gels were determined, cystine and lysine were found to be the most effective additives improving the characteristics of low NaCl surimi gels. The action of these additives is mainly based on the induction of myofibrillar protein unfolding thus facilitating the formation of the types of bonds needed to establish an appropriate network. It was found that a setting period was needed for gel processing to maximize the effect of the additives.

  16. Different additives to enhance the gelation of surimi gel with reduced sodium content.

    PubMed

    Cando, Deysi; Herranz, Beatriz; Borderías, A Javier; Moreno, Helena M

    2016-04-01

    This study tested the effect of adding tetra-sodium pyrophosphate, cystine and lysine as surimi gelation enhancers (Alaska Pollock) in order to reduce the sodium content of gels up to 0.3%. These gels were compared with others that contained 3% NaCl content (the amount typically used for surimi processing). To induce protein gelation, gels were first heated and then set at 5 °C/24 h. Once the physicochemical and rheological properties of the gels were determined, cystine and lysine were found to be the most effective additives improving the characteristics of low NaCl surimi gels. The action of these additives is mainly based on the induction of myofibrillar protein unfolding thus facilitating the formation of the types of bonds needed to establish an appropriate network. It was found that a setting period was needed for gel processing to maximize the effect of the additives. PMID:26593556

  17. Effect of salts addition on hydrogen production by C. acetobutylicum.

    PubMed

    Alshiyab, H; Kalil, M S; Hamid, A A; Wan Yusoff, W M

    2008-09-15

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of salts addition to fermentation medium on hydrogen production, under anaerobic batch culture system. In this study, batch experiments were conducted to investigate the inhibitory effect of both NaCl and sodium acetate on hydrogen production. The optimum pH and temperature for hydrogen production were at initial pH of 7.0 and 30 degrees C. Enhanced production of hydrogen, using glucose as substrate was achieved. In the absence of Sodium Chloride and Sodium Acetate enhanced hydrogen yield (Y(P/S)) from 350 mL g(-1) glucose utilized to 391 mL g(-1) glucose utilized with maximum hydrogen productivity of 77.5 ml/L/h. Results also show that sodium chloride and sodium acetate in the medium adversely affect growth. Hydrogen yield per biomass (Y(P/X)) of 254 ml/L/g, biomass per substrate utilized (Y(X/S)) of 0.268 and (Y(H2/S) of 0.0349. The results suggested that Sodium at any concentration resulted to inhibit the bacterial productivity of hydrogen.

  18. Studies of levels of biogenic amines in meat samples in relation to the content of additives.

    PubMed

    Jastrzębska, Aneta; Kowalska, Sylwia; Szłyk, Edward

    2016-01-01

    The impact of meat additives on the concentration of biogenic amines and the quality of meat was studied. Fresh white and red meat samples were fortified with the following food additives: citric and lactic acids, disodium diphosphate, sodium nitrite, sodium metabisulphite, potassium sorbate, sodium chloride, ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol, propyl 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoate (propyl gallate) and butylated hydroxyanisole. The content of spermine, spermidine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, tryptamine and 2-phenylethylamine was determined by capillary isotachophoretic methods in meat samples (fresh and fortified) during four days of storage at 4°C. The results were applied to estimate the impact of the tested additives on the formation of biogenic amines in white and red meat. For all tested meats, sodium nitrite, sodium chloride and disodium diphosphate showed the best inhibition. However, cadaverine and putrescine were characterised by the biggest changes in concentration during the storage time of all the additives. Based on the presented data for the content of biogenic amines in meat samples analysed as a function of storage time and additives, we suggest that cadaverine and putrescine have a significant impact on meat quality. PMID:26515667

  19. Studies of levels of biogenic amines in meat samples in relation to the content of additives.

    PubMed

    Jastrzębska, Aneta; Kowalska, Sylwia; Szłyk, Edward

    2016-01-01

    The impact of meat additives on the concentration of biogenic amines and the quality of meat was studied. Fresh white and red meat samples were fortified with the following food additives: citric and lactic acids, disodium diphosphate, sodium nitrite, sodium metabisulphite, potassium sorbate, sodium chloride, ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol, propyl 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoate (propyl gallate) and butylated hydroxyanisole. The content of spermine, spermidine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, tryptamine and 2-phenylethylamine was determined by capillary isotachophoretic methods in meat samples (fresh and fortified) during four days of storage at 4°C. The results were applied to estimate the impact of the tested additives on the formation of biogenic amines in white and red meat. For all tested meats, sodium nitrite, sodium chloride and disodium diphosphate showed the best inhibition. However, cadaverine and putrescine were characterised by the biggest changes in concentration during the storage time of all the additives. Based on the presented data for the content of biogenic amines in meat samples analysed as a function of storage time and additives, we suggest that cadaverine and putrescine have a significant impact on meat quality.

  20. AGA; U. S. gas reserve additions lag production

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-04

    The American Gas Association estimates 1991 U.S. natural gas reserve additions were only 65-79% of production, compared with a 96% average for 1981-90. AGA found that 75% of 1991 reserve additions occurred as discoveries and field extensions, and only 25% came from revisions of estimates. Total reserve additions may range from 11.1 tcf to 13.4 tcf. The 30 largest gas reserves holders sold more than 1.1 tcf of reserves to other firms. The top 30 companies had reserve additions of 5.754 tcf, down 3.541 tcf from a year earlier. Total gas reserves held by the top 30 dropped by 3.757 tcf. The 30 companies produced 8.417 tcf in 1991, compared with 8.352 tcf in 1989. This paper reports that AGA compiles the reserve addition estimates from data the 30 largest gas companies file with the Securities and exchange Commission, supplemented with data from gas pipelines holding large reserves.

  1. Excipients and additives: hidden hazards in drug products and in product substitution.

    PubMed Central

    Napke, E; Stevens, D G

    1984-01-01

    The excipients and additives in drug formulations have been described as inert because they do not have an active role in the prevention or treatment of particular ailments. This has led to the misconception among physicians, pharmacists, drug manufacturers and the public that excipients are harmless and unworthy of mention. In fact, pharmacists are allowed to substitute drug formulations, without regard to the excipients, as long as they ensure that the active ingredients in the substitute are the same as those in the formulation prescribed. The inappropriateness of the term inert is becoming increasingly apparent as evidence of adverse reactions--some fatal--to excipients mounts. The likelihood that some "active" constituents, particularly erythromycin, have been blamed for such reactions deserves to be investigated. The public deserves to be better protected. For example, the United States has legislation requiring complete labelling of all food, drugs and cosmetics that incorporate more than one ingredient, no matter how innocuous the constituents are believed to be. In Canada, drug manufacturers are not even required to share this information with physicians or pharmacists when they introduce a new drug or reformulate a product already being marketed, nor are pharmacists required to disclose the contents of formulations that they prepare in the absence of commercially available products. PMID:6498699

  2. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  3. Production scheduling with discrete and renewable additional resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinowski, K.; Grabowik, C.; Paprocka, I.; Kempa, W.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper an approach to planning of additional resources when scheduling operations are discussed. The considered resources are assumed to be discrete and renewable. In most research in scheduling domain, the basic and often the only type of regarded resources is a workstation. It can be understood as a machine, a device or even as a separated space on the shop floor. In many cases, during the detailed scheduling of operations the need of using more than one resource, required for its implementation, can be indicated. Resource requirements for an operation may relate to different resources or resources of the same type. Additional resources are most often referred to these human resources, tools or equipment, for which the limited availability in the manufacturing system may have an influence on the execution dates of some operations. In the paper the concept of the division into basic and additional resources and their planning method was shown. A situation in which sets of basic and additional resources are not separable - the same additional resource may be a basic resource for another operation is also considered. Scheduling of operations, including greater amount of resources can cause many difficulties, depending on whether the resource is involved in the entire time of operation, only in the selected part(s) of operation (e.g. as auxiliary staff at setup time) or cyclic - e.g. when an operator supports more than one machine, or supervises the execution of several operations. For this reason the dates and work times of resources participation in the operation can be different. Presented issues are crucial when modelling of production scheduling environment and designing of structures for the purpose of scheduling software development.

  4. Aluminum in Pediatric Parenteral Nutrition Products: Measured Versus Labeled Content

    PubMed Central

    Poole, Robert L.; Pieroni, Kevin P.; Gaskari, Shabnam; Dixon, Tessa K.; Park, KT; Kerner, John A.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Aluminum is a contaminant in all parenteral nutrition solutions. Manufacturers currently label these products with the maximum aluminum content at the time of expiry, but there are no published data to establish the actual measured concentration of aluminum in parenteral nutrition solution products prior to being compounded in the clinical setting. This investigation assessed quantitative aluminum content of products commonly used in the formulation of parenteral nutrition solutions. The objective of this study is to determine the best products to be used when compounding parenteral nutrition solutions (i.e., those with the least amount of aluminum contamination). METHODS All products available in the United States from all manufacturers used in the production of parenteral nutrition solutions were identified and collected. Three lots were collected for each identified product. Samples were quantitatively analyzed by Mayo Laboratories. These measured concentrations were then compared to the manufacturers' labeled concentration. RESULTS Large lot-to-lot and manufacturer-to-manufacturer differences were noted for all products. Measured aluminum concentrations were less than manufacturer-labeled values for all products. CONCLUSIONS The actual aluminum concentrations of all the parenteral nutrition solutions were significantly less than the aluminum content based on manufacturers' labels. These findings indicate that 1) the manufacturers should label their products with actual aluminum content at the time of product release rather than at the time of expiry, 2) that there are manufacturers whose products provide significantly less aluminum contamination than others, and 3) pharmacists can select products with the lowest amounts of aluminum contamination and reduce the aluminum exposure in their patients. PMID:22477831

  5. Manganese content of large-volume parenteral solutions and of nutrient additives.

    PubMed

    Kurkus, J; Alcock, N W; Shils, M E

    1984-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) was analyzed by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry in a variety of commercially produced solutions and additives commonly used in total parenteral nutrition (TPN). The amount of Mn in preparations tested varied among manufacturers and among lots. It was generally present in very small amounts with amino acid preparations supplying the major portion in the TPN formulas. Among amino acid solutions, Aminosyn 10% had the highest Mn content (5.2-17.0 micrograms/liter) with Veinamine 8%, FreAmine II, 8.5%, Travasol 10%, and Nephramine having less than 6.7 micrograms/liter. Other large volume parenterals contained appreciably less Mn, eg, Dextrose 50% had 0.64-2.5 micrograms/liter. Some of the additives were high in Mn, eg, potassium phosphate--280 micrograms/liter, magnesium sulfate 50%--up to 225 micrograms/liter, and Berocca C--245.8 micrograms/liter but their actual contributions to daily TPN intake was no more than 3.3 micrograms. The calculated Mn content in TPN formulas with varying source materials ranged from 8.07-21.75 micrograms per total daily volume. These values agreed with those obtained from analysis of actual TPN solutions. The values for 10% Intralipid and 20% Liposyn were 0.5 and 3.0 micrograms/liter, respectively.

  6. Additive manufacturing. Continuous liquid interface production of 3D objects.

    PubMed

    Tumbleston, John R; Shirvanyants, David; Ermoshkin, Nikita; Janusziewicz, Rima; Johnson, Ashley R; Kelly, David; Chen, Kai; Pinschmidt, Robert; Rolland, Jason P; Ermoshkin, Alexander; Samulski, Edward T; DeSimone, Joseph M

    2015-03-20

    Additive manufacturing processes such as 3D printing use time-consuming, stepwise layer-by-layer approaches to object fabrication. We demonstrate the continuous generation of monolithic polymeric parts up to tens of centimeters in size with feature resolution below 100 micrometers. Continuous liquid interface production is achieved with an oxygen-permeable window below the ultraviolet image projection plane, which creates a "dead zone" (persistent liquid interface) where photopolymerization is inhibited between the window and the polymerizing part. We delineate critical control parameters and show that complex solid parts can be drawn out of the resin at rates of hundreds of millimeters per hour. These print speeds allow parts to be produced in minutes instead of hours.

  7. Low aglycone content in commercial soy drink products.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Huong Tt; Pourian, Mo; Bystrom, Birgitta; Dahlin, Ingrid; Duc, Pham Tm; Nguyen, Tuan V; von Schoultz, Bo; Hirschberg, Angelica L

    2012-01-01

    The effectiveness of soy isoflavones to prevent bone loss in postmenopausal women is controversial. While consumption of soy in Vietnam is very high, we recently reported a prevalence of osteoporosis comparable to that of many Western populations. In the present study, we analyzed the isoflavone content of soy drink products commercially available in Vietnam and Sweden, and we also compared these products to "home-made" soy drink from beans of different origin. The amounts of the bioactive aglycones (daidzein, glycitein and genistein) and their glycoside isomers were quantified by high-pressure liquid chromatography. We found that the total isoflavone content was low in all preparations, around 70-100 mg/L and of this only 10% were bioactive aglycones. Of these, the Vietnamese products contained significantly lower levels of glycitein than the products from Sweden and "home-made" soy drink preparations. The results show that consumption of several liters of soy drink per day would be needed to achieve threshold levels for a protective effect on bone. There was no significant association between total protein and isoflavone content in different products. Accurate labeling of soy drink and other products eg of aglycone and glycoside content would allow health professionals and researchers to better explore the possible benefits of soy in dietary intervention studies.

  8. Processing radio PSAs: production pacing, arousing content, and age.

    PubMed

    Lang, Annie; Schwartz, Nancy; Lee, Seungjo; Angelini, James

    2007-09-01

    This experiment uses the limited capacity model of mediated message processing (LC3MP) to investigate the effects of production pacing and arousing content in radio public service announcements (PSAs) on the emotional and cognitive responses of college-age and tween (9-12-year-olds) participants. The LC3MP predicts that both arousing content and production pacing should increase emotional arousal, physiological arousal, cognitive effort, and encoding up to the point of cognitive overload after which cognitive effort and encoding should decrease. Results showed that, as expected, arousing content did increase emotional arousal and cognitive effort for both tweens and college students, though the effect was larger for college students. For production pacing, however, the results were less clear cut. First, it was found that for radio PSAs pacing increased arousal for calm messages only. Further, the effects of production pacing on cognitive effort were larger for tweens and were experienced primarily during the first 25 seconds of the message, while college students were less affected by production pacing, and those effects appeared in the last 25 seconds of the messages. Finally, none of the messages in this experiment resulted in cognitive overload - thus both production pacing and arousing content increased memory for both groups of participants.

  9. Additive manufacturing techniques for the production of tissue engineering constructs.

    PubMed

    Mota, Carlos; Puppi, Dario; Chiellini, Federica; Chiellini, Emo

    2015-03-01

    'Additive manufacturing' (AM) refers to a class of manufacturing processes based on the building of a solid object from three-dimensional (3D) model data by joining materials, usually layer upon layer. Among the vast array of techniques developed for the production of tissue-engineering (TE) scaffolds, AM techniques are gaining great interest for their suitability in achieving complex shapes and microstructures with a high degree of automation, good accuracy and reproducibility. In addition, the possibility of rapidly producing tissue-engineered constructs meeting patient's specific requirements, in terms of tissue defect size and geometry as well as autologous biological features, makes them a powerful way of enhancing clinical routine procedures. This paper gives an extensive overview of different AM techniques classes (i.e. stereolithography, selective laser sintering, 3D printing, melt-extrusion-based techniques, solution/slurry extrusion-based techniques, and tissue and organ printing) employed for the development of tissue-engineered constructs made of different materials (i.e. polymeric, ceramic and composite, alone or in combination with bioactive agents), by highlighting their principles and technological solutions.

  10. [Hydrocyanic acid content in cerals and cereal products].

    PubMed

    Lehmann, G; Zinsmeister, H D; Erb, N; Neunhoeffer, O

    1979-03-01

    In the above paper for the first time a systematic study of the amount of hydrocyanic acid in grains and cereal products is reported. Among 24 analysed wheat, rye, maize and oats types, the presence of hydrocyanic acid could be identified in 19 cases in their Karyopses. Similar is the result with 28 among 31 analysed cereal products. The content of hydrocyanic acid lies between 0.1 and 45 microgram/100 gr dried mass.

  11. Methods of cracking a crude product to produce additional crude products

    DOEpatents

    Mo, Weijian; Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria; Nair, Vijay

    2009-09-08

    A method for producing a crude product is disclosed. Formation fluid is produced from a subsurface in situ heat treatment process. The formation fluid is separated to produce a liquid stream and a first gas stream. The first gas stream includes olefins. The liquid stream is fractionated to produce one or more crude products. At least one of the crude products has a boiling range distribution from 38.degree. C. and 343.degree. C. as determined by ASTM Method D5307. The crude product having the boiling range distribution from 38.degree. C. and 343.degree. C. is catalytically cracked to produce one or more additional crude products. At least one of the additional crude products is a second gas stream. The second gas stream has a boiling point of at most 38.degree. C. at 0.101 MPa.

  12. HEAVY METAL CONTENT OF AYURVEDIC HERBAL MEDICINE PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Case reports of individuals taking Ayurvedic herbal medicine products (HMPs) suggest that they may contain lead, mercury, and/or arsenic. We analyzed the heavy metal content of Ayurvedic HMPs manufactured in India and Pakistan, available in South Asian grocery stores in the Bost...

  13. Selenium content of milk and milk products of Turkey. II.

    PubMed

    Yanardağ, R; Orak, H

    1999-04-01

    Selenium content of 1028 milk and milk products of Turkey are presented in this study. The selenium content of human milk (colostrum, transitional, and mature milk), various kinds of milk [cow, sheep, goat, buffalo, paper boxes (3%, 1.5%, 0.012% fat), bottled milk, condensed milk (10% fat), mineral added milk (1.6%), and banana, strawberry, and chocolate milk] and milk products (kefir, yogurt, Ayran, various cheese, coffee cream, ice cream, butter, margarine, milk powder, and fruit yogurt) in Turkey were determined by a spectrofluorometric method. The selenium levels of cow milks collected from 57 cities in Turkey were also determined. Selenium levels in cow milk varied with geographical location in Turkey and were found to be lowest for Van and highest for Aksaray. The results [milk (cow, sheep, goat, buffalo and human) and milks products] were compared with literature data from different countries.

  14. 15 CFR 1180.6 - Production of additional copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (Continued) TECHNOLOGY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE TRANSFER BY FEDERAL AGENCIES OF SCIENTIFIC, TECHNICAL AND ENGINEERING INFORMATION TO THE NATIONAL TECHNICAL INFORMATION SERVICE § 1180.6 Production...

  15. 15 CFR 1180.6 - Production of additional copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (Continued) TECHNOLOGY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE TRANSFER BY FEDERAL AGENCIES OF SCIENTIFIC, TECHNICAL AND ENGINEERING INFORMATION TO THE NATIONAL TECHNICAL INFORMATION SERVICE § 1180.6 Production...

  16. 15 CFR 1180.6 - Production of additional copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (Continued) TECHNOLOGY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE TRANSFER BY FEDERAL AGENCIES OF SCIENTIFIC, TECHNICAL AND ENGINEERING INFORMATION TO THE NATIONAL TECHNICAL INFORMATION SERVICE § 1180.6 Production...

  17. 15 CFR 1180.6 - Production of additional copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (Continued) TECHNOLOGY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE TRANSFER BY FEDERAL AGENCIES OF SCIENTIFIC, TECHNICAL AND ENGINEERING INFORMATION TO THE NATIONAL TECHNICAL INFORMATION SERVICE § 1180.6 Production...

  18. Crystallization of grain boundary phases in silicon nitride with low additive contents by microwave annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Tiegs, T.N.; Ploetz, K.L.; Kiggans, J.O.; Yeckley, R.L.

    1993-06-01

    Microwave annealing of dense Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}-4% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} materials showed improvements over conventional heating. Increases in fracture toughness were observed for annealing between 1200--1650C. The high temperature strength was related to the residual {alpha}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} content which is indicative of a finer average grain size in the specimens. The high temperature dynamic fatigue showed increased stress to failure for specimens microwave annealed between 1400--1550C for periods >5 h. Silicon nitrides with different sintering additives would require different conditions for optimum crystallization. While there were some observed property improvements, they were not so dramatic to justify abandoning conventional over microwave heating. The Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}-4% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} materials used in the study were developed for elevated temperature use and already posses excellent good high temperature strength, fatigue resistance and creep properties. This is due to the very refractory nature of the grain boundary phases and the small quantity of secondary phase present. However, microwave annealing of these materials may be necessary in applications where the maximum in fracture toughness and fatigue resistance are required and thus justifies its use.

  19. Natural Vitamin D Content in Animal Products1

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Alexandra; Walther, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Humans derive most vitamin D from the action of sunlight in their skin. However, in view of the current Western lifestyle with most daily activities taking place indoors, sun exposure is often not sufficient for adequate vitamin D production. For this reason, dietary intake is also of great importance. Animal foodstuffs (e.g., fish, meat, offal, egg, dairy) are the main sources for naturally occurring cholecalciferol (vitamin D-3). This paper therefore aims to provide an up-to-date overview of vitamin D-3 content in various animal foods. The focus lies on the natural vitamin D-3 content because there are many countries in which foods are not regularly fortified with vitamin D. The published data show that the highest values of vitamin D are found in fish and especially in fish liver, but offal also provides considerable amounts of vitamin D. The content in muscle meat is generally much lower. Vitamin D concentrations in egg yolks range between the values for meat and offal. If milk and dairy products are not fortified, they are normally low in vitamin D, with the exception of butter because of its high fat content. However, as recommendations for vitamin D intake have recently been increased considerably, it is difficult to cover the requirements solely by foodstuffs. PMID:23858093

  20. Method for creating high carbon content products from biomass oil

    DOEpatents

    Parker, Reginald; Seames, Wayne

    2012-12-18

    In a method for producing high carbon content products from biomass, a biomass oil is added to a cracking reactor vessel. The biomass oil is heated to a temperature ranging from about 100.degree. C. to about 800.degree. C. at a pressure ranging from about vacuum conditions to about 20,700 kPa for a time sufficient to crack the biomass oil. Tar is separated from the cracked biomass oil. The tar is heated to a temperature ranging from about 200.degree. C. to about 1500.degree. C. at a pressure ranging from about vacuum conditions to about 20,700 kPa for a time sufficient to reduce the tar to a high carbon content product containing at least about 50% carbon by weight.

  1. Phenolic content and antioxidant capacity in algal food products.

    PubMed

    Machu, Ludmila; Misurcova, Ladislava; Ambrozova, Jarmila Vavra; Orsavova, Jana; Mlcek, Jiri; Sochor, Jiri; Jurikova, Tunde

    2015-01-01

    The study objective was to investigate total phenolic content using Folin-Ciocalteu's method, to assess nine phenols by HPLC, to determine antioxidant capacity of the water soluble compounds (ACW) by a photochemiluminescence method, and to calculate the correlation coefficients in commercial algal food products from brown (Laminaria japonica, Eisenia bicyclis, Hizikia fusiformis, Undaria pinnatifida) and red (Porphyra tenera, Palmaria palmata) seaweed, green freshwater algae (Chlorella pyrenoidosa), and cyanobacteria (Spirulina platensis). HPLC analysis showed that the most abundant phenolic compound was epicatechin. From spectrophotometry and ACW determination it was evident that brown seaweed Eisenia bicyclis was the sample with the highest phenolic and ACW values (193 mg·g-1 GAE; 7.53 µmol AA·g-1, respectively). A linear relationship existed between ACW and phenolic contents (r = 0.99). Some algal products seem to be promising functional foods rich in polyphenols. PMID:25587787

  2. Process for production of synthesis gas with reduced sulfur content

    DOEpatents

    Najjar, Mitri S.; Corbeels, Roger J.; Kokturk, Uygur

    1989-01-01

    A process for the partial oxidation of a sulfur- and silicate-containing carbonaceous fuel to produce a synthesis gas with reduced sulfur content which comprises partially oxidizing said fuel at a temperature in the range of 1800.degree.-2200.degree. F. in the presence of a temperature moderator, an oxygen-containing gas and a sulfur capture additive which comprises an iron-containing compound portion and a sodium-containing compound portion to produce a synthesis gas comprising H.sub.2 and CO with a reduced sulfur content and a molten slag which comprises (i) a sulfur-containing sodium-iron silicate phase and (ii) a sodium-iron sulfide phase. The sulfur capture additive may optionally comprise a copper-containing compound portion.

  3. Efficient content production for a university multimedia learning environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurtze, Ali; Grau, Ronald; Creutzburg, Reiner

    2005-03-01

    The use of multimedia learning environments in educational institutions is often associated with the need of uncomplicated content production and moreover, the problem to animate users to maintain the system and its content. A recently developed prototype, 'Instant Seminar,' which is being used at the University of Applied Sciences Brandenburg in Germany, can be seen as an approach for creating an easy-to-use, low-price learning management system (LMS) for multimedia learning environments. The system could be suitable as a solution for those universities wishing to extend their teachings with an electronic learning environment, but which are presently not prepared for a commercial LMS implementation, mostly due to financial or organizational reasons. 'Instant Seminar' follows the didactic concept of 'Hybrid Learning Arrangements' and we considered corresponding features for communication and personal tutoring as part of the design. Important part of the prototype is a production tool called 'Lecture Wizard,' which is basically a Web-based application running on Apache and MySQL servers. It employs Windows Media Services to allow production, modification and broadcasting of AV streams corresponding with the other content of created lectures. Produced streams may have different bandwidths and the distribution of lectures is possible within local and wide area networks. Recently, 'Instant Seminar' has been further developed to serve mobile devices.

  4. European survey on the content of lead in lip products.

    PubMed

    Piccinini, Paola; Piecha, Małgorzata; Torrent, Salvador Fortaner

    2013-03-25

    223 lip articles (representing 55 brands) were purchased in 15 European Union Member States and analysed for lead content. Various lip products (lipsticks and lip glosses), shades (red, brown, purple and pink) and price ranges (3 categories) were investigated. The analytical method employed a microwave-assisted acid digestion followed by ICP-MS determination. The results revealed that 49 samples (22%) contained lead at a level higher than 1mg/kg, representing 31% of the tested lipsticks and 4% of the lip glosses. On average, the lead content found in lipsticks (0.75mg/kg) was nearly double that found in lip glosses (0.38mg/kg) and this difference was judged statistically significant at 95% probability. Apart from brown, statistically significant higher levels of lead were also found when comparing the average lead contents in lipsticks and lip glosses of the same shade: pink (0.81 and 0.38mg/kg), purple (0.88 and 0.37mg/kg) and red (0.58 and 0.25mg/kg). The influence of price on lead content was studied on the two lip product types separately. In the case of lip glosses no differences were found. In the case of lipsticks, the more expensive items (price category III) contained a significantly lower quantity of lead in comparison to the cheapest articles (price category I). The lipsticks containing the highest levels of lead belonged to the price category II. In all cases, however, the actual lead concentration measured in the finished products is far below the recommended limits for Germany (20mg/kg) or Canada (10mg/kg). The outcome of this work delivers information about the current situation on the European market and provides information to policy-makers about the quantities of lead in lip articles and technically achievable levels.

  5. Inulin content of fortified food products in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Chaito, Chanantita; Judprasong, Kunchit; Puwastien, Prapasri

    2016-02-15

    This study examined inulin content in 266 samples. They were 126 dried, 105 liquid and 27 semi-solid of twelve commercial inulin fortified food products and 8 samples of natural dried sunchoke. For dried food products, inulin content ranged from 3.0 ±0.8g/100g fresh weight (FW) in milk powder to 83.7± 17.8g/100g FW in inulin powder. The levels in a descending order are the powder of inulin, weight control diet, coffee mixed, instant beverage, supplemented food products for pregnant and milk. For liquid fortified foods, inulin at the level of 0.3± 0.1g/100mL FW was found in UHT milk, and up to 13.5± 4.1g/100mL FW in weight control diet beverage. The level of 2.0-2.3g/100g FW of inulin was found in beverage with different flavours, soybean milk and fruit juice. For semi-solid food, cream yoghurt, inulin at 3.9± 1.1g/100g FW was found. A serving of most products contributes inulin at 11-33% of the recommended daily intake of dietary fibre.

  6. 40 CFR 300.920 - Addition of products to Schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS NATIONAL OIL AND HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES POLLUTION... in § 300.915(a) to the Emergency Response Division (5202-G), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency..., the technical product data specified in § 300.915 must be submitted to the Emergency Response...

  7. 40 CFR 300.920 - Addition of products to Schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS NATIONAL OIL AND HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES POLLUTION... in § 300.915(a) to the Emergency Response Division (5202-G), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency..., the technical product data specified in § 300.915 must be submitted to the Emergency Response...

  8. 40 CFR 300.920 - Addition of products to Schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS NATIONAL OIL AND HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES POLLUTION... in § 300.915(a) to the Emergency Response Division (5202-G), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency..., the technical product data specified in § 300.915 must be submitted to the Emergency Response...

  9. Heterocyclic amine content in commercial ready to eat meat products.

    PubMed

    Puangsombat, Kanithaporn; Gadgil, Priyadarshini; Houser, Terry A; Hunt, Melvin C; Smith, J Scott

    2011-06-01

    Heterocyclic amines (HCAs) are produced in meats cooked at high temperature, which are potent mutagens and a risk factor for human cancers. The aim of this study was to estimate the amount of HCAs in some commonly consumed ready-to-eat (RTE) meat products. The RTE products were purchased from a local grocery store, and HCA were analyzed using an analytical method based on solid-phase extraction followed by HPLC. The primary HCAs in these samples were PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b]pyridine) (not detected-7.9 ng/g) and MeIQx (2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo [4,5-f]quinoxaline) (not detected-3.6 ng/g). Products ranked in order of increasing total HCA content: pepperoni (0.05 ng/g)products (0.5 ng/g)products and concluded that consumption of RTE meat products contributes very little to HCA intake. Results from this study can be used in risk assessment study to estimate human exposure to HCAs due to food consumption.

  10. Measurement of broiler litter production rates and nutrient content using recycled litter.

    PubMed

    Coufal, C D; Chavez, C; Niemeyer, P R; Carey, J B

    2006-03-01

    It is important for broiler producers to know litter production rates and litter nutrient content when developing nutrient management plans. Estimation of broiler litter production varies widely in the literature due to factors such as geographical region, type of housing, size of broiler produced, and number of flocks reared on the same litter. Published data for N, P, and K content are also highly variable. In addition, few data are available regarding the rate of production, characteristics, and nutrient content of caked litter (cake). In this study, 18 consecutive flocks of broilers were reared on the same litter in experimental pens under simulated commercial conditions. The mass of litter and cake produced was measured after each flock. Samples of all litter materials were analyzed for pH, moisture, N, P, and K. Average litter and cake moisture content were 26.4 and 46.9%, respectively. Significant variation in litter and cake nutrient content was observed and can largely be attributed to ambient temperature differences. Average litter, cake, and total litter (litter plus cake) production rates were 153.3, 74.8, and 228.2 g of dry litter material per kg of live broiler weight (g/kg) per flock, respectively. Significant variation in litter production rates among flocks was also observed. Cumulative litter, cake, and total litter production rates after 18 flocks were 170.3, 78.7, and 249.0 g/kg, respectively. The data produced from this research can be used by broiler producers to estimate broiler litter and cake production and the nutrient content of these materials.

  11. Additives initiate selective production of chemicals from biomass pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Leng, Shuai; Wang, Xinde; Wang, Lei; Qiu, Huizhe; Zhuang, Guilin; Zhong, Xing; Wang, Jianguo; Ma, Fengyun; Liu, Jingmei; Wang, Qiang

    2014-03-01

    To improve chemicals selectivity under low temperature, a new method that involves the injection of additives into biomass pyrolysis is introduced. This method allows biomass pyrolysis to achieve high selectivity to chemicals under low temperature (300°C), while nothing was obtained in typical pyrolysis under 300°C. However, by using the new method, the first liquid drop emerged at the interval between 140°C and 240°C. Adding methanol to mushroom scrap pyrolysis obtained high selectivity to acetic acid (98.33%), while adding ethyl acetate gained selectivity to methanol (65.77%) in bagasse pyrolysis and to acetone (72.51%) in corncob pyrolysis. Apart from basic chemicals, one high value-added chemical (2,3-dihydrobenzofuran) was also detected, which obtained the highest selectivity (10.33%) in corncob pyrolysis through the addition of ethyl acetate. Comparison of HZSM-5 and CaCO3 catalysis showed that benzene emerged in the liquid because of the larger degree of cracking and hydrodeoxygenation over HZSM-5. PMID:24508091

  12. Additives initiate selective production of chemicals from biomass pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Leng, Shuai; Wang, Xinde; Wang, Lei; Qiu, Huizhe; Zhuang, Guilin; Zhong, Xing; Wang, Jianguo; Ma, Fengyun; Liu, Jingmei; Wang, Qiang

    2014-03-01

    To improve chemicals selectivity under low temperature, a new method that involves the injection of additives into biomass pyrolysis is introduced. This method allows biomass pyrolysis to achieve high selectivity to chemicals under low temperature (300°C), while nothing was obtained in typical pyrolysis under 300°C. However, by using the new method, the first liquid drop emerged at the interval between 140°C and 240°C. Adding methanol to mushroom scrap pyrolysis obtained high selectivity to acetic acid (98.33%), while adding ethyl acetate gained selectivity to methanol (65.77%) in bagasse pyrolysis and to acetone (72.51%) in corncob pyrolysis. Apart from basic chemicals, one high value-added chemical (2,3-dihydrobenzofuran) was also detected, which obtained the highest selectivity (10.33%) in corncob pyrolysis through the addition of ethyl acetate. Comparison of HZSM-5 and CaCO3 catalysis showed that benzene emerged in the liquid because of the larger degree of cracking and hydrodeoxygenation over HZSM-5.

  13. Evaluation of low copper content antifouling paints containing natural phenolic compounds as bioactive additives.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Miriam; García, Mónica; Blustein, Guillermo

    2015-08-01

    Cuprous oxide is the most commonly used biocide in antifouling paints. However, copper has harmful effects not only on the fouling community but also on non-target species. In the current study, we investigated the use of thymol, eugenol and guaiacol in this role combined with small quantities of copper. Phenolic compounds were tested for anti-settlement activity against cyprid larvae of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite and for their toxicity to nauplius larvae. Thymol, eugenol and guaiacol were active for anti-settlement but guaiacol had the disadvantage of being toxic to nauplius larvae. However, all of them showed therapeutic ratio>1. Antifouling paints with thymol (low copper content/thymol, LCP/T), eugenol (low copper content/eugenol, LCP/E) and guaiacol (low copper content/guaiacol, LCP/G) combined with small copper content were formulated for field trials. After 12 months exposure in the sea, statistical analysis revealed that LCP/T and LCP/E paints were the most effective combinations and had similar performances to control paints with high copper content (traditional cuprous oxide based paints). In contrast, LCP/G paint was only partially effective in preventing and inhibiting biofouling and was colonized by some hard and soft foulers. However, this antifouling paint was effective against calcareous tubeworm Hydroides elegans. In the light of various potential applications, thymol, eugenol and guaiacol have thus to be considered in future antifouling formulations. PMID:26210408

  14. [Cholesterol content in chicken meat and chicken products].

    PubMed

    Rincón, A M; Carrillo de Padilla, F; Araujo de Vizcarrondo, C; Martín, E

    1997-03-01

    High cholesterol saturated lipids ingestion has been linked to the increment of coronary diseases, particularly atherosclerosis. In this study, samples of viscera and chicken meat, as well as manufactured chicken products are characterized from the point of view of their sterol content, specially cholesterol, with the purpose to determine their nutritional quality and to contribute with the development of Venezuelan food composition tables. Gas-liquid chromatography was the method chosen for the separation and quantification of cholesterol and fitosterols eventually present. The method involves lipids extraction, direct saponification, extraction of the unsaponifiable matter and its injection in the gas chromatograph. The average cholesterol values in mg/100 g. wet sample were: 31.13 (manufactured chicken breast); 57,35 (ham like type of product made with chicken); 69.02 (chicken sausages); 60.46 (chicken "bologna").

  15. 15 CFR 713.4 - Advance declaration requirements for additionally planned production, processing, or consumption...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SCHEDULE 2 CHEMICALS § 713.4 Advance declaration requirements for additionally planned production... additionally planned production, processing, or consumption of Schedule 2 chemicals. 713.4 Section...

  16. 15 CFR 713.4 - Advance declaration requirements for additionally planned production, processing, or consumption...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SCHEDULE 2 CHEMICALS § 713.4 Advance declaration requirements for additionally planned production... additionally planned production, processing, or consumption of Schedule 2 chemicals. 713.4 Section...

  17. 15 CFR 713.4 - Advance declaration requirements for additionally planned production, processing, or consumption...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SCHEDULE 2 CHEMICALS § 713.4 Advance declaration requirements for additionally planned production... additionally planned production, processing, or consumption of Schedule 2 chemicals. 713.4 Section...

  18. Effect of antibiotic, Lacto-lase and probiotic addition in chicken feed on protein and fat content of chicken meat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azhar, Noor Amiza; Abdullah, Aminah

    2015-09-01

    This research was conducted to investigate the effect of chicken feed additives (antibiotic, Lacto-lase® and probiotic) on protein and fat content of chicken meat. Chicken fed with control diet (corn-soy based diet) served as a control. The treated diets were added with zinc bacitracin (antibiotic), different amount of Lacto-lase® (a mixture of probiotic and enzyme) and probiotic. Chicken were slaughtered at the age of 43-48 days. Each chicken was divided into thigh, breast, drumstick, drumette and wing. Protein content in chicken meat was determined by using macro-Kjeldahl method meanwhile Soxhlet method was used to analyse fat content. The result of the study showed that the protein content of chicken breast was significantly higher (p≤0.05) while thigh had the lowest protein content (p≤0.05). Antibiotic fed chicken was found to have the highest protein content among the treated chickens but there was no significant different with 2g/kg Lacto-lase® fed chicken (p>0.05). All thighs were significantly higher (p≤0.05) in fat content except for drumette of control chicken while breast contained the lowest fat content compared to other chicken parts studied. The control chicken meat contained significantly higher (p≤0.05) amount of fat compared to the other treated chickens. Chicken fed with 2g/kg Lacto-lase® had the lowest (p≤0.05) fat content. The result of this study indicated that the addition of Lacto-lase® as a replacement of antibiotic in chicken feed will not affect the content of protein and fat of chicken meat.

  19. Additive Manufacturing in Production: A Study Case Applying Technical Requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ituarte, Iñigo Flores; Coatanea, Eric; Salmi, Mika; Tuomi, Jukka; Partanen, Jouni

    Additive manufacturing (AM) is expanding the manufacturing capabilities. However, quality of AM produced parts is dependent on a number of machine, geometry and process parameters. The variability of these parameters affects the manufacturing drastically and therefore standardized processes and harmonized methodologies need to be developed to characterize the technology for end use applications and enable the technology for manufacturing. This research proposes a composite methodology integrating Taguchi Design of Experiments, multi-objective optimization and statistical process control, to optimize the manufacturing process and fulfil multiple requirements imposed to an arbitrary geometry. The proposed methodology aims to characterize AM technology depending upon manufacturing process variables as well as to perform a comparative assessment of three AM technologies (Selective Laser Sintering, Laser Stereolithography and Polyjet). Results indicate that only one machine, laser-based Stereolithography, was feasible to fulfil simultaneously macro and micro level geometrical requirements but mechanical properties were not at required level. Future research will study a single AM system at the time to characterize AM machine technical capabilities and stimulate pre-normative initiatives of the technology for end use applications.

  20. Increase in the carbohydrate content of the microalgae Spirulina in culture by nutrient starvation and the addition of residues of whey protein concentrate.

    PubMed

    Vieira Salla, Ana Cláudia; Margarites, Ana Cláudia; Seibel, Fábio Ivan; Holz, Luiz Carlos; Brião, Vandré Barbosa; Bertolin, Telma Elita; Colla, Luciane Maria; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira

    2016-06-01

    Non-renewable sources that will end with time are the largest part of world energy consumption, which emphasizes the necessity to develop renewable sources of energy. This necessity has created opportunities for the use of microalgae as a biofuel. The use of microalgae as a feedstock source for bioethanol production requires high yields of both biomass and carbohydrates. With mixotrophic cultures, wastewater can be used to culture algae. The aim of the study was to increase the carbohydrate content in the microalgae Spirulina with the additions of residues from the ultra and nanofiltration of whey protein. The nutrient deficit in the Zarrouk medium diluted to 20% and the addition of 2.5% of both residue types led to high carbohydrate productivity (60 mg L(-1) d(-1)). With these culture conditions, the increase in carbohydrate production in Spirulina indicated that the conditions were appropriate for use with microalgae as a feedstock in the production of bioethanol.

  1. Effects of modified atmosphere on crop productivity and mineral content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chagvardieff, P.; Dimon, B.; Souleimanov, A.; Massimino, D.; Le Bras, S.; Péan, M.; Louche-Teissandier, D.

    1997-01-01

    Wheat, potato, pea and tomato crops were cultivated from seeding to harvest in a controlled and confined growth chamber at elevated CO_2 concentration (3700 muL.L^-1) to examine the effects on biomass production and edible part yields. Different responses to high CO_2 were recorded, ranging from a decline in productivity for wheat, to slight stimulation for potatoes, moderate increase for tomatoes, and very large enhancement for pea. Mineral content in wheat and pea seeds was not greatly modified by the elevated CO_2. Short-term experiments (17 d) were conducted on potato at high (3700 muL.L^-1) and very high (20,000 muL.L^-1) CO_2 concentration and/or low O_2 partial pressure (~ 20,600 muL.L^-1 or 2 kPa). Low O_2 was more effective than high CO_2 in total biomass accumulation, but development was affected: Low O_2 inhibited tuberization, while high CO_2 significantly increased production of tubers.

  2. Supporting English as an Additional Language Students in Science: Integrating Content and Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCallum, Miranda; Miller, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we report on a teacher-researcher collaboration that emerged from a large study on literacy strategies for diverse classrooms. Using the example of one Year 9 class of ten English as an Additional Language (EAL) students, we trialled language-focussed materials on the topic of Ecosystems as an alternative or adjunct to the…

  3. 15 CFR 713.4 - Advance declaration requirements for additionally planned production, processing, or consumption...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... additionally planned production, processing, or consumption of Schedule 2 chemicals. 713.4 Section 713.4..., processing, or consumption of Schedule 2 chemicals. (a) Declaration requirements for additionally planned activities. (1) You must declare additionally planned production, processing, or consumption of Schedule...

  4. 15 CFR 713.4 - Advance declaration requirements for additionally planned production, processing, or consumption...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... additionally planned production, processing, or consumption of Schedule 2 chemicals. 713.4 Section 713.4..., processing, or consumption of Schedule 2 chemicals. (a) Declaration requirements for additionally planned activities. (1) You must declare additionally planned production, processing, or consumption of Schedule...

  5. Effects of carbohydrate, protein and lipid content of organic waste on hydrogen production and fermentation products.

    PubMed

    Alibardi, Luca; Cossu, Raffaello

    2016-01-01

    Organic waste from municipalities, food waste and agro-industrial residues are ideal feedstocks for use in biological conversion processes in biorefinery chains, representing biodegradable materials containing a series of substances belonging to the three main groups of the organic matter: carbohydrates, proteins and lipids. Biological hydrogen production by dark fermentation may assume a central role in the biorefinery concept, representing an up-front treatment for organic waste capable of hydrolysing complex organics and producing biohydrogen. This research study was aimed at evaluating the effects of carbohydrate, protein and lipid content of organic waste on hydrogen yields, volatile fatty acid production and carbon-fate. Biogas and hydrogen productions were linearly correlated to carbohydrate content of substrates while proteins and lipids failed to produce significant contributions. Chemical composition also produced effects on the final products of dark fermentation. Acetic and butyric acids were the main fermentation products, with their ratio proving to correlate with carbohydrate and protein content. The results obtained in this research study enhance the understanding of data variability on hydrogen yields from organic waste. Detailed information on waste composition and chemical characterisation are essential to clearly identify the potential performances of the dark fermentation process.

  6. Effects of carbohydrate, protein and lipid content of organic waste on hydrogen production and fermentation products.

    PubMed

    Alibardi, Luca; Cossu, Raffaello

    2016-01-01

    Organic waste from municipalities, food waste and agro-industrial residues are ideal feedstocks for use in biological conversion processes in biorefinery chains, representing biodegradable materials containing a series of substances belonging to the three main groups of the organic matter: carbohydrates, proteins and lipids. Biological hydrogen production by dark fermentation may assume a central role in the biorefinery concept, representing an up-front treatment for organic waste capable of hydrolysing complex organics and producing biohydrogen. This research study was aimed at evaluating the effects of carbohydrate, protein and lipid content of organic waste on hydrogen yields, volatile fatty acid production and carbon-fate. Biogas and hydrogen productions were linearly correlated to carbohydrate content of substrates while proteins and lipids failed to produce significant contributions. Chemical composition also produced effects on the final products of dark fermentation. Acetic and butyric acids were the main fermentation products, with their ratio proving to correlate with carbohydrate and protein content. The results obtained in this research study enhance the understanding of data variability on hydrogen yields from organic waste. Detailed information on waste composition and chemical characterisation are essential to clearly identify the potential performances of the dark fermentation process. PMID:26254676

  7. NIR reflectance method to determine moisture content in food products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandala, C. V. K.; Konda Naganathan, G.; Subbiah, J.

    2008-08-01

    Moisture content (MC) is an important quality factor that is measured and monitored, at various stages of processing and storage, in the food industry. There are some commercial instruments available that use near infrared (NIR) radiation measurements to determine the moisture content of a variety of grain products, such as wheat and corn, with out the need of any sample grinding or preparation. However, to measure the MC of peanuts with these instruments the peanut kernels have to be chopped into smaller pieces and filled into the measuring cell. This is cumbersome, time consuming and destructive. An NIR reflectance method is presented here by which the average MC of about 100 g of whole kernels could be determined rapidly and nondestructively. The MC range of the peanut kernels tested was between 8% and 26%. Initially, NIR reflectance measurements were made at 1 nm intervals in the wave length range of 1000 nm to 1800 nm and the data was modeled using partial least squares regression (PLSR). The predicted values of the samples tested in the above range were compared with the values determined by the standard air-oven method. The predicted values agreed well with the air-oven values with an R2 value of 0.96 and a standard error of prediction (SEP) of 0.83. Using the PLSR beta coefficients, five key wavelengths were identified and using multiple linear regression (MLR) method MC predictions were made. The R2 and SEP values of the MLR model were 0.84 and 1.62, respectively. Both methods performed satisfactorily and being rapid, nondestructive, and non-contact, may be suitable for continuous monitoring of MC of grain and peanuts as they move on conveyor belts during their processing.

  8. Evaluating leachate recirculation with cellulase addition to enhance waste biostabilisation and landfill gas production.

    PubMed

    Frank, R R; Davies, S; Wagland, S T; Villa, R; Trois, C; Coulon, F

    2016-09-01

    The effect of leachate recirculation with cellulase augmentation on municipal solid waste (MSW) biostabilisation and landfill gas production was investigated using batch bioreactors to determine the optimal conditions of moisture content, temperature and nutrients. Experimentation was thereafter scaled-up in 7L bioreactors. Three conditions were tested including (1) leachate recirculation only, (2) leachate recirculation with enzyme augmentation and (3) no leachate recirculation (control). Cumulative biogas production of the batch tests indicated that there was little difference between the leachate and control test conditions, producing on average 0.043m(3)biogaskg(-1) waste. However the addition of cellulase at 15×10(6)Utonne(-1) waste doubled the biogas production (0.074m(3)biogaskg(-1) waste). Similar trend was observed with the bioreactors. Cellulase addition also resulted in the highest COD reduction in both the waste and the leachate samples (47% and 42% COD reduction, respectively). In both cases, the quantity of biogas produced was closer to the lower value of theoretical and data-based biogas prediction indicators (0.05-0.4m(3)biogaskg(-1) waste). This was likely due to a high concentration of heavy metals present in the leachate, in particular Cr and Mn, which are known to be toxic to methanogens. The cost-benefit analysis (CBA) based on the settings of the study (cellulase concentration of 15×10(6)Utonne(-1) waste) showed that leachate bioaugmentation using cellulase is economically viable, with a net benefit of approximately €12.1million on a 5Mt mixed waste landfill. PMID:27397800

  9. Evaluating leachate recirculation with cellulase addition to enhance waste biostabilisation and landfill gas production.

    PubMed

    Frank, R R; Davies, S; Wagland, S T; Villa, R; Trois, C; Coulon, F

    2016-09-01

    The effect of leachate recirculation with cellulase augmentation on municipal solid waste (MSW) biostabilisation and landfill gas production was investigated using batch bioreactors to determine the optimal conditions of moisture content, temperature and nutrients. Experimentation was thereafter scaled-up in 7L bioreactors. Three conditions were tested including (1) leachate recirculation only, (2) leachate recirculation with enzyme augmentation and (3) no leachate recirculation (control). Cumulative biogas production of the batch tests indicated that there was little difference between the leachate and control test conditions, producing on average 0.043m(3)biogaskg(-1) waste. However the addition of cellulase at 15×10(6)Utonne(-1) waste doubled the biogas production (0.074m(3)biogaskg(-1) waste). Similar trend was observed with the bioreactors. Cellulase addition also resulted in the highest COD reduction in both the waste and the leachate samples (47% and 42% COD reduction, respectively). In both cases, the quantity of biogas produced was closer to the lower value of theoretical and data-based biogas prediction indicators (0.05-0.4m(3)biogaskg(-1) waste). This was likely due to a high concentration of heavy metals present in the leachate, in particular Cr and Mn, which are known to be toxic to methanogens. The cost-benefit analysis (CBA) based on the settings of the study (cellulase concentration of 15×10(6)Utonne(-1) waste) showed that leachate bioaugmentation using cellulase is economically viable, with a net benefit of approximately €12.1million on a 5Mt mixed waste landfill.

  10. Determining the modern carbon content of biobased products using radiocarbon analysis.

    PubMed

    Norton, Glenn A; Devlin, Steven L

    2006-11-01

    In support of the USDA Federal Biobased Products Preferred Procurement Program (FB4P), Iowa State University is coordinating testing to determine the "biobased content" of manufactured products. These tests are part of a process to "designate" items that qualify for preferential procurement status with federal agencies. Biobased content determinations are being performed using three radiocarbon dating procedures specified in ASTM D 6866-05. Test results obtained thus far indicate that the AMS and benzene synthesis methods provide comparable results. Data from the CO(2) cocktail method did not agree as well with the data from the other two methods, but were still in reasonably good agreement with those data. Radiocarbon analysis is shown to be a reliable and valuable tool for verifying the biobased content of a wide variety of biobased products. Based on inter- and intra-laboratory comparisons, a reasonable uncertainty to associate with the analyses would be +/-3% (absolute) for the AMS and benzene synthesis methods. Because of limited data availability, additional work is needed to establish the uncertainty of the CO(2) cocktail method for analyzing biobased products.

  11. Nitrogen balancing and xylose addition enhances growth capacity and protein content in Chlorella minutissima cultures.

    PubMed

    Freitas, B C B; Esquível, M G; Matos, R G; Arraiano, C M; Morais, M G; Costa, J A V

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to examine the metabolic changes in Chlorella minutissima cells grown under nitrogen-deficient conditions and with the addition of xylose. The cell density, maximum photochemical efficiency, and chlorophyll and lipid levels were measured. The expression of two photosynthetic proteins, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) and the beta subunit (AtpB) of adenosine triphosphate synthase, were measured. Comparison of cells grown in medium with a 50% reduction in the nitrogen concentration versus the traditional medium solution revealed that the cells grown under nitrogen-deficient conditions exhibited an increased growth rate, higher maximum cell density (12.7×10(6)cellsmL(-1)), optimal PSII efficiency (0.69) and decreased lipid level (25.08%). This study has taken the first steps toward protein detection in Chlorella minutissima, and the results can be used to optimize the culturing of other microalgae. PMID:27359061

  12. Quality of shrimp analogue product as affected by addition of modified potato starch.

    PubMed

    Remya, S; Basu, S; Venkateshwarlu, G; Mohan, C O

    2015-07-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of addition of modified potato starch on the biochemical and textural properties of shrimp analogue/imitation shrimp, a popular value-added product prepared from surimi. Three batches of shrimp analogues were prepared with 0 % (NPS), 50 % (CPS) and 100 % (MPS) of modified starch incorporation and various quality attributes were monitored at regular intervals during frozen storage (-20 °C). Loss of myofibrillar protein was least for the shrimp analogue sample added with 100 % modified potato starch. The expressible moisture content of MPS (2.48 %) was less affected by long term storage compared to CPS (3.38 %) and NPS (3.99 %). During extended low temperature storage, the textural quality of sea food analogue was highly influenced by the type of starch added to it. The percentage of modified potato starch added to shrimp analogue significantly (p ≤ 0.05) affected its hardness and fracturability. MPS samples did not show significant changes in hardness during storage as compared to other two samples. Springiness of shrimp analogue increased 2.57, 1.5 and 1.77 times with the storage period for samples with NPS, CPS and MPS, respectively. Addition of modified potato starch improved the sensory quality and textural properties of shrimp analogue and reduced the quality degradation during frozen storage as compared to NPS which contained only native potato starch.

  13. Aluminium content of foods originating from aluminium-containing food additives.

    PubMed

    Ogimoto, Mami; Suzuki, Kumi; Haneishi, Nahoko; Kikuchi, Yuu; Takanashi, Mayu; Tomioka, Naoko; Uematsu, Yoko; Monma, Kimio

    2016-09-01

    Aluminium (Al) levels of 90 food samples were investigated. Nineteen samples contained Al levels exceeding the tolerable weekly intake (TWI) for young children [body weight (bw): 16 kg] when consuming two servings/week. These samples were purchased multiple times at specific intervals and were evaluated for Al levels. Al was detected in 27 of the 90 samples at levels ranging from 0.01 (limit of quantitation) to 1.06 mg/g. Of these, the Al intake levels in two samples (cookie and scone mix, 1.3 and 2 mg/kg bw/week, respectively) exceeded the TWI as established by European Food Safety Authority, although the level in the scone mix was equivalent to the provisional TWI (PTWI) as established by Joint Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization Expert Committee on Food Additives. The Al levels markedly decreased in 14 of the 19 samples with initially high Al levels. These results indicated reductions in the Al levels to below the PTWI limits in all but two previously identified food samples.

  14. Effects of bread making and wheat germ addition on the natural deoxynivalenol content in bread.

    PubMed

    Giménez, Isabel; Blesa, Jesús; Herrera, Marta; Ariño, Agustín

    2014-01-21

    Deoxynivalenol (DON, vomitoxin) is a type-B trichothecene mycotoxin produced by several field fungi such as Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium culmorum and known to have various toxic effects. This study investigated the effect of the bread making process on the stability of DON in common bread and wheat germ-enriched bread using naturally contaminated ingredients at the level of 560 µg/kg. The concentration of DON and its evolution during bread making were determined by immunoaffinity column cleanup followed by liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). During the bread making process, DON was reduced by 2.1% after fermentation and dropped by 7.1% after baking, reaching a maximum reduction of 19.8% in the crust as compared with a decrease of 5.6% in the crumb. The addition of 15% wheat germ to the dough did not affect DON stability during bread making, showing an apparent increase of 3.5% after fermentation and a reduction by 10.2% after baking.

  15. Aluminium content of foods originating from aluminium-containing food additives.

    PubMed

    Ogimoto, Mami; Suzuki, Kumi; Haneishi, Nahoko; Kikuchi, Yuu; Takanashi, Mayu; Tomioka, Naoko; Uematsu, Yoko; Monma, Kimio

    2016-09-01

    Aluminium (Al) levels of 90 food samples were investigated. Nineteen samples contained Al levels exceeding the tolerable weekly intake (TWI) for young children [body weight (bw): 16 kg] when consuming two servings/week. These samples were purchased multiple times at specific intervals and were evaluated for Al levels. Al was detected in 27 of the 90 samples at levels ranging from 0.01 (limit of quantitation) to 1.06 mg/g. Of these, the Al intake levels in two samples (cookie and scone mix, 1.3 and 2 mg/kg bw/week, respectively) exceeded the TWI as established by European Food Safety Authority, although the level in the scone mix was equivalent to the provisional TWI (PTWI) as established by Joint Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization Expert Committee on Food Additives. The Al levels markedly decreased in 14 of the 19 samples with initially high Al levels. These results indicated reductions in the Al levels to below the PTWI limits in all but two previously identified food samples. PMID:27092423

  16. Comparison of antibody molecules produced from two cell lines with contrasting productivities and aggregate contents.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Yoichi; Imamoto, Yasufumi; Yamamoto, Rie; Tsukahara, Masayoshi; Wakamatsu, Kaori

    2015-01-01

    Cell culture processes that produce therapeutic antibodies with high productivity (titer) and low aggregate content reduce the risk of adverse effects and expense to patients. To elucidate the mechanism of aggregate formation, we compared trastuzumab samples produced from two contrasting cell lines: cell line A, which exhibits high titer and low aggregate content, and cell line B, which exhibits low titer and high aggregate content. Cell line B produced significantly fewer (approximately 1/3) antibodies compared with cell line A and contained higher (approximately 3-fold) percentages of aggregates. The aggregates of antibodies found in the protein A-purified samples of cell line B were associated mostly with noncovalent interactions. Cell line B exhibited a low content of monomers/dimers of light chains in the medium and within cells. Because light chains are essential for the correct folding of heavy chains and secretion of mature antibodies, the characteristics of cell line B may be attributed to low levels of light chain production. In addition, protein A-purified antibodies from cell line B (but not those from cell line A) contained fragments that are expected to expose the hydrophobic CH3 domain, which may serve as nuclei for aggregation. PMID:25501618

  17. 75 FR 43942 - Children's Products Containing Lead; Technological Feasibility of 100 ppm for Lead Content...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    ... COMMISSION Children's Products Containing Lead; Technological Feasibility of 100 ppm for Lead Content... content limit for children's products. DATES: Written comments and submissions in response to this notice... for children 12 years old and younger, the total lead content limit by weight in any part of...

  18. Reaction products of amido-amine and epoxide useful as fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Efner, H.F.

    1988-04-12

    A method for reducing engine deposits in an internal combustion engine is described comprising the addition of a detergent fuel additive package to a hydrocarbon fuel for the engine. The fuel detergent is added in an amount effective to reduce deposits and the hydrocarbon fuel is used with detergent additive as fuel in an internal combustion engine. The detergent fuel additive package comprises: (1) a fuel detergent additive that is the reaction product prepared by reacting (a) vegetable oil or (b) higher carboxylic acid chosen from (i) aliphatic fatty acids having 10-25 carbon atoms and (ii) aralkyl acids having 12-42 carbon atoms with (c) multiamine to obtain a fist product mixture with the first product mixture reacted with alklylene oxide to produce a second product mixture and (2) a fuel detergent additive solvent compatible with the fuels.

  19. Effect of Periodic Water Addition on Citric Acid Production in Solid State Fermentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utpat, Shraddha S.; Kinnige, Pallavi T.; Dhamole, Pradip B.

    2013-09-01

    Water addition is one of the methods used to control the moisture loss in solid state fermentation (SSF). However, none of the studies report the timing of water addition and amount of water to be added in SSF. Therefore, this work was undertaken with an objective to evaluate the performance of periodic water addition on citric acid production in SSF. Experiments were conducted at different moistures (50-80 %) and temperatures (30-40 °C) to simulate the conditions in a fermenter. Citric acid production by Aspergillus niger (ATCC 9029) using sugarcane baggase was chosen as a model system. Based on the moisture profile, citric acid and sugar data, a strategy was designed for periodic addition of water. Water addition at 48, 96, 144 and 192 h enhanced the citric acid production by 62 % whereas water addition at 72, 120, and 168 h increased the citric acid production by just 17 %.

  20. Pomegranate and mint syrup addition to green tea beverage stabilized its polyphenolic content and biofunctional potentials during refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    Dhaouadi, Karima; Belkhir, Manel; Raboudi, Faten; Mecha, Elsa; Ghommeme, Imen; Bronze, Maria Do Rosario; Ammar, Hajer; Fattouch, Sami

    2016-02-01

    The chemical stability of the green tea (GT) preparation during refrigerated storage was investigated following the addition of mint (MS) or pomegranate (PS) syrups, a common habit in the Mediterranean countries that improves the savor of this popular beverage. The supernatants recovered by centrifuging GT supplemented or not with mint (GTMS) or pomegranate (GTPS) syrup were examined for their polyphenolic profiles using the high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. Following storage at 4 °C for 15 days, not-supplemented GT showed a significant decrease (≈92 %) of its phenolic content. However, the decrease was relatively lesser in GTPS (≈36 %) and in GTMS (≈40 %). The observed slight increase of the extractable polyphenolics in PS and MS during the storage might explain in part the relatively limited decrease of GTPS and GTMS total phenolic content. However, chromatographic examination proved that some tea compounds, particularly caffeine, were preserved following PS and MS supplementation. Likewise, syrups'addition to GT significantly (P < 0.5) limited the reduction of its antioxidant capacity as revealed by the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenz-thialzoline-6-sulfonic acid)) assays. As expected, the antimicrobial trials showed that Gram (+) Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis were the most sensitive strains to tea polyphenols. The syrups supplementation noticeably preserved the tea bacteriostatic and bactericide activities during storage. The obtained analytical results demonstrate that MS or PS addition to green tea beverage stabilized its polyphenolic content and biofunctional properties during refrigerated storage, thus, scientifically supporting this popular practice in the Mediterranean countries. PMID:27162396

  1. Plants with modified lignin content and methods for production thereof

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Qiao; Chen, Fang; Dixon, Richard A.

    2014-08-05

    The invention provides methods for decreasing lignin content and for increasing the level of fermentable carbohydrates in plants by down-regulation of the NST transcription factor. Nucleic acid constructs for down-regulation of NST are described. Transgenic plants are provided that comprise reduced lignin content. Plants described herein may be used, for example, as improved biofuel feedstock and as highly digestible forage crops. Methods for processing plant tissue and for producing ethanol by utilizing such plants are also provided.

  2. Effect of urea addition on giant reed ensilage and subsequent methane production by anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shan; Ge, Xumeng; Liew, Lo Niee; Liu, Zhe; Li, Yebo

    2015-09-01

    The effect of urea addition on giant reed ensilage and sequential anaerobic digestion (AD) of the ensiled giant reed was evaluated. The dry matter loss during ensilage (up to 90 days) with or without urea addition was about 1%. Addition of 2% urea enhanced production of lactic acid by about 4 times, and reduced production of propionic acid by 2-8 times. Besides, urea addition reduced degradation of cellulose and hemicellulose, and increased degradation of lignin in giant reed during ensilage. Ensilage with or without urea addition had no significant effects on the enzymatic digestibility of giant reed, but ensilage with urea addition achieved a cumulative methane yield of 173 L/kg VS, which was 18% higher than that of fresh giant reed. The improved methane yield of giant reed could be attributed to the production of organic acids and ethanol during ensilage.

  3. Determination of seven certified color additives in food products using liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Harp, Bhakti Petigara; Miranda-Bermudez, Enio; Barrows, Julie N

    2013-04-17

    This study describes a new method for determining FD&C Blue No. 1, FD&C Blue No. 2, FD&C Green No. 3, FD&C Red No. 3, FD&C Red No. 40, FD&C Yellow No. 5, and FD&C Yellow No. 6 in food products. These seven color additives are water-soluble dyes that are required to be batch certified by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) before they may be used in food and other FDA-regulated products. In the new method, the color additives are extracted from a product using one of two procedures developed for various product types, isolated from the noncolored components, and analyzed by liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection. The method was validated by determining linearity, range, precision, recovery from various matrices, limit of detection, limit of quantitation, and relative standard deviation for each color additive. A survey of 44 food products, including beverages, frozen treats, powder mixes, gelatin products, candies, icings, jellies, spices, dressings, sauces, baked goods, and dairy products, found total color additives ranging from 1.9 to 1221 mg/kg. FDA intends to use the new method for conducting a rigorous, comprehensive dietary exposure assessment of certified color additives in products likely to be consumed by children.

  4. Increase in the carbohydrate content of the microalgae Spirulina in culture by nutrient starvation and the addition of residues of whey protein concentrate.

    PubMed

    Vieira Salla, Ana Cláudia; Margarites, Ana Cláudia; Seibel, Fábio Ivan; Holz, Luiz Carlos; Brião, Vandré Barbosa; Bertolin, Telma Elita; Colla, Luciane Maria; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira

    2016-06-01

    Non-renewable sources that will end with time are the largest part of world energy consumption, which emphasizes the necessity to develop renewable sources of energy. This necessity has created opportunities for the use of microalgae as a biofuel. The use of microalgae as a feedstock source for bioethanol production requires high yields of both biomass and carbohydrates. With mixotrophic cultures, wastewater can be used to culture algae. The aim of the study was to increase the carbohydrate content in the microalgae Spirulina with the additions of residues from the ultra and nanofiltration of whey protein. The nutrient deficit in the Zarrouk medium diluted to 20% and the addition of 2.5% of both residue types led to high carbohydrate productivity (60 mg L(-1) d(-1)). With these culture conditions, the increase in carbohydrate production in Spirulina indicated that the conditions were appropriate for use with microalgae as a feedstock in the production of bioethanol. PMID:26967336

  5. Solid fermentation of wheat bran for hydrolytic enzymes production and saccharification content by a local isolate Bacillus megatherium

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Back ground For enzyme production, the costs of solid state fermentation (SSF) techniques were lower and the production higher than submerged cultures. A large number of fungal species was known to grow well on moist substrates, whereas many bacteria were unable to grow under this condition. Therefore, the aim of this study was to isolate a highly efficient strain of Bacillus sp utilizing wheat bran in SSF and optimizing the enzyme production and soluble carbohydrates. Results A local strain Bacillus megatherium was isolated from dung sheep. The maximum production of pectinase, xylanase and α-amylase, and saccharification content (total soluble carbohydrates and reducing sugars) were obtained by application of the B. megatherium in SSF using wheat bran as compared to grasses, palm leaves and date seeds. All enzymes and saccharification content exhibited their maximum production during 12–24 h, at the range of 40–80% moisture content of wheat bran, temperature 37-45°C and pH 5–8. An ascending repression of pectinase production was observed by carbon supplements of lactose, glucose, maltose, sucrose and starch, respectively. All carbon supplements improved the production of xylanase and α-amylase, except of lactose decreased α-amylase production. A little increase in the yield of total reducing sugars was detected for all carbon supplements. Among the nitrogen sources, yeast extract induced a significant repression to all enzyme productivity. Sodium nitrate, urea and ammonium chloride enhanced the production of xylanase, α-amylase and pectinase, respectively. Yeast extract, urea, ammonium sulphate and ammonium chloride enhanced the productivity of reducing sugars. Conclusions The optimization of enzyme production and sccharification content by B. megatherium in SSF required only adjustment of incubation period and temperature, moisture content and initial pH. Wheat bran supplied enough nutrients without any need for addition of supplements of carbon and

  6. [Effects of nitrogen addition on grassland species diversity and productivity in Keerqin Sandy Land].

    PubMed

    Li, Lu-Jun; Zeng, De-Hui; Yu, Zhan-Yuan; Ai, Gui-Yan; Yang, Dan; Mao, Rong

    2009-08-01

    Species diversity and productivity are the important indices of the structure and functioning of ecosystems. With Keerqin sandy grassland as test object, this paper studied its species composition, species diversity, and productivity under effects of different level nitrogen (N) addition. Nitrogen addition altered the species composition and the dominant species in the community, increased the vegetation height and coverage, and decreased vegetation light penetration. With the increase of N addition, both the species richness and the diversity decreased. Nitrogen addition increased the aboveground biomass significantly (P<0.01). There was a significant positive relationship between species richness and vegetation light penetration (P<0.01), and a significant negative relationship between species richness and vegetation coverage (P<0.01). It was suggested that nitrogen deposition and artificial nitrogen addition would affect the species composition, species diversity, and productivity of sandy grassland ecosystem.

  7. Salvinorin A content in legal high products of Salvia divinorum sold in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Bello, Rafael; García-Rodríguez, Rosa Virginia; García-Sosa, Karlina; Peña-Rodríguez, Luis Manuel; Vázquez-Hernández, Maribel; Ramos-Morales, Fernando Rafael; Corcoran, Olivia; Sánchez-Medina, Alberto

    2015-04-01

    Salvia divinorum (Lamiaceae) is a herb native to Mexico where it is used by Mazatec shamans for spiritual and divination purposes. S. divinorum products are easily available to consumers and are used worldwide as legal highs because of the hallucinogenic effects caused mainly by salvinorin A. Highly popular videos and websites on the internet depicting the use of S. divinorum products have contributed to an increase in their consumption. Recent reports have highlighted the potential of these products to induce psychosis in consumers. In Mexico, dried leaf extracts of S. divinorum are sold in different strengths, claiming to correlate with increasing amounts of salvinorin A. In order to determine the variability of salvinorin A content between brands and to investigate possible correlation between brand strengths, this study sought to quantify salvinorin A in commercial products available in Mexico using an HPLC method. The HPLC analytical method showed a correlation coefficient R(2)>0.99, with LOD of 0.44 μg/mL and LOQ of 1.34 μg/mL. The retention time for salvinorin A was 23.09±0.95 min and the measured concentrations ranged between 8.32±0.65 and 56.52±3.77 mg/g dried leaf. The results for brand c did not show an agreement between the declared and the calculated amount of salvinorin A. Additionally, the emergence in Mexico of high strength salvia products (100×), the lack of regulation and the observed variability of salvinorin A content between brands of commercial legal highs products of S. divinorum could result in a health problem for consumers.

  8. An Inventory of Methods for the Assessment of Additive Increased Addictiveness of Tobacco Products

    PubMed Central

    van de Nobelen, Suzanne; Kienhuis, Anne S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cigarettes and other forms of tobacco contain the addictive drug nicotine. Other components, either naturally occurring in tobacco or additives that are intentionally added during the manufacturing process, may add to the addictiveness of tobacco products. As such, these components can make cigarette smokers more easily and heavily dependent. Efforts to regulate tobacco product dependence are emerging globally. Additives that increase tobacco dependence will be prohibited under the new European Tobacco Product Directive. Objective: This article provides guidelines and recommendations for developing a regulatory strategy for assessment of increase in tobacco dependence due to additives. Relevant scientific literature is summarized and criteria and experimental studies that can define increased dependence of tobacco products are described. Conclusions: Natural tobacco smoke is a very complex matrix of components, therefore analysis of the contribution of an additive or a combination of additives to the level of dependence on this product is challenging. We propose to combine different type of studies analyzing overall tobacco product dependence potential and the functioning of additives in relation to nicotine. By using a combination of techniques, changes associated with nicotine dependence such as behavioral, physiological, and neurochemical alterations can be examined to provide sufficient information. Research needs and knowledge gaps will be discussed and recommendations will be made to translate current knowledge into legislation. As such, this article aids in implementation of the Tobacco Product Directive, as well as help enable regulators and researchers worldwide to develop standards to reduce dependence on tobacco products. Implications: This article provides an overall view on how to assess tobacco product constituents for their potential contribution to use and dependence. It provides guidelines that help enable regulators worldwide to

  9. A test strategy for the assessment of additive attributed toxicity of tobacco products.

    PubMed

    Kienhuis, Anne S; Staal, Yvonne C M; Soeteman-Hernández, Lya G; van de Nobelen, Suzanne; Talhout, Reinskje

    2016-08-01

    The new EU Tobacco Product Directive (TPD) prohibits tobacco products containing additives that are toxic in unburnt form or that increase overall toxicity of the product. This paper proposes a strategy to assess additive attributed toxicity in the context of the TPD. Literature was searched on toxicity testing strategies for regulatory purposes from tobacco industry and governmental institutes. Although mainly traditional in vivo testing strategies have been applied to assess toxicity of unburnt additives and increases in overall toxicity of tobacco products due to additives, in vitro tests combined with toxicogenomics and validated using biomarkers of exposure and disease are most promising in this respect. As such, tests are needed that are sensitive enough to assess additive attributed toxicity above the overall toxicity of tobacco products, which can associate assay outcomes to human risk and exposure. In conclusion, new, sensitive in vitro assays are needed to conclude whether comparable testing allows for assessment of small changes in overall toxicity attributed to additives. A more pragmatic approach for implementation on a short-term is mandated lowering of toxic emission components. Combined with risk assessment, this approach allows assessment of effectiveness of harm reduction strategies, including banning or reducing of additives.

  10. 39 CFR 3055.6 - Addition of new market dominant products or changes to existing market dominant products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Addition of new market dominant products or changes to existing market dominant products. 3055.6 Section 3055.6 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL SERVICE PERFORMANCE AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION REPORTING Annual Reporting of...

  11. Regenerated Uranium Separation in Matched Abundance Ratio Cascade with Additional Product Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maslyukov, E. V.; Palkin, V. A.

    2016-09-01

    This paper addresses known methods used to purify regenerated uranium in single and double cascades. A new method for separating regenerated uranium has been developed that enables a significant reduction of the concentration of 232,234U in the additional product flow. Matched abundance ratio cascades (M*-cascades) with different key components and additional product flow are used in the new method. Main product flow of the M*-cascade contains low enriched regenerated uranium. It can be used for reactor fuel production. Purified product can be enriched in the ordinary cascade in compliance with the requirements of ASTM C 996-10 set for isotopes 232,234U in low enriched commercial uranium, which is usually produced from the natural one. Computer experiment based on the new method has been performed. The experiment shows that the best cascade with the maximum flow of the enriched purified product is M*-cascade with key components 232,236U.

  12. 78 FR 77384 - DSM Nutritional Products; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 573 DSM Nutritional Products; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use) AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of petition. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing that DSM Nutritional Products has filed...

  13. Protease addition to increase yield and fermentation rate in dry grind ethanol production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using a small scale laboratory procedure (100g shake flasks) for ethanol production from corn, the effects of acid protease addition during the fermentation step were evaluated. The batch fermentations were conducted in duplicate using standard conditions and with protease addition during fermentati...

  14. The effects of leachate recirculation with supplemental water addition on methane production and waste decomposition in a simulated tropical landfill.

    PubMed

    Sanphoti, N; Towprayoon, S; Chaiprasert, P; Nopharatana, A

    2006-10-01

    In order to increase methane production efficiency, leachate recirculation is applied in landfills to increase moisture content and circulate organic matter back into the landfill cell. In the case of tropical landfills, where high temperature and evaporation occurs, leachate recirculation may not be enough to maintain the moisture content, therefore supplemental water addition into the cell is an option that could help stabilize moisture levels as well as stimulate biological activity. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of leachate recirculation and supplemental water addition on municipal solid waste decomposition and methane production in three anaerobic digestion reactors. Anaerobic digestion with leachate recirculation and supplemental water addition showed the highest performance in terms of cumulative methane production and the stabilization period time required. It produced an accumulated methane production of 54.87 l/kg dry weight of MSW at an average rate of 0.58 l/kg dry weight/d and reached the stabilization phase on day 180. The leachate recirculation reactor provided 17.04 l/kg dry weight at a rate of 0.14l/kg dry weight/d and reached the stabilization phase on day 290. The control reactor provided 9.02 l/kg dry weight at a rate of 0.10 l/kg dry weight/d, and reached the stabilization phase on day 270. Increasing the organic loading rate (OLR) after the waste had reached the stabilization phase made it possible to increase the methane content of the gas, the methane production rate, and the COD removal. Comparison of the reactors' efficiencies at maximum OLR (5 kgCOD/m(3)/d) in terms of the methane production rate showed that the reactor using leachate recirculation with supplemental water addition still gave the highest performance (1.56 l/kg dry weight/d), whereas the leachate recirculation reactor and the control reactor provided 0.69 l/kg dry weight/d and 0.43 l/kg dry weight/d, respectively. However, when considering

  15. Indirect additive manufacturing as an elegant tool for the production of self-supporting low density gelatin scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Van Hoorick, Jasper; Declercq, Heidi; De Muynck, Amelie; Houben, Annemie; Van Hoorebeke, Luc; Cornelissen, Ria; Van Erps, Jürgen; Thienpont, Hugo; Dubruel, Peter; Van Vlierberghe, Sandra

    2015-10-01

    The present work describes for the first time the production of self-supporting low gelatin density (<10 w/v%) porous scaffolds using methacrylamide-modified gelatin as an extracellular matrix mimicking component. As porous scaffolds starting from low gelatin concentrations cannot be realized with the conventional additive manufacturing techniques in the abscence of additives, we applied an indirect fused deposition modelling approach. To realize this, we have printed a sacrificial polyester scaffold which supported the hydrogel material during UV crosslinking, thereby preventing hydrogel structure collapse. After complete curing, the polyester scaffold was selectively dissolved leaving behind a porous, interconnective low density gelatin scaffold. Scaffold structural analysis indicated the success of the selected indirect additive manufacturing approach. Physico-chemical testing revealed scaffold properties (mechanical, degradation, swelling) to depend on the applied gelatin concentration and methacrylamide content. Preliminary biocompatibility studies revealed the cell-interactive and biocompatible properties of the materials developed.

  16. Indirect additive manufacturing as an elegant tool for the production of self-supporting low density gelatin scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Van Hoorick, Jasper; Declercq, Heidi; De Muynck, Amelie; Houben, Annemie; Van Hoorebeke, Luc; Cornelissen, Ria; Van Erps, Jürgen; Thienpont, Hugo; Dubruel, Peter; Van Vlierberghe, Sandra

    2015-10-01

    The present work describes for the first time the production of self-supporting low gelatin density (<10 w/v%) porous scaffolds using methacrylamide-modified gelatin as an extracellular matrix mimicking component. As porous scaffolds starting from low gelatin concentrations cannot be realized with the conventional additive manufacturing techniques in the abscence of additives, we applied an indirect fused deposition modelling approach. To realize this, we have printed a sacrificial polyester scaffold which supported the hydrogel material during UV crosslinking, thereby preventing hydrogel structure collapse. After complete curing, the polyester scaffold was selectively dissolved leaving behind a porous, interconnective low density gelatin scaffold. Scaffold structural analysis indicated the success of the selected indirect additive manufacturing approach. Physico-chemical testing revealed scaffold properties (mechanical, degradation, swelling) to depend on the applied gelatin concentration and methacrylamide content. Preliminary biocompatibility studies revealed the cell-interactive and biocompatible properties of the materials developed. PMID:26411443

  17. NIR spectroscopy for determining soy contents in processed meat products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soy products such as soy concentrate, soy protein and soy grits are used as a meat extender in processed meat products to improve meat texture. However, soy allergies are one of the common food allergies, especially in infants and young children, and can be mild to life-threatening. The United State...

  18. Video Production as an Instructional Strategy: Content Learning and Teacher Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Priscilla; Hathaway, Dawn

    2010-01-01

    This study examined teacher-learners' reflections about the use of video production in their K-12 classrooms for evidence of content learning, the factors facilitating teacher use of video production, and the challenges teachers reported. Findings demonstrated positive content learning outcomes as measured by objective tests, rubrics, and…

  19. 76 FR 4641 - Children's Products Containing Lead; Technological Feasibility of 100 ppm for Lead Content...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-26

    ... the Federal Register (75 FR 43942) requesting comments and information regarding the technological... COMMISSION Children's Products Containing Lead; Technological Feasibility of 100 ppm for Lead Content; Notice... of meeting the 100 ppm lead content limit for children's products and associated public...

  20. 76 FR 12944 - Children's Products Containing Lead; Technological Feasibility of 100 ppm for Lead Content...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-09

    ... of January 26, 2011 (76 FR 4641), we published a notice (``hearing notice'') announcing that the... COMMISSION Children's Products Containing Lead; Technological Feasibility of 100 ppm for Lead Content; Notice... feasibility of meeting the 100 ppm lead content limit for children's products and associated public...

  1. Effects of sugar addition on total polyphenol content and antioxidant activity of frozen and freeze-dried apple purée.

    PubMed

    Loncaric, Ante; Dugalic, Krunoslav; Mihaljevic, Ines; Jakobek, Lidija; Pilizota, Vlasta

    2014-02-19

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of simple sugar addition including (glucose, G; fructose, F; sucrose, S; and trehalose, T) on the total polyphenol content (TPC) and antioxidant activity (AOA) of apple purée processed by freezing and freeze-drying and stored for 6 months. The apple polyphenol profile was mostly preserved in the freeze-dried samples with sugar addition during 6 months of storage, whereas the polyphenol profile in frozen samples consists only of quercetin glycosides, of which rutin had the largest share. After 6 months, the highest level of polyphenols was detected in frozen 'Idared' and 'Fuji' apple purée with addition of T 5% (12.2 and 16.7 mg/100 g FW, respectively), whereas in freeze-dried apple purée the highest TPC was in 'Idared' and 'Fuji' with addition of T 1% (16.3 and 13.6 mg/100 g FW, respectively). Results indicate that sugar addition before processing could have potential for enhancing product quality.

  2. Effects of sugar addition on total polyphenol content and antioxidant activity of frozen and freeze-dried apple purée.

    PubMed

    Loncaric, Ante; Dugalic, Krunoslav; Mihaljevic, Ines; Jakobek, Lidija; Pilizota, Vlasta

    2014-02-19

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of simple sugar addition including (glucose, G; fructose, F; sucrose, S; and trehalose, T) on the total polyphenol content (TPC) and antioxidant activity (AOA) of apple purée processed by freezing and freeze-drying and stored for 6 months. The apple polyphenol profile was mostly preserved in the freeze-dried samples with sugar addition during 6 months of storage, whereas the polyphenol profile in frozen samples consists only of quercetin glycosides, of which rutin had the largest share. After 6 months, the highest level of polyphenols was detected in frozen 'Idared' and 'Fuji' apple purée with addition of T 5% (12.2 and 16.7 mg/100 g FW, respectively), whereas in freeze-dried apple purée the highest TPC was in 'Idared' and 'Fuji' with addition of T 1% (16.3 and 13.6 mg/100 g FW, respectively). Results indicate that sugar addition before processing could have potential for enhancing product quality. PMID:24471409

  3. Exogenous N addition enhances the responses of gross primary productivity to individual precipitation events in a temperate grassland.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qun; Hu, Zhong-Min; Li, Sheng-Gong; Yu, Gui-Rui; Sun, Xiao-Min; Li, Ling-Hao; Liang, Nai-Shen; Bai, Wen-Ming

    2016-06-06

    Predicted future shifts in the magnitude and frequency (larger but fewer) of precipitation events and enhanced nitrogen (N) deposition may interact to affect grassland productivity, but the effects of N enrichment on the productivity response to individual precipitation events remain unclear. In this study, we quantified the effects of N addition on the response patterns of gross primary productivity (GPP) to individual precipitation events of different sizes (Psize) in a temperate grassland in China. The results showed that N enrichment significantly increased the time-integrated amount of GPP in response to an individual precipitation event (GPPtotal), and the N-induced stimulation of GPP increased with increasing Psize. N enrichment rarely affected the duration of the GPP response, but it significantly stimulated the maximum absolute GPP response. Higher foliar N content might play an important role in the N-induced stimulation of GPP. GPPtotal in both the N-addition and control treatments increased linearly with Psize with similar Psize intercepts (approximately 5 mm, indicating a similar lower Psize threshold to stimulate the GPP response) but had a steeper slope under N addition. Our work indicates that the projected larger precipitation events will stimulate grassland productivity, and this stimulation might be amplified by increasing N deposition.

  4. Exogenous N addition enhances the responses of gross primary productivity to individual precipitation events in a temperate grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Qun; Hu, Zhong-Min; Li, Sheng-Gong; Yu, Gui-Rui; Sun, Xiao-Min; Li, Ling-Hao; Liang, Nai-Shen; Bai, Wen-Ming

    2016-06-01

    Predicted future shifts in the magnitude and frequency (larger but fewer) of precipitation events and enhanced nitrogen (N) deposition may interact to affect grassland productivity, but the effects of N enrichment on the productivity response to individual precipitation events remain unclear. In this study, we quantified the effects of N addition on the response patterns of gross primary productivity (GPP) to individual precipitation events of different sizes (Psize) in a temperate grassland in China. The results showed that N enrichment significantly increased the time-integrated amount of GPP in response to an individual precipitation event (GPPtotal), and the N-induced stimulation of GPP increased with increasing Psize. N enrichment rarely affected the duration of the GPP response, but it significantly stimulated the maximum absolute GPP response. Higher foliar N content might play an important role in the N-induced stimulation of GPP. GPPtotal in both the N-addition and control treatments increased linearly with Psize with similar Psize intercepts (approximately 5 mm, indicating a similar lower Psize threshold to stimulate the GPP response) but had a steeper slope under N addition. Our work indicates that the projected larger precipitation events will stimulate grassland productivity, and this stimulation might be amplified by increasing N deposition.

  5. Exogenous N addition enhances the responses of gross primary productivity to individual precipitation events in a temperate grassland

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Qun; Hu, Zhong-min; Li, Sheng-gong; Yu, Gui-rui; Sun, Xiao-min; Li, Ling-hao; Liang, Nai-shen; Bai, Wen-ming

    2016-01-01

    Predicted future shifts in the magnitude and frequency (larger but fewer) of precipitation events and enhanced nitrogen (N) deposition may interact to affect grassland productivity, but the effects of N enrichment on the productivity response to individual precipitation events remain unclear. In this study, we quantified the effects of N addition on the response patterns of gross primary productivity (GPP) to individual precipitation events of different sizes (Psize) in a temperate grassland in China. The results showed that N enrichment significantly increased the time-integrated amount of GPP in response to an individual precipitation event (GPPtotal), and the N-induced stimulation of GPP increased with increasing Psize. N enrichment rarely affected the duration of the GPP response, but it significantly stimulated the maximum absolute GPP response. Higher foliar N content might play an important role in the N-induced stimulation of GPP. GPPtotal in both the N-addition and control treatments increased linearly with Psize with similar Psize intercepts (approximately 5 mm, indicating a similar lower Psize threshold to stimulate the GPP response) but had a steeper slope under N addition. Our work indicates that the projected larger precipitation events will stimulate grassland productivity, and this stimulation might be amplified by increasing N deposition. PMID:27264386

  6. Exogenous N addition enhances the responses of gross primary productivity to individual precipitation events in a temperate grassland.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qun; Hu, Zhong-Min; Li, Sheng-Gong; Yu, Gui-Rui; Sun, Xiao-Min; Li, Ling-Hao; Liang, Nai-Shen; Bai, Wen-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Predicted future shifts in the magnitude and frequency (larger but fewer) of precipitation events and enhanced nitrogen (N) deposition may interact to affect grassland productivity, but the effects of N enrichment on the productivity response to individual precipitation events remain unclear. In this study, we quantified the effects of N addition on the response patterns of gross primary productivity (GPP) to individual precipitation events of different sizes (Psize) in a temperate grassland in China. The results showed that N enrichment significantly increased the time-integrated amount of GPP in response to an individual precipitation event (GPPtotal), and the N-induced stimulation of GPP increased with increasing Psize. N enrichment rarely affected the duration of the GPP response, but it significantly stimulated the maximum absolute GPP response. Higher foliar N content might play an important role in the N-induced stimulation of GPP. GPPtotal in both the N-addition and control treatments increased linearly with Psize with similar Psize intercepts (approximately 5 mm, indicating a similar lower Psize threshold to stimulate the GPP response) but had a steeper slope under N addition. Our work indicates that the projected larger precipitation events will stimulate grassland productivity, and this stimulation might be amplified by increasing N deposition. PMID:27264386

  7. 16 CFR 1102.16 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... PUBLICLY AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE Content Requirements § 1102.16 Additional... in the Database any additional information it determines to be in the public interest,...

  8. 16 CFR 1102.16 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... PUBLICLY AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE Content Requirements § 1102.16 Additional... in the Database any additional information it determines to be in the public interest,...

  9. 16 CFR 1102.16 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... PUBLICLY AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE Content Requirements § 1102.16 Additional... in the Database any additional information it determines to be in the public interest,...

  10. Effect of substrate particle size and additional nitrogen source on production of lignocellulolytic enzymes by Pleurotus ostreatus strains.

    PubMed

    Membrillo, Isabel; Sánchez, Carmen; Meneses, Marcos; Favela, Ernesto; Loera, Octavio

    2008-11-01

    Two strains of Pleurotus ostreatus (IE-8 and CP-50) were grown on defined medium added with wheat straw extract (WSE). Mycelia from these cultures were used as an inoculum for solid fermentation using sugar cane bagasse (C:N=142). This substrate was used separately either as a mixture of heterogeneous particle sizes (average size 2.9 mm) or as batches with two different particle sizes (0.92 mm and 1.68 mm). Protein enrichment and production of lignocellulolytic enzymes on each particle size was compared. The effect of ammonium sulphate (AS) addition was also analyzed (modified C:N=20), this compound favored higher levels of protein content. Strain CP-50 showed the highest increase of protein content (48% on particle size of 1.68 mm) when compared to media with no additional N source. However, strain IE-8 produced the highest levels of all enzymes: xylanases (5.79 IU/g dry wt on heterogeneous particles) and cellulases (0.18 IU/g dry wt on smallest particles), both without the addition of AS. The highest laccase activity (0.040 IU/g dry wt) was obtained on particles of 1.68 mm in the presence of AS. Since effect of particle size and addition AS was different for each strain, these criteria should be considered for diverse biotechnological applications.

  11. Enhanced photo-fermentative H2 production using Rhodobacter sphaeroides by ethanol addition and analysis of soluble microbial products

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Biological fermentation routes can provide an environmentally friendly way of producing H2 since they use renewable biomass as feedstock and proceed under ambient temperature and pressure. In particular, photo-fermentation has superior properties in terms of achieving high H2 yield through complete degradation of substrates. However, long-term H2 production data with stable performance is limited, and this data is essential for practical applications. In the present work, continuous photo-fermentative H2 production from lactate was attempted using the purple non-sulfur bacterium, Rhodobacter sphaeroides KD131. As a gradual drop in H2 production was observed, we attempted to add ethanol (0.2% v/v) to the medium. Results As continuous operation went on, H2 production was not sustained and showed a negligible H2 yield (< 0.5 mol H2/mol lactateadded) within two weeks. Electron balance analysis showed that the reason for the gradual drop in H2 production was ascribed to the increase in production of soluble microbial products (SMPs). To see the possible effect of ethanol addition, a batch test was first conducted. The presence of ethanol significantly increased the H2 yield from 1.15 to 2.20 mol H2/mol lactateadded, by suppressing the production of SMPs. The analysis of SMPs by size exclusion chromatography showed that, in the later period of fermentation, more than half of the low molecular weight SMPs (< 1 kDa) were consumed and used for H2 production when ethanol had been added, while the concentration of SMPs continuously increased in the absence of ethanol. It was found that the addition of ethanol facilitated the utilization of reducing power, resulting in an increase in the cellular levels of NAD+ and NADP+. In continuous operation, ethanol addition was effective, such that stable H2 production was attained with an H2 yield of 2.5 mol H2/mol lactateadded. Less than 15% of substrate electrons were used for SMP production, whereas 35% were used in

  12. [Effects of menthol as an additive in tobacco products and the need for regulation].

    PubMed

    Kahnert, S; Nair, U; Mons, U; Pötschke-Langer, M

    2012-03-01

    Menthol is the most widely used and the most prominent tobacco additive in tobacco products advertised and marketed by the tobacco industry. Besides its characteristic flavor, it possesses a variety of pharmacological properties facilitating tobacco smoke inhalation and potentiating dependence. These properties of menthol not only favor tobacco initiation and consumption but can also prevent smoking cessation. This article summarizes the effect of menthol as an additive in tobacco products and its effect on tobacco consumption that causes a number of chronic diseases and premature death and, therefore, counteracts tobacco control measures. Currently, there is no legislative regulation in Germany that considers the health hazard, addiction-enhancing and attractiveness-increasing properties of additives permitted in tobacco products. Effective regulation or even a ban could contribute to a reduction of tobacco consumption and, hence, save many people from a long-lasting tobacco dependence. PMID:22373857

  13. Effects of whey or maltodextrin addition during production on physical quality of white cheese powder during storage.

    PubMed

    Erbay, Zafer; Koca, Nurcan

    2015-12-01

    There is an increasing demand for cheese as a food ingredient, especially as a flavoring agent. One of the most important cheese flavoring agents is cheese powder. To obtain an intense cheese flavor, ripened cheese is used as a raw material in cheese powder but this increases production costs. Moreover, use of natural cheese decreases the physical quality of powder because of its high fat content. In this study, we evaluated opportunities to use whey or maltodextrin for improving the physical quality of powders in production of white cheese powder. We produced cheese powders with 3 different formulations-control (CON), whey-added (WACP), and maltodextrin-added (MACP)-and determined the effects of formulation on cheese powder quality. Physical quality parameters such as color, densities, reconstitution properties, free fat content, particle morphology, and sensory characteristics were investigated. The different cheese powders were stored for 12 mo at 20°C and we evaluated the effect of storage on powder quality. Addition of maltodextrin to cheese powder formulations significantly improved their physical quality. The densities and reconstitution properties of cheese powder were increased and free fat content was decreased by use of maltodextrin. The MACP particles were spherical with a uniform distribution and larger particle sizes, whereas CON and WACP particles were wrinkled, irregular shaped with deep surface dents, and variable in size. Although caking was observed in scanning electron micrographs after 12 mo of storage, it was not detected by sensory panelists. The color of cheese powders changed very slowly during storage but browning was detected. The results of this study show that it is possible to use maltodextrin or whey in production of white cheese powder to reduce production costs and improve the physical quality of powders.

  14. Hydrogen production from high moisture content biomass in supercritical water

    SciTech Connect

    Antal, M.J. Jr.; Xu, X.

    1998-08-01

    By mixing wood sawdust with a corn starch gel, a viscous paste can be produced that is easily delivered to a supercritical flow reactor by means of a cement pump. Mixtures of about 10 wt% wood sawdust with 3.65 wt% starch are employed in this work, which the authors estimate to cost about $0.043 per lb. Significant reductions in feed cost can be achieved by increasing the wood sawdust loading, but such an increase may require a more complex pump. When this feed is rapidly heated in a tubular flow reactor at pressures above the critical pressure of water (22 MPa), the sawdust paste vaporizes without the formation of char. A packed bed of carbon catalyst in the reactor operating at about 650 C causes the tarry vapors to react with water, producing hydrogen, carbon dioxide, and some methane with a trace of carbon monoxide. The temperature and history of the reactor`s wall influence the hydrogen-methane product equilibrium by catalyzing the methane steam reforming reaction. The water effluent from the reactor is clean. Other biomass feedstocks, such as the waste product of biodiesel production, behave similarly. Unfortunately, sewage sludge does not evidence favorable gasification characteristics and is not a promising feedstock for supercritical water gasification.

  15. SSF of steam-pretreated wheat straw with the addition of saccharified or fermented wheat meal in integrated bioethanol production

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Integration of second-generation (2G) bioethanol production with existing first-generation (1G) production may facilitate commercial production of ethanol from cellulosic material. Since 2G hydrolysates have a low sugar concentration and 1G streams often have to be diluted prior to fermentation, mixing of streams is beneficial. Improved ethanol concentrations in the 2G production process lowers energy demand in distillation, improves overall energy efficiency and thus lower production cost. There is also a potential to reach higher ethanol yields, which is required in economically feasible ethanol production. Integrated process scenarios with addition of saccharified wheat meal (SWM) or fermented wheat meal (FWM) were investigated in simultaneous saccharification and (co-)fermentation (SSF or SSCF) of steam-pretreated wheat straw, while the possibility of recovering the valuable protein-rich fibre residue from the wheat was also studied. Results The addition of SWM to SSF of steam-pretreated wheat straw, using commercially used dried baker’s yeast, S. cerevisiae, resulted in ethanol concentrations of about 60 g/L, equivalent to ethanol yields of about 90% of the theoretical. The addition of FWM in batch mode SSF was toxic to baker’s yeast, due to the ethanol content of FWM, resulting in a very low yield and high accumulation of glucose. The addition of FWM in fed-batch mode still caused a slight accumulation of glucose, but the ethanol concentration was fairly high, 51.2 g/L, corresponding to an ethanol yield of 90%, based on the amount of glucose added. In batch mode of SSCF using the xylose-fermenting, genetically modified S. cerevisiae strain KE6-12, no improvement was observed in ethanol yield or concentration, compared with baker’s yeast, despite the increased xylose utilization, probably due to the considerable increase in glycerol production. A slight increase in xylose consumption was seen when glucose from SWM was fed at a low feed rate

  16. Amygdalin content of seeds, kernels and food products commercially-available in the UK.

    PubMed

    Bolarinwa, Islamiyat F; Orfila, Caroline; Morgan, Michael R A

    2014-01-01

    Cyanogenic glycosides are a large group of secondary metabolites that are widely distributed in the plant kingdom, including many plants that are commonly consumed by humans. The diverse chemical nature of cyanogenic glycosides means that extraction and analysis of individual compounds can be difficult. In addition, degradation can be rapid under appropriate conditions. Amygdalin is one of the cyanogenic glycosides found, for example, in apples, apricots and almonds. We have developed and applied a high performance liquid chromatographic procedure for amygdalin quantification to investigate extraction efficiency and to determine levels in a range of commercially-available foods for the first time. Our results show that seed from Rosaceae species contained relatively high amounts (range 0.1-17.5 mg g(-1)) of amygdalin compared to seed from non-Rosaceae species (range 0.01-0.2 mg g(-1)). The amygdalin content of processed food products was very low. PMID:24444917

  17. Creation of a databank for content of antioxidants in food products by an amperometric method.

    PubMed

    Yashin, Yakov I; Nemzer, Boris V; Ryzhnev, Vadim Yu; Yashin, Alexandr Ya; Chernousova, Nina I; Fedina, Polina A

    2010-01-01

    Oxidative stress, i.e. excessive content of reactionary, oxygen, and nitrogen compounds (ROAC), including free radicals, is one of the causes of various dangerous diseases as well as premature aging. The adverse effect of free radicals can be neutralized by antioxidants. In order to carry out antioxidant therapy, one needs to know the contents of antioxidants in food products. We have created the databank for the contents of antioxidants in 1,140 food products, beverages, etc. Apart from water-soluble antioxidants, fat-soluble antioxidants in dairy and fish products, cacao, chocolate, nuts etc. were determined for the first time using an amperometric method.

  18. 9 CFR 381.156 - Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products. 381.156 Section 381.156 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  19. 9 CFR 381.156 - Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products. 381.156 Section 381.156 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  20. 9 CFR 381.156 - Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products. 381.156 Section 381.156 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  1. 9 CFR 381.156 - Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products. 381.156 Section 381.156 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  2. 9 CFR 381.156 - Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products. 381.156 Section 381.156 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  3. Plant nitrogen uptake drives responses of productivity to nitrogen and water addition in a grassland

    PubMed Central

    Lü, Xiao-Tao; Dijkstra, Feike A.; Kong, De-Liang; Wang, Zheng-Wen; Han, Xing-Guo

    2014-01-01

    Increased atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition and altered precipitation regimes have profound impacts on ecosystem functioning in semiarid grasslands. The interactions between those two factors remain largely unknown. A field experiment with N and water additions was conducted in a semiarid grassland in northern China. We examined the responses of aboveground net primary production (ANPP) and plant N use during two contrasting hydrological growing seasons. Nitrogen addition had no impact on ANPP, which may be accounted for by the offset between enhanced plant N uptake and decreased plant nitrogen use efficiency (NUE). Water addition significantly enhanced ANPP, which was largely due to enhanced plant aboveground N uptake. Nitrogen and water additions significantly interacted to affect ANPP, plant N uptake and N concentrations at the community level. Our observations highlight the important role of plant N uptake and use in mediating the effects of N and water addition on ANPP. PMID:24769508

  4. Enhanced production of green tide algal biomass through additional carbon supply.

    PubMed

    de Paula Silva, Pedro H; Paul, Nicholas A; de Nys, Rocky; Mata, Leonardo

    2013-01-01

    Intensive algal cultivation usually requires a high flux of dissolved inorganic carbon (Ci) to support productivity, particularly for high density algal cultures. Carbon dioxide (CO2) enrichment can be used to overcome Ci limitation and enhance productivity of algae in intensive culture, however, it is unclear whether algal species with the ability to utilise bicarbonate (HCO3 (-)) as a carbon source for photosynthesis will benefit from CO2 enrichment. This study quantified the HCO3 (-) affinity of three green tide algal species, Cladophora coelothrix, Cladophora patentiramea and Chaetomorpha linum, targeted for biomass and bioenergy production. Subsequently, we quantified productivity and carbon, nitrogen and ash content in response to CO2 enrichment. All three species had similar high pH compensation points (9.7-9.9), and grew at similar rates up to pH 9, demonstrating HCO3 (-) utilization. Algal cultures enriched with CO2 as a carbon source had 30% more total Ci available, supplying twenty five times more CO2 than the control. This higher Ci significantly enhanced the productivity of Cladophora coelothrix (26%), Chaetomorpha linum (24%) and to a lesser extent for Cladophora patentiramea (11%), compared to controls. We demonstrated that supplying carbon as CO2 can enhance the productivity of targeted green tide algal species under intensive culture, despite their clear ability to utilise HCO3 (-).

  5. Enhanced Production of Green Tide Algal Biomass through Additional Carbon Supply

    PubMed Central

    de Paula Silva, Pedro H.; Paul, Nicholas A.; de Nys, Rocky; Mata, Leonardo

    2013-01-01

    Intensive algal cultivation usually requires a high flux of dissolved inorganic carbon (Ci) to support productivity, particularly for high density algal cultures. Carbon dioxide (CO2) enrichment can be used to overcome Ci limitation and enhance productivity of algae in intensive culture, however, it is unclear whether algal species with the ability to utilise bicarbonate (HCO3−) as a carbon source for photosynthesis will benefit from CO2 enrichment. This study quantified the HCO3− affinity of three green tide algal species, Cladophora coelothrix, Cladophora patentiramea and Chaetomorpha linum, targeted for biomass and bioenergy production. Subsequently, we quantified productivity and carbon, nitrogen and ash content in response to CO2 enrichment. All three species had similar high pH compensation points (9.7–9.9), and grew at similar rates up to pH 9, demonstrating HCO3− utilization. Algal cultures enriched with CO2 as a carbon source had 30% more total Ci available, supplying twenty five times more CO2 than the control. This higher Ci significantly enhanced the productivity of Cladophora coelothrix (26%), Chaetomorpha linum (24%) and to a lesser extent for Cladophora patentiramea (11%), compared to controls. We demonstrated that supplying carbon as CO2 can enhance the productivity of targeted green tide algal species under intensive culture, despite their clear ability to utilise HCO3−. PMID:24324672

  6. Cheese whey as substrate of batch hydrogen production: effect of temperature and addition of buffer.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Páez, K M; Poggi-Varaldo, H M; García-Mena, J; Ponce-Noyola, M T; Ramos-Valdivia, A C; Barrera-Cortés, J; Robles-González, I V; Ruiz-Ordáz, N; Villa-Tanaca, L; Rinderknecht-Seijas, N

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of buffer addition and process temperature (ambient and 35°C) on H2 production in batch fermentation of cheese whey (CW). When the H2 production reached a plateau, the headspace of the reactors were flushed with N2 and reactors were re-incubated. Afterwards, only the reactors with phosphate buffer showed a second cycle of H2 production and 48% more H2 was obtained. The absence of a second cycle in non-buffered reactors could be related to a lower final pH than in the buffered reactors; the low pH could drive the fermentation to solvents production. Indeed a high solvent production was observed in non-buffered bioreactors as given by low ρ ratios (defined as the ratio between sum of organic acid production and sum of solvents production). Regarding the process temperatures, no significant difference between the H2 production of reactors incubated at ambient temperature and at 35°C was described. After flushing the headspace of bioreactors with N2 at the end of the second cycle, the H2 production did not resume (in all reactors).

  7. 15 CFR 714.3 - Advance declaration requirements for additionally planned production of Schedule 3 chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... additionally planned production of Schedule 3 chemicals. 714.3 Section 714.3 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SCHEDULE 3 CHEMICALS § 714.3...

  8. 15 CFR 714.3 - Advance declaration requirements for additionally planned production of Schedule 3 chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... additionally planned production of Schedule 3 chemicals. 714.3 Section 714.3 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SCHEDULE 3 CHEMICALS § 714.3...

  9. 15 CFR 714.3 - Advance declaration requirements for additionally planned production of Schedule 3 chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... additionally planned production of Schedule 3 chemicals. 714.3 Section 714.3 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SCHEDULE 3 CHEMICALS § 714.3...

  10. 15 CFR 714.3 - Advance declaration requirements for additionally planned production of Schedule 3 chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... additionally planned production of Schedule 3 chemicals. 714.3 Section 714.3 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SCHEDULE 3 CHEMICALS § 714.3...

  11. 15 CFR 714.3 - Advance declaration requirements for additionally planned production of Schedule 3 chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... additionally planned production of Schedule 3 chemicals. 714.3 Section 714.3 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SCHEDULE 3 CHEMICALS § 714.3...

  12. Effectiveness of nitrate addition and increased oil content as methane mitigation strategies for beef cattle fed two contrasting basal diets.

    PubMed

    Troy, S M; Duthie, C-A; Hyslop, J J; Roehe, R; Ross, D W; Wallace, R J; Waterhouse, A; Rooke, J A

    2015-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of (1) the addition of nitrate and (2) an increase in dietary oil on methane (CH4) and hydrogen (H2) emissions from 2 breeds (cross-bred Charolais and purebred Luing) of finishing beef cattle receiving 2 contrasting basal diets consisting (grams per kilogram DM) of 500:500 (Mixed) and 80:920 (Concentrate) forage to concentrate ratios. Within each basal diet there were 3 treatments: (i) control treatments (mixed-CTL and concentrate-CTL) contained rapeseed meal as the protein source, which was replaced with either (ii) calcium nitrate (mixed-NIT and concentrate-NIT) supplying 21.5 g nitrate/kg DM, or (iii) rapeseed cake (mixed-RSC and concentrate-RSC) to increase dietary oil from 27 (CTL) to 53 g/kg DM (RSC). Following adaption to diets, CH4 and H2 emissions were measured on 1 occasion from each of the 76 steers over a 13-wk period. Dry matter intakes tended (P = 0.051) to be greater for the concentrate diet than the mixed diet; however, when expressed as grams DMI per kilogram BW, there was no difference between diets (P = 0.41). Dry matter intakes for NIT or RSC did not differ from CTL. Steers fed a concentrate diet produced less CH4 and H2 than those fed a mixed diet (P < 0.001). Molar proportions of acetate (P < 0.001) and butyrate (P < 0.01) were lower and propionate (P < 0.001) and valerate (P < 0.05) higher in the rumen fluid from steers fed the concentrate diet. For the mixed diet, CH4 yield (grams per kilogram DMI) was decreased by 17% when nitrate was added (P < 0.01), while H2 yield increased by 160% (P < 0.001). The addition of RSC to the mixed diet decreased CH4 yield by 7.5% (P = 0.18). However, for the concentrate diet neither addition of nitrate (P = 0.65) nor increasing dietary oil content (P = 0.46) decreased CH4 yield compared to concentrate-CTL. Molar proportions of acetate were higher (P < 0.001) and those of propionate lower (P < 0.01) in rumen fluid from NIT treatments compared to

  13. Effect of combined herbal feed additives on methane, total gas production and rumen fermentation.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Indu; Dutta, Tapas Kumar; Singh, Pawan Kumar; Sharma, Ashwani

    2015-01-01

    The present study was to evaluate effect of herbal feed additives on methane and total gas production during the rumen fermentation for environment and animal health concern. Different parts of the five medicinal plants were selected such as leaf and small stems of Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi), roots of Curcuma longa (Haldi), fruits of Emblica officinalis (Amla), leaves of Azadirachta indica (Neem) and leaves and small stem of Clerodendrum phlomidis (Arni) for our study. Addition of different herbal additive combinations did not influence IVDMD and total gas production however methane production (mg/g of substrate DM) was significantly (P<0.05) reduced in Amla: Neem and Neem: Arni combinations. Total nitrogen significantly (P<0.01) increased in the combinations of Tulsi: Haldi and Amla: Neem. TCA-ppt-N is significantly (P<0.01) increased in Tulsi: Haldi, Haldi: Amla, Amla: Neem and Neem: Arni however NH3-N (mg/dl) significantly decreased in all treatments. We conclude that the screening of plant combinations, Amla: Neem and Neem: Arni have potential to decrease methane production and our herbal feed supplements have no side-effects on the ruminant in small amount. PMID:26124571

  14. Emerging role of phenolic compounds as natural food additives in fish and fish products.

    PubMed

    Maqsood, Sajid; Benjakul, Soottawat; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2013-01-01

    Chemical and microbiological deteriorations are principal causes of quality loss of fish and fish products during handling, processing, and storage. Development of rancid odor and unpleasant flavor, changes of color and texture as well as lowering nutritional value in fish can be prevented by appropriate use of additives. Due to the potential health hazards of synthetic additives, natural products, especially antioxidants and antimicrobial agents, have been intensively examined as safe alternatives to synthetic compounds. Polyphenols (PP) are the natural antioxidants prevalent in fruits, vegetables, beverages (tea, wine, juices), plants, seaweeds, and some herbs and show antioxidative and antimicrobial activities in different fish and fish products. The use of phenolic compounds also appears to be a good alternative for sulphiting agent for retarding melanosis in crustaceans. Phenolic compounds have also been successfully employed as the processing aid for texture modification of fish mince and surimi. Thus, plant polyphenolic compounds can serve as potential additives for preventing quality deterioration or to retain the quality of fish and fish products.

  15. The Role of Cocoa as a Cigarette Additive: Opportunities for Product Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Ryan David; Connolly, Gregory N.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act prohibited the use of characterizing flavors in cigarettes; however, some of these flavors are still used in cigarettes at varying levels. We reviewed tobacco industry internal documents to investigate the role of one of these flavors, cocoa, with the objective of understanding its relationship to sensory and risk perception, promotion of dependence, and enhancement of attractiveness and acceptability. Methods: We used the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library to identify documents relevant to our research questions. Initial search terms were generated following an examination of published literature on cocoa, other cigarette additives, and sensory and risk perception. Further research questions and search terms were generated based on review of documents generated from the initial search terms. Results: Cocoa is widely applied to cigarettes and has been used by the tobacco industry as an additive since the early 20th century. Cocoa can alter the sensory properties of cigarette smoke, including by providing a more appealing taste and decreasing its harshness. The tobacco industry has experimented with manipulating cocoa levels as a means of achieving sensory properties that appeal to women and youth. Conclusions: Although cocoa is identified as a flavor on tobacco industry Web sites, it may serve other sensory purposes in cigarettes as well. Eliminating cocoa as an additive from tobacco products may affect tobacco product abuse liability by altering smokers’ perceptions of product risk, and decreasing product appeal, especially among vulnerable populations. PMID:24610479

  16. Qualitative identification of permitted and non-permitted colour additives in food products.

    PubMed

    Harp, Bhakti Petigara; Miranda-Bermudez, Enio; Baron, Carolina I; Richard, Gerald I

    2012-01-01

    Colour additives are dyes, pigments or other substances that can impart colour when added or applied to food, drugs, cosmetics, medical devices, or the human body. The substances must be pre-approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) and listed in Title 21 of the US Code of Federal Regulations before they may be used in products marketed in the United States. Some also are required to be batch certified by the USFDA prior to their use. Both domestic and imported products sold in interstate commerce fall under USFDA jurisdiction, and the USFDA's district laboratories use a combination of analytical methods for identifying or confirming the presence of potentially violative colour additives. We have developed a qualitative method for identifying 17 certifiable, certification exempt, and non-permitted colour additives in various food products. The method involves extracting the colour additives from a product and isolating them from non-coloured components with a C(18) Sep-Pak cartridge. The colour additives are then separated and identified by liquid chromatography (LC) with photodiode array detection, using an Xterra RP18 column and gradient elution with aqueous ammonium acetate and methanol. Limits of detection (LODs) ranged from 0.02 to 1.49 mg/l. This qualititative LC method supplements the visible spectrophotometric and thin-layer chromatography methods currently used by the USFDA's district laboratories and is less time-consuming and requires less solvent compared to the other methods. The extraction step in the new LC method is a simple and an efficient process that can be used for most food types.

  17. Effect of the addition order and amylose content on mechanical, barrier and structural properties of films made with starch and montmorillonite.

    PubMed

    Romero-Bastida, C A; Bello-Pérez, L A; Velazquez, G; Alvarez-Ramirez, J

    2015-01-01

    This study considered the effect of amylose content (30% and 70%), montmorillonite (MMT) fraction (5 and 15%) and preparation method on mechanical and barrier properties of starch/clay nanocomposites prepared by casting. In Method 1, (30% w/w) glycerol was incorporated before starch gelatinization and MMT addition, while in Method 2 after gelatinization and MMT addition. Nanocomposites with higher amount of MMT showed the highest tensile strength and Young's modulus for both preparation methods. Method 1 favored nanocomposite properties of films with less amylose content, meanwhile Method 2 favored nanocomposites properties with higher amylose content. Water vapor permeability did not decrease significantly in starch films with different amylose content with the two different preparation methods. X-ray diffraction of the starch films indicated intercalated structures. Higher melting temperature (Tm) was found for nanocomposites with Method 2, indicating more ordered structures. Films with 70% amylose content have higher Tm than films with 30% amylose.

  18. Effect of the chlortetracycline addition method on methane production from the anaerobic digestion of swine wastewater.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lu; Wen, Xin; Wang, Yan; Zou, Yongde; Ma, Baohua; Liao, Xindi; Liang, Juanboo; Wu, Yinbao

    2014-10-01

    Effects of antibiotic residues on methane production in anaerobic digestion are commonly studied using the following two antibiotic addition methods: (1) adding manure from animals that consume a diet containing antibiotics, and (2) adding antibiotic-free animal manure spiked with antibiotics. This study used chlortetracycline (CTC) as a model antibiotic to examine the effects of the antibiotic addition method on methane production in anaerobic digestion under two different swine wastewater concentrations (0.55 and 0.22mg CTC/g dry manure). The results showed that CTC degradation rate in which manure was directly added at 0.55mg CTC/g (HSPIKE treatment) was lower than the control values and the rest of the treatment groups. Methane production from the HSPIKE treatment was reduced (p<0.05) by 12% during the whole experimental period and 15% during the first 7days. The treatments had no significant effect on the pH and chemical oxygen demand value of the digesters, and the total nitrogen of the 0.55mg CTC/kg manure collected from mediated swine was significantly higher than the other values. Therefore, different methane production under different antibiotic addition methods might be explained by the microbial activity and the concentrations of antibiotic intermediate products and metabolites. Because the primary entry route of veterinary antibiotics into an anaerobic digester is by contaminated animal manure, the most appropriate method for studying antibiotic residue effects on methane production may be using manure from animals that are given a particular antibiotic, rather than adding the antibiotic directly to the anaerobic digester.

  19. The fermentative production of L-lysine as an animal feed additive.

    PubMed

    Kircher, M; Pfefferle, W

    2001-04-01

    A new and innovative process for the biotechnological production of L-lysine is presented, exemplified here by the fermentative production of the feed additive Biolys60. The novel feature of this product is that the entire manufacturing concept, i.e. the production strain, the raw materials, all process stages and the product specifications have been systematically tailored for optimal environmental compatibility and for minimum resource depletion and waste. The process completely dispenses with the need to discharge residual and waste material and reduces the handling of hazardous materials to a minimum. Since only a few process stages are involved, the method is economical to use and investment outlay is reduced. The process, which also leads to a higher grade product, is thus highly attractive in both ecological and economical terms. By boosting the nutrient value of the plant-based feedstuffs, the product itself makes an cost-effective contribution towards a more sustainable form of animal feeding and by reducing nitrogen emission levels promotes a more environmentally compatible form of animal husbandry. PMID:11233822

  20. Innovations in value-addition of edible meat by-products.

    PubMed

    Toldrá, Fidel; Aristoy, M-Concepción; Mora, Leticia; Reig, Milagro

    2012-11-01

    While muscle foods are the more commonly consumed portion of an animal, meat by-products such as the entrails and internal organs are also widely consumed. Considered high-priced delicacies or waste material to be tossed away, the use and value of offal-edible and inedible meat by-products depend entirely on the culture and country in question. The skin, blood, bones, meat trimmings, fatty tissues, horns, hoofs, feet, skull, and internal organs of harvested animals comprise a wide variety of products including human or pet food or processed materials in animal feed, fertilizer, or fuel. Industry is using science and innovation to add value to animal by-products far beyond its usual profitability. Regardless of the final product's destination, it is still necessary to employ the most up-to-date and effective tools to analyze these products for nutritional properties, to search for key active molecules in nutrition like bioactive peptides, food safety (antimicrobial peptides), medicine, cosmetics or other fields, to develop new technological applications and to continue innovation towards advanced value-addition of meat by-products.

  1. Oregano Essential Oil as an Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Additive in Food Products.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Garcia, I; Silva-Espinoza, B A; Ortega-Ramirez, L A; Leyva, J M; Siddiqui, M W; Cruz-Valenzuela, M R; Gonzalez-Aguilar, G A; Ayala-Zavala, J F

    2016-07-26

    Food consumers and industries urged the need of natural alternatives to assure food safety and quality. As a response, the use of natural compounds from herbs and spices is an alternative to synthetic additives associated with toxic problems. This review discusses the antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of oregano essential oil (OEO) and its potential as a food additive. Oregano is a plant that has been used as a food seasoning since ancient times. The common name of oregano is given to several species: Origanum (family: Lamiaceae) and Lippia (family: Verbenaceae), amongst others. The main compounds identified in the different OEOs are carvacrol and thymol, which are responsible for the characteristic odor, antimicrobial, and antioxidant activity; however, their content may vary according to the species, harvesting season, and geographical sources. These substances as antibacterial agents make the cell membrane permeable due to its impregnation in the hydrophobic domains, this effect is higher against gram positive bacteria. In addition, the OEO has antioxidant properties effective in retarding the process of lipid peroxidation in fatty foods, and scavenging free radicals. In this perspective, the present review analyzes and discusses the state of the art about the actual and potential uses of OEO as an antimicrobial and antioxidant food additives. PMID:25763467

  2. Oregano Essential Oil as an Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Additive in Food Products.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Garcia, I; Silva-Espinoza, B A; Ortega-Ramirez, L A; Leyva, J M; Siddiqui, M W; Cruz-Valenzuela, M R; Gonzalez-Aguilar, G A; Ayala-Zavala, J F

    2016-07-26

    Food consumers and industries urged the need of natural alternatives to assure food safety and quality. As a response, the use of natural compounds from herbs and spices is an alternative to synthetic additives associated with toxic problems. This review discusses the antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of oregano essential oil (OEO) and its potential as a food additive. Oregano is a plant that has been used as a food seasoning since ancient times. The common name of oregano is given to several species: Origanum (family: Lamiaceae) and Lippia (family: Verbenaceae), amongst others. The main compounds identified in the different OEOs are carvacrol and thymol, which are responsible for the characteristic odor, antimicrobial, and antioxidant activity; however, their content may vary according to the species, harvesting season, and geographical sources. These substances as antibacterial agents make the cell membrane permeable due to its impregnation in the hydrophobic domains, this effect is higher against gram positive bacteria. In addition, the OEO has antioxidant properties effective in retarding the process of lipid peroxidation in fatty foods, and scavenging free radicals. In this perspective, the present review analyzes and discusses the state of the art about the actual and potential uses of OEO as an antimicrobial and antioxidant food additives.

  3. Evolution of phospholipid contents during the production of quark cheese from buttermilk.

    PubMed

    Ferreiro, T; Martínez, S; Gayoso, L; Rodríguez-Otero, J L

    2016-06-01

    We report the evolution of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylserine (PS), and sphingomyelin (SM) contents during the production of quark cheese from buttermilk by successive ultrafiltration concentration, enrichment with cream, concurrent homogenization and pasteurization, fermentative coagulation, and separation of quark from whey by further ultrafiltration. Buttermilk is richer than milk itself in phospholipids that afford desirable functional and technological properties, and is widely used in dairy products. To investigate how phospholipid content is affected by end-product production processes such as ultrafiltration, homogenization, pasteurization or coagulation, we measured the phospholipids at several stages of each of 5 industrial-scale quark cheese production runs. In each run, 10,000L of buttermilk was concentrated to half volume by ultrafiltration, enriched with cream, homogenized, pasteurized, inoculated with lactic acid bacteria, incubated to coagulation, and once more concentrated to half volume by ultrafiltration. Phospholipid contents were determined by HPLC with evaporative light scattering detection in the starting buttermilk, concentrated buttermilk, ultrafiltrate, cream-enriched concentrated buttermilk (both before and after concurrent homogenization and pasteurization), coagulate, and quark, and also in the rinsings obtained when the ultrafiltration equipment was washed following initial concentration. The average phospholipid content of buttermilk was approximately 5 times that of milk, and the phospholipid content of buttermilk fat 26 to 29 times that of milk fat. Although phospholipids did not cross ultrafiltration membranes, significant losses occurred during ultrafiltration (due to retention on the membranes) and during the homogenization and pasteurization process. During coagulation, however, phospholipid content rose, presumably as a consequence of the proliferation of the

  4. Evolution of phospholipid contents during the production of quark cheese from buttermilk.

    PubMed

    Ferreiro, T; Martínez, S; Gayoso, L; Rodríguez-Otero, J L

    2016-06-01

    We report the evolution of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylserine (PS), and sphingomyelin (SM) contents during the production of quark cheese from buttermilk by successive ultrafiltration concentration, enrichment with cream, concurrent homogenization and pasteurization, fermentative coagulation, and separation of quark from whey by further ultrafiltration. Buttermilk is richer than milk itself in phospholipids that afford desirable functional and technological properties, and is widely used in dairy products. To investigate how phospholipid content is affected by end-product production processes such as ultrafiltration, homogenization, pasteurization or coagulation, we measured the phospholipids at several stages of each of 5 industrial-scale quark cheese production runs. In each run, 10,000L of buttermilk was concentrated to half volume by ultrafiltration, enriched with cream, homogenized, pasteurized, inoculated with lactic acid bacteria, incubated to coagulation, and once more concentrated to half volume by ultrafiltration. Phospholipid contents were determined by HPLC with evaporative light scattering detection in the starting buttermilk, concentrated buttermilk, ultrafiltrate, cream-enriched concentrated buttermilk (both before and after concurrent homogenization and pasteurization), coagulate, and quark, and also in the rinsings obtained when the ultrafiltration equipment was washed following initial concentration. The average phospholipid content of buttermilk was approximately 5 times that of milk, and the phospholipid content of buttermilk fat 26 to 29 times that of milk fat. Although phospholipids did not cross ultrafiltration membranes, significant losses occurred during ultrafiltration (due to retention on the membranes) and during the homogenization and pasteurization process. During coagulation, however, phospholipid content rose, presumably as a consequence of the proliferation of the

  5. High-content screening identifies a role for Na+ channels in insulin production

    PubMed Central

    Szabat, Marta; Modi, Honey; Ramracheya, Reshma; Girbinger, Vroni; Chan, Forson; Lee, Jason T. C.; Piske, Micah; Kamal, Sepehr; Carol Yang, Yu Hsuan; Welling, Andrea; Rorsman, Patrik; Johnson, James D.

    2015-01-01

    Insulin production is the central feature of functionally mature and differentiated pancreatic β-cells. Reduced insulin transcription and dedifferentiation have been implicated in type 2 diabetes, making drugs that could reverse these processes potentially useful. We have previously established ratiometric live-cell imaging tools to identify factors that increase insulin promoter activity and promote β-cell differentiation. Here, we present a single vector imaging tool with eGFP and mRFP, driven by the Pdx1 and Ins1 promoters, respectively, targeted to the nucleus to enhance identification of individual cells in a high-throughput manner. Using this new approach, we screened 1120 off-patent drugs for factors that regulate Ins1 and Pdx1 promoter activity in MIN6 β-cells. We identified a number of compounds that positively modulate Ins1 promoter activity, including several drugs known to modulate ion channels. Carbamazepine was selected for extended follow-up, as our previous screen also identified this use-dependent sodium channel inhibitor as a positive modulator of β-cell survival. Indeed, carbamazepine increased Ins1 and Ins2 mRNA in primary mouse islets at lower doses than were required to protect β-cells. We validated the role of sodium channels in insulin production by examining Nav1.7 (Scn9a) knockout mice and remarkably islets from these animals had dramatically elevated insulin content relative to wild-type controls. Collectively, our experiments provide a starting point for additional studies aimed to identify drugs and molecular pathways that control insulin production and β-cell differentiation status. In particular, our unbiased screen identified a novel role for a β-cell sodium channel gene in insulin production. PMID:27019722

  6. Nutrient content of products served by leading Australian fast food chains.

    PubMed

    Dunford, Elizabeth; Webster, Jacqui; Barzi, Federica; Neal, Bruce

    2010-12-01

    With more consumers purchasing meals outside the home, fast food products contribute substantially to daily energy intakes. Improving the nutrient composition of fast food would have significant health benefits. Nutrient content data for menu items provided by nine companies representing >90% of the fast food market in Australia were collected. Mean nutrient levels were compared between product categories and compared to currently accepted criteria for healthy foods. The majority of fast food products did not meet criteria for healthy options. Breakfast items had the highest mean sugar content (7.8 g/100 g) and saturated fat (5.5 g/100 g), and chicken items the highest total fat (13.2 g/100 g) and sodium (586 mg/100 g). There was marked variation in nutrient levels between similar products. There was a 10-fold variation in the total fat, saturated fat and sugar content of sandwiches, an 8-fold variation in saturated fat in burgers and >20-fold variation in the sugar and total fat content of salads. Differences were even greater per serve. The considerable variation in the nutrient content of comparable products suggests significant potential for reformulation. Even small improvements in composition could produce important health gains if implemented across all product categories by all companies in unison.

  7. Enhanced laccase production in white-rot fungus Rigidoporus lignosus by the addition of selected phenolic and aromatic compounds.

    PubMed

    Cambria, Maria Teresa; Ragusa, Santa; Calabrese, Vittorio; Cambria, Antonio

    2011-02-01

    The white rot fungus Rigidoporus lignosus produces substantial amounts of extracellular laccase, a multicopper blue oxidase which is capable of oxidizing a wide range of organic substrates. Laccase production can be greatly enhanced in liquid cultures supplemented with various aromatic and phenolic compounds. The maximum enzyme activity was reached at the 21st or 24th day of fungal cultivation after the addition of inducers. The zymograms of extracellular fluid of culture preparation in the presence of inducers, at maximum activity day, revealed two bands with enzymatic activity, called Lac1 and Lac2, having different intensities. Lac2 band shows the higher intensity which changed with the different inducers. Laccase induction can be also obtained by adding to the culture medium olive mill wastewaters, which shows a high content of phenolic compounds.

  8. 3D Machine Vision and Additive Manufacturing: Concurrent Product and Process Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilyas, Ismet P.

    2013-06-01

    The manufacturing environment rapidly changes in turbulence fashion. Digital manufacturing (DM) plays a significant role and one of the key strategies in setting up vision and strategic planning toward the knowledge based manufacturing. An approach of combining 3D machine vision (3D-MV) and an Additive Manufacturing (AM) may finally be finding its niche in manufacturing. This paper briefly overviews the integration of the 3D machine vision and AM in concurrent product and process development, the challenges and opportunities, the implementation of the 3D-MV and AM at POLMAN Bandung in accelerating product design and process development, and discusses a direct deployment of this approach on a real case from our industrial partners that have placed this as one of the very important and strategic approach in research as well as product/prototype development. The strategic aspects and needs of this combination approach in research, design and development are main concerns of the presentation.

  9. Hydrogen sulfide production by sulfate-reducing bacteria utilizing additives eluted from plastic resins.

    PubMed

    Tsuchida, Daisuke; Kajihara, Yusuke; Shimidzu, Nobuhiro; Hamamura, Kengo; Nagase, Makoto

    2011-06-01

    In the present study it was demonstrated that organic additives eluted from plastic resins could be utilized as substrates by sulfate-reducing bacteria. Two laboratory-scale experiments, a microcosm experiment and a leaching experiment, were conducted using polyvinyl chloride (PVC) as a model plastic resin. In the former experiment, the conversion of sulfate to sulfide was evident in microcosms that received plasticized PVC as the sole carbon source, but not in those that received PVC homopolymer. Additionally, dissolved organic carbon accumulated only in microcosms that received plasticized PVC, indicating that the dissolved organic carbon originated from additives. In the leaching experiment, phenol and bisphenol A were found in the leached solutions. These results suggest that the disposal of waste plastics in inert waste landfills may result in the production of H(2)S.

  10. Inhibition by antimicrobial food additives of ochratoxin A production by Aspergillus sulphureus and Penicillium viridicatum.

    PubMed Central

    Tong, C H; Draughon, F A

    1985-01-01

    The effects of antimicrobial food additives on growth and ochratoxin A production by Aspergillus sulphureus NRRL 4077 and Penicillium viridicatum NRRL 3711 were investigated. At pH 4.5, growth and toxin production by both A. sulphureus and P. viridicatum were completely inhibited by 0.02% potassium sorbate, 0.067% methyl paraben, 0.0667% methyl paraben, and 0.2% sodium propionate. At pH 5.5, 0.134% potassium sorbate and 0.067% methyl paraben completely inhibited growth and ochratoxin A production by both fungi. Sodium bisulfite at 0.1%, the maximum level tested, was found to inhibit growth of A. sulphureus and P. viridicatum by 45 and 89%, respectively. Toxin production was inhibited by 97 and 99%, respectively. Sodium propionate (0.64%) at pH 5.5 inhibited growth of A. sulphureus and P. viridicatum by 76 and 90%, respectively. Toxin production was inhibited by greater than 99% for each fungus. Antimicrobial agents were ranked as to effectiveness by comparing the level required for complete inhibition of ochratoxin A production to the highest antimicrobial agent level normally used in food. At pH 4.5, the most effective inhibitor of growth and toxin production was potassium sorbate, followed by sodium propionate, methyl paraben, and sodium bisulfite, respectively, for both fungi. However, at pH 5.5, the most effective antimicrobial agents for inhibiting ochratoxin production were methyl paraben and potassium sorbate, followed by sodium propionate. Sodium bisulfite was not highly inhibitory to these toxigenic fungi at the higher pH value tested. PMID:4015085

  11. Verification of a New Biocompatible Single-Use Film Formulation with Optimized Additive Content for Multiple Bioprocess Applications

    PubMed Central

    Jurkiewicz, Elke; Husemann, Ute; Greller, Gerhard; Barbaroux, Magali; Fenge, Christel

    2014-01-01

    Single-use bioprocessing bags and bioreactors gained significant importance in the industry as they offer a number of advantages over traditional stainless steel solutions. However, there is continued concern that the plastic materials might release potentially toxic substances negatively impacting cell growth and product titers, or even compromise drug safety when using single-use bags for intermediate or drug substance storage. In this study, we have focused on the in vitro detection of potentially cytotoxic leachables originating from the recently developed new polyethylene (PE) multilayer film called S80. This new film was developed to guarantee biocompatibility for multiple bioprocess applications, for example, storage of process fluids, mixing, and cell culture bioreactors. For this purpose, we examined a protein-free cell culture medium that had been used to extract leachables from freshly gamma-irradiated sample bags in a standardized cell culture assay. We investigated sample bags from films generated to establish the operating ranges of the film extrusion process. Further, we studied sample bags of different age after gamma-irradiation and finally, we performed extended media extraction trials at cold room conditions using sample bags. In contrast to a nonoptimized film formulation, our data demonstrate no cytotoxic effect of the S80 polymer film formulation under any of the investigated conditions. The S80 film formulation is based on an optimized PE polymer composition and additive package. Full traceability alongside specifications and controls of all critical raw materials, and process controls of the manufacturing process, that is, film extrusion and gamma-irradiation, have been established to ensure lot-to-lot consistency. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 30:1171–1176, 2014 PMID:24850537

  12. Dropwise additive manufacturing of pharmaceutical products for melt-based dosage forms.

    PubMed

    Içten, Elçin; Giridhar, Arun; Taylor, Lynne S; Nagy, Zoltan K; Reklaitis, Gintaras V

    2015-05-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration introduced the quality by design approach and process analytical technology guidance to encourage innovation and efficiency in pharmaceutical development, manufacturing, and quality assurance. As part of this renewed emphasis on the improvement of manufacturing, the pharmaceutical industry has begun to develop more efficient production processes with more intensive use of online measurement and sensing, real-time quality control, and process control tools. Here, we present dropwise additive manufacturing of pharmaceutical products (DAMPP) as an alternative to conventional pharmaceutical manufacturing methods. This mini-manufacturing process for the production of pharmaceuticals utilizes drop on demand printing technology for automated and controlled deposition of melt-based formulations onto edible substrates. The advantages of drop-on-demand technology, including reproducible production of small droplets, adjustable drop sizing, high placement accuracy, and flexible use of different formulations, enable production of individualized dosing even for low-dose and high-potency drugs. In this work, DAMPP is used to produce solid oral dosage forms from hot melts of an active pharmaceutical ingredient and a polymer. The dosage forms are analyzed to show the reproducibility of dosing and the dissolution behavior of different formulations.

  13. GABA Production in Lactococcus lactis Is Enhanced by Arginine and Co-addition of Malate.

    PubMed

    Laroute, Valérie; Yasaro, Chonthicha; Narin, Waranya; Mazzoli, Roberto; Pessione, Enrica; Cocaign-Bousquet, Muriel; Loubière, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Lactococcus lactis NCDO 2118 was previously selected for its ability to decarboxylate glutamate to γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), an interesting nutritional supplement able to improve mood and relaxation. Amino acid decarboxylation is generally considered as among the biochemical systems allowing lactic acid bacteria to counteracting acidic stress and obtaining metabolic energy. These strategies also include arginine deiminase pathway and malolactic fermentation but little is known about their possible interactions of with GABA production. In the present study, the effects of glutamate, arginine, and malate (i.e., the substrates of these acid-resistance pathways) on L. lactis NCDO 2118 growth and GABA production performances were analyzed. Both malate and arginine supplementation resulted in an efficient reduction of acidity and improvement of bacterial biomass compared to glutamate supplementation. Glutamate decarboxylation was limited to narrow environmental conditions (pH < 5.1) and physiological state (stationary phase). However, some conditions were able to improve GABA production or activate glutamate decarboxylation system even outside of this compass. Arginine clearly stimulated glutamate decarboxylation: the highest GABA production (8.6 mM) was observed in cultures supplemented with both arginine and glutamate. The simultaneous addition of arginine, malate, and glutamate enabled earlier GABA production (i.e., during exponential growth) at relatively high pH (6.5). As far as we know, no previous study has reported GABA production in such conditions. Although further studies are needed to understand the molecular basis of these phenomena, these results represent important keys suitable of application in GABA production processes. PMID:27458444

  14. GABA Production in Lactococcus lactis Is Enhanced by Arginine and Co-addition of Malate

    PubMed Central

    Laroute, Valérie; Yasaro, Chonthicha; Narin, Waranya; Mazzoli, Roberto; Pessione, Enrica; Cocaign-Bousquet, Muriel; Loubière, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Lactococcus lactis NCDO 2118 was previously selected for its ability to decarboxylate glutamate to γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), an interesting nutritional supplement able to improve mood and relaxation. Amino acid decarboxylation is generally considered as among the biochemical systems allowing lactic acid bacteria to counteracting acidic stress and obtaining metabolic energy. These strategies also include arginine deiminase pathway and malolactic fermentation but little is known about their possible interactions of with GABA production. In the present study, the effects of glutamate, arginine, and malate (i.e., the substrates of these acid-resistance pathways) on L. lactis NCDO 2118 growth and GABA production performances were analyzed. Both malate and arginine supplementation resulted in an efficient reduction of acidity and improvement of bacterial biomass compared to glutamate supplementation. Glutamate decarboxylation was limited to narrow environmental conditions (pH < 5.1) and physiological state (stationary phase). However, some conditions were able to improve GABA production or activate glutamate decarboxylation system even outside of this compass. Arginine clearly stimulated glutamate decarboxylation: the highest GABA production (8.6 mM) was observed in cultures supplemented with both arginine and glutamate. The simultaneous addition of arginine, malate, and glutamate enabled earlier GABA production (i.e., during exponential growth) at relatively high pH (6.5). As far as we know, no previous study has reported GABA production in such conditions. Although further studies are needed to understand the molecular basis of these phenomena, these results represent important keys suitable of application in GABA production processes. PMID:27458444

  15. Anaerobic Codigestion of Sludge: Addition of Butcher's Fat Waste as a Cosubstrate for Increasing Biogas Production.

    PubMed

    Martínez, E J; Gil, M V; Fernandez, C; Rosas, J G; Gómez, X

    2016-01-01

    Fat waste discarded from butcheries was used as a cosubstrate in the anaerobic codigestion of sewage sludge (SS). The process was evaluated under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. The codigestion was successfully attained despite some inhibitory stages initially present that had their origin in the accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFA) and adsorption of long-chain fatty acids (LCFA). The addition of a fat waste improved digestion stability and increased biogas yields thanks to the higher organic loading rate (OLR) applied to the reactors. However, thermophilic digestion was characterized by an effluent of poor quality and high VFA content. Results from spectroscopic analysis suggested the adsorption of lipid components onto the anaerobic biomass, thus disturbing the complete degradation of substrate during the treatment. The formation of fatty aggregates in the thermophilic reactor prevented process failure by avoiding the exposure of biomass to the toxic effect of high LCFA concentrations. PMID:27071074

  16. Indications of Transformation Products from Hydraulic Fracturing Additives in Shale Gas Wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsner, Martin; Hoelzer, Kathrin; Sumner, Andrew J.; Karatum, Osman; Nelson, Robert K.; Drollette, Brian D.; O'Connor, Megan P.; D'Ambro, Emma; Getzinger, Gordon J.; Ferguson, P. Lee; Reddy, Christopher M.; Plata, Desiree L.

    2016-04-01

    Unconventional natural gas development (UNGD) generates large volumes of wastewater, whose detailed composition must be known for adequate risk assessment and treatment. In particular, there is a need to elucidate the structures of organic chemical additives, extracted geogenic compounds, and transformation products. This study investigated six Fayetteville Shale UNGD wastewater samples for their organic composition using purge-and-trap gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (P&T-GC-MS) in combination with liquid-liquid extraction with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time of flight-mass spectrometry (GCxGC-TOF-MS). Following application of strict compound identification confidence criteria, we classified compounds according to their putative origin. Samples displayed distinct chemical distributions composed of typical geogenic substances (hydrocarbons), disclosed UNGD additives (e.g., hydrocarbons, phthalates, such as diisobutyl phthalate, and radical initiators, such as azobisisobutyronitrile), and undisclosed compounds (e.g., halogenated hydrocarbons, such as 2-bromohexane or 4-bromoheptane). Undisclosed chloromethyl alkanoates (chloromethyl propanoate, pentanoate, and octanoate) were identified as putative delayed acids (those that release acidic moieties only after hydrolytic cleavage, whose rate could potentially be controlled), suggesting they were deliberately introduced to react in the subsurface. Identification of halogenated methanes and acetones, in contrast, suggested they were formed as unintended by-products. Our study highlights the possibility that UNGD operations generate transformation products, knowledge of which is crucial for risk assessment and treatment strategies, and underscores the value of disclosing potential precursors that are injected into the subsurface.

  17. Indications of Transformation Products from Hydraulic Fracturing Additives in Shale-Gas Wastewater.

    PubMed

    Hoelzer, Kathrin; Sumner, Andrew J; Karatum, Osman; Nelson, Robert K; Drollette, Brian D; O'Connor, Megan P; D'Ambro, Emma L; Getzinger, Gordon J; Ferguson, P Lee; Reddy, Christopher M; Elsner, Martin; Plata, Desiree L

    2016-08-01

    Unconventional natural gas development (UNGD) generates large volumes of wastewater, the detailed composition of which must be known for adequate risk assessment and treatment. In particular, transformation products of geogenic compounds and disclosed additives have not been described. This study investigated six Fayetteville Shale wastewater samples for organic composition using a suite of one- and two-dimensional gas chromatographic techniques to capture a broad distribution of chemical structures. Following the application of strict compound-identification-confidence criteria, we classified compounds according to their putative origin. Samples displayed distinct chemical distributions composed of typical geogenic substances (hydrocarbons and hopane biomarkers), disclosed UNGD additives (e.g., hydrocarbons, phthalates such as diisobutyl phthalate, and radical initiators such as azobis(isobutyronitrile)), and undisclosed compounds (e.g., halogenated hydrocarbons, such as 2-bromohexane or 4-bromoheptane). Undisclosed chloromethyl alkanoates (chloromethyl propanoate, pentanoate, and octanoate) were identified as potential delayed acids (i.e., those that release acidic moieties only after hydrolytic cleavage, the rate of which could be potentially controlled), suggesting they were deliberately introduced to react in the subsurface. In contrast, the identification of halogenated methanes and acetones suggested that those compounds were formed as unintended byproducts. Our study highlights the possibility that UNGD operations generate transformation products and underscores the value of disclosing additives injected into the subsurface.

  18. Indications of Transformation Products from Hydraulic Fracturing Additives in Shale-Gas Wastewater.

    PubMed

    Hoelzer, Kathrin; Sumner, Andrew J; Karatum, Osman; Nelson, Robert K; Drollette, Brian D; O'Connor, Megan P; D'Ambro, Emma L; Getzinger, Gordon J; Ferguson, P Lee; Reddy, Christopher M; Elsner, Martin; Plata, Desiree L

    2016-08-01

    Unconventional natural gas development (UNGD) generates large volumes of wastewater, the detailed composition of which must be known for adequate risk assessment and treatment. In particular, transformation products of geogenic compounds and disclosed additives have not been described. This study investigated six Fayetteville Shale wastewater samples for organic composition using a suite of one- and two-dimensional gas chromatographic techniques to capture a broad distribution of chemical structures. Following the application of strict compound-identification-confidence criteria, we classified compounds according to their putative origin. Samples displayed distinct chemical distributions composed of typical geogenic substances (hydrocarbons and hopane biomarkers), disclosed UNGD additives (e.g., hydrocarbons, phthalates such as diisobutyl phthalate, and radical initiators such as azobis(isobutyronitrile)), and undisclosed compounds (e.g., halogenated hydrocarbons, such as 2-bromohexane or 4-bromoheptane). Undisclosed chloromethyl alkanoates (chloromethyl propanoate, pentanoate, and octanoate) were identified as potential delayed acids (i.e., those that release acidic moieties only after hydrolytic cleavage, the rate of which could be potentially controlled), suggesting they were deliberately introduced to react in the subsurface. In contrast, the identification of halogenated methanes and acetones suggested that those compounds were formed as unintended byproducts. Our study highlights the possibility that UNGD operations generate transformation products and underscores the value of disclosing additives injected into the subsurface. PMID:27419914

  19. [Effects of nitrogen addition on available nitrogen content and acidification in cold-temperate coniferous forest soil in the growing season].

    PubMed

    Chen, Gao-Qi; Fu, Wa-Li; Luo, Ya-Chen; Gao, Wen-Long; Li, Sheng-Gong; Yang, Hao

    2014-12-01

    Based on a low-level and multi-form N addition control experiment, this study took cold-temperate coniferous forest in Daxing'an Ling as the research object. After long-term and continuous nitrogen addition in situ, the available nitrogen (NH4(+) -N & NO3(-) -N) contents and pH values of the soil (0-10 cm) were measured in the early growing season (May) and the peak growing season (August) in 2010, 2012 and 2013. The results showed that, the available nitrogen in the early and peak growing seasons was mainly NH4(+) -N which accounted for over 96% of the inorganic nitrogen content, while the content of NO3(-) -N was very low. With the time extension of nitrogen addition, the effects of nitrogen addition on the NH4(+) -N content in 0-10 cm soil were more obvious in the early growing season than that in the peak growing season, and the NH4(+) -N content was mainly affected by the type of nitrogen addition. On the contrary, the NO3(-) -N content in 0-10 cm soil was higher in the peak growing season than that in the early growing season. The effect of N input was obvious on NO3(-) -N content in both early and peak growing seasons, and low nitrogen treatment tended to promote the enrichment of NO3(-) -N. As time went on, the response of NH4(+) -N and NO3(-) -N content to N addition was changed from insignificant in the early stage to significant in the late stage. N addition had a significant impact on the pH value of the 0-10 cm soil in the early and peak growing seasons. The pH values of the soil with low nitrogen treatment and the soil in the peak growing season were relatively lower. With the extension of the nitrogen addition time, the response of pH value also turned from insignificant in the early stage to significant in the late stage. Because of the long-term and continuous nitrogen addition, the 0 - 10 cm soil in this cold-temperate coniferous forest was obviously acidified.

  20. Dextransucrase production using cashew apple juice as substrate: effect of phosphate and yeast extract addition.

    PubMed

    Chagas, Clarice M A; Honorato, Talita L; Pinto, Gustavo A S; Maia, Geraldo A; Rodrigues, Sueli

    2007-05-01

    Cashew apples are considered agriculture excess in the Brazilian Northeast because cashew trees are cultivated primarily with the aim of cashew nut production. In this work, the use of cashew apple juice as a substrate for Leuconostoc mesenteroides cultivation was investigated. The effect of yeast extract and phosphate addition was evaluated using factorial planning tools. Both phosphate and yeast extract addition were significant factors for biomass growth, but had no significant effect on maximum enzyme activity. The enzyme activities found in cashew apple juice assays were at least 3.5 times higher than the activity found in the synthetic medium. Assays with pH control (pH = 6.5) were also carried out. The pH-controlled fermentation enhanced biomass growth, but decreased the enzyme activity. Crude enzyme free of cells produced using cashew apple juice was stable for 16 h at 30 degrees C at a pH of 5.0.

  1. Productivity depends more on the rate than the frequency of N addition in a temperate grassland.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yunhai; Feng, Jinchao; Isbell, Forest; Lü, Xiaotao; Han, Xingguo

    2015-07-28

    Nitrogen (N) is a key limiting resource for aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) in diverse terrestrial ecosystems. The relative roles of the rate and frequency (additions yr(-1)) of N application in stimulating ANPP at both the community- and species-levels are largely unknown. By independently manipulating the rate and frequency of N input, with nine rates (from 0 to 50 g N m(-2) year(-1)) crossed with two frequencies (twice year(-1) or monthly) in a temperate steppe of northern China across 2008-2013, we found that N addition increased community ANPP, and had positive, negative, or neutral effects for individual species. There were similar ANPP responses at the community- or species-level when a particular annual amount of N was added either twice year(-1) or monthly. The community ANPP was less sensitive to soil ammonium at lower frequency of N addition. ANPP responses to N addition were positively correlated with annual precipitation. Our results suggest that, over a five-year period, there will be similar ANPP responses to a given annual N input that occurs either frequently in small amounts, as from N deposition, or that occur infrequently in larger amounts, as from application of N fertilizers.

  2. Elevated carbon dioxide and ozone alter productivity and ecosystem carbon content in northern temperate forests.

    PubMed

    Talhelm, Alan F; Pregitzer, Kurt S; Kubiske, Mark E; Zak, Donald R; Campany, Courtney E; Burton, Andrew J; Dickson, Richard E; Hendrey, George R; Isebrands, J G; Lewin, Keith F; Nagy, John; Karnosky, David F

    2014-08-01

    Three young northern temperate forest communities in the north-central United States were exposed to factorial combinations of elevated carbon dioxide (CO2 ) and tropospheric ozone (O3 ) for 11 years. Here, we report results from an extensive sampling of plant biomass and soil conducted at the conclusion of the experiment that enabled us to estimate ecosystem carbon (C) content and cumulative net primary productivity (NPP). Elevated CO2 enhanced ecosystem C content by 11%, whereas elevated O3 decreased ecosystem C content by 9%. There was little variation in treatment effects on C content across communities and no meaningful interactions between CO2 and O3 . Treatment effects on ecosystem C content resulted primarily from changes in the near-surface mineral soil and tree C, particularly differences in woody tissues. Excluding the mineral soil, cumulative NPP was a strong predictor of ecosystem C content (r(2) = 0.96). Elevated CO2 enhanced cumulative NPP by 39%, a consequence of a 28% increase in canopy nitrogen (N) content (g N m(-2) ) and a 28% increase in N productivity (NPP/canopy N). In contrast, elevated O3 lowered NPP by 10% because of a 21% decrease in canopy N, but did not impact N productivity. Consequently, as the marginal impact of canopy N on NPP (∆NPP/∆N) decreased through time with further canopy development, the O3 effect on NPP dissipated. Within the mineral soil, there was less C in the top 0.1 m of soil under elevated O3 and less soil C from 0.1 to 0.2 m in depth under elevated CO2 . Overall, these results suggest that elevated CO2 may create a sustained increase in NPP, whereas the long-term effect of elevated O3 on NPP will be smaller than expected. However, changes in soil C are not well-understood and limit our ability to predict changes in ecosystem C content.

  3. The salt content of products from popular fast-food chains in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Heredia-Blonval, Katrina; Blanco-Metzler, Adriana; Montero-Campos, Marielos; Dunford, Elizabeth K

    2014-12-01

    Salt is a major determinant of population blood pressure levels. Salt intake in Costa Rica is above levels required for good health. With an increasing number of Costa Ricans visiting fast food restaurants, it is likely that fast-food is contributing to daily salt intake. Salt content data from seven popular fast food chains in Costa Rica were collected in January 2013. Products were classified into 10 categories. Mean salt content was compared between chains and categories. Statistical analysis was performed using Welch ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer HSD tests. Significant differences were found between companies; Subway products had lowest mean salt content (0.97 g/100 g; p < 0.05) while Popeye's and KFC had the highest (1.57 g/100 g; p < 0.05). Significant variations in mean salt content were observed between categories. Salads had a mean salt content of 0.45 g/100 g while sauces had 2.16 g/100 g (p < 0.05). Wide variation in salt content was also seen within food categories. Salt content in sandwiches ranged from 0.5 to 2.1 g/100 g. The high levels and wide variation in salt content of fast food products in Costa Rica suggest that salt reduction is likely to be technically feasible in many cases. With an increasing number of consumers purchasing fast foods, even small improvements in salt levels could produce important health gains.

  4. Elevated carbon dioxide and ozone alter productivity and ecosystem carbon content in northern temperate forests.

    PubMed

    Talhelm, Alan F; Pregitzer, Kurt S; Kubiske, Mark E; Zak, Donald R; Campany, Courtney E; Burton, Andrew J; Dickson, Richard E; Hendrey, George R; Isebrands, J G; Lewin, Keith F; Nagy, John; Karnosky, David F

    2014-08-01

    Three young northern temperate forest communities in the north-central United States were exposed to factorial combinations of elevated carbon dioxide (CO2 ) and tropospheric ozone (O3 ) for 11 years. Here, we report results from an extensive sampling of plant biomass and soil conducted at the conclusion of the experiment that enabled us to estimate ecosystem carbon (C) content and cumulative net primary productivity (NPP). Elevated CO2 enhanced ecosystem C content by 11%, whereas elevated O3 decreased ecosystem C content by 9%. There was little variation in treatment effects on C content across communities and no meaningful interactions between CO2 and O3 . Treatment effects on ecosystem C content resulted primarily from changes in the near-surface mineral soil and tree C, particularly differences in woody tissues. Excluding the mineral soil, cumulative NPP was a strong predictor of ecosystem C content (r(2) = 0.96). Elevated CO2 enhanced cumulative NPP by 39%, a consequence of a 28% increase in canopy nitrogen (N) content (g N m(-2) ) and a 28% increase in N productivity (NPP/canopy N). In contrast, elevated O3 lowered NPP by 10% because of a 21% decrease in canopy N, but did not impact N productivity. Consequently, as the marginal impact of canopy N on NPP (∆NPP/∆N) decreased through time with further canopy development, the O3 effect on NPP dissipated. Within the mineral soil, there was less C in the top 0.1 m of soil under elevated O3 and less soil C from 0.1 to 0.2 m in depth under elevated CO2 . Overall, these results suggest that elevated CO2 may create a sustained increase in NPP, whereas the long-term effect of elevated O3 on NPP will be smaller than expected. However, changes in soil C are not well-understood and limit our ability to predict changes in ecosystem C content. PMID:24604779

  5. Analysis And Control Of Copper Plating Bath Additives And By-Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newton, Beverly; Kaiser, Edward

    2003-09-01

    New copper plating bath chemisties are being developed to meet the emerging need of plating copper into submicron features on semiconductor wafers. These chemistries are designed to provide a fast, efficient, fill for even the most challenging wafer terrain. It has been found that maintaining the concentration of the additives in these plating baths at certain levels is critical to the performance of the bath. Plating technology for semiconductor applications requires rigid bath control and disciplined methodology. Establishing correlations between what is found in the plated film and bath chemistry control parameters is fundamental in producing interconnects that are consistent and reliable. To establish these correlations, it is important to have a clear understanding of the chemical composition of the bath. It is theorized that the "suppressor" bath components help moderate the deposition rate of the copper fill and the "leveler" additives improve the topology of the copper overfill. Too much or too little of these components in the bath can be detrimental to the quality of the copper deposition and may result in "fill failure" leading to a higher than necessary scrap rate for the wafers. Indirect bath measurements, such as Cyclic Voltammetric Stripping (CVS), tell an incomplete story as these techniques only measures the combined effect of the additives and by-products on the plating quality. High Performance Liquid (HPLC) and Ion Chromatography are analytical techniques which provide important information on the concentration, chemical balance and trend measurement of major constituents such as additives, brighteners, boosters, stabilizers, carriers, levelers, inhibitors, accelerators, transition metals, metal complexes and contaminants in the plating bath. This information provides for improved device quality, reduced scrap rate and reduced costs of bath maintenance. This, however, is not the end of the story. In addition to additives, copper plating baths

  6. Influence of Wheat-Milled Products and Their Additive Blends on Pasta Dough Rheological, Microstructure, and Product Quality Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Dhiraj, B.; Prabhasankar, P.

    2013-01-01

    This study is aimed to assess the suitability of T. aestivum wheat milled products and its combinations with T. durum semolina with additives such as ascorbic acid, vital gluten and HPMC (Hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose) for pasta processing quality characteristics such as pasta dough rheology, microstructure, cooking quality, and sensory evaluation. Rheological studies showed maximum dough stability in Comb1 (T. aestivum wheat flour and semolina). Colour and cooking quality of Comb2 (T. durum semolina and T. aestivum wheat flour) and Comb3 (T. aestivum wheat semolina and T. durum semolina) were comparable with control. Pasting results indicated that T. aestivum semolina gave the lowest onset gelatinization temperature (66.9°C) but the highest peak viscosity (1.053 BU). Starch release was maximum in Comb1 (53.45%) when compared with control (44.9%) as also proved by microstructure studies. Firmness was seen to be slightly high in Comb3 (2.430 N) when compared with control (2.304 N), and sensory evaluations were also in the acceptable range for the same. The present study concludes that Comb3 comprising 50% T. durum semolina and 50% T. aestivum refined wheat flour with additives would be optimal alternate for 100% T. durum semolina for production of financially viable pasta. PMID:26904601

  7. Influence of Wheat-Milled Products and Their Additive Blends on Pasta Dough Rheological, Microstructure, and Product Quality Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Dhiraj, B; Prabhasankar, P

    2013-01-01

    This study is aimed to assess the suitability of T. aestivum wheat milled products and its combinations with T. durum semolina with additives such as ascorbic acid, vital gluten and HPMC (Hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose) for pasta processing quality characteristics such as pasta dough rheology, microstructure, cooking quality, and sensory evaluation. Rheological studies showed maximum dough stability in Comb1 (T. aestivum wheat flour and semolina). Colour and cooking quality of Comb2 (T. durum semolina and T. aestivum wheat flour) and Comb3 (T. aestivum wheat semolina and T. durum semolina) were comparable with control. Pasting results indicated that T. aestivum semolina gave the lowest onset gelatinization temperature (66.9°C) but the highest peak viscosity (1.053 BU). Starch release was maximum in Comb1 (53.45%) when compared with control (44.9%) as also proved by microstructure studies. Firmness was seen to be slightly high in Comb3 (2.430 N) when compared with control (2.304 N), and sensory evaluations were also in the acceptable range for the same. The present study concludes that Comb3 comprising 50% T. durum semolina and 50% T. aestivum refined wheat flour with additives would be optimal alternate for 100% T. durum semolina for production of financially viable pasta. PMID:26904601

  8. [Simultaneous determination of six food additives in meat products by high performance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Li, Xiuqin; Zhang, Qinghe; Yang, Zong

    2010-12-01

    A novel method was proposed for the simultaneous separation and determination of six food additives, benzoic acid, sorbic acid, saccharin sodium, acesulfame potassium, ponceau 4R and allura red AC, by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). After optimized the separation conditions of HPLC, the separation can be completed within 18 min by using a ZORBAX Eclipse Plus C18 column (150 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm) with 20 mmol/L ammonium acetate (pH 6.9) and methanol as the mobile phases. The gradient elution was performed by 8% methanol (0-2 min), 8%-50% methanol (2-3 min), 50% methanol (3-9 min), 50%-8% methanol (9-12 min) and 8% methanol (12-18 min). The detection wavelength was set at 235 nm. This method has been successfully applied to the analysis of meat products and the average recoveries ranged from 80.7% to 94.4% at high and low spiked levels. The relative standard deviations (RSDs, n=3) were between 2.0% and 7.1%. The method is simple, rapid, accurate and suitable for the simultaneous determination of the six food additives in meat products.

  9. Theoretical calculation of product contents: battery and cathode ray tube examples.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Valerie M

    2003-05-01

    Most product environmental assessments are based on manufacturer-supplied data on the material content of the product. This paper explores the potential for the material content of key components to be estimated with theoretical calculations. Two examples, the amount of cadmium in a nickel-cadmium battery and the amount of lead in a TV or computer CRT monitor, are developed. Both an upper and a lower limit on the amount of cadmium in a nickel-cadmium battery are calculated on the basis of the battery's chemical reaction. The amount of lead shielding needed in a TV or CRT computer monitor is estimated on the basis of the potential difference through which electrons are accelerated and the absorption length of photons in lead. Such calculations can be used as benchmarks in product environmental assessments, providing validation of manufacturer-supplied data and providing insight into the composition and design of products.

  10. Artificial stimulation of soil amine production by addition of organic carbon and nitrogen transforming enzymes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kieloaho, Antti-Jussi; Parshintsev, Jevgeni; Riekkola, Marja-Liisa; Kulmala, Markku; Pumpanen, Jukka; Heinonsalo, Jussi

    2013-04-01

    The major part of nitrogen (N) in boreal forest soil is in organic form (Soil Organic Nitrogen, SON). One of the main pathways for amine production is the decay of SON in soil. Amino acids react with specific decarboxylase enzymes which transform them to amines. Amino acid turnover time in forest soil is relatively fast (in hours) because amino acids can be used as N and C source by plants and microbes. Therefore, amino acid production by protease enzymes might be the critical step for amine production and release from forest soil. The aim of the study was to artificially introduce enzymes responsible for protein transformation into amino acids (proteases) as well as soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition (laccase and manganese peroxidase) in order to increase SON transformation and amine synthesis. Glucose addition has been shown to induce natural soil protease activity. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) was used as control protein. Treatments were conducted both in Scots pine seedlings containing as well as non-planted microcosms. N transformations were examined, as well as amine concentration in soil. The experiment consisted of eight different treatments; two as controls concerning enzyme addition, four treatments were planted with one year old nursery grown Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings and four were non-planted. The experiment lasted approximately six months and the treatments with the additions were conducted within one more month. The protease activity was discovered more commonly after the treatment with protease or glucose additions. In planted BSA-control some natural protease activity was found but not in non-planted controls. Different substrate additions did not cause any differences in total N percentage, but the presence of the seedlings diminished soil N% by approximately 20%. In addition, the same effect was clearly seen in dissolved N, NH4+ and NO3-. Plant has exploited the soluble N forms almost entirely from the system, irrespective of

  11. Instrument to assess the nursing care product: development and content validation 1

    PubMed Central

    Cucolo, Danielle Fabiana; Perroca, Márcia Galan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: develop and validate the content of a tool about nursing care production. Method: the data were collected between 2011 and 2013, based on focus groups, the application of semistructured questionnaires (prototype test) and the Delphi technique. The focus groups were used to produce the instrument items and held at three hospitals in the interior of the State of São Paulo, involving 20 nurses. A panel of 10 experts evaluated the instrument. Results: after two phases of the Delphi technique, the tool consisted of eight items. The content validity index of the scale corresponded to ≥0.9 and the content validity of the items ranged between 0.8 and 1.0, indicating the maintenance of the structure and content. The assertion on the applicability in daily nursing practice showed a content validity index of the scale equal to 0.8. Conclusion: this study permitted the development and content validation of scale on nursing care production, equipping the nurses in their management practice. PMID:26444166

  12. Analysis of additives in dairy products by liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole-orbitrap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jia, Wei; Ling, Yun; Lin, Yuanhui; Chang, James; Chu, Xiaogang

    2014-04-01

    A new method combining QuEChERS with ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization quadrupole Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC/ESI Q-Orbitrap) was developed for the highly accurate and sensitive screening of 43 antioxidants, preservatives and synthetic sweeteners in dairy products. Response surface methodology was employed to optimize a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) sample preparation method for the determination of 42 different analytes in dairy products for the first time. After optimization, the maximum predicted recovery was 99.33% rate for aspartame under the optimized conditions of 10 mL acetionitrile, 1.52 g sodium acetate, 410 mg PSA and 404 mgC18. For the matrices studied, the recovery rates of the other 42 compounds ranged from 89.4% to 108.2%, with coefficient of variation <6.4%. UHPLC/ESI Q-Orbitrap Mass full scan mode acquired full MS data was used to identify and quantify additives, and data-dependent scan mode obtained fragment ion spectra for confirmation. The mass accuracy typically obtained is routinely better than 1.5ppm, and only need to calibrate once a week. The 43 compounds behave dynamic in the range 0.001-1000 μg kg(-1) concentration, with correlation coefficient >0.999. The limits of detection for the analytes are in the range 0.0001-3.6 μg kg(-1). This method has been successfully applied on screening of antioxidants, preservatives and synthetic sweeteners in commercial dairy product samples, and it is very useful for fast screening of different food additives.

  13. A one-step bioprocess for production of high-content fructo-oligosaccharides from inulin by yeast.

    PubMed

    Wang, Da; Li, Fu-Li; Wang, Shi-An

    2016-10-20

    Commercial fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) are predominantly produced from sucrose by transfructosylation process that presents a maximum theoretical yield below 0.60gFOSgSucrose(-1). To obtain high-content FOS, costly purification is generally employed. Additionally, high-content FOS can be produced from inulin by using endo-inulinases. However, commercial endo-inulinases have not been extensively used in scale-up production of FOS. In the present study, a one-step bioprocess that integrated endo-inulinase production, FOS fermentation, and non-FOS sugars removal into one reactor was proposed to produce high-content FOS from inulin. The bioprocess was implemented by a recombinant yeast strain JZHΔS-TSC, in which a heterologous endo-inulinase gene was expressed and the inherent invertase gene SUC2 was disrupted. FOS fermentation at 40°C from 200g/L chicory inulin presented the maximun titer, yield, and productivity of 180.2±0.8g/L, 0.9gFOSgInulin(-1), and 7.51±0.03g/L/h, respectively. This study demonstrated that the one-step bioprocess was simple and highly efficient. PMID:27474673

  14. A one-step bioprocess for production of high-content fructo-oligosaccharides from inulin by yeast.

    PubMed

    Wang, Da; Li, Fu-Li; Wang, Shi-An

    2016-10-20

    Commercial fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) are predominantly produced from sucrose by transfructosylation process that presents a maximum theoretical yield below 0.60gFOSgSucrose(-1). To obtain high-content FOS, costly purification is generally employed. Additionally, high-content FOS can be produced from inulin by using endo-inulinases. However, commercial endo-inulinases have not been extensively used in scale-up production of FOS. In the present study, a one-step bioprocess that integrated endo-inulinase production, FOS fermentation, and non-FOS sugars removal into one reactor was proposed to produce high-content FOS from inulin. The bioprocess was implemented by a recombinant yeast strain JZHΔS-TSC, in which a heterologous endo-inulinase gene was expressed and the inherent invertase gene SUC2 was disrupted. FOS fermentation at 40°C from 200g/L chicory inulin presented the maximun titer, yield, and productivity of 180.2±0.8g/L, 0.9gFOSgInulin(-1), and 7.51±0.03g/L/h, respectively. This study demonstrated that the one-step bioprocess was simple and highly efficient.

  15. Enhancement of recombinant erythropoietin production in CHO cells in an incubator without CO(2) addition.

    PubMed

    Yoon, S K; Ahn, Y H; Han, K

    2001-10-01

    The effect of low levels of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) in the gas phase on the production of recombinant human erythropoietin (EPO)in CHO cells was explored. A T-flask culture in an incubator without CO(2) addition showed a slow cell growth initially followed by the cessation of growth, while other cultures incubated under 0.5-5% CO(2) concentrations grew normally at the same rate during the entire period of cultivation. Interestingly, the production of EPO in the culture incubated under no CO(2) supply was highest among the tested cultures. The cell specific secretion rate of EPO (q(EPO)) of the culture under no CO(2) supply was about 3 times higher than that of the culture under 5% CO(2) supply. Western blot analysis and in vivo bioassay of EPO showed no apparent changes in EPO quality between the two cases of different CO(2) environments (air vs. 5% CO(2)), suggesting robust glycosylation of EPO by CHO cells even under very reduced CO(2) environment. Various combinations of the two extreme cases, with 5% CO(2) supply (suitable for cell growth) and no CO(2) addition (better for EPO production), were made in order to maximize the volumetric productivity of EPO secretion (P(V)) in CHO cells. The P(V) of the cultures programmed with initial incubation under 5% CO(2) followed by no CO(2) supply was about 2 times superior to that of the culture incubated only under no CO(2) supply. The P(V) of the culture under no CO(2) supply was slightly lower than that of culture grown under 5% CO(2). However, the q(EPO) of the no CO(2) supply case was more than 5 times higher than that of the culture under 5% CO(2) supply. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that a simple programming of CO(2) supply to an incubator can enhance the production of EPO in CHO cells remarkably, without any apparent change of the EPO quality. PMID:19002908

  16. Aluminium content of some processed foods, raw materials and food additives in China by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Deng, Gui-Fang; Li, Ke; Ma, Jing; Liu, Fen; Dai, Jing-Jing; Li, Hua-Bin

    2011-01-01

    The level of aluminium in 178 processed food samples from Shenzhen city in China was evaluated using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Some processed foods contained a concentration of up to 1226 mg/kg, which is about 12 times the Chinese food standard. To establish the main source in these foods, Al levels in the raw materials were determined. However, aluminium concentrations in raw materials were low (0.10-451.5 mg/kg). Therefore, aluminium levels in food additives used in these foods was determined and it was found that some food additives contained a high concentration of aluminium (0.005-57.4 g/kg). The results suggested that, in the interest of public health, food additives containing high concentrations of aluminium should be replaced by those containing less. This study has provided new information on aluminium levels in Chinese processed foods, raw materials and a selection of food additives.

  17. Dropwise additive manufacturing of pharmaceutical products for solvent-based dosage forms.

    PubMed

    Hirshfield, Laura; Giridhar, Arun; Taylor, Lynne S; Harris, Michael T; Reklaitis, Gintaras V

    2014-02-01

    In recent years, the US Food and Drug Administration has encouraged pharmaceutical companies to develop more innovative and efficient manufacturing methods with improved online monitoring and control. Mini-manufacturing of medicine is one such method enabling the creation of individualized product forms for each patient. This work presents dropwise additive manufacturing of pharmaceutical products (DAMPP), an automated, controlled mini-manufacturing method that deposits active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) directly onto edible substrates using drop-on-demand (DoD) inkjet printing technology. The use of DoD technology allows for precise control over the material properties, drug solid state form, drop size, and drop dynamics and can be beneficial in the creation of high-potency drug forms, combination drugs with multiple APIs or individualized medicine products tailored to a specific patient. In this work, DAMPP was used to create dosage forms from solvent-based formulations consisting of API, polymer, and solvent carrier. The forms were then analyzed to determine the reproducibility of creating an on-target dosage form, the morphology of the API of the final form and the dissolution behavior of the drug over time. DAMPP is found to be a viable alternative to traditional mass-manufacturing methods for solvent-based oral dosage forms.

  18. Effect of lipase addition on hydrolysis and biomethane production of Chinese food waste.

    PubMed

    Meng, Ying; Li, Sang; Yuan, Hairong; Zou, Dexun; Liu, Yanping; Zhu, Baoning; Li, Xiujin

    2015-03-01

    The lipase obtained from Aspergillums niger was applied to promote the hydrolysis of food waste for achieving high biomethane production. Two strategies of lipase additions were investigated. One (Group A) was to pre-treat food waste to pre-decompose lipid to fatty acids before anaerobic digestion, and another one (Group B) was to add lipase to anaerobic digester directly to degrade lipid inside digester. The lipase was used at the concentrations of 0.1%, 0.5%, and 1.0% (w/v). The results showed that Group A achieved higher biomethane production, TS and VS reductions than those of Group B. At 0.5% lipase concentration, Group A obtained experimental biomethane yield of 500.1 mL/g VS(added), 4.97-26.50% higher than that of Group B. The maximum Bd of 73.8% was also achieved in Group A. Therefore, lipase pre-treatment strategy is recommended. This might provide one of alternatives for efficient biomethane production from food waste and mitigating environmental impact associated.

  19. Production of fired construction brick from high sulfate-containing fly ash with boric acid addition.

    PubMed

    Başpinar, M Serhat; Kahraman, Erhan; Görhan, Gökhan; Demir, Ismail

    2010-01-01

    The increase of power plant capacity has led to the production of an increasing amount of fly ash that causes high environmental impact in Turkey. Some of the fly ash is utilized within the fired brick industry but high sulfate-containing fly ash creates severe problems during sintering of the fired brick. This study attempted to investigate the potential for converting high sulfate-containing fly ash into useful material for the construction industry by the addition of boric acid. The chemical and mineralogical composition of fly ash and clay were investigated. Boric acid (H(3)BO(3)) was added to fly ash-clay mixtures with up to 5 wt.%. Six different series of test samples were produced by uniaxial pressing. The samples were fired at the industrial clay-brick firing temperatures of 800, 900 and 1000 degrees C. The microstructures of the fired samples were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and some physical and mechanical properties were measured. It was concluded that the firing at conventional brick firing temperature of high sulfate fly ash without any addition of boric acid resulted in very weak strength bricks. The addition of boric acid and clay simultaneously to the high sulfate- containing fly ash brick dramatically increased the compressive strength of the samples at a firing temperature of 1000 degrees C by modifying the sintering behaviour of high sulfate fly ash.

  20. Production of fired construction brick from high sulfate-containing fly ash with boric acid addition.

    PubMed

    Başpinar, M Serhat; Kahraman, Erhan; Görhan, Gökhan; Demir, Ismail

    2010-01-01

    The increase of power plant capacity has led to the production of an increasing amount of fly ash that causes high environmental impact in Turkey. Some of the fly ash is utilized within the fired brick industry but high sulfate-containing fly ash creates severe problems during sintering of the fired brick. This study attempted to investigate the potential for converting high sulfate-containing fly ash into useful material for the construction industry by the addition of boric acid. The chemical and mineralogical composition of fly ash and clay were investigated. Boric acid (H(3)BO(3)) was added to fly ash-clay mixtures with up to 5 wt.%. Six different series of test samples were produced by uniaxial pressing. The samples were fired at the industrial clay-brick firing temperatures of 800, 900 and 1000 degrees C. The microstructures of the fired samples were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and some physical and mechanical properties were measured. It was concluded that the firing at conventional brick firing temperature of high sulfate fly ash without any addition of boric acid resulted in very weak strength bricks. The addition of boric acid and clay simultaneously to the high sulfate- containing fly ash brick dramatically increased the compressive strength of the samples at a firing temperature of 1000 degrees C by modifying the sintering behaviour of high sulfate fly ash. PMID:19423597

  1. Polyphenols content, phenolics profile and antioxidant activity of organic red wines produced without sulfur dioxide/sulfites addition in comparison to conventional red wines.

    PubMed

    Garaguso, Ivana; Nardini, Mirella

    2015-07-15

    Wine exerts beneficial effects on human health when it is drunk with moderation. Nevertheless, wine may also contain components negatively affecting human health. Among these, sulfites may induce adverse effects after ingestion. We examined total polyphenols and flavonoids content, phenolics profile and antioxidant activity of eight organic red wines produced without sulfur dioxide/sulfites addition in comparison to those of eight conventional red wines. Polyphenols and flavonoids content were slightly higher in organic wines in respect to conventional wines, however differences did not reach statistical significance. The phenolic acids profile was quite similar in both groups of wines. Antioxidant activity was higher in organic wines compared to conventional wines, although differences were not statistically significant. Our results indicate that organic red wines produced without sulfur dioxide/sulfites addition are comparable to conventional red wines with regard to the total polyphenols and flavonoids content, the phenolics profile and the antioxidant activity.

  2. Determination of the pure silicon monocarbide content of silicon carbide and products based on silicon carbide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prost, L.; Pauillac, A.

    1978-01-01

    Experience has shown that different methods of analysis of SiC products give different results. Methods identified as AFNOR, FEPA, and manufacturer P, currently used to detect SiC, free C, free Si, free Fe, and SiO2 are reviewed. The AFNOR method gives lower SiC content, attributed to destruction of SiC by grinding. Two products sent to independent labs for analysis by the AFNOR and FEPA methods showed somewhat different results, especially for SiC, SiO2, and Al2O3 content, whereas an X-ray analysis showed a SiC content approximately 10 points lower than by chemical methods.

  3. Task-Based Learning and Content and Language Integrated Learning Materials Design: Process and Product

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Pat; Lorenzo, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Content and language integrated learning (CLIL) represents an increasingly popular approach to bilingual education in Europe. In this article, we describe and discuss a project which, in response to teachers' pleas for materials, led to the production of a significant bank of task-based primary and secondary CLIL units for three L2s (English,…

  4. 47 CFR 73.9004 - Compliance requirements for covered demodulator products: Marked content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... products: Marked content. 73.9004 Section 73.9004 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Digital Broadcast Television Redistribution... flag is retained in the both the EIT and PMT; (3) To a digital output protected by an...

  5. Ethanol production from food waste at high solid contents with vacuum recovery technology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ethanol production from food wastes does not only solve the environmental issues but also provide renewable biofuel to partially substitute fossil fuels. This study investigated the feasibility of utilization of food wastes for producing ethanol at high solid contents (35%, w/w). Vacuum recovery sys...

  6. Effect of soil organic matter composition on unfrozen water content of frozen soils, and their heterotrophic CO2 production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrysson Drotz, S.; Schleucher, J.; Sparrman, T.; Nilsson, M.; Oquist, M. G.

    2009-04-01

    Heterotrophic microbial processes and associated production and emission of atmospheric trace gases proceed during the winter months in the frozen soils of high latitude ecosystems. The ability of soil to retain unfrozen water at below-zero temperatures is integral for this activity. The soil organic matter (SOM) is believed to play an important role for the soil liquid water contents in frozen bulk soil, but the specific factors contributing to this control are presently unknown. Here we evaluate the effect of the organic chemical composition on the amount of unfrozen water and the microbial heterotrophic activity at below zero temperatures in boreal forest soils. To achieve this, we have characterized the chemical composition of SOM in boreal pine and spruce forest soils using solid state CP-MAS (cross polarization magic angle spinning) NMR spectroscopy. We then use acquired data on SOM composition to elucidate to what extent it can explain the observed variation in unfrozen water content and biogenic CO2 production rates among the soil samples under frozen conditions (-4°C). We conclude that aromatic carbon, O-aromatic carbon, methoxy/N-alkyl carbon, and alkyl carbon are the major SOM components affecting frozen boreal forest soils' ability to retain unfrozen water and their microbial CO2 production. Surprisingly, our results reveal that solid carbohydrates have a negative impact on CO2 production in frozen boreal forest soils. More recalcitrant SOM compounds, mainly aromatic carbon and alkyl carbon, need to be considered to fully understand winter biogeochemical processes and carbon dynamics in frozen soil. In addition, SOM-associated controls on the unfrozen water content differed between samples originating from Pine forests as compared to Spruce dominated forests. Given the strong link between unfrozen water content and SOM mineralization during winter this may represent a previously unrecognized potential feedback mechanism of global climate change, and

  7. [Rapid Quantitative Analysis of Content of the Additive in Gasoline for Motor Vehicles by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Rong, Hai-teng; Song, Chun-feng; Yuan, Hong-fu; Li, Xiao-yu; Hu, Ai-qin; Xie, Jin-chun; Yan, De-lin

    2015-10-01

    A new rapid quantitative method for the determination of oxygenates and the compounds not included in the national standard in gasoline using near-infrared spectroscopy is raised by this paper. This method combine near-infrared spectroscopy with oblique projection. This experiment choose four different types of gasoline, including reconcile gasoline, FCC refined gasoline, reformed gasoline and desulfurizing gasoline. Prepare series gasoline samples containing different concentrations and different types of compounds. Using FTIR spectrometer to measure those samples and got transmission spectrums. Oblique projection method could separate quantity spectral signal from mixed spectrum signal, and using projection to calculate and analyze the separated signal to obtain the content of measured component. The deviation between this method and the real content is low, the absolute error is less than 0.8 and the relative error is less than 8%. For the actual gasoline samples, compare results of this method with gas chromatography, the absolute error are less than 0.85 and the relative error are less than 6.85%. This method solves the problem of general multivariate calibration methods. It is very significant for the development of rapid detection technology using NIR suitable for on-site and the improvement of the quality of gasoline.

  8. Nano-porous pottery using calcined waste sediment from tap water production as an additive.

    PubMed

    Sangsuk, Supin; Khunthon, Srichalai; Nilpairach, Siriphan

    2010-10-01

    A suspension of sediment from a lagoon in a tap water production plant was collected for this experiment. The suspension was spray dried and calcined at 700 °C for 1 h. After calcining, 30 wt.% of the sediment were mixed with pottery clay. Samples with and without calcined sediment were sintered at 900, 1000 and 1100 °C. The results show that calcined sediment can be used as an additive in pottery clay. The samples with calcined sediment show higher porosity, water absorption and flexural strength, especially for 900 and 1000 °C. At 900 °C, samples with calcined sediment show a porosity of 50% with an average pore size of 68 nm, water absorption of 31% and flexural strength of 12.61 MPa.

  9. Highly stereoselective, cobalt(III)-directed Mannich additions in water yielding α-methylamino acid products.

    PubMed

    Oerum, Stephanie; Krabbe, Peter; Schau-Magnussen, Magnus; Furbo, Søren; Bendix, Jesper; Hammershøi, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Highly stereoselective and rapid (<1 min) addition reactions to the imine double bond of 2-(methylimino)acetate complexes [L(4)Co(O(2)CCH=NCH(3))](2+) [L(4) = (en)(2) (7), (tren) (11)] were achieved in aqueous solution with nitromethane, ethyl 3-oxobutanoate or diethyl malonate. The molecular structures of two product complexes, rac-(Δ*-R(C)*-S(N)*)-[Co(en)(2)(O(2)CCH[CH(2)NO(2)]NHCH(3))]ZnCl(4) and rac-(Δ*-R(C)*-S(N)*)-[Co(en)(2)(O(2)CCH[CH(2)COCH(3)]NHCH(3))]ZnCl(4), were established by X-ray diffraction.

  10. The effect of addition Ni and Co on biogas production from fish innards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadiyarto, Agus; Hutama, Indra; Hasyim, Wahid

    2015-12-01

    Micro nutrients are needed by the microbes to help decomposition of the organic waste into simple inorganic compounds. In the anaerobic decay is one of the results of methane gas. This research was conducted by adding nickel and cobalt with various concentrations of each the same, namely 0.2 mg/l, 0.4 mg/l and 0.6 mg/l into fish innards with F / M ratio of 0.2. Anaerobic decomposition process conducted in a batch at pH 7-8, mesophilic conditions/ambient temperature. To separate CO2 from CH4 gas used NaOH solution. The volume of gas produced is measured by the fluid displaced method. Most of methane production resulting in the addition of Ni and Co with a concentration of 0.4 mg /l with a yield of 165 liters CH4/kg CODMn or 18,1 liter CH4/kg VSS substrate.

  11. Utilization of household food waste for the production of ethanol at high dry material content

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Environmental issues and shortage of fossil fuels have turned the public interest to the utilization of renewable, environmentally friendly fuels, such as ethanol. In order to minimize the competition between fuels and food production, researchers are focusing their efforts to the utilization of wastes and by-products as raw materials for the production of ethanol. household food wastes are being produced in great quantities in European Union and their handling can be a challenge. Moreover, their disposal can cause severe environmental issues (for example emission of greenhouse gasses). On the other hand, they contain significant amounts of sugars (both soluble and insoluble) and they can be used as raw material for the production of ethanol. Results Household food wastes were utilized as raw material for the production of ethanol at high dry material consistencies. A distinct liquefaction/saccharification step has been included to the process, which rapidly reduced the viscosity of the high solid content substrate, resulting in better mixing of the fermenting microorganism. This step had a positive effect in both ethanol production and productivity, leading to a significant increase in both values, which was up to 40.81% and 4.46 fold, respectively. Remaining solids (residue) after fermentation at 45% w/v dry material (which contained also the unhydrolyzed fraction of cellulose), were subjected to a hydrothermal pretreatment in order to be utilized as raw material for a subsequent ethanol fermentation. This led to an increase of 13.16% in the ethanol production levels achieving a final ethanol yield of 107.58 g/kg dry material. Conclusions In conclusion, the ability of utilizing household food waste for the production of ethanol at elevated dry material content has been demonstrated. A separate liquefaction/saccharification process can increase both ethanol production and productivity. Finally, subsequent fermentation of the remaining solids could

  12. Addition of chlorine during water purification reduces iodine content of drinking water and contributes to iodine deficiency.

    PubMed

    Samson, L; Czegeny, I; Mezosi, E; Erdei, A; Bodor, M; Cseke, B; Burman, K D; Nagy, E V

    2012-01-01

    Drinking water is the major natural source of iodine in many European countries. In the present study, we examined possible sites of iodine loss during the usual water purification process.Water samples from 6 sites during the technological process were taken and analyzed for iodine content. Under laboratory circumstances, prepared iodine in water solution has been used as a model to test the effect of the presence of chlorine. Samples from the purification sites revealed that in the presence of chlorine there is a progressive loss of iodine from the water. In the chlorine concentrations employed in the purification process, 24-h chlorine exposure eliminated more than 50% of iodine when the initial iodine concentration was 250 μg/l or less. Iodine was completely eliminated if the starting concentration was 16 μg/l.We conclude that chlorine used during water purification may be a major contributor to iodine deficiency in European communities.

  13. LSA SAF Meteosat FRP products - Part 1: Algorithms, product contents, and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wooster, M. J.; Roberts, G.; Freeborn, P. H.; Xu, W.; Govaerts, Y.; Beeby, R.; He, J.; Lattanzio, A.; Fisher, D.; Mullen, R.

    2015-11-01

    Characterizing changes in landscape fire activity at better than hourly temporal resolution is achievable using thermal observations of actively burning fires made from geostationary Earth Observation (EO) satellites. Over the last decade or more, a series of research and/or operational "active fire" products have been developed from geostationary EO data, often with the aim of supporting biomass burning fuel consumption and trace gas and aerosol emission calculations. Such Fire Radiative Power (FRP) products are generated operationally from Meteosat by the Land Surface Analysis Satellite Applications Facility (LSA SAF) and are available freely every 15 min in both near-real-time and archived form. These products map the location of actively burning fires and characterize their rates of thermal radiative energy release (FRP), which is believed proportional to rates of biomass consumption and smoke emission. The FRP-PIXEL product contains the full spatio-temporal resolution FRP data set derivable from the SEVIRI (Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager) imager onboard Meteosat at a 3 km spatial sampling distance (decreasing away from the west African sub-satellite point), whilst the FRP-GRID product is an hourly summary at 5° grid resolution that includes simple bias adjustments for meteorological cloud cover and regional underestimation of FRP caused primarily by underdetection of low FRP fires. Here we describe the enhanced geostationary Fire Thermal Anomaly (FTA) detection algorithm used to deliver these products and detail the methods used to generate the atmospherically corrected FRP and per-pixel uncertainty metrics. Using SEVIRI scene simulations and real SEVIRI data, including from a period of Meteosat-8 "special operations", we describe certain sensor and data pre-processing characteristics that influence SEVIRI's active fire detection and FRP measurement capability, and use these to specify parameters in the FTA algorithm and to make recommendations

  14. Recovery of near-anhydrous ethanol as gasoline additive from fermentation products

    SciTech Connect

    Boukouvalas, C.; Markoulaki, E.; Magoulas, K.; Tassios, D.

    1995-06-01

    The use of near-anhydrous ethanol, obtained from fermentation products through low pressure distillation, as a gasoline additive is examined. To this purpose, a reliable model for predicting the azeotropic composition of an ethanol-water mixture as a function of the pressure is presented. It is developed by considering the available thermodynamic consistent experimental data and using the Wilson and the virial equations for the liquid-and vapor-phase nonideality, respectively. It is concluded that, for an area with no extremely cold winters-minimum ambient temperature -20{degrees}C-alcohol with 96.5%(wt) purity can be used in a 90/10 (vol) gasohol mixture. Such an alcohol can be produced with a single distillation column operating at 140 mmHg pressure with an energy consumption of 5150 kJ/kg of product; or with a system of two columns with lower energy consumption but higher capital cost. These energy consumptions are very sensitive to the accuracy of the predicted azeotropic composition at the operating pressures.

  15. Burning characteristics and emission products related to metallic content in incense.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ta-Chang; Yang, Chi-Ru; Chang, Feng-Hsiang

    2007-02-01

    This study mainly compared particulate emission factors of nine popular incense. The influence of metallic contents upon the burning rate, ash and particulate emission factors of combustion was discussed. The contents of Ca and K were the highest among all metallic elements in the raw materials of the incense (the geometric mean contents 8.7 and 2.5mgg(-1), respectively), followed by Al, Mg, Fe, Na (0.1-1.0mgg(-1)) and Ba, then Sr, Mn, Cu and Zn (<0.01-0.1mgg(-1)). Most calcium existed as inorganic salts, such as CaCO(3). Under the same burning conditions, the particulate generation rates are similar (0.50mgmin(-1)+/-9%) among different types of incense-the shorter the combustion duration of a stick, the lower the total suspended particulate emission. Additionally, with the same incense weight burned, the greater the emission of ash is, the lower the emission of suspended particulate. It is recommended that consumers select incense which produces more ash, hence less particulate, to minimize the threat to their' health. Additionally, when the total metallic content (with Ca as the major component) was lower than 2% of the raw materials, properly increasing the total metallic content (from 0.5 to 2.0%) can effectively reduce the level of particulates (about 40%) during the combustion.

  16. Qualitative Analysis of Additives in Plastic Marine Debris and Its New Products.

    PubMed

    Rani, Manviri; Shim, Won Joon; Han, Gi Myung; Jang, Mi; Al-Odaini, Najat Ahmed; Song, Young Kyong; Hong, Sang Hee

    2015-10-01

    Due to their formulation and/or processing, plastics contain additives and impurities that may leach out under conditions of use and accumulate in the environment. To evaluate their role as vectors of chemical contaminants in marine environment, plastic debris (n = 19) collected from coastal beaches along with new plastics (n = 25; same or same brand) bought from local markets were screened by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in full scan mode. Detected peaks were identified using NIST library in different polymers (polypropylene (PP) > polyethylene (PE) > PP + PE > polyethyl terephthalate > poly(acylene:styrene) with different use (food, fishery, and general use). A database on the presence of 231 different chemicals were grouped into hydrocarbons, ultra-violet (UV)-stabilizers, antioxidants, plasticizers, lubricants, intermediates, compounds for dyes and inks, flame retardants, etc. The UV326, UV327, UV328, UV320, UvinualMC80, irganox 1076, DEHP, antioxidant no 33, di-n-octylisophthalate, diisooctyl phthalate, hexanoic acid 2-ethyl-hexadecyl ester, and hydrocarbons were most frequently detected. Finding of toxic phthalates and UV stabilizers in those products having moisture contact (like bottles with short use) raised concern to humans and indicated their irregular use. The comparison between new and debris plastics clearly indicated the leaching and absorption of chemicals and supports our assumption of plastic as media for transferring these additives in marine environment.

  17. Qualitative Analysis of Additives in Plastic Marine Debris and Its New Products.

    PubMed

    Rani, Manviri; Shim, Won Joon; Han, Gi Myung; Jang, Mi; Al-Odaini, Najat Ahmed; Song, Young Kyong; Hong, Sang Hee

    2015-10-01

    Due to their formulation and/or processing, plastics contain additives and impurities that may leach out under conditions of use and accumulate in the environment. To evaluate their role as vectors of chemical contaminants in marine environment, plastic debris (n = 19) collected from coastal beaches along with new plastics (n = 25; same or same brand) bought from local markets were screened by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in full scan mode. Detected peaks were identified using NIST library in different polymers (polypropylene (PP) > polyethylene (PE) > PP + PE > polyethyl terephthalate > poly(acylene:styrene) with different use (food, fishery, and general use). A database on the presence of 231 different chemicals were grouped into hydrocarbons, ultra-violet (UV)-stabilizers, antioxidants, plasticizers, lubricants, intermediates, compounds for dyes and inks, flame retardants, etc. The UV326, UV327, UV328, UV320, UvinualMC80, irganox 1076, DEHP, antioxidant no 33, di-n-octylisophthalate, diisooctyl phthalate, hexanoic acid 2-ethyl-hexadecyl ester, and hydrocarbons were most frequently detected. Finding of toxic phthalates and UV stabilizers in those products having moisture contact (like bottles with short use) raised concern to humans and indicated their irregular use. The comparison between new and debris plastics clearly indicated the leaching and absorption of chemicals and supports our assumption of plastic as media for transferring these additives in marine environment. PMID:26329499

  18. Enhanced photo-fermentative hydrogen production by Rhodobacter capsulatus with pigment content manipulation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chao; Wang, Xueqing; Guo, Liejin; Wu, Xiaomin; Yang, Honghui

    2012-08-01

    High content of pigment in purple nonsulfur photosynthetic bacteria hinders its photo-hydrogen production rate under intense light irradiation. In order to alleviate the light shielding effect and improve its photo-fermentative hydrogen production performance, pufQ, which is the regulatory gene of bacteriochlorophyll biosynthesis in Rhodobacter capsulatus, was cloned and relocated in the genome under cbb3 promoter by homologous recombination. The UV-vis spectra indicated that the light absorption of the mutant between 300 and 900 nm was reduced. Photo-hydrogen production experiments by the recombinant and wild type strain were carried out in 350 mL photo bioreactors using acetic and butyric acid as substrate. The results showed that the hydrogen production of recombinant with reduced pigment was 27% higher than that of its parental strain, indicating that it is effective on enhancing photo-fermentative hydrogen production by manipulating pigment biosynthesis in purple nonsulfur photosynthetic bacteria. PMID:22717568

  19. Effect of temperature and relative humidity during transportation on green coffee bean moisture content and ochratoxin A production.

    PubMed

    Palacios-Cabrera, Hector A; Menezes, Hilary C; Iamanaka, Beatriz T; Canepa, Frederico; Teixeira, Aldir A; Carvalhaes, Nelson; Santi, Domenico; Leme, Plinio T Z; Yotsuyanagi, Katumi; Taniwaki, Marta H

    2007-01-01

    Changes in temperature, relative humidity, and moisture content of green coffee beans were monitored during transportation of coffee from Brazil to Italy. Six containers (three conventional and three prototype) were stowed in three different places (hold, first floor, and deck) on the ship. Each prototype was located next to a conventional container. The moisture content of the coffee in the container located on the first floor was less affected by environmental variations (0.7%) than that in the hold and on the deck. Coffee located in the hold showed the highest variation in moisture content (3%); in addition, the container showed visible condensation. Coffee transported on the deck showed an intermediary variation in moisture (2%), and there was no visible condensation. The variation in coffee moisture content of the prototype containers was similar to that of the conventional ones, especially in the top layers of coffee bags (2 to 3%), while the increase in water activity was 0.70. This suggests that diffusion of moisture occurs very slowly inside the cargo and that there are thus sufficient time and conditions for fungal growth. The regions of the container near the wall and ceiling are susceptible to condensation since they are close to the headspace with its high relative humidity. Ochratoxin A production occurred in coffee located at the top of the container on the deck and in the wet bags from the hold (those found to be wet on opening the containers at the final destination).

  20. Nutritional Content of Food and Beverage Products in Television Advertisements Seen on Children's Programming

    PubMed Central

    Schermbeck, Rebecca M.; Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background: Given the high rates of childhood obesity, assessing the nutritional content of food and beverage products in television (TV) advertisements to which children are exposed is important. Methods: TV ratings data for children 2–5 and 6–11 years of age were used to examine the nutritional content of food and beverage products in advertisements seen by children on all programming and children's programming (≥35% child-audience share). Nutritional content was assessed based on the federal Interagency Working Group (IWG) recommended nutrients to limit (NTL), including saturated fat, trans fat, sugar, and sodium. Results: A total of 46.2% of 2- to 5-year-olds' and 43.5% of 6- to 11-year-olds' total exposure to food and beverage TV advertising was for ads seen on children's programming. Among children 2–5 and 6–11 years, respectively, 84.1 and 84.4% of ads seen on all programming and 95.8 and 97.3% seen on children's programming were for products high in NTL, and 97.8 and 98.1% of Children's Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative (CFBAI) company-member ads seen on children's programming were for products high in NTL, compared to 80.5 and 89.9% of non-CFBAI product ads. Conclusions: Most food and beverage products in TV ads seen by children do not meet the IWG nutrition recommendations and less than one half of such ads are covered by self-regulation. Products advertised on children's versus general-audience programming and by CFBAI- versus non-CFBAI-member companies are particularly of low nutritional quality, suggesting that self-regulation has not successfully protected children from exposure to advertising for unhealthy foods and that continued monitoring is required. PMID:24206260

  1. 16 CFR 1500.89 - Procedures and requirements for determinations regarding lead content of materials or products...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... determinations regarding lead content of materials or products under section 101(a) of the Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act. 1500.89 Section 1500.89 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION... materials or products under section 101(a) of the Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act. (a) The...

  2. Nutrient content in macrophyta collected from southern Baltic Sea beaches in relation to eutrophication and biogas production.

    PubMed

    Bucholc, K; Szymczak-Żyła, M; Lubecki, L; Zamojska, A; Hapter, P; Tjernström, E; Kowalewska, G

    2014-03-01

    One of the signs of eutrophication is the excessive growth of opportunistic macroalgae, a worldwide phenomenon also observed in the Baltic Sea. Mats of macroalgae may drift long distances and accumulate at the seashore, considerably decreasing the recreational value of beaches. The matter accumulating at the shore is treated usually as waste. However, it could be used, for example, as a resource for biogas production. The aim of this work was to verify the hypothesis that collecting of macrophyta accumulating on the beach and potential usage of this material for biogas production will decrease nutrient reserves in the sea to counteract eutrophication and the increase in greenhouse effects. Samples of macrophyta were collected in 2011 and 2012 and analysed for their C, N, and P contents, and degree of degradation (% Chl-a in the sum of chloropigments-a); the results were analysed statistically. The nutrient content was studied in macrophyta accumulating on the beach (Sopot, Gulf of Gdańsk, Poland) and for comparison, macrophyta collected from their habitats in less nutrient polluted area (off the Skåre coast, Trelleborg, Sweden). The nutrient content (N, P) in macrophyta depends primarily on their morphology and only secondarily on environmental nutrient pollution. Collecting the macrophyta biomass accumulating on beaches will not significantly change the eutrophication of the Baltic as a whole; any improvements in this respect are likely to be on a local scale only. Collecting macrophyta removes more nitrogen than phosphorous, so this would decrease the N/P ratio in seawater. This macrophyta biomass is a substantial reserve of renewable energy, which could be utilized with the appropriate technology for biomass collection/preservation and biofuel production as an additive to other carbon-rich biomasses. And the biofuel production should be evaluated not only from the standpoint of economic efficiency but also from the environmental point of view.

  3. Design of Phosphonium-Type Zwitterion as an Additive to Improve Saturated Water Content of Phase-Separated Ionic Liquid from Aqueous Phase toward Reversible Extraction of Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Yoritsugu; Kohno, Yuki; Nakamura, Nobuhumi; Ohno, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    We designed phosphonium-type zwitterion (ZI) to control the saturated water content of separated ionic liquid (IL) phase in the hydrophobic IL/water biphasic systems. The saturated water content of separated IL phase, 1-butyl-3-methyimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, was considerably improved from 0.4 wt% to 62.8 wt% by adding N,N,N-tripentyl-4-sulfonyl-1-butanephosphonium-type ZI (P555C4S). In addition, the maximum water content decreased from 62.8 wt% to 34.1 wt% by increasing KH2PO4/K2HPO4 salt content in upper aqueous phosphate buffer phase. Horse heart cytochrome c (cyt.c) was dissolved selectively in IL phase by improving the water content of IL phase, and spectroscopic analysis revealed that the dissolved cyt.c retained its higher ordered structure. Furthermore, cyt. c dissolved in IL phase was re-extracted again from IL phase to aqueous phase by increasing the concentration of inorganic salts of the buffer solution. PMID:24013379

  4. Resolution and Content Improvements to MISR Aerosol and Land Surface Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garay, M. J.; Bull, M. A.; Diner, D. J.; Hansen, E. G.; Kalashnikova, O. V.

    2015-12-01

    Since early 2000, the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument on NASA's Terra satellite has been providing operational Level 2 (swath-based) aerosol optical depth (AOD) and particle property retrievals at 17.6 km spatial resolution and atmospherically corrected land surface products at 1.1 km resolution. The performance of the aerosol product has been validated against ground-based Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) observations, model comparisons, and climatological assessments. This product has played a major role in studies of the impacts of aerosols on climate and air quality. The surface product has found a variety of uses, particularly at regional scales for assessing vegetation and land surface change. A major development effort has led to the release of an update to the operational (Version 22) MISR Level 2 aerosol and land surface retrieval products, which has been in production since December 2007. The new release is designated Version 23. The resolution of the aerosol product has been increased to 4.4 km, allowing more detailed characterization of aerosol spatial variability, especially near local sources and in urban areas. The product content has been simplified and updated to include more robust measures of retrieval uncertainty and other fields to benefit users. The land surface product has also been updated to incorporate the Version 23 aerosol product as input and to improve spatial coverage, particularly over mountainous terrain and snow/ice-covered surfaces. We will describe the major upgrades incorporated in Version 23 and present validation of the aerosol product against both the standard AERONET historical database, as well as high spatial density AERONET-DRAGON deployments. Comparisons will also be shown relative to the Version 22 aerosol and land surface products. Applications enabled by these product updates will be discussed.

  5. 3D UHDTV contents production with 2/3-inch sensor cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamacher, Alaric; Pardeshi, Sunil; Whangboo, Taeg-Keun; Kim, Sang-Il; Lee, Seung-Hyun

    2015-03-01

    Most UHDTV content is presently created using single large CMOS sensor cameras as opposed to 2/3-inch small sensor cameras, which is the standard for HD content. The consequence is a technical incompatibility that does not only affect the lenses and accessories of these cameras, but also the content creation process in 2D and 3D. While UHDTV is generally acclaimed for its superior image quality, the large sensors have introduced new constraints in the filming process. The camera sizes and lens dimensions have also introduced new obstacles for their use in 3D UHDTV production. The recent availability of UHDTV broadcast cameras with traditional 2/3-inch sensors can improve the transition towards UHDTV content creation. The following article will evaluate differences between the large-sensor UHDTV cameras and the 2/3-inch 3 CMOS solution and address 3D-specific considerations, such as possible artifacts like chromatic aberration and diffraction, which can occur when mixing HD and UHD equipment. The article will further present a workflow with solutions for shooting 3D UHDTV content on the basis of the Grass Valley LDX4K compact camera, which is the first available UHDTV camera with 2/3-inch UHDTV broadcast technology.

  6. Roller compaction: Effect of morphology and amorphous content of lactose powder on product quality.

    PubMed

    Omar, Chalak S; Dhenge, Ranjit M; Osborne, James D; Althaus, Tim O; Palzer, Stefan; Hounslow, Michael J; Salman, Agba D

    2015-12-30

    The effect of morphology and amorphous content, of three types of lactose, on the properties of ribbon produced using roller compaction was investigated. The three types of lactose powders were; anhydrous SuperTab21AN, α-lactose monohydrate 200 M, and spray dried lactose SuperTab11SD. The morphology of the primary particles was identified using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the powder amorphous content was quantified using NIR technique. SEM images showed that 21AN and SD are agglomerated type of lactose whereas the 200 M is a non-agglomerated type. During ribbon production, an online thermal imaging technique was used to monitor the surface temperature of the ribbon. It was found that the morphology and the amorphous content of lactose powders have significant effects on the roller compaction behaviour and on ribbon properties. The agglomerated types of lactose produced ribbon with higher surface temperature and tensile strength, larger fragment size, lower porosity and lesser fines percentages than the non-agglomerated type of lactose. The lactose powder with the highest amorphous content showed to result in a better binding ability between the primary particles. This type of lactose produced ribbons with the highest temperature and tensile strength, and the lowest porosity and amount of fines in the product. It also produced ribbon with more smooth surfaces in comparison to the other two types of lactose. It was noticed that there is a relationship between the surface temperature of the ribbon during production and the tensile strength of the ribbon; the higher the temperature of the ribbon during production the higher the tensile strength of the ribbon. PMID:26117279

  7. Roller compaction: Effect of morphology and amorphous content of lactose powder on product quality.

    PubMed

    Omar, Chalak S; Dhenge, Ranjit M; Osborne, James D; Althaus, Tim O; Palzer, Stefan; Hounslow, Michael J; Salman, Agba D

    2015-12-30

    The effect of morphology and amorphous content, of three types of lactose, on the properties of ribbon produced using roller compaction was investigated. The three types of lactose powders were; anhydrous SuperTab21AN, α-lactose monohydrate 200 M, and spray dried lactose SuperTab11SD. The morphology of the primary particles was identified using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the powder amorphous content was quantified using NIR technique. SEM images showed that 21AN and SD are agglomerated type of lactose whereas the 200 M is a non-agglomerated type. During ribbon production, an online thermal imaging technique was used to monitor the surface temperature of the ribbon. It was found that the morphology and the amorphous content of lactose powders have significant effects on the roller compaction behaviour and on ribbon properties. The agglomerated types of lactose produced ribbon with higher surface temperature and tensile strength, larger fragment size, lower porosity and lesser fines percentages than the non-agglomerated type of lactose. The lactose powder with the highest amorphous content showed to result in a better binding ability between the primary particles. This type of lactose produced ribbons with the highest temperature and tensile strength, and the lowest porosity and amount of fines in the product. It also produced ribbon with more smooth surfaces in comparison to the other two types of lactose. It was noticed that there is a relationship between the surface temperature of the ribbon during production and the tensile strength of the ribbon; the higher the temperature of the ribbon during production the higher the tensile strength of the ribbon.

  8. The Effects of Various Conductive Additive and Polymeric Binder Contents on the Performance of a Lithium-ion Composite

    SciTech Connect

    Stevenson, Cynthia; Liu, G.; Zheng, H.; Kim, S.; Deng, Y.; Minor, A.M.; Song, X.; Battaglia, V.S.

    2008-08-07

    Fundamental electrochemical methods, cell performance tests, and physical characterization tests such as electron microscopy were used to study the effects of levels of the inert materials (acetylene black (AB), a nano-conductive additive, and polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF), a polymer binder) on the power performance of lithium-ion composite cathodes. The electronic conductivity of the AB/PVDF composites at different compositions was measured with a four-point probe direct current method. The electronic conductivity was found to increase rapidly and plateau at a AB:PVDF ratio 0.2:1 (by weight), with 0.8:1 being the highest conductivity composition. AB:PVDF compositions along the plateau of 0.2:1, 0.4:1, 0.6:1 and 0.8:1 were investigated. Electrodes of each of those compositions were fabricated with different fractions of AB/PVDF to active material. It was found that at the 0.8:1 AB:PVDF, the rate performance improved with increases in the AB/PVDF loading, whereas at the 0.2:1 AB:PVDF, the rate performance improved with decreases in the AB/PVDF loading. The impedance of electrodes made with 0.6:1 AB:PVDF was low and relatively invariant.

  9. Post Processing Methods used to Improve Surface Finish of Products which are Manufactured by Additive Manufacturing Technologies: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumbhar, N. N.; Mulay, A. V.

    2016-08-01

    The Additive Manufacturing (AM) processes open the possibility to go directly from Computer-Aided Design (CAD) to a physical prototype. These prototypes are used as test models before it is finalized as well as sometimes as a final product. Additive Manufacturing has many advantages over the traditional process used to develop a product such as allowing early customer involvement in product development, complex shape generation and also save time as well as money. Additive manufacturing also possess some special challenges that are usually worth overcoming such as Poor Surface quality, Physical Properties and use of specific raw material for manufacturing. To improve the surface quality several attempts had been made by controlling various process parameters of Additive manufacturing and also applying different post processing techniques on components manufactured by Additive manufacturing. The main objective of this work is to document an extensive literature review in the general area of post processing techniques which are used in Additive manufacturing.

  10. Peculiarities of milling porcelain bodies with an increased content of technological waste products

    SciTech Connect

    Sergeevich, L.P.; Gulai, O.S.

    1986-07-01

    A study of the dependence of the duration of milling on the quantity and the type of the technological waste products introduced into the porcelain body was conducted. Tables show the dependence of the milling fineness of the stony materials on the duration of milling. With an increasing content of waste products of the first firing in the porcelain body compositions, the duration of milling decreases. When using increased amounts of the waste products of the second firing, it was shown that it is necessary to subject the scrap to prior milling in edge-roller mills. Using the milled product scrap of the second firing does not lead to an increase in the duration of milling.

  11. Meat products and soil pollution caused by livestock and poultry feed additive in Liaoning, China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiaojun; Dong, Rongfen; Zhao, Rongming

    2011-06-01

    Contents of copper and zinc in feed, manure, meat of livestock and poultry, and soil applied with manure in Liaoning, China were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. The average contents of copper in chicken and pork were exceed the maximum limit values provides by Chinese standard GB15199-94. The application of pig and chicken manure has led to a certainty extend pollution of copper and zinc in soil, which becomes severity in the release of heavy metals in plantation.

  12. 40 CFR 80.591 - What are the product transfer document requirements for additives to be used in diesel fuel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel... content requirements for use in diesel motor vehicles and nonroad engines.”; or (2) For those additives... requirements for use in model year 2007 and newer diesel motor vehicles or model year 2011 and newer...

  13. 40 CFR 80.591 - What are the product transfer document requirements for additives to be used in diesel fuel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel... content requirements for use in diesel motor vehicles and nonroad engines.”; or (2) For those additives... requirements for use in model year 2007 and newer diesel motor vehicles or model year 2011 and newer...

  14. Effects of soil water content and organic matter addition on the speciation and bioavailability of heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Soriano, Maria C; Jimenez-Lopez, Jose C

    2012-04-15

    The mobility and bioavailability of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc were evaluated in three soils amended with different organic materials for two moisture regimes. Agricultural and reclamation activities impose fresh inputs of organic matter on soil while intensive irrigation and rainstorm increase soil waterlogging incidence. Moreover, scarcity of irrigation water has prompted the use of greywater, which contain variable concentrations of organic compounds such as anionic surfactants. Soils added with hay, maize straw or peat at 1% w/w were irrigated, at field capacity (FC) or saturated (S), with an aqueous solution of the anionic surfactant Aerosol 22 (A22), corresponding to an addition of 200 mgC/kgsoil/day. Soil solution was extracted after one month and analysed for total soluble metals, dissolved soil organic matter and UV absorbance at 254 nm. Speciation analyses were performed with WHAM VI for Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn. For selected scenarios, metal uptake by barley was determined. Metal mobility increased for all treatments and soils (Pb>Cu>Cd≥Zn) compared to control assays. The increase was significantly correlated (p<0.05) with soil organic matter solubilisation for Cd (R=0.68), Cu (R=0.73) and Zn (R=0.86). Otherwise, Pb release was related to aluminium solubilisation (R=0.75), which suggests that Pb was originally co-precipitated with Al-DOC complexes in the solid phase. The effect of A22 in metal bioavailability, determined as free ion activities (FIA), was mainly controlled by soil moisture regime. For soil 3, metal bioavailability was up to 20 times lower for soil amended with hay, peat or maize compared to soil treated only with A22. When soil was treated with A22 at FC barley yield significantly decreased (p<0.05) for the increase of Pb (R=0.71) and Zn (R=0.79) concentrations in shoot, while for saturated conditions such uptake was up to 3 times lower. Overall, metal bioavailability was controlled by solubilisation of soil organic matter and formation

  15. Greenhouse gas emissions from sub-tropical agricultural soils after addition of organic by-products.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Dai H; Biala, Johannes; Grace, Peter R; Scheer, Clemens; Rowlings, David W

    2014-01-01

    As the cost of mineral fertilisers increases globally, organic soil amendments (OAs) from agricultural sources are increasingly being used as substitutes for nitrogen. However, the impact of OAs on the production of greenhouse gases (CO2 and N2O) is not well understood. A 60-day laboratory incubation experiment was conducted to investigate the impacts of applying OAs (equivalent to 296 kg N ha(-1) on average) on N2O and CO2 emissions and soil properties of clay and sandy loam soils from sugar cane production. The experiment included 6 treatments, one being an un-amended (UN) control with addition of five OAs being raw mill mud (MM), composted mill mud (CM), high N compost (HC), rice husk biochar (RB), and raw mill mud plus rice husk biochar (MB). These OAs were incubated at 60, 75 and 90% water-filled pore space (WFPS) at 25°C with urea (equivalent to 200 kg N ha(-1)) added to the soils thirty days after the incubation commenced. Results showed WFPS did not influence CO2 emissions over the 60 days but the magnitude of emissions as a proportion of C applied was RB < CM < MB < HC < MM. Nitrous oxide emissions were significantly less in the clay soil compared to the sandy loam at all WFPS, and could be ranked RB < MB < MM < CM < UN < HC. These results led to linear models being developed to predict CO2 and N2O emissions as a function of the dry matter and C/N ratio of the OAs, WFPS, and the soil CEC. Application of RB reduced N2O emissions by as much as 42-64% depending on WFPS. The reductions in both CO2 and N2O emissions after application of RB were due to a reduced bioavailability of C and not immobilisation of N. These findings show that the effect of OAs on soil GHG emissions can vary substantially depending on their chemical properties. OAs with a high availability of labile C and N can lead to elevated emissions of CO2 and N2O, while rice husk biochar showed potential in reducing overall soil GHG emissions.

  16. Integrating products of Bessel functions with an additional exponential or rational factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Deun, Joris; Cools, Ronald

    2008-04-01

    We provide two MATLAB programs to compute integrals of the form ex∏i=1kJν_i(ax)dxand 0∞xr+x∏i=1kJν_i(ax)dx with Jν_i(x) the Bessel function of the first kind and (real) order ν. The parameter m is a real number such that ∑ν+m>-1 (to assure integrability near zero), r is real and the numbers c and a are all strictly positive. The program can deliver accurate error estimates. Program summaryProgram title: BESSELINTR, BESSELINTC Catalogue identifier: AEAH_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEAH_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1601 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 13 161 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Matlab (version ⩾6.5), Octave (version ⩾2.1.69) Computer: All supporting Matlab or Octave Operating system: All supporting Matlab or Octave RAM: For k Bessel functions our program needs approximately ( 500+140k) double precision variables Classification: 4.11 Nature of problem: The problem consists in integrating an arbitrary product of Bessel functions with an additional rational or exponential factor over a semi-infinite interval. Difficulties arise from the irregular oscillatory behaviour and the possible slow decay of the integrand, which prevents truncation at a finite point. Solution method: The interval of integration is split into a finite and infinite part. The integral over the finite part is computed using Gauss-Legendre quadrature. The integrand on the infinite part is approximated using asymptotic expansions and this approximation is integrated exactly with the aid of the upper incomplete gamma function. In the case where a rational factor is present, this factor is first expanded in a Taylor series around infinity. Restrictions: Some (and eventually all

  17. Greenhouse gas emissions from sub-tropical agricultural soils after addition of organic by-products.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Dai H; Biala, Johannes; Grace, Peter R; Scheer, Clemens; Rowlings, David W

    2014-01-01

    As the cost of mineral fertilisers increases globally, organic soil amendments (OAs) from agricultural sources are increasingly being used as substitutes for nitrogen. However, the impact of OAs on the production of greenhouse gases (CO2 and N2O) is not well understood. A 60-day laboratory incubation experiment was conducted to investigate the impacts of applying OAs (equivalent to 296 kg N ha(-1) on average) on N2O and CO2 emissions and soil properties of clay and sandy loam soils from sugar cane production. The experiment included 6 treatments, one being an un-amended (UN) control with addition of five OAs being raw mill mud (MM), composted mill mud (CM), high N compost (HC), rice husk biochar (RB), and raw mill mud plus rice husk biochar (MB). These OAs were incubated at 60, 75 and 90% water-filled pore space (WFPS) at 25°C with urea (equivalent to 200 kg N ha(-1)) added to the soils thirty days after the incubation commenced. Results showed WFPS did not influence CO2 emissions over the 60 days but the magnitude of emissions as a proportion of C applied was RB < CM < MB < HC < MM. Nitrous oxide emissions were significantly less in the clay soil compared to the sandy loam at all WFPS, and could be ranked RB < MB < MM < CM < UN < HC. These results led to linear models being developed to predict CO2 and N2O emissions as a function of the dry matter and C/N ratio of the OAs, WFPS, and the soil CEC. Application of RB reduced N2O emissions by as much as 42-64% depending on WFPS. The reductions in both CO2 and N2O emissions after application of RB were due to a reduced bioavailability of C and not immobilisation of N. These findings show that the effect of OAs on soil GHG emissions can vary substantially depending on their chemical properties. OAs with a high availability of labile C and N can lead to elevated emissions of CO2 and N2O, while rice husk biochar showed potential in reducing overall soil GHG emissions. PMID

  18. 40 CFR 82.18 - Availability of production in addition to baseline production allowances for class II controlled...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... permitted under the Montreal Protocol or to receive from the person for the current control period some... production quantities: (A) The maximum production that the nation is allowed under the Protocol minus...

  19. Content of significant amounts of a cytotoxic end-product of lipid peroxidation in human semen.

    PubMed

    Selley, M L; Lacey, M J; Bartlett, M R; Copeland, C M; Ardlie, N G

    1991-07-01

    (E)-4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), a cytotoxic end-product of lipid peroxidation, is present in significant amounts in human semen (0.902 +/- 0.190 microM; mean +/- s.e.; n = 18). The addition of the divalent cation ionophore A23187 to suspensions of human spermatozoa resulted in increased production of HNE. Exogenous HNE was powerfully spermicidal and as little as 50 microM caused an irreversible loss of motility of human spermatozoa within minutes. The addition of human seminal plasma protected spermatozoa from the toxic effects of HNE.

  20. 49 CFR 1300.5 - Additional publication requirement for agricultural products and fertilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... agricultural products and fertilizer. 1300.5 Section 1300.5 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... fertilizer. (a) With respect to transportation of agricultural products (including grain, as defined in 7 U.S.C. 75, and all products thereof) and fertilizer, a rail carrier shall publish, make available,...

  1. 49 CFR 1300.5 - Additional publication requirement for agricultural products and fertilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... agricultural products and fertilizer. 1300.5 Section 1300.5 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... fertilizer. (a) With respect to transportation of agricultural products (including grain, as defined in 7 U.S.C. 75, and all products thereof) and fertilizer, a rail carrier shall publish, make available,...

  2. 49 CFR 1300.5 - Additional publication requirement for agricultural products and fertilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... agricultural products and fertilizer. 1300.5 Section 1300.5 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... fertilizer. (a) With respect to transportation of agricultural products (including grain, as defined in 7 U.S.C. 75, and all products thereof) and fertilizer, a rail carrier shall publish, make available,...

  3. 49 CFR 1300.5 - Additional publication requirement for agricultural products and fertilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... agricultural products and fertilizer. 1300.5 Section 1300.5 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... fertilizer. (a) With respect to transportation of agricultural products (including grain, as defined in 7 U.S.C. 75, and all products thereof) and fertilizer, a rail carrier shall publish, make available,...

  4. 49 CFR 1300.5 - Additional publication requirement for agricultural products and fertilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... agricultural products and fertilizer. 1300.5 Section 1300.5 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... fertilizer. (a) With respect to transportation of agricultural products (including grain, as defined in 7 U.S.C. 75, and all products thereof) and fertilizer, a rail carrier shall publish, make available,...

  5. Spatial prediction of Soil Organic Carbon contents in croplands, grasslands and forests using environmental covariates and Generalized Additive Models (Southern Belgium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chartin, Caroline; Stevens, Antoine; van Wesemael, Bas

    2015-04-01

    Providing spatially continuous Soil Organic Carbon data (SOC) is needed to support decisions regarding soil management, and inform the political debate with quantified estimates of the status and change of the soil resource. Digital Soil Mapping techniques are based on relations existing between a soil parameter (measured at different locations in space at a defined period) and relevant covariates (spatially continuous data) that are factors controlling soil formation and explaining the spatial variability of the target variable. This study aimed at apply DSM techniques to recent SOC content measurements (2005-2013) in three different landuses, i.e. cropland, grassland, and forest, in the Walloon region (Southern Belgium). For this purpose, SOC databases of two regional Soil Monitoring Networks (CARBOSOL for croplands and grasslands, and IPRFW for forests) were first harmonized, totalising about 1,220 observations. Median values of SOC content for croplands, grasslands, and forests, are respectively of 12.8, 29.0, and 43.1 g C kg-1. Then, a set of spatial layers were prepared with a resolution of 40 meters and with the same grid topology, containing environmental covariates such as, landuses, Digital Elevation Model and its derivatives, soil texture, C factor, carbon inputs by manure, and climate. Here, in addition to the three classical texture classes (clays, silt, and sand), we tested the use of clays + fine silt content (particles < 20 µm and related to stable carbon fraction) as soil covariate explaining SOC variations. For each of the three land uses (cropland, grassland and forest), a Generalized Additive Model (GAM) was calibrated on two thirds of respective dataset. The remaining samples were assigned to a test set to assess model performance. A backward stepwise procedure was followed to select the relevant environmental covariates using their approximate p-values (the level of significance was set at p < 0.05). Standard errors were estimated for each of

  6. [Effects of grape seed addition in swine manure-wheat straw composting on the compost microbial community and carbon and nitrogen contents].

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi-Mei; Liu, Xue-Ling; Jiang, Ji-Shao; Huang, Hua; Liu, Dong

    2012-08-01

    Taking substrates swine manure and wheat straw (fresh mass ratio 10.5:1) as the control (PMW), a composting experiment was conducted in a self-made aerated static composting bin to study the effects of adding 8% grape seed (treatment PMW + G) on the succession of microbial community and the transformation of carbon and nitrogen in the substrates during the composting. Seven samples were collected from each treatment, according to the temperature of the compost during the 30 d composting period. The microbial population and physiological groups were determined, and the NH4(+)-N, NO3(-)-N, organic N, and organic C concentrations in the compost were measured. Grape seed addition induced a slight increase of bacterial count and a significant increase of actinomycetes count, but decreased the fungal count significantly. Grape seed addition also decreased the ratio of bacteria to actinomycetes and the counts of ammonifiers and denitrifiers, but increased the counts of nitrifiers, N-fixing bacteria, and cellulose-decomposing microorganisms. The contents of NH4(+)-N and organic C decreased, while that of NO3(-)-N increased obviously. The NO3(-)-N content in the compost was positively correlated with the actinomycetes count. During composting, the compost temperature in treatment PMW + G increased more rapidly, and remained steady in thermophilic phase, while the water content changed little, which provided a stable and higher population of actinomycetes and nitrifiers in thermophilic phase, being beneficial to the increase of compost nitrate N.

  7. Cryogenic Grinding: a Physical Technique to Retain Volatile Content in Natural Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxena, Rohit; Soni, Aditi; Saxna, S. N.; Rathore, S. S.; Barnwal, P.

    Cryogenics is the study of the production of very low temperature (below -150°C, -238°F or 123K) and the behavior of materials at those temperatures. Similarly, cryogenic grinding is a term supported by the act of grinding a thing at very low temperature. This technique is generally used to grind the material, which contains heat labile constituents viz- volatile oils in seed spices. Due to high fat content in spices, heat is generated, while energy is used to fracture a particle into a smaller size in conventional grinding process. During the normal grinding process, this generated heat causes temperature rise of grinder upto 950C. The increased temperature is responsible for a loss of volatile content in the tune of about 30% and also produces dark colour powder. Generally, continuous operation is not possible in normal grinding process due to melting of fat and sticking of powder on the grinding surface. The loss of volatile content can be significantly reduced by cryogenic grinding technique using liquid nitrogen or liquid carbon dioxide that provides the refrigeration needed to pre-cool the spices and maintain the desired low temperature by absorbing the heat generated during the grinding operation. The extremely low temperature during grinder condenses the volatile matter and retains their presence in spices. The application of cryogenic technology for grinding of spices has been scientifically proved to be a suitable technique with negligible loss of volatile content and improved colour of oil and grinding operation of seeds.

  8. Folate content in fresh-cut vegetable packed products by 96-well microtiter plate microbiological assay.

    PubMed

    Fajardo, Violeta; Alonso-Aperte, Elena; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio

    2015-02-15

    Ready-to-eat foods have nowadays become a significant portion of the diet. Accordingly, nutritional composition of these food categories should be well-known, in particular its folate content. However, there is a broad lack of folate data in food composition tables and databases. A total of 21 fresh-cut vegetable and fruit packed products were analysed for total folate (TF) content using a validated method that relies on the folate-dependent growth of chloramphenicol-resistant Lactobacillus casei subspecies rhamnosus (NCIMB 10463). Mean TF content ranged from 10.0 to 140.9μg/100g for the different matrices on a fresh weight basis. Higher TF quantity, 140.9-70.1μg/100g, was found in spinach, rocket, watercress, chard and broccoli. Significant differences were observed between available data for fresh vegetables and fruits from food composition tables or databases and the analysed results for fresh-cut packed products. Supplied data support the potential of folate-rich fresh-cut ready-to-eat vegetables to increase folate intake significantly.

  9. Municipal solid waste compost application improves productivity, polyphenol content, and antioxidant capacity of Mesembryanthemum edule.

    PubMed

    Lakhdar, Abdelbasset; Falleh, Hanen; Ouni, Youssef; Oueslati, Samia; Debez, Ahmed; Ksouri, Riadh; Abdelly, Chedly

    2011-07-15

    Organic wastes were successfully used as soil amendment to improve agrosystems productivity. Yet, the effectiveness of this practice to enhance plant antioxidant capacities has received little attention. Here, we assess the effect of municipal solid waste (MSW) compost (at 40 t ha(-1)) on growth, polyphenol contents and antioxidant activities of Mesembryanthemum edule. MSW compost application significantly increased the soil contents of carbon, nitrogen, calcium, phosphorus and potassium. This was associated with higher nutrient (N, P, and K) uptake, which likely led to the significant improvement of the plant biomass and relative growth rate (RGR) (+93% on average) as compared to the control. In the same way, the fertilizing effect of the added organic matter significantly enhanced the antioxidant potential M. edule, assessed by radical scavenging activity, iron reducing power and β-carotene bleaching capacity. This was associated with significantly higher antioxidant contents, mainly total phenols and flavonoids. Heavy metal (Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn) concentrations were slightly increased upon compost application, but remained lower than phytotoxic values. Overall, our results point out that short-term MSW compost application at 40 t ha(-1) is efficient in enhancing the productivity together with the antioxidant potentiality of M. edule without any adverse environmental impact. PMID:21605936

  10. Determination of soluble solids content in apple products by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Guohui; Liu, Jianjun; Hong, Zhi

    2011-08-01

    Soluble solids content is an important index for fruit quality. One of the traditional methods in determining soluble solids content of fruits is refractometry which measures the refractive index in visible or near infrared. Here we reported the use of terahertz time-domain transmission spectroscopy (THz-TDTS) technique for the determination of soluble solids content in apple products. Not only the refractive index, but also the absorption coefficient is used in regression model. In method one, sucrose solutions were for the calibration set , root mean square of validation set (RMSEP) was 0.168% for absorption coefficient model, 0.741% for refractive index model. In method two, apple products were for the calibration set, RMSEP was 0.143% for absorption coefficient model, 0.648% for refractive index model. Less absolute error of 0.2% between predicted and refractometer value has been both obtained from two methods with absorption coefficient model. This result proved the THz-TDS technique is quite potential for nondestructive detection on food quality.

  11. Low Be-10 and Al-26 contents of ureilites - Production at meteoroid surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aylmer, D.; Vogt, S.; Herzog, G. F.; Klein, J.; Fink, D.

    1990-01-01

    The Be-10 contents of 22 ureilites and the Al-26 contents of 18 ureilites are reported. When corrected for exposure age, where known, and for composition, the results give production rate, P that are on average 20 percent lower than values typical of other meteorite classes. This depression of production rates, the weak correlations of both P26 and P10 with Ne-22/Ne-21 and the generally high He-3/Ne-21 and Ne-22/Ne-21 ratios in urelities all suggest that many of the samples occupied near-surface locations in their parent meteoroids. A reduced flux of cosmic rays does not by itself explain the elevated Ne-22/Ne-21 ratios and appears inconsistent with a proposed source for ureilites in the inner asteroid belt. Cosmogenic radionuclide data do not support the tentative pairing of ALHA 78019 with ALHa 78262 proposed on the basis of mineralogical similarities. The high Al-26 content of LEW 85440 may be the result of irradiation by solar cosmic rays.

  12. THE CARCINOGENIC RESPONSE TO A MIXTURE OF DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS (DBP) WAS LESS THAN ADDITIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    THE CARCINOGENIC RESPONSE TO A MIXTURE OF DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION BY -PRODUCTS (DBP) W AS LESS THAN ADDITIVE.

    Current default risk assessments for chemical mixtures assume additivity of carcinogenic effects but this may under or over represent the actual biological res...

  13. What's in a sentence? The crucial role of lexical content in sentence production in nonfluent aphasia.

    PubMed

    Speer, Paula; Wilshire, Carolyn E

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of lexical content on sentence production in nonfluent aphasia. Five participants with nonfluent aphasia, four with fluent aphasia, and eight controls were asked to describe pictured events in subject-verb-object sentences. Experiment 1 manipulated speed of lexical retrieval by varying the frequency of sentence nouns. Nonfluent participants' accuracy was consistently higher for sentences commencing with a high- than with a low-frequency subject noun, even when errors on those nouns were themselves excluded. This was not the case for the fluent participants. Experiment 2 manipulated the semantic relationship between subject and object nouns. The nonfluent participants produced sentences less accurately when they contained related than when they contained unrelated lexical items. The fluent participants exhibited the opposite trend. We propose that individuals with nonfluent aphasia are disproportionately reliant on activated conceptual-lexical representations to drive the sentence generation process, an idea we call the content drives structure (COST) hypothesis. PMID:24512548

  14. Variation in the THC content in illicitly imported Cannabis products--Part II.

    PubMed

    Baker, P B; Gough, T A; Johncock, S I; Taylor, B J; Wyles, L T

    1982-01-01

    The tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) contents of 220 samples of fresh illicit Cannabis products seized on entry into the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland over the period 1979-1981 have been determined by gas chromatography. During that period there was a general increase in the quality of both cannabis and cannabis resin, but with wide variations in THC contents both within and between countries. Some very high quality samples of cannabis, cannabis resin and cannabis oil from the Indian sub-continent have been analysed. There have been considerable changes in the number of fresh samples from several countries, compared with the previous survey. Fresh cannabis oil samples were very rare during the period covered by this survey.

  15. The natural product content of the selected Cabernet Franc wine samples originating from Serbia: a case study of phenolics.

    PubMed

    Pejin, Boris; Stanimirovic, Bojana; Vujovic, Dragan; Popovic Djordjevic, Jelena; Velickovic, Milovan; Tesevic, Vele

    2016-08-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the content of selected phenolic natural products in the wine samples made of three new Serbian Cabernet Franc clones (Nos. 02, 010 and 012, respectively) and mother vine (used as the relevant standard) during the period 2008-2012. Compared with all other wine samples, the Cabernet Franc wine of the clone No. 010 was found to have the highest total content of polyphenolics (1.85 ± 0.02 g/L) and anthocyanins (178.55 ± 3.75 mg/L). In addition, its Folin-Ciocalteu index (36.86 ± 0.12) stood out among the examined samples. Finally, the same wine was enriched with ellagic and gallic acids (3.44 ± 0.29 and 27.46 ± 0.21 mg/L, respectively), catechin (135.16 ± 6.47 mg/L) and epicatechin (51.33 ± 2.33 mg/L), the natural products known to exert significant lipid-lowering effects. Taken all together, the clone No. 010 developed in Serbia may offer new Cabernet Franc wine with geographical indication.

  16. Rapid and high yield biogas production from Jatropha seed cake by co-digestion with bagasse and addition of Fe2+.

    PubMed

    Sen, Kalyani; Mahalingam, Shanthi; Sen, Biswarup

    2013-01-01

    Co-digestion and metal ion addition strategies to improve the biogas production potential of Jatropha seed cake (JSC) by anaerobic digestion were evaluated in the present study. Initially, batch experiments were carried out to obtain the maximum JSC concentration for optimum biogas yield, followed by co-digestion with bagasse, and addition of Fe2+. The optimum JSC concentration of 15% (w/v) gave biogas production rate (BPR) of 66.4 mL/d, specific BPR of 9.7 mL/d/gVS and biogas yield of 0.064 m3/kgVS. The co-digestion strategy increased the carbon/nitrogen of feed (10% JSC + 5% Bagasse, w/v) to 26.5 from 14 (JSC alone), resulting in biogas yield of 0.136 m3/kgVS of JSC, a 2.1-fold increase. Addition of Fe2+ to JSC and bagasse mixture led to biogas yield of 0.203 m3/kgVS, with methane content of 66% and methane production of 8.8 L/L reactor. With short digestion time of 15 days, co-digestion of JSC with bagasse and addition of Fe2+ showed 3.2-fold higher biogas yield than JSC alone.

  17. 40 CFR 82.9 - Availability of production allowances in addition to baseline production allowances for class I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... amount of production or import that the person is permitted under this subpart. If the controlled substance is produced under the authority of production allowances and is to be returned to the Party from... a request for consumption allowances under § 82.10(c). If the controlled substance is produced...

  18. 40 CFR 82.9 - Availability of production allowances in addition to baseline production allowances for class I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... amount of production or import that the person is permitted under this subpart. If the controlled substance is produced under the authority of production allowances and is to be returned to the Party from... a request for consumption allowances under § 82.10(c). If the controlled substance is produced...

  19. Microparticle content of platelet concentrates is predicted by donor microparticles and is altered by production methods and stress.

    PubMed

    Maurer-Spurej, Elisabeth; Larsen, Rune; Labrie, Audrey; Heaton, Andrew; Chipperfield, Kate

    2016-08-01

    In circulation, shedding of microparticles from a variety of viable cells can be triggered by pathological activation of inflammatory processes, by activation of coagulation or complement systems, or by physical stress. Elevated microparticle content (MPC) in donor blood might therefore indicate a clinical condition of the donor which, upon transfusion, might affect the recipient. In blood products, elevated MPC might also represent product stress. Surprisingly, the MPC in blood collected from normal blood donors is highly variable, which raises the question whether donor microparticles are present in-vivo and transfer into the final blood component, and how production methods and post-production processing might affect the MPC. We measured MPC using ThromboLUX in (a) platelet-rich plasma (PRP) of 54 apheresis donors and the corresponding apheresis products, (b) 651 apheresis and 646 pooled platelet concentrates (PCs) with plasma and 414 apheresis PCs in platelet additive solution (PAS), and (c) apheresis PCs before and after transportation, gamma irradiation, and pathogen inactivation (N = 8, 7, and 12 respectively). ThromboLUX-measured MPC in donor PRP and their corresponding apheresis PC samples were highly correlated (r = 0.82, P = .001). The average MPC in pooled PC was slightly lower than that in apheresis PC and substantially lower in apheresis PC stored with PAS rather than plasma. Mirasol Pathogen Reduction treatment significantly increased MPC with age. Thus, MPC measured in donor samples might be a useful predictor of product stability, especially if post-production processes are necessary. PMID:27470708

  20. Epigenetic Manipulation of a Filamentous Fungus by the Proteasome-Inhibitor Bortezomib Induces the Production of an Additional Secondary Metabolite

    PubMed Central

    VanderMolen, Karen M.; Darveaux, Blaise A.; Chen, Wei-Lun; Swanson, Steven M.; Pearce, Cedric J.; Oberlies, Nicholas H.

    2014-01-01

    The use of epigenetic modifiers, such as histone deacetylase inhibitors and DNA methyltransferase inhibitors, has been explored increasingly as a technique to induce the production of additional microbial secondary metabolites. The application of such molecules to microbial cultures has been shown to upregulate otherwise suppressed genes, and in several cases has led to the production of new molecular structures. In this study, the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib was used to induce the production of an additional metabolite from a filamentous fungus (Pleosporales). The induced metabolite was previously isolated from a plant, but the configuration was not assigned until now; in addition, an analogue was isolated from a degraded sample, yielding a new compound. Proteasome inhibitors have not previously been used in this application and offer an additional tool for microbial genome mining. PMID:24955237

  1. 17 CFR 41.25 - Additional conditions for trading for security futures products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... following provisions: (i) Trading of a security futures product based on a single security shall be halted... of a security futures product based on a narrow-based security index shall be halted at all times... percent or more of the market capitalization of the narrow-based security index. (3) Speculative...

  2. 17 CFR 41.25 - Additional conditions for trading for security futures products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... following provisions: (i) Trading of a security futures product based on a single security shall be halted... of a security futures product based on a narrow-based security index shall be halted at all times... percent or more of the market capitalization of the narrow-based security index. (3) Speculative...

  3. 17 CFR 41.25 - Additional conditions for trading for security futures products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... following provisions: (i) Trading of a security futures product based on a single security shall be halted... of a security futures product based on a narrow-based security index shall be halted at all times... percent or more of the market capitalization of the narrow-based security index. (3) Speculative...

  4. 17 CFR 41.25 - Additional conditions for trading for security futures products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... provisions: (i) Trading of a security futures product based on a single security shall be halted at all times... futures product based on a narrow-based security index shall be halted at all times that a regulatory halt... market capitalization of the narrow-based security index. (3) Speculative position limits. The...

  5. 17 CFR 41.25 - Additional conditions for trading for security futures products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... following provisions: (i) Trading of a security futures product based on a single security shall be halted... of a security futures product based on a narrow-based security index shall be halted at all times... percent or more of the market capitalization of the narrow-based security index. (3) Speculative...

  6. Addition of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) to lamb diets enhances production and profits in northern China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The agro-pastoral transitional zone of northern China is an ecologically fragile area with a short growing season and extensive livestock production, where feed shortage is a key constraint to ruminant production, especially in winter. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of various rat...

  7. Assessment of trans fatty acids content in popular Western-style products in China.

    PubMed

    Fu, H; Yang, L; Yuan, H; Rao, P; Lo, Y M

    2008-10-01

    To date, the published information on trans fatty acids (TFAs) in food products in China remains scarce and of questionable accuracy. Systematic approaches to educate the consumers and to ensure proper labeling of TFAs are among the many urgent challenges the regulatory agencies in this rapidly growing country have to face. In the present study, 97 most popular, national brand food products on the Chinese market, including 6 cheeses, 10 chocolates, 10 crisps, chips, and fries, 10 ice creams, 15 margarines, 10 pies and cakes, 8 sauces and dressings, 19 wafers and biscuits, and 9 Chinese-style snacks, were assayed to profile their fat content and fatty acid composition, particularly the TFAs. The highest level of TFAs, up to 30.9% of total fatty acids, were found in pies. The average TFAs contents in different product categories, ranging from high to low, were: pie and cake (12.07%), cheese (6.95%), margarine (5.09%), wafer and biscuit (4.35%), ice cream (2.67%), sauce and dressing (2.65%), crisps, chips, and fries (2.15%), chocolate (1.44%), and Chinese-style snacks (0.83%). One hundred percent of cheese contained TFAs, so did pie and cake, followed by crisps, chips, and fries (90%), sauce and dressing (88%), ice cream and margarine (80%), chocolate (60%), wafer and biscuit (53%), then Chinese-style snacks (33%). Profiling of key TFAs constituents could yield information characteristic to the types of partially hydrogenated oils employed, which is a critical step towards product reformulation in order to reduce or eliminate TFAs in the products. PMID:19019125

  8. Effect of biochar addition on hydrogen and methane production in two-phase anaerobic digestion of aqueous carbohydrates food waste.

    PubMed

    Sunyoto, Nimas M S; Zhu, Mingming; Zhang, Zhezi; Zhang, Dongke

    2016-11-01

    Effect of biochar addition on hydrogen and methane production in two-phase anaerobic digestion of aqueous carbohydrates was studied using bench-scale bioreactors. The cultures with biochar additions were placed in 100ml reactors and incubated at 35°C and pH 5 for hydrogen production. The residual cultures were then used for methane production, incubated at 35°C and pH 7. Daily yields of hydrogen and methane and weekly yield of volatile fatty acids (VFA) were measured. The hydrogen and methane production potentials, rate and lag phases of the two phases were analysed using the Gompertz model. The results showed that biochar addition increased the maximum production rates of hydrogen by 32.5% and methane 41.6%, improved hydrogen yield by 31.0% and methane 10.0%, and shortened the lag phases in the two phases by 36.0% and 41.0%, respectively. Biochar addition also enhanced VFA generation during hydrogen production and VFA degradation in methane production.

  9. Effect of biochar addition on hydrogen and methane production in two-phase anaerobic digestion of aqueous carbohydrates food waste.

    PubMed

    Sunyoto, Nimas M S; Zhu, Mingming; Zhang, Zhezi; Zhang, Dongke

    2016-11-01

    Effect of biochar addition on hydrogen and methane production in two-phase anaerobic digestion of aqueous carbohydrates was studied using bench-scale bioreactors. The cultures with biochar additions were placed in 100ml reactors and incubated at 35°C and pH 5 for hydrogen production. The residual cultures were then used for methane production, incubated at 35°C and pH 7. Daily yields of hydrogen and methane and weekly yield of volatile fatty acids (VFA) were measured. The hydrogen and methane production potentials, rate and lag phases of the two phases were analysed using the Gompertz model. The results showed that biochar addition increased the maximum production rates of hydrogen by 32.5% and methane 41.6%, improved hydrogen yield by 31.0% and methane 10.0%, and shortened the lag phases in the two phases by 36.0% and 41.0%, respectively. Biochar addition also enhanced VFA generation during hydrogen production and VFA degradation in methane production. PMID:27474855

  10. 77 FR 71750 - DSM Nutritional Products; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-04

    ... Additive Petition (Animal Use) AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of petition... petition proposing that the food additive regulations be amended to provide for the safe use of benzoic..., and Cosmetic Act (section 409(b)(5) (21 U.S.C. 348(b)(5))), notice is given that a food...

  11. Arsenic content in smokeless tobacco products consumed by the population of Pakistan: related health risk.

    PubMed

    Arain, Sadaf Sadia; Gul Kazi, Tasneem; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Brahman, Kapil Dev; NaEemuliah; Shah, Faheem; Mughal, Moina Akhtar

    2014-01-01

    Extensive investigation has shown that smokeless tobacco (SLT) may cause inflammation of the oral cavity. In this study, the concentration of arsenic (As) was determined in SLT products (gutkha, mainpuri, and dry and moist snuff). Scalp hair samples of males aged 20-30 years who consumed different types of SLT products available in Pakistan were analyzed for As contents. Total As in different SLT products and in scalp hair was determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry after microwave-assisted extraction. The validity of the methodology was tested by simultaneously analyzing certified reference materials and spike recovery studies. The range of As concentrations in moist snuff, dry snuff, gutkha, and mainpuri were 0.574-1.53, 0.642-1.07, 0.246-0.622, and 0.419-0.874 μg/g, respectively. We estimated that a daily intake of 10 g of all SLT products could contribute 2.0-12.2% of the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake for As in adults. The As concentration in scalp hair of SLT consumers was higher than that of referents who had not consumed any type of tobacco products. PMID:25632442

  12. Influence of defatted soy flour addition on the quality and stability of pretzel type product.

    PubMed

    Naik, Haroon Rashid; Sekhon, K S

    2014-03-01

    Effect of soya flour addition to 70% extraction bread wheat flour (PBW-343) at (0, 5, 10, 20 & 30%) was investigated for physico-chemical, dough handling and pretzel making properties. Results revealed that with increasing DSF addition, farinogram characteristics; water absorption, arrival time, dough development time and dough stability increased while mixing tolerance index and degree of softening decreased. Amylogram characteristics gelatinization temperature, peak viscosity, peak temperature and viscosity at 95 °C decreased with extended rate of DSF addition. Pretzels developed with different levels of DSF addition observed decrease in moisture, fat, non reducing sugars and starch where as ash, protein, reducing and total sugars increased compared to control. Calories calculated from proximate composition showed lower values than control due to high protein and low fat soy flour addition. Minerals increased significantly with increased levels of defatted soy flour addition. Organoleptic evaluation revealed that 5% level of soy flour blended pretzels were found best with respect to texture, colour and flavor on the basis of mean acceptability scores. Pretzels recorded shelf life of 90 days in laminated pouches irrespective of the level of DSF addition. PMID:24587534

  13. Whey fermentation by Anaerobiospirillum succiniciproducens for production of a succinate-based animal feed additive

    SciTech Connect

    Samuelov, N.S.; Datta, R.; Jain, M.K. |; Zeikus, J.G. |

    1999-05-01

    Anaerobic fermentation processes for the production of a succinate-rich animal feed supplement from raw whey were investigated with batch, continuous, and variable-volume fed-batch cultures with Anaerobiospirillum succiniciproducens. The highest succinate yield, 90%, was obtained in a variable-volume fed-batch process in comparison to 80% yield in a batch cultivation mode. In continuous culture, succinate productivity was 3 g/liter/h, and the yield was 60%. Under conditions of excess CO{sub 2}, more than 90% of the whey-lactose was consumed, with an end product ratio of 4 succinate to 1 acetate. Under conditions of limited CO{sub 2}, lactose was only partially consumed and lactate was the major end product, with lower levels of ethanol, succinate, and acetate. When the succinic acid in this fermentation product was added to rumen fluid, it was completely consumed by a mixed rumen population and was 90% decarboxylated to propionate on a molar basis. The whey fermentation product formed under excess CO{sub 2}, which contained mainly organic acids and cells, could potentially be used as an animal feed supplement.

  14. The total and freely dissolved polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons content in residues from biogas production.

    PubMed

    Stefaniuk, Magdalena; Oleszczuk, Patryk

    2016-01-01

    In the situation of increasing agricultural utilization of residues from biogas production (RBP) it is important to determine the concentration of contaminants, which could occur in these materials. The group of contaminants that requires special attention are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The objective of the study was to determine the total and freely dissolved (Cfree) of PAHs in RBP from 6 different biogas plants operating under various temperature conditions and without or with the separation into the solid and liquid fractions. The freely dissolved PAHs were determined using polyoxymethylene (POM method). The total content of the Σ16 PAHs in RBP varied from 449 to 6147 μg/kgdw, while that of Cfree PAHs was at the level from 57 to 653 ng/L. No significant differences were noted in the content of the Σ16 PAHs (total) between the solid and the liquid fractions. This indicates that in the course of the separation, the PAHs are distributed proportionally between the fractions. However in the case of Cfree, PAHs content in the solid fraction was over twice as high as in the liquid fraction. This was probably due to the greater affinity of the particles present in the liquid fraction to the analysed PAHs than to the particles of the solid fraction. Higher affinity to liquid fraction was also confirmed by the distribution coefficients KTOC determined on the basis of Cfree.

  15. Effect of Fodder Tree Species with Condensed Tannin Contents on In vitro Methane Production.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, Ernestina Gutiérrez; Medina, Leonardo Hernández; Benavides, Liliana Márquez; Caratachea, Aureliano Juárez; Razo, Guillermo Salas; Burgos, Armin Javier Ayala; Rodríguez, Ruy Ortiz

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of fodder tree species (FTS) with condensed tannin contents: Cordia elaeagnoides, Platymiscium lasiocarpum, Vitex mollis, and Haematoxylon brasiletto, on in vitro methane (CH4) production at 24 h post incubation. The analysis was performed using the in vitro gas production technique, with three levels of inclusion/species: 600, 800, and 1,000 mg and with 4 replicates/species/level of inclusion. The substrate was incubated at 39°C, and the gas and CH4 production were recorded at 4, 8, 12, and 24 h post incubation. The data collected was analyzed through Pearson correlation, polinomial regression and fixed effects models. There were negative correlations between FTS-total gas volume (r = -0.40; p<0.001); FTS-volume of CH4 produced (r = -0.40; p<0.001) and between the inclusion level-volume of CH4 produced (r = -0.20; p<0.001). As well as a positive correlation between hours post incubation-total gas volume (r = 0.42; p<0.001) and between hours post incubation-volume of CH4 produced (r = 0.48; p<0.001). The FTS: C. elaeagnoides, V. mollis, and H. brasiletto have potential, in the three inclusion levels analyzed, to reduce CH4 emission on in vitro trials (>32.7%), taking into account the total CH4 production at 24 h of the forage used as reference (Avena sativa). It's suggested that C. elaeagnoides-according to its crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and condensed tannins content- is the best alternative within the FTS analyzed, for feeding ruminants and for the control of CH4 emissions during the dry season. PMID:26732330

  16. Further improvement in ganoderic acid production in static liquid culture of Ganoderma lucidum by integrating nitrogen limitation and calcium ion addition.

    PubMed

    Li, Huan-Jun; Zhang, De-Huai; Han, Li-Liang; Yu, Xuya; Zhao, Peng; Li, Tao; Zhong, Jian-Jiang; Xu, Jun-Wei

    2016-01-01

    To further improve the ganoderic acid (GA) production, a novel integrated strategy by combining nitrogen limitation and calcium ion addition was developed. The effects of the integrated combination on the content of GA-T (one powerful anticancer compound), their intermediates (squalene and lanosterol) and on the transcription levels of GA biosynthetic genes in G. lucidum fermentation were investigated. The maximum GA-T content with the integrated strategy were 1.87 mg/ 100 mg dry cell weight, which was 2.1-4.2 fold higher than that obtained with either calcium ion addition or nitrogen limitation alone, and it is also the highest record as ever reported in submerged fermentation of G. lucidum. The squalene content was increased by 3.9- and 2.2-fold in this case compared with either individual strategy alone. Moreover, the transcription levels of the GA biosynthetic genes encoding 3-hydroxy-3-methyglutaryl coenzyme A reductase and lanosterol synthase were also up-regulated by 3.3-7.5 and 1.3-2.3 fold, respectively. PMID:26508324

  17. Further improvement in ganoderic acid production in static liquid culture of Ganoderma lucidum by integrating nitrogen limitation and calcium ion addition.

    PubMed

    Li, Huan-Jun; Zhang, De-Huai; Han, Li-Liang; Yu, Xuya; Zhao, Peng; Li, Tao; Zhong, Jian-Jiang; Xu, Jun-Wei

    2016-01-01

    To further improve the ganoderic acid (GA) production, a novel integrated strategy by combining nitrogen limitation and calcium ion addition was developed. The effects of the integrated combination on the content of GA-T (one powerful anticancer compound), their intermediates (squalene and lanosterol) and on the transcription levels of GA biosynthetic genes in G. lucidum fermentation were investigated. The maximum GA-T content with the integrated strategy were 1.87 mg/ 100 mg dry cell weight, which was 2.1-4.2 fold higher than that obtained with either calcium ion addition or nitrogen limitation alone, and it is also the highest record as ever reported in submerged fermentation of G. lucidum. The squalene content was increased by 3.9- and 2.2-fold in this case compared with either individual strategy alone. Moreover, the transcription levels of the GA biosynthetic genes encoding 3-hydroxy-3-methyglutaryl coenzyme A reductase and lanosterol synthase were also up-regulated by 3.3-7.5 and 1.3-2.3 fold, respectively.

  18. Evaluation of additional cooking procedures to achieve lethality microbiological performance standards for large, intact meat products.

    PubMed

    Haneklaus, A N; Harris, K B; Cuervo, M P; Ilhak, O I; Lucia, L M; Castillo, A; Hardin, M D; Osburn, W N; Savell, J W

    2011-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service (USDA-FSIS) has a specific lethality performance standard for ready-to-eat products. To assist meat processing establishments in meeting the performance standard, USDA-FSIS developed Appendix A, which provides guidelines for cooking temperatures, times, and relative humidity. This project determined whether the USDA-FSIS performance standards for lethality were met when using parameters other than those identified in Appendix A to cook large hams and beef inside rounds. The effects of alternative lethality parameters on the reduction of Salmonella Typhimurium and coliforms and on the toxin production of Staphylococcus aureus were evaluated. Large (9- to 12-kg) cured bone-in hams (n = 80) and large (8- to 13-kg) uncured beef inside rounds (n = 80) were used in this study. The products were subjected to 1 of 10 treatments defined by combinations of final internal product temperatures (48.9, 54.4, 60.0, 65.6, or 71.1°C) and batch oven relative humidities (50 or 90 % ). For all treatments, at least a 6.5-log reduction in Salmonella Typhimurium was achieved. The coliform counts were also substantially reduced for both hams and rounds. Across all treatments for both products, S. aureus toxin production was not detected. The relative humidity did not alter the lethality effectiveness for any of the treatments. The final internal temperatures and relative humidity combinations used in this project achieved the lethality performance standard established by USDA-FSIS for fully cooked, ready-to-eat products. PMID:22004824

  19. Quantifying blue and green virtual water contents in global crop production as well as potential production losses without irrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siebert, Stefan; Döll, Petra

    2010-04-01

    SummaryCrop production requires large amounts of green and blue water. We developed the new global crop water model GCWM to compute consumptive water use (evapotranspiration) and virtual water content (evapotranspiration per harvested biomass) of crops at a spatial resolution of 5' by 5', distinguishing 26 crop classes, and blue versus green water. GCWM is based on the global land use data set MIRCA2000 that provides monthly growing areas for 26 crop classes under rainfed and irrigated conditions for the period 1998-2002 and represents multi-cropping. By computing daily soil water balances, GCWM determines evapotranspiration of blue and green water for each crop and grid cell. Cell-specific crop production under both rainfed and irrigated conditions is computed by downscaling average crop yields reported for 402 national and sub-national statistical units, relating rainfed and irrigated crop yields reported in census statistics to simulated ratios of actual to potential crop evapotranspiration for rainfed crops. By restricting water use of irrigated crops to green water only, the potential production loss without any irrigation was computed. For the period 1998-2002, the global value of total crop water use was 6685 km 3 yr -1, of which blue water use was 1180 km 3 yr -1, green water use of irrigated crops was 919 km 3 yr -1 and green water use of rainfed crops was 4586 km 3 yr -1. Total crop water use was largest for rice (941 km 3 yr -1), wheat (858 km 3 yr -1) and maize (722 km 3 yr -1). The largest amounts of blue water were used for rice (307 km 3 yr -1) and wheat (208 km 3 yr -1). Blue water use as percentage of total crop water use was highest for date palms (85%), cotton (39%), citrus fruits (33%), rice (33%) and sugar beets (32%), while for cassava, oil palm and cocoa, almost no blue water was used. Average crop yield of irrigated cereals was 442 Mg km -2 while average yield of rainfed cereals was only 266 Mg km -2. Average virtual water content of cereal

  20. Associating cooking additives with sodium hydroxide to pretreat bamboo residues for improving the enzymatic saccharification and monosaccharides production.

    PubMed

    Huang, Caoxing; He, Juan; Wang, Yan; Min, Douyong; Yong, Qiang

    2015-10-01

    Cooking additive pulping technique is used in kraft mill to increase delignification degree and pulp yield. In this work, cooking additives were firstly applied in the sodium hydroxide pretreatment for improving the bioconversion of bamboo residues to monosaccharides. Meanwhile, steam explosion and sulfuric acid pretreatments were also carried out on the sample to compare their impacts on monosaccharides production. Results indicated that associating anthraquinone with sodium hydroxide pretreatment showed the best performance in improving the original carbohydrates recovery, delignification, enzymatic saccharification, and monosaccharides production. After consecutive pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification process, 347.49 g, 307.48 g, 142.93 g, and 87.15 g of monosaccharides were released from 1000 g dry bamboo residues pretreated by sodium hydroxide associating with anthraquinone, sodium hydroxide, steam explosion and sulfuric acid, respectively. The results suggested that associating cooking additive with sodium hydroxide is an effective pretreatment for bamboo residues to enhance enzymatic saccharification for monosaccharides production.

  1. [Impact on human health of hormonal additives used in animal production].

    PubMed

    Larrea, Fernando; Chirinos, Mayel

    2007-01-01

    The establishment of the impact of environmental compounds or additives with hormone-like activity on human health still requires further investigation, as well as a reexamination of biologic models and experimental methodology employed so far. In 1988, the FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives Joint with the Federal Drug Administration (FDA) considered that sexual hormone residues usually present in meat do not represent a risk for human consumption. Nevertheless, this resolution seems to be uncertain since the scientific elements employed for this statement may not be adequate. In this review the principal objections to the evidence used to establish the innocuousness of growth promoter hormones are considered.

  2. [Impact on human health of hormonal additives used in animal production].

    PubMed

    Larrea, Fernando; Chirinos, Mayel

    2007-01-01

    The establishment of the impact of environmental compounds or additives with hormone-like activity on human health still requires further investigation, as well as a reexamination of biologic models and experimental methodology employed so far. In 1988, the FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives Joint with the Federal Drug Administration (FDA) considered that sexual hormone residues usually present in meat do not represent a risk for human consumption. Nevertheless, this resolution seems to be uncertain since the scientific elements employed for this statement may not be adequate. In this review the principal objections to the evidence used to establish the innocuousness of growth promoter hormones are considered. PMID:17910413

  3. Observability considerations for multi-sensor and product fusion: Bias, information content, and validation (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, J. S.; Zhang, J.; Hyer, E. J.; Campbell, J. R.; Christopher, S. A.; Ferrare, R. A.; Leptoukh, G. G.; Stackhouse, P. W.

    2009-12-01

    With the successful development of many aerosol products from the NASA A-train as well as new operational geostationary and polar orbiting sensors, the scientific community now has a host of new parameters to use in their analyses. The variety and quality of products has reached a point where the community has moved from basic observation-based science to sophisticated multi-component research that addresses the complex atmospheric environment. In order for these satellite data contribute to the science their uncertainty levels must move from semi-quantitative to quantitative. Initial attempts to quantify uncertainties have led to some recent debate in the community as to the efficacy of aerosol products from current and future NASA satellite sensors. In an effort to understand the state of satellite product fidelity, the Naval Research Laboratory and a newly reformed Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) aerosol panel have both initiated assessments of the nature of aerosol remote sensing uncertainty and bias. In this talk we go over areas of specific concern based on the authors’ experiences with the data, emphasizing the multi-sensor problem. We first enumerate potential biases, including retrieval, sampling/contextual, and cognitive bias. We show examples of how these biases can subsequently lead to the pitfalls of correlated/compensating errors, tautology, and confounding. The nature of bias is closely related to the information content of the sensor signal and its subsequent application to the derived aerosol quantity of interest (e.g., optical depth, flux, index of refraction, etc.). Consequently, purpose-specific validation methods must be employed, especially when generating multi-sensor products. Indeed, cloud and lower boundary condition biases in particular complicate the more typical methods of regressional bias elimination and histogram matching. We close with a discussion of sequestration of uncertainty in multi-sensor applications of

  4. 40 CFR 82.18 - Availability of production in addition to baseline production allowances for class II controlled...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quantity of production that the nation is permitted under the Montreal Protocol or to receive from the... allowances, for a specified control period through trades with another Party to the Protocol as set forth in... that is also listed in Appendix C, Annex 1 of the Protocol as having ratified the Beijing...

  5. 40 CFR 82.18 - Availability of production in addition to baseline production allowances for class II controlled...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quantity of production that the nation is permitted under the Montreal Protocol or to receive from the... allowances, for a specified control period through trades with another Party to the Protocol as set forth in... that is also listed in Appendix C, Annex 1 of the Protocol as having ratified the Beijing...

  6. 40 CFR 82.18 - Availability of production in addition to baseline production allowances for class II controlled...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quantity of production that the nation is permitted under the Montreal Protocol or to receive from the... allowances, for a specified control period through trades with another Party to the Protocol as set forth in... that is also listed in Appendix C, Annex 1 of the Protocol as having ratified the Beijing...

  7. Nuclear DNA content affects the productivity of conifer forests by altering hydraulic architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alday, Josu; Resco de Dios, Víctor

    2014-05-01

    Predictions of future global climate rely on feedbacks between terrestrial vegetation and the global carbon cycle, but the exact mechanisms underlying this relationship are still being discussed. One of the key knowledge gaps lies on the scaling of cellular processes to the ecosystem level. Here we examine whether an under-explored plant trait, inter-specific variation in the bulk amount of DNA in unreplicated somatic cells (2C DNA content), can explain inter-specific variation in the maximum productivity of conifer forests. We expected 2C DNA content to be negatively related to conifer productivity because: 1) it is positively correlated with cell volume (which, in turn, potentially affects structural features such as leaf mass area, a strong predictor of photosynthetic capacity); 2) it is positively correlated with stomatal size (with larger stomata leading to lower overall stomatal conductance and, by extension, lower CO2 uptake); and 3) larger genome sizes may reduce P availability in RNA (which has been hypothesized to slow growth). We present the results of regression and independent contrasts in different monospecific forests encompassing a 52º latitudinal gradient, each being dominated by 1 of 35 different conifer species. Contrary to expectations, we observed a positive correlation between genome size and maximum Gross Primary Productivity (R2 = 0.47) and also between genome size maximum tree height (R2 = 0.27). This correlation was apparently driven by the effects of genome size on stem hydraulics, since 2C DNA was positively correlated with wood density (R2 = 0.40) and also with resistance to cavitation (P50, R2 = 0.28). That is, increased genome sizes have a positive effect on the productivity of conifer forests by affecting the vascular tissues to increase their capacity for water transport. Our results shed a new light on the evolution of the vascular system of conifer forests and how they affect ecosystem productivity, and indicate the potential to

  8. Potential environmental benefits of feed additives and other strategies for ruminant production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Environmental pollution and food safety are two important concerns that impact ruminant production around the world. The growing public concern over chemical residues in animal-derived foods and threats of antibiotic-resistant bacteria have renewed interest in exploring safer alternatives to chemic...

  9. Teachers' Misconceptions about the Effects of Addition of More Reactants or Products on Chemical Equilibrium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Derek; Ma, Hong-jia; Yang, Jie

    2009-01-01

    The importance of research on misconceptions about chemical equilibrium is well recognized by educators, but in the past, researchers' interest has centered on student misconceptions and has neglected teacher misconceptions. Focusing on the effects of adding more reactants or products on chemical equilibrium, this article discusses the various…

  10. Wheat Leaf Rust Uredospore Production on Adult Plants: Influence of Leaf Nitrogen Content and Septoria tritici Blotch.

    PubMed

    Robert, Corinne; Bancal, Marie-Odile; Lannou, Christian

    2004-07-01

    ABSTRACT Leaf rust uredospore production and lesion size were measured on flag leaves of adult wheat plants in a glasshouse for different lesion densities. We estimated the spore weight produced per square centimeter of infected leaf, per lesion, and per unit of sporulating area. Three levels of fertilization were applied to the plants to obtain different nitrogen content for the inoculated leaves. In a fourth treatment, we evaluated the effect of Septoria tritici blotch on leaf rust uredospore production. The nitrogen and carbon content of the spores was unaffected or marginally affected by lesion density, host leaf nitrogen content, or the presence of Mycosphaerella graminicola on the same leaf. In leaves with a low-nitrogen content, spore production per lesion was reduced, but lesion size was unaffected. A threshold effect of leaf nitrogen content in spore production was however, evident, since production was similar in the medium- and high-fertilizer treatments. In leaves inoculated with M. graminicola and Puccinia triticina, the rust lesions were smaller and produced fewer spores. The relationships among rust lesion density, lesion size, and uredospore production were fitted to a model. We determined that the density effect on spore production resulted mainly from a reduction in lesion size, the spore production per unit of sporulating surface being largely independent of lesion density. These results are consistent with those obtained previously on wheat seedlings. The main difference was that the sporulation period lasted longer in adult leaves.

  11. Effect of the addition of fatty by-products from the refining of vegetable oil on methane production in co-digestion.

    PubMed

    Torrijos, M; Sousbie, P; Badey, L; Bosque, F; Steyer, J P

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate the effects of the addition of by-products from the refining of vegetable oil on the behavior of co-digestion reactors treating a mixture of grass, cow dung and fruit and vegetable waste. Three by-products were used: one soapstock, one used winterization earth and one skimming of aeroflotation of the effluents. Three 15 l reactors were run in parallel and fed five times a week. In a first phase of 4 weeks, the three reactors were fed with the co-digestion substrates alone (grass, cow dung and fruit and vegetable waste) at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 1.5 g VS/kg d (VS: volatile solids). Then, a different by-product from the refining of oil was added to the feed of each reactor at an OLR of 0.5 g VS/kg d, generating a 33% increase in the OLR. The results show that the addition of by-products from the refining of oil is an efficient way of increasing the methane production of co-digestion reactors thanks to high methane yield of such by-products (0.69-0.77 l CH(4)/g VS loaded). In fact, in this work, it was possible to raise the methane production of the reactors by about 60% through a 33% increase in the OLR thanks to the addition of the by-products from the refining of vegetable oil.

  12. The value of crude protein content and in vitro pepsin digestibility of abattoir by-product meals in the prediction of their available protein content.

    PubMed

    Hegedüs, M; Bokori, J; Andrásofszky, E

    1989-01-01

    Amino acid composition of meat-and-bone meals, poultry by-product meals, blood meals, bone meals and feather meals showed characteristic differences. Meat-and-bone meals and blood meals had surplus in lysine, whereas poultry by-product meals and feather meals were relatively rich in cystine. Blood meals had high levels of branched-chain amino acids as compared to isoleucine. In vitro pepsin digestibility of meat-and-bone meals (79.9 +/- 17.7%; n = 24) and blood meals (95.8 +/- 4.2%; n = 11) was found to be higher than that of poultry by-product meals (65.3 +/- 7.7%; n = 14) or feather meals (44.7 +/- 9.2%; n = 16). Pepsin digestibility of poultry by-product meals showed a significant negative correlation with crude protein content (r = -0.73; P less than 0.05; n = 14). However, in vitro pepsin digestibility of poultry by-product meals as well as meat-and-bone meals, blood meals and feather meals, showed insignificant correlations with NPU indices as well as with available crude protein contents of the meals. The NPU values of meat-and-bone meals for rats (29.9 +/- 11.7; n = 100) were lower than those of poultry by-product meals (52.1 +/- 7.1; n = 14). The NPU values of blood meals (6.4 +/- 5.6; n = 11) and feather meals (23.5 +/- 10.0; n = 16), determined as sole sources of protein, were low and they did not elicit weight gain in rats. The available crude protein content of poultry by-product meals (34.3 g/100 g +/- 3.6; n = 14) was higher than that of meat-and-bone meals (17.0 g/100 g +/- 7.3; n = 100).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Determination of Protein Content by NIR Spectroscopy in Protein Powder Mix Products.

    PubMed

    Ingle, Prashant D; Christian, Roney; Purohit, Piyush; Zarraga, Veronica; Handley, Erica; Freel, Keith; Abdo, Saleem

    2016-01-01

    Protein is a principal component in commonly used dietary supplements and health food products. The analysis of these products, within the consumer package form, is of critical importance for the purpose of ensuring quality and supporting label claims. A rapid test method was developed using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy as a compliment to current protein determination by the Dumas combustion method. The NIR method was found to be a rapid, low-cost, and green (no use of chemicals and reagents) complimentary technique. The protein powder samples analyzed in this study were in the range of 22-90% protein. The samples were prepared as mixtures of soy protein, whey protein, and silicon dioxide ingredients, which are common in commercially sold protein powder drink-mix products in the market. A NIR regression model was developed with 17 samples within the constituent range and was validated with 20 independent samples of known protein levels (85-88%). The results show that the NIR method is capable of predicting the protein content with a bias of ±2% and a maximum bias of 3% between NIR and the external Dumas method. PMID:26960288

  14. Production of cellobionate from cellulose using an engineered Neurospora crassa strain with laccase and redox mediator addition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report a novel production process for cellobionic acid from cellulose using an engineered fungal strain with the exogenous addition of laccase and a redox mediator. A previously engineered strain of Neurospora crassa (F5'ace-1'cre-1'ndvB) was shown to produce cellobionate directly from cellulose ...

  15. THE COMBINED CARCINOGENIC RISK FOR EXPOSURE TO MIXTURES OF DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS MAY BE LESS THAN ADDITIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Combined Carcinogenic Risk for Exposure to Mixtures of Drinking Water Disinfection By-Products May be Less Than Additive

    Risk assessment methods for chemical mixtures in drinking water are not well defined. Current default risk assessments for chemical mixtures assume...

  16. PILOT-SCALE STUDIES ON THE EFFECT OF BROMINE ADDITION ON THE EMISSIONS OF CHLORINATED ORGANIC COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The addition of brominated organic compounds to the feed of a pilot-scale incinerator burning chlorinated waste has been found previously, under some circumstances, to enhance emissions of volatile and semivolatile organic chlorinated products of incomplete combustion (PiCs) incl...

  17. Search for Anomalous Production of Events with Two Photons and Additional Energetic Objects at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Aaltonen, T.; Adelman, J.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Apresyan, A.; Arisawa, T.; /Waseda U. /Dubna, JINR

    2009-10-01

    The authors present results of a search for anomalous production of two photons together with an electron, muon, {tau} lepton, missing transverse energy, or jets using p{bar p} collision data from 1.1-2.0 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity collected by the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF). The event yields and kinematic distributions are examined for signs for new physics without favoring a specific model of new physics. The results are consistent with the standard model expectations. The search employs several new analysis techniques that significantly reduce instrumental backgrounds in channels with an electron and missing transverse energy.

  18. Two-step in situ biodiesel production from microalgae with high free fatty acid content.

    PubMed

    Dong, Tao; Wang, Jun; Miao, Chao; Zheng, Yubin; Chen, Shulin

    2013-05-01

    The yield of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) from microalgae biomass is generally low via traditional extraction-conversion route due to the deficient solvent extraction. In this study a two-step in situ process was investigated to obtain a high FAME yield from microalgae biomass that had high free fatty acids (FFA) content. This was accomplished with a pre-esterification process using heterogeneous catalyst to reduce FFA content prior to the base-catalyzed transesterification. The two-step in situ process resulted in a total FAME recovery up to 94.87±0.86%, which was much higher than that obtained by a one-step acid or base catalytic in situ process. The heterogeneous catalyst, Amberlyst-15, could be used for 8 cycles without significant loss in activity. This process have the potential to reduce the production cost of microalgae-derived FAME and be more environmental compatible due to the higher FAME yield with reduced catalyst consumption. PMID:23548399

  19. [Hygienic evaluation of the content of heavy metals (lead and copper) in cosmetic products].

    PubMed

    Tsankov, Iu; Iordanova, I; Lolova, D; Uzunova, S; Dinoeva, S

    1982-01-01

    Heavy metals /lead and copper/ content was studied in various cosmetic articles: creams and cleansing milk, shampoos, hair dyes, eye shadows, rouge, lipsticks, powders, fond de teint, tooth pastes. The method flame atom-absorption spectrometry with chelation and extraction was used for their determination. The subacute dermal toxicity on albino rats was studied with working doses: lead--1,10 and 100 mg/kg, and copper--5,50 and 500 mg/kg. The content of lead and copper was established to be low in the majority of the cosmetic articles studied /lead--to 2.08 mg/kg, copper--to 6,28 mg/kg/and only in some of the articles of decorative cosmetic, it is considerably higher /lead--to 41,1 mg/kg, copper--to 138,6 mg/kg. That is due to the inadequate purification of the initial raw materials or to the presence of copper-containing dyes in the composition of the respective cosmetic article. As a result from the toxicological and pathoanatomical studies the small doses /lead 1 mg/kg and copper 5 mg/kg are defined as ineffective, and the high doses--with a light biological effect. The maximum allowable concentration of lead is proposed to be--10 mg/kg, and copper--50 mg/kg as side /technical/ pollutants in the production of cosmetic articles.

  20. Nutrient content of milk and milk products: water soluble vitamins in baby milk formulae.

    PubMed

    Scott, K J; Bishop, D R

    1985-11-01

    A study of the content of water soluble vitamins in the 12 baby milk formulae available in the UK in April 1983 showed that levels of vitamins in the individual brands were generally in excess of those declared by the manufacturer. For cows' milk based formulae the mean excess of vitamins over the declared level was 94%. Vitamin levels in prepared formulae averaged three times the minimum recommended level. The average level of B vitamins in prepared cows' milk based formulae was six times higher than in mature human milk. For the two soya based products, the levels of vitamins were generally in excess of the declared level and levels of vitamin B12, biotin and, in one sample, vitamin B6 were considerably in excess of those found in mature human milk.

  1. Additive Manufacturing for Cost Efficient Production of Compact Ceramic Heat Exchangers and Recuperators

    SciTech Connect

    Shulman, Holly; Ross, Nicole

    2015-10-30

    An additive manufacture technique known as laminated object manufacturing (LOM) was used to fabricate compact ceramic heat exchanger prototypes. LOM uses precision CO2 laser cutting of ceramic green tapes, which are then precision stacked to build a 3D object with fine internal features. Modeling was used to develop prototype designs and predict the thermal response, stress, and efficiency in the ceramic heat exchangers. Build testing and materials analyses were used to provide feedback for the design selection. During this development process, laminated object manufacturing protocols were established. This included laser optimization, strategies for fine feature integrity, lamination fluid control, green handling, and firing profile. Three full size prototypes were fabricated using two different designs. One prototype was selected for performance testing. During testing, cross talk leakage prevented the application of a high pressure differential, however, the prototype was successful at withstanding the high temperature operating conditions (1300 °F). In addition, analysis showed that the bulk of the part did not have cracks or leakage issues. This led to the development of a module method for next generation LOM heat exchangers. A scale-up cost analysis showed that given a purpose built LOM system, these ceramic heat exchangers would be affordable for the applications.

  2. Seagrass metabolism across a productivity gradient using the eddy covariance, Eulerian control volume, and biomass addition techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Matthew H.; Berg, Peter; Falter, James L.

    2015-05-01

    The net ecosystem metabolism of the seagrass Thalassia testudinum was studied across a nutrient and productivity gradient in Florida Bay, Florida, using the Eulerian control volume, eddy covariance, and biomass addition techniques. In situ oxygen fluxes were determined by a triangular Eulerian control volume with sides 250 m long and by eddy covariance instrumentation at its center. The biomass addition technique evaluated the aboveground seagrass productivity through the net biomass added. The spatial and temporal resolutions, accuracies, and applicability of each method were compared. The eddy covariance technique better resolved the short-term flux rates and the productivity gradient across the bay, which was consistent with the long-term measurements from the biomass addition technique. The net primary production rates from the biomass addition technique, which were expected to show greater autotrophy due to the exclusion of sediment metabolism and belowground production, were 71, 53, and 30 mmol carbon m-2 d-1 at 3 sites across the bay. The net ecosystem metabolism was 35, 25, and 11 mmol oxygen m-2 d-1 from the eddy covariance technique and 10, -103, and 14 mmol oxygen m-2 d-1 from the Eulerian control volume across the same sites, respectively. The low-flow conditions in the shallow bays allowed for periodic stratification and long residence times within the Eulerian control volume that likely reduced its precision. Overall, the eddy covariance technique had the highest temporal resolution while producing accurate long-term flux rates that surpassed the capabilities of the biomass addition and Eulerian control volume techniques in these shallow coastal bays.

  3. Nutrient additions by waterfowl to lakes and reservoirs: predicting their effects on productivity and water quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manny, Bruce A.; Johnson, W.C.; Wetzel, R.G.

    1994-01-01

    Lakes and reservoirs provide water for human needs and habitat for aquatic birds. Managers of such waters may ask whether nutrients added by waterfowl degrade water quality. For lakes and reservoirs where primary productivity is limited by phosphorus (P), we developed a procedure that integrates annual P loads from waterfowl and other external sources, applies a nutrient load-response model, and determines whether waterfowl that used the lake or reservoir degraded water quality. Annual P loading by waterfowl can be derived from a figure in this report, using the days per year that each kind spent on any lake or reservoir. In our example, over 6500 Canada geese (Branta canadensis) and 4200 ducks (mostly mallards, Anas platyrhynchos) added 4462 kg of carbon (C), 280 kg of nitrogen (N), and 88 kg of P y-1 to Wintergreen Lake in southwestern Michigan, mostly during their migration. These amounts were 69% of all C, 27% of all N, and 70% of all P that entered the lake from external sources. Loads from all external sources totaled 840 mg P m-2 y-1. Application of a nutrient load-response model to this concentration, the hydraulic load (0.25 m y-1), and the water residence time (9.7 y) of Wintergreen Lake yielded an average annual concentration of total P in the lake of 818 mg m-3 that classified the lake as hypertrophic. This trophic classification agreed with independent measures of primary productivity, chlorophyll-a, total P, total N, and Secchi disk transparency made in Wintergreen Lake. Our procedure showed that waterfowl caused low water quality in Wintergreen Lake.

  4. Hydrogen production by auto-thermal reforming of ethanol over Ni/γ-Al 2O 3 catalysts: Effect of second metal addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youn, Min Hye; Seo, Jeong Gil; Kim, Pil; Kim, Jae Jeong; Lee, Ho-In; Song, In Kyu

    Ni/γ-Al 2O 3 catalysts containing a second metal (Ce, Co, Cu, Mg and Zn) are prepared by a co-impregnation method to investigate the effect of second metal addition on the catalytic performance in the auto-thermal reforming of ethanol. Among the second metals tested, Cu is found to be the most efficient promoter for the production of hydrogen. It is revealed that Cu species are active in the water-gas shift reaction to produce hydrogen from CO and H 2O, and furthermore, Cu species serve as a barrier for preventing the growth of Ni particles. In particular, the addition of Cu decreases the interaction between Ni-species and γ-Al 2O 3, leading to the facile reduction of Ni-Cu/γ-Al 2O 3 catalyst. Among Ni-Cu/γ-Al 2O 3 catalysts with different Cu content, a 5 wt.% Cu-containing Ni-Cu/γ-Al 2O 3 catalyst, which retains an intermediate state of Cu species between copper aluminate and copper oxide, shows the best catalytic performance in terms of hydrogen production and CO composition in the outlet stream. By contrast, a 7 wt.% Cu-containing Ni-Cu/γ-Al 2O 3 catalyst exhibits rather a low catalytic performance in the production of hydrogen because of the suppressed gasification activity over large Cu particles in the catalyst.

  5. Jatropha oil derived sophorolipids: production and characterization as laundry detergent additive.

    PubMed

    Joshi-Navare, Kasturi; Khanvilkar, Poonam; Prabhune, Asmita

    2013-01-01

    Sophorolipids (SLs) are glycolipidic biosurfactants suitable for various biological and physicochemical applications. The nonedible Jatropha oil has been checked as the alternative raw material for SL synthesis using C. bombicola (ATCC22214). This is useful towards lowering the SL production cost. Through optimization of fermentation parameters and use of resting cell method, the yield 15.25 g/L could be achieved for Jatropha oil derived SL (SLJO) with 1% v/v oil feeding. The synthesized SL displayed good surfactant property. It reduced the surface tension of distilled water from 70.7 mN/m to 33.5 mN/m with the Critical Micelle Concentration (CMC) value of 9.5 mg/L. Keeping the prospective use of the SL in mind, the physicochemical properties were checked along with emulsion stability under temperature, pH stress, and in hard water. Also antibacterial action and stain removal capability in comparison with commercial detergent was demonstrated. SLJO enhanced the detergent performance. Based on the results, it can be said that SLs have utility as fabric cleaner with advantageous properties such as skin friendly nature, antibacterial action, and biodegradability. Therefore SLs are potential green molecules to replace synthetic surfactants in detergents so as to reduce harm caused to environment through detergent usage.

  6. Jatropha Oil Derived Sophorolipids: Production and Characterization as Laundry Detergent Additive

    PubMed Central

    Joshi-Navare, Kasturi; Khanvilkar, Poonam; Prabhune, Asmita

    2013-01-01

    Sophorolipids (SLs) are glycolipidic biosurfactants suitable for various biological and physicochemical applications. The nonedible Jatropha oil has been checked as the alternative raw material for SL synthesis using C. bombicola (ATCC22214). This is useful towards lowering the SL production cost. Through optimization of fermentation parameters and use of resting cell method, the yield 15.25 g/L could be achieved for Jatropha oil derived SL (SLJO) with 1% v/v oil feeding. The synthesized SL displayed good surfactant property. It reduced the surface tension of distilled water from 70.7 mN/m to 33.5 mN/m with the Critical Micelle Concentration (CMC) value of 9.5 mg/L. Keeping the prospective use of the SL in mind, the physicochemical properties were checked along with emulsion stability under temperature, pH stress, and in hard water. Also antibacterial action and stain removal capability in comparison with commercial detergent was demonstrated. SLJO enhanced the detergent performance. Based on the results, it can be said that SLs have utility as fabric cleaner with advantageous properties such as skin friendly nature, antibacterial action, and biodegradability. Therefore SLs are potential green molecules to replace synthetic surfactants in detergents so as to reduce harm caused to environment through detergent usage. PMID:24455261

  7. Jatropha oil derived sophorolipids: production and characterization as laundry detergent additive.

    PubMed

    Joshi-Navare, Kasturi; Khanvilkar, Poonam; Prabhune, Asmita

    2013-01-01

    Sophorolipids (SLs) are glycolipidic biosurfactants suitable for various biological and physicochemical applications. The nonedible Jatropha oil has been checked as the alternative raw material for SL synthesis using C. bombicola (ATCC22214). This is useful towards lowering the SL production cost. Through optimization of fermentation parameters and use of resting cell method, the yield 15.25 g/L could be achieved for Jatropha oil derived SL (SLJO) with 1% v/v oil feeding. The synthesized SL displayed good surfactant property. It reduced the surface tension of distilled water from 70.7 mN/m to 33.5 mN/m with the Critical Micelle Concentration (CMC) value of 9.5 mg/L. Keeping the prospective use of the SL in mind, the physicochemical properties were checked along with emulsion stability under temperature, pH stress, and in hard water. Also antibacterial action and stain removal capability in comparison with commercial detergent was demonstrated. SLJO enhanced the detergent performance. Based on the results, it can be said that SLs have utility as fabric cleaner with advantageous properties such as skin friendly nature, antibacterial action, and biodegradability. Therefore SLs are potential green molecules to replace synthetic surfactants in detergents so as to reduce harm caused to environment through detergent usage. PMID:24455261

  8. Direct comparison between genomic constitution and flavonoid contents in Allium multiple alien addition lines reveals chromosomal locations of genes related to biosynthesis from dihydrokaempferol to quercetin glucosides in scaly leaf of shallot (Allium cepa L.).

    PubMed

    Masuzaki, S; Shigyo, M; Yamauchi, N

    2006-02-01

    The extrachromosome 5A of shallot (Allium cepa L., genomes AA) has an important role in flavonoid biosynthesis in the scaly leaf of Allium fistulosum-shallot monosomic addition lines (FF+nA). This study deals with the production and biochemical characterisation of A. fistulosum-shallot multiple alien addition lines carrying at least 5A to determine the chromosomal locations of genes for quercetin formation. The multiple alien additions were selected from the crossing between allotriploid FFA (female symbol) and A. fistulosum (male symbol). The 113 plants obtained from this cross were analysed by a chromosome 5A-specific PGI isozyme marker of shallot. Thirty plants were preliminarily selected for an alien addition carrying 5A. The chromosome numbers of the 30 plants varied from 18 to 23. The other extrachromosomes in 19 plants were completely identified by using seven other chromosome markers of shallot. High-performance liquid chromatography analyses of the 19 multiple additions were conducted to identify the flavonoid compounds produced in the scaly leaves. Direct comparisons between the chromosomal constitution and the flavonoid contents of the multiple alien additions revealed that a flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H) gene for the synthesis of quercetin from kaempferol was located on 7A and that an anonymous gene involved in the glucosidation of quercetin was on 3A or 4A. As a result of supplemental SCAR analyses by using genomic DNAs from two complete sets of A. fistulosum-shallot monosomic additions, we have assigned F3'H to 7A and flavonol synthase to 4A.

  9. Direct comparison between genomic constitution and flavonoid contents in Allium multiple alien addition lines reveals chromosomal locations of genes related to biosynthesis from dihydrokaempferol to quercetin glucosides in scaly leaf of shallot (Allium cepa L.).

    PubMed

    Masuzaki, S; Shigyo, M; Yamauchi, N

    2006-02-01

    The extrachromosome 5A of shallot (Allium cepa L., genomes AA) has an important role in flavonoid biosynthesis in the scaly leaf of Allium fistulosum-shallot monosomic addition lines (FF+nA). This study deals with the production and biochemical characterisation of A. fistulosum-shallot multiple alien addition lines carrying at least 5A to determine the chromosomal locations of genes for quercetin formation. The multiple alien additions were selected from the crossing between allotriploid FFA (female symbol) and A. fistulosum (male symbol). The 113 plants obtained from this cross were analysed by a chromosome 5A-specific PGI isozyme marker of shallot. Thirty plants were preliminarily selected for an alien addition carrying 5A. The chromosome numbers of the 30 plants varied from 18 to 23. The other extrachromosomes in 19 plants were completely identified by using seven other chromosome markers of shallot. High-performance liquid chromatography analyses of the 19 multiple additions were conducted to identify the flavonoid compounds produced in the scaly leaves. Direct comparisons between the chromosomal constitution and the flavonoid contents of the multiple alien additions revealed that a flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H) gene for the synthesis of quercetin from kaempferol was located on 7A and that an anonymous gene involved in the glucosidation of quercetin was on 3A or 4A. As a result of supplemental SCAR analyses by using genomic DNAs from two complete sets of A. fistulosum-shallot monosomic additions, we have assigned F3'H to 7A and flavonol synthase to 4A. PMID:16411131

  10. Total phenolic contents and free-radical scavenging activities of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) and grape products.

    PubMed

    Keser, Serhat; Celik, Sait; Turkoglu, Semra

    2013-03-01

    Grape is one of the world's largest fruit crops, with an approximate annual production of 58 million metric tons, and it is well known that the grape skins, seeds and stems, waste products generated during wine and grape juice processing, are rich sources of polyphenols. It contains flavonoids, phenolic acids and stilbenes. In this study, we tried to determine antioxidant properties and phenolic contents of grape and grape products (fresh fruit, seed, dried fruit, molasses, pestil, vinegar) of ethanol and water extracts. Antioxidant properties of extracts were investigated by DPPH(√), ABTS(√+), superoxide, H(2)O(2) scavenging, reducing power, metal chelating activity and determination of total phenolic contents. The seed extracts revealed highest ABTS(√+), DPPH(√), H(2)O(2) scavenging and reducing power activities. Furthermore, these extracts showed higher total phenolic contents than other grape product extracts.

  11. Antioxidant properties of fruiting bodies, mycelia, and fermented products of the culinary-medicinal king oyster mushroom, Pleurotus eryngii (higher Basidiomycetes), with high ergothioneine content.

    PubMed

    Liang, Chih-Hung; Ho, Kung-Jui; Huang, Ling-Yi; Tsai, Ching-Hsuan; Lin, Shin-Yi; Mau, Jeng-Leun

    2013-01-01

    The culinary-medicinal king oyster mushroom Pleurotus eryngii is known to contain ergothioneine, and its products, including fruiting bodies, mycelia, and solid-state fermented products (adlay and buckwheat), were prepared to study their antioxidant properties. Fruiting bodies, regular and Hi-Ergo mycelia, and fermented products contained 2.05, 1.68, 5.76, 0.79-0.80 mg/g of ergothioneine, respectively. On the basis of the results obtained, P. eryngii products had effective antioxidant activity, reducing power, and scavenging ability on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals and chelating ability on ferrous ions. Hi-Ergo mycelia was the most effective in the first 3 antioxidant properties in addition to its ergothioneine content. In addition, fruiting bodies were more effective in all antioxidant properties than regular mycelia. For ethanolic and hot water extracts from mycelia and fruiting bodies, the correlation coefficients between total phenol contents and each antioxidant attribute were 0.483-0.921. Overall, P. eryngii products with high amounts of ergothioneine could be used beneficially as a functional food.

  12. Antioxidant properties of fruiting bodies, mycelia, and fermented products of the culinary-medicinal king oyster mushroom, Pleurotus eryngii (higher Basidiomycetes), with high ergothioneine content.

    PubMed

    Liang, Chih-Hung; Ho, Kung-Jui; Huang, Ling-Yi; Tsai, Ching-Hsuan; Lin, Shin-Yi; Mau, Jeng-Leun

    2013-01-01

    The culinary-medicinal king oyster mushroom Pleurotus eryngii is known to contain ergothioneine, and its products, including fruiting bodies, mycelia, and solid-state fermented products (adlay and buckwheat), were prepared to study their antioxidant properties. Fruiting bodies, regular and Hi-Ergo mycelia, and fermented products contained 2.05, 1.68, 5.76, 0.79-0.80 mg/g of ergothioneine, respectively. On the basis of the results obtained, P. eryngii products had effective antioxidant activity, reducing power, and scavenging ability on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals and chelating ability on ferrous ions. Hi-Ergo mycelia was the most effective in the first 3 antioxidant properties in addition to its ergothioneine content. In addition, fruiting bodies were more effective in all antioxidant properties than regular mycelia. For ethanolic and hot water extracts from mycelia and fruiting bodies, the correlation coefficients between total phenol contents and each antioxidant attribute were 0.483-0.921. Overall, P. eryngii products with high amounts of ergothioneine could be used beneficially as a functional food. PMID:23662614

  13. Comparison of Very Low Energy Diet Products Available in Australia and How to Tailor Them to Optimise Protein Content for Younger and Older Adult Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Alice A.; Franklin, Janet; Pattinson, Andrea L.; Cheng, Zilvia G. Y.; Samman, Samir; Markovic, Tania P.; Sainsbury, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    Very low energy diets (VLED) are efficacious in inducing rapid weight loss but may not contain adequate macronutrients or micronutrients for individuals with varying nutritional requirements. Adequate protein intake during weight loss appears particularly important to help preserve fat free mass and control appetite, and low energy and carbohydrate content also contributes to appetite control. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the nutritional content (with a focus on protein), nutritional adequacy and cost of all commercially-available VLED brands in Australia. Nutritional content and cost were extracted and compared between brands and to the Recommended Dietary Intake (RDI) or adequate intake (AI) of macronutrients and micronutrients for men and women aged 19–70 years or >70 years. There was wide variability in the nutritional content, nutritional adequacy and cost of VLED brands. Most notably, even brands with the highest daily protein content, based on consuming three products/day (KicStart™ and Optislim®, ~60 g/day), only met estimated protein requirements of the smallest and youngest women for whom a VLED would be indicated. Considering multiple options to optimise protein content, we propose that adding pure powdered protein is the most suitable option because it minimizes additional energy, carbohydrate and cost of VLEDs. PMID:27657150

  14. Comparison of Very Low Energy Diet Products Available in Australia and How to Tailor Them to Optimise Protein Content for Younger and Older Adult Men and Women.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Alice A; Franklin, Janet; Pattinson, Andrea L; Cheng, Zilvia G Y; Samman, Samir; Markovic, Tania P; Sainsbury, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    Very low energy diets (VLED) are efficacious in inducing rapid weight loss but may not contain adequate macronutrients or micronutrients for individuals with varying nutritional requirements. Adequate protein intake during weight loss appears particularly important to help preserve fat free mass and control appetite, and low energy and carbohydrate content also contributes to appetite control. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the nutritional content (with a focus on protein), nutritional adequacy and cost of all commercially-available VLED brands in Australia. Nutritional content and cost were extracted and compared between brands and to the Recommended Dietary Intake (RDI) or adequate intake (AI) of macronutrients and micronutrients for men and women aged 19-70 years or >70 years. There was wide variability in the nutritional content, nutritional adequacy and cost of VLED brands. Most notably, even brands with the highest daily protein content, based on consuming three products/day (KicStart™ and Optislim(®), ~60 g/day), only met estimated protein requirements of the smallest and youngest women for whom a VLED would be indicated. Considering multiple options to optimise protein content, we propose that adding pure powdered protein is the most suitable option because it minimizes additional energy, carbohydrate and cost of VLEDs. PMID:27657150

  15. Biogas production improvement and C/N control by natural clinoptilolite addition into anaerobic co-digestion of Phragmites australis, feces and kitchen waste.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaowei; Zhang, Lieyu; Xi, Beidou; Sun, Wenjun; Xia, Xunfeng; Zhu, Chaowei; He, Xiaosong; Li, Mingxiao; Yang, Tianxue; Wang, Pengfei; Zhang, Zhonglei

    2015-03-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion (A co-D) performance of Phragmites australis, feces and kitchen waste with addition of clinoptilolite (one main kind of zeolite) was investigated to evaluate the improvement of biogas/methane production and internal mechanism of nitrogen and organics control. A better biogas/methane production was observed by 10% clinoptilolite (v/v) than bentonite and diatomite, with the shortest lag phase of 0.070d(-1), the max rate of 15.89L/(kgVSday) and ultimate biogas production of 308.2L/kgVS as the modified Gompertz equation predicted. Accordingly, the content of methane in the biogas was increased from 44.10% to 65.30%. Furthermore, the clinoptilolite inhibited the acidification of digestion liquid (optimum pH 7.0-7.5) and enhanced the VFAs (acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid) destruction. Moreover, 10% of clinoptilolite optimally enhanced the microbial utilization of Ca(2+)/Mg(2+), controlled the C/N ratio, and improved the biogas production as well as NH3-N/NO3-N inhibition efficiency.

  16. Biogas production improvement and C/N control by natural clinoptilolite addition into anaerobic co-digestion of Phragmites australis, feces and kitchen waste.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaowei; Zhang, Lieyu; Xi, Beidou; Sun, Wenjun; Xia, Xunfeng; Zhu, Chaowei; He, Xiaosong; Li, Mingxiao; Yang, Tianxue; Wang, Pengfei; Zhang, Zhonglei

    2015-03-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion (A co-D) performance of Phragmites australis, feces and kitchen waste with addition of clinoptilolite (one main kind of zeolite) was investigated to evaluate the improvement of biogas/methane production and internal mechanism of nitrogen and organics control. A better biogas/methane production was observed by 10% clinoptilolite (v/v) than bentonite and diatomite, with the shortest lag phase of 0.070d(-1), the max rate of 15.89L/(kgVSday) and ultimate biogas production of 308.2L/kgVS as the modified Gompertz equation predicted. Accordingly, the content of methane in the biogas was increased from 44.10% to 65.30%. Furthermore, the clinoptilolite inhibited the acidification of digestion liquid (optimum pH 7.0-7.5) and enhanced the VFAs (acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid) destruction. Moreover, 10% of clinoptilolite optimally enhanced the microbial utilization of Ca(2+)/Mg(2+), controlled the C/N ratio, and improved the biogas production as well as NH3-N/NO3-N inhibition efficiency. PMID:25603527

  17. Effects of plant species, stage of maturity, and level of formic acid addition on lipolysis, lipid content, and fatty acid composition during ensiling.

    PubMed

    Koivunen, E; Jaakkola, S; Heikkilä, T; Lampi, A-M; Halmemies-Beauchet-Filleau, A; Lee, M R F; Winters, A L; Shingfield, K J; Vanhatalo, A

    2015-09-01

    Forage type and management influences the nutritional quality and fatty acid composition of ruminant milk. Replacing grass silage with red clover (RC; L.) silage increases milk fat 18:3-3 concentration. Red clover has a higher polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity compared with grasses, which has been suggested to decrease lipolysis and . The present study characterized the abundance and fatty acid composition of esterified lipid and NEFA before and after ensiling of grass and RC to investigate the influence of forage species, growth stage, and extent of fermentation on lipolysis. A randomized block design with a 2 × 3 × 4 factorial arrangement of treatments was used. Treatments comprised RC or a mixture of timothy ( L.) and meadow fescue ( Huds.) harvested at 3 growth stages and treated with 4 levels of formic acid (0, 2, 4, and 6 L/t). Lipid in silages treated with 0 or 6 L/t formic acid were extracted and separated into 4 fractions by TLC. Total PPO activity in fresh herbage and the content of soluble bound phenols in all silages were determined. Concentrations of 18:3-3 and total fatty acids (TFA) were higher ( < 0.001) for RC than for grass. For both forage species, 18:3-3 and TFA content decreased linearly ( < 0.001) with advancing growth stage, with the highest abundance at the vegetative stage. Most of lipid in fresh RC and grass herbage (97%) was esterified, whereas NEFA accounted for 71% of TFA in both silages. Ensiling resulted in marginal increases in TFA content and the amounts of individual fatty acids compared with fresh herbages. Herbage total PPO activity was higher ( < 0.001) for RC than grass (11 vs. 0.11 μkatal/g leaf fresh weight). Net lipolysis during ensiling was extensive for both forage species (660 to 759 g/kg fatty acid for grass and 563 to 737 g/kg fatty acid for RC). Formic acid application (0 vs. 6 L/t) resulted in a marked decrease ( = 0.026) in net lipolysis during the ensiling of RC, whereas the opposite was true ( = 0.026) for grass

  18. Impacts of woodchip biochar additions on greenhouse gas production and sorption/degradation of two herbicides in a Minnesota soil.

    PubMed

    Spokas, K A; Koskinen, W C; Baker, J M; Reicosky, D C

    2009-10-01

    A potential abatement to increasing levels of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) in the atmosphere is the use of pyrolysis to convert vegetative biomass into a more stable form of carbon (biochar) that could then be applied to the soil. However, the impacts of pyrolysis biochar on the soil system need to be assessed before initiating large scale biochar applications to agricultural fields. We compared CO(2) respiration, nitrous oxide (N(2)O) production, methane (CH(4)) oxidation and herbicide retention and transformation through laboratory incubations at field capacity in a Minnesota soil (Waukegan silt loam) with and without added biochar. CO(2) originating from the biochar needs to be subtracted from the soil-biochar combination in order to elucidate the impact of biochar on soil respiration. After this correction, biochar amendments reduced CO(2) production for all amendment levels tested (2, 5, 10, 20, 40 and 60% w/w; corresponding to 24-720 tha(-1) field application rates). In addition, biochar additions suppressed N(2)O production at all levels. However, these reductions were only significant at biochar amendment levels >20% w/w. Biochar additions also significantly suppressed ambient CH(4) oxidation at all levels compared to unamended soil. The addition of biochar (5% w/w) to soil increased the sorption of atrazine and acetochlor compared to non-amended soils, resulting in decreased dissipation rates of these herbicides. The recalcitrance of the biochar suggests that it could be a viable carbon sequestration strategy, and might provide substantial net greenhouse gas benefits if the reductions in N(2)O production are lasting.

  19. Fabrication of coatings and bulk products made of a nickel-based material by additive technology laser metal deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorunov, A. I.

    2016-01-01

    It is shown that products made of a nickel-based material can be formed by direct additive laser deposition. Ring samples with good antifriction properties are formed. The material after direct laser deposition is characterized by a heterogeneous structure: coarse inclusions with a high hardness are distributed in a softer matrix. Final laser treatment leads to the formation of a homogeneous microstructure and the refinement of second phases.

  20. Highly Variable Contents of Phenolics in St John's Wort Products Impact Their Transport in the Human Intestinal Caco-2 Cell Model: Pharmaceutical and Biopharmaceutical Rationale for Product Standardization

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Song; Jiang, Wen; Yin, Taijun; Hu, Ming

    2010-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine content uniformity of phenolics in the St John's Wort (SJW) supplements, and to demonstrate how variations in the product matrices affect their absorption and efflux. LC and LC-MS/MS methods were used to determine the phenolic contents of twelve different products purchased locally or from the internet. Three representative extracts were further submitted to Caco-2 cell transport experiment and transport of rutin, hyperoside, and isoquercitrin were evaluated. The results indicated that twelve different products displayed twelve different HPLC fingerprints, but all products contained the following major compounds: rutin, hyperoside, isoquercitrin, quercitrin, quercetin, and amentoflavone. The content uniformity of these major compounds was poor across products, with the smallest difference in the amounts of amentoflavone (2.6 folds) and largest difference in that of isoquercitrin (28.8 folds). The Caco-2 experiments indicated transport of rutin was vectorial, with the permeabilities varied about 2 folds in both direction of transport. The vectorial permeabilities of hyperoside and isoquercitrin were similarly different. Use of efflux transporter inhibitors studies suggested that MRP2 was involved in isoquercitrin's efflux and the product matrix affected the extent of its efflux. In conclusion, different SJW supplements had highly variable contents of phenolics, and the variability in product matrix and phytochemical compositions affected the permeabilities of key phenolics across the Caco-2 monolayers, which may further impact their bioavailabilities. Therefore, standardization will be necessary to ensure safe and efficacious use of supplements such as SJW. PMID:20450158

  1. Development of additive [11C]CO2 target system in the KOTRON-13 cyclotron and its application for [11C]radiopharmaceutical production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Byung Seok; Lee, Hong Jin; Lee, Won Kyung; Hur, Min Goo; Yang, Seung Dae; Lee, Byung Chul; Kim, Sang Eun

    2015-08-01

    The KOTRON-13 cyclotron, which was developed in South Korea for the production of medical radioisotopes, has the structural limitation of only one beam-output port, restricting the production of the carbon-11 isotope. In the present study, we investigate the design of a switchable target system and develop an effective carbon-11 target in the KOTRON-13 cyclotron, for combination with the fluorine-18 target. The target system was designed by introducing a sliding-type element between the fluorine-18 and carbon-11 targets, a tailor-made C-11 target and its cooling system. For the efficient production of [11C]CO2, the desirable target shape and internal volume were determined by a Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter (SRIM) simulation program, and the target grid was modified to resist the cavity pressure during beam irradiation. We evaluated the [11C]CO2 production while varying the material and thickness of the target foil, oxygen content of the nitrogen gas, and target loading pressure. Using sliding-type equipment including an additional gate valve and a high vacuum in a beam line, the bi-directional conversion between the fluorine-18 and carbon-11 targets was efficient regarding the accurate beam irradiation on both targets. The optimal [11C]CO2 production for 30 min irradiation at 60 μA (86.6 ± 1.7 GBq in the target at EOB) was observed at a thickness of 19 μm with HAVAR® material as a target foil and a target loading pressure of 24 bar with nitrogen plus 300 ppb of oxygen gas. Additionally, the coolant cavity system in the target grid and target chamber is useful to remove the heat transferred to the target body by the internal convection of water and thereby ensure the stability of the [11C]CO2 production under a high beam current. In the application of C-11 labeled radiopharmaceuticals such as [11C]PIB, [11C]DASB, [11C]PBR28, [11C]Methionine and [11C]Clozapine, the radiochemical yields were shown to be 25-38% (decay corrected) with over 166 GBq/μmol of

  2. Influences of nitrogen, phosphorus and silicon addition on plant productivity and species richness in an alpine meadow.

    PubMed

    Xu, Danghui; Fang, Xiangwen; Zhang, Renyi; Gao, Tianpeng; Bu, Haiyan; Du, Guozhen

    2015-11-15

    Fertilization, especially with nitrogen (N), increases aboveground primary productivity (APP), but reduces plant species richness at some level. Silicon (Si) fertilization alone, or with addition of N or phosphorus (P), has multiple direct and indirect beneficial effects on plant growth and development, both for individuals and the whole community. This study aimed to examine the effects of Si, N, P, NSi and PSi combinations on APP and species richness of the community and of four functional groups in an alpine meadow. The results showed that plots fertilized with Si in combination with either N or P had higher APP than when fertilized with N or P alone. Addition of N or P increased APP, and the higher APP occurred when the highest level of N was added, indicating co-limitation of N and P, with N being most limiting. Silicon fertilization alone or with addition of N increased the APP of grasses and forbs. Nitrogen addition decreased the community species richness; Si with addition of N alleviated the loss of species richness of the whole community and the forbs group. For the four functional groups, N or P addition increased the species richness of grasses and decreased that of forbs. Our findings highlight the importance of Si in improving APP and alleviating N fertilization-induced biodiversity loss in grasslands, and will help improve our ability to predict community composition and biomass dynamics in alpine meadow ecosystems subject to changing nutrient availability.

  3. Influences of nitrogen, phosphorus and silicon addition on plant productivity and species richness in an alpine meadow

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Danghui; Fang, Xiangwen; Zhang, Renyi; Gao, Tianpeng; Bu, Haiyan; Du, Guozhen

    2015-01-01

    Fertilization, especially with nitrogen (N), increases aboveground primary productivity (APP), but reduces plant species richness at some level. Silicon (Si) fertilization alone, or with addition of N or phosphorus (P), has multiple direct and indirect beneficial effects on plant growth and development, both for individuals and the whole community. This study aimed to examine the effects of Si, N, P, NSi and PSi combinations on APP and species richness of the community and of four functional groups in an alpine meadow. The results showed that plots fertilized with Si in combination with either N or P had higher APP than when fertilized with N or P alone. Addition of N or P increased APP, and the higher APP occurred when the highest level of N was added, indicating co-limitation of N and P, with N being most limiting. Silicon fertilization alone or with addition of N increased the APP of grasses and forbs. Nitrogen addition decreased the community species richness; Si with addition of N alleviated the loss of species richness of the whole community and the forbs group. For the four functional groups, N or P addition increased the species richness of grasses and decreased that of forbs. Our findings highlight the importance of Si in improving APP and alleviating N fertilization-induced biodiversity loss in grasslands, and will help improve our ability to predict community composition and biomass dynamics in alpine meadow ecosystems subject to changing nutrient availability. PMID:26574603

  4. Nitrite and nitrate content in meat products and estimated intake in Denmark from 1998 to 2006.

    PubMed

    Leth, T; Fagt, S; Nielsen, S; Andersen, R

    2008-10-01

    The content of nitrite and nitrate in cured meat products has been monitored in Denmark seven times between 1995 and 2006. The maximum permitted added amounts of sodium nitrite in Denmark (60 mg kg(-1) for most products up to 150 mg kg(-1) for special products) have not been exceeded, except for a few samples back in 2002. The intake, mean and intake distribution of sodium nitrite have been calculated from 1998 to 2006 with data from the Danish dietary survey conducted in 2000-02 on Danes from four to 75 years of age. The amounts used by industry have been relatively stable through the whole period with levels varying between 6 and 20 mg sodium nitrite kg(-1) with sausages, meat for open sandwiches and salami-type sausages being the greatest contributors. The mean intake of sodium nitrate was around 1 mg day(-1), which is very low compared with the total intake of 61 mg day(-1). The mean intake of sodium nitrite was 0.017 and 0.014, 0.009 and 0.008, and 0.007 and 0.003 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for men and women in the age groups 4-5, 6-14 and 15-75 years, respectively, which was much lower than the acceptable daily intake (ADI) of 0.09 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1). The 99th percentile for the group of 4-year-olds was 0.107 and 0.123 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for boys and girls, respectively, and the 95th percentile was 0.057 and 0.073 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for boys and girls, respectively, highest for the girls. With fewer than 100 boys and girls in the 4-5-year age group, only very few persons were responsible for the high intake. The conversion of nitrate to nitrite in the saliva and the degradation of nitrite during production and storage must also be considered when evaluating the intake of nitrite. PMID:18608491

  5. Impact of milling, enzyme addition, and steam explosion on the solid waste biomethanation of an olive oil production plant.

    PubMed

    Donoso-Bravo, Andres; Ortega-Martinez, E; Ruiz-Filippi, G

    2016-02-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a consolidated bioprocess which can be further enhanced by incorporating an upstream pretreatment unit. The olive oil production produces a large amount of solid waste which needs to be properly managed and disposed. Three different pretreatment techniques were evaluated in regard to their impact on the anaerobic biodegradability: manual milling of olive pomace (OP), enzyme maceration, direct enzyme addition, and thermal hydrolysis of two-phase olive mill waste. The Gompertz equation was used to obtain parameters for comparison purposes. A substrate/inoculum ratio 0.5 was found to be the best to be used in anaerobic batch test with olive pomace as substrate. Mechanical pretreatment of OP by milling increases the methane production rate while keeping the maximum methane yield. The enzymatic pretreatment showed different results depending on the chosen pretreatment strategies. After the enzymatic maceration pretreatment, a methane production of 274 ml CH4 g VS added (-1) was achieved, which represents an improvement of 32 and 71 % compared to the blank and control, respectively. The direct enzyme addition pretreatment showed no improvement in both the rate and the maximum methane production. Steam explosion showed no improvement on the anaerobic degradability of two-phase olive mill waste; however, thermal hydrolysis with no rapid depressurization enhanced notoriously both the maximum rate (50 %) and methane yield (70 %).

  6. Thermophile-fermented compost as a fish feed additive modulates lipid peroxidation and free amino acid contents in the muscle of the carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Ryusuke; Miyamoto, Hirokuni; Inoue, Shin-Ichi; Shigeta, Kazuhiro; Kondo, Masakazu; Ito, Toshiyuki; Kodama, Hiroaki; Miyamoto, Hisashi; Matsushita, Teruo

    2016-05-01

    Recently, a compost fermented with marine animals with thermophilic Bacillaceae in a clean and exclusive process at high temperature was reported as a possible feed additive to improve the healthy balance in sea fish and mammals (i.e., pigs and rodents). Here, the effects of the oral administration of the compost on the muscle and internal organs of carp (Cyprinus carpio) as a freshwater fish model were investigated. The fatty acid composition was different in the muscle of the carp fed with or without the compost extract, but there was little difference in the hepatopancreas. The accumulation of triacylglycerols, cholesterol, lipid peroxide and hydroxyl lipids decreased in the muscle after the oral administration of the compost extract in the carps over 12 weeks, but the accumulation did not always decrease in the hepatopancreas. In contrast, free-radical-scavenging activities and the concentrations of free amino acids in the muscle did not always increase and was dependent on the dose of the compost at 12 weeks. The scavenging activities and part of free amino acid levels in the muscle of the carp were improved at 24 weeks after a high dose of compost exposure, and then the survival rates of the carp were maintained. Thus, the oral administration of thermophile-fermented compost can prevent peroxidation and increase the content of free amino acids in the muscle of the freshwater fish, depending on the dose and term of the administration, and may be associated with the viability of the fish.

  7. Content of oak moss allergens atranol and chloroatranol in perfumes and similar products.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Suresh C; Bossi, Rossana; Johansen, Jeanne D; Menné, Torkil; Bernard, Guillaume; Giménez-Arnau, Elena; Lepoittevin, Jean-Pierre

    2004-06-01

    Chloroatranol and atranol have been identified as the main allergens in the fragrance material of botanical origin, oak moss absolute. A previous study has shown that nearly all individuals sensitized to chloroatranol will elicit to 5 microg/ml. in a repeated open application test and that 50% will get a reaction to 0.15 micro g/ml under patch test conditions. Thus, chloroatranol is known as a potent allergen. The aim of the current investigation was to quantify exposure to chloroatranol and the chemically related substance atranol in some popular perfumes, eaux de parfum and eaux de toilette available on the European market. In total, 31 products were analysed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandemmass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS-MS) for their contents of atranol and chloroatranol. The 2 substances were found in 87% (n = 27) of the products. The median concentration of atranol in perfumes was 0.502 micro g/ml and 0.012 micro g/ml in eaux de toilette, and 0.235 micro g/ml and 0.006 micro g/ml for chloroatranol, respectively, in perfumes and eaux de toilette. Chloroatranol was found at a maximum concentration of 53 micro g/ml and atranol at one of 190 micro g/ml. The wide exposure to oak moss allergens, together with significant amounts of these potent allergens in at least half of perfumes and some eaux de toilettes explains the high frequencies of oak moss absolute allergy. It is suggested that regulations should be introduced aimed directly at these substances, and not just at oak moss absolute.

  8. 16 CFR 1102.16 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... PUBLICLY AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE (Eff. Jan. 10, 2011) Content Requirements... notices, the CPSC shall include in the Database any additional information it determines to be in...

  9. Pineapple by-product and canola oil as partial fat replacers in low-fat beef burger: Effects on oxidative stability, cholesterol content and fatty acid profile.

    PubMed

    Selani, Miriam M; Shirado, Giovanna A N; Margiotta, Gregório B; Rasera, Mariana L; Marabesi, Amanda C; Piedade, Sonia M S; Contreras-Castillo, Carmen J; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange G

    2016-05-01

    The effect of freeze-dried pineapple by-product and canola oil as fat replacers on the oxidative stability, cholesterol content and fatty acid profile of low-fat beef burgers was evaluated. Five treatments were performed: conventional (CN, 20% fat) and four low-fat formulations (10% fat): control (CT), pineapple by-product (PA), canola oil (CO), and pineapple by-product and canola oil (PC). Low-fat cooked burgers showed a mean cholesterol content reduction of 9.15% compared to the CN. Canola oil addition improved the fatty acid profile of the burgers, with increase in the polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acids ratio and decrease in the n-6/n-3 ratio, in the atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes. The oxidative stability of the burgers was affected by the vegetable oil addition. However, at the end of the storage time (120 days), malonaldehyde values of CO and PC were lower than the threshold for the consumer's acceptance. Canola oil, in combination with pineapple by-product, can be considered promising fat replacers in the development of healthier burgers.

  10. Pineapple by-product and canola oil as partial fat replacers in low-fat beef burger: Effects on oxidative stability, cholesterol content and fatty acid profile.

    PubMed

    Selani, Miriam M; Shirado, Giovanna A N; Margiotta, Gregório B; Rasera, Mariana L; Marabesi, Amanda C; Piedade, Sonia M S; Contreras-Castillo, Carmen J; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange G

    2016-05-01

    The effect of freeze-dried pineapple by-product and canola oil as fat replacers on the oxidative stability, cholesterol content and fatty acid profile of low-fat beef burgers was evaluated. Five treatments were performed: conventional (CN, 20% fat) and four low-fat formulations (10% fat): control (CT), pineapple by-product (PA), canola oil (CO), and pineapple by-product and canola oil (PC). Low-fat cooked burgers showed a mean cholesterol content reduction of 9.15% compared to the CN. Canola oil addition improved the fatty acid profile of the burgers, with increase in the polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acids ratio and decrease in the n-6/n-3 ratio, in the atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes. The oxidative stability of the burgers was affected by the vegetable oil addition. However, at the end of the storage time (120 days), malonaldehyde values of CO and PC were lower than the threshold for the consumer's acceptance. Canola oil, in combination with pineapple by-product, can be considered promising fat replacers in the development of healthier burgers. PMID:26775152

  11. Black tattoo inks induce reactive oxygen species production correlating with aggregation of pigment nanoparticles and product brand but not with the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content.

    PubMed

    Høgsberg, Trine; Jacobsen, Nicklas Raun; Clausen, Per Axel; Serup, Jørgen

    2013-07-01

    Black tattoo inks are composed of carbon nanoparticles, additives and water and may contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). We aimed to clarify whether reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by black inks in vitro is related to pigment chemistry, physico-chemical properties of the ink particles and the content of chemical additives and contaminants including PAHs. The study included nine brands of tattoo inks of six colours each (black, red, yellow, blue, green and white) and two additional black inks of different brands (n = 56). The ROS formation potential was determined by the dichlorofluorescein (DCFH) assay. A semiquantitative method was developed for screening extractable organic compounds in tattoo ink based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Two black inks produced high amounts of ROS. Peroxyl radicals accounted for up to 72% of the free radicals generated, whereas hydroxyl radicals and H₂O₂ accounted for <14% and 16%, respectively. The same two inks aggregated strongly in water in contrast to the other black inks. They did not exhibit any shared pattern in PAHs and other organic substances. Aggregation was exclusively shared by all ink colours belonging to the same two brands. Ten of 11 black inks had PAH concentrations exceeding the European Council's recommended level, and all 11 exceeded the recommended level for benzo(a)pyrene. It is a new finding that aggregation of tattoo pigment particles correlates with ROS production and brand, independently of chemical composition including PAHs. ROS is hypothesized to be implicated in minor clinical symptoms.

  12. Biogenic amine content, histamine-forming bacteria, and adulteration of pork in tuna sausage products.

    PubMed

    Kung, Hsien-Feng; Tsai, Yung-Hsiang; Chang, Shih-Chih; Hong, Tang-Yao

    2012-10-01

    Twenty-five tuna sausage products were purchased from retail markets in Taiwan. The rates of occurrence of biogenic amines, histamine-forming bacteria, and adulteration by pork and poultry were determined. The average content of various biogenic amines in all tested samples was less than 2.0 mg/100 g (<0.05 to 1.85 mg/100 g). Thirteen histamine-producing bacterial strains isolated from tested samples produced 12.1 to 1,261 ppm of histamine in Trypticase soy broth supplemented with 1.0% L-histidine. Among them, Raoultella ornithinolytica (one strain), Enterobacter aerogenes (one strain), and Staphylococcus pasteuri (two strains) were identified as prolific histamine formers. PCR assay revealed that the adulteration rates were 80% (20 of 25) and 4% (1 of 25) for pork and poultry, respectively, in tuna sausage. The fish species in the tuna sausage samples were identified as Thunnus albacares for 22 samples (88%), Thunnus alalunga for 1 sample (4%), and Thunnus thynnus for 1 sample (4%), whereas the remaining sample was identified as Makaira nigricans (blue marlin). PMID:23043830

  13. Biogenic amine content, histamine-forming bacteria, and adulteration of pork in tuna sausage products.

    PubMed

    Kung, Hsien-Feng; Tsai, Yung-Hsiang; Chang, Shih-Chih; Hong, Tang-Yao

    2012-10-01

    Twenty-five tuna sausage products were purchased from retail markets in Taiwan. The rates of occurrence of biogenic amines, histamine-forming bacteria, and adulteration by pork and poultry were determined. The average content of various biogenic amines in all tested samples was less than 2.0 mg/100 g (<0.05 to 1.85 mg/100 g). Thirteen histamine-producing bacterial strains isolated from tested samples produced 12.1 to 1,261 ppm of histamine in Trypticase soy broth supplemented with 1.0% L-histidine. Among them, Raoultella ornithinolytica (one strain), Enterobacter aerogenes (one strain), and Staphylococcus pasteuri (two strains) were identified as prolific histamine formers. PCR assay revealed that the adulteration rates were 80% (20 of 25) and 4% (1 of 25) for pork and poultry, respectively, in tuna sausage. The fish species in the tuna sausage samples were identified as Thunnus albacares for 22 samples (88%), Thunnus alalunga for 1 sample (4%), and Thunnus thynnus for 1 sample (4%), whereas the remaining sample was identified as Makaira nigricans (blue marlin).

  14. Ethanol production from food waste at high solids content with vacuum recovery technology.

    PubMed

    Huang, Haibo; Qureshi, Nasib; Chen, Ming-Hsu; Liu, Wei; Singh, Vijay

    2015-03-18

    Ethanol production from food wastes does not only solve environmental issues but also provides renewable biofuels. This study investigated the feasibility of producing ethanol from food wastes at high solids content (35%, w/w). A vacuum recovery system was developed and applied to remove ethanol from fermentation broth to reduce yeast ethanol inhibition. A high concentration of ethanol (144 g/L) was produced by the conventional fermentation of food waste without a vacuum recovery system. When the vacuum recovery is applied to the fermentation process, the ethanol concentration in the fermentation broth was controlled below 100 g/L, thus reducing yeast ethanol inhibition. At the end of the conventional fermentation, the residual glucose in the fermentation broth was 5.7 g/L, indicating incomplete utilization of glucose, while the vacuum fermentation allowed for complete utilization of glucose. The ethanol yield for the vacuum fermentation was found to be 358 g/kg of food waste (dry basis), higher than that for the conventional fermentation at 327 g/kg of food waste (dry basis).

  15. Summary of Product Characteristics content extraction for a safe drugs usage.

    PubMed

    Rubrichi, S; Quaglini, S

    2012-04-01

    The use of medications has a central role in health care provision, yet on occasion, it may injure the person taking them as result of adverse drug events. A correct drug choice must be modulated to acknowledge both patients' status and drug-specific information. However, this information is locked in free-text and, as such, cannot be actively accessed and elaborated by computerized applications. The goal of this work lies in extracting content (active ingredient, interaction effects, etc.) from the Summary of Product Characteristics, focusing mainly on drug-related interactions, following a machine learning based approach. We compare two state of the art classifiers: conditional random fields with support vector machines. To this end, we introduce a corpus of 100 interaction sections, hand annotated with 13 labels that have been derived from a previously developed conceptual model. The results of our empirical analysis demonstrate that the two models perform well. They exhibit similar overall performance, with an overall accuracy of about 91%. PMID:22094356

  16. Amino Acids Hydrolyzed from Animal Carcasses Are a Good Additive for the Production of Bio-organic Fertilizer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hongjun; Chen, Dandan; Zhang, Ruifu; Hang, Xinnan; Li, Rong; Shen, Qirong

    2016-01-01

    High-quality bio-organic fertilizers (BIOs) cannot be produced without the addition of some proteins. In this study, compound liquid amino acids (CLAA) from animal carcasses were utilized as additives into matured composts to create novel BIOs containing plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). The results showed that adding CLAA and inoculating bacteria meanwhile resulted in failed solid-state fermentation (SSF) due to the higher H+ contents. While after pre-compost for 4 days before PGPR inoculation, treatments of matured chicken or pig manure added with 0.2 ml g-1 of CLAA resulted in a maximum biomass of functional strains. Illumine-MiSeq sequencing and Real-Time PCR results showed that the CLAA addition decreased the bacterial abundance and richness, altered the bacterial community structure and changed the relative abundance of some microbial groups. This study offers a high value-added utilization of waste protein resources for producing economical, high-quality BIO. PMID:27574521

  17. Amino Acids Hydrolyzed from Animal Carcasses Are a Good Additive for the Production of Bio-organic Fertilizer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongjun; Chen, Dandan; Zhang, Ruifu; Hang, Xinnan; Li, Rong; Shen, Qirong

    2016-01-01

    High-quality bio-organic fertilizers (BIOs) cannot be produced without the addition of some proteins. In this study, compound liquid amino acids (CLAA) from animal carcasses were utilized as additives into matured composts to create novel BIOs containing plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). The results showed that adding CLAA and inoculating bacteria meanwhile resulted in failed solid-state fermentation (SSF) due to the higher H(+) contents. While after pre-compost for 4 days before PGPR inoculation, treatments of matured chicken or pig manure added with 0.2 ml g(-1) of CLAA resulted in a maximum biomass of functional strains. Illumine-MiSeq sequencing and Real-Time PCR results showed that the CLAA addition decreased the bacterial abundance and richness, altered the bacterial community structure and changed the relative abundance of some microbial groups. This study offers a high value-added utilization of waste protein resources for producing economical, high-quality BIO. PMID:27574521

  18. Effects of dietary starch content and rate of fermentation on methane production in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hatew, B; Podesta, S C; Van Laar, H; Pellikaan, W F; Ellis, J L; Dijkstra, J; Bannink, A

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of starch varying in rate of fermentation and level of inclusion in the diet in exchange for fiber on methane (CH4) production of dairy cows. Forty Holstein-Friesian lactating dairy cows of which 16 were rumen cannulated were grouped in 10 blocks of 4 cows each. Cows received diets consisting of 60% grass silage and 40% concentrate (dry matter basis). Cows within block were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 different diets composed of concentrates that varied in rate of starch fermentation [slowly (S) vs. rapidly (R) rumen fermentable; native vs. gelatinized corn grain] and level of starch (low vs. high; 270 vs. 530g/kg of concentrate dry matter). Results of rumen in situ incubations confirmed that the fractional rate of degradation of starch was higher for R than S starch. Effective rumen degradability of organic matter was higher for high than low starch and also higher for R than S starch. Increased level of starch, but not starch fermentability, decreased dry matter intake and daily CH4 production. Milk yield (mean 24.0±1.02kg/d), milk fat content (mean 5.05±0.16%), and milk protein content (mean 3.64±0.05%) did not differ between diets. Methane expressed per kilogram of fat- and protein-corrected milk, per kilogram of dry matter intake, or as a fraction of gross energy intake did not differ between diets. Methane expressed per kilogram of estimated rumen-fermentable organic matter (eRFOM) was higher for S than R starch-based diets (47.4 vs. 42.6g/kg of eRFOM) and for low than high starch-based diets (46.9 vs. 43.1g/kg of eRFOM). Apparent total-tract digestibility of neutral detergent fiber and crude protein were not affected by diets, but starch digestibility was higher for diets based on R starch (97.2%) compared with S starch (95.5%). Both total volatile fatty acid concentration (109.2 vs. 97.5mM) and propionate proportion (16.5 vs. 15.8mol/100mol) were higher for R starch- compared with S starch

  19. Development of a comprehensive near infrared spectroscopy calibration model for rapid measurements of moisture content in multiple pharmaceutical products.

    PubMed

    Mainali, Dipak; Li, Jane; Yehl, Peter; Chetwyn, Nicholas

    2014-07-01

    Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has been widely used for the determination of water content in a wide variety of samples. With few exceptions, all methods employ a calibration model developed and applicable for a single product. The current study describes a NIR method using a single, comprehensive calibration model to predict the water content in tablets containing different active pharmaceutical ingredients (API). The calibration model was developed for water content range of 2-13% (w/w) using tablets containing three different APIs and different formulation compositions. To develop a robust comprehensive model, individual calibration models were sequentially developed starting from a simple model for one product to including tablets from all three projects in the final model using partial least square analysis method. Data pretreatments and spectral region selections were performed during the method development to optimize the number of factors and the correlation coefficients for cross-validation and prediction by the comprehensive model. The model reliably predicted the water content in tablet samples of these three products, and can be updated for water measurements of new drug products by adding to the model two samples of the new product for calibration purpose.

  20. Processed tart cherry products--comparative phytochemical content, in vitro antioxidant capacity and in vitro anti-inflammatory activity.

    PubMed

    Ou, Boxin; Bosak, Kristen N; Brickner, Paula R; Iezzoni, Dominic G; Seymour, E Mitchell

    2012-05-01

    Processing of fruits and vegetables affects their phytochemical and nutrient content. Tart cherries are commercially promoted to possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. However, processing affects their phytochemical content and may affect their related health benefits. The current study compares the in vitro antioxidant capacity and anti-inflammatory cyclooxygenase activity of processed tart cherry (Prunus cerasus) products-cherry juice concentrate, individually quick-frozen cherries, canned cherries, and dried cherries. Cherry products were analyzed for total anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin content and profile. On a per serving basis, total anthocyanins were highest in frozen cherries and total proanthocyanidins were highest in juice concentrate. Total phenolics were highest in juice concentrate. Juice concentrate had the highest oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and peroxynitrite radical averting capacity (NORAC). Dried cherries had the highest hydroxyl radical averting capacity (HORAC) and superoxide radical averting capacity (SORAC). Processed tart cherry products compared very favorably to the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture-reported ORAC of other fresh and processed fruits. Inhibition of in vitro inflammatory COX-1 activity was greatest in juice concentrate. In summary, all processed tart cherry products possessed antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, but processing differentially affected phytochemical content and in vitro bioactivity. On a per serving basis, juice concentrate was superior to other tart cherry products. PMID:23163942

  1. Processed tart cherry products--comparative phytochemical content, in vitro antioxidant capacity and in vitro anti-inflammatory activity.

    PubMed

    Ou, Boxin; Bosak, Kristen N; Brickner, Paula R; Iezzoni, Dominic G; Seymour, E Mitchell

    2012-05-01

    Processing of fruits and vegetables affects their phytochemical and nutrient content. Tart cherries are commercially promoted to possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. However, processing affects their phytochemical content and may affect their related health benefits. The current study compares the in vitro antioxidant capacity and anti-inflammatory cyclooxygenase activity of processed tart cherry (Prunus cerasus) products-cherry juice concentrate, individually quick-frozen cherries, canned cherries, and dried cherries. Cherry products were analyzed for total anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin content and profile. On a per serving basis, total anthocyanins were highest in frozen cherries and total proanthocyanidins were highest in juice concentrate. Total phenolics were highest in juice concentrate. Juice concentrate had the highest oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and peroxynitrite radical averting capacity (NORAC). Dried cherries had the highest hydroxyl radical averting capacity (HORAC) and superoxide radical averting capacity (SORAC). Processed tart cherry products compared very favorably to the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture-reported ORAC of other fresh and processed fruits. Inhibition of in vitro inflammatory COX-1 activity was greatest in juice concentrate. In summary, all processed tart cherry products possessed antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, but processing differentially affected phytochemical content and in vitro bioactivity. On a per serving basis, juice concentrate was superior to other tart cherry products.

  2. Anaerobic Codigestion of Sludge: Addition of Butcher’s Fat Waste as a Cosubstrate for Increasing Biogas Production

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, E. J.; Gil, M. V.; Fernandez, C.; Rosas, J. G.

    2016-01-01

    Fat waste discarded from butcheries was used as a cosubstrate in the anaerobic codigestion of sewage sludge (SS). The process was evaluated under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. The codigestion was successfully attained despite some inhibitory stages initially present that had their origin in the accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFA) and adsorption of long-chain fatty acids (LCFA). The addition of a fat waste improved digestion stability and increased biogas yields thanks to the higher organic loading rate (OLR) applied to the reactors. However, thermophilic digestion was characterized by an effluent of poor quality and high VFA content. Results from spectroscopic analysis suggested the adsorption of lipid components onto the anaerobic biomass, thus disturbing the complete degradation of substrate during the treatment. The formation of fatty aggregates in the thermophilic reactor prevented process failure by avoiding the exposure of biomass to the toxic effect of high LCFA concentrations. PMID:27071074

  3. Assessing Hyperspectral Image Content of Pharmaceutical Products Using the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index and Ripley's K-Functions.

    PubMed

    Bobiak, John P; McGeorge, Gary

    2015-08-01

    Hyperspectral chemical imaging technologies are frequently applied in the pharmaceutical industry to assess the distribution of ingredients in product intermediates and finished products. This article discusses two recognized measures of spatial uniformity in the context of pharmaceuticals. Synthetic images are used to introduce the utility of Ripley's K-function and the Herfindahl-Hirschman index (HHI) for describing image content. These metrics were applied to a commercial-like product to demonstrate the practical interpretation for product development. The simple approaches presented here offer the possibility of reporting objective measures of intra-tablet compositional uniformity with minimal supervision.

  4. Comparison of Microbiological and Probiotic Characteristics of Lactobacilli Isolates from Dairy Food Products and Animal Rumen Contents

    PubMed Central

    Jose, Neethu Maria; Bunt, Craig R.; Hussain, Malik Altaf

    2015-01-01

    Lactobacilli are employed in probiotic food preparations and as feed additives in poultry and livestock, due to health benefits associated with their consumption. The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the probiotic potential of ten lactobacilli strains isolated from commercial dairy food products and animal rumen contents in New Zealand. Genetic identification of the isolates revealed that all belonged to the genus Lactobacillus, specifically the species L. reuteri, L. rhamnosus and L. plantarum. All isolates did not show any haemolytic behaviour. Isolates of dairy origin showed better tolerance to low pH stress. On the other hand, rumen isolates exhibited a higher tolerance to presence of bile salts. All isolates exhibited resistance to aminoglycoside antibiotics, however most were sensitive to ampicillin. Isolates of rumen origin demonstrated a higher inhibitory effect on Listeria monocytogenes, Enterobacter aerogenes and Salmonella menston. Bacterial adherence of all isolates increased with a decrease in pH. This screening study on lactobacilli isolates has assessed and identified potential probiotic candidates for further evaluation.

  5. Comparison of Microbiological and Probiotic Characteristics of Lactobacilli Isolates from Dairy Food Products and Animal Rumen Contents.

    PubMed

    Jose, Neethu Maria; Bunt, Craig R; Hussain, Malik Altaf

    2015-04-15

    Lactobacilli are employed in probiotic food preparations and as feed additives in poultry and livestock, due to health benefits associated with their consumption. The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the probiotic potential of ten lactobacilli strains isolated from commercial dairy food products and animal rumen contents in New Zealand. Genetic identification of the isolates revealed that all belonged to the genus Lactobacillus, specifically the species L. reuteri, L. rhamnosus and L. plantarum. All isolates did not show any haemolytic behaviour. Isolates of dairy origin showed better tolerance to low pH stress. On the other hand, rumen isolates exhibited a higher tolerance to presence of bile salts. All isolates exhibited resistance to aminoglycoside antibiotics, however most were sensitive to ampicillin. Isolates of rumen origin demonstrated a higher inhibitory effect on Listeria monocytogenes, Enterobacter aerogenes and Salmonella menston. Bacterial adherence of all isolates increased with a decrease in pH. This screening study on lactobacilli isolates has assessed and identified potential probiotic candidates for further evaluation.

  6. Nitrogen deposition alters nitrogen cycling and reduces soil carbon content in low-productivity semiarid Mediterranean ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Ochoa-Hueso, Raúl; Maestre, Fernando T.; Ríos, Asunción de los; Valea, Sergio; Theobald, Mark R.; Vivanco, Marta G.; Manrique, Esteban; Bowker, Mathew A.

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) deposition is a threat to European Mediterranean ecosystems, but the evidence of real ecological impacts is still scarce. We combined data from a real N deposition gradient (4.3-7.3 kg N ha−1 yr−1) from semiarid portions of Spain with data from a field experiment in central Spain to evaluate N deposition effects on soil fertility, function and cyanobacteria community structure. Soil organic N did not increase along the extant deposition gradient, whereas C:N ratios decreased in most locations. Nitrogen fixation decreased along existing and experimental N deposition gradients, a result possibly related to compositional shifts in soil cyanobacteria community. Nitrogen mineralization rates were reduced by N fertilization, suggesting ecosystem N saturation. Soil organic C content and the activity of β-glucosidase decreased along the extant gradient. Our results suggest that semiarid soils in low-productivity sites are unable to store additional N inputs, and that are also unable to mitigate increasing C emissions to the atmosphere when experiencing increased N deposition. PMID:23685631

  7. Analysis of the effects of section 29 tax credits on reserve additions and production of gas from unconventional resources

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    Federal tax credits for production of natural gas from unconventional resources can stimulate drilling and reserves additions at a relatively low cost to the Treasury. This report presents the results of an analysis of the effects of a proposed extension of the Section 29 alternative fuels production credit specifically for unconventional gas. ICF Resources estimated the net effect of the extension of the credit (the difference between development activity expected with the extension of the credit and that expected if the credit expires in December 1990 as scheduled). The analysis addressed the effect of tax credits on project economics and capital formation, drilling and reserve additions, production, impact on the US and regional economies, and the net public sector costs and incremental revenues. The analysis was based on explicit modeling of the three dominant unconventional gas resources: Tight sands, coalbed methane, and Devonian shales. It incorporated the most current data on resource size, typical well recoveries and economics, and anticipated activity of the major producers. Each resource was further disaggregated for analysis based on distinct resource characteristics, development practices, regional economics, and historical development patterns.

  8. Genome-Centric Analysis of Microbial Populations Enriched by Hydraulic Fracture Fluid Additives in a Coal Bed Methane Production Well.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Steven J; Evans, Paul N; Parks, Donovan H; Golding, Suzanne D; Tyson, Gene W

    2016-01-01

    Coal bed methane (CBM) is generated primarily through the microbial degradation of coal. Despite a limited understanding of the microorganisms responsible for this process, there is significant interest in developing methods to stimulate additional methane production from CBM wells. Physical techniques including hydraulic fracture stimulation are commonly applied to CBM wells, however the effects of specific additives contained in hydraulic fracture fluids on native CBM microbial communities are poorly understood. Here, metagenomic sequencing was applied to the formation waters of a hydraulically fractured and several non-fractured CBM production wells to determine the effect of this stimulation technique on the in-situ microbial community. The hydraulically fractured well was dominated by two microbial populations belonging to the class Phycisphaerae (within phylum Planctomycetes) and candidate phylum Aminicenantes. Populations from these phyla were absent or present at extremely low abundance in non-fractured CBM wells. Detailed metabolic reconstruction of near-complete genomes from these populations showed that their high relative abundance in the hydraulically fractured CBM well could be explained by the introduction of additional carbon sources, electron acceptors, and biocides contained in the hydraulic fracture fluid. PMID:27375557

  9. Genome-Centric Analysis of Microbial Populations Enriched by Hydraulic Fracture Fluid Additives in a Coal Bed Methane Production Well.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Steven J; Evans, Paul N; Parks, Donovan H; Golding, Suzanne D; Tyson, Gene W

    2016-01-01

    Coal bed methane (CBM) is generated primarily through the microbial degradation of coal. Despite a limited understanding of the microorganisms responsible for this process, there is significant interest in developing methods to stimulate additional methane production from CBM wells. Physical techniques including hydraulic fracture stimulation are commonly applied to CBM wells, however the effects of specific additives contained in hydraulic fracture fluids on native CBM microbial communities are poorly understood. Here, metagenomic sequencing was applied to the formation waters of a hydraulically fractured and several non-fractured CBM production wells to determine the effect of this stimulation technique on the in-situ microbial community. The hydraulically fractured well was dominated by two microbial populations belonging to the class Phycisphaerae (within phylum Planctomycetes) and candidate phylum Aminicenantes. Populations from these phyla were absent or present at extremely low abundance in non-fractured CBM wells. Detailed metabolic reconstruction of near-complete genomes from these populations showed that their high relative abundance in the hydraulically fractured CBM well could be explained by the introduction of additional carbon sources, electron acceptors, and biocides contained in the hydraulic fracture fluid.

  10. Production of Cellobionate from Cellulose Using an Engineered Neurospora crassa Strain with Laccase and Redox Mediator Addition

    PubMed Central

    Hildebrand, Amanda; Kasuga, Takao; Fan, Zhiliang

    2015-01-01

    We report a novel production process for cellobionic acid from cellulose using an engineered fungal strain with the exogenous addition of laccase and a redox mediator. A previously engineered strain of Neurospora crassa (F5∆ace-1∆cre-1∆ndvB) was shown to produce cellobionate directly from cellulose without the addition of exogenous cellulases. Specifically, N. crassa produces cellulases, which hydrolyze cellulose to cellobiose, and cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH), which oxidizes cellobiose to cellobionate. However, the conversion of cellobiose to cellobionate is limited by the slow re-oxidation of CDH by molecular oxygen. By adding low concentrations of laccase and a redox mediator to the fermentation, CDH can be efficiently oxidized by the redox mediator, with in-situ re-oxidation of the redox mediator by laccase. The conversion of cellulose to cellobionate was optimized by evaluating pH, buffer, and laccase and redox mediator addition time on the yield of cellobionate. Mass and material balances were performed, and the use of the native N. crassa laccase in such a conversion system was evaluated against the exogenous Pleurotus ostreatus laccase. This paper describes a working concept of cellobionate production from cellulose using the CDH-ATBS-laccase system in a fermentation system. PMID:25849253

  11. Genome-Centric Analysis of Microbial Populations Enriched by Hydraulic Fracture Fluid Additives in a Coal Bed Methane Production Well

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, Steven J.; Evans, Paul N.; Parks, Donovan H.; Golding, Suzanne D.; Tyson, Gene W.

    2016-01-01

    Coal bed methane (CBM) is generated primarily through the microbial degradation of coal. Despite a limited understanding of the microorganisms responsible for this process, there is significant interest in developing methods to stimulate additional methane production from CBM wells. Physical techniques including hydraulic fracture stimulation are commonly applied to CBM wells, however the effects of specific additives contained in hydraulic fracture fluids on native CBM microbial communities are poorly understood. Here, metagenomic sequencing was applied to the formation waters of a hydraulically fractured and several non-fractured CBM production wells to determine the effect of this stimulation technique on the in-situ microbial community. The hydraulically fractured well was dominated by two microbial populations belonging to the class Phycisphaerae (within phylum Planctomycetes) and candidate phylum Aminicenantes. Populations from these phyla were absent or present at extremely low abundance in non-fractured CBM wells. Detailed metabolic reconstruction of near-complete genomes from these populations showed that their high relative abundance in the hydraulically fractured CBM well could be explained by the introduction of additional carbon sources, electron acceptors, and biocides contained in the hydraulic fracture fluid. PMID:27375557

  12. Nutritional and productive performance of dairy cows fed corn silage or sugarcane silage with or without additives.

    PubMed

    de Andrade, Felipe Leite; Rodrigues, João Paulo Pacheco; Detmann, Edenio; Valadares Filho, Sebastião de Campos; Castro, Marcelo Messias Duarte; Trece, Aline Souza; Silva, Tadeu Eder; Fischer, Vivian; Weiss, Kirsten; Marcondes, Marcos Inácio

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the intake, digestibility, and performance of dairy cows fed corn silage, fresh sugarcane, and sugarcane ensiled in three different forms. Twenty-five Holstein cows at 114 ± 12.6 days in milk (DIM) were used. A randomized block design was adopted, using an arrangement of repeated measures over time. The following treatments were tested: corn silage (CS); fresh sugarcane (FS); sugarcane silage without additives (SCS); sugarcane silage enriched with calcium oxide at 5 g/kg of forage (SCSc); and sugarcane silage enriched with Lactobacillus buchneri at 5 × 10(4) cfu/kg of forage (SCSb). The roughage to concentrate ratio was 60:40 for the CS diet and 40:60 for the sugarcane-based diets. The dry matter intake (DMI) as a function of body weight had a downward trend for the cows fed sugarcane silage, compared with those fed FS. The sugarcane silages had higher digestibilities of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), and neutral detergent fiber (NDFap), compared with FS. The use of L. buchneri or calcium oxide improved the diet's digestibility. The use of FS, sugarcane silage, or sugarcane silage with additives had no effects on milk and fat-corrected milk yield, compared to corn silage. Cows fed FS presented lower milk total solids content and had a downward trend for milk fat, compared with cows fed sugarcane-silage diets. Cows fed sugarcane silages produced milk with higher casein stability in the alcohol test than cows fed fresh-sugarcane diet. Sugarcane silage, with or without additives, did not reduce the intake of dairy cows, and the use of additives improved the fiber's digestibility.

  13. Treatment with algae extracts promotes flocculation, and enhances growth and neutral lipid content in Nannochloropsis oculata--a candidate for biofuel production.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Rebecca L; Rand, Jonathan D; Caldwell, Gary S

    2012-12-01

    Marine microalgae represent a potentially valuable feedstock for biofuel production; however, large-scale production is not yet economically viable. Optimisation of productivity and lipid yields is required and the cost of biomass harvesting and dewatering must be significantly reduced. Microalgae produce a wide variety of biologically active metabolites, many of which are involved in inter- and intra-specific interactions (the so-called infochemicals). The majority of infochemicals remain unidentified or uncharacterised. Here, we apply known and candidate (undefined extracts) infochemicals as a potential means to manipulate the growth and lipid content of Nannochloropsis oculata-a prospective species for biofuel production. Five known infochemicals (β-cyclocitral, trans,trans-2,4-decadienal, hydrogen peroxide, norharman and tryptamine) and crude extracts prepared from Skeletonema marinoi and Dunaliella salina cultures at different growth stages were assayed for impacts on N. oculata over 24 h. The neutral lipid content of N. oculata increased significantly with exposure to three infochemicals (β-cyclocitral, decadienal and norharman); however the effective concentrations affected a significant decrease in growth. Exposure to particular crude extracts significantly increased both growth and neutral lipid levels. In addition, water-soluble extracts of senescent S. marinoi cultures induced a degree of flocculation in the N. oculata. These preliminary results indicate that artificial manipulation of N. oculata cultures by application of algae infochemicals could provide a valuable tool towards achieving economically viable large-scale algae biofuel production.

  14. Advanced glycation end products, physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of cooked lamb loins affected by cooking method and addition of flavour precursors.

    PubMed

    Roldan, Mar; Loebner, Jürgen; Degen, Julia; Henle, Thomas; Antequera, Teresa; Ruiz-Carrascal, Jorge

    2015-02-01

    The influence of the addition of a flavour enhancer solution (FES) (d-glucose, d-ribose, l-cysteine and thiamin) and of sous-vide cooking or roasting on moisture, cooking loss, instrumental colour, sensory characteristics and formation of Maillard reaction (MR) compounds in lamb loins was studied. FES reduced cooking loss and increased water content in sous-vide samples. FES and cooking method showed a marked effect on browning development, both on the meat surface and within. FES led to tougher and chewier texture in sous-vide cooked lamb, and enhanced flavour scores of sous-vide samples more markedly than in roasted ones. FES added meat showed higher contents of furosine; 1,2-dicarbonyl compounds and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural did not reach detectable levels. N-ε-carboxymethyllysine amounts were rather low and not influenced by the studied factors. Cooked meat seems to be a minor dietary source of MR products, regardless the presence of reducing sugars and the cooking method. PMID:25172739

  15. Advanced glycation end products, physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of cooked lamb loins affected by cooking method and addition of flavour precursors.

    PubMed

    Roldan, Mar; Loebner, Jürgen; Degen, Julia; Henle, Thomas; Antequera, Teresa; Ruiz-Carrascal, Jorge

    2015-02-01

    The influence of the addition of a flavour enhancer solution (FES) (d-glucose, d-ribose, l-cysteine and thiamin) and of sous-vide cooking or roasting on moisture, cooking loss, instrumental colour, sensory characteristics and formation of Maillard reaction (MR) compounds in lamb loins was studied. FES reduced cooking loss and increased water content in sous-vide samples. FES and cooking method showed a marked effect on browning development, both on the meat surface and within. FES led to tougher and chewier texture in sous-vide cooked lamb, and enhanced flavour scores of sous-vide samples more markedly than in roasted ones. FES added meat showed higher contents of furosine; 1,2-dicarbonyl compounds and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural did not reach detectable levels. N-ε-carboxymethyllysine amounts were rather low and not influenced by the studied factors. Cooked meat seems to be a minor dietary source of MR products, regardless the presence of reducing sugars and the cooking method.

  16. Selection and optimization of transfection enhancer additives for increased virus-like particle production in HEK293 suspension cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Cervera, Laura; Fuenmayor, Javier; González-Domínguez, Irene; Gutiérrez-Granados, Sonia; Segura, Maria Mercedes; Gòdia, Francesc

    2015-12-01

    The manufacturing of biopharmaceuticals in mammalian cells typically relies on the use of stable producer cell lines. However, in recent years, transient gene expression has emerged as a suitable technology for rapid production of biopharmaceuticals. Transient gene expression is particularly well suited for early developmental phases, where several potential therapeutic targets need to be produced and tested in vivo. As a relatively new bioprocessing modality, a number of opportunities exist for improving cell culture productivity upon transient transfection. For instance, several compounds have shown positive effects on transient gene expression. These transfection enhancers either facilitate entry of PEI/DNA transfection complexes into the cell or nucleus or increase levels of gene expression. In this work, the potential of combining transfection enhancers to increase Gag-based virus-like particle production levels upon transfection of suspension-growing HEK 293 cells is evaluated. Using Plackett-Burman design of experiments, it is first tested the effect of eight transfection enhancers: trichostatin A, valproic acid, sodium butyrate, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), lithium acetate, caffeine, hydroxyurea, and nocodazole. An optimal combination of compounds exhibiting the highest effect on gene expression levels was subsequently identified using a surface response experimental design. The optimal consisted on the addition of 20 mM lithium acetate, 3.36 mM valproic acid, and 5.04 mM caffeine which increased VLP production levels 3.8-fold, while maintaining cell culture viability at 94%. PMID:26278533

  17. Variability of micronutrient content in enriched dairy and fruit products. Executive Group for Development of Nutrient Dense Foods for Frail Elderly.

    PubMed

    de Jong, N; Adam, S G; de Groot, L C; de Graaf, C

    2000-07-01

    Accurate measures of micronutrient levels in newly developed enriched foods are indispensable for valid labelling, for determination of ultimate levels for possible claimed health effects and for safety. To date, only a limited amount of public literature is available on the reproducibility of laboratory analysis and on the similarity within novel fortified or enriched foods. Within the framework of an intervention trial in frail elderly, the micronutrient content of eight different types of enriched foods were repeatedly examined. The variance in concentrations of the vitamins B1, B2, B6, folic acid, B12, C, D, and E was studied, in addition to levels of the minerals zinc, iodine, calcium, iron and magnesium. Four main factors, possibly contributing to the variability of these micronutrient levels, were investigated: (1) type of product, (2) type of laboratory (between-laboratory) reproducibility), (3) time of the year (month) in which analyses were carried out (May-October) and (4) freshness of the product. The type of product and laboratory emerged as factors contributing mostly to the total variability in concentrations of vitamins (on average approximately 50% explained). However, none of the products consistently contained higher or lower levels compared to the other products and most target levels were met except for vitamin B2 in both dairy and fruit products and for folic acid and vitamin C in some fruit products. Differences between products were regarded as acceptable. Extensive evaluation of multiple lab results should be emphasised within the manufacturing process of enriched foods.

  18. Moving Toward SCORM Compliant Content Production at Educational Software Company: Technical and Administrative Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kultur, Can; Oytun, Erden; Cagiltay, Kursat; Ozden, M. Yasar; Kucuk, Mehmet Emin

    2004-01-01

    The Shareable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM) aims to standardize electronic course content, its packaging and delivery. Instructional designers and e-learning material producer organizations accept SCORM?s significant impact on instructional design/delivery process, however not much known about how such standards will be implemented to…

  19. Processing strawberries to different products alters contents of vitamin C, total phenolics, total anthocyanins, and antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Klopotek, Yvonne; Otto, Konrad; Böhm, Volker

    2005-07-13

    Strawberries were processed to juice, nectar, wine, and puree. For investigation of the antioxidant capacity as well as the contents of ascorbic acid, total phenolics and total anthocyanins, samples were taken after different stages of production to determine the effects of processing. The content of vitamin C was measured spectrophotometrically. The total phenolic content was analyzed by using the Folin-Ciocalteu method, and the amount of total anthocyanins was determined by using the pH-differential method. Two different methods-the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay and the ferric reducing antioxidant power test-were used to determine the hydrophilic antioxidant capacity. This study showed the decrease of all investigated parameters within processing strawberries to different products. The content of ascorbic acid decreased with production time and processing steps, especially during heat treatment. The investigations on total phenolics in strawberry products proved fining to be a mild method to clarify berry juices and wines without removing high amounts of total phenolics. Fermentation did not lead to heavy losses of total phenolics, probably due to polymerization and condensation of monomer phenolics such as anthocyanins. Total anthocyanins and the hydrophilic antioxidant capacity decreased while using high temperatures. Anthocyanins also decreased considerably during the processing of wines, mainly caused by fermentation and pasteurization.

  20. Processing strawberries to different products alters contents of vitamin C, total phenolics, total anthocyanins, and antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Klopotek, Yvonne; Otto, Konrad; Böhm, Volker

    2005-07-13

    Strawberries were processed to juice, nectar, wine, and puree. For investigation of the antioxidant capacity as well as the contents of ascorbic acid, total phenolics and total anthocyanins, samples were taken after different stages of production to determine the effects of processing. The content of vitamin C was measured spectrophotometrically. The total phenolic content was analyzed by using the Folin-Ciocalteu method, and the amount of total anthocyanins was determined by using the pH-differential method. Two different methods-the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay and the ferric reducing antioxidant power test-were used to determine the hydrophilic antioxidant capacity. This study showed the decrease of all investigated parameters within processing strawberries to different products. The content of ascorbic acid decreased with production time and processing steps, especially during heat treatment. The investigations on total phenolics in strawberry products proved fining to be a mild method to clarify berry juices and wines without removing high amounts of total phenolics. Fermentation did not lead to heavy losses of total phenolics, probably due to polymerization and condensation of monomer phenolics such as anthocyanins. Total anthocyanins and the hydrophilic antioxidant capacity decreased while using high temperatures. Anthocyanins also decreased considerably during the processing of wines, mainly caused by fermentation and pasteurization. PMID:15998127

  1. Productivity, Oil Content, and Oil Composition of Sweet Basil as a Function of Nitrogen and Sulfur Fertilization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) were believed to be important nutrient management tools for the production of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L. 'German') with desirable oil content and composition and also acceptable herbage yields. A multi-location research study was initiated to evaluate the effect of...

  2. The Use of Vivid Stimuli to Enhance Comprehension of the Content of Product Warning Messages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Craig A.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Two levels of vividness and three levels of motivation were measured in reactions to product label warnings. Vivid product warnings proved to be an effective tool to communicate the hazards associated with product use. (JOW)

  3. The Effect of Additional Dead Space on Respiratory Exchange Ratio and Carbon Dioxide Production Due to Training

    PubMed Central

    Smolka, Lukasz; Borkowski, Jacek; Zaton, Marek

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of implementing additional respiratory dead space during cycloergometry-based aerobic training. The primary outcome measures were respiratory exchange ratio (RER) and carbon dioxide production (VCO2). Two groups of young healthy males: Experimental (Exp, n = 15) and Control (Con, n = 15), participated in this study. The training consisted of 12 sessions, performed twice a week for 6 weeks. A single training session consisted of continuous, constant-rate exercise on a cycle ergometer at 60% of VO2max which was maintained for 30 minutes. Subjects in Exp group were breathing through additional respiratory dead space (1200ml), while subjects in Con group were breathing without additional dead space. Pre-test and two post-training incremental exercise tests were performed for the detection of gas exchange variables. In all training sessions, pCO2 was higher and blood pH was lower in the Exp group (p < 0.001) ensuring respiratory acidosis. A 12-session training program resulted in significant increase in performance time in both groups (from 17”29 ± 1”31 to 18”47 ± 1”37 in Exp; p=0.02 and from 17”20 ± 1”18 to 18”45 ± 1”44 in Con; p = 0.02), but has not revealed a significant difference in RER and VCO2 in both post-training tests, performed at rest and during submaximal workload. We interpret the lack of difference in post-training values of RER and VCO2 between groups as an absence of inhibition in glycolysis and glycogenolysis during exercise with additional dead space. Key Points The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of implementing additional respiratory dead space during cycloergometry-based aerobic training on respiratory exchange ratio and carbon dioxide production. In all training sessions, respiratory acidosis was gained by experimental group only. No significant difference in RER and VCO2 between experimental and control group due to the trainings. The lack of

  4. The effect of additional dead space on respiratory exchange ratio and carbon dioxide production due to training.

    PubMed

    Smolka, Lukasz; Borkowski, Jacek; Zaton, Marek

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of implementing additional respiratory dead space during cycloergometry-based aerobic training. The primary outcome measures were respiratory exchange ratio (RER) and carbon dioxide production (VCO2). Two groups of young healthy males: Experimental (Exp, n = 15) and Control (Con, n = 15), participated in this study. The training consisted of 12 sessions, performed twice a week for 6 weeks. A single training session consisted of continuous, constant-rate exercise on a cycle ergometer at 60% of VO2max which was maintained for 30 minutes. Subjects in Exp group were breathing through additional respiratory dead space (1200ml), while subjects in Con group were breathing without additional dead space. Pre-test and two post-training incremental exercise tests were performed for the detection of gas exchange variables. In all training sessions, pCO2 was higher and blood pH was lower in the Exp group (p < 0.001) ensuring respiratory acidosis. A 12-session training program resulted in significant increase in performance time in both groups (from 17"29 ± 1"31 to 18"47 ± 1"37 in Exp; p=0.02 and from 17"20 ± 1"18 to 18"45 ± 1"44 in Con; p = 0.02), but has not revealed a significant difference in RER and VCO2 in both post-training tests, performed at rest and during submaximal workload. We interpret the lack of difference in post-training values of RER and VCO2 between groups as an absence of inhibition in glycolysis and glycogenolysis during exercise with additional dead space. Key PointsThe purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of implementing additional respiratory dead space during cycloergometry-based aerobic training on respiratory exchange ratio and carbon dioxide production.In all training sessions, respiratory acidosis was gained by experimental group only.No significant difference in RER and VCO2 between experimental and control group due to the trainings.The lack of difference in post

  5. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart C - VOC Content Limits by Product Category

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Consumer Products Pt. 59, Subpt....

  6. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart C - VOC Content Limits by Product Category

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Consumer Products Pt. 59, Subpt....

  7. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart C of... - VOC Content Limits by Product Category

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Consumer Products Pt. 59,...

  8. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart C of... - VOC Content Limits by Product Category

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Consumer Products Pt. 59,...

  9. An analysis of Bronx-based online grocery store circulars for nutritional content of food and beverage products.

    PubMed

    Ethan, Danna; Samuel, Lalitha; Basch, Corey H

    2013-06-01

    With the rising rates of diabetes and obesity in New York City's poorest communities, efforts to assist low-income residents in spending money to promote nutritious food consumption have increased. The objective of this study was to assess the extent to which Bronx-based grocery stores offered nutritious foods on sale through their weekly circulars. Over a 2-month period, we analyzed 2,311 food and beverage products placed on the first page of online circulars for fifteen Bronx-based grocery stores. For each circular, we recorded the number of starchy and non-starchy fruits and vegetables; for each product, total fiber and carbohydrate content per serving (in grams), whether the product was processed, and sale price were recorded. Total sugar content (in grams) was recorded for all sugar-sweetened beverages. Over 84 % of the products were processed, and almost 40 % had at least one carbohydrate choice (15 g) per food serving. Only 16.5 % of the products were fresh fruits and green leafy vegetables, and 1.4 % had fiber content of 5 or more grams per serving. Requiring the purchase of multiples of unhealthy products to receive the sale price was also noted. Almost three-quarters of the sugar-sweetened beverages were advertised with promotional sales compared to over half of the fresh fruits and only one-third of fresh vegetables. We identified no other studies that address nutritional content of foods found in grocery store circulars. More research is necessary to determine if purchasing nutritious products at grocery stores in low-income neighborhoods is influenced by sale prices. PMID:23203239

  10. An analysis of Bronx-based online grocery store circulars for nutritional content of food and beverage products.

    PubMed

    Ethan, Danna; Samuel, Lalitha; Basch, Corey H

    2013-06-01

    With the rising rates of diabetes and obesity in New York City's poorest communities, efforts to assist low-income residents in spending money to promote nutritious food consumption have increased. The objective of this study was to assess the extent to which Bronx-based grocery stores offered nutritious foods on sale through their weekly circulars. Over a 2-month period, we analyzed 2,311 food and beverage products placed on the first page of online circulars for fifteen Bronx-based grocery stores. For each circular, we recorded the number of starchy and non-starchy fruits and vegetables; for each product, total fiber and carbohydrate content per serving (in grams), whether the product was processed, and sale price were recorded. Total sugar content (in grams) was recorded for all sugar-sweetened beverages. Over 84 % of the products were processed, and almost 40 % had at least one carbohydrate choice (15 g) per food serving. Only 16.5 % of the products were fresh fruits and green leafy vegetables, and 1.4 % had fiber content of 5 or more grams per serving. Requiring the purchase of multiples of unhealthy products to receive the sale price was also noted. Almost three-quarters of the sugar-sweetened beverages were advertised with promotional sales compared to over half of the fresh fruits and only one-third of fresh vegetables. We identified no other studies that address nutritional content of foods found in grocery store circulars. More research is necessary to determine if purchasing nutritious products at grocery stores in low-income neighborhoods is influenced by sale prices.

  11. Components of yeast (Sacchromyces cervisiae) extract as defined media additives that support the growth and productivity of CHO cells.

    PubMed

    Spearman, Maureen; Chan, Sarah; Jung, Vince; Kowbel, Vanessa; Mendoza, Meg; Miranda, Vivian; Butler, Michael

    2016-09-10

    Yeast and plant hydrolysates are used as media supplements to support the growth and productivity of CHO cultures for biopharmaceutical production. Through fractionation of a yeast lysate and metabolic analysis of a fraction that had bioactivity equivalent to commercial yeast extract (YE), bioactive components were identified that promoted growth and productivity of two recombinant CHO cell lines (CHO-Luc and CHO-hFcEG2) equivalent to or greater than YE-supplemented media. Autolysis of the yeast lysate was not necessary for full activity, suggesting that the active components are present in untreated yeast cells. A bioactive fraction (3KF) of the yeast lysate was isolated from the permeate using a 3kDa molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) filter. Supplementation of this 3KF fraction into the base media supported growth of CHO-Luc cells over eight passages equivalent to YE-supplemented media. The 3KF fraction was fractionated further by a cation exchange spin column using a stepwise pH elution. Metabolomic analysis of a bioactive fraction isolated at high pH identified several arginine and lysine-containing peptides as well as two polyamines, spermine and spermidine, with 3.5× and 4.5× higher levels compared to a fraction showing no bioactivity. The addition of a mixture of polyamines and their precursors (putrescine, spermine, spermidine, ornithine and citrulline) as well as increasing the concentration of some of the components of the original base medium resulted in a chemically-defined (CD) formulation that produced an equivalent viable cell density (VCD) and productivity of the CHO-Luc cells as the YE-supplemented medium. The VCD of the CHO-hFcEG2 culture in the CD medium was 1.9× greater and with equivalent productivity to the YE-supplemented media.

  12. Components of yeast (Sacchromyces cervisiae) extract as defined media additives that support the growth and productivity of CHO cells.

    PubMed

    Spearman, Maureen; Chan, Sarah; Jung, Vince; Kowbel, Vanessa; Mendoza, Meg; Miranda, Vivian; Butler, Michael

    2016-09-10

    Yeast and plant hydrolysates are used as media supplements to support the growth and productivity of CHO cultures for biopharmaceutical production. Through fractionation of a yeast lysate and metabolic analysis of a fraction that had bioactivity equivalent to commercial yeast extract (YE), bioactive components were identified that promoted growth and productivity of two recombinant CHO cell lines (CHO-Luc and CHO-hFcEG2) equivalent to or greater than YE-supplemented media. Autolysis of the yeast lysate was not necessary for full activity, suggesting that the active components are present in untreated yeast cells. A bioactive fraction (3KF) of the yeast lysate was isolated from the permeate using a 3kDa molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) filter. Supplementation of this 3KF fraction into the base media supported growth of CHO-Luc cells over eight passages equivalent to YE-supplemented media. The 3KF fraction was fractionated further by a cation exchange spin column using a stepwise pH elution. Metabolomic analysis of a bioactive fraction isolated at high pH identified several arginine and lysine-containing peptides as well as two polyamines, spermine and spermidine, with 3.5× and 4.5× higher levels compared to a fraction showing no bioactivity. The addition of a mixture of polyamines and their precursors (putrescine, spermine, spermidine, ornithine and citrulline) as well as increasing the concentration of some of the components of the original base medium resulted in a chemically-defined (CD) formulation that produced an equivalent viable cell density (VCD) and productivity of the CHO-Luc cells as the YE-supplemented medium. The VCD of the CHO-hFcEG2 culture in the CD medium was 1.9× greater and with equivalent productivity to the YE-supplemented media. PMID:27165505

  13. Increased bioclogging and corrosion risk by sulfate addition during iodine recovery at a natural gas production plant.

    PubMed

    Lim, Choon-Ping; Zhao, Dan; Takase, Yuta; Miyanaga, Kazuhiko; Watanabe, Tomoko; Tomoe, Yasuyoshi; Tanji, Yasunori

    2011-02-01

    Iodine recovery at a natural gas production plant in Japan involved the addition of sulfuric acid for pH adjustment, resulting in an additional about 200 mg/L of sulfate in the waste brine after iodine recovery. Bioclogging occurred at the waste brine injection well, causing a decrease in well injectivity. To examine the factors that contribute to bioclogging, an on-site experiment was conducted by amending 10 L of brine with different conditions and then incubating the brine for 5 months under open air. The control case was exposed to open air but did not receive additional chemicals. When sulfate addition was coupled with low iodine, there was a drastic increase in the total amount of accumulated biomass (and subsequently the risk of bioclogging) that was nearly six times higher than the control. The bioclogging-associated corrosion rate of carbon steel was 84.5 μm/year, which is four times higher than that observed under other conditions. Analysis of the microbial communities by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis revealed that the additional sulfate established a sulfur cycle and induced the growth of phototrophic bacteria, including cyanobacteria and purple bacteria. In the presence of sulfate and low iodine levels, cyanobacteria and purple bacteria bloomed, and the accumulation of abundant biomass may have created a more conducive environment for anaerobic sulfate-reducing bacteria. It is believed that the higher corrosion rate was caused by a differential aeration cell that was established by the heterogeneous distribution of the biomass that covered the surface of the test coupons. PMID:20922384

  14. Exploring the use of Low-intensity Ultrasonics as a Tool for Assessing the Salt Content in Pork Meat Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Pérez, J. V.; de Prados, M.; Martínez-Escrivá, G.; González, R.; Mulet, A.; Benedito, J.

    Meat industry demands non-destructive techniques for the control of the salting process to achieve a homogeneous final salt content in salted meat products. The feasibility of using low-intensity ultrasound for characterizing the salting process of pork meat products was evaluated. The ultrasonic velocity (V) and time of flight (TF) were measured by through-transmission and pulse-echo methods, respectively, in salted meat products. Salting involved an increase of the V in meat muscles and a decrease of the time of flight in whole hams. Measuring the V before and after salting, the salt content could be estimated. Moreover, online monitoring of the salting process by computing the TF could be considered a reliable tool for quality control purposes.

  15. Influence of Anthropogenic Nutrient Additions on Greenhouse Gas Production Rates at Water-soil Interfaces in an Urban Dominated Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brigham, B. A.; O'Mullan, G. D.; Bird, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    The tidal Hudson River Estuary (HRE) receives significant inputs of readily dissolvable carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) from incomplete wastewater treatment and sewer overflow during storm events associated with NYC and other urban centers. Nutrient deposition may alter C utilization in the estuarine water column, associated sediments and surrounding wetlands. In these anaerobic systems, we hypothesize that microbial activity is limited by the availability of easily-degradable C (not electron acceptors), which acts as a co-metabolite and provides energy for organic matter decomposition. Sporadic transport of highly C enriched storm derived runoff may substantially enhance greenhouse gas (GHG) production rates through the utilization of stored C pools. To test our hypothesis carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) process rates (1) were evaluated from soil cores removed from three distinct HRE wetland sites (Saw Mill Creek, Piermont, and Iona Island Marsh(s)) across a salinity gradient and incubated under varying nutrient treatments. Further, CO2 and CH4 surface water effluxes (2) were quantified from multiple river cruises spanning two years at varying distance from nutrient sources associated with NYC. Incubation experiments from wetland soil core experiments demonstrated that readily degradable C but not inorganic N additions stimulated GHG production (200 - 350 ug C g-1 of dry soil day-1) threefold compared to negative controls. The HRE was found to be both a CO2 and CH4 source under all conditions. The greatest GHG efflux (300 - 3000 nmoles C m-2 day-1) was quantified in mid-channel, tributary, and near shore sites in close proximity to NYC which following precipitation events demonstrated 2-20X increased GHG efflux. These results demonstrate that anthropogenic C additions associated with dense urban centers have the potential to enhance anaerobic microbial degradation of organic matter and subsequent GHG production.

  16. Energy budgeting and carbon footprint of transgenic cotton-wheat production system through peanut intercropping and FYM addition.

    PubMed

    Singh, Raman Jeet; Ahlawat, I P S

    2015-05-01

    Two of the most pressing sustainability issues are the depletion of fossil energy resources and the emission of atmospheric green house gases like carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. The aim of this study was to assess energy budgeting and carbon footprint in transgenic cotton-wheat cropping system through peanut intercropping with using 25-50% substitution of recommended dose of nitrogen (RDN) of cotton through farmyard manure (FYM) along with 100% RDN through urea and control (0 N). To quantify the residual effects of previous crops and their fertility levels, a succeeding crop of wheat was grown with varying rates of nitrogen, viz. 0, 50, 100, and 150 kg ha(-1). Cotton + peanut-wheat cropping system recorded 21% higher system productivity which ultimately helped to maintain higher net energy return (22%), energy use efficiency (12%), human energy profitability (3%), energy productivity (7%), carbon outputs (20%), carbon efficiency (17%), and 11% lower carbon footprint over sole cotton-wheat cropping system. Peanut addition in cotton-wheat system increased the share of renewable energy inputs from 18 to 21%. With substitution of 25% RDN of cotton through FYM, share of renewable energy resources increased in the range of 21% which resulted into higher system productivity (4%), net energy return (5%), energy ratio (6%), human energy profitability (74%), energy productivity (6%), energy profitability (5%), and 5% lower carbon footprint over no substitution. The highest carbon footprint (0.201) was recorded under control followed by 50 % substitution of RDN through FYM (0.189). With each successive increase in N dose up to 150 kg N ha(-1) to wheat, energy productivity significantly reduced and share of renewable energy inputs decreased from 25 to 13%. Application of 100 kg N ha(-1) to wheat maintained the highest grain yield (3.71 t ha(-1)), net energy return (105,516 MJ ha(-1)), and human energy profitability (223.4) over other N doses applied to wheat

  17. Energy budgeting and carbon footprint of transgenic cotton-wheat production system through peanut intercropping and FYM addition.

    PubMed

    Singh, Raman Jeet; Ahlawat, I P S

    2015-05-01

    Two of the most pressing sustainability issues are the depletion of fossil energy resources and the emission of atmospheric green house gases like carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. The aim of this study was to assess energy budgeting and carbon footprint in transgenic cotton-wheat cropping system through peanut intercropping with using 25-50% substitution of recommended dose of nitrogen (RDN) of cotton through farmyard manure (FYM) along with 100% RDN through urea and control (0 N). To quantify the residual effects of previous crops and their fertility levels, a succeeding crop of wheat was grown with varying rates of nitrogen, viz. 0, 50, 100, and 150 kg ha(-1). Cotton + peanut-wheat cropping system recorded 21% higher system productivity which ultimately helped to maintain higher net energy return (22%), energy use efficiency (12%), human energy profitability (3%), energy productivity (7%), carbon outputs (20%), carbon efficiency (17%), and 11% lower carbon footprint over sole cotton-wheat cropping system. Peanut addition in cotton-wheat system increased the share of renewable energy inputs from 18 to 21%. With substitution of 25% RDN of cotton through FYM, share of renewable energy resources increased in the range of 21% which resulted into higher system productivity (4%), net energy return (5%), energy ratio (6%), human energy profitability (74%), energy productivity (6%), energy profitability (5%), and 5% lower carbon footprint over no substitution. The highest carbon footprint (0.201) was recorded under control followed by 50 % substitution of RDN through FYM (0.189). With each successive increase in N dose up to 150 kg N ha(-1) to wheat, energy productivity significantly reduced and share of renewable energy inputs decreased from 25 to 13%. Application of 100 kg N ha(-1) to wheat maintained the highest grain yield (3.71 t ha(-1)), net energy return (105,516 MJ ha(-1)), and human energy profitability (223.4) over other N doses applied to wheat

  18. Longitudinal change in language production: effects of aging and dementia on grammatical complexity and propositional content.

    PubMed

    Kemper, S; Marquis, J; Thompson, M

    2001-12-01

    Mixed modeling was used to examine longitudinal changes in linguistic ability in healthy older adults and older adults with dementia. Language samples, vocabulary scores, and digit span scores were collected annually from healthy older adults and semiannually from older adults with dementia. The language samples were scored for grammatical complexity and propositional content. For the healthy group, age-related declines in grammatical complexity and propositional content were observed. The declines were most rapid in the mid 70s. For the group with dementia, grammatical complexity and propositional content also declined over time, regardless of age. Rates of decline were uniform across individuals. These analyses reveal how both grammatical complexity and propositional content are related to late-life changes in cognition in healthy older adults aswell as those with dementia. Alzheimer's disease accelerates this decline, regardless of age.

  19. Ethanol yield and volatile compound content in fermentation of agave must by Kluyveromyces marxianus UMPe-1 comparing with Saccharomyces cerevisiae baker's yeast used in tequila production.

    PubMed

    López-Alvarez, Arnoldo; Díaz-Pérez, Alma Laura; Sosa-Aguirre, Carlos; Macías-Rodríguez, Lourdes; Campos-García, Jesús

    2012-05-01

    In tequila production, fermentation is an important step. Fermentation determines the ethanol productivity and organoleptic properties of the beverage. In this study, a yeast isolated from native residual agave must was identified as Kluyveromyces marxianus UMPe-1 by 26S rRNA sequencing. This yeast was compared with the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pan1. Our findings demonstrate that the UMPe-1 yeast was able to support the sugar content of agave must and glucose up to 22% (w/v) and tolerated 10% (v/v) ethanol concentration in the medium with 50% cells survival. Pilot and industrial fermentation of agave must tests showed that the K. marxianus UMPe-1 yeast produced ethanol with yields of 94% and 96% with respect to fermentable sugar content (glucose and fructose, constituting 98%). The S. cerevisiae Pan1 baker's yeast, however, which is commonly used in some tequila factories, showed 76% and 70% yield. At the industrial level, UMPe-1 yeast shows a maximum velocity of fermentable sugar consumption of 2.27g·L(-1)·h(-1) and ethanol production of 1.38g·L(-1)·h(-1), providing 58.78g ethanol·L(-1) at 72h fermentation, which corresponds to 96% yield. In addition, the major and minor volatile compounds in the tequila beverage obtained from UMPe-1 yeast were increased. Importantly, 29 volatile compounds were identified, while the beverage obtained from Pan1-yeast contained fewer compounds and in lower concentrations. The results suggest that the K. marxianus UMPe-1 is a suitable yeast for agave must fermentation, showing high ethanol productivity and increased volatile compound content comparing with a S. cerevisiae baker's yeast used in tequila production.

  20. Ethanol yield and volatile compound content in fermentation of agave must by Kluyveromyces marxianus UMPe-1 comparing with Saccharomyces cerevisiae baker's yeast used in tequila production.

    PubMed

    López-Alvarez, Arnoldo; Díaz-Pérez, Alma Laura; Sosa-Aguirre, Carlos; Macías-Rodríguez, Lourdes; Campos-García, Jesús

    2012-05-01

    In tequila production, fermentation is an important step. Fermentation determines the ethanol productivity and organoleptic properties of the beverage. In this study, a yeast isolated from native residual agave must was identified as Kluyveromyces marxianus UMPe-1 by 26S rRNA sequencing. This yeast was compared with the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pan1. Our findings demonstrate that the UMPe-1 yeast was able to support the sugar content of agave must and glucose up to 22% (w/v) and tolerated 10% (v/v) ethanol concentration in the medium with 50% cells survival. Pilot and industrial fermentation of agave must tests showed that the K. marxianus UMPe-1 yeast produced ethanol with yields of 94% and 96% with respect to fermentable sugar content (glucose and fructose, constituting 98%). The S. cerevisiae Pan1 baker's yeast, however, which is commonly used in some tequila factories, showed 76% and 70% yield. At the industrial level, UMPe-1 yeast shows a maximum velocity of fermentable sugar consumption of 2.27g·L(-1)·h(-1) and ethanol production of 1.38g·L(-1)·h(-1), providing 58.78g ethanol·L(-1) at 72h fermentation, which corresponds to 96% yield. In addition, the major and minor volatile compounds in the tequila beverage obtained from UMPe-1 yeast were increased. Importantly, 29 volatile compounds were identified, while the beverage obtained from Pan1-yeast contained fewer compounds and in lower concentrations. The results suggest that the K. marxianus UMPe-1 is a suitable yeast for agave must fermentation, showing high ethanol productivity and increased volatile compound content comparing with a S. cerevisiae baker's yeast used in tequila production. PMID:22280963

  1. Effect of the silica content of diatom prey on the production, decomposition and sinking of fecal pellets of the copepod Calanus sinicus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongbin; Wu, Chih-Jung

    2016-08-01

    The effects of changing the amount of silica in the cell wall of diatom prey, on the production, decomposition rate and sinking velocity of fecal pellets of the calanoid copepod, Calanus sinicus, were examined. Using different light intensities to control the growth of the diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii also led to the accumulation of different amounts of biogenic silica. Copepods were then fed either low ( ˜ 1600 cells L-1) or high ( ˜ 8000 cells L-1) concentrations of this diatom. Copepods fed a high concentration of diatoms with high-silica content exhibited a lower grazing rate and lower fecal pellet production rate than those fed a high concentration of diatoms with low-silica content. However, there was no difference in either the grazing or fecal pellet production rates at low prey concentrations with high- or low-silica content. The size of the fecal pellets produced was only affected by the prey concentration, and not by the silica content of prey. In addition, the degradation rate of the fecal pellets was much higher for copepods fed a low-silica diet than for those fed a high-silica diet. Significantly lower densities and sinking rates only occurred in the fecal pellets of copepods fed a low-silica diet and a low prey concentration. Calculating the L ratio (the ratio of degradation rate : sinking rate) for each group indicated that the fecal pellets produced by copepods fed highly silicified diatoms are likely to transport both biogenic silica and organic carbon to the deep layer, whereas those produced following the consumption of low-silica diatoms are likely to decompose in the mixing layer.

  2. Nutritional, Health, and Technological Functionality of Lupin Flour Addition to Bread and Other Baked Products: Benefits and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Villarino, C B J; Jayasena, V; Coorey, R; Chakrabarti-Bell, S; Johnson, S K

    2016-01-01

    Lupin is an undervalued legume despite its high protein and dietary fiber content and potential health benefits. This review focuses on the nutritional value, health benefits, and technological effects of incorporating lupin flour into wheat-based bread. Results of clinical studies suggest that consuming lupin compared to wheat bread and other baked products reduce chronic disease risk markers; possibly due to increased protein and dietary fiber and bioactive compounds. However, lupin protein allergy has also been recorded. Bread quality has been improved when 10% lupin flour is substituted for refined wheat flour; possibly due to lupin-wheat protein cross-linking assisting bread volume and the high water-binding capacity (WBC) of lupin fiber delaying staling. Above 10% substitution appears to reduce bread quality due to lupin proteins low elasticity and the high WBC of its dietary fiber interrupting gluten network development. Gaps in understanding of the role of lupin flour in bread quality include the optimal formulation and processing conditions to maximize lupin incorporation, role of protein cross-linking, antistaling functionality, and bioactivity of its γ-conglutin protein. PMID:25675266

  3. Two distinct auditory-motor circuits for monitoring speech production as revealed by content-specific suppression of auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Ylinen, Sari; Nora, Anni; Leminen, Alina; Hakala, Tero; Huotilainen, Minna; Shtyrov, Yury; Mäkelä, Jyrki P; Service, Elisabet

    2015-06-01

    Speech production, both overt and covert, down-regulates the activation of auditory cortex. This is thought to be due to forward prediction of the sensory consequences of speech, contributing to a feedback control mechanism for speech production. Critically, however, these regulatory effects should be specific to speech content to enable accurate speech monitoring. To determine the extent to which such forward prediction is content-specific, we recorded the brain's neuromagnetic responses to heard multisyllabic pseudowords during covert rehearsal in working memory, contrasted with a control task. The cortical auditory processing of target syllables was significantly suppressed during rehearsal compared with control, but only when they matched the rehearsed items. This critical specificity to speech content enables accurate speech monitoring by forward prediction, as proposed by current models of speech production. The one-to-one phonological motor-to-auditory mappings also appear to serve the maintenance of information in phonological working memory. Further findings of right-hemispheric suppression in the case of whole-item matches and left-hemispheric enhancement for last-syllable mismatches suggest that speech production is monitored by 2 auditory-motor circuits operating on different timescales: Finer grain in the left versus coarser grain in the right hemisphere. Taken together, our findings provide hemisphere-specific evidence of the interface between inner and heard speech.

  4. Production of High-Hydrogen Content Coal-Derived Liquids [Part 1 of 3

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen Bergin

    2011-03-30

    The primary goal of this project has been to evaluate and compare the effect of the intrinsic differences between cobalt (Co) and iron (Fe) catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis using coal-derived syngas. Crude oil, especially heavy, high-sulfur crude, is no longer the appropriate source for the additional, or marginal, amounts of middle-distillate fuels needed to meet growing US and world demand for diesel and jet fuels. Only about 1/3 of the marginal crude oil barrel can be made into diesel and jet fuels. The remaining 2/3 contributes further to global surpluses of by-products. FT can produce these needed marginal, low-sulfur middle-distillate fuels more efficiently, with less environmental impact, and from abundant US domestic resources. Cobalt FT catalyst is more efficient, and less expensive overall, than iron FT catalyst. Mechanisms of cobalt FT catalyst functioning, and poisoning, have been elucidated. Each of these primary findings is amplified by several secondary findings, and these are presented, and verified in detail. The most effective step the United States can take to begin building toward improved long-term national energy security, and to reduce dependence, over time, on imported crude oil from unfriendly and increasingly unstable areas of the world, is to begin producing additional, or marginal amounts of, middle-distillate-type fuels, such as ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD) and jet fuel (not gasoline) from US domestic resources other than petroleum. FT synthesis of these middle distillate fuels offers the advantage of being able to use abundant and affordable US coal and biomass as the primary feedstocks. Use of the cobalt FT catalyst system has been shown conclusively to be more effective and less expensive than the use of iron FT catalyst with syngas derived from coal, or from coal and biomass combined. This finding is demonstrated in detail for the initial case of a relatively small FT plant of about 2000 barrels per day based upon coal

  5. Production of High-Hydrogen Content Coal-Derived Liquids [Part 2 of 3

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen Bergin

    2011-03-30

    The primary goal of this project has been to evaluate and compare the effect of the intrinsic differences between cobalt (Co) and iron (Fe) catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis using coal-derived syngas. Crude oil, especially heavy, high-sulfur crude, is no longer the appropriate source for the additional, or marginal, amounts of middle-distillate fuels needed to meet growing US and world demand for diesel and jet fuels. Only about 1/3 of the marginal crude oil barrel can be made into diesel and jet fuels. The remaining 2/3 contributes further to global surpluses of by-products. FT can produce these needed marginal, low-sulfur middle-distillate fuels more efficiently, with less environmental impact, and from abundant US domestic resources. Cobalt FT catalyst is more efficient, and less expensive overall, than iron FT catalyst. Mechanisms of cobalt FT catalyst functioning, and poisoning, have been elucidated. Each of these primary findings is amplified by several secondary findings, and these are presented, and verified in detail. The most effective step the United States can take to begin building toward improved long-term national energy security, and to reduce dependence, over time, on imported crude oil from unfriendly and increasingly unstable areas of the world, is to begin producing additional, or marginal amounts of, middle-distillate-type fuels, such as ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD) and jet fuel (not gasoline) from US domestic resources other than petroleum. FT synthesis of these middle distillate fuels offers the advantage of being able to use abundant and affordable US coal and biomass as the primary feedstocks. Use of the cobalt FT catalyst system has been shown conclusively to be more effective and less expensive than the use of iron FT catalyst with syngas derived from coal, or from coal and biomass combined. This finding is demonstrated in detail for the initial case of a relatively small FT plant of about 2000 barrels per day based upon coal

  6. Production of High-Hydrogen Content Coal-Derived Liquids [Part 3 of 3

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen Bergin

    2011-03-30

    The primary goal of this project has been to evaluate and compare the effect of the intrinsic differences between cobalt (Co) and iron (Fe) catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis using coal-derived syngas. Crude oil, especially heavy, high-sulfur crude, is no longer the appropriate source for the additional, or marginal, amounts of middle-distillate fuels needed to meet growing US and world demand for diesel and jet fuels. Only about 1/3 of the marginal crude oil barrel can be made into diesel and jet fuels. The remaining 2/3 contributes further to global surpluses of by-products. FT can produce these needed marginal, low-sulfur middle-distillate fuels more efficiently, with less environmental impact, and from abundant US domestic resources. Cobalt FT catalyst is more efficient, and less expensive overall, than iron FT catalyst. Mechanisms of cobalt FT catalyst functioning, and poisoning, have been elucidated. Each of these primary findings is amplified by several secondary findings, and these are presented, and verified in detail. The most effective step the United States can take to begin building toward improved long-term national energy security, and to reduce dependence, over time, on imported crude oil from unfriendly and increasingly unstable areas of the world, is to begin producing additional, or marginal amounts of, middle-distillate-type fuels, such as ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD) and jet fuel (not gasoline) from US domestic resources other than petroleum. FT synthesis of these middle distillate fuels offers the advantage of being able to use abundant and affordable US coal and biomass as the primary feedstocks. Use of the cobalt FT catalyst system has been shown conclusively to be more effective and less expensive than the use of iron FT catalyst with syngas derived from coal, or from coal and biomass combined. This finding is demonstrated in detail for the initial case of a relatively small FT plant of about 2000 barrels per day based upon coal

  7. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart C - VOC Content Limits by Product Category

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... degreasers 75 Fabric protectants 75 Floor polishes/waxes: Products for flexible flooring materials 7 Products for nonresilient flooring 10 Wood floor wax 90 Furniture maintenance products-aerosol 25 General... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND...

  8. Combining ability of sweetpotato germplasm for yield, dry matter content, and anthocyanin production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interest in the potential of sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas) for the production of industrial products is increasing. As part of an effort to evaluate the potential of sweetpotatoes for starch and anthocyanin production in the southeastern United States, a 5 x 5 North Carolina mating design II (NCII m...

  9. Reaction of homopiperazine with endogenous formaldehyde: a carbon hydrogen addition metabolite/product identified in rat urine and blood.

    PubMed

    Martin, Scott; Lenz, Eva M; Temesi, Dave; Wild, Martin; Clench, Malcolm R

    2012-08-01

    Drug reactivity and bioactivation are of major concern to the development of potential drug candidates in the pharmaceutical industry (Chem Res Toxicol 17:3-16, 2004; Chem Res Toxicol 19:889-893, 2006). Identifying potentially problematic compounds as soon as possible in the discovery process is of great importance, so often early in vitro screening is used to speed up attrition. Identification of reactive moieties is relatively straightforward with appropriate in vitro trapping experiments; however, on occasion unexpected reactive intermediates can be found later during more detailed in vivo studies. Here, we present one such example involving a series of compounds from an early drug discovery campaign. These compounds were found to react with endogenous formaldehyde from a rat in vivo study, resulting in the formation of novel +13-Da bridged homopiperazine products (equivalent to the addition of one carbon and one hydrogen atom), which were detected in urine and blood. The identification of these +13-Da products and their origin and mechanism of formation are described in detail through analyses of a representative homopiperazine compound [N-(3-(3-fluorophenyl)-1,2,4-thiadiazol-5-yl)-4-(4-isopropyl-1,4-diaze-pane-2-carbonyl)piperazine-1-carboxamide (AZX)] by liquid chromatography-UV-mass spectrometry, (1)H NMR, and chemical tests. PMID:22550270

  10. Tribological performance of Mg/Al/Ce layered double hydroxides nanoparticles and intercalated products as lubricant additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shuo; Qin, Haojing; Zuo, Ranfang; Bai, Zhimin

    2015-10-01

    Mg/Al/Ce ternary layered double hydroxides (LDHs) were synthesized via coprecipitation and intercalated by succinic acid and lauric acid through ion exchange method respectively. The LDHs products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR). Tribological properties of LDHs as lubricant additives were evaluated by four-ball friction and air compressor test. The results indicated that Mg/Al/Ce LDHs were prepared successfully with Ce/Al molar ratio of 0.05 and crystallization temperature of 140 °C. The interlayer spacing of LDHs precursor was expanded by succinic acid and lauric acid to 8.838 and 17.519 Å respectively. All the three LDHs products can reduce friction and wear of engine lubricating oil in the tests. LDHs intercalated with lauric acid showed best tribological performance among them which was attributed to sliding each other between laminates, good dispersibility in oil medium and a protective tribofilm formed on the worn surface.

  11. Effect of nutrient supplements addition on ethanol production from cheese whey using Candida psuedotropicalis under batch condition

    SciTech Connect

    Ghaly, A.E.; El-Taweel, A.A.

    1995-05-01

    Candida psuedotropicalis ATCC 8619 was selected among nine strains of lactose fermenting yeast for the production of ethanol from cheese whey. The effects of three nutrients (ammonium sulfate (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}, dipotassium hydrogen phosphate K{sub 2}HPO{sub 4}, yeast extract, and combination of them) on the ethanol yield from cheese whey were investigated. The results indicated that no addition of nutrient supplement is necessary to achieve complete lactose utilization during the cheese whey ethanol fermentation. However, addition of a small concentration (0.005% w/v) of these supplements reduced the lag period and the total fermentation time and increased the specific growth rate of the yeast. Higher concentrations (0.01 and 0.015% w/v) of ammonium sulfate and dipotassium hydrogen phosphate inhibited the cell growth rate of the yeast. The highest ethanol (21.7% g/L) was achieved using yeast extract at a concentration of 0.01% w/v, given a conversion efficiency of 98.3%. No indication of alcohol inhibition was observed in this study. 60 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Chemometric analysis of chromatographic fingerprints shows potential of Cyclopia maculata (Andrews) Kies for production of standardized extracts with high xanthone content.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Alexandra E; de Beer, Dalene; de Villiers, André; Manley, Marena; Joubert, Elizabeth

    2014-10-29

    Cyclopia species are used for the production of honeybush tea and food ingredient extracts associated with many health benefits. A species-specific high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for Cyclopia maculata, developed and validated, allowed quantification of the major compounds in extracts from "unfermented" and fermented C. maculata. Two xanthones were tentatively identified for the first time in a Cyclopia species, whereas an additional four compounds were tentatively identified for the first time in C. maculata. "Fermentation" (oxidation) decreased the content of all compounds, with the exception of vicenin-2. Similarity analysis of the chromatographic fingerprints of unfermented C. maculata aqueous extracts showed extremely low variation (r ≥ 0.97) between samples. Some differences between wild-harvested and cultivated seedling plants were, however, demonstrated using principal component analysis. Quantitative data of selected compounds confirmed the low level of variation, making this Cyclopia species ideal for the production of standardized food ingredient extracts.

  13. Variability in the reported energy, total fat and saturated fat content in fast food products across ten countries

    PubMed Central

    Ziauddeen, Nida; Fitt, Emily; Edney, Louise; Dunford, Elizabeth; Neal, Bruce; Jebb, Susan A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Fast foods are often energy dense and offered in large serving sizes. Observational data has linked the consumption of fast food to an increased risk of obesity and related diseases. Design We surveyed the reported energy, total fat and saturated fat contents, and serving sizes, of fast food items from five major chains across 10 countries, comparing product categories as well as specific food items available in most countries. Setting MRC Human Nutrition Research (HNR), Cambridge Subjects Data for 2961 food and drink products were collected, with most from Canada (n=550) and fewest from United Arab Emirates (n=106). Results There was considerable variability in energy and fat content of fast food across countries, reflecting both the portfolio of products, and serving size variability. Differences in total energy between countries were particularly noted for chicken dishes (649-1197kJ/100g) and sandwiches (552-1050kJ/100g). When comparing the same product between countries variations were consistently observed in total energy and fat content (g/100g) with extreme variation in McDonald’s Chicken McNuggets with 12g total fat (g/100g) in Germany compared to 21.1g in New Zealand. Conclusions These cross-country variations highlight the possibility for further product reformulation in many countries to reduce nutrients of concern and improve the nutritional profiles of fast food products around the world. Standardisation of serving sizes towards the lower end of the range would also help to reduce the risk of overconsumption. PMID:25702788

  14. Effects of Fuel Aromatic Content on Nonvolatile Particulate Emissions of an In-Production Aircraft Gas Turbine.

    PubMed

    Brem, Benjamin T; Durdina, Lukas; Siegerist, Frithjof; Beyerle, Peter; Bruderer, Kevin; Rindlisbacher, Theo; Rocci-Denis, Sara; Andac, M Gurhan; Zelina, Joseph; Penanhoat, Olivier; Wang, Jing

    2015-11-17

    Aircraft engines emit particulate matter (PM) that affects the air quality in the vicinity of airports and contributes to climate change. Nonvolatile PM (nvPM) emissions from aircraft turbine engines depend on fuel aromatic content, which varies globally by several percent. It is uncertain how this variability will affect future nvPM emission regulations and emission inventories. Here, we present black carbon (BC) mass and nvPM number emission indices (EIs) as a function of fuel aromatic content and thrust for an in-production aircraft gas turbine engine. The aromatics content was varied from 17.8% (v/v) in the neat fuel (Jet A-1) to up to 23.6% (v/v) by injecting two aromatic solvents into the engine fuel supply line. Fuel normalized BC mass and nvPM number EIs increased by up to 60% with increasing fuel aromatics content and decreasing engine thrust. The EIs also increased when fuel naphthalenes were changed from 0.78% (v/v) to 1.18% (v/v) while keeping the total aromatics constant. The EIs correlated best with fuel hydrogen mass content, leading to a simple model that could be used for correcting fuel effects in emission inventories and in future aircraft engine nvPM emission standards. PMID:26495879

  15. Effects of Fuel Aromatic Content on Nonvolatile Particulate Emissions of an In-Production Aircraft Gas Turbine.

    PubMed

    Brem, Benjamin T; Durdina, Lukas; Siegerist, Frithjof; Beyerle, Peter; Bruderer, Kevin; Rindlisbacher, Theo; Rocci-Denis, Sara; Andac, M Gurhan; Zelina, Joseph; Penanhoat, Olivier; Wang, Jing

    2015-11-17

    Aircraft engines emit particulate matter (PM) that affects the air quality in the vicinity of airports and contributes to climate change. Nonvolatile PM (nvPM) emissions from aircraft turbine engines depend on fuel aromatic content, which varies globally by several percent. It is uncertain how this variability will affect future nvPM emission regulations and emission inventories. Here, we present black carbon (BC) mass and nvPM number emission indices (EIs) as a function of fuel aromatic content and thrust for an in-production aircraft gas turbine engine. The aromatics content was varied from 17.8% (v/v) in the neat fuel (Jet A-1) to up to 23.6% (v/v) by injecting two aromatic solvents into the engine fuel supply line. Fuel normalized BC mass and nvPM number EIs increased by up to 60% with increasing fuel aromatics content and decreasing engine thrust. The EIs also increased when fuel naphthalenes were changed from 0.78% (v/v) to 1.18% (v/v) while keeping the total aromatics constant. The EIs correlated best with fuel hydrogen mass content, leading to a simple model that could be used for correcting fuel effects in emission inventories and in future aircraft engine nvPM emission standards.

  16. Changes in Knowledge Structures from Building Semantic Net versus Production Rule Representations of Subject Content.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonassen, David H.

    1993-01-01

    Compares the effects on the knowledge structure of the learners of using two different Mindtools--semantic networks and rule-based expert systems--for representing the content of a course. Results showed that students in the semantic network class possessed more hierarchical knowledge structures than the other group. (Contains 29 references.) (JLB)

  17. 16 CFR 303.10 - Fiber content of special types of products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Acetate. 50 percent Cotton. Elastic: Rayon, cotton, nylon, rubber. (b) Where drapery or upholstery fabrics... last, as for example: Rayon Wool Acetate Metallic Other fibers (c)(1) Where a manufactured textile...% Rayon (4) All of the provisions as to fiber content disclosures contained in the Act and...

  18. 16 CFR 303.10 - Fiber content of special types of products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Acetate. 50 percent Cotton. Elastic: Rayon, cotton, nylon, rubber. (b) Where drapery or upholstery fabrics... last, as for example: Rayon Wool Acetate Metallic Other fibers (c)(1) Where a manufactured textile...% Rayon (4) All of the provisions as to fiber content disclosures contained in the Act and...

  19. 16 CFR 303.10 - Fiber content of special types of products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Acetate. 50 percent Cotton. Elastic: Rayon, cotton, nylon, rubber. (b) Where drapery or upholstery fabrics... last, as for example: Rayon Wool Acetate Metallic Other fibers (c)(1) Where a manufactured textile...% Rayon (4) All of the provisions as to fiber content disclosures contained in the Act and...

  20. 16 CFR 303.10 - Fiber content of special types of products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Acetate. 50 percent Cotton. Elastic: Rayon, cotton, nylon, rubber. (b) Where drapery or upholstery fabrics... last, as for example: Rayon Wool Acetate Metallic Other fibers (c)(1) Where a manufactured textile...% Rayon (4) All of the provisions as to fiber content disclosures contained in the Act and...

  1. 16 CFR 303.10 - Fiber content of special types of products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Acetate. 50 percent Cotton. Elastic: Rayon, cotton, nylon, rubber. (b) Where drapery or upholstery fabrics... last, as for example: Rayon Wool Acetate Metallic Other fibers (c)(1) Where a manufactured textile...% Rayon (4) All of the provisions as to fiber content disclosures contained in the Act and...

  2. 47 CFR 73.9003 - Compliance requirements for covered demodulator products: Unscreened content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Digital Broadcast Television Redistribution... that the broadcast flag is retained in the both the EIT and PMT; (3) To a digital output protected by an authorized digital output protection technology authorized for use with unscreened content,...

  3. The application of non-Saccharomyces yeast in fermentations with limited aeration as a strategy for the production of wine with reduced alcohol content.

    PubMed

    Contreras, A; Hidalgo, C; Schmidt, S; Henschke, P A; Curtin, C; Varela, C

    2015-07-16

    High alcohol concentrations reduce the complexity of wine sensory properties. In addition, health and economic drivers have the wine industry actively seeking technologies that facilitate the production of wines with lower alcohol content. One of the simplest approaches to achieve this aim would be the use of wine yeast strains which are less efficient at transforming grape sugars into ethanol, however commercially available wine yeasts produce very similar ethanol yields. Non-conventional yeast, in particular non-Saccharomyces species, have shown potential for producing wines with lower alcohol content. These yeasts are naturally present in the early stages of fermentation but in general are not capable of completing alcoholic fermentation. We have evaluated 48 non-Saccharomyces isolates to identify strains that, with limited aeration and in sequential inoculation regimes with S. cerevisiae, could be used for the production of wine with lower ethanol concentration. Two of these, Torulaspora delbrueckii AWRI1152 and Zygosaccharomyces bailii AWRI1578, enabled the production of wine with reduced ethanol concentration under limited aerobic conditions. Depending on the aeration regime T. delbrueckii AWRI1152 and Z. bailii AWRI1578 showed a reduction in ethanol concentration of 1.5% (v/v) and 2.0% (v/v) respectively, compared to the S. cerevisiae anaerobic control.

  4. Bioavailability of starch in bread products. Postprandial glucose and insulin responses in healthy subjects and in vitro resistant starch content.

    PubMed

    Liljeberg, H; Björck, I

    1994-03-01

    Attempts to reduce glycaemia to bread were evaluated in healthy subjects. The contents of in vitro resistant starch (RS) were also measured in the bread products. The potential of including intact barley kernels at different concentrations (80% and 40%) was tested in two products (SCB-80 and SCB-40). Three variants of barley bread made from wholemeal were also studied: ordinary (WMB), sourdough fermented (WMB-s) and one made from scalded flour (SWMB). A commercial pumpernickel bread (PB) based on sourdough fermented rye kernels was included for comparison and a white wheat bread (WWB) used as reference for calculation of glycaemic index. The glycaemic and insulinaemic indices for SCB-80 were 33 and 39, and for PB 69 and 61, respectively. The glycaemic index was lowered also in case of SCB-40 (66). No differences in indices were found between the WMB products or versus WWB. A high content of RS (8% starch basis) was found in the PB product, compared with the remaining bread products (0.8-1.7%).

  5. Flavonoid content in fresh, home-processed, and light-exposed onions and in dehydrated commercial onion products.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Un; Lee, Jong Ha; Choi, Suk Hyun; Lee, Jin Shik; Ohnisi-Kameyama, Mayumi; Kozukue, Nobuyuki; Levin, Carol E; Friedman, Mendel

    2008-09-24

    Onion plants synthesize flavonoids as protection against damage by UV radiation and by intracellular hydrogen peroxide. Because flavonoids also exhibit health-promoting effects in humans, a need exists to measure their content in onions and in processed onion products. To contribute to the knowledge about the levels of onion flavonoids, HPLC and LC-MS were used to measure levels of seven quercetin and isorhamnetin glucosides in four Korean commercial onion bulb varieties and their distribution within the onion, in scales of field-grown onions exposed to home processing or to fluorescent light and in 16 commercial dehydrated onion products sold in the United States. Small onions had higher flavonoid content per kilogram than large ones. There was a graduated decrease in the distribution of the flavonoids across an onion bulb from the first (outside) to the seventh (innermost) scale. Commercial, dehydrated onion products contained low amounts or no flavonoids. Losses of onion flavonoids subjected to "cooking" (in percent) ranged as follows: frying, 33; sauteing, 21; boiling, 14-20; steaming, 14; microwaving, 4; baking, 0. Exposure to fluorescent light for 24 and 48 h induced time-dependent increases in the flavonoid content. The results extend the knowledge about the distribution of flavonoids in fresh and processed onions.

  6. Screening of the entire USDA castor germplasm collection for oil content and fatty acid composition for optimum biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming Li; Morris, J Bradley; Tonnis, Brandon; Pinnow, David; Davis, Jerry; Raymer, Paul; Pederson, Gary A

    2011-09-14

    Castor has tremendous potential as a feedstock for biodiesel production. The oil content and fatty acid composition in castor seed are important factors determining the price for production and affecting the key fuel properties of biodiesel. There are 1033 available castor accessions collected or donated from 48 countries worldwide in the USDA germplasm collection. The entire castor collection was screened for oil content and fatty acid composition by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gas chromatography (GC), respectively. Castor seeds on the average contain 48.2% oil with significant variability ranging from 37.2 to 60.6%. Methyl esters were prepared from castor seed by alkaline transmethylation. GC analysis of methyl esters confirmed that castor oil was composed primarily of eight fatty acids: 1.48% palmitic (C16:0), 1.58% stearic (C18:0), 4.41% oleic (C18:1), 6.42% linoleic (C18:2), 0.68% linolenic (C18:3), 0.45% gadoleic (C20:1), 84.51% ricinoleic (C18:1-1OH), and 0.47% dihydroxystearic (C18:0-2OH) acids. Significant variability in fatty acid composition was detected among castor accessions. Ricinoleic acid (RA) was positively correlated with dihydroxystearic acid (DHSA) but highly negatively correlated with the five other fatty acids except linolenic acid. The results for oil content and fatty acid composition obtained from this study will be useful for end-users to explore castor germplasm for biodiesel production.

  7. [Impact of Thermal Treatment on Biogas Production by Anaerobic Digestion of High-solid-content Swine Manure].

    PubMed

    Hu, Yu-ying; Wu, Jing; Wang, Shi-feng; Cao, Zhi-ping; Wang, Kai-jun; Zuo, Jian-e

    2015-08-01

    Livestock manure is a kind of waste with high organic content and sanitation risk. In order to investigate the impact of thermal treatment on the anaerobic digestion of high-solid-content swine manure, 70 degrees C thermal treatment was conducted to treat raw manure (solid content 27.6%) without any dilution. The results indicated that thermal treatment could reduce the organic matters and improve the performance of anaerobic digestion. When the thermal treatment time was 1d, 2d, 3d, 4d, the VS removal rates were 15.1%, 15.5%, 17.8% and 20.0%, respectively. The methane production rates (CH4/VSadd) were 284.4, 296.3, 309.2 and 264.4 mL x g(-1), which was enhanced by 49.7%, 55.9%, 62.7% and 39.2%, respectively. The highest methane production rate occurred when the thermal treatment time was 3d. The thermal treatment had an efficient impact on promoting the performance of methane production rate with a suitable energy consumption. On the other hand, thermal treatment could act as pasteurization. This showed that thermal treatment would be of great practical importance. PMID:26592046

  8. High Biomass Specific Methyl Halide Production Rates of Selected Coastal Marsh Plants and its Relationship to Halide Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manley, S. L.; Wang, N.; Cicerone, R. J.

    2002-12-01

    Salt tolerant coastal marsh plants (halophytes) have previously been shown to be globally significant producers of methyl chloride (MeCl) and methyl bromide (MeBr). While halophytes are known for their high salt content, there are few reports of their halide content. Our studies have attempted to quantify biomass specific methyl halide (MeX) production from these plants and relate it to tissue halide levels. MeCl, MeBr and MeI production rates and tissue chloride, bromide and iodide concentrations from selected coastal marsh plants were measured for nearly a year. Certain halophyte species (i.e. Batis and Frankenia) have very high summer biomass specific production rates for MeX (e.g. Frankenia: 1 ug MeCl /gfwt/hr; 80 ng MeBr/gfwt/hr; 8 ng MeI/gfwt/hr). These rates of MeCl and MeBr production are much higher than those from other coastal marsh plants or seaweeds. Plant halide levels remain high throughout the year, while MeX production peaks at a high level in mid summer falling to low winter rates. This implies a linkage to plant growth. Higher levels of chloride and bromide were seen in the fleshy marsh plants such as Batis (saltwort, approximately 20 percent dry wt chloride, 0.4 percent dry wt bromide) and Salicornia (pickleweed) than in the others such as Frankenia (alkali heath) approx 7 percent dry wt chloride, 0.1 percent dry wt bromide) or Spartina (cordgrass). No such trend was seen for iodide, which ranged from 4 - 10 ppm. Calculations show the daily halide losses from MeX production are far less than the variability in tissue halide content. MeX production removes a small fraction of the total tissue halide from these plants suggesting that MeX production is not a mechanism used by these species to control internal halide levels. Saltwort cell-free extracts incubated with bromide or iodide in the presence of S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) produced the corresponding MeX. MeBr production was inhibited by caffeic acid the substrate of lignin-specific O

  9. Methanotrophic production of copolymer, poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate), with high hydroxyvalerate content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Type II methanotrophic bacteria are a promising production platform for PHA biopolymers. These bacteria are known to produce pure poly-3-hydroxybutyrate homopolymer. We describe the production of a wide range of PHB-co-HV co-polymers by the co-feeding of methane and valerate. The ratio of HB to HV m...

  10. Effect of Ni content on the diffusion-controlled growth of the product phases in the Cu(Ni)-Sn system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baheti, Varun A.; Islam, Sarfaraj; Kumar, Praveen; Ravi, Raju; Narayanan, Ramesh; Hongqun, Dong; Vuorinen, Vesa; Laurila, Tomi; Paul, Aloke

    2016-01-01

    A strong influence of Ni content on the diffusion-controlled growth of the (Cu,Ni)3Sn and (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 phases by coupling different Cu(Ni) alloys with Sn in the solid state is reported. The continuous increase in the thickness ratio of (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 to (Cu,Ni)3Sn with the Ni content is explained by combined kinetic and thermodynamic arguments as follows: (i) The integrated interdiffusion coefficient does not change for the (Cu,Ni)3Sn phase up to 2.5 at.% Ni and decreases drastically for 5 at.% Ni. On the other hand, there is a continuous increase in the integrated interdiffusion coefficient for (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 as a function of increasing Ni content. (ii) With the increase in Ni content, driving forces for the diffusion of components increase for both components in both phases but at different rates. However, the magnitude of these changes alone is not large enough to explain the high difference in the observed growth rate of the product phases because of Ni addition. (iv) Kirkendall marker experiments indicate that the Cu6Sn5 phase grows by diffusion of both Cu and Sn in the binary case. However, when Ni is added, the growth is by diffusion of Sn only. (v) Also, the observed grain refinement in the Cu6Sn5 phase with the addition of Ni suggests that the grain boundary diffusion of Sn may have an important role in the observed changes in the growth rate.

  11. The Development of Narrative Productivity, Syntactic Complexity, Referential Cohesion and Event Content in Four- to Eight-Year-Old Finnish Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mäkinen, Leena; Loukusa, Soile; Nieminen, Lea; Leinonen, Eeva; Kunnari, Sari

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on the development of narrative structure and the relationship between narrative productivity and event content. A total of 172 Finnish children aged between four and eight participated. Their picture-elicited narrations were analysed for productivity, syntactic complexity, referential cohesion and event content. Each measure…

  12. The phytate and mineral content of some cereals, cereal products, legumes, legume products, snack bars, and nuts available in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    McKenzie-Parnell, J M; Guthrie, B E

    1986-08-01

    Analyses for phytate by an indirect precipitation method and for the minerals calcium (Ca), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), and manganese (Mn) by atomic absorption spectrophotometry were carried out on 100 foods available in New Zealand. Foods with 1% phytate (dry weight basis) included untoasted muesli, rolled oats, wheat germ, wheat bran, soybean, and some soy products. Most breads contained between 0.35 and 0.60% phytate; legumes on average had 0.62% phytate, as did snack bars. There was a wide variation in Ca and Zn contents: There was a tenfold variation in Ca content among the legume products, whereas there was a seventyfold variation in Zn content among the cereals. The phytate: Zn molar ratio, which is presumed to indicate the biovailability of Zn, was above 20∶1 for two-thirds of the cereals and almost all of the snack bars; it was above 15∶1 for one-third of the breads, almost all of the legumes, and half of the legume products. These high phytate: Zn molar ratios, as well as some Ca: phytate molar ratios above 6∶1, indicate that there might be a reduced biovailability of Zn in many of the foods analyzed in this study. PMID:24254357

  13. A simple method for quantifying the humic content of commercial products.

    PubMed

    Quentel, François; Filella, Montserrat

    2011-12-01

    A method based on an analytical technique, initially developed for quantifying aquatic refractory organic matter (often called humics), has been applied to commercial samples claiming to contain humic-type substances. At present, no method exists for quantifying the humic content on this type of sample. The analytical method is based on measuring the peak current obtained by adsorptive stripping voltammetry of the complex formed by refractory organic matter in the presence of trace amounts of Mo(VI). The quantification procedure requires the response obtained for the unknown sample to be compared with the response obtained with International Humic Substance Society (IHSS) reference humic substances. A very simple procedure that enables the humic content of any sample to be expressed as IHSS standard equivalents is described in detail. The method is highly selective, reproducible and suitable for routine analysis.

  14. Devices for monitoring content of microparticles and bacterium in injection solutions in pharmaceutical production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilyi, Olexander I.; Getman, Vasyl B.; Konyev, Fedir A.; Sapunkov, Olexander; Sapunkov, Pavlo G.

    2001-06-01

    The devices for monitoring of parameters of efficiency of water solutions filtration, which are based on the analysis of scattered light by microparticles are considered in this article. The efficiency of using of devices in pharmaceutics in technological processes of manufacturing medical injection solutions is shown. The examples of monitoring of contents of bacterial cultures Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Micrococcus luteus in water solutions of glucose are indicated.

  15. Effects of dust additions on phytoplankton growth and DMS production in high CO2 northeast Pacific HNLC waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mélançon, J.; Levasseur, M.; Lizotte, M.; Scarratt, M.; Tremblay, J.-É.; Tortell, P.; Yang, G.-P.; Shi, G.-Y.; Gao, H.-W.; Semeniuk, D. M.; Robert, M.; Arychuk, M.; Johnson, K.; Sutherland, N.; Davelaar, M.; Nemcek, N.; Peña, A.; Richardson, W.

    2015-08-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) is likely to have an effect on the fertilizing potential of desert dust in high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll oceanic regions, either by modifying Fe speciation and bioavailability, or by altering phytoplankton Fe requirements and acquisition. To address this issue, short incubations (4 days) of northeast subarctic Pacific waters enriched with either FeSO4 or dust, and set at pH 8.0 (in situ) and 7.8 were conducted in August 2010. We assessed the impact of a decrease in pH on dissolved Fe concentration, phytoplankton biomass, taxonomy and productivity, and the production of dimethylsulfide (DMS) and its algal precursor dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP). Chlorophyll a (chl a) remained unchanged in the controls and doubled in both the FeSO4-enriched and dust-enriched incubations, confirming the Fe-limited status of the plankton assemblage during the experiment. In the acidified treatments, a significant reduction (by 16-38 %) of the final concentration of chl a was measured compared to their non-acidified counterparts, and a 15 % reduction in particulate organic carbon (POC) concentration was measured in the dust-enriched acidified treatment compared to the dust-enriched non-acidified treatment. FeSO4 and dust additions had a fertilizing effect mainly on diatoms and cyanobacteria. Lowering the pH affected mostly the haptophytes, but pelagophyte concentrations were also reduced in some acidified treatments. Acidification did not significantly alter DMSP and DMS concentrations. These results show that dust deposition events in a low-pH iron-limited Northeast subarctic Pacific are likely to stimulate phytoplankton growth to a lesser extent than in today's ocean during the few days following fertilization and point to a low initial sensitivity of the DMSP and DMS dynamics to OA.

  16. Low-cost production of green microalga Botryococcus braunii biomass with high lipid content through mixotrophic and photoautotrophic cultivation.

    PubMed

    Yeesang, Chittra; Cheirsilp, Benjamas

    2014-09-01

    Botryococcus braunii is a microalga that is regarded as a potential source of renewable fuel because of its ability to produce large amounts of lipid that can be converted into biodiesel. Agro-industrial by-products and wastes are of great interest as cultivation medium for microorganisms because of their low cost, renewable nature, and abundance. In this study, two strategies for low-cost production of B. braunii biomass with high lipid content were performed: (i) the mixotrophic cultivation using molasses, a cheap by-product from the sugar cane plant as a carbon source, and (ii) the photoautotrophic cultivation using nitrate-rich wastewater supplemented with CO2 as a carbon source. The mixotrophic cultivation added with 15 g L(-1) molasses produced a high amount of biomass of 3.05 g L(-1) with a high lipid content of 36.9 %. The photoautotrophic cultivation in nitrate-rich wastewater supplemented with 2.0 % CO2 produced a biomass of 2.26 g L(-1) and a lipid content of 30.3 %. The benefits of this photoautotrophic cultivation are that this cultivation would help to reduce accumulation of atmospheric carbon dioxide and more than 90 % of the nitrate could be removed from the wastewater. When this cultivation was scaled up in a stirred tank photobioreactor and run with semi-continuous cultivation regime, the highest microalgal biomass of 5.16 g L(-1) with a comparable lipid content of 32.2 % was achieved. These two strategies could be promising ways for producing cheap lipid-rich microalgal biomass that can be used as biofuel feedstocks and animal feeds.

  17. 19 CFR 11.12 - Labeling of wool products to indicate fiber content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... thereunder by the Federal Trade Commission (16 CFR part 300). The term “wool product” means any product, or... more than 20 years prior to importation, and except carpets, rugs, mats, and upholsteries, shall...

  18. 19 CFR 11.12 - Labeling of wool products to indicate fiber content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... thereunder by the Federal Trade Commission (16 CFR part 300). The term “wool product” means any product, or... more than 20 years prior to importation, and except carpets, rugs, mats, and upholsteries, shall...

  19. 19 CFR 11.12 - Labeling of wool products to indicate fiber content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... thereunder by the Federal Trade Commission (16 CFR part 300). The term “wool product” means any product, or... more than 20 years prior to importation, and except carpets, rugs, mats, and upholsteries, shall...

  20. 19 CFR 11.12 - Labeling of wool products to indicate fiber content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... thereunder by the Federal Trade Commission (16 CFR part 300). The term “wool product” means any product, or... more than 20 years prior to importation, and except carpets, rugs, mats, and upholsteries, shall...

  1. 19 CFR 11.12 - Labeling of wool products to indicate fiber content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... thereunder by the Federal Trade Commission (16 CFR part 300). The term “wool product” means any product, or... more than 20 years prior to importation, and except carpets, rugs, mats, and upholsteries, shall...

  2. Activity of the Human Rhinovirus 3C Protease Studied in Various Buffers, Additives and Detergents Solutions for Recombinant Protein Production.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Raheem; Shah, Majid Ali; Tufail, Soban; Ismat, Fouzia; Imran, Muhammad; Iqbal, Mazhar; Mirza, Osman; Rhaman, Moazur

    2016-01-01

    Proteases are widely used to remove affinity and solubility tags from recombinant proteins to avoid potential interference of these tags with the structure and function of the fusion partner. In recent years, great interest has been seen in use of the human rhinovirus 3C protease owing to its stringent sequence specificity and enhanced activity. Like other proteases, activity of the human rhinovirus 3C protease can be affected in part by the buffer components and additives that are generally employed for purification and stabilization of proteins, hence, necessitate their removal by tedious and time-consuming procedures before proteolysis can occur. To address this issue, we examined the effect of elution buffers used for common affinity based purifications, salt ions, stability/solubility and reducing agents, and detergents on the activity of the human rhinovirus 3C protease using three different fusion proteins at 4°C, a temperature of choice for purification of many proteins. The results show that the human rhinovirus 3C protease performs better at 4°C than the frequently used tobacco etch virus protease and its activity was insensitive to most of the experimental conditions tested. Though number of fusion proteins tested is limited, we expect that these finding will facilitate the use of the human rhinovirus 3C protease in recombinant protein production for pharmaceutical and biotechnological applications. PMID:27093053

  3. Activity of the Human Rhinovirus 3C Protease Studied in Various Buffers, Additives and Detergents Solutions for Recombinant Protein Production.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Raheem; Shah, Majid Ali; Tufail, Soban; Ismat, Fouzia; Imran, Muhammad; Iqbal, Mazhar; Mirza, Osman; Rhaman, Moazur

    2016-01-01

    Proteases are widely used to remove affinity and solubility tags from recombinant proteins to avoid potential interference of these tags with the structure and function of the fusion partner. In recent years, great interest has been seen in use of the human rhinovirus 3C protease owing to its stringent sequence specificity and enhanced activity. Like other proteases, activity of the human rhinovirus 3C protease can be affected in part by the buffer components and additives that are generally employed for purification and stabilization of proteins, hence, necessitate their removal by tedious and time-consuming procedures before proteolysis can occur. To address this issue, we examined the effect of elution buffers used for common affinity based purifications, salt ions, stability/solubility and reducing agents, and detergents on the activity of the human rhinovirus 3C protease using three different fusion proteins at 4°C, a temperature of choice for purification of many proteins. The results show that the human rhinovirus 3C protease performs better at 4°C than the frequently used tobacco etch virus protease and its activity was insensitive to most of the experimental conditions tested. Though number of fusion proteins tested is limited, we expect that these finding will facilitate the use of the human rhinovirus 3C protease in recombinant protein production for pharmaceutical and biotechnological applications.

  4. Activity of the Human Rhinovirus 3C Protease Studied in Various Buffers, Additives and Detergents Solutions for Recombinant Protein Production

    PubMed Central

    Tufail, Soban; Ismat, Fouzia; Imran, Muhammad; Iqbal, Mazhar; Mirza, Osman; Rhaman, Moazur

    2016-01-01

    Proteases are widely used to remove affinity and solubility tags from recombinant proteins to avoid potential interference of these tags with the structure and function of the fusion partner. In recent years, great interest has been seen in use of the human rhinovirus 3C protease owing to its stringent sequence specificity and enhanced activity. Like other proteases, activity of the human rhinovirus 3C protease can be affected in part by the buffer components and additives that are generally employed for purification and stabilization of proteins, hence, necessitate their removal by tedious and time-consuming procedures before proteolysis can occur. To address this issue, we examined the effect of elution buffers used for common affinity based purifications, salt ions, stability/solubility and reducing agents, and detergents on the activity of the human rhinovirus 3C protease using three different fusion proteins at 4°C, a temperature of choice for purification of many proteins. The results show that the human rhinovirus 3C protease performs better at 4°C than the frequently used tobacco etch virus protease and its activity was insensitive to most of the experimental conditions tested. Though number of fusion proteins tested is limited, we expect that these finding will facilitate the use of the human rhinovirus 3C protease in recombinant protein production for pharmaceutical and biotechnological applications. PMID:27093053

  5. Phosphazene additives

    DOEpatents

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  6. Impact of the addition of different plant residues on nitrogen mineralization-immobilization turnover and carbon content of a soil incubated under laboratory conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaleeem Abbasi, M.; Tahir, M. Mahmood; Sabir, N.; Khurshid, M.

    2015-02-01

    Application of plant residues as soil amendment may represent a valuable recycling strategy that affects carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling in soil-plant systems. The amount and rate of nutrient release from plant residues depend on their quality characteristics and biochemical composition. A laboratory incubation experiment was conducted for 120 days under controlled conditions (25 °C and 58% water-filled pore space) to quantify initial biochemical composition and N mineralization of leguminous and non-leguminous plant residues, i.e., the roots, shoots and leaves of Glycine max, Trifolium repens, Zea mays, Populus euramericana, Robinia pseudoacacia and Elaeagnus umbellata, incorporated into the soil at the rate of 200 mg residue N kg-1 soil. The diverse plant residues showed a wide variation in total N, C, lignin, polyphenols and C / N ratio with higher polyphenol content in the leaves and higher lignin content in the roots. The shoot of Glycine max and the shoot and root of Trifolium repens displayed continuous mineralization by releasing a maximum of 109.8, 74.8 and 72.5 mg N kg-1 and representing a 55, 37 and 36% recovery of N that had been released from these added resources. The roots of Glycine max and Zea mays and the shoot of Zea mays showed continuous negative values throughout the incubation. After an initial immobilization, leaves of Populus euramericana, Robinia pseudoacacia and Elaeagnus umbellata exhibited net mineralization by releasing a maximum of 31.8, 63.1 and 65.1 mg N kg-1, respectively, and representing a 16, 32 and 33% N recovery, respectively. Nitrogen mineralization from all the treatments was positively correlated with the initial residue N contents (r = 0.89; p ≤ 0.01) and negatively correlated with lignin content (r = -0.84; p ≤ 0.01), C / N ratio (r = -0.69; p ≤ 0.05), lignin / N ratio (r = -0.68; p ≤ 0.05), polyphenol / N ratio (r = -0.73; p ≤ 0.05) and (lignin + polyphenol) : N ratio (r = -0.70; p ≤ 0.05) indicating a

  7. Impact of the addition of different plant residues on carbon-nitrogen content and nitrogen mineralization-immobilization turnover in a soil incubated under laboratory conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi, M. K.; Tahir, M. M.; Sabir, N.; Khurshid, M.

    2014-10-01

    Application of plant residues as soil amendment may represent a valuable recycling strategy that affects on carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling, soil properties improvement and plant growth promotion. The amount and rate of nutrient release from plant residues depend on their quality characteristics and biochemical composition. A laboratory incubation experiment was conducted for 120 days under controlled conditions (25 °C and 58% water filled pore space (WFPS)) to quantify initial biochemical composition and N mineralization of leguminous and non-leguminous plant residues i.e. the roots, shoots and leaves of Glycine max, Trifolium repens, Zea mays, Poplus euramericana, Rubinia pseudoacacia and Elagnus umbellate incorporated into the soil at the rate of 200 mg residue N kg-1 soil. The diverse plant residues showed wide variation in total N, carbon, lignin, polyphenols and C/N ratio with higher polyphenol content in the leaves and higher lignin content in the roots. The shoot of G. max and the shoot and root of T. repens displayed continuous mineralization by releasing a maximum of 109.8, 74.8 and 72.5 mg N kg-1 and representing a 55, 37 and 36% of added N being released from these resources. The roots of G. max and Z. mays and the shoot of Z. mays showed continuous negative values throughout the incubation showing net immobilization. After an initial immobilization, leaves of P. euramericana, R. pseudoacacia and E. umbellate exhibited net mineralization by releasing a maximum of 31.8, 63.1 and 65.1 mg N kg-1, respectively and representing a 16, 32 and 33% of added N being released. Nitrogen mineralization from all the treatments was positively correlated with the initial residue N contents (r = 0.89; p ≤ 0.01), and negatively correlated with lignin content (r = -0.84; p ≤ 0.01), C/N ratio (r = -0.69; p ≤ 0.05), lignin/N ratio (r = -0.68; p ≤ 0.05), polyphenol/N ratio (r = -0.73; p ≤ 0.05) and ligin + polyphenol/N ratio (r = -0.70; p ≤ 0.05) indicating

  8. Influence of moisture content, particle size and forming temperature on productivity and quality of rice straw pellets

    SciTech Connect

    Ishii, Kazuei Furuichi, Toru

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Optimized conditions were determined for the production of rice straw pellets. • The moisture content and forming temperature are key factors. • High quality rice pellets in the lower heating value and durability were produced. - Abstract: A large amount of rice straw is generated and left as much in paddy fields, which causes greenhouse gas emissions as methane. Rice straw can be used as bioenergy. Rice straw pellets are a promising technology because pelletization of rice straw is a form of mass and energy densification, which leads to a product that is easy to handle, transport, store and utilize because of the increase in the bulk density. The operational conditions required to produce high quality rice straw pellets have not been determined. This study determined the optimal moisture content range required to produce rice straw pellets with high yield ratio and high heating value, and also determined the influence of particle size and the forming temperature on the yield ratio and durability of rice straw pellets. The optimal moisture content range was between 13% and 20% under a forming temperature of 60 or 80 °C. The optimal particle size was between 10 and 20 mm, considering the time and energy required for shredding, although the particle size did not significantly affect the yield ratio and durability of the pellets. The optimized conditions provided high quality rice straw pellets with nearly 90% yield ratio, ⩾12 MJ/kg for the lower heating value, and >95% durability.

  9. Electrolytical production of Ni + Mo + Si composite coatings with enhanced content of Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubisztal, J.; Budniok, A.

    2006-10-01

    Ni + Mo + Si composite coatings were prepared by co-deposition of nickel with molybdenum and silicon powders from a nickel solution in which Mo and Si particles were suspended by stirring. The layers have been deposited on a carbon steel substrate (St3S) under galvanostatic conditions. The content of Si in deposited layers was about 2-5 wt.% depending on deposition current density and the value of electric charge. For comparison Ni + Mo composite coatings were obtained under analogous current conditions. Composite coatings of enhanced Si content (15 wt.%) were deposited from an electrolyte in which 40 g/dm 3 of Si covered with electroless plated nickel was dispersed. Deposition current density was equal 0.1 A/cm 2 and the value of electric charge Q = 500 C/cm 2. The thickness of the coatings was about 100-300 μm depending on their kind, electric charge and the deposition current density. Surface and cross-section morphology were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM). All deposited coatings are characterized by great, developed surface area. No internal stresses causing their cracking were observed. Chemical composition of the layers was determined by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) method and quantitative X-ray analysis (QXRD). It was stated, that the content of molybdenum and silicon in Ni + Mo + Si coatings depends on deposition current density and the amount of the powder in bath. The results of structural investigation of the obtained layers by the X-ray diffraction (XRD) method show, that they consist in crystalline Mo or Mo and Si phases built into Ni matrix. Moreover, Ni + Mo + Si composite coatings were modified by thermal treatment. It has been found that the thermal treatment of Ni + Mo + Si composite coatings caused that the new phases (NiSi, Mo 2Ni 3Si and Ni 6Mo 6C 1.06) were obtained.

  10. Consumer attitude towards sodium reduction in meat products and acceptability of fermented sausages with reduced sodium content.

    PubMed

    Guàrdia, M D; Guerrero, L; Gelabert, J; Gou, P; Arnau, J

    2006-07-01

    Lowering salt content in meat products is possible from a technological and sensorial point of view, although little information is available about the consumers' attitude and acceptance of these products. Attitude towards low salt meat products, following the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) proposed by Ajzen, was evaluated by 392 consumers. Acceptability of small calibre fermented sausages with 50% molar substitution of NaCl by six different mixtures of KCl (0-50%) and K-lactate (0-50%) and the control (22g NaCl/kg) was determined by 98 consumers. The preference of the previous best two treatments was compared to the batch control by 279 consumers. In general consumers had a positive attitude towards low salt meat products, being higher for women than for men. Women showed stronger ideas and higher Perceived Control on the Behaviour towards reduced sodium meat products than men. Smokers showed lower intense beliefs than non-smokers. Consumers with a basic level of education were more affected by what other people important for them thought they should do. The final model obtained using the Theory of Planned Behaviour showed a good predictive capacity (R(2)=0.60) and a good internal consistency. Regarding the acceptability study, batches with substitution levels of 50% and 40% by K-lactate, showed lower overall acceptance than the control batch. Significant differences in acceptability were found regarding the gender and place of residence of the consumers. The preference study showed no differences between the batch control and batches with 50% KCl and 40% KCl + 10% of K-lactate substitution levels. According to these results and from a sensorial point of view, it is possible to reduce NaCl content in small calibre fermented sausages by 50% and obtain a product acceptable for consumers.

  11. Consumer attitude towards sodium reduction in meat products and acceptability of fermented sausages with reduced sodium content.

    PubMed

    Guàrdia, M D; Guerrero, L; Gelabert, J; Gou, P; Arnau, J

    2006-07-01

    Lowering salt content in meat products is possible from a technological and sensorial point of view, although little information is available about the consumers' attitude and acceptance of these products. Attitude towards low salt meat products, following the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) proposed by Ajzen, was evaluated by 392 consumers. Acceptability of small calibre fermented sausages with 50% molar substitution of NaCl by six different mixtures of KCl (0-50%) and K-lactate (0-50%) and the control (22g NaCl/kg) was determined by 98 consumers. The preference of the previous best two treatments was compared to the batch control by 279 consumers. In general consumers had a positive attitude towards low salt meat products, being higher for women than for men. Women showed stronger ideas and higher Perceived Control on the Behaviour towards reduced sodium meat products than men. Smokers showed lower intense beliefs than non-smokers. Consumers with a basic level of education were more affected by what other people important for them thought they should do. The final model obtained using the Theory of Planned Behaviour showed a good predictive capacity (R(2)=0.60) and a good internal consistency. Regarding the acceptability study, batches with substitution levels of 50% and 40% by K-lactate, showed lower overall acceptance than the control batch. Significant differences in acceptability were found regarding the gender and place of residence of the consumers. The preference study showed no differences between the batch control and batches with 50% KCl and 40% KCl + 10% of K-lactate substitution levels. According to these results and from a sensorial point of view, it is possible to reduce NaCl content in small calibre fermented sausages by 50% and obtain a product acceptable for consumers. PMID:22062487

  12. Nutrition Content of Food and Beverage Products on Web Sites Popular With Children

    PubMed Central

    Lingas, Elena O.; Bukofzer, Eliana

    2009-01-01

    We assessed the nutritional quality of branded food and beverage products advertised on 28 Web sites popular with children. Of the 77 advertised products for which nutritional information was available, 49 met Institute of Medicine criteria for foods to avoid, 23 met criteria for foods to neither avoid nor encourage, and 5 met criteria for foods to encourage. There is a need for further research on the nature and extent of food and beverage advertising online to aid policymakers as they assess the impact of this marketing on children. PMID:19443816

  13. Hydrogen-rich gas production via fast pyrolysis of biophysical dried sludge: Effect of particle size and moisture content on product yields and syngas composition.

    PubMed

    Han, Rong; Liu, Jinwen; Zhao, Chenxi; Li, Yuliang; Chen, Aixia

    2016-06-01

    After biophysical drying, a novel biophysical dried sludge particle was obtained. This work aims to investigate the function and effects of particle sizes and moisture contents on the fast pyrolysis of biophysical dried sludge particles. The results showed that large particles (>4 mm) favoured the oil generation with a maximum value of 19.0%, and small particles (<0.27 mm) favoured the char yield with a maximum value of 60.6%. Medium particle fractions (between 0.27 mm and 4 mm) benefited syngas production and induced higher H2 and CO emission, owing to the well-developed microstructure, enrichment of cellulose, and enhanced catalytic effects during the charring process. The introduction of proper moisture content (53.9% to 62.6%) to biophysical dried sludge was found to dramatically enhance syngas yield, hydrogen production, and carbon conversion efficiency. H2 molar concentration reached a maximum of 46.02% at a moisture content of 53.9%, which was attributed to the steam reforming and steam gasification accompanying the initial biophysical dried sludge pyrolysis. PMID:27118735

  14. Hydrogen-rich gas production via fast pyrolysis of biophysical dried sludge: Effect of particle size and moisture content on product yields and syngas composition.

    PubMed

    Han, Rong; Liu, Jinwen; Zhao, Chenxi; Li, Yuliang; Chen, Aixia

    2016-06-01

    After biophysical drying, a novel biophysical dried sludge particle was obtained. This work aims to investigate the function and effects of particle sizes and moisture contents on the fast pyrolysis of biophysical dried sludge particles. The results showed that large particles (>4 mm) favoured the oil generation with a maximum value of 19.0%, and small particles (<0.27 mm) favoured the char yield with a maximum value of 60.6%. Medium particle fractions (between 0.27 mm and 4 mm) benefited syngas production and induced higher H2 and CO emission, owing to the well-developed microstructure, enrichment of cellulose, and enhanced catalytic effects during the charring process. The introduction of proper moisture content (53.9% to 62.6%) to biophysical dried sludge was found to dramatically enhance syngas yield, hydrogen production, and carbon conversion efficiency. H2 molar concentration reached a maximum of 46.02% at a moisture content of 53.9%, which was attributed to the steam reforming and steam gasification accompanying the initial biophysical dried sludge pyrolysis.

  15. Effect of starting body fat content and genotype of laying hens on the changes in their live weight, body fat content, egg production and egg composition during the first egg-laying period.

    PubMed

    Milisits, G; Szentirmai, E; Donkó, T; Budai, Z; Ujvári, J; Áprily, S; Bajzik, G; Sütő, Z

    2015-01-01

    A total 120 laying hens (60 TETRA BLANCA white egg layers and 60 TETRA SL brown egg layers) were selected from 250 TETRA BLANCA and 250 TETRA SL pullets based on their predicted body fat content by means of computed tomography (CT) at 16 weeks of age. Three groups of pullets were chosen for the investigation with the highest (n = 20), lowest (n = 20) and average (n = 20) body fat content. Changes in the live weight, body fat content, egg production and egg composition of the chosen animals were recorded at 32, 52 and 72 weeks of age. Based on the results, it was established that differences in starting body fat content of the hens remained the same during the experimental period. The differences between the two extreme groups were statistically significant at each age. The starting body fat content of the hens affected the rate of egg production, i.e. hens with high starting body fat content produced 11-14 eggs fewer than the hens with a low or average body fat content but had no effect on the composition of the eggs. Genotype affected almost all of the examined traits: TETRA BLANCA hens had lower live weight and higher body fat content during the experimental period and produced fewer eggs with lower albumen and higher yolk, dry matter and crude fat content than the TETRA SL hens.

  16. Reducing metal alloy powder costs for use in powder bed fusion additive manufacturing: Improving the economics for production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina, Fransisco

    Titanium and its associated alloys have been used in industry for over 50 years and have become more popular in the recent decades. Titanium has been most successful in areas where the high strength to weight ratio provides an advantage over aluminum and steels. Other advantages of titanium include biocompatibility and corrosion resistance. Electron Beam Melting (EBM) is an additive manufacturing (AM) technology that has been successfully applied in the manufacturing of titanium components for the aerospace and medical industry with equivalent or better mechanical properties as parts fabricated via more traditional casting and machining methods. As the demand for titanium powder continues to increase, the price also increases. Titanium spheroidized powder from different vendors has a price range from 260/kg-450/kg, other spheroidized alloys such as Niobium can cost as high as $1,200/kg. Alternative titanium powders produced from methods such as the Titanium Hydride-Dehydride (HDH) process and the Armstrong Commercially Pure Titanium (CPTi) process can be fabricated at a fraction of the cost of powders fabricated via gas atomization. The alternative powders can be spheroidized and blended. Current sectors in additive manufacturing such as the medical industry are concerned that there will not be enough spherical powder for production and are seeking other powder options. It is believed the EBM technology can use a blend of spherical and angular powder to build fully dense parts with equal mechanical properties to those produced using traditional powders. Some of the challenges with angular and irregular powders are overcoming the poor flow characteristics and the attainment of the same or better packing densities as spherical powders. The goal of this research is to demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing alternative and lower cost powders in the EBM process. As a result, reducing the cost of the raw material to reduce the overall cost of the product produced with

  17. Effects of feeding on glassy-winged sharpshooter lipid content and egg production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glassy-winged sharpshooter females emerge without mature eggs, and females must feed to produce mature eggs. As a result, allocation of incoming resources must be balanced between egg production and maintenance of other critical biological functions. Central to this process is allocation of lipids s...

  18. 9 CFR 113.29 - Determination of moisture content in desiccated biological products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... samples of completed product shall be tested. The weight loss of the sample due to drying in a vacuum oven... bottles with airtight glass stoppers. (2) Vacuum oven equipped with validated thermometer and thermostat... labeled sample-weighing bottles with stoppers should be allowed to dry at 60 ±3 °C under vacuum at...

  19. 9 CFR 113.29 - Determination of moisture content in desiccated biological products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... samples of completed product shall be tested. The weight loss of the sample due to drying in a vacuum oven... bottles with airtight glass stoppers. (2) Vacuum oven equipped with validated thermometer and thermostat... labeled sample-weighing bottles with stoppers should be allowed to dry at 60 ±3 °C under vacuum at...

  20. Effect of dietary fish meal on production performance and cholesterol content of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Rowghani, E; Boostani, A D; Fard, H R Mahmoodian; Frouzani, R

    2007-05-15

    The effect of dietary fish meal (FM) on production and egg yolk cholesterol of commercial Hyline White Leghorn hens (24-week old) was studied for four weeks. Eighty birds were given a corn-wheat-soyabean meal diet that contained either 0% (control diet, C) or 3% fish meal (DM basis). Hens were randomly divided into two experimental treatments with four replicates (10 hens per replicate). Egg weight, daily egg production (g/hen/day), daily feed consumption and feed conversion ratio were recorded. At the end of each week, 12 eggs from each group were randomly collected and egg yolk cholesterol, egg volume, shell thickness and Haugh unit (HU) were measured. There was no significant (p > 0.05) effect of feeding 3% FM on egg yolk cholesterol concentration (mg/100 g yolk or mg/yolk) compared with the control diet, but 3% FM, tended to decrease egg yolk cholesterol concentration (1930.93 vs 2021.48 mg/100 g yolk). Hens fed on 3% FM had higher (p < 0.05) egg production, egg weight, egg volume, shell thickness, HU and better feed conversion ratio. It was concluded that under the condition of the study, feeding 3% fish meal improved egg production traits but was not able to reduce cholesterol concentration of the egg yolk although tended to reduce cholesterol concentration. PMID:19086530

  1. Reducing the acrylamide content of processed potato products through germplasm improvement: opportunities, challenges and progress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Processed potato products, including french fries and potato chips, make a substantial contribution to total dietary acrylamide. Health safety concerns raised by acrylamide in food increase financial risks to the potato industry and have encouraged industry to take a proactive response toward acryla...

  2. Comparisons of methane production rate and coenzyme F/sub 420/ content of methanogenic consortia in anaerobic granular sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Dolfing, J.; Mulder, J.W.

    1985-05-01

    The coenzyme F/sub 420/ content of granular sludge grown on various substrates and substrate combinations was measured, and the potential of the sludge to form methane (maximum specific methane production rate) from hydrogen, formate, acetate, propionate, and ethanol was determined. The F/sub 420/ content varied between 55 nmol g of volatile suspended solids (VSS)/sup -1/ for sludge grown on acetate and 796 nmol g of VSS/sup -1/ for sludge grown on propionate. The best correlation was found between the F/sub 420/ content and the potential activity for methane formation from formate; almost no correlation, however, was found with acetate as the test substrate. The ratio between the potential methanogenic activities (q/sub CH/sub 4//) of sludges grown on various substrates and their F/sub 420/ content was in general highest for formate (48.2 ..mu..mol of CH/sub 4/ ..mu..mol of F/sub 420//sup -1/ min/sup -1/) and lowest for propionate (6.9 ..mu..mol of CH/sub 4/ ..mu..mol of F/sub 420//sup -1/ min/sup -1/) as test substrates. However, acetate-grown granular sludge with acetate as test substrate showed the highest ratio, namely, 229 ..mu..mol of CH/sub 4/ ..mu..mol of F/sub 420//sup -1/ min/sup -1/. The data presented indicate that the F/sub 420/ content of methanogenic consortia can be misleading for the assessment of their potential acetoclastic methanogenic activity.

  3. Additive loss-of-function proteasome subunit mutations in CANDLE/PRAAS patients promote type I IFN production.

    PubMed

    Brehm, Anja; Liu, Yin; Sheikh, Afzal; Marrero, Bernadette; Omoyinmi, Ebun; Zhou, Qing; Montealegre, Gina; Biancotto, Angelique; Reinhardt, Adam; Almeida de Jesus, Adriana; Pelletier, Martin; Tsai, Wanxia L; Remmers, Elaine F; Kardava, Lela; Hill, Suvimol; Kim, Hanna; Lachmann, Helen J; Megarbane, Andre; Chae, Jae Jin; Brady, Jilian; Castillo, Rhina D; Brown, Diane; Casano, Angel Vera; Gao, Ling; Chapelle, Dawn; Huang, Yan; Stone, Deborah; Chen, Yongqing; Sotzny, Franziska; Lee, Chyi-Chia Richard; Kastner, Daniel L; Torrelo, Antonio; Zlotogorski, Abraham; Moir, Susan; Gadina, Massimo; McCoy, Phil; Wesley, Robert; Rother, Kristina I; Rother, Kristina; Hildebrand, Peter W; Brogan, Paul; Krüger, Elke; Aksentijevich, Ivona; Goldbach-Mansky, Raphaela

    2015-11-01

    Autosomal recessive mutations in proteasome subunit β 8 (PSMB8), which encodes the inducible proteasome subunit β5i, cause the immune-dysregulatory disease chronic atypical neutrophilic dermatosis with lipodystrophy and elevated temperature (CANDLE), which is classified as a proteasome-associated autoinflammatory syndrome (PRAAS). Here, we identified 8 mutations in 4 proteasome genes, PSMA3 (encodes α7), PSMB4 (encodes β7), PSMB9 (encodes β1i), and proteasome maturation protein (POMP), that have not been previously associated with disease and 1 mutation in PSMB8 that has not been previously reported. One patient was compound heterozygous for PSMB4 mutations, 6 patients from 4 families were heterozygous for a missense mutation in 1 inducible proteasome subunit and a mutation in a constitutive proteasome subunit, and 1 patient was heterozygous for a POMP mutation, thus establishing a digenic and autosomal dominant inheritance pattern of PRAAS. Function evaluation revealed that these mutations variably affect transcription, protein expression, protein folding, proteasome assembly, and, ultimately, proteasome activity. Moreover, defects in proteasome formation and function were recapitulated by siRNA-mediated knockdown of the respective subunits in primary fibroblasts from healthy individuals. Patient-isolated hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cells exhibited a strong IFN gene-expression signature, irrespective of genotype. Additionally, chemical proteasome inhibition or progressive depletion of proteasome subunit gene transcription with siRNA induced transcription of type I IFN genes in healthy control cells. Our results provide further insight into CANDLE genetics and link global proteasome dysfunction to increased type I IFN production. PMID:26524591

  4. Additive loss-of-function proteasome subunit mutations in CANDLE/PRAAS patients promote type I IFN production

    PubMed Central

    Brehm, Anja; Liu, Yin; Sheikh, Afzal; Marrero, Bernadette; Omoyinmi, Ebun; Zhou, Qing; Montealegre, Gina; Biancotto, Angelique; Reinhardt, Adam; Almeida de Jesus, Adriana; Pelletier, Martin; Tsai, Wanxia L.; Remmers, Elaine F.; Kardava, Lela; Hill, Suvimol; Kim, Hanna; Lachmann, Helen J.; Megarbane, Andre; Chae, Jae Jin; Brady, Jilian; Castillo, Rhina D.; Brown, Diane; Casano, Angel Vera; Gao, Ling; Chapelle, Dawn; Huang, Yan; Stone, Deborah; Chen, Yongqing; Sotzny, Franziska; Lee, Chyi-Chia Richard; Kastner, Daniel L.; Torrelo, Antonio; Zlotogorski, Abraham; Moir, Susan; Gadina, Massimo; McCoy, Phil; Wesley, Robert; Rother, Kristina; Hildebrand, Peter W.; Brogan, Paul; Krüger, Elke; Aksentijevich, Ivona; Goldbach-Mansky, Raphaela

    2015-01-01

    Autosomal recessive mutations in proteasome subunit β 8 (PSMB8), which encodes the inducible proteasome subunit β5i, cause the immune-dysregulatory disease chronic atypical neutrophilic dermatosis with lipodystrophy and elevated temperature (CANDLE), which is classified as a proteasome-associated autoinflammatory syndrome (PRAAS). Here, we identified 8 mutations in 4 proteasome genes, PSMA3 (encodes α7), PSMB4 (encodes β7), PSMB9 (encodes β1i), and proteasome maturation protein (POMP), that have not been previously associated with disease and 1 mutation in PSMB8 that has not been previously reported. One patient was compound heterozygous for PSMB4 mutations, 6 patients from 4 families were heterozygous for a missense mutation in 1 inducible proteasome subunit and a mutation in a constitutive proteasome subunit, and 1 patient was heterozygous for a POMP mutation, thus establishing a digenic and autosomal dominant inheritance pattern of PRAAS. Function evaluation revealed that these mutations variably affect transcription, protein expression, protein folding, proteasome assembly, and, ultimately, proteasome activity. Moreover, defects in proteasome formation and function were recapitulated by siRNA-mediated knockdown of the respective subunits in primary fibroblasts from healthy individuals. Patient-isolated hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cells exhibited a strong IFN gene-expression signature, irrespective of genotype. Additionally, chemical proteasome inhibition or progressive depletion of proteasome subunit gene transcription with siRNA induced transcription of type I IFN genes in healthy control cells. Our results provide further insight into CANDLE genetics and link global proteasome dysfunction to increased type I IFN production. PMID:26524591

  5. Quantitative analysis of cyclic dimer fatty acid content in the dimerization product by proton NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyun Joo; Kim, Minyoung; Seok, Seunghwan; Kim, Young-Wun; Kim, Do Hyun

    2015-01-01

    In this work, (1)H NMR is utilized for the quantitative analysis of a specific cyclic dimer fatty acid in a dimer acid mixture using the pseudo-standard material of mesitylene on the basis of its structural similarity. Mesitylene and cyclic dimer acid levels were determined using the signal of the proton on the cyclic ring (δ=6.8) referenced to the signal of maleic acid (δ=6.2). The content of the cyclic dimer fatty acid was successfully determined through the standard curve of mesitylene and the reported equation. Using the linearity of the mesitylene curve, the cyclic dimer fatty acid in the oil mixture was quantified. The results suggest that the proposed method can be used to quantify cyclic compounds in mixtures to optimize the dimerization process.

  6. Risk assessment of mineral and heavy metal content of selected tea products from the Ghanaian market.

    PubMed

    Nkansah, Marian Asantewah; Opoku, Francis; Ackumey, Abiathar Abraham

    2016-06-01

    Food consumption is the most likely route of human exposure to metals. Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) is among the most widely consumed non-alcoholic beverages. Concentrations of heavy metals and minerals in tea from 15 different brands in Kumasi, Ghana were measured to assess the health risk associated with their consumption. The mineral and metal contents (Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, As, Cd) were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (Z-8100 polarized Zeeman). The results revealed that the mean concentrations were in the order: Ca > Fe > As > Cd > Zn > Pb. The average contents of Ca, Fe, Zn, Pb, Cd, and As in the samples were 94.08, 6.15, 0.20, 0.16, 0.36, and 1.66 mg/kg, respectively. All the minerals and heavy metals were below the maximum permissible limits stipulated by the World Health Organization (WHO) and US Pharmacopeia (USP). Metal-to-metal correlation indicated strong correlations between As/Zn, Cd/Zn, Cd/As, and Pb/As pairs. Factor analysis demonstrated a clear separation between minerals, grouped on one side, and heavy metals, clustered on another side. Both the target hazard quotient (THQ) and hazard index (HI) levels in green tea were far below 1, suggesting that consumption of green tea should pose no potential risk to human health. However, carcinogenic risk levels for arsenic were high; R > 10(-6). The results showed that residents in Kumasi consume tea could be at risk from exposure to these heavy metals and minerals.

  7. Risk assessment of mineral and heavy metal content of selected tea products from the Ghanaian market.

    PubMed

    Nkansah, Marian Asantewah; Opoku, Francis; Ackumey, Abiathar Abraham

    2016-06-01

    Food consumption is the most likely route of human exposure to metals. Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) is among the most widely consumed non-alcoholic beverages. Concentrations of heavy metals and minerals in tea from 15 different brands in Kumasi, Ghana were measured to assess the health risk associated with their consumption. The mineral and metal contents (Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, As, Cd) were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (Z-8100 polarized Zeeman). The results revealed that the mean concentrations were in the order: Ca > Fe > As > Cd > Zn > Pb. The average contents of Ca, Fe, Zn, Pb, Cd, and As in the samples were 94.08, 6.15, 0.20, 0.16, 0.36, and 1.66 mg/kg, respectively. All the minerals and heavy metals were below the maximum permissible limits stipulated by the World Health Organization (WHO) and US Pharmacopeia (USP). Metal-to-metal correlation indicated strong correlations between As/Zn, Cd/Zn, Cd/As, and Pb/As pairs. Factor analysis demonstrated a clear separation between minerals, grouped on one side, and heavy metals, clustered on another side. Both the target hazard quotient (THQ) and hazard index (HI) levels in green tea were far below 1, suggesting that consumption of green tea should pose no potential risk to human health. However, carcinogenic risk levels for arsenic were high; R > 10(-6). The results showed that residents in Kumasi consume tea could be at risk from exposure to these heavy metals and minerals. PMID:27154053

  8. Non-additive response of blends of rice and potato starch during heating at intermediate water contents: A differential scanning calorimetry and proton nuclear magnetic resonance study.

    PubMed

    Bosmans, Geertrui M; Pareyt, Bram; Delcour, Jan A

    2016-02-01

    The impact of different hydration levels, on gelatinization of potato starch (PS), rice starch (RS) and a 1:1 blend thereof, was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry and related to nuclear magnetic resonance proton distributions of hydrated samples, before and after heating. At 20% or 30% hydration, the visual appearance of all samples was that of a wet powder, and limited, if any, gelatinization occurred upon heating. At 30% hydration, changes in proton distributions were observed and related to plasticization of amorphous regions in the granules. At 50% hydration, the PS-RS blend appeared more liquid-like than other hydrated samples and showed more pronounced gelatinization than expected based on additive behavior of pure starches. This was due to an additional mobile water fraction in the unheated PS-RS blend, originating from differences in water distribution due to altered stacking of granules and/or altered hydration of PS due to presence of cations in RS.

  9. Use of different spices as potential natural antioxidant additives on cooked beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). Increase of DPPH radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Marina Pelincer; Tavano, Olga Luisa

    2014-12-01

    Herbs and spices, excellent sources of phenolic compounds, can be considered potential antioxidant additives. The use of spices must strike a balance between their potential antioxidant capabilities during preparation and the flavor acceptance, in order to avoid rejection of the food. The aimed of this study is to evaluate the influence of different spices and their concentrations on cooked common beans, focusing its potential as antioxidant additives. Onion, parsley, spring onion, laurel and coriander increased the antioxidant activity of preparation when used at 7.96 g of onion, 1.06 g parsley, 3.43 g spring onion, 0.25 g laurel (dry leaves), and 0.43 g coriander/100 g of cooked beans. Besides, these spices concentrations enhance total phenolics and alter the mixture protein digestibility minimally. For garlic samples it was not possible to establish a concentration that increases the antioxidant activity of cooked beans. PMID:25179942

  10. Use of different spices as potential natural antioxidant additives on cooked beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). Increase of DPPH radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Marina Pelincer; Tavano, Olga Luisa

    2014-12-01

    Herbs and spices, excellent sources of phenolic compounds, can be considered potential antioxidant additives. The use of spices must strike a balance between their potential antioxidant capabilities during preparation and the flavor acceptance, in order to avoid rejection of the food. The aimed of this study is to evaluate the influence of different spices and their concentrations on cooked common beans, focusing its potential as antioxidant additives. Onion, parsley, spring onion, laurel and coriander increased the antioxidant activity of preparation when used at 7.96 g of onion, 1.06 g parsley, 3.43 g spring onion, 0.25 g laurel (dry leaves), and 0.43 g coriander/100 g of cooked beans. Besides, these spices concentrations enhance total phenolics and alter the mixture protein digestibility minimally. For garlic samples it was not possible to establish a concentration that increases the antioxidant activity of cooked beans.

  11. Effect of cooking process on the deoxynivalenol content and its subsequent cytotoxicity in wheat products.

    PubMed

    Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko; Park, Bong Joo; Kobayashi-Hattori, Kazuo; Tanaka, Toshitugu; Chonan, Takao; Yoshikawa, Kunie; Kumagai, Susumu

    2006-07-01

    The retention of deoxynivalenol in noodles and bread made from naturally-contaminated flour was examined by a chemical analysis (HPLC) and bioassays. The retention level of deoxynivalenol obtained from both assays was reduced by boiling process, although only the bioassays showed it to have been reduced by baking. This study is the first to estimate the exposure to deoxynivalenol from the consumption of the final products of wheat flour in Japan.

  12. Effects of dietary copper on production and egg cholesterol content in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Balevi, T; Coskun, B

    2004-08-01

    1. This experiment was carried out to determine the effects of diets supplemented with different amounts of copper on egg production, food intake, food conversion ratio, egg weight, damaged egg ratio, specific gravity, mortality and cholesterol concentration in yolk. The experiment lasted 90 d and 400 Hisex-Brown hens, aged 27 weeks at the start of the study, were used. 2. There were no statistically significant effects of supplementary copper on egg production, food intake or food conversion efficiency. 3. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups in terms of damaged eggs, egg weight, specific gravity and live weight. 4. At the end of the experiment, the lowest yolk cholesterol concentrations were obtained in the 150 kg/kg copper group and the greatest concentrations were in the control group. 5. Consequently, the use of supplementary copper to provide 150 kg/kg in poultry diets was concluded to decrease yolk cholesterol concentrations without any effect on production performance. PMID:15484729

  13. Predicting acute and chronic effects of wood preservative products in Daphnia magna and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata based on the concept of concentration addition.

    PubMed

    Coors, Anja; Weisbrod, Barbara; Schoknecht, Ute; Sacher, Frank; Kehrer, Anja

    2014-02-01

    The current European legislation requires that combined effects of the active substances and any substance of concern contained in biocidal products are taken into account in environmental risk assessment. The hypothesis whether the consideration of active substances together with all formulation additives that are labeled as presenting an environmental hazard is sufficient for a reliable environmental risk assessment was tested in the present study by investigating 3 wood preservative products. Relevant single substances in the products, some of their generic mixtures, the biocidal products themselves, and aqueous eluates prepared from the products (representing potential environmental mixtures) were tested for effects on algal growth and Daphnia acute immobilization as well as reproduction. Predictions for the products and the eluates were based on the concept of concentration addition and were mostly found to provide reliable or at least protective estimates for the observed acute and chronic toxicity of the mixtures. The mixture toxicity considerations also indicated that the toxicity of each product was dominated by just 1 of the components, and that assessments based only on the dominating substance would be similarly protective as a full-mixture risk assessment. Yet, there remained uncertainty in some cases that could be related to the toxicity of transformation products, the impact of unidentified formulation additives, or synergistic interaction between active substances and formulation additives.

  14. Tuning of fluorine content in graphene: towards large-scale production of stoichiometric fluorographene.

    PubMed

    Mazánek, Vlastimil; Jankovský, Ondřej; Luxa, Jan; Sedmidubský, David; Janoušek, Zbyněk; Šembera, Filip; Mikulics, Martin; Sofer, Zdeněk

    2015-08-28

    The availability of well-defined modified graphene derivatives such as fluorographene, graphane, thiographene or hydroxygraphene is of pivotal importance for tuning the resulting material properties in numerous potential applications. A series of fluorinated graphene with various contents of fluorine was synthesized by a simple fluorination procedure in an autoclave with a nitrogen/fluorine atmosphere at different exposure times and temperatures. To investigate the composition, structure and properties all samples were characterized in detail by a number of analytical techniques such as SEM, XRD, EDS, AFM, STEM, combustible elemental analysis, STA, XPS, Raman spectroscopy, UV-VIS spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. The fully fluorinated graphene with the overall stoichiometry C1F1.05 had a bright white color indicating a significant change of band-gap. In comparison to other samples such a high concentration of fluorine led to the occurrence of exotic thermal behavior, strong luminescence in the visible spectral region and also the unique super-hydrophobic behavior observed on the material surface. The described tunable fluorination should pave the way to fluorographene based devices with tailored properties. PMID:26214601

  15. Can we use social media to support content validity of patient-reported outcome instruments in medical product development?

    PubMed

    Rothman, Margaret; Gnanaskathy, Ari; Wicks, Paul; Papadopoulos, Elektra J

    2015-01-01

    We report a panel designed to open a dialog between pharmaceutical sponsors, regulatory reviewers, and other stakeholders regarding the use of social media to collect data to support the content validity of patient-reported outcome instruments in the context of medical product labeling. Multiple stakeholder perspectives were brought together to better understand the issues encountered in pursuing social media as a form of data collection to support content validity. Presenters represented a pharmaceutical sponsor of clinical trials, a regulatory reviewer from the Food and Drug Administration, and an online data platform provider. Each presenter shared its perspective on the advantages and disadvantages of using social media to collect this type of information. There was consensus that there is great potential for using social media for this purpose. There remain, however, unanswered questions that need to be addressed such as identifying which type of social media is most appropriate for data collection and ensuring that participants are representative of the target population while maintaining the advantages of anonymity provided by online platforms. The use of social media to collect evidence of content validity holds much promise. Clarification of issues that need to be addressed and accumulation of empirical evidence to address these questions are essential to moving forward. PMID:25595228

  16. Combined enzymatic and colorimetric method for determining the uronic acid and methylester content of pectin: Application to tomato products.

    PubMed

    Anthon, Gordon E; Barrett, Diane M

    2008-09-01

    A simple procedure for determining the galacturonic acid and methanol contents of soluble and insoluble pectins, relying on enzymatic pectin hydrolysis and colorimetric quantification, is described. Pectin samples are incubated with a commercial pectinase preparation, Viscozyme, then the galacturonic acid content of the hydrolyzed pectin is quantified colorimetrically using a modification of the Cu reduction procedure originally described by Avigad and Milner. This modification, substituting the commonly used Folin-Ciocalteau reagent for the arsenic containing Nelson reagent, gives a response that is linear, sensitive, and selective for uronic acids over neutral sugars. This method also avoids the use of concentrated acids needed for the commonly used m-phenylphenol method. Methanol, released by the action of the pectin methylesterase found in the Viscozyme, is quantified using alcohol oxidase and Purpald. This combined enzymatic and colorimetric procedure correctly determined the galacturonic acid and methanol content of purified, soluble citrus pectin. Application of the procedure to water insoluble pectins was evaluated with water insoluble material from apples and oranges. In both cases good agreement was obtained between this method and commonly used methods based on chemical pectin hydrolysis. Good agreement between these procedures was also found in the analysis of both soluble and insoluble pectins from several tomato products.

  17. Effect of radio frequency postdrying of partially baked cookies on acrylamide content, texture, and color of the final product.

    PubMed

    Koray Palazoğlu, T; Coşkun, Yunus; Kocadağlı, Tolga; Gökmen, Vural

    2012-05-01

    Effect of radio frequency (RF) postdrying of partially baked cookies on acrylamide content, texture, and color of the final product was investigated in this study. Control cookies were prepared by baking in a conventional oven at 205 °C for 11 min. Cookies partially baked for 8 and 9 min were postdried in a 27.12 MHz RF tunnel oven until attainment of the moisture content of control cookies. Internal temperature of cookies was monitored during the experiments to better explain the results. Cookies were analyzed for acrylamide content using a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method. Texture measurements were performed using a Texture Analyzer, while digital image analysis was used for color measurement. The results showed that RF postdrying of partially baked cookies resulted in lower acrylamide levels (107.3 ng/g for control cookies, 74.6 ng/g upon RF postdrying of cookies partially baked for 9 min, 51.1 ng/g upon RF postdrying of cookies partially baked for 8 min). Instrumental texture analysis showed no significant difference among the texture of cookies, whereas RF postdried samples had a lower degree of browning. According to sensory evaluation results, control had a more crumbly texture, and RF postdried sample that was conventionally baked for 8 min had a slightly uncooked flavor.

  18. Content of CYP3A4 inhibitors, naringin, naringenin and bergapten in grapefruit and grapefruit juice products.

    PubMed

    Ho, P C; Saville, D J; Coville, P F; Wanwimolruk, S

    2000-04-01

    The flavonoids, naringin and naringenin and the furanocoumarin, bergapten (5-methoxypsoralen), were detected in some fresh grapefruit and commercial grapefruit juices but were not detected in other fruit juices tested (orange; orange with apple base; dark grape; orange and mango with apple base; orange, peach, passion fruit juice). The contents of these three grapefruit constituents in commercial juice and fresh grapefruit varied from brand to brand and also from lot to lot. Juice was prepared from the fresh fruit via different methods (by hand, squeezer or blender). The naringin content, after hand-squeeze, ranged from 115 to 384 mg/l. With hand-squeeze juice production, bergapten was not detected (less than 0.5 mg/l) in two varieties of grapefruit, and naringenin was usually not in detectable levels (less than 2 mg/l) in three varieties. All three constituents were present in New Zealand grapefruit preparations (including juice by hand-squeeze) and different lots showed variation in content (1.5-, 2.3- and 4.7-fold for naringin, naringenin and bergapten, respectively). Differences in the concentrations of these three constituents, which have potential for drug interaction, may contribute to the variability in pharmacokinetics of CYP3A4 drugs and some contradictory results of drug interaction studies with grapefruit juice. PMID:10812937

  19. Can we use social media to support content validity of patient-reported outcome instruments in medical product development?

    PubMed

    Rothman, Margaret; Gnanaskathy, Ari; Wicks, Paul; Papadopoulos, Elektra J

    2015-01-01

    We report a panel designed to open a dialog between pharmaceutical sponsors, regulatory reviewers, and other stakeholders regarding the use of social media to collect data to support the content validity of patient-reported outcome instruments in the context of medical product labeling. Multiple stakeholder perspectives were brought together to better understand the issues encountered in pursuing social media as a form of data collection to support content validity. Presenters represented a pharmaceutical sponsor of clinical trials, a regulatory reviewer from the Food and Drug Administration, and an online data platform provider. Each presenter shared its perspective on the advantages and disadvantages of using social media to collect this type of information. There was consensus that there is great potential for using social media for this purpose. There remain, however, unanswered questions that need to be addressed such as identifying which type of social media is most appropriate for data collection and ensuring that participants are representative of the target population while maintaining the advantages of anonymity provided by online platforms. The use of social media to collect evidence of content validity holds much promise. Clarification of issues that need to be addressed and accumulation of empirical evidence to address these questions are essential to moving forward.

  20. New and existing oils and fats used in products with reduced trans-fatty acid content.

    PubMed

    Tarrago-Trani, Maria Teresa; Phillips, Katherine M; Lemar, Linda E; Holden, Joanne M

    2006-06-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration's final ruling on trans-fatty acid labeling issued in 2003 has caused a rapid transformation in the fat and oil industries. Novel ingredients and improved technologies are emerging to replace partially hydrogenated fats in foods. We present an overview of the structure and formation of trans fatty acids in foods, and a comprehensive review of the newly formulated products and current procedures practiced by the edible oil industry to reduce or eliminate trans fatty acids in response to the Food and Drug Administration's regulations mandating trans fat labeling of foods. PMID:16720128

  1. A Randomized Study of the Effects of Additional Fruit and Nuts Consumption on Hepatic Fat Content, Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Basal Metabolic Rate

    PubMed Central

    Romu, Thobias; Dahlqvist-Leinhard, Olof; Borga, Magnus; Leandersson, Per; Nystrom, Fredrik H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Fruit has since long been advocated as a healthy source of many nutrients, however, the high content of sugars in fruit might be a concern. Objectives To study effects of an increased fruit intake compared with similar amount of extra calories from nuts in humans. Methods Thirty healthy non-obese participants were randomized to either supplement the diet with fruits or nuts, each at +7 kcal/kg bodyweight/day for two months. Major endpoints were change of hepatic fat content (HFC, by magnetic resonance imaging, MRI), basal metabolic rate (BMR, with indirect calorimetry) and cardiovascular risk markers. Results Weight gain was numerically similar in both groups although only statistically significant in the group randomized to nuts (fruit: from 22.15±1.61 kg/m2 to 22.30±1.7 kg/m2, p = 0.24 nuts: from 22.54±2.26 kg/m2 to 22.73±2.28 kg/m2, p = 0.045). On the other hand BMR increased in the nut group only (p = 0.028). Only the nut group reported a net increase of calories (from 2519±721 kcal/day to 2763±595 kcal/day, p = 0.035) according to 3-day food registrations. Despite an almost three-fold reported increased fructose-intake in the fruit group (from 9.1±6.0 gram/day to 25.6±9.6 gram/day, p<0.0001, nuts: from 12.4±5.7 gram/day to 6.5±5.3 gram/day, p = 0.007) there was no change of HFC. The numerical increase in fasting insulin was statistical significant only in the fruit group (from 7.73±3.1 pmol/l to 8.81±2.9 pmol/l, p = 0.018, nuts: from 7.29±2.9 pmol/l to 8.62±3.0 pmol/l, p = 0.14). Levels of vitamin C increased in both groups while α-tocopherol/cholesterol-ratio increased only in the fruit group. Conclusions Although BMR increased in the nut-group only this was not linked with differences in weight gain between groups which potentially could be explained by the lack of reported net caloric increase in the fruit group. In healthy non-obese individuals an increased fruit intake seems safe from cardiovascular risk perspective, including

  2. Control of hydrogen sulfide production in oil fields by managing microbial communities through nitrate or nitrite addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubert, Casey R. J.

    Nitrate or nitrite injection into oil reservoirs during water flooding has the potential to control biological souring, the production of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Souring control is essential because sulfide is toxic, sulfide precipitates can plug reservoir formations, souring lowers crude oil value, and SRB induce corrosion. Nitrate and nitrite can stimulate heterotrophic nitrate- or nitrite-reducing bacteria (hNRB) and nitrate- or nitrite-reducing, sulfide oxidizing bacteria (NRSOB). Nitrite also inhibits SRB activity by blocking the sulfate reduction pathway. Continuous up-flow packed-bed bioreactors were inoculated with produced water from the Coleville oil field to establish sulfide-producing biofilms similar to those found in sour reservoirs. Nitrate or nitrite addition to bioreactors indicated that the dose required for hNRB or NR-SOB to control souring depended on the concentration of oil organics. Either mechanism mediates the net removal of oil organics (lactate) with nitrate or nitrite, with lower doses of nitrate required due to its greater oxidative power. Microbial community analysis by reverse sample genome probing (RSGP) revealed that NR-SOB mediated sulfide removal at low nitrate or nitrite concentrations when lactate was still available to SRB and the redox potential was low. At high nitrate doses hNRB oxidized lactate directly, produced nitrite and maintained a high redox potential, thus excluding SRB activity. Facultatively chemolithotrophic Campylobacter sp. strains were isolated from the bioreactors and incorporated into RSGP analyses, revealing their dominance in both NR-SOB- and hNRB-containing communities. The metabolic flexibility of these strains may confer a competitive advantage over obligate chemolithotrophs like Thiomicrospira sp. strain CVO or hNRB that do not have NR-SOB activity like newly isolated Thauera sp. and Rhodobacter sp. strains. A single high dose of nitrite resulted in immediate

  3. A Survey of N'-Nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and Total Water Content in Select Smokeless Tobacco Products Purchased in the United States in 2015.

    PubMed

    Ammann, Jeffrey R; Lovejoy, Katherine S; Walters, Matthew J; Holman, Matthew R

    2016-06-01

    This investigation provides an updated survey measuring the levels of N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and water content of a select number of smokeless tobacco products sold in the United States in 2015. A total of 34 smokeless tobacco products were collected and analyzed for NNN and water content using LC-MS/MS and GC-TCD, respectively. Smokeless tobacco products were chosen to obtain a representative sample of the different types of products on the U.S. market. These smokeless products represent 12 of the 25 top-selling smokeless tobacco products according to 2013 Nielsen net sales data while five of the smokeless tobacco products are of lower selling smokeless tobacco products. The NNN levels and the water content of the smokeless tobacco products were determined and compared to previous studies. Although the range of NNN levels found was broad for the examined smokeless tobacco products (0.64-12.0 μg/g dry weight), dry snuff had the highest levels of NNN observed (>5 μg/g dry weight). We observed a general decrease in NNN levels for the same six moist snuff products that were analyzed in 2004 compared to our current 2015 study. The water content of the smokeless tobacco products surveyed ranged from 3.92 to 54.8%. PMID:27192054

  4. A Survey of N'-Nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and Total Water Content in Select Smokeless Tobacco Products Purchased in the United States in 2015.

    PubMed

    Ammann, Jeffrey R; Lovejoy, Katherine S; Walters, Matthew J; Holman, Matthew R

    2016-06-01

    This investigation provides an updated survey measuring the levels of N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and water content of a select number of smokeless tobacco products sold in the United States in 2015. A total of 34 smokeless tobacco products were collected and analyzed for NNN and water content using LC-MS/MS and GC-TCD, respectively. Smokeless tobacco products were chosen to obtain a representative sample of the different types of products on the U.S. market. These smokeless products represent 12 of the 25 top-selling smokeless tobacco products according to 2013 Nielsen net sales data while five of the smokeless tobacco products are of lower selling smokeless tobacco products. The NNN levels and the water content of the smokeless tobacco products were determined and compared to previous studies. Although the range of NNN levels found was broad for the examined smokeless tobacco products (0.64-12.0 μg/g dry weight), dry snuff had the highest levels of NNN observed (>5 μg/g dry weight). We observed a general decrease in NNN levels for the same six moist snuff products that were analyzed in 2004 compared to our current 2015 study. The water content of the smokeless tobacco products surveyed ranged from 3.92 to 54.8%.

  5. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  6. The effect of feeding lovastatin and colestipol on production and cholesterol content of eggs.

    PubMed

    Luhman, C M; Miller, B G; Beitz, D C

    1990-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether feeding lovastatin or colestipol, or both, to laying hens would decrease the concentration of cholesterol in eggs. Forty-eight White Leghorn hens (69 wk of age) were allocated randomly to one of four groups. For 5 wk, the birds were fed: 1) a control diet; 2) diets supplemented with 35 mg of lovastatin per kg of feed; 3) 11.7 g of colestipol per kg of feed; or 4) both 35 mg of lovastatin and 11.7 g of colestipol per kg of feed. Drug feeding did not affect egg production or the concentration of cholesterol in the yolk, muscle, or liver. Lovastatin residue was found in liver samples from hens receiving lovastatin, but no lovastatin residue was found in the muscle, egg-white, or egg-yolk samples from hens on any treatment. These findings suggest that lovastatin or colestipol, or both, fed at relatively low amounts do not decrease the concentration of cholesterol in egg yolk and do not depress egg production. PMID:2367274

  7. Hydrogen production from high-moisture content biomass in supercritical water

    SciTech Connect

    Antal, M.J. Jr.; Adschiri, T.; Ekbom, T.

    1996-10-01

    Most hydrogen is produced by steam reforming methane at elevated pressures. The goal of this research is to develop commercial processes for the catalytic steam reforming of biomass and other organic wastes at high pressures. This approach avoids the high cost of gas compression and takes advantage of the unique properties of water at high pressures. Prior to this year the authors reported the ability of carbon to catalyze the decomposition of biomass and related model compounds in supercritical water. The product gas consists of hydrogen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, and traces of higher hydrocarbons. During the past year the authors have: (a) developed a method to extend the catalyst life, (b) begun studies of the role of the shift reaction, (c) completed studies of carbon dioxide absorption from the product effluent by high pressure water, (d) measured the rate of carbon catalyst gasification in supercritical water, (e) discovered the pumpability of oil-biomass slurries, and (f) completed the design and begun fabrication of a flow reactor that will steam reform whole biomass feedstocks (i.e. sewage sludge) and produce a hydrogen rich synthesis gas at very high pressure (>22 MPa).

  8. Effect of total solids content on methane and volatile fatty acid production in anaerobic digestion of food waste.

    PubMed

    Liotta, Flavia; d'Antonio, Giuseppe; Esposito, Giovanni; Fabbricino, Massimiliano; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Lens, Piet N L; Pirozzi, Francesco; Pontoni, Ludovico

    2014-10-01

    This work investigates the role of the moisture content on anaerobic digestion of food waste, as representative of rapidly biodegradable substrates, analysing the role of volatile fatty acid production on process kinetics. A range of total solids from 4.5% to 19.2% is considered in order to compare methane yields and kinetics of reactors operated under wet to dry conditions. The experimental results show a reduction of the specific final methane yield of 4.3% and 40.8% in semi-dry and dry conditions compared with wet conditions. A decreasing trend of the specific initial methane production rate is observed when increasing the total solids concentration. Because of lack of water, volatile fatty acids accumulation occurs during the first step of the process at semi-dry and dry conditions, which is considered to be responsible for the reduction of process kinetic rates. The total volatile fatty acids concentration and speciation are proposed as indicators of process development at different total solids content.

  9. Impact of Fission Products Impurity on the Plutonium Content of Metal- and Oxide- Fuels in Sodium Cooled Fast Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Hikaru Hiruta; Gilles Youinou

    2013-09-01

    This short report presents the neutronic analysis to evaluate the impact of fission product impurity on the Pu content of Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) metal- and oxide- fuel fabrication. The similar work has been previously done for PWR MOX fuel [1]. The analysis will be performed based on the assumption that the separation of the fission products (FP) during the reprocessing of UOX spent nuclear fuel assemblies is not perfect and that, consequently, a certain amount of FP goes into the Pu stream used to fabricate SFR fuels. Only non-gaseous FPs have been considered (see the list of 176 isotopes considered in the calculations in Appendix 1 of Reference 1). Throughout of this report, we define the mixture of Pu and FPs as PuFP. The main objective of this analysis is to quantify the increase of the Pu content of SFR fuels necessary to maintain the same average burnup at discharge independently of the amount of FP in the Pu stream, i.e. independently of the PuFP composition. The FP losses are considered element-independent, i.e., for example, 1% of FP losses mean that 1% of all non-gaseous FP leak into the Pu stream.

  10. Formation and accumulation of radiation-induced defects and radiolysis products in modified lithium orthosilicate pebbles with additions of titanium dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarins, Arturs; Valtenbergs, Oskars; Kizane, Gunta; Supe, Arnis; Knitter, Regina; Kolb, Matthias H. H.; Leys, Oliver; Baumane, Larisa; Conka, Davis

    2016-03-01

    Lithium orthosilicate (Li4SiO4) pebbles with 2.5 wt.% excess of silicon dioxide (SiO2) are the European Union's designated reference tritium breeding ceramics for the Helium Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) Test Blanket Module (TBM). However, the latest irradiation experiments showed that the reference Li4SiO4 pebbles may crack and form fragments under operation conditions as expected in the HCPB TBM. Therefore, it has been suggested to change the chemical composition of the reference Li4SiO4 pebbles and to add titanium dioxide (TiO2), to obtain lithium metatitanate (Li2TiO3) as a second phase. The aim of this research was to investigate the formation and accumulation of radiation-induced defects (RD) and radiolysis products (RP) in the modified Li4SiO4 pebbles with different contents of TiO2 for the first time, in order to estimate and compare radiation stability. The reference and the modified Li4SiO4 pebbles were irradiated with accelerated electrons (E = 5 MeV) up to 5000 MGy absorbed dose at 300-990 K in a dry argon atmosphere. By using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy it was determined that in the modified Li4SiO4 pebbles, several paramagnetic RD and RP are formed and accumulated, like, E' centres (SiO33-/TiO33-), HC2 centres (SiO43-/TiO3-) etc. On the basis of the obtained results, it is concluded that the modified Li4SiO4 pebbles with TiO2 additions have comparable radiation stability with the reference pebbles.

  11. Control of product selectivity using solid acids for the catalytic addition of phenol to hydroxy fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The acid catalyzed reactions of hydroxy fatty acids, such as ricinoleic and lesquerolic, in the presence of phenolics can lead to four products or product groups. These include simple dehydration to dienoic acids, cyclization to epoxides, Friedel-Crafts alkylations of the double bonds, or ether for...

  12. Nutrieconomics: improving performance and reducing CO2 footprint of channel catfish production with a phytogenic feed additive

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aquaculture growth is driven by the increasing demand for seafood products and at the same time by the decline in capture fisheries. This increase is in turn contributing to a growing demand for feed raw materials not only from aquaculture, but also from other animal production sectors and the b...

  13. Enhanced photobiological H2 production by the addition of carbon monoxide and hydrogen cyanide in two unicellular N2-fixing cyanobacterial strains isolated from Korean coasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jong-Woo; Nam, Seung Won; Kim, Hyung Seop; Youn, Seok-Hyun; Yih, Wonho

    2014-03-01

    Photobiological H2 from marine cyanobacterial strains is widely accepted to be an ideal clean and renewable energy source. Using the two Korean N2-fixing unicellular cyanobacterial strains ( Cyanothece sp. KNU CB MAL-031 and Cyanothece sp. KNU CB MAL-058) and the Synechococcus sp. Miami strain BG043511 we performed flask-scale experiments to measure the effect of CO and HCN addition on photobiological H2 production. For the test, 1, 5, 10 and 30% v/v of CO in the N2 atmosphere was applied. Enhancement of H2 production was remarkable at 1-5% concentration range of CO addition. At CO concentrations over 5% no further cost-effective enhancement of H2 production was detectable, which suggests to us that 1-5% CO addition should be adopted for practical photobiological H2 production by the cyanobacterial strains. Maximum enhancement of the photobiological H2 production by CO additions was 2-6 times over the control flasks without CO. When 3 ppm of HCN was injected into the cell suspension of BG043511, the enhancement of hydrogen production was 50-60% of that under 5% CO. Present result implies the possible recycling of waste CO and HCN for the enhancement of the photobiological H2 production using marine cyanobacterial strains.

  14. Content and format of labeling for human prescription drug and biological products; requirements for pregnancy and lactation labeling. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2014-12-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending its regulations governing the content and format of the "Pregnancy," "Labor and delivery," and "Nursing mothers" subsections of the "Use in Specific Populations" section of the labeling for human prescription drug and biological products. The final rule requires the removal of the pregnancy categories A, B, C, D, and X from all human prescription drug and biological product labeling. For human prescription drug and biological products subject to the Agency's 2006 Physician Labeling Rule, the final rule requires that the labeling include a summary of the risks of using a drug during pregnancy and lactation, a discussion of the data supporting that summary, and relevant information to help health care providers make prescribing decisions and counsel women about the use of drugs during pregnancy and lactation. The final rule eliminates the "Labor and delivery" subsection because information about labor and delivery is included in the "Pregnancy" subsection. The final rule requires that the labeling include relevant information about pregnancy testing, contraception, and infertility for health care providers prescribing for females and males of reproductive potential. The final rule creates a consistent format for providing information about the risks and benefits of prescription drug and/or biological product use during pregnancy and lactation and by females and males of reproductive potential. These revisions will facilitate prescriber counseling for these populations.

  15. Snapshot prediction of carbon productivity, carbon and protein content in a Southern Ocean diatom using FTIR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Sackett, Olivia; Petrou, Katherina; Reedy, Brian; Hill, Ross; Doblin, Martina; Beardall, John; Ralph, Peter; Heraud, Philip

    2016-02-01

    Diatoms, an important group of phytoplankton, bloom annually in the Southern Ocean, covering thousands of square kilometers and dominating the region's phytoplankton communities. In their role as the major food source to marine grazers, diatoms supply carbon, nutrients and energy to the Southern Ocean food web. Prevailing environmental conditions influence diatom phenotypic traits (for example, photophysiology, macromolecular composition and morphology), which in turn affect the transfer of energy, carbon and nutrients to grazers and higher trophic levels, as well as oceanic biogeochemical cycles. The paucity of phenotypic data on Southern Ocean phytoplankton limits our understanding of the ecosystem and how it may respond to future environmental change. Here we used a novel approach to create a 'snapshot' of cell phenotype. Using mass spectrometry, we measured nitrogen (a proxy for protein), total carbon and carbon-13 enrichment (carbon productivity), then used this data to build spectroscopy-based predictive models. The models were used to provide phenotypic data for samples from a third sample set. Importantly, this approach enabled the first ever rate determination of carbon productivity from a single time point, circumventing the need for time-series measurements. This study showed that Chaetoceros simplex was less productive and had lower protein and carbon content during short-term periods of high salinity. Applying this new phenomics approach to natural phytoplankton samples could provide valuable insight into understanding phytoplankton productivity and function in the marine system.

  16. IMPACT OF FISSION PRODUCTS IMPURITY ON THE PLUTONIUM CONTENT IN PWR MOX FUELS

    SciTech Connect

    Gilles Youinou; Andrea Alfonsi

    2012-03-01

    This report presents the results of a neutronics analysis done in response to the charter IFCA-SAT-2 entitled 'Fuel impurity physics calculations'. This charter specifies that the separation of the fission products (FP) during the reprocessing of UOX spent nuclear fuel assemblies (UOX SNF) is not perfect and that, consequently, a certain amount of FP goes into the Pu stream used to fabricate PWR MOX fuel assemblies. Only non-gaseous FP have been considered (see the list of 176 isotopes considered in the calculations in Appendix 1). This mixture of Pu and FP is called PuFP. Note that, in this preliminary analysis, the FP losses are considered element-independent, i.e., for example, 1% of FP losses mean that 1% of all non-gaseous FP leak into the Pu stream.

  17. Methanotrophic production of polyhydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate with high hydroxyvalerate content.

    PubMed

    Cal, Andrew J; Sikkema, W Dirk; Ponce, Maria I; Franqui-Villanueva, Diana; Riiff, Timothy J; Orts, William J; Pieja, Allison J; Lee, Charles C

    2016-06-01

    Type II methanotrophic bacteria are a promising production platform for PHA biopolymers. These bacteria are known to produce pure poly-3-hydroxybutyrate homopolymer (PHB). We isolated a strain, Methylocystis sp. WRRC1, that was capable of producing a wide range of polyhydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate copolymers (PHB-co-HV) when co-fed methane and valerate or n-pentanol. The ratio of HB to HV monomer was directly related to the concentration of valeric acid in the PHA accumulation media. We observed increased incorporation of HV and total polymer under copper-free growth conditions. The PHB-co-HV copolymers produced had decreased melting temperatures and crystallinity compared with methanotroph-produced PHB. PMID:26920242

  18. [Monitoring of wokplace air and coveralls pollution with mercury, and its content of biologic materials in workers engaged into caustic soda production].

    PubMed

    Lisetskaya, L G; Meshakova, N M; Shayakhmetov, S F

    2015-01-01

    The article covers retrospective evaluation of workplace air pollution with mercury in caustic production, and mercury content of swabs from coveralls and of biologic materials in the workers under study. The highest mercury content of biologic materials (blood, hair) was seen in workers of electrolysis workshop and mercury-containing sludge regeneration workshop. The authors revealed correlation between individual value of exposure to mercury and mercury content of biologic materials.

  19. Effect of biochemical stimulants on biomass productivity and metabolite content of the microalga, Chlorella sorokiniana.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Ryan W; Chinnasamy, Senthil; Bhatnagar, Ashish; Das, K C

    2010-12-01

    The influence of 12 biochemical stimulants, namely 2-phenylacetic acid (PAA; 30 ppm), indole-3 butyric acid (IBA; 10 ppm), 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA; 2.5, 5 and 10 ppm ), gibberellic acid (GA3, 10 ppm), zeatin (ZT; 0.002 ppm), thidiazuron (0.22 ppm), humic acid (20 ppm), kelp extract (250 ppm), methanol (500 ppm), ferric chloride (3.2 ppm ), putrescine (0.09 ppm), spermidine (1.5 ppm) were prescreened for their impact on growth and chlorophyll for the green alga--Chlorella sorokiniana. C. sorokiniana responded best to phytohormones in the auxin family, particularly NAA. Thereafter, two studies were conducted on combinations of phytohormones to compare blends from within the auxin family as well as against other families. These treatments were NAA(₅ ppm)+PAA(₃₀ ppm), NAA(₂.₅ ppm)+PAA(₁₅ ppm), NAA(₅ ppm)+IBA(₁₀ ppm), NAA(₅ ppm)+GA3(₁₀ ppm), NAA(₅ ppm)+ZT(₁ ppm), and NAA(₅ ppm)+GA3(₁₀ ppm)+ZT(₁ ppm). Combinations of NAA with other auxins did not have synergistic or antagonistic effects on the growth. However, combinations of compounds from different phytohormone families, such as NAA(₅ ppm)+GA3(₁₀ ppm)+ZT(₁ ppm), dramatically increased the biomass productivity by 170% over the control followed by the treatments: NAA(₅ ppm)+GA3(₁₀ ppm) (138%), NAA(₅ ppm)+ZT(₁ ppm) (136%), and NAA(₅ ppm) ( 133%). The effect of biochemical stimulants were also measured on metabolites such as chlorophyll, protein, and lipids in C. sorokiniana. Renewed interest in microalgae for biotechnology and biofuel applications may warrant the use of biochemical stimulants for cost reduction in large-scale cultivation through increased biomass productivity. PMID:20596899

  20. Effect of the Production of Dried Fruits and Juice from Chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa L.) on the Content and Antioxidative Activity of Bioactive Compounds.

    PubMed

    Oszmiański, Jan; Lachowicz, Sabina

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the production of dried fruits and juices from chokeberry as potential sources of bioactive compounds with beneficial effects on human health. Dry powders and juices from chokeberry were analyzed for the contents of sugars with high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with an evaporative light scattering detector (HPLC-ELSD method), and the antioxidant capacity was analyzed by the FRAP (ferric-reducing ability of plasma) and ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)) tests. Polyphenols were identified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with a tandem mass spectrometer and a photodiode-array detector (LC-PDA-ESI-MS/MS), and their quantitative analysis was carried out by UPLC-MS/MS (using a Q/TOF detector and a PDA detector). A total of 27 polyphenolic compounds was identified in chokeberry products, including 7 anthocyanins, 11 flavonols, 5 phenolic acids, 3 flavan-3-ols and 1 flavanone. Three anthocyanin derivatives were reported for the first time from chokeberry fruit. A higher activity of the bioactive compounds was determined in dried fruit pomace and in juice obtained from crushed fruits than in those from the whole fruits. In addition, the pomace was found to be a better material for the production of dry powders, compared to chokeberry fruits.

  1. Effect of the Production of Dried Fruits and Juice from Chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa L.) on the Content and Antioxidative Activity of Bioactive Compounds.

    PubMed

    Oszmiański, Jan; Lachowicz, Sabina

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the production of dried fruits and juices from chokeberry as potential sources of bioactive compounds with beneficial effects on human health. Dry powders and juices from chokeberry were analyzed for the contents of sugars with high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with an evaporative light scattering detector (HPLC-ELSD method), and the antioxidant capacity was analyzed by the FRAP (ferric-reducing ability of plasma) and ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)) tests. Polyphenols were identified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with a tandem mass spectrometer and a photodiode-array detector (LC-PDA-ESI-MS/MS), and their quantitative analysis was carried out by UPLC-MS/MS (using a Q/TOF detector and a PDA detector). A total of 27 polyphenolic compounds was identified in chokeberry products, including 7 anthocyanins, 11 flavonols, 5 phenolic acids, 3 flavan-3-ols and 1 flavanone. Three anthocyanin derivatives were reported for the first time from chokeberry fruit. A higher activity of the bioactive compounds was determined in dried fruit pomace and in juice obtained from crushed fruits than in those from the whole fruits. In addition, the pomace was found to be a better material for the production of dry powders, compared to chokeberry fruits. PMID:27556441

  2. Circulating fluidized bed combustion product addition to acid soil: alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) composition and environmental quality.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liming; Dick, Warren A; Kost, David

    2006-06-28

    To reduce S emissions, petroleum coke with a high concentration of S was combusted with limestone in a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler. The combustion process creates a bed product that has potential for agricultural uses. This CFB product is often alkaline and enriched in S and other essential plant nutrients, but also contains high concentrations of Ni and V. Agricultural land application of CFB product is encouraged, but little information is available related to plant responses and environmental impacts. CFB product and agricultural lime (ag-lime) were applied at rates of 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 times the soil's lime requirement (LR) to an acidic soil (Wooster silt loam). The 2.0x LR application rate of CFB product was equivalent to 67.2 Mg ha(-1). Alfalfa yield was increased 4.6 times by CFB product and 3.8 times by ag-lime compared to untreated control. Application of CFB product increased the concentration of V in soil and alfalfa tissue, but not in soil water, and increased the concentration of Ni in soil and soil water, but not in alfalfa tissue. However, these concentrations did not reach levels that might cause environmental problems.

  3. Suitability of histopathology as an additional endpoint to the Isolated Chicken Eye Test for classification of non-extreme pH detergent and cleaning products.

    PubMed

    Cazelle, Elodie; Eskes, Chantra; Hermann, Martina; Jones, Penny; McNamee, Pauline; Prinsen, Menk; Taylor, Hannah; Wijnands, Marcel V W

    2014-06-01

    A.I.S.E. investigated the suitability of histopathological evaluations as an additional endpoint to the regulatory adopted ICE in vitro test method (OECD TG 438) to identify non-extreme pH detergent and cleaning products that require classification as EU CLP/UN GHS Category 1 (serious eye damage). To this aim, a total of 30 non-extreme pH products covering the range of in vivo classifications for eye irritation, and representing various product categories were tested. Epithelium vacuolation (mid and lower layers) and erosion (at least moderate) were found to be the most relevant histopathological effects induced by products classified in vivo as Category 1. Histopathology criteria specifically developed for non-extreme pH detergent and cleaning products were shown to correctly identify materials classified as Category 1 based on in vivo persistent effects, and to significantly increase the overall sensitivity of the standard ICE prediction model for Category 1 identification (to 75%) whilst maintaining a good concordance (73%). In contrast, use of EU CLP additivity approach for classification of mixtures was considerably less predictive, with a concordance of only 27%, and 100% over-predictions of non-Category 1 products. As such, use of histopathology as an addition to the ICE test method was found suitable to identify EU CLP/UN GHS Category 1 non-extreme pH detergent and cleaning products and to allow a better discrimination from Category 2 products.

  4. The Hidden Strand of Mathematical Proficiency: Defining and Assessing for Productive Disposition in Elementary School Teachers' Mathematical Content Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegfried, John Zig Michael

    2012-01-01

    Teachers' mathematical content knowledge is one of the most important constructs considered by researchers studying elementary mathematics education (Fennema & Franke, 1992). One component of mathematical content knowledge that is complicated, ill-defined, and oft-ignored is "productive disposition," defined as the…

  5. The influence of α-Al2O3 addition on microstructure, mechanical and formaldehyde adsorption properties of fly ash-based geopolymer products.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi; Han, Minfang

    2011-10-15

    Fly ash-based geopolymer with α-Al(2)O(3) addition were synthesized and used to remove formaldehyde from indoor air. The microstructure, mechanical and formaldehyde adsorption properties of the geopolymer products obtained were investigated. The results showed that α-Al(2)O(3) addition with appropriate amount (such as 5 wt%) increased the geopolymerization extent, resulting in the increase of surface area and compressive strength. In addition, the improvement of structural ordering level for geopolymer sample with 5 wt% α-Al(2)O(3) addition was found through FTIR analysis. By contrast, excessive addition (such as 10 wt%) had the opposite effect. The test of formaldehyde adsorption capacity confirmed that fly ash-based geopolymer product exhibited much better property of adsorbing indoor formaldehyde physically and chemically than fly ash itself. The surface area was an important but not unique factor influencing the adsorption capacity of geopolymers.

  6. [A comparison of N-nitrosodimethylamine contents in selected meat products].

    PubMed

    Ciemniak, Artur

    2006-01-01

    Nitrosamines are know as the most potent group of carcinogens. Approximately 300 of these compounds have been tested, and about 90% of them have been found to be carcinogenic in laboratory animals. N-nitrosodimethylamine causes liver cancer, whereas some of tobacco specific nitrosamines causes lung cancer. Volatile N-nitrosamines induce tumors in a variety of human organs, including the tongue, esophagus, lung, pancreas, liver, kidney and bladder. They are formed during reaction of secondary or tertiary amino compounds and nitrite or nitrogen oxides. Nitrosamines occurs as contaminants in many foodstuff including food and beverages: beers, cheeses, sausages, smoked and pickled foods. They are formed during frying, smoking and food preserved with pickling salt. These compounds can also be produced in man and other mammals under the acidic conditions in the stomach. The present study was carried out to determine level of N-nitrosodimethylamine in selected 13 meat products. The extraction procedure was based on Raoul's method, ie. on two consecutive extraction-concentration step using extrelut and florisil columns. The level of N-nitrosodimethylamine was varied from 0.049 mg/kg to 16.47 mg/kg. The highest level of NDMA was found in smoked sausage. PMID:17713196

  7. COMBINATION DOSE OF TWO PHTHALATES ADDITIVELY DEPRESSES TESTOSTERONE PRODUCTION AND INSL3 GENE EXPRESSION IN MALE RAT FETUSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and di(n-butyl) phthalate (DBP) are phthalate esters used to modify plastic and polymer textures. Individually,DEHP and DBP reduce testosterone production, inhibit reproductive tract development, andinduce reproductive organ malformationsin male rats...

  8. Production of alcohol from Jerusalem artichoke for gasoline additive. Proucavanje mogucnosti proizvodnje alkohola iz topinambura kao dodatka u benzin

    SciTech Connect

    Pekic, B.; Kisgeci, J.

    1984-01-01

    Trials conducted in 1980 and 1981 on three soil types, chernozem (a rich soil), anthropogenized black sand (a medium-rich soil), and anthropogenized brown sand (a poor soil), showed that the Jerusalem artichoke was superior to conventional field crops (corn, sugarbeet, potato, and sorghum) regarding the yield of carbohydrates per unit area, especially when grown on the poor soil. The analyses of the technological properties of Jerusalem artichokes grown for two years in the experimental plots showed that the plant species is a quality raw material for the production of alcohol. From the aspect of alcohol production, the quality of the tested varieties of Jerusalem artichoke depended neither on soil quality nor on the delay in harvesting the crop after it reached technological maturity. The results of the study indicate that the alcohol production from Jerusalem artichokes would be more economic, i.e., more profitable, than the production from conventional raw materials. The study of the carbohydrate composition of Jerusalem artichoke tubers made it clear that besides alcohol production, Jerusalem artichokes are a good raw material for the production of high-fructose syrup and crystalline fructose. Since the interest in these products kept increasing in recent years, because of their exceptional characters, it is necessary to establish research programs to cover these field too. In the course of the study the authors came across some interesting literature data on the use of Jerusalem artichokes as a raw material for the production of high-fructose syrup and crystalline fructose. Some of the publication, i.e., those that might be useful in further research work, are appended to this study.

  9. Content and reactivity to product perfumes in fragrance mix positive and negative eczema patients. A study of perfumes used in toiletries and skin-care products.

    PubMed

    Johansen, J D; Rastogi, S C; Andersen, K E; Menné, T

    1997-06-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the elicitation potential of perfumes from 17 commonly sold lower-price cosmetic products. 8 of the perfumes were from stay-on cosmetics and 9 were from wash-off cosmetics. Each perfume was tested in 500 consecutive eczema patients, who also were tested with the European standard patch test series. 4.2% reacted to 1 or more of the wash-off product perfumes and 3.2% to 1 or more of the stay-on product perfumes. Concordant positive reactions between the fragrance mix and the product perfumes were found in 81.3% of positive reactions to the stay-on product perfumes and in 52.4% of the reactions to the wash-off product perfumes. Compared to the fragrance mix alone, only 1 additional case of contact allergy to the product perfumes was detected by balsam of Peru. Chemical analysis revealed that between 1 and 5 of the chemically-defined constituents of the fragrance mix were present in all of the product perfumes. Geraniol was found in 12 of the 17 perfumes and was most often detected. The concentration of the target fragrance materials ranged from 0.005%-1.35 w/v%. It is concluded that the allergenic constituents of the fragrance mix are impossible to avoid if perfumed cosmetics are used. Furthermore, patients suspected of perfume allergy need to be tested with their own perfumed products, as far from all cases of perfume allergy are detected by the fragrance mix and/or balsam of Peru in the European standard patch test series.

  10. Effects of Natural Bioactive Products on the Growth and Ginsenoside Contents of Panax ginseng Cultured in an Aeroponic System

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Geum-Soog; Lee, Seung-Eun; Noh, Hyung-Jun; Kwon, Hyuck; Lee, Sung-Woo; Kim, Seung-Yu; Kim, Yong-Bum

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of natural bioactive products such as Manda enzyme (T1), Yangmyeongwon (T2), effective microorganisms (T3), and Kelpak (T4) on the growth and ginsenoside contents of Panax ginseng cultured in an aeroponic system using a two-layer vertical type of nutrient bath under natural light conditions. The growth of ginseng plants showed specific characteristics according to the positions in which they were cultured due to the difference of light transmittance and temperature in the upper and lower layers during aeroponic culture in a two-layer vertical type of system. The growth of the aerial part of the leaves and stems of ginseng plants cultured in the lower layer (4,000 to 6,000 lx, 23℃ to 26℃) of the nutrient bath was observed to be superior to that of the ginseng plants cultured in the upper layer (12,000 to 15,000 lx, 25℃ to 28℃). The leaf area was significantly larger in the treatment of T2 and T4 (46.70 cm2) than with other treatments. Conversely, the values of the root weight and root diameter were higher in ginseng plants cultured in the upper layer of the nutrient bath. The root weight was significantly heavier in the treatment of T4 (6.46 g) and T3 (6.26 g) than with other treatments. The total ginsenoside content in the leaves and roots was highest in the ginseng plants cultured by the treatment of T1, at 16.20%, while the total ginsenoside content obtained by other treatments decreased in the order of T4, T5 (control), T2, and T3, at 13.21%, 12.30%, 14.84%, and 14.86%, respectively. The total ginsenoside content of the ginseng leaves was found to be significantly higher in the treatment of T1 in the lower layer of the nutrient bath, at 15.30%, while the content of the ginseng roots in the treatments of T3 and T4, at 1.27% and 1.23%, respectively, was significantly higher than in other treatments in the upper layer of the nutrient bath. PMID:23717147

  11. Dynamics of cellulase production by glucose grown cultures of Trichoderma reesei Rut-C30 as a response to addition of cellulose.

    PubMed

    Szijártó, Nóra; Szengyel, Zsolt; Lidén, Gunnar; Réczey, Kati

    2004-01-01

    An economic process for the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose would allow utilization of cellulosic biomass for the production of easily fermentable low-cost sugars. New and more efficient fermentation processes are emerging to convert this biologic currency to a variety of commodity products with a special emphasis on fuel ethanol production. Since the cost of cellulase production currently accounts for a large fraction of the estimated total production costs of bioethanol, a significantly less expensive process for cellulase enzyme production is needed. It will most likely be desirable to obtain cellulase production on different carbon sources-including both polymeric carbohydrates and monosaccharides. The relation between enzyme production and growth profile of the microorganism is key for designing such processes. We conducted a careful characterization of growth and cellulase production by the soft-rot fungus Trichoderma reesei. Glucose-grown cultures of T. reesei Rut-C30 were subjected to pulse additions of Solka-floc (delignified pine pulp), and the response was monitored in terms of CO2 evolution and increased enzyme activity. There was an immediate and unexpectedly strong CO2 evolution at the point of Solka-floc addition. The time profiles of induction of cellulase activity, cellulose degradation, and CO2 evolution are analyzed and discussed herein.

  12. Effects of microbial inoculants on corn silage fermentation, microbial contents, aerobic stability, and milk production under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, N B; Sloth, K H; Højberg, O; Spliid, N H; Jensen, C; Thøgersen, R

    2010-08-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of 2 corn silage inoculation strategies (homofermentative vs. heterofermentative inoculation) under field conditions and to monitor responses in silage variables over the feeding season from January to August. Thirty-nine commercial dairy farms participated in the study. Farms were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: control (nonactive carrier; Chr. Hansen A/S, Hørsholm, Denmark), Lactisil (inoculation with 1 x 10(5)Lactobacillus pentosus and 2.5 x 10(4)Pediococcus pentosaceus per gram of fresh matter; Chr. Hansen A/S), and Lalsil Fresh (inoculation with 3 x 10(5)Lactobacillus buchneri NCIMB 40788 per gram of fresh matter; Lallemand Animal Nutrition, Blagnac, France). Inoculation with Lactisil had no effects on fermentation variables and aerobic stability. On the contrary, inoculation with Lalsil Fresh doubled the aerobic stability: 37, 38, and 80+/-8h for control, Lactisil, and Lalsil Fresh, respectively. The effect of Lalsil Fresh on aerobic stability tended to differ between sampling times, indicating a reduced difference between treatments in samples collected in April. Lalsil Fresh inoculation increased silage pH and contents of acetic acid, propionic acid, propanol, propyl acetate, 2-butanol, propylene glycol, ammonia, and free AA. The contents and ratios of DL-lactic acid, L-lactic acid relative to DL-lactic acid, free glucose, and DL-lactic acid relative to acetic acid decreased with Lalsil Fresh inoculation. Lalsil Fresh inoculation increased the silage counts of total lactic acid bacteria and reduced yeast counts. The Fusarium toxins deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, and zearalenone were detected in all silages at all collections, but the contents were not affected by ensiling time or by inoculation treatment. The effect of inoculation treatments on milk production was assessed by collecting test-day results from the involved farms and comparing the actual milk production with predicted milk production

  13. Evaluation of Chemical Analysis Method and Determination of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Content from Seafood and Dairy Products

    PubMed Central

    Lee, So-Young; Lee, Jee-Yeon

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate contents of 8 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from frequently consumed seafood and dairy products and to evaluate their chemical analysis methods. Samples were collected from markets of 9 cities in Korea chosen as the population reference and evaluated. The methodology involved saponification, extraction with n-hexane, clean-up on Sep-Pak silica cartridges and gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry analysis. Validation proceeded on 2 matrices. Recoveries for 8 PAHs ranged from 86.87 to 103.57%. The limit of detection (LOD) 8 PAHs was 0.04~0.20 µg/kg, and limit of quantification (LOQ) of 8 PAHs was 0.12~0.60 µg/kg. The mean concentration of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) was 0.34 µg/kg from seafood and 0.34 µg/kg from dairy products. The total PAHs concentration was 1.06 µg/kg in seafood and 1.52 µg/kg in dairy products. PMID:26483885

  14. 'The effect of inulin addition on structural and textural properties of extruded products under several extrusion conditions': The effect of inulin addition on structural and textural properties of rice flour extrudates.

    PubMed

    Tsokolar-Tsikopoulos, Konstantinos C; Katsavou, Ioanna D; Krokida, Magdalini K

    2015-10-01

    The growing consumer demand for healthy snacks has turned the interest of industry and research in the development of new ready-to-eat products, enriched with dietary fibers. Inulin is a soluble fiber with a neutral taste that promotes the good function of the intestine. Rice flour extrudates were produced under various extrusion temperatures, screw speeds, feed moisture concentrations and inulin replacement levels. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the material characteristics and the extrusion conditions on the structural and textural properties of the extrudates. Simple mathematical models were used for properties correlation with process conditions and through regression analysis it was revealed that there is a significant effect of extrusion temperature, screw speed, feed moisture content and inulin concentration on the final properties. Both density and maximum stress increased when moisture content and inulin concentration increased, while they decreased when extrusion temperature and screw speed increased. These results were also strengthened by scanning electron microscopy. The highest expansion ratio was presented when decreasing all process conditions apart from screw speed. PMID:26396364

  15. Low-quality vegetable oils as feedstock for biodiesel production using K-pumice as solid catalyst. Tolerance of water and free fatty acids contents.

    PubMed

    Díaz, L; Borges, M E

    2012-08-15

    Waste oils are a promising alternative feedstock for biodiesel production due to the decrease of the industrial production costs. However, feedstock with high free fatty acids (FFA) content presents several drawbacks when alkaline-catalyzed transesterification reaction is employed in biodiesel production process. Nowadays, to develop suitable processes capable of treating oils with high free fatty acids content, a two-step process for biodiesel production is being investigated. The major problem that it presents is that two catalysts are needed to carry out the whole process: an acidic catalyst for free fatty acids esterification (first step) and a basic catalyst for pretreated product transesterification (second step). The use of a bifunctional catalyst, which allows both reactions to take place simultaneously, could minimize the production costs and time. In the present study, the behavior of pumice, a natural volcanic material used as a heterogeneous catalyst, was tested using oils with several FFA and water contents as feedstock in the transesterification reaction to produce biodiesel. Pumice as a bifunctional solid catalyst, which can catalyze simultaneously the esterification of FFA and the transesterification of fatty acid glycerides into biodiesel, was shown to be an efficient catalyst for the conversion of low-grade, nonedible oil feedstock into biodiesel product. Using this solid catalyst for the transesterification reaction, high FAME yields were achieved when feedstock oils presented a FFA content until approximately 2% wt/wt and a water content until 2% wt/wt.

  16. Changes in heavy metal contents in animal feeds and manures in an intensive animal production region of China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Dong, Yuanhua; Yang, Yunya; Toor, Gurpal S; Zhang, Xumei

    2013-12-01

    The 360 feed and manure samples were collected from 150 animal farms in Jiangsu Province, China and analyzed for heavy metals. Concentrations of Zn and Cu in animal feeds were 15.9-2041.8 and undetected-392.1 mg/kg respectively, while Hg, As, Pb, Cd, and Cr in all feeds were below 10 mg/kg. Concentrations of Cu, Zn, and Cr in animal manures were 8.4-1726, 39.5-11379, and 1.0-1602 mg/kg respectively, while As, Cd, Hg, and Pb were < 10 mg/kg. The concentration of Cu, Zn, As and Cr in animal feed and manure were positively correlated (p < 0.001), but the Cd, Hg, and Pb were not statistically correlated between the feed and the manure. Concentrations of Cu and Zn were highest in pig feed and manure, followed by poultry and dairy feeds and manures. During 1990-2008, Cu, Zn, As, Cr, Cd contents increased by 771%, 410%, 420%, 220%, and 63% in pig manure, 212%, 95%, 200%, 791%, and -63% in dairy manure, and 181%, 197%, 1500%, 261, and 196% in poultry manure. Most of the increases occurred from 2002 to 2008, which reflects the extensive use of feed additives after 2002. In contrast, Pb and Hg in manures continuously decreased from 1990 to 2008. The results suggest that the heavy metal contents in animal manure have been greatly increased over 18 years and the contribution of manures to soil should be considered.

  17. The low-AGE content of low-fat vegan diets could benefit diabetics - though concurrent taurine supplementation may be needed to minimize endogenous AGE production.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Mark F

    2005-01-01

    Increased endogenous generation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) contributes importantly to the vascular complications of diabetes, in part owing to activation of the pro-inflammatory RAGE receptor. However, AGE-altered oligopeptides with RAGE-activating potential can also be absorbed from the diet, and indeed make a significant contribution to the plasma and tissue pool of AGEs; this contribution is especially prominent when compromised renal function impairs renal clearance of AGEs. Perhaps surprisingly, foods rich in both protein and fat, and cooked at high heat, tend to be the richest dietary sources of AGEs, whereas low-fat carbohydrate-rich foods tend to be relatively low in AGEs. Conceivably, this reflects the fact that the so-called "AGEs" in the diet are generated primarily, not by glycation reactions, but by interactions between oxidized lipids and protein; such reactions are known to give rise to certain prominent AGEs, such as epsilonN-carboxymethyl-lysine and methylglyoxal. Although roasted nuts and fried or broiled tofu are relatively high in AGEs, low-fat plant-derived foods, including boiled or baked beans, typically are low in AGEs. Thus, a low-AGE content may contribute to the many benefits conferred to diabetics by a genuinely low-fat vegan diet. Nonetheless, the plasma AGE content of healthy vegetarians has been reported to be higher than that of omnivores - suggesting that something about vegetarian diets may promote endogenous AGE production. Some researchers have proposed that the relatively high-fructose content of vegetarian diets may explain this phenomenon, but there so far is no clinical evidence that normal intakes of fructose have an important impact on AGE production. An alternative or additional possibility is that the relatively poor taurine status of vegetarians up-regulates the physiological role of myeloperoxidase-derived oxidants in the generation of AGEs - in which case, taurine supplementation might be expected to

  18. The low-AGE content of low-fat vegan diets could benefit diabetics - though concurrent taurine supplementation may be needed to minimize endogenous AGE production.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Mark F

    2005-01-01

    Increased endogenous generation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) contributes importantly to the vascular complications of diabetes, in part owing to activation of the pro-inflammatory RAGE receptor. However, AGE-altered oligopeptides with RAGE-activating potential can also be absorbed from the diet, and indeed make a significant contribution to the plasma and tissue pool of AGEs; this contribution is especially prominent when compromised renal function impairs renal clearance of AGEs. Perhaps surprisingly, foods rich in both protein and fat, and cooked at high heat, tend to be the richest dietary sources of AGEs, whereas low-fat carbohydrate-rich foods tend to be relatively low in AGEs. Conceivably, this reflects the fact that the so-called "AGEs" in the diet are generated primarily, not by glycation reactions, but by interactions between oxidized lipids and protein; such reactions are known to give rise to certain prominent AGEs, such as epsilonN-carboxymethyl-lysine and methylglyoxal. Although roasted nuts and fried or broiled tofu are relatively high in AGEs, low-fat plant-derived foods, including boiled or baked beans, typically are low in AGEs. Thus, a low-AGE content may contribute to the many benefits conferred to diabetics by a genuinely low-fat vegan diet. Nonetheless, the plasma AGE content of healthy vegetarians has been reported to be higher than that of omnivores - suggesting that something about vegetarian diets may promote endogenous AGE production. Some researchers have proposed that the relatively high-fructose content of vegetarian diets may explain this phenomenon, but there so far is no clinical evidence that normal intakes of fructose have an important impact on AGE production. An alternative or additional possibility is that the relatively poor taurine status of vegetarians up-regulates the physiological role of myeloperoxidase-derived oxidants in the generation of AGEs - in which case, taurine supplementation might be expected to

  19. 78 FR 11791 - Flavored Milk; Petition to Amend the Standard of Identity for Milk and 17 Additional Dairy Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-20

    ... Lowfat and Nonfat Yogurt and to Amend the Standard for Yogurt'' (74 FR 2443, January 15, 2009). Thus, FDA... and reduce childhood obesity by providing for lower-calorie flavored milk products. They state that lower-calorie flavored milk would particularly benefit school children who, according to IDFA and...

  20. Simvastatin and dipentyl phthalate lower testosterone production and exhibit dose additive effects on the fetal testis via distinct mechanistic pathways

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sex differentiation of the mammalian reproductive tract is a highly regulated process that is driven, in part, by fetal testosterone (T) production. In utero exposure to phthalate esters (PE) during sex differentiation can result in reproductive tract malformations in rats. PE al...