Science.gov

Sample records for additional prospective studies

  1. Developing Prospective Teachers' Understanding of Addition and Subtraction with Whole Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, George J.

    2014-01-01

    This study was situated in a semester-long classroom teaching experiment examining prospective teachers' understanding of number concepts and operations. The purpose of this paper is to describe the learning goals, tasks, and tools used to cultivate prospective teachers' understanding of addition and subtraction with whole numbers.…

  2. Addition of sub-anaesthetic dose of ketamine reduces gag reflex during propofol based sedation for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy: A prospective randomised double-blind study

    PubMed Central

    Tandon, Manish; Pandey, Vijay Kant; Dubey, Gaurav Kumar; Pandey, Chandra Kant; Wadhwa, Nitya

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims: Gag reflex is unwanted during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGIE). Experimental studies have demonstrated that N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonism prevents gag reflex. We conducted a study to determine if sub-anaesthetic doses of ketamine, added to propofol, reduce the incidence of gag reflex. Methods: This prospective, randomised, double-blind and placebo-controlled study was done in a tertiary care hospital. A total of 270 patients undergoing UGIE, were randomised to propofol (P) group (n = 135) or propofol plus ketamine (PK) group (n = 135). All patients received propofol boluses titrated to Ramsay sedation score of not <4. Patients in PK group in addition received ketamine, 0.15 mg/kg immediately before the first-propofol dose. Top-up doses of propofol were given as required. Stata 11 software (StataCorp.) was used to calculate the proportion of patients with gag reflex and the corresponding relative risk. Propofol consumed and time to recovery in the two groups was compared using Student's t-test and Cox proportional hazards regression respectively. Results: Significantly, fewer patients in the PK group had gag reflex compared to the P group (3 vs. 23, risk ratio = 0.214, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.07-0.62; P = 0.005). The incidence of hypotension (6 vs. 16, risk ratio = 0.519, 95% CI = 0.25-1.038; P = 0.06), number of required airway manoeuvres (4 vs. 19, risk ratio = 0.32, 95% CI = 0.13-0.74; P = 0.014), median time to recovery (4 min vs. 5 min, hazard ratio = 1.311, 95% CI = 1.029-1.671; P = 0.028) and propofol dose administered (152 mg vs. 167 mg, 95% CI = 4.74-24.55; P = 0.004) was also less in the PK group compared to the P group. Conclusion: Ketamine in sub-anaesthetic dose decreases gag reflex during UGIE. PMID:25197112

  3. The Prospects Study and Desegregation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puma, Michael J.

    1997-01-01

    Argues that greater caution is required when drawing conclusions from statistical results than the Armor study has done, and describes the "Prospects" study (begun in 1989), the largest longitudinal study of educational outcomes conducted in the United States. "Prospects" provides much data useful in evaluating the school desegregation situation…

  4. 3D Printing/Additive Manufacturing Single Titanium Dental Implants: A Prospective Multicenter Study with 3 Years of Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Tunchel, Samy; Blay, Alberto; Kolerman, Roni; Mijiritsky, Eitan; Shibli, Jamil Awad

    2016-01-01

    This prospective 3-year follow-up clinical study evaluated the survival and success rates of 3DP/AM titanium dental implants to support single implant-supported restorations. After 3 years of loading, clinical, radiographic, and prosthetic parameters were assessed; the implant survival and the implant-crown success were evaluated. Eighty-two patients (44 males, 38 females; age range 26-67 years) were enrolled in the present study. A total of 110 3DP/AM titanium dental implants (65 maxilla, 45 mandible) were installed: 75 in healed alveolar ridges and 35 in postextraction sockets. The prosthetic restorations included 110 single crowns (SCs). After 3 years of loading, six implants failed, for an overall implant survival rate of 94.5%; among the 104 surviving implant-supported restorations, 6 showed complications and were therefore considered unsuccessful, for an implant-crown success of 94.3%. The mean distance between the implant shoulder and the first visible bone-implant contact was 0.75 mm (±0.32) and 0.89 (±0.45) after 1 and 3 years of loading, respectively. 3DP/AM titanium dental implants seem to represent a successful clinical option for the rehabilitation of single-tooth gaps in both jaws, at least until 3-year period. Further, long-term clinical studies are needed to confirm the present results.

  5. 3D Printing/Additive Manufacturing Single Titanium Dental Implants: A Prospective Multicenter Study with 3 Years of Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This prospective 3-year follow-up clinical study evaluated the survival and success rates of 3DP/AM titanium dental implants to support single implant-supported restorations. After 3 years of loading, clinical, radiographic, and prosthetic parameters were assessed; the implant survival and the implant-crown success were evaluated. Eighty-two patients (44 males, 38 females; age range 26–67 years) were enrolled in the present study. A total of 110 3DP/AM titanium dental implants (65 maxilla, 45 mandible) were installed: 75 in healed alveolar ridges and 35 in postextraction sockets. The prosthetic restorations included 110 single crowns (SCs). After 3 years of loading, six implants failed, for an overall implant survival rate of 94.5%; among the 104 surviving implant-supported restorations, 6 showed complications and were therefore considered unsuccessful, for an implant-crown success of 94.3%. The mean distance between the implant shoulder and the first visible bone-implant contact was 0.75 mm (±0.32) and 0.89 (±0.45) after 1 and 3 years of loading, respectively. 3DP/AM titanium dental implants seem to represent a successful clinical option for the rehabilitation of single-tooth gaps in both jaws, at least until 3-year period. Further, long-term clinical studies are needed to confirm the present results. PMID:27313616

  6. 3D Printing/Additive Manufacturing Single Titanium Dental Implants: A Prospective Multicenter Study with 3 Years of Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Tunchel, Samy; Blay, Alberto; Kolerman, Roni; Mijiritsky, Eitan; Shibli, Jamil Awad

    2016-01-01

    This prospective 3-year follow-up clinical study evaluated the survival and success rates of 3DP/AM titanium dental implants to support single implant-supported restorations. After 3 years of loading, clinical, radiographic, and prosthetic parameters were assessed; the implant survival and the implant-crown success were evaluated. Eighty-two patients (44 males, 38 females; age range 26-67 years) were enrolled in the present study. A total of 110 3DP/AM titanium dental implants (65 maxilla, 45 mandible) were installed: 75 in healed alveolar ridges and 35 in postextraction sockets. The prosthetic restorations included 110 single crowns (SCs). After 3 years of loading, six implants failed, for an overall implant survival rate of 94.5%; among the 104 surviving implant-supported restorations, 6 showed complications and were therefore considered unsuccessful, for an implant-crown success of 94.3%. The mean distance between the implant shoulder and the first visible bone-implant contact was 0.75 mm (±0.32) and 0.89 (±0.45) after 1 and 3 years of loading, respectively. 3DP/AM titanium dental implants seem to represent a successful clinical option for the rehabilitation of single-tooth gaps in both jaws, at least until 3-year period. Further, long-term clinical studies are needed to confirm the present results. PMID:27313616

  7. Prospective Teachers' Perspectives on Microteaching Lesson Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Maria L.; Robinson, Matthew

    2006-01-01

    Microteaching Lesson Study [MLS] is a cooperative learning experience that we felt could challenge our prospective teachers thinking about teaching and support their connection of theory and practice during an initial course on learning to teach mathematics. We studied seventy-four prospective teachers' perspectives on MLS over four sections of…

  8. [Hemodialysis prospective multicentric quality study].

    PubMed

    Parra, E; Ramos, R; Betriú, A; Paniagua, J; Belart, M; Martín, F; Martínez, T

    2006-01-01

    In medicine a considerable amount of resources are used in research, but very little attention is paid to ensuring that the findings of research are implemented in routine clinical practice. This prospective study has the aim to evaluate the efficiency of some clinical management strategies (feedback, benchmarking and improving plans) on haemodialysis treatment results in 4 different dialysis centres. We collected consensus data related to haemodialysis results every 6-8 months and informed each centre about its own results (feedback) and how these related to the others(benchmarking). We designed improving plans for any bad result detected. By the end of two years of follow up, 294 patients had been included in the study. The results obtained at the end of the study had improved in comparison with those obtained at the beginning (statistically significant) for the following indicators: % of patients with Hb< 11 g/dl, % patients with Kt/v < 1.2, mean Kt/v, mean albumin, % patients with albumin< 3.5 g/dl y % patients with C reactive protein (CRP) > 5 mg/dl. No statistical changes were found in: mean erythropoietin (EPO) doses, blood pressure (BP), phosphorus plasmatic,calcium-phosphorus product, parathormone (PTHi) and vascular access distribution. We explained the absence of any improvement because of adequate start indicators in some areas (BP and vascular access), therapy with limited efficiency (calcitriol, calcium carbonate and others), lack of support resources (dietetic unit) or inadequate design/implementation of improving plans.In conclusion, our intervention illustrates that combined clinical management strategies(feedback, benchmarking and improving plans) are efficiency in improving some areas of haemodialysis treatment (anaemia, dialysis dose, nutrition and inflammation), although it does not improve calcium phosphate metabolism related indicators.

  9. Is herpes zoster an additional complication in old age alongside comorbidity and multiple medications? Results of the post hoc analysis of the 12-month longitudinal prospective observational ARIZONA cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Pickering, Gisèle; Gavazzi, Gaëtan; Gaillat, Jacques; Paccalin, Marc; Bloch, Karine; Bouhassira, Didier

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine the burden of comorbidity, polypharmacy and herpes zoster (HZ), an infectious disease, and its main complication post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN) in young (50–70 years of age: 70−) and old (≥70 years of age: 70+) patients. Design Post hoc analysis of the results of the 12-month longitudinal prospective multicentre observational ARIZONA cohort study. Settings and participants The study took place in primary care in France from 20 November 2006 to 12 September 2008. Overall, 644 general practitioners (GPs) collected data from 1358 patients aged 50 years or more with acute eruptive HZ. Outcome measures Presence of HZ-related pain or PHN (pain persisting >3 months) was documented at day 0 and at months 3, 6, and 12. To investigate HZ and PHN burden, pain, quality of life (QoL) and mood were self-assessed using validated questionnaires (Zoster Brief Pain Inventory, 12-item Short-Form health survey and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, respectively). Results As compared with younger patients, older patients more frequently presented with comorbidities, more frequently took analgesics and had poorer response on all questionnaires, indicating greater burden, at inclusion. Analgesics were more frequently prescribed to relieve acute pain or PHN in 70+ than 70− patients. Despite higher levels of medication prescription, poorer pain relief and poorer response to all questionnaires were reported in 70+ than 70− patients. Conclusions Occurrence of HZ and progression to PHN adds extra burden on top of pharmacological treatment and impaired quality of life, especially in older patients who already have health problems to cope with in everyday life. PMID:26892790

  10. The addition of rituximab to a combination of fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, mitoxantrone (FCM) significantly increases the response rate and prolongs survival as compared with FCM alone in patients with relapsed and refractory follicular and mantle cell lymphomas: results of a prospective randomized study of the German Low-Grade Lymphoma Study Group.

    PubMed

    Forstpointner, Roswitha; Dreyling, Martin; Repp, Roland; Hermann, Sandra; Hänel, Annette; Metzner, Bernd; Pott, Christiane; Hartmann, Frank; Rothmann, Frank; Rohrberg, Robert; Böck, Hans-Peter; Wandt, Hannes; Unterhalt, Michael; Hiddemann, Wolfgang

    2004-11-15

    In follicular lymphoma (FL) and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) the monoclonal antibody rituximab may improve the prognosis when combined with chemotherapy. This was investigated in a prospective randomized study in patients with relapsed disease. A total of 147 patients were randomized to receive 4 courses of chemotherapy with 25 mg/m(2) fludarabine on days 1 to 3, 200 mg/m(2) cyclophosphamide on days 1 to 3, and 8 mg/m(2) mitoxantrone on day 1 (FCM), alone or combined with rituximab (375 mg/m(2); R-FCM). Of 128 evaluable patients, 62 were randomized for FCM and 66 for R-FCM. R-FCM revealed an overall response rate of 79% (33% complete remission [CR], 45% partial remission [PR]) as compared with 58% for FCM alone (13% CR, 45% PR; P = .01), with similar results in a subgroup analysis of FL (94% vs 70%) and MCL (58% vs 46%). In the total group, the R-FCM arm was significantly superior concerning progression-free survival (PFS; P = .0381) and overall survival (OS; P = .0030). In FL PFS was significantly longer in the R-FCM arm (P = .0139) whereas in MCL a significantly longer OS was observed (P = .0042). There were no differences in clinically relevant side effects in both study arms. Hence, the addition of rituximab to FCM chemotherapy significantly improves the outcome of relapsed or refractory FL and MCL.

  11. A Study of Prospective Teachers' Consumption Patterns on Special Days

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saglam, Halil Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify prospective teachers' consumption patterns on special days. The sample was comprised of 29 prospective teachers (22 females and 7 males) who studied Primary School Teaching in the Faculty of Education at Sakarya University during the 2014-2015 Academic Year. The study was designed as a phenomenological…

  12. Study of Prospective Teachers' Conceptualization of Value Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koruklu, Nermin; Aktamis, Hilal

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether there were any changes in the conceptualization of prospective teachers' values preferences during their university studies. The research group was composed of 208 prospective teachers who were studying at Science Education, Social Science Education and Fine Arts Education at Adnan Menderes…

  13. Ion cyclotron emission studies: Retrospects and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorelenkov, N. N.

    2016-05-01

    Ion cyclotron emission (ICE) studies emerged in part from the papers by A.B. Mikhailovskii published in the 1970s. Among the discussed subjects were electromagnetic compressional Alfvénic cyclotron instabilities with the linear growth rate √ {n_α /n_e } driven by fusion products, -particles which draw a lot of attention to energetic particle physics. The theory of ICE excited by energetic particles was significantly advanced at the end of the 20th century motivated by first DT experiments on TFTR and subsequent JET experimental studies which we highlight. More recently ICE theory was advanced by detailed theoretical and experimental studies on spherical torus (ST) fusion devices where the instability signals previously indistinguishable in high aspect ratio tokamaks due to high toroidal magnetic field became the subjects of experiments. We discuss further prospects of ICE theory applications for future burning plasma (BP) experiments such as those to be conducted in ITER device in France, where neutron and gamma rays escaping the plasma create extremely challenging conditions fusion alpha particle diagnostics.

  14. Ion cyclotron emission studies: Retrospects and prospects

    DOE PAGES

    Gorelenkov, N. N.

    2016-06-05

    Ion cyclotron emission (ICE) studies emerged in part from the papers by A.B. Mikhailovskii published in the 1970s. Among the discussed subjects were electromagnetic compressional Alfv,nic cyclotron instabilities with the linear growth rate similar ~ √(nα/ne) driven by fusion products, -particles which draw a lot of attention to energetic particle physics. The theory of ICE excited by energetic particles was significantly advanced at the end of the 20th century motivated by first DT experiments on TFTR and subsequent JET experimental studies which we highlight. Recently ICE theory was advanced by detailed theoretical and experimental studies on spherical torus (ST) fusionmore » devices where the instability signals previously indistinguishable in high aspect ratio tokamaks due to high toroidal magnetic field became the subjects of experiments. Finally, we discuss prospects of ICE theory applications for future burning plasma (BP) experiments such as those to be conducted in ITER device in France, where neutron and gamma rays escaping the plasma create extremely challenging conditions fusion alpha particle diagnostics.« less

  15. Ossiculoplasty: A Prospective Study of 80 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Chavan, Shrinivas Shripatrao; Jain, Prateek V; Vedi, Jeevan N; Rai, Dharmendra kumar; Kadri, Himayat

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The use of ossicular graft material in ossicular chain reconstruction has significantly improved hearing results hearing after tympanoplasty and tympanomastoid surgery for chronic otitis media. Today, otologists have a wide array of tools from which to choose, but may find it difficult to know which middle ear implant works best. Materials and Methods: A prospective study of 80 patients who underwent ossiculoplasty was performed in the ear, nose, and throat (ENT) department at a tertiary health care facility from 2011 to 2013. Patients with chronic suppurative otitis media with an air-bone gap (ABG) of >25 dB with ossicular involvement were included in the study. Total ossicular replacement prosthesis (TORP), partial ossicular replacement prosthesis (PORP), and refashioned incus were used. Success was defined as ABG <25 dB on postoperative Day 90. Results: The majority patients were of middle age with moderate conductive hearing loss. Incus was the most susceptible ossicle. Overall success rate in this study was 80.0% with an average change of 15.76 dB in ABG. Conclusion: With continuing advances in our understanding of middle ear mechanics, the results of ossiculoplasty are improving and results can be very rewarding in experienced hands. Severity of preoperative ear discharge, preoperative mastoid cellularity, presence of disease, and surgical procedure proved to be significant prognostic factors. Autograft incus and PORP fared better when the malleus handle was present while TORP gave better results when the malleus handle was eroded. PMID:25009804

  16. The hydroxyapatite orbital implant: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Ashworth, J L; Rhatigan, M; Sampath, R; Brammar, R; Sunderland, S; Leatherbarrow, B

    1996-01-01

    The hydroxyapatite orbital implant was first released for use as an orbital implant in humans in August 1989. It has been shown to be well tolerated, providing good motility of the artificial eye with a low complication rate when used as a primary implant. This prospective study evaluated the hydroxyapatite orbital implant used as both a primary and a secondary implant. Sixty patients were implanted between October 1992 and November 1994, 28 being implanted as a primary procedure at the time of enucleation or evisceration, and 32 as a secondary procedure. Seven patients underwent second-stage drilling and pegging of the implant. The mean follow-up time was 13 months (range 2-26 months). A standardised operative and post-operative protocol was followed. The patients were evaluated post-operatively for the amount of enophthalmos, degree of upper lid sulcus deformity, motility of the prosthesis, location of the implant in the socket, socket status and the presence or absence of discharge, position of the drill hole and coverage of the implant. Complications and their management were documented. Both patient and surgeon made a subjective assessment of cosmesis and the patient's satisfaction with the overall result was noted. The results of this study show the hydroxyapatite orbital implant to provide excellent motility of the artificial eye and good cosmesis with a low rate of complications when used both as a primary and as a secondary implant.

  17. Prehospital airway management: A prospective case study.

    PubMed

    Wilbers, N E R; Hamaekers, A E W; Jansen, J; Wijering, S C; Thomas, O; Wilbers-van Rens, R; van Zundert, A A J

    2011-01-01

    We conducted a one-year prospective study involving a prehospital Emergency Medical Service in the Netherlands to investigate the incidence of failed or difficult prehospital endotracheal intubation. During the study period the paramedics were asked to fill in a registration questionnaire after every endotracheal intubation. Of the 26,271 patient contacts, 256 endotracheal intubations were performed by paramedics in one year. Endotracheal intubation failed in 12 patients (4.8%). In 12.0% of 249 patients, a Cormack and Lehane grade III laryngoscopy was reported and a grade IV laryngoscopy was reported in 10.4%. The average number of endotracheal intubations per paramedic in one year was 4.2 and varied from zero to a maximum of 12. The median time between arrival on the scene and a positive capnograph was 7 min.38 s in the case of a Cormack and Lehane grade I laryngoscopy and 14 min.58 s in the case of a Cormack and Lehane grade 4 laryngoscopy. The incidence of endotracheal intubations performed by Dutch paramedics in one year was low, but endotracheal intubation was successful in 95.2%, which is comparable with findings in international literature. Early capnography should be used consistently in prehospital airway management. PMID:21612142

  18. Neurosurgery in rural Nigeria: A prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Rabiu, Taopheeq Bamidele; Komolafe, Edward Oluwole

    2016-01-01

    Background: Africa has very few neurosurgeons. These are almost exclusively in urban centers. Consequently, people in rural areas, most of the African population, have poor or no access to neurosurgical care. We have recently pioneered rural neurosurgery in Nigeria. Objectives: This report details our initial experiences and the profile of neurosurgical admissions in our center. Methods: A prospective observational study of all neurosurgical patients managed at a rural tertiary health institution in Nigeria from December 2010 to May 2012 was done. Simple descriptive data analysis was performed. Results: A total of 249 males (75.2%) and 82 females (24.8%) were managed. The median age was 37 years (range: Day of birth – 94 years). Trauma was the leading cause of presentation with 225 (68.0%) and 35 (10.6%) having sustained head and spinal injuries, respectively. Operative intervention was performed in 54 (16.3%). Twenty-four (7.2%) patients discharged against medical advice, mostly for economic reasons. Most patients (208, 63.4%) had satisfactory outcome while 30 (9.1%) died. Conclusion: Trauma is the leading cause of rural neurosurgical presentations. There is an urgent need to improve access to adequate neurosurgical care in the rural communities.

  19. Depression after CABG: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Joana Kátya Veras Rodrigues Sampaio; de Figueiredo Neto, José Albuquerque; de Sousa, Rosângela Maria Lopes; Costa, Vera Lívia Xavier de Castro; Silva, Flor de Maria Araújo Mendonça; da Hora, Ana Flávia Lima Teles; da Silva, Edna Lúcia Coutinho; Reis, Lívia Mariane Castelo Branco

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Depression during or shortly after hospitalization elevated two to three times the risk of mortality or nonfatal cardiac events, significantly increasing the morbidity and mortality of these patients. Objective To assess the impact of revascularization on symptoms of depression in patients with coronary artery disease. Methods A prospective cohort study of 57 patients of both sexes undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting between June 2010 and June 2011. We used the SF-36 to assess quality of life, and the Beck Depression Inventory to detect depressive symptoms, applied preoperatively and six months. Results The prevalence of patients aged 60-69 years was 22 patients (38.60%), 39 men (68.42%), 26 described themselves as mixed race (45.61%), 16 literate (28.07 %) and 30 married (52.63%). The beck depression inventory score demonstrated increased after revascularization: 15 patients mild (26.32%) at time zero to 17 (29.82%) after. And with moderate, seven patients (12.28%) before and 10 (17.54%) after. In the categories of individuals with decreased minimum degree of 32 (56.14%) to 28 (49.12%), and severe of three (5.26%) for two (3.51%) patients. Association was observed between beck depression inventory, gender, age, lifestyle, comorbidities and quality of life. Conclusion There was a high prevalence of elevated beck depression inventory scores, lowest scores of depressive symptoms among men and association between the improvement of quality of life scores and beck depression inventory. PMID:24598954

  20. Superwarfarin poisoning in children: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Smolinske, S C; Scherger, D L; Kearns, P S; Wruk, K M; Kulig, K W; Rumack, B H

    1989-09-01

    This prospective study was undertaken to determine the incidence, severity, time of onset, and duration of coagulopathy in children following accidental ingestion of long-acting anticoagulant rodenticides, often called "superwarfarins." Of 110 children, who ingested superwarfarins and in whom one or more prothrombin time values were obtained, 8 had a prothrombin time ratio (patient to control) of greater than or equal to 1.2, indicative of anticoagulation. Prothrombin time values obtained 48 hours after ingestion were more likely to be prolonged (6/34, 17.6%) than values obtained 24 hours after ingestion (2/104, 1.9%) (P less than .005). The occurrence of an abnormal prothrombin time could not be predicted based on the history of amount ingested or on the presence of the characteristic green-blue product dye in or around the child's mouth. Acute toxicity was evidenced by transient abdominal pain, vomiting, and heme positive stools in 2 patients. The duration of prothrombin time prolongation could not be determined because of the few values obtained after 48 hours. To detect all possible abnormal prothrombin time values, 24- and 48-hour determinations are recommended after a child has ingested a superwarfarin. PMID:2771552

  1. Neurosurgery in rural Nigeria: A prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Rabiu, Taopheeq Bamidele; Komolafe, Edward Oluwole

    2016-01-01

    Background: Africa has very few neurosurgeons. These are almost exclusively in urban centers. Consequently, people in rural areas, most of the African population, have poor or no access to neurosurgical care. We have recently pioneered rural neurosurgery in Nigeria. Objectives: This report details our initial experiences and the profile of neurosurgical admissions in our center. Methods: A prospective observational study of all neurosurgical patients managed at a rural tertiary health institution in Nigeria from December 2010 to May 2012 was done. Simple descriptive data analysis was performed. Results: A total of 249 males (75.2%) and 82 females (24.8%) were managed. The median age was 37 years (range: Day of birth – 94 years). Trauma was the leading cause of presentation with 225 (68.0%) and 35 (10.6%) having sustained head and spinal injuries, respectively. Operative intervention was performed in 54 (16.3%). Twenty-four (7.2%) patients discharged against medical advice, mostly for economic reasons. Most patients (208, 63.4%) had satisfactory outcome while 30 (9.1%) died. Conclusion: Trauma is the leading cause of rural neurosurgical presentations. There is an urgent need to improve access to adequate neurosurgical care in the rural communities. PMID:27695224

  2. The 'baseball' orbital implant: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Leatherbarrow, B; Kwartz, J; Sunderland, S; Brammar, R; Nichol, E

    1994-01-01

    The 'baseball' orbital implant was described by Frueh and Felker in 1976. Although this implant was originally described for use as a secondary implant, it has also been widely used as a primary implant at the time of enucleation. This prospective study evaluated the effectiveness of this implant used both primarily and secondarily. Forty-four patients were implanted between April 1990 and May 1991, 19 of the implants being primary and 25 secondary. A standardised operative and post-operative protocol was followed. The mean follow-up time was 31 months (range 24-36 months). The patients were evaluated for the degree of volume replacement, implant and associated prosthesis motility, secondary eyelid and socket problems, patient satisfaction, the need for further surgery and post-operative complications. The overall results achieved by primary implantation were superior to those of secondary implantation. Our results suggest that this implant provides a satisfactory functional and cosmetic rehabilitation of the anophthalmic patient with few complications.

  3. Investing in Prospective Cohorts for Etiologic Study of Occupational Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Blair, A.; Hines, C.J.; Thomas, K.W.; Alavanja, M.C.R.; Beane Freeman, L.E.; Hoppin, J.A.; Kamel, F.; Lynch, C.F.; Lubin, J.H.; Silverman, D.T.; Whelan, E.; Zahm, S. H.; Sandler, D. P.

    2015-01-01

    Prospective cohorts have played a major role in understanding the contribution of diet, physical activity, medical conditions, and genes to the development of many diseases, but have not been widely used for occupational exposures. Studies in agriculture are an exception. We draw upon our experience using this design to study agricultural workers to identify conditions that might foster use of prospective cohorts to study other occupational settings. Prospective cohort studies are perceived by many as the strongest epidemiologic design. It allows updating of information on exposure and other factors, collection of biologic samples before disease diagnosis for biomarker studies, assessment of effect modification by genes, lifestyle, and other occupational exposures, and evaluation of a wide range of health outcomes. Increased use of prospective cohorts would be beneficial in identifying hazardous exposures in the workplace. Occupational epidemiologists should seek opportunities to initiate prospective cohorts to investigate high priority, occupational exposures. PMID:25603935

  4. Supracostal percutaneous nephrolithotomy: A prospective comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Maneesh; Krishnappa, Pramod; Subudhi, Santosh Kumar; Krishnamoorthy, Venkatesh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: A widely prevalent fear of thoracic complications with the supracostal approach has led to its underutilization in percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). We frequently use the supracostal approach and compared the efficacy and thoracic complications of infracostal, supra 12th, and supra 11th punctures. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study of patients who underwent PCNL between January 2005 and December 2012. The patients were divided into three groups based on the access: infracostal, supra 12th (between the 11th and 12th ribs) and supra 11th (between the 10th and 11th ribs). Clearance rates, fall in hemoglobin levels, transfusion rates, perioperative analgesic requirements, hospital stay and thoracic complications were compared. Results: Seven hundred patients were included for analysis. There were 179 (25.5%) patients in the supra 11th group, 187 (26.7%) patients in the supra 12th group and 334 (47.8%) patients in the infracostal group. The overall clearance rate was 78% with no difference in the three groups. The postoperative analgesic requirements were significantly higher in the supracostal groups and showed a graded increase from infracostal to supra 12th to supra 11th. During the study period, only 2 patients required angioembolization (0.3%) and none required open exploration. The number of patients requiring intercostal chest drain insertion was extremely low, at 1.6% and 2.2% in the supra 12th and supra 11th groups, respectively. Conclusions: Our results confirm the feasibility of the supracostal approach including punctures above the 11th rib, albeit at the cost of an increase in thoracic complications. Staying in the line of the calyx has helped us to minimize the most dreaded complication of bleeding requiring angioembolization. PMID:26941494

  5. A Prospective Study of Adolescent Pregnancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hockaday, Cathy; Crase, Sedahlia Jasper; Shelley, Mack C., II; Stockdale, Dahlia F.

    2000-01-01

    Examines prospectively the characteristics contributing to adolescent pregnancy in a pregnant and comparison group of adolescents. Adolescent pregnancy in Blacks was predicted by approval of delaying a family and pursuing a career, aspirations of working, and lower educational expectations. Higher educational wishes, lower educational…

  6. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  7. Prospects of Vitamin C as an Additive in Plasma of Stored Blood

    PubMed Central

    Vani, R.; Soumya, R.; Carl, H.; Chandni, V. A.; Neha, K.; Pankhuri, B.; Trishna, S.; Vatsal, D. P.

    2015-01-01

    There is a dire necessity to improve blood storage and prolong shelf-life of blood. Very few studies have focused on oxidative stress (OS) in blood and its influence on plasma with storage. This study attempts to (i) elucidate the continuous changes occurring in plasma during storage through oxidant levels and antioxidant status and (ii) evaluate the influence of vitamin C (VC) as an additive during blood storage. Blood was drawn from male Wistar rats and stored for 25 days at 4°C. Blood samples were divided into control and experimental groups. Plasma was isolated every 5 days and the OS markers, antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation, and protein oxidation products, were studied. Catalase activity increased in all groups with storage. Lipid peroxidation decreased in VC (10) but was maintained in VC (30) and VC (60). Although there were variations in all groups, carbonyls were maintained towards the end of storage. Advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) increased in VC (30) and were maintained in VC (10) and VC (60). Sulfhydryls were maintained in all groups. Vitamin C could not sufficiently attenuate OS and hence, this opens the possibilities for further studies on vitamin C in combination with other antioxidants, in storage solutions. PMID:26345502

  8. Adverse Consequences of School Mobility for Children in Foster Care: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pears, Katherine C.; Kim, Hyoun K.; Buchanan, Rohanna; Fisher, Philip A.

    2015-01-01

    Few prospective studies have examined school mobility in children in foster care. This study described the school moves of 86 such children and 55 community comparison children (primarily Caucasian), living in a medium-sized metropolitan area in the Pacific Northwest who were approximately 3 to 6 years old at the study start. Additionally, the…

  9. Additional EIPC Study Analysis. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, Stanton W; Gotham, Douglas J.; Luciani, Ralph L.

    2014-12-01

    Between 2010 and 2012 the Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative (EIPC) conducted a major long-term resource and transmission study of the Eastern Interconnection (EI). With guidance from a Stakeholder Steering Committee (SSC) that included representatives from the Eastern Interconnection States Planning Council (EISPC) among others, the project was conducted in two phases. Phase 1 involved a long-term capacity expansion analysis that involved creation of eight major futures plus 72 sensitivities. Three scenarios were selected for more extensive transmission- focused evaluation in Phase 2. Five power flow analyses, nine production cost model runs (including six sensitivities), and three capital cost estimations were developed during this second phase. The results from Phase 1 and 2 provided a wealth of data that could be examined further to address energy-related questions. A list of 14 topics was developed for further analysis. This paper brings together the earlier interim reports of the first 13 topics plus one additional topic into a single final report.

  10. Drug-Induced Liver Injury Network (DILIN) Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Fontana, Robert J.; Watkins, Paul B.; Bonkovsky, Herbert L.; Chalasani, Naga; Davern, Timothy; Serrano, Jose; Rochon, James

    2013-01-01

    Background Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is an uncommon adverse drug reaction of increasing importance to the medical community, pharmaceutical industry, regulatory agencies and the general public. Objectives The Drug-Induced Liver Injury Network (DILIN) was established to advance understanding and research into DILI by initiating a prospective registry of patients with bona fide DILI for future studies of host clinical, genetic, environmental and immunological risk factors. The DILIN was also charged with developing standardized nomenclature, terminology and causality assessment instruments. Methods Five clinical sites, a data coordinating centre and senior scientists from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases initiated the DILIN prospective study in September 2004. Eligible patients are required to meet minimal laboratory or histological criteria within 6 months of DILI onset and have other competing causes of liver injury excluded. Patients in the general community setting with pre-existing HIV, hepatitis B virus or hepatitis C virus infections and/or abnormal baseline liver biochemistries are eligible for enrolment. In addition, subjects with liver injury due to herbal products are eligible to participate. Control patients without DILI are also to be recruited in the future. Results All referred subjects undergo an extensive review of available laboratory, pathology and imaging studies. Subjects who meet pre-defined eligibility criteria at the 6-month study visit are followed for 2 years to better define the natural history of chronic DILI. Causality assessment is determined by a panel of three hepatologists who independently assign a causality score ranging from 1 (definite) to 5 (unlikely) as well as a severity score ranging from 1 (mild) to 5 (fatal). During the first 3 years, 367 subjects were enrolled into the DILIN prospective study. Conclusion DILIN is a multicentre research network charged with improving our

  11. Structure Property Studies for Additively Manufactured Parts

    SciTech Connect

    Milenski, Helen M; Schmalzer, Andrew Michael; Kelly, Daniel

    2015-08-17

    Since the invention of modern Additive Manufacturing (AM) processes engineers and designers have worked hard to capitalize on the unique building capabilities that AM allows. By being able to customize the interior fill of parts it is now possible to design components with a controlled density and customized internal structure. The creation of new polymers and polymer composites allow for even greater control over the mechanical properties of AM parts. One of the key reasons to explore AM, is to bring about a new paradigm in part design, where materials can be strategically optimized in a way that conventional subtractive methods cannot achieve. The two processes investigated in my research were the Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) process and the Direct Ink Write (DIW) process. The objectives of the research were to determine the impact of in-fill density and morphology on the mechanical properties of FDM parts, and to determine if DIW printed samples could be produced where the filament diameter was varied while the overall density remained constant.

  12. Prospective study of nutritional support during pelvic irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kinsella, T.J.; Malcolm, A.W.; Bothe, A. Jr.; Valerio, D.; Blackburn, G.L.

    1981-04-01

    A prospective study of nutritional support during pelvic irradiation was carried out in 32 patients with a primary pelvic malignancy and prior weight loss. Both curative and palliative patients were eligible for the study. Seventeen patients were randomized to receive intravenous hyperalimentation (IVH) and fifteen patients served as controls who were maintained on their regular diet. Patients were stratified by percent body weight loss. Tolerance to therapy was assessed by evaluation of functional status and by using nutritional parameters of body weight change, change in serum protein levels, and response to delayed hypersensitivity skin tests. The curative IVH group tolerated therapy well by both functional and nutritional measurements. All curative IVH patients completed the planned radiation therapy without a treatment break and were fully active following treatment. Patients gained an average of 4.0 kg body weight during irradiation, which was significantly different from the curative control patients. They demonstrated a significant increase in serum transferrin reflecting an improvement in visceral protein. In addition, all showed a positive response to delayed hypersensitivity skin tests at the completion of irradiation. The palliative IVH patients often did poorly because of progression of disease and demonstrated only an elevation of serum transferrin during treatment. The results in the curative IVH group suggest a potential adjunctive role for intravenous hyperalimentation in the malnourished cancer patient undergoing pelvic irradiation. Clearly, further study of nutritional support during pelvic irradiation is needed using curative patients with a single tumor type and significant prior weight loss.

  13. Investing in Prospective Cohorts for Etiologic Study of Occupational Exposures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prospective cohorts have played a major role in understanding the role of diet, physical activity, medical conditions, and genes in the development of many diseases, but have not been widely used in the study of occupational exposures. Studies in agriculture are an exception. W...

  14. Return to work after burn--a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Öster, Caisa; Ekselius, Lisa

    2011-11-01

    Return to work (RTW) is one of the most important objectives to strive for in burn rehabilitation. Most individuals do return to work after burn but there is a subgroup that does not. Prospective long-time follow-up studies focusing on RTW after burn are scarce. Consecutive adult burn patients employed before injury (n=58) were included in the present study during hospitalization and subsequently followed up for 12 months. In addition, a structured interview was performed at 2-7 years after burn. At that time; mean 4.5 years (SD 2.0) after burn; 67% of the participants had returned to their work. Predictive variables for time to RTW were length of stay (LOS) at the burn center and fulfilling criteria for Any personality disorder. No RTW was predicted by LOS and having Any anxiety disorder or Any substance use disorder prior to the burn. The non-working group reported lower generic (EQ-5D) and burn-specific (BSHS-B) HRQoL than the working group at every time point. Identification of risk factors associated with difficulties in RTW is required in order to execute individualized vocational rehabilitation.

  15. Real-time kidney ultrasound image segmentation: a prospective study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahdouh, S.; Frenoux, E.; Osorio, A.

    2009-02-01

    Segmentation of ultrasound kidney images represents a challenge due to low quality data. Speckle, shadows, signal dropout and low contrast make segmentation a harsh task. In addition, kidney ultrasound imaging presents a great variability concerning the organ's shape on the image. This characteristic makes learning methods hard to use. The aim of this study is to develop a real time kidney ultrasound image segmentation method usable during surgical operations such as punctures. To deal with real time constraints, we decided to focus on region based methods and particularly split and merge algorithm. In this prospective study, the selection of the interesting area in the initial image is made by the physician, drawing a coarse bounding box around the organ. A pre-processing phase is first performed to correct image's artefacts. This phase is composed of three major steps. First, an image specification is made between the image to segment and a reference one. Then, a Haar wavelet filtering method is applied on the resulting image and finally an anisotropic diffusion filter is applied to smooth the result. Then, a split and merge algorithm is applied on the resulting image. Both split and merge criteria are based on regions statistics. Our method has been successfully applied on a set of 22 clinical images coming from 10 different patients and presenting different points of view regarding kidney's shape. We obtained very good results, for an average computational time of 8.5 seconds per image.

  16. The role of rostral prefrontal cortex in prospective memory: a voxel-based lesion study.

    PubMed

    Volle, Emmanuelle; Gonen-Yaacovi, Gil; Costello, Angela de Lacy; Gilbert, Sam J; Burgess, Paul W

    2011-07-01

    Patients with lesions in rostral prefrontal cortex (PFC) often experience problems in everyday-life situations requiring multitasking. A key cognitive component that is critical in multitasking situations is prospective memory, defined as the ability to carry out an intended action after a delay period filled with unrelated activity. The few functional imaging studies investigating prospective memory have shown consistent activation in both medial and lateral rostral PFC but also in more posterior prefrontal regions and non-frontal regions. The aim of this study was to determine regions that are necessary for prospective memory performance, using the human lesion approach. We designed an experimental paradigm allowing us to assess time-based (remembering to do something at a particular time) and event-based (remembering to do something in a particular situation) prospective memory, using two types of material, words and pictures. Time estimation tasks and tasks controlling for basic attention, inhibition and multiple instructions processing were also administered. We examined brain-behaviour relationships with a voxelwise lesion method in 45 patients with focal brain lesions and 107 control subjects using this paradigm. The results showed that lesions in the right polar prefrontal region (in Brodmann area 10) were specifically associated with a deficit in time-based prospective memory tasks for both words and pictures. This deficit could not be explained by impairments in basic attention, detection, inhibition or multiple instruction processing, and there was also no deficit in event-based prospective memory conditions. In addition to their prospective memory difficulties, these polar prefrontal patients were significantly impaired in time estimation ability compared to other patients. The same region was found to be involved using both words and pictures, suggesting that right rostral PFC plays a material nonspecific role in prospective memory. This is the first

  17. Personality and substance use disorders: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Sher, K J; Bartholow, B D; Wood, M D

    2000-10-01

    The personality systems of Cloninger (as measured by the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire [TPQ]) and Eysenck (as measured by the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire [EPQ]) both have been linked to substance use and abuse. The current study examined the predictive utility of both systems for substance use disorder (SUD) diagnoses, both cross-sectionally and prospectively. Participants (N = 489 at baseline) completed the EPQ and TPQ and were assessed via structured diagnostic interview at baseline and 6 years later (N = 457 at follow-up). Both the EPQ and TPQ scales demonstrated bivariate cross-sectional and prospective associations with SUDs. Within each system, those dimensions marking a broad impulsive sensation-seeking or behavioral disinhibition trait were the best predictors prospectively, although the 2 systems were differentially sensitive to specific diagnoses. These relations remained significant even with autoregressivity, other concurrent SUD diagnoses, and multiple personality dimensions statistically controlled.

  18. Data management for prospective research studies using SAS® software

    PubMed Central

    Kruse, Robin L; Mehr, David R

    2008-01-01

    Background Maintaining data quality and integrity is important for research studies involving prospective data collection. Data must be entered, erroneous or missing data must be identified and corrected if possible, and an audit trail created. Methods Using as an example a large prospective study, the Missouri Lower Respiratory Infection (LRI) Project, we present an approach to data management predominantly using SAS software. The Missouri LRI Project was a prospective cohort study of nursing home residents who developed an LRI. Subjects were enrolled, data collected, and follow-ups occurred for over three years. Data were collected on twenty different forms. Forms were inspected visually and sent off-site for data entry. SAS software was used to read the entered data files, check for potential errors, apply corrections to data sets, and combine batches into analytic data sets. The data management procedures are described. Results Study data collection resulted in over 20,000 completed forms. Data management was successful, resulting in clean, internally consistent data sets for analysis. The amount of time required for data management was substantially underestimated. Conclusion Data management for prospective studies should be planned well in advance of data collection. An ongoing process with data entered and checked as they become available allows timely recovery of errors and missing data. PMID:18786262

  19. Development in Children with Achondroplasia: A Prospective Clinical Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ireland, Penelope J.; Donaghey, Samantha; McGill, James; Zankl, Andreas; Ware, Robert S.; Pacey, Verity; Ault, Jenny; Savarirayan, Ravi; Sillence, David; Thompson, Elizabeth; Townshend, Sharron; Johnston, Leanne M.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Achondroplasia is characterized by delays in the development of communication and motor skills. While previously reported developmental profiles exist across gross motor, fine motor, feeding, and communication skills, there has been no prospective study of development across multiple areas simultaneously. Method: This Australasian…

  20. Students' Perception on the Prospect of Economics Education Study Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meiriza, Mica Siar

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to determine the extent to which perceptions of students on the prospect of the Economics Education Program. The method used in this research is descriptive method in which the required data is obtained through questionnaire and technique of analyzing data used is percentages. Questionnaires were distributed through the Student…

  1. PROSPECTIVE PREGNANCY STUDY DESIGNS FOR ASSESSING REPRODUCTIVE AND DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prospective Pregnancy Study Designs for Assessing Reproductive and Developmental Toxicants
    Germaine M. Buck,1 Courtney D. Johnson,1 Joseph Stanford,2 Anne Sweeney,3 Laura Schieve,4 John Rockett,5 Sherry G. Selevan,6 Steve Schrader 7

    Abstract
    The origin of successfu...

  2. Prospective Nationwide Study of Aeromonas Infections in France▿

    PubMed Central

    Lamy, Brigitte; Kodjo, Angeli; Laurent, Frédéric

    2009-01-01

    We report a systematic prospective multicenter nationwide study of clinical Aeromonas infections in France. During 6 months (May to October 2006), 78 cases of aeromonosis were reviewed for risk factors and clinical, microbiological, and antimicrobial susceptibility data. They included wound infections (44%), bacteremia (26%), enteritis (19%), respiratory tract infections (6%), and miscellaneous (5%) infections. PMID:19244464

  3. Prospective Study of the Effectiveness of Coping in Pediatric Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zehnder, Daniel; Prchal, Alice; Vollrath, Margarete; Landolt, Markus A.

    2006-01-01

    Findings about the influence of coping on psychological adjustment in children with different medical conditions are inconsistent and often based on cross-sectional data. This prospective study evaluated the effect of various coping strategies on children's post-traumatic stress symptoms and behavioral problems 1 month and 1 year after an…

  4. Offenders with Intellectual Disability: A Prospective Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barron, P.; Hassiotis, A.; Banes, J.

    2004-01-01

    Intellectually disabled offenders (IDO) are a poorly served and under-recognized group, who are likely to require long-term specialist treatments and interventions. Method This prospective study investigated the characteristics and factors that influence outcome in this group, with particular reference to therapeutic interventions. Sixty-one…

  5. A Qualitative Study on the Prospective Social Studies Teachers' Role-Model Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonga, Deniz

    2014-01-01

    In this study is intended to investigate prospective social studies teachers' role model preferences and the reflections of these preferences to their daily lives. This study was designed as a qualitative study in the form of descriptive model. The participants consisted of 306 prospective social studies teachers enrolled in nine different…

  6. A prospective study of blood splatter in ENT.

    PubMed

    Lakhani, Raj; Loh, Yiwen; Zhang, Ting Ting; Kothari, Prasad

    2015-07-01

    Surgeons face an occupational risk of daily exposure to blood and body fluids. Potential sources of infection include sharps injuries and mucocutaneous contact. The transmission of blood-borne viruses, in particular human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C from the patient to healthcare workers is well documented in the literature. We studied the incidence and degree of blood splash in all otolaryngology (ENT) procedures undertaken in a single unit over a 12 week period. In addition, we investigated which intraoperative factors might predict the degree of splash. We undertook a prospective, non-blinded study of 102 patients undergoing a range of 'routine' elective ENT within one department over 12 weeks. A surgical mask with visor attached was worn in all procedures. Following each procedure, all splatter masks were collected and examined macroscopically and microscopically for blood splash. In addition, the procedure performed, technique used, total blood loss, operating time and grade of surgeon was noted. 54% of procedures resulted in splash mask contamination. The median number of splash spots per mask was 4.7 (range 0-63). Tonsillectomy was the most commonly performed procedure, accounting for over one-third of total procedures investigated. Each mask had an average of 8.2 splash marks. Tonsillectomy had a splash rate of 76.9%. Although the risk of developing HIV is low the operating surgeon has a duty to take all precautions to protect themselves during a procedure and therefore a protective mask and visor or suitable goggles must be worn.

  7. Studying Native America: Problems and Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Russell, Ed.

    Based on a conference, this volume examines the past, present, and future of Native American studies. Native American studies seeks to understand Native Americans, America, and the world from a Native American indigenous perspective, and thereby broaden the education of both Native and non-Native Americans. Part 1 asks who Native Americans are…

  8. Occupational radiation studies: status, problems, and prospects.

    PubMed

    Shore, R E

    1990-07-01

    At least 350,000 workers at U.S. radiation facilities are being followed up to monitor their mortality experience, with particular reference to cancer. Although these studies are expensive, they are needed from the standpoint of public health and radiation protection; they also provide a useful check that the risk extrapolation models based on high dose data are not seriously out of line. Unfortunately, there are a number of problems in interpreting radiation worker studies that stem mainly from the fact that the expected magnitude of effects is small because of the low doses. Problems of falsely positive effects caused by chance or by study biases are difficult to distinguish from real effects. Dose-effect analyses and pooled analyses from several studies offer some improvements in assessing the risk from low doses but do not obviate all the problems. Future studies should explore whether there are biological markers of exposure, damage, or susceptibility that would improve our power to assess individual risk.

  9. Prospects for alpha particle studies on TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Zweben, S.J.

    1987-05-01

    TFTR is expected to produce approximately 5 MW of alpha heating during the D/T Q approx. = 1 phase of operation in 1990. At that point the collective confinement properties and the heating effects of alpha particles become accessible for study for the first time. This paper outlines the potential performance of TFTR with respect to alpha particle production, the diagnostics which will be available for alpha particle measurements, and the physics issues which can be studied both before and during D/T operation.

  10. Prospective Administrators Studying Communities: Instruction and Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Donald B.; Huang, C. David

    Although individuals preparing for careers in educational administration have recognized the importance of the community for schools and school districts, they have often lacked a complex understanding of "community." This paper describes a community-study research project that was developed and implemented in a graduate educational administration…

  11. Prostate, Lung, Colon, and Ovary Prospective Study

    Cancer.gov

    A large cohort study of etiologic determinants of cancer carried out within an NCI trial for the evaluation of screening procedures for the early detection of prostate, lung, colon, and ovarian cancer (the PLCO Trial) at 10 U.S. screening centers

  12. Puerperal endometritis: a prospective microbiologic study.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, R S; O'DELL, T N; MacGregor, R R; Schwarz, R H; Morton, H

    1975-04-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the flora in the endometrial cavity of two groups of puerperal patients: 47 afebrile control subjects and 27 with endometritis. A transcervical culturing technique designed to avoid cervical contamination and to preserve aerobes, anaerobes, and mycoplasma was employed, and bacterial colony counts were reported semiquantitatively. No difference was found in the flora of these two groups. Furthermore, the most common pathogenic organisms (in decreasing order of frequency) were peptostreptococci, peptococci, Bacteroides sp., gamma-streptococci, enterococci, beta-streptococci, alpha-streptococci, and E. coli. PMID:1090177

  13. Social determinants of tuberculosis in Europe: a prospective ecological study.

    PubMed

    Ploubidis, George B; Palmer, Melissa J; Blackmore, Charlotte; Lim, Tek-Ang; Manissero, Davide; Sandgren, Andreas; Semenza, Jan C

    2012-10-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is considered to be a disease of poverty, since its incidence is exacerbated by socioeconomic factors, inconsistent or partial treatment practices, and immigration from endemic countries. A prospective country level study, using a comprehensive dataset of TB incidence and prevalence taken from countries within the World Health Organization (WHO) European region, was conducted. We employed quintile regression to investigate the prospective association between baseline (measured in 2000) and a nation's wealth, level of egalitarianism, migration rate, health-related lifestyle and social capital with TB incidence and prevalence over a 10-yr period (2000-2009). We found that ∼50% of TB variation is accounted for by a nation's wealth and level of egalitarianism. We observed a negative prospective association between logged gross domestic product and TB rates, and a positive prospective association between income inequality and TB. National income levels per capita and income inequality are important predictors for TB incidence and prevalence in the WHO European region. They account for 50% of country-level variation, indicating the importance of a combined absolute and relative socioeconomic disadvantage in the development of TB. These findings also provide a tool for forecasting potential fluctuations in the level of TB epidemics in the WHO European region, with respect to socioeconomic changes.

  14. STATISTICAL PRINCIPLES FOR PROSPECTIVE STUDY PROTOCOLS:

    PubMed Central

    Langberg, Henning

    2012-01-01

    In the design of scientific studies it is essential to decide on which scientific questions one aims to answer, just as it is important to decide on the correct statistical methods to use to answer these questions. The correct use of statistical methods is crucial in all aspects of research to quantify relationships in data. Despite an increased focus on statistical content and complexity of biomedical research these topics remain difficult for most researchers. Statistical methods enable researchers to condense large spreadsheets with data into means, proportions, and difference between means, risk differences, and other quantities that convey information. One of the goals in biomedical research is to develop parsimonious models ‐ meaning as simple as possible. This approach is valid if the subsequent research report (the article) is written independent of whether the results are “statistically significant” or not. In the present paper we outline the considerations and suggestions on how to build a trial protocol, with an emphasis on having a rigorous protocol stage, always leading to a full article manuscript, independent of statistical findings. We conclude that authors, who find (rigorous) protocol writing too troublesome, will realize that they have already written the first half of the final paper if they follow these recommendations; authors simply need to change the protocols future tense into past tense. Thus, the aim of this clinical commentary is to describe and explain the statistical principles for trial protocols in terms of design, analysis, and reporting of findings. PMID:23091782

  15. Perspectives on the utilization of aquaculture coproduct in Europe and Asia: prospects for value addition and improved resource efficiency.

    PubMed

    Newton, Richard; Telfer, Trevor; Little, Dave

    2014-01-01

    Aquaculture has often been criticized for its environmental impacts, especially efficiencies concerning global fisheries resources for use in aquafeeds among others. However, little attention has been paid to the contribution of coproducts from aquaculture, which can vary between 40% and 70% of the production. These have often been underutilized and could be redirected to maximize the efficient use of resource inputs including reducing the burden on fisheries resources. In this review, we identify strategies to enhance the overall value of the harvested yield including noneffluent processing coproducts for three of the most important global aquaculture species, and discuss the current and prospective utilization of these resources for value addition and environmental impact reduction. The review concludes that in Europe coproducts are often underutilized because of logistical reasons such as the disconnected nature of the value chain, and perceived legislative barriers. However, in Asia, most coproducts are used, often innovatively but not to their full economic potential and sometimes with possible human health and biosecurity risks. These include possible spread of diseased material and low traceability in some circumstances. Full economic and environmental appraisal is long overdue for the current and potential strategies available for coproduct utilization.

  16. Critical Pertussis Illness in Children, A Multicenter Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Berger, John T.; Carcillo, Joseph A.; Shanley, Thomas P.; Wessel, David L.; Clark, Amy; Holubkov, Richard; Meert, Kathleen L.; Newth, Christopher J.L.; Berg, Robert A.; Heidemann, Sabrina; Harrison, Rick; Pollack, Murray; Dalton, Heidi; Harvill, Eric; Karanikas, Alexia; Liu, Teresa; Burr, Jeri S.; Doctor, Allan; Dean, J. Michael; Jenkins, Tammara L.; Nicholson, Carol E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Pertussis persists in the United States despite high immunization rates. The present report characterizes the presentation and acute course of critical pertussis by quantifying demographic data, laboratory findings, clinical complications, and critical care therapies required among children requiring admission to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Eight PICUs comprising the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute for Child Health and Human Development Collaborative Pediatric Critical Care Research Network and 17 additional PICUs across the United States. Patients Eligible patients had laboratory confirmation of pertussis infection, were < 18 years of age, and died in the PICU or were admitted to the PICU for at least 24 hours between June 2008 and August 2011. Interventions None. Measurements and Main Results 127 patients were identified. Median age was 49 days, and 105 (83%) patients were < 3 months of age. Fifty-five (43%) required mechanical ventilation. Twelve (9.4%) died during initial hospitalization. Pulmonary hypertension was found in 16 patients (12.5%), and was present in 75% of patients who died, compared with 6% of survivors (p< 0.001). Median white blood cell count (WBC) was significantly higher in those requiring mechanical ventilation (p<0.001), those with pulmonary hypertension (p<0.001) and non-survivors (p<0.001). Age, sex and immunization status did not differ between survivors and non-survivors. Fourteen patients received leukoreduction therapy (exchange transfusion (12), leukopheresis (1) or both (1)). Survival benefit was not apparent. Conclusions Pulmonary hypertension may be associated with mortality in pertussis critical illness. Elevated WBC is associated with the need for mechanical ventilation, pulmonary hypertension, and mortality risk. Research is indicated to elucidate how pulmonary hypertension, immune responsiveness, and elevated WBC contribute to morbidity and mortality

  17. Prospective Study of Dental Intervention for Hematopoietic Malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Tsuji, K.; Akashi, M.; Furudoi, S.; Yakushijin, K.; Kawamoto, S.; Okamura, A.; Matsuoka, H.; Komori, T.

    2015-01-01

    Various chemotherapeutic agents used in patients with hematopoietic malignancy cause serious side effects, including myelosuppression and immunosuppression. Immunosuppression makes patients more susceptible to infection, resulting in an increased risk of infectious complications, including the development of severe septicemia that may be life-threatening. It is necessary for dental staff to be familiar with an appropriate protocol in such cases and to share information about the chemotherapy with a hematologist. To verify the effectiveness of our dental intervention protocol, we conducted a prospective study on the incidence of complications for each myelosuppressive grade of chemotherapy in patients with hematopoietic malignancy. We compared the incidence of complications between treatment P (patients who finished all the dental treatments according to the protocol) and treatment Q (patients who did not) per grade (A, B, C, D) and incidence of systemic or oral findings. We also compared the incidence of oral complication related to the residual teeth between first chemo (patients who were undergoing chemotherapy for the first time) and prior chemo (not the first time). There were significant differences in inflammatory complications between treatment P and treatment Q. We found that both systemic and oral inflammatory complications increased with higher-grade myelosuppressive chemotherapy. Additionally, there was a significant difference between the incidence of oral complications related to the residual teeth between first chemo and prior chemo. Complete implementation of the dental intervention protocol was associated with fewer oral and systemic infectious and inflammatory complications in patients with hematopoietic malignancies undergoing chemotherapy. The incidence of oral and systemic complications also increased with grade of chemotherapy. These results support the validity of our dental intervention protocol. We should pay close attention to the oral

  18. Shockwave treatment for medial tibial stress syndrome in athletes; a prospective controlled study.

    PubMed

    Moen, M H; Rayer, S; Schipper, M; Schmikli, S; Weir, A; Tol, J L; Backx, F J G

    2012-03-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to describe the results of two treatment regimens for medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS); a graded running programme and the same running programme with additional shockwave therapy (extracorporeal shockwave therapy; ESWT). Design A prospective observational controlled trial. Setting Two different sports medicine departments. Participants 42 athletes with MTSS were included. Intervention Patients from one hospital were treated with a graded running programme, while patients from the other hospital were treated with the same graded running programme and focused ESWT (five sessions in 9 weeks). Main Outcome Measures Time to full recovery (the endpoint was being able to run 18 min consecutively without pain at a fixed intensity). Results The time to full recovery was significantly faster in the ESWT group compared with the patients who only performed a graded running programme, respectively 59.7±25.8 and 91.6±43.0 days (p=0.008). Conclusions This prospective observational study showed that MTSS patients may benefit from ESWT in addition to a graded running programme. ESWT as an additional treatment warrants further investigation in a prospective controlled trial with the addition of randomisation and double blinding.

  19. Benefits of Aldosterone Receptor Antagonism in Chronic Kidney Disease (BARACK D) trial–a multi-centre, prospective, randomised, open, blinded end-point, 36-month study of 2,616 patients within primary care with stage 3b chronic kidney disease to compare the efficacy of spironolactone 25 mg once daily in addition to routine care on mortality and cardiovascular outcomes versus routine care alone: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is common and increasing in prevalence. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of morbidity and death in CKD, though of a different phenotype to the general CVD population. Few therapies have proved effective in modifying the increased CVD risk or rate of renal decline in CKD. There are accumulating data that aldosterone receptor antagonists (ARA) may offer cardio-protection and delay renal impairment in patients with the CV phenotype in CKD. The use of ARA in CKD has therefore been increasingly advocated. However, no large study of ARA with renal or CVD outcomes is underway. Methods The study is a prospective randomised open blinded endpoint (PROBE) trial set in primary care where patients will mainly be identified by their GPs or from existing CKD lists. They will be invited if they have been formally diagnosed with CKD stage 3b or there is evidence of stage 3b CKD from blood results (eGFR 30–44 mL/min/1.73 m2) and fulfil the other inclusion/exclusion criteria. Patients will be randomised to either spironolactone 25 mg once daily in addition to routine care or routine care alone and followed-up for 36 months. Discussion BARACK D is a PROBE trial to determine the effect of ARA on mortality and cardiovascular outcomes (onset or progression of CVD) in patients with stage 3b CKD. Trial registration EudraCT: 2012-002672-13 ISRTN: ISRCTN44522369 PMID:24886488

  20. An Ecological Approach to Prospective and Retrospective Timing of Long Durations: A Study Involving Gamers

    PubMed Central

    Tobin, Simon; Bisson, Nicolas; Grondin, Simon

    2010-01-01

    To date, most studies comparing prospective and retrospective timing have failed to use long durations and tasks with a certain degree of ecological validity. The present study assessed the effect of the timing paradigm on playing video games in a “naturalistic environment” (gaming centers). In addition, as it involved gamers, it provided an opportunity to examine the effect of gaming profile on time estimation. A total of 116 participants were asked to estimate prospectively or retrospectively a video game session lasting 12, 35 or 58 minutes. The results indicate that time is perceived as longer in the prospective paradigm than in the retrospective one, although the variability of estimates is the same. Moreover, the 12-minute session was perceived as longer, proportionally, than the 35- and 58-minute sessions. The study also revealed that the number of hours participants spent playing video games per week was a significant predictor of time estimates. To account for the main findings, the differences between prospective and retrospective timing are discussed in quantitative terms using a proposed theoretical framework, which states that both paradigms use the same cognitive processes, but in different proportions. Finally, the hypothesis that gamers play more because they underestimate time is also discussed. PMID:20174648

  1. The millennium Cohort Study: a 21-year prospective cohort study of 140,000 military personnel.

    PubMed

    Gray, Gregory C; Chesbrough, Karen B; Ryan, Margaret A K; Amoroso, Paul; Boyko, Edward J; Gackstetter, Gary D; Hooper, Tomoko I; Riddle, James R

    2002-06-01

    Does military service, in particular operational deployment, result in a higher risk of chronic illness among military personnel and veterans? The Millennium Cohort Study, the largest Department of Defense prospective cohort study ever conducted, will attempt to answer this question. The probability-based sample of 140,000 military personnel will be surveyed every 3 years during a 21-year period. The first questionnaire, scheduled for release in summer 2001, will be sent to 30,000 veterans who have been deployed to southwest Asia, Bosnia, or Kosovo since August 1997 and 70,000 veterans who have not been deployed to these conflict areas. Twenty thousand new participants will be added to the group in each of the years 2004 and 2007 to complete the study population of 140,000. The participants will have the option of completing the study questionnaire either on the paper copy received in the mail or through the World Wide Web-based version, which is available at www.MillenniumCohort.org. This will be one of the first prospective studies ever to offer such an option. The initial survey instrument will collect data regarding demographic characteristics, self-reported medical conditions and symptoms, and health-related behaviors. Validated instruments will be incorporated to capture self-assessed physical and mental functional status (Short Form for Veterans), psychosocial assessment (Patient Health Questionnaire), and post-traumatic stress disorder (Patient Checklist-17). Information obtained from the survey responses will be linked with other military databases, including data on deployment, occupation, vaccinations, health care utilization, and disability. In addition to revealing changes in veterans' health status over time, the Millennium Cohort Study will serve as a data repository, providing a solid foundation upon which additional epidemiological studies may be constructed.

  2. Procedures for assessing psychological predictors of injuries in circus artists: a pilot prospective study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Research on psychological risk factors for injury has focused on stable traits. Our objective was to test the feasibility of a prospective longitudinal study designed to examine labile psychological states as risk factors of injury. Methods We measured psychological traits at baseline (mood, ways of coping and anxiety), and psychological states every day (1-item questions on anxiety, sleep, fatigue, soreness, self-confidence) before performances in Cirque du Soleil artists of the show “O”. Additional questions were added once per week to better assess anxiety (20-item) and mood. Questionnaires were provided in English, French, Russian and Japanese. Injury and exposure data were extracted from electronic records that are kept as part of routine business practices. Results The 43.9% (36/82) recruitment rate was more than expected. Most artists completed the baseline questionnaires in 15 min, a weekly questionnaire in <2 min and a daily questionnaire in <1 min. We improved the formatting of some questions during the study, and adapted the wording of other questions to improve clarity. There were no dropouts during the entire study, suggesting the questionnaires were appropriate in content and length. Results for sample size calculations depend on the number of artists followed and the minimal important difference in injury rates, but in general, preclude a purely prospective study with daily data collection because of the long follow-up required. However, a prospective nested case-crossover design with data collection bi-weekly and at the time of injury appears feasible. Conclusion A prospective study collecting psychological state data from subjects who train and work regularly together is feasible, but sample size calculations suggest that the optimal study design would use prospective nested case-crossover methodology. PMID:24920527

  3. A Study of Additional Costs of Second Language Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwen, Nelly

    A study was conducted whose primary aim was to identify and explain additional costs incurred by Alberta, Canada school jurisdictions providing second language instruction in 1980. Additional costs were defined as those which would not have been incurred had the second language program not been in existence. Three types of additional costs were…

  4. Serum erythropoietin and outcome after ischaemic stroke: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Åberg, N David; Stanne, Tara M; Jood, Katarina; Schiöler, Linus; Blomstrand, Christian; Andreasson, Ulf; Blennow, Kaj; Zetterberg, Henrik; Isgaard, Jörgen; Jern, Christina; Svensson, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Erythropoietin (EPO), which is inversely associated with blood haemoglobin (Hb), exerts neuroprotective effects in experimental ischaemic stroke (IS). However, clinical treatment trials have so far been negative. Here, in patients with IS, we analysed whether serum EPO is associated with (1) initial stroke severity, (2) recovery and (3) functional outcome. Design Prospective. Controls available at baseline. Setting A Swedish hospital-initiated study with outpatient follow-up after 3 months. Participants Patients (n=600; 64% males, mean age 56 years, controls n=600) were included from the Sahlgrenska Academy Study on IS (SAHLSIS). Primary and secondary outcome measures In addition to EPO and Hb, initial stroke severity was assessed by the Scandinavian Stroke Scale (SSS) and compared with SSS after 3 months (follow-up) as a measure of recovery. Functional outcome was evaluated using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at follow-up. Serum EPO and SSS were divided into quintiles in the multivariate regression analyses. Results Serum EPO was 21% and 31% higher than in controls at the acute phase of IS and follow-up, respectively. In patients, acute serum EPO was 19.5% higher in severe versus mild IS. The highest acute EPO quintile adjusted for sex, age and Hb was associated with worse stroke severity quintile (OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.00 to 2.87), better stroke recovery quintile (OR 1.93, CI 1.09 to 3.41) and unfavourable mRS 3–6 (OR 2.59, CI 1.15 to 5.80). However, the fourth quintile of EPO increase (from acute to follow-up) was associated with favourable mRS 0–2 (OR 3.42, CI 1.46 to 8.03). Only the last association withstood full adjustment. Conclusions The crude associations between EPO and worse stroke severity and outcome lost significance after multivariate modelling. However, in patients in whom EPO increased, the association with favourable outcome remained after adjustment for multiple covariates. PMID:26916692

  5. Short-term prospective spirometric study of new coal miners

    SciTech Connect

    Hankinson, J.L.; Hodous, T.K.

    1982-09-01

    This study examined prospectively a small cohort (N=116) of new coal miners with questionnaires and spirometry. Data collection began just prior to underground employment and extended over a two year period at 6 month intervals to address the question or short-term adverse occupational pulmonary effects and their relationship to outward migration from the industry. A comparison of the initial (unexposed) and six month (exposed) changes in lung function over the work shift was also conducted to detect an acute effect due to dust, which might be related to chronic decline in lung function.

  6. Haematological abnormalities in acute pancreatitis. A prospective study.

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, D.; Imrie, C. W.; Davidson, J. F.

    1977-01-01

    Twenty-five patients with acute pancreatitis were studied prospectively in the first week of their admission using haematological and coagulation tests. Platelet counts initially fell and later returned to admission levels. Rising levels of plasma fibrinogen were recorded. The kaolin cephalin clotting time was shorter than its control in twenty-one patients. Eighteen patients had elevated fibrinogen degradation products and fourteen had a positive ethanol gelation test. It is suggested that by taking into account the results in series of individual patients a degree of intravascular coagulation may be a common feature of acute pancreatitis. In one patient (presented in detail) strong evidence for disseminated intravascular coagulation was found PMID:887529

  7. A prospective study of hope, optimism, and health.

    PubMed

    Scioli, A; Chamberlin, C M; Samor, C M; Lapointe, A B; Campbell, T L; MacLeod, A R; McLenon, J

    1997-12-01

    The present investigation sought to distinguish hope from optimism in the context of a 10-wk. prospective study involving reports of health outcomes. Gottschalk's (1985) Hope Scale and Scheier and Carver's (1987) Life Orientation Test which assesses optimism were given to subjects, along with a health questionnaire. Ten weeks later subjects were given a second health questionnaire. To rule out potential confounds we included measures of neuroticism, depression, extroversion, and social desirability. After controlling for the effects of correlated confounds, we found that lower hope scores (but not optimism) were correlated with several dimensions of reported health, including frequency and severity of illness.

  8. Ocular lateropulsion in Wallenberg's syndrome: a prospective clinical study.

    PubMed

    Crevits, L; vander Eecken, H

    1982-03-01

    In order to evaluate the occurrence and clinical value of ocular lateropulsion in Wallenberg's syndrome, a prospective study was carried out. Lateropulsion of the horizontal and vertical refixation saccades was a rather regular finding, especially in complete Wallenberg's syndrome. Lateral ocular deviation after elimination of fixation was present in nearly all cases. The tonic lateral vector was always directed to the involved side. It is concluded that ocular lateropulsion is an easily elicited sign with a lateralizing value in lateral bulbar infarction. Further systematic search of ocular lateropulsion in other posterior fossa disorders is needed to determine its topographical significance.

  9. Community Water Fluoridation and Intelligence: Prospective Study in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, W. Murray; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Zeng, Jiaxu; Foster Page, Lyndie A.; Poulton, Richie

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. This study aimed to clarify the relationship between community water fluoridation (CWF) and IQ. Methods. We conducted a prospective study of a general population sample of those born in Dunedin, New Zealand, between April 1, 1972, and March 30, 1973 (95.4% retention of cohort after 38 years of prospective follow-up). Residence in a CWF area, use of fluoride dentifrice and intake of 0.5-milligram fluoride tablets were assessed in early life (prior to age 5 years); we assessed IQ repeatedly between ages 7 to 13 years and at age 38 years. Results. No clear differences in IQ because of fluoride exposure were noted. These findings held after adjusting for potential confounding variables, including sex, socioeconomic status, breastfeeding, and birth weight (as well as educational attainment for adult IQ outcomes). Conclusions. These findings do not support the assertion that fluoride in the context of CWF programs is neurotoxic. Associations between very high fluoride exposure and low IQ reported in previous studies may have been affected by confounding, particularly by urban or rural status. PMID:24832151

  10. Community Water Fluoridation and Intelligence: Prospective Study in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Broadbent, Jonathan M; Thomson, W Murray; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Moffitt, Terrie E; Zeng, Jiaxu; Foster Page, Lyndie A; Poulton, Richie

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. This study aimed to clarify the relationship between community water fluoridation (CWF) and IQ. Methods. We conducted a prospective study of a general population sample of those born in Dunedin, New Zealand, between April 1, 1972, and March 30, 1973 (95.4% retention of cohort after 38 years of prospective follow-up). Residence in a CWF area, use of fluoride dentifrice and intake of 0.5-milligram fluoride tablets were assessed in early life (prior to age 5 years); we assessed IQ repeatedly between ages 7 to 13 years and at age 38 years. Results. No clear differences in IQ because of fluoride exposure were noted. These findings held after adjusting for potential confounding variables, including sex, socioeconomic status, breastfeeding, and birth weight (as well as educational attainment for adult IQ outcomes). Conclusions. These findings do not support the assertion that fluoride in the context of CWF programs is neurotoxic. Associations between very high fluoride exposure and low IQ reported in previous studies may have been affected by confounding, particularly by urban or rural status.

  11. Understanding putative risk factors for schizophrenia: retrospective and prospective studies

    PubMed Central

    King, Suzanne; Laplante, David; Joober, Ridha

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a research program intended to provide a better understanding of the influence of several putative risk factors for schizophrenia on child development and psychosis. Two related components of the overall program are described: the retrospective EnviroGen projects, which use a variety of putative risk factors to explain variance in several dimensions of schizophrenia and in psychotic symptoms in community controls, and Project Ice Storm, which prospectively examines the effects of prenatal maternal stress in the children of women who were exposed to the 1998 Quebec ice storm during their pregnancies. The EnviroGen projects have been successful in explaining variance in several dimensions of illness, including premorbid adjustment and severity of dissociative symptoms. Project Ice Storm has demonstrated the noxious effects of prenatal stress on cognitive and language development in children. We have also found that “ice storm children” exposed in specific weeks of gestation show greater dermatoglyphic asymmetry, as has been reported for samples of patients with schizophrenia. In both studies, prenatal maternal stress has been associated with more severe childhood behaviour problems. The combination of retrospective and prospective studies is a rich source of triangulated results providing information about developmental psychopathology. PMID:16151539

  12. Colonic atresia in cattle: A prospective study of 43 cases

    PubMed Central

    Ducharme, Norm G.; Arighi, Mimi; Horney, F. Don; Barker, Ian K.; Livesey, Michael A.; Hurtig, Mark H.; Johnson, Roger P.

    1988-01-01

    This prospective study was initiated to document the success rate obtained in the treatment of colonic atresia in calves, identify factors that influence survival rate, and to report the histopathological appearance of the proximal blind end of the ascending colon. Forty-three calves with intestinal obstruction due to colonic atresia were admitted to the Ontario Veterinary College between September 1982 and May 1986. Parameters recorded prospectively in this study included age, breed, sex, history, vital signs, acid-base and electrolyte status, location of intestinal atresia, medical and surgical management, and outcome. The typical history and clinical signs included failure to pass meconium or feces, decreased appetite, and progressive depression and abdominal distension. The most common site of colonic atresia was the midportion of the spiral loop of the ascending colon (n = 25). Of the 43 calves, three (7%) were euthanized at surgery, 21 (49%) died in the hospital, and 19 (44%) survived and were discharged from the hospital. Four of the surviving calves died subsequent to discharge giving an overall long-term (mean 15.9 months) survival rate of 35%. No significant risk factors were identified, although experienced surgeons showed a trend towards increased survival rate. ImagesFigure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5. PMID:17423141

  13. Qingdao Port Cardiovascular Health Study: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Spatz, Erica S; Jiang, Xianyan; Lu, Jiapeng; Masoudi, Frederick A; Spertus, John A; Wang, Yongfei; Li, Xi; Downing, Nicholas S; Nasir, Khurram; Du, Xue; Li, Jing; Krumholz, Harlan M; Liu, Xiancheng; Jiang, Lixin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose In China, efforts are underway to respond to rapidly increasing rates of heart disease and stroke. Yet the epidemiology of cardiovascular disease in China may be different from that of other populations. Thus, there is a critical need for population-based studies that provide insight into the risk factors, incidence and outcomes of cardiovascular disease in China. The Qingdao Port Cardiovascular Health Study is designed to investigate the burden of cardiovascular disease and the sociodemographic, biological, environmental and clinical risk factors associated with disease onset and outcomes. Participants For this study, from 2000 through 2013, 32 404 employees aged 18 years or older were recruited from the Qingdao Port Group in China, contributing 221 923 annual health assessments. The mean age at recruitment was 43.4 (SD=12.9); 79% were male. In this ongoing study, annual health assessments, governed by extensive quality control mechanisms, include a questionnaire (capturing demographic and employment information, medical history, medication use, health behaviours and health outcomes), physical examination, ECG, and blood and urine analysis. Additional non-annual assessments include an X-ray, echocardiogram and carotid ultrasound; bio-samples will be collected for future genetic and proteomic analyses. Cardiovascular outcomes are accessed via self-report and are actively being verified with medical insurance claims; efforts are underway to adjudicate outcomes with hospital medical records. Findings to date Early findings reveal a significant increase in cardiovascular risk factors from 2000 to 2010 (hypertension: 26.4–39.4%; diabetes: 3.3–8.9%; hyperlipidaemia: 5.0–33.6%; body mass index >28 m/kg2: 14.1–18.6%). Future Plans We aim to generate novel insights about the epidemiology and outcomes of cardiovascular disease in China, with specific emphasis on the potentially unique risk factor profiles of this Chinese population. Knowledge

  14. Study on thermal effects & sulfurized additives, in lubricating greases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Ami Atul

    Lithium Base grease constitutes about 50% of market. The greases are developed to be able to work in multiple working conditions and have longer working life. Greases with extreme pressure additives and anti-wear additives have been developed as a solution to many of the applications. These developed greases are tested under ASTM D2266 testing conditions to meet the requirements. The actual working conditions, although, differ than the real testing conditions. The loading, speed and temperature conditions can be more harsh, or fluctuating in nature. The cyclic nature of the parameters cannot be directly related to the test performance. For this purpose studies on the performance under spectrum loading, variable speed and fluctuating temperature must be performed. This study includes tests to understand the effect of thermal variation on some of the most commonly used grease additives that perform well under ASTM D2266 testing conditions. The studied additives include most widely used industrial extreme pressure additive MoS2. Performance of ZDDP which is trying to replace MoS2 in its industrial applications has also been studied. The tests cover study of extreme pressure, anti-wear and friction modifier additives to get a general idea on the effects of thermal variation in three areas. Sulphur is the most common extreme pressure additive. Sulphur based MoS 2 is extensively used grease additive. Study to understand the tribological performance of this additive through wear testing and SEM/EDX studies has been done. This performance is also studied for other metallic sulfides like WS2 and sulphur based organic compound. The aim is to study the importance of the type of bond that sulphur shares in its additive's structure on its performance. The MoS2 film formation is found to be on the basis of the FeS formation on the substrate and protection through sacrificial monolayer deposition of the MoS2 sheared structure. The free Mo then tends to oxidise. An attempt to

  15. Prospective Clinical Study of Precision Oncology in Solid Tumors.

    PubMed

    Sohal, Davendra P S; Rini, Brian I; Khorana, Alok A; Dreicer, Robert; Abraham, Jame; Procop, Gary W; Saunthararajah, Yogen; Pennell, Nathan A; Stevenson, James P; Pelley, Robert; Estfan, Bassam; Shepard, Dale; Funchain, Pauline; Elson, Paul; Adelstein, David J; Bolwell, Brian J

    2015-11-09

    Systematic studies evaluating clinical benefit of tumor genomic profiling are lacking. We conducted a prospective study in 250 patients with select solid tumors at the Cleveland Clinic. Eligibility required histopathologic diagnosis, age of 18 years or older, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0-2, and written informed consent. Tumors were sequenced using FoundationOne (Cambridge, MA). Results were reviewed at the Cleveland Clinic Genomics Tumor Board. Outcomes included feasibility and clinical impact. Colorectal (25%), breast (18%), lung (13%), and pancreatobiliary (13%) cancers were the most common diagnoses. Median time from consent to result was 25 days (range = 3-140). Of 223 evaluable samples, 49% (n = 109) of patients were recommended a specific therapy, but only 11% (n = 24) received such therapy: 12 on clinical trials, nine off-label, three on-label. Lack of clinical trial access (n = 49) and clinical deterioration (n = 29) were the most common reasons for nonrecommendation/nonreceipt of genomics-driven therapy.

  16. A Model of Microteaching Lesson Study Implementation in the Prospective History Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utami, Indah Wahyu Puji; Mashuri; Nafi'ah, Ulfatun

    2016-01-01

    Microteaching lesson study is a model to improve prospective teacher quality by incorporating several element of microteaching and lesson study. This study concern on the implementation of microteaching lesson study in prospective history teacher education. Microteaching lesson study model implemented in this study consist of three stages: plan,…

  17. Early breastfeeding experiences of adolescent mothers: a qualitative prospective study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Teen mothers face many challenges to successful breastfeeding and are less likely to breastfeed than any other population group in the U.S. Few studies have investigated this population; all prior studies are cross-sectional and collect breastfeeding data retrospectively. The purpose of our qualitative prospective study was to understand the factors that contribute to the breastfeeding decisions and practices of teen mothers. Methods This prospective study took place from January through December 2009 in Greensboro, North Carolina in the U.S. We followed the cohort from pregnancy until two weeks after they ceased all breastfeeding and milk expression. We conducted semi-structured interviews at baseline and follow-up, and tracked infant feeding weekly by phone. We analyzed the data to create individual life and breastfeeding journeys and then identified themes that cut across the individual journeys. Results Four of the five teenagers breastfed at the breast for nine days: in contrast, one teen breastfed exclusively for five months. Milk expression by pumping was associated with significantly longer provision of human milk. Breastfeeding practices and cessation were closely connected with their experiences as new mothers in the context of ongoing multiple roles, complex living situations, youth and dependency, and poor knowledge of the fundamentals of breastfeeding and infant development. Breastfeeding cessation was influenced by inadequate breastfeeding skill, physically unpleasant and painful early experiences they were unprepared to manage, and inadequate health care response to real problems. Conclusions Continued breastfeeding depends on a complex interplay of multiple factors, including having made an informed choice and having the skills, support and experiences needed to sustain the belief that breastfeeding is the best choice for them and their baby given their life situation. Teenagers in the US context need to have a positive early

  18. An archival prospective study of mental health and longevity.

    PubMed

    Martin, L R; Friedman, H S; Tucker, J S; Schwartz, J E; Criqui, M H; Wingard, D L; Tomlinson-Keasey, C

    1995-09-01

    The relationship between mental health status and longevity was examined in an archival prospective cohort study (N = 1,103) derived from work begun by Lewis Terman in the 1920s. Degree of psychological maladjustment, cumulatively rated by Terman and his colleagues as of 1950, was found to be related to higher risk of all-cause mortality over a 4-decade follow-up period. The differences among causes of death were nonsignificant, but there was some indication that mental health problems were more strongly related to deaths from injury and cardiovascular disease. The overall relationship was significant for men but weaker for women. The effect was not substantially mediated by alcohol consumption, obesity, or cigarette smoking.

  19. A prospective study of the onset of symptoms of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Sayle, Amy E; Wilcox, Allen J; Weinberg, Clarice R; Baird, Donna D

    2002-07-01

    The objective of this study was to provide prospectively collected data on the onset of pregnancy symptoms. Two hundred twenty-one women attempting pregnancy kept daily records of the occurrence of symptoms of pregnancy. Among 136 women delivering live infants, half began experiencing symptoms by day 36 after their last menstrual period (LMP), and 89% by the end of the eighth week. Onset of symptoms occurred later in pregnancies that went on to miscarry. Among 48 women with biochemically detected pregnancy loss before 6 weeks LMP, symptoms were substantially reduced but not entirely absent. Women who smoked tobacco or marijuana tended to have delayed onset of symptoms. Nearly 90% of women with successful pregnancies experience symptoms within 8 weeks LMP. Even pregnancies lost very early (before 6 weeks) are sometimes symptomatic. The earliest symptoms do not begin until after key stages of embryogenesis, reinforcing the need for women to initiate sound health behaviors before pregnancy is apparent. Published by Elsevier Science Inc.

  20. Immediate postoperative complications in transsphenoidal pituitary surgery: A prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Tumul; Prabhakar, Hemanshu; Bithal, Parmod K.; Schaller, Bernhard; Dash, Hari Hara

    2014-01-01

    Background: Considering the important role of pituitary gland in regulating various endocrine axes and its unique anatomical location, various postoperative complications can be anticipated resulting from surgery on pituitary tumors. We examined and categorized the immediate postoperative complications according to various tumor pathologies. Materials and Methods: We carried out a prospective study in 152 consecutive patients and noted various postoperative complications during neurosurgical intensive care unit stay (within 48 hrs of hospital stay) in patients undergoing transsphenoidal removal of pituitary tumors. Results: In our series, various groups showed different postoperative complications out of which, cerebrospinal fluid leak was the commonest followed by diabetes insipidus, postoperative nausea and vomiting, and hematoma at operation site. Conclusion: Various immediate postoperative complications can be anticipated in transsphenoidal pituitary surgery even though, it is considered to be relatively safe. PMID:25191182

  1. Harmonic scalpel tonsillectomy versus monopolar diathermy tonsillectomy: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Roth, Jason A; Pincock, Tobias; Sacks, Raymond; Forer, Martin; Boustred, Neil; Johnston, William; Bailey, Michael

    2008-06-01

    For tonsillectomy, the ultrasonic harmonic scalpel has been purported to cause less tissue injury and postoperative morbidity while providing adequate levels of hemostasis. We undertook a prospective study to compare outcomes in 162 patients who had undergone harmonic scalpel tonsillectomy and 40 patients who had undergone monopolar diathermy tonsillectomy over a 33-month period. We found that patients in the harmonic scalpel group experienced significantly less intraoperative bleeding (5.0 vs. 16.5 ml; p < 0.0001). There was no clinically significant difference between the groups with respect to (1) the amount of operating time, (2) the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting, dysphonia, and primary or secondary bleeding, and (3) the amount of time patients needed to resume normal diet and activities. PMID:18561118

  2. Marine Microbiological Enzymes: Studies with Multiple Strategies and Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Song, Qinghao; Zhang, Xiao-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Marine microorganisms produce a series of promising enzymes that have been widely used or are potentially valuable for our daily life. Both classic and newly developed biochemistry technologies have been broadly used to study marine and terrestrial microbiological enzymes. In this brief review, we provide a research update and prospects regarding regulatory mechanisms and related strategies of acyl-homoserine lactones (AHL) lactonase, which is an important but largely unexplored enzyme. We also detail the status and catalytic mechanism of the main types of polysaccharide-degrading enzymes that broadly exist among marine microorganisms but have been poorly explored. In order to facilitate understanding, the regulatory and synthetic biology strategies of terrestrial microorganisms are also mentioned in comparison. We anticipate that this review will provide an outline of multiple strategies for promising marine microbial enzymes and open new avenues for the exploration, engineering and application of various enzymes. PMID:27669268

  3. Marine Microbiological Enzymes: Studies with Multiple Strategies and Prospects.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Song, Qinghao; Zhang, Xiao-Hua

    2016-09-22

    Marine microorganisms produce a series of promising enzymes that have been widely used or are potentially valuable for our daily life. Both classic and newly developed biochemistry technologies have been broadly used to study marine and terrestrial microbiological enzymes. In this brief review, we provide a research update and prospects regarding regulatory mechanisms and related strategies of acyl-homoserine lactones (AHL) lactonase, which is an important but largely unexplored enzyme. We also detail the status and catalytic mechanism of the main types of polysaccharide-degrading enzymes that broadly exist among marine microorganisms but have been poorly explored. In order to facilitate understanding, the regulatory and synthetic biology strategies of terrestrial microorganisms are also mentioned in comparison. We anticipate that this review will provide an outline of multiple strategies for promising marine microbial enzymes and open new avenues for the exploration, engineering and application of various enzymes.

  4. Expected versus unexpected panic attacks: a naturalistic prospective study.

    PubMed

    Kenardy, J; Taylor, C B

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors that are associated with expectation of panic attacks as well as to validate the hypothesized tendency to identify false (panic) alarms in panic disorder. Ten women with panic disorder were assessed naturalistically using computer-assisted self-monitoring. This allowed for prospective assessment of expected versus unexpected panic attacks. Expectation of panic attacks was associated with panic occurrence, as well as elevated sense of threat or danger, anxiety, helplessness, avoidance, distress about physical symptoms, physical sensations, and catastrophic thoughts prior to the attack. In general, the state measured prior to unexpected attacks did not differ from ongoing nonpanic state. Furthermore, none of the variables measured during the attacks were able to distinguish unexpected attacks from expected attacks.

  5. Palliative Care Caregivers' Grief Mediators: A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Alexandra M; Delalibera, Mayra A; Barbosa, António

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the study is to identify the mediators of complicated grief in a Portuguese sample of caregivers. Grief mediators were prospectively evaluated using a list of risk factors completed by the palliative care team members, during the predeath and bereavement period. More than 6 months after the death, we applied PG-13 to diagnose prolonged grief disorder (PGD). The sample was composed of 64 family caregivers. Factors associated with PGD were insecure and dependent relationship, unresolved family crisis, and the perceived deterioration and disfigurement of the patient. The results show relational factors are relevant, but we must consider the reciprocal influence among factors, as well as their impact on specific symptoms. PMID:25601321

  6. Cognitive function in the affective disorders: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Bulbena, A; Berrios, G E

    1993-01-01

    A prospective, controlled study of 50 subjects confirmed claims that major depression or mania may cause temporary disorders of attention, memory, visuo-spatial function, and choice reaction time, and cause-independently of medication-the appearance of glabellar tap, positive hand-face test, nuchocephalic reflex, and graphesthesia. On follow-up, all these phenomena either disappeared or markedly improved. Age and age of onset, but not pre-morbid intelligence or history of ECT, seemed to modulate the severity of the cognitive impairment. Presence of delusions predicted poor (but reversible) visuo-spatial function. Cognitive impairment accompanied by reversible soft neurological signs was more marked but patients thus affected surprisingly showed lower depressive scores; this was interpreted as representing a secondary, 'organic' form of affective disorder (i.e. a behavioural phenocopy of depression) characterised by a reduced capacity to experience depressive symptoms and by little improvement at follow-up.

  7. Marine Microbiological Enzymes: Studies with Multiple Strategies and Prospects.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Song, Qinghao; Zhang, Xiao-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Marine microorganisms produce a series of promising enzymes that have been widely used or are potentially valuable for our daily life. Both classic and newly developed biochemistry technologies have been broadly used to study marine and terrestrial microbiological enzymes. In this brief review, we provide a research update and prospects regarding regulatory mechanisms and related strategies of acyl-homoserine lactones (AHL) lactonase, which is an important but largely unexplored enzyme. We also detail the status and catalytic mechanism of the main types of polysaccharide-degrading enzymes that broadly exist among marine microorganisms but have been poorly explored. In order to facilitate understanding, the regulatory and synthetic biology strategies of terrestrial microorganisms are also mentioned in comparison. We anticipate that this review will provide an outline of multiple strategies for promising marine microbial enzymes and open new avenues for the exploration, engineering and application of various enzymes. PMID:27669268

  8. The pleiotropic effects of metformin: time for prospective studies.

    PubMed

    Bromage, Daniel I; Yellon, Derek M

    2015-01-01

    The global prevalence of diabetes has risen to epidemic proportions and the trend is predicted to continue. The consequent burden of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality is a major public health concern and new treatments are required to mitigate the deleterious effects of cardiovascular disease in diabetic patients. Ischaemia-reperfusion injury is well known to exacerbate the harmful effects of acute myocardial infarction and subsequent therapeutic reperfusion, and several mechanical and pharmacological approaches to mitigating this injury have been investigated. Metformin, which is cheap, relatively safe and widely used in type 2 diabetes, is one such pharmacotherapy with considerable pre-clinical evidence for cardioprotective utility beyond its glucose-lowering effect. However, despite convincing basic evidence its translation to clinical application has largely been limited to studies of cardiovascular risk. There are several barriers to prospective randomized assessment in the context of acute myocardial infarction, not least the accessibility and already widespread use of metformin among patients with type 2 diabetes at high risk of cardiovascular events. In the place of class 1 evidence, well-designed prospective cohort studies of the potential pleiotropic utility of metformin in cardiovascular disease, and particularly its benefit in ischaemia-reperfusion injury, are needed. Given the availability of metformin worldwide, this is particularly true in low- and middle-income countries where the optimal therapy for acute myocardial infarction, primary percutaneous coronary intervention, may not be available, and instead patients are managed with thrombolysis. As this is less effective, metformin as an adjunct to thrombolysis (or PPCI) could represent an effective, cheap means of cardioprotection with global relevance. PMID:26271457

  9. Pregnancy outcomes in myeloproliferative neoplasms: UK prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Alimam, Samah; Bewley, Susan; Chappell, Lucy C; Knight, Marian; Seed, Paul; Gray, Gabriella; Harrison, Claire; Robinson, Susan

    2016-10-01

    The reported higher risk of maternal and fetal complications in women with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) poses challenge during pregnancy. A national prospective study of maternal and fetal outcomes of pregnant women with a diagnosis of MPN was undertaken via the United Kingdom Obstetric Surveillance System between January 2010 and December 2012. Fifty-eight women with a diagnosis of MPN were identified; 47 (81%) essential thrombocythaemia, five (9%) polycythaemia vera, five (9%) myelofibrosis and one (2%) MPN-unclassified. There were 58 live births. The incidence of miscarriage was 1·7/100 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0·04-9·24) and the perinatal mortality rate was 17/1000 (95% CI: 0·44-92·36) live and stillbirths. Incidence of maternal complications was 9% (5/57) pre-eclampsia, 9% (5/57) post-partum haemorrhage and 3·5% (2/57) post-partum haematoma. There were no maternal deaths or thrombotic events. Delivery was induced in 45% (24/53) of women and the Caesarean section rate was 45% (24/53). The majority (85%, 45/53) delivered at term (>37 weeks gestation). Twenty-two percent (12/54) of neonates were below the 10% centile for growth and 13% (7/54) required admission to a neonatal care-unit; there were no neonatal deaths. The findings of this large, UK prospective study suggests women with MPN appear to have successful pregnancies with better outcomes than would be anticipated from the literature.

  10. Pregnancy outcomes in myeloproliferative neoplasms: UK prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Alimam, Samah; Bewley, Susan; Chappell, Lucy C; Knight, Marian; Seed, Paul; Gray, Gabriella; Harrison, Claire; Robinson, Susan

    2016-10-01

    The reported higher risk of maternal and fetal complications in women with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) poses challenge during pregnancy. A national prospective study of maternal and fetal outcomes of pregnant women with a diagnosis of MPN was undertaken via the United Kingdom Obstetric Surveillance System between January 2010 and December 2012. Fifty-eight women with a diagnosis of MPN were identified; 47 (81%) essential thrombocythaemia, five (9%) polycythaemia vera, five (9%) myelofibrosis and one (2%) MPN-unclassified. There were 58 live births. The incidence of miscarriage was 1·7/100 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0·04-9·24) and the perinatal mortality rate was 17/1000 (95% CI: 0·44-92·36) live and stillbirths. Incidence of maternal complications was 9% (5/57) pre-eclampsia, 9% (5/57) post-partum haemorrhage and 3·5% (2/57) post-partum haematoma. There were no maternal deaths or thrombotic events. Delivery was induced in 45% (24/53) of women and the Caesarean section rate was 45% (24/53). The majority (85%, 45/53) delivered at term (>37 weeks gestation). Twenty-two percent (12/54) of neonates were below the 10% centile for growth and 13% (7/54) required admission to a neonatal care-unit; there were no neonatal deaths. The findings of this large, UK prospective study suggests women with MPN appear to have successful pregnancies with better outcomes than would be anticipated from the literature. PMID:27612319

  11. Bacterial keratitis: a prospective clinical and microbiological study

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, F.; Bruttin, O.; Zografos, L.; Guex-Crosier, Y.

    2001-01-01

    AIM—To define the clinical and microbiological profile of bacterial keratitis at the Jules Gonin Eye Hospital and to test the in vitro bacterial resistance.
METHODS—Patients presenting with bacterial keratitis were prospectively followed; clinical features (age, risk factors, visual acuity) and response to therapy were analysed. Bacteriological profile was determined and the sensitivity/resistance of isolated strains were tested towards 12 ocular antibiotics (NCCLS disc diffusion test).
RESULTS—85 consecutive patients (mean age 44.3 (SD 20.7) years) were prospectively enrolled from 1 March 1997 to 30 November 1998. The following risk factors were identified: contact lens wear, 36%; blepharitis, 21%; trauma, 20%; xerophthalmia, 15%; keratopathies, 8%; and eyelid abnormalities, 6%. The most commonly isolated bacteria were Staphylococcus epidermidis, 40%; Staphylococcus aureus, 22%; Streptococcus pneumoniae, 8%; others Streptococcus species, 5%; Pseudomonas, 9%; Moraxella and Serratia marcescens, 5% each; Bacillus, Corynebacterium, Alcaligenes xyloxidans, Morganella morganii, and Haemophilus influenza, 1% each. 1-15% of strains were resistant to fluoroquinolones, 13-22% to aminoglycosides, 37% to cefazolin, 18% to chloramphenicol, 54% to polymyxin B, 51% to fusidic acid, and 45% to bacitracin. Five of the 85 patients (5.8%) had a poor clinical outcome with a visual loss of one or more lines of visual acuity.
CONCLUSION—Fluoroquinolones appear to be the therapy of choice for bacterial keratitis, but, based upon these in vitro studies, some strains may be resistant.

 PMID:11423460

  12. A study of geothermal prospects in the western United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The commercial development potential of 13 underdeveloped geothermal prospects in the Western United States was examined, and the prospects were ranked in order of relative potential for development on the basis of investment considerations. The following were considered in the ranking: geotechnical and engineering data, energy market accessibility, administrative constraints, and environmental and socio-economic factors. The primary ranking criterion is the unit cost of energy production expected from each prospect. Secondary criteria are administrative constraints, environmental factors and the quality of the geotechnical data.

  13. [Psychic changes in systemic lupus erythematosus: a multidisciplinary prospective study].

    PubMed

    Miguel Filho, E C; Pereira, R M; Busatto Filho, G; Shavitt, R G; Hirsch, R; de Sá, L C; de Arruda, P C

    1990-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence of psychic symptoms in lupus patients, there are few systematic studies in this area. Through a multidisciplinary approach, the authors developed a prospective study to characterize and correlate psychopathological aspects with clinical and laboratory data concerning neural manifestations of the disease. Out of 23 patients studied, 12 showed psychic alterations, which were interpreted as primary manifestations of the disease. All of them presented organic mental syndromes (DSM-III-R) in which cognitive symptoms were the most prominent, followed by affective, catatonic and hallucinatory features. The neurologic findings (seizure, migraine and muscular atrophy), as well as the ophthalmologic alterations (hemorrhage and soft exudates) were frequent and concomitant with the psychic features. The laboratory findings were: LE cells 50%; anti-Sm: 16%; anti-U1 RNP: 50%; anti-Ro/SS-A: 50%; anti-nDNA: 58%; decreased CH50 or fractions (C3, C4): 67%; anti-P: 18%; antigangliosides IgG: 67%; antigangliosides IgM: 78%. The cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed: increased cellularity: 18%; elevated protein: 36%; antigangliosides IgG: 67%; antigangliosides IgM: 33%; immunocomplexes: 36%. In spite of the absence of an adequate control group and of the small number of patients, the multidisciplinary approach leads to a better characterization of the nervous system involvement in this disease. PMID:1965671

  14. Lithium-induced renal disease: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Jorkasky, D K; Amsterdam, J D; Oler, J; Braden, G; Alvis, R; Geheb, M; Cox, M

    1988-12-01

    Considerable controversy exists as to whether lithium maintenance therapy is associated with the development of renal insufficiency. In 1980 we initiated a prospective study of renal function in manic-depressive patients beginning lithium therapy. None of the patients had evidence of pre-existing renal disease. Sixty-five patients were entered, and 51 and 18 patients completed 1 and 3 years of follow-up, respectively. Lithium doses were titrated to the lowest level consistent with control of psychiatric symptoms; there were no episodes of overt lithium intoxication. Serum creatinine levels in all patients, and endogenous creatinine clearance in women, remained stable over the course of the study. In contrast, creatinine clearances (mean +/- SEM, ml/min/1.73 m2) in men significantly decreased over both 1 year (110 +/- 4 to 95 +/- 5, n = 21, p = 0.0126) and 3 years (107 +/- 4 to 80 +/- 11, n = 8, p = 0.0385) of evaluation. Although all patients demonstrated a mild reduction in renal concentrating ability after initiation of lithium, the decrease was not progressive over the course of the study. Quantitative urinary protein excretion did not change, and repeated urinalyses did not reveal any evidence of renal disease. Thus, lithium therapy appears to result in modestly reduced rates of glomerular filtration, as measured by endogenous creatinine clearance, in men receiving lithium maintenance therapy for manic-depressive illness. Whether this reduction is progressive and leads to clinically significant renal insufficiency requires further investigation. PMID:3243040

  15. A Prospective Study of Herpes Zoster in Children

    PubMed Central

    Katakam, Bhumesh Kumar; Kiran, Geeta; Kumar, Udaya

    2016-01-01

    Background: Herpes zoster (HZ) is a dermatomal viral infection, caused by reactivation of varicella zoster virus (VZV) that persists in the posterior root ganglion. HZ is uncommonly reported in immunocompetent children. It may be due to intrauterine VZV infection or secondary to postnatal exposure to VZV at an early age. Aims: Our study was to review clinico-epidemiological data for HZ in children for early diagnosis and treatment to prevent complications. Materials and Methods: A prospective observational study was conducted from January 2013 to December 2014. Consecutive cases clinically diagnosed as HZ in the pediatric age group were taken up. Results: We report the clinico-epidemiological study of 26 cases of HZ, their benign course and recovery among children. Conclusions: HZ is a rare disease in childhood. Varicella in early childhood is a risk factor of HZ in immunocompromised and immunocompetent children. Childhood zoster occurs in either healthy or underlying immunodeficient children. The appearance of HZ in a young child does not always imply an underlying immunodeficiency or malignancy. But the identification of HZ with or without immunodeficiency is of prime importance from the treatment and prognostic point of view and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of vesicular eruptions. The prognosis is generally good in healthy children. PMID:27688444

  16. Risk factors for seabather's eruption: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, S; Hlady, W G; Malecki, J M

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A prospective cohort study was performed to identify risk factors for seabather's eruption. METHODS: Study participants were recruited at four beaches in Palm Beach County, Florida, during three weekends of May and June 1993. Participants were interviewed by telephone after 48 hours regarding medical history, beach activities, development of rashes, and use of possible preventive measures. RESULTS: Seabather's eruption, defined by the occurrence of a rash within two days of exposure to seawater, was reported by 114 (16%) of 735 respondents. The strongest predictor of seabather's eruption was a past history of the condition. Children less than 16 years of age were also at increased risk, as were surfers. Showering with one's bathing suit off was a useful protective measure. CONCLUSION: The study's findings suggest that when the seasonal risk of seabather's eruption is present, children, people with a history of seabather's eruption, and surfers are at greatest risk. During the sea lice season, seabathers can minimize their risk by showering with their bathing suits off after seabathing. Length of the time spent in water was not significantly associated with seabather's eruption. PMID:9018290

  17. A Prospective Study of Herpes Zoster in Children

    PubMed Central

    Katakam, Bhumesh Kumar; Kiran, Geeta; Kumar, Udaya

    2016-01-01

    Background: Herpes zoster (HZ) is a dermatomal viral infection, caused by reactivation of varicella zoster virus (VZV) that persists in the posterior root ganglion. HZ is uncommonly reported in immunocompetent children. It may be due to intrauterine VZV infection or secondary to postnatal exposure to VZV at an early age. Aims: Our study was to review clinico-epidemiological data for HZ in children for early diagnosis and treatment to prevent complications. Materials and Methods: A prospective observational study was conducted from January 2013 to December 2014. Consecutive cases clinically diagnosed as HZ in the pediatric age group were taken up. Results: We report the clinico-epidemiological study of 26 cases of HZ, their benign course and recovery among children. Conclusions: HZ is a rare disease in childhood. Varicella in early childhood is a risk factor of HZ in immunocompromised and immunocompetent children. Childhood zoster occurs in either healthy or underlying immunodeficient children. The appearance of HZ in a young child does not always imply an underlying immunodeficiency or malignancy. But the identification of HZ with or without immunodeficiency is of prime importance from the treatment and prognostic point of view and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of vesicular eruptions. The prognosis is generally good in healthy children.

  18. A prospective clinical study of polycarboxylate cement in periapical surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ortega-Sánchez, Bárbara; García-Mira, Berta; Maestre-Ferrín, Laura; Peñarrocha-Oltra, David; Gay-Escoda, Cosme

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical efficacy of polycarboxylate cement as retrograde filling material. Design: A prospective clinical study was made of 25 patients subjected to periapical surgery with ultrasound and magnifying loupes, in which polycarboxylate cement was used as retrograde filling material. Measurements were made of the area and diameter of the lesions pre- and postoperatively, and 6 and 12 months after the operation. The apical resection and retrograde filling areas were also measured, and the prognosis following surgery was recorded. Results: A total of 23 patients with 31 apicoectomized teeth were studied (2 patients being lost to follow-up). The mean area of the periapical lesions before surgery was 52.25 mm2, with a mean major diameter of 6.1 mm and a mean lesser diameter of 4.8 mm. The success rate after 12 months was 54.7%, according to the criteria of Von Arx and Kurt. The prognosis was poorer in females, in larger lesions, and in cases with larger retrograde filling areas. Conclusions: Polycarboxylate cement offers good results, with important bone regeneration after periapical surgery. Key words: Periapical surgery, endodontic treatment, polycarboxylate cement. PMID:22143701

  19. A prospective study of radionuclide biliary scanning in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Neoptolemos, J. P.; Fossard, D. P.; Berry, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    Early surgery for biliary pancreatitis has resulted in a need for an accurate method of gallstone detection in acute pancreatitis. Fifty patients with acute pancreatitis were studied prospectively to assess the diagnostic value of Radionuclide Biliary Scanning (RBS) performed within 72 hours of an attack. To assess the general accuracy of RBS a further 154 patients with suspected acute cholecystitis or biliary colic were similarly studied. There were 34 patients with biliary pancreatitis and 18 (53%) had a positive scan (no gallbladder seen). There were 16 patients with non-biliary pancreatitis and 5 (31%) had a positive scan. All 51 patients with acute cholecystitis had a positive scan, as did 82% of the 51 patients with biliary colic. There were 52 patients with no biliary or pancreatic disease and none of these had a positive scan. RBS is highly accurate in confirming a diagnosis of acute cholecystitis or biliary colic. However, it cannot be relied on to differentiate between biliary and non-biliary pancreatitis and should certainly not be used as the basis for biliary surgery in these patients. PMID:6859781

  20. Prognostic factors of Bell's palsy: prospective patient collected observational study.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Takashi; Hato, Naohito; Gyo, Kiyofumi; Yanagihara, Naoaki

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate various parameters potentially influencing poor prognosis in Bell's palsy and to assess the predictive value for Bell's palsy. A single-center prospective patient collected observation and validation study was conducted. To evaluate the correlation between patient characteristics and poor prognosis, we performed univariate and multivariate analyzes of age, gender, side of palsy, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and facial grading score 1 week after onset. To evaluate the accuracy of the facial grading score, we prepared a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and calculated the area under the ROC curve (AUROC). We also calculated sensitivity, specificity, positive/negative likelihood ratio, and positive/negative predictive value. We included Bell's palsy patients who attended Ehime University Hospital within 1 week after onset between 1977 and 2011. We excluded patients who were less than 15 years old and lost-to-follow-up within 6 months. The main outcome was defined as non-recovery at 6 months after onset. In total, 679 adults with Bell's palsy were included. The facial grading score at 1 week showed a correlation with non-recovery in the multivariate analysis, although age, gender, side of palsy, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension did not. The AUROC of the facial grading score was 0.793. The Y-system score at 1 week moderate accurately predicted non-recovery at 6 months in Bell's palsy.

  1. STARR with Contour® Transtar™: prospective multicentre European study

    PubMed Central

    Lenisa, L; Schwandner, O; Stuto, A; Jayne, D; Pigot, F; Tuech, JJ; Scherer, R; Nugent, K; Corbisier, F; Espin-Basany, E; Hetzer, F H

    2009-01-01

    Objective The stapled transanal rectal resection (STARR) in patients with defecation disorders is limited by the shape and capacity of the circular stapler. A new device has been recently developed, the Contour® Transtar™ stapler, in order to improve the safety and effectiveness of the STARR technique. The study has been designed to confirm this declaration. Method From January to June 2007 a prospective European multicentre study of consecutive patients with defecation disorder caused by internal rectal prolapse underwent the new STARR technique. The assessment of perioperative morbidity and functional outcome after 6 weeks, 3 and 12 months was documented by different scores. Results In all 75 patients, median age 64, the Transtar procedure was performed with 9% intraoperative difficulties, 7% postoperative complications and no mortality. The mean reduction of the ODS score was −15.6 (95%−CI: −17.3 to −13.8, P < 0.0001), mean reduction of SSS was −12.6 (95%−CI: −14.2 to −11.2; P < 0.0001). 41% stated improvement of their continence status by CCF score, only 4 patients (5%) had deterioration. Conclusion The Transtar procedure is technically demanding, with good functional results similar to the conventional STARR. PMID:19175625

  2. The Yugoslavia Prospective Study of environmental lead exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Factor-Litvak, P; Wasserman, G; Kline, J K; Graziano, J

    1999-01-01

    The Yugoslavia Prospective Study of environmental lead exposure has studied the associations between exposure to lead and pregnancy outcomes; childhood neuropsychological, behavioral, and physical development; and hematologic, renal, and cardiovascular function. The cohort comprises 577 children born to women recruited at midpregnancy in two towns in Kosovo, Yugoslavia; one town is the site of a lead smelter, refinery, and battery plant and the other is 25 miles away and relatively unexposed. A sample of these children has been followed at 6-month intervals through 7.5 years of age. Blood lead concentrations ranged from 1 to 70 microg/dl. Exposure to lead was not associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Exposure was associated with modest decrements in intelligence, small increases in blood pressure, higher risks of proteinuria, small increases in behavior problems, and perturbed hematopoiesis. Only at low level exposures (i.e., <16 microg/dl) were small associations with decreased height found. We discuss methodological problems that may hinder causal interpretation of these data, namely, use of blood lead concentration as an exposure measure, confounding, and town-specific associations. We conclude that while reported associations are small, collectively they lend support to the notion that lead is a toxicant with numerous adverse health effects. Images Figure 1 PMID:9872712

  3. Prospective study of coroner's autopsies in Benin City, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Aligbe, J U; Akhiwu, W O; Nwosu, S O

    2002-10-01

    A prospective study of 726 cases of coroner's autopsies carried out over a period of two years (1st January, 1996 - 31st December, 1997) was reviewed. The causes and circumstances of death are defined and classified into natural and unnatural deaths. Fifty cases (6.3%) were children while the remaining 676 cases (93.1%) were adults in a male to female ratio of 2.6 to 1. The most common indications for coroner's autopsies were sudden unnatural deaths (SUDs) accounting for 485 cases (66.8%) and also sudden unexpected natural deaths (SUNDs) (241 cases) accounting for 33.2%. In the first category, road traffic accidents accounted for 86.7% of cases with deaths involving motor vehicle drivers and their passengers (41.8%); pedestrians (37.1%); and motorcyclists and their passengers (18.6%). The commonest causes of death in all road traffic accidents were craniocerebral injuries and haemorrhagic shock. In the second category the most common causes of sudden unexpected natural death were cardiovascular diseases resulting from complications of hypertension (54.7%) occurring in apparently healthy individuals. Other causes of death were pneumonia, pulmonary tuberculosis, typhoid fever and neoplastic diseases. This study showed that in Nigeria, with an increasing acquisition of dietary and life style habits of the developed western world, there is becoming a concomitant risk of deaths from road traffic accidents and sudden unexpected natural deaths from hypertensive cardiovascular disease.

  4. A prospective study of dengue infections in Bangkok.

    PubMed

    Burke, D S; Nisalak, A; Johnson, D E; Scott, R M

    1988-01-01

    Dengue infections were prospectively studied among 4- to 16-year-old students at a Bangkok school. Blood samples were obtained from 1,757 students in June 1980, before the dengue season, and in January 1981, after the season, and tested for dengue antibodies by the hemagglutination inhibition method. Classrooms were monitored daily for school absences. Fifty percent of the children had antibodies to, and were presumably immune to, at least 1 dengue serotype by the age of 7 years. Most (90/103, 87%) students who became infected by dengue viruses during the study period were either asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic (absent only 1 day). Most (7/13, 53%) of the symptomatic dengue infections (absent with fever for greater than or equal to 2 days) were clinically recognized as cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever which required hospitalization. None of 47 primary dengue infections required hospitalization, whereas 7 of 56 secondary infections did (P = 0.012). Preexistent dengue immunity, as detected by conventional serologic techniques, was a significant (odds ratio greater than or equal to 6.5) risk factor for development of dengue hemorrhagic fever.

  5. Prospective study of ultrasonography in chronic pancreatic disease.

    PubMed Central

    Lees, W R; Vallon, A G; Denyer, M E; Vahl, S P; Cotton, P B

    1979-01-01

    Grey-scale ultrasonography was used in 212 unselected patients in whom the presence or absence of pancreatic disease was subsequently confirmed by other means. Ultrasonographic criteria were established in the first 92 patients and by reference to previous experience. The remaining 120 patients were studied prospectively. The accuracy and clinical impact of the ultrasonographic diagnosis were judged alongside a standard clinical assessment. Clinical diagnoses were tentative and inaccurate. Ultrasound failed in three cases; otherwise it detected all the 33 patients with chronic pancreatic disease and correctly distinguished cancer from chronic pancreatitis. The ultrasonographic diagnosis of a normal pancreas was always correct, but four false-positive diagnoses were made in patients subsequently judged to have no pancreatic disease. Ultrasonography gave more accurate or more confident and accurate information than the clinical assessment in 57 of the 98 patients studied as problems in diagnosis. With this degree of accuracy ultrasonography should be the first imaging investigation in patients suspected of suffering from pancreatic disease. In our gastrointestinal unit the combination of grey-scale ultrasonography with techniques designed to outline the duct systems (such as endoscopic pancreatography) provides precise diagnosis and documentation of pancreatic disease. PMID:420999

  6. A prospective study on knee proprioception after meniscal allograft transplantation.

    PubMed

    Thijs, Y; Witvrouw, E; Evens, B; Coorevits, P; Almqvist, F; Verdonk, R

    2007-06-01

    The meniscus plays an important role in the proprioceptive ability of the knee joint. The aim of this prospective study was to assess the short-term influence of a meniscus replacement on the proprioception of the knee. Fourteen patients who had undergone a fresh meniscal allograft transplantation between May 2001 and June 2003 were tested pre-operatively and 6 months post-operatively. Disability regarding pain, stiffness and functionality of the affected knee during daily activities was measured by the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis (WOMAC) scale. The knee joint position sense was assessed using the Biodex System 3 isokinetic dynamometer. The results of the WOMAC scale showed no significant differences concerning pain, stiffness or knee function between the pre- and post-operative condition of the knee. Assessment of the knee joint position sense at a reference point of 70 degrees of knee flexion revealed a significant improvement of the proprioception of the operated knee at 6 months after surgery compared with the pre-operative condition. The results of this study suggest that although no significant improvement of pain and functionality of the operated knee occurred at this short-term follow-up period, a meniscal allograft transplantation seems to have a significant positive effect on the joint position sense of the previously meniscectomised knee.

  7. Prospective memory and glycemic control in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Prospective memory is that memory which is required to carry out intended actions and is therefore essential in carrying out the daily activities required in the self-management of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). This study aimed to identify the relationships between prospective memory and diabetic control in children with T1DM. Method 94 children aged 6–18 years with T1DM completed an innovative prospective memory screen, PROMS, and a series of cognitive tests. Parents answered questionnaires about their children's diabetic histories and cognitive skills. Results No association between total PROMS score and glycemic control was found. Lower HbA1C was associated with higher (better) scores on the 20 minute event-based task on the PROMS. Parental concerns about working memory and metacognition in their children were mirrored by higher HbA1C. Conclusions This study suggests that there may be an association between glycemic control and prospective memory for event based tasks. Additional studies need to be done to determine reproducibility, causality, and if prospective memory based interventions can improve diabetic control. PMID:23198726

  8. Psychological stress and psoriasis: experimental and prospective correlational studies.

    PubMed

    Gaston, L; Crombez, J C; Lassonde, M; Bernier-Buzzanga, J; Hodgins, S

    1991-01-01

    Using a dismantled time-series design, 18 subjects with psoriasis symptoms on the scalp were randomly assigned to four groups and six dropped out: meditation (N = 5); meditation and imagery (N = 4); waiting list (N = 5); and no treatment control group (N = 4). Treatment lasted 12 weeks, with 4 weeks pre- and post-baseline periods. An assessment control group was also used during baseline periods (N = 4). The severity of psoriasis symptoms was reliably rated by dermatologists. A time-series multivariate regression analysis controlling for extraneous factors influencing psoriasis symptoms, revealed a significant difference between the mean psoriasis ratings of treatment and control groups after treatment (partial r = 0.30, p less than 0.01). No additional impact was associated with the use of the imagery technique (partial r = 0.06, p less than 0.05). Four subjects in the treatment groups, two in each condition, succeeded in clinically improving their psoriasis symptoms and none deteriorated. The practice of meditation may be clinically effective for some patients in reducing their psoriasis symptoms. For one of the control groups, the relation between psychological stress and psoriasis was examined prospectively over a period of 20 weeks using standardized measures. A time-series multivariate statistical method indicated an average positive correlation between the severity of psoriasis symptoms and psychological distress (partial r = 0.31, p less than 0.01) and the impact of adverse life events (partial r = 0.23, p less than 0.05); there were, however, important individual differences. Stress reduction techniques can thus be regarded as part of the treatment offered to some patients suffering from psoriasis.

  9. 78 FR 43215 - Submission for OMB review; 30-day Comment Request: The Agricultural Health Study: A Prospective...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-19

    ... Agricultural Health Study: A Prospective Cohort Study of Cancer and Other Disease Among Men and Women in...: The Agricultural Health Study: A Prospective Cohort Study of Cancer and Other Disease Among Men...

  10. A Qualitative Case Study of Prospective Chemistry Teachers' Knowledge about Instructional Strategies: Introducing Particulate Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boz, Nihat; Boz, Yezdan

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate prospective chemistry teachers' knowledge about instructional strategies, one component of pedagogical content knowledge about introducing particulate theory, as well as sources of this knowledge. Twenty-two prospective chemistry teachers participated in the study. Data were collected by the means of a…

  11. A Comparative Study of Problematic Internet Use and Loneliness among Turkish and Korean Prospective Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tutgun, Aylin; Deniz, Levent; Moon, Man-Ki

    2011-01-01

    The main aim of this study is to compare the problematic internet use and its relation to loneliness among two nations' prospective teachers, Turkey and South Korea. Five hundred and ninety five prospective teachers from three universities, two from Turkey and one from South Korea participated in the study. Generalized Problematic Internet Use…

  12. The Limitations of a Prospective Study of Memories for Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheit, Ross E.

    2003-01-01

    Prospective studies have been held out as a kind of Holy Grail in research about remembering or forgetting child sexual abuse. They seem to hold the perfect answer to the verification problems that plague retrospective self-reports in the clinical literature. Prospective studies begin with verified cases of abuse. Then they require detective work…

  13. An Instrument Development Study for Determining Prospective Science Teachers' Science-Specific Epistemological Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koksal, Mustafa Serdar; Ertekin, Pelin

    2016-01-01

    The study is focusing on development of an instrument to determine science-specific epistemological beliefs of prospective science teachers. The study involved 364 (male = 82, female = 282) prospective science teachers enrolled in a science teacher education program. The confirmatory factor analysis, reliability analysis and correlation analysis…

  14. Bilateral simultaneous percutaneous nephrolithotomy. A prospective feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Ahlawat, R; Banerjee, G K; Dalela, D

    1995-01-01

    A prospective study was undertaken to assess the feasibility and safety of bilateral simultaneous percutaneous nephrolithotomy (BPNL) under single anesthesia. BPNL was attempted in 16 consecutive patients with upper tract urolithiasis suitable for percutaneous treatment bilaterally. Bilateral simultaneous PNL could be accomplished in 14 of 16 cases; the opposite side was abandoned in 2 due to technical reasons. The operating sides could be switched within a short period (15 min) by rotating the patient table by 180 degrees. The average total operating time and irrigation time was 83 and 43 min, respectively. A total of 29 tracts and 18 sessions were required for endourologic treatment of 28 units in 14 patients. There was no significant morbidity. Complete clearance was achieved in 11 of 14 patients; there was insignificant residue in 1, while 2 with major residue required adjunct JJ stenting and extra-corporeal shockwave lithotripsy. The average hospital stay was 5.4 days. After initial proficiency with endourology, preparedness for BPNL is advisable in all such cases.

  15. Socioeconomic Status, Race, and Mortality: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Sarah S.; Williams, David R.; Munro, Heather M.; Hargreaves, Margaret K.; Blot, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the independent and joint effects of race, individual socioeconomic status (SES), and neighborhood SES on mortality risk. Methods. We conducted a prospective analysis involving 52 965 non-Hispanic Black and 23 592 non-Hispanic White adults taking part in the Southern Community Cohort Study. Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to determine associations of race and SES with all-cause and cause-specific mortality. Results. In our cohort, wherein Blacks and Whites had similar individual SES, Blacks were less likely than Whites to die during the follow-up period (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.78; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.73, 0.84). Low household income was a strong predictor of all-cause mortality among both Blacks and Whites (HR = 1.76; 95% CI = 1.45, 2.12). Being in the lowest (vs highest) category with respect to both individual and neighborhood SES was associated with a nearly 3-fold increase in all-cause mortality risk (HR = 2.76; 95% CI = 1.99, 3.84). There was no significant mortality-related interaction between individual SES and neighborhood SES among either Blacks or Whites. Conclusions. SES is a strong predictor of premature mortality, and the independent associations of individual SES and neighborhood SES with mortality risk are similar for Blacks and Whites. PMID:25322291

  16. A prospective study of mediastinal gray-zone lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Pittaluga, Stefania; Nicolae, Alina; Camphausen, Kevin; Shovlin, Margaret; Steinberg, Seth M.; Roschewski, Mark; Staudt, Louis M.; Jaffe, Elaine S.; Dunleavy, Kieron

    2014-01-01

    Mediastinal B-cell lymphomas present in the mediastinum and are most frequent in young patients. Nodular sclerosis Hodgkin lymphoma (NSHL) and primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma (PMBL) are the common types, whereas mediastinal gray-zone lymphoma (MGZL) is extremely rare and has pathological features intermediate between NSHL and PMBL. The indeterminate pathobiology of MGZL has led to uncertainty regarding therapeutic strategy, and its clinical characteristics and treatment have not been characterized. We conducted a prospective study of infusional dose-adjusted etoposide, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide with vincristine, prednisone, and rituximab (DA-EPOCH-R) and filgrastim in untreated MGZL. We analyzed biomarkers of outcome and compared their clinical and biological characteristics to PMBL. Twenty-four MGZL patients had a median age of 33 years (range, 14 to 59 years), and 46% had mediastinal masses ≥10 cm. At 59 months median follow-up, the event-free survival and overall survival were 62% and 74%, respectively. The serum absolute lymphocyte count, the presence of tumor-infiltrating dendritic cells, CD15 expression on the malignant cells, and tumor morphology were biomarkers of outcome in MGZL. Compared with PMBL, MGZL patients were more likely to be male, express CD15, have lower expression of CD20, and have a worse outcome. DA-EPOCH-R alone is effective in MGZL. The trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00001337). PMID:25024303

  17. A prospective study of mediastinal gray-zone lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Wyndham H; Pittaluga, Stefania; Nicolae, Alina; Camphausen, Kevin; Shovlin, Margaret; Steinberg, Seth M; Roschewski, Mark; Staudt, Louis M; Jaffe, Elaine S; Dunleavy, Kieron

    2014-09-01

    Mediastinal B-cell lymphomas present in the mediastinum and are most frequent in young patients. Nodular sclerosis Hodgkin lymphoma (NSHL) and primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma (PMBL) are the common types, whereas mediastinal gray-zone lymphoma (MGZL) is extremely rare and has pathological features intermediate between NSHL and PMBL. The indeterminate pathobiology of MGZL has led to uncertainty regarding therapeutic strategy, and its clinical characteristics and treatment have not been characterized. We conducted a prospective study of infusional dose-adjusted etoposide, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide with vincristine, prednisone, and rituximab (DA-EPOCH-R) and filgrastim in untreated MGZL. We analyzed biomarkers of outcome and compared their clinical and biological characteristics to PMBL. Twenty-four MGZL patients had a median age of 33 years (range, 14 to 59 years), and 46% had mediastinal masses ≥10 cm. At 59 months median follow-up, the event-free survival and overall survival were 62% and 74%, respectively. The serum absolute lymphocyte count, the presence of tumor-infiltrating dendritic cells, CD15 expression on the malignant cells, and tumor morphology were biomarkers of outcome in MGZL. Compared with PMBL, MGZL patients were more likely to be male, express CD15, have lower expression of CD20, and have a worse outcome. DA-EPOCH-R alone is effective in MGZL. The trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00001337). PMID:25024303

  18. Family dysfunction in asthma: a prospective study of illness development.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, P A; Björkstén, B; Kjellman, N I

    1994-09-01

    The role of psychosocial factors in the development of wheezing was studied prospectively in 100 infants with a strong family history of allergy. The entire family participated in a standardized family test when the children were 3 and 18 months of age. The ability to adjust to demands of the situation ("adaptability") and the balance between emotional closeness and distance ("cohesion") were assessed from videotapes by independent raters. Families rated as functional in both aspects were classified as "functional" and otherwise as "dysfunctional." Based on records of symptoms kept by the parents and on results of physical examinations at 6 and 18 months of age, the children were classified as healthy or as having recurrent wheezing, recurrent infections, or eczema. An unbalanced family interplay was common (37%) at 3 months but did not predict development of illness. If the child remained healthy and the family did not experience any further stress, family interaction was functional 15 months later. If, however, the child acquired anxiety-provoking symptoms, such as wheezing, a high proportion of families continued or began to have dysfunctional interaction patterns. When the healthy children were 18 months of age, only 12% of their families were dysfunctional, compared with 26%, 46%, and 52%, respectively, of the families of children with eczema, recurrent infections, and obstructive symptoms (p < 0.01). We conclude that dysfunctional family interaction seems to be a result rather than the cause of wheezing in infancy. PMID:8071765

  19. Management of dengue shock syndrome. A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Tjandra, H

    1991-01-01

    Since dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) was first reported 20 years ago, the only serious variant of the disease, dengue shock syndrome (DSS), still continues to cause a relatively high mortality. An effective yet simple management of DSS which can be carried out in every hospital is certainly necessary if the dead toll is to be reduced. Prospective study of a simple procedure in managing DSS patients in Bhayangkara Police Hospital Kediri is reported. Depends on the severity of the disease, for DHF grade III: 30 ml/kg bw Lactated-Ringer solution was given at free rate. This is followed by 20 ml/kg bw of synthetic plasma expander (Expafusin) in a rate of thrice the body weight and continued with lactated-ringer and 5% dextrose in 1/2 Saline alternately with a rate of twice the body weight per minute for the remaining first 24 hours. For DHF grade IV, the same fluids were given, except for the amount and the infusion rate. Drugs administered and medical care were all the same for both groups. A close observation, a critical assessment, and an accurate as well as a rapid action are very important factors. Totally there were 115 patients of which 8 died. The mortality rate was 7%. A better management and/or treatment has to be developed to further reduce the mortality.

  20. Butorphanol in labour analgesia: A prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Halder, Ajay; Agarwal, Rachana

    2013-01-01

    Objective Parenteral opioids can be administered with ease at a very low cost with high efficacy as labour analgesia. However, there are insufficient data available to accept the benefits of parenteral opioids over other proven methods of labour analgesia. Butorphanol, a new synthetic opioid, has emerged as a promising agent in terms of efficacy and a better safety profile. This study investigates the effect of butorphanol as a labour analgesia to gather further evidence of its safety and efficacy to pave the way for its widespread use in low resource settings. Material and Methods One hundred low risk term consenting pregnant women were recruited to take part in a prospective cohort study. Intramuscular injections of butorphanol tartrate 1 mg (Butrum 1/2mg, Aristo, Mumbai, India) were given in the active phase of labour and repeated two hourly. Pain relief was noted on a 10-point visual pain analogue scale (VPAS). Obstetric and neonatal outcome measures were mode of delivery, duration of labour, Apgar scores at 1 and 5 minutes and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit admissions. Collected data were analysed for statistically significant pain relief between pre- and post-administration VPAS scores and also for the incidence of adverse outcomes. Results Pain started to decrease significantly within 15 minutes of administration and reached the nadir (3.08 SD0.51) at the end of two hours. The pain remained below four on the VPAS until the end of six hours and was still significantly low after eight hours. The incidence of adverse outcomes was low in the present study. Conclusion Butorphanol is an effective parenteral opioid analgesic which can be administered with reasonable safety for the mother and the neonate. The study has the drawback of lack of control and small sample size. PMID:24592110

  1. Dietary fiber intake and mortality among survivors of myocardial infarction: prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Flint, Alan; Pai, Jennifer K; Forman, John P; Hu, Frank B; Willett, Walter C; Rexrode, Kathryn M; Mukamal, Kenneth J; Rimm, Eric B

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the associations of dietary fiber after myocardial infarction (MI) and changes in dietary fiber intake from before to after MI with all cause and cardiovascular mortality. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Two large prospective cohort studies of US women and men with repeated dietary measurements: the Nurses’ Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study. Participants 2258 women and 1840 men who were free of cardiovascular disease, stroke, or cancer at enrollment, survived a first MI during follow-up, were free of stroke at the time of initial onset of MI, and provided food frequency questionnaires pre-MI and at least one post-MI. Main outcome measures Associations of dietary fiber post-MI and changes from before to after MI with all cause and cardiovascular mortality using Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for drug use, medical history, and lifestyle factors. Results Higher post-MI fiber intake was significantly associated with lower all cause mortality (comparing extreme fifths, pooled hazard ratio 0.75, 95% confidence interval 0.58 to 0.97). Greater intake of cereal fiber was more strongly associated with all cause mortality (pooled hazard ratio 0.73, 0.58 to 0.91) than were other sources of dietary fiber. Increased fiber intake from before to after MI was significantly associated with lower all cause mortality (pooled hazard ratio 0.69, 0.55 to 0.87). Conclusions In this prospective study of patients who survived MI, a greater intake of dietary fiber after MI, especially cereal fiber, was inversely associated with all cause mortality. In addition, increasing consumption of fiber from before to after MI was significantly associated with lower all cause and cardiovascular mortality. PMID:24782515

  2. Benchmark Study of Industrial Needs for Additive Manufacturing in Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindqvist, Markku; Piili, Heidi; Salminen, Antti

    Additive manufacturing (AM) is a modern way to produce parts for industrial use. Even though the technical knowledge and research of AM processes are strong in Finland, there are only few industrial applications. Aim of this study is to collect practical knowledge of companies who are interested in industrial use of AM, especially in South-Eastern Finland. Goal of this study is also to investigate demands and requirements of applications for industrial use of AM in this area of Finland. It was concluded, that two of the reasons prohibiting wider industrial use of AM in Finland, are wrong expectations against this technology as well as lack of basic knowledge of possibilities of the technology. Especially, it was noticed that strong 3D-hype is even causing misunderstandings. Nevertheless, the high-level industrial know-how in the area, built around Finnish lumber industry is a strong foundation for the additive manufacturing technology.

  3. Electrostatic Levitation for Studies of Additive Manufactured Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    SanSoucie, Michael P.; Rogers, Jan R.; Tramel, Terri

    2014-01-01

    The electrostatic levitation (ESL) laboratory at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center is a unique facility for investigators studying high temperature materials. The laboratory boasts two levitators in which samples can be levitated, heated, melted, undercooled, and resolidified. Electrostatic levitation minimizes gravitational effects and allows materials to be studied without contact with a container or instrumentation. The lab also has a high temperature emissivity measurement system, which provides normal spectral and normal total emissivity measurements at use temperature. The ESL lab has been instrumental in many pioneering materials investigations of thermophysical properties, e.g., creep measurements, solidification, triggered nucleation, and emissivity at high temperatures. Research in the ESL lab has already led to the development of advanced high temperature materials for aerospace applications, coatings for rocket nozzles, improved medical and industrial optics, metallic glasses, ablatives for reentry vehicles, and materials with memory. Modeling of additive manufacturing materials processing is necessary for the study of their resulting materials properties. In addition, the modeling of the selective laser melting processes and its materials property predictions are also underway. Unfortunately, there is very little data for the properties of these materials, especially of the materials in the liquid state. Some method to measure thermophysical properties of additive manufacturing materials is necessary. The ESL lab is ideal for these studies. The lab can provide surface tension and viscosity of molten materials, density measurements, emissivity measurements, and even creep strength measurements. The ESL lab can also determine melting temperature, surface temperatures, and phase transition temperatures of additive manufactured materials. This presentation will provide background on the ESL lab and its capabilities, provide an approach to using the ESL

  4. A Study of Additive Noise Model for Robust Speech Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awatade, Manisha H.

    2011-12-01

    A model of how speech amplitude spectra are affected by additive noise is studied. Acoustic features are extracted based on the noise robust parts of speech spectra without losing discriminative information. An existing two non-linear processing methods, harmonic demodulation and spectral peak-to-valley ratio locking, are designed to minimize mismatch between clean and noisy speech features. Previously studied methods, including peak isolation [1], do not require noise estimation and are effective in dealing with both stationary and non-stationary noise.

  5. A prospective clinical study of patients with hypernatraemic dehydration.

    PubMed

    Eke, F; Nte, A

    1996-09-01

    In a clinical prospective 3-year study of 158 children aged 2 weeks to 14 years with hypernatraemic dehydration (serum sodium 150 mmol/l or more), infants predominated (61.4%). The 158 children with hypernatraemia accounted for 13.7% of all children admitted with gastroenteritis over the same period, and significant aetiological factors included the use of artificial feeds, differences between the children with hypernatraemia and those with normo- or hyponatraemia, P < 0.001, P < 0.001, respectively; the use of breast milk, P < 0.001, P < 0.001, respectively; nutritional status, P < 0.001, P < 0.001, respectively; and clinical state of mild to moderate dehydration P < 0.001; P < 0.001, respectively; but not with patients considered severely dehydrated. There was also a significant difference between the presence of neurological features in hyper- and normonatraemic patients P < 0.001; in hyper- and hyponatraemic patients P < 0.05, and in mortality rate between hyper- and normonatraemic patients, P < 0.05 but not between hyper- and hyponatraemic patients. A history of refusal to feed or vomiting was obtained in 41 children (25.9%). The mean serum sodium was 155.5 mmol/l (range 150-189 mmol/l); mean serum urea 7.7 mmol/l (range 1-18.9 mmol/l). Hypernatraemic dehydration remains an important and serious complication of childhood gastroenteritis in our area of study. The use of artificial milk feeds is contributory, and well-nourished babies appear more at risk. We recommend more liberal water intake during gastroenteritis and the public should also be educated on and made more aware of this condition.

  6. Prospective studies of infectious mononucleosis in university students

    PubMed Central

    Grimm, Jennifer M; Schmeling, David O; Dunmire, Samantha K; Knight, Jennifer A; Mullan, Beth D; Ed, Julie A; Brundage, Richard C; Hogquist, Kristin A; Balfour, Henry H

    2016-01-01

    We performed an intensive prospective study designed to obtain as much data as possible on the incubation and early illness periods of primary Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) infection. Undergraduate students who lacked EBV antibody and oral EBV DNA (EBV-naive) were seen every 2 weeks during their freshman year. Clinical and behavioral data, oral washes and venous blood were obtained. EBV antibodies were quantified by enzyme immunoassay and viral loads by PCR. During a median 8 months of observation, 14/85 subjects experienced primary EBV infections (24 cases/100 person-years). The only significant risk factor for acquisition of EBV infection was deep kissing (P=0.02). Eleven subjects had infectious mononucleosis with a median duration of 21 days. Two subjects were hospitalized. Infections were initially identified in 12 subjects by finding EBV DNA in oral cells before onset of symptoms and in 2 subjects by symptom reporting. EBV DNA and viral capsid antigen (VCA) IgM and gp350 IgG antibodies were present in the blood before onset of illness. To provide a more robust evaluation of primary EBV infection in undergraduate university students, we combined data on risk factors and antibody responses from this and an earlier study that used the exact same clinical and laboratory methods. The observation that the only significant risk factor for acquisition of EBV infection was deep kissing was confirmed. Most importantly, higher amounts of gp350 antibody correlated significantly with a lower severity of infectious mononucleosis (P<0.0001), which strengthens the rationale for a gp350-based prophylactic EBV vaccine. PMID:27588199

  7. Prospective studies of infectious mononucleosis in university students.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Jennifer M; Schmeling, David O; Dunmire, Samantha K; Knight, Jennifer A; Mullan, Beth D; Ed, Julie A; Brundage, Richard C; Hogquist, Kristin A; Balfour, Henry H

    2016-08-01

    We performed an intensive prospective study designed to obtain as much data as possible on the incubation and early illness periods of primary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. Undergraduate students who lacked EBV antibody and oral EBV DNA (EBV-naive) were seen every 2 weeks during their freshman year. Clinical and behavioral data, oral washes and venous blood were obtained. EBV antibodies were quantified by enzyme immunoassay and viral loads by PCR. During a median 8 months of observation, 14/85 subjects experienced primary EBV infections (24 cases/100 person-years). The only significant risk factor for acquisition of EBV infection was deep kissing (P=0.02). Eleven subjects had infectious mononucleosis with a median duration of 21 days. Two subjects were hospitalized. Infections were initially identified in 12 subjects by finding EBV DNA in oral cells before onset of symptoms and in 2 subjects by symptom reporting. EBV DNA and viral capsid antigen (VCA) IgM and gp350 IgG antibodies were present in the blood before onset of illness. To provide a more robust evaluation of primary EBV infection in undergraduate university students, we combined data on risk factors and antibody responses from this and an earlier study that used the exact same clinical and laboratory methods. The observation that the only significant risk factor for acquisition of EBV infection was deep kissing was confirmed. Most importantly, higher amounts of gp350 antibody correlated significantly with a lower severity of infectious mononucleosis (P<0.0001), which strengthens the rationale for a gp350-based prophylactic EBV vaccine. PMID:27588199

  8. Liquid versus gel handrub formulation: a prospective intervention study

    PubMed Central

    Traore, Ousmane; Hugonnet, Stéphane; Lübbe, Jann; Griffiths, William; Pittet, Didier

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Hand hygiene is one of the cornerstones of the prevention of health care-associated infection, but health care worker (HCW) compliance with good practices remains low. Alcohol-based handrub is the new standard for hand hygiene action worldwide and usually requires a system change for its successful introduction in routine care. Product acceptability by HCWs is a crucial step in this process. Methods We conducted a prospective intervention study to compare the impact on HCW compliance of a liquid (study phase I) versus a gel (phase II) handrub formulation of the same product during daily patient care. All staff (102 HCWs) of the medical intensive care unit participated. Compliance with hand hygiene was monitored by a single observer. Skin tolerance and product acceptability were assessed using subjective and objective scoring systems, self-report questionnaires, and biometric measurements. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association between predictors and compliance with the handrub formulation as the main explanatory variable and to adjust for potential risk factors. Results Overall compliance (phases I and II) with hand hygiene practices among nurses, physicians, nursing assistants, and other HCWs was 39.1%, 27.1%, 31.1%, and 13.9%, respectively (p = 0.027). Easy access to handrub improved compliance (35.3% versus 50.6%, p = 0.035). Nurse status, working on morning shifts, use of the gel formulation, and availability of the alcohol-based handrub in the HCW's pocket were independently associated with higher compliance. Immediate accessibility was the strongest predictor. Based on self-assessment, observer assessment, and the measurement of epidermal water content, the gel performed significantly better than the liquid formulation. Conclusion Facilitated access to an alcohol-based gel formulation leads to improved compliance with hand hygiene and better skin condition in HCWs. PMID:17477858

  9. Active Bleeding after Cardiac Surgery: A Prospective Observational Multicenter Study

    PubMed Central

    Fellahi, Jean-Luc; Bertet, Héléna; Faucanie, Marie; Amour, Julien; Blanloeil, Yvonnick; Lanquetot, Hervé; Ouattara, Alexandre; Picot, Marie Christine

    2016-01-01

    Main Objectives To estimate the incidence of active bleeding after cardiac surgery (AB) based on a definition directly related on blood flow from chest drainage; to describe the AB characteristics and its management; to identify factors of postoperative complications. Methods AB was defined as a blood loss > 1.5 ml/kg/h for 6 consecutive hours within the first 24 hours or in case of reoperation for hemostasis during the first 12 postoperative hours. The definition was applied in a prospective longitudinal observational study involving 29 French centers; all adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass were included over a 3-month period. Perioperative data (including blood product administration) were collected. To study possible variation in clinical practice among centers, patients were classified into two groups according to the AB incidence of the center compared to the overall incidence: “Low incidence” if incidence is lower and “High incidence” if incidence is equal or greater than overall incidence. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify risk factors of postoperative complications. Results Among 4,904 patients, 129 experienced AB (2.6%), among them 52 reoperation. Postoperative bleeding loss was 1,000 [820;1,375] ml and 1,680 [1,280;2,300] ml at 6 and 24 hours respectively. Incidence of AB varied between centers (0 to 16%) but was independent of in-centre cardiac surgical experience. Comparisons between groups according to AB incidence showed differences in postoperative management. Body surface area, preoperative creatinine, emergency surgery, postoperative acidosis and red blood cell transfusion were risk factors of postoperative complication. Conclusions A blood loss > 1.5 ml/kg/h for 6 consecutive hours within the first 24 hours or early reoperation for hemostasis seems a relevant definition of AB. This definition, independent of transfusion, adjusted to body weight, may assess real time bleeding occurring

  10. Prospective study of birth interval dynamics in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Chen, L C; Ahmed, S; Gesche, M; Henry Mosley, W

    1974-07-01

    Abstract A group of 209 married, fecund women in rural Bangladesh were studied prospectively for 24 months from 1969 to 1971 to define some of the biological and sociological factors relating to fertility performance. These women were selected from a larger study population of 112,000 that had been followed with a daily house-to-house vital registration programme since 1966. The selected women were interviewed bi-weekly and were asked questions about menstruation, pregnancy, lactation, husband's occupational absences, and monthly urine tests for pregnancy were taken. The results for 193 non-contracepting women revealed that the seasonal pattern of births previously observed in this population could be associated with a corresponding seasonal pattern of conceptions and that this was due to a seasonal trend in fecundability. The highest conception rates were in the coolest months of the year. Post-partum lactational amenorrhoea was very prolonged, averaging 17 months for women with a surviving child. The appearance of the first post-partum menstrual flow (onset of ovulation) also had a seasonal trend which could not be adequately explained. The median waiting time to conception, once menstruation had resumed was eight months. This interval was influenced by seasonal fluctuations, as well as by the age of women and by husbands' absences. The foetal wastage rate was 15·0 per 100 conceptions, with 62 per cent of the foetal losses occurring during the second month of gestation. Overall, the average birth interval was 33 months, with the prolonged lactational amenorrhoea accounting for almost 45 per cent of this interval. From the Department of Population Dynamics, Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland 21205. PMID:22070207

  11. A Prospective Cohort Study of Mineral Metabolism After Kidney Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Myles; Weir, Matthew R.; Kopyt, Nelson; Mannon, Roslyn B.; Von Visger, Jon; Deng, Hongjie; Yue, Susan; Vincenti, Flavio

    2016-01-01

    Background Kidney transplantation corrects or improves many complications of chronic kidney disease, but its impact on disordered mineral metabolism is incompletely understood. Methods We performed a multicenter, prospective, observational cohort study of 246 kidney transplant recipients in the United States to investigate the evolution of mineral metabolism from pretransplant through the first year after transplantation. Participants were enrolled into 2 strata defined by their pretransplant levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH), low PTH (>65 to ≤300 pg/mL; n = 112), and high PTH (>300 pg/mL; n = 134) and underwent repeated, longitudinal testing for mineral metabolites. Results The prevalence of posttransplant, persistent hyperparathyroidism (PTH >65 pg/mL) was 89.5%, 86.8%, 83.1%, and 86.2%, at months 3, 6, 9, and 12, respectively, among participants who remained untreated with cinacalcet, vitamin D sterols, or parathyroidectomy. The results did not differ across the low and high PTH strata, and rates of persistent hyperparathyroidism remained higher than 40% when defined using a higher PTH threshold greater than 130 pg/mL. Rates of hypercalcemia peaked at 48% at week 8 in the high PTH stratum and then steadily decreased through month 12. Rates of hypophosphatemia (<2.5 mg/dL) peaked at week 2 and then progressively decreased through month 12. Levels of intact fibroblast growth factor 23 decreased rapidly during the first 3 months after transplantation in both PTH strata and remained less than 40 pg/mL thereafter. Conclusions Persistent hyperparathyroidism is common after kidney transplantation. Further studies should determine if persistent hyperparathyroidism or its treatment influences long-term posttransplantation clinical outcomes. PMID:26177089

  12. Prospective Elementary School Teachers' Views about Socioscientific Issues: A Concurrent Parallel Design Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özden, Muhammet

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the prospective elementary school teachers' perceptions on socioscientific issues. The research was conducted on prospective elementary school teachers studying at a university located in western Turkey. The researcher first taught the subjects of global warming and nuclear power plants from a perspective…

  13. Prospects: The Congressionally Mandated Study of Educational Growth and Opportunity. The Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puma, Michael J.; And Others

    This publication is the first interim report from the Congressionally Mandated Study of Educational Growth and Opportunity (Prospects), and describes students' characteristics and the schools they attend. Prospects is designed to evaluate the short- and long-term consequences of Chapter 1 program participation by following for 5 years large…

  14. Microwave sanitization of color additives used in cosmetics: feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Jasnow, S B; Smith, J L

    1975-08-01

    Microwave exposure has been explored as a method of microbiologically sanitizing color additives used in cosmetic products. Selected microbiologically unacceptable cosmetic color additives, D&C red no. 7 Ca lake (certified synthetic organic color), carmine (natural organic color not subject to certification), and chromium hydroxide green (inorganic color not subject to certification), were submitted to microwave exposure. Gram-negative bacteria were eliminated, as verified by enrichment procedures, and levels of gram-positive bacteria were reduced. Generally, analytical and dermal safety studies indicated no significant alterations in physical, chemical, and toxicological properties of the colors. Sanitization was also successfully performed on other colors (D&C red no. 9 Ba lake, D&C red no. 12 Ba lake, D&C green no. 5, and FD&C red no. 4); initial physical and chemical tests were satisfactory. Results indicated that this method of sanitization is feasible and warrants further investigation.

  15. BIG FROG WILDERNESS STUDY AREA AND ADDITIONS, TENNESSEE AND GEORGIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slack, John F.; Gazdik, Gertrude C.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral-resource survey was made of the Big Frog Wilderness Study Area and additions, Tennessee-Georgia. Geochemical sampling found traces of gold, zinc, copper, and arsenic in rocks, stream sediments, and panned concentrates, but not in sufficient quantities to indicate the presence of deposits of these metals. The results of the survey indicate that there is little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral deposits within the study area. The only apparent resources are nonmetallic commodities including rock suitable for construction materials, and small amounts of sand and gravel; however, these commodities are found in abundance outside the study area. A potential may exist for oil and natural gas at great depths, but this cannot be evaluated by the present study.

  16. Recommended Protocol for Round Robin Studies in Additive Manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Moylan, Shawn; Brown, Christopher U.; Slotwinski, John

    2016-01-01

    One way to improve confidence and encourage proliferation of additive manufacturing (AM) technologies and parts is by generating more high quality data describing the performance of AM processes and parts. Many in the AM community see round robin studies as a way to generate large data sets while distributing the cost among the participants, thereby reducing the cost to individual users. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has conducted and participated in several of these AM round robin studies. While the results of these studies are interesting and informative, many of the lessons learned in conducting these studies concern the logistics and methods of the study and unique issues presented by AM. Existing standards for conducting interlaboratory studies of measurement methods, along with NIST’s experience, form the basis for recommended protocols for conducting AM round robin studies. The role of round robin studies in AM qualification, some of the limitations of round robin studies, and the potential benefit of less formal collaborative experiments where multiple factors, AM machine being only one, are varied simultaneously are also discussed. PMID:27274602

  17. Effects of Serum Triglycerides on Prostate Cancer and Breast Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hong-Qun; Cui, Lian-Hua; Li, Cheng-Cheng; Yu, Zhuang; Piao, Jin-Mei

    2016-10-01

    Epidemiological studies show conflicting results regarding the link between serum triglyceride and the risk of prostate cancer and breast cancer. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis of prospective studies to clarify this association. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, the Chinese Biomedical Database (CBM), and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) database to identify relevant prospective studies of the relationship between serum triglyceride and prostate cancer and breast cancer risk. Study-specific estimates adjusting for potential confounders were combined to evaluate a summary relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) using a fixed- or random-effects model. A total of 11 prospective studies (619,410 subjects and 15,691 incident prostate cancer patients) and 8 prospective studies (590,878 subjects and 12,177 incident breast cancer patients) were respectively included in our meta-analysis to assess the associations of serum triglyceride with prostate cancer and breast cancer risk. The pooled adjusted RR estimates for prostate cancer and breast cancer for the highest versus the lowest exposure levels of serum triglycerides were 0.95 (95% CI: 0.87-1.04) and 0.94 (95% CI: 0.87-1.00), respectively. Additionally, a dose-response analysis revealed that serum levels of triglycerides were not associated with the risk of prostate cancer and breast cancer. We found that serum triglyceride was not related to the risk of prostate cancer and breast cancer. PMID:27618148

  18. Tissue injuries after single-port and multiport laparoscopic gynecologic surgeries: A prospective multicenter study

    PubMed Central

    So, Kyeong A; Lee, Jae Kwan; Song, Jae Yun; Kim, Jae Won; Lee, Nak Woo; Ki, Kyung-Do; Lee, Jong-Min; Song, Yong Jung; Na, Yong Jin; Ku, Chun Hoe; Shin, Jin Woo; Kim, Chul Jung; Jung, Un Suk

    2016-01-01

    The present study focused on the degree of tissue injury following single-port laparoscopic surgery (SPLS) and multiport laparoscopic surgery (MPLS) for the treatment of various benign gynecologic diseases. A total of 228 patients were prospectively enrolled at seven academic centers in South Korea between April 2011 and September 2012. Of these, 122 patients underwent SPLS and 106 patients underwent MPLS. The serum levels of C-reactive protein, creatine phosphokinase, lactic dehydrogenase and cancer antigen 125 were measured preoperatively and on postoperative day 4 by immunonephelometry. Cosmetic satisfaction and postoperative pain scores (visual analogue scale) were analyzed. Postoperative changes in the levels of the serum markers were found to be similar between the SPLS and MPLS groups. However, the postoperative pain scores at 48 h were significantly lower in the SPLS group when compared with those in the MPLS (P=0.001). In addition, patient-controlled analgesia was used more frequently by patients in the MPLS group (P=0.003). The present study is the first prospective investigation of tissue injury resulting from SPLS and MPLS in gynecology. In conclusion, the current study demonstrated that serum marker levels during SPLS were similar to those during MPLS in the treatment of benign gynecologic diseases. However, SPLS is a reasonable alternative to MPLS and is associated with comparable tissue injury, improved cosmesis and reduced postoperative pain. PMID:27698717

  19. Tissue injuries after single-port and multiport laparoscopic gynecologic surgeries: A prospective multicenter study

    PubMed Central

    So, Kyeong A; Lee, Jae Kwan; Song, Jae Yun; Kim, Jae Won; Lee, Nak Woo; Ki, Kyung-Do; Lee, Jong-Min; Song, Yong Jung; Na, Yong Jin; Ku, Chun Hoe; Shin, Jin Woo; Kim, Chul Jung; Jung, Un Suk

    2016-01-01

    The present study focused on the degree of tissue injury following single-port laparoscopic surgery (SPLS) and multiport laparoscopic surgery (MPLS) for the treatment of various benign gynecologic diseases. A total of 228 patients were prospectively enrolled at seven academic centers in South Korea between April 2011 and September 2012. Of these, 122 patients underwent SPLS and 106 patients underwent MPLS. The serum levels of C-reactive protein, creatine phosphokinase, lactic dehydrogenase and cancer antigen 125 were measured preoperatively and on postoperative day 4 by immunonephelometry. Cosmetic satisfaction and postoperative pain scores (visual analogue scale) were analyzed. Postoperative changes in the levels of the serum markers were found to be similar between the SPLS and MPLS groups. However, the postoperative pain scores at 48 h were significantly lower in the SPLS group when compared with those in the MPLS (P=0.001). In addition, patient-controlled analgesia was used more frequently by patients in the MPLS group (P=0.003). The present study is the first prospective investigation of tissue injury resulting from SPLS and MPLS in gynecology. In conclusion, the current study demonstrated that serum marker levels during SPLS were similar to those during MPLS in the treatment of benign gynecologic diseases. However, SPLS is a reasonable alternative to MPLS and is associated with comparable tissue injury, improved cosmesis and reduced postoperative pain.

  20. Postoperative retention of urine: a prospective urodynamic study.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, J B; Grant, J B

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate the cause of post-operative retention of urine in elderly men. DESIGN--Prospective study. SETTING--Northern General Hospital, Sheffield. PATIENTS--32 consecutive men (median age 73, range 55-85) referred to the urology department who were unable to pass urine either within 48 hours after operation and required catheterisation (23) or after removal of a catheter inserted at the initial operation (nine). INTERVENTION--Intermittent self catheterisation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Urological investigation by medium fill and voiding cystometry within four weeks after operation, and minimum follow up three months thereafter. RESULTS--6 patients resumed normal voiding before urodynamic assessment, three proceeded straight to prostatectomy, and one was unfit for self catheterisation. Of 22 men who underwent urodynamic investigation, only five had bladder outflow obstruction, who subsequently had successful prostatectomy; 15 showed either a low pressure-low flow system (seven) or complete detrusor failure (eight) and two showed pelvic parasympathetic nerve damage. With intermittent self catheterisation spontaneous voiding returned in all but one man within a median of 8 weeks (range 6-32 weeks). Recovery of bladder function took significantly longer in men with detrusor failure than in those with an underactive bladder (median 10 weeks (range 6-32 weeks) v median 8 weeks (range 6-8 weeks); p = 0.05). Three months later all patients had re-established their own normal voiding pattern with minimal residual urine on ultrasonography and satisfactory flow rates. CONCLUSIONS--Postoperative urinary retention in elderly men is not an indication for prostatectomy; a normal pattern of micturition can be re-established by intermittent self catheterisation in most men. PMID:1709058

  1. A prospective study of radioimmunoscintigraphy in ovarian cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Granowska, M.; Britton, K.E.; Mather, S.; Shepherd, J.; Nimmon, C.C.; Ward, B.; Carroll, M.J.; Slevin, M.L.

    1985-05-01

    The aim of this first prospective study using a monoclonal antibody labelled with I-123 was to determine its clinical potential. 30 patients with pelvic tumour, diagnosis known only to the gynaecological oncologists were referred and imaged at 10 min, 4h and 22h using human milk fat globule monoclonal antibody HMFG2 labelled using the iodogen technique with pure I-123 (2.5mCi injected). Images were reported without clinical information as negative or positive for ovarian cancer OC and its distribution mapped. Surgery and histology were assessed independently by the oncologists and the patients finally classified into group I: 10 with benign or non ovarian malignant disease and group II: 20 with OC in whom the sites of biopsy positive disease were also mapped. In group 1 5/10 patients showed the pattern of OC indicating that the technique is unsuccessful as a screening test due to the lack of specificity - uptake by liver, stomach and colon metastases being seen. In group II the distribution of OC primary and metastases was correct in 18/20, 90%. A new technique based on the kinetics of antibody uptake by the tumour using an algorithm which converts the data to a probability map based on the significance of the differences in distribution between the early and later images, correctly localised two 0.5cm biopsy positive OC tumours in one of the failures in group II. These results slow that radioimmunoscintigraphy will contribute to staging and evaluating chemotherapy in known OC.

  2. A prospective study of adverse drug reactions in hospitalized children

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Mir, Inocencia; García-López, Mercedes; Palop, Vicente; Ferrer, José M; Rubio, Elena; Morales-Olivas, Francisco J

    1999-01-01

    Aims There are few publications of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) among paediatric patients, though ADR incidence is usually stated to be higher during the first year of life and in male patients. We have carried out a prospective study to assess the extent, pattern and profile risk for ADRs in hospitalized patients between 1 and 24 months of age. Methods An intensive events monitoring scheme was used. A total of 512 successive admissions to two medical paediatric wards (47 beds) were analysed. The hospital records were screened daily during two periods (summer, 105 days and winter, 99 days), and adverse clinical events observed were recorded. Results A total of 282 events were detected; of these, 112 were considered to be manifestations of ADRs. The cumulative incidence was 16.6%, no differences being observed between periods. Although there were no differences between patients under and over 12 months of age, risk was found to be significantly higher among girls compared with boys (RR = 1.66, 95% CI 1.03–2.52). The gastro-intestinal system was most frequently affected. The therapeutic group most commonly implicated was anti-infective drugs and vaccines (41.5%). The ADRs were mild or moderate in over 90% of cases. A consistent relationship was noted between the number of drugs administered and the incidence of ADRs. Conclusions Hospitalized patients exhibited an ADR risk profile that included female sex and the number of drugs administered. No particular age predisposition was observed. The most commonly prescribed drugs are those most often implicated in ADRs in paediatric patients. PMID:10383547

  3. Trigeminocardiac reflex in neurosurgical practice: An observational prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Etezadi, Farhad; Orandi, Amir Ali; Orandi, Amir Hosein; Najafi, Atabak; Amirjamshidi, Abbas; Pourfakhr, Pejman; Khajavi, Mohammad Reza; Abbassioun, Kazem

    2013-01-01

    Background: Considering wide variations regarding the incidence of trigeminocardiac reflex (TCR) during cranial neurosurgical procedures, and paucity of reliable data, we intended to design a prospective study to determine the incidence of TCR in patients undergoing standard general anesthesia for surgery of supra/infra-tentorial cranial and skull base lesions. Methods: A total of 190 consecutive patients candidate for elective surgery of supra-tentorial, infra-tentorial, and skull base lesions were enrolled. All the patients were operated in the neurosurgical operating room of a university-affiliated teaching hospital. All surgeries were performed using sufficient depth of anesthesia achieved by titration of propofol–alfentanil mixture, adjusted according to target Cerebral State Index (CSI) values (40-60). All episodes of bradycardia and hypotension indicating the occurrence of TCR during the surgery (sudden decrease of more than 20% from the previous level) were recorded. Results: Four patients, two female and two male, developed episodes of TCR during surgery (4/190; 2.1%). Three patients showed one episode of TCR just at the end of operation when the skin sutures were applied while CSI values were 70-77 and in the last case, when small tumor samples were taken from just beneath the lateral wall of the cavernous sinus TCR episode was seen while the CSI value was 51. Conclusion: TCR is a rare phenomenon during brain surgeries when patient is anesthetized using standard techniques. Keeping the adequate depth of anesthesia using CSI monitoring method may be an advisable strategy during whole period of a neurosurgical procedure. PMID:24083052

  4. [Design and implementation of the ELSA-Brasil biobank: a prospective study in a Brazilian population].

    PubMed

    Pereira, Alexandre C; Bensenor, Isabela M; Fedeli, Ligia M; Castilhos, Cristina; Vidigal, Pedro G; Maniero, Viviane; Leite, Claudia M; Pimentel, Robercia A; Duncan, Bruce B; Mill, Jose Geraldo; Lotufo, Paulo A

    2013-06-01

    The Brazilian Longitudinal Study for Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) is a multicenter prospective cohort of civil servants designed to assess the determinants of chronic diseases, especially cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. The present article describes the main design and implementation points of the ELSA-Brasil biobank project. Economic, political, logistical and technological aspects of this study are characterized. Additionally, it discusses the final biorepository protocol and the facilities implemented to achieve this objective. The design and implementation process of the ELSA-Brasil biobank took three years to be performed. Both the central and local biobanks were built according to the best biorepository techniques, using different technological solutions for the distinct needs expected in this study.

  5. Making intelligent systems team players: Additional case studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Schreckenghost, Debra L.; Rhoads, Ron W.

    1993-01-01

    Observations from a case study of intelligent systems are reported as part of a multi-year interdisciplinary effort to provide guidance and assistance for designers of intelligent systems and their user interfaces. A series of studies were conducted to investigate issues in designing intelligent fault management systems in aerospace applications for effective human-computer interaction. The results of the initial study are documented in two NASA technical memoranda: TM 104738 Making Intelligent Systems Team Players: Case Studies and Design Issues, Volumes 1 and 2; and TM 104751, Making Intelligent Systems Team Players: Overview for Designers. The objective of this additional study was to broaden the investigation of human-computer interaction design issues beyond the focus on monitoring and fault detection in the initial study. The results of this second study are documented which is intended as a supplement to the original design guidance documents. These results should be of interest to designers of intelligent systems for use in real-time operations, and to researchers in the areas of human-computer interaction and artificial intelligence.

  6. A prospective study of dietary lactose and ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Fairfield, Kathleen M; Hunter, David J; Colditz, Graham A; Fuchs, Charles S; Cramer, Daniel W; Speizer, Frank E; Willett, Walter C; Hankinson, Susan E

    2004-06-10

    The milk sugar lactose is an hypothesized risk factor for epithelial ovarian cancer because of possible direct toxic effects of its metabolites on oocytes or by compensatory gonadotropin stimulation. Women are presently encouraged to consume dairy products as a source of calcium to prevent osteoporosis. The objective of our study was to prospectively assess lactose, milk and milk product consumption in relation to ovarian cancer risk among 80326 participants in the Nurses' Health Study who had no history of cancer other than nonmelanoma skin cancer. Participants in the Nurses' Health Study reported on known and suspected ovarian cancer risk factors in questionnaires mailed biennially from 1976 to 1996. Food frequency questionnaires were included in the years 1980, 1984, 1986 and 1990. Newly reported ovarian cancer was documented by review of medical records. During 16 years of follow-up (1980-1996), 301 cases of invasive epithelial ovarian cancer were confirmed. Pooled logistic regression was used to control for age, body mass index (kg/m(2)), caffeine intake, oral contraceptive use, smoking history, parity and tubal ligation. For all subtypes of invasive ovarian cancer combined, we observed a nonsignificant 40% greater risk for women in the highest category of lactose consumption compared to the lowest (multivariate relative risk (RR) 1.40, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.98-2.01). We observed a 2-fold higher risk of the serous ovarian cancer subtype among those in the highest category of lactose consumption compared to the lowest (RR 2.07, 95% CI, 1.27-3.40). For each 11-gram increase in lactose consumption (the approximate amount in one glass of milk), we observed a 20% increase in risk of serous cancers (RR 1.20, 95% CI, 1.04-1.39). Skim and low-fat milk were the largest contributors to dietary lactose. Women who consumed one or more servings of skim or low-fat milk daily had a 32% higher risk of any ovarian cancer (RR 1.32, 95% CI, 0.97-1.82) and a 69% higher

  7. Exposure to Greenness and Mortality in a Nationwide Prospective Cohort Study of Women

    PubMed Central

    James, Peter; Hart, Jaime E.; Banay, Rachel F.; Laden, Francine

    2016-01-01

    Background: Green, natural environments may ameliorate adverse environmental exposures (e.g., air pollution, noise, and extreme heat), increase physical activity and social engagement, and lower stress. Objectives: We aimed to examine the prospective association between residential greenness and mortality. Methods: Using data from the U.S.-based Nurses’ Health Study prospective cohort, we defined cumulative average time-varying seasonal greenness surrounding each participant’s address using satellite imagery [Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)]. We followed 108,630 women and observed 8,604 deaths between 2000 and 2008. Results: In models adjusted for mortality risk factors (age, race/ethnicity, smoking, and individual- and area-level socioeconomic status), women living in the highest quintile of cumulative average greenness (accounting for changes in residence during follow-up) in the 250-m area around their home had a 12% lower rate of all-cause nonaccidental mortality [95% confidence interval (CI); 0.82, 0.94] than those in the lowest quintile. The results were consistent for the 1,250-m area, although the relationship was slightly attenuated. These associations were strongest for respiratory and cancer mortality. The findings from a mediation analysis suggested that the association between greenness and mortality may be at least partly mediated by physical activity, particulate matter < 2.5 μm, social engagement, and depression. Conclusions: Higher levels of green vegetation were associated with decreased mortality. Policies to increase vegetation may provide opportunities for physical activity, reduce harmful exposures, increase social engagement, and improve mental health. Planting vegetation may mitigate the effects of climate change; in addition, evidence of an association between vegetation and lower mortality rates suggests it also might be used to improve health. Citation: James P, Hart JE, Banay RF, Laden F. 2016. Exposure to greenness

  8. RAMSEYS DRAFT WILDERNESS STUDY AREA AND ADDITION, VIRGINIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lesure, Frank G.; Mory, Peter C.

    1984-01-01

    Mineral-resource surveys of the Ramseys Draft Wilderness Study Area and adjoining roadless area addition in George Washington National Forest in the western valley and ridge province, Augusta and Highland Counties, Virginia, were done. The surveys outlined three small areas containing anomalous amounts of copper, lead, and zinc related to stratabound red-bed copper mineralization, but these occurrences are not large and are not considered as having mineral-resource potential. The area contains abundant sandstone suitable for construction materials and shale suitable for making brick, tile, and other low-grade ceramic products, but these commodities occur in abundance outside the wilderness study area. Structural conditions are probably favorable for the accumulation of natural gas, but exploratory drilling has not been done sufficiently near the area to evaluate the gas potential.

  9. Prospective performance evaluation of selected common virtual screening tools. Case study: Cyclooxygenase (COX) 1 and 2

    PubMed Central

    Kaserer, Teresa; Temml, Veronika; Kutil, Zsofia; Vanek, Tomas; Landa, Premysl; Schuster, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Computational methods can be applied in drug development for the identification of novel lead candidates, but also for the prediction of pharmacokinetic properties and potential adverse effects, thereby aiding to prioritize and identify the most promising compounds. In principle, several techniques are available for this purpose, however, which one is the most suitable for a specific research objective still requires further investigation. Within this study, the performance of several programs, representing common virtual screening methods, was compared in a prospective manner. First, we selected top-ranked virtual screening hits from the three methods pharmacophore modeling, shape-based modeling, and docking. For comparison, these hits were then additionally predicted by external pharmacophore- and 2D similarity-based bioactivity profiling tools. Subsequently, the biological activities of the selected hits were assessed in vitro, which allowed for evaluating and comparing the prospective performance of the applied tools. Although all methods performed well, considerable differences were observed concerning hit rates, true positive and true negative hits, and hitlist composition. Our results suggest that a rational selection of the applied method represents a powerful strategy to maximize the success of a research project, tightly linked to its aims. We employed cyclooxygenase as application example, however, the focus of this study lied on highlighting the differences in the virtual screening tool performances and not in the identification of novel COX-inhibitors. PMID:25916906

  10. Tea consumption and the risk of five major cancers: a dose–response meta-analysis of prospective studies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We conducted a dose–response meta-analysis of prospective studies to summarize evidence of the association between tea consumption and the risk of breast, colorectal, liver, prostate, and stomach cancer. Methods We searched PubMed and two other databases. Prospective studies that reported risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of cancer risk for ≥3 categories of tea consumption were included. We estimated an overall RR with 95% CI for an increase of three cups/day of tea consumption, and, usingrestricted cubic splines, we examined a nonlinear association between tea consumption and cancer risk. Results Forty-one prospective studies, with a total of 3,027,702 participants and 49,103 cancer cases, were included. From the pooled overall RRs, no inverse association between tea consumption and risk of five major cancers was observed. However, subgroup analysis showed that increase in consumption of three cups of black tea per day was a significant risk factor for breast cancer (RR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.05-1.32). Conclusion Ourresults did not show a protective role of tea in five major cancers. Additional large prospective cohort studies are needed to make a convincing case for associations. PMID:24636229

  11. Childhood infectious disease and premature death from cancer: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Tennant, Peter W G; Parker, Louise; Thomas, Julian E; Craft, Sir Alan W; Pearce, Mark S

    2013-03-01

    Studies of the association between early life infections and cancer have produced inconsistent findings, possibly due to limited adjustment for confounding and retrospective designs. This study utilised data from the Newcastle Thousand Families Study, a prospective cohort of 1,142 individuals born in Newcastle-upon-Tyne in 1947, to assess the impact of various childhood infectious diseases on cancer mortality during ages 15-60 years. Detailed information was collected prospectively on a number of early life factors. Deaths from cancer during ages 15-60 years were analysed in relation to childhood infections, adjusting for potential early-life confounders, using Cox proportional-hazards regression. In a subsample who returned questionnaires at aged 49-51 years, additional adjustment was made for adult factors to predict death from cancer during ages 50-60 years. Childhood history of measles and influenza, were both independently associated with lower cancer mortality during ages 15-60 years (adjusted hazard ratios = 0.39, 95% CI 0.17-0.88 and 0.49, 95% CI 0.24-0.98 respectively). In contrast, childhood pertussis was associated with higher cancer mortality during ages 15-60 years (adjusted hazard ratio = 4.88, 95% CI 2.29-10.38). In the subsample with additional adjustment for adult variables, measles and pertussis remained significantly associated with cancer mortality during ages 50-60 years. In this pre-vaccination cohort, childhood infection with measles and influenza were associated with a reduced risk of death from cancer in adulthood, while pertussis was associated with an increased risk. While these results suggest some disease-specific associations between early-life infections and cancer, further studies are required to confirm the specific associations identified.

  12. Morbidity of harvesting of retromolar bone grafts: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Nkenke, Emeka; Radespiel-Tröger, Martin; Wiltfang, Jörg; Schultze-Mosgau, Stefan; Winkler, Gerhard; Neukam, Friedrich Wilhelm

    2002-10-01

    20 retromolar bone grafts were harvested in outpatients for augmentation of the implant site from January to June 2000 (10 female, 10 male, 40.9 +/- 12.8 years, minimum 17 years, maximum 66 years). The aim of the study was to assess typical complications of this procedure in a prospective manner. For the determination of the superficial sensory function of the inferior alveolar and the lingual nerve, an objective method was used. The bone grafts were harvested for single tooth reconstruction. In 14 cases a ridge augmentation and in 6 cases an endoscopically controlled crestal sinus floor elevation was performed. Preoperatively, the height of bone above the cranial aspect of the inferior alveolar nerve in the retromolar region was assessed radiologically with known markers. The maximum mouth opening was determined. The superficial sensory function of the inferior alveolar and the lingual nerve was assessed with the Pointed-Blunt Test, the Two-Point-Discrimination Test and the objective method of the 'Pain and Thermal Sensitivity' Test (PATH Test). Moreover, the pulp sensitivity of the teeth of the donor site was determined by cold vitality testing. All tests were repeated 1 week postoperatively. Intraoperatively, the width of the retromolar region was measured with a caliper. The patients rated the operative strain on a visual analogue scale. The height of bone above the inferior alveolar nerve in the retromolar region was 11.0 +/- 2.2 mm. The width of the retromolar area was 14.2 +/- 1.9 mm. Postoperatively, the maximal mouth opening changed significantly (40.8 +/- 3.5 mm preoperatively, 38.9 +/- 3.7 mm postoperatively, P = 0.006). However, the reduction was not relevant clinically. A direct injury of the inferior alveolar or lingual nerve did not occur. A sensitivity impairment could not be detected for either of the nerves by the different test methods 1 week postoperatively. The operative strain related to the donor site was significantly less than the strain

  13. Prospective study on laser-assisted laparascopic partial nephrectomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sroka, Ronald; Hennig, Georg; Zilinberg, Katja; Khoder, Wael Y.

    2012-02-01

    margin, but could not measured so far. Based on this experiences a simple and easy to use instrument described serving also for suction and rinsing. Conclusion: This prospective in-vivo feasibility study shows that laser assisted partial nephrectomy seems to be a safe and promising medical technique which could be provided either during open surgery as well as laparascopically. This application showed good haemostasis and minimal parenchymal damage. Further investigations and development are needed for on-line detection of the remain coagulation margin. An optimised treatment equipment will support the applicability of laser assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy.

  14. Alcohol consumption and fecundability: prospective Danish cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Riis, Anders H; Wise, Lauren A; Hatch, Elizabeth E; Rothman, Kenneth J; Cueto, Heidi T; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate to what extent alcohol consumption affects female fecundability. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Denmark, 1 June 2007 to 5 January 2016. Participants 6120 female Danish residents, aged 21-45 years, in a stable relationship with a male partner, who were trying to conceive and not receiving fertility treatment. Main outcome measures Alcohol consumption was self reported as beer (330 mL bottles), red or white wine (120 mL glasses), dessert wine (50 mL glasses), and spirits (20 mL) and categorized in standard servings per week (none, 1-3, 4-7, 8-13, and ≥14). Participants contributed menstrual cycles at risk until the report of pregnancy, start of fertility treatment, loss to follow-up, or end of observation (maximum 12 menstrual cycles). A proportional probability regression model was used to estimate fecundability ratios (cycle specific probability of conception among exposed women divided by that among unexposed women). Results 4210 (69%) participants achieved a pregnancy during follow-up. Median alcohol intake was 2.0 (interquartile range 0-3.5) servings per week. Compared with no alcohol consumption, the adjusted fecundability ratios for alcohol consumption of 1-3, 4-7, 8-13, and 14 or more servings per week were 0.97 (95% confidence interval 0.91 to 1.03), 1.01 (0.93 to 1.10), 1.01 (0.87 to 1.16) and 0.82 (0.60 to 1.12), respectively. Compared with no alcohol intake, the adjusted fecundability ratios for women who consumed only wine (≥3 servings), beer (≥3 servings), or spirits (≥2 servings) were 1.05 (0.91 to1.21), 0.92 (0.65 to 1.29), and 0.85 (0.61 to 1.17), respectively. The data did not distinguish between regular and binge drinking, which may be important if large amounts of alcohol are consumed during the fertile window. Conclusion Consumption of less than 14 servings of alcohol per week seemed to have no discernible effect on fertility. No appreciable difference in fecundability was observed by level of

  15. Study Protocol, Sample Characteristics, and Loss to Follow-Up: The OPPERA Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Bair, Eric; Brownstein, Naomi C.; Ohrbach, Richard; Greenspan, Joel D.; Dubner, Ron; Fillingim, Roger B.; Maixner, William; Smith, Shad; Diatchenko, Luda; Gonzalez, Yoly; Gordon, Sharon; Lim, Pei-Feng; Ribeiro-Dasilva, Margarete; Dampier, Dawn; Knott, Charles; Slade, Gary D.

    2013-01-01

    When studying incidence of pain conditions such as temporomandibular disorders (TMDs), repeated monitoring is needed in prospective cohort studies. However, monitoring methods usually have limitations and, over a period of years, some loss to follow-up is inevitable. The OPPERA prospective cohort study of first-onset TMD screened for symptoms using quarterly questionnaires and examined symptomatic participants to definitively ascertain TMD incidence. During the median 2.8-year observation period, 16% of the 3,263 enrollees completed no follow-up questionnaires, others provided incomplete follow-up, and examinations were not conducted for one third of symptomatic episodes. Although screening methods and examinations were found to have excellent reliability and validity, they were not perfect. Loss to follow-up varied according to some putative TMD risk factors, although multiple imputation to correct the problem suggested that bias was minimal. A second method of multiple imputation that evaluated bias associated with omitted and dubious examinations revealed a slight underestimate of incidence and some small biases in hazard ratios used to quantify effects of risk factors. Although “bottom line” statistical conclusions were not affected, multiply-imputed estimates should be considered when evaluating the large number of risk factors under investigation in the OPPERA study. Perspective These findings support the validity of the OPPERA prospective cohort study for the purpose of investigating the etiology of first-onset TMD, providing the foundation for other papers investigating risk factors hypothesized in the OPPERA project. PMID:24275220

  16. Clinical Performance and Management Outcomes with the DecisionDx-UM Gene Expression Profile Test in a Prospective Multicenter Study

    PubMed Central

    Plasseraud, Kristen Meldi; Tsai, Tony; Shildkrot, Yevgeniy; Middlebrook, Brooke; Maetzold, Derek; Wilkinson, Jeff; Stone, John; Johnson, Clare; Oelschlager, Kristen; Aaberg, Thomas M.

    2016-01-01

    Uveal melanoma management is challenging due to its metastatic propensity. DecisionDx-UM is a prospectively validated molecular test that interrogates primary tumor biology to provide objective information about metastatic potential that can be used in determining appropriate patient care. To evaluate the continued clinical validity and utility of DecisionDx-UM, beginning March 2010, 70 patients were enrolled in a prospective, multicenter, IRB-approved study to document patient management differences and clinical outcomes associated with low-risk Class 1 and high-risk Class 2 results indicated by DecisionDx-UM testing. Thirty-seven patients in the prospective study were Class 1 and 33 were Class 2. Class 1 patients had 100% 3-year metastasis-free survival compared to 63% for Class 2 (log rank test p = 0.003) with 27.3 median follow-up months in this interim analysis. Class 2 patients received significantly higher-intensity monitoring and more oncology/clinical trial referrals compared to Class 1 patients (Fisher's exact test p = 2.1 × 10−13 and p = 0.04, resp.). The results of this study provide additional, prospective evidence in an independent cohort of patients that Class 1 and Class 2 patients are managed according to the differential metastatic risk indicated by DecisionDx-UM. The trial is registered with Clinical Application of DecisionDx-UM Gene Expression Assay Results (NCT02376920). PMID:27446211

  17. Putaminal Diffusivity Correlates With Disease Progression in Parkinson's Disease: Prospective 6-Year Study.

    PubMed

    Chan, Ling-Ling; Ng, Kia-Min; Yeoh, Chooi-Sum; Rumpel, H; Li, Hui-Hua; Tan, Eng-King

    2016-02-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is an increasingly used noninvasive imaging tool. However its long-term clinical utility is unclear. Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disease.We prospectively examined a cohort of 46 Parkinson's disease (PD) patients who underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of the brain at baseline and 6 years later on a 1.5 Tesla scanner using a standardized protocol. DTI parameters of mean diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotrophy (FA) were extracted using regions-of-interest (ROIs) analysis from various brain regions.Compared to the baseline scan, MD increased in all brain regions (P < 0.0001). FA increased in the substantia nigra and posterior putamen, but decreased in the frontal white matter (P < 0.0001). Linear regression analysis demonstrated that the MD in the anterior putamen increased 11.6 units (95% CI = [4.71, 18.43]) (P = 0.0003) for every unit increase of United PD Rating Scale (UPDRS).Our 6-year prospective longitudinal study demonstrated increased diffusivity in all brain regions and that in the anterior putamen correlated with disease progression. Serial diffusion data may be useful as an additional objective in vivo biomarker for motor progression in PD.

  18. Study protocol title: a prospective cohort study of low back pain

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Few prospective cohort studies of workplace low back pain (LBP) with quantified job physical exposure have been performed. There are few prospective epidemiological studies for LBP occupational risk factors and reported data generally have few adjustments for many personal and psychosocial factors. Methods/design A multi-center prospective cohort study has been incepted to quantify risk factors for LBP and potentially develop improved methods for designing and analyzing jobs. Due to the subjectivity of LBP, six measures of LBP are captured: 1) any LBP, 2) LBP ≥ 5/10 pain rating, 3) LBP with medication use, 4) LBP with healthcare provider visits, 5) LBP necessitating modified work duties and 6) LBP with lost work time. Workers have thus far been enrolled from 30 different employment settings in 4 diverse US states and performed widely varying work. At baseline, workers undergo laptop-administered questionnaires, structured interviews, and two standardized physical examinations to ascertain demographics, medical history, psychosocial factors, hobbies and physical activities, and current musculoskeletal disorders. All workers’ jobs are individually measured for physical factors and are videotaped. Workers are followed monthly for the development of low back pain. Changes in jobs necessitate re-measure and re-videotaping of job physical factors. The lifetime cumulative incidence of low back pain will also include those with a past history of low back pain. Incident cases will exclude prevalent cases at baseline. Statistical methods planned include survival analyses and logistic regression. Discussion Data analysis of a prospective cohort study of low back pain is underway and has successfully enrolled over 800 workers to date. PMID:23497211

  19. Ondasetron versus haloperidol for the treatment of postcardiotomy delirium: a prospective, randomized, double-blinded study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To investigate the controlling efficacy of ondasetron and haloperidol in regard to the postcardiotomy delirium. Methods We included in this prospective, randomized, double-blinded study 80 patients who developed delirium after heart surgery with the application of heart lung-machine. The patients were divided into two, equally-sized groups, which on detection of delirium received ondasetron 8 mg iv or haloperidol 5 mg iv respectively. The statistical analysis compared the baseline and demographic characteristics of the two groups (age, gender, comorbidities, years of education, type of surgery etc.). Results Both ondasetron and haloperidol had very good delirium controlling effects, without statistically significant differences. Discussion-Conclusions Ondasetron and haloperidol are efficient agents as far as the treatment of postcardiotomy delirium is concerned. As, in addition, ondasetron bares milder side-effects, we believe this could be the agent of choice in patients developing postcardiotomy delirium in the future. PMID:22436170

  20. Experimental Study of Additives on Viscosity biodiesel at Low Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fajar, Berkah; Sukarno

    2015-09-01

    An experimental investigation was performed to find out the viscosity of additive and biodiesel fuel mixture in the temperature range from 283 K to 318 K. Solutions to reduce the viscosity of biodiesel is to add the biodiesel with some additive. The viscosity was measured using a Brookfield Rheometer DV-II. The additives were the generic additive (Diethyl Ether/DDE) and the commercial additive Viscoplex 10-330 CFI. Each biodiesel blends had a concentration of the mixture: 0.0; 0.25; 0.5; 0.75; 1.0; and 1.25% vol. Temperature of biodiesel was controlled from 40°C to 0°C. The viscosity of biodiesel and additive mixture at a constant temperature can be approximated by a polynomial equation and at a constant concentration by exponential equation. The optimum mixture is at 0.75% for diethyl ether and 0.5% for viscoplex.

  1. Oxfordshire Women and Their Children's Health (OxWATCH): protocol for a prospective cohort feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, S; Petrovic, G; Chevassut, A; Brook, L; Higgins, N; Kenworthy, Y; Selwood, M; Snelgar, T; Arnold, L; Boardman, H; Heneghan, C; Leeson, P; Redman, C; Granne, I

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Some specific pregnancy disorders are known to be associated with increased incidence of long-term maternal ill health (eg, gestational diabetes with late onset type 2 diabetes; pre-eclampsia with arterial disease). To what degree these later health conditions are a consequence of the woman's constitution prior to pregnancy rather than pregnancy itself triggering changes in a woman's health is unknown. Additionally, there is little prospective evidence for the impact of pre-pregnancy risk factors on the outcome of pregnancy. To understand the importance of pre-pregnancy health requires the recruitment of women into a long-term cohort study before their first successful pregnancy. The aim of this feasibility study is to test recruitment procedures and acceptability of participation to inform the planning of a future large-scale cohort study. Methods The prospective cohort feasibility study will recruit nulliparous women aged 18–40 years. Women will be asked to complete a questionnaire to assess the acceptability of our recruitment and data collection procedures. Baseline biophysical, genetic, socioeconomic, behavioural and psychological assessments will be conducted and samples of blood, urine, saliva and DNA will be collected. Recruitment feasibility and retention rates will be assessed. Women who become pregnant will be recalled for pregnancy and postpregnancy assessments. Ethics and dissemination The study protocol was approved by South Central Portsmouth REC (Ref: 12/SC/0492). The findings from the study will be disseminated through peer reviewed journals, national and international conference presentations and public events. Trial registration number http://www.clinicaltrials.gov; NCT02419898. PMID:26553837

  2. The epidemiology of septic shock in French intensive care units: the prospective multicenter cohort EPISS study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction To provide up-to-date information on the prognostic factors associated with 28-day mortality in a cohort of septic shock patients in intensive care units (ICUs). Methods Prospective, multicenter, observational cohort study in ICUs from 14 French general (non-academic) and university teaching hospitals. All consecutive patients with septic shock admitted between November 2009 and March 2011 were eligible for inclusion. We prospectively recorded data regarding patient characteristics, infection, severity of illness, life support therapy, and discharge. Results Among 10,941 patients admitted to participating ICUs between October 2009 and September 2011, 1,495 (13.7%) patients presented inclusion criteria for septic shock and were included. Invasive mechanical ventilation was needed in 83.9% (n = 1248), inotropes in 27.7% (n = 412), continuous renal replacement therapy in 32.5% (n = 484), and hemodialysis in 19.6% (n = 291). Mortality at 28 days was 42% (n = 625). Variables associated with time to mortality, right-censored at day 28: age (for each additional 10 years) (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.29; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.20-1.38), immunosuppression (HR = 1.63; 95%CI: 1.37-1.96), Knaus class C/D score versus class A/B score (HR = 1.36; 95%CI:1.14-1.62) and Sepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score (HR = 1.24 for each additional point; 95%CI: 1.21-1.27). Patients with septic shock and renal/urinary tract infection had a significantly longer time to mortality (HR = 0.56; 95%CI: 0.42-0.75). Conclusion Our observational data of consecutive patients from real-life practice confirm that septic shock is common and carries high mortality in general ICU populations. Our results are in contrast with the clinical trial setting, and could be useful for healthcare planning and clinical study design. PMID:23561510

  3. Additive Manufacturing in Production: A Study Case Applying Technical Requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ituarte, Iñigo Flores; Coatanea, Eric; Salmi, Mika; Tuomi, Jukka; Partanen, Jouni

    Additive manufacturing (AM) is expanding the manufacturing capabilities. However, quality of AM produced parts is dependent on a number of machine, geometry and process parameters. The variability of these parameters affects the manufacturing drastically and therefore standardized processes and harmonized methodologies need to be developed to characterize the technology for end use applications and enable the technology for manufacturing. This research proposes a composite methodology integrating Taguchi Design of Experiments, multi-objective optimization and statistical process control, to optimize the manufacturing process and fulfil multiple requirements imposed to an arbitrary geometry. The proposed methodology aims to characterize AM technology depending upon manufacturing process variables as well as to perform a comparative assessment of three AM technologies (Selective Laser Sintering, Laser Stereolithography and Polyjet). Results indicate that only one machine, laser-based Stereolithography, was feasible to fulfil simultaneously macro and micro level geometrical requirements but mechanical properties were not at required level. Future research will study a single AM system at the time to characterize AM machine technical capabilities and stimulate pre-normative initiatives of the technology for end use applications.

  4. Optical Simulations and Studies with the PROSPECT-20 Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stemen, Nathaniel; Prospect Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    The PROSPECT (Precision Reactor Oscillation and SPECTrum) experiment at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory will make a precise measurement of the reactor antineutrino spectrum from a highly-enriched uranium nuclear reactor while also probing for short-baseline oscillations as a signature of possible sterile-neutrinos. Two liquid scintillator detectors at distances of 7-10m and 16-20m from the reactor will identify inverse beta decay events initiated by reactor antineutrinos. The near detector will be divided into optically separated segments filled with lithium loaded liquid scintillator read out by photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) on either end. Light guides will be employed to direct photons from the scintillator cells to the active PMT photo-cathodes. An optical simulation was built to optimize the performance of the detectors with respect to both light collection and detector uniformity and guide the design of the scintillator cells. We present experimental data and simulation results from the PROSPECT-20 prototype detector.

  5. Is metacognition a causal moderator of the relationship between catastrophic misinterpretation and health anxiety? A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Robin; Wells, Adrian

    2016-03-01

    Psychological theories have identified a range of variables contributing to health anxiety, including, dysfunctional illness beliefs, catastrophic misinterpretation, somatosensory amplification and neuroticism. More recently, metacognitive beliefs have been proposed as important in health anxiety. This study aimed to test the potential causal role of metacognitive beliefs in health anxiety. A prospective design was employed and participants (n = 105) completed a battery of questionnaire at two time points (6 months apart). Results demonstrated that cognitive, personality and metacognitive variables were bi-variate prospective correlates of health anxiety. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that only metacognitive beliefs emerged as independent and significant prospective predictors of health anxiety. Moderation analysis demonstrated that metacognitive beliefs prospectively moderated the relationship between catastrophic misinterpretation and health anxiety. Follow-up regression analysis incorporating the interaction term (metacognition × misinterpretation) showed that the term explained additional variance in health anxiety. The results confirm that metacognition is a predictor of health anxiety and it is more substantive than misinterpretations of symptoms, somatosensory amplification, neuroticism, and illness beliefs. These results may have major implications for current cognitive models and for the treatment of health anxiety.

  6. Enhancing knowledge and awareness of dengue during a prospective study of dengue fever.

    PubMed

    Beckett, Charmagne G; Kosasih, Herman; Tan, Ratna; Widjaja, Susana; Listianingsih, Erlin; Ma'roef, Chairin; Wuryadi, Suharyono; Alisjahbana, Bachti; Rudiman, Irani; McArdle, James L; Porter, Kevin R

    2004-09-01

    In 1992, the Indonesian CDC implemented strategies to control and prevent dengue fever (DF) by including community involvement to reduce larva breeding sites and a mass health education program. To contribute to this effort, we incorporated an educational component into a prospective study of DF conducted at two textile factories in Bandung. This education provided: a lecture on the signs and symptoms of dengue and ways to prevent the disease, posters in the health clinic at each factory and handouts given to each volunteer with an explanation of symptoms. Upon enrollment, each participant completed a questionnaire to gather demographic information. Additionally they were given a brief (non-standardized) test (PRE-test) of their dengue knowledge, which was verbally administered by the study physicians. Five questions (15 point system) were designed to assess the participant's ability to recognize and describe aspects of dengue in lay terms. The subject material included: the symptoms of acute DF, transmission of dengue virus, and basic steps for disease prevention. The same questionnaire was re-administered 18 months later (POST-test), and the results were compared. A total of 2,340 participants completed both the PRE- and POST-tests; there were 1,373 males and 967 females, median age 36 years (range 18-59). Only 0.3% of participants scored EXCELLENT (15-14 points) on the PRE-test whereas 8.4% scored EXCELLENT on the POST-test. Fewer participants scored VERY BAD (2-0 points) on the POST-test compared to the PRE-test (1.4% vs 4.0%). The average raw scores for the PRE- and POST-tests were 7.8 and 10.1, respectively. Improvement of individual scores correlated highly with educational level. No significant correlation was identified for gender, age, factory location or a diagnosis of dengue during the study. These findings demonstrate that our prospective study enhanced knowledge and awareness of dengue in the volunteers.

  7. The Examining of Prospective Teachers? Views about Renewable and Non-Renewable Energy Sources: A Case Study of Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasiloglu, Mehmet Akif

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine prospective teachers? views about renewable and non-renewable energy sources. To collect data, a questionnaire with 5 open-ended questions was conveyed to 463 prospective teachers selected from Agri Ibrahim Cecen University. The results showed that almost three fourths of the prospective teachers tend to…

  8. The WISTAH hand study: A prospective cohort study of distal upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Few prospective cohort studies of distal upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders have been performed. Past studies have provided somewhat conflicting evidence for occupational risk factors and have largely reported data without adjustments for many personal and psychosocial factors. Methods/design A multi-center prospective cohort study was incepted to quantify risk factors for distal upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders and potentially develop improved methods for analyzing jobs. Disorders to analyze included carpal tunnel syndrome, lateral epicondylalgia, medial epicondylalgia, trigger digit, deQuervain’s stenosing tenosynovitis and other tendinoses. Workers have thus far been enrolled from 17 different employment settings in 3 diverse US states and performed widely varying work. At baseline, workers undergo laptop administered questionnaires, structured interviews, two standardized physical examinations and nerve conduction studies to ascertain demographic, medical history, psychosocial factors and current musculoskeletal disorders. All workers’ jobs are individually measured for physical factors and are videotaped. Workers are followed monthly for the development of musculoskeletal disorders. Repeat nerve conduction studies are performed for those with symptoms of tingling and numbness in the prior six months. Changes in jobs necessitate re-measure and re-videotaping of job physical factors. Case definitions have been established. Point prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome is a combination of paraesthesias in at least two median nerve-served digits plus an abnormal nerve conduction study at baseline. The lifetime cumulative incidence of carpal tunnel syndrome will also include those with a past history of carpal tunnel syndrome. Incident cases will exclude those with either a past history or prevalent cases at baseline. Statistical methods planned include survival analyses and logistic regression. Discussion A prospective cohort study of

  9. China Patient-centered Evaluative Assessment of Cardiac Events Prospective Study of Acute Myocardial Infarction: Study Design

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Dreyer, Rachel P; Li, Xi; Du, Xue; Downing, Nicholas S; Li, Li; Zhang, Hai-Bo; Feng, Fang; Guan, Wen-Chi; Xu, Xiao; Li, Shu-Xia; Lin, Zhen-Qiu; Masoudi, Frederick A; Spertus, John A; Krumholz, Harlan M; Jiang, Li-Xin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite the rapid growth in the incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in China, there is limited information about patients’ experiences after AMI hospitalization, especially on long-term adverse events and patient-reported outcomes (PROs). Methods: The China Patient-centered Evaluative Assessment of Cardiac Events (PEACE)-Prospective AMI Study will enroll 4000 consecutive AMI patients from 53 diverse hospitals across China and follow them longitudinally for 12 months to document their treatment, recovery, and outcomes. Details of patients’ medical history, treatment, and in-hospital outcomes are abstracted from medical charts. Comprehensive baseline interviews are being conducted to characterize patient demographics, risk factors, presentation, and healthcare utilization. As part of these interviews, validated instruments are administered to measure PROs, including quality of life, symptoms, mood, cognition, and sexual activity. Follow-up interviews, measuring PROs, medication adherence, risk factor control, and collecting hospitalization events are conducted at 1, 6, and 12 months after discharge. Supporting documents for potential outcomes are collected for adjudication by clinicians at the National Coordinating Center. Blood and urine samples are also obtained at baseline, 1- and 12-month follow-up. In addition, we are conducting a survey of participating hospitals to characterize their organizational characteristics. Conclusion: The China PEACE-Prospective AMI study will be uniquely positioned to generate new information regarding patient's experiences and outcomes after AMI in China and serve as a foundation for quality improvement activities. PMID:26712436

  10. Evaluating Long-term Outcomes of NHS Stop Smoking Services (ELONS): a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed Central

    Dobbie, Fiona; Hiscock, Rosemary; Leonardi-Bee, Jo; Murray, Susan; Shahab, Lion; Aveyard, Paul; Coleman, Tim; McEwen, Andy; McRobbie, Hayden; Purves, Richard; Bauld, Linda

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND NHS Stop Smoking Services (SSSs) provide free at the point of use treatment for smokers who would like to stop. Since their inception in 1999 they have evolved to offer a variety of support options. Given the changes that have happened in the provision of services and the ongoing need for evidence on effectiveness, the Evaluating Long-term Outcomes for NHS Stop Smoking Services (ELONS) study was commissioned. OBJECTIVES The main aim of the study was to explore the factors that determine longer-term abstinence from smoking following intervention by SSSs. There were also a number of additional objectives. DESIGN The ELONS study was an observational study with two main stages: secondary analysis of routine data collected by SSSs and a prospective cohort study of service clients. The prospective study had additional elements on client satisfaction, well-being and longer-term nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) use. SETTING The setting for the study was SSSs in England. For the secondary analysis, routine data from 49 services were obtained. For the prospective study and its added elements, nine services were involved. The target population was clients of these services. PARTICIPANTS There were 202,804 cases included in secondary analysis and 3075 in the prospective study. INTERVENTIONS A combination of behavioural support and stop smoking medication delivered by SSS practitioners. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Abstinence from smoking at 4 and 52 weeks after setting a quit date, validated by a carbon monoxide (CO) breath test. RESULTS Just over 4 in 10 smokers (41%) recruited to the prospective study were biochemically validated as abstinent from smoking at 4 weeks (which was broadly comparable with findings from the secondary analysis of routine service data, where self-reported 4-week quit rates were 48%, falling to 34% when biochemical validation had occurred). At the 1-year follow-up, 8% of prospective study clients were CO validated as abstinent from smoking

  11. A Prospective Study of Fitness, Fatness, and Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Becofsky, Katie M.; Sui, Xuemei; Lee, Duck-chul; Wilcox, Sara; Zhang, Jiajia; Blair, Steven N.

    2015-01-01

    Being overweight or obese might be a risk factor for developing depression. It is also possible that low cardiorespiratory fitness, rather than overweight or obesity, is the better predictor of depressive symptom onset. Adults in the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study (Dallas, Texas) underwent fitness and fatness assessments between 1979 and 1998 and later completed a questionnaire about depressive symptoms in 1990, 1995, or 1999. Separate logistic regression models were used to test the associations between 3 fatness measures (body mass index, waist circumference, and percentage of body fat) and the onset of depressive symptoms. Analyses were repeated using fitness as the predictor variable. Additional analyses were performed to study the joint association of fatness and fitness with the onset of depressive symptoms. After controlling for fitness, no measure of fatness was associated with the onset of depressive symptoms. In joint analyses, low fitness was more strongly associated with the onset of elevated depressive symptoms than was fatness, regardless of the measure of fatness used. Overall, results from the present study suggest that low fitness is more strongly associated with the onset of elevated depressive symptoms than is fatness. To reduce the risk of developing depression, individuals should be encouraged to improve their fitness regardless of body fatness. PMID:25693775

  12. A prospective study of fitness, fatness, and depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Becofsky, Katie M; Sui, Xuemei; Lee, Duck-chul; Wilcox, Sara; Zhang, Jiajia; Blair, Steven N

    2015-03-01

    Being overweight or obese might be a risk factor for developing depression. It is also possible that low cardiorespiratory fitness, rather than overweight or obesity, is the better predictor of depressive symptom onset. Adults in the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study (Dallas, Texas) underwent fitness and fatness assessments between 1979 and 1998 and later completed a questionnaire about depressive symptoms in 1990, 1995, or 1999. Separate logistic regression models were used to test the associations between 3 fatness measures (body mass index, waist circumference, and percentage of body fat) and the onset of depressive symptoms. Analyses were repeated using fitness as the predictor variable. Additional analyses were performed to study the joint association of fatness and fitness with the onset of depressive symptoms. After controlling for fitness, no measure of fatness was associated with the onset of depressive symptoms. In joint analyses, low fitness was more strongly associated with the onset of elevated depressive symptoms than was fatness, regardless of the measure of fatness used. Overall, results from the present study suggest that low fitness is more strongly associated with the onset of elevated depressive symptoms than is fatness. To reduce the risk of developing depression, individuals should be encouraged to improve their fitness regardless of body fatness.

  13. PROSPECTIVE RANDOMIZED STUDY COMPARING TWO ANESTHETIC METHODS FOR SHOULDER SURGERY

    PubMed Central

    Ikemoto, Roberto Yukio; Murachovsky, Joel; Prata Nascimento, Luis Gustavo; Bueno, Rogerio Serpone; Oliveira Almeida, Luiz Henrique; Strose, Eric; de Mello, Sérgio Cabral; Saletti, Deise

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of suprascapular nerve block in combination with infusion of anesthetic into the subacromial space, compared with interscalene block. Methods: Forty-five patients with small or medium-sized isolated supraspinatus tendon lesions who underwent arthroscopic repair were prospectively and comparatively evaluated through random assignation to three groups of 15, each with a different combination of anesthetic methods. The efficacy of postoperative analgesia was measured using the visual analogue scale for pain and the analgesic, anti-inflammatory and opioid drug consumption. Inhalation anesthetic consumption during surgery was also compared between the groups. Results: The statistical analysis did not find any statistically significant differences among the groups regarding anesthetic consumption during surgery or postoperative analgesic efficacy during the first 48 hours. Conclusion: Suprascapular nerve block with infusion of anesthetic into the subacromial space is an excellent alternative to interscalene block, particularly in hospitals in which an electrical nerve stimulating device is unavailable. PMID:27022569

  14. Histoid leprosy: a prospective diagnostic study in 38 patients.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, V N; Srivastava, G

    1988-01-01

    Histoid leprosy is a fascinating expression of multibacillary leprosy, the incidence of which was 3.6%. It was seen predominantly in males of the younger age group, who were on inadequate and irregular dosage of diaminodiphenyl sulfone. Papules, cutaneous and/or subcutaneous nodules and plaques appearing over apparently normal skin were its exquisite prospective clinical features. It was invariably supported by enormous, uniformly solid staining discrete bacilli from the lesions, in contrast to their virtual absence from the surrounding normal-appearing skin. Encapsulated tumorous mass, formed primarily by spindle-shaped histocytes, displayed either in intertwining, criss-cross or whorled fashion in haematoxylin-eosin-stained sections, were supplementary. The morphology of acid-fast bacilli was, however, similar to skin-slit smears. PMID:3224729

  15. Multiplex Pathogen Identification for Polymicrobial Urinary Tract Infections Using Biosensor Technology: A Prospective Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Mach, Kathleen E.; Du, Christine B.; Phull, Hardeep; Haake, David A.; Shih, Mei-Chiung; Baron, Ellen Jo; Liao, Joseph C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Rapid diagnosis of urinary tract infection would have a significant beneficial impact on clinical management, particularly in patients with structural or functional urinary tract abnormalities who are highly susceptible to recurrent polymicrobial infections. We examined the analytical validity of an electrochemical biosensor array for rapid molecular diagnosis of urinary tract infection in a prospective clinical study in patients with neurogenic bladder. Materials and Methods The electrochemical biosensor array was functionalized with DNA probes against 16S rRNA of the most common uropathogens. Spinal cord injured patients at a Veterans Affairs hospital were recruited into the study. Urine samples were generally tested on the biosensor within 1 to 2 hours of collection. Biosensor results were compared with those obtained using standard clinical microbiology laboratory methods. Results We successfully developed a 1-hour biosensor assay for multiplex identification of pathogens. From July 2007 to December 2008 we recruited 116 patients, yielding a total of 109 urine samples suitable for analysis and comparison between biosensor assay and standard urine culture. Of the samples 74% were positive, of which 42% were polymicrobial. We identified 20 organisms, of which Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus species were the most common. Biosensor assay specificity and positive predictive value were 100%. Pathogen detection sensitivity was 89%, yielding a 76% negative predictive value. Conclusions To our knowledge we report the first prospective clinical study to successfully identify pathogens within a point of care time frame using an electrochemical biosensor platform. Additional efforts to improve the limit of detection and probe design are needed to further enhance assay sensitivity. PMID:19837423

  16. Health studies indicate MTBE is safe gasoline additive

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, E.V.

    1993-09-01

    Implementation of the oxygenated fuels program by EPA in 39 metropolitan areas, including Fairbanks and Anchorage, Alaska, in the winter of 1992, encountered some unexpected difficulties. Complaints of headaches, dizziness, nausea, and irritated eyes started in Fairbanks, jumped to Anchorage, and popped up in various locations in the lower 48 states. The suspected culprit behind these complaints was the main additive for oxygenation of gasoline is methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). A test program, hastily organized in response to these complaints, has indicated that MTBE is a safe gasoline additive. However, official certification of the safety of MTBE is still awaited.

  17. Prospects for Pulsar Studies with the GLAST Large Area Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, Alice K.

    2007-01-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST), due to launch in November 2007, will have unprecedented sensitivity and energy resolution for gamma-rays in the range of 30 MeV to 200 GeV. GLAST is therefore expected to provide major advances in the understanding of high-energy emission from rotation-powered pulsars. As the only presently known galactic GeV source class; pulsars will be one of the most important sources for study with GLAST. The main science goals of the LAT for pulsar studies include an increase in the number of detected radio-loud and radio-quiet gamma-ray pulsars, including millisecond pulsars, giving much better statistics for elucidating population characteristics, measurement of the high-energy spectrum and the shape of spectral cutoffs and determining pulse profiles for a variety of pulsars of different age. Further, measurement of phase-resolved spectra and energy dependent pulse profiles of the brighter pulsars should allow detailed tests of magnetospheric particle acceleration and radiation mechanisms, by comparing data with theoretical models that have been developed. Additionally, the LAT will have the sensitivity to allow blind pulsation searches of nearly all unidentified EGRET sources, to possibly uncover more radio-quiet Geminga-like pulsars.

  18. Prospects for Pulsar Studies with the GLAST Large Area Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, Alice K.

    2006-01-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) will have unprecedented sensitivity and energy resolution for gamma-rays in the range of 30 MeV to 200 GeV. GLAST is therefore expected to provide major advances in the understanding of high-energy emission from rotation-powered pulsars. As the only presently known galactic GeV source class, pulsars will be one of the most important sources for study with GLAST. The main science goals of the LAT for pulsar studies include an increase in the number of detected radio-loud and radio-quiet gamma ray pulsars, including millisecond pulsars, giving much better statistics for elucidating population characteristics, measurement of the high-energy spectrum and the shape of spectral cutoffs and determining pulse profiles for a variety of pulsars of different age. Further, measurement of phase-resolved spectra and energy dependent pulse profiles of the brighter pulsars should allow detailed tests of magnetospheric particle acceleration and radiation mechanisms, by comparing data with theoretical models that have been developed. Additionally, the LAT will have the sensitivity to allow blind pulsation searches of nearly all unidentified EGRET sources, to possibly uncover more radio-quiet Geminga-like pulsars.

  19. Prospects for Pulsar Studies with the GLAST Large Area Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, Alice K.

    2007-01-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST), due to launch in November 2007, will have unprecedented sensitivity and energy resolution for gamma-rays in the range of 30 MeV to 200 GeV. GLAST is therefore expected to provide major advances in the understanding of high-energy emission from rotation-powered p ulsars. As the only presently known galactic GeV source class, pulsar s will be one of the most important sources for study with GLAST. The main science goals of the LAT for pulsar studies include an increase in the number of detected radio-loud and radio-quiet gamma-ray pulsar s, including millisecond pulsars, giving much better statistics for e lucidating population characteristics, measurement of the high-energy spectrum and the shape of spectral cutoffs and determining pulse profiles for a variety of pulsars of different age. Further, measurement of phase-resolved spectra and energy dependent pulse profiles of the brighter pulsars should allow detailed tests of magnetospheric partic le acceleration and radiation mechanisms, by comparing data with theo retical models that have been developed. Additionally, the LAT will have the sensitivity to allow blind pulsation searches of nearly all un identified EGRET sources, to possibly uncover more radio-quiet Geming a-like pulsars.

  20. Multi center cohort study on association of genotypes with prospective sports concussion: methods, lessons learned, and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Terrell, T; Abramson, R; Bostick, R; Barth, J; Sloane, R; Cantu, R; Bennett, E; Galloway, L; Erlanger, D; McKeag, D; Valentine, V; Nichols, G

    2014-09-22

    This was a multicenter prospective cohort study designed to investigate a potential association between genetic polymorphisms of apolipoprotein E gene, apolipoprotein E promoter G219T, and two Tau gene exon 6 polymorphisms (Ser53Pro and Hist47Tyr) with: (1) the risk of prospective concussion, (2) concussion severity, and (3) postconcussion neurocognitive recovery. Almost three thousand student athletes from 26 National Collegiate Athletic Association Division IA, II, III, and National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics academic institutions in the United States met inclusion criteria for this study. We assessed multiple variables including, gender, sport, family history of traumatic brain injury, history of mental illness, history of migraine headache, and baseline and postconcussion neuropsychological test results. Reported concussions were evaluated with multiple instruments including number of symptoms and symptom severity. Additionally, we gathered data via a questionnaire pertaining to medical history, demographics, and sportrelated information, and blood/saliva samples were collected for genetic analysis, and we conducted neuropsychological testing using Headminder and ImPACT software. The goal of this paper is to share our experiences conducting a large prospective cohort study. We recommend that future research include metaanalyses of various traumatic brain injury studies to increase power. Collaborative research is very likely needed given the nature of this study population. PMID:25242101

  1. Semifluorinated Alkane Eye Drops for Treatment of Dry Eye Disease—A Prospective, Multicenter Noninterventional Study

    PubMed Central

    Scherer, Dieter; Krösser, Sonja; Beckert, Michael; Cursiefen, Claus; Kaercher, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Evaporation of the tear film is heavily discussed as one core reason for dry eye disease (DED). Subsequently, new artificial tear products are developed that specifically target this pathomechanism. Perfluorohexyloctane (F6H8, NovaTears®) from the family of semifluorinated alkanes is a novel substance that has been approved as a medical device, as a nonblurring wetting agent for the ocular surface. Methods: Thirty patients with hyperevaporative dry eye received F6H8 during a prospective, multicenter, observational 6-week study. Patients were advised to apply 1 drop 4 times daily in both eyes. Parameters assessed included best corrected visual acuity, intraocular pressure, Schirmer I test, tear fluid, tear film breakup time (TFBUT), corneal staining, meibum secretion, and Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI©). Results: From the 30 patients recruited, 25 completed the trial per protocol. Four patients discontinued F6H8 and 1 patient did not present for follow-up. F6H8 treatment led to significant reduction of corneal staining and significant increase of Schirmer I and TFBUT. In addition, OSDI score dropped significantly from a mean of 55 (±23.0) to 34 (±22.4). Visual acuity and ocular pressure did not change. Conclusions: This prospective observational study shows significant beneficial effects in patients suffering from evaporative DED, using F6H8 in all the relevant parameters tested. The decrease of the OSDI by a mean of 21 points was particularly remarkable and clearly exceeds minimal, clinical important differences for mild or moderate and severe disease. Overall, F6H8 (NovaTears) seems to be safe and effective in treating mild to moderate hyperevaporative DED. PMID:26296040

  2. A prospective study of intraoperative methods to diagnose and resect duodenal gastrinomas.

    PubMed Central

    Sugg, S L; Norton, J A; Fraker, D L; Metz, D C; Pisegna, J R; Fishbeyn, V; Benya, R V; Shawker, T H; Doppman, J L; Jensen, R T

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study determined, prospectively, whether duodenotomy (DX) should be routinely performed in explorations for patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES). SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Duodenal gastrinomas are now being found with increasing frequency in patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. The surgical approach used to detect these tumors is controversial. Some recommend intraoperative endoscopy with transillumination (IOE) at surgery, while others recommend routine DX. METHODS: Beginning in 1989, the authors prospectively compared the ability of palpation, intraoperative ultrasound (IOUS), IOE, and DX (in that sequence) to detect gastrinomas in 35 consecutive patients with ZES. Each patient also underwent preoperative localization studies. RESULTS: Thirty-three of 35 patients (94%) had tumor detected and excised; duodenal gastrinomas were excised in 27 patients (77%). The average size of the duodenal tumors was 0.8 cm, significantly smaller (p < 0.005) than the pancreatic and lymph node tumors in this series. Standard palpation after a Kocher maneuver identified 19 of the 31 duodenal tumors (61%) in the 27 patients. IOUS revealed only eight duodenal tumors (26%) and no new lesions. IOE identified 20 duodenal gastrinomas (64%) and 6 new lesions. DX identified 31 duodenal tumors (100%) and 5 additional tumors. The morbidity rate was 17%. One patient had a duodenal fistula after operation (2.8%) and subsequently recovered. No patient died. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that the duodenum is the most common location for gastrinoma in patients with ZES (77%) and that DX to detect and remove duodenal gastrinomas should be routinely performed in all explorations for patients with ZES. Images Figure 3. Figure 6. PMID:8342993

  3. Additive influence of genetic predisposition and conventional risk factors in the incidence of coronary heart disease: a population-based study in Greece

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An additive genetic risk score (GRS) for coronary heart disease (CHD) has previously been associated with incident CHD in the population-based Greek European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC) cohort. In this study, we explore GRS-‘environment’ joint actions on CHD for severa...

  4. A prospective study of weight gain associated with chronotype among college freshmen.

    PubMed

    Culnan, Elizabeth; Kloss, Jacqueline D; Grandner, Michael

    2013-06-01

    A prospective study of chronotype as a predictor of increased weight gain and body mass index (BMI) among college freshman was undertaken. At baseline, 137 college freshmen were characterized as morning, neutral, or evening types using the reduced version of the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire. Additionally, information was collected regarding weight, BMI, and health habits (e.g., junk food and alcohol consumption). These additional measures consisted of a descriptive questionnaire, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, the Gray-Donald Eating Patterns Questionnaire, and the Positive and Negative Affect Scale. Participants included 79 females and 80 males with a mean age of 18.25 (SD = 0.56) yrs. Eight weeks later, participants returned (N = 54) to complete follow-up measures, which were identical to baseline assessments with the exception of the descriptive questionnaire, in which demographic questions were removed. Evening types had a significantly greater BMI gain (p < 0.05) when compared with morning/neutral types. Health behaviors did not differ by chronotype. Future studies should seek to clarify the mechanisms underlying the chronotype-BMI/weight gain relationship.

  5. Current status and prospects for the study of Nicotiana genomics, genetics, and nicotine biosynthesis genes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuewen; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L

    2015-02-01

    Nicotiana, a member of the Solanaceae family, is one of the most important research model plants, and of high agricultural and economic value worldwide. To better understand the substantial and rapid research progress with Nicotiana in recent years, its genomics, genetics, and nicotine gene studies are summarized, with useful web links. Several important genetic maps, including a high-density map of N. tabacum consisting of ~2,000 markers published in 2012, provide tools for genetics research. Four whole genome sequences are from allotetraploid species, including N. benthamiana in 2012, and three N. tabacum cultivars (TN90, K326, and BX) in 2014. Three whole genome sequences are from diploids, including progenitors N. sylvestris and N. tomentosiformis in 2013 and N. otophora in 2014. These and additional studies provide numerous insights into genome evolution after polyploidization, including changes in gene composition and transcriptome expression in N. tabacum. The major genes involved in the nicotine biosynthetic pathway have been identified and the genetic basis of the differences in nicotine levels among Nicotiana species has been revealed. In addition, other progress on chloroplast, mitochondrial, and NCBI-registered projects on Nicotiana are discussed. The challenges and prospects for genomic, genetic and application research are addressed. Hence, this review provides important resources and guidance for current and future research and application in Nicotiana.

  6. Psychosocial factors and intrauterine fetal growth: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Aarts, M C; Vingerhoets, A J

    1993-12-01

    This study focused on the possible role of psychosocial factors on intrauterine fetal growth. Pregnant women (n = 236) completed questionnaires on daily stressors and psychosomatic symptoms three times during pregnancy; in the 11-12th week, the 23-24th week and the 35-36th week. In addition, information was obtained on the quality of the marital relationship, social support, social class, physical work load, weight of the biological parents and life-style variables (including smoking, alcohol and coffee consumption). Birth weight corrected for gestational age, sex and parity was utilized as an index of intrauterine fetal growth. This dependent measure did not appear to be affected by exposure to daily stressors or disturbed maternal well-being on any of the measuring points. Smoking appeared to be the best predictor of fetal growth, together with maternal weight and the family's socioeconomic status. These variables accounted for 10.6% of the variance. It is postulated that the absence of a relationship between stressors and fetal development may be due to the buffering effects of adequate emotional support provided by the partners and the further social network. PMID:8142979

  7. Yoga therapy for breast cancer patients: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Sudarshan, Monisha; Petrucci, Andrea; Dumitra, Sinziana; Duplisea, Jodie; Wexler, Sharon; Meterissian, Sarkis

    2013-11-01

    We sought to study the impact of yoga therapy on anxiety, depression and physical health in breast cancer patients. Stage I-III post-operative breast cancer patients were recruited with twelve 1-h weekly yoga sessions completed with an experienced yoga instructor. Before and after each module completion, assessments were obtained with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HADS), the Dallas pain scale and shoulder flexibility measurements. Fourteen patients completed the entire yoga session with 42.8% having a total mastectomy and 15.4% having breast reconstruction. Both right and left shoulder abduction flexibility significantly improved (p = 0.004; p = 0.015 respectively) as well as left shoulder flexion (p = 0.046). An improvement trend in scores for the HADS and Dallas questionnaires pre- and post-intervention was found, although it was not statistically significant. Our data indicates an improvement in physical function in addition to a consistent amelioration in anxiety, depression and pain symptoms after a yoga intervention. PMID:24199978

  8. Kinetic study of additions of dialkylmagnesium compounds to a cycloprene

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, E.K.; Richey, H.G. Jr.

    1992-11-01

    Reaction of Et{sub 2}Mg and spiro[2.4]hept-1-ene (1) in tetahydrofuran followed by hydrolysis furnishes mainly 1-ethylspiro[2.4]heptane (3); when hydrolysis is with D{sub 2}O, {ge}98% of this (Z)-1-ethylspirol[2.4]heptane-2-d (4). Some metalation of 1 and formation of higher molecular weight products incorporating two or three molecules of 1 also take place. Formation of 3 is first order in 1 and in Et{sub 2}Mg, and at 35.47{degrees}C the rate constant is 1.2 x 10{sup -5} L M{sup -1}s{sup -1}. Under the same conditions, the rate of addition (1.5 x 10{sup -5} L M{sup -1}{sub s}{sup -1}). Under the same conditions, the rate of addition (1.5 x 10{sup -5} L mol{sup -1} {sub s}{sup -1}) of the Grignard reagent prepared from EtBr is similar. Reactions of 1 with Me{sub 2}Mg, I-Pr{sub 2}Mg, and t-Bu{sub 2}Mg. Added Fe(acac){sub 3} increases the rate of formation of 3 from reactions of 1 with either Et{sub 2}Mg or the Grignard reagent prepared from EtBr, but additional products also are formed. 55 refs., 2 tabs.

  9. A Pilot Prospective Study of Fetomaternal Hemorrhage Identified by Anemia in Asymptomatic Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Stroustrup, Annemarie; Plafkin, Callie

    2016-01-01

    Background Fetomaternal hemorrhage (FMH) is a poorly understood condition in which fetal erythrocytes transfer to the maternal circulation via a faulty placental barrier. Little is known about the true incidence, epidemiology, or pathophysiology of FMH in the general pregnant population as existing studies are based on retrospective cohorts and manifest diagnosis and selection bias. Objective To evaluate the practicability of a prospective study of fetomaternal hemorrhage in the general population based on antepartum maternal blood testing and neonatal anemia. Study Design Prospective cohort study. Result Nineteen pregnant women were enrolled prior to the term delivery of twenty well infants. Five neonates were unexpectedly anemic on first postnatal testing. Antenatal maternal blood samples associated with 2 of 5 anemic newborns had positive Kleihauer-Betke testing while no newborn with a normal postnatal blood count had an associated abnormal Kleihauer-Betke test. Conclusion Clinically significant FMH may be more common than previously thought. Prospective epidemiological study of FMH is feasible. PMID:26765555

  10. Lacerations in urban children. A prospective 12-January study.

    PubMed

    Baker, M D; Selbst, S M; Lanuti, M

    1990-01-01

    We prospectively investigated the epidemiologic characteristics of all lacerations (N = 2834) repaired at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (Pa) during 1987 and identified common hazards and possible avenues of intervention. Two-year-old children incurred most injuries; males outnumbered females 2:1. Almost two thirds (61.8%) of all lacerations occurred from May through September, and 62.2% between 3 and 9 PM. Most injuries occurred indoors (47.0%), on the sidewalk or street (22.5%), or in the residential yard (13.0%). Injuries usually occurred during play (42.3%) or daily activity (32.1%); 1247 (44.0%) involved some sort of fall. Vectors most frequently causing injury were broken glass bottles (15.0%), wooden furniture (12.0%), and asphalt or concrete (11.0%). Broken glass bottles also most frequently inflicted injuries resulting in functional impairment (0.2%), hospitalization (0.9%), or both. Complications were seen in 8% of all lacerations. Our data confirm the importance of injury-prevention strategies aimed at reduction of discarded glass objects (ie, recycling legislation), improved furniture design, and improved municipal services (ie, street repair).

  11. Prospective observational cohort studies for studying rare diseases: the European PedNet Haemophilia Registry.

    PubMed

    Fischer, K; Ljung, R; Platokouki, H; Liesner, R; Claeyssens, S; Smink, E; van den Berg, H M

    2014-07-01

    Haemophilia is a rare disease. To improve knowledge, prospective studies of large numbers of subjects are needed. To establish a large well-documented birth cohort of patients with haemophilia enabling studies on early presentation, side effects and outcome of treatment. Twenty-one haemophilia treatment centres have been collecting data on all children with haemophilia with FVIII/IX levels up to 25% born from 2000 onwards. Another eight centres collected data on severe haemophilia A only. At baseline, details on delivery and diagnosis, gene mutation, family history of haemophilia and inhibitors are collected. For the first 75 exposure days, date, reason, dose and product are recorded for each infusion. Clinically relevant inhibitors are defined as follows: at least two positive inhibitor titres and a FVIII/IX recovery <66% of expected. For inhibitor patients, results of all inhibitor- and recovery tests are collected. For continued treatment, data on bleeding, surgery, prophylaxis and clotting factor consumption are collected annually. Data are downloaded for analysis annually. In May 2013, a total of 1094 patients were included: 701 with severe, 146 with moderate and 247 with mild haemophilia. Gene defect data were available for 87.6% of patients with severe haemophilia A. The first analysis, performed in May 2011, lead to two landmark publications. The outcome of this large collaborative research confirms its value for the improvement of haemophilia care. High-quality prospective observational cohorts form an ideal source to study natural history and treatment in rare diseases such as haemophilia.

  12. Investigating How and What Prospective Teachers Learn through Microteaching Lesson Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Maria Lorelei

    2010-01-01

    Microteaching Lesson Study [MLS] combines elements of Japanese lesson study and microteaching. A case study of MLS was conducted with 18 prospective teachers in an initial course on learning to teach. Various data sources (i.e., pre- and post-lesson plans, MLS lesson plans, videotaped lessons, transcripts of group discussions, observation field…

  13. A Case of Learning to Teach Social Studies at the Prospect School Teacher Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Carol R.

    2011-01-01

    In this case study, part of a larger study of the Prospect School Teacher Education Program, the author investigates the processes of descriptive inquiry by exploring a moment in their evolution and their effect on the learning of one teacher educator and his students ("interns") as they investigated the teaching of social studies. She also…

  14. Breast sensibility after bilateral risk-reducing mastectomy and immediate breast reconstruction: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Gahm, Jessica; Hansson, Per; Brandberg, Yvonne; Wickman, Marie

    2013-11-01

    The demand for risk-reducing mastectomy (RRM) to avoid breast cancer has increased over the last several years, and knowledge of the outcome after this prophylactic surgical procedure is important. The primary aim of this study was to prospectively compare breast sensibility before and after RRM in a consecutive series of women. The study also investigated whether the nipples were less numb if the nipple areola complexes (NACs) were spared compared with regrafted nipple tips. Forty-six women who selected bilateral RRM with immediate reconstruction using implants at the Karolinska University Hospital, Solna, Stockholm, Sweden, were included in the study. The median patient age at the time of surgery was 39 years (range 26-58). All patients were evaluated preoperatively and at least 2 years postoperatively (median 29 months). Tactile, thermal and nociceptive cutaneous sensibilities were studied with quantitative techniques. The patients at the postoperative evaluation completed a questionnaire about subjective feelings in both breasts. The results showed that breast sensibility is significantly impaired after RRM. Additionally, the ability to experience sexual sensations in the breast is often lost. An NAC-sparing surgery did not result in better nipple sensibility. PMID:23953096

  15. A prospective study of stress and alcohol craving in heavy drinkers.

    PubMed

    Tartter, Molly A; Ray, Lara A

    2012-06-01

    Recent work has examined the relationship between stress and relapse to alcohol use in clinical populations. Few prospective studies, however, have examined stress as a precipitant of alcohol problems. The present study is a longitudinal examination of the role of stress reactivity and alcohol craving in the etiology of alcohol problems in a sample of 41 (mean age=20.8), heavy-drinking, young adults. Participants completed a guided imagery exposure to stressful life events, followed by exposure to a neutral imagery control. Following the exposure, participants completed an alcohol cue exposure paradigm. Measures of negative mood (Profile of Mood States (POMS) depression/dejection scale), tension (POMS tension/anxiety scale) and alcohol craving (measured by the Alcohol Urge Questionnaire (AUQ)) were used as indicators of reactivity to stress and to alcohol cues. Polymorphisms of the corticotropin-releasing hormone binding protein (CRH-BP) gene and of the μ-opioid receptor (OPRM1) gene were examined as moderators of this relationship. Results revealed that stress-induced negative mood predicted negative consequences of drinking (scores on the Drinker's Inventory of Consequences (DrInC-2R)), whereas stress and cue-induced alcohol craving did not predict alcohol use or problems. Additionally, the CRH-BP genotype was found to moderate the relationship between stress-induced negative affect and the negative consequences of drinking. The current study supports and extends laboratory research describing phenotypes of stress-induced alcohol craving.

  16. NMR relaxometry study of plaster mortar with polymer additives

    SciTech Connect

    Jumate, E.; Manea, D.; Moldovan, D.; Fechete, R.

    2013-11-13

    The cement mixed with water forms a plastic paste or slurry which stiffness in time and finally hardens into a resistant stone. The addition of sand aggregates, polymers (Walocel) and/or calcium carbonate will modify dramatically the final mortar mechanic and thermal properties. The hydration processes can be observed using the 1D NMR measurements of transverse T{sub 2} relaxation times distributions analysed by a Laplace inversion algorithm. These distributions were obtained for mortar pasta measured at 2 hours after preparation then at 3, 7 and 28 days after preparation. Multiple components are identified in the T{sub 2} distributions. These can be associated with the proton bounded chemical or physical to the mortar minerals characterized by a short T{sub 2} relaxation time and to water protons in pores with three different pore sizes as observed from SEM images. The evaporation process is faster in the first hours after preparation, while the mortar hydration (bonding of water molecules to mortar minerals) can be still observed after days or months from preparation. Finally, the mechanic resistance was correlated with the transverse T{sub 2} relaxation rates corresponding to the bound water.

  17. Toward Fully Automated Multicriterial Plan Generation: A Prospective Clinical Study

    SciTech Connect

    Voet, Peter W.J.; Dirkx, Maarten L.P.; Breedveld, Sebastiaan; Fransen, Dennie; Levendag, Peter C.; Heijmen, Ben J.M.

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: To prospectively compare plans generated with iCycle, an in-house-developed algorithm for fully automated multicriterial intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) beam profile and beam orientation optimization, with plans manually generated by dosimetrists using the clinical treatment planning system. Methods and Materials: For 20 randomly selected head-and-neck cancer patients with various tumor locations (of whom 13 received sequential boost treatments), we offered the treating physician the choice between an automatically generated iCycle plan and a manually optimized plan using standard clinical procedures. Although iCycle used a fixed “wish list” with hard constraints and prioritized objectives, the dosimetrists manually selected the beam configuration and fine tuned the constraints and objectives for each IMRT plan. Dosimetrists were not informed in advance whether a competing iCycle plan was made. The 2 plans were simultaneously presented to the physician, who then selected the plan to be used for treatment. For the patient group, differences in planning target volume coverage and sparing of critical tissues were quantified. Results: In 32 of 33 plan comparisons, the physician selected the iCycle plan for treatment. This highly consistent preference for the automatically generated plans was mainly caused by the improved sparing for the large majority of critical structures. With iCycle, the normal tissue complication probabilities for the parotid and submandibular glands were reduced by 2.4% ± 4.9% (maximum, 18.5%, P=.001) and 6.5% ± 8.3% (maximum, 27%, P=.005), respectively. The reduction in the mean oral cavity dose was 2.8 ± 2.8 Gy (maximum, 8.1 Gy, P=.005). For the swallowing muscles, the esophagus and larynx, the mean dose reduction was 3.3 ± 1.1 Gy (maximum, 9.2 Gy, P<.001). For 15 of the 20 patients, target coverage was also improved. Conclusions: In 97% of cases, automatically generated plans were selected for treatment because of

  18. Testosterone deficiency and quality of life in Australasian testicular cancer survivors: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    O'Carrigan, B; Fournier, M; Olver, I N; Stockler, M R; Whitford, H; Toner, G C; Thomson, D B; Davis, I D; Hanning, F; Singhal, N; Underhill, C; Clingan, P; McDonald, A; Boland, A; Grimison, P

    2014-08-01

    This is the first prospective study in a contemporary Australian/New Zealand population to determine the prevalence of testosterone deficiency in testicular cancer survivors at 12 months from treatment, and any association with poorer quality of life. Hormone assays from 54 evaluable patients in a prospective cohort study revealed biochemical hypogonadism in 18 patients (33%) and low-normal testosterone in 13 patients (24%). We found no association between testosterone levels and quality of life (all P > 0.05). Hypogonadal patients should be considered for testosterone replacement to prevent long-term morbidity. PMID:25081047

  19. Development of Visual Motion Perception for Prospective Control: Brain and Behavioral Studies in Infants

    PubMed Central

    Agyei, Seth B.; van der Weel, F. R. (Ruud); van der Meer, Audrey L. H.

    2016-01-01

    During infancy, smart perceptual mechanisms develop allowing infants to judge time-space motion dynamics more efficiently with age and locomotor experience. This emerging capacity may be vital to enable preparedness for upcoming events and to be able to navigate in a changing environment. Little is known about brain changes that support the development of prospective control and about processes, such as preterm birth, that may compromise it. As a function of perception of visual motion, this paper will describe behavioral and brain studies with young infants investigating the development of visual perception for prospective control. By means of the three visual motion paradigms of occlusion, looming, and optic flow, our research shows the importance of including behavioral data when studying the neural correlates of prospective control. PMID:26903908

  20. Prenatal, Perinatal, and Neonatal Risk Factors for Specific Language Impairment: A Prospective Pregnancy Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.; Shelton, W. M. R.; Ing, Caleb; Newnham, John P.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Although genetic factors are known to play a causal role in specific language impairment (SLI), environmental factors may also be important. This study examined whether there are prenatal, perinatal, and neonatal factors that are associated with childhood SLI. Method: Participants were members of the Raine Study, a prospective cohort…

  1. Peer Victimization in Childhood and Internalizing Problems in Adolescence: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwierzynska, Karolina; Wolke, Dieter; Lereya, Tanya S.

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic childhood experiences have been found to predict later internalizing problems. This prospective longitudinal study investigated whether repeated and intentional harm doing by peers (peer victimization) in childhood predicts internalizing symptoms in early adolescence. 3,692 children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and…

  2. Sustained Effects of Ecstasy on the Human Brain: A Prospective Neuroimaging Study in Novel Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Win, Maartje M. L.; Jager, Gerry; Booij, Jan; Reneman, Liesbeth; Schilt, Thelma; Lavini, Christina; Olabarriaga, Silvia D.; den Heeten, Gerard J.; van den Brink, Wim

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested toxic effects of recreational ecstasy use on the serotonin system of the brain. However, it cannot be excluded that observed differences between users and non-users are the cause rather than the consequence of ecstasy use. As part of the Netherlands XTC Toxicity (NeXT) study, we prospectively assessed sustained…

  3. Asthma and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Nationwide Population-Based Prospective Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Mu-Hong; Su, Tung-Ping; Chen, Ying-Sheue; Hsu, Ju-Wei; Huang, Kai-Lin; Chang, Wen-Han; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Bai, Ya-Mei

    2013-01-01

    Background: Previous cross-sectional studies have suggested an association between asthma and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but the temporal relationship was not determined. Using a nationwide population-based prospective case-control cohort study (1:4, age-/gender-matched), we hypothesized that asthma in infanthood or early…

  4. Exposure to Intimate Partner Violence, Peer Relations, and Risk for Internalizing Behaviors: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camacho, Kathleen; Ehrensaft, Miriam K.; Cohen, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines the quality of peer relations as a mediator between exposure to IPV (intimate partner violence) and internalizing behaviors in a sample of 129 preadolescents and adolescents (ages 10-18), who were interviewed via telephone as part of a multigenerational, prospective, longitudinal study. Relational victimization is also…

  5. Drug Exposure Opportunities and Use Patterns among College Students: Results of a Longitudinal Prospective Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arria, Amelia M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; Fitzelle, Dawn B.; Johnson, Erin P.; Wish, Eric D.

    2008-01-01

    Underage drinking and drug use among college students are major public health concerns, yet few studies have examined these behaviors and their associated risk factors and consequences prospectively. This paper describes the sampling and recruitment methods of a longitudinal study of 1253 college students at a large, mid-Atlantic university.…

  6. Involvement in Bullying and Suicide-Related Behavior at 11 Years: A Prospective Birth Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winsper, Catherine; Lereya, Tanya; Zanarini, Mary; Wolke, Dieter

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the prospective link between involvement in bullying (bully, victim, bully/victim), and subsequent suicide ideation and suicidal/self-injurious behavior, in preadolescent children in the United Kingdom. Method: A total of 6,043 children in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort were assessed to…

  7. Trait Anger, Anger Expression, and Suicide Attempts among Adolescents and Young Adults: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Stephanie S.; Goldston, David B.; Erkanli, Alaattin; Franklin, Joseph C.; Mayfield, Andrew M.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies of the relationship between anger, anger expression, and suicidal behavior have been largely cross-sectional and have yielded mixed findings. In a prospective, naturalistic study, we examined how trait anger and anger expression influenced the likelihood of suicide attempts among 180 adolescents followed for up to 13.3 years after…

  8. Prediction of Participation and Sensory Modulation of Late Preterm Infants at 12 Months: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bart, O.; Shayevits, S.; Gabis, L. V.; Morag, I.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to prospectively assess the differences in participation and sensory modulation between late preterm infants (LPI) and term babies, and to predict it by LPI characteristics. The study population includes 124 late preterm infants at gestational age between 34 and 35 6/7 weeks who were born at the same medical center. The…

  9. Predictors of Cerebral Palsy in Very Preterm Infants: The EPIPAGE Prospective Population-Based Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaino, Ghada; Khoshnood, Babak; Kaminski, Monique; Pierrat, Veronique; Marret, Stephane; Matis, Jacqueline; Ledesert, Bernard; Thiriez, Gerard; Fresson, Jeanne; Roze, Jean-Christophe; Zupan-Simunek, Veronique; Arnaud, Catherine; Burguet, Antoine; Larroque, Beatrice; Breart, Gerard; Ancel, Pierre-Yves

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the independent role of cerebral lesions on ultrasound scan, and several other neonatal and obstetric factors, as potential predictors of cerebral palsy (CP) in a large population-based cohort of very preterm infants. Method: As part of EPIPAGE, a population-based prospective cohort study, perinatal data…

  10. Recurrence Risk after a First Remote Symptomatic Unprovoked Seizure in Childhood: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos-Lizana, J.; Aguirre-Rodriguez, J.; Aguilera-Lopez, P.; Cassinello-Garcia, E.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess recurrence risk after a first remote symptomatic unprovoked seizure in childhood. All consecutive patients younger than 14 years with a first remote symptomatic unprovoked seizure who were seen at our hospital between 1994 and 2006 were included in the study and prospectively followed. Only two patients received…

  11. GENETIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS ON BODY MASS INDEX DURING ADOLESCENCE: A PROSPECTIVE STUDY AMONG FINNISH TWINS

    PubMed Central

    Lajunen, Hanna-Reetta; Kaprio, Jaakko; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna; Rose, Richard J.; Pulkkinen, Lea; Rissanen, Aila; Silventoinen, Karri

    2009-01-01

    Objective To study genetic and environmental factors affecting body mass index (BMI) and BMI phenotypic correlations across adolescence. Design Prospective, population-based, twin cohort study. Subjects and methods We used twin modeling in 2413 monozygotic and same-sex and opposite-sex dizygotic Finnish twin pairs born in 1983–1987 and assessed by self-report questionnaires at 11–12, 14, and 17 years. Results Heritability of BMI was estimated to be 0.58–0.69 among 11–12- and 14-year-old boys and girls, 0.83 among 17-year-old boys and 0.74 among girls. Common environmental effects shared by siblings were 0.15–0.24 among 11–12- and 14-year-old boys and girls but no longer discernible at 17 y. Unique environmental effects were 0.15–0.23. Additive genetic factors explained 90–96% of the BMI phenotypic correlations across adolescence, whereas unique environmental factors explained the rest. Common environment had no effect on BMI phenotypic correlations. Conclusions The genetic contribution to BMI is strong during adolescence, and it mainly explains BMI phenotypic correlations across adolescence. Common environmental factors have an effect on BMI during early adolescence, but that effect disappears by late adolescence. PMID:19337205

  12. Sensibility and taste alterations after impacted lower third molar extractions. A prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Ridaura-Ruiz, Lourdes; Valmaseda-Castellón, Eduard; Berini-Aytés, Leonardo; Gay-Escoda, Cosme

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the incidence, severity and duration of lingual tactile and gustatory function impairments after lower third molar removal. Study Design: Prospective cohort study with intra-subject measures of 16 patients undergoing lower third molar extractions. Sensibility and gustatory functions were evaluated in each subject preoperatively, one week and one month after the extraction, using Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments and 5 different concentrations of NaCl, respectively. Additionally, all patients filled a questionnaire to assess subjective perceptions. Results: Although patients did not perceive any sensibility impairments, a statistically significant decrease was detected when Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments. This alteration was present at one week after the surgical procedure and fully recovered one month after the extraction. There were no variations regarding the gustatory function. Conclusions: Lower third molar removal under local anesthesia may cause light lingual sensibility impairment. Most of these alterations remain undetected to patients. These lingual nerve injuries are present one week after the extraction and recover one month after surgery. The taste seems to remain unaffected after these procedures. Key words:Lingual nerve, third molar, nerve injury, paresthesia, surgical extraction PMID:22322520

  13. Defining safe criteria to diagnose miscarriage: prospective observational multicentre study

    PubMed Central

    Preisler, Jessica; Kopeika, Julia; Ismail, Laure; Vathanan, Veluppillai; Farren, Jessica; Abdallah, Yazan; Battacharjee, Parijat; Van Holsbeke, Caroline; Bottomley, Cecilia; Gould, Deborah; Johnson, Susanne; Stalder, Catriona; Van Calster, Ben; Hamilton, Judith; Timmerman, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To validate recent guidance changes by establishing the performance of cut-off values for embryo crown-rump length and mean gestational sac diameter to diagnose miscarriage with high levels of certainty. Secondary aims were to examine the influence of gestational age on interpretation of mean gestational sac diameter and crown-rump length values, determine the optimal intervals between scans and findings on repeat scans that definitively diagnose pregnancy failure.) Design Prospective multicentre observational trial. Setting Seven hospital based early pregnancy assessment units in the United Kingdom. Participants 2845 women with intrauterine pregnancies of unknown viability included if transvaginal ultrasonography showed an intrauterine pregnancy of uncertain viability. In three hospitals this was initially defined as an empty gestational sac <20 mm mean diameter with or without a visible yolk sac but no embryo, or an embryo with crown-rump length <6 mm with no heartbeat. Following amended guidance in December 2011 this definition changed to a gestational sac size <25 mm or embryo crown-rump length <7 mm. At one unit the definition was extended throughout to include a mean gestational sac diameter <30 mm or embryo crown-rump length <8 mm. Main outcome measures Mean gestational sac diameter, crown-rump length, and presence or absence of embryo heart activity at initial and repeat transvaginal ultrasonography around 7-14 days later. The final outcome was pregnancy viability at 11-14 weeks’ gestation. Results The following indicated a miscarriage at initial scan: mean gestational sac diameter ≥25 mm with an empty sac (364/364 specificity: 100%, 95% confidence interval 99.0% to 100%), embryo with crown-rump length ≥7 mm without visible embryo heart activity (110/110 specificity: 100%, 96.7% to 100%), mean gestational sac diameter ≥18 mm for gestational sacs without an embryo presenting after 70 days’ gestation (907/907 specificity: 100%, 99.6% to

  14. Prospective studies on children with sex chromosome aneuploidy

    SciTech Connect

    Ratcliffe, S.G.; Paul, N.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 11 selections. Some of the titles are: Growth and Development from Early to Midadolescence of Children with X and Y Chromosome Aneuploidy: The Toronto Study; Sex Chromomal Aneuploidy: Perspective and Longitudinal Studies; Psychologic Study of XYY and XXY Men; and Cellular and Molecular Studies in Human Chromosomal Diseases.

  15. Organisational justice and mental health: a systematic review of prospective studies.

    PubMed

    Ndjaboué, Ruth; Brisson, Chantal; Vézina, Michel

    2012-10-01

    The models most commonly used, to study the effects of psychosocial work factors on workers' health, are the demand-control-support (DCS) model and Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) model. An emerging body of research has identified Organisational Justice as another model that can help to explain deleterious health effects. This review aimed: (1) to identify prospective studies of the associations between organisational justice and mental health in industrialised countries from 1990 to 2010; (2) to evaluate the extent to which organisational justice has an effect on mental health independently of the DCS and ERI models; and (3) to discuss theoretical and empirical overlap and differences with previous models. The studies had to present associations between organisational justice and a mental health outcome, be prospective, and be entirely available in English or in French. Duplicated papers were excluded. Eleven prospective studies were selected for this review. They provide evidence that procedural justice and relational justice are associated with mental health. These associations remained significant even after controlling for the DCS and ERI models. There is a lack of prospective studies on distributive and informational justice. In conclusion, procedural and relational justice can be considered a different and complementary model to the DCS and ERI models. Future studies should evaluate the effect of change in exposure to organisational justice on employees' mental health over time.

  16. Validation of the automatic image analyser to assess retinal vessel calibre (ALTAIR): a prospective study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Ortiz, Luis; Gómez-Marcos, Manuel A; Recio-Rodríguez, Jose I; Maderuelo-Fernández, Jose A; Chamoso-Santos, Pablo; Rodríguez-González, Sara; de Paz-Santana, Juan F; Merchan-Cifuentes, Miguel A; Corchado-Rodríguez, Juan M

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The fundus examination is a non-invasive evaluation of the microcirculation of the retina. The aim of the present study is to develop and validate (reliability and validity) the ALTAIR software platform (Automatic image analyser to assess retinal vessel calibre) in order to analyse its utility in different clinical environments. Methods and analysis A cross-sectional study in the first phase and a prospective observational study in the second with 4 years of follow-up. The study will be performed in a primary care centre and will include 386 participants. The main measurements will include carotid intima-media thickness, pulse wave velocity by Sphygmocor, cardio-ankle vascular index through the VASERA VS-1500, cardiac evaluation by a digital ECG and renal injury by microalbuminuria and glomerular filtration. The retinal vascular evaluation will be performed using a TOPCON TRCNW200 non-mydriatic retinal camera to obtain digital images of the retina, and the developed software (ALTAIR) will be used to automatically calculate the calibre of the retinal vessels, the vascularised area and the branching pattern. For software validation, the intraobserver and interobserver reliability, the concurrent validity of the vascular structure and function, as well as the association between the estimated retinal parameters and the evolution or onset of new lesions in the target organs or cardiovascular diseases will be examined. Ethics and dissemination The study has been approved by the clinical research ethics committee of the healthcare area of Salamanca. All study participants will sign an informed consent to agree to participate in the study in compliance with the Declaration of Helsinki and the WHO standards for observational studies. Validation of this tool will provide greater reliability to the analysis of retinal vessels by decreasing the intervention of the observer and will result in increased validity through the use of additional information, especially

  17. Additional EIPC Study Analysis: Interim Report on High Priority Topics

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, Stanton W

    2013-11-01

    Between 2010 and 2012 the Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative (EIPC) conducted a major long-term resource and transmission study of the Eastern Interconnection (EI). With guidance from a Stakeholder Steering Committee (SSC) that included representatives from the Eastern Interconnection States Planning Council (EISPC) among others, the project was conducted in two phases. Phase 1 involved a long-term capacity expansion analysis that involved creation of eight major futures plus 72 sensitivities. Three scenarios were selected for more extensive transmission- focused evaluation in Phase 2. Five power flow analyses, nine production cost model runs (including six sensitivities), and three capital cost estimations were developed during this second phase. The results from Phase 1 and 2 provided a wealth of data that could be examined further to address energy-related questions. A list of 13 topics was developed for further analysis; this paper discusses the first five.

  18. Additional studies for the spectrophotometric measurement of iodine in water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Previous work in iodine spectroscopy is briefly reviewed. Continued studies of the direct spectrophotometric determination of aqueous iodine complexed with potassium iodide show that free iodine is optimally determined at the isosbestic point for these solutions. The effects on iodine determinations of turbidity and chemical substances (in trace amounts) is discussed and illustrated. At the levels tested, iodine measurements are not significantly altered by such substances. A preliminary design for an on-line, automated iodine monitor with eventual capability of operating also as a controller was analyzed and developed in detail with respect single beam colorimeter operating at two wavelengths (using a rotating filter wheel). A flow-through sample cell allows the instrument to operate continuously, except for momentary stop flow when measurements are made. The timed automatic cycling of the system may be interrupted whenever desired, for manual operation. An analog output signal permits controlling an iodine generator.

  19. Predicting postherpetic neuralgia in elderly primary care patients with herpes zoster: prospective prognostic study.

    PubMed

    Opstelten, Wim; Zuithoff, Nicolaas P A; van Essen, Gerrit A; van Loon, Anton M; van Wijck, Albert J M; Kalkman, Cornelis J; Verheij, Theo J M; Moons, Karel G M

    2007-11-01

    Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is the most frequent complication of herpes zoster (HZ) and difficult to treat. Timely identification of high-risk HZ-patients enables physicians to focus on PHN prevention. To assess which simple to measure factors are independent predictors of PHN, and whether psychosocial and serological/virological parameters have additional predictive value, a prospective cohort study in primary care was conducted. We included 598 elderly (>50 years) consecutive patients with acute HZ (rash <7 days) below sixth cervical dermatome. At baseline demographic, clinical (e.g., duration and severity of pain and rash), psychological (Pain Cognition List [PCL] and Spielberger's Anxiety Inventory), serological (VZV-antibodies) and virological (viremia presence) variables were measured. Blood tests were performed in a random subset of 218 patients. Primary outcome was significant pain (VAS >30 on 0-100 scale) after three months. The final prediction model obtained from multivariable logistic regression was (internally) validated using bootstrapping techniques, and adjusted for optimism. Forty-six (7.7%) patients developed PHN. Independent predictors were age (odds ratio [OR]=1.08 per year), acute pain severity (OR=1.02 per unit), presence of severe rash (OR=2.31), and rash duration before consultation (OR=0.78 per day): area under receiver-operating-characteristic curve [ROC area]=0.77 (95% CI: 0.71-0.82). Of the five PCL scores, only factor V ('trust in healthcare') was an additional predictor (OR=1.01 per unit), though it increased the ROC area with only 0.01 to 0.78. The Spielberger's anxiety scores and serological and virological variables were no additional predictors. Thus, four simple variables can help physicians to timely identify elderly HZ-patients at risk of PHN.

  20. A Prospective Controlled Study of Kidney Donors: Baseline and 6-Month Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Kasiske, Bertram L.; Anderson-Haag, Teresa; Ibrahim, Hassan N.; Pesavento, Todd E.; Weir, Matthew R.; Nogueira, Joseph M.; Cosio, Fernando G.; Kraus, Edward S.; Rabb, Hamid H.; Kalil, Roberto S.; Posselt, Andrew A.; Kimmel, Paul L.; Steffes, Michael W.

    2013-01-01

    Background Most previous studies of living kidney donors have been retrospective and have lacked suitable healthy controls. Needed are prospective controlled studies to better understand the effects of a mild reduction in kidney function from kidney donation in otherwise normal individuals. Study Design Prospective, controlled, observational cohort study. Setting & Participants Consecutive patients approved for donation at 8 transplant centers in the US were asked to participate. For every donor enrolled, an equally healthy control with 2 kidneys who theoretically would have been suitable to donate a kidney was also enrolled. Predictor Kidney donation. Measurements At baseline pre-donation and at 6 months after donation, a medical history, vital signs, measured (iohexol) glomerular filtration rate and other measurements were collected. There were 201 donors and 198 controls that completed both baseline and 6 month visits and form the basis of this report. Results Compared to controls, donors had 28% lower glomerular filtration rate at 6 months (94.6±15.1 [SD] v. 67.6±10.1 mL/min/1.73m2; P<0.001), associated with a 23% greater parathyroid hormone (42.8±15.6 v. 52.7±20.9 pg/mL; P<0.001), 5.4% lower serum phosphate (3.5±0.5 v. 3.3±0.5 mg/dL; P<0.001), 3.7% lower hemoglobin (13.6±1.4 v. 13.1±1.2 g/dL; P<0.001), 8.2% greater uric acid (4.9±1.2 v. 5.3±1.1 mg/dL; P<0.001), 24% greater homocysteine (1.20±0.34 v. 1.49±0.43 mg/L; P<0.001), and 1.5% lower high density lipoprotein cholesterol (54.9±16.4 v. 54.1±13.9 mg/dL; P=0.03) level. There were no differences in albumin-creatinine ratios (5.0 [IQR, 4.0-6.6] v. 5.0 [IQR, 3.3-5.4] mg/g; P=0.5), office blood pressure, or glucose homeostasis. Limitations Short duration of follow-up and possible bias resulting from an inability to screen controls with kidney and vascular imaging performed in donors. Conclusions Kidney donors have some, but not all, abnormalities typically associated with mild chronic kidney

  1. Characteristics of successful recruitment in prospective pediatric pharmacogenetic studies

    PubMed Central

    Saldaña, Shannon N.; Hooper, David K.; Froehlich, Tanya E.; Campbell, Kathleen M.; Prows, Cynthia A.; Sadhasivam, Senthilkumar; Nick, Todd G.; Seid, Michael; Vinks, Alexander A.; Glauser, Tracy A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim was to identify factors affecting recruitment of eligible subjects in pharmacogenetic studies at a large Midwestern pediatric academic medical center. Objectives were to evaluate recruitment success of ongoing trials and ascertain contributors to differential recruitment rates. We hypothesized studies with good recruitment of eligible subjects would share characteristics not present in studies with lower than anticipated recruitment. The goal was to better understand barriers to good recruitment in pharmacogenetic studies to help inform future trial and infrastructure design. Study Design Investigators designed a survey with proposed elements of success, which was then completed by lead/site investigators of all pharmacogenetics studies at the institution. Results were evaluated using an investigator-developed likelihood of success scoring system. Results Two studies recruited over 95% of eligible patients approached, four studies were consistent with investigator-anticipated recruitment (>50%), and one study did not meet expected recruitment. A study's total score on the investigator-devised scoring tool correlated well with the proportion of approached patients recruited (Pearson correlation, r = 0.82; P<0.001). Multiple factors impact successful recruitment into these pharmacogenetic studies. Features of studies with successful recruitment included standardized clinical care, an ongoing team/patient relationship, severe/life-threatening outcome measure, study coordinator with experience in clinical research, a study medication with few or no alternative treatment options, and active involvement of the research team in clinical care. Conclusions A scoring system for study characteristics may be useful to calculate the risk of failure for successful recruitment, allow discrimination among characteristics contributing to the risk, and permit study design alterations to improve likelihood of successful recruitment in pediatric pharmacogenetic

  2. Chronic Stress is Prospectively Associated with Sleep in Midlife Women: The SWAN Sleep Study

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Martica H.; Casement, Melynda D.; Troxel, Wendy M.; Matthews, Karen A.; Bromberger, Joyce T.; Kravitz, Howard M.; Krafty, Robert T.; Buysse, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Evaluate whether levels of upsetting life events measured over a 9-y period prospectively predict subjective and objective sleep outcomes in midlife women. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Four sites across the United States. Participants: 330 women (46–57 y of age) enrolled in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) Sleep Study. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Upsetting life events were assessed annually for up to 9 y. Trajectory analysis applied to life events data quantitatively identified three distinct chronic stress groups: low stress, moderate stress, and high stress. Sleep was assessed by self-report and in-home polysomnography (PSG) during the ninth year of the study. Multivariate analyses tested the prospective association between chronic stress group and sleep, adjusting for race, baseline sleep complaints, marital status, body mass index, symptoms of depression, and acute life events at the time of the Sleep Study. Women characterized by high chronic stress had lower subjective sleep quality, were more likely to report insomnia, and exhibited increased PSG-assessed wake after sleep onset (WASO) relative to women with low to moderate chronic stress profiles. The effect of chronic stress group on WASO persisted in the subsample of participants without baseline sleep complaints. Conclusions: Chronic stress is prospectively associated with sleep disturbance in midlife women, even after adjusting for acute stressors at the time of the sleep study and other factors known to disrupt sleep. These results are consistent with current models of stress that emphasize the cumulative effect of stressors on health over time. Citation: Hall MH, Casement MD, Troxel WM, Matthews KA, Bromberger JT, Kravitz HM, Krafty RT, Buysse DJ. Chronic stress is prospectively associated with sleep in midlife women: the SWAN Sleep Study. SLEEP 2015;38(10):1645–1654. PMID:26039965

  3. Work and Sleep—A Prospective Study of Psychosocial Work Factors, Physical Work Factors, and Work Scheduling

    PubMed Central

    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn; Garefelt, Johanna; Richter, Anne; Westerlund, Hugo; Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.; Sverke, Magnus; Kecklund, Göran

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: There is limited knowledge about the prospective relationship between major work characteristics (psychosocial, physical, scheduling) and disturbed sleep. The current study sought to provide such knowledge. Design: Prospective cohort, with measurements on two occasions (T1 and T2) separated by two years. Setting: Naturalistic study, Sweden. Participants: There were 4,827 participants forming a representative sample of the working population. Measurements and Results: Questionnaire data on work factors obtained on two occasions were analyzed with structural equation modeling. Competing models were compared in order to investigate temporal relationships. A reciprocal model was found to fit the data best. Sleep disturbances at T2 were predicted by higher work demands at T1 and by lower perceived stress at T1. In addition, sleep disturbances at T1 predicted subsequent higher perception of stress, higher work demands, lower degree of control, and less social support at work at T2. A cross-sectional mediation analysis showed that (higher) perceived stress mediated the relationship between (higher) work demands and sleep disturbances; however, no such association was found longitudinally. Conclusions: Higher work demands predicted disturbed sleep, whereas physical work characteristics, shift work, and overtime did not. In addition, disturbed sleep predicted subsequent higher work demands, perceived stress, less social support, and lower degree of control. The results suggest that remedial interventions against sleep disturbances should focus on psychosocial factors, and that such remedial interventions may improve the psychosocial work situation in the long run. Citation: Åkerstedt T, Garefelt J, Richter A, Westerlund H, Magnusson LL, Sverke M, Kecklund G. Work and sleep—a prospective study of psychosocial work factors, physical work factors, and work scheduling. SLEEP 2015;38(7):1129–1136. PMID:26118559

  4. Predictors of the first cardiovascular event in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus - a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of premature mortality among Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. Many studies have measured and evaluated risk factors for premature subclinical atherosclerosis, but few studies are prospective and few have evaluated risk factors for hard endpoints, i.e. clinically important cardiovascular events (CVE). We investigated the impact of traditional and lupus associated risk factors for the first ever CVE in a longitudinal cohort of SLE patients. Methods A total of 182 SLE patients (mean age 43.9 years) selected to be free of CVE were included. Cardiovascular and autoimmune biomarkers were measured on samples collected after overnight fasting at baseline. Clinical information was collected at baseline and at follow up. End point was the first ever CVE (ischemic heart, cerebrovascular or peripheral vascular disease or death due to CVD). Impact of baseline characteristics/biomarkers on the risk of having a first CVE was evaluated with Cox regression. Results Follow up was 99.5% after a mean time of 8.3 years. Twenty-four patients (13%) had a first CVE. In age-adjusted Cox regression, any positive antiphospholipid antibody (aPL), elevated markers of endothelial activation (von Willebrand factor (vWf), soluble vascular cellular adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1)) and fibrinogen predicted CVEs. Of SLE manifestations, arthritis, pleuritis and previous venous occlusion were positively associated with future CVEs while thrombocytopenia was negatively associated. Among traditional risk factors only age and smoking were significant predictors. In a multivariable Cox regression model age, any positive aPL, vWf and absence of thrombocytopenia were all predictors of the first CVE. Conclusions In addition to age, positive aPL, biomarkers indicating increased endothelial cell activity/damage, and absence of thrombocytopenia were independent predictors of CVEs in this prospective study. Our results indicate that activation

  5. Does Attention Constrain Developmental Trajectories in Fragile X Syndrome? A 3-Year Prospective Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornish, Kim; Cole, Victoria; Longhi, Elena; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Scerif, Gaia

    2012-01-01

    Basic attentional processes and their impact on developmental trajectories in fragile X syndrome were assessed in a 3-year prospective study. Although fragile X syndrome is a monogenic X-linked disorder, there is striking variability in outcomes even in young boys with the condition. Attention is a key factor constraining interactions with the…

  6. A prospective study of marine phytoplankton and reported illness among recreational beachgoers in Puerto Rico, 2009

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Blooms of marine phytoplankton may adversely affect human health. The potential public health impact of low-level exposures is not well established, and few prospective cohort studies of recreational exposures to marine phytoplankton have been conducted.OBJECTIVE: We ...

  7. How Can Perceived Autonomy Support Influence Enrollment in Elective Physical Education? A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Bo

    2010-01-01

    This prospective study was designed to investigate the influence of high students' perceived teacher autonomy support in mandatory physical education on their intention and actual enrollment in elective physical education. Participants included 545 ninth-grade students enrolled in three suburban high schools in a major midwestern metropolitan…

  8. Beliefs of Applied Studio Faculty on Desirable Traits of Prospective Music Education Majors: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royston, Natalie Steele; Springer, D. Gregory

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the beliefs of applied music faculty on desirable traits of prospective music education majors. Researcher-designed surveys were sent electronically to applied music faculty at 12 National Association of Schools of Music-accredited institutions randomly selected from each of the four major divisions…

  9. The Development of Prospective Grasping Control between 5 and 7 Months: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witherington, David C.

    2005-01-01

    By 7 months, infants, when reaching for an object, visually guide their grasp by preorienting their hands to match the object's orientation. Evidence at earlier ages, however, for prospective grasp control via anticipatory hand orientation is mixed. This study examined longitudinally the development of anticipatory hand orientation in 15 infants,…

  10. Keeping Friends Safe: A Prospective Study Examining Early Adolescent's Confidence and Support Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley, L.; Chapman, R. L.; Sheehan, M.; Cunningham, L.

    2012-01-01

    There is a continued need to consider ways to prevent early adolescent engagement in a variety of harmful risk-taking behaviours for example, violence, road-related risks and alcohol use. The current prospective study examined adolescents' reports of intervening to try and stop friends' engagement in such behaviours among 207 early adolescents…

  11. A Prospective Study of Mexican American Adolescents' Academic Success: Considering Family and Individual Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roosa, Mark W.; O'Donnell, Megan; Cham, Heining; Gonzales, Nancy A.; Zeiders, Katherine H.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Knight, George P.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana

    2012-01-01

    Mexican American youth are at greater risk of school failure than their peers. To identify factors that may contribute to academic success in this population, this study examined the prospective relationships from 5th grade to 7th grade of family (i.e., human capital [a parent with at least a high school education], residential stability,…

  12. A Bayesian hierarchical approach for combining case-control and prospective studies.

    PubMed

    Müller, P; Parmigiani, G; Schildkraut, J; Tardella, L

    1999-09-01

    Motivated by the absolute risk predictions required in medical decision making and patient counseling, we propose an approach for the combined analysis of case-control and prospective studies of disease risk factors. The approach is hierarchical to account for parameter heterogeneity among studies and among sampling units of the same study. It is based on modeling the retrospective distribution of the covariates given the disease outcome, a strategy that greatly simplifies both the combination of prospective and retrospective studies and the computation of Bayesian predictions in the hierarchical case-control context. Retrospective modeling differentiates our approach from most current strategies for inference on risk factors, which are based on the assumption of a specific prospective model. To ensure modeling flexibility, we propose using a mixture model for the retrospective distributions of the covariates. This leads to a general nonlinear regression family for the implied prospective likelihood. After introducing and motivating our proposal, we present simple results that highlight its relationship with existing approaches, develop Markov chain Monte Carlo methods for inference and prediction, and present an illustration using ovarian cancer data. PMID:11315018

  13. Risk and Protective Factors Predictive of Adolescent Pregnancy: A Longitudinal, Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East, Patricia L.; Khoo, Siek Toon; Reyes, Barbara T.

    2006-01-01

    One hundred twenty-eight Latina and African American girls from high-risk environments (e.g., poverty, family history of teen parenting, etc.) were studied from age 13 through age 19 to prospectively identify the protective factors that might guard against teenage pregnancy. Results indicated that involved and strict parenting during early…

  14. Problems and Prospects of Introducing Latin American Studies into the Community and Junior College Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glab, Edward, Jr., Comp.

    These papers represent a general discussion of the problems and prospects for teaching Latin American Studies in two-year colleges. More broadly, they highlight the difficulties of introducing any sort of intercultural dimension into the two-year college curriculum. Sheila Tesar discusses the constraints of state regulations and student attitudes…

  15. The Short-Term Impact of Involuntary Migration in China's Three Gorges: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Sean-Shong; Cao, Yue; Xi, Juan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to measure the short-term impact of involuntary migration resulting from China's Three Gorges Dam project on the 1.3 million persons being displaced. We focus on the social, economic, and mental and physical health impact using three sets of indicators. Using a prospective research design, we gathered information about…

  16. The Interpersonal Antecedents of Supportive Parenting: A Prospective, Longitudinal Study from Infancy to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raby, K. Lee; Lawler, Jamie M.; Shlafer, Rebecca J.; Hesemeyer, Paloma S.; Collins, W. Andrew; Sroufe, L. Alan

    2015-01-01

    This study drew on prospective, longitudinal data to test the hypothesis that the intergenerational transmission of positive parenting is mediated by competence in subsequent relationships with peers and romantic partners. Interview-based ratings of supportive parenting were completed with a sample of 113 individuals (46% male) followed from birth…

  17. Mediating Mechanisms for the Intergenerational Transmission of Constructive Parenting: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Zeng-yin; Liu, Ruth X.; Kaplan, Howard B.

    2008-01-01

    Based on a prospective longitudinal panel data set that was collected at three developmental stages--early adolescence, young adulthood, and middle adulthood--this study investigates marital satisfaction and educational attainment as mediating mechanisms as well as gender's moderating effect for the intergenerational transmission of constructive…

  18. How Can We Get the Information about Democracy? The Example of Social Studies Prospective Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonga, Deniz

    2014-01-01

    In this research, the information about democracy, which social studies prospective teachers have, and interpretation of the information sources are aimed. The research was planned as a survey research methodology and the participants were determined with criterion sampling method. The data were collected through developed open-ended questions…

  19. Predictors and Health-Related Outcomes of Positive Body Image in Adolescent Girls: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrew, Rachel; Tiggemann, Marika; Clark, Levina

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate prospective predictors and health-related outcomes of positive body image in adolescent girls. In so doing, the modified acceptance model of intuitive eating was also examined longitudinally. A sample of 298 girls aged 12 to 16 years completed a questionnaire containing measures of body appreciation, potential…

  20. Sociocultural and Individual Psychological Predictors of Body Image in Young Girls: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Levina; Tiggemann, Marika

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the prospective predictors of body image in 9- to 12-year-old girls. Participants were 150 girls in Grades 4-6 with a mean age of 10.3 years. Girls completed questionnaire measures of media and peer influences (television/magazine exposure, peer appearance conversations), individual psychological variables (appearance…

  1. Father Locus of Control and Child Emotional and Behavioral Outcomes: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tone, Erin B.; Goodfellow, Stephanie; Nowicki, Stephen, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    In a prospective longitudinal study the authors examined the associations between parent locus of control of reinforcement (LOCR), measured before the birth of a child, and behavioral-emotional outcomes in that child at age 7 years. A total of 307 couples completed questionnaires regarding their emotional status and LOCR at their first prenatal…

  2. A One Year Prospective Study of Neurogenic Stuttering Following Stroke: Incidence and Co-Occurring Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theys, C.; van Wieringen, A.; Sunaert, S.; Thijs, V.; De Nil, L. F.

    2011-01-01

    In this prospective study, data on incidence, stuttering characteristics, co-occurring speech disorders, and recovery of neurogenic stuttering in a large sample of stroke participants were assessed. Following stroke onset, 17 of 319 participants (5.3%; 95% CI, 3.2-8.3) met the criteria for neurogenic stuttering. Stuttering persisted in at least…

  3. The "Prospects" Study of Educational Growth and Opportunity: Implications for Policy and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puma, Michael J.

    This paper examines results from the Prospects study--a research agenda that explored the federal Title I program's impact on the academic and socio-emotional development of disadvantaged children. The document focuses on the program's strengths and limitations, offering a brief review of educational research and highlighting what may or may not…

  4. Prospective Predictors of Body Dissatisfaction in Adolescent Girls and Boys: A Five-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paxton, Susan J.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated prospective risk factors for increases in body dissatisfaction in adolescent girls and boys in the Eating Among Teens Project. At the time of first assessment (Time 1), participants were a cohort of early adolescent girls (N = 440) and boys (N = 366) and a cohort of middle adolescent girls (N = 946) and boys (N = 764).…

  5. Psychological and Behavioral Risk Factors for Obesity Onset in Adolescent Girls: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stice, Eric; Presnell, Katherine; Shaw, Heather; Rohde, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Because little is known about risk factors for obesity, the authors tested whether certain psychological and behavioral variables predicted future onset of obesity. The authors used data from a prospective study of 496 adolescent girls who completed a baseline assessment at age 11-15 years and 4 annual follow-ups. Self-reported dietary restraint,…

  6. What They Notice in Video: A Study of Prospective Secondary Mathematics Teachers Learning to Teach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roller, Sarah A.

    2016-01-01

    Most teacher preparation programs have embraced the use of video as an effective methodology for developing teachers' noticing skills. This study focused on learning about what secondary mathematics prospective teachers (PSTs) were able to notice when viewing video of their own co-teaching, particularly in a microteaching setting that consisted of…

  7. A Prospective Study of Pedometer-Determined Physical Activity and Physical Self-Perceptions in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Charles F.; Graser, Susan Vincent; Pangrazi, Robert P.

    2008-01-01

    There have been limited prospective studies investigating physical activity and physical self-perceptions in children. In this investigation, mean steps/day did not significantly change from late elementary to junior high for either boys or girls; however, boys accumulated more steps both at baseline and follow-up. Physical self-perception…

  8. The Multicultural Awareness, Knowledge, Skills and Attitudes of Prospective Teachers: A Quantitative and Heuristic Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Rotha M.

    2012-01-01

    Moule (2005) suggest diverse students suffer isolation, invisibility and inappropriate labeling in many educational institutions. This mixed method study explores the multicultural awareness, knowledge, skills, and attitudes of prospective teachers. The research questions are: (1) what are the multicultural awareness, knowledge, skills and…

  9. Cognitive Coping Strategies and Stress in Parents of Children with Down Syndrome: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Veek, Shelley M. C.; Kraaij, Vivian; Garnefski, Nadia

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the cross-sectional and prospective relationships between cognitive coping strategies and parental stress in parents of children with Down syndrome. A total of 621 participants filled out questionnaires, including the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire to measure cognitive coping and the Nijmeegse…

  10. A Study of Prospective Turkish Science Teachers' Knowledge at the Popular Biotechnological Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darcin, Emine Selcen; Turkmen, Lutfullah

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the knowledge level of popular biotechnological issues of prospective Turkish science teachers. A questionnaire was administered during 2005-2006 academic year to 194 students in the Department of Science Education of a university in Turkey. The questionnaire covered six biotechnological issues such as…

  11. A Prospective Cohort Study Comparing Workload in Children with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivilis, Irina; Liu, Jian; Cairney, John; Hay, John A.; Klentrou, Panagiota; Faught, Brent E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this prospective cohort study was to assess how cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) of children with probable developmental coordination disorder (DCD) changes over a period of 4.7 years relative to a group of typically developing controls. A school-based sample of children in a large region of Ontario, Canada with 75 out of a possible…

  12. Rumination and Depression in Adolescence: Investigating Symptom Specificity in a Multiwave Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hankin, Benjamin L.

    2008-01-01

    A ruminative response style has been shown to predict depressive symptoms among youth and adults, but it is unclear whether rumination is associated specifically with depression compared with co-occurring symptoms of anxiety and externalizing behaviors. This prospective, multiwave study investigated whether baseline rumination predicted…

  13. The Effects of Divorce and Parental Conflict on Children's Adjustment: A Prospective Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Daniel

    Replicating the methodology used by Block, Block, and Gjerde (1986), a prospective, longitudinal examination was made of relations between divorce and children's adjustment. Data from the New York Longitudinal Study (NYLS), originally collected by Thomas, Chess, and Birch (1963, 1968, 1977, 1983, 1984) was analyzed. The NYLS assessed children's…

  14. Predicting Changes in Eating Disorder Symptoms among Adolescents in China: An 18-Month Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Todd; Chen, Hong

    2008-01-01

    This 18-month prospective study investigated factors that contributed to changes in eating disorder symptoms among adolescents living in the People's Republic of China. Five hundred forty-one Chinese middle school and high school students (182 boys, 359 girls) completed measures of eating disorder symptoms; body dissatisfaction; appearance ideal…

  15. A Prospective Study of Risk Factors for the Development of Depression and Disordered Eating in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferreiro, Fatima; Seoane, Gloria; Senra, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    There is evidence that females display higher levels of depressive symptoms and disordered eating than males from adolescence onward. This study examined whether different risk factors and their interaction with sex (moderator effect) prospectively predicted depressive symptoms and disordered eating in adolescents. A total of 415 female…

  16. Do Specific Types of Networking Predict Specific Mobility Outcomes? A Two-Year Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, Hans-Georg; Moser, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has established a general relation between networking and career outcomes, as postulated by theories on protean careers and career self management. We suggest that specific facets of networking behavior differentially affect specific career mobility outcomes over time. In a 2-year prospective study, we examined the impact of six…

  17. Clinical Observed Performance Evaluation: A Prospective Study in Final Year Students of Surgery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markey, G. C.; Browne, K.; Hunter, K.; Hill, A. D.

    2011-01-01

    We report a prospective study of clinical observed performance evaluation (COPE) for 197 medical students in the pre-qualification year of clinical education. Psychometric quality was the main endpoint. Students were assessed in groups of 5 in 40-min patient encounters, with each student the focus of evaluation for 8 min. Each student had a series…

  18. Predicting Dyslexia in a Transparent Orthography from Grade 1 Literacy Skills: A Prospective Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigozzi, Lucia; Tarchi, Christian; Pinto, Giuliana; Accorti Gamannossi, Beatrice

    2016-01-01

    We conducted this prospective cohort study to explore the predictability of dyslexia from 1st-grade literacy skills in Italian students. We followed 407 Italian students in primary school from the 1st through the 3rd grades. Students were diagnosed with dyslexia in the 3rd grade. We retrospectively tested participants' 1st-grade performance in…

  19. Smoking and Survival After Breast Cancer Diagnosis: A Prospective Observational Study and Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Braithwaite, Dejana; Izano, Monika; Moore, Dan H.; Kwan, Marilyn L.; Tammemagi, Martin C.; Hiatt, Robert A.; Kerlikowske, Karla; Kroenke, Candyce H.; Sweeney, Carol; Habel, Laurel; Castillo, Adrienne; Weltzien, Erin; Caan, Bette

    2012-01-01

    Background The association of smoking with outcomes following breast cancer prognosis is not well understood. Method In a cohort study called Life After Cancer Epidemiology (LACE), 2265 women diagnosed with breast cancer were followed for a median of twelve years. We used multivariable proportional-hazards models to determine whether smoking, assessed approximately two years post-diagnosis, was associated with risk of death among these women. We also undertook a systematic review of all cohort studies to date that have examined the association between smoking and breast cancer mortality. Results Compared with never smokers, women who were current smokers had a two-fold higher rate of dying from breast cancer [hazard ratio (HR)=2.01, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.27–3.18] and an approximately four-fold higher rate of dying from competing (non-breast cancer) causes (HR=3.84, 95%CI 2.50–5.89). Among seven studies that met the inclusion criteria in the systematic review, three studies and our own reported significantly increased risk of breast cancer death with current smoking. We found little evidence of an association between former smoking and breast cancer mortality (HR=1.24, 95% CI 0.94–1.64). Conclusions Consistent with findings from our prospective observational study, the systematic review of seven additional studies indicates positive association of current smoking with breast cancer mortality, but weak association with former smoking. Impact Women who smoke following breast cancer diagnosis and treatment are at higher risk of death both from breast cancer and other causes. PMID:23053660

  20. Recovery-stress balance and injury risk in professional football players: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Laux, Philipp; Krumm, Bertram; Diers, Martin; Flor, Herta

    2015-01-01

    Professional football is a contact sport with a high risk of injury. This study was designed to examine the contribution of stress and recovery variables as assessed with the Recovery-Stress Questionnaire for Athletes (RESTQ-Sport) to the risk of injury in professional football players. In a prospective, non-experimental cohort design, 22 professional football players in the highest German football league were observed over the course of 16 months. From January 2010 until April 2011, the players completed the RESTQ-Sport a total of 222 times in monthly intervals. In addition, injury data were assessed by the medical staff of the club. Overall, 34 traumatic injuries and 10 overuse injuries occurred. Most of the injuries were located in the lower limb (79.5%), and muscle and tendon injuries (43.2%) were the most frequently occurring injury type. In a generalised linear model, the stress-related scales Fatigue (OR 1.70, P = 0.007), Disturbed Breaks (OR 1.84, P = 0.047) and Injury (OR 1.77, P < 0.001) and the recovery-related scale Sleep Quality (OR 0.53, P = 0.010) significantly predicted injuries in the month after the assessment. These results support the importance of frequent monitoring of recovery and stress parameters to lower the risk of injuries in professional football. PMID:26168148

  1. Abdominal rectopexy with sigmoidectomy vs. rectopexy alone for rectal prolapse: a prospective, randomized study.

    PubMed

    Luukkonen, P; Mikkonen, U; Järvinen, H

    1992-12-01

    A prospective, randomized study comparing abdominal rectopexy and sigmoid resection (Group I; n = 15) with polyglycolic acid mesh rectopexy without sigmoidectomy (Group II; n = 15) for complete rectal prolapse was carried out. One patient in Group I died of myocardial infarction, one patient in Group II had a small bowel obstruction and two patients in Group I an asymptomatic stricture of the anastomosis. Otherwise a safe and efficient control of the prolapse was achieved in both groups. Eleven (73%) patients in Group I and 12 (80%) patients in Group II were more or less incontinent before surgery. After correction of prolapse incontinence improved in eight and ten patients in Groups I and II, but became slightly worse in one patient in Group II. A similar rise in anal pressures was measured in both groups after surgery. Constipation disappeared in three and seven patients in Groups I and II six months after surgery, but five additional patients in Group II became severely constipated and colectomy had to be performed in one of them. Surgery caused no significant change in colonic transit times even though increased transit times were measured in each group six months postoperatively. Sigmoid resection in conjunction with rectopexy does not seem to increase operative morbidity but tends to diminish postoperative constipation possibly by causing less outlet obstruction. PMID:1338091

  2. Inhospital Mortality in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Prospective Cohort Study in Lima, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Zelada, Henry; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Manrique, Helard

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To estimate cause of death and to identify factors associated with risk of inhospital mortality among patients with T2D. Methods. Prospective cohort study performed in a referral public hospital in Lima, Peru. The outcome was time until event, elapsed from hospital admission to discharge or death, and the exposure was the cause of hospital admission. Cox regression was used to evaluate associations of interest reporting Hazard Ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals. Results. 499 patients were enrolled. Main causes of death were exacerbation of chronic renal failure (38.1%), respiratory infections (35.7%), and stroke (16.7%). During hospital stay, 42 (8.4%) patients died. In multivariable models, respiratory infections (HR = 6.55, p < 0.001), stroke (HR = 7.05, p = 0.003), and acute renal failure (HR = 16.9, p = 0.001) increased the risk of death. In addition, having 2+ (HR = 7.75, p < 0.001) and 3+ (HR = 21.1, p < 0.001) conditions increased the risk of dying. Conclusion. Respiratory infections, stroke, and acute renal disease increased the risk of inhospital mortality among hospitalized patients with T2D. Infections are not the only cause of inhospital mortality. Certain causes of hospitalization require standardized and aggressive management to decrease mortality. PMID:26788522

  3. Factors predisposing to wound infection in cardiac surgery. A prospective study of 517 patients.

    PubMed

    Wilson, A P; Livesey, S A; Treasure, T; Grüneberg, R N; Sturridge, M F

    1987-01-01

    Postoperative wound infection can greatly prolong hospital stay after cardiac surgery, so the identification of predisposing factors may help in prevention or early institution of treatment. Transfer of organisms from the leg to the sternum during coronary artery surgery has been proposed as a major additional cause of sepsis. The definition of wound infection is not standardised and therefore makes comparison between centres difficult. In a prospective study of 517 patients, a wound scoring method (ASEPSIS) has been used to register all abnormal wounds to maximise the chances of identifying factors predisposing to infection. Abnormal healing was noted in 99 (19%) sternal wounds and 29 (8%) leg wounds. Obesity was the principal risk factor (P less than 0.005). Diabetes, reoperation, length of preoperative hospital stay, age, sex, or previous cardiac surgery had little effect on wound healing. The range of bacteria isolated from chest wounds after coronary artery surgery was similar to that after valvular surgery, but the rate of isolation was significantly greater. With careful attention to technique, leg wound infection rarely presented a clinical problem and did not appear to be a source of bacteria infecting the chest wound.

  4. Gender Abuse, Depressive Symptoms, and Substance Use Among Transgender Women: A 3-Year Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Bockting, Walter; Rosenblum, Andrew; Hwahng, Sel; Mason, Mona; Macri, Monica; Becker, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the effects of gender abuse (enacted stigma), depressive symptoms, and demographic, economic, and lifestyle factors on substance use among transgender women. Methods. We conducted a 3-year prospective study (December 2004 to September 2007) of 230 transgender women aged 19 to 59 years from the New York Metropolitan Area. Statistical techniques included generalized estimating equations with logistic and linear regression links. Results. Six-month prevalence of any substance use at baseline was 76.2%. Across assessment points, gender abuse was associated with alcohol, cannabis, cocaine, or any substance use during the previous 6 months, the number of days these substances were used during the previous month, and the number of substances used. Additional modeling associated changes in gender abuse with changes in substance use across time. Associations of gender abuse and substance use were mediated 55% by depressive symptoms. Positive associations of employment income, sex work, transgender identity, and hormone therapy with substance use were mediated 19% to 42% by gender abuse. Conclusions. Gender abuse, in conjunction with depressive symptoms, is a pervasive and moderately strong risk factor for substance use among transgender women. Improved substance abuse treatment is sorely needed for this population. PMID:25211716

  5. Paramedic accuracy in using a decision support algorithm when recognising adult death: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Jones, T; Woollard, M

    2003-01-01

    Method: This prospective 16 month cohort study evaluated 188 events of recognition of adult death (ROAD) by paramedics in the period from November 1999 to February 2001. Results: Of 188 ROAD applications, errors were made in 13 cases (6.9%, 95% CI 3.7 to 11.5. Additionally, there was one adverse clinical incident associated with a case in which ROAD was applied (0.5%, 95% CI 0.01 to 2.9%). ECG strips were unavailable for eight cases, although ambulance records indicated a rhythm of asystole for each of these. Assuming this diagnosis was correct, ROAD was used 174 times without errors (93%, 95% CI 88 to 96%). Assuming that it was not, the ROAD protocol was applied without errors in 166 cases (88.3%, 95% CI 82.8 to 92.5%). None of the errors made appeared to be attributable to poor clinical decision making, compromised treatment, or changed patient outcome. The mean on-scene time for ambulance crews using the ROAD policy was 60 minutes. Conclusion: Paramedics can accurately apply a decision support algorithm when recognising adult death. It could be argued that the attendance of a medical practitioner to confirm death is therefore an inappropriate use of such personnel and may result in unnecessarily protracted on-scene times for ambulance crews. Further research is required to confirm this, and to determine the proportion of patients suitable for recognition of adult death who are actually identified as such by paramedics. PMID:12954697

  6. Recovery–stress balance and injury risk in professional football players: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Laux, Philipp; Krumm, Bertram; Diers, Martin; Flor, Herta

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Professional football is a contact sport with a high risk of injury. This study was designed to examine the contribution of stress and recovery variables as assessed with the Recovery-Stress Questionnaire for Athletes (RESTQ-Sport) to the risk of injury in professional football players. In a prospective, non-experimental cohort design, 22 professional football players in the highest German football league were observed over the course of 16 months. From January 2010 until April 2011, the players completed the RESTQ-Sport a total of 222 times in monthly intervals. In addition, injury data were assessed by the medical staff of the club. Overall, 34 traumatic injuries and 10 overuse injuries occurred. Most of the injuries were located in the lower limb (79.5%), and muscle and tendon injuries (43.2%) were the most frequently occurring injury type. In a generalised linear model, the stress-related scales Fatigue (OR 1.70, P = 0.007), Disturbed Breaks (OR 1.84, P = 0.047) and Injury (OR 1.77, P < 0.001) and the recovery-related scale Sleep Quality (OR 0.53, P = 0.010) significantly predicted injuries in the month after the assessment. These results support the importance of frequent monitoring of recovery and stress parameters to lower the risk of injuries in professional football. PMID:26168148

  7. Determinants of general practitioner's cancer-related gut feelings—a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Donker, Gé A; Wiersma, Eva; van der Hoek, Lucas; Heins, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    Background General practitioners (GPs) use gut feelings to diagnose cancer in an early stage, but little is known about its impact. Method Prospective cohort study of patients in 44 general practices throughout the Netherlands, from January 2010 until December 2013. GPs completed a questionnaire regarding gut feelings, patient and GP characteristics, if they noticed a cancer-related gut feeling during patient consultation. Follow-up questionnaires were sent 3 months later requesting information about the patient's diagnosis. χ2, univariate and multivariate logistic regression and multilevel analyses were performed. Results A gut feeling (N=366) is most often triggered by weight loss (24%, N=85) and rare GP visits (22%, N=76), but all triggers were not predictive of cancer in a multivariate analysis. Most GPs (95%) acted immediately on the gut feeling, either referring to a specialist or by performing additional medical tests. The average positive predictive value of cancer-related gut feeling was 35%, and it increased with 2% for every year a patient becomes older, and with 3% for every year a GP becomes older. Conclusions GP's gut feeling for cancer proves to be a useful tool in diagnosing cancer and its relative high predicting value increases if the GP is older or more experienced and when the patient is older. How can younger GPs be trained to increase the predictive value of their gut feeling? PMID:27625064

  8. Structural Stigma and Cigarette Smoking in a Prospective Cohort Study of Sexual Minority and Heterosexual Youth

    PubMed Central

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Jun, Hee-Jin; Corliss, Heather L.; Austin, S. Bryn

    2013-01-01

    Background Sexual minority youth are more likely to smoke cigarettes than heterosexuals but research into the determinants of these disparities is lacking. Purpose To examine whether exposure to structural stigma predicts cigarette smoking in sexual minority youth. Methods Prospective data from adolescents participating in the Growing Up Today Study (2000–2005). Results Among sexual minority youth, living in low structural stigma states (e.g., states with non-discrimination policies inclusive of sexual orientation) was associated with a lower risk of cigarette smoking after adjustment for individual-level risk factors (Relative Risk[RR]=0.97, 95% Confidence Interval[CI]: 0.96, 0.99, p=0.02). This association remained marginally significant after additional controls for potential state-level confounders (RR=0.97, 95% CI: 0.93, 1.00, p=0.06). In contrast, among heterosexual youth, structural stigma was not associated with past-year smoking rates, documenting specificity of these effects to sexual minority youth. Conclusions Structural stigma represents a potential risk factor for cigarette smoking among sexual minority adolescents. PMID:24136092

  9. Do adolescents' own intentions regarding healthy behaviours affect outcome? A two-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Berg-Kelly, K; Kullander, K

    1999-09-01

    Adolescents' own intentions regarding health behaviours, in addition to their context, are believed to be important for the health habits they chose. This was studied prospectively over a 2-y period. A total of 552 students, 391 aged 13 y and 161 aged 15 y, reported their health and problem behaviours, socioeconomic background and intentions regarding health behaviours through questionnaires in 1991 and in 1993. Outcome dealt with three domains: health habits; acquisition of adult lifestyles; and problem behaviours. The material was analysed for correlations. Significant results were entered into multiple regression stepwise procedures. As expected, already having initiated adult lifestyles or problem behaviours were the most important factors associated with such behaviours 2 y later. Further analyses were then limited to those students who had not started such lifestyles, in order to determine what factors kept them from doing so in a 2-y span. Key predictors for healthy behaviours were adolescents' own decisions not to engage in adult lifestyles or risky behaviours, family processes consistent with support and school satisfaction. Association with peer groups where smoking and drinking were commonplace predicted less optimal behaviours. Gender or socioeconomic factors were not predictive. The results support a comprehensive approach to health promotion during adolescence.

  10. Retrospect and Prospect of Studies of Teacher Efficacy in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Ning; Miao, Danmin

    2006-01-01

    Teacher efficacy is a powerful variable in educational and psychological studies. And it aroused much attention and interest from Chinese scholars in the past decade, which led to an accumulation of documents in this field. Following an introduction of efficacy studies in the west, the article reviews the brief history of those in China,…

  11. A Case Study: Employment Prospects for Female Technology Graduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Dewayne L.

    1978-01-01

    Findings from a three-year study to determine the ratio of male and female graduates employed in industrial-related jobs after completing industrial technology programs at Black Hawk College, Moline, Illinois, show no significant difference in the employability rate. Several factors may limit the study validity. (MF)

  12. Prospects and pitfalls in whole genome association studies

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Robert W; Evans, David M; Cardon, Lon R

    2005-01-01

    Recent large-scale studies of common genetic variation throughout the human genome are making it feasible to conduct whole genome studies of genotype–phenotype associations. Such studies have the potential to uncover novel contributors to common complex traits and thus lead to insights into the aetiology of multifactorial phenotypes. Despite this promise, it is important to recognize that the availability of genetic markers and the ability to assay them at realistic cost does not guarantee success of this approach. There are a number of practical issues that require close attention, some forms of allelic architecture are not readily amenable to the association approach with even the most rigorous design, and doubtless new hurdles will emerge as the studies begin. Here we discuss the promise and current challenges of the whole genome approach, and raise some issues to consider in interpreting the results of the first whole genome studies. PMID:16096108

  13. Treatment as usual (TAU) control practices in the PROSPECT Study: managing the interaction and tension between research design and ethics.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, C F; Degenholtz, H; Parker, L S; Schulberg, H C; Mulsant, B H; Post, E; Rollman, B

    2001-06-01

    The use of treatment as usual (TAU) as a control condition may pose the considerable challenge of maintaining both scientific rigor and meeting high ethical standards in experiments on human subjects. The authors illustrate the tension and explore the relationship between research design and ethics, especially the interaction between the two, in the NIMH-funded PROSPECT study (Prevention of Suicide in Primary Care Elderly - Collaborative Trial). The goal of PROSPECT is to determine whether placement of a depression health specialist in primary care practices will have a favorable impact on rates of depression, hopelessness and suicidal ideation in elderly primary care patients with major or persistent minor depression. PROSPECT randomly assigns practices either to an intervention arm (which includes the provision of depression health specialists) or to an enhanced care arm (TAU, with the addition of screening and assessment services). TAU, enhanced by the provision of screening and assessment services, is to be used as a benchmark for measuring the effectiveness of PROSPECT's intervention. However, TAU in the epidemiological and clinical literature has also been linked to high rates of suicide in the elderly related to unrecognized and untreated or under-treated depression. The authors present their approach to managing the tension, or interaction, between the use of TAU for scientific and public health purposes and the requirement for beneficence, that is, the duty to assure the safety of human subjects in research and to do no harm. Through enhancements of TAU, by the provision of information to primary care physicians concerning the psychiatric status of their patients, the investigators attempt to meet the challenge of maintaining rigor and meeting high ethical standards. PMID:11424169

  14. Effects of Aversive Stimuli on Prospective Memory. An Event-Related fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Rea, Massimiliano; Kullmann, Stephanie; Veit, Ralf; Casile, Antonino; Braun, Christoph; Belardinelli, Marta Olivetti; Birbaumer, Niels; Caria, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Prospective memory (PM) describes the ability to execute a previously planned action at the appropriate point in time. Although behavioral studies clearly showed that prospective memory performance is affected by the emotional significance attributed to the intended action, no study so far investigated the brain mechanisms subserving the modulatory effect of emotional salience on PM performance. The general aim of the present study was to explore brain regions involved in prospective memory processes when PM cues are associated with emotional stimuli. In particular, based on the hypothesised critical role of the prefrontal cortex in prospective memory in the presence of emotionally salient stimuli, we expected a stronger involvement of aPFC when the retrieval and execution of the intended action is cued by an aversive stimulus. To this aim BOLD responses of PM trials cued by aversive facial expressions were compared to PM trials cued by neutral facial expressions. Whole brain analysis showed that PM task cued by aversive stimuli is differentially associated with activity in the right lateral prefrontal area (BA 10) and in the left caudate nucleus. Moreover a temporal shift between the response of the caudate nucleus that preceded that of aPFC was observed. These findings suggest that the caudate nucleus might provide an early analysis of the affective properties of the stimuli, whereas the anterior lateral prefrontal cortex (BA10) would be involved in a slower and more deliberative analysis to guide goal-directed behaviour. PMID:22022589

  15. [Plant hydroponics and its application prospect in medicinal plants study].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yan; Guo, Lan-Ping; Huang, Lu-Qi; Sun, Yu-Zhang

    2007-03-01

    This article introduced the theorem and method of hydroponics. Some examples of studies in agriculture and forestry were presented, the effects of elements, environmental stress and hormones on physiology of medicinal plants by using hydroponics were analyzed. It also introduced the feasibility and advantage of hydroponics in intermediate propagation and allelopathy of medicinal plant. And finally it made the conclusion that the way of hydroponics would be widely used in medicinal plant study.

  16. Mortality in Autism: A Prospective Longitudinal Community-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillberg, Christopher; Billstedt, Eva; Sundh, Valter; Gillberg, I. Carina

    2010-01-01

    The purposes of the present study were to establish the mortality rate in a representative group of individuals (n = 120) born in the years 1962-1984, diagnosed with autism/atypical autism in childhood and followed up at young adult age (greater than or equal to 18 years of age), and examine the risk factors and causes of death. The study group,…

  17. Prospects for the study of evolution in the deep biosphere.

    PubMed

    Biddle, Jennifer F; Sylvan, Jason B; Brazelton, William J; Tully, Benjamin J; Edwards, Katrina J; Moyer, Craig L; Heidelberg, John F; Nelson, William C

    2011-01-01

    Since the days of Darwin, scientists have used the framework of the theory of evolution to explore the interconnectedness of life on Earth and adaptation of organisms to the ever-changing environment. The advent of molecular biology has advanced and accelerated the study of evolution by allowing direct examination of the genetic material that ultimately determines the phenotypes upon which selection acts. The study of evolution has been furthered through examination of microbial evolution, with large population numbers, short generation times, and easily extractable DNA. Such work has spawned the study of microbial biogeography, with the realization that concepts developed in population genetics may be applicable to microbial genomes (Martiny et al., 2006; Manhes and Velicer, 2011). Microbial biogeography and adaptation has been examined in many different environments. Here we argue that the deep biosphere is a unique environment for the study of evolution and list specific factors that can be considered and where the studies may be performed. This publication is the result of the NSF-funded Center for Dark Energy Biosphere Investigations (C-DEBI) theme team on Evolution (www.darkenergybiosphere.org).

  18. Prospects for the Study of Evolution in the Deep Biosphere

    PubMed Central

    Biddle, Jennifer F.; Sylvan, Jason B.; Brazelton, William J.; Tully, Benjamin J.; Edwards, Katrina J.; Moyer, Craig L.; Heidelberg, John F.; Nelson, William C.

    2012-01-01

    Since the days of Darwin, scientists have used the framework of the theory of evolution to explore the interconnectedness of life on Earth and adaptation of organisms to the ever-changing environment. The advent of molecular biology has advanced and accelerated the study of evolution by allowing direct examination of the genetic material that ultimately determines the phenotypes upon which selection acts. The study of evolution has been furthered through examination of microbial evolution, with large population numbers, short generation times, and easily extractable DNA. Such work has spawned the study of microbial biogeography, with the realization that concepts developed in population genetics may be applicable to microbial genomes (Martiny et al., 2006; Manhes and Velicer, 2011). Microbial biogeography and adaptation has been examined in many different environments. Here we argue that the deep biosphere is a unique environment for the study of evolution and list specific factors that can be considered and where the studies may be performed. This publication is the result of the NSF-funded Center for Dark Energy Biosphere Investigations (C-DEBI) theme team on Evolution (www.darkenergybiosphere.org). PMID:22319515

  19. Genomewide association studies: History, rationale and prospects for psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective We review the history and empirical basis of genomewide association studies (GWAS), the rationale for GWAS of psychiatric disorders, results to date, limitations, and plans for GWAS meta-analyses. Method Literature review, power analysis, discussion of issues and description of planned studies. Results Most of the genomic DNA sequence differences between any two people are common (frequency > 5%) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Because of localized patterns of correlation (linkage disequilibrium), 500,000-1,000,000 of these SNPs can test the hypothesis that one or more common variants explain part of the genetic risk for a disease. GWAS technologies can also detect some of the copy number variants (CNVs; deletions and duplications) in the genome. Systematic study of rare variants will require large-scale resequencing studies. GWAS methods have detected a remarkable number of robust genetic associations for dozens of common diseases and traits, leading to new pathophysiological hypotheses, although only small proportions of genetic variance have been explained so far, and therapeutic applications will require substantial further effort. Study design issues, power and limitations are discussed. For psychiatric disorders, there are initial significant findings for common SNPs and rare CNVs. Many other studies are in progress. Conclusion GWAS of large samples have detected associations of common SNPs and of rare CNVs to psychiatric disorders. More findings are likely -- larger GWAS samples detect larger numbers of common susceptibility variants (with smaller effects). The Psychiatric GWAS Consortium (of 110 researchers from 54 institutions) is carrying out GWAS meta-analyses for schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, autism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Based on results for other diseases, larger samples will be required. The contribution of GWAS will depend on the true genetic architecture of each disorder. PMID

  20. Swarna Bhasma in cancer: A prospective clinical study.

    PubMed

    Das, Soumen; Das, Mangal C; Paul, Retina

    2012-07-01

    Despite the advances in the treatment of cancer, mortality is still high. Complementary and alternative medicine is emerging as a potent modality in cancer treatment. 'Swarna Bhasma' (SB), containing gold particles, is an ancient Indian medicine has shown its anticancer activity. This present study was conducted to detect the effect of SB on solid malignancies. A total of 43 patients were included in this study received SB for 1 year. Seventeen patients showed response. The response was best in rectal cancer group 70% (7/10). Nearly 41.02% patients survived for 1 year after treatment but after 5 years this came down to 15.38%.

  1. Swarna Bhasma in cancer: A prospective clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Das, Soumen; Das, Mangal C.; Paul, Retina

    2012-01-01

    Despite the advances in the treatment of cancer, mortality is still high. Complementary and alternative medicine is emerging as a potent modality in cancer treatment. ‘Swarna Bhasma’ (SB), containing gold particles, is an ancient Indian medicine has shown its anticancer activity. This present study was conducted to detect the effect of SB on solid malignancies. A total of 43 patients were included in this study received SB for 1 year. Seventeen patients showed response. The response was best in rectal cancer group 70% (7/10). Nearly 41.02% patients survived for 1 year after treatment but after 5 years this came down to 15.38%. PMID:23723642

  2. Partnership after induced abortion: a prospective controlled study.

    PubMed

    Barnett, W; Freudenberg, N; Wille, R

    1992-10-01

    To study the social and psychological consequences of induced abortion on the relationship between the pregnant woman and her partner, 92 patients seeking a socially indicated abortion, who had a stable partner at the time of abortion, were interviewed. Standardized psychological measures were used to assess their partnerships before abortion and on follow-up 1 year later. A control group of 92 patients (matched for age, marital status, duration of partnership, number of children, and educational background), drawn from a larger sample of women using safe contraceptive methods, completed the same psychological measures. Prior to abortion, partnerships in the study group showed considerably more conflicts and were less harmonious than in the control group. One year after the abortion, the number of separations in the study group was not significantly higher than in the control group, nor were there any remaining qualitative differences in the partnerships of either group. When separations occurred, they had been more frequently initiated by women in the study group than in the control group.

  3. A Comprehensive Prospective Clinical Study of Hydatid Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kayal, Ankit; Hussain, Akhlak

    2014-01-01

    The actual prevalence of hydatid disease in northern part of India is found more than usually interpreted. The present study has been done on 25 patients suffering from hydatid disease of various sites and treated during June 2009 to November 2011 at JLN Medical College and Hospital, Ajmer, with the aim of studying the clinical manifestations of hydatid disease of different sites and/or organ system and of analysing the morbidity and mortality of hydatid disease. The age, sex, h/o dog contact, duration of hospital stay, clinical presentation, treatment advised, findings and difficulties encountered during operation, and postoperative management of patients as well as morbidity and mortality were recorded and analysed. We observed that the mean age was 40 years. The sex incidence revealed female preponderance in the study (M : F: 1 : 2). Duration of illness in the present study varied from 1 month to 6 years in case of liver hydatid disease. Majority of patients were from rural areas (21) and the remaining (4) from urban areas. Swelling was the most common presenting feature. Incidence of hydatid disease at unusual sites in India is higher than in other parts of the world. PMID:24734188

  4. Preschool Predictors of Childhood Anxiety Disorders: A Prospective Community Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichstrøm, Lars; Belsky, Jay; Berg-Nielsen, Turid Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Background: Anxiety disorders are often present at preschool age. Research on older children and studies contrasting preschoolers with high versus low behavioral inhibition (BI) highlight several risk factors, but these have not been investigated in community samples of young children. Child, parent, and peer factors at age 4 were therefore…

  5. A Study on Prospective Science Teachers' Knowledge and Achievement Levels in Mathematical Logic in Electricity-Related Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yilmaz, Ismail

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this case study is to reveal prospective science teachers' knowledge and achievement levels in electricity-related subjects. The data for the study were collected from 44 prospective teachers using three measurement tools. The data were then analyzed using software developed for the Probability and Possibility Calculation Statistics…

  6. A Study on Prospective Teachers' Self-Efficacy Beliefs Regarding the Implementation of Constructivist Approach (A Case of Konya)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ektem, Isil Sönmez

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to reveal prospective teachers' perceptions and views about the implementation of the constructivist approach. The study was conducted on 528 prospective teachers in their 4th year at Necmettin Erbakan University Ahmet Kelesoglu Education Faculty and Selcuk University Faculty of Science and Faculty of Letters in the…

  7. Integrated Database And Knowledge Base For Genomic Prospective Cohort Study In Tohoku Medical Megabank Toward Personalized Prevention And Medicine.

    PubMed

    Ogishima, Soichi; Takai, Takako; Shimokawa, Kazuro; Nagaie, Satoshi; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Nakaya, Jun

    2015-01-01

    The Tohoku Medical Megabank project is a national project to revitalization of the disaster area in the Tohoku region by the Great East Japan Earthquake, and have conducted large-scale prospective genome-cohort study. Along with prospective genome-cohort study, we have developed integrated database and knowledge base which will be key database for realizing personalized prevention and medicine.

  8. Mineral resources of the Prospect Mountain Wilderness Study Area, Carbon County, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    du Bray, E.A.; Bankey, V.; Hill, R.H.; Ryan, G.S.

    1989-01-01

    The Prospect Mountain Wilderness Study Area is about 20 mi east-southeast of Encampment in Carbon County, Wyoming. This study area is underlain by middle Proterozoic gabbro, granite, and hornblende gneiss, which is locally cut by pegmatite dikes. There are no identified resources and no potential for undiscovered energy resources in this study area. Resource potential for all undiscovered metallic commodities and for industrial mineral is low.

  9. Studies of compact objects with Einstein - Review and prospects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grindlay, Jonathan E.

    1990-01-01

    X-ray images and spectra of a wide range of systems containing compact objects were obtained with the Einstein X-ray Observatory. Accreting white dwarfs, neutron stars and black holes were observed in binary systems in the Galaxy, and new constraints were derived for their formation, nature and evolution. Massive black holes were studied in active galactic nuclei, and X-ray spectra (and evolution) of AGN have led to a new model for the diffuse X-ray background.

  10. Prospects for Chronological Studies of Martian Rocks and Soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyquist, L. E.; Shih, C-Y.; Reese, Y. D.

    2008-01-01

    Chronological information about Martian processes comes from two sources: Crater-frequency studies and laboratory studies of Martian meteorites. Each has limitations that could be overcome by studies of returned Martian rocks and soils. Chronology of Martian volcanism: The currently accepted chronology of Martian volcanic surfaces relies on crater counts for different Martian stratigraphic units [1]. However, there is a large inherent uncertainty for intermediate ages near 2 Ga ago. The effect of differing preferences for Martian cratering chronologies [1] is shown in Fig. 1. Stoeffler and Ryder [2] summarized lunar chronology, upon which Martian cratering chronology is based. Fig. 2 shows a curve fit to their data, and compares to it a corresponding lunar curve from [3]. The radiometric ages of some lunar and Martian meteorites as well as the crater-count delimiters for Martian epochs [4] also are shown for comparison to the craterfrequency curves. Scaling the Stoeffler-Ryder curve by a Mars/Moon factor of 1.55 [5] places Martian shergottite ages into the Early Amazonian to late Hesperian epochs, whereas using the lunar curve of [3] and a Mars/Moon factor 1 consigns the shergottites to the Middle-to-Late Amazonian, a less probable result. The problem is worsened if a continually decreasing cratering rate since 3 Ga ago is accepted [6]. We prefer the adjusted St ffler-Ryder curve because it gives better agreement with the meteorite ages (Fig.

  11. The prospects for urban densification: a place-based study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt-Thomé, Kaisa; Haybatollahi, Mohammad; Kyttä, Marketta; Korpi, Jari

    2013-06-01

    Study of the environmental outcomes of urban densification is a highly context-dependent task. Our study shows that collecting and processing place-based survey data by means of the softGIS method is clearly helpful here. With the map-based internet questionnaire each response remains connected to both the physical environment and the everyday life of the respondent. In our study of the Kuninkaankolmio area (located in the Helsinki metropolitan region) the survey data were combined with urban density variables calculated from register-based data on the existing built environment. The regression analysis indicated that the participants in the survey preferred the same density factors for their future residence as they enjoyed in their current neighbourhood. In the second analysis we related the densities of planned infill developments with the interest respondents had shown in these projects. The results show that new and even quite dense infill developments have been found to be rather attractive, with them often being viewed as interesting supplements to the current urban texture. These findings contribute to the ongoing scientific discussion on the feasibility of densification measures and encourage the Kuninkaankolmio planners to proceed, albeit carefully, with the planned infill developments.

  12. Quality of Life after Stapled Hemorrhoidopexy: A Prospective Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Pankaj Kumar; Kumar, Gopal; Jain, Bhupendra Kumar; Mohanty, Debajyoti

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The objective of the study was to assess the change in quality of life (QOL) of patients undergoing stapled hemorrhoidopexy (SH) using WHO Quality of Life-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF) questionnaire. Methods. The study sample comprised patients with symptomatic II, III, and IV degree hemorrhoids, undergoing SH. The patients were asked to complete WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire before and one month following the surgery. Result. There were 20 patients in the study group. The postoperative pain score measured by visual analogue scale at six hours postoperatively was 7.60 ± 1.23, which reduced to 0.70 ± 0.92 at 24 hours. The items in the WHOQOL-BREF had high-internal consistency or reliability as shown by high Cronbach's alpha coefficient which was 0.82 and 0.90 for pre- and postoperative questionnaires. There was significant improvement in the overall perception of QOL and health, and in physical and psychological domains. There was modest improvement in environmental domain, while no change was noted in social domain. Conclusion. SH improved the quality of life of patients treated for hemorrhoids. PMID:24058916

  13. Potentiometric study of antioxidant activity: development and prospects.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, A V; Gerasimova, E L; Brainina, Kh Z

    2015-01-01

    The increasing interest in the study of the antioxidant activity of different objects is caused by an unbalance between the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the performance of the antioxidant system in humans under certain conditions, which leads to oxidative stress and pathological states of the organism. This article presents a brief critical review of the methods that are used to measure integrated antioxidant activity (AOA). It is shown that the most promising methods for measuring AOA are electrochemical ones, particularly potentiometry, as it best fits the nature of the processes causing oxidative stress. The article gives the theoretical rational for requirements that an oxidizer of antioxidants (AO) should meet. The work presents the thermodynamic grounds for the use of an earlier proposed mediator system, kinetics of chemical reactions between AO and the mediator system. In order to confirm reliability and accuracy of the results, numerous correlation studies were conducted, aiming to compare the data obtained with the use the proposed method and independent analytical methods. The article presents the results of the potentiometric study of AOA for a variety of objects, including individual antioxidant → nutritional supplements → food → blood and blood fractions.

  14. Guideline adaptation and implementation planning: a prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Adaptation of high-quality practice guidelines for local use has been advanced as an efficient means to improve acceptability and applicability of evidence-informed care. In a pan-Canadian study, we examined how cancer care groups adapted pre-existing guidelines to their unique context and began implementation planning. Methods Using a mixed-methods, case-study design, five cases were purposefully sampled from self-identified groups and followed as they used a structured method and resources for guideline adaptation. Cases received the ADAPTE Collaboration toolkit, facilitation, methodological and logistical support, resources and assistance as required. Documentary and primary data collection methods captured individual case experience, including monthly summaries of meeting and field notes, email/telephone correspondence, and project records. Site visits, process audits, interviews, and a final evaluation forum with all cases contributed to a comprehensive account of participant experience. Results Study cases took 12 to >24 months to complete guideline adaptation. Although participants appreciated the structure, most found the ADAPTE method complex and lacking practical aspects. They needed assistance establishing individual guideline mandate and infrastructure, articulating health questions, executing search strategies, appraising evidence, and achieving consensus. Facilitation was described as a multi-faceted process, a team effort, and an essential ingredient for guideline adaptation. While front-line care providers implicitly identified implementation issues during adaptation, they identified a need to add an explicit implementation planning component. Conclusions Guideline adaptation is a positive initial step toward evidence-informed care, but adaptation (vs. ‘de novo’ development) did not meet expectations for reducing time or resource commitments. Undertaking adaptation is as much about the process (engagement and capacity building) as it

  15. Prospective studies of HTR fuel cycles involving plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Bonin, B.; Greneche, D.; Carre, F.; Damian, F.; Doriath, J.Y.

    2002-07-01

    High Temperature Gas Cooled reactors (HTRs) are able to accommodate a wide variety of mixtures of fissile and fertile materials without any significant modification of the core design. This flexibility is due to an uncoupling between the parameters of cooling geometry, and the parameters which characterize neutronic optimisation (moderation ratio or heavy nuclide concentration and distribution). Among other advantageous features, an HTR core has a better neutron economy than a LWR because there is much less parasitic capture in the moderator (capture cross section of graphite is 100 times less than the one of water) and in internal structures. Moreover, thanks to the high resistance of the coated particles, HTR fuels are able to reach very high burn-ups, far beyond the possibilities offered by other fuels (except the special case of molten salt reactors). These features make HTRs especially interesting for closing the nuclear fuel cycle and stabilizing the plutonium inventory. A large number of fuel cycle studies are already available today, on 3 main categories of fuel cycles involving HTRs: i) High enriched uranium cycle, based on thorium utilization as a fertile material and HEU as a fissile material; ii) Low enriched uranium cycle, where only LEU is used (from 5% to 12%); iii) Plutonium cycle based on the utilization of plutonium only as a fissile material, with (or without) fertile materials. Plutonium consumption at high burnups in HTRs has already been tested with encouraging results under the DRAGON project and at Peach Bottom. To maximize plutonium consumption, recent core studies have also been performed on plutonium HTR cores, with special emphasis on weapon-grade plutonium consumption. In the following, we complete the picture by a core study for a HTR burning reactor-grade plutonium. Limits in burnup due to core neutronics are investigated for this type of fuel. With these limits in mind, we study in some detail the Pu cycle in the special case of a

  16. Prospects for studying penguin decays in LHCb experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Barsuk, S. Ya. Pakhlova, G. V. Belyaev, I. M.

    2006-04-15

    Investigation of loop penguin decays of beauty hadrons seems promising in testing the predictions of the Standard Model of electroweak and strong interactions and in seeking new phenomena beyond the Standard Model. The possibility of studying the radiative penguin decays B{sup 0} {sup {yields}} K*{sup 0}{gamma}, B{sup 0}{sub s} {sup {yields}} {phi}{gamma}, and B{sup 0} {sup {yields}} {omega}{gamma} and the gluonic penguin decays B{sup 0} {sup {yields}} {phi}K{sup 0}{sub S} and B{sup 0}{sub s} {sup {yields}} {phi}{phi} in LHCb experiments is discussed.

  17. Predictive Factors for Anastomotic Leakage After Colorectal Surgery: Study Protocol for a Prospective Observational Study (REVEAL Study)

    PubMed Central

    Bosmans, Joanna WAM; Kartal, Serdar; Lubbers, Tim; Sosef, Meindert; Slooter, Gerrit D; Stoot, Jan H; van Schooten, Frederik-Jan; Bouvy, Nicole D; Derikx, Joep PM

    2016-01-01

    Background Anastomotic leakage (AL) remains the most important complication following colorectal surgery, and is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Previous research has focused on identifying risk factors and potential biomarkers for AL, but the sensitivity of these tests remains poor. Objective This prospective multicenter observational study aims at combining multiple parameters to establish a diagnostic algorithm for colorectal AL. Methods This study aims to include 588 patients undergoing surgery for colorectal carcinoma. Patients will be eligible for inclusion when surgery includes the construction of a colorectal anastomosis. Patient characteristics will be collected upon consented inclusion, and buccal swabs, breath, stool, and blood samples will be obtained prior to surgery. These samples will allow for the collection of information regarding patients’ inflammatory status, genetic predisposition, and intestinal microbiota. Additionally, breath and blood samples will be taken postoperatively and patients will be strictly observed during their in-hospital stay, and the period shortly thereafter. Results This study has been open for inclusion since August 2015. Conclusions An estimated 8-10% of patients will develop AL following surgery, and they will be compared to non-leakage patients. The objectives of this study are twofold. The primary aim is to establish and validate a diagnostic algorithm for the pre-operative prediction of the risk of AL development using a combination of inflammatory, immune-related, and genetic parameters. Previously established risk factors and novel parameters will be incorporated into this algorithm, which will aid in the recognition of patients who are at risk for AL. Based on these results, recommendations can be made regarding the construction of an anastomosis or deviating stoma, and possible preventive strategies. Furthermore, we aim to develop a new algorithm for the post-operative diagnosis of AL at an

  18. Impact of childhood trauma on postpartum depression: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    De Venter, Maud; Smets, Jorien; Raes, Filip; Wouters, Kristien; Franck, Erik; Hanssens, Myriam; Jacquemyn, Yves; Sabbe, Bernard G C; Van Den Eede, Filip

    2016-04-01

    Studies on the impact of childhood trauma on postpartum depression show inconsistencies and methodological limitations. The present study examines the effect of childhood trauma on depression 12 and 24 weeks after childbirth, while controlling for history of depression, depression symptoms during pregnancy and type D personality. During the third trimester of pregnancy, 210 women completed self-report questionnaires assessing depression (current and/or past episodes), childhood trauma and type D personality, of whom 187 participated in the postpartum follow-up, with depression symptoms being reassessed at 12 and 24 weeks after delivery with three depression outcome measures. Eventually, 183 participants were retained for analysis. Results indicated no predictive value of childhood trauma on postpartum depression in the univariate analyses, nor after controlling for previous depression, depression symptoms during pregnancy and type D personality. However, past depression and depression symptoms during pregnancy did independently and convincingly predict postpartum depression, especially at 12 weeks and to a lesser extent at 24 weeks following childbirth. Overall, we found no significant association between childhood trauma and postpartum depression. Past depression and depression symptoms during pregnancy are more relevant factors to assess before childbirth.

  19. Effect of hormonal contraceptives on serum lipids: A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Dilshad, Huma; Ismail, Rabia; Naveed, Safila; Usmanghani, Khan; Alam, M Tanweer; Sarwar, Ghulam

    2016-07-01

    To estimate the effects of using hormonal contraceptives on serum lipoprotein levels. Lipid profile was measured at baseline and afterward at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. 1391 Pakistani females taking COCs, DMPA, or non hormonal (NH) contraceptives. The results were calculated by repeated measure ANOVA subsequent to tukey's post hoc test for the multiple comparisons. Statistical examination revealed that differences in lipid profile were significant (p <0.001) among all treated group in comparison with control. DMPA also caused significant rise in Castelli index-I and Castelli index-II as compared to COCs group and control group. This study demonstrated raise in total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG) as well as very low density lipoprotein (VLDL-C) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Whereas, an obvious decrease was observed in high density-lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in the DMPA-treated group. We concluded that, this inductive study specifies atherogenic cardiovascular risk in women using DMPA on long term basis. PMID:27592475

  20. Impact of childhood trauma on postpartum depression: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    De Venter, Maud; Smets, Jorien; Raes, Filip; Wouters, Kristien; Franck, Erik; Hanssens, Myriam; Jacquemyn, Yves; Sabbe, Bernard G C; Van Den Eede, Filip

    2016-04-01

    Studies on the impact of childhood trauma on postpartum depression show inconsistencies and methodological limitations. The present study examines the effect of childhood trauma on depression 12 and 24 weeks after childbirth, while controlling for history of depression, depression symptoms during pregnancy and type D personality. During the third trimester of pregnancy, 210 women completed self-report questionnaires assessing depression (current and/or past episodes), childhood trauma and type D personality, of whom 187 participated in the postpartum follow-up, with depression symptoms being reassessed at 12 and 24 weeks after delivery with three depression outcome measures. Eventually, 183 participants were retained for analysis. Results indicated no predictive value of childhood trauma on postpartum depression in the univariate analyses, nor after controlling for previous depression, depression symptoms during pregnancy and type D personality. However, past depression and depression symptoms during pregnancy did independently and convincingly predict postpartum depression, especially at 12 weeks and to a lesser extent at 24 weeks following childbirth. Overall, we found no significant association between childhood trauma and postpartum depression. Past depression and depression symptoms during pregnancy are more relevant factors to assess before childbirth. PMID:26189446

  1. Emotion Dysregulation and Adolescent Psychopathology: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Background Emotion regulation deficits have been consistently linked to psychopathology in cross-sectional studies. However, the direction of the relationship between emotion regulation and psychopathology is unclear. This study examined the longitudinal and reciprocal relationships between emotion regulation deficits and psychopathology in adolescents. Methods Emotion dysregulation and symptomatology (depression, anxiety, aggressive behavior, and eating pathology) were assessed in a large, diverse sample of adolescents (N = 1,065) at two time points separated by seven months. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the longitudinal and reciprocal relationships between emotion dysregulation and symptoms of psychopathology. Results The three distinct emotion processes examined here (emotional understanding, dysregulated expression of sadness and anger, and ruminative responses to distress) formed a unitary latent emotion dysregulation factor. Emotion dysregulation predicted increases in anxiety symptoms, aggressive behavior, and eating pathology after controlling for baseline symptoms but did not predict depressive symptoms. In contrast, none of the four types of psychopathology predicted increases in emotion dysregulation after controlling for baseline emotion dysregulation. Conclusions Emotion dysregulation appears to be an important transdiagnostic factor that increases risk for a wide range of psychopathology outcomes in adolescence. These results suggest targets for preventive interventions during this developmental period of risk. PMID:21718967

  2. Accuracy of clinical diagnosis in parkinsonism--a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Rajput, A H; Rozdilsky, B; Rajput, A

    1991-08-01

    Clinical diagnosis of Parkinson's syndrome (PS) is reasonably easy in most cases but the distinction between different variants of PS may be difficult in early cases. The correct diagnosis is not only important for counselling and management of patients but also in conducting pharmacological and epidemiological studies. There is very little critical literature on the pathological verification of the clinical diagnosis in PS. We report our 22 years experience to address that issue. Between 1968 and 1990, 65 PS patients came to autopsy. Complete data are available in 59 (M-50, F-19) cases. The initial diagnosis made by a qualified neurologist was idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) in 43 cases. Of those 28 (65%) had Lewy body pathology. After a mean duration of 12 years the final diagnosis was IPD in 41 cases which was confirmed in 31 (76%). The IPD could not be clinically distinguished from cases with severe substantia nigra neuronal loss without inclusions or from those with neurofibrillary tangle inclusions and neuronal loss at the anatomical sites typically involved in IPD. All progressive supra-nuclear palsy, olivopontocerebellar atrophy, Jakob-Creutzfeldt's disease and the majority of the multiple system atrophy cases were diagnosed correctly during life. The correct clinical diagnosis in most non-IPD variants of PS was possible within 5 years of onset (range: 2 months to 18 years). We recommend that studies aimed at including only the IPD cases restrict the enrollment to those cases that have had PS motor manifestations for five years or longer duration. PMID:1913360

  3. Clipless laparoscopic cholecystectomy--a prospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Shah, J N; Maharjan, S B

    2010-06-01

    In laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC), cystic duct and artery are normally secured with titanium clips. Intracorporeal ligation is normally superior to extra corporeal knotting. Most studies report of separate and multiple ligations of cystic duct and artery, which are viewed as technically demanding and time consuming. Similarly the harmonic scalpel and 'LigaSure' are prohibitory expensive for resource limited country like Nepal. After several modifications, we observed the success of intracorporeal "single ligation of cystic artery and duct" with free silk tie. From Jul to Oct 2009, after a pilot study and several modifications ofintracorporeal ligation, we successfully used single ligation of cystic artery and duct (SLAD) with free silk 2/0 in symptomatic cholelithiasis patients.80 cases undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. There were 80 patients, females 71.0% (n=57). Average age of patients was 39 yr (14-65). We had no bile leak or other complications related to ligature. The time taken for tie varied from 2 to 7 minutes (average 3 min). In 3 cases, a 5th port was made to grasp and ligate the bleeding vessels. There were 19 (25.0%) acute calculus cholecystitis, including mucocele, empyema, gangrenous cholecystitis. Two patients (2.0%) had inflammation of umbilical port which healed spontaneously. This technique of intracorporeal single ligation of cystic artery and duct (SLAD) in LC is simple, safe and economical. SLAD do not increase operative time as only single tie is used. This no clip laparoscopic cholecystectomy (NCLC) eliminates the clip related complications.

  4. Personalized prostate cancer screening among men with high risk genetic predisposition- study protocol for a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Prostate cancer screening among the general population is highly debatable. Nevertheless, screening among high-risk groups is appealing. Prior data suggests that men carrying mutations in the BRCA1& 2 genes may be at increased risk of developing prostate cancer. Additionally, they appear to develop prostate cancer at a younger age and with a more aggressive course. However, prior studies did not systematically perform prostate biopsies and thus cannot determine the true prevalence of prostate cancer in this population. Methods This will be a prospective diagnostic trial of screening for prostate cancer among men with genetic predisposition. The target population is males (40–70 year old) carrying a BRCA1 and/or BRCA2 germ line mutation. They will be identified via our Genetic counseling unit. All men after signing an informed consent will undergo the following tests: PSA, free to total PSA, MRI of prostate and prostate biopsy. The primary endpoint will be to estimate the prevalence, stage and grade of prostate cancer in this population. Additionally, the study aims to estimate the impact of these germ line mutations on benign prostatic hyperplasia. Furthermore, this study aims to create a bio-bank of tissue, urine and serum of this unique cohort for future investigations. Finally, this study will identify an inception cohort for future interventional studies of primary and secondary prevention. Discussion The proposed research is highly translational and focuses not only on the clinical results, but on the future specimens that will be used to advance our understanding of prostate cancer patho-physiology. Most importantly, these high-risk germ-line mutation carriers are ideal candidates for primary and secondary prevention initiatives. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02053805. PMID:25047061

  5. Diet and kwashiorkor: a prospective study from rural DR Congo.

    PubMed

    Kismul, Hallgeir; Van den Broeck, Jan; Lunde, Torleif Markussen

    2014-01-01

    The etiology of kwashiorkor remains enigmatic and longitudinal studies examining potential causes of kwashiorkor are scarce. Using historical, longitudinal study data from the rural area of Bwamanda, Democratic Republic of Congo, we investigated the potential causal association between diet and the development of kwashiorkor in 5 657 preschool children followed 3-monthly during 15 months. We compared dietary risk factors for kwashiorkor with those of marasmus. Kwashiorkor was diagnosed as pitting oedema of the ankles; marasmus as abnormal visibility of skeletal structures and palpable wasting of the gluteus muscle. A 24-h recall was administered 3-monthly to record the consumption of the 41 locally most frequent food items. We specified Hanley-Miettinen smooth-in-time risk models containing potential causal factors, including food items, special meals prepared for the child, breastfeeding, disease status, nutritional status, birth rank, age, season and number of meals. Bayesian Information Criteria identified the most plausible causal model of why some children developed kwashiorkor. In a descriptive analysis of the diet at the last dietary assessment prior to development of kwashiorkor, the diet of children who developed kwashiorkor was characterized by low consumption of sweet potatoes, papaya and "other vegetables" [0.0% , 2.3% (95% CI [0.4, 12.1]) and 2.3% (95% CI [0.4, 12.1])] in comparison with children who did not develop kwashiorkor [6.8% (95% CI [6.4, 7.2]), 15.5% (95% CI [15, 16.1]) and 15.1% (95% CI [14.6, 15.7])] or children who developed marasmus [4.5% (95% CI [2.6, 7.5]) 11.8% (95% CI [8.5, 16.0]) and 17.6% (95% CI [13.7, 22.5])]. Sweet potatoes and papayas have high β-carotene content and so may some of "the other vegetables". We found that a risk model containing an age function, length/height-for age Z-score, consumption of sweet potatoes, papaya or other vegetables, duration of this consumption and its interaction term, was the most plausible

  6. Diet and kwashiorkor: a prospective study from rural DR Congo.

    PubMed

    Kismul, Hallgeir; Van den Broeck, Jan; Lunde, Torleif Markussen

    2014-01-01

    The etiology of kwashiorkor remains enigmatic and longitudinal studies examining potential causes of kwashiorkor are scarce. Using historical, longitudinal study data from the rural area of Bwamanda, Democratic Republic of Congo, we investigated the potential causal association between diet and the development of kwashiorkor in 5 657 preschool children followed 3-monthly during 15 months. We compared dietary risk factors for kwashiorkor with those of marasmus. Kwashiorkor was diagnosed as pitting oedema of the ankles; marasmus as abnormal visibility of skeletal structures and palpable wasting of the gluteus muscle. A 24-h recall was administered 3-monthly to record the consumption of the 41 locally most frequent food items. We specified Hanley-Miettinen smooth-in-time risk models containing potential causal factors, including food items, special meals prepared for the child, breastfeeding, disease status, nutritional status, birth rank, age, season and number of meals. Bayesian Information Criteria identified the most plausible causal model of why some children developed kwashiorkor. In a descriptive analysis of the diet at the last dietary assessment prior to development of kwashiorkor, the diet of children who developed kwashiorkor was characterized by low consumption of sweet potatoes, papaya and "other vegetables" [0.0% , 2.3% (95% CI [0.4, 12.1]) and 2.3% (95% CI [0.4, 12.1])] in comparison with children who did not develop kwashiorkor [6.8% (95% CI [6.4, 7.2]), 15.5% (95% CI [15, 16.1]) and 15.1% (95% CI [14.6, 15.7])] or children who developed marasmus [4.5% (95% CI [2.6, 7.5]) 11.8% (95% CI [8.5, 16.0]) and 17.6% (95% CI [13.7, 22.5])]. Sweet potatoes and papayas have high β-carotene content and so may some of "the other vegetables". We found that a risk model containing an age function, length/height-for age Z-score, consumption of sweet potatoes, papaya or other vegetables, duration of this consumption and its interaction term, was the most plausible

  7. Bulbar dysfunction in normal pressure hydrocephalus: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Chankaew, Ekawut; Srirabheebhat, Prajak; Manochiopinig, Sriwimon; Witthiwej, Theerapol; Benjamin, Itsara

    2016-09-01

    OBJECTIVE Normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) is clinically characterized by gait disturbance, cognitive impairment, and urinary incontinence, as well as enlargement of the ventricles. To the best of the authors' knowledge, there have been no previous publications regarding the correlation between bulbar dysfunction and NPH. The primary objective of this study was to compare preoperative and postoperative prevalence of bulbar dysfunction in patients with NPH. Secondary objectives included assessing the results of surgery for swallowing, speech, gait, cognition, and urination, and evaluating the correlation between bulbar dysfunction and triad symptoms. METHODS Fifty-three patients with NPH who underwent shunt placement surgery at Siriraj Hospital were included in the study. Patients were evaluated for gait, cognition, urination, swallowing, and speech before and 6 months after shunt placement. Triad symptoms were assessed using standard methods. Bulbar dysfunctions were assessed using the Swallowing Problem Questionnaire, Thai Articulation Test, Resonation Screening Test (RST), and Thai Nasality Test. The Thai Speech Assessment Program and nasometer were used for objective speech measurement. RESULTS Preoperatively, 86% (43/50) of patients had swallowing problems and 75% (37/49) had speech problems, as measured by the RST. Postoperatively, there was significant improvement in swallowing (p < 0.001), speech problems by RST (p = 0.008), and voice volume (p = 0.009), but no significant change in the nasometer test. All triad symptoms were improved. There were significant correlations between swallowing impairment and gait disturbance (r = 0.358, p = 0.009), and RST and cognitive impairment (r = -0.502, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS This is the first study of bulbar dysfunction in patients with NPH. The results showed that the prevalence of bulbar dysfunction is very high. The correlation between bulbar dysfunction and the classic NPH triad has been documented and published

  8. Retinal Detachment in Southwest Ethiopia: A Hospital Based Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Asaminew, Tsedeke; Gelaw, Yeshigeta; Bekele, Sisay; Solomon, Berhan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The incidence of retinal detachment in Blacks is generally considered to be low though there are few supporting studies in Africa. This study, thus, aimed at describing the clinical profile of patients with retinal detachment in Southwest Ethiopia. Methods A hospital-based study was done on all consecutive retinal detachment patients who presented to Jimma University Hospital over six months period. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect patients’ sociodemographic characteristics and clinical history. Comprehensive anterior and posterior segment eye examinations were done and risk factors were sought for. Statistical tests were considered significant if P < 0.05. Results A total of 94 eyes of 80 patients (1.5%) had retinal detachment (RD) and about 69% of patients were symptomatic for over a month before presentation. The mean age was 41.4 years (SD ±16.5). Fourteen patients (17.5%) had bilateral RD. At presentation, 61 eyes (64.9%) were blind from RD and 11 (13.8%) patients were bilaterally blind from RD. Rhegmatogenous RD was seen in 55 eyes (58.5%) and tractional RD in 22 eyes (23.4%). The most common risk factors were ocular trauma (32 eyes, 34.0%), myopia (23 eyes, 24.5%), posterior uveitis (13 eyes, 13.8%) and diabetic retinopathy (9 eyes, 9.6%). Most retinal breaks (25 eyes, 43.1%) were superotemporal and horse-shoe tear was the most common (19 eyes, 20.2%). Macula was off in 77 eyes (81.9%) and 38 eyes (69.1% of RRD eyes) had grade C proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). Macular status was significantly associated with PVR (P=0.011), and duration of symptoms (RR=1.25, 95%CI: 1.059-1.475, P=0.040). Conclusions A significant numbers of patients with ocular problem had retinal detachment, and nearly two third of the patients presented late. Trauma and myopia were the most important risk factors. People should be educated to improve their health seeking behavior and use eye safety precautions to prevent ocular trauma. PMID:24086614

  9. Intergenerational Transmission of Relationship Aggression: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Ming; Durtschi, Jared A.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Lorenz, Frederick O.; Conger, Rand D.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined whether physical and verbal aggression in the family of origin were associated with similar patterns of aggression in young adult couples. Hypotheses were tested using a sample of 213 focal individuals who were followed from adolescence to adulthood. Results suggested that aggression in the family when focal participants were adolescents predicted aggression with romantic partners when participants were adults. The association between interparental aggression and later aggression in adult romantic unions was partially mediated through parents’ aggression to focal participants when they were adolescents. Both physical and verbal aggression revealed the same pattern of findings. All together, these findings are consistent with a developmental-interactional perspective (Capaldi & Gorman-Smith, 2003) concerning the developmental origins of aggression in intimate relationships. PMID:21171767

  10. Coping with a breast cancer diagnosis: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Stanton, A L; Snider, P R

    1993-01-01

    Employing the stress and coping theory of Lazarus and Folkman, this study followed 117 women age 40 or over regarding personality, cognitive appraisal, coping, and mood variables before breast biopsy, after diagnosis, and, for those who had cancer, after surgery. Upon biopsy, 36 received a cancer diagnosis, and 81 received a benign diagnosis. The 2 groups did not differ on appraisals, coping, or affect before diagnosis. With prebiopsy affect controlled, cancer patients reported more negative affect postbiopsy than did benign patients. Postsurgery, cancer patients expressed less vigor and more fatigue than benign patients, but the groups did not differ on other negative emotions. Prebiopsy, psychosocial predictors accounted for 54% and 29% of the variance in negative and positive emotion, respectively. Prebiopsy variables also predicted postbiopsy and postsurgery mood; cognitive avoidance coping was a particularly important predictor of high distress and low vigor.

  11. A prospective study on defecation frequency, stool weight, and consistency.

    PubMed Central

    Myo-Khin; Thein-Win-Nyunt; Kyaw-Hla, S; Thein-Thein-Myint; Bolin, T D

    1994-01-01

    It has been commonly believed that children in developing countries pass stools that are very different from those of developed countries. A community based study on defecation frequency, stool weight, and consistency was conducted in a cohort of 300 Myanmar (Burmese) children aged 1 to 4 years. Most (80.3%) children opened their bowels daily and none passed more than three stools a day. The mean (SD) defecation frequency was 6.98 (1.94) times a week and total stool weight was 596 (221) g a week. The majority (61%) of children passed soft stools. At all ages, there was no significant difference in the defecation frequency, stool weight, and consistency between boys and girls, those on adult style diet and those partially weaned, and between age groups. PMID:7979522

  12. The Early Growth and Development Study: a prospective adoption study from birth through middle childhood.

    PubMed

    Leve, Leslie D; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Shaw, Daniel S; Ganiban, Jody; Natsuaki, Misaki N; Reiss, David

    2013-02-01

    The Early Growth and Development Study is a prospective adoption study of birth parents, adoptive parents, and adopted children recruited in two cohorts (N = 561 triads). The primary study aims are to examine how family, peer, and contextual processes affect children's adjustment, and to examine their interplay (mediation, moderation) with genetic influences. Participants were recruited through adoption agencies located throughout the United States following the birth of a child. Assessments are ongoing, in 9-month intervals until the child reaches 3 years of age and in 1-year intervals thereafter through age 9. Data collection includes the following primary constructs: child temperament, social behavior, school performance, mental health, and health; birth and adoptive parent personality characteristics, mental health, competence, stress, health, context, substance use, parenting, and marital relations; and pregnancy use of drugs and maternal stress during pregnancy. DNA and salivary cortisol samples have also been collected. Analyses have indicated evidence for genotype-environment interactions during early childhood. Study procedures, sample representativeness (including tests of potential confounds in the adoption design), and an overview of findings to date are summarized, and future plans are described.

  13. The Early Growth and Development Study: A Prospective Adoption Study from Birth Through Middle Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Leve, Leslie D.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Ganiban, Jody; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Reiss, David

    2013-01-01

    The Early Growth and Development Study is a prospective adoption study of birth parents, adoptive parents, and adopted children recruited in two cohorts (N = 561 triads). The primary study aims are to examine how family, peer, and contextual processes affect children’s adjustment, and to examine their interplay (mediation, moderation) with genetic influences. Participants were recruited through adoption agencies located throughout the United States following the birth of a child. Assessments are ongoing, in 9-month intervals until the child reaches 3 years of age and in one-year intervals thereafter through age 9. Data collection includes the following primary constructs: child temperament, social behavior, school performance, mental health, and health; birth and adoptive parent personality characteristics, mental health, competence, stress, health, context, substance use, parenting, and marital relations; and pregnancy use of drugs and maternal stress during pregnancy. DNA and salivary cortisol samples have also been collected. Analyses have indicated evidence for genotype-environment interactions during early childhood. Study procedures, sample representativeness (including tests of potential confounds in the adoption design), and an overview of findings to date are summarized, and future plans are described. PMID:23218244

  14. Prospects of photon counting lidar for savanna ecosystem structural studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwenzi, D.; Lefsky, M. A.

    2014-11-01

    Discrete return and waveform lidar have demonstrated a capability to measure vegetation height and the associated structural attributes such as aboveground biomass and carbon storage. Since discrete return lidar (DRL) is mainly suitable for small scale studies and the only existing spaceborne lidar sensor (ICESat-GLAS) has been decommissioned, the current question is what the future holds in terms of large scale lidar remote sensing studies. The earliest planned future spaceborne lidar mission is ICESat-2, which will use a photon counting technique. To pre-validate the capability of this mission for studying three dimensional vegetation structure in savannas, we assessed the potential of the measurement approach to estimate canopy height in a typical savanna landscape. We used data from the Multiple Altimeter Beam Experimental Lidar (MABEL), an airborne photon counting lidar sensor developed by NASA Goddard. MABEL fires laser pulses in the green (532 nm) and near infrared (1064 nm) bands at a nominal repetition rate of 10 kHz and records the travel time of individual photons that are reflected back to the sensor. The photons' time of arrival and the instrument's GPS positions and Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) orientation are used to calculate the distance the light travelled and hence the elevation of the surface below. A few transects flown over the Tejon ranch conservancy in Kern County, California, USA were used for this work. For each transect we extracted the data from one near infrared channel that had the highest number of photons. We segmented each transect into 50 m, 25 m and 10 m long blocks and aggregated the photons in each block into a histogram based on their elevation values. We then used an expansion window algorithm to identify cut off points where the cumulative density of photons from the highest elevation resembles the canopy top and likewise where such cumulative density from the lowest elevation resembles mean ground elevation. These cut off

  15. Clinical history for diagnosis of dementia in men: Caerphilly Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Creavin, Sam; Fish, Mark; Gallacher, John; Bayer, Antony; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav

    2015-01-01

    Background Diagnosis of dementia often requires specialist referral and detailed, time-consuming assessments. Aim To investigate the utility of simple clinical items that non-specialist clinicians could use, in addition to routine practice, to diagnose all-cause dementia syndrome. Design and setting Cross-sectional diagnostic test accuracy study. Participants were identified from the electoral roll and general practice lists in Caerphilly and adjoining villages in South Wales, UK. Method Participants (1225 men aged 45–59 years) were screened for cognitive impairment using the Cambridge Cognitive Examination, CAMCOG, at phase 5 of the Caerphilly Prospective Study (CaPS). Index tests were a standardised clinical evaluation, neurological examination, and individual items on the Informant Questionnaire for Cognitive Disorders in the Elderly (IQCODE). Results Two-hundred and five men who screened positive (68%) and 45 (4.8%) who screened negative were seen, with 59 diagnosed with dementia. The model comprising problems with personal finance and planning had an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.92 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.86 to 0.97), positive likelihood ratio (LR+) of 23.7 (95% CI = 5.88 to 95.6), negative likelihood ratio (LR−) of 0.41 (95% CI = 0.27 to 0.62). The best single item for ruling out was no problems learning to use new gadgets (LR− of 0.22, 95% CI = 0.11 to 0.43). Conclusion This study found that three simple questions have high utility for diagnosing dementia in men who are cognitively screened. If confirmed, this could lead to less burdensome assessment where clinical assessment suggests possible dementia. PMID:26212844

  16. Prospective Study of Elective Bilateral Versus Unilateral Femoral Arterial Puncture for Uterine Artery Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Bratby, M. J.; Ramachandran, N.; Sheppard, N.; Kyriou, J.; Munneke, G. M.; Belli, A.-M.

    2007-11-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of elective bilateral femoral arterial punctures for uterine artery embolization (UAE) of symptomatic fibroids on fluoroscopy and procedural time, patient dose, and ease of procedure. We conducted a prospective study of UAE with either the intention to catheterize both uterine arteries using a single femoral puncture (n = 12) or elective bilateral arterial punctures from the outset (n = 12). The same two operators undertook each case. Main outcome measures were total procedure time, fluoroscopy time, dose-area product (DAP), and total skin dose. A simulation was then performed on an anthropomorphic phantom using the mean in vivo fluoroscopy parameters to estimate the ovarian dose. Bilateral UAE was achieved in all patients. None of the patients with initial unilateral arterial puncture required further contralateral arterial puncture. The mean fluoroscopy time in the group with elective bilateral punctures was 12.8 min, compared with a mean of 16.6 min in patients with unilateral puncture (p = 0.046). There was no significant difference in overall procedure time (p = 0.68). No puncture-site complications were found. Additional catheters were required only following unilateral puncture. The simulated dose was 25% higher with unilateral puncture. Although there was no significant difference in measured in vivo patient dose between the two groups (DAP, p = 0.32), this is likely to reflect the wide variation in other patient characteristics. Allowing for the small study size, our results show that the use of elective bilateral arterial punctures reduces fluoroscopy time, requires less catheter manipulation, and, according to the simulation model, has the potential to reduce patient dose. The overall procedure time, however, is not significantly reduced.

  17. Is the peripapillary retinal perfusion related to myopia in healthy eyes? A prospective comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaolei; Kong, Xiangmei; Jiang, Chunhui; Li, Mengwei; Yu, Jian; Sun, Xinghuai

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the peripapillary and parafoveal perfusion of young, healthy myopic subjects with spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography. Design A prospective comparative study was conducted from December 2014 to January 2015. Setting Participants recruited from a population-based study performed by the Eye, Ear, Nose and Throat Hospital of Fudan University in Shanghai. Participants A total of 78 Chinese normal subjects (78 eyes) with different refraction were included. Myopia was divided into 4 groups on the basis of the refractive status: 20 eyes with emmetropia (mean spherical equivalent (MSE) 0.50D to −0.50D), 20 eyes with mild myopia (MSE −0.75D to −2.75D), 20 eyes with moderate myopia (MSE −3.00D to −5.75D), and 18 eyes with high myopia (MSE≤−6.00D). Main outcome measures Peripapillary and parafoveal retinal and choroidal perfusion parameters and their relationships with axial length (AL) and retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness were analysed. Results Significant differences were found for the retinal flow index and vessel density in the peripapillary area among the 4 groups, but not in the parafoveal area. The high myopia group had the lowest peripapillary retinal flow index and vessel density. In addition, there was a negative correlation (β=−0.002, p=0.047) between the AL and peripapillary retinal flow index and a positive correlation between RNFL thickness and the peripapillary retinal perfusion parameters (flow index: β=0.001, p=0.006; vessel density: β=0.350, p=0.002) even after adjustment for other variables. Conclusions Highly myopic eyes have a decreased peripapillary retinal perfusion compared with emmetropic eyes. Such vascular features might increase the susceptibility to vascular-related eye diseases. PMID:26969645

  18. Anthroposophic Therapy for Migraine: A Two-Year Prospective Cohort Study in Routine Outpatient Settings

    PubMed Central

    Hamre, Harald J; Witt, Claudia M; Kienle, Gunver S; Glockmann, Anja; Ziegler, Renatus; Rivoir, Andreas; Willich, Stefan N; Kiene, Helmut

    2010-01-01

    Background and Methods: Anthroposophic treatment for migraine is provided by physicians and includes special artistic and physical therapies and special medications. We conducted a prospective cohort study of 45 consecutive adult outpatients (89% women) starting anthroposophic treatment for migraine under routine conditions. Main outcomes were Average Migraine Severity (physician and patient ratings 0-10, primary outcome), Symptom Score (patient rating, 0-10), and quality of life (SF-36); main follow-up time point was after six months. Results: The anthroposophic treatment modalities used were medications (67% of patients), eurythmy therapy (38%), art therapy (18%), and rhythmical massage therapy (13%). Median therapy duration was 105 days. In months 0-6, conventional prophylactic antimigraine medications were used by 14% (n=5/36) of evaluable patients. From baseline to six-month follow-up, physician-rated Average Migraine Severity improved by 3.14 points (95% confidence interval 2.40-3.87, p<0.001); patient-rated Average Migraine Severity improved by 2.82 points (2.05-3.64, p<0.001); and Symptom Score improved by 2.32 points (1.68-2.95, p<0.001). In addition, three SF-36 scales (Social Functioning, Bodily Pain, Vitality), the SF-36 Physical Component summary measure, and the SF-36 Health Change item improved significantly. All improvements were maintained at last follow-up after 24 months. Patients not using conventional prophylactic antimigraine medications had improvements similar to the whole cohort. Conclusions: Patients with migraine under anthroposophic treatment had long-term improvement of symptoms and quality of life. Although the pre-post design of the present study does not allow for conclusions about comparative effectiveness, study findings suggest that anthroposophic therapies may be useful in the long-term care of patients with migraine. PMID:21673981

  19. The Efficacy of Neurofeedback in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder: An Open Labeled Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Cheon, Eun-Jin; Koo, Bon-Hoon; Choi, Joong-Hyun

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of neurofeedback on depressive symptoms and electrophysiological disturbances in patients with major depressive disorder. We recruited participants suffering from depression to evaluate efficacy of left prefrontal beta with alpha/theta training. An 8-week, prospective, open-label study was undertaken. Twenty participants were recruited. The treatment protocol was twice or three times a week training of beta at F3 with alpha/theta at Pz for 8 weeks. When every visit, patients were received beta training for 30 min, and then alpha/theta training for 30 min. Baseline, 4 and 8 week scores of; the Hamilton rating scale for Depression (HAM-D), the Hamilton rating scale for Anxiety (HAM-A), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)-II, the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Clinical global impression-severity (CGI-S), and pre- and post-treatment resting state EEGs were compared. Interhemispheric alpha power asymmetry (A score) was computed for homologous sites F3-F4. Pre- and post-training clinical assessments revealed significant improvements in HAM-D, HAM-A, BDI, and CGI-S scores. Cumulative response rates by HAM-D were 35.0 and 75.0 % at 4 and 8 weeks, respectively, corresponding cumulative remission rates by HAM-D were 15.0 and 55.0 %, respectively. No significant differences were found between pre- and post-treatment A score. Neurofeedback treatment could improve depressive symptoms significantly. In addition, anxiety symptoms and clinical illness severity decreased significantly after neurofeedback treatment. Despite its several limitations, such as, small sample size and lack of a control group, this study suggested neurofeedback has significant effects in patients with major depressive disorder. PMID:26392114

  20. Predictors and health-related outcomes of positive body image in adolescent girls: A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Andrew, Rachel; Tiggemann, Marika; Clark, Levina

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate prospective predictors and health-related outcomes of positive body image in adolescent girls. In so doing, the modified acceptance model of intuitive eating was also examined longitudinally. A sample of 298 girls aged 12 to 16 years completed a questionnaire containing measures of body appreciation, potential predictors, and a range of health outcomes, at 2 time points separated by 1 year. Longitudinal change regression models showed that perceived body acceptance by others (positively), self-objectification and social comparison (negatively), and body appreciation (positively) prospectively predicted intuitive eating 1 year later, consistent with the acceptance model of intuitive eating. Perceived body acceptance by others was the only proposed predictor to prospectively predict an increase in body appreciation over time. Time 1 body appreciation prospectively predicted a decrease in dieting, alcohol, and cigarette use, and an increase in physical activity 1 year later. In particular, girls with low body appreciation were more likely than girls with high body appreciation to take up alcohol and cigarette use between time points. The results highlight body appreciation as an important target for interventions designed to prevent or delay the uptake of alcohol and cigarette consumption among girls. More broadly, they suggest that a positive body image can confer considerable benefit for adolescent girls. PMID:26727595

  1. Predictors and health-related outcomes of positive body image in adolescent girls: A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Andrew, Rachel; Tiggemann, Marika; Clark, Levina

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate prospective predictors and health-related outcomes of positive body image in adolescent girls. In so doing, the modified acceptance model of intuitive eating was also examined longitudinally. A sample of 298 girls aged 12 to 16 years completed a questionnaire containing measures of body appreciation, potential predictors, and a range of health outcomes, at 2 time points separated by 1 year. Longitudinal change regression models showed that perceived body acceptance by others (positively), self-objectification and social comparison (negatively), and body appreciation (positively) prospectively predicted intuitive eating 1 year later, consistent with the acceptance model of intuitive eating. Perceived body acceptance by others was the only proposed predictor to prospectively predict an increase in body appreciation over time. Time 1 body appreciation prospectively predicted a decrease in dieting, alcohol, and cigarette use, and an increase in physical activity 1 year later. In particular, girls with low body appreciation were more likely than girls with high body appreciation to take up alcohol and cigarette use between time points. The results highlight body appreciation as an important target for interventions designed to prevent or delay the uptake of alcohol and cigarette consumption among girls. More broadly, they suggest that a positive body image can confer considerable benefit for adolescent girls.

  2. Aspartame and dizziness: preliminary results of a prospective, nonblinded, prevalence and attempted cross-over study.

    PubMed

    Gulya, A J; Sessions, R B; Troost, T R

    1992-09-01

    Aspartame is a low-calorie food sweetener recently approved by the FDA for general human consumption. One of us (AJG) treated a patient whose symptoms of episodic vertigo and continuous unsteadiness resolved upon ceasing aspartame intake. A literature review revealed that although dizziness has been associated with aspartame intake, no systematic study of the problem exists. As an initial attempt to ascertain the prevalence of aspartame-related dizziness in an otolaryngologic clinic, we elected to study prospectively all patients entering with the complaint of vertigo by means of a standardized questionnaire. Those patients determined to consume aspartame were further studied in a nonblinded manner to see if aspartame intake could be correlated to symptomatology. A cross-over limb was also attempted, but no patient would participate. This presentation details the case history of the propositus patient and the preliminary results of the currently ongoing prospective study.

  3. Osteocalcin, growth, and inhaled corticosteroids: a prospective study.

    PubMed Central

    Doull, I; Freezer, N; Holgate, S

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the relationship between biochemical markers of bone metabolism and statural growth, and their suitability as surrogate markers of inhaled corticosteroid induced growth suppression. DESIGN: Randomised, double blind, placebo controlled comparison of inhaled beclomethasone dipropionate 200 micrograms twice daily as dry powder for six months. SETTING: Southampton. OUTCOME MEASURES: Serum osteocalcin, urinary deoxypyridinoline, and statural growth. SUBJECTS: 7 to 9 year old children with recurrent wheeze. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in serum osteocalcin between the beclomethasone dipropionate and placebo group measured at baseline or after three and six months' treatment, while deoxy-pyridinoline was significantly higher in the placebo treated children after three months. Growth was significantly decreased in the beclomethasone dipropionate group over the course of the study. Growth over the six months, both in those receiving beclomethasone dipropionate and those receiving placebo, was significantly correlated with serum osteocalcin measured at three months and six months. CONCLUSION: Although serum osteocalcin shows excellent correlation with growth, it is a poor marker for decreased growth associated with use of inhaled corticosteroids. PMID:8758124

  4. Prospective study of neuropsychological sequelae in children with brain tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Bordeaux, J.D.; Dowell, R.E. Jr.; Copeland, D.R.; Fletcher, J.M.; Francis, D.J.; van Eys, J.

    1988-01-01

    Surgery and radiotherapy are the primary modalities of treatment for pediatric brain tumors. Despite the widespread use of these treatments, little is known of their acute effects (within one year posttreatment) on neuropsychological functions. An understanding of acute treatment effects may provide valuable feedback to neurosurgeons and a baseline against which delayed sequelae may be evaluated. This study compares pre- and posttherapy neuropsychological test performance of pediatric brain tumor patients categorized into two groups on the basis of treatment modalities: surgery (n = 7) and radiotherapy (n = 7). Treatment groups were composed of children aged 56 to 196 months at the time of evaluation with heterogeneous tumor diagnoses and locations. Comparisons of pretherapy findings with normative values using confidence intervals indicated that both groups performed within the average range on most measures. Outstanding deficits at baseline were observed on tests of fine-motor, psychomotor, and timed language skills, and are likely to be attributable to tumor-related effects. Comparisons of pre- versus posttherapy neuropsychological test findings indicated no significant interval changes for either group. Results suggest that surgery and radiotherapy are not associated with acute effects on neuropsychological functions.

  5. A prospective study of sow mortality in breeding herds.

    PubMed

    Chagnon, M; D'Allaire, S; Drolet, R

    1991-04-01

    This investigation was conducted to study the incidence and the causes of sow mortality in breeding herds. Data were obtained from 24 swine breeding herds with an average inventory of 3755 sows and served gilts for the total sample. Producers were involved for 12 consecutive months and agreed to submit to the diagnostic laboratory every dead or moribund sow and served gilt. The average herd death rate was 3.3% +/- 0.5 (SEM), but varied considerably among herds, ranging from 0% to 9.2%. A total of 137 sows and mated gilts died during the year, and these females had produced an average of 4.2 litters +/- 0.2 (SEM). The number of deaths was significantly higher during the months of July, August and October. The peripartum period appeared to be when sows were most at risk, with 42% of all deaths occurring during this short period of the reproductive cycle. The three major causes of death were heart failure (31.4%), torsions and accidents of abdominal organs (15.3%) and cystitis-pyelonephritis (8.0%). Other causes included endometritis (6.6%), uterine prolapses (6.6%), pneumonia (3.6%), gastric ulcers (3.6%), downer sow syndrome (2.2%), miscellaneous (8.0%) and unknown (14.6%).

  6. Prospective study of outcome in antenatally diagnosed renal pelvis dilatation

    PubMed Central

    Jaswon, M.; Dibble, L.; Puri, S.; Davis, J.; Young, J.; Dave, R.; Morgan, H.

    1999-01-01

    AIMS—To ascertain the outcome associated with antenatal renal pelvis dilatation; to recommend guidelines for postnatal investigation and determine an upper limit of normal for the anterioposterior dimensions of the fetal renal pelvis.
METHODS—Infants whose antenatal ultrasound scan showed a fetal renal pelvis of 5 mm or greater were investigated using postnatal renal tract ultrasound and a micturating cystogram. Isotope studies were also performed, where appropriate.
RESULTS—Vesicoureteric reflux (VUR), the most common diagnosis, was evident in 23/104 (22%). In 14 infants with VUR the postnatal ultrasound scan was normal. There was no evidence of renal scarring or dysplasia in any of the refluxing kidneys. Other diagnoses were pelviureteric junction obstruction, renal dysplasia, and idiopathic dilatation. Antenatal counselling and parental information facilitated postnatal assessment.
CONCLUSIONS—Infants with antenatal renal pelvis measurements of 5 mm or greater should be investigated postnatally, as a significant percentage will have VUR. A normal postnatal ultrasound scan does not preclude the presence of VUR. 

 PMID:10325792

  7. Psychosocial work environment and antidepressant medication: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Bonde, Jens Peter E; Munch-Hansen, Torsten; Wieclaw, Joanna; Westergaard-Nielsen, Niels; Agerbo, Esben

    2009-01-01

    Background Adverse psychosocial work environments may lead to impaired mental health, but it is still a matter of conjecture if demonstrated associations are causal or biased. We aimed at verifying whether poor psychosocial working climate is related to increase of redeemed subscription of antidepressant medication. Methods Information on all antidepressant drugs (AD) purchased at pharmacies from 1995 through 2006 was obtained for a cohort of 21,129 Danish public service workers that participated in work climate surveys carried out during the period 2002–2005. Individual self-reports of psychosocial factors at work including satisfaction with the work climate and dimensions of the job strain model were obtained by self-administered questionnaires (response rate 77,2%). Each employee was assigned the average score value for all employees at his/her managerial work unit [1094 units with an average of 18 employees (range 3–120)]. The risk of first-time AD prescription during follow-up was examined according to level of satisfaction and psychosocial strain by Cox regression with adjustment for gender, age, marital status, occupational status and calendar year of the survey. Results The proportion of employees that received at least one prescription of ADs from 1995 through 2006 was 11.9% and prescriptions rose steadily from 1.50% in 1996 to the highest level 6.47% in 2006. ADs were prescribed more frequent among women, middle aged, employees with low occupational status and those living alone. None of the measured psychosocial work environment factors were consistently related to prescription of antidepressant drugs during the follow-up period. Conclusion The study does not indicate that a poor psychosocial work environment among public service employees is related to prescription of antidepressant pharmaceuticals. These findings need cautious interpretation because of lacking individual exposure assessments. PMID:19635130

  8. Age at menarche and endometrial cancer risk: a dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies.

    PubMed

    Gong, Ting-Ting; Wang, Yong-Lai; Ma, Xiao-Xin

    2015-09-11

    Evidence between age at menarche and endometrial cancer risk have been controversial. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis of prospective studies to analyze the aforementioned association. Relevant studies were identified by searching PubMed and EMBASE databases until the end of June 2015. A random-effects model was used to estimate summary relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between menarcheal age and endometrial cancer risk. Our meta-analysis included eight prospective studies involving 4553 subjects with endometrial cancer. The summarized RRs of endometrial cancer for menarcheal age were 0.68 (95%CI = 0.58-0.81, I(2) = 41.9%, P = 0.099, n = 8) when comparing women with oldest category of menarcheal age with women with youngest category of menarcheal age. Notably, there was an 4% reduction in risk for per 2 years delay in menarcheal age (summarized RR = 0.96; 95%CI = 0.94-0.98, I(2) = 45.7%, P = 0.101, n = 6). Additionally, significant inverse associations were consistent within all stratified analyses. There was no evidence of publication bias or significant heterogeneity between subgroups detected by meta-regression analyses. Our findings support the hypothesis that late menarcheal age is inversely associated with endometrial cancer risk. Further larger prospective or pooled studies are warranted to fully adjust for potential confounders and distinguish whether the associations differ by histological subtypes of endometrial cancer.

  9. Occupational exposure to noise in maxillofacial operating theatres: an initial prospective study.

    PubMed

    Tay, Brian Diaz; Prabhu, I S; Cousin, C H S; Cousin, G C S

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to excessive noise could impair surgical performance and communication, and lead to long-term hearing loss, but it is only recently that studies on occupational exposure to noise in operating theatres have been published. The aim of this prospective study was to assess mean and peak levels of noise during maxillofacial operations. We found that both were comparable to those in other surgical specialties such as orthopaedics in which power tools are used.

  10. Studies of charmed hadronic B decays with the early LHCb data and prospects for {gamma} measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Nardulli, J.

    2010-12-22

    We present the first studies of decays of the type B{yields}DX, where D represents a charmed meson (D{sup 0}, D{sup (*)+}, or D{sub s}) from the LHCb experiment at CERN. Our studies use data accumulated during the 2010 run of the LHC. This work represents the first steps on a programme towards a precision measurement of the angle {gamma} of the CKM Unitarity Triangle. The prospects for this {gamma} measurement will be reviewed.

  11. Coordination and management of multicenter clinical studies in trauma: Experience from the PRospective Observational Multicenter Major Trauma Transfusion (PROMMTT) Study

    PubMed Central

    Rahbar, Mohammad H.; Fox, Erin E.; del Junco, Deborah J.; Cotton, Bryan A.; Podbielski, Jeanette M.; Matijevic, Nena; Cohen, Mitchell J.; Schreiber, Martin A.; Zhang, Jiajie; Mirhaji, Parsa; Duran, Sarah; Reynolds, Robert J.; Benjamin-Garner, Ruby; Holcomb, John B.

    2011-01-01

    Aim Early death due to hemorrhage is a major consequence of traumatic injury. Transfusion practices differ among hospitals and it is unknown which transfusion practices improve survival. This report describes the experience of the PRospective Observational Multicenter Major Trauma Transfusion (PROMMTT) Study Data Coordination Center in designing and coordinating a study to examine transfusion practices at ten Level 1 trauma centers in the U.S. Methods PROMMTT was a multisite prospective observational study of severely injured transfused trauma patients. The clinical sites collected real-time information on the timing and amounts of blood product infusions as well as colloids and crystalloids, vital signs, initial diagnostic and clinical laboratory tests, life saving interventions and other clinical care data. Results Between July 2009 and October 2010, PROMMTT screened 12,561 trauma admissions and enrolled 1,245 patients who received one or more blood transfusions within 6 hours of ED admission. A total of 297 massive transfusions were observed over the course of the study at a combined rate of 5.0 massive transfusion patients/week. Conclusion PROMMTT is the first multisite study to collect real-time prospective data on trauma patients requiring transfusion. Support from the Department of Defense and collaborative expertise from the ten participating centers helped to demonstrate the feasibility of prospective trauma transfusion studies. The observational data collected from this study will be an invaluable resource for research in trauma surgery and it will guide the design and conduct of future randomized trials. PMID:22001613

  12. Enhancing life prospects of socially vulnerable youth through sport participation: a mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Sport participation has been associated with improved life prospects such as academic performance and employability prospects. As such, promoting sport participation might be a way to increase life prospects, especially for socially vulnerable youth because they are less physically active than their peers. However, the evidence for the causal effect of sport participation on these outcomes is still limited and little is known about factors that play a role in this possible effect. The aim of this study is four-fold. First, the causal effect of sport participation on life prospects is studied and the underlying mechanisms of this relation are explored. Secondly, the life experiences of the youngsters in the sport context, that may contribute to skill development, are studied. Thirdly, social conditions for a positive effect are explored, as sport is likely to have a positive effect under specific conditions. Fourthly, this study aims to provide insights on the elements of successful partnerships between youth care organisations and local sport clubs. Methods and design This protocol reports on a mixed method study. An intervention that aims to increase the sport participation of socially vulnerable youth, between 12–23 years old, is implemented in three regions of a Rotterdam youth care organisation. The youngsters in the two control regions receive care-as-usual. The main outcome variables, collected via questionnaires, are the life prospect, sense of coherence and self-regulation skills of the youngsters after 6 and 18 months of follow-up. The Motivational Climate Scale is administered to explore the social conditions for a positive effect and interviews are conducted with sport coaches to explore their role in skill development. Interviews with the youngsters are conducted to gain insight on the life experiences that may lead to skill development. The elements of successful partnerships are collected during interviews with youth care professionals

  13. Molecular analysis of anaplastic oligodendroglial tumors in a prospective randomized study: A report from EORTC study 26951.

    PubMed

    Kouwenhoven, Mathilde C M; Gorlia, Thierry; Kros, Johan M; Ibdaih, Ahmed; Brandes, Alba A; Bromberg, Jacolien E C; Mokhtari, Karima; van Duinen, Sjoerd G; Teepen, Johannes L; Wesseling, Pieter; Vandenbos, Fanny; Grisold, Wolfgang; Sipos, László; Mirimanoff, Rene; Vecht, Charles J; Allgeier, Anouk; Lacombe, Denis; van den Bent, Martin J

    2009-12-01

    Recent studies have shown that the clinical outcome of anaplastic oligodendroglial tumors is variable, but also that the histological diagnosis is subject to interobserver variation. We investigated whether the assessment of 1p/19q codeletion, polysomy of chromosome 7, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene amplification (EGFR(amp)), and loss of chromosome 10 or 10q offers additional prognostic information to the histological diagnosis and would allow molecular subtyping. For this study, we used the clinical data and tumor samples of the patients included in multicenter prospective phase III European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) study 26951 on the effects of adjuvant procarbazine, chloroethyl cyclohexylnitrosourea (lomustine), and vincristine chemotherapy in anaplastic oligodendroglial tumors. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was used to assess copy number aberrations of chromosome 1p, 19q, 7, 10, and 10q and EGFR. Three different analyses were performed: on all included patients based on local pathology diagnosis, on the patients with confirmed anaplastic oligodendroglial tumors on central pathology review, and on this latter group but after excluding anaplastic oligoastrocytoma (AOA) with necrosis. As a reference set for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), patients from the prospective randomized phase III study on GBM (EORTC 26981) were used as a benchmark. In 257 of 368 patients, central pathology review confirmed the presence of an anaplastic oligodendroglial tumor. Tumors with combined 1p and 19q loss (1p(loss)19q(loss)) were histopathologically diagnosed as anaplastic oligodendroglioma, were more frequently located in the frontal lobe, and had a better outcome. Anaplastic oligodendroglial tumors with EGFR(amp) were more frequently AOA, were more often localized outside the frontal lobe, and had a survival similar to that for GBM. Survival of patients with AOA harboring necrosis was in a similar range as for GBM, while patients

  14. Molecular analysis of anaplastic oligodendroglial tumors in a prospective randomized study: A report from EORTC study 26951

    PubMed Central

    Kouwenhoven, Mathilde C.M.; Gorlia, Thierry; Kros, Johan M.; Ibdaih, Ahmed; Brandes, Alba A.; Bromberg, Jacolien E.C.; Mokhtari, Karima; van Duinen, Sjoerd G.; Teepen, Johannes L.; Wesseling, Pieter; Vandenbos, Fanny; Grisold, Wolfgang; Sipos, László; Mirimanoff, Rene; Vecht, Charles J.; Allgeier, Anouk; Lacombe, Denis; van den Bent, Martin J.

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the clinical outcome of anaplastic oligodendroglial tumors is variable, but also that the histological diagnosis is subject to interobserver variation. We investigated whether the assessment of 1p/19q codeletion, polysomy of chromosome 7, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene amplification (EGFRamp), and loss of chromosome 10 or 10q offers additional prognostic information to the histological diagnosis and would allow molecular subtyping. For this study, we used the clinical data and tumor samples of the patients included in multicenter prospective phase III European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) study 26951 on the effects of adjuvant procarbazine, chloroethyl cyclohexylnitrosourea (lomustine), and vincristine chemotherapy in anaplastic oligodendroglial tumors. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was used to assess copy number aberrations of chromosome 1p, 19q, 7, 10, and 10q and EGFR. Three different analyses were performed: on all included patients based on local pathology diagnosis, on the patients with confirmed anaplastic oligodendroglial tumors on central pathology review, and on this latter group but after excluding anaplastic oligoastrocytoma (AOA) with necrosis. As a reference set for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), patients from the prospective randomized phase III study on GBM (EORTC 26981) were used as a benchmark. In 257 of 368 patients, central pathology review confirmed the presence of an anaplastic oligodendroglial tumor. Tumors with combined 1p and 19q loss (1ploss19qloss) were histopathologically diagnosed as anaplastic oligodendroglioma, were more frequently located in the frontal lobe, and had a better outcome. Anaplastic oligodendroglial tumors with EGFRamp were more frequently AOA, were more often localized outside the frontal lobe, and had a survival similar to that for GBM. Survival of patients with AOA harboring necrosis was in a similar range as for GBM, while patients with

  15. Physical activity and risk of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis in a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Valentina; Vanacore, Nicola; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Vermeulen, Roel; Brayne, Carol; Pearce, Neil; Wark, Petra A; Ward, Heather A; Ferrari, Pietro; Jenab, Mazda; Andersen, Peter M; Wennberg, Patrik; Wareham, Nicholas; Katzke, Verena; Kaaks, Rudolf; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Peeters, Petra H; Mattiello, Amalia; Pala, Valeria; Barricante, Aurelio; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Travier, Noémie; Travis, Ruth C; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Pessah-Rasmussen, Hélène; Petersson, Jesper; Tjønneland, Anne; Tumino, Rosario; Quiros, Jose Ramon; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Kyrozis, Andreas; Oikonomidou, Despoina; Masala, Giovanna; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Arriola, Larraitz; Boeing, Heiner; Vigl, Matthaeus; Claver-Chapelon, Francoise; Middleton, Lefkos; Riboli, Elio; Vineis, Paolo

    2016-03-01

    Previous case-control studies have suggested a possible increased risk of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) with physical activity (PA), but this association has never been studied in prospective cohort studies. We therefore assessed the association between PA and risk of death from ALS in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. A total of 472,100 individuals were included in the analysis, yielding 219 ALS deaths. At recruitment, information on PA was collected thorough standardised questionnaires. Total PA was expressed by the Cambridge Physical Activity Index (CPAI) and analysed in relation to ALS mortality, using Cox hazard models. Interactions with age, sex, and anthropometric measures were assessed. Total PA was weakly inversely associated with ALS mortality with a borderline statistically significant trend across categories (p = 0.042), with those physically active being 33% less likely to die from ALS compared to those inactive: HR = 0.67 (95% CI 0.42-1.06). Anthropometric measures, sex, and age did not modify the association with CPAI. The present study shows a slightly decreased-not increased like in case-control studies-risk of dying from ALS in those with high levels of total PA at enrolment. This association does not appear confounded by age, gender, anthropometry, smoking, and education. Ours was the first prospective cohort study on ALS and physical activity. PMID:26968841

  16. A prospective cohort study to evaluate peridomestic infection as a determinant of dengue transmission: Protocol

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Vector control programs, which have focused mainly on the patient house and peridomestic areas around dengue cases, have not produced the expected impact on transmission. This project will evaluate the assumption that the endemic/epidemic transmission of dengue begins around peridomestic vicinities of the primary cases. Its objective is to assess the relationship between symptomatic dengue case exposure and peridomestic infection incidence. Methods/Design A prospective cohort study will be conducted (in Tepalcingo and Axochiapan, in the state of Morelos, Mexico), using the state surveillance system for the detection of incident cases. Paired blood specimens will be collected from both the individuals who live with the incident cases and a sample of subjects residing within a 25-meter radius of such cases (exposed cohort), in order to measure dengue-specific antibodies. Other subjects will be selected from areas which have not presented any incident cases within 200 meters, during the two months preceding the sampling (non-exposed cohort). Symptomatic/asymptomatic incident infection will be considered as the dependent variable, exposure to confirmed dengue cases, as the principal variable, and the socio-demographic, environmental and socio-cultural conditions of the subjects, as additional explanatory variables. Discussion Results indicating a high infection rate among the exposed subjects would justify the application of peridomestic control measures and call for an evaluation of alternate causes for insufficient program impact. On the other hand, a low incidence of peridomestic-infected subjects would support the hypothesis that infection occurs outside the domicile, and would thus explain why the vector control measures applied in the past have exerted such a limited impact on cases incidence rates. The results of the present study may therefore serve to reassess site selection for interventions of this type. PMID:22471857

  17. Vitamin C deficiency and risk of myocardial infarction: prospective population study of men from eastern Finland.

    PubMed Central

    Nyyssönen, K.; Parviainen, M. T.; Salonen, R.; Tuomilehto, J.; Salonen, J. T.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between plasma vitamin C concentrations and the risk of acute myocardial infarction. DESIGN: Prospective population study. SETTING: Eastern Finland. SUBJECTS: 1605 randomly selected men aged 42, 48, 54, or 60 who did not have either symptomatic coronary heart disease or ischaemia on exercise testing at entry to the Kuopio ischaemic heart disease risk factor study in between 1984 and 1989. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Number of acute myocardial infarctions; fasting plasma vitamin C concentrations at baseline. RESULTS: 70 of the men had a fatal or non-fatal myocardial infarction between March 1984 and December 1992.91 men had vitamin C deficiency (plasma ascorbate < 11.4 mumol/l, or 2.0 mg/l), of whom 12 (13.2%) had a myocardial infarction; 1514 men were not deficient in vitamin C, of whom 58 (3.8%) had a myocardial infarction. In a Cox proportional hazards model adjusted for age, year of examination, and season of the year examined (August to October v rest of the year) men who had vitamin C deficiency had a relative risk of acute myocardial infarction of 3.5 (95% confidence interval 1.8 to 6.7, P = 0.0002) compared with those who were not deficient. In another model adjusted additionally for the strongest risk factors for myocardial infarction and for dietary intakes of tea fibre, carotene, and saturated fats men with a plasma ascorbate concentration < 11.4 mumol/l had a relative risk of 2.5 (1.3 to 5.2, P = 0.0095) compared with men with higher plasma vitamin C concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin C deficiency, as assessed by low plasma ascorbate concentration, is a risk factor for coronary heart disease. PMID:9066474

  18. Prospective study of intratumoral microvessel density, p53 expression and survival in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Vermeulen, P B; Eynden, G G Van den; Huget, P; Goovaerts, G; Weyler, J; Lardon, F; Marck, E Van; Hubens, G; Dirix, L Y

    1999-01-01

    Adjuvant treatment of patients with colorectal cancer is hampered by a lack of reliable prognostic factors in addition to the clinicopathological staging system. A poorly defined but considerable fraction of Astler–Coller stage B patients will experience tumour recurrence, and some of the stage C patients will probably survive for a prolonged time after surgery without adjuvant treatment. Assessing parameters related to tumour angiogenesis has provided valuable prognostic information in different tumour types. The formation of new microvessels is part of the malignant phenotype in the majority of tumours. Alterations in tumour-suppressor genes, such as the p53 gene, or oncogenes, such as the ras gene, have been found to be responsible for changing the local balance of pro- and antiangiogenic factors in favour of the former. In this prospective study, intratumoral microvessel density (IMD) was assessed by immunostaining tissue sections for CD31 and counting individual microvessels in selected and highly vascular regions in specimens of 145 colorectal cancer patients. p53 protein overexpression was semiquantitatively determined after immunohistochemistry. In both uni- and multivariate analysis, high IMD was significantly associated with shorter survival in the patients undergoing surgery with curative intent (Astler–Coller stages A–C). p53 added prognostic power to IMD, both in Astler–Coller stage B and stage C patients. An association between IMD and mode of metastasis was also noted. High IMD was strongly associated with the incidence of haematogenous metastasis during follow-up, but not with the presence of lymphogenic metastasis observed at surgery. This study confirms the results of previous retrospective analyses of IMD and survival in colorectal cancer and warrants a clinical validation by randomizing stage B tumour patients with high IMD and p53 overexpression between adjuvant treatment or not. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:9888475

  19. Social inequalities and disability in older men: prospective findings from the British regional heart study.

    PubMed

    Ebrahim, Shah; Papacosta, Olia; Wannamethee, Goya; Adamson, Joy

    2004-11-01

    The independent association of socio-economic position with self-reported disability was assessed. The effect of home and car ownership as additional indices of socio-economic position within occupational social classes was explored. Data from a prospective study of a cohort of 7735 men aged 40-59 years at recruitment and representative of the occupational social class distribution of middle-aged men in Great Britain were used. Men were selected from one general practice in each of 24 towns in England, Wales and Scotland in 1978-1980. The present study concerns 5773 (88.4% of those able to take part) men aged 52-73 years at follow up in 1992 who completed the disability section of a postal questionnaire. A quarter (1453) of men reported disability. Socio-economic position measured as both occupational class (social class I vs. V: age-adjusted OR 5.0, 95% CI 3.4-7.5) and ownership of home and car (both vs. neither: age-adjusted OR 2.8, 95% CI 2.3-3.4) showed a graded relationship with likelihood of reporting disability in 1992. Within all social class groups, those owning both home and car had a lower risk of disability than those who owned neither, even after adjustment for a wide range of risk factors. Men from manual occupations were more likely than those in non-manual occupations to report disability on developing chronic diseases. The relationship between socio-economic position and severe, but not milder, disability appeared to be independent of disease status. Socio-economic position is a strong predictor of disability in later life independent of a wide range of lifestyle factors and presence of diagnosed disease. The likelihood of reporting disability between and within social class groups is influenced by material wealth.

  20. Biomechanical and lifestyle risk factors for medial tibia stress syndrome in army recruits: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Jagannath; Golby, Jim; Greeves, Julie; Spears, Iain R

    2011-03-01

    Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) is a common injury in active populations and has been suggested to be a result of both biomechanical and lifestyle factors. The main aim of this study was to determine prospectively whether gait biomechanics and lifestyle factors can be used as a predictor of MTSS development. British infantry male recruits (n=468) were selected for the study. Plantar pressure variables, lifestyle factors comprising smoking habit and aerobic fitness as measured by a 1.5 mile timed-run were collected on the first day of training. Injury data were collected during the 26 week training period and incidence rate was 7.9% (n=37). A logistic regression model for membership of the MTSS and non-MTSS groups was developed. An imbalance in foot pressure with greater pressure on the medial side than on the lateral side was the primary risk factor. Low aerobic fitness, as deduced from a 1.5 mile timed-run and smoking habit were also important, but were additive risk factors for MTSS. In conclusion, "poor" biomechanics were the strongest predictors of MTSS development but lifestyle factors were also important. The logistic regression model combining all three risk factors was capable of predicting 96.9% of the non-injured group and 67.5% of the MTSS group with an overall accuracy of 87.7%. While the model has yet to be validated against an external sample and limitations exist with regards to the quality of the data collected, it is nonetheless suggested that the combined analysis of biomechanical and lifestyle factors has the potential to improve the prediction of MTSS. PMID:21247766

  1. Chronic constipation and co-morbidities: A prospective population-based nested case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Choung, Rok S; Rey, Enrique; Richard Locke, G; Schleck, Cathy D; Baum, Charles; Zinsmeister, Alan R

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic constipation (CC) is common in the community but surprisingly little is known about relevant gastro-intestinal (GI) and non-GI co-morbidities. Objective The purpose of this study was to assess the epidemiology of CC and in particular provide new insights into the co-morbidities linked to this condition. Methods In a prospective, population-based nested case-control study, a cohort of randomly selected community residents (n = 8006) were mailed a validated self-report gastrointestinal symptom questionnaire. CC was defined according to Rome III criteria. Medical records of each case and control were abstracted to identify potential CC comorbidities. Results Altogether 3831 (48%) subjects returned questionnaires; 307 met criteria for CC. Age-adjusted prevalence in females was 8.7 (95% confidence interval (CI) 7.1–10.3) and 5.1 (3.6–6.7) in males, per 100 persons. CC was not associated with most GI pathology, but the odds for constipation were increased in subjects with anal surgery relative to those without (odds ratio (OR) = 3.3, 95% CI 1.2–9.1). In those with constipation vs those without, neurological diseases including Parkinson’s disease (OR = 6.5, 95% CI 2.9–14.4) and multiple sclerosis (OR = 5.5, 95% CI 1.9–15.8) showed significantly increased odds for chronic constipation, adjusting for age and gender. In addition, modestly increased odds for chronic constipation in those with angina (OR = 1.4, 95% CI 1.1–1.9) and myocardial infarction (OR = 1.5, 95% CI 1.0–2.4) were observed. Conclusions Neurological and cardiovascular diseases are linked to constipation but in the community constipation is unlikely to account for most lower GI pathology. PMID:26966534

  2. An international observational prospective study to determine the cost of asthma exacerbations (COAX).

    PubMed

    Lane, Stephen; Molina, Jesus; Plusa, Tadeusz

    2006-03-01

    Asthma is a common chronic condition that places substantial burden on patients and healthcare services. Despite the standards of asthma control that international guidelines recommend should be achieved, many patients continue to suffer sub-optimal control of symptoms and experience exacerbations (acute asthma attacks). In addition to being associated with reduced quality of life, asthma exacerbations are a key cost driver in asthma management. Routine clinical practice for the management of asthma exacerbations varies in different healthcare systems, so healthcare providers require local costs to be able to assess the value of therapies that reduce the frequency and severity of exacerbations. This prospective study, conducted in a total of 15 countries, assessed the local cost of asthma exacerbations managed in either primary or secondary care. Healthcare resources used were costed using actual values appropriate to each country in local currency and in Euros. Results are presented for exacerbations managed in primary care in Brazil, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain and Ukraine, and in secondary care in Croatia, Denmark, Ireland, Latvia, Norway, Poland, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia and Spain. Multiple regression analysis of the 2052 exacerbations included in the economic analysis showed that the cost of exacerbations was significantly affected by country (P<0.0001). Mean costs were significantly higher in secondary care (euro 1349) than primary care (euro 445, P=0.0003). Age was a significant variable (P=0.0002), though the effect showed an interaction with care type (P<0.0001). As severity of exacerbation increased, so did secondary care costs, though primary care costs remained essentially constant. In conclusion, the study showed that asthma exacerbations are costly to manage, suggesting that therapies able to increase asthma control and reduce the frequency or severity of exacerbations may bring economic

  3. Cognitive decline in short and long sleepers: A prospective population-based study (NEDICES)

    PubMed Central

    Benito-León, Julián; Louis, Elan D.; Bermejo-Pareja, Félix

    2013-01-01

    Background It is not clear whether cognitive decline progresses more quickly in long sleepers than in short sleepers or than in participants with usual sleep duration. We assessed cognitive decline as a function of self-reported sleep duration in a prospective population-based cohort (NEDICES). Methods Participants were evaluated at baseline and 3 years later. Baseline demographic variables were recorded and participants indicated their daily sleep usual duration as the sum of nighttime sleep and daytime napping. The average daily total usual sleep duration was grouped into three categories: ≤5 hours (short sleepers), 6 to 8 hours (reference category), and ≥9 hours (long sleepers). At baseline and at follow-up, a 37-item version of the Mini-Mental State Examination (37-MMSE) was administered. Results The final sample, 2,715 participants (72.9±6.1 years), comprised 298 (11%) short sleepers, 1,086 (40%) long sleepers, and 1,331 (49%) in the reference group (6 to 8 hours). During the three year follow-up period, the 37-MMSE declined by 0.5±4.0 points in short sleepers, 0.6±4.3 points in long sleepers, and 0.2±3.8 points in the reference group (p=0.08). The difference between short sleepers and the reference group was not significant (p=0.142); however, the difference between long sleepers and the reference group was significant (p=0.040). In analyses adjusted for baseline age and other potential confounders, this difference remained robust. Conclusions In this study, cognitive test scores among long sleepers declined more rapidly than observed in a reference group. Additional studies are needed to confirm these results. PMID:24094933

  4. A prospective study of serum adiponectin and regression of metabolic syndrome: The ARIRANG study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jang-Young; Yadav, Dhananjay; Ahn, Song Vogue; Koh, Sang-Baek

    2015-10-16

    Increased serum adiponectin levels may play a protective role in metabolic syndrome. However, few prospective studies have examined the effect of serum adiponectin in the improvement of metabolic components in subjects with metabolic syndrome. We investigated the association of serum adiponectin levels with the regression of metabolic syndrome in a population-based longitudinal study. A total of 1308 adults (575 men and 733 women) with metabolic syndrome at baseline were examined and followed. Baseline serum adiponectin concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay. During an average of 2.6 years of follow-up, metabolic syndrome had disappeared in 184 men (29.8%) and 235 women (32.1%). In multivariable adjusted models, the odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for regression of metabolic syndrome comparing the highest to the lowest quartiles of adiponectin levels was 0.93 (0.56-1.53) in men and 2.48 (1.54-4.01) in women. Increased serum adiponectin is a predictor for the regression of metabolic syndrome in women. Adiponectin may have potential therapeutic applications in metabolic disease.

  5. Higher Cognitive Performance Is Prospectively Associated with Healthy Dietary Choices: The Maine Syracuse Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Crichton, G.E.; Elias, M.F.; Davey, A.; Alkerwi, A.; Dore, G.A.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Few studies have examined whether cognitive function predicts dietary intake. The majority of research has focused on how diet can influence cognitive performance or risk for cognitive impairment in later life. The aim of this study was to examine prospective relationships between cognitive performance and dietary intake in participants of the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study. DESIGN A prospective study with neuropsychological testing at baseline and nutritional assessments measured a mean of 18 years later. SETTING Community-dwelling individuals residing in central New York state. PARTICIPANTS 333 participants free of dementia and stroke. MEASUREMENTS The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) was assessed at baseline and dietary intake was measured using the Nutrition and Health Questionnaire. RESULTS Higher WAIS Scores at baseline were prospectively associated with higher intakes of vegetables, meats, nuts and legumes, and fish, but inversely associated with consumption of total grains and carbonated soft drinks. After adjustment for sample selection, socioeconomic indicators, lifestyle factors (smoking and physical activity), and cardiovascular risk factors, the relations between higher cognitive performance and greater consumption of vegetables, meat, and fish, and lower consumption of grains remained significant. CONCLUSION These data suggest that cognition early in life may influence dietary choices later in life. PMID:26878011

  6. Prospective cohort studies of dengue viral transmission and severity of disease.

    PubMed

    Endy, Timothy P; Yoon, In-Kyu; Mammen, Mammen P

    2010-01-01

    As the four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV) systematically spread throughout the tropical and subtropical regions globally, dengue is increasingly contributing to the overall morbidity and mortality sustained by populations and thereby challenging the health infrastructures of most endemic countries. DENV-human host-mosquito vector interactions are complex and cause in humans either asymptomatic or subclinical DENV infection, mild to severe dengue fever (DF), severe dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), or dengue shock syndrome (DSS). Over the past decade, we have seen an increase in research funding and public health efforts to offset the effects of this pandemic. Though multiple vaccine development efforts are underway, the need remains to further characterize the determinants of varying severities of clinical outcomes. Several long-term prospective studies on DENV transmission and dengue severity have sought to define the epidemiology and pathogenesis of this disease. Yet, more studies are required to quantify the disease burden on different populations, explore the impact of DENV serotype-specific transmission on host-responses and dengue severity and measure the economic impact of dengue on a population. In this section, we will review the critical past and recent findings of dengue prospective studies on our understanding of the disease and the potential role of future prospective cohort studies in advancing issues required for vaccine field evaluations.

  7. 77 FR 48993 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; The Sister Study: A Prospective Study of the Genetic and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-15

    ... Environmental Risk Factors for Breast Cancer SUMMARY: In compliance with the requirement of Section 3506(c)(2)(A... Prospective Study of the Genetic and Environmental Risk Factors for Breast Cancer. Type of Information... breast cancer in a high-risk cohort of sisters of women who have had breast cancer. The etiology...

  8. 77 FR 66851 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request The Sister Study: A Prospective Study of the Genetic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-07

    ...: A Prospective Study of the Genetic and Environmental Risk Factors for Breast Cancer SUMMARY: Under... Breast Cancer. Type of Information Collection Request: Revision. Need and Use of Information Collection... risk factors for the development of breast cancer in a high-risk cohort of sisters of women who...

  9. Hepatitis B virus reactivation in breast cancer patients receiving cytotoxic chemotherapy: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Winnie; Chan, Paul K S; Hui, Pun; Ho, Wing M; Lam, Kwok C; Kwan, Wing H; Zhong, Sheng; Johnson, Philip J

    2003-08-01

    Breast cancer is a rapidly increasing problem in many developing countries, and cytotoxic chemotherapy is now an integral part of its management. In several developing countries, the carriage of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in cancer patients may be as high as 12%, and such patients are at risk of developing fatal HBV reactivation during chemotherapy. HBV reactivation is well recognized in patients with hematological malignancies, but limited data are available on patients with other, more common, cancers, such as breast cancer. Recent data have suggested that increased viral replication, an indication of HBV reactivation, may precede clinical hepatitis. In the absence of serial HBV DNA monitoring, HBV reactivation during chemotherapy may have been underestimated. In this prospective study, breast cancer patients who were hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) seropositive were followed up during chemotherapy. The main objectives were to determine the incidence of HBV reactivation in breast cancer patients undergoing conventional chemotherapy; to investigate whether "serial HBV DNA monitoring" improves the accuracy of diagnosing HBV reactivation when compared with previous schema that only measured HBV DNA at the time of clinical hepatitis ("conventional monitoring"); and to assess the clinical consequences as a result of developing the condition. The secondary objective was to identify risk factors associated with this condition. Over an 18-month period, 41 patients were studied. Ten developed HBV reactivation by conventional monitoring criteria, but with serial HBV DNA monitoring, seven additional patients were diagnosed when increased HBV DNA levels were detected before, but not concomitant with, clinical hepatitis. Thus, a total of 17 patients (41%) developed HBV reactivation. Premature termination of chemotherapy or delay in treatment schedules occurred in 71% of the patients who developed viral reactivation, as compared with 33% in those who did not develop the

  10. Taxonomic implications of three prospective studies on the course and outcome of personality disorders.

    PubMed

    Verheul, Roel

    2005-10-01

    The Children in the Community (CIC) Study (Cohen, Crawford, Johnson, & Kasen, this issue), the McLean Study of Adult Development (MSAD; Zanarini, Frankenburg, Hennen, Reich, & Silk, this issue), and the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study (CLPS; Skodol et al., this issue) are three large prospective studies on the course and outcome of psychiatric disorders, borderline personality disorder, and personality disorders, respectively. These studies, involving approximately 2,000 subjects, have yielded an enormous amount of scientifically and clinically relevant information. In this commentary, I primarily aim to discuss the implications for future revisions to the DSM classification of personality disorders.

  11. Changing views about personality disorders: Comment about the prospective studies CIC, CLPS, and MSAD.

    PubMed

    Pukrop, Ralf; Krischer, Maya

    2005-10-01

    Three large-scale prospective studies (Children in the Community Study [CIC; Cohen, Crawford, Johnson, & Kasen, this issue], Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study [CLPS; Skodol et al., this issue], and the McLean Study of Adult Development [MSAD; Zanarini, Frankenburg, Hennen, Reich, & Silk, this issue]) are discussed with respect to the following issues: shared and complementary features of the study designs, evidence for stable and changing personality disorder features, methodological issues (reliability, stability, and invariance), the relationship between Axis I and II disorders, and dimensional versus categorical representations of personality disorders.

  12. Effect of tartarate and citrate based food additives on the micellar properties of sodium dodecylsulfate for prospective use as food emulsifier.

    PubMed

    Banipal, Tarlok S; Kaur, Harjinder; Kaur, Amanpreet; Banipal, Parampaul K

    2016-01-01

    Citrate and tartarate based food preservatives can be used to enhance the emulsifying properties of sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) based micellar system and thus making it appropriate for food applications. Exploration of interactions between the two species is the key constraint for execution of such ideas. In this work various micellar and thermodynamic parameters of SDS like critical micellar concentration (CMC), standard Gibbs free energy of micellization (ΔG(0)mic.) etc. have been calculated in different concentrations of disodium tartarate (DST) and trisodium citrate (TSC) in the temperature range (288.15-318.15)K from the conductivity and surface tension measurements. The parameters obtained from these studies reveal the competitive nature of both the additives with SDS for available positions at the air/water interface. TSC is found to be more effective additive in order to make SDS micellar system better for its potential applications as food emulsifier. PMID:26213016

  13. Effect of tartarate and citrate based food additives on the micellar properties of sodium dodecylsulfate for prospective use as food emulsifier.

    PubMed

    Banipal, Tarlok S; Kaur, Harjinder; Kaur, Amanpreet; Banipal, Parampaul K

    2016-01-01

    Citrate and tartarate based food preservatives can be used to enhance the emulsifying properties of sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) based micellar system and thus making it appropriate for food applications. Exploration of interactions between the two species is the key constraint for execution of such ideas. In this work various micellar and thermodynamic parameters of SDS like critical micellar concentration (CMC), standard Gibbs free energy of micellization (ΔG(0)mic.) etc. have been calculated in different concentrations of disodium tartarate (DST) and trisodium citrate (TSC) in the temperature range (288.15-318.15)K from the conductivity and surface tension measurements. The parameters obtained from these studies reveal the competitive nature of both the additives with SDS for available positions at the air/water interface. TSC is found to be more effective additive in order to make SDS micellar system better for its potential applications as food emulsifier.

  14. Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. A prospective randomized study of three surgical methods.

    PubMed

    Anderson, A F; Snyder, R B; Lipscomb, A B

    2001-01-01

    A prospective randomized study was performed to determine the differences in results between three methods of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: autogenous bone-patellar tendon-bone graft (group 1), semitendinosus and gracilis tendon graft reconstruction combined with an extraarticular procedure (group 2), and semitendinosus and gracilis tendon graft reconstruction alone (group 3). Preoperatively, there were no significant differences between groups. At a mean of 35.4 +/- 11.6 months postoperatively, 102 patients returned for evaluation. International Knee Documentation Committee knee evaluation revealed no significant differences in symptoms, function, return to pre-injury activity, harvest site abnormalities, or limitation of motion between groups 1 and 3. Patients in group 2 had a higher incidence of patellofemoral crepitation and loss of motion than did patients in group 3. The mean manual maximum KT-1000 arthrometer side-to-side difference was 2.1 +/- 2.0 mm in group 1, which was statistically significantly better than the difference in group 3 (3.1 +/- 2.3 mm). Final knee rating showed that 34 of 35 patients in group 1, 23 of 34 patients in group 2, and 26 of 33 patients in group 3 had a normal or nearly normal overall knee rating. Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with a semitendinosus and gracilis or a patellar tendon autograft may yield similar subjective results; however, the patellar tendon autograft may provide better objective stability in the long term. In addition, there appears to be no benefit to combining an intraarticular anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with an extraarticular procedure.

  15. Factors associated with weaning practices in term infants: a prospective observational study in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Tarrant, Roslyn C; Younger, Katherine M; Sheridan-Pereira, Margaret; White, Martin J; Kearney, John M

    2010-11-01

    The WHO (2001) recommends exclusive breast-feeding and delaying the introduction of solid foods to an infant's diet until 6 months postpartum. However, in many countries, this recommendation is followed by few mothers, and earlier weaning onto solids is a commonly reported global practice. Therefore, this prospective, observational study aimed to assess compliance with the WHO recommendation and examine weaning practices, including the timing of weaning of infants, and to investigate the factors that predict weaning at ≤ 12 weeks. From an initial sample of 539 pregnant women recruited from the Coombe Women and Infants University Hospital, Dublin, 401 eligible mothers were followed up at 6 weeks and 6 months postpartum. Quantitative data were obtained on mothers' weaning practices using semi-structured questionnaires and a short dietary history of the infant's usual diet at 6 months. Only one mother (0.2%) complied with the WHO recommendation to exclusively breastfeed up to 6 months. Ninety-one (22.6%) infants were prematurely weaned onto solids at ≤ 12 weeks with predictive factors after adjustment, including mothers' antenatal reporting that infants should be weaned onto solids at ≤ 12 weeks, formula feeding at 12 weeks and mothers' reporting of the maternal grandmother as the principal source of advice on infant feeding. Mothers who weaned their infants at ≤ 12 weeks were more likely to engage in other sub-optimal weaning practices, including the addition of non-recommended condiments to their infants' foods. Provision of professional advice and exploring antenatal maternal misperceptions are potential areas for targeted interventions to improve compliance with the recommended weaning practices.

  16. Serum selenium levels in patients with respiratory diseases: a prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yo-Han; Lee, Seok Jeong; Lee, Myoung Kyu; Lee, Won-Yeon; Yong, Suk Joong

    2016-01-01

    Background Serum selenium levels are lower in critically ill patients as compared with healthy controls. However, there is no data about the difference in serum selenium levels depending on the severity of lung diseases. We aimed to identify the factors associated with low serum selenium levels in critically ill patients with respiratory diseases. Methods A prospective study was performed in 83 patients with respiratory diseases who had admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and general wards. We obtained systemic inflammatory markers, nutritional indicators and prognostic factors as the explanatory variables for the outcome of low serum selenium levels. Results Serum selenium levels on admission were lower by 28% in the ICU group as compared with the general ward group (70.0±26.4 and 97.9±20.8 ng/mL, respectively, P<0.001). Low serum selenium levels had a correlation with malnutrition represented by decreases in levels of lymphocyte (R2=0.107, P=0.005) and albumin (R2=0.174, P<0.001). In addition, low serum selenium levels were associated with an increase in baseline C-reactive protein (CRP) (R2=0.059, P=0.041) and APACHE II scores (R2=0.209, P<0.001). Lower albumin levels (P=0.032) and higher APACHE II scores (P=0.046) showed a significant correlation with lower serum selenium levels on multivariate analysis. Conclusions Low serum selenium levels in patients with respiratory diseases have a significant correlation with poor nutritional status and prognosis on admission.

  17. Results of a prospective study evaluating the effects of mantle irradiation on pulmonary function

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, L.M.; Mendenhall, N.P.; Cicale, M.J.; Block, E.R.; Carter, R.L.; Million, R.R.

    1989-01-01

    Thirty patients with Stages I-III Hodgkin's disease receiving mantle irradiation were prospectively evaluated prior to therapy with spirometry, lung volumes, and tests of diffusing capacity (DLCO). Follow-up examinations were performed at 3, 6, and 12 months and then yearly. Sixteen patients had Hodgkin's disease involving the mediastinum at presentation, 10 were smokers, and 16 received either preirradiation or postirradiation chemotherapy. Mantle doses ranged between 2300 cGy and 4000 cGy (mode of 3750 cGy) given at 150 cGy to 170 cGy tumor dose per day with split-course technique. Twenty patients have been tested greater than or equal to 4 years after treatment with a median time from treatment to last pulmonary function test of 8 years. Changes over time in spirometry included an early, mild decrease in both forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume at 1 second (FEV1), which returned to baseline by 2 years and then gradually decreased to a 10-15% deficit as compared with predicted values at 6-10 years. Additionally, there was a very slight decrease in FEV1/FVC beginning at 1 year and gradually increasing to an 8% deficit at 6-10 years. Changes over time in lung volumes included a mild nadir of total lung capacity (TLC) and functional residual capacity (FRC) at 6 months to a year, which returned to baseline at 2-4 years and then gradually dropped to a 5-10% deficit at 6-10 years. Mean DLCO for the study group was 20% below predicted values prior to treatment and dropped to a low of 30% below predicted at 6 months following treatment, then gradually returned to baseline by 4 years and showed continued improvement to an overall deficit of approximately 10% at 6-10 years.

  18. Etiology of Severe Non-malaria Febrile Illness in Northern Tanzania: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Crump, John A.; Morrissey, Anne B.; Nicholson, William L.; Massung, Robert F.; Stoddard, Robyn A.; Galloway, Renee L.; Ooi, Eng Eong; Maro, Venance P.; Saganda, Wilbrod; Kinabo, Grace D.; Muiruri, Charles; Bartlett, John A.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The syndrome of fever is a commonly presenting complaint among persons seeking healthcare in low-resource areas, yet the public health community has not approached fever in a comprehensive manner. In many areas, malaria is over-diagnosed, and patients without malaria have poor outcomes. Methods and Findings We prospectively studied a cohort of 870 pediatric and adult febrile admissions to two hospitals in northern Tanzania over the period of one year using conventional standard diagnostic tests to establish fever etiology. Malaria was the clinical diagnosis for 528 (60.7%), but was the actual cause of fever in only 14 (1.6%). By contrast, bacterial, mycobacterial, and fungal bloodstream infections accounted for 85 (9.8%), 14 (1.6%), and 25 (2.9%) febrile admissions, respectively. Acute bacterial zoonoses were identified among 118 (26.2%) of febrile admissions; 16 (13.6%) had brucellosis, 40 (33.9%) leptospirosis, 24 (20.3%) had Q fever, 36 (30.5%) had spotted fever group rickettsioses, and 2 (1.8%) had typhus group rickettsioses. In addition, 55 (7.9%) participants had a confirmed acute arbovirus infection, all due to chikungunya. No patient had a bacterial zoonosis or an arbovirus infection included in the admission differential diagnosis. Conclusions Malaria was uncommon and over-diagnosed, whereas invasive infections were underappreciated. Bacterial zoonoses and arbovirus infections were highly prevalent yet overlooked. An integrated approach to the syndrome of fever in resource-limited areas is needed to improve patient outcomes and to rationally target disease control efforts. PMID:23875053

  19. Acute Undifferentiated Febrile Illness in Rural Cambodia: A 3-Year Prospective Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Tara C.; Siv, Sovannaroth; Khim, Nimol; Kim, Saorin; Fleischmann, Erna; Ariey, Frédéric; Buchy, Philippe; Guillard, Bertrand; González, Iveth J.; Christophel, Eva-Maria; Abdur, Rashid; von Sonnenburg, Frank; Bell, David; Menard, Didier

    2014-01-01

    In the past decade, malaria control has been successfully implemented in Cambodia, leading to a substantial decrease in reported cases. Wide-spread use of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) has revealed a large burden of malaria-negative fever cases, for which no clinical management guidelines exist at peripheral level health facilities. As a first step towards developing such guidelines, a 3-year cross-sectional prospective observational study was designed to investigate the causes of acute malaria-negative febrile illness in Cambodia. From January 2008 to December 2010, 1193 febrile patients and 282 non-febrile individuals were recruited from three health centers in eastern and western Cambodia. Malaria RDTs and routine clinical examination were performed on site by health center staff. Venous samples and nasopharyngeal throat swabs were collected and analysed by molecular diagnostic tests. Blood cultures and blood smears were also taken from all febrile individuals. Molecular testing was applied for malaria parasites, Leptospira, Rickettsia, O. tsutsugamushi, Dengue- and Influenza virus. At least one pathogen was identified in 73.3% (874/1193) of febrile patient samples. Most frequent pathogens detected were P. vivax (33.4%), P. falciparum (26.5%), pathogenic Leptospira (9.4%), Influenza viruses (8.9%), Dengue viruses (6.3%), O. tsutsugamushi (3.9%), Rickettsia (0.2%), and P. knowlesi (0.1%). In the control group, a potential pathogen was identified in 40.4%, most commonly malaria parasites and Leptospira. Clinic-based diagnosis of malaria RDT-negative cases was poorly predictive for pathogen and appropriate treatment. Additional investigations are needed to understand their impact on clinical disease and epidemiology, and the possible role of therapies such as doxycycline, since many of these pathogens were seen in non-febrile subjects. PMID:24755844

  20. Snoring during pregnancy and its relation to sleepiness and pregnancy outcome - a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The incidence of snoring and sleepiness is known to increase during pregnancy, and this might impact maternal health and obstetric outcome. However, the association between snoring and sleepiness during pregnancy is not fully understood. This study was aimed at investigating the development of snoring during pregnancy and prospectively assessing if there is an association between snoring and sleepiness or adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as preeclampsia, mode of delivery, and fetal complications. Methods Consecutively recruited pregnant women (n = 500) received a questionnaire concerning snoring and sleep at the 1st and 3rd trimester of pregnancy. The women who had rated their frequency of snoring at both occasions (n = 340) were divided into subgroups according to the development of snoring they reported and included in the subsequent analyses. Additional medical data were collected from the medical records. Results The frequency of snoring was 7.9% in the 1st trimester and increased to 21.2% in the 3rd trimester of pregnancy. The women who snored already in early pregnancy had significantly higher baseline BMI (p = 0.001) than the women who never snored, but snoring was not associated with the magnitude of weight gain during pregnancy. Snoring women were more likely to experience edema in late pregnancy than the non-snorers. Women who started to snore during pregnancy had higher Epworth Sleepiness Scores than the non snorers in both early and late pregnancy. No significant association between obstetric outcome and snoring was found. Conclusion Snoring does increase during pregnancy, and this increase is associated with sleepiness, higher BMI at the start of pregnancy and higher prevalence of edema, but not with weight gain. PMID:24418321

  1. Serum selenium levels in patients with respiratory diseases: a prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yo-Han; Lee, Seok Jeong; Lee, Myoung Kyu; Lee, Won-Yeon; Yong, Suk Joong

    2016-01-01

    Background Serum selenium levels are lower in critically ill patients as compared with healthy controls. However, there is no data about the difference in serum selenium levels depending on the severity of lung diseases. We aimed to identify the factors associated with low serum selenium levels in critically ill patients with respiratory diseases. Methods A prospective study was performed in 83 patients with respiratory diseases who had admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and general wards. We obtained systemic inflammatory markers, nutritional indicators and prognostic factors as the explanatory variables for the outcome of low serum selenium levels. Results Serum selenium levels on admission were lower by 28% in the ICU group as compared with the general ward group (70.0±26.4 and 97.9±20.8 ng/mL, respectively, P<0.001). Low serum selenium levels had a correlation with malnutrition represented by decreases in levels of lymphocyte (R2=0.107, P=0.005) and albumin (R2=0.174, P<0.001). In addition, low serum selenium levels were associated with an increase in baseline C-reactive protein (CRP) (R2=0.059, P=0.041) and APACHE II scores (R2=0.209, P<0.001). Lower albumin levels (P=0.032) and higher APACHE II scores (P=0.046) showed a significant correlation with lower serum selenium levels on multivariate analysis. Conclusions Low serum selenium levels in patients with respiratory diseases have a significant correlation with poor nutritional status and prognosis on admission. PMID:27621861

  2. Acute undifferentiated febrile illness in rural Cambodia: a 3-year prospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Tara C; Siv, Sovannaroth; Khim, Nimol; Kim, Saorin; Fleischmann, Erna; Ariey, Frédéric; Buchy, Philippe; Guillard, Bertrand; González, Iveth J; Christophel, Eva-Maria; Abdur, Rashid; von Sonnenburg, Frank; Bell, David; Menard, Didier

    2014-01-01

    In the past decade, malaria control has been successfully implemented in Cambodia, leading to a substantial decrease in reported cases. Wide-spread use of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) has revealed a large burden of malaria-negative fever cases, for which no clinical management guidelines exist at peripheral level health facilities. As a first step towards developing such guidelines, a 3-year cross-sectional prospective observational study was designed to investigate the causes of acute malaria-negative febrile illness in Cambodia. From January 2008 to December 2010, 1193 febrile patients and 282 non-febrile individuals were recruited from three health centers in eastern and western Cambodia. Malaria RDTs and routine clinical examination were performed on site by health center staff. Venous samples and nasopharyngeal throat swabs were collected and analysed by molecular diagnostic tests. Blood cultures and blood smears were also taken from all febrile individuals. Molecular testing was applied for malaria parasites, Leptospira, Rickettsia, O. tsutsugamushi, Dengue- and Influenza virus. At least one pathogen was identified in 73.3% (874/1193) of febrile patient samples. Most frequent pathogens detected were P. vivax (33.4%), P. falciparum (26.5%), pathogenic Leptospira (9.4%), Influenza viruses (8.9%), Dengue viruses (6.3%), O. tsutsugamushi (3.9%), Rickettsia (0.2%), and P. knowlesi (0.1%). In the control group, a potential pathogen was identified in 40.4%, most commonly malaria parasites and Leptospira. Clinic-based diagnosis of malaria RDT-negative cases was poorly predictive for pathogen and appropriate treatment. Additional investigations are needed to understand their impact on clinical disease and epidemiology, and the possible role of therapies such as doxycycline, since many of these pathogens were seen in non-febrile subjects.

  3. [INCIDENCE AND SURGICAL IMPORTANCE OF PYRAMIDAL LOBE AND TUBERCLE OF THE THYROID GLAND: A PROSPECTIVE STUDY].

    PubMed

    Kovacić, Marijan; Kovadcić, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    The pyramidal lobe and tubercles are common anatomic variations of the thyroid gland, and their frequency is highly represented. While pyramidal lobe requires additional seriousness in identifying and its removal, especially in patients with hyperthyroidism and thyroid cancer, the presence of tubercles is desirable. Tubercle is covered by recurrent laryngeal nerve and directs the surgeon in his search and besides this, serves to facilitate detection of the upper parathyroid glands. In this prospective study we analysed 342 patients who underwent total thyroidectomy in the period from January 2009 to March 2015. We looked at the incidence and anatomic characteristics of pyramidal lobe and tubercles of the thyroid gland. The pyramidal lobe was present in 52.3% of the patients with more frequent central and left placement. Bilateral tubercles were present in 14.9%, while position right-sided phenomenon was represented in 39.5% and 18.5% in lower left (64.3% patients). Their prevalence by gender showed no significant difference (p = 0.59; p = 0.2). Associated presence of pyramidal lobe and tubercles on one or both sides is highly represented in our group of patients (34%), also with no differences by gender (p = 0.29). Length of the pyramidal lobe ranged from 1.3 to 4.7 cm (average 2.3 cm), and the size of tubercles in 36% of patients was over 1 cm. Recurrent laryngeal nerve was only in 1.8% placed laterally of tubercles, and the upper parathyroid gland in 95.4% was located above tubercle. Considering that only 16.5% of our patients did not have any of these anatomical variations, their presence during surgery is the rule, not the exception.

  4. Synthetic porous ceramic compared with autograft in scoliosis surgery. A prospective, randomized study of 341 patients.

    PubMed

    Ransford, A O; Morley, T; Edgar, M A; Webb, P; Passuti, N; Chopin, D; Morin, C; Michel, F; Garin, C; Pries, D

    1998-01-01

    We have evaluated the use of a synthetic porous ceramic (Triosite) as a substitute for bone graft in posterior spinal fusion for idiopathic scoliosis. In a prospective, randomised study 341 patients at five hospitals in the UK and France were randomly allocated either to autograft from the iliac crest or rib segments (171) or to receive Triosite blocks (170). All patients were assessed after operation and at 3, 6, 12 and 18 months. The two groups were similar with regard to all demographic and baseline variables, but the 184 treated in France (54%) had Cotrel-Dubouset instrumentation and the 157 treated in the UK usually had Harrington-Luque implants. In the Triosite group the average Cobb angle of the upper curve was 56 degrees, corrected to 24 degrees (57%). At 18 months, the average was 26 degrees (3% loss). In the autograft group the average preoperative upper curve of 53 degrees was corrected to 21 degrees (60%). At 18 months the mean curve was 25 degrees (8% loss). Pain levels after operation were similar in the two groups, being mild in most cases. In the Triosite group only three patients had problems of wound healing, but in the autograft group, 14 patients had delayed healing, infection or haematoma in the spinal wound. In addition, 15 autograft patients had pain at the donor site at three months. Seven had infections, two had haematoma and four had delayed healing. The haematological and serum biochemistry results showed no abnormal trends and no significant differences between the groups. There were no adverse events related to the graft material and no evidence of allergenicity. Our results suggest that Triosite synthetic porous ceramic is a safe and effective substitute for autograft in these patients. Histological findings on biopsy indicate that Triosite provides a favourable scaffolding for the formation of new bone and is gradually incorporated into the fusion mass.

  5. Community paediatric respiratory infection surveillance study protocol: a feasibility, prospective inception cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Emma C; Ingle, Suzanne Marie; Muir, Peter; Beck, Charles; Finn, Adam; Leeming, John Peter; Cabral, Christie; Kesten, Joanna May; Hay, Alastair D

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Paediatric respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are common reasons for primary care consultations and antibiotic prescribing. Locally relevant syndromic and microbiological surveillance information has the potential to improve the care of children with RTIs by normalising illness (parents) and reducing uncertainty (clinicians). Currently, most RTI studies are conducted at the point of healthcare service consultation, leaving the community burden, microbiology, symptom duration and proportion consulting largely unknown. This study seeks to establish the feasibility of (mainly online) participant recruitment and retention, and the acceptability/comparability of parent versus nurse-collected microbiological sampling, to inform the design of a future surveillance intervention study. Evidence regarding consultation rates and symptom duration is also sought. Methods and analysis A community-based, feasibility prospective inception cohort study, recruiting children aged ≥3 months and <16 years and their parents via general practitioner surgery invitation letter, aiming to collect data on 300 incident RTIs by July 2016. Following informed consent, parents provide baseline (demographic) data online, and respond to weekly emails to confirm the absence/presence of new RTI symptoms. Once symptomatic, parents provide daily data online (RTI symptoms, school/day-care attendance, time off work, health service use, medication), and a research nurse visits to collect clinical examination data and microbiological (nasal and saliva) swabs. Parents are invited to provide symptomatic (at nurse visit, but without nurse assistance) and asymptomatic (alone) swabs on recovery. A review of primary care medical notes will gather medical history, health service utilisation, referral and antibiotic prescribing rates. Feasibility will be assessed using recruitment and retention rates, data completeness; and acceptability by quantitative survey and qualitative interviews

  6. Assessing Acculturation Over Time: A Four-year Prospective Study of Asian American Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Kate E.; Klonoff, Elizabeth A.; Garcini, Luz M.; Ullman, Jodie B.; Wall, Tamara L.; Myers, Mark G.

    2014-01-01

    Acculturation is commonly defined as a dynamic and multidimensional process in which individuals and groups change over time when coming into contact with another culture. Despite the emphasis on acculturation as a process of change over time, few researchers have directly assessed this hypothesis. The current study first identifies and then examines “stable” and “dynamic” dimensions of acculturation within a 4-year prospective study of 433 first- and second-generation Chinese- and Korean-American college students. Separate growth model analyses revealed significant linear change for first-generation students toward greater U.S. acculturation. In comparison, tests of linear and quadratic change for second-generation students were not significant. When stratifying by gender, acculturation increased for women but there was no significant change in acculturation for men. While all students reported increases in alcohol consumption over the study period, changes in acculturation predicted changes in alcohol consumption only for women. Chinese men showed greater increases in alcohol consumption than Korean men but there was no effect for ethnicity among women. There was significant individual variability in the models, which underscores the importance of examining change prospectively through within and between person analyses. The findings highlight the importance of examining acculturation changes over time for different migrant groups with implications for further development of acculturation measures, research methodologies, and health interventions. More prospective research designs of acculturation are needed to examine changes in health behavior and overall adaptation across migrant groups at varying stages of development. PMID:25558310

  7. [Prospective study of the importance of constitutional parameters in the development of eczema in hairdressers and construction workers].

    PubMed

    Hornstein, O P; Bäurle, G; Kienlein-Kletschka, B

    1985-01-01

    The considerable rate of professional hand eczema in hairdressers, especially in young ones, emphasizes the necessity of practicable methods for early diagnosis of risk and manifestation of eczema. Therefore, we investigated different constitutional parameters of the skin (hyperhidrosis, dyshidrosis and acrocyanosis of the hands, seborrhea, sebostasis, white dermographism) in a prospective study of 210 hairdressers' and 95 bricklayers' apprentices over 3 years. In addition, the alkali resistance and the permeability of the horny layers (by nitrazine yellow) were examined every year in each of the probands. Among other results dyshidrosis and sebostasis proved to be statistically relevant in the development of hand eczema, whereas no statistic causality was seen for acrocyanosis and hyperhidrosis. Risk of eczema could not be diagnosed early by alcali resistance tests. Frequent wet-work and insufficient skin protection were further factors causing eczema, especially in atopic subjects. There was also a statistically relevant correlation between a periumbilical eczema (caused by metallic buttons on jeans), indicating allergy against nickel, and pierced earlobes. The results of this prospective study show that by simple clinical methods serious risks of eczema in hairdressers and bricklayers can be detected already in the first years of work. Several practical recommendations for prevention of occupational eczema in hairdressers are given.

  8. A novel treatment strategy of new onset atrial fibrillation after cardiac surgery: an observational prospective study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this prospective observational study was to evaluate the efficiency of a new escalating treatment strategy with vernakalant, flecainide and electrical cardioversion (EC) in patients with new onset atrial fibrillation (AF) after cardiac surgery. Material and methods 24 patients with new onset AF after aortic valve surgery, coronary artery bypass surgery or combined procedures were evaluated in this study. Additional including criteria were age between 18 and 80, duration of AF less than four days, body weight less than 100 kg and no previous treatment with class I or III antiarrhythmic drugs. Exclusion criteria were poor left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF < 40%) and history of myocardial infarction within 30 days. The patients were divided into converters and non-converters according to their response to combination treatment with vernakalant and flecainide, and the groups were compared. Results The mean age of the population was 69.6 ± 6.3 years and 26.1% of patients were female. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in terms of height, weight, gender distribution, comorbidities, preoperative medication, left ventricular function and left atrium diameter. Interventricular septum (IVS) in the non-converted group was significantly thicker compared to the converted group: 14.0 ± 1.00 vs. 10.40 ± 2.59 mm (p = 0.036). While 14 patients (60.9%) were successfully converted into stable sinus rhythm by pharmacological treatment with vernakalant and flecainide, 9 patients (39.1%, non-converted group) remained in AF. However, seven of them could be converted after additional EC. Conclusion The combination of vernakalant and flecainide improves the conversion rate into a stable sinus rhythm in postcardiotomy patients with new onset AF compared to single drug therapy. Furthermore it might be an excellent precondition for successful EC in patients who are not converted after using both

  9. Prospective care of heart failure in Japan: lessons from CHART studies.

    PubMed

    Shiba, Nobuyuki; Shimokawa, Hiroaki

    2011-12-01

    There are approximately 23 million patients with heart failure (HF) worldwide. The prognosis of patients with HF is still poor and a prospective approach for preventing and treating HF is necessary. The number of HF patients in Japan has been increasing since 1950 mainly because of a rapidly aging population. Furthermore, westernized dietary pattern, reduced physical activity, and obesity have become prominent, particularly in younger Japanese men. There is an increasing trend of diabetes and dyslipidemia, and the prevalence of smoking and hypertension continues to remain high. One of the largest HF cohorts in Japan, the CHART Studies, showed that coronary artery disease (CAD) was the most frequent etiology of HF currently. Thus, prospective strategies including accurate risk stratification, effective prevention of disease progression through evidence-based treatments, optimally personalized treatment particularly in elderly individuals, and life-long control of CAD risk factors are required to manage HF in Japan. PMID:23199179

  10. Cognitive coping strategies and stress in parents of children with Down syndrome: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    van der Veek, Shelley M C; Kraaij, Vivian; Garnefski, Nadia

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the cross-sectional and prospective relationships between cognitive coping strategies and parental stress in parents of children with Down syndrome. A total of 621 participants filled out questionnaires, including the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire to measure cognitive coping and the Nijmeegse Ouderlijke Stress Index-Korte Versie (A. J. L. L. De Brock, A. A. Vermulst, J. R. M. Gerris, & R. R. Abidin, 1992) to measure parental stress. After 8 months, stress was measured again. Cross-sectionally, using acceptance, rumination, positive refocusing, refocusing on planning, and catastrophizing to a greater extent was related to more stress, whereas using positive reappraisal more often was related to less stress. Prospectively, acceptance and catastrophizing were related to more stress, whereas positive reappraisal was related to less stress. Implications for future research and prevention and intervention activities are discussed.

  11. Antecedents of Intact Cognition and Dementia at Age 90: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Vaillant, George E.; Okereke, Olivia I; Mukamal, Kenneth; Waldinger, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine the possible antecedents of both dementia and sustained intact cognition at age 90 among men who underwent a prospective, multidisciplinary assessment from age 19 to 90, with little attrition. Methods A prospective 20-year reassessment of the 196 (out of 268) former Harvard College sophomores who survived until age 70. Begun in 1939 the Study gathered measurements of childhood environment, dominant personality traits, and objective mental and physical health over time, smoking in pack years, alcohol abuse and depression. Questionnaires were obtained every two years and physical exams every five years. Cognitive status was assessed at ages 80, 85 and 90. Results Despite addressing a wide variety health, behavioral and social factors over the lifespan, we observed few predictors with strong association with either intact cognition at age 90 (n = 40) or dementia (n = 44). Univariate analysis revealed seven suggestive predictors of intact cognition at age 90 or of dementia: warm childhood relationship with mother, exercise at age 60, high maternal education, young age of mother at subject’s birth, low BMI, good physical health at 60, and late retirement. Only the first 3 variables: warm childhood relationship with mother, exercise at age 60, and high maternal education remained significant with logistic regression. Conclusions In this prospective study of long-lived, highly educated men several well-known putative predictors of AD did not distinguish those who over the next 20 years developed dementia from those with unimpaired cognition until age 90. PMID:24733646

  12. Are Prospective Elementary School Teachers' Social Studies Teaching Efficacy Beliefs Related to Their Learning Approaches in a Social Studies Teaching Methods Course?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dündar, Sahin

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to contribute to the growing literature on learning approaches and teacher self-efficacy beliefs by examining associations between prospective elementary school teachers' learning approaches in a social studies teaching methods course and their social studies teaching efficacy beliefs. One hundred ninety-two prospective elementary…

  13. Etiology of mental retardation in children referred to a tertiary care center: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    van Karnebeek, Clara D M; Scheper, Frederike Y; Abeling, Nico G; Alders, Marielle; Barth, Peter G; Hoovers, Jan M N; Koevoets, Cindy; Wanders, Ronald J A; Hennekam, Raoul C M

    2005-07-01

    A prospective assessment following a step-wise protocol in 281 patients with unexplained cognitive delay was used to assess diagnostic possibilities. Diagnostic procedures were complex and required a multidisciplinary approach. One third of diagnoses was established based on clinical history and physical exam only; for another third, clinical history and physical exam provided essential clues for additional investigations; and a third were established by additional investigations only. The likelihood to reach a diagnosis did not depend on the severity of mental retardation. We found that in a tertiary care center, a diagnosis can be established in 1 out of every 2 patients. Clinical history and physical examination are the most important instruments to reach a diagnosis.

  14. Prospective study of the effects of ventilation tubes on hearing after radiotherapy for carcinoma of nasopharynx

    SciTech Connect

    Chowdhury, C.R.; Ho, J.H.; Wright, A.; Tsao, S.Y.; Au, G.K.; Tung, Y.

    1988-03-01

    In patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma, deafness sometimes occurs following radiotherapy. It is usually conductive, but may be sensorineural. Tinnitus is present frequently and usually is distressing. The role of ventilation tubes (grommets) in relieving these problems was assessed in a prospective randomized controlled trial of 115 patients. In the group with grommets, there was an improvement in hearing, with a reduction of the averaged air-bone gap (p less than .01). This was not found in the control group without ventilation tubes, who developed a larger conductive loss (p less than .01) and, in addition, a slight deterioration of the averaged bone conduction threshold (p less than .01). Surprisingly, the group with grommets did not develop this sensorineural loss (p less than .01). In addition, tinnitus was improved significantly by the insertion of ventilation tubes (p less than .01). Neither necrosis nor stenosis of the external auditory meatus was found in either group.

  15. Aetiology of community acquired pneumonia in Valencia, Spain: a multicentre prospective study.

    PubMed Central

    Blanquer, J; Blanquer, R; Borrás, R; Nauffal, D; Morales, P; Menéndez, R; Subías, I; Herrero, L; Redón, J; Pascual, J

    1991-01-01

    A year long multicentre prospective study was carried out in the Valencia region of Spain, to determine the cause of community acquired pneumonia. The study was based on 510 of 833 patients with pneumonia. Of these, 462 were admitted to hospital, where 31 patients died. A cause was established in only 281 cases--208 of bacterial, 60 of viral, and 13 of mixed infection. The most common microorganisms were Streptococcus pneumoniae (14.5%), Legionella sp (14%), Influenza virus (8%), and Mycoplasma pneumoniae (4%). There was a higher incidence of Legionella sp than in other studies. PMID:1908605

  16. A Prospective, Multicentered Study to Assess Social Adjustment in Patients With an Intestinal Stoma in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Karadağ, Ayişe; Karabulut, Hatice; Baykara, Zehra G; Harputlu, Deniz; Toyluk, Eylem; Ulusoy, Birgül; Karadağ, Sercan; Kahraman, Aysel; Hin, Aysel Ören; Altinsoy, Meral; Akıl, Yasemin; Leventoğlu, Sezai

    2015-10-01

    Patients with a stoma undergo physiological, psychological, and social adjustment to their new life situation. A descriptive, prospective study was conducted to assess adaptation among patients >18 years of age with a new temporary or permanent colostomy or ileostomy living in Turkey and receiving care at a participating stomatherapy unit. The study took place between September 1, 2011, and September 1, 2012. During hospitalization and following discharge, patients with a stoma received training and counseling according to their individual characteristics and their physiological, psychological, and social needs. Each participant completed the 19-item "Identification Form for Patients with a Stoma" at the beginning of the study to document sociodemographic and stoma characteristics. To assess adjustment to the stoma, The Ostomy Assessment Inventory (OAI-23) was administered 2 times - the first within 1 month and the second within 6 months after surgery or when a temporary stoma was closed (whichever came first). This instrument comprised 23 items regarding adaptation to the stoma using Likert-type response options (0-4 range). Total scores ranged from 10 to 92, with higher scores indicating better adjustment. The instruments were completed by stoma and wound care nurses during face-to-face interviews. Data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney, and Wilcoxon tests. Of the 135 participants, the majority (77, 57.0%) were male; 73 (54.1%) had a colostomy, and 106 (78.5%) had a temporary stoma. The primary reason for stoma creation was cancer (89, 65.9%). Mean total OAI-23 scores were 48.63 ± 13.75 at the first administration and 50.59 ± 13.89 for the second. In terms of sociodemographic factors, significant increases in mean scores from the first to the second survey time were noted among patients in the 50-69 age group, women, married persons, and unemployed persons (P less than 0.05). With regard to stoma characteristics, the OAI-23 scores of patients

  17. Efficacy and safety of moxifloxacin in community acquired pneumonia: a prospective, multicenter, observational study (CAPRIVI)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Community acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a major cause of morbidity, hospitalization, and mortality worldwide. Management of CAP for many patients requires rapid initiation of empirical antibiotic treatment, based on the spectrum of activity of available antimicrobial agents and evidence on local antibiotic resistance. Few data exist on the severity profile and treatment of hospitalized CAP patients in Eastern and Central Europe and the Middle East, in particular on use of moxifloxacin (Avelox®), which is approved in these regions. Methods CAPRIVI (Community Acquired Pneumonia: tReatment wIth AVelox® in hospItalized patients) was a prospective observational study in 12 countries: Croatia, France, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Jordan, Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Republic of Moldova, Romania, Russia, Ukraine, and Macedonia. Patients aged >18 years were treated with moxifloxacin 400 mg daily following hospitalization with a CAP diagnosis. In addition to efficacy and safety outcomes, data were collected on patient history and disease severity measured by CRB-65 score. Results 2733 patients were enrolled. A low severity index (i.e., CRB-65 score <2) was reported in 87.5% of CAP patients assessed (n = 1847), an unexpectedly high proportion for hospitalized patients. Moxifloxacin administered for a mean of 10.0 days (range: 2.0 to 39.0 days) was highly effective: 96.7% of patients in the efficacy population (n = 2152) improved and 93.2% were cured of infection during the study. Severity of infection changed from “moderate” or “severe” in 91.8% of patients at baseline to “no infection” or “mild” in 95.5% at last visit. In the safety population (n = 2595), 127 (4.9%) patients had treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) and 40 (1.54%) patients had serious TEAEs; none of these 40 patients died. The safety results were consistent with the known profile of moxifloxacin. Conclusions The efficacy and safety profiles of moxifloxacin at the recommended

  18. Predictive performance of telenursing complaints in influenza surveillance: a prospective cohort study in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Timpka, T; Spreco, A; Eriksson, O; Dahlström, Ö; Gursky, E A; Strömgren, M; Holm, E; Ekberg, J; Hinkula, J; Nyce, J M; Eriksson, H

    2014-01-01

    Syndromic data sources have been sought to improve the timely detection of increased influenza transmission. This study set out to examine the prospective performance of telenursing chief complaints in predicting influenza activity. Data from two influenza seasons (2007/08 and 2008/09) were collected in a Swedish county (population 427,000) to retrospectively determine which grouping of telenursing chief complaints had the largest correlation with influenza case rates. This grouping was prospectively evaluated in the three subsequent seasons. The best performing telenursing complaint grouping in the retrospective algorithm calibration was fever (child, adult) and syncope (r=0.66; p<0.001). In the prospective evaluation, the performance of 14-day predictions was acceptable for the part of the evaluation period including the 2009 influenza pandemic (area under the curve (AUC)=0.84; positive predictive value (PPV)=0.58), while it was strong (AUC=0.89; PPV=0.93) for the remaining evaluation period including only influenza winter seasons. We recommend the use of telenursing complaints for predicting winter influenza seasons. The method requires adjustments when used during pandemics. PMID:25425514

  19. A prospective study of adverse drug reactions to antiepileptic drugs in children

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Mark; Egunsola, Oluwaseun; Cherrill, Janine; Millward, Claire; Fakis, Apostolos; Choonara, Imti

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To prospectively determine the nature and rate of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in children on antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and to prospectively evaluate the effect of AEDs on behaviour. Setting A single centre prospective observational study. Participants Children (<18 years old) receiving one or more AEDs for epilepsy, at each clinically determined follow-up visit. Primary and secondary outcomes Primary outcome was adverse reactions of AEDs. Behavioural and cognitive functions were secondary outcomes. Results 180 children were recruited. Sodium valproate and carbamazepine were the most frequently used AEDs. A total of 114 ADRs were recorded in 56 of these children (31%). 135 children (75%) were on monotherapy. 27 of the 45 children (60%) on polytherapy had ADRs; while 29 (21%) of those on monotherapy had ADRs. The risk of ADRs was significantly lower in patients receiving monotherapy than polytherapy (RR: 0.61, 95% CI 0.47 to 0.79, p<0.0001). Behavioural problems and somnolence were the most common ADRs. 23 children had to discontinue their AED due to an ADR. Conclusions Behavioural problems and somnolence were the most common ADRs. Polytherapy significantly increases the likelihood of ADRs in children. Trail registration number EudraCT (2007-000565-37). PMID:26033949

  20. Pharmacovigilance study of Ayurvedic medicine in Ayurvedic Teaching Hospital: A prospective survey study

    PubMed Central

    Ajanal, Manjunath N.; Nayak, Shradda U.; Kadam, Avinash P.; Prasad, B. S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Though Ayurveda is practiced in the Indian subcontinent since centuries, there is a paucity of systematic documentation related to the occurrence of adverse drug reactions (ADR) and other issues regarding the safety of Ayurveda medicines. Aim: To monitor and analyze the pattern and frequency of ADR to Ayurvedic medicines in an Ayurvedic hospital setup. Materials and Methods: In this prospective study, ADR monitoring was done in KLE Ayurveda Secondary Care Hospital, Belgaum, Karnataka, India by spontaneous and intensive monitoring technique for a span of 1-year (June 2010 to May 2011). Data pertaining to patient demography, drug and reaction characteristics, organ system involved and reaction outcomes were collected and evaluated. The reaction severity and predisposing factors were also assessed. Results: In a span of one year, 84 adverse drug events were reported out of which 52 confirmed as ADR. The overall incidence of ADR in the patient population was 1.14%, out of which 23 (44.23%) were related to Panchakarma (detoxification process), 13 (25.00%) related to the herbal formulations and 06 (11.53%) were of Rasa Aushadhi (mineral or herbo-mineral formulations). The commonly affected organ systems were gastrointestinal system 24 (46.15%) and skin 15 (28.84%). The majority of the reactions were moderate 30 (57.69%) to mild 20 (38.46%) in severity. Most patients recovered from the incidence. Conclusion: The present work has documented the incidence and characteristic of ADR to Ayurvedic medicine in a typical Ayurveda hospital setup. This will help in developing various strategies for boosting pharmacovigilance in Ayurveda, thereby ensuring safer use of Ayurveda medicines. PMID:27011712

  1. The Netherlands study of depression in older persons (NESDO); a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background To study late-life depression and its unfavourable course and co morbidities in The Netherlands. Methods We designed the Netherlands Study of Depression in Older Persons (NESDO), a multi-site naturalistic prospective cohort study which makes it possible to examine the determinants, the course and the consequences of depressive disorders in older persons over a period of six years, and to compare these with those of depression earlier in adulthood. Results From 2007 until 2010, the NESDO consortium has recruited 510 depressed and non depressed older persons (≥ 60 years) at 5 locations throughout the Netherlands. Depressed persons were recruited from both mental health care institutes and general practices in order to include persons with late-life depression in various developmental and severity stages. Non-depressed persons were recruited from general practices. The baseline assessment included written questionnaires, interviews, a medical examination, cognitive tests and collection of blood and saliva samples. Information was gathered about mental health outcomes and demographic, psychosocial, biological, cognitive and genetic determinants. The baseline NESDO sample consists of 378 depressed (according to DSM-IV criteria) and 132 non-depressed persons aged 60 through 93 years. 95% had a major depression and 26.5% had dysthymia. Mean age of onset of the depressive disorder was around 49 year. For 33.1% of the depressed persons it was their first episode. 41.0% of the depressed persons had a co morbid anxiety disorder. Follow up assessments are currently going on with 6 monthly written questionnaires and face-to-face interviews after 2 and 6 years. Conclusions The NESDO sample offers the opportunity to study the neurobiological, psychosocial and physical determinants of depression and its long-term course in older persons. Since largely similar measures were used as in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA; age range 18-65 years), data

  2. Magnesium intake and risk of colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis of prospective studies.

    PubMed

    Chen, G-C; Pang, Z; Liu, Q-F

    2012-11-01

    Epidemiologic studies have suggested that magnesium intake may be associated with a decreased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), but the findings have been inconsistent. We aimed to assess this association by conducting a meta-analysis of prospective studies. We performed a literature search on PubMed database through July 2012 to identify prospective studies of magnesium intake in relation to CRC risk. Reference lists of the retrieved articles were also reviewed. A random-effects model was used to compute the summary risk estimates. Eight prospective studies containing 338,979 participants and 8000 CRC cases met the inclusion criteria. The summary relative risk (RR) for the highest vs lowest category of magnesium intake for CRC was 0.89 (95% CI, 0.79-1.00), with little evidence of heterogeneity. Restricting the analysis to six studies that have adjusted for calcium intake yielded a similar result. For colon and rectal cancer, the pooled RR was 0.81 (95% CI, 0.70-0.93) and 0.94 (95% CI, 0.72-1.24), respectively. In the dose-response analyses, the summary RRs for an increment of magnesium intake of 50 mg/day for colorectal, colon and rectal cancer were, respectively, 0.95 (95% CI, 0.89-1.00), 0.93 (95% CI, 0.88-0.99) and 0.93 (95% CI, 0.83-1.04), and there was some evidence of heterogeneity; omitting one study that substantially contributed to the heterogeneity yielded generally similar results, but with low heterogeneity. We detected no indication of publication bias. On the basis of the findings of this meta-analysis, a higher magnesium intake seems to be associated with a modest reduction in the risk of CRC, in particular, colon cancer.

  3. Anxiety symptoms, cerebral amyloid burden and memory decline in healthy older adults without dementia: 3-year prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Pietrzak, Robert H; Scott, J Cobb; Neumeister, Alexander; Lim, Yen Ying; Ames, David; Ellis, Kathryn A; Harrington, Karra; Lautenschlager, Nicola T; Szoeke, Cassandra; Martins, Ralph N; Masters, Colin L; Villemagne, Victor L; Rowe, Christopher C; Maruff, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Although beta-amyloid, anxiety and depression have linked cross-sectionally to reduced memory function in healthy older adults without dementia, prospective data evaluating these associations are lacking. Using data an observational cohort study of 178 healthy older adults without dementia followed for 3 years, we found that anxiety symptoms significantly moderated the relationship between beta-amyloid level and decline in verbal (Cohen's d = 0.65) and episodic (Cohen's d = 0.38) memory. Anxiety symptoms were additionally linked to greater decline in executive function, irrespective of beta-amyloid and other risk factors. These findings suggest that interventions to mitigate anxiety symptoms may help delay memory decline in otherwise healthy older adults with elevated beta-amyloid.

  4. Does the choice of outcome scale influence prognostic factors for lumbar disc surgery? A prospective, consecutive study of 121 patients.

    PubMed

    Woertgen, C; Holzschuh, M; Rothoerl, R D; Brawanski, A

    1997-01-01

    From January to June 1994, we operated conventionally on 121 consecutive hemiated lumbar disc patients as part of a prospective study. We analysed general data, case histories, neurological findings on admission and all data from imaging investigations and therapy. In addition, all patients received a questionnaire based on the Low Back Outcome Score. Most of the patients (93%) were followed-up for 1 year postoperatively in the same manner. On the Prolo Scale, we obtained a good result in 70%; 76% had a good Low Back Outcome Score. Predictive factors are different for different outcome scales. The preoperative duration of pain, the preoperative duration of paresis and smoking seem to be general predictive factors. PMID:9258635

  5. Characteristics of Abductive Inquiry in Earth and Space Science: An Undergraduate Teacher Prospective Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramalis, T. R.; Liliasari; Herdiwidjaya, D.

    2016-08-01

    The purpose this case study was to describe characteristic features learning activities in the domain of earth and space science. Context of this study is earth and space learning activities on three groups of student teachers prospective, respectively on the subject of the shape and size of Earth, land and sea breeze, and moon's orbit. The analysis is conducted qualitatively from activity data and analyze students doing project work, student worksheets, group project report documents, note and audio recordings of discussion. Research findings identified the type of abduction: theoretical models abduction, factual abduction, and law abduction during the learning process. Implications for science inquiry learning as well as relevant research were suggested.

  6. Psychological and social work factors as predictors of mental distress: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Finne, Live Bakke; Christensen, Jan Olav; Knardahl, Stein

    2014-01-01

    Studies exploring psychological and social work factors in relation to mental health problems (anxiety and depression) have mainly focused on a limited set of exposures. The current study investigated prospectively a broad set of specific psychological and social work factors as predictors of potentially clinically relevant mental distress (anxiety and depression), i.e. "caseness" level of distress. Employees were recruited from 48 Norwegian organizations, representing a wide variety of job types. A total of 3644 employees responded at both baseline and at follow-up two years later. Respondents were distributed across 832 departments within the 48 organizations. Nineteen work factors were measured. Two prospective designs were tested: (i) with baseline predictors and (ii) with average exposure over time ([T1+T2]/2) as predictors. Random intercept logistic regressions were conducted to account for clustering of the data. Baseline "cases" were excluded (n = 432). Age, sex, skill level, and mental distress as a continuous variable at T1 were adjusted for. Fourteen of 19 factors showed some prospective association with mental distress. The most consistent risk factor was role conflict (highest odds ratio [OR] 2.08, 99% confidence interval [CI]: 1.45-3.00). The most consistent protective factors were support from immediate superior (lowest OR 0.56, 99% CI: 0.43-0.72), fair leadership (lowest OR 0.52, 99% CI: 0.40-0.68), and positive challenge (lowest OR 0.60, 99% CI: 0.41-0.86). The present study demonstrated that a broad set of psychological and social work factors predicted mental distress of potential clinical relevance. Some of the most consistent predictors were different from those traditionally studied. This highlights the importance of expanding the range of factors beyond commonly studied concepts like the demand-control model and the effort-reward imbalance model. PMID:25048033

  7. Psychological and Social Work Factors as Predictors of Mental Distress: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Finne, Live Bakke; Christensen, Jan Olav; Knardahl, Stein

    2014-01-01

    Studies exploring psychological and social work factors in relation to mental health problems (anxiety and depression) have mainly focused on a limited set of exposures. The current study investigated prospectively a broad set of specific psychological and social work factors as predictors of potentially clinically relevant mental distress (anxiety and depression), i.e. “caseness” level of distress. Employees were recruited from 48 Norwegian organizations, representing a wide variety of job types. A total of 3644 employees responded at both baseline and at follow-up two years later. Respondents were distributed across 832 departments within the 48 organizations. Nineteen work factors were measured. Two prospective designs were tested: (i) with baseline predictors and (ii) with average exposure over time ([T1+T2]/2) as predictors. Random intercept logistic regressions were conducted to account for clustering of the data. Baseline “cases” were excluded (n = 432). Age, sex, skill level, and mental distress as a continuous variable at T1 were adjusted for. Fourteen of 19 factors showed some prospective association with mental distress. The most consistent risk factor was role conflict (highest odds ratio [OR] 2.08, 99% confidence interval [CI]: 1.45–3.00). The most consistent protective factors were support from immediate superior (lowest OR 0.56, 99% CI: 0.43–0.72), fair leadership (lowest OR 0.52, 99% CI: 0.40–0.68), and positive challenge (lowest OR 0.60, 99% CI: 0.41–0.86). The present study demonstrated that a broad set of psychological and social work factors predicted mental distress of potential clinical relevance. Some of the most consistent predictors were different from those traditionally studied. This highlights the importance of expanding the range of factors beyond commonly studied concepts like the demand-control model and the effort-reward imbalance model. PMID:25048033

  8. Serum Lipids and Breast Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Rong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Epidemiologic studies exploring causal associations between serum lipids and breast cancer risk have reported contradictory results. We conducted a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies to evaluate these associations. Methods Relevant studies were identified by searching PubMed and EMBASE through April 2015. We included prospective cohort studies that reported relative risk (RR) estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the associations of specific lipid components (i.e., total cholesterol [TC], high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C], low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C], and triglycerides [TG]) with breast cancer risk. Either a fixed- or a random-effects model was used to calculate pooled RRs. Results Fifteen prospective cohort studies involving 1,189,635 participants and 23,369 breast cancer cases were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled RRs of breast cancer for the highest versus lowest categories were 0.96 (95% CI: 0.86–1.07) for TC, 0.92 (95% CI: 0.73–1.16) for HDL-C, 0.90 (95% CI: 0.77–1.06) for LDL-C, and 0.93 (95% CI: 0.86–1.00) for TG. Notably, for HDL-C, a significant reduction of breast cancer risk was observed among postmenopausal women (RR = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.64–0.93) but not among premenopausal women. Similar trends of the associations were observed in the dose-response analysis. Conclusions Our findings suggest that serum levels of TG but not TC and LDL-C may be inversely associated with breast cancer risk. Serum HDL-C may also protect against breast carcinogenesis among postmenopausal women. PMID:26554382

  9. A Prospective Study of the Utility of Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Determining Candidacy for Partial Breast Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Dorn, Paige L.; Al-Hallaq, Hania A.; Haq, Farah; Goldberg, Mira; Abe, Hiroyuki; Hasan, Yasmin; Chmura, Steven J.

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: Retrospective data have demonstrated that breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may change a patient's eligibility for partial breast irradiation (PBI) by identifying multicentric, multifocal, or contralateral disease. The objective of the current study was to prospectively determine the frequency with which MRI identifies occult disease and to establish clinical factors associated with a higher likelihood of MRI prompting changes in PBI eligibility. Methods and Materials: At The University of Chicago, women with breast cancer uniformly undergo MRI in addition to mammography and ultrasonography. From June 2009 through May 2011, all patients were screened prospectively in a multidisciplinary conference for PBI eligibility based on standard imaging, and the impact of MRI on PBI eligibility according to National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project protocol B-39/Radiation Therapy Oncology Group protocol 0413 entry criteria was recorded. Univariable analysis was performed using clinical characteristics in both the prospective cohort and in a separate cohort of retrospectively identified patients. Pooled analysis was used to derive a scoring index predictive of the risk that MRI would identify additional disease. Results: A total of 521 patients were screened for PBI eligibility, and 124 (23.8%) patients were deemed eligible for PBI based on standard imaging. MRI findings changed PBI eligibility in 12.9% of patients. In the pooled univariable analysis, tumor size ≥2 cm on mammography or ultrasonography (P=.02), age <50 years (P=.01), invasive lobular histology (P=.01), and HER-2/neu amplification (P=.01) were associated with a higher likelihood of MRI changing PBI eligibility. A predictive score was generated by summing the number of significant risk factors. Patients with a score of 0, 1, 2, and 3 had changes to eligibility based on MRI findings in 2.8%, 13.2%, 38.1%, and 100%, respectively (P<.0001). Conclusions: MRI identified additional disease in

  10. Escitalopram in the treatment of patients with schizophrenia and obsessive-compulsive disorder: an open-label, prospective study.

    PubMed

    Stryjer, Rafael; Dambinsky, Yael; Timinsky, Igor; Green, Tamar; Kotler, Moshe; Weizman, Abraham; Spivak, Baruch

    2013-03-01

    The current data suggest that up to 50% of patients with schizophrenia have obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms coexisting with psychosis and between 7.8 and 46% of schizophrenia patients also have full-blown obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of the most selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor escitalopram in the management of OCD in schizophrenia patients. The study was an open-label prospective trial of 12 weeks' duration in which escitalopram at a dose of up to 20 mg/day was added to the existing antipsychotic drug regimen in schizophrenia patients with OCD. Fifteen patients (10 men/five women) with the diagnosis of schizophrenia and OCD were recruited for the study (mean age: 39±14, range 21-61 years) and received escitalopram according to the study design. A significant improvement was observed in the total Yale Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) scores and in the scores of both the Y-BOCS-Obsession and the Y-BOCS-Compulsion subscale at the end point. In addition, a significant improvement was observed in the total scores of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and particularly in scores of anxiety, tension, depression, and preoccupation items. No adverse effects of escitalopram were reported by patients during the trial. In our prospective 12-week open-label study, escitalopram 20 mg/day was well tolerated and improved OC symptoms in schizophrenia patients. Our preliminary results are encouraging and a double-blind randomized study is required to confirm our results.

  11. Probiotics in addition to antibiotics for the treatment of acute tonsillitis: a randomized, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Gilbey, P; Livshits, L; Sharabi-Nov, A; Avraham, Y; Miron, D

    2015-05-01

    Probiotics are live microorganisms which, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host. The probiotic Streptococcus salivarius has been shown to be effective in reducing the frequency of recurrent pharyngeal infections in children and adult populations. However, probiotics have not yet been evaluated in the treatment of acute pharyngotonsillitis in adults. We aimed to examine whether the addition of S. salivarius probiotics to the routine therapy of acute pharyngotonsillitis in adult patients may shorten disease duration and reduce symptom severity. This study was a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded study comparing treatment with probiotics to placebo in addition to antibiotics in patients who were hospitalized with severe pharyngotonsillitis. Laboratory results, pain levels, body temperature, and daily volume of fluids consumed were recorded for both groups. Sixty participants were recruited, 30 for each group. No statistically significant differences between the two groups were observed regarding any of the major clinical and laboratory parameters examined. Supplement probiotic treatment with S. salivarius in patients with acute pharyngotonsillitis treated with penicillin is ineffective in relation to the parameters examined in this study and we cannot, therefore, recommend the use of S. salivarius during active pharyngotonsillar infection treated with penicillin.

  12. Predictive factors of occupational noise-induced hearing loss in Spanish workers: A prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Pelegrin, Armando Carballo; Canuet, Leonides; Rodríguez, Ángeles Arias; Morales, Maria Pilar Arévalo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to identify the main factors associated with objective noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL), as indicated by abnormal audiometric testing, in Spanish workers exposed to occupational noise in the construction industry. We carried out a prospective study in Tenerife, Spain, using 150 employees exposed to occupational noise and 150 age-matched controls who were not working in noisy environments. The variables analyzed included sociodemographic data, noise-related factors, types of hearing protection, self-report hearing loss, and auditory-related symptoms (e.g., tinnitus, vertigo). Workers with pathological audiograms had significantly longer noise-exposure duration (16.2 ± 11.4 years) relative to those with normal audiograms (10.2 ± 7.0 years; t = 3.99, P < 0.001). The vast majority of those who never used hearing protection measures had audiometric abnormalities (94.1%). Additionally, workers using at least one of the protection devices (earplugs or earmuffs) had significantly more audiometric abnormalities than those using both protection measures simultaneously (Chi square = 16.07; P < 0.001). The logistic regression analysis indicates that the use of hearing protection measures [odds ratio (OR) = 12.30, confidence interval (CI) = 4.36-13.81, P < 0.001], and noise-exposure duration (OR = 1.35, CI = 1.08-1.99, P = 0.040) are significant predictors of NIHL. This regression model correctly predicted 78.2% of individuals with pathological audiograms. The combined use of hearing protection measures, in particular earplugs and earmuffs, associates with a lower rate of audiometric abnormalities in subjects with high occupational noise exposure. The use of hearing protection measures at work and noise-exposure duration are best predictive factors of NIHL. Auditory-related symptoms and self-report hearing loss do not represent good indicators of objective NIHL. Routine monitoring of noise levels and hearing status are of great importance as part

  13. Predictive factors of occupational noise-induced hearing loss in Spanish workers: A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Pelegrin, Armando Carballo; Canuet, Leonides; Rodríguez, Ángeles Arias; Morales, Maria Pilar Arévalo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to identify the main factors associated with objective noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL), as indicated by abnormal audiometric testing, in Spanish workers exposed to occupational noise in the construction industry. We carried out a prospective study in Tenerife, Spain, using 150 employees exposed to occupational noise and 150 age-matched controls who were not working in noisy environments. The variables analyzed included sociodemographic data, noise-related factors, types of hearing protection, self-report hearing loss, and auditory-related symptoms (e.g., tinnitus, vertigo). Workers with pathological audiograms had significantly longer noise-exposure duration (16.2 ± 11.4 years) relative to those with normal audiograms (10.2 ± 7.0 years; t = 3.99, P < 0.001). The vast majority of those who never used hearing protection measures had audiometric abnormalities (94.1%). Additionally, workers using at least one of the protection devices (earplugs or earmuffs) had significantly more audiometric abnormalities than those using both protection measures simultaneously (Chi square = 16.07; P < 0.001). The logistic regression analysis indicates that the use of hearing protection measures [odds ratio (OR) = 12.30, confidence interval (CI) = 4.36-13.81, P < 0.001], and noise-exposure duration (OR = 1.35, CI = 1.08-1.99, P = 0.040) are significant predictors of NIHL. This regression model correctly predicted 78.2% of individuals with pathological audiograms. The combined use of hearing protection measures, in particular earplugs and earmuffs, associates with a lower rate of audiometric abnormalities in subjects with high occupational noise exposure. The use of hearing protection measures at work and noise-exposure duration are best predictive factors of NIHL. Auditory-related symptoms and self-report hearing loss do not represent good indicators of objective NIHL. Routine monitoring of noise levels and hearing status are of great importance as part

  14. Inconvenience due to travelers' diarrhea: a prospective follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Limited data exist documenting the degree to which travelers are inconvenienced by travelers' diarrhea (TD). We performed a prospective follow-up study at the travel clinic of Leiden University Medical Center in The Netherlands to determine the degree of inconvenience and to determine how experiencing TD affects travelers' perception. Methods Healthy adults who intended to travel to the (sub)tropics for less than two months were invited to take part. Participants filled out a web-based questionnaire before departure and after returning home. TD was defined as three or more unformed stools during a 24-hour period. Results 390 of 776 Eligible travelers completed both questionnaires. Participants' median age was 31 years and mean travel duration 23 days. Of 160 travelers who contracted TD (incidence proportion 41%, median duration of TD episode 2.5 days) the majority (107/160, 67%) could conduct their activity program as planned despite having diarrhea. However, 21% (33/160) were forced to alter their program and an additional 13% (20/160) were confined to their accommodation for one or more daylight days; 53 travelers (33%) used loperamide and 14 (9%) an antibiotic. Eight travelers (5%) consulted a physician for the diarrheal illness. When asked about the degree of inconvenience brought on by the diarrheal illness, 39% categorized it as minor or none at all, 34% as moderate and 27% as large or severe. In those who regarded the episode of TD a major inconvenience, severity of symptoms was greater and use of treatment and necessity to alter the activity program were more common. Travelers who contracted travelers' diarrhea considered it less of a problem in retrospect than they had thought it would be before departure. Conclusion Conventional definitions of TD encompass many mild cases of TD (in our study at least a third of all cases) for which treatment is unlikely to provide a significant health benefit. By measuring the degree of inconvenience brought on

  15. Predictive factors of occupational noise-induced hearing loss in Spanish workers: A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Pelegrin, Armando Carballo; Canuet, Leonides; Rodríguez, Ángeles Arias; Morales, Maria Pilar Arévalo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to identify the main factors associated with objective noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL), as indicated by abnormal audiometric testing, in Spanish workers exposed to occupational noise in the construction industry. We carried out a prospective study in Tenerife, Spain, using 150 employees exposed to occupational noise and 150 age-matched controls who were not working in noisy environments. The variables analyzed included sociodemographic data, noise-related factors, types of hearing protection, self-report hearing loss, and auditory-related symptoms (e.g., tinnitus, vertigo). Workers with pathological audiograms had significantly longer noise-exposure duration (16.2 ± 11.4 years) relative to those with normal audiograms (10.2 ± 7.0 years; t = 3.99, P < 0.001). The vast majority of those who never used hearing protection measures had audiometric abnormalities (94.1%). Additionally, workers using at least one of the protection devices (earplugs or earmuffs) had significantly more audiometric abnormalities than those using both protection measures simultaneously (Chi square = 16.07; P < 0.001). The logistic regression analysis indicates that the use of hearing protection measures [odds ratio (OR) = 12.30, confidence interval (CI) = 4.36-13.81, P < 0.001], and noise-exposure duration (OR = 1.35, CI = 1.08-1.99, P = 0.040) are significant predictors of NIHL. This regression model correctly predicted 78.2% of individuals with pathological audiograms. The combined use of hearing protection measures, in particular earplugs and earmuffs, associates with a lower rate of audiometric abnormalities in subjects with high occupational noise exposure. The use of hearing protection measures at work and noise-exposure duration are best predictive factors of NIHL. Auditory-related symptoms and self-report hearing loss do not represent good indicators of objective NIHL. Routine monitoring of noise levels and hearing status are of great importance as part

  16. Height and Risk of Hip Fracture: A Meta-Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Zhihong; Ren, Dong; Feng, Wei; Chen, Yan; Kan, Wusheng

    2016-01-01

    The association between height and risk of hip fracture has been investigated in several studies, but the evidence is inconclusive. We therefore conducted this meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies to explore whether an association exists between height and risk of hip fracture. We searched PubMed and EMBASE, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library for studies of height and risk of hip fracture up to February 16, 2016. The random-effects model was used to combine results from individual studies. Seven prospective cohort studies, with 7,478 incident hip fracture cases and 907,913 participants, were included for analysis. The pooled relative risk (RR) was 1.65 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.26–2.16) comparing the highest with the lowest category of height. Result from dose-response analysis suggested a linear association between height and hip fracture risk (P-nonlinearity = 0.0378). The present evidence suggests that height is positively associated with increased risk of hip fracture. Further well-designed cohort studies are needed to confirm the present findings in other ethnicities.

  17. Coming home: A prospective study of family reintegration following deployment to a war zone.

    PubMed

    Balderrama-Durbin, Christina; Cigrang, Jeffrey A; Osborne, Laura J; Snyder, Douglas K; Talcott, G Wayne; Slep, Amy M Smith; Heyman, Richard E; Tatum, JoLyn; Baker, Monty; Cassidy, Daniel; Sonnek, Scott

    2015-08-01

    The consequences of deployment extend beyond the service member to impact the entire family. The current investigation evaluated the unique challenges of family reintegration for partnered service members using a prospective design. In total, 76 partnered service members who deployed on a year-long, high-risk mission to Iraq were assessed across the entirety of the deployment cycle, i.e., pre-, during, and postdeployment. At follow-up, nearly 1 in 5 partnered service members reported moderate to severe difficulties in multiple aspects of family reintegration. Prospective interpersonal indicators such as preparations for deployment as a couple, shared commitment to the military, and predeployment relationship distress predicted postdeployment family reintegration difficulties. Significant interpersonal risk factors were medium to large in their effect sizes. Airmen's willingness to disclose deployment- and combat-related experiences, and postdeployment relationship distress served as concurrent interpersonal correlates of difficulties with family reintegration. Intrapersonal factors, including posttraumatic stress symptoms and alcohol misuse were concurrently related to challenges with family reintegration; predeployment alcohol misuse also predicted subsequent family reintegration difficulties. Additional analyses indicated that pre- and postdeployment relationship distress, combat disclosure, and postdeployment alcohol misuse each contributed to family reintegration when controlling for other intra- and interpersonal risk factors. Implications for prevention and early intervention strategies as well as future research are discussed.

  18. A one-year prospective study of refractory status epilepticus in Modena, Italy.

    PubMed

    Giovannini, Giada; Monti, Giulia; Polisi, Michela M; Mirandola, Laura; Marudi, Andrea; Pinelli, Giovanni; Valzania, Franco; Girardis, Massimo; Nichelli, Paolo F; Meletti, Stefano

    2015-08-01

    Refractory status epilepticus (RSE) is a particular critical condition characterized by seizures that continue despite the use of first- and second-line therapies and by high mortality. To date, only one prospective study investigated clinical features and prognostic factors in RSE. In this study, we performed a one-year prospective survey to identify clinical features, outcomes, and variables associated with the development of RSE in the adolescent and adult population of Modena, northern Italy. We observed 83 episodes of SE in 83 patients. In 31% of the cases, third-line therapy (anesthetic drug) was needed. Among this group, 14% resolved and were classified as RSE, while, in 17%, seizures recurred at withdrawal of anesthetics and were classified as super-RSE. The development of RSE/super-RSE was associated with a stuporous/comatose state at presentation and with the absence of a previous history of epilepsy. Refractory status epilepticus/super-refractory status epilepticus showed a worse outcome compared with responsive SE: 54% versus 21% for 30-day mortality; 19% versus 56% for a return to baseline condition. This prospective study confirms stupor/coma at onset as a relevant clinical factor associated with SE refractoriness. We observed a rate of RSE comparable with previous reports, with high mortality and morbidity. Mortality in the observed RSE was higher than in previous studies; this result is probably related to the low rate of a previous epilepsy history in our population that reflects a high incidence of acute symptomatic etiologies, especially the inclusion of patients with postanoxic SE who have a bad prognosis per se. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Status Epilepticus".

  19. The Study of the Prevention of Anal Cancer (SPANC): design and methods of a three-year prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated anal cancer is increasing in men who have sex with men (MSM). Screening for the presumed cancer precursor, high-grade anal squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) in a manner analogous to cervical cancer screening has been proposed. Uncertainty remains regarding anal HPV natural history and the role of anal cytology and high-resolution anoscopy (HRA) as screening tests. Well-designed cohort studies are required to address these issues. Methods/design The SPANC study is a prospective study of the epidemiology of low-risk and high-risk anal HPV infection and related cytological and histological abnormalities in HIV-negative and HIV-positive homosexual men aged 35 years and over. The study aims to recruit 600 men from community-based settings in Sydney, Australia. There are six study visits over three years. At the first five visits men undergo a digital ano-rectal examination (DARE), an anal “Papanicolaou” (Pap) test for HPV detection, genotyping and anal cytology, followed by HRA and directed biopsy of any visible abnormalities. The men also complete a behavioural questionnaire before each visit. Questions include a detailed history of sexual behaviour, of anal symptoms, possible anal cancer risk factors and validated quality of life and psychosocial questions. Questionnaires are also completed 2 weeks and 3 months following the provision of test results and include questions on participant experience during the procedure and post-procedure symptoms, including pain and bleeding in addition to quality of life/ psychosocial outcomes. Discussion Recruitment for the study began in September 2010 and will conclude in mid-2015, with follow up continuing to 2018. Thus far, over 350 men have been recruited from a variety of community-based settings and are broadly representative of the target screening population. The SPANC study is one of only a small number of cohort studies globally to perform HPV

  20. Study of wood plastic composite in the presence of nitrogen containing additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, K. M. Idriss; Khan, Mubarak A.; Husain, M. M.

    1994-10-01

    Effect of nitrogen-containing additives in the study of wood plastic composites of MMA with simul and mango wood of Bangladesh has been investigated. Nine different additives were used and the additives containing carboamide group induce the highest tensile strength to the composite.

  1. Dietary fiber intake and risk of type 2 diabetes: a dose-response analysis of prospective studies.

    PubMed

    Yao, Baodong; Fang, Hong; Xu, Wanghong; Yan, Yujie; Xu, Huilin; Liu, Yinan; Mo, Miao; Zhang, Hua; Zhao, Yanping

    2014-02-01

    Observational studies suggest an association between dietary fiber intake and risk of type 2 diabetes, but the results are inconclusive. We conducted a meta-analysis of prospective studies evaluating the associations of dietary fiber intake and risk of type 2 diabetes. Relevant studies were identified by searching EMBASE (from 1974 to April 2013) and PubMed (from 1966 to April 2013). The fixed or random-effect model was selected based on the homogeneity test among studies. In addition, a 2-stage random-effects dose-response meta-analysis was performed. We identified 17 prospective cohort studies of dietary fiber intake and risk of type 2 diabetes involving 19,033 cases and 488,293 participants. The combined RR (95 % CI) of type 2 diabetes for intake of total dietary fiber, cereal fiber, fruit fiber and insoluble fiber was 0.81 (0.73-0.90), 0.77 (0.69-0.85), 0.94 (0.88-0.99) and 0.75 (0.63-0.89), respectively. A nonlinear relationship was found of total dietary fiber intake with risk of type 2 diabetes (P for nonlinearity < 0.01), and the RRs (95 % CI) of type 2 diabetes were 0.98 (0.90-1.06), 0.97 (0.87-1.07), 0.89 (0.80-0.99), 0.76 (0.65-0.88), and 0.66 (0.53-0.82) for 15, 20, 25, 30, and 35 g/day. The departure from nonlinear relationship was not significant (P for nonlinearity = 0.72), and the risk of type 2 diabetes decreased by 6 % (RR 0.94, 95 % CI 0.93-0.96) for 2 g/day increment in cereal fiber intake. Findings from this meta-analysis indicate that the intakes of dietary fiber may be inversely associated with risk of type 2 diabetes.

  2. Comparative Study for Efficacy and Safety of Adenoidectomy according to the Surgical Method: A Prospective Multicenter Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Woo Hyun; Kim, Dong-Kyu; Kim, Sung Wan; Kim, Young Hyo; Nam, Jung Gwon; Park, Seok-Won; Park, Chan-Soon; Bae, Woo Yong; Yeo, Nam-Kyung; Won, Tae-Bin; Lee, Seung Hoon; Lee, Tae-Hoon; Lee, Hyoung Joo; Kim, Sang-Wook; Jeong, Sung-Wook; Choi, Jeong-Seok; Han, Doo Hee; Choi, Ji Ho

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objective There have been several operative techniques for adenoidectomy and their efficacy and morbidity are different according to the technique. This prospective multicenter study was aimed to compare the efficacy and morbidity of coblation adenoidectomy (CA) with those of power-assisted adenoidectomy. Study Design Prospective multi-institutional study. Methods Children who underwent CA, power-assisted adenoidectomy with cauterization (PAA+C) or without cauterization (PAA-C) due to adenoid hypertrophy were enrolled from 13 hospitals between July 2013 and June 2014. Mean operation time, degree of intraoperative bleeding and postoperative bleeding rate were evaluated. Results A total of 388 children (mean age ± standard deviation = 6.6 ± 2.5 years; 245 males and 143 females) were included. According to the adenoidectomy technique, the children were classified into 3 groups: (1) CA (n = 116); (2) PAA+C (n = 153); and (3) PAA-C (n = 119). Significant differences were not found in age and sex among three groups. In the CA group, mean operation time was significantly shorter (P < 0.001) and degree of intraoperative bleeding was significantly less (P < 0.001) compared to PAA+C or PAA-C group. Delayed postoperative bleeding rate of PAA-C group was significantly higher than that of CA or PAA+C group (P = 0.016). Conclusions This prospective multicenter study showed that CA was superior to PAA in terms of mean operation time and degree of intraoperative bleeding. PMID:26267337

  3. Early detection of autism spectrum disorders: From retrospective home video studies to prospective 'high risk' sibling studies.

    PubMed

    Costanzo, Valeria; Chericoni, Natasha; Amendola, Filomena Alessandra; Casula, Laura; Muratori, Filippo; Scattoni, Maria Luisa; Apicella, Fabio

    2015-08-01

    In the autism spectrum disorders (ASD) field of research there is scientific consensus on the importance of early identification (and subsequently, of timely treatment) for a better prognosis. For this reason, early diagnosis represents a common challenge for clinicians and an area of great interest for researchers. In the past decades, many studies have focused on identifying subclinical signs of ASD with different types of experimental designs and methods, both retrospectively and prospectively. The purpose of this narrative review is to present changes in methodology, from a historical point of view, highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of different research designs. Conclusions are drawn taking into account potentialities of prospective designs for the study of early predictors of ASD.

  4. Predicting mortality with biomarkers: a population-based prospective cohort study for elderly Costa Ricans

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Little is known about adult health and mortality relationships outside high-income nations, partly because few datasets have contained biomarker data in representative populations. Our objective is to determine the prognostic value of biomarkers with respect to total and cardiovascular mortality in an elderly population of a middle-income country, as well as the extent to which they mediate the effects of age and sex on mortality. Methods This is a prospective population-based study in a nationally representative sample of elderly Costa Ricans. Baseline interviews occurred mostly in 2005 and mortality follow-up went through December 2010. Sample size after excluding observations with missing values: 2,313 individuals and 564 deaths. Main outcome: prospective death rate ratios for 22 baseline biomarkers, which were estimated with hazard regression models. Results Biomarkers significantly predict future death above and beyond demographic and self-reported health conditions. The studied biomarkers account for almost half of the effect of age on mortality. However, the sex gap in mortality became several times wider after controlling for biomarkers. The most powerful predictors were simple physical tests: handgrip strength, pulmonary peak flow, and walking speed. Three blood tests also predicted prospective mortality: C-reactive protein (CRP), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS). Strikingly, high blood pressure (BP) and high total cholesterol showed little or no predictive power. Anthropometric measures also failed to show significant mortality effects. Conclusions This study adds to the growing evidence that blood markers for CRP, HbA1c, and DHEAS, along with organ-specific functional reserve indicators (handgrip, walking speed, and pulmonary peak flow), are valuable tools for identifying vulnerable elderly. The results also highlight the need to better understand an anomaly noted previously in other settings: despite the

  5. Mineral resources of the Sheep Mountain Wilderness study area and the Cucamonga Wilderness and additions, Los Angeles and San Bernardino counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, James G.; Pankraatz, Leroy; Ridenour, James; Schmauch, Steven W.; Zilka, Nicholas T.

    1977-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Sheep Mountain Wilderness study area and Cucamonga Wilderness area and additions by the U.S. Geological Survey and Bureau of Mines in 1975 covered about 66,500 acres (26,500 ha) of the San Bernardino and Angeles National Forests in southern California. The two study areas are separated by San Antonio Canyon. The mineral resource potential was evaluated through geological, geochemical, and geophysical studies by the Geological Survey and through evaluation of mines and prospects by the Bureau of Mines.

  6. Stress responses after pediatric bone marrow transplantation: preliminary results of a prospective longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Stuber, M L; Nader, K; Yasuda, P; Pynoos, R S; Cohen, S

    1991-11-01

    This paper reports the preliminary findings of a longitudinal prospective study of young children undergoing bone marrow transplantation. Symptoms of post-traumatic stress were seen in these children up to 12 months after transplant. The bone marrow transplantation survivors demonstrated more denial and avoidance and fewer arousal symptoms than has been noted in children traumatized by a violent life threat, such as a sniper attack. These data suggest the use of post-traumatic stress as a model in understanding some of the symptoms of pediatric bone marrow transplantation survivors and may be applicable to other children exposed to the double life threat of serious illness and intensive medical intervention.

  7. Tuberculosis treatment outcomes and socio-economic status: a prospective study in Duque de Caxias, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Belo, M T C T; Luiz, R R; Teixeira, E G; Hanson, C; Trajman, A

    2011-07-01

    A prospective study was conducted to evaluate tuberculosis treatment outcomes according to socio-economic status (SES) using different classification criteria. Patients aged ≥18 years under treatment for ≤8 weeks were interviewed. Outcomes were classified as successful (cure/completed) or unsuccessful (default/failure/death). The overall treatment default ratio was 20.9% and the unsuccessful outcome rate was 24.1%. Unsuccessful treatment was associated with SES according to any criteria used, except for the definition of poverty line. Poverty seems to be hampering the achievement of the World Health Organization targeted 90% cure rate in developing settings.

  8. Medial tibial pain. A prospective study of its cause among military recruits.

    PubMed

    Milgrom, C; Giladi, M; Stein, M; Kashtan, H; Margulies, J; Chisin, R; Steinberg, R; Swissa, A; Aharonson, Z

    1986-12-01

    In a prospective study of 295 infantry recruits during 14 weeks of basic training, 41% had medial tibial pain. Routine scintigraphic evaluation in cases of medial tibial bone pain showed that 63% had abnormalities. A stress fracture was found in 46%. Only two patients had periostitis. None had ischemic medial compartment syndrome. Physical examination could not differentiate between cases with medial tibial bone pain secondary to stress fractures and those with scintigraphically normal tibias. When both pain and swelling were localized in the middle one-third of the tibia, the lesion most likely proved to be a stress fracture.

  9. The relationship between depression and body dissatisfaction across pregnancy and the postpartum: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Clark, Abigail; Skouteris, Helen; Wertheim, Eleanor H; Paxton, Susan J; Milgrom, Jeannette

    2009-01-01

    The overall aim of this study was to examine the relationship between depression and body dissatisfaction across pregnancy and the first 12 months postpartum. During pregnancy, women's (N = 116) perceived attractiveness and strength/fitness remained stable, while feeling fat and salience of weight/shape decreased in late pregnancy. During the postpartum, feeling fat and salience of weight/shape increased. Depression and body dissatisfaction scores were correlated with each other concurrently and across multiple time points. However, in baseline-controlled prospective analyses, only a model of greater depression late in pregnancy predicting body dissatisfaction at six weeks postpartum and feeling fat throughout the postpartum was supported. PMID:19129334

  10. Medication cost reduction in children on the ketogenic diet: data from a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, D L; Pyzik, P L; Vining, E P; Freeman, J M

    1999-07-01

    In a prospective study of the efficacy of the ketogenic diet in children with severe, refractory epilepsy, data were collected on medication changes over 1 year. Cost reductions in medications were calculated over the first year and estimated for a second year. Fifty-seven percent of the children stayed on the diet for 1 year, and 74% of these children had their number of medications reduced. Forty-eight percent of children who stayed on the diet were on no medications at 12 months follow-up. Daily medication costs were reduced by nearly 70%.

  11. Prevention of overuse injuries of the foot by improved shoe shock attenuation. A randomized prospective study.

    PubMed

    Milgrom, C; Finestone, A; Shlamkovitch, N; Wosk, J; Laor, A; Voloshin, A; Eldad, A

    1992-08-01

    In a randomized prospective study among 390 recruits, the hypothesis that improved shoe shock attenuation could lessen the incidence of overuse injuries was tested. During the 14 weeks of training, 90% of the recruits sustained overuse injuries. Recruits training in a modified basketball shoe had a statistically significant lower incidence of metatarsal stress fractures and foot overuse injuries, compared with standard infantry boots, but their overall incidence of overuse injuries was not reduced. The effect of improved shoe shock attenuation was limited to those overuse injuries resulting from vertical impact loads.

  12. Motivational and control mechanisms underlying adolescent cannabis use disorders: A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Cousijn, Janna; van Benthem, Patty; van der Schee, Evelien; Spijkerman, Renske

    2015-12-01

    Cannabis use disorders (CUDs) are the most prevalent substance use disorders among adolescents in treatment. Yet, little is known about the neuropsychological mechanisms underlying adolescent CUDs. Studies in adult cannabis users suggest a significant role for cognitive control and cannabis-oriented motivational processes, such as attentional bias, approach bias, and craving in CUDs. The current 6-month prospective study investigated the relationships between attentional bias, approach bias, craving, cognitive control, and cannabis use in adolescent patients in treatment for a primary or secondary CUD. Moreover, we investigated if these motivational processes and cognitive control could predict treatment progression after 6 months. Adolescents with a CUD had an attentional but no approach bias towards cannabis. In contrast to adult findings on the role of attentional bias, approach bias and cognitive control, only cannabis craving significantly correlated with current cannabis use and predicted cannabis use-related problems and abstinence from cannabis 6 months later. These findings identify craving as a predictor of treatment outcome, thereby supporting an important role for craving in the course of adolescent cannabis use and dependence. This prospective study is among the first to investigate neuropsychological mechanisms underlying adolescent CUDs, warranting future longitudinal studies.

  13. Passive smoke exposure and risk of diabetes: a meta-analysis of prospective studies.

    PubMed

    Sun, Kan; Liu, Dan; Wang, Chuan; Ren, Men; Yang, Chuan; Yan, Li

    2014-11-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that passive smoke exposure is related to the development of diabetes. However, data on this issue are controversial. We conducted a meta-analysis to provide a quantitative assessment of the association between passive smoking and the risk of diabetes. We searched the Medline and Embase databases up to October 2013 to identify prospective cohort studies related to passive smoke exposure and incident diabetes. Summary effect estimates with 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were derived using a fixed or random effects model, depending on the heterogeneity of the included studies. Six prospective studies that span three continents involving 154,406 participants (ages 18-74) with 7,116 new diabetes cases were included in the meta-analysis. On the basis of the Newcastle Ottawa Scale system, five studies were identified as relatively high-quality. In our primary analysis, compared to never smokers without passive smoke exposure, never smokers reporting passive smoke exposure was associated with increased risk of diabetes (pooled relative risk 1.21, 95 % CI 1.07-1.38). Such association persisted in the dose-response analysis. No indications of significant heterogeneity and publication bias were detected. Estimates of total effects were generally consistent in the sensitivity and subgroup analyses. Findings of the present meta-analysis suggest that passive smoke exposure is independently associated with the risk of diabetes. The conclusion may have a far-reaching significance for public health in countries of high smoking intensity and high incident diabetes.

  14. Passive Smoking and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: A Meta-Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yu-jian; Deng, Xuan; He, Qi-qiang

    2013-01-01

    Backgrounds/Objective The prevalence of diabetes is increasing rapidly all over the world. However, studies on passive smoking and type 2 diabetes have not been systematically assessed. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to explore whether an association exists between passive smoking and risk of type 2 diabetes. Methods We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane library and Web of Science up to April 9th, 2013, to identify prospective cohort studies that assessed passive smoking and risk of type 2 diabetes. The fixed-effect model was used to calculate the overall relative risk (RR). Result 4 prospective cohort studies were included for analysis, with a total of 112,351 participants involved. The pooled RR was 1.28 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.14 to 1.44) comparing those who were exposed to passive smoking with those who were not. Subgroup, sensitivity analysis and publication bias test suggested the overall result of this analysis was robust. Conclusions Passive smoking is associated with a significantly increased risk of type 2 diabetes. Further well-designed studies are warranted to confirm this association. PMID:23922856

  15. PEDIATRIC DELIRIUM AND ASSOCIATED RISK FACTORS: A SINGLE-CENTER PROSPECTIVE OBSERVATIONAL STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Gerber, Linda M.; Sun, Xuming; Kearney, Julia; Patel, Anita; Greenwald, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe a single-institution pilot study regarding prevalence and risk factors for delirium in critically ill children. Design A prospective observational study, with secondary analysis of data collected during the validation of a pediatric delirium screening tool, the Cornell Assessment of Pediatric Delirium (CAPD). Setting This study took place in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) at an urban academic medical center. Patients 99 consecutive patients, ages newborn to 21 years. Intervention Subjects underwent a psychiatric evaluation for delirium based on the DSM-IV criteria. Measurements and Main Results Prevalence of delirium in this sample was 21%. In multivariate analysis, risk factors associated with the diagnosis of delirium were presence of developmental delay, need for mechanical ventilation, and age 2-5 years. Conclusions In our institution, pediatric delirium is a prevalent problem, with identifiable risk factors. Further large-scale prospective studies are required to explore multi-institutional prevalence, modifiable risk factors, therapeutic interventions, and effect on long-term outcomes. PMID:25647240

  16. Workplace Exercise for Control of Occupational Neck/Shoulder Disorders: A Review of Prospective Studies

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Brian D; Dick, Robert B

    2014-01-01

    A review was conducted of prospective studies (1997–2014) examining the efficacy of exercise as a workplace intervention to control neck/shoulder pain, symptoms, and disability. The review identified 38 relevant studies – 20 were classified with positive effects, 13 with null effects, and 5 as inconclusive. Of the positive studies, 12 were consistent with Level I evidence, 3 with Level II evidence, and 5 with Level IV evidence. Specific resistance training (SRT) exercise appeared to be associated with more positive studies (eight Level I studies) than other exercise modalities such as general resistance training, general physical exercise, stretching, and movement awareness exercises. Studies of longer trial duration tended toward more null findings and lower program compliance. Evidence for a primary preventive effect of workplace exercise is minimal. The findings of this review suggest that workplace exercise can be effective as tertiary prevention and therapeutic relief of neck/shoulder symptoms, at least over the shorter term. PMID:25780338

  17. The German MultiCare-study: Patterns of multimorbidity in primary health care – protocol of a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Multimorbidity is a highly frequent condition in older people, but well designed longitudinal studies on the impact of multimorbidity on patients and the health care system have been remarkably scarce in numbers until today. Little is known about the long term impact of multimorbidity on the patients' life expectancy, functional status and quality of life as well as health care utilization over time. As a consequence, there is little help for GPs in adjusting care for these patients, even though studies suggest that adhering to present clinical practice guidelines in the care of patients with multimorbidity may have adverse effects. Methods/Design The study is designed as a multicentre prospective, observational cohort study of 3.050 patients aged 65 to 85 at baseline with at least three different diagnoses out of a list of 29 illnesses and syndromes. The patients will be recruited in approx. 120 to 150 GP surgeries in 8 study centres distributed across Germany. Information about the patients' morbidity will be collected mainly in GP interviews and from chart reviews. Functional status, resources/risk factors, health care utilization and additional morbidity data will be assessed in patient interviews, in which a multitude of well established standardized questionnaires and tests will be performed. Discussion The main aim of the cohort study is to monitor the course of the illness process and to analyse for which reasons medical conditions are stable, deteriorating or only temporarily present. First, clusters of combinations of diseases/disorders (multimorbidity patterns) with a comparable impact (e.g. on quality of life and/or functional status) will be identified. Then the development of these clusters over time will be analysed, especially with regard to prognostic variables and the somatic, psychological and social consequences as well as the utilization of health care resources. The results will allow the development of an instrument for prediction

  18. Active and passive smoking in relation to lung cancer incidence in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study prospective cohort†

    PubMed Central

    Wang, A.; Kubo, J.; Luo, J.; Desai, M.; Hedlin, H.; Henderson, M.; Chlebowski, R.; Tindle, H.; Chen, C.; Gomez, S.; Manson, J. E.; Schwartz, A. G.; Wactawski-Wende, J.; Cote, M.; Patel, M. I.; Stefanick, M. L.; Wakelee, H. A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Lung cancer is the leading cause of worldwide cancer deaths. While smoking is its leading risk factor, few prospective cohort studies have reported on the association of lung cancer with both active and passive smoking. This study aimed to determine the relationship between lung cancer incidence with both active and passive smoking (childhood, adult at home, and at work). Patients and methods The Women's Health Initiative Observational Study (WHI-OS) was a prospective cohort study conducted at 40 US centers that enrolled postmenopausal women from 1993 to 1999. Among 93 676 multiethnic participants aged 50–79, 76 304 women with complete smoking and covariate data comprised the analytic cohort. Lung cancer incidence was calculated by Cox proportional hazards models, stratified by smoking status. Results Over 10.5 mean follow-up years, 901 lung cancer cases were identified. Compared with never smokers (NS), lung cancer incidence was much higher in current [hazard ratio (HR) 13.44, 95% confidence interval (CI) 10.80–16.75] and former smokers (FS; HR 4.20, 95% CI 3.48–5.08) in a dose-dependent manner. Current and FS had significantly increased risk for all lung cancer subtypes, particularly small-cell and squamous cell carcinoma. Among NS, any passive smoking exposure did not significantly increase lung cancer risk (HR 0.88, 95% CI 0.52–1.49). However, risk tended to be increased in NS with adult home passive smoking exposure ≥30 years, compared with NS with no adult home exposure (HR 1.61, 95% CI 1.00–2.58). Conclusions In this prospective cohort of postmenopausal women, active smoking significantly increased risk of all lung cancer subtypes; current smokers had significantly increased risk compared with FS. Among NS, prolonged passive adult home exposure tended to increase lung cancer risk. These data support continued need for smoking prevention and cessation interventions, passive smoking research, and further study of lung cancer risk factors

  19. Prospective, randomized, single blinded pilot study of a new FlatWire based sternal closure system

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Unstable steel wire cerclage following open heart surgery may result in increased pain, sternal cut-through, non-union, or dehiscence. These complications lead to longer hospital stays, increased cost, higher morbidity, and patient dissatisfaction. The Figure 8 FlatWire Sternal Closure System is a new construct which is a simple, intuitive, and inexpensive alternative for primary sternal repair following open heart surgery. Prior bench-top testing of FlatWire has demonstrated superior strength and stiffness compared to traditional steel wire. We present our initial experience in a prospective, randomized, single blinded pilot study utilizing this FDA approved system. Methods Sixty-three patients undergoing elective complete sternotomies at a single institution were randomly assigned to receive either the Figure 8 FlatWire or standard steel wire cerclage. All surgeries were performed by a single board certified cardiothoracic surgeon. Data collected included: Age, BMI, pump time, off pump to surgical stop time, length of hospital stay after surgery, cost from time of surgery to discharge, and pain on a visual analog pain scale on the day of discharge, day 30, and day 60. Results The groups were well matched. Patients receiving the Figure 8 FlatWire (33) had a reduction in length of stay compared to patients receiving steel wire circlage (30), but it was not statistically significant (6.8 vs. 7.8 days respectively, p < 0.093). Additionally those with the FlatWire reported significantly decreased pain at day of discharge (3.07 vs. 4.92 points on pain scale, p < 0.0066), with similar pain scores at 30 and 60 days. Off pump to surgery stop time was increased by 15.9 minutes in patients receiving the FlatWire vs. steel wires (55.7 vs. 71.6 minutes, p = 0.00025). Mean cost from surgery until discharge was $87,820.98 in the FlatWire group vs. $91,930.29 in the steel wire group (p < 0.3082). Conclusion Early clinical results suggest that

  20. Soluble CD73 in Critically Ill Septic Patients – Data from the Prospective FINNAKI Study

    PubMed Central

    Vaara, Suvi T.; Hollmén, Maija; Korhonen, Anna-Maija; Maksimow, Mikael; Ala-Kokko, Tero; Salmi, Marko; Jalkanen, Sirpa; Pettilä, Ville

    2016-01-01

    Background CD73 dephosphorylates adenosine monophosphate to adenosine that is an anti-inflammatory molecule inhibiting immune activation and vascular leakage. Therefore, CD73 could be an interesting mediator both in sepsis and acute kidney injury (AKI). We aimed to explore the soluble CD73 (sCD73) levels and their evolution in critically ill patients with severe sepsis and, second, to scrutinize the potential association of sCD73 levels with AKI and 90-day mortality. Methods This was a post-hoc laboratory analysis of the prospective, observational FINNAKI study conducted in 17 Finnish ICU during 5 months in 2011–2012. Plasma samples of 588 patients admitted with severe sepsis/shock or with developing severe sepsis were analyzed at 0h (ICU admission) and 24h, and additionally, on day 3 or day 5 from a subset of the patients. Results The median [IQR] sCD73 levels at 0h were 5.11 [3.29–8.28] ng/mL and they decreased significantly from 0h to 4.14 [2.88–7.11] ng/mL at 24h, P<0.001. From 24h to Day 3 (n = 132) the sCD73 levels rose to 5.18 [2.98–8.83] ng/mL (P = 0.373) and from 24h to Day 5 (n = 224) to 5.52 [3.57–8.90] ng/mL (P<0.001). Patients with AKI had higher sCD73 values at 0h and at 24h compared to those without AKI. Non-survivors with severe sepsis, but not with septic shock, had higher CD73 levels at each time-point compared to survivors. After multivariable adjustments, sCD73 levels at 0h associated independently neither with the development of AKI nor 90-day mortality. Conclusions Compared to normal population, the sCD73 levels were generally low at 0h, showed a decrease to 24h, and later an increase by day 5. The sCD73 levels do not seem useful in predicting the development of AKI or 90-day mortality among patients with severe sepsis or shock. PMID:27732656

  1. Does pre-pregnancy BMI determine blood pressure during pregnancy? A prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Zuithoff, Peter; Browne, Joyce L; Amelia, Dwirani; Baharuddin, Mohammad; Grobbee, Diederick E; Uiterwaal, Cuno S P M

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate if pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) determines blood pressure throughout pregnancy and to explore the role of gestational weight gain in this association. In addition, the effects of pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain on the occurrence of gestational hypertension and pre-eclampsia were investigated. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Maternal and child health primary care referral centre, Jakarta, Indonesia. Population and measurements 2252 pregnant women visiting Budi Kemuliaan Hospital and its branch for regular antenatal care visits from July 2012 to April 2015. Pre-pregnancy BMI (kg/m2) was based on self-reported pre-pregnancy weight and measured height at first visit. Gestational weight gain was calculated as weight at the day of delivery minus the pre-pregnancy weight. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured during pregnancy at every visit. Linear mixed models were used to analyse this relation with repeated blood pressure measures as the outcome and pre-pregnancy BMI as the predictor. When looking at gestational hypertension and pre-eclampsia as outcomes, (multiple) logistic regression was used in the analysis. Results Independent of pre-pregnancy BMI, SBP and DBP increased by 0.99 mm Hg/month and 0.46 mm Hg/month, respectively. Higher pre-pregnancy BMI was associated with higher pregnancy SBP (0.25 mm Hg/kg/m2; 95% CI 0.17 to 0.34; p<0.01) and DBP (0.18 mm Hg/kg/m2; 0.13 to 0.24; p<0.01) in adjusted analysis. Every 1 kg/m2 higher pre-pregnancy BMI was associated with 6% and 9% higher odds for gestational hypertension (adjusted OR (aOR) 1.06; 95% CI 1.03 to 1.09; p<0.01) and pre-eclampsia (aOR 1.09; 1.04 to 1.14; p<0.01). Accounting for gestational weight gain did not attenuate these associations. Conclusions Pre-pregnancy BMI determines the level, but not the change, of blood pressure in pregnancy and is linked to higher odds for gestational hypertension and

  2. Adverse socioeconomic conditions in childhood and cause specific adult mortality: prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Smith, George Davey; Hart, Carole; Blane, David; Hole, David

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the association between social circumstances in childhood and mortality from various causes of death in adulthood. Design: Prospective observational study. Setting: 27 workplaces in the west of Scotland. Subjects: 5645 men aged 35-64 years at the time of examination. Main outcome measures: Death from various causes. Results: Men whose fathers had manual occupations when they were children were more likely as adults to have manual jobs and be living in deprived areas. Gradients in mortality from coronary heart disease, stroke, lung cancer, stomach cancer, and respiratory disease were seen (all P<0.05), generally increasing from men whose fathers had professional and managerial occupations (social class I and II) to those whose fathers had semiskilled and unskilled manual occupations (social class IV and V). Relative rates of mortality adjusted for age for men with fathers in manual versus non-manual occupations were 1.52 (95% confidence interval 1.24 to 1.87) for coronary heart disease, 1.83 (1.13 to 2.94) for stroke, 1.65 (1.12 to 2.43) for lung cancer, 2.06 (0.93 to 4.57) for stomach cancer, and 2.01 (1.17 to 3.48) for respiratory disease. Mortality from other cancers and accidental and violent death showed no association with fathers’ social class. Adjustment for adult socioeconomic circumstances and risk factors did not alter results for mortality from stroke and stomach cancer, attenuated the increased risk of coronary heart disease and respiratory disease, and essentially eliminated the association with lung cancer. Conclusions: Adverse socioeconomic circumstances in childhood have a specific influence on mortality from stroke and stomach cancer in adulthood, which is not due to the continuity of social disadvantage throughout life. Deprivation in childhood influences risk of mortality from coronary heart disease and respiratory disease in adulthood, although an additive influence of adulthood circumstances is seen in these cases

  3. Initial Presentations Predict Mortality in Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients - A Prospective Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Jia-Yih; Su, Wei-Juin; Chiu, Yu-Chi; Huang, Shiang-Fen; Lin, Yung-Yang; Huang, Ruay-Ming; Lin, Ching-Hsiung; Hwang, Jhi-Jhu; Lee, Jen-Jyh; Yu, Ming-Chih; Yu, Kwok-Woon; Lee, Yu-Chin

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite effective anti-TB treatments, tuberculosis remains a serious threat to public health and is associated with high mortality. Old age and multiple co-morbidities are known risk factors for death. The association of clinical presentations with mortality in pulmonary tuberculosis patients remains an issue of controversy. Methods This prospective observational study enrolled newly diagnosed, culture-proven pulmonary tuberculosis patients from five medical centers and one regional hospital, which were referral hospitals of TB patients. Radiographic findings and clinical symptoms were determined at the time of diagnosis. Patients who died for any reason during the course of anti-TB treatment were defined as mortality cases and death that occurred within 30 days of initiating treatment was defined as early mortality. Clinical factors associated with overall mortality and early mortality were investigated. Results A total of 992 patients were enrolled and 195 (19.7%) died. Nearly one-third (62/195, 31.8%) of the deaths occurred before or within 30 days of treatment initiation. Older age (RR = 1.04, 95%CI: 1.03–1.05), malignancy (RR = 2.42, 95%CI: 1.77–3.31), renal insufficiency (RR = 1.77, 95%CI: 1.12–2.80), presence of chronic cough (RR = 0.63, 95%CI: 0.47–0.84), fever (RR = 1.45, 95%CI: 1.09–1.94), and anorexia (RR = 1.49, 95%CI: 1.07–2.06) were independently associated with overall mortality. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis demonstrated significantly higher mortality in patients present with fever (p<0.001), anorexia (p = 0.005), and without chronic cough (p<0.001). Among patients of mortality, those with respiratory symptoms of chronic cough (RR = 0.56, 95%CI: 0.33–0.98) and dyspnea (HR = 0.51, 95%CI: 0.27–0.98) were less likely to experience early mortality. The radiological features were comparable between survivors and non-survivors. Conclusions In addition to demographic characteristics, clinical

  4. Nefazodone in psychotic unipolar and bipolar depression: a retrospective chart analysis and open prospective study on its efficacy and safety versus combined treatment with amitriptyline and haloperidol.

    PubMed

    Grunze, Heinz; Marcuse, Alain; Schärer, Lars O; Born, Christoph; Walden, Jörg

    2002-01-01

    Although atypical antipsychotics are on the rise, traditional treatment of psychotic (or delusional) depression mostly includes the addition of classical antipsychotics to antidepressants. As there are only few data supporting this approach compared with antidepressant monotherapy, and almost no data comparing it with antidepressants of the latest generation, we conducted a retrospective chart analysis and a prospective, randomized open study on the efficacy and tolerability of nefazodone monotherapy versus combined treatment with amitriptyline and haloperidol in psychotic depression. The results suggest that the addition of classical antipsychotics should be reserved for those with very severe psychotic symptoms, but may not be needed in milder forms.

  5. A prospective study of caffeine intake and risk of incident tinnitus

    PubMed Central

    Glicksman, Jordan T.; Curhan, Sharon G.; Curhan, Gary C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Caffeine is a commonly consumed substance that has long been thought to play a role in the development of tinnitus, but prospective data are lacking. We prospectively evaluated the association between caffeine intake and self-reported tinnitus in a female cohort. Methods Participants were 65,085 women in the Nurses Health Study II, aged 30–44 years and without tinnitus at baseline in 1991, who completed questionnaires about lifestyle and medical history every two years and food frequency questionnaires every four years. Information on self-reported tinnitus and date of onset was obtained from the 2009 questionnaire, with cases defined as those reporting experiencing symptoms “a few days/week” or “daily.” Multivariable adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression models. Results At baseline the mean age of the cohort was 36.3 years and the mean caffeine intake was 242.3 mg/day. After 18 years of follow-up, 5,289 incident cases of tinnitus were reported. There was a significant inverse association between caffeine intake and the incidence of tinnitus. Compared with women with caffeine intake less than 150 mg/day (150 mg corresponds to approximately one 8 ounce cup of coffee), the multivariable adjusted hazard ratios were 0.85 (95% CI 0.76–0.95) for those who consumed 450–599 mg/day and 0.79 (0.68–0.91) for those who consumed 600mg/day or more. Conclusion In this prospective study higher caffeine intake was associated with a lower risk of incident tinnitus in women. PMID:24608016

  6. Synthetic ACTH in High Risk Patients with Idiopathic Membranous Nephropathy: A Prospective, Open Label Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    van de Logt, Anne-Els; Beerenhout, Charles H.; Brink, Hans S.; van de Kerkhof, Jos J.; Wetzels, Jack F.; Hofstra, Julia M.

    2015-01-01

    New therapeutic agents are warranted in idiopathic membranous nephropathy. Synthetic ACTH may be advantageous with reported remission rates up to 85% and few side effects. We conducted a prospective open label cohort study from 2008 till 2010 (NCT00694863). We prospectively selected patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy and high risk for progression (defined as βeta-2-microglobulin (β2m) excretion of >500 ng/min). For comparison, we selected matched historical controls treated with cyclophosphamide. The prospectively selected patients received intramuscular injections of synthetic ACTH during 9 months (maximal dose 1 mg twice a week). The primary endpoints concerned the feasibility and incidence of remissions as a primary event. Secondary endpoints included side effects of treatment and the incidence of remissions and relapses at long-term follow-up. Twenty patients (15 men) were included (age 54±14 years, serum creatinine 104 μmol/l [IQR 90–113], urine protein:creatinine ratio 8.7 g/10 mmol creatinine [IQR 4.3–11.1]). Seventeen patients (85%) completed treatment. 97% of injections were administered correctly. Cumulative remission rate was 55% (complete remission in 4 patients, partial remission 7 patients). In a group of historical controls treated with cyclophosphamide and steroids, 19 of 20 patients (95%) developed a remission (complete remission in 13 patients, partial remission in 6 patients) (p<0.01). The main limitation of our study is its small size and the use of a historical control group. We show that treatment with intramuscular injections of synthetic ACTH is feasible. Our data suggest that synthetic ACTH is less effective than cyclophosphamide in inducing a remission in high risk patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy. The use of synthetic ACTH was also associated with many adverse events. Therefore, we advise against synthetic ACTH as standard treatment in membranous nephropathy. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT

  7. Clinical Evaluation of Eye Movements in Spinocerebellar Ataxias: A Prospective Multicenter Study

    PubMed Central

    Moscovich, M.; Okun, Michael S.; Favilla, Chris; Figueroa, Karla P.; Pulst, Stefan M.; Perlman, Susan; Wilmot, George; Gomez, Christopher; Schmahmann, Jeremy; Paulson, Henry; Shakkottai, Vikram; Ying, Sarah; Zesiewicz, Theresa; Kuo, S. H.; Mazzoni, P.; Bushara, Khalaf; Xia, Guangbin; Ashizawa, Tetsuo; Subramony, S. H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Ocular motor abnormalities reflect the varied neuropathology of spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) and may serve to clinically distinguish the different SCAs. We analyzed the various eye movement abnormalities detected prospectively at the baseline visit during a large multicenter natural history study of SCAs 1, 2, 3, and 6. Methods The data were prospectively collected from 12 centers in the United States in patients with SCAs 1, 2, 3, and 6, as part of the Clinical Research Consortium for Spinocerebellar Ataxias (NIH-CRC-SCA). Patient characteristics, ataxia rating scales, the Unified Huntington Disease Rating Scale functional examination, and clinical staging were used. Eye movement abnormalities including nystagmus, disorders of saccades and pursuit, and ophthalmoparesis were recorded, and factors influencing their occurrence were examined. Results A total of 301 patients participated in this study, including 52 patients with SCA 1, 64 with SCA 2, 117 with SCA 3, and 68 with SCA 6. Although no specific ocular motor abnormality was pathognomonic to any SCA, significant differences were noted in their occurrence among different disorders. SCA 6 was characterized by frequent occurrence of nystagmus and abnormal pursuit and rarity of slow saccades and ophthalmoparesis and SCA 2 by the frequent occurrence of slow saccades and infrequent nystagmus and dysmetric saccades. SCA 1 and SCA 3 subjects had a more even distribution of eye movement abnormalities. Conclusions Prospective data from a large cohort of patients with SCAs 1, 2, 3, and 6 provide statistical validation that the SCAs exhibit distinct eye movement abnormalities that are useful in identifying the genotypes. Many of the abnormalities correlate with greater disease severity measures. PMID:25259863

  8. Separation between HIV-positive women and their children: the French prospective study, 1986 through 1993.

    PubMed Central

    Blanche, S; Mayaux, M J; Veber, F; Landreau, A; Courpotin, C; Vilmer, E; Ciraru-Vigneron, N; Flock, C; Tricoire, J; Noseda, G; Retbi, J M; Rouzioux, C

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. We studied the risk and circumstances of separation (due to either maternal death or drug use) between women infected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 and their children. METHODS. This analysis was based on the French Prospective Study of Infants Born to HIV-seropositive Women (1986 through 1993). Data recorded at each follow-up visit included the mother's effective presence with the child and the child's care after separation. RESULTS. A child's cumulative risk of long-term or permanent separation from his or her mother was 37% at 60 months. Maternal drug use was associated with an added risk during the child's first years (adjusted relative risk [RR]=3.4, 95% confidence interval [CI]=2.3, 5.0). The risk among drug users was even higher when the mother used injection drugs during pregnancy (adjusted RR=2.9, 95% CI=1.9, 4.3). Risk of early separation related to drug use tended to diminish since survey initiation. After separation, 57% of the children were placed through child welfare services and 43% were cared for by relatives. CONCLUSIONS. In the French Prospective Study, 2% to 3% of HIV-infected children were separated each year from their mothers as a result of the mothers death from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Separations related to drug use have decreased over the years, and the family is becoming the most frequent carer after separation. PMID:8604763

  9. Designing naturalistic prospective studies of economic and effectiveness outcomes associated with novel antipsychotic therapies.

    PubMed

    Tunis, S L; Johnstone, B M; Kinon, B J; Barber, B L; Browne, R A

    2000-01-01

    The cornerstone of recent pharmacoeconomic work in schizophrenia is the hypothesis that the improved efficacy of novel antipsychotic medications will lead to a reduction in medical services utilization, thereby reducing direct medical costs associated with treatment. Creating the most valid design to prospectively examine the effectiveness and costs of competing pharmacotherapies requires a dialectic of opposing research paradigms. The final protocol must represent a series of decisions that strike a careful balance between being scientifically sound (internal validity) and generalizable to the real world of clinical treatment (external validity). The results must be useful to decision-makers in determining to what extent reductions in healthcare expenditures can offset higher drug acquisition costs within their type of treatment environment. This article is a review of several methodological challenges in the design of medical effectiveness trials, including whether to blind the study, definition of the patient population, degree of physician discretion in treatment, and how to collect and analyze data for patients who discontinue their originally assigned medication. The article also provides a discussion of how clinical practices can inform decisions made to meet these challenges. The issues are illustrated through a prospective study designed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the newer antipsychotics in general and olanzapine in particular. Cost-effectiveness studies of novel antipsychotic medications, particularly those with naturalistic designs, will increase in importance as the use of these second-generation agents continues to expand.

  10. Modeling progression risk for smoldering multiple myeloma: results from a prospective clinical study.

    PubMed

    Cherry, Benjamin M; Korde, Neha; Kwok, Mary; Manasanch, Elisabet E; Bhutani, Manisha; Mulquin, Marcia; Zuchlinski, Diamond; Yancey, Mary Ann; Maric, Irina; Calvo, Katherine R; Braylan, Raul; Stetler-Stevenson, Maryalice; Yuan, Constance; Tembhare, Prashant; Zingone, Adriana; Costello, Rene; Roschewski, Mark J; Landgren, Ola

    2013-10-01

    The risk of progression to multiple myeloma (MM) from the precursor condition smoldering MM (SMM) varies considerably among individual patients. Reliable markers for progression to MM are vital to advance the understanding of myeloma precursor disease and for the development of intervention trials designed to delay/prevent MM. The Mayo Clinic and Spanish PETHEMA have proposed models to stratify patient risk based on clinical parameters. The aim of our study was to define the degree of concordance between these two models by comparing the distribution of patients with SMM classified as low, medium and high risk for progression. A total of 77 patients with SMM were enrolled in our prospective natural history study. Per study protocol, each patient was assigned risk scores based on both the Mayo and the Spanish models. The Mayo Clinic model identified 38, 35 and four patients as low, medium and high risk, respectively. The Spanish PETHEMA model classified 17, 22 and 38 patients as low, medium and high risk, respectively. There was significant discordance in overall patient risk classification (28.6% concordance) and in classifying patients as low versus high (p < 0.0001), low versus non-low (p = 0.0007) and high versus non-high (p < 0.0001) risk. There is a need for prospectively validated models to characterize individual patient risk of transformation to MM. PMID:23311294

  11. Four case studies of prospective science teachers' beliefs concerning constructivist teaching practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haney, Jodi J.; McArthur, Julia

    2002-11-01

    To gain a better understanding of the emerging constructivist beliefs and classroom practices, case studies were constructed for four prospective teachers who were purposely selected as a result of their scores on the Classroom Learning Environment Survey (CLES) (Taylor, Fraser, & White, A classroom environment questionnaire for science educators interested in the constructivist reform of school science. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching, Anaheim, CA, 1994). The case studies provided insight into two primary questions (1) what are the beliefs of the prospective science teacher regarding constructivist teaching practices and (2) are these beliefs consistent with subsequent classroom practice? The components of constructivist teaching by Taylor, Fraser, and White (1994) were used as a theoretical framework in conjunction with Ajzen and Fishbein's components of the Theory of Planned Behavior (Ajzen, 1985). Data collection consisted of document analysis, classroom observation, and interviews. Data were analyzed using the constant comparative method. Findings from the case studies suggest that at least two kinds of beliefs were in operation: central beliefs and peripheral beliefs. The central beliefs were defined as those dictating subsequent teaching behaviors; whereas the peripheral beliefs were those that were stated but not operationalized.

  12. A prospective study of plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration and prostate cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Deschasaux, Mélanie; Souberbielle, Jean-Claude; Latino-Martel, Paule; Sutton, Angela; Charnaux, Nathalie; Druesne-Pecollo, Nathalie; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Le Clerc, Sigrid; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Ezzedine, Khaled; Touvier, Mathilde

    2016-01-28

    Mechanistic hypotheses suggest that vitamin D and the closely related parathyroid hormone (PTH) may be involved in prostate carcinogenesis. However, epidemiological evidence is lacking for PTH and inconsistent for vitamin D. Our objectives were to prospectively investigate the association between vitamin D status, vitamin D-related gene polymorphisms, PTH and prostate cancer risk. A total of 129 cases diagnosed within the Supplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux Antioxydants cohort were included in a nested case-control study and matched to 167 controls (13 years of follow-up). 25-Hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and PTH concentrations were assessed from baseline plasma samples. Conditional logistic regression models were computed. Higher 25(OH)D concentration was associated with decreased risk of prostate cancer (ORQ4 v. Q1 0·30; 95 % CI 0·12, 0·77; P trend=0·007). PTH concentration was not associated with prostate cancer risk (P trend=0·4) neither did the studied vitamin D-related gene polymorphisms. In this prospective study, prostate cancer risk was inversely associated with 25(OH)D concentration but not with PTH concentration. These results bring a new contribution to the understanding of the relationship between vitamin D and prostate cancer, which deserves further investigation. PMID:26568368

  13. Prospective study of luminous radiation associated technology photosensitive compounds for treatment of diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pires-Santos, Gustavo M.; de Oliveira, Susana C. P. S.; Monteiro, Juliana S. C.; Sampaio, Fernando José P.; Brugnera, Aldo; Zanin, Fátima Antônia A.; Almeida, Paulo; Pinheiro, Antônio L. B.

    2015-03-01

    Prospective studies are based on the analysis of patent documents and aims to assess the both technological history and development providing innovation opportunities. This study was a technological prospection mapping aiming to identify breakthrough in PDT and the new possibilities of the technology. Therefore, research in the bank patent 'Spacenet Patent Search' was performed using determinants descriptors associated with the theme: 'A61K41', 'A61N5 / 06'. Were analyzed in this study 326 documents. In evaluating these patents, it was possible to observe an increase in the number of deposits over time, with peak between 1990 and 2000. The highest number of inventors of this area are part of the private sector and the US appear as main producer of technology. It was also observed that blue light, porphyrins and their derivatives are the main topics. It may be concluded that PDT still offers a large opportunity for growth as several wavelengths, and photosensitizers that may be used in the technique.

  14. Incidence of Neuralgic Amyotrophy (Parsonage Turner Syndrome) in a Primary Care Setting - A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    van Alfen, Nens; van Eijk, Jeroen J. J.; Ennik, Tessa; Flynn, Sean O.; Nobacht, Inge E. G.; Groothuis, Jan T.; Pillen, Sigrid; van de Laar, Floris A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Neuralgic amyotrophy is considered a rare peripheral nervous system disorder but in practice seems grossly under recognized, which negatively affects care for these patients. In this study we prospectively counted the one-year incidence rate of classic neuralgic amyotrophy in a primary care setting. Methods In a prospective cohort study during the year 2012 we registered all new cases of neck, shoulder or arm complaints from two large primary care centers serving a population of 14,118. Prior to study, general practitioners received a short training on how to diagnose classic neuralgic amyotrophy. Neuralgic amyotrophy was defined according to published criteria irrespective of family history. Only patients with a classic phenotype were counted as definite cases. After inclusion, patients with suspected neuralgic amyotrophy who had not yet seen a neurologist were offered neurologic evaluation for diagnostic confirmation. Results Of the 492 patients identified with new onset neck, shoulder or arm complaints, 34 were suspected of having neuralgic amyotrophy. After neurologic evaluation the diagnosis was confirmed in 14 patients. This amounts to a one-year incidence rate for classic neuralgic amyotrophy of 1 per 1000. Conclusions Our findings suggest that neuralgic amyotrophy is 30-50 times more common than previously thought. Unawareness of the disorder and its clinical presentation seems the most likely explanation for this difference. An incidence rate of 1 per 1000 and the long-term sequelae many patients suffer warrant more vigilance in diagnosing the disorder, to pave the way for timely treatment and prevent complications. PMID:26016482

  15. Validation of the new graded prognostic assessment scale for brain metastases: a multicenter prospective study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Prognostic indexes are useful to guide tailored treatment strategies for cancer patients with brain metastasis (BM). We evaluated the new Graded Prognostic Assessment (GPA) scale in a prospective validation study to compare it with two published prognostic indexes. Methods A total of 285 newly diagnosed BM (n = 85 with synchronous BM) patients, accrued prospectively between 2000 and 2009, were included in this analysis. Mean age was 62 ± 12.0 years. The median KPS and number of BM was 70 (range, 20-100) and 3 (range, 1-50), respectively. The majority of primary tumours were lung (53%), or breast (17%) cancers. Treatment was administered to 255 (89.5%) patients. Only a minority of patients could be classified prospectively in a favourable prognostic class: GPA 3.5-4: 3.9%; recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) 1, 8.4% and Basic Score for BM (BSBM) 3, 9.1%. Mean follow-up (FU) time was 5.2 ± 4.7 months. Results During the period of FU, 225 (78.9%) patients died. The 6 months- and 1 year-OS was 36.9% and 17.6%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, performance status (P < 0.001), BSBM (P < 0.001), Center (P = 0.007), RPA (P = 0.02) and GPA (P = 0.03) were statistically significant for OS. The survival prediction performances' of all indexes were identical. Noteworthy, the significant OS difference observed within 3 months of diagnosis between the BSBM, RPA and GPA classes/groups was not observed after this cut-off time point. Harrell's concordance indexes C were 0.58, 0.61 and 0.58 for the GPA, BSBM and RPA, respectively. Conclusions Our data suggest that the new GPA index is a valid prognostic index. In this prospective study, the prediction performance was as good as the BSBM or RPA systems. These published indexes may however have limited long term prognostication capability. PMID:21366924

  16. Prospective study on long-term dietary patterns and incident depression in middle-aged and older women1234

    PubMed Central

    O'Reilly, Eilis J; Lucas, Michel; Mirzaei, Fariba; Okereke, Olivia I; Fung, Teresa T; Hu, Frank B; Ascherio, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although individual nutrients have been investigated in relation to depression risk, little is known about the overall role of diet in depression. Objective: We examined whether long-term dietary patterns derived from a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) predict the development of depression in middle-aged and older women. Design: We conducted a prospective study in 50,605 participants (age range: 50–77 y) without depression in the Nurses’ Health Study at baseline (1996) who were followed until 2008. Long-term diet was assessed by using FFQs every 4 y since 1986. Prudent (high in vegetables) and Western (high in meats) patterns were identified by using a principal component analysis. We used 2 definitions for clinical depression as follows: a strict definition that required both a reported clinical diagnosis and use of antidepressants (3002 incident cases) and a broad definition that further included women who reported either a clinical diagnosis or antidepressant use (7413 incident cases). Results: After adjustment for age, body mass index, and other potential confounders, no significant association was shown between the diet patterns and depression risk under the strict definition. Under the broad definition, women with the highest scores for the Western pattern had 15% higher risk of depression (95% CI: 1.04, 1.27; P-trend = 0.01) than did women with the lowest scores, but after additional adjustment for psychological scores at baseline, results were no longer significant (RR: 1.09; 95% CI: 0.99, 1.21; P-trend = 0.08). Conclusion: Overall, results of this large prospective study do not support a clear association between dietary patterns from factor analysis and depression risk. PMID:23885043

  17. Prospective Observational Study of Ocular Health in ISS Crews - The Ocular Health Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otto, C.; Barr, Y.; Platts, S.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Sargsyan, A.; Alexander, D.; Riascos, R.; Gibson, C.; Patel, N.

    2015-01-01

    ), cardiovascular compliance (via ultrasound with concurrent ECG and blood pressure), noninvasive intracranial pressure (via pulsatility index, measured by transcranial Doppler), and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to assess brain anatomy. In-flight evaluations include visual testing, optical coherence tomography, fundoscopy, tonometry, cardiovascular compliance and transcranial Doppler. RESULTS: Preflight, in-flight and postflight data will be presented for five Ocular Health subjects. These data will include: visual acuity, refraction, fundoscopy, OCT, ocular ultrasound, vascular compliance, TCD, IOP and MRI. One-year postflight data will be presented for two of these subjects. Data indicates that vascular compliance, retro-orbital pressure and IOP affect retinal nerve fiber layer swelling. DISCUSSION: This prospective study aims to understand the etiology of the VIIP syndrome, establish preflight baseline characteristics, define the temporal sequence for the appearance of signs and symptoms, characterize the nature of in-flight changes, document the postflight time course for recovery to baseline, and determine the impact of prolonged changes on crew health. Data from this study will improve the understanding of VIIP incidence, signs, symptoms, susceptibilities, timeline for development and recovery, and aid in guiding the development of countermeasures and targeted treatments for preventing the VIIP syndrome and its complications.

  18. Screening for Acromegaly in Patients with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: A Prospective Study (ACROCARP).

    PubMed

    Zoicas, F; Kleindienst, A; Mayr, B; Buchfelder, M; Megele, R; Schöfl, C

    2016-07-01

    Early diagnosis of acromegaly prevents irreversible comorbidities and facilitates surgical cure. Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is common in acromegaly and patients have often undergone surgery for CTS prior to the diagnosis of acromegaly. We hypothesized that screening CTS-patients for acromegaly could facilitate active case-finding. We prospectively enrolled 196 patients [135 women, 56.9 (range 23-103) years] who presented with CTS for surgery. Patients were asked about 6 symptoms suggestive of acromegaly using a questionnaire calculating a symptom score (0-6 points), and insulin-like-growth factor 1 (IGF-1) was measured. If IGF-1 was increased, IGF-1 measurement was repeated, and random growth hormone (GH) and/or an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) with assessment of GH-suppression were performed. The mean symptom score was 1.7±1.3 points. Three patients reported the maximal symptom score of 6 points, but none of them had an increased IGF-1. There was no correlation between the symptom score and IGF-1-SDS (standard deviation score) (r=0.026; p=0.71). Four patients had an IGF-1>2 SDS. In 2 patients acromegaly was ruled out using random GH and OGTT. One patient had normal IGF-1 and random GH at follow-up. One patient refused further diagnostics. In this prospective cohort of patients with CTS, the observed frequency of acromegaly was at most 0.51% (95% CI 0.03 to 2.83%). In this prospective study, none of the 196 patients with CTS had proven acromegaly. Thus, we see no evidence to justify general screening of patients with CTS for acromegaly.

  19. Screening for Acromegaly in Patients with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: A Prospective Study (ACROCARP).

    PubMed

    Zoicas, F; Kleindienst, A; Mayr, B; Buchfelder, M; Megele, R; Schöfl, C

    2016-07-01

    Early diagnosis of acromegaly prevents irreversible comorbidities and facilitates surgical cure. Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is common in acromegaly and patients have often undergone surgery for CTS prior to the diagnosis of acromegaly. We hypothesized that screening CTS-patients for acromegaly could facilitate active case-finding. We prospectively enrolled 196 patients [135 women, 56.9 (range 23-103) years] who presented with CTS for surgery. Patients were asked about 6 symptoms suggestive of acromegaly using a questionnaire calculating a symptom score (0-6 points), and insulin-like-growth factor 1 (IGF-1) was measured. If IGF-1 was increased, IGF-1 measurement was repeated, and random growth hormone (GH) and/or an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) with assessment of GH-suppression were performed. The mean symptom score was 1.7±1.3 points. Three patients reported the maximal symptom score of 6 points, but none of them had an increased IGF-1. There was no correlation between the symptom score and IGF-1-SDS (standard deviation score) (r=0.026; p=0.71). Four patients had an IGF-1>2 SDS. In 2 patients acromegaly was ruled out using random GH and OGTT. One patient had normal IGF-1 and random GH at follow-up. One patient refused further diagnostics. In this prospective cohort of patients with CTS, the observed frequency of acromegaly was at most 0.51% (95% CI 0.03 to 2.83%). In this prospective study, none of the 196 patients with CTS had proven acromegaly. Thus, we see no evidence to justify general screening of patients with CTS for acromegaly. PMID:26849823

  20. Incidences of new prescribing by British child and adolescent psychiatrists: a prospective study over 12 months.

    PubMed

    Clark, Andrew F

    2004-03-01

    Little is known about the epidemiology of pharmacotherapy in the treatment of child psychiatric disorder. This study reports on the systematic prospective collection of instances of new prescribing by child and adolescent mental health services serving a population of approximately four million people in North West England. Diagnostic and demographic information regarding new prescribing by child and adolescent mental health services within Greater Manchester and Lancashire was systematically collected prospectively over two 6-month periods between 2000 and 2002. Within the 12 months studied, there were 845 instances of a drug being newly prescribed to a child or adolescent in the treatment of a psychiatric disorder. In total, 48 different drugs were prescribed for 25 different diagnoses. The eight most commonly prescribed drugs were methylphenidate, methylphenidate/placebo trial, paroxetine, fluoxetine, risperidone, imipramine, dexamphetamine and melatonin, accounting for 73% of all prescribing. There was marked variation between services in the amount of prescribing with significant correlation between prescription of stimulants and prescription of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants. Prescription of medications in the treatment of child psychiatric disorder has become a significant part of child and adolescent mental health practice. However, the evidence base underpinning this usage remains limited, and further high quality therapeutic clinical trials are urgently needed.

  1. Prognostic Significance of Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio in Patients with Sepsis: A Prospective Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xuan; Shen, Yong; Wang, Hairong; Ge, Qinmin; Fei, Aihua; Pan, Shuming

    2016-01-01

    Background. The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is an easily accessible biological marker that has been reported to represent disease severity. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between NLR and mortality in patients with sepsis. Methods. A total of 333 consecutive adult patients with sepsis were screened for eligibility in this prospective, observational study cohort. Severity scores and leukocyte counts were prospectively recorded upon entry to the intensive care unit (ICU). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and binary logistic regression models were used to assess the performance of NLR in predicting unfavorable outcome. Correlations between variables and disease severity were analyzed through Spearman correlation tests. Results. Median NLR levels were significantly higher in patients who died than in survivors. NLR had a modest power for predicting poor outcome as suggested by area under the curve (AUC) of 0.695 ± 0.036. Multivariate linear regression indicated that increased NLR levels were related to unfavorable outcome independently of the effect of possible confounders. Spearman correlation tests showed that there was a positive correlation between NLR levels and disease severity. Conclusions. Increased NLR levels were independently associated with unfavorable clinical prognosis in patients with sepsis. Further investigation is required to increase understanding of the pathophysiology of this relationship. PMID:27110067

  2. Negative cognitive styles synergistically predict suicidal ideation in bipolar spectrum disorders: a 3-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Stange, Jonathan P; Hamilton, Jessica L; Burke, Taylor A; Kleiman, Evan M; O'Garro-Moore, Jared K; Seligman, Nicole D; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2015-03-30

    Rates of suicidal ideation and behavior are extremely high in bipolar spectrum disorders (BSDs). However, relatively little work has evaluated potentially synergistic relationships between cognitive and emotion-regulatory processes proposed by theoretical models of suicidality in BSDs. The present study evaluated whether negative cognitive style and subtypes of rumination would exacerbate the impact of self-criticism on suicidal ideation in a prospective study of individuals with BSDs. Seventy-two young adults with BSDs (bipolar II, bipolar NOS, or cyclothymia) completed diagnostic interviews and trait measures of self-criticism, negative cognitive style, and brooding and reflective rumination at a baseline assessment. The occurrence of suicidal ideation was assessed as part of diagnostic interviews completed every 4 months for an average of 3 years of follow-up. Negative cognitive style and reflective rumination strengthened the association between self-criticism and the prospective occurrence of suicidal ideation across follow-up. Individuals with high levels of self-criticism in conjunction with negative cognitive style or reflective rumination were most likely to experience the onset of suicidal ideation. Self-criticism may work synergistically with negative cognitive style and rumination to confer risk for suicidal ideation in bipolar spectrum disorders. These results support theoretical models of suicidality in BSDs and indicate that evaluating and understanding negative cognitive styles may help to identify individuals who are at risk of suicide.

  3. Hyperhomocysteinemia predicts renal function decline: a prospective study in hypertensive adults

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Di; Yuan, Yan; Guo, Jiangnan; Yang, Shenglin; Xu, Xin; Wang, Qin; Li, Youbao; Qin, Xianhui; Tang, Genfu; Huo, Yong; Deng, Guangpu; Wu, Shengjie; Wang, Binyan; Zhang, Qin; Wang, Xiaobin; Fang, Pu; Wang, Hong; Xu, Xiping; Hou, Fanfan

    2015-01-01

    Hyper-homocysteinemia (HHcy) is associated with microalbuminuria and glomerular injury in general and diabetic populations. However, HHcy’s role in hypertensive patients was not studied. We investigated whether HHcy is an independent risk factor for renal function decline and development of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in hypertensive men and women. This was a community-based prospective cohort study of 2,387 hypertensive adults without CKD at baseline, with a mean follow-up of 4.4 years. Baseline and follow-up levels of plasma Hcy, folate, vitamin B12, blood pressure and other pertinent covariables were obtained. CKD was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 ml/min/per 1.73 m2 and an eGFR decline rate >1 ml/min/per 1.73 m2/year. There was a graded association between Hcy tertiles and eGFR decline. Subjects in the 3rd tertile of Hcy levels had an accelerated rate of eGFR decline and an increased risk of incident CKD, as compared with those in the 1st tertile, after adjusting for age, gender, baseline diabetes, SBP, BMI, smoking, dyslipidemia, eGFR, folate and vitamin B12 levels. In conclusion, in this prospective cohort of Chinese hypertensive adults, elevated baseline plasma Hcy can serve as an independent biomarker to predict renal function decline and incident CKD. PMID:26553372

  4. Prospective observational study of adverse drug reactions to diclofenac in children

    PubMed Central

    Standing, Joseph F; Ooi, Kuan; Keady, Simon; Howard, Richard F; Savage, Imogen; Wong, Ian C K

    2009-01-01

    AIM The aim of this study was to investigate the type of common (occurring in >1% of patients) adverse reactions caused by diclofenac when given to children for acute pain. METHODS A prospective observational study was undertaken on paediatric surgical patents aged ≤12 years at Great Ormond Street and University College London Hospitals. All adverse events were recorded, and causality assessment used to judge the likelihood of them being due to diclofenac. Prospective recruitment meant not all patients were prescribed diclofenac, allowing an analysis of utilization. Causality of all serious adverse events was reviewed by an expert panel. RESULTS Children prescribed diclofenac were significantly older, and stayed in hospital for shorter periods than those who were not. Diclofenac was not avoided in asthmatic patients. Data on 380 children showed they suffer similar types of nonserious adverse reactions to adults. The incidence (95% confidence interval) of rash was 0.8% (0.016, 2.3); minor central nervous system disturbance 0.5% (0.06, 1.9); rectal irritation with suppositories 0.3% (0.009, 1.9); and diarrhoea 0.3% (0.007, 1.5). No serious adverse event was judged to be caused by diclofenac, meaning the incidence of serious adverse reactions to diclofenac in children is <0.8%. CONCLUSION Children given diclofenac for acute pain appeared to suffer similar types of adverse reactions to adults; the incidence of serious adverse reaction is <0.8%. PMID:19694745

  5. A prospective treatment study of premenstrual symptoms using a triphasic oral contraceptive.

    PubMed

    Graham, C A; Sherwin, B B

    1992-04-01

    Eighty-two women with complaints of moderate to severe premenstrual symptoms were recruited for a double-blind, controlled trial of a triphasic oral contraceptive (o.c.). Subjects made daily ratings of symptoms for at least one baseline cycle and were then randomly assigned to receive either placebo or o.c. for three months. Twenty-three women dropped out of the study (18 o.c., 5 placebo), 13 failed to show prospective confirmation of moderate to severe premenstrual symptoms, and one placebo subject had an anovulatory cycle. Forty-five women with prospectively-confirmed premenstrual changes (20 o.c., 25 placebo) completed the study. Premenstrual breast pain and bloating were significantly reduced with active treatment compared to placebo (p less than 0.03) but there were no beneficial effects of the o.c. over placebo for any of the mood symptoms. Women who received o.c.s reported decreased sexual interest after starting treatment and this effect was independent of any adverse influence on mood. PMID:1564678

  6. Intercondylar notch size and anterior cruciate ligament injuries in athletes. A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Souryal, T O; Freeman, T R

    1993-01-01

    Published reports agree that there is a strong association between intercondylar notch stenosis and anterior cruciate ligament injuries. In a previously published retrospective study on bilateral anterior cruciate ligament injuries and associated intercondylar notch stenosis, we formulated the notch width index to measure and compare intercondylar notch width. The purpose of this prospective study was to establish a normal range for the notch width index and to correlate intercondylar notch size and anterior cruciate ligament injuries. We gathered data on 902 high school athletes, including range of motion, thigh girth, ligament stability and intercondylar notch width using the notch width index. The population was then followed prospectively and anterior cruciate ligament injuries were recorded and correlated with notch width index in a blind manner. Two-year results showed that the overall anterior cruciate ligament injury rate was 3%. The normal intercondylar notch ratio was 0.231 +/- 0.044. Intercondylar notch width index for men was larger than that for women. Athletes sustaining noncontact anterior cruciate ligament tears have statistically significant intercondylar notch stenosis (notch width index, 0.189). Ten of 14 athletes with noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injuries had a notch width index that was at least 1 SD below the mean. Athletes with contact anterior cruciate ligament injuries had a mean of 0.233. We conclude that athletes with a stenotic intercondylar notch are at significantly greater risk for sustaining noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injury.

  7. Weekly miscarriage rates in a community-based prospective cohort study in rural western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Dellicour, Stephanie; Aol, George; Ouma, Peter; Yan, Nicole; Bigogo, Godfrey; Hamel, Mary J; Burton, Deron C; Oneko, Martina; Breiman, Robert F; Slutsker, Laurence; Feikin, Daniel; Kariuki, Simon; Odhiambo, Frank; Stergachis, Andreas; Laserson, Kayla F; ter Kuile, Feiko O; Desai, Meghna

    2016-01-01

    Objective Information on adverse pregnancy outcomes is important to monitor the impact of public health interventions. Miscarriage is a challenging end point to ascertain and there is scarce information on its rate in low-income countries. The objective was to estimate the background rate and cumulative probability of miscarriage in rural western Kenya. Design This was a population-based prospective cohort. Participants and setting Women of childbearing age were followed prospectively to identify pregnancies and ascertain their outcomes in Siaya County, western Kenya. The cohort study was carried out in 33 adjacent villages under health and demographic surveillance. Outcome measure Miscarriage. Results Between 2011 and 2013, among 5536 women of childbearing age, 1453 pregnancies were detected and 1134 were included in the analysis. The cumulative probability was 18.9%. The weekly miscarriage rate declined steadily with increasing gestation until approximately 20 weeks. Known risk factors for miscarriage such as maternal age, gravidity, occupation, household wealth and HIV infection were confirmed. Conclusions This is the first report of weekly miscarriage rates in a rural African setting in the context of high HIV and malaria prevalence. Future studies should consider the involvement of community health workers to identify the pregnancy cohort of early gestation for better data on the actual number of pregnancies and the assessment of miscarriage. PMID:27084287

  8. Adverse Drug Reactions in a Complementary Medicine Hospital: A Prospective, Intensified Surveillance Study

    PubMed Central

    Süsskind, M.; Thürmann, P. A.; Lüke, C.; Jeschke, E.; Tabali, M.; Matthes, H.; Ostermann, T.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Anthroposophic medicine is one of the widely used approaches of complementary and alternative medicine. However, few prospective studies have generated safety data on its use. Objectives. We aimed to assess adverse drug reactions (ADRs) caused by anthroposophical medicines (AMEDs) in the anthroposophical Community Hospital Havelhoehe, GERMANY. Study Design and Methods. Between May and November 2007, patients of six medical wards were prospectively assessed for ADRs. Suspected ADRs occurring during hospitalization were documented and classified in terms of organ manifestation (WHO SOC-code), causality (according to the Uppsala Monitoring Centre WHO criteria), and severity. Only those ADRs with a severity of grade 2 and higher according to the CTCAE classification system are described here. Results. Of the 3,813 patients hospitalized, 174 patients (4.6%) experienced 211 ADRs (CTCAE grade 2/3 n = 191, 90.5%, CTCAE grade 4/5 n = 20, 9.5%) of which 57 ADRs (27.0%) were serious. The median age of patients with ADRs (62.1% females) was 72.0 (IQR: 61.0; 80.0). Six patients (0.2%) experienced six ADRs (2.8% of ADRs) caused by eight suspected AMEDs, all of which were mild reactions (grade 2). Conclusion. Our data show that ADRs caused by AMEDs occur rarely and are limited to mild symptoms. PMID:22315630

  9. Prospective cohort study of factors influencing the relative weights of the placenta and the newborn infant.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, L. A.; Evans, S. F.; Newnham, J. P.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the demographic, environmental, and medical factors that influence the relative weights of the newborn infant and the placenta and compare this ratio with other factors known to predispose to adult ill health. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: The tertiary referral centre for perinatal care in Perth, Western Australia. SUBJECTS: 2507 pregnant women who delivered a single live infant at term. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Placental weight, birth weight, and the ratio of placental weight to birth weight. RESULTS: By multiple regression analysis the placental weight to birthweight ratio was significantly and positively associated with gestational age, female sex, Asian parentage, increasing maternal body mass index, increased maternal weight at booking, lower socioeconomic status, maternal anaemia, and increasing number of cigarettes smoked daily. There were no consistent relations between the placental weight to birthweight ratio and measures of newborn size. CONCLUSIONS: The ratio of placental weight to birth weight is not an accurate marker of fetal growth. In its role as a predictor of adult disease the ratio may be acting as a surrogate for other factors which are already known to influence health and may act before or after birth. Determining the role that relative growth rates of the fetus and placenta have in predisposing to adult disease requires prospective study to account for the many confounding variables which complicate this hypothesis. PMID:9224128

  10. Annual risk of tuberculosis infection in rural China: a population-based prospective study.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lei; Bai, Liqiong; Liu, Jianmin; Lu, Wei; Wang, Xinhua; Li, Xiangwei; Du, Jiang; Chen, Xinchun; Zhang, Haoran; Xin, Henan; Sui, Hongtao; Li, Hengjing; Su, Haoxiang; He, Jian; Pan, Shouguo; Peng, Hong; Xu, Zuhui; Catanzaro, Antonino; Evans, Thomas G; Zhang, Zongde; Ma, Yu; Li, Mufei; Feng, Boxuan; Li, Zhen; Guan, Ling; Shen, Fei; Wang, Zhijian; Zhu, Tao; Yang, Shumin; Si, Hongyan; Wang, Yi; Tan, Yunhong; Chen, Tianzhu; Chen, Chen; Xia, Yinyin; Cheng, Shiming; Xu, Weiguo; Jin, Qi

    2016-07-01

    Prospective population data on the incidence of tuberculosis (TB) infection has been sparsely reported in the global literature.A population-based prospective study was conducted in rural China to investigate the annual risk of TB infection, and its persistence using serial tuberculin skin tests (TSTs) and an interferon-γ release assay. In total, 13 580 eligible participants from four rural sites, identified as TST negative (<10 mm) or QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT) (an interferon-γ release assay) negative from a baseline survey, were included in the first year's follow-up examination.The annual conversion rate of QFT among the study sites ranged between 2.1% and 4.9% (average 3.1%), and the incidence of TST conversion ranged between 6.0% and 31.1% (average 14.5%). During the second year's follow-up, infection persistence was investigated using 390 subjects with QFT conversions. Among them, 49.7% (164 out of 330) were found to be consistently QFT positive. Both the conversion and the persistence of QFT positivity were found to be significantly increased with increasing age.In conclusion, the annual TB infection rate was suggested to be ∼1.5% based on persistent positive results after QFT conversion in rural China. Therefore, infection control among those high-risk populations, including the elderly, should be prioritised for TB control in China. PMID:27230438

  11. Predicting remembering and forgetting of autobiographical memories in children and adults: a 4-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Patricia J; Larkina, Marina

    2016-11-01

    Preservation and loss to forgetting of autobiographical memories is a focus in both the adult and developmental literatures. In both, there are comparative arguments regarding rates of forgetting. Children are assumed to forget autobiographical memories more rapidly than adults, and younger children are assumed to forget more rapidly than older children. Yet few studies can directly inform these comparisons: few feature children and adults, and few prospectively track the survival of specific autobiographical memories over time. In a 4-year prospective study, we obtained autobiographical memories from children 4, 6, and 8 years, and adults. We tested recall of different subsets of the events after 1, 2, and 3 years. Accelerated rates of forgetting were apparent among all child groups relative to adults; within the child groups, 4- and 6-year-olds had accelerated forgetting relative to 8-year-olds. The differences were especially pronounced in open-ended recall. The thematic coherence of initial memory reports also was a significant predictor of the survival of specific memories. The pattern of findings is consistent with suggestions that the adult distribution of autobiographical memories is achieved as the quality of memory traces increases (here measured by thematic coherence) and the rate of forgetting decreases.

  12. Ten-year prospective study on the development of renal cell carcinoma in dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, I; Saito, Y; Shikura, N; Kitada, H; Shinoda, A; Suzuki, S

    1990-11-01

    A prospective study was undertaken to investigate the development of renal cell carcinoma in dialysis patients. Three renal cell carcinomas were detected among 96 hemodialysis patients in 1979, and screening by computed tomographic (CT) scan was continued yearly until 1989. During this 10-year period, one renal cell carcinoma was found in the second year and another in the ninth year. Autopsy performed on seven of 19 patients who died showed one case of small clear cell carcinoma accompanying acquired cystic disease. In 33 males, kidneys were found to have enlarged 2.7 +/- 1.7 times over the 10-year follow-up due to acquired cysts, while no change in kidney volume was noted in 24 females. Native kidneys in nine of 12 patients who maintained functioning grafts were reduced in size. The patient with the largest kidney enlargement (11.5 times) died from retroperitoneal bleeding in 1989. These prospective study results suggest that both the incidence and prevalence of renal cell carcinoma in dialysis patients is high. Furthermore, major complications of acquired renal cystic disease seem to occur predominantly in males.

  13. Longitudinal interplay between posttraumatic stress symptoms and coping self-efficacy: A four-wave prospective study.

    PubMed

    Bosmans, Mark W G; van der Velden, Peter G

    2015-06-01

    Trauma-related coping self-efficacy (CSE), the perceived capability to manage one's personal functioning and the myriad environmental demands of the aftermath of potentially traumatic events (PTE), has been shown to affect psychological outcomes after these events. Aim of the present four-wave study was to examine the cross-lagged relationships between CSE and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms following PTEs in order to examine direction of influence. Levels of CSE and PTSD symptoms were measured with 4-month intervals. In addition, prospectively assessed personality traits and general self-efficacy perceptions as well as peritraumatic distress were entered in the analyses. The study sample consists of adult respondents of a representative internet panel who experienced PTE in the six months before T1, and did not experience any new PTE or life event between T1 and T3 (N = 400). Respondents were administered the coping self-efficacy scale (CSE-7), impact of event scale (IES) and arousal items of IES-R at each wave (T1 through T3), as well as questions on peritraumatic stress and prospectively measured personality traits (T0). Results of structural equation modeling showed that the effect of CSE on subsequent PTSD symptom levels was dominant. CSE significantly predicted subsequent symptoms, over and above earlier symptom levels, with higher CSE associated with lower PTSD. Symptoms in turn, did not predict subsequent levels of CSE. Higher peritraumatic distress was associated with both higher initial PTSD symptoms and lower initial CSE levels. Higher levels of the personality traits of emotional stability and agreeableness were associated with higher initial CSE levels. This supports a model in which CSE perceptions play an important role in recovery from trauma.

  14. Exposure to Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields and Sleep Quality: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Mohler, Evelyn; Frei, Patrizia; Fröhlich, Jürg; Braun-Fahrländer, Charlotte; Röösli, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Background There is persistent public concern about sleep disturbances due to radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure. The aim of this prospective cohort study was to investigate whether sleep quality is affected by mobile phone use or by other RF-EMF sources in the everyday environment. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study with 955 study participants aged between 30 and 60 years. Sleep quality and daytime sleepiness was assessed by means of standardized questionnaires in May 2008 (baseline) and May 2009 (follow-up). We also asked about mobile and cordless phone use and asked study participants for consent to obtain their mobile phone connection data from the mobile phone operators. Exposure to environmental RF-EMF was computed for each study participant using a previously developed and validated prediction model. In a nested sample of 119 study participants, RF-EMF exposure was measured in the bedroom and data on sleep behavior was collected by means of actigraphy during two weeks. Data were analyzed using multivariable regression models adjusted for relevant confounders. Results In the longitudinal analyses neither operator-recorded nor self-reported mobile phone use was associated with sleep disturbances or daytime sleepiness. Also, exposure to environmental RF-EMF did not affect self-reported sleep quality. The results from the longitudinal analyses were confirmed in the nested sleep study with objectively recorded exposure and measured sleep behavior data. Conclusions We did not find evidence for adverse effects on sleep quality from RF-EMF exposure in our everyday environment. PMID:22624036

  15. Prospective study of obesity, hypertension, high cholesterol, and risk of restless legs syndrome.

    PubMed

    De Vito, Katerina; Li, Yanping; Batool-Anwar, Salma; Ning, Yi; Han, Jiali; Gao, Xiang

    2014-07-01

    Because previous cross-sectional studies suggest an association between metabolic disorders and restless legs syndrome (RLS), we prospectively evaluated whether obesity, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertension were associated with increased risk of RLS. Our study consisted of 42,728 female participants from the Nurses' Health Study II and 12,812 male participants from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, free of RLS at baseline (2002 for men and 2005 for women), and free of diabetes and arthritis through follow-up (2002-2008 for men and 2005-2009 for women). RLS symptoms were assessed using the International RLS Study Group's standardized questionnaire. We considered RLS symptoms a "case" if the symptoms occurred ≥5 times/month and met International RLS Study Group criteria. We found that obesity was associated with an increased risk RLS among both men and women (P difference for sex >0.5). The pooled multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (OR) for RLS was 1.57 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.33-1.85; P trend <0.0001) for body mass index >30 versus ≤23 kg/m(2) and 1.56 (95% CI: 1.29-1.89; P trend = 0.0001) comparing two extreme waist circumference quintiles, adjusting for age, ethnicity, smoking, physical activity, use of antidepressant, and other covariates. A similar significant association was found for high cholesterol; the pooled adjusted OR for total serum cholesterol >240 versus <159 mg/dL was 1.33 (95% CI: 1.11-1.60; P trend = 0.002). There was no significant association between hypertension and RLS risk (adjusted OR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.79-1.02). In this large, prospective study, we found that obesity and high cholesterol, but not high blood pressure, were significantly associated with an increased risk of developing RLS. © 2014 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  16. A prospective multicenter study evaluating skin tolerance to standard hand hygiene techniques.

    PubMed

    Chamorey, Emmanuel; Marcy, Pierre-Yves; Dandine, Marc; Veyres, Patricia; Negrin, Nadine; Vandenbos, Frederic; Duval, Marie-Josée; Lambert, Sylvain; Mazzoni, Laëtitia; Chapuis, Viviane; Bodokh, Isaac; Sacleux, Paul

    2011-02-01

    We performed a prospective multicenter study to assess the dryness and irritation of the hands in health care facilities, and to evaluate whether that disinfection with an alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR) is better tolerated than classic handwashing with mild soap and water. Our study was conducted in 9 sites in the summer and winter. A team of investigators evaluated dryness and irritation. This study takes into account most of the individual and environmental risk factors (age, sex, use of a protective agent, constitutional factors, personal factors, external factors, institution, function, and number of consecutive working days). The results from the 1932 assessments collected show that traditional handwashing is a risk factor for dryness and irritation, whereas the use of ABHR causes no skin deterioration and might have a protective effect, particularly in intensive use. These results provide a strong argument to counter the rear-guard resistance to the use of ABHRs. PMID:20650547

  17. Prospective randomized clinical study of arterial pumps used for routine on pump coronary bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Keyser, Andreas; Hilker, Michael K; Diez, Claudius; Philipp, Alois; Foltan, Maik; Schmid, Christof

    2011-05-01

    In a number of studies, centrifugal blood pumps--in comparison with roller pumps--have been shown to attenuate trauma to blood components. Nevertheless, the impact of these results on the postoperative course needs to be discussed controversially. In a prospective randomized study, 240 consecutive adult patients underwent elective myocardial revascularization with cardiopulmonary bypass employing five different pumps (Roller, Avecor, Sarns, Rotaflow, Bio-Medicus). We analyzed clinical course, blood loss, damage of blood components, and impairment of the hemostatic system. The study population was homogenous with respect to age, gender, myocardial function, and operative data. No differences were found with respect to time of ventilation, duration of intensive care stay, hospitalization, and laboratory data. The choice of arterial pump during standard extracorporeal bypass for elective coronary artery bypass grafting is no matter of concern.

  18. Lumbar myelography with iohexol and metrizamide: a comparative multicenter prospective study

    SciTech Connect

    Kieffer, S.A.; Binet, E.F.; Davis, D.O.; Gabrielsen, T.O.; Kido, D.K.; Latchaw, R.E.; Turski, P.A.; Shaw, D.D.

    1984-06-01

    Diagnostic quality of radiographs and adverse reactions associated with the use of metrizamide and iohexol as contrast agents in lumbar myelography were compared in a prospective randomized double blind study in 350 patients at seven centers. Overall quality of radiographic visualization was graded good or excellent in 95% of 175 metrizamide studies and in 98% of 175 iohexol studies. Ninety-three patients examined using metrizamide (53%) and 130 patients examined using iohexol (74%) experienced no discomfort during or after myelography. Postmyelographic headache was associated with 38% of metrizamide examinations and 21% of iohexol examinations. Nausea and vomiting were also more common with metrizamide. Five patients examined using metrizamide (3%) experienced transient confusion and disorientation following lumbar myelography. No such reactions were observed following iohexol myelography.

  19. Comparison of the Level of Using Metacognitive Strategies during Study between High Achieving and Low Achieving Prospective Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doganay, Ahmet; Demir, Ozden

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to compare the level of using metacognitive strategies during study between high achieving and low achieving prospective classroom teachers. This study was designed as a mixed method study. Metacognitive Learning Strategies Scale developed by Namlu (2004) was used to measure the use of metacognitive strategies…

  20. Integrating Prospective Longitudinal Data: Modeling Personality and Health in the Terman Life Cycle and Hawaii Longitudinal Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern, Margaret L.; Hampson, Sarah E.; Goldberg, Lewis R.; Friedman, Howard S.

    2014-01-01

    The present study used a collaborative framework to integrate 2 long-term prospective studies: the Terman Life Cycle Study and the Hawaii Personality and Health Longitudinal Study. Within a 5-factor personality-trait framework, teacher assessments of child personality were rationally and empirically aligned to establish similar factor structures…

  1. PROSPECTIVE ASSOCIATIONS OF DEPRESSIVE RUMINATION AND SOCIAL PROBLEM SOLVING WITH DEPRESSION: A 6-MONTH LONGITUDINAL STUDY(.).

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Akira; Hattori, Yosuke; Nishimura, Haruki; Tanno, Yoshihiko

    2015-06-01

    The main purpose of this study was to examine whether depressive rumination and social problem solving are prospectively associated with depressive symptoms. Nonclinical university students (N = 161, 64 men, 97 women; M age = 19.7 yr., SD = 3.6, range = 18-61) recruited from three universities in Japan completed the Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition (BDI-II), the Ruminative Responses Scale, Social Problem-Solving Inventory-Revised Short Version (SPSI-R:S), and the Means-Ends Problem-Solving Procedure at baseline, and the BDI-II again at 6 mo. later. A stepwise multiple regression analysis with the BDI-II and all subscales of the rumination and social problem solving measures as independent variables indicated that only the BDI-II scores and the Impulsivity/carelessness style subscale of the SPSI-R:S at Time 1 were significantly associated with BDI-II scores at Time 2 (β = 0.73, 0.12, respectively; independent variables accounted for 58.8% of the variance). These findings suggest that in Japan an impulsive and careless problem-solving style was prospectively associated with depressive symptomatology 6 mo. later, as contrasted with previous findings of a cycle of rumination and avoidance problem-solving style.

  2. A Prospective Cohort Study on Radiation-induced Hypothyroidism: Development of an NTCP Model

    SciTech Connect

    Boomsma, Marjolein J.; Bijl, Hendrik P.; Christianen, Miranda E.M.C.; Beetz, Ivo; Chouvalova, Olga; Steenbakkers, Roel J.H.M.; Laan, Bernard F.A.M. van der; Oosting, Sjoukje F.; Schilstra, Cornelis; Langendijk, Johannes A.

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: To establish a multivariate normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) model for radiation-induced hypothyroidism. Methods and Materials: The thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level of 105 patients treated with (chemo-) radiation therapy for head-and-neck cancer was prospectively measured during a median follow-up of 2.5 years. Hypothyroidism was defined as elevated serum TSH with decreased or normal free thyroxin (T4). A multivariate logistic regression model with bootstrapping was used to determine the most important prognostic variables for radiation-induced hypothyroidism. Results: Thirty-five patients (33%) developed primary hypothyroidism within 2 years after radiation therapy. An NTCP model based on 2 variables, including the mean thyroid gland dose and the thyroid gland volume, was most predictive for radiation-induced hypothyroidism. NTCP values increased with higher mean thyroid gland dose (odds ratio [OR]: 1.064/Gy) and decreased with higher thyroid gland volume (OR: 0.826/cm{sup 3}). Model performance was good with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.85. Conclusions: This is the first prospective study resulting in an NTCP model for radiation-induced hypothyroidism. The probability of hypothyroidism rises with increasing dose to the thyroid gland, whereas it reduces with increasing thyroid gland volume.

  3. Differential effects of emotional cues on components of prospective memory: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Cona, Giorgia; Kliegel, Matthias; Bisiacchi, Patrizia S

    2015-01-01

    So far, little is known about the neurocognitive mechanisms associated with emotion effects on prospective memory (PM) performance. Thus, this study aimed at disentangling possible mechanisms for the effects of emotional valence of PM cues on the distinct phases composing PM by investigating event-related potentials (ERPs). Participants were engaged in an ongoing N-back task while being required to perform a PM task. The emotional valence of both the ongoing pictures and the PM cues was manipulated (pleasant, neutral, unpleasant). ERPs were recorded during the PM phases, such as encoding, maintenance, and retrieval of the intention. A recognition task including PM cues and ongoing stimuli was also performed at the end of the sessions. ERP results suggest that emotional PM cues not only trigger an automatic, bottom-up, capture of attention, but also boost a greater allocation of top-down processes. These processes seem to be recruited to hold attention toward the emotional stimuli and to retrieve the intention from memory, likely because of the motivational significance of the emotional stimuli. Moreover, pleasant PM cues seemed to modulate especially the prospective component, as revealed by changes in the amplitude of the ERP correlates of strategic monitoring as a function of the relevance of the valence for the PM task. Unpleasant pictures seemed to modulate especially the retrospective component, as revealed by the largest old/new effect being elicited by unpleasant PM pictures in the recognition task.

  4. Economic Consequences Incurred by Living Kidney Donors: A Canadian Multi-Center Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Klarenbach, S; Gill, J S; Knoll, G; Caulfield, T; Boudville, N; Prasad, G V R; Karpinski, M; Storsley, L; Treleaven, D; Arnold, J; Cuerden, M; Jacobs, P; Garg, A X

    2014-01-01

    Some living kidney donors incur economic consequences as a result of donation; however, these costs are poorly quantified. We developed a framework to comprehensively assess economic consequences from the donor perspective including out-of-pocket cost, lost wages and home productivity loss. We prospectively enrolled 100 living kidney donors from seven Canadian centers between 2004 and 2008 and collected and valued economic consequences ($CAD 2008) at 3 months and 1 year after donation. Almost all (96%) donors experienced economic consequences, with 94% reporting travel costs and 47% reporting lost pay. The average and median costs of lost pay were $2144 (SD 4167) and $0 (25th–75th percentile 0, 2794), respectively. For other expenses (travel, accommodation, medication and medical), mean and median costs were $1780 (SD 2504) and $821 (25th–75th percentile 242, 2271), respectively. From the donor perspective, mean cost was $3268 (SD 4704); one-third of donors incurred cost >$3000, and 15% >$8000. The majority of donors (83%) reported inability to perform usual household activities for an average duration of 33 days; 8% reported out-of-pocket costs for assistance with these activities. The economic impact of living kidney donation for some individuals is large. We advocate for programs to reimburse living donors for their legitimate costs. In a prospective costing study, the authors find that economic consequences incurred by living kidney donors are frequent and nontrivial, and a notable proportion of donors experience significant costs. PMID:24597854

  5. Prospective Validation of the Predictive Power of the Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Comorbidity Index: A CIBMTR® Study

    PubMed Central

    Sorror, Mohamed L.; Logan, Brent R.; Zhu, Xiaochun; Rizzo, J. Douglas; Cooke, Kenneth R.; McCarthy, Philip L; Ho, Vincent T.; Horowitz, Mary M.; Pasquini, Marcelo C.

    2015-01-01

    Prospective validation of the hematopoietic cell transplantation-comorbidity index (HCT-CI) using contemporary patients treated with HCT across the Unites States is necessary to confirm its widespread applicability. We performed a prospective observational study including all patients (8115 recipients of allogeneic and 11,652 recipients of autologous HCT) who underwent first HCT that was reported to the CIBMTR between 2007 and 2009. In proportional hazards models, increased HCT-CI scores were independently associated with increases in hazard ratios for NRM (p<0.0001) and overall mortality (p<0.0001) among recipients of allogeneic HCT. HCT-CI Scores of ≥3 were uniformly associated with higher risks for outcomes in both allogeneic and autologous HCT, and all subgroups regardless of diagnoses, age, and conditioning intensity. Recipients of allogeneic HCT with scores of 1–2 who were aged <18 or were treated with lower intensity conditioning regimens had similar outcomes compared to those with score 0. Higher risks for overall mortality, but not for NRM, were observed among recipients of autologous HCT with scores of 1–2 versus 0. Our results confirm the validity the HCT-CI in both allogeneic and autologous HCT. The index should be used as a valid standard-of-care health measure in counseling patients for HCT, in clinical trial design, and in adjusting outcome analyses. PMID:25862591

  6. A prospective study of Mexican American adolescents' academic success: considering family and individual factors.

    PubMed

    Roosa, Mark W; O'Donnell, Megan; Cham, Heining; Gonzales, Nancy A; Zeiders, Katherine H; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Knight, George P; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana

    2012-03-01

    Mexican American youth are at greater risk of school failure than their peers. To identify factors that may contribute to academic success in this population, this study examined the prospective relationships from 5th grade to 7th grade of family (i.e., human capital [a parent with at least a high school education], residential stability, academically and occupationally positive family role models, and family structure) and individual characteristics (i.e., externalizing symptoms, bilingualism, gender, and immigrant status) to the academic performance of 749 Mexican American early adolescents (average age = 10.4 years and 48.7% were girls in 5th grade) from economically and culturally diverse families as these youth made the transition to junior high school. Results indicated that while controlling for prior academic performance, human capital and positive family role models assessed when adolescents were in 5th grade positively related to academic performance in 7th grade. Further, being a girl also was related to greater 7th grade academic success, whereas externalizing symptoms were negatively related to 7th grade academic performance. No other variables in the model were significantly and prospectively related to 7th grade academic performance. Implications for future research and interventions are discussed.

  7. Does menopausal transition really influence mental health? Findings from the prospective long‐term Zurich study

    PubMed Central

    Rössler, Wulf; Ajdacic‐Gross, Vladeta; Riecher‐Rössler, Anita; Angst, Jules; Hengartner, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    In the prospective long‐term Zurich study, we re‐examined the hypothesized association between mental health problems in women and the transition through menopausal stages. One hundred sixty‐eight women from a population‐based Swiss community cohort were prospectively followed up from age 21 to 50. At age 50, the occurrence of hot flushes/night sweats and sleep disturbances was significantly more frequent in peri‐ and post‐menopausal women. Irritability/nervousness was increased only in peri‐menopausal women, but that association was accounted for by neuroticism trait scores at age 30. Transitions to peri‐ or post‐menopause were not related to changes in either the prevalence rates of DSM major depressive episode or anxiety disorders, or the course of psychopathological syndromes as assessed by the Symptom Checklist 90 ‐ Revised. The null associations held when adjusting for duration of reproductive period or age at menopause. Preceding mental health problems between ages 21 and 41, increased neuroticism trait scores at age 30, and concurrent psychosocial distress were significantly related to mental health problems occurring between ages 41 and 50. Depending upon the cut‐off point that was chosen, the arbitrary dichotomization of a continuous depression outcome produced spurious associations with the menopausal transition. We conclude that mental health problems between ages 41 and 50 are probably not directly related to the menopausal transition, and that previously reported associations could be false positives due to inadequate dichotomizations, reporting bias, undisclosed multiple adjustments or overfitting. PMID:27265705

  8. Does menopausal transition really influence mental health? Findings from the prospective long-term Zurich study.

    PubMed

    Rössler, Wulf; Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta; Riecher-Rössler, Anita; Angst, Jules; Hengartner, Michael P

    2016-06-01

    In the prospective long-term Zurich study, we re-examined the hypothesized association between mental health problems in women and the transition through menopausal stages. One hundred sixty-eight women from a population-based Swiss community cohort were prospectively followed up from age 21 to 50. At age 50, the occurrence of hot flushes/night sweats and sleep disturbances was significantly more frequent in peri- and post-menopausal women. Irritability/nervousness was increased only in peri-menopausal women, but that association was accounted for by neuroticism trait scores at age 30. Transitions to peri- or post-menopause were not related to changes in either the prevalence rates of DSM major depressive episode or anxiety disorders, or the course of psychopathological syndromes as assessed by the Symptom Checklist 90 - Revised. The null associations held when adjusting for duration of reproductive period or age at menopause. Preceding mental health problems between ages 21 and 41, increased neuroticism trait scores at age 30, and concurrent psychosocial distress were significantly related to mental health problems occurring between ages 41 and 50. Depending upon the cut-off point that was chosen, the arbitrary dichotomization of a continuous depression outcome produced spurious associations with the menopausal transition. We conclude that mental health problems between ages 41 and 50 are probably not directly related to the menopausal transition, and that previously reported associations could be false positives due to inadequate dichotomizations, reporting bias, undisclosed multiple adjustments or overfitting. PMID:27265705

  9. Differential effects of emotional cues on components of prospective memory: an ERP study

    PubMed Central

    Cona, Giorgia; Kliegel, Matthias; Bisiacchi, Patrizia S.

    2015-01-01

    So far, little is known about the neurocognitive mechanisms associated with emotion effects on prospective memory (PM) performance. Thus, this study aimed at disentangling possible mechanisms for the effects of emotional valence of PM cues on the distinct phases composing PM by investigating event-related potentials (ERPs). Participants were engaged in an ongoing N-back task while being required to perform a PM task. The emotional valence of both the ongoing pictures and the PM cues was manipulated (pleasant, neutral, unpleasant). ERPs were recorded during the PM phases, such as encoding, maintenance, and retrieval of the intention. A recognition task including PM cues and ongoing stimuli was also performed at the end of the sessions. ERP results suggest that emotional PM cues not only trigger an automatic, bottom-up, capture of attention, but also boost a greater allocation of top-down processes. These processes seem to be recruited to hold attention toward the emotional stimuli and to retrieve the intention from memory, likely because of the motivational significance of the emotional stimuli. Moreover, pleasant PM cues seemed to modulate especially the prospective component, as revealed by changes in the amplitude of the ERP correlates of strategic monitoring as a function of the relevance of the valence for the PM task. Unpleasant pictures seemed to modulate especially the retrospective component, as revealed by the largest old/new effect being elicited by unpleasant PM pictures in the recognition task. PMID:25674061

  10. The natural history of postoperative venous thromboemboli in gynecologic oncology: a prospective study of 382 patients

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke-Pearson, D.L.; Synan, I.S.; Colemen, R.E.; Hinshaw, W.; Creasman, W.T.

    1984-04-15

    Three hundred eighty-two patients who underwent major operations for gynecologic malignancy were studied prospectively to determine the natural history of postoperative venous thromboemboli. Iodine 125-labeled fibrinogen leg counting, to diagnose deep venous thrombosis, was performed daily. Sixty-three patients (17%) developed postoperative venous thromboembolic complications. Deep venous thrombosis initially arose in the calf veins in 52 patients. Twenty-seven percent of these thrombi lysed spontaneously. Four percent of thrombi in the calf veins progressed to deep venous thrombosis in the femoral vein, and 4% resulted in pulmonary emboli. Nine other patients developed proximal deep venous thrombosis without prior thrombosis in the calf veins. One patient with proximal deep venous thrombosis also had a pulmonary embolus. Two patients with no evidence of deep venous thrombosis on prospective /sup 125/I-labeled fibrinogen leg counting developed pulmonary emboli, including one fatal pulmonary embolus that was found at autopsy to have arisen from the internal iliac veins. Fifty percent of all venous thromboemboli were detected within 48 hours of operation, although two patients developed significant deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary emboli after discharge from the hospital. These results add important information to our understanding of this disease process, and raise issues related to appropriate treatment and prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism in patients after gynecologic operations.

  11. Coronary artery disease in patients with cerebrovascular disease: a prospective study

    SciTech Connect

    Rokey, R.; Rolak, L.A.; Harati, Y.; Kutka, N.; Verani, M.S.

    1984-07-01

    Coronary artery disease is the cause of death in most patients who have transient ischemic attacks or stroke. Evaluation for this condition is not routinely performed in such patients, and no prospective studies have been reported. We prospectively examined 50 consecutive patients with transient ischemic attacks or mild stroke to determine the prevalence and importance of coronary artery disease. All patients were examined by a cardiologist and underwent both exercise thallium-201 scintigraphy and exercise radionuclide ventriculography. Sixteen patients were suspected to have coronary artery disease on the basis of clinical evaluation. In 15 of these the was confirmed by the nuclear scans. The remaining 34 patients had no clinical evidence of heart disease, yet 14 had abnormal cardiac scans. Twenty of 22 patients with abnormal scans who underwent cardiac catheterization had significant coronary artery disease or a cardiomyopathy. The discovery of heart disease altered clinical management in 13 patients. Overall, 29 of 50 patients had significant coronary artery disease, compared with a 7% prevalence of the condition in other patients of similar age at the same institution.

  12. Serum Taurine and Stroke Risk in Women: A Prospective, Nested Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Fen; Koenig, Karen L.; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Jonas, Saran; Afanasyeva, Yelena; Wójcik, Oktawia P.; Costa, Max; Chen, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Background Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid), a conditionally essential sulfur-containing amino acid, is mainly obtained from diet in humans. Experimental studies have shown that taurine’s main biological actions include bile salt conjugation, blood pressure regulation, anti-oxidation, and anti-inflammation. Methods We conducted a prospective case-control study nested in the New York University Women’s Health Study, a cohort study involving 14,274 women enrolled since 1985. Taurine was measured in pre-diagnostic serum samples of 241 stroke cases and 479 matched controls. Results There was no statistically significant association between serum taurine and stroke risk in the overall study population. The adjusted ORs for stroke were 1.0 (reference), 0.87 (95% CI, 0.59–1.28), and 1.03 (95% CI, 0.69–1.54) in increasing tertiles of taurine (64.3–126.6, 126.7–152.9, and 153.0–308.5 nmol/mL, respectively). A significant inverse association between serum taurine and stroke risk was observed among never smokers, with an adjusted OR of 0.66 (95% CI, 0.37–1.18) and 0.50 (95% CI, 0.26–0.94) for the second and third tertile, respectively (p for trend = 0.01), but not among past or current smokers (p for interaction < 0.01). Conclusions We observed no overall association between serum taurine and stroke risk, although a protective effect was observed in never smokers, which requires further investigation. Taurine, Stroke, Epidemiology, Prospective, Case-control study, NYUWHS. PMID:26866594

  13. A prospective study of dietary acrylamide intake and the risk of breast, endometrial, and ovarian cancers

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Kathryn M.; Mucci, Lorelei A.; Rosner, Bernard A.; Willett, Walter C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Acrylamide is a probable human carcinogen formed during cooking of many common foods. Epidemiological studies of acrylamide and breast cancer risk have been null; however, positive associations with ovarian and endometrial cancers have been reported. We studied acrylamide intake and risk of breast, endometrial, and ovarian cancers in a prospective cohort study. Methods We assessed acrylamide intake among 88,672 women in the Nurses’ Health Study using food frequency questionnaires administered every four years. Between 1980 and 2006 we identified 6301 cases of invasive breast cancer, 484 cases of invasive endometrial adenocarcinoma, and 416 cases of epithelial ovarian cancer. We used Cox proportional hazards models to study the association between acrylamide and cancer risk. Results We found no association between acrylamide intake and breast cancer overall or according to estrogen and progesterone receptor status. We found an increased risk of endometrial cancer among high acrylamide consumers (adjusted relative risk [RR] for highest versus lowest quintile=1.41, 95% CI: 1.01–1.97, p-value for trend=0.03). We observed a non-significant suggestion of increased risk for ovarian cancer overall (RR 1.25, CI: 0.88–1.77, p-trend=0.12), with a significantly increased risk for serous tumors (RR 1.58, CI: 0.99–2.52, p-trend=0.04). Associations did not differ by smoking status. Conclusions We observed no association between acrylamide and breast cancer. Risk of endometrial cancer and possibly ovarian cancer was greater among high acrylamide consumers. Impact This is the second prospective study to report positive associations with endometrial and ovarian cancers. These associations should be further evaluated to inform public health policy. PMID:20693310

  14. Lifestyle Factors and Risk of Restless Legs Syndrome: Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Batool-Anwar, Salma; Li, Yanping; De Vito, Katerina; Malhotra, Atul; Winkelman, John; Gao, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To examine the association between modifiable lifestyle factors, and the risk of developing restless legs syndrome (RLS). Methods: This is a Prospective Cohort study of population including 12,812 men participating in Health Professionals Follow-up Study and 42,728 women participating in the Nurses' Health study II. The participants were free of RLS at baseline (2002 for the HPFS and 2005 for the NHS II) and free of diabetes and arthritis through follow-up. RLS was assessed via a set of questions recommended by International Restless Legs Syndrome Study group. The Information was collected on height, weight, level of physical activity, dietary intake, and smoking status via questionnaires. Results: During 4–6 years of follow-up, we identified 1,538 incident RLS cases. Participants with normal weight, and who were physically active, non-smoker, and had some alcohol consumption had a lower risk of developing RLS. When we combined the effects of these four factors together, we observed a dose response relationship between the increased number of healthy lifestyle factors and a low risk of RLS: after adjusting for potential confounders the pooled odds ratio was 0.67 (95% CI: 0.47–0.97) for 4 vs.0 healthy factors (p trend < 0.001). In contrast, we did not observe significant associations between caffeine consumption or diet quality as assessed by the Alternate Healthy Eating Index, and altered RLS risk in men and women. Conclusions: Several modifiable lifestyle factors may play an important role in RLS risk. Citation: Batool-Anwar S, Li Y, De Vito K, Malhotra A, Winkelman J, Gao X. Lifestyle factors and risk of restless legs syndrome: prospective cohort study. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(2):187–194. PMID:26446243

  15. Increased Calcium Supplementation Postpartum Is Associated with Breastfeeding among Chinese Mothers: Finding from Two Prospective Cohort Studies

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jian; Zhao, Yun; Binns, Colin W.; Lee, Andy H.

    2016-01-01

    The calcium supplementation status during the postpartum period among Chinese lactating women is still unclear. The objective of this study is to utilize data from two population-based prospective cohort studies to examine the calcium supplementation status and to identify whether breastfeeding is associated with increased calcium supplementation among Chinese mothers after child birth. Information from 1540 mothers on breastfeeding and calcium supplementation measured at discharge, 1, 3, and 6 months postpartum were extracted to evaluate the association between breastfeeding and calcium supplementation postpartum. A generalized linear mixed model was applied to each study initially to account for the inherent correlation among repeated measurements, adjusting for socio-demographic, obstetric factors and calcium supplementation during pregnancy. In addition, breastfeeding status measured at different follow-up time points was treated as a time dependent variable in the longitudinal analysis. Furthermore, the effect sizes of the two cohort studies were pooled using fixed effect model. Based on the two cohort studies, the pooled likelihood of taking calcium supplementation postpartum among breastfeeding mothers was 4.02 times (95% confidence interval (2.30, 7.03)) higher than that of their non-breastfeeding counterparts. Dietary supplementation intervention programs targeting different subgroups should be promoted in Chinese women, given currently a wide shortage of dietary calcium intake and calcium supplementation postpartum. PMID:27735835

  16. Depression as a Risk Factor for Mortality in Individuals with Diabetes: A Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Mareike; Köhler, Birgit; Leichsenring, Falk; Kruse, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Objective To quantify the impact of depression measured by self-reports and depression measured by clinical interview on all-cause mortality in individuals with diabetes and to analyze the strength of both associations, the influence of covariates, and possible differences between studies assessing self-rated depressive symptoms and those using a clinical interview to measure depression as predictors of mortality. Research Design and Methods PUBMED and PsycINFO were searched up to July 2013 for prospective studies assessing depression, diabetes and mortality. The pooled hazard ratios were calculated using random-effects models. Results Sixteen studies met the inclusion criteria. After adjustment for demographic variables depression measured by self-reports was associated with an increased all-cause mortality risk (pooled HR = 2.56, 95% CI 1.89–3.47), and the mortality risk remained high after additional adjustment for diabetes complications (HR = 1.76, 95% CI 1.45–2.14,). Six studies reporting adjusted HRs for depression measured by clinical interviews supported the results of the other models (HR = 1.49, 95% CI 1.15–1.93). Conclusions Both depression measured by self-report and depression measured by clinical interview have an unfavorable impact on mortality in individuals with diabetes. The results, however, are limited by the heterogeneity of the primary studies. It remains unclear whether self-reports or clinical interviews for depression are the more precise predictor. PMID:24278183

  17. Complications of continuous renal replacement therapy in critically ill children: a prospective observational evaluation study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) frequently gives rise to complications in critically ill children. However, no studies have analyzed these complications prospectively. The purpose of this study was to analyze the complications of CRRT in children and to study the associated risk factors. Methods A prospective, single-centre, observational study was performed in all critically ill children treated using CRRT in order to determine the incidence of complications related to the technique (problems of catheterization, hypotension at the time of connection to the CRRT, hemorrhage, electrolyte disturbances) and their relationship with patient characteristics, clinical severity, need for vasoactive drugs and mechanical ventilation, and the characteristics of the filtration techniques. Results Of 174 children treated with CRRT, 13 (7.4%) presented problems of venous catheterization; this complication was significantly more common in children under 12 months of age and in those weighing less than 10 kg. Hypotension on connection to CRRT was detected in 53 patients (30.4%). Hypotension was not associated with any patient or CRRT characteristics. Clinically significant hemorrhage occurred in 18 patients (10.3%); this complication was not related to any of the variables studied. The sodium, chloride, and phosphate levels fell during the first 72 hours of CRRT; the changes in electrolyte levels during the course of treatment were not found to be related to any of the variables analyzed, nor were they associated with mortality. Conclusions CRRT-related complications are common in children and some are potentially serious. The most common are hypotension at the time of connection and electrolyte disturbances. Strict control and continuous monitoring of the technique are therefore necessary in children on CRRT. PMID:19925648

  18. Survival of immediately versus delayed loaded short implants: A prospective case series study

    PubMed Central

    Alvira-González, Joaquin; Díaz-Campos, Erick; Sánchez-Garcés, Maria-Angeles

    2015-01-01

    Background To assess and compare survival rates of immediately and delayed loaded short implants (7 mm) in free ends of a partially edentulous jaw with moderate-severe alveolar bone resorption. Material and Methods 24 patients with atrophic edentulous free-ends were included in this prospective study. Four study groups were monitored monthly and their behavior was evaluated: bridges supported only by short implants and mixed short and long implant bridge groups, both with immediate and delayed loading. Failures, bone loss, probing depth and bleeding on probing were evaluated. Results 54 Mk III Shorty TiU and 15 Brånemark System®MK III TiU implants with a length longer than 7mm were included in the study. Twenty-eight implants were inserted following the immediate loading protocol and 26 according a two-stage procedure, depending on the torque value. The cumulative survival rate of short implants was 87% (n=54) after a mean time of 47.72 months (range 33-62 months), showing statistically significant differences related to loading protocol (p=0.047). Short implants immediately loaded had a higher long-term survival rate (96.4%) compared to the other study group (76.9%). Besides, short implants splinted to longer immediately loaded implants presented the highest survival rate (100%). Twenty-five (53.19%) short implants showed a bone loss of less than one millimeter after the follow-up period. Statistically significant differences were found between bleeding on probing, presence of plaque or suppuration and a higher bone loss in both loading protocols (p=0.001). Conclusions Immediate loading of short implants placed on free ends can be considered an option in the treatment protocol of patients with severe bone resorption especially if implants are splinted to others of greater length. Key words: Dental implants, short implants, immediate loading, prospective study, TiUnite surface. PMID:26034926

  19. Clinical value of immunoscintigraphy in colorectal carcinoma patients: A prospective study

    SciTech Connect

    Bischof-Delaloye, A.; Delaloye, B.; Buchegger, F.; Gilgien, W.; Studer, A.; Curchod, S.; Givel, J.C.; Mosimann, F.; Pettavel, J.; Mach, J.P. )

    1989-10-01

    Fifty-seven patients with suspected CEA-producing tumors were studied prospectively by radioimmunoscintigraphy (RIS) using a 123I-labeled anti-CEA monoclonal antibody (MAb) (essentially the F(ab')2 or Fab fragments) and emission computed tomography (ECT). Results of RIS were compared to those of a comprehensive diagnostic study. Final diagnosis was based on surgery, biopsy and autopsy (n = 39) or follow-up findings (n = 18). Three groups of patients were defined: Group A with suspected primary tumors (n = 11), Group B with probable (n = 19) and Group C with questionable (n = 27) tumor relapse. Eighty-eight per cent, 93% and 71% of the anatomic regions studied were correctly identified as being involved, and 97%, 97%, and 87% as being free from tumor in Groups A, B, and C, respectively. In the 27 patients from Group C with no definite diagnosis of relapse, and in whom diagnosis was most difficult, 38 tumor sites were involved. Of these, 21 were detected by both prospective RIS and repeated comprehensive study, six by RIS only and seven by conventional methods only. Four sites remained undetected by both approaches. Ten of the 21 lesions were detected by RIS more than 1 mo earlier than by any other method. Among the seven tumor sites detected by other diagnostic modalities only, three were identified at the time of RIS and four became positive more than 6 mo later. Overall diagnosis was entirely correct in 30, partially correct in 16 and incorrect in six patients studied. RIS with ECT and 123I-labeled anti-CEA MAb allows early detection of recurrence or metastasis of colorectal cancer. It thus contributes to reduced delay between diagnosis and treatment.

  20. Arthroscopic anatomical double bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: A prospective longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Devgan, Ashish; Singh, Amanpreet; Gogna, Paritosh; Singla, Rohit; Magu, Narender Kumar; Mukhopadhyay, Reetadyuti

    2015-01-01

    Background: Single bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction has been the current standard of treatment for ACL deficiency. However, a significant subset of patients continue to report residual symptoms of instability with a poor pivot control. Cadaveric biomechanical studies have shown double bundle (DB) ACL reconstructions to restore the knee kinematics better. This study evaluates the outcome of DB ACL reconstruction. Materials and Methods: 30 consecutive patients who underwent anatomic DB ACL reconstruction were included in this prospective longitudinal study. There were all males with a mean age of 25 ± 7.45 years. All patients were prospectively evaluated using GeNouRoB (GNRB) arthrometer, functional knee scores (International Knee Documentation Committee [IKDC] and Lysholm) and postoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for comparing the graft orientation and footprint of the reconstructed ACL with that of the normal knee. Results: The average followup was 36.2 months. At the time of final followup the mean Lysholm score was 93.13 ± 3.31. As per the objective IKDC score, 26 patients (86.6%) were in Group A while 4 patients (13.3%) were in Group B. The mean differential anterior tibial translation by GNRB, arthrometer was 1.07 ± 0.8 mm (range 0.1-2.3 mm). All cases had a negative pivot shift test. MRI scans of operated and the contralateral normal knee showed the mean sagittal ACL tibial angle coronal ACL tibial angle and tibial ACL footprint to be in accordance with the values of the contralateral, normal knee. Conclusion: The study demonstrates that DB ACL reconstruction restores the ACL anatomically in terms of size and angle of orientation. However, long term studies are needed to further substantiate its role in decreasing the incidence of early osteoarthritic changes compared to the conventional single bundle reconstructions. PMID:26015600

  1. 7 CFR 1710.253 - Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation... TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND GUARANTEES Construction Work Plans and Related Studies § 1710.253 Engineering... engineering and cost studies as specified by RUS. The studies shall cover a period from the beginning of...

  2. 7 CFR 1710.253 - Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation... TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND GUARANTEES Construction Work Plans and Related Studies § 1710.253 Engineering... engineering and cost studies as specified by RUS. The studies shall cover a period from the beginning of...

  3. 7 CFR 1710.253 - Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation... TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND GUARANTEES Construction Work Plans and Related Studies § 1710.253 Engineering... engineering and cost studies as specified by RUS. The studies shall cover a period from the beginning of...

  4. 7 CFR 1710.253 - Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation... TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND GUARANTEES Construction Work Plans and Related Studies § 1710.253 Engineering... engineering and cost studies as specified by RUS. The studies shall cover a period from the beginning of...

  5. 7 CFR 1710.253 - Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation... TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND GUARANTEES Construction Work Plans and Related Studies § 1710.253 Engineering... engineering and cost studies as specified by RUS. The studies shall cover a period from the beginning of...

  6. Accelerator mass spectrometry-enabled studies: current status and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Arjomand, Ali

    2010-03-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry is a detection platform with exceptional sensitivity compared with other bioanalytical platforms. Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is widely used in archeology for radiocarbon dating applications. Early exploration of the biological and pharmaceutical applications of AMS began in the early 1990s. AMS has since demonstrated unique problem-solving ability in nutrition science, toxicology and pharmacology. AMS has also enabled the development of new applications, such as Phase 0 microdosing. Recent development of AMS-enabled applications has transformed this novelty research instrument to a valuable tool within the pharmaceutical industry. Although there is now greater awareness of AMS technology, recognition and appreciation of the range of AMS-enabled applications is still lacking, including study-design strategies. This review aims to provide further insight into the wide range of AMS-enabled applications. Examples of studies conducted over the past two decades will be presented, as well as prospects for the future of AMS.

  7. Postpartum depression in women with epilepsy: Influence of antiepileptic drugs in a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Galanti, Melanie; Newport, D. Jeffrey; Pennell, Page B.; Titchner, Denicia; Newman, Melanee; Knight, Bettina T.; Stowe, Zachary N.

    2013-01-01

    Patients with epilepsy are at high risk for major depressive disorder (MDD) and, according to one report, postpartum depression (PPD) as well. The study described here sought to determine the prevalence and risk factors for PPD among women with epilepsy. Fifty-six women with epilepsy participating in a prospective study of perinatal antiepileptic drug (AED) pharmacokinetics were included. Participants completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Fourteen participants (25.0%) had a postnatal BDI score ≥12 indicative of PPD. Logistic regression indicated that significant risk factors for PPD among women with epilepsy included multiparity (odds ratio = 12.5) and AED polytherapy (odds ratio = 9.3). The rate of PPD was unaffected by the use of specific AEDs. In conclusion, PPD rates are higher among women with epilepsy than the general population, particularly those who are multiparous or receiving AED polytherapy, and there is no evidence that AED selection modifies this risk. PMID:19854113

  8. Prospective clinical study of press-ceramic overlap and full veneer restorations: 7-year results.

    PubMed

    Guess, Petra C; Selz, Christian F; Voulgarakis, Apostolos; Stampf, Susanne; Stappert, Christian F J

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this prospective clinical study was to investigate the long-term performance of all-ceramic veneers with overlap (OV) and full veneer (FV) preparation designs. Twenty-five patients were restored using 42 OV restorations (incisal/palatal butt-joint margin) and 24 FV restorations (palatal rounded shoulder margin). All restorations were leucite-reinforced glass-ceramic anterior veneers. The 7-year Kaplan-Meier survival rate was 100% for FV restorations and 97.6% for OV restorations. The all-ceramic veneers revealed significant deterioration over time according to United States Public Health Service criteria, irrespective of the preparation design. Based on the 7-year results of this study, both preparation designs can be considered reliable treatment options for anterior teeth with extended deficits.

  9. Single-Blind, Prospective, Randomized Study of Cefmetazole and Cefoxitin in the Treatment of Postcesarean Endometritis

    PubMed Central

    Martens, Mark; Grimes, David A.; Chatterjee, Molly; Noah, Melvin; Stamp-Cole, Marion M.; Perry, Kimberly T.; the Cefmetazole Study Group

    1995-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical efficacy and safety of cefmetazole given by IV push with that of parenterally administered cefoxitin for the treatment of endometritis following cesarean delivery. Methods: In a single-blind, multicenter, prospective, randomized study, 355 patients with endometritis after cesarean delivery were enrolled and received medication. Administered was either cefmetazole sodium, 2 g by IV push over 1 min q 8 h, or cefoxitin sodium, 2 g IV q 6 h in a 2:1 ratio. The patients were followed for clinical responses and side effects. Results: The cure rate for cefmetazole was 89% and for cefoxitin it was 79% (P = 0.006). The adverse events were similar in both groups. Conclusions: Cefmetazole was significantly more effective than cefoxitin in the treatment of endometritis following cesarean delivery. PMID:18475417

  10. A prospective study of religiousness and psychological distress among female survivors of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita.

    PubMed

    Chan, Christian S; Rhodes, Jean E; Pérez, John E

    2012-03-01

    This prospective study examined the pathways by which religious involvement affected the post-disaster psychological functioning of women who survived Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. The participants were 386 low-income, predominantly Black, single mothers. The women were enrolled in the study before the hurricane, providing a rare opportunity to document changes in mental health from before to after the storm, and to assess the protective role of religious involvement over time. Results of structural equation modeling indicated that, controlling for level of exposure to the hurricanes, pre-disaster physical health, age, and number of children, pre-disaster religiousness predicted higher levels of post-disaster (1) social resources and (2) optimism and sense of purpose. The latter, but not the former, was associated with better post-disaster psychological outcome. Mediation analysis confirmed the mediating role of optimism and sense of purpose.

  11. A Prospective Study of Religiousness and Psychological Distress Among Female Survivors of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Jean E.; Pérez, John E.

    2013-01-01

    This prospective study examined the pathways by which religious involvement affected the post-disaster psychological functioning of women who survived Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. The participants were 386 low-income, predominantly Black, single mothers. The women were enrolled in the study before the hurricane, providing a rare opportunity to document changes in mental health from before to after the storm, and to assess the protective role of religious involvement over time. Results of structural equation modeling indicated that, controlling for level of exposure to the hurricanes, pre-disaster physical health, age, and number of children, pre-disaster religiousness predicted higher levels of post-disaster (1) social resources and (2) optimism and sense of purpose. The latter, but not the former, was associated with better post-disaster psychological outcome. Mediation analysis confirmed the mediating role of optimism and sense of purpose. PMID:21626083

  12. Transmission of enteric disease associated with wastewater irrigation: A prospective epidemiological study

    SciTech Connect

    Shuval, H.I.; Wax, Y.; Yekutiel, P.; Fattal, B.

    1989-01-01

    A prospective epidemiological study of possible enteric disease transmission by aerosolized pathogens from sprinkler irrigation of partially treated waste water in 20 kibbutzim (collective agricultural settlements) in Israel between March 1981 and February 1982 was conducted. Medical data were collected from the patients' files and daily logs of physicians and nurses at each kibbutzim clinic (total population 10,231). Episodes of enteric disease were similar in the kibbutzim most exposed to wastewater aerosols (11.6 per 100 person-year) and the kibbutzim not exposed to wastewater in any form (11.0 per 100 person-year). No excess of enteric disease was seen among waste water contract workers or their families as compared with the unexposed. No negative health effects were detected in the study which involved a large population, including many young children exposed to treated waste water aerosols generated at distances of 300-600 miles.

  13. Dengue haemorrhagic fever in adults: a prospective study of 110 cases.

    PubMed

    Wali, J P; Biswas, A; Handa, R; Aggarwal, P; Wig, N; Dwivedi, S N

    1999-01-01

    One hundred and ten adult patients hospitalized with dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) during the recent outbreak in North India were prospectively studied. Of these, 48 (43.6%) were grade I, 40 (36.4%) grade II, 10 (9.1%) grade III and 12 (10.9%) grade IV DHF. Dengue shock syndrome (DSS) was seen in 22 (20%) patients. Fever, headache, myalgias and arthralgias were the common symptoms seen in 100%, 80.9%, 76.2% and 52.3% patients, respectively. Spontaneous bleeding was seen in 62 patients (56.4%) with mucocutaneous bleeding being the most common (46 patients). Gastrointestinal bleeding was seen in 38 (34.5%) patients. In as many as 40 patients, the haemorrhagic manifestations occurred after the fever had come down. Fifty-five patients (50%) required platelet transfusions. Twelve patients died, giving a mortality rate of 10.9% in the present study. Prompt recognition and supportive treatment can be lifesaving.

  14. Prospective study of tympanic membrane retraction, hearing loss, and multifrequency tympanometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Hunter, L L; Margolis, R H; Levine, S C; Lindgren, B; Daly, K; Giebink, G S

    1999-11-01

    Tympanic membrane retraction is a significant sequela of OME and has been linked clinically to atelectasis, ossicular erosion, and cholesteatoma. We investigated important factors for prediction of tympanic membrane retraction in a prospective study of 112 children. After 4 to 6 years of follow-up, 12% of ears had pars tensa retraction without atrophy, and 28% had various degrees of retraction with atrophy. Mild pars flaccida retraction was present in 23%, and severe pars flaccida retraction was present in 12%. Retraction severity was related to hearing level and multifrequency tympanometry. Three factors were significantly related to retraction severity: type of tube, male sex, and percent of visits in the second year with abnormal tympanograms. This study shows that type of tube was the most important factor in long-term outcome after tympanostomy tube treatment of OME. PMID:10547462

  15. Cervicogenic headache alleviation after cervical coblation nucleoplasty: A prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    He, Liangliang; Yue, Jianning; Yang, Liqiang; Wu, Baishan; Cao, Guoqing; Guo, Yuna; Lai, Guanghui; Tang, Yuanzhang; Ni, Jiaxiang

    2016-09-01

    A degenerative cervical disc is a pain generator for headaches, and headaches can benefit from cervical prolapse surgery. However, as an alternative intervention for open cervical surgery, no study has reported whether headaches can benefit from cervical nucleoplasty.The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of cervical coblation nucleoplasty in the treatment of cervicogenic headaches.In a prospective cohort study performed between December 2013 and August 2015, 20 patients with cervicogenic headaches undergoing cervical nucleoplasty for shoulder-arm pain were recruited into group C, and 20 patients with cervicogenic headaches undergoing lumbar nucleoplasty for low back pain, matched for age and sex, were recruited into group L. Cervicogenic pain was diagnosed according to the International Headache Society criteria. During the 24-month follow-up, pain visual analog scale (VAS) scores were collected as the primary outcomes, and significant pain relief rate, Neck Disability Index (NDI) headache scores, and Patients Satisfaction Index (PSI) scores were recorded as secondary outcomes to evaluate headache severity and physical function postoperatively.During the 24-month follow-up, a significant decrease in headache VAS scores was observed in group C but not in group L. NDI and PSI scores in group C were better than those in group L. In comparison with the final follow-up, no significant differences in the NDI and PSI scores were found in all observations after surgery. In comparison to group L, ≥50% pain relief was significantly better in group C. No serious complications were observed except for ≤20% of ecchymoma at the needle insertion site.This prospective study indicated that cervicogenic headaches may benefit from nucleoplasty.

  16. Cervicogenic headache alleviation after cervical coblation nucleoplasty: A prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    He, Liangliang; Yue, Jianning; Yang, Liqiang; Wu, Baishan; Cao, Guoqing; Guo, Yuna; Lai, Guanghui; Tang, Yuanzhang; Ni, Jiaxiang

    2016-09-01

    A degenerative cervical disc is a pain generator for headaches, and headaches can benefit from cervical prolapse surgery. However, as an alternative intervention for open cervical surgery, no study has reported whether headaches can benefit from cervical nucleoplasty.The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of cervical coblation nucleoplasty in the treatment of cervicogenic headaches.In a prospective cohort study performed between December 2013 and August 2015, 20 patients with cervicogenic headaches undergoing cervical nucleoplasty for shoulder-arm pain were recruited into group C, and 20 patients with cervicogenic headaches undergoing lumbar nucleoplasty for low back pain, matched for age and sex, were recruited into group L. Cervicogenic pain was diagnosed according to the International Headache Society criteria. During the 24-month follow-up, pain visual analog scale (VAS) scores were collected as the primary outcomes, and significant pain relief rate, Neck Disability Index (NDI) headache scores, and Patients Satisfaction Index (PSI) scores were recorded as secondary outcomes to evaluate headache severity and physical function postoperatively.During the 24-month follow-up, a significant decrease in headache VAS scores was observed in group C but not in group L. NDI and PSI scores in group C were better than those in group L. In comparison with the final follow-up, no significant differences in the NDI and PSI scores were found in all observations after surgery. In comparison to group L, ≥50% pain relief was significantly better in group C. No serious complications were observed except for ≤20% of ecchymoma at the needle insertion site.This prospective study indicated that cervicogenic headaches may benefit from nucleoplasty. PMID:27684803

  17. A Prospective Study to Assess Vancomycin Serum Concentrations inPediatric Patients with Current Dosing Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Arfa, Peyman; Karimi, Abdollah; Rafiei Tabatabaei, Sedigheh; Fahimzad, Alireza; Armin, Shahnaz; Sistanizad, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Concerns about increasing bacterial resistance to vancomycin, have caused the adult treatment guidelines to recommend higher trough concentrations based on the type and location of infectious disease. Although these recommendations are not specific to children, the values can be extrapolated. This prospective study was designed to evaluate efficacy of current vancomycin dosing recommendations to achieve therapeutic trough serum concentration in pediatric patients. Laboratory data, vancomycin dosing and subsequent serum concentrations of children in a community teaching pediatrics hospital were collected and analyzed. Trough serum levels were determined at steady state and compared with Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA) 2011 guidelines for the treatment of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) infections. In a prospective observational, cross-sectional study in a university medical center in Tehran, Iran, 50 patients, who received vancomycin for more than 4 doses, were recruited and their trough vancomycin level was determined. The mean age and creatinine clearance of patients were 5.47 ± 4.24 and 87.5 ± 31.25, respectively. Eleven (22%) patients received vancomycin at 40 mg/kg/day (low dose) and 39 (78%) at 60 mg/kg/day (high dose). Considering trough goals of 10-14 and 15-20 mg/L in low and high dose groups, serum levels in 91% (73% sub- therapeutics) and 85% (69% sub-therapeutics) of patients were not in recommended therapeutic range, respectively. This study has shown that current recommended vancomycin dosing regimens in pediatric patients (40-60 mg/kg/day), resulted in sub-therapeutic serum concentrations in our study population. PMID:27610175

  18. A Prospective Study to Assess Vancomycin Serum Concentrations inPediatric Patients with Current Dosing Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Arfa, Peyman; Karimi, Abdollah; Rafiei Tabatabaei, Sedigheh; Fahimzad, Alireza; Armin, Shahnaz; Sistanizad, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Concerns about increasing bacterial resistance to vancomycin, have caused the adult treatment guidelines to recommend higher trough concentrations based on the type and location of infectious disease. Although these recommendations are not specific to children, the values can be extrapolated. This prospective study was designed to evaluate efficacy of current vancomycin dosing recommendations to achieve therapeutic trough serum concentration in pediatric patients. Laboratory data, vancomycin dosing and subsequent serum concentrations of children in a community teaching pediatrics hospital were collected and analyzed. Trough serum levels were determined at steady state and compared with Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA) 2011 guidelines for the treatment of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) infections. In a prospective observational, cross-sectional study in a university medical center in Tehran, Iran, 50 patients, who received vancomycin for more than 4 doses, were recruited and their trough vancomycin level was determined. The mean age and creatinine clearance of patients were 5.47 ± 4.24 and 87.5 ± 31.25, respectively. Eleven (22%) patients received vancomycin at 40 mg/kg/day (low dose) and 39 (78%) at 60 mg/kg/day (high dose). Considering trough goals of 10-14 and 15-20 mg/L in low and high dose groups, serum levels in 91% (73% sub- therapeutics) and 85% (69% sub-therapeutics) of patients were not in recommended therapeutic range, respectively. This study has shown that current recommended vancomycin dosing regimens in pediatric patients (40-60 mg/kg/day), resulted in sub-therapeutic serum concentrations in our study population. PMID:27610175

  19. Potato intake and incidence of hypertension: results from three prospective US cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    Rimm, Eric B; Willett, Walter C; Forman, John P

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine whether higher intake of baked or boiled potatoes, French fries, or potato chips is associated with incidence of hypertension. Design Prospective longitudinal cohort studies. Setting Healthcare providers in the United States. Participants 62 175 women in Nurses’ Health Study, 88 475 women in Nurses’ Health Study II, and 36 803 men in Health Professionals Follow-up Study who were non-hypertensive at baseline. Main outcome measure Incident cases of hypertension (self reported diagnosis by healthcare provider). Results Compared with consumption of less than one serving a month, the random effects pooled hazard ratios for four or more servings a week were 1.11 (95% confidence interval 0.96 to 1.28; P for trend=0.05) for baked, boiled, or mashed potatoes, 1.17 (1.07 to 1.27; P for trend=0.001) for French fries, and 0.97 (0.87 to 1.08; P for trend=0.98) for potato chips. In substitution analyses, replacing one serving a day of baked, boiled, or mashed potatoes with one serving a day of non-starchy vegetables was associated with decreased risk of hypertension (hazard ratio 0.93, 0.89 to 0.96). Conclusion Higher intake of baked, boiled, or mashed potatoes and French fries was independently and prospectively associated with an increased risk of developing hypertension in three large cohorts of adult men and women. PMID:27189229

  20. Barium swallow study in routine clinical practice: a prospective study in patients with chronic cough*,**

    PubMed Central

    Nin, Carlos Shuler; Marchiori, Edson; Irion, Klaus Loureiro; Paludo, Artur de Oliveira; Alves, Giordano Rafael Tronco; Hochhegger, Daniela Reis; Hochhegger, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the routine use of barium swallow study in patients with chronic cough. METHODS: Between October of 2011 and March of 2012, 95 consecutive patients submitted to chest X-ray due to chronic cough (duration > 8 weeks) were included in the study. For study purposes, additional images were obtained immediately after the oral administration of 5 mL of a 5% barium sulfate suspension. Two radiologists systematically evaluated all of the images in order to identify any pathological changes. Fisher's exact test and the chi-square test for categorical data were used in the comparisons. RESULTS: The images taken immediately after barium swallow revealed significant pathological conditions that were potentially related to chronic cough in 12 (12.6%) of the 95 patients. These conditions, which included diaphragmatic hiatal hernia, esophageal neoplasm, achalasia, esophageal diverticulum, and abnormal esophageal dilatation, were not detected on the images taken without contrast. After appropriate treatment, the symptoms disappeared in 11 (91.6%) of the patients, whereas the treatment was ineffective in 1 (8.4%). We observed no complications related to barium swallow, such as contrast aspiration. CONCLUSIONS: Barium swallow improved the detection of significant radiographic findings related to chronic cough in 11.5% of patients. These initial findings suggest that the routine use of barium swallow can significantly increase the sensitivity of chest X-rays in the detection of chronic cough-related etiologies. PMID:24473762