Science.gov

Sample records for additional qualitative information

  1. Visualizing Qualitative Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slone, Debra J.

    2009-01-01

    The abundance of qualitative data in today's society and the need to easily scrutinize, digest, and share this information calls for effective visualization and analysis tools. Yet, no existing qualitative tools have the analytic power, visual effectiveness, and universality of familiar quantitative instruments like bar charts, scatter-plots, and…

  2. Qualitative Reasoning for Additional Die Casting Applications

    SciTech Connect

    R. Allen Miller; Dehua Cui; Yuming Ma

    2003-05-28

    If manufacturing incompatibility of a product can be evaluated at the early product design stage, the designers can modify their design to reduce the effect of potential manufacturing problems. This will result in fewer manufacturing problems, less redsign, less expensive tooling, lower cost, better quality, and shorter development time. For a given design, geometric reasoning can predict qualitatively the behaviors of a physical manufacturing process by representing and reasoning with incomplete knowledge of the physical phenomena. It integrates a design with manufacturing processes to help designers simultaneously consider design goals and manufacturing constraints during the early design stage. The geometric reasoning approach can encourage design engineers to qualitatively evaluate the compatibility of their design with manufacturing limitations and requirements.

  3. Qualitative Evaluation of Health Information Exchange Efforts

    PubMed Central

    Ash, Joan S.; Guappone, Kenneth P.

    2007-01-01

    Because most health information exchange (HIE) initiatives are as yet immature, formative evaluation is recommended so that what is learned through evaluation can be immediately applied to assist in HIE development efforts. Qualitative methods can be especially useful for formative evaluation because they can guide ongoing HIE growth while taking context into consideration. This paper describes important HIE-related research questions and outlines appropriate qualitative research techniques for addressing them. PMID:17904914

  4. Randomized pilot study and qualitative evaluation of a clinical decision support system for brain tumour diagnosis based on SV ¹H MRS: evaluation as an additional information procedure for novice radiologists.

    PubMed

    Sáez, Carlos; Martí-Bonmatí, Luis; Alberich-Bayarri, Angel; Robles, Montserrat; García-Gómez, Juan M

    2014-02-01

    The results of a randomized pilot study and qualitative evaluation of the clinical decision support system Curiam BT are reported. We evaluated the system's feasibility and potential value as a radiological information procedure complementary to magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to assist novice radiologists in diagnosing brain tumours using MR spectroscopy (1.5 and 3.0T). Fifty-five cases were analysed at three hospitals according to four non-exclusive diagnostic questions. Our results show that Curiam BT improved the diagnostic accuracy in all the four questions. Additionally, we discuss the findings of the users' feedback about the system, and the further work to optimize it for real environments and to conduct a large clinical trial. PMID:24480160

  5. 16 CFR 1102.16 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... PUBLICLY AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE Content Requirements § 1102.16 Additional... in the Database any additional information it determines to be in the public interest,...

  6. 16 CFR 1102.16 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... PUBLICLY AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE Content Requirements § 1102.16 Additional... in the Database any additional information it determines to be in the public interest,...

  7. 16 CFR 1102.16 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... PUBLICLY AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE Content Requirements § 1102.16 Additional... in the Database any additional information it determines to be in the public interest,...

  8. 17 CFR 230.408 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional information. 230... RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 General Requirements § 230.408 Additional information. (a) In addition to the information expressly required to be included in a registration statement,...

  9. 17 CFR 230.408 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional information. 230... RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 General Requirements § 230.408 Additional information. (a) In addition to the information expressly required to be included in a registration statement,...

  10. 47 CFR 25.111 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional information. 25.111 Section 25.111... Applications and Licenses General Application Filing Requirements § 25.111 Additional information. (a) The Commission may request from any party at any time additional information concerning any application, or...

  11. 10 CFR 810.14 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Additional information. 810.14 Section 810.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES § 810.14 Additional information. The... activity to submit additional information....

  12. 47 CFR 25.111 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional information. 25.111 Section 25.111... Applications and Licenses General Application Filing Requirements § 25.111 Additional information. (a) The Commission may request from any party at any time additional information concerning any application, or...

  13. 10 CFR 725.13 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Additional information. 725.13 Section 725.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PERMITS FOR ACCESS TO RESTRICTED DATA Applications § 725.13 Additional information. The... and before the termination of the permit, require additional information in order to enable the...

  14. 47 CFR 25.111 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional information. 25.111 Section 25.111... Applications and Licenses General Application Filing Requirements § 25.111 Additional information. (a) The Commission may request from any party at any time additional information concerning any application, or...

  15. 28 CFR 80.7 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Additional information. 80.7 Section 80.7... § 80.7 Additional information. If an issuer's or domestic concern's submission does not contain all of the information required by § 80.6, the Department of Justice may request whatever...

  16. 28 CFR 80.7 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Additional information. 80.7 Section 80.7... § 80.7 Additional information. If an issuer's or domestic concern's submission does not contain all of the information required by § 80.6, the Department of Justice may request whatever...

  17. Multivariate qualitative analysis of banned additives in food safety using surface enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Shixuan; Xie, Wanyi; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Liqun; Wang, Yunxia; Liu, Xiaoling; Liu, Yulong; Du, Chunlei

    2015-02-01

    A novel strategy which combines iteratively cubic spline fitting baseline correction method with discriminant partial least squares qualitative analysis is employed to analyze the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy of banned food additives, such as Sudan I dye and Rhodamine B in food, Malachite green residues in aquaculture fish. Multivariate qualitative analysis methods, using the combination of spectra preprocessing iteratively cubic spline fitting (ICSF) baseline correction with principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant partial least squares (DPLS) classification respectively, are applied to investigate the effectiveness of SERS spectroscopy for predicting the class assignments of unknown banned food additives. PCA cannot be used to predict the class assignments of unknown samples. However, the DPLS classification can discriminate the class assignment of unknown banned additives using the information of differences in relative intensities. The results demonstrate that SERS spectroscopy combined with ICSF baseline correction method and exploratory analysis methodology DPLS classification can be potentially used for distinguishing the banned food additives in field of food safety.

  18. Multivariate qualitative analysis of banned additives in food safety using surface enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    He, Shixuan; Xie, Wanyi; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Liqun; Wang, Yunxia; Liu, Xiaoling; Liu, Yulong; Du, Chunlei

    2015-02-25

    A novel strategy which combines iteratively cubic spline fitting baseline correction method with discriminant partial least squares qualitative analysis is employed to analyze the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy of banned food additives, such as Sudan I dye and Rhodamine B in food, Malachite green residues in aquaculture fish. Multivariate qualitative analysis methods, using the combination of spectra preprocessing iteratively cubic spline fitting (ICSF) baseline correction with principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant partial least squares (DPLS) classification respectively, are applied to investigate the effectiveness of SERS spectroscopy for predicting the class assignments of unknown banned food additives. PCA cannot be used to predict the class assignments of unknown samples. However, the DPLS classification can discriminate the class assignment of unknown banned additives using the information of differences in relative intensities. The results demonstrate that SERS spectroscopy combined with ICSF baseline correction method and exploratory analysis methodology DPLS classification can be potentially used for distinguishing the banned food additives in field of food safety.

  19. Multivariate qualitative analysis of banned additives in food safety using surface enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    He, Shixuan; Xie, Wanyi; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Liqun; Wang, Yunxia; Liu, Xiaoling; Liu, Yulong; Du, Chunlei

    2015-02-25

    A novel strategy which combines iteratively cubic spline fitting baseline correction method with discriminant partial least squares qualitative analysis is employed to analyze the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy of banned food additives, such as Sudan I dye and Rhodamine B in food, Malachite green residues in aquaculture fish. Multivariate qualitative analysis methods, using the combination of spectra preprocessing iteratively cubic spline fitting (ICSF) baseline correction with principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant partial least squares (DPLS) classification respectively, are applied to investigate the effectiveness of SERS spectroscopy for predicting the class assignments of unknown banned food additives. PCA cannot be used to predict the class assignments of unknown samples. However, the DPLS classification can discriminate the class assignment of unknown banned additives using the information of differences in relative intensities. The results demonstrate that SERS spectroscopy combined with ICSF baseline correction method and exploratory analysis methodology DPLS classification can be potentially used for distinguishing the banned food additives in field of food safety. PMID:25300041

  20. Using Qualitative Methods to Inform Scale Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowan, Noell; Wulff, Dan

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the process by which one study utilized qualitative methods to create items for a multi dimensional scale to measure twelve step program affiliation. The process included interviewing fourteen addicted persons while in twelve step focused treatment about specific pros (things they like or would miss out on by not being…

  1. 16 CFR 1102.16 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... PUBLICLY AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE (Eff. Jan. 10, 2011) Content Requirements... notices, the CPSC shall include in the Database any additional information it determines to be in...

  2. Relating confidence to information uncertainty in qualitative reasoning

    SciTech Connect

    Chavez, Gregory M; Zerkle, David K; Key, Brian P; Shevitz, Daniel W

    2010-12-02

    Qualitative reasoning makes use of qualitative assessments provided by subject matter experts to model factors such as security risk. Confidence in a result is important and useful when comparing competing security risk results. Quantifying the confidence in an evidential reasoning result must be consistent and based on the available information. A novel method is proposed to determine a qualitative measure of confidence in a qualitative reasoning result from the available information uncertainty in the result using membership values in the fuzzy sets of confidence. In this study information uncertainty is quantified through measures of non-specificity and conflict. Fuzzy values for confidence are established from information uncertainty values that lie between the measured minimum and maximum information uncertainty values. Measured values of information uncertainty in each result is used to obtain the confidence. The determined confidence values are used to compare competing scenarios and understand the influences on the desired result.

  3. 10 CFR 810.14 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Additional information. 810.14 Section 810.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES § 810.14 Additional information. The Department of Energy may at any time require a person engaging in any generally or specifically...

  4. 10 CFR 810.14 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Additional information. 810.14 Section 810.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES § 810.14 Additional information. The Department of Energy may at any time require a person engaging in any generally or specifically...

  5. 10 CFR 810.14 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional information. 810.14 Section 810.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES § 810.14 Additional information. The Department of Energy may at any time require a person engaging in any generally or specifically...

  6. 10 CFR 810.14 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Additional information. 810.14 Section 810.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES § 810.14 Additional information. The Department of Energy may at any time require a person engaging in any generally or specifically...

  7. 25 CFR 214.5 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional information. 214.5 Section 214.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.5 Additional information. The officer in...

  8. 25 CFR 214.5 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Additional information. 214.5 Section 214.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.5 Additional information. The officer in charge may, at...

  9. 25 CFR 214.5 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional information. 214.5 Section 214.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.5 Additional information. The officer in...

  10. 25 CFR 214.5 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional information. 214.5 Section 214.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.5 Additional information. The officer in...

  11. 25 CFR 214.5 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Additional information. 214.5 Section 214.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.5 Additional information. The officer in...

  12. 34 CFR 75.231 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DIRECT GRANT PROGRAMS How Grants Are Made Procedures to Make A Grant § 75.231 Additional information. After selecting an application for funding, the Secretary may require the applicant to submit additional information. (Authority: 20 U.S.C. 1221e-3 and 3474)...

  13. 34 CFR 75.231 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DIRECT GRANT PROGRAMS How Grants Are Made Procedures to Make A Grant § 75.231 Additional information. After selecting an application for funding, the Secretary may require the applicant to submit additional information. (Authority: 20 U.S.C. 1221e-3 and 3474)...

  14. 34 CFR 75.231 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DIRECT GRANT PROGRAMS How Grants Are Made Procedures to Make A Grant § 75.231 Additional information. After selecting an application for funding, the Secretary may require the applicant to submit additional information. (Authority: 20 U.S.C. 1221e-3 and 3474)...

  15. 34 CFR 75.231 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DIRECT GRANT PROGRAMS How Grants Are Made Procedures to Make A Grant § 75.231 Additional information. After selecting an application for funding, the Secretary may require the applicant to submit additional information. (Authority: 20 U.S.C. 1221e-3 and 3474)...

  16. 34 CFR 75.231 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DIRECT GRANT PROGRAMS How Grants Are Made Procedures to Make A Grant § 75.231 Additional information. After selecting an application for funding, the Secretary may require the applicant to submit additional information. (Authority: 20 U.S.C. 1221e-3 and 3474)...

  17. GPs’ approaches to documenting stigmatising information: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Dossa, Almas; Welch, Lisa C

    2015-01-01

    Background Complete medical documentation is essential for continuity of care, but the competing need to protect patient confidentiality presents an ethical dilemma. This is particularly poignant for GPs because of their central role in facilitating continuity. Aim To examine how GPs manage medical documentation of stigmatising mental health (MH) and non-MH information. Design and setting A qualitative sub-study of a factorial experiment with GPs practising in Massachusetts, US. Method Semi-structured interviews (n = 128) were audiorecorded and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were coded and analysed for themes. Results GPs expressed difficulties with and inconsistent strategies for documenting stigmatising information. Without being asked directly about stigmatising information, 44 GPs (34%) expressed difficulties documenting it: whether to include clinically relevant but sensitive information, how to word it, and explaining to patients the importance of including it. Additionally, 75 GPs (59%) discussed strategies for managing documentation of stigmatising information. GPs reported four strategies that varied by type of information: to exclude stigmatising information to respect patient confidentiality (MH: 26%, non-MH: 43%); to include but restrict access to information (MH: 13%, non-MH: 25%); to include but neutralise information to minimise potential stigma (MH: 26%, non-MH: 29%); and to include stigmatising information given the potential impact on care (MH: 68%, non-MH: 32%). Conclusion Lack of consistency undermines the potential of medical documentation to efficiently facilitate continuous, coordinated health care because providers cannot be certain how to interpret what is or is not in the chart. A proactive consensus process within the field of primary care would provide much needed guidance for GPs and, ultimately, could enhance quality of care. PMID:26009532

  18. Relating confidence to measured information uncertainty in qualitative reasoning

    SciTech Connect

    Chavez, Gregory M; Zerkle, David K; Key, Brian P; Shevitz, Daniel W

    2010-10-07

    Qualitative reasoning makes use of qualitative assessments provided by subject matter experts to model factors such as security risk. Confidence in a result is important and useful when comparing competing results. Quantifying the confidence in an evidential reasoning result must be consistent and based on the available information. A novel method is proposed to relate confidence to the available information uncertainty in the result using fuzzy sets. Information uncertainty can be quantified through measures of non-specificity and conflict. Fuzzy values for confidence are established from information uncertainty values that lie between the measured minimum and maximum information uncertainty values.

  19. 42 CFR 1008.39 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional information. 1008.39 Section 1008.39 Public Health OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL-HEALTH CARE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OIG AUTHORITIES ADVISORY OPINIONS BY THE OIG Submission of a Formal Request for an Advisory Opinion §...

  20. A qualitative model for temporal reasoning with incomplete information

    SciTech Connect

    Geffner, H.

    1996-12-31

    We develop a qualitative framework for temporal reasoning with incomplete information that features a modeling language based on rules and a semantics based on infinitesimal probabilities. The framework relates logical and probabilistical models, and accommodates in a natural way features that have been found problematic in other models like non-determinism, action qualifications, parallel actions, and abduction to actions and fluents.

  1. Women Empowerment through Health Information Seeking: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Nikbakht Nasrabadi, Alireza; Sabzevari, Sakineh; Negahban Bonabi, Tayebeh

    2015-01-01

    Background Today, women empowering is an important issue.  Several methods have been introduced to empower women. Health information seeking is one of the most important activities in this regard. A wide range of capabilities have been reported as outcomes of health information seeking in several studies. As health information seeking is developed within personal-social interactions and also the health system context, it seems that the qualitative paradigm is appropriate to use in studies in this regard. This study aimed to explore how women’s empowerment through health information seeking is done. Methods In this qualitative content analysis study, data collection was done with regard to inclusion criteria, through purposive sampling by semi-structured interviews with 17 women and using documentation and field notes until data saturation. Qualitative data analysis was done constantly and simultaneous with data collection. Results Four central themes were emerged to explain women’s empowerment through health information seeking that included: a) Health concerns management with three subcategories of Better coping, Stress management, Control of situation, b) Collaborative care with two subcategories of Effective interaction with health professions and Participation in health decision making c) Individual development d) Self-protection with four sub- categories of Life style modification,  Preventive behaviors promoting, Self-care promoting, and  medication adherence. Conclusion The results of this study indicate the importance of women empowerment through foraging their health information seeking rights and comprehensive health information management. PMID:26005690

  2. Information Uncertainty to Compare Qualitative Reasoning Security Risk Assessment Results

    SciTech Connect

    Chavez, Gregory M; Key, Brian P; Zerkle, David K; Shevitz, Daniel W

    2009-01-01

    The security risk associated with malevolent acts such as those of terrorism are often void of the historical data required for a traditional PRA. Most information available to conduct security risk assessments for these malevolent acts is obtained from subject matter experts as subjective judgements. Qualitative reasoning approaches such as approximate reasoning and evidential reasoning are useful for modeling the predicted risk from information provided by subject matter experts. Absent from these approaches is a consistent means to compare the security risk assessment results. Associated with each predicted risk reasoning result is a quantifiable amount of information uncertainty which can be measured and used to compare the results. This paper explores using entropy measures to quantify the information uncertainty associated with conflict and non-specificity in the predicted reasoning results. The measured quantities of conflict and non-specificity can ultimately be used to compare qualitative reasoning results which are important in triage studies and ultimately resource allocation. Straight forward extensions of previous entropy measures are presented here to quantify the non-specificity and conflict associated with security risk assessment results obtained from qualitative reasoning models.

  3. Informal and formal mental health: preliminary qualitative findings

    PubMed Central

    O'Neill, Linda; George, Serena; Koehn, Corinne; Shepard, Blythe

    2013-01-01

    Background Northern-based research on mental health support, no matter the specific profession, helps to inform instruction of new practitioners and practitioners already working in rural or isolated conditions. Understanding the complexities of northern mental health support not only benefits clients and practitioners living in the North, but also helps prepare psychologists and counsellors preparing to work in other countries with large rural and isolated populations. The qualitative phase is part of a multi-year research study on informal and formal mental health support in northern Canada involving the use of qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis methods. Objective The main objective of the qualitative phase interviews was to document in-depth the situation of formal and informal helpers in providing mental health support in isolated northern communities in northern British Columbia, northern Alberta, Yukon and Northwest Territories (NWT). The intent of in-depth interviews was to collect descriptive information on the unique working conditions of northern helping practitioners for the development of a survey and subsequent community action plans for helping practitioner support. Design Twenty participants in northern BC, Yukon and NWT participated in narrative interviews. Consensual qualitative research (CQR) was used in the analysis completed by 7 researchers. The principal researcher and research associate then worked through all 7 analyses, defining common categories and themes, and using selections from each researcher in order to ensure that everyone's analysis was represented in the final consensual summary. Results The preliminary results include 7 main categories consisting of various themes. Defining elements of northern practice included the need for generalist knowledge and cultural sensitivity. The task of working with and negotiating membership in community was identified as essential for northern mental health support. The need

  4. 47 CFR 25.111 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... information it requires for the Advance Publication, Coordination and Notification of frequency assignments..., with respect to individual administrations, by successfully completing coordination agreements. Any... terms and conditions as required to effect coordination of the frequency assignments with...

  5. Qualitative identification of permitted and non-permitted color additives in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Miranda-Bermudez, Enio; Harp, Bhakti Petigara; Barrows, Julie N

    2014-01-01

    Color additives are dyes, pigments, or other substances that can impart color when added or applied to foods, drugs, cosmetics, medical devices, or the human body. These substances must be pre-approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and listed in the Code of Federal Regulations before they may be used in FDA-regulated products. Both domestic and imported cosmetic products sold in interstate commerce fall under FDA jurisdiction, and FDA's district laboratories use a combination of analytical methods for identifying or confirming the presence of potentially violative color additives. We have developed a qualitative method for identifying 29 water- and methanol-soluble color additives in various types of cosmetic products. The color additives are extracted with combinations of methylene chloride, methanol, acetic acid, and water and are identified by LC with photodiode array detection. Estimated LOD values ranged from 0.1 to 1.5 mg/L. A survey of lip products, nail polishes, eye products, blushes, body glitter, face paints, bath products, creams, and toothpastes identified permitted and non-permitted color additives. Our new LC method is intended to supplement the visible spectrophotometry and TLC methods currently used by FDA's district laboratories and will help optimize the use of time, labor, and solvents.

  6. Qualitative identification of permitted and non-permitted colour additives in food products.

    PubMed

    Harp, Bhakti Petigara; Miranda-Bermudez, Enio; Baron, Carolina I; Richard, Gerald I

    2012-01-01

    Colour additives are dyes, pigments or other substances that can impart colour when added or applied to food, drugs, cosmetics, medical devices, or the human body. The substances must be pre-approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) and listed in Title 21 of the US Code of Federal Regulations before they may be used in products marketed in the United States. Some also are required to be batch certified by the USFDA prior to their use. Both domestic and imported products sold in interstate commerce fall under USFDA jurisdiction, and the USFDA's district laboratories use a combination of analytical methods for identifying or confirming the presence of potentially violative colour additives. We have developed a qualitative method for identifying 17 certifiable, certification exempt, and non-permitted colour additives in various food products. The method involves extracting the colour additives from a product and isolating them from non-coloured components with a C(18) Sep-Pak cartridge. The colour additives are then separated and identified by liquid chromatography (LC) with photodiode array detection, using an Xterra RP18 column and gradient elution with aqueous ammonium acetate and methanol. Limits of detection (LODs) ranged from 0.02 to 1.49 mg/l. This qualititative LC method supplements the visible spectrophotometric and thin-layer chromatography methods currently used by the USFDA's district laboratories and is less time-consuming and requires less solvent compared to the other methods. The extraction step in the new LC method is a simple and an efficient process that can be used for most food types.

  7. 17 CFR 240.12b-20 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional information. 240... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 General Requirements As to Contents § 240.12b-20 Additional information. In addition to the information expressly required to be included in a statement or report, there shall...

  8. 17 CFR 270.8b-20 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional information. 270.8b...) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 § 270.8b-20 Additional information. In addition to the information expressly required to be included in a registration statement or report, there...

  9. 29 CFR 2570.39 - Opportunities to submit additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Opportunities to submit additional information. 2570.39... Prohibited Transaction Exemption Applications § 2570.39 Opportunities to submit additional information. (a) An applicant may notify the Department of its intent to submit additional information supporting...

  10. Teaching Qualitative Research: Using Theory to Inform Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sallee, Margaret W.

    2010-01-01

    This article considers how theories of instructional scaffolding--which call for a skilled expert to teach a novice a new task by breaking it into smaller pieces--might be employed in graduate-level qualitative methods courses. The author discusses how she used instructional scaffolding in the design and delivery of a qualitative methods course…

  11. 43 CFR 3430.4-2 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional information. 3430.4-2 Section... Leases § 3430.4-2 Additional information. (a) If the applicant for a preference right lease has submitted timely, some, but not all of the information required in § 3430.4-1 of this title, the authorized...

  12. 34 CFR 303.212 - Additional information and assurances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... system as required by section 427(b) of GEPA; and (b) Other information and assurances as the Secretary... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Additional information and assurances. 303.212 Section... Additional information and assurances. Each application must contain— (a) A description of the steps...

  13. 34 CFR 303.212 - Additional information and assurances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... system as required by section 427(b) of GEPA; and (b) Other information and assurances as the Secretary... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Additional information and assurances. 303.212 Section... Additional information and assurances. Each application must contain— (a) A description of the steps...

  14. 29 CFR 2570.39 - Opportunities to submit additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Opportunities to submit additional information. 2570.39... Processing of Prohibited Transaction Exemption Applications § 2570.39 Opportunities to submit additional information. (a) An applicant may notify the Department of its intent to submit additional...

  15. 29 CFR 2570.39 - Opportunities to submit additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Opportunities to submit additional information. 2570.39... Processing of Prohibited Transaction Exemption Applications § 2570.39 Opportunities to submit additional information. (a) An applicant may notify the Department of its intent to submit additional...

  16. 29 CFR 2570.39 - Opportunities to submit additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Opportunities to submit additional information. 2570.39... Processing of Prohibited Transaction Exemption Applications § 2570.39 Opportunities to submit additional information. (a) An applicant may notify the Department of its intent to submit additional...

  17. DETAIL OF PLAQUE WITH ADDITIONAL DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION INFORMATION, SOUTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF PLAQUE WITH ADDITIONAL DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION INFORMATION, SOUTHEAST ABUTMENT - Connecticut Avenue Bridge, Spans Rock Creek & Potomac Parkway at Connecticut Avenue, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  18. 19 CFR 111.60 - Request for additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Request for additional information. 111.60 Section 111.60 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT... particular language of the proposed statement of charges as to which additional information is needed. If...

  19. 40 CFR 141.154 - Required additional health information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Required additional health information... Required additional health information. (a) All reports must prominently display the following language... from their health care providers. EPA/CDC guidelines on appropriate means to lessen the risk...

  20. 40 CFR 141.154 - Required additional health information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Required additional health information... Required additional health information. (a) All reports must prominently display the following language... from their health care providers. EPA/CDC guidelines on appropriate means to lessen the risk...

  1. 40 CFR 141.154 - Required additional health information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Required additional health information... Required additional health information. (a) All reports must prominently display the following language... from their health care providers. EPA/CDC guidelines on appropriate means to lessen the risk...

  2. 40 CFR 141.154 - Required additional health information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Required additional health information... Required additional health information. (a) All reports must prominently display the following language... from their health care providers. EPA/CDC guidelines on appropriate means to lessen the risk...

  3. 40 CFR 141.154 - Required additional health information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Required additional health information... Required additional health information. (a) All reports must prominently display the following language... from their health care providers. EPA/CDC guidelines on appropriate means to lessen the risk...

  4. 10 CFR 71.39 - Requirement for additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirement for additional information. 71.39 Section 71.39 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PACKAGING AND TRANSPORTATION OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Application for Package Approval § 71.39 Requirement for additional information. The...

  5. Informal Payments for Health Care in Iran: Results of a Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    PARSA, Mojtaba; ARAMESH, Kiarash; NEDJAT, Saharnaz; KANDI, Mohammad Jafar; LARIJANI, Bagher

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Informal payments to health care providers have been reported in many African, Asian and European countries. This study aimed to investigate different aspects of these payments that are also known as under-the-table payments in Iran. Methods This is an in-depth interview-based qualitative study conducted on 12 purposively chosen clinical specialists. The interviewees answered 9 questions including the ones about, definitions of informal payments, the specialties and hospitals mostly involved with the problem, how they are paid, factors involved, motivation of patients for the payments, impact of the payments on the health care system and physician-patient relationship and the ways to face up with the problem. The findings of the study were analyzed using qualitative content analysis method. Results Six topics were extracted from the interviews including definitions, commonness, varieties, motivations, outcomes and preventive measures. It was revealed that under-the-table payments are the money taken (either in private or public portions) from patients in addition to what formally is determined. This problem is mostly seen in surgical services and the most important reason for it is unrealistic tariffs. Conclusion Regarding the soaring commonness of informal payments rooted in underpayments of health expenditures in some specialties, which deeply affect the poor, the government has to boost the capitation and to invest on health sectors through supporting the health insurance companies and actualizing the health care costs in accord with the real price of the health care delivered. PMID:26060779

  6. A Public Opinion Survey on Correctional Education: Does Additional Information on Efficacy Lead to Additional Support?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waterland, Keri Lynn

    2009-01-01

    Though much research has been done on the efficacy of correctional education on reducing recidivism rates for prison inmates, there is little research on the effect that information about the efficacy of correctional education has on public opinion. This study examined whether providing additional information regarding the efficacy of correctional…

  7. Qualitative Parameters for Evaluation Procedures of Non-Formal and Informal Learning Achievements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stasiunaitiene, Egle; Kaminskiene, Lina

    2009-01-01

    The article introduces evaluation principles of non-formal and informal learning that determine the quality of evaluation, describes stages of the evaluation procedure, differentiates their qualitative parameters and defines their criteria and indicators. It also brings in the discussion that consideration of qualitative parameters for the…

  8. A Coding System for Qualitative Studies of the Information-Seeking Process in Computer Science Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moral, Cristian; de Antonio, Angelica; Ferre, Xavier; Lara, Graciela

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In this article we propose a qualitative analysis tool--a coding system--that can support the formalisation of the information-seeking process in a specific field: research in computer science. Method: In order to elaborate the coding system, we have conducted a set of qualitative studies, more specifically a focus group and some…

  9. 77 FR 28894 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Collection of Qualitative Feedback Through Focus Groups

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-16

    ... Register on February 8, 2012, at 77 FR 6573, allowing for a 60-day public comment period. USCIS/did not... Qualitative Feedback Through Focus Groups ACTION: 30-Day Notice of Information Collection for Office of... sure to add ``1615-NEW, Collection of Qualitative Feedback through Focus Groups'' in the subject...

  10. 21 CFR 807.26 - Additional listing information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... FDA electronic device registration and listing system. Electronic submissions of such information must...) MEDICAL DEVICES ESTABLISHMENT REGISTRATION AND DEVICE LISTING FOR MANUFACTURERS AND INITIAL IMPORTERS OF DEVICES Procedures for Device Establishments § 807.26 Additional listing information. (a) Each owner...

  11. 21 CFR 807.26 - Additional listing information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FDA electronic device registration and listing system. Electronic submissions of such information must...) MEDICAL DEVICES ESTABLISHMENT REGISTRATION AND DEVICE LISTING FOR MANUFACTURERS AND INITIAL IMPORTERS OF DEVICES Procedures for Device Establishments § 807.26 Additional listing information. (a) Each owner...

  12. Value Addition in Information Technology and Literacy: An Empirical Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanghera, Kamaljeet K.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the research is to analyze the value addition in students' information communication and technology (ICT) literacy level and confidence in using technology after completing a general education information technology course at a four-year university. An online survey was created to examine students' perceptions. The findings revealed…

  13. 28 CFR 4.4 - Supporting affidavit; additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... EMPLOYEE RETIREMENT INCOME SECURITY ACT OF 1974 § 4.4 Supporting affidavit; additional information. (a... together with any other person and the amount and source of all income during the immediately preceding five calendar years plus income to date of application. (12) Any other information which the...

  14. Information Literacy in the Workplace: A Qualitative Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, John; Irving, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Although increasingly recognized as a future skills issue, the use of information in the workplace is a little studied area within library and information research. A substantial "pedagogic" literature of learning in the workplace exists, however, and this was critically reviewed to generate a repertoire of issues which could in turn be used to…

  15. Student Use of Quantitative and Qualitative Information on Rate MyPprofessors.com for Course Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Matthew W.; Prus, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined whether students used qualitative information, quantitative information, or both when making course selection decisions. Participants reviewed information on four hypothetical courses in an advising context before indicating their likelihood to enroll in those courses and ranking them according to preference. Modeled…

  16. Beyond the Call of Duty: A Qualitative Study of Teachers' Additional Responsibilities Related to Sexuality Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Marla E.; Madsen, Nikki; Oliphant, Jennifer A.; Resnick, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Seven focus groups were conducted with sexuality educators in Minnesota to explore ways that teaching sexuality education differs from teaching other health education content and to determine if additional supports or resources are needed for sexuality educators. Teachers described many specific additional responsibilities or concerns related to…

  17. How Qualitative Research Informs Clinical and Policy Decision Making in Transplantation: A Review.

    PubMed

    Tong, Allison; Morton, Rachael L; Webster, Angela C

    2016-09-01

    Patient-centered care is no longer just a buzzword. It is now widely touted as a cornerstone in delivering quality care across all fields of medicine. However, patient-centered strategies and interventions necessitate evidence about patients' decision-making processes, values, priorities, and needs. Qualitative research is particularly well suited to understanding the experience and perspective of patients, donors, clinicians, and policy makers on a wide range of transplantation-related topics including organ donation and allocation, adherence to prescribed therapy, pretransplant and posttransplant care, implementation of clinical guidelines, and doctor-patient communication. In transplantation, evidence derived from qualitative research has been integrated into strategies for shared decision-making, patient educational resources, process evaluations of trials, clinical guidelines, and policies. The aim of this article is to outline key concepts and methods used in qualitative research, guide the appraisal of qualitative studies, and assist clinicians to understand how qualitative research may inform their practice and policy. PMID:27479165

  18. How Qualitative Research Informs Clinical and Policy Decision Making in Transplantation: A Review.

    PubMed

    Tong, Allison; Morton, Rachael L; Webster, Angela C

    2016-09-01

    Patient-centered care is no longer just a buzzword. It is now widely touted as a cornerstone in delivering quality care across all fields of medicine. However, patient-centered strategies and interventions necessitate evidence about patients' decision-making processes, values, priorities, and needs. Qualitative research is particularly well suited to understanding the experience and perspective of patients, donors, clinicians, and policy makers on a wide range of transplantation-related topics including organ donation and allocation, adherence to prescribed therapy, pretransplant and posttransplant care, implementation of clinical guidelines, and doctor-patient communication. In transplantation, evidence derived from qualitative research has been integrated into strategies for shared decision-making, patient educational resources, process evaluations of trials, clinical guidelines, and policies. The aim of this article is to outline key concepts and methods used in qualitative research, guide the appraisal of qualitative studies, and assist clinicians to understand how qualitative research may inform their practice and policy.

  19. 25 CFR 215.17 - Additional information required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional information required. 215.17 Section 215.17 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEAD AND ZINC MINING... interested in lead and zinc mining leases, or land under the jurisdiction of the Quapaw Indian Agency,...

  20. 25 CFR 227.7 - Additional information from applicant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Additional information from applicant. 227.7 Section 227.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING How to Acquire Leases §...

  1. 25 CFR 227.7 - Additional information from applicant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Additional information from applicant. 227.7 Section 227.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING How to Acquire...

  2. 25 CFR 227.7 - Additional information from applicant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional information from applicant. 227.7 Section 227.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING How to Acquire...

  3. 46 CFR 535.606 - Requests for additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requests for additional information. 535.606 Section 535.606 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE OCEAN COMMON CARRIER AND MARINE TERMINAL OPERATOR AGREEMENTS SUBJECT TO THE SHIPPING ACT OF 1984...

  4. 21 CFR 207.31 - Additional drug listing information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Additional drug listing information. 207.31 Section 207.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL REGISTRATION OF PRODUCERS OF DRUGS AND LISTING OF DRUGS IN COMMERCIAL...

  5. 25 CFR 227.7 - Additional information from applicant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional information from applicant. 227.7 Section 227.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING How to Acquire...

  6. 25 CFR 227.7 - Additional information from applicant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional information from applicant. 227.7 Section 227.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING How to Acquire...

  7. 21 CFR 207.31 - Additional drug listing information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional drug listing information. 207.31 Section 207.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL REGISTRATION OF PRODUCERS OF DRUGS AND LISTING OF DRUGS IN COMMERCIAL...

  8. 21 CFR 207.31 - Additional drug listing information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional drug listing information. 207.31 Section 207.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL REGISTRATION OF PRODUCERS OF DRUGS AND LISTING OF DRUGS IN COMMERCIAL...

  9. 21 CFR 207.31 - Additional drug listing information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional drug listing information. 207.31 Section 207.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL REGISTRATION OF PRODUCERS OF DRUGS AND LISTING OF DRUGS IN COMMERCIAL...

  10. 49 CFR 235.12 - Additional required information-prints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... OR MATERIAL MODIFICATION OF A SIGNAL SYSTEM OR RELIEF FROM THE REQUIREMENTS OF PART 236 § 235.12... application should be shown uncolored. (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional required information-prints....

  11. 38 CFR 39.3 - Decisionmakers, notifications, and additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Decisionmakers, notifications, and additional information. 39.3 Section 39.3 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) AID TO STATES FOR ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT...

  12. New elements for informed decision making: a qualitative study of older adults’ views

    PubMed Central

    Price, Erika Leemann; Bereknyei, Sylvia; Kuby, Alma; Levinson, Wendy; Braddock, Clarence H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore older adults’ views of existing Informed Decision Making (IDM) elements and investigate the need for additional elements. Methods We recruited persons 65 and older to participate in six focus groups. Participants completed questionnaires about IDM preferences, and discussed videotapes of idealized patient-physician interactions in light of seven IDM elements: 1) discussion of the patient's role in decision-making; 2) discussion of the clinical issue; 3) discussion of alternatives; 4) discussion of benefits/risks; 5) discussion of uncertainties; 6) assessment of patient understanding; and 7) exploration of patient preference. We used a modified grounded theory approach to assess agreement with existing IDM elements and identify new elements. Results In questionnaires, 97–100% of 59 participants rated each IDM element as “somewhat” or “very” important. Qualitative analysis supported existing elements and suggested two more: opportunity for input from trusted others, and discussion of decisions’ impacts on patients’ daily lives. Elements overlapped with global communication themes. Conclusion Focus groups affirmed existing IDM elements and suggested two more with particular relevance for older patients. Practice implications Incorporation of additional IDM elements into clinical practice can enhance informed participation of older adults in decision-making. PMID:21757315

  13. Synthesising quantitative and qualitative research in evidence‐based patient information

    PubMed Central

    Goldsmith, Megan R; Bankhead, Clare R; Austoker, Joan

    2007-01-01

    Background Systematic reviews have, in the past, focused on quantitative studies and clinical effectiveness, while excluding qualitative evidence. Qualitative research can inform evidence‐based practice independently of other research methodologies but methods for the synthesis of such data are currently evolving. Synthesising quantitative and qualitative research in a single review is an important methodological challenge. Aims This paper describes the review methods developed and the difficulties encountered during the process of updating a systematic review of evidence to inform guidelines for the content of patient information related to cervical screening. Methods Systematic searches of 12 electronic databases (January 1996 to July 2004) were conducted. Studies that evaluated the content of information provided to women about cervical screening or that addressed women's information needs were assessed for inclusion. A data extraction form and quality assessment criteria were developed from published resources. A non‐quantitative synthesis was conducted and a tabular evidence profile for each important outcome (eg “explain what the test involves”) was prepared. The overall quality of evidence for each outcome was then assessed using an approach published by the GRADE working group, which was adapted to suit the review questions and modified to include qualitative research evidence. Quantitative and qualitative studies were considered separately for every outcome. Results 32 papers were included in the systematic review following data extraction and assessment of methodological quality. The review questions were best answered by evidence from a range of data sources. The inclusion of qualitative research, which was often highly relevant and specific to many components of the screening information materials, enabled the production of a set of recommendations that will directly affect policy within the NHS Cervical Screening Programme. Conclusions A

  14. Informal hospice caregiver pain management concerns: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, Marjorie; Demiris, George; Nguyen, Huong; Oliver, Debra P; Wittenberg-Lyles, Elaine

    2014-01-01

    Background Informal, unpaid, family caregivers provide much hospice care in the United States. These caregivers suffer physically, psychologically, emotionally, and socially from the burden of caring. The most often identified area of caregiver burden is the management of end-of-life pain. However, little empirical evidence exists of effective interventions to help caregivers manage end-of-life pain, and issues surrounding caregiver pain management remain vague and undefined. Understanding these concerns will inform the design of effective caregiver interventions. Aim The purpose of this study was to describe and organize caregiver pain management challenges faced by home hospice caregivers of cancer patients. Design A content analysis of secondary data, namely, recordings of caregiver interviews, was conducted to describe pain management issues. These interviews were part of a larger clinical trial. Setting/participants Multiple sessions with 29 informal caregivers, of patients dying of cancer, were audio-recorded. Subjects were purposively selected from two hospice programs in the Northwestern United States. Caregivers of noncancer patients were excluded from the study sample. Results A framework of six major themes with subordinate subthemes was developed through a literature review and peer review. The framework was used to organize the content of 87 caregiver interviews. The six major themes identified in the analysis included Caregiver-Centric Issues, Caregiver Medication Skills and Knowledge Issues, End-of-Life Symptom Knowledge Issues, Communication and Teamwork Issues, Organizational Skill Issues, and Patient-Centric Issues. Conclusion This analysis clearly articulated and classified caregiver issues surrounding pain management. Future hospice research may benefit from the use of this analysis and framework in the development of tools to alleviate this major cause of caregiver burden. PMID:23612959

  15. Qualitative Phenomenological Study of Data Management Information System Deployments: Financial Services Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerns, Dannie J.

    2014-01-01

    The qualitative phenomenological study explored the lived experiences of financial services industry change managers to understand the genesis of low data management information system project adoption rates. The goal of the study was to find methods to improve data management information system adoption rates. The participant pool consisted of 19…

  16. Balancing the Books: Emphasizing the Importance of Qualitative Evaluation for Understanding Electronic Information Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, Pete; McNicol, Sarah

    2004-01-01

    Evaluation in Library and Information Services has traditionally focused on quantitative measures of input and output. This trend has been generally reflected in the emerging efforts relating to the evaluation of electronic information services (EIS). Less well developed are qualitative approaches to evaluation of EIS. Issues that feature high on…

  17. Qualitative Analysis of Additives in Plastic Marine Debris and Its New Products.

    PubMed

    Rani, Manviri; Shim, Won Joon; Han, Gi Myung; Jang, Mi; Al-Odaini, Najat Ahmed; Song, Young Kyong; Hong, Sang Hee

    2015-10-01

    Due to their formulation and/or processing, plastics contain additives and impurities that may leach out under conditions of use and accumulate in the environment. To evaluate their role as vectors of chemical contaminants in marine environment, plastic debris (n = 19) collected from coastal beaches along with new plastics (n = 25; same or same brand) bought from local markets were screened by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in full scan mode. Detected peaks were identified using NIST library in different polymers (polypropylene (PP) > polyethylene (PE) > PP + PE > polyethyl terephthalate > poly(acylene:styrene) with different use (food, fishery, and general use). A database on the presence of 231 different chemicals were grouped into hydrocarbons, ultra-violet (UV)-stabilizers, antioxidants, plasticizers, lubricants, intermediates, compounds for dyes and inks, flame retardants, etc. The UV326, UV327, UV328, UV320, UvinualMC80, irganox 1076, DEHP, antioxidant no 33, di-n-octylisophthalate, diisooctyl phthalate, hexanoic acid 2-ethyl-hexadecyl ester, and hydrocarbons were most frequently detected. Finding of toxic phthalates and UV stabilizers in those products having moisture contact (like bottles with short use) raised concern to humans and indicated their irregular use. The comparison between new and debris plastics clearly indicated the leaching and absorption of chemicals and supports our assumption of plastic as media for transferring these additives in marine environment.

  18. Qualitative Analysis of Additives in Plastic Marine Debris and Its New Products.

    PubMed

    Rani, Manviri; Shim, Won Joon; Han, Gi Myung; Jang, Mi; Al-Odaini, Najat Ahmed; Song, Young Kyong; Hong, Sang Hee

    2015-10-01

    Due to their formulation and/or processing, plastics contain additives and impurities that may leach out under conditions of use and accumulate in the environment. To evaluate their role as vectors of chemical contaminants in marine environment, plastic debris (n = 19) collected from coastal beaches along with new plastics (n = 25; same or same brand) bought from local markets were screened by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in full scan mode. Detected peaks were identified using NIST library in different polymers (polypropylene (PP) > polyethylene (PE) > PP + PE > polyethyl terephthalate > poly(acylene:styrene) with different use (food, fishery, and general use). A database on the presence of 231 different chemicals were grouped into hydrocarbons, ultra-violet (UV)-stabilizers, antioxidants, plasticizers, lubricants, intermediates, compounds for dyes and inks, flame retardants, etc. The UV326, UV327, UV328, UV320, UvinualMC80, irganox 1076, DEHP, antioxidant no 33, di-n-octylisophthalate, diisooctyl phthalate, hexanoic acid 2-ethyl-hexadecyl ester, and hydrocarbons were most frequently detected. Finding of toxic phthalates and UV stabilizers in those products having moisture contact (like bottles with short use) raised concern to humans and indicated their irregular use. The comparison between new and debris plastics clearly indicated the leaching and absorption of chemicals and supports our assumption of plastic as media for transferring these additives in marine environment. PMID:26329499

  19. Instructions for additional qualitative scoring of the initial-letter Word-association Test.

    PubMed

    Zivković, M

    1994-04-01

    An additional scoring method is based on grouping test-words according to whether the same sign is given by subjects to the test-words. In this way five test-word categories are formed, Eros (test-words with double plus signs), demi-Eros (single plus sign), demi-Thanatos (single minus), Thanatos (double minus), and Deviant (+/- and theta signs). The next step in scoring is to count the number of test-words in a given scoring category whose meanings do not conform. The greater the discrepancy between the test-word category and its meaning, the less well adapted is the subject. Several illustrative protocols are discussed. PMID:8022674

  20. Censored data treatment using additional information in intelligent medical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zenkova, Z. N.

    2015-11-01

    Statistical procedures are a very important and significant part of modern intelligent medical systems. They are used for proceeding, mining and analysis of different types of the data about patients and their diseases; help to make various decisions, regarding the diagnosis, treatment, medication or surgery, etc. In many cases the data can be censored or incomplete. It is a well-known fact that censorship considerably reduces the efficiency of statistical procedures. In this paper the author makes a brief review of the approaches which allow improvement of the procedures using additional information, and describes a modified estimation of an unknown cumulative distribution function involving additional information about a quantile which is known exactly. The additional information is used by applying a projection of a classical estimator to a set of estimators with certain properties. The Kaplan-Meier estimator is considered as an estimator of the unknown cumulative distribution function, the properties of the modified estimator are investigated for a case of a single right censorship by means of simulations.

  1. A Qualitative Study of Information Technology Students' Learning Outcomes during a Cooperative Education Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krejci, Katherine T.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative descriptive study was to describe the learning outcomes of the cooperative-education experience from an Information Technology student's perspective at a large Fortune 500 manufacturing/sales company located in the Midwest United States. Open-ended interview questions were developed based on the four-component model…

  2. Gender Differences in the Field of Information Security Technology Management: A Qualitative, Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Marcia L.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study explored why there are so few senior women in the information security technology management field and whether gender played a part in the achievement of women in the field. Extensive interviews were performed to capture the lived experiences of successful women in the field regarding the obstacles and common denominators of…

  3. Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Nutrition and Food Safety Information in School Science Textbooks of India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subba Rao, G. M.; Vijayapushapm, T.; Venkaiah, K.; Pavarala, V.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess quantity and quality of nutrition and food safety information in science textbooks prescribed by the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE), India for grades I through X. Design: Content analysis. Methods: A coding scheme was developed for quantitative and qualitative analyses. Two investigators independently coded the…

  4. Quantitative Analysis of Qualitative Information from Interviews: A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fakis, Apostolos; Hilliam, Rachel; Stoneley, Helen; Townend, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background: A systematic literature review was conducted on mixed methods area. Objectives: The overall aim was to explore how qualitative information from interviews has been analyzed using quantitative methods. Methods: A contemporary review was undertaken and based on a predefined protocol. The references were identified using inclusion and…

  5. Usability of geographic information -- factors identified from qualitative analysis of task-focused user interviews.

    PubMed

    Harding, Jenny

    2013-11-01

    Understanding user needs for geographic information and the factors which influence the usability of such information in diverse user contexts is an essential part of user centred development of information products. There is relatively little existing research focused on the design and usability of information products in general. This paper presents a research approach based on semi structured interviews with people working with geographic information on a day to day basis, to establish a reference base of qualitative data on user needs for geographic information with respect to context of use. From this reference data nine key categories of geographic information usability are identified and discussed in the context of limited existing research concerned with geographic information usability.

  6. Changing constructions of informed consent: qualitative research and complex social worlds.

    PubMed

    Miller, Tina; Boulton, Mary

    2007-12-01

    Informed consent is a concept which attempts to capture and convey what is regarded as the appropriate relationship between researcher and research participant. Definitions have traditionally emphasised respect for autonomy and the right to self-determination of the individual. However, the meaning of informed consent and the values on which it is based are grounded in society and the practicalities of social relationships. As society changes, so too do the meaning and practice of informed consent. In this paper, we trace the ways in which the meaning and practice of informed consent has changed over the last 35 years with reference to four qualitative studies of parenting and children in the UK which we have undertaken at different points in our research careers. We focus in particular on the shifting boundaries between the professional and personal, and changing expressions of agency and power in a context of heightened perceptions of risk in everyday life. We also discuss developments in information and communication technologies as a factor in changing both the formal requirements for and the situated practicalities of obtaining informed consent. We conclude by considering the implications for informed consent of both increasing bureaucratic regulation and increasingly sophisticated information and communication technologies and suggest strategies for rethinking and managing 'consent' in qualitative research practice.

  7. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  8. Use of the Blue Button Online Tool for Sharing Health Information: Qualitative Interviews With Patients and Providers

    PubMed Central

    Fix, Gemmae M; Hogan, Timothy P; Simon, Steven R; Nazi, Kim M; Turvey, Carolyn L

    2015-01-01

    Background Information sharing between providers is critical for care coordination, especially in health systems such as the United States Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), where many patients also receive care from other health care organizations. Patients can facilitate this sharing by using the Blue Button, an online tool that promotes patients’ ability to view, print, and download their health records. Objective The aim of this study was to characterize (1) patients’ use of Blue Button, an online information-sharing tool in VA’s patient portal, My HealtheVet, (2) information-sharing practices between VA and non-VA providers, and (3) how providers and patients use a printed Blue Button report during a clinical visit. Methods Semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted with 34 VA patients, 10 VA providers, and 9 non-VA providers. Interviews focused on patients’ use of Blue Button, information-sharing practices between VA and non-VA providers, and how patients and providers use a printed Blue Button report during a clinical visit. Qualitative themes were identified through iterative rounds of coding starting with an a priori schema based on technology adoption theory. Results Information sharing between VA and non-VA providers relied primarily on the patient. Patients most commonly used Blue Button to access and share VA laboratory results. Providers recognized the need for improved information sharing, valued the Blue Button printout, and expressed interest in a way to share information electronically across settings. Conclusions Consumer-oriented technologies such as Blue Button can facilitate patients sharing health information with providers in other health care systems; however, more education is needed to inform patients of this use to facilitate care coordination. Additional research is needed to explore how personal health record documents, such as Blue Button reports, can be easily shared and incorporated into the clinical workflow of

  9. Examining Parents' Experiences and Information Needs Regarding Early Identification of Developmental Delays: Qualitative Research to Inform a Public Health Campaign

    PubMed Central

    Raspa, Melissa; Levis, Denise M.; Kish-Doto, Julia; Wallace, Ina; Rice, Catherine; Barger, Brian; Green, Katie K.; Wolf, Rebecca B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to assess the approach and materials of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's “Learn the Signs. Act Early.” (LTSAE) health education campaign, which aims to improve awareness of developmental milestones and early warning signs of developmental delay among parents of young children. Methods We conducted 2 phases of qualitative research. Focus groups assessed the campaign's objectives by exploring the experiences of parents with children who have developmental delays or disabilities to determine facilitators of and barriers to identification. In-depth interviews were conducted with parents of typically developing children, who reviewed campaign materials and provided feedback on appropriateness, appeal, and clarity with regard to the campaign's objectives. Results Phase 1: Parents were typically the first to express concern about their child's development, and most talked with their child's health care provider. Two categories of health care providers emerged: those who proactively asked about a child's development, used tools to facilitate conversations, and made referrals, and those who did not ask about development, told parents to “wait and see,” and did not provide information about services and supports. Few parents knew about special education services before identification. Phase 2: Participants found the campaign materials appealing, but were unclear about how to act early and why acting early was important. Conclusions Results affirmed LTSAE's evidence-based approach to educating parents about child development. Additional campaign considerations include providing more information about how to act early and why acting early is important and enhancing outreach to providers to help them communicate with concerned parents. PMID:26414090

  10. Evaluating the Process of Online Health Information Searching: A Qualitative Approach to Exploring Consumer Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Fiksdal, Alexander S; Kumbamu, Ashok; Jadhav, Ashutosh S; Cocos, Cristian; Nelsen, Laurie A; Pathak, Jyotishman

    2014-01-01

    Background The Internet is a common resource that patients and consumers use to access health-related information. Multiple practical, cultural, and socioeconomic factors influence why, when, and how people utilize this tool. Improving the delivery of health-related information necessitates a thorough understanding of users’ searching-related needs, preferences, and experiences. Although a wide body of quantitative research examining search behavior exists, qualitative approaches have been under-utilized and provide unique perspectives that may prove useful in improving the delivery of health information over the Internet. Objective We conducted this study to gain a deeper understanding of online health-searching behavior in order to inform future developments of personalizing information searching and content delivery. Methods We completed three focus groups with adult residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota, which explored perceptions of online health information searching. Participants were recruited through flyers and classifieds advertisements posted throughout the community. We audio-recorded and transcribed all focus groups, and analyzed data using standard qualitative methods. Results Almost all participants reported using the Internet to gather health information. They described a common experience of searching, filtering, and comparing results in order to obtain information relevant to their intended search target. Information saturation and fatigue were cited as main reasons for terminating searching. This information was often used as a resource to enhance their interactions with health care providers. Conclusions Many participants viewed the Internet as a valuable tool for finding health information in order to support their existing health care resources. Although the Internet is a preferred source of health information, challenges persist in streamlining the search process. Content providers should continue to develop new strategies and technologies

  11. 29 CFR 2570.39 - Opportunities to submit additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... tentative denial letter. At the same time, the applicant should indicate generally the type of information... penalty of perjury attesting to the truth and correctness of the information provided, which is dated...

  12. 21 CFR 71.4 - Samples; additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... samples of the color additive, articles used as components thereof, or of the food, drug, or cosmetic in... additive, or articles used as components thereof, or of the food, drug, or cosmetic in which the color... respect to the safety of the color additive or the physical or technical effect it produces. The date...

  13. 21 CFR 71.4 - Samples; additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... samples of the color additive, articles used as components thereof, or of the food, drug, or cosmetic in... additive, or articles used as components thereof, or of the food, drug, or cosmetic in which the color... respect to the safety of the color additive or the physical or technical effect it produces. The date...

  14. Using secondary analysis of qualitative data of patient experiences of health care to inform health services research and policy.

    PubMed

    Ziebland, Sue; Hunt, Kate

    2014-02-26

    Qualitative research is recognized as an important method for including patients' voices and experiences in health services research and policy-making, yet the considerable potential to analyse existing qualitative data to inform health policy and practice has been little realized. This failure may partly be explained by: a lack of awareness amongst health policy makers of the increasing wealth of qualitative data available; and around 15 years of internal debates among qualitative researchers on the strengths, limitations and validity of re-use of qualitative data. Whilst acknowledging the challenges of qualitative secondary data analysis, we argue that there is a growing imperative to be pragmatic and to undertake analysis of existing qualitative data collections where they have the potential to contribute to health policy formulation. Time pressures are inherent in the policy-making process and in many circumstances it is not possible to seek funding, conduct and analyse new qualitative studies of patients' experiences in time to inform a specific policy. The danger then is that the patient voice, and the experiences of relatives and carers, is either excluded or included in a way that is easily dismissed as 'unrepresentative'. We argue that secondary analysis of qualitative data collections may sometimes be an effective means to enable patient experiences to inform policy decision-making.

  15. The Motivations of Iranian Patients With Cardiovascular Disease to Seek Health Information: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Gholami, Mohammad; Fallahi Khoshknab, Masoud; Khankeh, Hamid Reza; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Maddah, Sadat Seyed Bagher; Mousavi Arfaa, Nazila

    2016-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular patients need information to preserve and promote their health, but not all of them have the necessary motivation to seek relevant health knowledge. Objectives The present study analyzed experiences of patients, family caregivers, and healthcare providers to explore the motivating factors that cause cardiovascular patients to seek important health information. Patients and Methods This study was conducted using a qualitative approach and conventional qualitative content analysis method. Thirty-six people, including 18 cardiovascular patients, 7 family caregivers, and 11 healthcare providers (from multidisciplinary backgrounds) participated in the study. The data were collected through semi-structured interviews and purposeful sampling and continued until data saturation. Data collection and analysis proceeded simultaneously and with constant comparison; this study was carried out from May 2012 to May 2013. Results During the analysis process, three main themes were extracted that characterized participants’ experiences, perceptions, and motivations to seek health information. The themes were “Optimizing quality of life, “Desire for personal rights to be respected,” and “Gaining confidence through consultation.” Conclusions Our findings showed that, through seeking information, patients try to achieve well-being and realize their personal rights as well as their right to security. They should also be encouraged to enhance their quality of life by using the Knowles’ learning theory to formulate their needs and learning priorities. PMID:27437128

  16. 77 FR 67655 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Food Additive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-13

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Food Additive Petitions and Investigational Food Additive Exemptions; Extension... comment in response to the notice. This notice solicits comments on food additive petitions regarding... of information technology. Food Additive Petitions and Investigational Food Additive Exemptions,...

  17. Health Information-Seeking Practices of African American Young Men Who Have Sex with Men: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, India D.; Friedman, Daniela B.; Spencer, S. Melinda; Annang, Lucy; Lindley, Lisa L.

    2016-01-01

    The current study used a qualitative, phenomenological approach to investigate the health information-seeking practices of African American young men who have sex with men (AAYMSM). Forty-two self-identified AAYMSM, aged 18 to 21, residing in a Southeastern U.S. city participated in a qualitative focus group or face-to-face interview to examine…

  18. How do healthcare consumers process and evaluate comparative healthcare information? A qualitative study using cognitive interviews

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background To date, online public healthcare reports have not been effectively used by consumers. Therefore, we qualitatively examined how healthcare consumers process and evaluate comparative healthcare information on the Internet. Methods Using semi-structured cognitive interviews, interviewees (n = 20) were asked to think aloud and answer questions, as they were prompted with three Dutch web pages providing comparative healthcare information. Results We identified twelve themes from consumers' thoughts and evaluations. These themes were categorized under four important areas of interest: (1) a response to the design; (2) a response to the information content; (3) the use of the information, and (4) the purpose of the information. Conclusion Several barriers to an effective use of comparative healthcare information were identified, such as too much information and the ambiguity of terms presented on websites. Particularly important for future research is the question of how comparative healthcare information can be integrated with alternative information, such as patient reviews on the Internet. Furthermore, the readability of quality of care concepts is an issue that needs further attention, both from websites and communication experts. PMID:19930564

  19. Informing Patients About Placebo Effects: Using Evidence, Theory, and Qualitative Methods to Develop a New Website

    PubMed Central

    Greville-Harris, Maddy; Bostock, Jennifer; Din, Amy; Graham, Cynthia A; Lewith, George; Liossi, Christina; O’Riordan, Tim; White, Peter; Yardley, Lucy

    2016-01-01

    Background According to established ethical principles and guidelines, patients in clinical trials should be fully informed about the interventions they might receive. However, information about placebo-controlled clinical trials typically focuses on the new intervention being tested and provides limited and at times misleading information about placebos. Objective We aimed to create an informative, scientifically accurate, and engaging website that could be used to improve understanding of placebo effects among patients who might be considering taking part in a placebo-controlled clinical trial. Methods Our approach drew on evidence-, theory-, and person-based intervention development. We used existing evidence and theory about placebo effects to develop content that was scientifically accurate. We used existing evidence and theory of health behavior to ensure our content would be communicated persuasively, to an audience who might currently be ignorant or misinformed about placebo effects. A qualitative ‘think aloud’ study was conducted in which 10 participants viewed prototypes of the website and spoke their thoughts out loud in the presence of a researcher. Results The website provides information about 10 key topics and uses text, evidence summaries, quizzes, audio clips of patients’ stories, and a short film to convey key messages. Comments from participants in the think aloud study highlighted occasional misunderstandings and off-putting/confusing features. These were addressed by modifying elements of content, style, and navigation to improve participants’ experiences of using the website. Conclusions We have developed an evidence-based website that incorporates theory-based techniques to inform members of the public about placebos and placebo effects. Qualitative research ensured our website was engaging and convincing for our target audience who might not perceive a need to learn about placebo effects. Before using the website in clinical trials

  20. 78 FR 72151 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request on Information Collection Tools Relating to Qualitative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-02

    ... Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service Delivery. AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION..., the IRS is soliciting comments concerning the collection of qualitative feedback on agency service..., reporting, and record-keeping requirements: Title: Collection of Qualitative Feedback on Agency...

  1. A qualitative exploration of the perceptions and information needs of public health inspectors responsible for food safety

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In Ontario, local public health inspectors play an important frontline role in protecting the public from foodborne illness. This study was an in-depth exploration of public health inspectors' perceptions of the key food safety issues in public health, and their opinions and needs with regards to food safety information resources. Methods Four focus group discussions were conducted with public health inspectors from the Central West region of Ontario, Canada during June and July, 2008. A questioning route was used to standardize qualitative data collection. Audio recordings of sessions were transcribed verbatim and data-driven content analysis was performed. Results A total of 23 public health inspectors participated in four focus group discussions. Five themes emerged as key food safety issues: time-temperature abuse, inadequate handwashing, cross-contamination, the lack of food safety knowledge by food handlers and food premise operators, and the lack of food safety information and knowledge about specialty foods (i.e., foods from different cultures). In general, participants reported confidence with their current knowledge of food safety issues and foodborne pathogens. Participants highlighted the need for a central source for food safety information, access to up-to-date food safety information, resources in different languages, and additional food safety information on specialty foods. Conclusions The information gathered from these focus groups can provide a basis for the development of resources that will meet the specific needs of public health inspectors involved in protecting and promoting food safety. PMID:20553592

  2. 78 FR 51265 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Application for Additional Visa Pages or...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-20

    ... Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Application for Additional Visa Pages or Miscellaneous...: Title of Information Collection: Application for Additional Visa Pages or Miscellaneous Passport... applies for the addition of visa pages to that passport, the Department must confirm the...

  3. Information and Communication Needs of Parents in Infant End-of-Life: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Narges; Hasanpour, Marzieh; Heidarzadeh, Mohamad

    2016-01-01

    Background Hospitalization of a neonate in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) can be a stressful event for parents. They need specific information and communication to alleviate their stress, but these parental needs are not met by NICU staff. Exploration of these needs can help health professionals to provide better healthcare services. Objectives The purpose of this study was to explore the information and communication needs of families in neonatal end-of-life and bereavement in the NICU. Materials and Methods A qualitative content analysis method was used for this study. Data were collected through single semi-structured interviews with 24 participants. Sampling was conducted based on the purposive sampling method in five NICU environments in Iran. All interviews were taped and transcribed verbatim. Results Data analysis revealed two main themes: information and communication. For information, there were two subthemes (true information about the infant’s health and true information about the infant’s death), and communication needs also developed two subthemes (communication with healthcare professionals and communication with the infant before, during and after the infant’s death). Conclusions According to the results, parents need accurate information about the health and the death of their neonates in the NICU. They also need to communicate with healthcare professionals and their babies. Communication is regarded as a channel for obtaining information. Therefore, the healthcare team needs to address these families’ needs and attempt to fulfill their requirements in neonatal end-of-life and bereavement in the NICU. PMID:27621926

  4. 21 CFR 71.4 - Samples; additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... respect to the safety of the color additive or the physical or technical effect it produces. The date used for computing the 90-day limit for the purposes of section 721(d)(1) of the act shall be moved...

  5. 21 CFR 71.4 - Samples; additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... respect to the safety of the color additive or the physical or technical effect it produces. The date used for computing the 90-day limit for the purposes of section 721(d)(1) of the act shall be moved...

  6. Robust Feature Selection from Microarray Data Based on Cooperative Game Theory and Qualitative Mutual Information.

    PubMed

    Mortazavi, Atiyeh; Moattar, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-01-01

    High dimensionality of microarray data sets may lead to low efficiency and overfitting. In this paper, a multiphase cooperative game theoretic feature selection approach is proposed for microarray data classification. In the first phase, due to high dimension of microarray data sets, the features are reduced using one of the two filter-based feature selection methods, namely, mutual information and Fisher ratio. In the second phase, Shapley index is used to evaluate the power of each feature. The main innovation of the proposed approach is to employ Qualitative Mutual Information (QMI) for this purpose. The idea of Qualitative Mutual Information causes the selected features to have more stability and this stability helps to deal with the problem of data imbalance and scarcity. In the third phase, a forward selection scheme is applied which uses a scoring function to weight each feature. The performance of the proposed method is compared with other popular feature selection algorithms such as Fisher ratio, minimum redundancy maximum relevance, and previous works on cooperative game based feature selection. The average classification accuracy on eleven microarray data sets shows that the proposed method improves both average accuracy and average stability compared to other approaches. PMID:27127506

  7. Chemometric study of Andalusian extra virgin olive oils Raman spectra: Qualitative and quantitative information.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-López, E; Sánchez-Rodríguez, M I; Marinas, A; Marinas, J M; Urbano, F J; Caridad, J M; Moalem, M

    2016-08-15

    Authentication of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is an important topic for olive oil industry. The fraudulent practices in this sector are a major problem affecting both producers and consumers. This study analyzes the capability of FT-Raman combined with chemometric treatments of prediction of the fatty acid contents (quantitative information), using gas chromatography as the reference technique, and classification of diverse EVOOs as a function of the harvest year, olive variety, geographical origin and Andalusian PDO (qualitative information). The optimal number of PLS components that summarizes the spectral information was introduced progressively. For the estimation of the fatty acid composition, the lowest error (both in fitting and prediction) corresponded to MUFA, followed by SAFA and PUFA though such errors were close to zero in all cases. As regards the qualitative variables, discriminant analysis allowed a correct classification of 94.3%, 84.0%, 89.0% and 86.6% of samples for harvest year, olive variety, geographical origin and PDO, respectively. PMID:27260451

  8. Robust Feature Selection from Microarray Data Based on Cooperative Game Theory and Qualitative Mutual Information.

    PubMed

    Mortazavi, Atiyeh; Moattar, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-01-01

    High dimensionality of microarray data sets may lead to low efficiency and overfitting. In this paper, a multiphase cooperative game theoretic feature selection approach is proposed for microarray data classification. In the first phase, due to high dimension of microarray data sets, the features are reduced using one of the two filter-based feature selection methods, namely, mutual information and Fisher ratio. In the second phase, Shapley index is used to evaluate the power of each feature. The main innovation of the proposed approach is to employ Qualitative Mutual Information (QMI) for this purpose. The idea of Qualitative Mutual Information causes the selected features to have more stability and this stability helps to deal with the problem of data imbalance and scarcity. In the third phase, a forward selection scheme is applied which uses a scoring function to weight each feature. The performance of the proposed method is compared with other popular feature selection algorithms such as Fisher ratio, minimum redundancy maximum relevance, and previous works on cooperative game based feature selection. The average classification accuracy on eleven microarray data sets shows that the proposed method improves both average accuracy and average stability compared to other approaches.

  9. Chemometric study of Andalusian extra virgin olive oils Raman spectra: Qualitative and quantitative information.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-López, E; Sánchez-Rodríguez, M I; Marinas, A; Marinas, J M; Urbano, F J; Caridad, J M; Moalem, M

    2016-08-15

    Authentication of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is an important topic for olive oil industry. The fraudulent practices in this sector are a major problem affecting both producers and consumers. This study analyzes the capability of FT-Raman combined with chemometric treatments of prediction of the fatty acid contents (quantitative information), using gas chromatography as the reference technique, and classification of diverse EVOOs as a function of the harvest year, olive variety, geographical origin and Andalusian PDO (qualitative information). The optimal number of PLS components that summarizes the spectral information was introduced progressively. For the estimation of the fatty acid composition, the lowest error (both in fitting and prediction) corresponded to MUFA, followed by SAFA and PUFA though such errors were close to zero in all cases. As regards the qualitative variables, discriminant analysis allowed a correct classification of 94.3%, 84.0%, 89.0% and 86.6% of samples for harvest year, olive variety, geographical origin and PDO, respectively.

  10. A qualitative analysis of Māori and Pacific smokers' views on informed choice and smoking

    PubMed Central

    Gifford, Heather; Tautolo, El-Shadan; Erick, Stephanie; Hoek, Janet; Gray, Rebecca; Edwards, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Tobacco companies frame smoking as an informed choice, a strategy that holds individuals responsible for harms they incur. Few studies have tested this argument, and even fewer have examined how informed indigenous smokers or those from minority ethnicities are when they start smoking. We explored how young adult Māori and Pacific smokers interpreted ‘informed choice’ in relation to smoking. Participants Using recruitment via advertising, existing networks and word of mouth, we recruited and undertook qualitative in-depth interviews with 20 Māori and Pacific young adults aged 18–26 years who smoked. Analyses Data were analysed using an informed-choice framework developed by Chapman and Liberman. We used a thematic analysis approach to identify themes that extended this framework. Results Few participants considered themselves well informed and none met more than the framework's initial two criteria. Most reflected on their unthinking uptake and subsequent addiction, and identified environmental factors that had facilitated uptake. Nonetheless, despite this context, most agreed that they had made an informed choice to smoke. Conclusions The discrepancy between participants' reported knowledge and understanding of smoking's risks, and their assessment of smoking as an informed choice, reflects their view of smoking as a symbol of adulthood. Policies that make tobacco more difficult to use in social settings could help change social norms around smoking and the ease with which initiation and addiction currently occur. PMID:27188813

  11. Cancer Genetic Counselor Information Needs for Risk Communication: A Qualitative Evaluation of Interview Transcripts

    PubMed Central

    Overby, Casey Lynnette; Chung, Wendy K.; Hripcsak, George; Kukafka, Rita

    2013-01-01

    Personalized medicine is a model of healthcare that is predictive, personalized, preventive and participatory (“P4 Medicine”). Genetic counselors are an ideal group to study when designing tools to support cancer P4 Medicine activities more broadly. The goal for this work was to gain a better understanding of the information cancer genetic counselors seek from their patients to facilitate effective information exchange for discussing risk. This was an analysis of a qualitative data set from interviews of eight cancer genetic counselors, recruited from three institutions. Genetic counselors at each site were interviewed using a semi-structured, open-ended questionnaire. A selective coding approach was used to determine major themes associated with genetic counseling information needs for communicating risk. We generated a model for understanding categories of genetic counseling information needs to support risk communication activities. Common activities for risk communication included risk assessment and tailoring communication. Categories of information needs included: (a) clinical patient characteristics, (b) social and cognitive patient characteristics and (c) patient motivation and goals for the genetic counseling session. A logical next step is for this model to inform the design of software systems for pre-visit patient planning and delivering just-in-time educational information to facilitate cancer risk communication activities. PMID:24358447

  12. Health Information Management System for Elderly Health Sector: A Qualitative Study in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Sadoughi, Farahnaz; Shahi, Mehraban; Ahmadi, Maryam; Davaridolatabadi, Nasrin

    2016-01-01

    Background: There are increasing change and development of information in healthcare systems. Given the increase in aging population, managers are in need of true and timely information when making decision. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the current status of the health information management system for the elderly health sector in Iran. Materials and Methods: This qualitative study was conducted in two steps. In the first step, required documents for administrative managers were collected using the data gathering form and observed and reviewed by the researcher. In the second step, using an interview guide, the required information was gathered through interviewing experts and faculty members. The convenience, purposeful and snowball sampling methods were applied to select interviewees and the sampling continued until reaching the data saturation point. Finally, notes and interviews were transcribed and content analysis was used to analyze them. Results: The results of the study showed that there was a health information management system for the elderly health sector in Iran. However, in all primary health care centers the documentation of data was done manually; the data flow was not automated; and the analysis and reporting of data are also manually. Eventually, decision makers are provided with delayed information. Conclusions: It is suggested that the steward of health in Iran, the ministry of health, develops an appropriate infrastructure and finally puts a high priority on the implementation of the health information management system for elderly health sector in Iran. PMID:27186383

  13. 34 CFR 303.212 - Additional information and assurances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... State is taking to ensure equitable access to, and equitable participation in, the part C statewide system as required by section 427(b) of GEPA; and (b) Other information and assurances as the Secretary may reasonably require. (Approved by Office of Management and Budget under control number...

  14. Improving pediatric liquid medication labeling of the hospital information system in Malaysia: qualitative analysis of pharmacists’ perceptions

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background: Inadequacies of drug labeling have been frequently reported among Malaysian healthcare institutes, in which the Hospital Information System (HIS) is used. Objective: To identify potential areas to improve the existing labels used for pediatric liquid medications. Methods: This study was qualitative in nature, whereby focus group discussions (FGDs), face-to-face interviews (FTFIs), and onsite observation were used for data collection. Pharmacists stationed at three units (outpatient, inpatient and clinical pharmacy) of a tertiary hospital were targeted. Both FGDs and FTFIs were facilitated using a semi-structured interview guide, video-recorded and transcribed verbatim. All transcripts were thematically analyzed using content analysis approach. Results: Thirteen pharmacists participated in FGDs, while five were approached for FTFIs. Data analysis resulted in four major themes: format of labels, presentation of medication instructions, insufficiency of information, and the need for external aids and education. Participants unanimously agreed on the need for enlarging font sizes of key information. Suggestions were made to use more specific instructions for administration times and pictograms to illustrate important directions. The absence of information about storage, stability and handling of liquid medications was also highlighted. While discussion mainly focused on improving drug labeling, participants consistently stressed the need for an instruction sheet and pharmacist-based, one-to-one education regarding medication instructions. Conclusion: This study provides important insights into critical shortcomings in current labeling practice, underlying the need for developing a new label that incorporates a new format, additional information and pictograms for pediatric liquid medications. PMID:27382422

  15. Exploring the role of contextual information in bloodstain pattern analysis: A qualitative approach.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Nikola K P; Taylor, Michael C; Zajac, Rachel

    2016-03-01

    During Bloodstain Pattern Analysis (BPA), an analyst may encounter various sources of contextual information. Although contextual bias has emerged as a valid concern for the discipline, little is understood about how contextual information informs BPA. To address this issue, we asked 15 experienced bloodstain pattern analysts from New Zealand and Australia to think aloud as they classified bloodstain patterns from two homicide cases. Analysts could request items of contextual information, and were required to state how each item would inform their analysis. Pathology reports and additional photographs of the scene were the most commonly requested items of information. We coded analysts' reasons for requesting contextual information--and the way in which they integrated this information--according to thematic analysis. We identified considerable variation in both of these variables, raising important questions about the role and necessity of contextual information in decisions about bloodstain pattern evidence.

  16. Approximate world models: Incorporating qualitative and linguistic information into vision systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pinhanez, C.S.; Bobick, A.F.

    1996-12-31

    Approximate world models are coarse descriptions of the elements of a scene, and are intended to be used in the selection and control of vision routines in a vision system. In this paper we present a control architecture in which the approximate models represent the complex relationships among the objects in the world, allowing the vision routines to be situation or context specific. Moreover, because of their reduced accuracy requirements, approximate world models can employ qualitative information such as those provided by linguistic descriptions of the scene. The concept is demonstrated in the development of automatic cameras for a TV studio-SmartCams. Results are shown where SmartCams use vision processing of real imagery and information written in the script of a TV show to achieve TV-quality framing.

  17. Frail elderly patients’ experiences of information on medication. A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Older patients generally have only poor knowledge about their medicines. Knowledge is important for good adherence and for participating in decisions about treatment. Patients are entitled to be informed on an individual and adequate level. The aim of the study was to explore frail elderly patients’ experiences of receiving information about their medications and their views on how the information should best be given. Methods The study was qualitative in design and was carried out in 2011. Twelve frail elderly (aged 68–88) participants taking cardiovascular medications participated in semi-structured interviews covering issues related to receiving information about prescribed medicines. The interviews were recorded, transcribed and subjected to content analysis, in which the text was analysed in five steps, inspired by Graneheim and Lundman. Results The results revealed that the experiences which the elderly participants had regarding the receiving of medical information fell into two main categories: “Comfortable with information” or “Insecure with information”. The elderly felt comfortable when they trusted their physician or their medication, when they received enough information from the prescriber or when they knew how to find out sufficient information by themselves. They felt insecure if they were anxious, if the availability of medical care was poor or if they did not receive enough information. Conclusions Factors that frequently caused insecurity about information and anxiety were too short consultations, lack of availability of someone to answer questions or of the opportunity to contact the physician if adverse effects are suspected. These factors could easily be dealt with and there must be improvements in the clinics if the patients´ feelings of security are to be increased. PMID:22909093

  18. Evidence-based health information from the users’ perspective – a qualitative analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Evidence-based information is a precondition for informed decision-making and participation in health. There are several recommendations and definitions available on the generation and assessment of so called evidence-based health information for patients and consumers (EBHI). They stress the importance of objectively informing people about benefits and harms and any uncertainties in health-related procedures. There are also studies on the comprehensibility, relevance and user-friendliness of these informational materials. But to date there has been little research on the perceptions and cognitive reactions of users or lay people towards EBHI. The aim of our study is to define the spectrum of consumers’ reaction patterns to written EBHI in order to gain a deeper understanding of their comprehension and assumptions, as well as their informational needs and expectations. Methods This study is based on an external user evaluation of EBHI produced by the German Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG), commissioned by the IQWiG. The EBHI were examined within guided group discussions, carried out with lay people. The test readers’ first impressions and their appraisal of the informational content, presentation, structure, comprehensibility and effect were gathered. Then a qualitative text analysis of 25 discussion transcripts involving 94 test readers was performed. Results Based on the qualitative text analysis a framework for reaction patterns was developed, comprising eight main categories: (i) interest, (ii) satisfaction, (iii) reassurance and trust, (iv) activation, (v) disinterest, (vi) dissatisfaction and disappointment, (vii) anxiety and worry, (viii) doubt. Conclusions Many lay people are unfamiliar with core characteristics of this special information type. Two particularly critical issues are the description of insufficient evidence and the attendant absence of clear-cut recommendations. Further research is needed to examine

  19. African American perspectives: A qualitative study of an informal science enrichment program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, Jamila Rashida

    The purposes of this study were to determine what program characteristics African American parents consider when they enroll their children into an informal science education enrichment program, the parents' evaluation of a program called Jordan Academy in which they enrolled their children, and the alignment of the parents' perspectives with Black Cultural Ethos (BCE). BCE refers to nine dimensions posited by Wade Boykin, a psychologist, as comprising African American culture. Participants were parents of students that attended Jordan Academy, an informal science enrichment program designed for third through sixth grade students from underserved populations. Qualitative methodologies were utilized to perform a thorough assessment of parents' perspectives. Data sources included classroom observations, student surveys, academy curriculum, photos and video-taped class sessions. Data included teachers and parents' responses to semi-structured, audio recorded interviews and students' written responses to open-ended items on the program's evaluation instrument. The data were analyzed for themes and the findings compared to Black Cultural Ethos. Findings revealed that the participants believed that informal science education offered their children opportunities not realized in the formal school setting - a means of impacting their children holistically. The parents expressed the academic, cultural, and personal development of their children in their characterizations of the ideal informal science education experience and in their evaluations of Jordan Academy. Overall, the parents' views emphasized the BCE values of harmony, affect, verve, movement, orality and communalism. The study has important implications for practices within and research on informal science education.

  20. Parents' difficulties and information needs in coping with acute illness in preschool children: a qualitative study.

    PubMed Central

    Kai, J.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To identify and explore difficulties parents experience with acute illness in young children and the information they seek to help them. DESIGN: Qualitative study using semi-structured one t one and group interviews with parents of preschool children. SETTING: Disadvantaged inner city community. SUBJECTS: 95 parents of preschool children. RESULTS: Parents felt disempowered when dealing with acute illness in their children because of difficulties making sense of the illness. Central to parents' difficulties were their experiences of inadequate information sharing by their general practitioners and variations in their doctors' decisions and behaviour. Disparity between parents' beliefs and expectations about illness and treatment and professionals' behaviour further frustrated parents' attempts to understand illness. Parents expressed a need for a range of accessible and specific information to support them through their negotiation of children's illness. CONCLUSIONS: Communication with parents requires greater recognition of parents' difficulties. Professionals have considerable potential to empower parents by sharing more information and skills. Such information should be consistent and address parents' concerns, beliefs, and expressed needs if this potential is to be realised. PMID:8892421

  1. Using Qualitative Research to Inform the Development of a Comprehensive Outcomes Assessment for Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Turner-Bowker, Diane M.; Saris-Baglama, Renee N.; DeRosa, Michael A.; Paulsen, Christine A.; Bransfield, Christopher P.

    2009-01-01

    Background Qualitative research can inform the development of asthma patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures and user-friendly technologies through defining measurement constructs, identifying potential limitations in measurement and sources of response error, and evaluating usability. Objective The goal of the current study was to inform the development of a comprehensive asthma PRO assessment with input from patients and clinical experts. Method Self-reported adult asthma sufferers recruited from a 3,000 member New England-area research panel participated in either one of three focus groups (N=21) or individual cognitive item debriefing interviews (N=20) to discuss how asthma impacts their health-related quality of life (HRQOL), and provide feedback on a preliminary set of asthma impact survey items and prototype patient report. Focus groups and cognitive interviews were conducted using traditional research principles (e.g., semi-structured interview guide, probing, and think aloud techniques). An Expert Advisory Panel (N=12) including asthma clinical specialists and measurement professionals was convened to review results from the focus group and cognitive interview studies and make recommendations for final survey and report development. Results Domains of health impacted by asthma included physical (recreation, play, competitive sports, and exercise), social (activities, family relationships), emotional (anger, upset, frustration, anxiety, worry), sleep, role (recreational/leisure activities; work), and sexual functioning. Most items in the impact survey were easily understood, covered important content, and included relevant response options. Items with contradictory examples and multiple concepts were difficult to comprehend. Suggestions were made to expand survey content by including additional items on physical and sexual functioning, sleep, self-consciousness, stigma, and finances. Reports were considered useful and participants saw value in sharing the

  2. 78 FR 77119 - Proposed Information Collection Request; Comment Request; Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-20

    ... AGENCY Proposed Information Collection Request; Comment Request; Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: 2011 Renewable Fuel Standards-- Petition for International Aggregate Compliance Approach AGENCY... to submit an information collection request (ICR), ``Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives:...

  3. Qualitative information modeling: The role of fuzzy logic in project economic evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Warnken, P.G.

    1995-12-31

    Conventional models rely on a precise mathematical formalism to express the quantitative essentials of the system being modeled. In contrast, decisionmakers in the real world employ cognitive skills to process information and arrive at decisions based on judgement and experience. Bridging the gap between the two analytic approaches -- that is, formulating intelligent models -- has met with very limited success using traditional computational methods. The difficulty stems from two problems. First, imprecision, which is the distinguishing feature of qualitative factors, is an information attribute that is not easily computable using the rules of traditional set theory and Boolean (bivalent) logic. Second, cognitive information processing is cumbersome using the numerical rule-based approaches common in today`s expert systems. Fuzzy models overcome these problems by employing new mathematical rules for expressing and processing knowledge. These rules are based on fuzzy logic. Fuzzy logic is the formal symbolic language used to represent linguistic terms and verbal rules for computational and modeling purposes. This language provides model builders with the means to incorporate subjective judgements, imprecise information, and human reasoning capabilities as part of a model`s framework. This paper outlines the concepts needed to understand fuzzy modeling systems. The key concepts discussed include fuzzy sets, fuzzy logical operators, linguistic variables, and verbal rules. A simple fuzzy economic rating model for project investments is presented to demonstrate the fuzzy modeling technique. Finally, the paper discusses the role of fuzzy logic in the economic modeling process.

  4. Bringing trauma-informed practice to domestic violence programs: A qualitative analysis of current approaches.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Joshua M; Fauci, Jenny E; Goodman, Lisa A

    2015-11-01

    Three out of 10 women and 1 out of 10 men in the United States experience violence at the hands of an intimate partner-often with devastating costs. In response, hundreds of residential and community-based organizations have sprung up to support survivors. Over the last decade, many of these organizations have joined other human service systems in adopting trauma-informed care (TIC), an approach to working with survivors that responds directly to the effects of trauma. Although there have been various efforts to describe TIC in domestic violence (DV) programs, there is a need to further synthesize this discourse on trauma-informed approaches to better understand specific applications and practices for DV programs. This study aimed to address this gap. The authors of this study systematically identified key documents that describe trauma-informed approaches in DV services and then conducted a qualitative content analysis to identify core themes. Results yielded 6 principles (Establishing emotional safety, Restoring choice and control, Facilitating connection, Supporting coping, Responding to identity and context, and Building strengths), each of which comprised a set of concrete practices. Despite the common themes articulated across descriptions of DV-specific trauma-informed practices (TIP), we also found critical differences, with some publications focusing narrowly on individual healing and others emphasizing the broader community and social contexts of violence and oppression. Implications for future research and evaluation are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26594925

  5. Physicians' communicative strategies in interacting with Internet-informed patients: results from a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Caiata-Zufferey, Maria; Schulz, Peter J

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the strategies used by physicians to interact with Internet-informed patients, alongside illustrating the motives underlying such strategies. Semistructured interviews were conducted with a sample of 17 physicians from primary care and medical specialist practices in the Italian part of Switzerland. The sample was diversified in terms of specialty, age, and gender. Data collection and analysis were driven by grounded theory and supported by a computer-assisted qualitative analysis program. A typology of four communicative strategies has been outlined. The adoption of these strategies is shaped by physicians' general attitude toward Internet-informed patients, based on their conception of medical information for lay people through the Internet. However, this general attitude is mediated by doctors' interpretation of the specific communicative context, that is, their appraisal of three aspects: the patient's health literacy, the relevance of the online information to be discussed, and their own communicative efficacy. At the end, the process of interpretation underlying the strategies is discussed to expand on it and to identify implications for practice and research.

  6. [Informal caregivers of elderly people in South Tyrol. A qualitative assessment of home care situation].

    PubMed

    Ausserhofer, Dietmar; Mantovan, Franco; Innerhofer, Esther; Götsch, Ingrid; Ploner, Elfriede; Them, Christa

    2009-11-01

    Within the framework of a pilot project in the sanitary district of Bruneck (sanitary establishment of South Tyrol), the concept of care management is being investigated both practically and scientifically for informal caregivers of elderly people in need of care since 2009 the results of the qualitative assessment of the homecare situation. The assessment before the intervention will form the basis for further design and implementation of individual stress-reducing and supportive offers for the informal caregivers. Using a semi structured interview guideline twelve problem-centered interviews with informal caregivers were conducted and analysed according to Mayring's content analysis technique (2007). Informal caregivers are exposed to burdens in social, physical and mental areas. Own resources, family ties and support reduce stress and burdens caused by the homecare situation. The need of individual and continuous support of families and implications for further measures of care management can be deduced from the results. There is a need of support in the areas coping strategies, empowerment and direct stress reduction with regard to the homecare situation through education, training, counselling and the interconnection of social and health services.

  7. Elderly Men’s Experience of Information Material about Melanoma—A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Rosengren, Kristina

    2013-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is an aggressive disease that has been increasing worldwide. Public education is trying to focus on reducing intense sun exposure and raise awareness of signs and symptoms to prevent illness. The aim of the study was to describe and analyze elderly men’s (over 65 years) experience of an information booklet regarding malignant melanoma. The study comprised of a total of 15 interviews with elderly men. The interviews were analyzed using manifest qualitative content analysis. Respect for the individuals was a main concern in the study. One category, Security—to act, and three subcategories, Availability—to use, Clarity—to understand, and Awareness—to know, were identified to describe the men’s experiences of information material about melanoma. By using person-centered care, based on a holistic approach focusing on men’s need for security to act on specific risk factors and to do skin self-examination, health could be improved. The results of this study could help other health organizations to develop information material to prevent illness, such as for skin self-examination. Strategies concerning educating, preparing, and training health professionals in interpersonal communication skills should be implemented in healthcare organizations to meet patients’ information needs about illness to develop continuous learning and quality improvement. PMID:27429128

  8. A qualitative content analysis of global health engagements in Peacekeeping and Stability Operations Institute's stability operations lessons learned and information management system.

    PubMed

    Nang, Roberto N; Monahan, Felicia; Diehl, Glendon B; French, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Many institutions collect reports in databases to make important lessons-learned available to their members. The Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences collaborated with the Peacekeeping and Stability Operations Institute to conduct a descriptive and qualitative analysis of global health engagements (GHEs) contained in the Stability Operations Lessons Learned and Information Management System (SOLLIMS). This study used a summative qualitative content analysis approach involving six steps: (1) a comprehensive search; (2) two-stage reading and screening process to identify first-hand, health-related records; (3) qualitative and quantitative data analysis using MAXQDA, a software program; (4) a word cloud to illustrate word frequencies and interrelationships; (5) coding of individual themes and validation of the coding scheme; and (6) identification of relationships in the data and overarching lessons-learned. The individual codes with the most number of text segments coded included: planning, personnel, interorganizational coordination, communication/information sharing, and resources/supplies. When compared to the Department of Defense's (DoD's) evolving GHE principles and capabilities, the SOLLIMS coding scheme appeared to align well with the list of GHE capabilities developed by the Department of Defense Global Health Working Group. The results of this study will inform practitioners of global health and encourage additional qualitative analysis of other lessons-learned databases. PMID:25826346

  9. A qualitative content analysis of global health engagements in Peacekeeping and Stability Operations Institute's stability operations lessons learned and information management system.

    PubMed

    Nang, Roberto N; Monahan, Felicia; Diehl, Glendon B; French, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Many institutions collect reports in databases to make important lessons-learned available to their members. The Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences collaborated with the Peacekeeping and Stability Operations Institute to conduct a descriptive and qualitative analysis of global health engagements (GHEs) contained in the Stability Operations Lessons Learned and Information Management System (SOLLIMS). This study used a summative qualitative content analysis approach involving six steps: (1) a comprehensive search; (2) two-stage reading and screening process to identify first-hand, health-related records; (3) qualitative and quantitative data analysis using MAXQDA, a software program; (4) a word cloud to illustrate word frequencies and interrelationships; (5) coding of individual themes and validation of the coding scheme; and (6) identification of relationships in the data and overarching lessons-learned. The individual codes with the most number of text segments coded included: planning, personnel, interorganizational coordination, communication/information sharing, and resources/supplies. When compared to the Department of Defense's (DoD's) evolving GHE principles and capabilities, the SOLLIMS coding scheme appeared to align well with the list of GHE capabilities developed by the Department of Defense Global Health Working Group. The results of this study will inform practitioners of global health and encourage additional qualitative analysis of other lessons-learned databases.

  10. 40 CFR Table 42 to Subpart Uuu of... - Additional Information for Initial Notification of Compliance Status

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Additional Information for Initial..., Table 42 Table 42 to Subpart UUU of Part 63—Additional Information for Initial Notification of... applies to you. For . . . You shall provide this additional information . . . 1. Identification...

  11. Towards an intelligent decision support system for public health surveillance - a qualitative analysis of information needs.

    PubMed

    Mera, Maritza; González, Carolina; López, Diego M

    2014-01-01

    Public health information systems are often implemented considering the functionalities and requirements established by administrative staff or researchers, but sometimes ignoring the particular needs of decision makers. This paper describes a proposal to support the design of a Decision Support System for Public Health Surveillance in Colombia, by conducting a qualitative study to identify the real needs of people involved in decision making processes. Based on the study results, an intelligent computational component that supports Data Analysis Automation, Prediction of future scenarios and the identification of new Behavioral Patterns is proposed. The component will be implemented using the Case Based Reasoning methodology, which will be integrated as a new component of the Open Source DHIS2 Platform, enabling public health decision-making.

  12. 77 FR 24685 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Client Focus Groups and Qualitative Interviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-25

    ... Qualitative Interviews AGENCY: International Trade Administration (ITA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... customer service trends seen in the Surveys. Qualitative client focus group data will enrich the... conference calls, or through one-on-one qualitative interviews either in person or via phone. A...

  13. 16 CFR 2.20 - Petitions for review of requests for additional information or documentary material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... or documentary material issued under 16 CFR 803.20. (b) Second request procedures—(1) Notice. Every request for additional information or documentary material issued under 16 CFR 803.20 shall inform the... additional information or documentary material. 2.20 Section 2.20 Commercial Practices FEDERAL...

  14. A Qualitative Case Study Approach To Examine Information Resources Management. (Utilisation d'une Approche Qualitative par Methode de cas pour Etudier la Gestion des Ressources D'information).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergeron, Pierrette

    1997-01-01

    Illustrates how a qualitative approach was used to study the complex and poorly defined concept of information resources management. Explains the general approach to data collection, its advantages and limitations, and the process used to analyze the data. Presents results, along with lessons learned through using method. (Author/AEF)

  15. 21 CFR 71.15 - Confidentiality of data and information in color additive petitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Confidentiality of data and information in color... and information in color additive petitions. (a) The following data and information in a color... because of the deficiencies involved: (1) All safety and functionality data and information submitted...

  16. 42 CFR 435.955 - Additional requirements regarding information released by a Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional requirements regarding information... requirements regarding information released by a Federal agency. (a) Unless waived under paragraph (d) of this section, based on information received from a computerized data match in which information on...

  17. A Qualitative Study on Classroom Management and Classroom Discipline Problems, Reasons, and Solutions: A Case of Information Technologies Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdogan, Mehmet; Kursun, Engin; Sisman, Gulcin Tan; Saltan, Fatih; Gok, Ali; Yildiz, Ismail

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate classroom management and discipline problems that Information Technology teachers have faced, and to reveal underlying reasons and possible solutions of these problems by considering the views of parents, teachers, and administrator. This study was designed as qualitative study. Subjects of this study…

  18. The Perceived Effect of Hidden Costs on the Operational Management of Information Technology Outsourcing: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swift, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Information technology (IT) outsourcing is a business trend aimed at reducing costs and enabling companies to concentrate on their core competencies. This qualitative multiple case design research study explored the effects of hidden costs on the operational management of IT outsourcing. The study involved analyzing IT outsourcing agreements as…

  19. 49 CFR 260.25 - Additional information for Applicants not having a credit rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional information for Applicants not having a... Financial Assistance § 260.25 Additional information for Applicants not having a credit rating. Each application submitted by Applicants not having a recent credit rating from one or more nationally...

  20. Can metabolomics in addition to genomics add to prognostic and predictive information in breast cancer?

    PubMed

    Howell, Anthony

    2010-11-16

    Genomic data from breast cancers provide additional prognostic and predictive information that is beginning to be used for patient management. The question arises whether additional information derived from other 'omic' approaches such as metabolomics can provide additional information. In an article published this month in BMC Cancer, Borgan et al. add metabolomic information to genomic measures in breast tumours and demonstrate, for the first time, that it may be possible to further define subgroups of patients which could be of value clinically. See research article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2407/10/628.

  1. 75 FR 77645 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Color Additive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Color Additive Certification Requests and Recordkeeping AGENCY: Food and Drug... certification of color additives manufactured for use in foods, drugs, cosmetics or medical devices in the... of information technology. Color Additive Certification Requests and Recordkeeping--21 CFR Part...

  2. The role of health literacy and social networks in arthritis patients' health information-seeking behavior: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Janette; Mullan, Judy; Worsley, Anthony; Pai, Nagesh

    2012-01-01

    Background. Patients engage in health information-seeking behaviour to maintain their wellbeing and to manage chronic diseases such as arthritis. Health literacy allows patients to understand available treatments and to critically appraise information they obtain from a wide range of sources. Aims. To explore how arthritis patients' health literacy affects engagement in arthritis-focused health information-seeking behaviour and the selection of sources of health information available through their informal social network. Methods. An exploratory, qualitative study consisting of one-on-one semi-structured interviews. Twenty participants with arthritis were recruited from community organizations. The interviews were designed to elicit participants' understanding about their arthritis and arthritis medication and to determine how the participants' health literacy informed selection of where they found information about their arthritis and pain medication. Results. Participants with low health literacy were less likely to be engaged with health information-seeking behaviour. Participants with intermediate health literacy were more likely to source arthritis-focused health information from newspapers, television, and within their informal social network. Those with high health literacy sourced information from the internet and specialist health sources and were providers of information within their informal social network. Conclusion. Health professionals need to be aware that levels of engagement in health information-seeking behaviour and sources of arthritis-focused health information may be related to their patients' health literacy.

  3. Qualitative Comparison of Streamflow Information Programs of the U.S. Geological Survey and Three Non-Federal Agencies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norris, J. Michael; Lewis, Michael; Dorsey, Michael; Kimbrough, Robert; Holmes, Jr., Robert R.; Staubitz, Ward

    2008-01-01

    A qualitative comparison was made of the streamgaging programs of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and three non-Federal agencies in terms of approximate costs and streamflow-information products produced. The three non-Federal agencies provided the USGS with detailed information on their streamgaging program and related costs, and the USGS explored, through publicly available Web sites and one-on-one discussions, the comparability of the streamflow information produced. The type and purpose of streamgages operated, the quality of streamflow record produced, and cost-accounting methods have a great effect on streamgaging costs. There are many uses of streamflow information, and the information requirements for streamgaging programs differ greatly across this range of purposes. A premise of the USGS streamgaging program is that the network must produce consistent data of sufficient quality to support the broadest range of possible uses. Other networks may have a narrower range of purposes; as a consequence, the method of operation, data-quality objectives, and information delivery may be different from those for a multipurpose network. As a result, direct comparison of the overall cost (or of the cost per streamgage) among these programs is not possible. The analysis is, nonetheless, very instructive and provides USGS program managers, agency leadership, and other agency streamgaging program managers useful insight to influence future decisions. Even though the comparison of streamgaging costs and streamflow information products was qualitative, this analysis does offer useful insights on longstanding questions of USGS streamgaging costs.

  4. Improving the quality of health information: a qualitative assessment of data management and reporting systems in Botswana

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Ensuring that data collected through national health information systems are of sufficient quality for meaningful interpretation is a challenge in many resource-limited countries. An assessment was conducted to identify strengths and weaknesses of the health data management and reporting systems that capture and transfer routine monitoring and evaluation (M&E) data in Botswana. Methods This was a descriptive, qualitative assessment. In-depth interviews were conducted at the national (n = 27), district (n = 31), and facility/community (n = 71) levels to assess i) M&E structures, functions, and capabilities; ii) indicator definitions and reporting guidelines; iii) data collection forms and tools; iv) data management processes; and v) links with the national reporting system. A framework analysis was conducted using ATLAS.ti v6.1. Results Health programs generally had standardized data collection and reporting tools and defined personnel for M&E responsibilities at the national and district levels. Best practices unique to individual health programs were identified and included a variety of relatively low-resource initiatives such as attention to staffing patterns, making health data more accessible for evidence-based decision-making, developing a single source of information related to indicator definitions, data collection tools, and management processes, and utilization of supportive supervision visits to districts and facilities. Weakness included limited ownership of M&E-related duties within facilities, a lack of tertiary training programs to build M&E skills, few standard practices related to confidentiality and document storage, limited dissemination of indicator definitions, and limited functionality of electronic data management systems. Conclusions Addressing fundamental M&E system issues, further standardization of M&E practices, and increasing health services management responsiveness to time-sensitive information are critical to

  5. Procedures of recruiting, obtaining informed consent, and compensating research participants in Qatar: findings from a qualitative investigation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Very few researchers have reported on procedures of recruiting, obtaining informed consent, and compensating participants in health research in the Arabian Gulf Region. Empirical research can inform the debate about whether to adjust these procedures for culturally diverse settings. Our objective was to delineate procedures related to recruiting, obtaining informed consent, and compensating health research participants in the extremely high-density multicultural setting of Qatar. Methods During a multistage mixed methods project, field observations and qualitative interviews were conducted in a general medicine clinic of a major medical center in Qatar. Participants were chosen based on gender, age, literacy, and preferred language, i.e., Arabic, English, Hindi and Urdu. Qualitative analysis identified themes about recruitment, informed consent, compensation, and other research procedures. Results A total of 153 individuals were approached and 84 enrolled; the latter showed a diverse age range (18 to 75 years); varied language representation: Arabic (n = 24), English (n = 20), Hindi (n = 20), and Urdu (n = 20); and balanced gender distribution: women (n = 43) and men (n = 41). Primary reasons for 30 declinations included concern about interview length and recording. The study achieved a 74% participation rate. Qualitative analytics revealed key themes about hesitation to participate, decisions about participation with family members as well as discussions with them as “incidental research participants”, the informed consent process, privacy and gender rules of the interview environment, reactions to member checking and compensation, and motivation for participating. Vulnerability emerged as a recurring issue throughout the process among a minority of participants. Conclusions This study from Qatar is the first to provide empirical data on recruitment, informed consent, compensation and other research procedures in a general

  6. 30 CFR 250.418 - What additional information must I submit with my APD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Applying for A Permit to Drill § 250.418 What additional information must...

  7. 30 CFR 250.418 - What additional information must I submit with my APD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Applying for A Permit to Drill § 250.418 What additional information must...

  8. A Qualitative Study of Information Technology Managers' Experiences and Perceptions Regarding Outsourced Data Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Eric Justin

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study explored the perceptions and experiences of IT Managers in publicly traded companies within the San Antonio, Texas area about outsourced data centers. Narrative data was collected using open-ended questions and face-to-face interviews within semi-structured environments. The research questions guided the study: (1)…

  9. A qualitative study of student perspectives and experiences in an information technology education program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Heekyung

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to learn about students' perspectives of an undergraduate level information technology (IT) education program. The IT program is a recent effort to create a new educational opportunity for computing in college, with recognition that the recent IT developments have had a greater influence on various aspects of people's lives than ever. Students' perspectives are a necessary piece of information to develop this innovative IT education program into a sound educational opportunity. Data were gathered through qualitative in-depth interviews conducted with 28 undergraduate students, most of whom have taken one or more IT classes before. The interview data were analyzed using the grounded theory approach. The analysis found that college students perceived that they were very competent in dealing with IT primarily due to their continued exposure to computers since youth. However, this perceived competency was not very stable. Students felt that they did not have sufficient IT competency when technical skills of dealing with IT came to attention. They also felt so when comparing their IT competency with that of their peers, examining it in a class context, and confronting a transition from education to the real world. In spite of their preference for and confidence in self-guided learning, students wanted to receive a formal instruction in IT when they needed to learn something difficult, something that they were not very interested in, and something important for their future lives. They also expressed a desire to gain a comprehensive understanding of computers without needing to learn fundamental computing principles. Students' various interests in IT education were dispersed around learning practical technical skills and understanding social implications of IT. Many participants' focus was a mix of the two factors, which was often expressed as an area that dealt with "how humans and computers interact." This blended interest suggested a

  10. Experience of Using Information Systems in Public Health Practice: Findings from a Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Vest, Joshua R; Issel, L. Michele; Lee, Sean

    2014-01-01

    Objective Data collection and management by local health departments (LHDs) is a complex endeavor, complicated by system level and organizational factors. The purpose of this study was to describe the processes and use of information systems (IS) utilized for data collection, management, and sharing by LHD employees. Methods We interviewed a purposive sample of 12 staff working in the key public health practice areas of communicable disease control, immunizations, and vital records from three LHDs in different states. Our interview questions addressed job descriptions, daily activities, and the use and perceptions of both data and IS in support of their work. A content analytic approach was used to derive themes and categories common across programmatic areas. Results Local public health involves the use of mix of state-supplied and locally implemented IS supported by paper records. Additionally, each LHD in this study used at least one shadow system to maintain a duplicate set of information. Experiences with IS functionality and the extent to which it supported work varied by programmatic area, but inefficiencies, challenges in generating reports, limited data accessibility, and workarounds were commonly reported. Conclusions Current approaches to data management and sharing do not always support efficient public health practice or allow data to be used for organizational and community decision making. Many of the challenges to effective and efficient public health work were not solely technological. These findings suggest the need for interorganizational collaboration, increasing organizational capacity, workflow redesign, and end user training. PMID:24678380

  11. 18 CFR 33.4 - Additional information requirements for applications involving vertical competitive impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Additional information requirements for applications involving vertical competitive impacts. 33.4 Section 33.4 Conservation of Power... FEDERAL POWER ACT APPLICATIONS UNDER FEDERAL POWER ACT SECTION 203 § 33.4 Additional...

  12. 18 CFR 33.4 - Additional information requirements for applications involving vertical competitive impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional information requirements for applications involving vertical competitive impacts. 33.4 Section 33.4 Conservation of Power... FEDERAL POWER ACT APPLICATIONS UNDER FEDERAL POWER ACT SECTION 203 § 33.4 Additional...

  13. A qualitative study exploring counselling for release of information to participants of a donor-assisted conception programme.

    PubMed

    Rodino, Iolanda S; Chester, Helen; Harris, Maureen; Maslin-Prothero, Sian

    2015-06-01

    Worldwide, donor-assisted conceptions are increasing with legislative reforms in some countries providing opportunities for participants of a donor-assisted conception programme, i.e. recipients, donors, donor-conceived adults and their genetically related siblings and half-siblings, to access information. Whilst policy and practice for accessing donor-identifying information vary, there has been no research exploring the perceptions and experiences of those who provide the service. This study aimed to explore the perceptions and experiences of Australian and New Zealand infertility counsellors who provide counselling for release of information to participants of a donor-assisted conception programme. Using a qualitative research design, in-depth interview data of six infertility counsellors were thematically analysed to identify key themes. We report the primary themes that emerged from the data which include professional perspectives on the role of counsellor in the counselling process, the professional and societal responsibility to provide counselling, and influences on professional practice. Findings from this qualitative study can be used as a platform for larger international studies on the clinical practice of donor information release and to inform clinical practice and service delivery. The implications of these results for policy and future longitudinal research are also discussed.

  14. Combining qualitative and quantitative spatial and temporal information in a hierarchical structure: Approximate reasoning for plan execution monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoebel, Louis J.

    1993-01-01

    The problem of plan generation (PG) and the problem of plan execution monitoring (PEM), including updating, queries, and resource-bounded replanning, have different reasoning and representation requirements. PEM requires the integration of qualitative and quantitative information. PEM is the receiving of data about the world in which a plan or agent is executing. The problem is to quickly determine the relevance of the data, the consistency of the data with respect to the expected effects, and if execution should continue. Only spatial and temporal aspects of the plan are addressed for relevance in this work. Current temporal reasoning systems are deficient in computational aspects or expressiveness. This work presents a hybrid qualitative and quantitative system that is fully expressive in its assertion language while offering certain computational efficiencies. In order to proceed, methods incorporating approximate reasoning using hierarchies, notions of locality, constraint expansion, and absolute parameters need be used and are shown to be useful for the anytime nature of PEM.

  15. "The Dose Makes the Poison": Informing Consumers About the Scientific Risk Assessment of Food Additives.

    PubMed

    Bearth, Angela; Cousin, Marie-Eve; Siegrist, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Intensive risk assessment is required before the approval of food additives. During this process, based on the toxicological principle of "the dose makes the poison,ˮ maximum usage doses are assessed. However, most consumers are not aware of these efforts to ensure the safety of food additives and are therefore sceptical, even though food additives bring certain benefits to consumers. This study investigated the effect of a short video, which explains the scientific risk assessment and regulation of food additives, on consumers' perceptions and acceptance of food additives. The primary goal of this study was to inform consumers and enable them to construct their own risk-benefit assessment and make informed decisions about food additives. The secondary goal was to investigate whether people have different perceptions of food additives of artificial (i.e., aspartame) or natural origin (i.e., steviolglycoside). To attain these research goals, an online experiment was conducted on 185 Swiss consumers. Participants were randomly assigned to either the experimental group, which was shown a video about the scientific risk assessment of food additives, or the control group, which was shown a video about a topic irrelevant to the study. After watching the video, the respondents knew significantly more, expressed more positive thoughts and feelings, had less risk perception, and more acceptance than prior to watching the video. Thus, it appears that informing consumers about complex food safety topics, such as the scientific risk assessment of food additives, is possible, and using a carefully developed information video is a successful strategy for informing consumers. PMID:25951078

  16. "The Dose Makes the Poison": Informing Consumers About the Scientific Risk Assessment of Food Additives.

    PubMed

    Bearth, Angela; Cousin, Marie-Eve; Siegrist, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Intensive risk assessment is required before the approval of food additives. During this process, based on the toxicological principle of "the dose makes the poison,ˮ maximum usage doses are assessed. However, most consumers are not aware of these efforts to ensure the safety of food additives and are therefore sceptical, even though food additives bring certain benefits to consumers. This study investigated the effect of a short video, which explains the scientific risk assessment and regulation of food additives, on consumers' perceptions and acceptance of food additives. The primary goal of this study was to inform consumers and enable them to construct their own risk-benefit assessment and make informed decisions about food additives. The secondary goal was to investigate whether people have different perceptions of food additives of artificial (i.e., aspartame) or natural origin (i.e., steviolglycoside). To attain these research goals, an online experiment was conducted on 185 Swiss consumers. Participants were randomly assigned to either the experimental group, which was shown a video about the scientific risk assessment of food additives, or the control group, which was shown a video about a topic irrelevant to the study. After watching the video, the respondents knew significantly more, expressed more positive thoughts and feelings, had less risk perception, and more acceptance than prior to watching the video. Thus, it appears that informing consumers about complex food safety topics, such as the scientific risk assessment of food additives, is possible, and using a carefully developed information video is a successful strategy for informing consumers.

  17. Understanding stroke survivors’ and informal carers’ experiences of and need for primary care and community health services—a systematic review of the qualitative literature: protocol

    PubMed Central

    Aziz, N A; Pindus, D M; Mullis, R; Mant, J

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Despite the rising prevalence of stroke, no comprehensive model of postacute stroke care exists. Research on stroke has focused on acute care and early supported discharge, with less attention dedicated to longer term support in the community. Likewise, relatively little research has focused on long-term support for informal carers. This review aims to synthesise and appraise extant qualitative evidence on: (1) long-term healthcare needs of stroke survivors and informal carers, and (2) their experiences of primary care and community health services. The review will inform the development of a primary care model for stroke survivors and informal carers. Methods and analysis We will systematically search 4 databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and CINAHL for published qualitative evidence on the needs and experiences of stroke survivors and informal carers of postacute care delivered by primary care and community health services. Additional searches of reference lists and citation indices will be conducted. The quality of articles will be assessed by 2 independent reviewers using a Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) checklist. Disagreements will be resolved through discussion or third party adjudication. Meta-ethnography will be used to synthesise the literature based on first-order, second-order and third-order constructs. We will construct a theoretical model of stroke survivors’ and informal carers’ experiences of primary care and community health services. Ethics and dissemination The results of the systematic review will be disseminated via publication in a peer-reviewed journal and presented at a relevant conference. The study does not require ethical approval as no patient identifiable data will be used. PMID:26739728

  18. Successful Aging with Sickle Cell Disease: Using Qualitative Methods to Inform Theory

    PubMed Central

    Jenerette, Coretta M.; Lauderdale, Gloria

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the lives of adults with sickle cell disease (SCD). This article reports findings from a qualitative pilot study, which used life review as a method to explore influences on health outcomes among middle-aged and older adults with SCD, Six females with SCD, recruited from two urban sickle cell clinics in the U.S., engaged in semi-structured, in-depth life review interviews. MaxQDA2 software was used for qualitative data coding and analysis. Three major themes were identified: vulnerability factors, self-care management resources, and health outcomes. These themes are consistent with the Theory of Self-Care Management for Sickle Cell Disease. Identifying vulnerability factors, self-care management resources, and health outcomes in adults with SCD may aid in developing theory-based interventions to meet health care needs of younger individuals with SCD. The life review process is a useful means to gain insight into successful aging with SCD and other chronic illnesses. PMID:19838320

  19. Information-Seeking and Sharing Behaviors among Fire Service Field Staff Instructors: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruan, Lian J.

    2011-01-01

    Fire service field staff instructors seek and share information and use information sources during their instructional work of teaching, training and curriculum development. This study is the first attempt to study their information-seeking and sharing behaviors, which have not previously been investigated empirically. Twenty-five fire service…

  20. Beyond the Notes: A Qualitative Study of the Information-Seeking Behavior of Ethnomusicologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liew, Chern Li; Ng, Siong Ngor

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates the information-seeking behavior of fourteen ethnomusicologists in New Zealand via interviews. The findings shed light on what information ethnomusicologists seek, the sources and services they use, and the barriers they face in information seeking and use. A number of ways in which libraries can create collections and…

  1. A Qualitative Investigation of Practicing Psychologists' Attitudes Toward Research-Informed Practice: Implications for Dissemination Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Rebecca E.; Stirman, Shannon Wiltsey; Chambless, Dianne L.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the results of a qualitative analysis of interviews with 25 psychologists in independent practice, investigating everyday treatment decisions and attitudes about treatment outcome research and empirically supported treatments (ESTs). Clinicians noted positive aspects about treatment outcome research, such as being interested in what works. However, they had misgivings about the application of controlled research findings to their practices, were skeptical about using manualized protocols, and expressed concern that nonpsychologists would use EST lists to dictate practice. Clinicians reported practicing in an eclectic framework, and many reported including cognitive-behavioral elements in their practice. To improve their practice, they reported valuing clinical experience, peer networks, practitioner-oriented books, and continuing education when it was not too basic. Time and financial barriers concerned nearly all participants. Clinicians suggested they might be interested in ESTs if they could integrate them into their current frameworks, and if resources for learning ESTs were improved. PMID:22654246

  2. 38 CFR 61.15 - Capital grants-obtaining additional information and awarding capital grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Capital grants-obtaining additional information and awarding capital grants. 61.15 Section 61.15 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VA HOMELESS PROVIDERS GRANT AND PER DIEM PROGRAM Capital Grants § 61.15...

  3. 16 CFR 803.21 - Additional information shall be supplied within reasonable time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional information shall be supplied within reasonable time. 803.21 Section 803.21 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF...

  4. 16 CFR 803.21 - Additional information shall be supplied within reasonable time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Additional information shall be supplied within reasonable time. 803.21 Section 803.21 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF...

  5. 13 CFR 126.403 - May SBA require additional information from a HUBZone SBC?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false May SBA require additional information from a HUBZone SBC? 126.403 Section 126.403 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS... adverse inference from the failure of a HUBZone SBC to cooperate with a program examination or...

  6. 13 CFR 126.403 - May SBA require additional information from a HUBZone SBC?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false May SBA require additional information from a HUBZone SBC? 126.403 Section 126.403 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS... adverse inference from the failure of a HUBZone SBC to cooperate with a program examination or...

  7. 13 CFR 126.403 - May SBA require additional information from a HUBZone SBC?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false May SBA require additional information from a HUBZone SBC? 126.403 Section 126.403 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS... adverse inference from the failure of a HUBZone SBC to cooperate with a program examination or...

  8. 18 CFR 33.3 - Additional information requirements for applications involving horizontal competitive impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Additional information... and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE... role that entry could play in mitigating adverse competitive effects of the transaction; (3)...

  9. 18 CFR 33.3 - Additional information requirements for applications involving horizontal competitive impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional information... and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE... role that entry could play in mitigating adverse competitive effects of the transaction; (3)...

  10. 18 CFR 33.4 - Additional information requirements for applications involving vertical competitive impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional information... and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE... competitive effects of the transaction. (ii) The potential for entry in the market and the role that...

  11. 18 CFR 33.4 - Additional information requirements for applications involving vertical competitive impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Additional information... and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE... competitive effects of the transaction. (ii) The potential for entry in the market and the role that...

  12. 18 CFR 33.4 - Additional information requirements for applications involving vertical competitive impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional information... and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE... competitive effects of the transaction. (ii) The potential for entry in the market and the role that...

  13. 21 CFR 71.15 - Confidentiality of data and information in color additive petitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Confidentiality of data and information in color additive petitions. 71.15 Section 71.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... established in § 20.61 of this chapter. (6) All records showing the Food and Drug Administration's testing...

  14. 76 FR 24854 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Additional Protocol Report Forms

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-03

    ... International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) on a number of commercial nuclear and nuclear-related items, materials... for a nuclear weapons program. These forms provides the IAEA with information about additional aspects...; buildings on sites of facilities selected by the IAEA from the U.S. Eligible Facilities List;...

  15. 30 CFR 250.418 - What additional information must I submit with my APD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What additional information must I submit with my APD? 250.418 Section 250.418 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND... plot if the well is to be directionally drilled; (d) A Hydrogen Sulfide Contingency Plan (see §...

  16. 30 CFR 250.418 - What additional information must I submit with my APD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Applying for A Permit to Drill § 250.418 What additional information must I submit with my APD? You must include the following with the APD: (a) Rated capacities of the drilling rig and...

  17. 38 CFR 39.4 - Decision makers, notifications, and additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Decision makers, notifications, and additional information. 39.4 Section 39.4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) AID TO STATES FOR ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT,...

  18. 38 CFR 39.4 - Decision makers, notifications, and additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Decision makers, notifications, and additional information. 39.4 Section 39.4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) AID FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT, OR...

  19. 38 CFR 39.4 - Decision makers, notifications, and additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Decision makers, notifications, and additional information. 39.4 Section 39.4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) AID FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT, OR...

  20. 38 CFR 39.4 - Decision makers, notifications, and additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Decision makers, notifications, and additional information. 39.4 Section 39.4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) AID FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT, OR...

  1. 26 CFR 1.852-7 - Additional information required in returns of shareholders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... shareholders. 1.852-7 Section 1.852-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Trusts § 1.852-7 Additional information required in returns of shareholders. Any person who fails or....852-6 requires the company to demand from its shareholders shall submit as a part of his income...

  2. 76 FR 37825 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... agencies. This proposed information collection was previously published in the Federal Register (75 FR... stratification and clustering), the precision requirements or power calculations that justify the proposed...

  3. 77 FR 50548 - Agency Information Collection: (PACT Qualitative Evaluation: Patient & Caregiver Interviews...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-21

    ... needed to evaluate the universal Patient Aligned Care Teams (PACT) Systems Redesign, document patients... information on patient characteristics and their experiences with self-managing chronic conditions,...

  4. High School Students' Informal Reasoning on a Socio-Scientific Issue: Qualitative and Quantitative Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Ying-Tien; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2007-01-01

    Recently, the significance of learners' informal reasoning on socio-scientific issues has received increasing attention among science educators. To gain deeper insights into this important issue, an integrated analytic framework was developed in this study. With this framework, 71 Grade 10 students' informal reasoning about nuclear energy usage…

  5. [Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the information flow regarding the "medical insurance" problems].

    PubMed

    Uvarenko, A P; Tishchenko, D K; Pokrovskaia, S V

    1991-01-01

    The presented qualimetric evaluation of documentary information flow permitted one to identify some of its characteristics, single out a group of nuclear and perinuclear journals containing about 70 percent of the entire documentary flow publications on the given problem and provide recommendations on the organization and retrieval search in the reference-information fund of our country.

  6. The role of information search in seeking alternative treatment for back pain: a qualitative analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Health consumers have moved away from a reliance on medical practitioner advice to more independent decision processes and so their information search processes have subsequently widened. This study examined how persons with back pain searched for alternative treatment types and service providers. That is, what information do they seek and how; what sources do they use and why; and by what means do they search for it? Methods 12 persons with back pain were interviewed. The method used was convergent interviewing. This involved a series of semi-structured questions to obtain open-ended answers. The interviewer analysed the responses and refined the questions after each interview, to converge on the dominant factors influencing decisions about treatment patterns. Results Persons with back pain mainly search their memories and use word of mouth (their doctor and friends) for information about potential treatments and service providers. Their search is generally limited due to personal, provider-related and information-supply reasons. However, they did want in-depth information about the alternative treatments and providers in an attempt to establish apriori their efficacy in treating their specific back problems. They searched different sources depending on the type of information they required. Conclusions The findings differ from previous studies about the types of information health consumers require when searching for information about alternative or mainstream healthcare services. The results have identified for the first time that limited information availability was only one of three categories of reasons identified about why persons with back pain do not search for more information particularly from external non-personal sources. PMID:24725300

  7. The indispensable intermediaries: a qualitative study of informal caregivers’ struggle to achieve influence at and after hospital discharge

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The care policy and organization of the care sector is shifting to accommodate projected demographic changes and to ensure a sustainable model of health care provision in the future. Adult children and spouses are often the first to assume care giving responsibilities for older adults when declining function results in increased care needs. By introducing policies tailored to enabling family members to combine gainful employment with providing care for older relatives, the sustainability of the future care for older individuals in Norway is more explicitly placed on the family and informal caregivers than previously. Care recipients and informal caregivers are expected to take an active consumer role and participate in the care decision-making process. This paper aims to describe the informal caregivers’ experiences of influencing decision-making at and after hospital discharge for home-bound older relatives. Methods This paper reports findings from a follow-up study with an exploratory qualitative design. Qualitative telephone interviews were conducted with 19 informal caregivers of older individuals discharged from hospital in Norway. An inductive thematic content analysis was undertaken. Results Informal caregivers take on comprehensive all-consuming roles as intermediaries between the care recipient and the health care services. In essence, the informal caregivers take the role of the active participant on behalf of their older relative. They describe extensive efforts struggling to establish dialogues with the “gatekeepers” of the health care services. Achieving the goal of the best possible care for the care recipient seem to depend on the informal caregivers having the resources to choose appropriate strategies for gaining influence over decisions. Conclusions The care recipients’ extensive frailty and increasing dependence on their families coupled with the complexity of health care services contribute to the perception of the informal

  8. Do patient preferences for health information vary by health literacy or numeracy? A qualitative assessment.

    PubMed

    Gaglio, Bridget; Glasgow, Russell E; Bull, Sheana S

    2012-01-01

    Seeking health information can be a complicated process for a patient. Patients must know the topic of interest, where to look or ask, how to assess and comprehend, and how to evaluate the credibility and trustworthiness of the sources. In this study, the authors describe preferences of patients with multiple risk factors for cardiovascular disease with varying health literacy and numeracy abilities for receiving health information. Participants were recruited from 2 health care systems. Health literacy and numeracy were assessed and participants completed an orally administered survey consisting of open-ended questions about obtaining health information and preferences for health information. In-depth interviews were conducted with a subset of participants. A diverse sample of 150 individuals (11.3% Latino, 37.3% African American, 44.7% with income less than $15,000/year) participated. Most participants had adequate functional health literacy, while 65% had low numeracy skills. Regardless of health literacy or numeracy ability, participants overwhelmingly preferred to receive health information during a face-to-face conversation with their health care provider. While individuals with adequate functional health literacy identified a variety of health information sources, actions are needed to ensure multiple modalities are available and are in plain, clear language that reinforces patients' understanding and application of information to health behavior.

  9. Rapid Ethical Assessment on Informed Consent Content and Procedure in Hintalo-Wajirat, Northern Ethiopia: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Abay, Serebe; Addissie, Adamu; Davey, Gail; Farsides, Bobbie; Addissie, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Background Informed consent is a key component of bio-medical research involving human participants. However, obtaining informed consent is challenging in low literacy and resource limited settings. Rapid Ethical Assessment (REA) can be used to contextualize and simplify consent information within a given study community. The current study aimed to explore the effects of social, cultural, and religious factors during informed consent process on a proposed HPV-serotype prevalence study. Methodology A qualitative community-based REA was conducted in Adigudom and Mynebri Kebeles, Northern Ethiopia, from July to August 2013. Data were collected by a multi-disciplinary team using open ended questions concerning informed consent components in relation to the parent study. The team conducted one-to-one In-Depth Interviews (IDI) and Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) with key informants and community members to collect data based on the themes of the study. Tape recorded data were transcribed in Tigrigna and then translated into English. Data were categorized and thematically analyzed using open coding and content analysis based on pre-defined themes. Results The REA study revealed a number of socio-cultural issues relevant to the proposed study. Low community awareness about health research, participant rights and cervical cancer were documented. Giving a vaginal sample for testing was considered to be highly embarrassing, whereas giving a blood sample made participants worry that they might be given a result without the possibility of treatment. Verbal consent was preferred to written consent for the proposed study. Conclusion This rapid ethical assessment disclosed important socio-cultural issues which might act as barriers to informed decision making. The findings were important for contextual modification of the Information Sheet, and to guide the best consent process for the proposed study. Both are likely to have enabled participants to understand the informed consent

  10. Knowledge brokers, companions, and navigators: a qualitative examination of informal caregivers’ roles in medical tourism

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Many studies examining the phenomena of medical tourism have identified health equity issues associated with this global health services practice. However, there is a notable lack of attention in this existing research to the informal care provided by the friends and family members who typically accompany medical tourists abroad. To date, researchers have not examined the care roles filled by informal caregivers travelling with medical tourists. In this article, we fill this gap by examining these informal caregivers and the roles they take on towards supporting medical tourists’ health and wellbeing. Methods We conducted 21 interviews with International Patient Coordinators (IPCs) working at medical tourism hospitals across ten countries. IPCs work closely with informal caregivers as providers of non-medical personal assistance, and can therefore offer broad insight on caregiver roles. The interviews were coded and analyzed thematically. Results Three roles emerged: knowledge broker, companion, and navigator. As knowledge brokers, caregivers facilitate the transfer of information between the medical tourist and formal health care providers as well as other staff members at medical tourism facilities. The companion role involves providing medical tourists with physical and emotional care. Meanwhile, responsibilities associated with handling documents and coordinating often complex journeys are part of the navigation role. Conclusions This is the first study to examine informal caregiving roles in medical tourism. Many of the roles identified are similar to those of conventional informal caregivers while others are specific to the transnational context. We conclude that these roles make informal caregivers an integral part of the larger phenomenon of medical tourism. We further contend that examining the roles taken on by a heretofore-unconsidered medical tourism stakeholder group sheds valuable insight into how this industry operates and that such

  11. Key Information-Problem Solving Skills to Learn in Secondary Education: A Qualitative, Multi-Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Argelagós, Esther; Pifarré, Manoli

    2016-01-01

    Internet has become one of the most important information sources for students' personal and academic life. In addition, the World Wide Web is receiving increased attention in education because of its potential to support new forms of learning. However, using the information from the net for learning requires the development of a set of abilities…

  12. 75 FR 35119 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Form DS-4085 Application for Additional Visa...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Form DS-4085 Application for Additional Visa Pages or... the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. Title of Information Collection: Application for Additional Visa... collection: The information collected on the DS-4085 is used to facilitate the issuance of additional...

  13. 26 CFR 301.6223(c)-1 - Additional information regarding partners furnished to the Internal Revenue Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... shown on the partnership return, the Internal Revenue Service will use additional information as... additional information at any time by filing a written statement with the Internal Revenue Service. However...) of this section. (f) Internal Revenue Service may use other information. In addition to...

  14. Knowledge gaps among public librarians seeking vaccination information: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Catherine Arnott; Hundal, Savreen; Keselman, Alla

    2014-01-01

    Public libraries have been called the “first responders” to the specialized health information needs of the general public. The challenges inherent in consumer health information (CHI) service are centered around the Patron, the Librarian, the Information Resources, and the Library itself. The pilot study involved interviews with nine individual library workers in eight public libraries in four library systems: the District of Columbia, Montgomery and Prince George’s Counties in Maryland, and Fairfax County in Virginia. Library workers were asked about common consumer health information requests, the nature of their collections, and the role of public libraries in meeting these information needs. The subjects were also presented with a hypothetical scenario, and their responses suggest knowledge gaps. The findings point to the increasing necessity and importance of training and support for public librarians, as well as the importance of understanding where the medical knowledge gaps exist. Public librarians need to commit to formal evaluation of their skill sets and knowledge gaps, in order to identify areas to which libraries can devote limited resources. PMID:26550002

  15. Health care worker perspectives inform optimization of patient panel-support tools: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Feldstein, Adrianne C; Schneider, Jennifer L; Unitan, Robert; Perrin, Nancy A; Smith, David H; Nichols, Gregory A; Lee, Nancy L

    2013-04-01

    Electronic decision-support systems appear to enhance care, but improving both tools and work practices may optimize outcomes. Using qualitative methods, the authors' aim was to evaluate perspectives about using the Patient Panel-Support Tool (PST) to better understand health care workers' attitudes toward, and adoption and use of, a decision-support tool. In-depth interviews were conducted to elicit participant perspectives about the PST-an electronic tool implemented in 2006 at Kaiser Permanente Northwest. The PST identifies "care gaps" and recommendations in screening, medication use, risk-factor control, and immunizations for primary care panel patients. Primary care physician (PCP) teams were already grouped (based on performance pre- and post-PST introduction) into lower, improving, and higher percent-of-care-needs met. Participants were PCPs (n=21), medical assistants (n=11), and quality and other health care managers (n=20); total n=52. Results revealed that the most commonly cited benefit of the PST was increased in-depth knowledge of patient panels, and empowerment of staff to do quality improvement. Barriers to PST use included insufficient time, competing demands, suboptimal staffing, tool navigation, documentation, and data issues. Facilitators were strong team staff roles, leadership/training for tool implementation, and dedicated time for tool use. Higher performing PCPs and their assistants more often described a detailed team approach to using the PST. In conclusion, PCP teams and managers provided important perspectives that could help optimize use of panel-support tools to improve future outcomes. Improvements are needed in tool function and navigation; training; staff accountability and role clarification; and panel management time.

  16. Patient Perspectives on Online Health Information and Communication With Doctors: A Qualitative Study of Patients 50 Years Old and Over

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background As health care systems around the world shift toward models that emphasize self-care management, there is increasing pressure for patients to obtain health information online. It is critical that patients are able to identify potential problems with using the Internet to diagnose and treat a health issue and that they feel comfortable communicating with their doctor about the health information they acquire from the Internet. Objective Our aim was to examine patient-identified (1) problems with using the Internet to identify and treat a health issue, (2) barriers to communication with a doctor about online health information seeking, and (3) facilitators of communication with a doctor about patient searches for health information on the Internet. Methods For this qualitative exploratory study, semistructured interviews were conducted with a sample of 56 adults age 50 years old and over. General concerns regarding use of the Internet to diagnose and treat a health issue were examined separately for participants based on whether they had ever discussed health information obtained through the Internet with a doctor. Discussions about barriers to and facilitators of communication about patient searches for health information on the Internet with a doctor were analyzed using thematic analysis. Results Six higher-level general concerns emerged: (1) limitations in own ability, (2) credibility/limitations of online information, (3) anxiety, (4) time consumption, (5) conflict, and (6) non-physical harm. The most prevalent concern raised by participants who communicated with a doctor about their online health information seeking related to the credibility or limitations in online information. Participants who had never communicated with a doctor about their online health information seeking most commonly reported concerns about non-physical harm. Four barriers to communication emerged: (1) concerns about embarrassment, (2) concerns that the doctor doesn’t want

  17. Experiences of New Information Technology Managers: A Qualitative Hermeneutic Phenomenological Study of IT Managers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Walter Wesley, V.

    2012-01-01

    Transitioning from a technical role to a managerial role has many challenges, particularly in information technology (IT) (Lester & Parnell, 2006). These challenges include people or soft skills, language skills, knowledge, intuition, mentoring, and delegation (Brokett, 2007; Feyerherm & Rice, 2002; Lester & Parnell, 2006). The IT…

  18. A Qualitative Study about Performance Based Assesment Methods Used in Information Technologies Lesson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daghan, Gökhan; Akkoyunlu, Buket

    2014-01-01

    In this study, Information Technologies teachers' views and usage cases on performance based assesment methods (PBAMs) are examined. It is aimed to find out which of the PBAMs are used frequently or not used, preference reasons of these methods and opinions about the applicability of them. Study is designed with the phenomenological design…

  19. Consumerization of Information Technology: An Exploratory Qualitative Inquiry of Michigan Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skallos, Maryly K.

    2014-01-01

    With funding cuts, reduced enrollments, and meeting a presidential initiative, Michigan community colleges need to find ways in which they can continue to provide quality education at an affordable price. Consumerization of information technology (IT) has been proposed to meet the technological needs of the community college. There is little…

  20. Qualitative and Quantitative Measures of Second Language Writing: Potential Outcomes of Informal Target Language Learning Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, N. Anthony; Solovieva, Raissa V.; Eggett, Dennis L.

    2011-01-01

    This research describes a method applied at a U.S. university in a third-year Russian language course designed to facilitate Advanced and Superior second language writing proficiency through the forum of argumentation and debate. Participants had extensive informal language experience living in a Russian-speaking country but comparatively little…

  1. Longitudinal qualitative exploration of cancer information-seeking experiences across the disease trajectory: the INFO-SEEK protocol

    PubMed Central

    Germeni, Evi; Bianchi, Monica; Valcarenghi, Dario; Schulz, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Α substantial corpus of literature has sought to describe the information-seeking behaviour of patients with cancer. Yet, available evidence comes mainly from cross-sectional studies, which provide ‘snapshots’ of patients’ information needs and information-seeking styles at a single time point. Only a few longitudinal studies currently exist; however, these are quantitative in nature and, despite successfully documenting changes in patients’ information needs throughout the clinical course of cancer, they have failed to provide an evidence-based interpretation of the causes and consequences of change. The goal of this study is threefold: First, we wish to provide a holistic understanding of how cancer information-seeking behaviour may evolve across different stages of the patient journey. Second, we will seek to elucidate the contextual and intervening conditions that may affect possible changes in information seeking. Third, we will attempt to identify what the consequences of these changes are, while heightening their implications for clinical practice and policy. Methods and analysis We will carry out a longitudinal qualitative study, based on face-to-face, in-depth interviews with approximately 25 individuals diagnosed with cancer. Patients will be recruited from 2 oncology hospitals located in Ticino, Switzerland, and will be interviewed at 3 different time points: (1) within 2 weeks after receiving the cancer diagnosis; (2) within 2 weeks after their initial treatment; and (3) 6 months after their initial treatment. All interviews will be recorded and transcribed verbatim. A grounded theory approach will be used for the analysis of the data. Ethics and dissemination The study protocol has been approved by the Ethics Committee of Canton Ticino (CE 2813). Participation in the study will be voluntary, and confidentiality and anonymity ensured. Prior to study participation, patients will be asked to provide signed informed consent

  2. A burden of knowledge: A qualitative study of experiences of neonatal intensive care nurses' concerns when keeping information from parents.

    PubMed

    Green, Janet; Darbyshire, Philip; Adams, Anne; Jackson, Debra

    2015-12-01

    Improved life-sustaining technology in the neonatal intensive care has resulted in an increased probability of survival for extremely premature babies. In the neonatal intensive care, the condition of a baby can deteriorate rapidly. Nurses and parents are together for long periods at the bedside and so form close and trusting relationships. Neonatal nurses as the constant caregivers may be presented with contradictory demands in attempting to meet the baby's needs and being a patient and family advocate. This article aims to explore the issues arising for neonatal nurses when holding information about changes to a condition of a baby that they are unable to share with parents. Data were collected via interviews with 24 neonatal nurses in New South Wales, Australia. A qualitative approach was used to analyse the data. The theme 'keeping secrets' was identified and comprised of three sub-themes 'coping with potentially catastrophic news', 'fear of inadvertent disclosure' and 'a burden that could damage trust'. Keeping secrets and withholding information creates internal conflict in the nurses as they balance the principle of confidentiality with the parent's right to know information. The neonatal nurses experienced guilt and shame when they were felt forced by circumstances to keep secrets or withhold information from the parents of extremely premature babies.

  3. Using qualitative eye-tracking data to inform audio presentation of dynamic Web content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Andy; Jay, Caroline; Harper, Simon

    2010-12-01

    Presenting Web content through screen readers can be a challenging task, but this is the only means of access for many blind and visually impaired users. The difficulties are more acute when the information forms part of an interactive process, such as the increasingly common "Web 2.0 applications". If the process is to be completed correctly and efficiently it is vital that appropriate information is given to the user at an appropriate time. Designing a non-visual interface that achieves these aims is a non-trivial task, for which several approaches are possible. The one taken here is to use eye-tracking to understand how sighted users interact with the content, and to gain insight into how they benefit from the information, then apply this understanding to design a non-visual user interface. This paper describes how this technique was applied to develop audio interfaces for two common types of interaction-auto-suggest lists and pop-up calendars. Although the resulting interfaces were quite different, one largely mirroring the visual representation and the other not, evaluations showed that the approach was effective, with both audio implementations effective and popular with participants.

  4. A qualitative exploration of service users' information needs and preferences when receiving a serious mental health diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Milton, Alyssa C; Mullan, Barbara A

    2015-05-01

    Helpful strategies for communicating news of a serious mental health diagnosis are poorly understood. This study explored service users' preferences for how they would like clinicians to deliver such news when a diagnosis of mental illness is made. Qualitative interviews were conducted with forty-five individuals identifying with serious mental illness in eleven community based mental health facilities. Inductive thematic analysis resulted in eight primary themes. Five themes related to the structure and content of the discussion; including a focus on information exchange, using an individualized collaborative partnership paradigm, addressing stigma, balancing hope with realism, and recognizing the dynamic nature of diagnosis. The remaining themes related to the involvement of others; including the importance of clinicians' communication and relationship skills, involvement and education of carers, and offering an opportunity for peer support. The product of the synthesis of themes is a step-wise model for communicating news of mental health diagnosis. PMID:25027015

  5. Evidence-informed decision-making by professionals working in addiction agencies serving women: a descriptive qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Effective approaches to the prevention and treatment of substance abuse among mothers have been developed but not widely implemented. Implementation studies suggest that the adoption of evidence-based practices in the field of addictions remains low. There is a need, therefore, to better understand decision making processes in addiction agencies in order to develop more effective approaches to promote the translation of knowledge gained from addictions research into clinical practice. Methods A descriptive qualitative study was conducted to explore: 1) the types and sources of evidence used to inform practice-related decisions within Canadian addiction agencies serving women; 2) how decision makers at different levels report using research evidence; and 3) factors that influence evidence-informed decision making. A purposeful sample of 26 decision-makers providing addiction treatment services to women completed in-depth qualitative interviews. Interview data were coded and analyzed using directed and summative content analysis strategies as well as constant comparison techniques. Results Across all groups, individuals reported locating and using multiple types of evidence to inform decisions. Some decision-makers rely on their experiential knowledge of addiction and recovery in decision-making. Research evidence is often used directly in decision-making at program management and senior administrative levels. Information for decision-making is accessed from a range of sources, including web-based resources and experts in the field. Individual and organizational facilitators and barriers to using research evidence in decision making were identified. Conclusions There is support at administrative levels for integrating EIDM in addiction agencies. Knowledge transfer and exchange strategies should be focussed towards program managers and administrators and include capacity building for locating, appraising and using research evidence, knowledge brokering, and

  6. Nutritional Deficiencies, the Absence of Information and Caregiver Shortcomings: A Qualitative Analysis of Infant Feeding Practices in Rural China

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Ai; Marsh, Lauren; Medina, Alexis; Luo, Renfu; Shi, Yaojiang; Zhang, Linxiu; Kenny, Kaleigh; Rozelle, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Development during the first two years of life is critical and has a lasting impact on a child’s health. Poor infant and child nutrition can lead to deficiencies in essential micronutrients, which may cause a weakened immune system and lasting effects on children's growth and development. Recent studies in rural Shaanxi Province found an anemia prevalence of 54.3% among rural children aged six to twelve months. While new large-scale, quantitative research has begun to catalogue the extent of child malnutrition and anemia, no effort has yet been made to look more closely at the potential reasons for rural children’s nutritional deficiencies through qualitative analysis. This study aims to elucidate some of the fundamental causes of poor complementary feeding practices that may lead to anemia among children in rural Shaanxi Province, China. Methodology We interviewed sixty caregivers participating in a large survey on child health and nutrition. We conducted three waves of interviews with children’s primary caregivers in seventeen rural villages within four nationally-designated poverty counties in the southern part of Shaanxi Province. Results The qualitative analysis reveals that poor complementary feeding practices are common across our sample. Information gathered from our interviews suggests that complementary feeding practices are impeded by two constraints: absence of understanding topics related to infant health and nutrition under caregivers, as well as inadequate sources of information on these topics. Poverty does not appear to constrain child feeding practices. Conclusion Our results uncover lack of proper knowledge on infant and child nutrition among rural caregivers in China. This situation causes them to fail incorporating micronutrient rich foods in their children's diet. Age-appropriate complementary feeding can stimulate children’s physical and cognitive development, but in its absence it leads to iron

  7. Perceived connections between information and communication technology use and mental symptoms among young adults - a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Prospective associations have been found between high use of information and communication technology (ICT) and reported mental symptoms among young adult university students, but the causal mechanisms are unclear. Our aim was to explore possible explanations for associations between high ICT use and symptoms of depression, sleep disorders, and stress among young adults in order to propose a model of possible pathways to mental health effects that can be tested epidemiologically. Methods We conducted a qualitative interview study with 16 women and 16 men (21-28 years), recruited from a cohort of university students on the basis of reporting high computer (n = 28) or mobile phone (n = 20) use at baseline and reporting mental symptoms at the one-year follow-up. Semi-structured interviews were performed, with open-ended questions about possible connections between the use of computers and mobile phones, and stress, depression, and sleep disturbances. The interview data were analyzed with qualitative content analysis and summarized in a model. Results Central factors appearing to explain high quantitative ICT use were personal dependency, and demands for achievement and availability originating from the domains of work, study, social life, and individual aspirations. Consequences included mental overload, neglect of other activities and personal needs, time pressure, role conflicts, guilt feelings, social isolation, physical symptoms, worry about electromagnetic radiation, and economic problems. Qualitative aspects (destructive communication and information) were also reported, with consequences including vulnerability, misunderstandings, altered values, and feelings of inadequacy. User problems were a source of frustration. Altered ICT use as an effect of mental symptoms was reported, as well as possible positive effects of ICT on mental health. Conclusions The concepts and ideas of the young adults with high ICT use and mental symptoms generated a model of

  8. "There's Got to Be a Better Way to Do This": A Qualitative Investigation of Informal Learning among Instructional Designers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yanchar, Stephen C.; Hawkley, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    This study employed a qualitative research design to investigate informal learning among practicing instructional designers. Prior research has examined how instructional designers spend their time, make decisions, use theory, solve problems, and so on, but no published research has explored the nature and role of informal learning in…

  9. Investigating the informed consent process, therapeutic misconception and motivations of Egyptian research participants: a qualitative pilot study.

    PubMed

    Mansour, H; Zaki, N; Abdelhai, R; Sabry, N; Silverman, H; El-Kamary, S S

    2015-03-01

    Few studies have explored the informed consent process among research participants in developing countries. This study aimed to evaluate the informed consent process, therapeutic misconception and motivation for participation among Egyptians participating in clinical trials. In a cross-sectional qualitative pilot study 103 participants in 10 clinical trials responded to a questionnaire. Over 90% agreed they had time to ask questions and received adequate information about the risks prior to consenting. All participants thought the research and the drug would improve their condition; only 46.1% were aware of receiving a non-approved experimental drug and 21.3% of being randomized. Reasons for participation included: better treatment (100%), to benefit society & advance science (85.4%), to receive free drugs (42.6%) and medical care (43.6%), to get hospitalized (15.8%) and to receive money or gifts (4.9%). Investigators need to emphasize the distinction between research and clinical care to address the high rate of therapeutic misconception. PMID:26074215

  10. Investigating the informed consent process, therapeutic misconception and motivations of Egyptian research participants: a qualitative pilot study.

    PubMed

    Mansour, H; Zaki, N; Abdelhai, R; Sabry, N; Silverman, H; El-Kamary, S S

    2015-05-19

    Few studies have explored the informed consent process among research participants in developing countries. This study aimed to evaluate the informed consent process, therapeutic misconception and motivation for participation among Egyptians participating in clinical trials. In a cross-sectional qualitative pilot study 103 participants in 10 clinical trials responded to a questionnaire. Over 90% agreed they had time to ask questions and received adequate information about the risks prior to consenting. All participants thought the research and the drug would improve their condition; only 46.1% were aware of receiving a non-approved experimental drug and 21.3% of being randomized. Reasons for participation included: better treatment (100%), to benefit society & advance science (85.4%), to receive free drugs (42.6%) and medical care (43.6%), to get hospitalized (15.8%) and to receive money or gifts (4.9%). Investigators need to emphasize the distinction between research and clinical care to address the high rate of therapeutic misconception.

  11. Qualitative study of women’s anxiety and information needs after a diagnosis of cervical dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Adeler, Anny Lisbeth

    2010-01-01

    Aim Each year almost 15,000 Danish women are diagnosed with cervical dysplasia, a precursor to cervical cancer. The period of medical follow-up, or ‘watchful waiting’, to monitor for regression or progression of the lesion before deciding if treatment by conisation is necessary can be long. The aim of this study was to examine the experiences of women with different stages of cervical dysplasia and to examine whether their knowledge of human papillomavirus (HPV) as the cause of cervical dysplasia influenced their perception of their disease. Subject and methods We used focus group and individual interviews with 12 women diagnosed with different stages of cervical dysplasia—women who had and had not been conised. Interview guides were prepared on the basis of a literature review that identified important issues and questions for the participants. Results The participants considered cervical dysplasia to be a highly distressing condition and experienced monitoring as a worrying delay before regression of the lesions or treatment could be initiated. Women expressed a fear of cancer that was not proportional to the stage of their dysplasia, but was determined by their degree of knowledge about their condition. Unlike other sexually transmitted diseases, information about HPV did not result in stigmatisation as the perception of this disease was dominated by cancer. Conclusion This study showed that it is extremely important to address women’s fears, their need for information and to ensure better communication with medical practitioners about cervical dysplasia immediately after diagnosis, irrespective of the disease stage. PMID:21151479

  12. PAT-1 safety analysis report addendum author responses to request for additional information.

    SciTech Connect

    Weiner, Ruth F.; Schmale, David T.; Kalan, Robert J.; Akin, Lili A.; Miller, David Russell; Knorovsky, Gerald Albert; Yoshimura, Richard Hiroyuki; Lopez, Carlos; Harding, David Cameron; Jones, Perry L.; Morrow, Charles W.

    2010-09-01

    The Plutonium Air Transportable Package, Model PAT-1, is certified under Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations Part 71 by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) per Certificate of Compliance (CoC) USA/0361B(U)F-96 (currently Revision 9). The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) submitted SAND Report SAND2009-5822 to NRC that documented the incorporation of plutonium (Pu) metal as a new payload for the PAT-1 package. NRC responded with a Request for Additional Information (RAI), identifying information needed in connection with its review of the application. The purpose of this SAND report is to provide the authors responses to each RAI. SAND Report SAND2010-6106 containing the proposed changes to the Addendum is provided separately.

  13. 20 CFR 30.518 - Can OWCP require the recipient of the overpayment to submit additional financial information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... overpayment to submit additional financial information? 30.518 Section 30.518 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF... OWCP require the recipient of the overpayment to submit additional financial information? (a) The recipient of the overpayment is responsible for providing information about income, expenses and assets...

  14. Obesity in Pregnancy: A Qualitative Approach to Inform an Intervention for Patients and Providers

    PubMed Central

    Kominiarek, Michelle A.; Gay, Franklin; Peacock, Nadine

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate perceptions of minority pregnant women and providers about obesity and gestational weight gain (GWG), and to explore strategies to improve management of obesity in pregnancy with an emphasis on group prenatal care. Methods Sixteen primarily non-Hispanic black pregnant women with a body mass index ≥30kg/m2 and 19 prenatal care providers participated in focus groups. Discussion topics included GWG goals, body image, health behaviors, and group prenatal care with additional emphasis on provider training needs. Results Women frequently stated a GWG goal >20lbs. Women described a body image not in line with clinical recommendations (“200 pounds is not that big.”). They avoided the term “obese.” They were interested in learning about nutrition and culturally-acceptable healthy cooking. Women would enjoy massage and exercise in group settings, though definitions of “exercise” varied. Family members could help, but generational differences posed challenges. Most had to “encourage myself” and “do this for me and the baby.” Providers expressed discomfort discussing GWG and difficulty finding the right words for obesity, which was partially attributed to their own weight. They noted the challenges they faced during prenatal care including time constraints, cultural myths, and system issues. Providers considered a group setting with social support an ideal environment to address health behaviors in obese women. Conclusions Culturally-tailored programs that use acceptable terms for obesity, provide education regarding healthy eating and safe exercise, and encourage support from social networks may be effective in addressing GWG in obese minority women. Provider training in communication skills is necessary to address obesity in pregnancy. PMID:25652058

  15. Obesity in Pregnancy: A Qualitative Approach to Inform an Intervention for Patients and Providers.

    PubMed

    Kominiarek, Michelle A; Gay, Franklin; Peacock, Nadine

    2015-08-01

    To investigate perceptions of minority pregnant women and providers about obesity and gestational weight gain (GWG), and to explore strategies to improve management of obesity in pregnancy with an emphasis on group prenatal care. Sixteen primarily non-Hispanic black pregnant women with a body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m(2) and 19 prenatal care providers participated in focus groups. Discussion topics included GWG goals, body image, health behaviors, and group prenatal care with additional emphasis on provider training needs. Women frequently stated a GWG goal >20 lbs. Women described a body image not in line with clinical recommendations ("200 pounds is not that big."). They avoided the term "obese". They were interested in learning about nutrition and culturally-acceptable healthy cooking. Women would enjoy massage and exercise in group settings, though definitions of "exercise" varied. Family members could help, but generational differences posed challenges. Most had to "encourage myself" and "do this for me and the baby". Providers expressed discomfort discussing GWG and difficulty finding the right words for obesity, which was partially attributed to their own weight. They noted the challenges they faced during prenatal care including time constraints, cultural myths, and system issues. Providers considered a group setting with social support an ideal environment to address health behaviors in obese women. Culturally-tailored programs that use acceptable terms for obesity, provide education regarding healthy eating and safe exercise, and encourage support from social networks may be effective in addressing GWG in obese minority women. Provider training in communication skills is necessary to address obesity in pregnancy.

  16. A qualitative analysis of changes in relationship dynamics and roles between people with cancer and their primary informal carer.

    PubMed

    Ussher, Jane M; Tim Wong, W K; Perz, Janette

    2011-11-01

    It is widely accepted that cancer is an intersubjective experience that impacts upon the psychological well-being of people with cancer and informal carers, as well as on couple relationships. This qualitative study examined the nature and consequences of cancer on the relationship between informal carers and the person with cancer, from the perspective of Australian cancer carers. Sixty-two carers (42 women and 20 men), across a range of cancer types, stages and relationship dyads took part in semi-structured interviews. Participants reported that cancer had precipitated a change in roles and in the dynamics of the relationship, including having to take on quasi-medical tasks and decisions, neglecting self and other relationships, changes to the emotions or personality of the person with cancer, changed patterns of communication, and changes to sexuality and intimacy. The impact of the changed relationship included sadness, anger and frustration, as well as feelings of love and being closer together, resulting in relationship enhancement. Women were more likely to report changes in the person with cancer and to mourn the previous relationship, while more men reported relationship enhancement.

  17. Emerging Technologies in the Built Environment: Geographic Information Science (GIS), 3D Printing, and Additive Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    New, Joshua Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract 1: Geographic information systems emerged as a computer application in the late 1960s, led in part by projects at ORNL. The concept of a GIS has shifted through time in response to new applications and new technologies, and is now part of a much larger world of geospatial technology. This presentation discusses the relationship of GIS and estimating hourly and seasonal energy consumption profiles in the building sector at spatial scales down to the individual parcel. The method combines annual building energy simulations for city-specific prototypical buildings and commonly available geospatial data in a GIS framework. Abstract 2: This presentation focuses on 3D printing technologies and how they have rapidly evolved over the past couple of years. At a basic level, 3D printing produces physical models quickly and easily from 3D CAD, BIM (Building Information Models), and other digital data. Many AEC firms have adopted 3D printing as part of commercial building design development and project delivery. This presentation includes an overview of 3D printing, discusses its current use in building design, and talks about its future in relation to the HVAC industry. Abstract 3: This presentation discusses additive manufacturing and how it is revolutionizing the design of commercial and residential facilities. Additive manufacturing utilizes a broad range of direct manufacturing technologies, including electron beam melting, ultrasonic, extrusion, and laser metal deposition for rapid prototyping. While there is some overlap with the 3D printing talk, this presentation focuses on the materials aspect of additive manufacturing and also some of the more advanced technologies involved with rapid prototyping. These technologies include design of carbon fiber composites, lightweight metals processing, transient field processing, and more.

  18. Perspectives on econometric modelling to inform policy: a UK qualitative case study of minimum unit pricing of alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Bond, Lyndal; Hilton, Shona

    2014-01-01

    Background: Novel policy interventions may lack evaluation-based evidence. Considerations to introduce minimum unit pricing (MUP) of alcohol in the UK were informed by econometric modelling (the ‘Sheffield model’). We aim to investigate policy stakeholders’ views of the utility of modelling studies for public health policy. Methods: In-depth qualitative interviews with 36 individuals involved in MUP policy debates (purposively sampled to include civil servants, politicians, academics, advocates and industry-related actors) were conducted and thematically analysed. Results: Interviewees felt familiar with modelling studies and often displayed detailed understandings of the Sheffield model. Despite this, many were uneasy about the extent to which the Sheffield model could be relied on for informing policymaking and preferred traditional evaluations. A tension was identified between this preference for post hoc evaluations and a desire for evidence derived from local data, with modelling seen to offer high external validity. MUP critics expressed concern that the Sheffield model did not adequately capture the ‘real life’ world of the alcohol market, which was conceptualized as a complex and, to some extent, inherently unpredictable system. Communication of modelling results was considered intrinsically difficult but presenting an appropriate picture of the uncertainties inherent in modelling was viewed as desirable. There was general enthusiasm for increased use of econometric modelling to inform future policymaking but an appreciation that such evidence should only form one input into the process. Conclusion: Modelling studies are valued by policymakers as they provide contextually relevant evidence for novel policies, but tensions exist with views of traditional evaluation-based evidence. PMID:24367068

  19. “There Are Too Many, but Never Enough": Qualitative Case Study Investigating Routine Coding of Clinical Information in Depression

    PubMed Central

    Cresswell, Kathrin; Morrison, Zoe; Sheikh, Aziz; Kalra, Dipak

    2012-01-01

    Background We sought to understand how clinical information relating to the management of depression is routinely coded in different clinical settings and the perspectives of and implications for different stakeholders with a view to understanding how these may be aligned. Materials and Methods Qualitative investigation exploring the views of a purposefully selected range of healthcare professionals, managers, and clinical coders spanning primary and secondary care. Results Our dataset comprised 28 semi-structured interviews, a focus group, documents relating to clinical coding standards and participant observation of clinical coding activities. We identified a range of approaches to coding clinical information including templates and order entry systems. The challenges inherent in clearly establishing a diagnosis, identifying appropriate clinical codes and possible implications of diagnoses for patients were particularly prominent in primary care. Although a range of managerial and research benefits were identified, there were no direct benefits from coded clinical data for patients or professionals. Secondary care staff emphasized the role of clinical coders in ensuring data quality, which was at odds with the policy drive to increase real-time clinical coding. Conclusions There was overall no evidence of clear-cut direct patient care benefits to inform immediate care decisions, even in primary care where data on patients with depression were more extensively coded. A number of important secondary uses were recognized by healthcare staff, but the coding of clinical data to serve these ends was often poorly aligned with clinical practice and patient-centered considerations. The current international drive to encourage clinical coding by healthcare professionals during the clinical encounter may need to be critically examined. PMID:22937106

  20. A Qualitative Study of Excellence in Teaching [and] The Search for Excellence in Teaching: An Annotated Bibliography. Information Analysis Products.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Schaack, Herbert; Glick, I. David

    This document presents a qualitative research study and an annotated bibliography on the characteristics of superlative teachers. For "A Qualitative Study of Excellence in Teaching," Herbert Van Schaack selected and observed nine elementary and secondary school teachers and three college and university professors. The elementary and secondary…

  1. Informed consent for whole genome sequencing: a qualitative analysis of participant expectations and perceptions of risks, benefits, and harms.

    PubMed

    Tabor, Holly K; Stock, Jacquie; Brazg, Tracy; McMillin, Margaret J; Dent, Karin M; Yu, Joon-Ho; Shendure, Jay; Bamshad, Michael J

    2012-06-01

    Scientific evidence on the extent to which ethical concerns about privacy, confidentiality, and return of results for whole genome sequencing (WGS) are effectively conveyed by informed consent (IC) is lacking. The aim of this study was to learn, via qualitative interviews, about participant expectations and perceptions of risks, benefits, and harms of WGS. Participants in two families with Miller syndrome consented for WGS were interviewed about their experiences of the IC process and their perceptions of risks, benefits, and harms of WGS. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed for common themes. IC documents are included in the Supplementary Materials. Participants expressed minimal concerns about privacy and confidentiality with regard to both their participation and sharing of their WGS data in restricted access databases. Participants expressed strong preferences about how results should be returned, requesting both flexibility of the results return process and options for the types of results to be returned. Participant concerns about risks to privacy and confidentiality from broad sharing of WGS data are likely to be strongly influenced by social and medical context. In these families with a rare Mendelian syndrome, the perceived benefits of participation strongly trumped concerns about risks. Individual preferences, for results return, even within a family, varied widely. This underscores the need to develop a framework for results return that allows explicitly for participant preferences and enables modifications to preferences over time. Web-based tools that facilitate participant management of their individual research results could accommodate such a framework.

  2. Informed Consent for Whole Genome Sequencing: A Qualitative Analysis of Participant Expectations and Perceptions of Risks, Benefits, and Harms

    PubMed Central

    Tabor, Holly K.; Stock, Jacquie; Brazg., Tracy; McMillin, Margaret J.; Dent., Karin M.; Yu, Joon-Ho; Shendure, Jay; Bamshad, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Scientific evidence on the extent to which ethical concerns about privacy, confidentiality, and return of results for whole genome sequencing (WGS) are effectively conveyed by informed consent (IC) is lacking. The aim of this study was to learn, via qualitative interviews, about participant expectations and perceptions of risks, benefits, and harms of WGS. Participants in two families with Miller syndrome consented for WGS were interviewed about their experiences of the IC process and their perceptions of risks, benefits, and harms of WGS. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed for common themes. IC documents are included in the supplementary materials. Participants expressed minimal concerns about privacy and confidentiality with regard to both their participation and sharing of their WGS data in restricted access databases. Participants expressed strong preferences about how results should be returned, requesting both flexibility of the results return process and options for the types of results to be returned. Participant concerns about risks to privacy and confidentiality from broad sharing of WGS data are likely to be strongly influenced by social and medical context. In these families with a rare Mendelian syndrome, the perceived benefits of participation strongly trumped concerns about risks. Individual preferences, for results return, even within a family, varied widely. This underscores the need to develop a framework for results return that allows explicitly for participant preferences and enables modifications to preferences over time. Web-based tools that facilitate participant management of their individual research results could accommodate such a framework. PMID:22532433

  3. Applying the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills Model in Medication Adherence Among Thai Youth Living with HIV: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Naar-King, Sylvie; Kaljee, Linda M.; Panthong, Apirudee; Koken, Juline A.; Bunupuradah, Torsak; Parsons, Jeffrey T.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract With disproportionately higher rates of HIV/AIDS among youth and increasing access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Thailand, there is a growing urgency in understanding the challenges to medication adherence confronting this population and in developing theory-based interventions to address these challenges. One potentially relevant model, the information-motivation-behavioral skills (IMB) model of adherence, was developed in Western settings characterized by a more individualistic culture in contrast to the more collectivistic culture of Thailand. We explored the application and adaptability of IMB on ART adherence among HIV-positive Thai youth through the analysis of qualitative data from a pilot motivational interviewing study. Twenty-two interview sessions from 10 HIV-positive Thai youth (17–24 years) were analyzed; 6 youth were on ART. Data support the utility of IMB as a potential framework for understanding ART adherence in this population. However, data indicate a consideration to expand the motivation construct of IMB to incorporate youths' perceived familial and social responsibilities and the need to adhere to medications for short- and long-term well-being of self, family, and society in a context of Buddhist values. These modifications to IMB could be relevant in other cultural settings with more collectivistic worldviews. PMID:21091238

  4. Perspectives on trauma-informed care from mothers with a history of childhood maltreatment: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Muzik, Maria; Ads, Menatalla; Bonham, Caroline; Lisa Rosenblum, Katherine; Broderick, Amanda; Kirk, Rosalind

    2013-12-01

    Women who experienced abuse or neglect as children are more likely to have health problems during pregnancy and postpartum, but can be reluctant to seek help due to a lack of trauma-informed services. As part of a larger mixed method study, this component aimed to obtain qualitative data from trauma-exposed new mothers about their health care preferences during the perinatal period with the ultimate goal to design personalized, supportive interventions. Fifty-two trauma-exposed mothers completed a semi-structured interview at seven months postpartum about health care preferences including ideas for programs that promote wellness, thoughts about the influences of being a new mother and possible names for a program serving trauma-exposed mothers. Interviews were transcribed and coded using N-Vivo. Participants described ambivalence about seeking help but also a sincere desire for healing, coupled with hope for the future. This tension was apparent in the discussions highlighting the importance of access to experienced, nonjudgmental, and knowledgeable health and social care staff and volunteers, the wish for both formal, integrated physical and mental health services, and for informal opportunities to meet other trauma-exposed mothers in a non-stigmatizing, child-friendly setting. Finally, positive relationship-building, respect, and safety were identified as key elements of services critical to counteract trauma-related shame and mistrust in others. Services for trauma-exposed mothers should acknowledge the normal ambivalence surrounding seeking help, but promote hope-affirming practices in a family-centered, safe, non-clinical setting that involves children, builds social support, and provides peer interaction. Program names should reflect optimism and healing rather than trauma.

  5. What supports do health system organizations have in place to facilitate evidence-informed decision-making? a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Decisions regarding health systems are sometimes made without the input of timely and reliable evidence, leading to less than optimal health outcomes. Healthcare organizations can implement tools and infrastructures to support the use of research evidence to inform decision-making. Objectives The purpose of this study was to profile the supports and instruments (i.e., programs, interventions, instruments or tools) that healthcare organizations currently have in place and which ones were perceived to facilitate evidence-informed decision-making. Methods In-depth semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with individuals in three different types of positions (i.e., a senior management team member, a library manager, and a ‘knowledge broker’) in three types of healthcare organizations (i.e., regional health authorities, hospitals and primary care practices) in two Canadian provinces (i.e., Ontario and Quebec). The interviews were taped, transcribed, and then analyzed thematically using NVivo 9 qualitative data analysis software. Results A total of 57 interviews were conducted in 25 organizations in Ontario and Quebec. The main findings suggest that, for the healthcare organizations that participated in this study, the following supports facilitate evidence-informed decision-making: facilitating roles that actively promote research use within the organization; establishing ties to researchers and opinion leaders outside the organization; a technical infrastructure that provides access to research evidence, such as databases; and provision and participation in training programs to enhance staff’s capacity building. Conclusions This study identified the need for having a receptive climate, which laid the foundation for the implementation of other tangible initiatives and supported the use of research in decision-making. This study adds to the literature on organizational efforts that can increase the use of research evidence in decision

  6. The value and contribution of qualitative research to inform nurse education and policy in response to the child's experience of hospital.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Sonya

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this article is to consider the value of qualitative research to inform nurse education and policy for the hospitalized child and young person (CYP). The theoretical issues and tensions inherent in qualitative research with children and young people's nursing are presented in conjunction with a discussion and analysis of how the epistemological and ontological concepts underpin and guide research. It is then followed by an exploration of their influence on enabling nurses to understand the CYP's perspective, before finally leading to an analysis of the impact on the development of policy and research.

  7. Systematics of the family Plectopylidae in Vietnam with additional information on Chinese taxa (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Stylommatophora)

    PubMed Central

    Páll-Gergely, Barna; Hunyadi, András; Ablett, Jonathan; Lương, Hào Văn; Fred Naggs; Asami, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Vietnamese species from the family Plectopylidae are revised based on the type specimens of all known taxa, more than 600 historical non-type museum lots, and almost 200 newly-collected samples. Altogether more than 7000 specimens were investigated. The revision has revealed that species diversity of the Vietnamese Plectopylidae was previously overestimated. Overall, thirteen species names (anterides Gude, 1909, bavayi Gude, 1901, congesta Gude, 1898, fallax Gude, 1909, gouldingi Gude, 1909, hirsuta Möllendorff, 1901, jovia Mabille, 1887, moellendorffi Gude, 1901, persimilis Gude, 1901, pilsbryana Gude, 1901, soror Gude, 1908, tenuis Gude, 1901, verecunda Gude, 1909) were synonymised with other species. In addition to these, Gudeodiscus hemmeni sp. n. and Gudeodiscus messageri raheemi ssp. n. are described from north-western Vietnam. Sixteen species and two subspecies are recognized from Vietnam. The reproductive anatomy of eight taxa is described. Based on anatomical information, Halongella gen. n. is erected to include Plectopylis schlumbergeri and Plectopylis fruhstorferi. Additionally, the genus Gudeodiscus is subdivided into two subgenera (Gudeodiscus and Veludiscus subgen. n.) on the basis of the morphology of the reproductive anatomy and the radula. The Chinese Gudeodiscus phlyarius werneri Páll-Gergely, 2013 is moved to synonymy of Gudeodiscus phlyarius. A spermatophore was found in the organ situated next to the gametolytic sac in one specimen. This suggests that this organ in the Plectopylidae is a diverticulum. Statistically significant evidence is presented for the presence of calcareous hook-like granules inside the penis being associated with the absence of embryos in the uterus in four genera. This suggests that these probably play a role in mating periods before disappearing when embryos develop. Sicradiscus mansuyi is reported from China for the first time. PMID:25632253

  8. Lateralization of High-Frequency Clicks Based on Interaural Time: Additivity of Information across Frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenzel, Elizabeth Marie

    Lateralization performance based on interaural differences of time (IDTs) was measured for trains of Gaussian clicks which varied in spectral content. In the first experiment, thresholds ((DELTA)IDTs) were measured as a function of the number of clicks in the train (n = 1 to 32), the interclick interval (ICI = 2.5 or 5 ms), and the spectral content (1 vs. 2 or 4 carriers). Subjects' performance was compared to perfect statistical summation which predicts slopes of -.50 when log-(DELTA)IDT vs. long -n is plotted. The results showed that increasing the spectral content of the clicks decreased the intercepts of the log -log functions (decreased thresholds) while having little effect on their slopes. Shortening the ICIs caused the slopes of the functions to decrease in absolute value. To estimate the bandwidth of frequency-interaction in lateralization, d's were measured for clicks with constant IDTs (n = 1) with a fixed carrier (FF = 4000, 5200, 6000 or 7200 Hz), both alone and combined with a second click whose carrier (F) varied from 3500 to 8500 Hz. Performance in combined conditions was compared to independent summation of the information carried by the two frequency-bands. Performance improved as the separation between F and FF increased until the level predicted by independence was reached. The final experiment investigated the interaction of frequency content with IDT. d's were measured as a function of the IDT in clicks with carriers of 5200, 6000 or 7200 Hz, both alone and combined with a 4000-Hz click with a fixed IDT. Performance in combined conditions was again compared to independent additivity. The improvement with frequency was explained by an increase in the number of samples of the IDT reaching the binaural centers due to spread of excitation along the basilar membrane. Less than independent summation was explained by correlation between overlapping bands which reduced the amount of information exciting independent channels. The data also suggest that

  9. 40 CFR 79.21 - Information and assurances to be provided by the additive manufacturer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... fuel additive will be sold, offered for sale, or introduced into commerce, and the fuel additive manufacturer's recommended range of concentration and purpose-in-use for each such type of fuel. (e) Such other... (e) of this section as provided in § 79.5(b). (g) Assurances that the additive manufacturer will...

  10. Qualitative impact of salinity, UV radiation and turbulence on leaching of organic plastic additives from four common plastics - A lab experiment.

    PubMed

    Suhrhoff, Tim Jesper; Scholz-Böttcher, Barbara M

    2016-01-15

    Four common consumer plastic samples (polyethylene, polystyrene, polyethylene terephthalate, polyvinylchloride) were studied to investigate the impact of physical parameters such as turbulence, salinity and UV irradiance on leaching behavior of selected plastic components. Polymers were exposed to two different salinities (i.e. 0 and 35 g/kg), UV radiation and turbulence. Additives (e.g. bisphenol A, phthalates, citrates, and Irgafos® 168 phosphate) and oligomers were detected in initial plastics and aqueous extracts. Identification and quantification was performed by GC-FID/MS. Bisphenol A and citrate based additives are leached easier compared to phthalates. The print highly contributed to the chemical burden of the analyzed polyethylene bag. The study underlines a positive relationship between turbulence and magnitude of leaching. Salinity had a minor impact that differs for each analyte. Global annual release of additives from assessed plastics into marine environments is estimated to be between 35 and 917 tons, of which most are derived from plasticized polyvinylchloride.

  11. 41 CFR 102-75.140 - In addition to the title report, and all necessary environmental information and certifications...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 102-75.140 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false In addition to the title report, and all necessary environmental information and certifications, what information must...

  12. 41 CFR 102-79.111 - Where may Executive agencies find additional information on Integrated Workplace concepts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Where may Executive agencies find additional information on Integrated Workplace concepts? 102-79.111 Section 102-79.111 Public... Integrated Workplace concepts? The GSA Office of Governmentwide Policy provides additional guidance in...

  13. Does the anti-prothrombin antibodies measurement provide additional information in patients with thrombosis?

    PubMed

    Bardin, Nathalie; Alessi, Marie Christine; Dignat-George, Francoise; Vague, Irene Juhan; Sampol, Jose; Harlé, Jean Robert; Sanmarco, Marielle

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study is to get new insight into the relevance of IgG anti-prothrombin antibodies in patients with thrombosis and to determine whether human prothrombin alone (aPT) or complexed to phosphatidylserine (aPS/PT) should be preferentially used for measuring these antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). To this end, prevalence of anti-prothrombin antibodies, their characteristics in terms of avidity and heterogeneity, and their relationship with anti-beta2 glycoprotein I antibodies (abeta2GPI) were studied in 152 patients with thrombosis. Patients were divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL), called aPL+ or aPL-, respectively. In the aPL- group (n=90), the prevalence of anti-prothrombin antibodies was substantial (10%) but not significantly different from that of control (5%). In the aPL+ group (n=62), lupus anticoagulant (LA) or anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL) positive, 61% were positive for anti-prothrombin antibodies with no statistical difference between aPT and aPS/PT prevalence (42% vs. 55%, respectively). In the whole thrombotic population, 19% were only aPT and 34% only aPS/PT suggesting the presence of different antibodies. Absorption experiments confirmed the heterogeneity of aPT and aPS/PT. No difference in their avidity was demonstrated. From the aPL+ group, 60 were LA positive. Among them, 18% were negative for abeta2GPI and anti-prothrombin antibodies showing that the detection of these antibodies could not substitute for LA determination. In conclusion, our data show that the screening of the different anti-prothrombin antibodies is not warranted in the aPL+ group since these antibodies do not provide additional information compared to aCL, LA and/or abeta2GPI measurement. Nevertheless, the substantial prevalence of anti-prothrombin antibodies in the aPL- group should be further explored in a large prospective study. PMID:17678713

  14. CMR Quantification of Myocardial Scar Provides Additive Prognostic Information in Nonischemic Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Neilan, Tomas G.; Coelho-Filho, Otavio R.; Danik, Stephan B.; Shah, Ravi V.; Dodson, John A.; Verdini, Daniel J.; Tokuda, Michifumi; Daly, Caroline A.; Tedrow, Usha B.; Stevenson, William G.; Jerosch-Herold, Michael; Ghoshhajra, Brian B.; Kwong, Raymond Y.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES This study sought to determine whether the extent of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) can provide additive prognostic information in patients with a nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (NIDC) with an indication for implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) therapy for the primary prevention of sudden cardiac death (SCD). BACKGROUND Data suggest that the presence of LGE is a strong discriminator of events in patients with NIDC. Limited data exist on the role of LGE quantification. METHODS The extent of LGE and clinical follow-up were assessed in 162 patients with NIDC prior to ICD insertion for primary prevention of SCD. LGE extent was quantified using both the standard deviation–based (2-SD) method and the full-width half-maximum (FWHM) method. RESULTS We studied 162 patients with NIDC (65% male; mean age: 55 years; left ventricular ejection fraction [LVEF]: 26 ± 8%) and followed up for major adverse cardiac events (MACE), including cardiovascular death and appropriate ICD therapy, for a mean of 29 ± 18 months. Annual MACE rates were substantially higher in patients with LGE (24%) than in those without LGE (2%). By univariate association, the presence and the extent of LGE demonstrated the strongest associations with MACE (LGE presence, hazard ratio [HR]: 14.5 [95% confidence interval (CI): 6.1 to 32.6; p < 0.001]; LGE extent, HR: 1.15 per 1% increase in volume of LGE [95% CI: 1.12 to 1.18; p < 0.0001]). Multivariate analyses showed that LGE extent was the strongest predictor in the best overall model for MACE, and a 7-fold hazard was observed per 10% LGE extent after adjustments for patient age, sex, and LVEF (adjusted HR: 7.61; p < 0.0001). LGE quantitation by 2-SD and FWHM both demonstrated robust prognostic association, with the highest MACE rate observed in patients with LGE involving >6.1% of LV myocardium. CONCLUSIONS LGE extent may provide further risk stratification in patients with NIDC with a current indication for ICD implantation for

  15. Public information needs after the poisoning of Alexander Litvinenko with polonium-210 in London: cross sectional telephone survey and qualitative analysis

    PubMed Central

    Page, Lisa; Morgan, Oliver; Pinder, Richard J; Riley, Paul; Hatch, Stephani; Maguire, Helen; Catchpole, Mike; Simpson, John; Wessely, Simon

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To identify public perceptions of the risk to health after the poisoning of Alexander Litvinenko with polonium-210 (210Po) in London and to assess the impact of public health communications. Design Cross sectional telephone survey and qualitative interviews. Setting London, United Kingdom. Participants 1000 people completed the cross sectional survey and 86 potentially exposed people completed the qualitative interviews. Main outcome measures Perception of risk to personal health after the 210Po incident. Qualitative interviews were analysed with an emphasis on information needs. Results 11.7% of the survey sample (n=117) perceived their health to be at risk. Aside from personal variables the main predictors of perceived risk to health were believing that the incident was related to terrorism (odds ratio 2.7, 95% confidence interval 1.5 to 4.6) rather than to espionage, that it was targeted at the wider public rather than one person (5.9, 3.2 to 10.9), and that it could affect people who had not been in the contaminated area (3.2, 2.1 to 5.1). Participants in the qualitative interviews were generally satisfied with the information they had received, although they would have preferred more information about their individual risk of exposure, the results of their urine tests, and the health implications of the incident. Conclusions Perceptions of the public that the 210Po incident in London in 2006 was related to espionage helped to reassure them that the risks to personal health were low. In the event of future incidents it is important to ensure that detailed, comprehensible information about the risks of any exposure is available. PMID:17975252

  16. 14 CFR 121.317 - Passenger information requirements, smoking prohibitions, and additional seat belt requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Passenger information requirements, smoking... OPERATIONS Instrument and Equipment Requirements § 121.317 Passenger information requirements, smoking... command. (c) No person may operate an airplane on a flight on which smoking is prohibited by part 252...

  17. 14 CFR 121.317 - Passenger information requirements, smoking prohibitions, and additional seat belt requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Passenger information requirements, smoking... OPERATIONS Instrument and Equipment Requirements § 121.317 Passenger information requirements, smoking... command. (c) No person may operate an airplane on a flight on which smoking is prohibited by part 252...

  18. 14 CFR 121.317 - Passenger information requirements, smoking prohibitions, and additional seat belt requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Passenger information requirements, smoking... OPERATIONS Instrument and Equipment Requirements § 121.317 Passenger information requirements, smoking... command. (c) No person may operate an airplane on a flight on which smoking is prohibited by part 252...

  19. 14 CFR 121.317 - Passenger information requirements, smoking prohibitions, and additional seat belt requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Passenger information requirements, smoking... OPERATIONS Instrument and Equipment Requirements § 121.317 Passenger information requirements, smoking... command. (c) No person may operate an airplane on a flight on which smoking is prohibited by part 252...

  20. 14 CFR 121.317 - Passenger information requirements, smoking prohibitions, and additional seat belt requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Passenger information requirements, smoking... OPERATIONS Instrument and Equipment Requirements § 121.317 Passenger information requirements, smoking... command. (c) No person may operate an airplane on a flight on which smoking is prohibited by part 252...

  1. Perceptions of Drinking among Hispanic College Students: How Qualitative Research Can Inform the Development of Collegiate Alcohol Abuse Prevention Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quintero, Gilbert A.; Young, Kathleen J.; Mier, Nelda; Jenks, Shepard, Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Alcohol abuse on college campuses continues to be a significant public health issue and health promotion strategies are being directed at changing the culture of collegiate drinking. From a qualitative research perspective such efforts remain uniformed since this area of research is currently dominated by large-scale surveys that illuminate little…

  2. What Influences the Uptake of Information to Prevent Skin Cancer? A Systematic Review and Synthesis of Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garside, Ruth; Pearson, Mark; Moxham, Tiffany

    2010-01-01

    Skin cancer is an increasing problem in Europe, America and Australasia, although largely preventable by avoiding excessive ultraviolet (UV) exposure. This paper presents the findings of a systematic review of qualitative research about the prevention of skin cancer attributable to UV exposure. The aim is to understand elements that may contribute…

  3. 78 FR 27936 - Request for Extension and Revision of a Currently Approved Information Collection With Additional...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service Request for Extension and Revision of a Currently Approved Information... of Fresh and Processed Fruits, Vegetables and Other Products AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing...

  4. Emotional and psychosocial aspects of menstrual poverty in resource-poor settings: a qualitative study of the experiences of adolescent girls in an informal settlement in Nairobi.

    PubMed

    Crichton, Joanna; Okal, Jerry; Kabiru, Caroline W; Zulu, Eliya Msiyaphazi

    2013-10-01

    We introduce the concept of "menstrual poverty" to categorize the multiple deprivations relating to menstruation in resource-poor settings across the Global South, and we examine how this affects the psychological well-being of adolescent girls in an urban informal settlement in Kenya. We use qualitative data collected through 34 in-depth interviews and 18 focus group discussions with girls, women, and key informants. Menstrual poverty involved practical and psychosocial challenges affecting girls at home and at school. Its emotional impacts included anxiety, embarrassment, fear of stigma, and low mood. Further research is needed on how menstrual poverty affects girls' psychological and educational outcomes.

  5. Twenty-five additional cases of trisomy 9 mosaic: Birth information, medical conditions, and developmental status.

    PubMed

    Bruns, Deborah A; Campbell, Emily

    2015-05-01

    Limited literature exists on children and adults diagnosed with the mosaic form of trisomy 9. Data from the Tracking Rare Incidence Syndromes (TRIS) project has provided physical characteristics and medical conditions for 14 individuals. This article provides TRIS Survey results of 25 additional cases at two data points (birth and survey completion) as well as developmental status. Results confirmed a number of phenotypic features and medical conditions. In addition, a number of cardiac anomalies were reported along with feeding and respiratory difficulties in the immediate postnatal period. In addition, developmental status data indicated a range in functioning level up to skills in the 36 and 48-month range. Strengths were also noted across the sample in language and communication, fine motor and social-emotional development. Implications for professionals caring for children with this genetic condition are offered. PMID:25755087

  6. Contributions of Qualitative Research in Informing HIV/AIDS Interventions Targeting Black MSM in the United States.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Patrick A; Valera, Pamela; Martos, Alexander J; Wittlin, Natalie M; Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel A; Parker, Richard G

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a systematic review of qualitative studies focusing on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) among Black men who have sex with men (BMSM) in the United States. We reviewed studies that were published between 1980 and 2014. Qualitative methods employed in the studies reviewed include in-depth interviews, focus groups, participant observation, and ethnography. We searched several databases (PubMed, PsychINFO, JSTOR, ERIC, Sociological Abstracts, and Google Scholar) for relevant articles using the following broad terms: "Black men" "Black gay/bisexual" or "Black men who have sex with men," and "qualitative" and/or "ethnography." We include 70 studies in this review. The key themes observed across studies were (1) heterogeneity, (2) layered stigma and intersectionality, (3) risk behaviors, (4) mental health, (5) resilience, and (6) community engagement. The review suggests that sexual behavior and HIV-status disclosure, sexual risk taking, substance use, and psychological well-being were contextually situated. Interventions occurring at multiple levels and within multiple contexts are needed to reduce stigma within the Black community. Similarly, structural interventions targeting religious groups, schools, and health care systems are needed to improve the health outcomes among BMSM. Community engagement and using community-based participatory research methods may facilitate the development and implementation of culturally appropriate HIV/AIDS interventions targeting BMSM. PMID:26241373

  7. Contributions of Qualitative Research in Informing HIV/AIDS Interventions Targeting Black MSM in the United States.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Patrick A; Valera, Pamela; Martos, Alexander J; Wittlin, Natalie M; Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel A; Parker, Richard G

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a systematic review of qualitative studies focusing on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) among Black men who have sex with men (BMSM) in the United States. We reviewed studies that were published between 1980 and 2014. Qualitative methods employed in the studies reviewed include in-depth interviews, focus groups, participant observation, and ethnography. We searched several databases (PubMed, PsychINFO, JSTOR, ERIC, Sociological Abstracts, and Google Scholar) for relevant articles using the following broad terms: "Black men" "Black gay/bisexual" or "Black men who have sex with men," and "qualitative" and/or "ethnography." We include 70 studies in this review. The key themes observed across studies were (1) heterogeneity, (2) layered stigma and intersectionality, (3) risk behaviors, (4) mental health, (5) resilience, and (6) community engagement. The review suggests that sexual behavior and HIV-status disclosure, sexual risk taking, substance use, and psychological well-being were contextually situated. Interventions occurring at multiple levels and within multiple contexts are needed to reduce stigma within the Black community. Similarly, structural interventions targeting religious groups, schools, and health care systems are needed to improve the health outcomes among BMSM. Community engagement and using community-based participatory research methods may facilitate the development and implementation of culturally appropriate HIV/AIDS interventions targeting BMSM.

  8. Testing 1...2...3...: Additional Files Available for Test Information Online.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabiano, Emily

    1984-01-01

    Reviews databases providing information on published, standardized and unpublished, non-standardized test instruments: Educational Testing Service File, Mental Measurements Yearbook Database, Dissertation Abstracts Online, ERIC, and Psychological Abstracts. Search strategies, search examples, and a summary chart of searchable fields for test…

  9. 17 CFR 229.1118 - (Item 1118) Reports and additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... transaction documents. Describe the reports or other documents provided to security holders required under the... Commission maintains an Internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other... electronically filed with, or furnished to, the Commission. (2) Disclose whether other reports to...

  10. 75 FR 68608 - Information Collection; Request for Authorization of Additional Classification and Rate, Standard...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ...(c), and 5.15 (records to be kept by employers under the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA), 29 CFR 516... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: A. Purpose This regulation prescribes labor standards for federally financed and assisted construction contracts subject to the Davis-Bacon and Related Acts (DBRA), as well as...

  11. 49 CFR 260.25 - Additional information for Applicants not having a credit rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... corresponding to those used in this section, the following information: (a) A narrative statement detailing...; and (f) A narrative description of Applicant's management team, including: (1) Rail experience of top... narrative description of Applicant's workforce and the historical rate of employee turnover....

  12. 49 CFR 260.25 - Additional information for Applicants not having a credit rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... corresponding to those used in this section, the following information: (a) A narrative statement detailing...; and (f) A narrative description of Applicant's management team, including: (1) Rail experience of top... narrative description of Applicant's workforce and the historical rate of employee turnover....

  13. Software for Information Storage and Retrieval Tested, Evaluated and Compared: Part VI--Various Additional Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sieverts, Eric G.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Reports on tests evaluating nine microcomputer software packages designed for information storage and retrieval: BRS-Search, dtSearch, InfoBank, Micro-OPC, Q&A, STN-PFS, Strix, TINman, and ZYindex. Tables and narrative evaluations detail results related to security, hardware, user features, search capability, indexing, input, maintenance of files,…

  14. 78 FR 22937 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Application for Additional Visa Pages or...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE 60-Day... Passport Services ACTION: Notice of request for public comment. SUMMARY: The Department of State is seeking Office of Management and ] Budget (OMB) approval for the information collection described below....

  15. 21 CFR 71.15 - Confidentiality of data and information in color additive petitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... shall be made that any such ingredient list is incomplete. (5) An assay method or other analytical method, unless it serves no regulatory or compliance purpose and is shown to fall within the exemption... information as defined in § 20.61 of this chapter: (1) Manufacturing methods or processes, including...

  16. 21 CFR 71.15 - Confidentiality of data and information in color additive petitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... shall be made that any such ingredient list is incomplete. (5) An assay method or other analytical method, unless it serves no regulatory or compliance purpose and is shown to fall within the exemption... information as defined in § 20.61 of this chapter: (1) Manufacturing methods or processes, including...

  17. 21 CFR 71.15 - Confidentiality of data and information in color additive petitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... shall be made that any such ingredient list is incomplete. (5) An assay method or other analytical method, unless it serves no regulatory or compliance purpose and is shown to fall within the exemption... information as defined in § 20.61 of this chapter: (1) Manufacturing methods or processes, including...

  18. 77 FR 58911 - Additional Identifying Information for One (1) Individual Designated Pursuant to Executive Order...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-24

    ... Threaten to Disrupt the Middle East Peace Process'' (the ``Order''). DATES: The addition by the Director of... sanctions on persons who threaten to disrupt the Middle East peace process. The President identified in the... Middle East peace ] process; or (2) assist in, sponsor, or provide financial, material, or...

  19. 40 CFR 79.21 - Information and assurances to be provided by the additive manufacturer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., percentage by weight, and method of analysis of each element in the additive are required provided, however, that a percentage figure combining the percentages of carbon, hydrogen, and/or oxygen may be provided unless the breakdown into percentages for these individual elements is already known to the...

  20. 40 CFR 79.21 - Information and assurances to be provided by the additive manufacturer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., percentage by weight, and method of analysis of each element in the additive are required provided, however, that a percentage figure combining the percentages of carbon, hydrogen, and/or oxygen may be provided unless the breakdown into percentages for these individual elements is already known to the...

  1. 40 CFR 79.21 - Information and assurances to be provided by the additive manufacturer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., percentage by weight, and method of analysis of each element in the additive are required provided, however, that a percentage figure combining the percentages of carbon, hydrogen, and/or oxygen may be provided unless the breakdown into percentages for these individual elements is already known to the...

  2. Facing Facts: Can the Face-Name Mnemonic Strategy Accommodate Additional Factual Information?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carney, Russell N.; Levin, Joel R.

    2012-01-01

    In 3 experiments, undergraduates used their own best method (control) or an "imposed" face-name mnemonic strategy to associate 18 caricatured faces, names, and additional facts. On all immediate tests (prompted by the faces), and on the delayed tests of Experiments 2a and 2b combined, mnemonic students statistically outperformed control students…

  3. 75 FR 62404 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Additional...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-08

    ...-counter (OTC) drugs as generally recognized as safe and effective and not misbranded. DATES: Submit either... additional criteria and procedures for classifying OTC drugs as generally recognized as safe and effective and not misbranded (2002 TEA final rule). The regulations in Sec. 330.14 state that OTC drug...

  4. 10 CFR 52.80 - Contents of applications; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... 52.80 Section 52.80 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.80 Contents of applications; additional technical... environmental report, either in accordance with 10 CFR 51.50(c) if a limited work authorization under 10 CFR...

  5. 10 CFR 52.158 - Contents of application; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... 52.158 Section 52.158 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.158 Contents of application; additional... environmental report as required by 10 CFR 51.54. (2) If the manufacturing license application references...

  6. 10 CFR 52.80 - Contents of applications; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... 52.80 Section 52.80 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.80 Contents of applications; additional technical... environmental report, either in accordance with 10 CFR 51.50(c) if a limited work authorization under 10 CFR...

  7. 10 CFR 52.80 - Contents of applications; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... 52.80 Section 52.80 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.80 Contents of applications; additional technical... environmental report, either in accordance with 10 CFR 51.50(c) if a limited work authorization under 10 CFR...

  8. 10 CFR 52.80 - Contents of applications; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... 52.80 Section 52.80 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.80 Contents of applications; additional technical... environmental report, either in accordance with 10 CFR 51.50(c) if a limited work authorization under 10 CFR...

  9. 10 CFR 52.158 - Contents of application; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... 52.158 Section 52.158 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.158 Contents of application; additional... environmental report as required by 10 CFR 51.54. (2) If the manufacturing license application references...

  10. 10 CFR 52.158 - Contents of application; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... 52.158 Section 52.158 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.158 Contents of application; additional... environmental report as required by 10 CFR 51.54. (2) If the manufacturing license application references...

  11. 10 CFR 52.80 - Contents of applications; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... 52.80 Section 52.80 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.80 Contents of applications; additional technical... environmental report, either in accordance with 10 CFR 51.50(c) if a limited work authorization under 10 CFR...

  12. 10 CFR 52.158 - Contents of application; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... 52.158 Section 52.158 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.158 Contents of application; additional... environmental report as required by 10 CFR 51.54. (2) If the manufacturing license application references...

  13. 50 CFR 23.25 - What additional information is required on a non-Party CITES document?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What additional information is required on a non-Party CITES document? 23.25 Section 23.25 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND..., BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL...

  14. 50 CFR 23.25 - What additional information is required on a non-Party CITES document?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What additional information is required on a non-Party CITES document? 23.25 Section 23.25 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND..., BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL...

  15. 12 CFR 516.220 - If OTS requests additional information to complete my application, how will it process my...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... complete my application, how will it process my application? 516.220 Section 516.220 Banks and Banking... Standard Treatment § 516.220 If OTS requests additional information to complete my application, how will it... your response. OTS will notify you that it has extended the period before the end of the initial...

  16. 12 CFR 116.220 - If the OCC requests additional information to complete my application, how will it process my...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... complete my application, how will it process my application? 116.220 Section 116.220 Banks and Banking... Treatment § 116.220 If the OCC requests additional information to complete my application, how will it... that it has extended the period before the end of the initial 15-day period and will briefly...

  17. 12 CFR 516.220 - If OTS requests additional information to complete my application, how will it process my...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... complete my application, how will it process my application? 516.220 Section 516.220 Banks and Banking... Standard Treatment § 516.220 If OTS requests additional information to complete my application, how will it... your response. OTS will notify you that it has extended the period before the end of the initial...

  18. 12 CFR 390.128 - If the FDIC requests additional information to complete my application, how will it process my...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... complete my application, how will it process my application? 390.128 Section 390.128 Banks and Banking... additional information to complete my application, how will it process my application? (a) You may use the... will notify you that it has extended the period before the end of the initial 15-day period and...

  19. Inclusion of Additional Plant Species and Trait Information in Dynamic Vegetation Modeling of Arctic Tundra and Boreal Forest Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Euskirchen, E. S.; Patil, V.; Roach, J.; Griffith, B.; McGuire, A. D.

    2015-12-01

    Dynamic vegetation models (DVMs) have been developed to model the ecophysiological characteristics of plant functional types in terrestrial ecosystems. They have frequently been used to answer questions pertaining to processes such as disturbance, plant succession, and community composition under historical and future climate scenarios. While DVMs have proved useful in these types of applications, it has often been questioned if additional detail, such as including plant dynamics at the species-level and/or including species-specific traits would make these models more accurate and/or broadly applicable. A sub-question associated with this issue is, 'How many species, or what degree of functional diversity, should we incorporate to sustain ecosystem function in modeled ecosystems?' Here, we focus on how the inclusion of additional plant species and trait information may strengthen dynamic vegetation modeling in applications pertaining to: (1) forage for caribou in northern Alaska, (2) above- and belowground carbon storage in the boreal forest and lake margin wetlands of interior Alaska, and (3) arctic tundra and boreal forest leaf phenology. While the inclusion of additional information generally proved valuable in these three applications, this additional detail depends on field data that may not always be available and may also result in increased computational complexity. Therefore, it is important to assess these possible limitations against the perceived need for additional plant species and trait information in the development and application of dynamic vegetation models.

  20. Seeking information about HIV/AIDS: a qualitative study of health literacy among people living with HIV/AIDS in a low prevalence context.

    PubMed

    Zukoski, Ann P; Thorburn, Sheryl; Stroud, Josh

    2011-11-01

    People living with HIV/AIDS in rural and low HIV prevalence areas face a number of challenges including stigma, limited access to specialized medical care, lack of an HIV/AIDS specialist and fear which may interfere with their ability to find and use information to manage their health. With a large number of HIV cases located in non-metropolitan and rural areas in the US, more research is needed to better understand the health seeking behaviors of individuals living in this context. This study examined how 16 individuals living with HIV sought out information to meet their health needs. In qualitative semi-structured interviews, we explored participants' primary sources of information, types of information sought, and barriers to accessing information. The sample was comprised of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) who resided in a predominantly rural area with low HIV prevalence. The majority of participants relied on a combination of sources including their HIV/AIDS physician, the Internet, a Ryan-White caseworker and a staff member of a community-based support organization to meet their informational needs. Information sought focused primarily on drug regimens, drug side effects, or drug research. Participants shared barriers to accessing information including stigma, fear, concern about disclosure, and feelings of futility and anger. Findings point to a need to expand health literacy research and interventions to address broader social and structural barriers to health improvement for PLWHA, especially among those living in rural and low HIV prevalence areas.

  1. Contributions of Qualitative Research in Informing HIV/AIDS Interventions Targeting Black MSM in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Patrick A.; Valera, Pamela; Martos, Alexander J.; Wittlin, Natalie M.; Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel A.; Parker, Richard G.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a systematic review of qualitative studies focusing on the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) among Black men who have sex with men (BMSM) in the United States. We reviewed studies that were published between 1980-2014. Qualitative methods employed in the studies reviewed include: in-depth interviews, focus groups, participant observation, and ethnography. We searched the following databases: PubMed, PsychINFO, JSTOR, ERIC, Sociological Abstracts, and Google Scholar for relevant articles using the following broad terms: “Black men” and/or “BMSM,” and “qualitative” and/or “ethnography.” Seventy studies were included in this review. The key themes observed across studies were: (1) heterogeneity, (2) layered stigma and intersectionality, (3) risk behaviors, (4) mental health, (5) resilience, and (6) community engagement. The review suggests that sexual behavior and HIV-status disclosure, sexual risk-taking, substance use, and psychological well-being were contextually situated. Interventions occurring at multiple levels and within multiple contexts are needed to reduce stigma within the Black community. Similarly, structural interventions targeting religious groups, schools, and health care systems are needed to improve the health outcomes among BMSM. Community engagement and using community-based participatory research methods may facilitate the development and implementation of culturally appropriate HIV/AIDS interventions targeting BMSM. PMID:26241373

  2. Tautomers of a Fluorescent G Surrogate and Their Distinct Photophysics Provide Additional Information Channels.

    PubMed

    Sholokh, Marianna; Improta, Roberto; Mori, Mattia; Sharma, Rajhans; Kenfack, Cyril; Shin, Dongwon; Voltz, Karine; Stote, Roland H; Zaporozhets, Olga A; Botta, Maurizio; Tor, Yitzhak; Mély, Yves

    2016-07-01

    Thienoguanosine ((th) G) is an isomorphic nucleoside analogue acting as a faithful fluorescent substitute of G, with respectable quantum yield in oligonucleotides. Photophysical analysis of (th) G reveals the existence of two ground-state tautomers with significantly shifted absorption and emission wavelengths, and high quantum yield in buffer. Using (TD)-DFT calculations, the tautomers were identified as the H1 and H3 keto-amino tautomers. When incorporated into the loop of (-)PBS, the (-)DNA copy of the HIV-1 primer binding site, both tautomers are observed and show differential sensitivity to protein binding. The red-shifted H1 tautomer is strongly favored in matched (-)/(+)PBS duplexes, while the relative emission of the H3 tautomer can be used to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms. These tautomers and their distinct environmental sensitivity provide unprecedented information channels for analyzing G residues in oligonucleotides and their complexes.

  3. Extracting additional risk managers information from a risk assessment of Listeria monocytogenes in deli meats.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Rodríguez, F; van Asselt, E D; Garcia-Gimeno, R M; Zurera, G; Zwietering, M H

    2007-05-01

    The risk assessment study of Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat foods conducted by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration is an example of an extensive quantitative microbiological risk assessment that could be used by risk analysts and other scientists to obtain information and by managers and stakeholders to make decisions on food safety management. The present study was conducted to investigate how detailed sensitivity analysis can be used by assessors to extract more information on risk factors and how results can be communicated to managers and stakeholders in an understandable way. The extended sensitivity analysis revealed that the extremes at the right side of the dose distribution (at consumption, 9 to 11.5 log CFU per serving) were responsible for most of the cases of listeriosis simulated. For concentration at retail, values below the detection limit of 0.04 CFU/g and the often used limit for L. monocytogenes of 100 CFU/g (also at retail) were associated with a high number of annual cases of listeriosis (about 29 and 82%, respectively). This association can be explained by growth of L. monocytogenes at both average and extreme values of temperature and time, indicating that a wide distribution can lead to high risk levels. Another finding is the importance of the maximal population density (i.e., the maximum concentration of L. monocytogenes assumed at a certain temperature) for accurately estimating the risk of infection by opportunistic pathogens such as L. monocytogenes. According to the obtained results, mainly concentrations corresponding to the highest maximal population densities caused risk in the simulation. However, sensitivity analysis applied to the uncertainty parameters revealed that prevalence at retail was the most important source of uncertainty in the model.

  4. Harnessing health information to foster disadvantaged teens' community engagement, leadership skills, and career plans: a qualitative evaluation of the Teen Health Leadership Program.

    PubMed

    Keselman, Alla; Ahmed, Einas A; Williamson, Deborah C; Kelly, Janice E; Dutcher, Gale A

    2015-04-01

    This paper describes a qualitative evaluation of a small-scale program aiming to improve health information literacy, leadership skills, and interest in health careers among high school students in a low-income, primarily minority community. Graduates participated in semi-structured interviews, transcripts of which were coded with a combination of objectives-driven and data-driven categories. The program had a positive impact on the participants' health information competency, leadership skills, academic orientation, and interest in health careers. Program enablers included a supportive network of adults, novel experiences, and strong mentorship. The study suggests that health information can provide a powerful context for enabling disadvantaged students' community engagement and academic success. PMID:25918487

  5. Harnessing health information to foster disadvantaged teens' community engagement, leadership skills, and career plans: a qualitative evaluation of the Teen Health Leadership Program.

    PubMed

    Keselman, Alla; Ahmed, Einas A; Williamson, Deborah C; Kelly, Janice E; Dutcher, Gale A

    2015-04-01

    This paper describes a qualitative evaluation of a small-scale program aiming to improve health information literacy, leadership skills, and interest in health careers among high school students in a low-income, primarily minority community. Graduates participated in semi-structured interviews, transcripts of which were coded with a combination of objectives-driven and data-driven categories. The program had a positive impact on the participants' health information competency, leadership skills, academic orientation, and interest in health careers. Program enablers included a supportive network of adults, novel experiences, and strong mentorship. The study suggests that health information can provide a powerful context for enabling disadvantaged students' community engagement and academic success.

  6. ["Just its Meaning is Hard to Understand … Because of the Words" --A Qualitative Study on the Suitability of Health-Related Information for Socially Disadvantaged People].

    PubMed

    Leistner, U; Kretzschmann, C; Heil, A M; Menkouo, C; Grande, G

    2015-11-01

    Due to a higher prevalence estimates of risk factors, it is assumed that socially disadvantaged persons have a considerable need for health-related information and prevention. Yet this target group is hardly ever reached. There is a need to examine whether available health-related information is appropriate for the needs of socially disadvantaged people. On behalf of the Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG) a qualitative study was conducted to evaluate published health-related information by socially disadvantaged people. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 28 persons with low income, low occupational status and a very low education level. 7 different types of health information (4 texts and 1 film, quiz and flyer each) were evaluated regarding their suitability. The interviews were audio-taped, transcribed according to protocol, and qualitatively analysed in view of the central questions. Respondents evaluate the film format most positively, because of the vividness of the contents. In text-based information, a clear structure of the text and the use of case examples are particularly advantageous. All respondents accept the credibility of the given information. Problems occur regarding the comprehensibility and sentence structures with complex information. Numerous technical terms and foreign words remain misunderstood, even though explanations are given in the text. Compact contents and the description of several alternative therapy options are experienced as overstraining. Furthermore, the recognition of hazard potentials is hindered by misinterpretation of percentages or negated descriptions of frequencies. Some respondents doubt that they would read text-based health information voluntarily in their everyday life, especially when texts are lengthy. The respondents wish clear guidance, which relieves them of an active informed decision-making. They prefer advice they can apply in their everyday life and to recognise their

  7. ["Just its Meaning is Hard to Understand … Because of the Words" --A Qualitative Study on the Suitability of Health-Related Information for Socially Disadvantaged People].

    PubMed

    Leistner, U; Kretzschmann, C; Heil, A M; Menkouo, C; Grande, G

    2015-11-01

    Due to a higher prevalence estimates of risk factors, it is assumed that socially disadvantaged persons have a considerable need for health-related information and prevention. Yet this target group is hardly ever reached. There is a need to examine whether available health-related information is appropriate for the needs of socially disadvantaged people. On behalf of the Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG) a qualitative study was conducted to evaluate published health-related information by socially disadvantaged people. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 28 persons with low income, low occupational status and a very low education level. 7 different types of health information (4 texts and 1 film, quiz and flyer each) were evaluated regarding their suitability. The interviews were audio-taped, transcribed according to protocol, and qualitatively analysed in view of the central questions. Respondents evaluate the film format most positively, because of the vividness of the contents. In text-based information, a clear structure of the text and the use of case examples are particularly advantageous. All respondents accept the credibility of the given information. Problems occur regarding the comprehensibility and sentence structures with complex information. Numerous technical terms and foreign words remain misunderstood, even though explanations are given in the text. Compact contents and the description of several alternative therapy options are experienced as overstraining. Furthermore, the recognition of hazard potentials is hindered by misinterpretation of percentages or negated descriptions of frequencies. Some respondents doubt that they would read text-based health information voluntarily in their everyday life, especially when texts are lengthy. The respondents wish clear guidance, which relieves them of an active informed decision-making. They prefer advice they can apply in their everyday life and to recognise their

  8. Women Veterans’ Experience With a Web-Based Diabetes Prevention Program: A Qualitative Study to Inform Future Practice

    PubMed Central

    Ertl, Kristyn; Schneider, Jessica; Vasti, Elena; Makki, Fatima; Richardson, Caroline; Havens, Kathryn; Damschroder, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Background Diabetes prevention is a national goal and particularly important in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) where 1 in 4 veterans has diabetes. There is growing evidence to support the use of Web-based diabetes prevention program (DPP) interventions, shown to be as effective and often more feasible than in-person interventions. Objective Our primary objective was to qualitatively explore women veterans’ early experiences with a Web-based DPP intervention. Our secondary objective was to estimate weight loss, participation, and engagement to provide context for our qualitative findings. Methods We conducted and analyzed semistructured interviews and collected data on weight change, participation, and engagement. A total of 17 women veterans with prediabetes from a Midwest VA Women’s Health Clinic were eligible to participate; 15 completed interviews. Results Participants perceived the DPP program as an appealing way of initiating lifestyle changes and made them feel accountable in achieving their daily goals. The online program was convenient because it could be accessed at any time, and many found that it integrated well into daily life. However, some did not like the logging aspect and some found it to be too impersonal. Participants logged in a mean 76 times, posted a mean 46 group messages, and sent a mean 20.5 private messages to the health coach over 16 weeks. Participants lost 5.24% of baseline weight, and 82% (14/17) of participants completed at least 9 of 16 core modules. Conclusions Women veterans’ early experiences with a Web-based DPP intervention were generally positive. Accountability and convenience were key enabling factors for participation and engagement. A Web-based DPP intervention appears to be a promising means of translating the DPP for women veterans with prediabetes. PMID:26006697

  9. How do Consumers Search for and Appraise Information on Medicines on the Internet? A Qualitative Study Using Focus Groups

    PubMed Central

    Aslani, Parisa; Williams, Kylie A

    2003-01-01

    Background Many consumers use the Internet to find information about their medicines. It is widely acknowledged that health information on the Internet is of variable quality and therefore the search and appraisal skills of consumers are important for selecting and assessing this information. The way consumers choose and evaluate information on medicines on the Internet is important because it has been shown that written information on medicines can influence consumer attitudes to and use of medicines. Objective To explore consumer experiences in searching for and appraising Internet-based information on medicines. Methods Six focus groups (N = 46 participants) were conducted in metropolitan Sydney, Australia from March to May 2003 with consumers who had used the Internet for information on medicines. Verbatim transcripts of the group discussions were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Results All participants reported using a search engine to find information on medicines. Choice of search engine was determined by factors such as the workplace or educational environments, or suggestions by family or friends. Some participants found information solely by typing the medicine name (drug or brand name) into the search engine, while others searched using broader terms. Search skills ranged widely from more-advanced (using quotation marks and phrases) to less-than-optimal (such as typing in questions and full sentences). Many participants selected information from the first page of search results by looking for keywords and descriptions in the search results, and by looking for the source of the information as apparent in the URL. Opinions on credible sources of information on medicines varied with some participants regarding information by pharmaceutical companies as the "official" information on a medicine, and others preferring what they considered to be impartial sources such as governments, organizations, and educational institutions. It was clear that

  10. Understanding the behavioral determinants of retention in HIV care: a qualitative evaluation of a situated information, motivation, behavioral skills model of care initiation and maintenance.

    PubMed

    Smith, Laramie R; Fisher, Jeffrey D; Cunningham, Chinazo O; Amico, K Rivet

    2012-06-01

    The current study provides a qualitative test of a recently proposed application of an Information, Motivation, Behavioral Skills (IMB) model of health behavior situated to the social-environmental, structural, cognitive-affective, and behavioral demands of retention in HIV care. Mixed-methods qualitative analysis was used to identify the content and context of critical theory-based determinants of retention in HIV care, and to evaluate the relative fit of the model to the qualitative data collected via in-depth semi-structured interviews with a sample of inner-city patients accessing traditional and nontraditional HIV care services in the Bronx, NY. The sample reflected a diverse marginalized patient population who commonly experienced comorbid chronic conditions (e.g., psychiatric disorders, substance abuse disorders, diabetes, hepatitis C). Through deductive content coding, situated IMB model-based content was identified in all but 7.1% of statements discussing facilitators or barriers to retention in HIV care. Inductive emergent theme identification yielded a number of important themes influencing retention in HIV care (e.g., acceptance of diagnosis, stigma, HIV cognitive/physical impairments, and global constructs of self-care). Multiple elements of these themes strongly aligned with the model's IMB constructs. The convergence of the results from both sets of analysis demonstrate that participants' experiences map well onto the content and structure of the situated IMB model, providing a systematic classification of important theoretical and contextual determinants of retention in care. Future intervention efforts to enhance retention in HIV care should address these multiple determinants (i.e., information, motivation, behavioral skills) of self-directed retention in HIV care. PMID:22612447

  11. Creative Pedagogy: A Qualitative Study of Immersive Learning at the Center for Information and Communication Sciences (CICS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olorunda, Olufunmilola Olufunmilayo

    2009-01-01

    The Center for Information and Communication Sciences graduate program commenced at Ball State University in 1986 with a specific focus to train graduate students to be leaders in the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) industry. The Center is the manifestation of a vision birthed out of creativity and resourcefulness. This study…

  12. Adaptive and Maladaptive Means of Using Facebook: A Qualitative Pilot Study to Inform Suggestions for Development of a Future Intervention for Depression.

    PubMed

    Tran, Tanya B; Uebelacker, Lisa; Wenze, Susan J; Collins, Caitlin; Broughton, Monica K

    2015-11-01

    Existing literature examining the relation between social networking sites and mental health is primarily based on correlational methods and presents mixed findings. Many researchers neglect to examine the cognitive and behavioral processes used while online. This study's qualitative approach strives to understand how individuals with elevated depressive symptoms may use Facebook following an interpersonal stressor. Participants' narration of their Facebook use was coded. Common adaptive uses included using Facebook to seek social support, actively communicate, distract, recall positive memories, and reappraise negative thoughts. Maladaptive uses included engaging in social comparison, ruminating, and recalling negative memories. Feedback regarding development of a future intervention was also elicited. Suggestions included using Facebook to view positive, interesting, or meaningful information, distract, garner social support, and engage in social activities. Findings indicate that how one engages with Facebook after an interpersonal stressor may affect adjustment and may help to inform the development of a novel, Facebook-based intervention. PMID:26554330

  13. Adaptive and Maladaptive Means of Using Facebook: A Qualitative Pilot Study to Inform Suggestions for Development of a Future Intervention for Depression.

    PubMed

    Tran, Tanya B; Uebelacker, Lisa; Wenze, Susan J; Collins, Caitlin; Broughton, Monica K

    2015-11-01

    Existing literature examining the relation between social networking sites and mental health is primarily based on correlational methods and presents mixed findings. Many researchers neglect to examine the cognitive and behavioral processes used while online. This study's qualitative approach strives to understand how individuals with elevated depressive symptoms may use Facebook following an interpersonal stressor. Participants' narration of their Facebook use was coded. Common adaptive uses included using Facebook to seek social support, actively communicate, distract, recall positive memories, and reappraise negative thoughts. Maladaptive uses included engaging in social comparison, ruminating, and recalling negative memories. Feedback regarding development of a future intervention was also elicited. Suggestions included using Facebook to view positive, interesting, or meaningful information, distract, garner social support, and engage in social activities. Findings indicate that how one engages with Facebook after an interpersonal stressor may affect adjustment and may help to inform the development of a novel, Facebook-based intervention.

  14. A new species of Neparholaspis (Acari: Parholaspididae) from Russia, with additional information on Neparholaspis evansi Krantz, 1960.

    PubMed

    Marchenko, Irina I

    2016-01-01

    Neparholaspis dubatolovi sp. nov. is described and illustrated from adult females and males collected from litter and moss in montane forest in north-eastern Sikhote-Alin Ridge in the Far East of Russia. Additional morphological information and illustrations of Neparholaspis evansi Krantz, 1960 are provided, based on examination of a paratype. A key to the world species of Neparholaspis is provided. PMID:27615851

  15. Lay perceptions of evidence-based information – a qualitative evaluation of a website for back pain sufferers

    PubMed Central

    Glenton, Claire; Nilsen, Elin S; Carlsen, Benedicte

    2006-01-01

    Background In an evidence-informed patient choice the patient has access to research-based information about the effectiveness of health care options and is encouraged to use this information in treatment decisions. This concept has seen growing popularity in recent years. However, we still know relatively little about users' attitudes to the use of research-based information, possibly because people have been unexposed to this type of information. After developing the BackInfo website where the results of Cochrane systematic reviews on the effects of low back pain were adapted and presented to lay users we evaluated how users responded to this information. Methods Focus group meetings were held with 18 chronic back pain sufferers, after they had been sent a link to the website before the meetings. Results The focus groups suggest that the most important challenges to the use of BackInfo's research-based information are not primarily tied to the comprehension or presentation of the information, but are mainly associated with participants' attitudes towards the credibility of research and researchers, and the applicability of research results to themselves as individuals. Possible explanations for participants' lack of trust in research and their apparent difficulties in applying this research to their own situations include aspects that may be typical for the general public including the media's presentation of research, and a lack of familiarity with and feelings of distance to research evidence. Other aspects may be typical for patient groups with chronic and unclear medical conditions, such as a lack of trust in the health care establishment in general. Conclusion In order to enhance the credibility and applicability of research evidence, providers of research-based information could explore a number of possibilities including the use of including personal stories to illustrate the research outcomes. PMID:16539697

  16. A qualitative study looking at informed choice in the context of non‐invasive prenatal testing for aneuploidy

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Melissa; Chitty, Lyn S.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To explore women's attitudes towards non‐invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) and determine factors influencing their decisions around uptake of NIPT. Method We conducted qualitative interviews to assess knowledge, attitude and deliberation amongst women offered NIPT in a public health service. In total, 45 women took part in telephone interviews (79% participation rate). Results Most women could recount the key aspects of NIPT discussed during pre‐test counselling but had variable knowledge about Down syndrome. Analysis of women's attitudes towards undergoing NIPT revealed three dominant factors they considered when reflecting on the test: (1) how NIPT compared with alternative testing options, (2) reflections on coping and (3) moral or religious values. Exploring the deliberative process revealed the different paths women take when making decisions. For some, it was an extension of the decision to have Down syndrome screening; some considered it early on following the booking‐in appointment; others made step‐wise decisions about NIPT when it became relevant to them. Conclusion Our findings support the importance of personalised counselling, whereby women and their partners have the opportunity to reflect on the implications of the test results in the context of their own lives and values. Our data highlight the influence of personal circumstances on decision‐making. © 2016 The Authors. Prenatal Diagnosis published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27477537

  17. Reconstructing masculinity? A qualitative evaluation of the Stepping Stones and Creating Futures interventions in urban informal settlements in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Andrew; Jewkes, Rachel; Sikweyiya, Yandisa; Willan, Samantha

    2015-01-01

    Evidence shows the importance of working with men to reduce intimate partner violence and HIV-risk. Two claims dominate this work. The first is that interventions 'reconstruct' masculinities--these new formations of masculinity exist in opposition to existing ones and are healthier for men and less harmful for women. The second is that to be successful, such interventions need to address men's exclusion from the economy. Using a qualitative longitudinal cohort study of young men who participated in a gender transformative and livelihood strengthening intervention, as well as dyadic interviews with men's main female partners, we explore these claims. Data suggests men saw some improvements in livelihoods and relationships. However, challenging social contexts, including high rates of unemployment, peer networks and a dominant youth masculinity, limited change. Rather than reconstructing masculinity, a more subtle shift was seen with men moving away from 'harmful' aspects of a dominant youth masculinity towards a form of masculinity whereby male power is buttressed by economic provision and attempting to form and support 'households'. Working with men on their livelihoods at an instrumental level encouraged participation in the intervention. Beyond encouragement, men's improving livelihoods afforded men the opportunity to materially demonstrate the social changes - in the form of shifts in masculinity--they were seeking to enact.

  18. Health information exchange in general practice care for people with intellectual disabilities--a qualitative review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Mastebroek, M; Naaldenberg, J; Lagro-Janssen, A L; van Schrojenstein Lantman de Valk, H

    2014-09-01

    Many barriers to the provision of general practice (GP) care for people with intellectual disabilities (ID) relate to problems in exchanging health information. Deficits in the exchange of health information may have an adverse impact on healthcare access and health outcomes in individuals with ID. The aim of this paper is to report how health information exchange (HIE) in GP care for people with ID is being described in the ID healthcare literature. Thematic analysis of 19 included articles resulted in six major themes: (1) communication skills; (2) organisational factors; (3) record keeping and sharing; (4) health literacy and self-advocacy; (5) carers and health professionals' knowledge; and (6) third parties. The results indicate that HIE takes place in a chain of events happening before, during, and after a medical consultation, depending on specific contextual care factors. The included papers lack a broad focus on the entire HIE process, and causes and effects of gaps in health information are described only marginally or on a very general level. However, a study of the HIE process in its entirety is imperative in order to identify weak links and gaps in information pathways. The themes presented here provide a starting point for an in-depth study on the HIE process in GP care for individuals with ID that may facilitate future research on health interventions in this setting. PMID:24864050

  19. The Qualitative Similarity Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Peter V.; Lee, Chongmin

    2010-01-01

    Evidence is presented for the qualitative similarity hypothesis (QSH) with respect to children and adolescents who are d/Deaf or hard of hearing. The primary focus is on the development of English language and literacy skills, and some information is provided on the acquisition of English as a second language. The QSH is briefly discussed within…

  20. Factors influencing adherence to regular exercise in middle-aged women: a qualitative study to inform clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background About half of women decrease their regular exercise during middle age. Concurrently, they experience a reduction in basal metabolic rate and loss of lean muscle as they transition to menopause. The combined effects place these women at increased risk for body weight gain and associated co-morbidities. Further research is required to better assess their barriers to regular exercise and to develop more applied knowledge aimed to improve the applicability of clinical interventions aimed at this population. The main aim of this study was to identify enablers and barriers influencing adherence to regular exercise in middle-aged women who exercise. Methods An interpretive description qualitative study was conducted using individual interviews. The two key questions were focused on planning to engage in physical activity and succeeding or planning to engage in physical activity and not succeeding. Inductive content analysis was used. Results Fifty-three women interviewed were aged 40–62 years and experiencing mild to moderate menopausal symptoms. Six broad themes influencing adhering to regular exercise were: routine, intrinsic motivation, biophysical issues, psychosocial commitments, environmental factors, and resources. Common sub-themes were identified as enabling factors: daily structure that incorporated physical activity (broad theme routine), anticipated positive feelings associated with physical activity (intrinsic), and accountability to others (psychosocial). Other common sub-themes identified as barriers were disruptions in daily structure (routine), competing demands (routine) and self-sacrifice (psychosocial). Conclusions The most common barrier middle-aged women describe as interfering with adhering to regular exercise was attributable to the demands of this life stage at home and with others. Lack of time and menopausal symptoms were not identified as the common barriers. To support women to adhere to regular exercise, healthcare professionals

  1. The other side of the story – maternal perceptions of safety advice and information: a qualitative approach

    PubMed Central

    Kendrick, D.; Watson, M.; Shaw, I.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background A qualitative study of maternal perceptions of home safety advice. The aim was to gain an understanding of maternal perceptions of and possible barriers to the implementation of home safety advice. Methods Semi‐structured interviews with 37 mothers with a child aged less than 5 years of age; 16 were mothers living in an area of socio‐economic disadvantage (with a high rate of childhood unintentional injury), 21 were mothers living in an area of relative affluence (with a low rate of childhood unintentional injury). Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Results Although some mothers living in both areas found talking to a health professional about child home safety was helpful, mothers in both areas tended to find talking to other mothers as being more helpful and they preferred this to talking to a professional. Barriers to obtaining safety advice from professionals exist for mothers living in both areas. Mothers living in the advantaged area describe ‘feeling silly’ and that they should ‘know it already’ when talking to professionals. Mothers living in the disadvantaged area are less likely to access home safety advice due to fear of being perceived as an incompetent mother and the fear of social service involvement. Conclusions Mothers find home safety advice from other parents more useful and prefer this to advice from professionals. This suggests greater use could be made of appropriately trained parents to deliver safety advice and education. Fear and mistrust can limit access to child safety advice in parents living in disadvantaged areas and this may be a potential explanation for differential unintentional injury rates as those who need the advice and support most may be least likely to access it. Further research should explore how professionals can build trust, gain parents' confidence and provide child safety advice and education that is targeted appropriately to parents living circumstances and their child

  2. Patients’ adherence-related beliefs about methotrexate: a qualitative study of the role of written patient information

    PubMed Central

    Hayden, Charlotte; Neame, Rebecca; Tarrant, Carolyn

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Methotrexate is effective in treating inflammatory arthritis, but both underadherence and overadherence can put patients at risk. Patients may fail to adhere due to practicalities including the unusual weekly dosing regimen, but medication beliefs also play a role. This study explored how both beliefs about necessity and concerns about methotrexate become established in patients with inflammatory arthritis and how patients use information in managing their beliefs and concerns. Design Semistructured interviews were conducted with patients taking oral methotrexate for inflammatory arthritis. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically. Setting Participants were recruited from a single Trust in the East Midlands. Participants Fifteen patients (4 male, 11 female) with inflammatory arthritis. Results Methotrexate was commonly prescribed at the time of diagnosis; at this point, experience of illness was influential for beliefs about medication necessity. Following prescription, patients absorbed information from written and verbal sources which reinforced beliefs about necessity but also raised concerns, including fear of side effects. Over time, beliefs were modified on the basis of personal experience, particularly of medication effectiveness and side effects. Some patients described tensions and dissonance in their beliefs and experiences of methotrexate, which put them at risk of non-adherence. Patients used information-seeking and information-avoidance as strategies to resolve these tensions. The available information did little to help suppress dissonance and sometimes exacerbated it. Conclusions Patients’ experiences of coming to terms with taking methotrexate are complex, and their experiences of dissonance are particularly problematic. Experiences might be improved by supporting patients to assess necessity (particularly in the presence of side effects) and by providing information to moderate unnecessary concerns. Improving

  3. Patient Handoffs between Emergency Department and Inpatient Physicians: A Qualitative Study to Inform Standardization of Practice and Organization Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilligoss, Phillip Brian

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation is motivated by two problems. First, existing literature characterizes patient handoff as an information transfer activity in which safety and quality are compromised by practice variation. This has prompted a movement to standardize practice. However, existing research has not closely examined how practice variations may be…

  4. Effects of Information Technologies, Department Characteristics and Individual Roles on Improving Knowledge Sharing Visibility: A Qualitative Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Xi; Vogel, Douglas R.; Zhou, Zhongyun

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge sharing visibility (KSV) is a critical environmental factor which can reduce social loafing in knowledge sharing (KS). This is especially true in ICT [information and communication technology]-based KS in learning organisations. As such, it is imperative that we better understand how to design technology enabled knowledge management…

  5. The Influence of Organizational Subculture on Information Technology Project Success in the Healthcare Sector: A Qualitative, Multi-Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallet, Richard Kofi

    2014-01-01

    Healthcare providers face high demands for technology based healthcare services due to global population increases and adapting information technology (IT) to achieve quality patient care. IT has become center stage in the operations and management of healthcare organizations. IT requirements emerge from the visions, values, and beliefs of…

  6. Everyday uses of standardized test information in a geriatric setting: a qualitative study exploring occupational therapist and physiotherapist test administrators’ justifications

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Health professionals are required to collect data from standardized tests when assessing older patients’ functional ability. Such data provide quantifiable documentation on health outcomes. Little is known, however, about how physiotherapists and occupational therapists who administer standardized tests use test information in their daily clinical work. This article aims to investigate how test administrators in a geriatric setting justify the everyday use of standardized test information. Methods Qualitative study of physiotherapists and occupational therapists on two geriatric hospital wards in Norway that routinely tested their patients with standardized tests. Data draw on seven months of fieldwork, semi-structured interviews with eight physiotherapists and six occupational therapists (12 female, two male), as well as observations of 26 test situations. Data were analyzed using Systematic Text Condensation. Results We identified two test information components in everyday use among physiotherapist and occupational therapist test administrators. While the primary component drew on the test administrators’ subjective observations during testing, the secondary component encompassed the communication of objective test results and test performance. Conclusions The results of this study illustrate the overlap between objective and subjective data in everyday practice. In clinical practice, by way of the clinicians’ gaze on how the patient functions, the subjective and objective components of test information are merged, allowing individual characteristics to be noticed and made relevant as test performance justifications and as rationales in the overall communication of patient needs. PMID:24528609

  7. Health information management and perceptions of the quality of care for children with tracheotomy: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Children with tracheotomy receive health care from an array of providers within various hospital and community health system sectors. Previous studies have highlighted substandard health information exchange between families and these sectors. The aim of this study was to investigate the perceptions and experiences of parents and providers with regard to health information management, care plan development and coordination for children with tracheotomy, and strategies to improve health information management for these children. Methods Individual and group interviews were performed with eight parents and fifteen healthcare (primary and specialty care, nursing, therapist, equipment) providers of children with tracheotomy. The primary tracheotomy-associated diagnoses for the children were neuromuscular impairment (n = 3), airway anomaly (n = 2) and chronic lung disease (n = 3). Two independent reviewers conducted deep reading and line-by-line coding of all transcribed interviews to discover themes associated with the objectives. Results Children with tracheotomy in this study had healthcare providers with poorly defined roles and responsibilities who did not actively communicate with one another. Providers were often unsure where to find documentation relating to a child's tracheotomy equipment settings and home nursing orders, and perceived that these situations contributed to medical errors and delayed equipment needs. Parents created a home record that was shared with multiple providers to track the care that their children received but many considered this a burden better suited to providers. Providers benefited from the parent records, but questioned their accuracy regarding critical tracheotomy care plan information such as ventilator settings. Parents and providers endorsed potential improvement in this environment such as a comprehensive internet-based health record that could be shared among parents and providers, and between various clinical

  8. Relationship between preferences for decisional control and illness information among women with breast cancer: a quantitative and qualitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Hack, T F; Degner, L F; Dyck, D G

    1994-07-01

    This study examined relationships between cancer patients' preferences for involvement in making treatment decisions and preferences for information about diagnosis, treatment, side effects, and prognosis. Participants were 35 women with stage I and II breast cancer recruited from two medical oncology and radiation oncology clinics. Following administration of card sort measures of preference for involvement in treatment decision making and information needs, a semi-structured interview was conducted to provide patients with an opportunity to elaborate on their role preferences and health care experiences. Results showed that patients who desired an active role in treatment decision making also desired detailed information. This relationship was not as clear for passive patients. Relative to passive patients, active patients desired significantly more detailed explanations of their diagnosis, treatment alternatives, and treatment procedures. Active patients also preferred that their physicians use the words 'cancer' or 'malignancy' when referring to their illness while passive patients preferred that their physicians use a eupheumism. Further research is needed to critically detail the advantages and disadvantages of the active and passive roles and their impact on disease progression and psychological well-being.

  9. A qualitative geographical information systems approach to explore how older people over 70 years interact with and define their neighbourhood environment

    PubMed Central

    Milton, Sarah; Pliakas, Triantafyllos; Hawkesworth, Sophie; Nanchahal, Kiran; Grundy, Chris; Amuzu, Antoinette; Casas, Juan-Pablo; Lock, Karen

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of literature explores the relationship between the built environment and health, and the methodological challenges of understanding these complex interactions across the lifecourse. The impact of the neighbourhood environment on health and behaviour amongst older adults has received less attention, despite this age group being potentially more vulnerable to barriers in their surrounding social and physical environment. A qualitative geographical information systems (QGIS) approach was taken to facilitate the understanding of how older people over 70 in 5 UK towns interact with their local neighbourhood. The concept of neighbourhood changed seasonally and over the lifecourse, and was associated with social factors such as friends, family, or community activities, rather than places. Spaces stretched further than the local, which is problematic for older people who rely on variable public transport provision. QGIS techniques prompted rich discussions on interactions with and the meanings of ‘place’ in older people. PMID:26513597

  10. Use of qualitative and quantitative information in neural networks for assessing agricultural chemical contamination of domestic wells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mishra, A.; Ray, C.; Kolpin, D.W.

    2004-01-01

    A neural network analysis of agrichemical occurrence in groundwater was conducted using data from a pilot study of 192 small-diameter drilled and driven wells and 115 dug and bored wells in Illinois, a regional reconnaissance network of 303 wells across 12 Midwestern states, and a study of 687 domestic wells across Iowa. Potential factors contributing to well contamination (e.g., depth to aquifer material, well depth, and distance to cropland) were investigated. These contributing factors were available in either numeric (actual or categorical) or descriptive (yes or no) format. A method was devised to use the numeric and descriptive values simultaneously. Training of the network was conducted using a standard backpropagation algorithm. Approximately 15% of the data was used for testing. Analysis indicated that training error was quite low for most data. Testing results indicated that it was possible to predict the contamination potential of a well with pesticides. However, predicting the actual level of contamination was more difficult. For pesticide occurrence in drilled and driven wells, the network predictions were good. The performance of the network was poorer for predicting nitrate occurrence in dug and bored wells. Although the data set for Iowa was large, the prediction ability of the trained network was poor, due to descriptive or categorical input parameters, compared with smaller data sets such as that for Illinois, which contained more numeric information.

  11. Qualitative developmental research among low income African American adults to inform a social marketing campaign for walking

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study describes the development of a social marketing campaign for increasing walking in a low income, high crime community as part of the Positive Action for Today’s Health (PATH) trial. Methods Focus groups were conducted with 52 African American adults (ages 18 to 65 yrs), from two underserved communities to develop themes for a social marketing campaign to promote walking. Participants responded to questions concerning social marketing principles related to product, price, place, promotion, and positioning for increasing neighbourhood walking. Results Focus group data informed the development of the campaign objectives that were derived from the “5 Ps” to promote physical and mental health, social connectedness, safety, and confidence in walking regularly. Focus group themes indicated that physical and mental health benefits of walking were important motivators. Walking for social reasons was also important for overcoming barriers to walking. Police support from trusted officers while walking was also essential to promoting safety for walking. Print materials were developed by the steering committee, with a 12-month calendar and door hangers delivered to residents’ homes to invite them to walk. Pride Stride walks empowered community walkers to serve as peer leaders for special walking events to engage new walkers. Conclusions Essential elements for developing culturally tailored social marketing interventions for promoting walking in underserved communities are outlined for future researchers. PMID:23497164

  12. 43 CFR 3276.13 - What additional information must I give BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam facilities? 3276.13 Section 3276.13 Public Lands... What additional information must I give BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam facilities? In addition to the regular monthly report information required by § 3276.12, send to BLM: (a)...

  13. 43 CFR 3276.13 - What additional information must I give BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam facilities? 3276.13 Section 3276.13 Public Lands... What additional information must I give BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam facilities? In addition to the regular monthly report information required by § 3276.12, send to BLM: (a)...

  14. 43 CFR 3276.13 - What additional information must I give BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam facilities? 3276.13 Section 3276.13 Public Lands... What additional information must I give BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam facilities? In addition to the regular monthly report information required by § 3276.12, send to BLM: (a)...

  15. 43 CFR 3276.13 - What additional information must I give BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam facilities? 3276.13 Section 3276.13 Public Lands... What additional information must I give BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam facilities? In addition to the regular monthly report information required by § 3276.12, send to BLM: (a)...

  16. The effects of practice on speed of information processing using the Adjusting-Paced Serial Addition Test (Adjusting-PSAT) and the Computerized Tests of Information Processing (CTIP).

    PubMed

    Baird, B J; Tombaugh, Thomas N; Francis, M

    2007-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to determine the effects of practice on the Adjusting-Paced Serial Addition Task (Adjusting-PSAT) (Tombaugh, 1999) and the Computerized Tests of Information Processing (CTIP) (Tombaugh & Rees, 2000). The Adjusting-PSAT is a computerized modification of the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) (Gronwall, 1977) that makes the interval between digits contingent on the correctness of the response. This titration procedure permits a threshold value to be derived that represents the shortest presentation interval in which a person can process the digits to produce the correct sum. The CTIP consists of three reaction time tests that are progressively more difficult. Results showed that robust practice effects occurred with the Adjusting-PSAT, with the greatest increase in performance occurring on the first retest trial. Practice effects were equally prominent regardless of whether the first retest trial occurred 20A min, 1 week, or 3 months after the first administration. These gains were maintained for periods up to 6 months and were independent of modality of presentation (visual or auditory) and type of number list (easy or hard). In contrast to the findings with the Adjusting-PSAT, only minimal practice effects were observed with the CTIP. The major clinical implication of the study is that the high reliability coefficients for the CTIP, the lack of anxiety associated with its administration, and its insensitivity to variables such as numerical and verbal ability make the CTIP ideally suited for the serial evaluation of cognitive status. These characteristics also make the CTIP a viable alternative to the Adjusting-PSAT or PASAT for measuring speed of information processing. If the Adjusting-PSAT is administered repeatedly in clinical evaluations, a "dual baseline" or "run in" procedure should be used, with the second administration serving as the baseline measurement. PMID:17523883

  17. Publishing Qualitative Research in Counseling Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Brandon

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the essential elements to be included when developing a qualitative study and preparing the findings for publication. Using the sections typically found in a qualitative article, the author describes content relevant to each section, with additional suggestions for publishing qualitative research.

  18. The Invisible Work of Personal Health Information Management Among People With Multiple Chronic Conditions: Qualitative Interview Study Among Patients and Providers

    PubMed Central

    Witteman, Holly O; Hafeez, Baria; Provencher, Thierry; Van de Graaf, Mary; Wei, Esther

    2015-01-01

    ) Information management as invisible work: managing transfers of medical information to solve problems was a tremendous amount of work that was largely unrecognized by the medical establishment. Conclusions We conclude that personal health information management should be recognized as an additional burden that MCC places upon patients. Effective structural solutions for information sharing, whether institutional ones such as care management or technological ones such as electronic health information exchange, are likely not only to improve the quality of information shared but reduce the burden on patients already weighed down by MCC. PMID:26043709

  19. Stigma and Human Rights Abuses against People Who Inject Drugs in Russia—A Qualitative Investigation to Inform Policy and Public Health Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Raj, Anita; Samet, Jeffrey H.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Drug policing practices in the Russian Federation (Russia) are often punitive and have been shown to be associated with HIV risk behaviors among people who inject drugs (PWID). Less is known about strategies to address the problem in that setting, where substance use stigma is highly persistent. A better understanding of forms, causes and consequences of drug policing in Russia could inform drug policy in a context of substantial policy resistance. This qualitative study’s goal is to characterize the phenomenon of police involvement with Russian PWID and to explore strategies for drug policing in the Russian country context. Methods Using a semi-structured interview guide, we collected data from a purposive sample of 23 key informants including PWID, police officers, and experts from civil society and international organizations in Russia. We used a thematic analysis approach to inductively generate new insight into the phenomenon of police involvement and potential strategies to address it. Results Policing practices involving PWID include unjustified arrests, planting of false evidence and extrajudicial syringe confiscations, and often constitute human rights violations. Russian PWID personally experienced police violence as ubiquitous, taking on various forms such as beating, unjustified arrests, verbal harassment, and coercion. The persistent societal stigma dehumanizes PWID, and such stigmatization facilitates police abuse. To address stigma and overcome the PWID-police adversity, study participants suggested fostering a mutual understanding between the police and public health sectors. Conclusions Participants describe substantial human rights violations as part of policing illicit drug use in Russia. Police should include principles of effective prevention of substance use and HIV risk reduction in their trainings. Alignment of public safety and public health goals could address drug use-related risks and HIV prevention among key populations

  20. Conceptualisation of socio-technical integrated information technology solutions to improve incident reporting through Maslow's hierarchy of needs: a qualitative study of junior doctors.

    PubMed

    Yee, Kwang Chien

    2007-01-01

    Medical errors are common, especially within the acute healthcare delivery. The identification of systemic factors associated with adverse events and the construction of models to improve the safety of the healthcare system seems straightforward, this process has been proven to be much more difficult in the realism of medical practice due to the failure of the incident reporting system to capture the essential information, especially from the perspective of junior doctors. The failure of incidence reporting system has been related to the lack of socio-technical consideration for both system designs and system implementations. The main reason of non-reporting can be conceptualised through the motivation psychology model: Maslow's hierarchy of needs; in order to achieve a change in the socio-cultural domain for incident reporting. This paper presents a qualitative research methodology approach to generate contextual-rich insights into the socio-cultural and technological factors of incident reporting among junior doctors. The research illuminates the guiding principles for future socio-technical integrated information communication technology designs and implementations. Using Maslow's hierarchy of needs as the conceptual framework, the guiding principles aim to design electronic incident reporting systems which will motivate junior doctors to participate in the process. This research paper aims to make a significant contribution to the fields of socio-technical systems and medical errors management. The design and implementation of the new incident reporting system has great potential to motivate junior doctors to change the culture of incident reporting and to work towards a safer future healthcare system.

  1. Religion, assessment and the problem of 'normative uncertainty' for mental health student nurses: a critical incident-informed qualitative interview study.

    PubMed

    Bassett, A M; Baker, C; Cross, S

    2015-10-01

    There is limited research around how mental health (MH) student nurses interpret and differentiate between people's religious and cultural beliefs and the existence of psychopathological symptomatology and experiences. Here we focus on one cultural issue that arose from research exploring how MH student nurses approach and interpret religion and culture in their practice - that is, the difficulties in determining the clinical significance of the religious beliefs and experiences expressed by the people they care for. While problems with establishing the cultural boundaries of normality in clinical assessments are an important area of debate in cultural psychiatry, it remains a peripheral issue in MH nurse education. An anthropologically informed qualitative research design underpinned 'critical incident' (CI)-focused ethnographic interviews with 36 second and third-year MH nursing field students and seven undergraduate MH branch lecturers. Follow up focus groups were also carried out. Interview transcripts were subject to thematic analysis. Four subthemes were identified under the broad theme of the clinical significance of religious-type expression and experience: (1) identifying the difference between delusions and religious belief; (2) identifying whether an experience was hallucination or religious experience; (3) the clinical implications of such challenges; and (4) applying religion-specific knowledge. There are clinical implications that may result from the difficulties with assessing the clinical significance of religious beliefs and experiences, identified in both our research and within international cultural psychiatry literature and research. Misinterpretation and therefore wrongly assessing someone's experience as pathological is a significant concern. It is suggested that CI analysis could be adapted to help nurses, nursing students and nurse educators recognize the religious dimensions of mental distress, particularly those that then potentially

  2. Religion, assessment and the problem of 'normative uncertainty' for mental health student nurses: a critical incident-informed qualitative interview study.

    PubMed

    Bassett, A M; Baker, C; Cross, S

    2015-10-01

    There is limited research around how mental health (MH) student nurses interpret and differentiate between people's religious and cultural beliefs and the existence of psychopathological symptomatology and experiences. Here we focus on one cultural issue that arose from research exploring how MH student nurses approach and interpret religion and culture in their practice - that is, the difficulties in determining the clinical significance of the religious beliefs and experiences expressed by the people they care for. While problems with establishing the cultural boundaries of normality in clinical assessments are an important area of debate in cultural psychiatry, it remains a peripheral issue in MH nurse education. An anthropologically informed qualitative research design underpinned 'critical incident' (CI)-focused ethnographic interviews with 36 second and third-year MH nursing field students and seven undergraduate MH branch lecturers. Follow up focus groups were also carried out. Interview transcripts were subject to thematic analysis. Four subthemes were identified under the broad theme of the clinical significance of religious-type expression and experience: (1) identifying the difference between delusions and religious belief; (2) identifying whether an experience was hallucination or religious experience; (3) the clinical implications of such challenges; and (4) applying religion-specific knowledge. There are clinical implications that may result from the difficulties with assessing the clinical significance of religious beliefs and experiences, identified in both our research and within international cultural psychiatry literature and research. Misinterpretation and therefore wrongly assessing someone's experience as pathological is a significant concern. It is suggested that CI analysis could be adapted to help nurses, nursing students and nurse educators recognize the religious dimensions of mental distress, particularly those that then potentially

  3. 36 CFR 1281.12 - What information must be provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a Presidential library facility... ADMINISTRATION NARA FACILITIES PRESIDENTIAL LIBRARY FACILITIES § 1281.12 What information must be provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a Presidential library facility? (a)...

  4. 36 CFR 1281.12 - What information must be provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a Presidential library facility... ADMINISTRATION NARA FACILITIES PRESIDENTIAL LIBRARY FACILITIES § 1281.12 What information must be provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a Presidential library facility? (a)...

  5. 36 CFR 1281.12 - What information must be provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a Presidential library facility... ADMINISTRATION NARA FACILITIES PRESIDENTIAL LIBRARY FACILITIES § 1281.12 What information must be provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a Presidential library facility? (a)...

  6. 36 CFR 1281.12 - What information must be provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a Presidential library facility... ADMINISTRATION NARA FACILITIES PRESIDENTIAL LIBRARY FACILITIES § 1281.12 What information must be provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a Presidential library facility? (a)...

  7. 76 FR 64366 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment: Additional On-Site Data Collection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-18

    ... Collection for the Housing Choice Voucher Program Administrative Fee Study AGENCY: Office of the Policy... lists the following information: Title of Proposal: Housing Choice Voucher Program Administrative...

  8. 33 CFR 148.108 - What if a Federal or State agency or other interested party requests additional information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... impact statement or environmental assessment. MARAD will consider the request before making a final... time and effort required by the applicant in gathering the information will result in an undue delay...

  9. Qualitative research: comments and controversies.

    PubMed

    Schutz, R W

    1989-03-01

    Larry Locke's timely and well-written introduction to qualitative research procedures will undoubtedly serve its purpose. It makes us reassess our traditional beliefs and practices, educates us on the rudiments of qualitative methodology, and, hopefully, makes us more tolerant and appreciative of alternate ways of conducting research. Although Locke focuses his paper on pedagogical research issues, it is important to realize that many other sub-disciplines within the general field of physical education also utilize qualitative procedures. For example, 10 years ago Martens (1979) called for a paradigm shift in sport psychology by appealing to researchers to abandon their labs and to embark on naturalistic field studies. While North American sport psychologists, and psychologists in general, have been slow to formalize qualitative techniques, the European psychology community has been much more active (e.g., Ashworth, Giorgi, & de Koning, 1986). Perhaps Locke's article will encourage researchers in all our sub-disciplines to consider the utility of qualitative research. Hopefully, readers will treat Locke's article as an introduction to the broad area of qualitative research and not as a rigorous set of procedures for conducting participant observation research in school physical education studies. Additionally, it must be recognized that there are other approaches and other applications, that the area has its critics and its unresolved methodological problems, and that qualitative research does not necessarily exclude the application of formalized data analyses. Keeping these issues in mind, the addition of qualitative approaches to our repetoire of research methodologies can only enhance the quality of research in physical education and exercise and sport science. PMID:2489822

  10. A qualitative descriptive study on the alignment of care goals between older persons with multi-morbidities, their family physicians and informal caregivers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Goal setting is a recommended approach in clinical care that can help individuals with multi-morbidities and their caregivers manage chronic conditions. In this paper, the types of goals that were important for older persons with multi-morbidities were explored from the perspectives of patients, their caregivers and physicians. Comparisons of goals were made across each patient, caregiver and physician triad to determine alignment. Methods The study was a qualitative descriptive study facilitated through semi-structured one-on-one interviews. The study took place between May and October 2012 at a Family Health Team located in Ontario, Canada. The sample included 28 family medicine patients, their informal caregivers and family physicians. Socio-demographic data were analyzed via descriptive statistics in SPSS Version 17. Open ended questions pertaining to patient goals of care were analyzed thematically using NVivo9. Themes were derived on patient care goals for each of the participant groups (patients, caregivers and family physicians). Following this, alignment of goals across each of the triads was examined. Goal alignment was defined as concurrence on at least one goal by all three parties in a particular triad (i.e., patient, caregiver and family physician). Results Just over half of the patients were male (56%); they had an average age of 82.3 years and 4.61 health conditions. Most of the caregivers were female (82%); and 61% were a spouse of the care recipient. At the aggregate level, common goals expressed among patients, caregivers and family physicians were the maintenance of functional independence of patients and the management of their symptoms or functional challenges. Despite these common goals at the aggregate level, little alignment of goals was found when looking across patient-caregiver and physician triads. Lack of alignment tended to occur when patients had unstable or declining functional or cognitive health; when safety threats

  11. Qualitative study among African American parents to inform an intervention to promote adoption of the dietary guidelines for Americans food and phyical activity recommendations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This qualitative study was conducted to enable the research team to culturally tailor an intervention to increase adherence to the dietary guidelines for Americans (DGA) in African American parents and their children living in Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD) Communities. Focus group results guided the...

  12. Handling Interpretation and Representation in Multilingual Research: A Meta-Study of Pragmatic Issues Resulting from the Use of Multiple Languages in a Qualitative Information Systems Research Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumgartner, Ilse

    2012-01-01

    Although the number of multilingual qualitative research studies appears to be growing, investigations concerned with methodological issues arising from the use of several languages within a single research are still very scarce. Most of these seem to deal exclusively with issues related to the use of interpreters and translators in qualitative…

  13. 45 CFR 1351.19 - What additional information should an applicant or grantee have about a Runaway and Homeless...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Homeless Youth Program grants. These include: (1) The provisions of 45 CFR part 74 pertaining to the Administration of Grants; (2) The provisions of 45 CFR part 16, Departmental Grants Appeal Process, and the provisions of Informal Grant Appeal Procedures (Indirect Costs) in volume 45 CFR part 75; (3) The...

  14. 45 CFR 1351.19 - What additional information should an applicant or grantee have about a Runaway and Homeless...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Homeless Youth Program grants. These include: (1) The provisions of 45 CFR part 74 pertaining to the Administration of Grants; (2) The provisions of 45 CFR part 16, Departmental Grants Appeal Process, and the provisions of Informal Grant Appeal Procedures (Indirect Costs) in volume 45 CFR part 75; (3) The...

  15. 45 CFR 1351.19 - What additional information should an applicant or grantee have about a Runaway and Homeless...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Homeless Youth Program grants. These include: (1) The provisions of 45 CFR part 74 pertaining to the Administration of Grants; (2) The provisions of 45 CFR part 16, Departmental Grants Appeal Process, and the provisions of Informal Grant Appeal Procedures (Indirect Costs) in volume 45 CFR part 75; (3) The...

  16. 45 CFR 1351.19 - What additional information should an applicant or grantee have about a Runaway and Homeless...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Homeless Youth Program grants. These include: (1) The provisions of 45 CFR part 74 pertaining to the Administration of Grants; (2) The provisions of 45 CFR part 16, Departmental Grants Appeal Process, and the provisions of Informal Grant Appeal Procedures (Indirect Costs) in volume 45 CFR part 75; (3) The...

  17. 36 CFR 1290.4 - Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and additional records and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION JFK ASSASSINATION RECORDS... COLLECTION ACT OF 1992 (JFK ACT) § 1290.4 Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and... information includes, for purposes of interpreting and implementing the JFK Act: (a) Papers, maps, and...

  18. 36 CFR 1290.4 - Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and additional records and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION JFK ASSASSINATION RECORDS... COLLECTION ACT OF 1992 (JFK ACT) § 1290.4 Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and... information includes, for purposes of interpreting and implementing the JFK Act: (a) Papers, maps, and...

  19. 36 CFR 1290.4 - Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and additional records and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION JFK ASSASSINATION RECORDS... COLLECTION ACT OF 1992 (JFK ACT) § 1290.4 Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and... information includes, for purposes of interpreting and implementing the JFK Act: (a) Papers, maps, and...

  20. 36 CFR 1290.4 - Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and additional records and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION JFK ASSASSINATION RECORDS... COLLECTION ACT OF 1992 (JFK ACT) § 1290.4 Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and... information includes, for purposes of interpreting and implementing the JFK Act: (a) Papers, maps, and...

  1. 36 CFR 1290.4 - Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and additional records and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION JFK ASSASSINATION RECORDS... COLLECTION ACT OF 1992 (JFK ACT) § 1290.4 Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and... information includes, for purposes of interpreting and implementing the JFK Act: (a) Papers, maps, and...

  2. Space Takes Time: Concentration Dependent Output Codes from Primary Olfactory Networks Rapidly Provide Additional Information at Defined Discrimination Thresholds.

    PubMed

    Daly, Kevin C; Bradley, Samual; Chapman, Phillip D; Staudacher, Erich M; Tiede, Regina; Schachtner, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    As odor concentration increases, primary olfactory network representations expand in spatial distribution, temporal complexity and duration. However, the direct relationship between concentration dependent odor representations and the psychophysical thresholds of detection and discrimination is poorly understood. This relationship is absolutely critical as thresholds signify transition points whereby representations become meaningful to the organism. Here, we matched stimulus protocols for psychophysical assays and intracellular recordings of antennal lobe (AL) projection neurons (PNs) in the moth Manduca sexta to directly compare psychophysical thresholds and the output representations they elicit. We first behaviorally identified odor detection and discrimination thresholds across an odor dilution series for a panel of structurally similar odors. We then characterized spatiotemporal spiking patterns across a population of individually filled and identified AL PNs in response to those odors at concentrations below, at, and above identified thresholds. Using spatial and spatiotemporal based analyses we observed that each stimulus produced unique representations, even at sub-threshold concentrations. Mean response latency did not decrease and the percent glomerular activation did not increase with concentration until undiluted odor. Furthermore, correlations between spatial patterns for odor decreased, but only significantly with undiluted odor. Using time-integrated Euclidean distance (ED) measures, we determined that added spatiotemporal information was present at the discrimination but not detection threshold. This added information was evidenced by an increase in integrated distance between the sub-detection and discrimination threshold concentrations (of the same odor) that was not present in comparison of the sub-detection and detection threshold. After consideration of delays for information to reach the AL we find that it takes ~120-140 ms for the AL to

  3. Space Takes Time: Concentration Dependent Output Codes from Primary Olfactory Networks Rapidly Provide Additional Information at Defined Discrimination Thresholds

    PubMed Central

    Daly, Kevin C.; Bradley, Samual; Chapman, Phillip D.; Staudacher, Erich M.; Tiede, Regina; Schachtner, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    As odor concentration increases, primary olfactory network representations expand in spatial distribution, temporal complexity and duration. However, the direct relationship between concentration dependent odor representations and the psychophysical thresholds of detection and discrimination is poorly understood. This relationship is absolutely critical as thresholds signify transition points whereby representations become meaningful to the organism. Here, we matched stimulus protocols for psychophysical assays and intracellular recordings of antennal lobe (AL) projection neurons (PNs) in the moth Manduca sexta to directly compare psychophysical thresholds and the output representations they elicit. We first behaviorally identified odor detection and discrimination thresholds across an odor dilution series for a panel of structurally similar odors. We then characterized spatiotemporal spiking patterns across a population of individually filled and identified AL PNs in response to those odors at concentrations below, at, and above identified thresholds. Using spatial and spatiotemporal based analyses we observed that each stimulus produced unique representations, even at sub-threshold concentrations. Mean response latency did not decrease and the percent glomerular activation did not increase with concentration until undiluted odor. Furthermore, correlations between spatial patterns for odor decreased, but only significantly with undiluted odor. Using time-integrated Euclidean distance (ED) measures, we determined that added spatiotemporal information was present at the discrimination but not detection threshold. This added information was evidenced by an increase in integrated distance between the sub-detection and discrimination threshold concentrations (of the same odor) that was not present in comparison of the sub-detection and detection threshold. After consideration of delays for information to reach the AL we find that it takes ~120–140 ms for the AL to

  4. Additional evidence that rosacea pathogenesis may involve demodex: new information from the topical efficacy of ivermectin and praziquantel.

    PubMed

    Abokwidir, Manal; Fleischer, Alan B

    2015-09-01

    Additional evidence that Demodex folliculorum may contribute to the pathogenesis of papulopustular rosacea are new studies of two topical antiparasitic agents. Ivermectin and praziquantel have recently been shown to be effective in decreasing the severity of papulopustular rosacea. These two agents significantly differ in molecular structure, but yield similar antiparasitic mechanisms of action. Higher numbers of Demodex mites are found in the skin of patients with rosacea than in people with normal skin. If Demodex play a role in pathogenesis, then hypersensitivity to the mites, their flora, or their products could explain the observed efficacy of antidemodectic therapy. PMID:26437294

  5. EPA evaluation of the SYNERGY-1 fuel additive under Section 511 of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Syria, S.L.

    1981-06-01

    This document announces the conclusions of the EPA evaluation of the 'SYNERGY-1' device under provisions of Section 511 of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act. This additive is intended to improve fuel economy and exhaust emission levels of two and four cycle gasoline fueled engines.

  6. Informal Reading-Thinking Inventory: An Informal Reading Inventory (IRI) with Options for Assessing Additional Elements of Higher-Order Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzo, Anthony V.; And Others

    Focusing on better assessing the thinking, or meaning-making, aspects of reading that are emphasized in current views of the reading process, this book presents the Informal Reading-Thinking Inventory (IR-TI) which offers options to enhance assessment beyond assessing students' listening level, oral reading of words, and basic comprehension. The…

  7. Talking and Thinking about Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Carolyn; Bochner, Arthur; Denzin, Norman; Lincoln, Yvonna; Morse, Janice; Pelias, Ronald; Richardson, Laurel

    2008-01-01

    This script comes from an edited transcript of a session titled "Talking and Thinking About Qualitative Research," which was part of the 2006 International Congress of Qualitative Inquiry, held at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign on May 4-6, 2006. This special session featured scholars informally responding to questions about their…

  8. Qualitative Student Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clancey, William J.

    The concept of a qualitative model is used as the focus of this review of qualitative student models in order to compare alternative computational models and to contrast domain requirements. The report is divided into eight sections: (1) Origins and Goals (adaptive instruction, qualitative models of processes, components of an artificial…

  9. Effectively Communicating Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponterotto, Joseph G.; Grieger, Ingrid

    2007-01-01

    This article is a guide for counseling researchers wishing to communicate the methods and results of their qualitative research to varied audiences. The authors posit that the first step in effectively communicating qualitative research is the development of strong qualitative research skills. To this end, the authors review a process model for…

  10. The ethics in qualitative health research: special considerations.

    PubMed

    Peter, Elizabeth

    2015-09-01

    A sound knowledge of the nature of qualitative research, along with an appreciation of some special ethical considerations, is needed for rigorous reviews to be conducted. The overall character of qualitative research is described with an emphasis on the tendency of qualitative researchers to explore sensitive topics using theoretically informed methods. A number of specific features of qualitative that require additional ethical attention and awareness are also examined including the following: 1) participants are frequently quite vulnerable and require protection because the data collection methods, such as in-depth interviews, can delve into personally and politically charged matters; 2) naturalistic observation can raise concerns regarding privacy and consent; 3) the potential for the identifiability of the results of this research may require extra efforts to maintain confidentiality. Ultimately, Reseach Ethics Committee members must be knowledgeable about qualitative approaches to be able to assess the potential harms and benefits in a protocol carefully. Without this knowledge gaining ethics approval can be overly difficult for researchers and the best practices for protecting human participants can be overlooked.

  11. To Jointly Negotiate a Personal Decision: A Qualitative Study on Information Literacy Practices in Midwifery Counselling about Contraceptives at Youth Centres in Southern Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckerdal, Johanna Rivano

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The study is part of a project in which young women's evaluation of information sources before choosing a contraceptive is studied. It focuses on young women meeting midwives for counselling about contraceptives. Conversations are information literacy practices with both parties negotiating about needed and appropriate information on…

  12. Does an additional structured information program during the intensive care unit stay reduce anxiety in ICU patients?: a multicenter randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Communication and information in order to reduce anxiety in the intensive care unit (ICU) has been described as area needing improvement. Therefore, the aim of this trial was to evaluate whether a structured information program that intensifies information given in standard care process reduces anxiety in ICU patients. Methods Multicenter, two-armed, non-blinded, parallel-group randomized controlled trial in hospitals in the cities of Marburg, Halle, and Stuttgart (Germany). The trial was performed in cardiac surgery, general surgery, and internal medicine ICUs. Two-hundred and eleven elective and non-elective ICU patients were enrolled in the study (intervention group, n = 104; control group, n = 107). The experimental intervention comprised a single episode of structured oral information that was given in addition to standard care and covered two main parts: (1) A more standardized part about predefined ICU specific aspects – mainly procedural, sensory and coping information, and (2) an individualized part about fears and questions of the patient. The control group received a non-specific episodic conversation of similar length additional to standard care. Both conversations took place at the beginning of the ICU stay and lasted 10–15 minutes. Study nurses administered both interventions. The primary outcome ICU-related anxiety (CINT-Score, 0–100 pts., higher scores indicate higher anxiety) was assessed after admission to a regular ward. Results The primary outcome could be measured in 82 intervention group participants and 90 control group participants resulting in mean values of 20.4 (SD 14.4) compared to 20.8 (SD 14.7) and a mean difference of −0.2 (CI 95% -4.5 to 4.1). Conclusions A structured information intervention additional to standard care during ICU stay had no demonstrated additional benefit compared to an unspecific communication of similar duration. Reduction of anxiety in ICU patients will probably require more continuous

  13. New Mexico practitioners' access to and satisfaction with online clinical information resources: an interview study using qualitative data analysis software*†

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Patricia V.; Getrich, Christina M.; Hannigan, Gale G.

    2015-01-01

    Questions: What information resources are available to health care practitioners not affiliated with the University of New Mexico? How satisfied are they with those resources? Setting: The state is rural and medically underserved. Methods: The authors interviewed practitioners, using a nine-item guide. Interview transcripts were coded using QSR NVivo 9 software. Main Results: Fifty-one practitioners were interviewed. Most use online information resources. Many have access to a point-of-care resource within an electronic health records system. They often expressed dissatisfaction with available patient education resources. Conclusion: New Mexico practitioners routinely use electronic information resources but indicate they need better patient information. PMID:25552942

  14. 76 FR 49838 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-11

    ... Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service Delivery AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION..., the IRS is soliciting comments concerning Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback... INFORMATION: Title: Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service...

  15. The qualitative research proposal.

    PubMed

    Klopper, H

    2008-12-01

    Qualitative research in the health sciences has had to overcome many prejudices and a number of misunderstandings, but today qualitative research is as acceptable as quantitative research designs and is widely funded and published. Writing the proposal of a qualitative study, however, can be a challenging feat, due to the emergent nature of the qualitative research design and the description of the methodology as a process. Even today, many sub-standard proposals at post-graduate evaluation committees and application proposals to be considered for funding are still seen. This problem has led the researcher to develop a framework to guide the qualitative researcher in writing the proposal of a qualitative study based on the following research questions: (i) What is the process of writing a qualitative research proposal? and (ii) What does the structure and layout of a qualitative proposal look like? The purpose of this article is to discuss the process of writing the qualitative research proposal, as well as describe the structure and layout of a qualitative research proposal. The process of writing a qualitative research proposal is discussed with regards to the most important questions that need to be answered in your research proposal with consideration of the guidelines of being practical, being persuasive, making broader links, aiming for crystal clarity and planning before you write. While the structure of the qualitative research proposal is discussed with regards to the key sections of the proposal, namely the cover page, abstract, introduction, review of the literature, research problem and research questions, research purpose and objectives, research paradigm, research design, research method, ethical considerations, dissemination plan, budget and appendices.

  16. Informing children of their newborn screening carrier result for sickle cell or cystic fibrosis: qualitative study of parents' intentions, views and support needs.

    PubMed

    Ulph, Fiona; Cullinan, Tim; Qureshi, Nadeem; Kai, Joe

    2014-06-01

    Newborn screening for cystic fibrosis and sickle cell disease enables the early identification and treatment of affected children, prolonging and enhancing their quality of life. Screening, however, also identifies carriers. There are minimal or no health concerns for carriers. There are, however, potential implications when carriers reach reproductive age, and thus research attention has been given to how best to convey information about these implications in a meaningful, balanced way which does not raise undue anxieties. Most research focuses on the communication from health professional to parent, yet ultimately this information is of greatest significance to the child. This study examines parents' intentions to inform their child of newborn screening carrier results. Semi-structured interviews with 67 family members explored their intentions to inform the child, and related views and support needs. Parents almost unanimously indicated they planned to inform the child themselves. Health professionals were expected, however, to provide guidance on this process either to parents through advice and provision of written materials, or directly to the child. Although parents initially stated that they would convey the result once their child had developed the ability to understand the information, many appeared to focus on discrete life events linked to informed reproductive decision making. The results highlight ways in which health care providers may assist parents, including providing written material suitable for intergenerational communication and ensuring that cascade screening is accessible for those seeking it. Priorities for further research are identified in light of the results.

  17. A qualitative study of cancer survivors' responses to information on the long-term and late effects of pelvic radiotherapy 1-11 years post treatment.

    PubMed

    Boulton, M; Adams, E; Horne, A; Durrant, L; Rose, P; Watson, E

    2015-09-01

    As more patients survive cancer for longer term, the long-term and late effects of treatments become increasingly important issues for cancer survivors and providing information to enable survivors to recognise and manage them becomes an increasingly pressing challenge for health care professionals. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of cancer survivors regarding information given on potential long-term and late effects of pelvic radiotherapy. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 28 cancer survivors who had had radiotherapy to the pelvic area for a range of cancers 1-11 years previously. Participants were recruited using maximum variation sampling from a larger questionnaire survey of patients treated at one hospital. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed using Framework. Participants recognised the value of information to reassure and to inform action but also its potentially undesirable effects to frighten or raise anxieties about future problems and its inherent limitations in meeting their wider needs. They identified the timing, amount of information and context in which it was given as of particular importance. Information based on personal experience was also valued. These findings highlight the importance of appropriate, individualised information during treatment, at hospital discharge and subsequently in primary care. PMID:26202602

  18. Informing children of their newborn screening carrier result for sickle cell or cystic fibrosis: qualitative study of parents' intentions, views and support needs.

    PubMed

    Ulph, Fiona; Cullinan, Tim; Qureshi, Nadeem; Kai, Joe

    2014-06-01

    Newborn screening for cystic fibrosis and sickle cell disease enables the early identification and treatment of affected children, prolonging and enhancing their quality of life. Screening, however, also identifies carriers. There are minimal or no health concerns for carriers. There are, however, potential implications when carriers reach reproductive age, and thus research attention has been given to how best to convey information about these implications in a meaningful, balanced way which does not raise undue anxieties. Most research focuses on the communication from health professional to parent, yet ultimately this information is of greatest significance to the child. This study examines parents' intentions to inform their child of newborn screening carrier results. Semi-structured interviews with 67 family members explored their intentions to inform the child, and related views and support needs. Parents almost unanimously indicated they planned to inform the child themselves. Health professionals were expected, however, to provide guidance on this process either to parents through advice and provision of written materials, or directly to the child. Although parents initially stated that they would convey the result once their child had developed the ability to understand the information, many appeared to focus on discrete life events linked to informed reproductive decision making. The results highlight ways in which health care providers may assist parents, including providing written material suitable for intergenerational communication and ensuring that cascade screening is accessible for those seeking it. Priorities for further research are identified in light of the results. PMID:24306142

  19. Dr Google and the Consumer: A Qualitative Study Exploring the Navigational Needs and Online Health Information-Seeking Behaviors of Consumers With Chronic Health Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kenneth; Hoti, Kreshnik; Hughes, Jeffery David

    2014-01-01

    Background The abundance of health information available online provides consumers with greater access to information pertinent to the management of health conditions. This is particularly important given an increasing drive for consumer-focused health care models globally, especially in the management of chronic health conditions, and in recognition of challenges faced by lay consumers with finding, understanding, and acting on health information sourced online. There is a paucity of literature exploring the navigational needs of consumers with regards to accessing online health information. Further, existing interventions appear to be didactic in nature, and it is unclear whether such interventions appeal to consumers’ needs. Objective Our goal was to explore the navigational needs of consumers with chronic health conditions in finding online health information within the broader context of consumers’ online health information-seeking behaviors. Potential barriers to online navigation were also identified. Methods Semistructured interviews were conducted with adult consumers who reported using the Internet for health information and had at least one chronic health condition. Participants were recruited from nine metropolitan community pharmacies within Western Australia, as well as through various media channels. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and then imported into QSR NVivo 10. Two established approaches to thematic analysis were adopted. First, a data-driven approach was used to minimize potential bias in analysis and improve construct and criterion validity. A theory-driven approach was subsequently used to confirm themes identified by the former approach and to ensure identified themes were relevant to the objectives. Two levels of analysis were conducted for both data-driven and theory-driven approaches: manifest-level analysis, whereby face-value themes were identified, and latent-level analysis, whereby underlying concepts were

  20. Reporting Qualitative Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWilliam, R. A.

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of criteria for evaluating qualitative reports of early intervention research identifies four important criteria: (1) where the investigators are coming from; (2) what they did; (3) how they arrived at their findings; and (4) what the study means. A checklist of key indicators of quality in reports of qualitative research is attached.…

  1. Teaching Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delyser, Dydia

    2008-01-01

    Explicitly qualitative research has never before been so popular in human geography, and this article hopes to encourage more graduate students and faculty members to undertake the teaching of qualitative geography. The article describes one such course for graduate students, highlighting its challenges and rewards, and focusing on exercises…

  2. Qualitative Studies: Historiographical Antecedents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Rilla Dean

    This paper provides an overview of qualitative studies' antecedents among historiographers and of the positivist tide which nearly engulfed them. Humans live by interpretations. The task of social science--the basic task of qualitative studies--is to study these interpretations so that we can better understand the meanings which people use to…

  3. “It’s alright to ask for help”: findings from a qualitative study exploring the information and support needs of family carers at the end of life

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Family carers play an essential role in providing end-of-life care to their relatives but have been found to experience uncertainty and a lack of confidence in fulfilling their caregiving roles, prompting recent calls for educational or information based resources to be developed for carers. Methods We carried out four focus groups with Clinical Nurse Specialists, healthcare assistants, former and current carers at a hospice in the UK, to explore the information and support needs of family carers. Results Our findings support previous research by highlighting a number of care situations where carers experience uncertainty and could seemingly benefit from greater information or instruction. Three main themes were identified which reflected carer experiences and needs in relation to potential information giving or educational interventions. These have been described as the knowledge and competence of carers; the preparedness of carers and low levels of carer identification with, and confidence in their roles as ‘carers’, which influences help seeking behaviours; and in turn how potential supportive interventions might be received by carers. Conclusions Family carers experience multiple needs for information and education, but meeting these needs remains a challenge. Our results suggest three domains which could underpin this type of intervention: developing knowledge and competence; facilitating preparedness; supporting role recognition and confidence building. We recommend an integrated information giving approach which addresses these domains by combining a resource pack for carers with a more explicit acknowledging role for health professionals. Together these could provide key information and also build confidence amongst family carers to ask for further support and advice as needed. PMID:24742046

  4. Should Health Organizations Use Web 2.0 Media in Times of an Infectious Disease Crisis? An In-depth Qualitative Study of Citizens’ Information Behavior During an EHEC Outbreak

    PubMed Central

    van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E.W.C; Beaujean, Desirée J.M.A; Wentzel, Jobke; van Steenbergen, Jim E

    2012-01-01

    Background Web 2.0 media (eg, Facebook, Wikipedia) are considered very valuable for communicating with citizens in times of crisis. However, in the case of infectious disease outbreaks, their value has not been determined empirically. In order to be able to take full advantage of Web 2.0 media in such a situation, the link between these media, citizens’ information behavior, and citizens’ information needs has to be investigated. Objective The goal of our study was to assess citizens’ Web 2.0 media use during an infectious disease outbreak and to determine which Web 2.0 medium is used for which goal. With this information, we wanted to formulate recommendations for health organizations that consider using Web 2.0 media as part of their communication strategy during an infectious disease outbreak. Methods A total of 18 student participants kept an information diary for 4 weeks during the 2011 enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) outbreak in Germany. Of them, 9 lived at the epicenter of the outbreak and 9 of them at some distance. The diaries were supplemented by a qualitative pre-survey (demographics) and postsurvey (questioning their satisfaction with information provision during the outbreak). Results The Internet appeared to be the most popular medium for passively receiving EHEC-related information, with news websites and websites of newspapers as the most consulted sources. Twitter was used for receiving information to a small degree, while Facebook played virtually no role. Participants indicated that they thought information posted on Twitter or Facebook was not reliable or was out of place. When actively seeking information, online newspapers and wikis were important sources. Several causes for (dis)satisfaction with information provision were uncovered: source credibility, contradicting messages, and a need for closure. Conclusions During an infectious disease outbreak, our small sample of students did not see social media (like Facebook and Twitter) as

  5. Qualitative methods in environmental health research.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Phil

    2003-01-01

    Public health researchers increasingly turn to qualitative methods either on their own or in combination with quantitative methods. Qualitative methods are especially important to community environmental health research, as they provide a way to produce community narratives that give voice to individuals and characterize the community in a full and complex fashion. This article first traces the legacy of qualitative research in environmental health, then uses a case study of the author's experiences studying the Woburn, Massachusetts, childhood leukemia cluster to provide personal and scholarly insights on qualitative approaches. That material then informs a discussion of important components of qualitative methods in environmental health research, including flexible study design, access, trust, empathy, and personal shifts in the researcher's worldview, bias, and the nature of the researcher's roles. A concluding discussion addresses issues in funding policy and research practices. PMID:14594634

  6. Sampling in Qualitative Research

    PubMed Central

    LUBORSKY, MARK R.; RUBINSTEIN, ROBERT L.

    2011-01-01

    In gerontology the most recognized and elaborate discourse about sampling is generally thought to be in quantitative research associated with survey research and medical research. But sampling has long been a central concern in the social and humanistic inquiry, albeit in a different guise suited to the different goals. There is a need for more explicit discussion of qualitative sampling issues. This article will outline the guiding principles and rationales, features, and practices of sampling in qualitative research. It then describes common questions about sampling in qualitative research. In conclusion it proposes the concept of qualitative clarity as a set of principles (analogous to statistical power) to guide assessments of qualitative sampling in a particular study or proposal. PMID:22058580

  7. Informal support to first-parents after childbirth: a qualitative study in low-income suburbs of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In Tanzania, and many sub-Saharan African countries, postpartum health programs have received less attention compared to other maternity care programs and therefore new parents rely on informal support. Knowledge on how informal support is understood by its stakeholders to be able to improve the health in families after childbirth is required. This study aimed to explore discourses on health related informal support to first-time parents after childbirth in low-income suburbs of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods Thirteen focus group discussions with first-time parents and female and male informal supporters were analysed by discourse analysis. Results The dominant discourse was that after childbirth a first time mother needed and should be provided with support for care of the infant, herself and the household work by the maternal or paternal mother or other close and extended family members. In their absence, neighbours and friends were described as reconstructing informal support. Informal support was provided conditionally, where poor socio-economic status and non-adherence to social norms risked poor support. Support to new fathers was constructed as less prominent, provided mainly by older men and focused on economy and sexual matters. The discourse conveyed stereotypic gender roles with women described as family caretakers and men as final decision-makers and financial providers. The informal supporters regulated the first-time parents' contacts with other sources of support. Conclusions Strong and authoritative informal support networks appear to persist. However, poverty and non-adherence to social norms was understood as resulting in less support. Family health in this context would be improved by capitalising on existing informal support networks while discouraging norms promoting harmful practices and attending to the poorest. Upholding stereotypic notions of femininity and masculinity implies great burden of care for the women and delimited

  8. Did people "buy" what was "sold"? A qualitative evaluation of a contingent valuation survey information set for gains in life expectancy.

    PubMed

    Baker, R; Bartczak, A; Chilton, S; Metcalf, H

    2014-01-15

    A number of stated preferences studies have estimated a monetary value for the gains in life expectancy resulting from pollution control, using a Value of a Life Year (VOLY) approach. However, life expectancy gains are a complex concept and no attempt has been made, to date, to investigate peoples' understanding of what it is they are being asked to value. Past practice has been to focus on the outcome of a policy i.e. a gain to the average person of X months', providing no details on how the individual receives, or experiences this gain, a potentially important attribute to value. This paper sets up and reports the results from a structured debriefing exercise to qualitatively investigate an alternative approach which explicitly emphasises how this gain is delivered (on-going reductions in the risk of death). We find that, for the majority of respondents, the approach is effective in communicating the on-going nature of the gain and reduces or eliminates the use of the (incorrect) heuristic that it is an 'add-on' at the end of life, in poor health. Further refinements are required, however, to communicate the cumulative nature of these risk reductions and the lack of impact on quality of life. The lesson for stated preference studies in general is that structured debriefings can be very useful, highlighting such issues as the persistence of ill-defined attributes and the difficulties that respondents may encounter setting aside their preferences over attributes of the good that should not be included in the valuation.

  9. Did people "buy" what was "sold"? A qualitative evaluation of a contingent valuation survey information set for gains in life expectancy.

    PubMed

    Baker, R; Bartczak, A; Chilton, S; Metcalf, H

    2014-01-15

    A number of stated preferences studies have estimated a monetary value for the gains in life expectancy resulting from pollution control, using a Value of a Life Year (VOLY) approach. However, life expectancy gains are a complex concept and no attempt has been made, to date, to investigate peoples' understanding of what it is they are being asked to value. Past practice has been to focus on the outcome of a policy i.e. a gain to the average person of X months', providing no details on how the individual receives, or experiences this gain, a potentially important attribute to value. This paper sets up and reports the results from a structured debriefing exercise to qualitatively investigate an alternative approach which explicitly emphasises how this gain is delivered (on-going reductions in the risk of death). We find that, for the majority of respondents, the approach is effective in communicating the on-going nature of the gain and reduces or eliminates the use of the (incorrect) heuristic that it is an 'add-on' at the end of life, in poor health. Further refinements are required, however, to communicate the cumulative nature of these risk reductions and the lack of impact on quality of life. The lesson for stated preference studies in general is that structured debriefings can be very useful, highlighting such issues as the persistence of ill-defined attributes and the difficulties that respondents may encounter setting aside their preferences over attributes of the good that should not be included in the valuation. PMID:24374166

  10. Search Wide, Dig Deep: Literature Searching for Qualitative Research. An Analysis of the Publication Formats and Information Sources Used for Four Systematic Reviews in Public Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansfield, Claire; Brunton, Ginny; Rees, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Background: When literature searching for systematic reviews, it is good practice to search widely across different information sources. Little is known about the contributions of different publication formats (e.g. journal article and book chapter) and sources, especially for studies of people's views. Method: Studies from four reviews spanning…

  11. Knowledge representation and qualitative simulation of salmon redd functioning. Part I: qualitative modeling and simulation.

    PubMed

    Guerrin, F; Dumas, J

    2001-02-01

    This work aims at representing empirical knowledge of freshwater ecologists on the functioning of salmon redds (spawning areas of salmon) and its impact on mortality of early stages. For this, we use Qsim, a qualitative simulator. In this first part, we provide unfamiliar readers with the underlying qualitative differential equation (QDE) ontology of Qsim: representing quantities, qualitative variables, qualitative constraints, QDE structure. Based on a very simple example taken of the salmon redd application, we show how informal biological knowledge may be represented and simulated using an approach that was first intended to analyze qualitatively ordinary differential equations systems. A companion paper (Part II) gives the full description and simulation of the salmon redd qualitative model. This work was part of a project aimed at assessing the impact of the environment on salmon populations dynamics by the use of models of processes acting at different levels: catchment, river, and redds. Only the latter level is dealt with in this paper. PMID:11267737

  12. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  13. Interpretive focus groups: a participatory method for interpreting and extending secondary analysis of qualitative data

    PubMed Central

    Redman-MacLaren, Michelle; Mills, Jane; Tommbe, Rachael

    2014-01-01

    Background Participatory approaches to qualitative research practice constantly change in response to evolving research environments. Researchers are increasingly encouraged to undertake secondary analysis of qualitative data, despite epistemological and ethical challenges. Interpretive focus groups can be described as a more participative method for groups to analyse qualitative data. Objective To facilitate interpretive focus groups with women in Papua New Guinea to extend analysis of existing qualitative data and co-create new primary data. The purpose of this was to inform a transformational grounded theory and subsequent health promoting action. Design A two-step approach was used in a grounded theory study about how women experience male circumcision in Papua New Guinea. Participants analysed portions or ‘chunks’ of existing qualitative data in story circles and built upon this analysis by using the visual research method of storyboarding. Results New understandings of the data were evoked when women in interpretive focus groups analysed the data ‘chunks’. Interpretive focus groups encouraged women to share their personal experiences about male circumcision. The visual method of storyboarding enabled women to draw pictures to represent their experiences. This provided an additional focus for whole-of-group discussions about the research topic. Conclusions Interpretive focus groups offer opportunity to enhance trustworthiness of findings when researchers undertake secondary analysis of qualitative data. The co-analysis of existing data and co-generation of new data between research participants and researchers informed an emergent transformational grounded theory and subsequent health promoting action. PMID:25138532

  14. The use of triangulation in qualitative research.

    PubMed

    Carter, Nancy; Bryant-Lukosius, Denise; DiCenso, Alba; Blythe, Jennifer; Neville, Alan J

    2014-09-01

    Triangulation refers to the use of multiple methods or data sources in qualitative research to develop a comprehensive understanding of phenomena (Patton, 1999). Triangulation also has been viewed as a qualitative research strategy to test validity through the convergence of information from different sources. Denzin (1978) and Patton (1999) identified four types of triangulation: (a) method triangulation, (b) investigator triangulation, (c) theory triangulation, and (d) data source triangulation. The current article will present the four types of triangulation followed by a discussion of the use of focus groups (FGs) and in-depth individual (IDI) interviews as an example of data source triangulation in qualitative inquiry.

  15. Qualitative research in thanatology.

    PubMed

    Carverhill, Philip A

    2002-04-01

    A new research paradigm has been emerging which holds significant potential for the field of death studies. The qualitative project is a diverse collection of methodologies that focuses its interests on the words, narratives, and stories of individuals and groups. Part of its appeal may lie in the inherent closeness of fit between qualitative inquiry and applied work with the dying and the bereaved. The author introduces the individual articles in this special issue and outlines the development of the project as well as some current issues in qualitative research in thanatology.

  16. The Qualitative Trajectory Calculus on Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogaert, Peter; van de Weghe, Nico; Cohn, Anthony G.; Witlox, Frank; de Maeyer, Philippe

    Moving objects are commonly handled using quantitative methods and information. However, in many cases, qualitative information can be more efficient and more meaningful than quantitative information. A lot of research has been done in generating, indexing, modelling and querying network-based moving objects, but little work has been done in building a calculus of relations between these objects in a qualitative way. In this paper, we introduce a formal definition of how to represent and reason about the relative trajectories of pairs of objects moving along a network.

  17. No Additional Prognostic Value of Genetic Information in the Prediction of Vascular Events after Cerebral Ischemia of Arterial Origin: The PROMISe Study

    PubMed Central

    Achterberg, Sefanja; Kappelle, L. Jaap; de Bakker, Paul I. W.; Traylor, Matthew; Algra, Ale

    2015-01-01

    Background Patients who have suffered from cerebral ischemia have a high risk of recurrent vascular events. Predictive models based on classical risk factors typically have limited prognostic value. Given that cerebral ischemia has a heritable component, genetic information might improve performance of these risk models. Our aim was to develop and compare two models: one containing traditional vascular risk factors, the other also including genetic information. Methods and Results We studied 1020 patients with cerebral ischemia and genotyped them with the Illumina Immunochip. Median follow-up time was 6.5 years; the annual incidence of new ischemic events (primary outcome, n=198) was 3.0%. The prognostic model based on classical vascular risk factors had an area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC-ROC) of 0.65 (95% confidence interval 0.61-0.69). When we added a genetic risk score based on prioritized SNPs from a genome-wide association study of ischemic stroke (using summary statistics from the METASTROKE study which included 12389 cases and 62004 controls), the AUC-ROC remained the same. Similar results were found for the secondary outcome ischemic stroke. Conclusions We found no additional value of genetic information in a prognostic model for the risk of ischemic events in patients with cerebral ischemia of arterial origin. This is consistent with a complex, polygenic architecture, where many genes of weak effect likely act in concert to influence the heritable risk of an individual to develop (recurrent) vascular events. At present, genetic information cannot help clinicians to distinguish patients at high risk for recurrent vascular events. PMID:25906364

  18. Impact of the Patient-Reported Outcomes Management Information System (PROMIS) upon the Design and Operation of Multi-center Clinical Trials: a Qualitative Research Study

    PubMed Central

    Diener, Lawrence W.; Nahm, Meredith; Weinfurt, Kevin P.

    2013-01-01

    New technologies may be required to integrate the National Institutes of Health’s Patient Reported Outcome Management Information System (PROMIS) into multi-center clinical trials. To better understand this need, we identified likely PROMIS reporting formats, developed a multi-center clinical trial process model, and identified gaps between current capabilities and those necessary for PROMIS. These results were evaluated by key trial constituencies. Issues reported by principal investigators fell into two categories: acceptance by key regulators and the scientific community, and usability for researchers and clinicians. Issues reported by the coordinating center, participating sites, and study subjects were those faced when integrating new technologies into existing clinical trial systems. We then defined elements of a PROMIS Tool Kit required for integrating PROMIS into a multi-center clinical trial environment. The requirements identified in this study serve as a framework for future investigators in the design, development, implementation, and operation of PROMIS Tool Kit technologies. PMID:20703765

  19. Qualitative neuropsychological performance characteristics in frontotemporal dementia and Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, J; Stopford, C; Snowden, J; Neary, D

    2005-01-01

    Background: Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and Alzheimer's disease are clinically distinct disorders, yet neuropsychological studies have had variable success in distinguishing them. A possible reason is that studies typically rely on overall accuracy scores, which may obscure differences in reasons for failure. Objectives: To explore the hypothesis that analysis of qualitative performance characteristics and error types, in addition to overall numerical scores, would enhance the neuropsychological distinction between FTD and Alzheimer's disease. Methods: 38 patients with FTD and 73 with Alzheimer's disease underwent assessment of language, visuospatial abilities, memory, and executive function, using a neuropsychological screening instrument and standard neuropsychological tests. In each of these cognitive domains, performance characteristics and error types were documented, in addition to numerical scores on tests. Results: Whereas comparison of neuropsychological test scores revealed some group differences, these did not occur consistently across tests within cognitive domains. However, analysis of performance characteristics and error types revealed qualitative differences between the two groups. In particular, FTD patients displayed features associated with frontal lobe dysfunction, such as concrete thought, perseveration, confabulation, and poor organisation, which disrupted performance across the range of neuropsychological tests. Conclusions: Numerical scores on neuropsychological tests alone are of limited value in differentiating FTD and Alzheimer's disease, but performance characteristics and error types enhance the distinction between the two disorders. FTD is associated with a profound behavioural syndrome that affects performance on cognitive assessment, obscuring group differences. Qualitative information should be included in neuropsychological research and clinical assessments. PMID:15965196

  20. Fuel characteristics pertinent to the design of aircraft fuel systems, Supplement I : additional information on MIL-F-7914(AER) grade JP-5 fuel and several fuel oils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, Henry C; Hibbard, Robert R

    1953-01-01

    Since the release of the first NACA publication on fuel characteristics pertinent to the design of aircraft fuel systems (NACA-RM-E53A21), additional information has become available on MIL-F7914(AER) grade JP-5 fuel and several of the current grades of fuel oils. In order to make this information available to fuel-system designers as quickly as possible, the present report has been prepared as a supplement to NACA-RM-E53A21. Although JP-5 fuel is of greater interest in current fuel-system problems than the fuel oils, the available data are not as extensive. It is believed, however, that the limited data on JP-5 are sufficient to indicate the variations in stocks that the designer must consider under a given fuel specification. The methods used in the preparation and extrapolation of data presented in the tables and figures of this supplement are the same as those used in NACA-RM-E53A21.

  1. Qualitative analysis of mouse specific-locus mutations: information on genetic organization, gene expression, and the chromosomal nature of induced lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, L.B.

    1982-01-01

    Analysis of mouse specific-locus (SL) mutations at three loci has identified over 33 distinct complementation groups - most of which are probably overlapping deficiencies - and 13 to 14 new functional units. The complementation maps that have been generated for the d-se and c regions include numerous vital functions; however, some of the genes in these regions are non-vital. At such loci, hypomorphic mutants must represent intragenic alterations, and some viable nulls could conceivably be intragenic lesions also. Analysis of SL mutations has provided information on genetic expression. Homozygous deficiencies can be completely viable or can kill at any one of a range of developmental stages. Heterozygonus deficiencies of up to 6 cM or more in genetic length have been recovered and propagated. The time of death of homozygous and the degree of inviability of heterozygous deficiencies are related more to specific content of the missing segment than to its length. Combinations of deficiencies with x-autosome translocations that inactivate the homologous region in a mosaic fashion have shown that organismic lethals are not necessarily cell lethal. The spectrum of mutations induced depends on the nature of the mutagen and the type of germ cell exposed. Radiation of spermatogonia produces intragenic as well as null mutations. Spontaneous mutations have an admixture of types not present in populations of mutations induced in germ cells, and this raises doubts concerning the accuracy of doubling-dose calculations in genetic risk estimation. The analysis of SL mutations has yielded genetic tools for the construction of detailed gene-dosage series, cis-trans comparisons, the mapping of known genes and identification of new genes, genetic rescue of various types, and the identification and isolation of DNA sequences. (ERB)

  2. Ethical issues in qualitative nursing research.

    PubMed

    Holloway, I; Wheeler, S

    1995-09-01

    This article is concerned with ethical issues that have to be considered when undertaking qualitative research. Some of the issues--such as informed consent, the dignity and privacy of the research subjects, voluntary participation and protection from harm--are the same as in other types of research and have their basis in moral and ethical principles. Qualitative research, however, generates specific ethical problems because of the close relationship that researchers form with participants. Qualitative research with patients is especially difficult because of their vulnerability and lack of power in the clinical situation. Therefore the potential conflict between the dual role of the nurse--the professional and the research roles--has to be solved. Researchers also learn how to cope with the tension of subjective and objective elements of the research. Nurses who attempt qualitative research have to consider a variety of complex ethical issues, which are addressed in this paper.

  3. Colour in quantitative and qualitative display formats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reising, J. M.; Emerson, T. J.

    1985-12-01

    Advantages of color in display formats are considered. Most people enjoy color because it is aesthetically appealing. However, questions arise regarding an improvement of an operator's performance because of color. In this case, the evidence is not clear, and it has been found that in many instances color does not improve operator efficiency. The present paper has the objective to discuss the use of color in both quantitative and qualitative display formats, to point out cases in which color can offer advantages, and to review some of the rules for color application which designers should use. Attention is given to quantitative and qualitative displays, approaches for using color, and color in quantitative and qualitative displays, approaches for using color, and color in quantitative and qualitative displays. Color in hybrid displays is also discussed, taking into account color as a classifier, color and information processing, color and continuous variables, and color related to hue, saturation, and brightness.

  4. The Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) Level 3 Package: Qualitative Models, Version 1, Release 1.

    PubMed

    Chaouiya, Claudine; Keating, Sarah M; Berenguier, Duncan; Naldi, Aurélien; Thieffry, Denis; van Iersel, Martijn P; Le Novère, Nicolas; Helikar, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative methods for modelling biological networks require an in-depth knowledge of the biochemical reactions and their stoichiometric and kinetic parameters. In many practical cases, this knowledge is missing. This has led to the development of several qualitative modelling methods using information such as, for example, gene expression data coming from functional genomic experiments. The SBML Level 3 Version 1 Core specification does not provide a mechanism for explicitly encoding qualitative models, but it does provide a mechanism for SBML packages to extend the Core specification and add additional syntactical constructs. The SBML Qualitative Models package for SBML Level 3 adds features so that qualitative models can be directly and explicitly encoded. The approach taken in this package is essentially based on the definition of regulatory or influence graphs. The SBML Qualitative Models package defines the structure and syntax necessary to describe qualitative models that associate discrete levels of activities with entity pools and the transitions between states that describe the processes involved. This is particularly suited to logical models (Boolean or multi-valued) and some classes of Petri net models can be encoded with the approach. PMID:26528568

  5. The Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) Level 3 Package: Qualitative Models, Version 1, Release 1.

    PubMed

    Chaouiya, Claudine; Keating, Sarah M; Berenguier, Duncan; Naldi, Aurélien; Thieffry, Denis; van Iersel, Martijn P; Le Novère, Nicolas; Helikar, Tomáš

    2015-09-04

    Quantitative methods for modelling biological networks require an in-depth knowledge of the biochemical reactions and their stoichiometric and kinetic parameters. In many practical cases, this knowledge is missing. This has led to the development of several qualitative modelling methods using information such as, for example, gene expression data coming from functional genomic experiments. The SBML Level 3 Version 1 Core specification does not provide a mechanism for explicitly encoding qualitative models, but it does provide a mechanism for SBML packages to extend the Core specification and add additional syntactical constructs. The SBML Qualitative Models package for SBML Level 3 adds features so that qualitative models can be directly and explicitly encoded. The approach taken in this package is essentially based on the definition of regulatory or influence graphs. The SBML Qualitative Models package defines the structure and syntax necessary to describe qualitative models that associate discrete levels of activities with entity pools and the transitions between states that describe the processes involved. This is particularly suited to logical models (Boolean or multi-valued) and some classes of Petri net models can be encoded with the approach.

  6. Qualitative Assertions as Prescriptive Statements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolen, Amanda; Talbert, Tony

    2011-01-01

    The primary question regarding prescriptive appropriateness is a difficult one to answer for the qualitative researcher. While there are certainly qualitative researchers who have offered prescriptive protocols to better define and describe the terrain of qualitative research design and there are qualitative researchers who offer research…

  7. Phosphazene additives

    DOEpatents

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  8. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  9. Individualised Qualitative Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Denis

    1987-01-01

    The author discusses student evaluation in relation to adult and continuing education programs offered by the Department of Adult Education, University College, Cork. He highlights the need for a more individualized and interactive approach to evaluation, allowing the student to benefit from qualitative feedback in the process of being evaluated.…

  10. Disciplining Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denzin, Norman K.; Lincoln, Yvonna S.; Giardina, Michael D.

    2006-01-01

    Qualitative research exists in a time of global uncertainty. Around the world, governments are attempting to regulate scientific inquiry by defining what counts as "good" science. These regulatory activities raise fundamental, philosophical epistemological, political and pedagogical issues for scholarship and freedom of speech in the academy. This…

  11. Entropy Is Simple, Qualitatively.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Frank L.

    2002-01-01

    Suggests that qualitatively, entropy is simple. Entropy increase from a macro viewpoint is a measure of the dispersal of energy from localized to spread out at a temperature T. Fundamentally based on statistical and quantum mechanics, this approach is superior to the non-fundamental "disorder" as a descriptor of entropy change. (MM)

  12. [Qualitative case study].

    PubMed

    Debout, Christophe

    2016-06-01

    The qualitative case study is a research method which enables a complex phenomenon to be explored through the identification of different factors interacting with each other. The case observed is a real situation. In the field of nursing science, it may be a clinical decision-making process. The study thereby enables the patient or health professional experience to be conceptualised. PMID:27338694

  13. [Qualitative case study].

    PubMed

    Debout, Christophe

    2016-06-01

    The qualitative case study is a research method which enables a complex phenomenon to be explored through the identification of different factors interacting with each other. The case observed is a real situation. In the field of nursing science, it may be a clinical decision-making process. The study thereby enables the patient or health professional experience to be conceptualised.

  14. First Semester Qualitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLap, James H.

    1969-01-01

    Describes a two-hour laboratory course entitled "Chemical Periodicity offered first semester of the freshman year. Three cation groups, one anion group, and a final unkown salt are qualitatively analyzed. Course fosters scientific thinking in experimentation by encouraging student-initiated schemes of analyses rather than "cookbook schemes. (RR)

  15. Qualitative research methods in renal medicine: an introduction.

    PubMed

    Bristowe, Katherine; Selman, Lucy; Murtagh, Fliss E M

    2015-09-01

    Qualitative methodologies are becoming increasingly widely used in health research. However, within some specialties, including renal medicine, qualitative approaches remain under-represented in the high-impact factor journals. Qualitative research can be undertaken: (i) as a stand-alone research method, addressing specific research questions; (ii) as part of a mixed methods approach alongside quantitative approaches or (iii) embedded in clinical trials, or during the development of complex interventions. The aim of this paper is to introduce qualitative research, including the rationale for choosing qualitative approaches, and guidance for ensuring quality when undertaking and reporting qualitative research. In addition, we introduce types of qualitative data (observation, interviews and focus groups) as well as some of the most commonly encountered methodological approaches (case studies, ethnography, phenomenology, grounded theory, thematic analysis, framework analysis and content analysis).

  16. Resilient Women Leaders: A Qualitative Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Julia; Maldonado, Nancy L.; Lacey, Candace H.; Efinger, Joan

    2004-01-01

    This qualitative study investigated perceptions of resilient, transformational, successful women leaders regarding their own resiliency and leadership. The ten participants provided information during semi-structured, open-ended, audio taped interviews which were transcribed, hand coded, and then analyzed with QSR N6 software. Findings indicated…

  17. Qualitative model-based diagnosis using possibility theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joslyn, Cliff

    1994-01-01

    The potential for the use of possibility in the qualitative model-based diagnosis of spacecraft systems is described. The first sections of the paper briefly introduce the Model-Based Diagnostic (MBD) approach to spacecraft fault diagnosis; Qualitative Modeling (QM) methodologies; and the concepts of possibilistic modeling in the context of Generalized Information Theory (GIT). Then the necessary conditions for the applicability of possibilistic methods to qualitative MBD, and a number of potential directions for such an application, are described.

  18. Complete multipoint sib-pair analysis of qualitative and quantitative traits

    SciTech Connect

    Kruglyak, L.; Lander, E.S.

    1995-08-01

    Sib-pair analysis is an increasingly important tool for genetic dissection of complex traits. Current methods for sib-pair analysis are primarily based on studying individual genetic markers one at a time and thus fail to use the full inheritance information provided by multipoint linkage analysis. In this paper, we describe how to extract the complete multipoint inheritance information for each sib pair. We then describe methods that use this information to map loci affecting traits, thereby providing a unified approach to both qualitative and quantitative traits. Specifically, complete multipoint approaches are presented for (1) exclusion mapping of qualitative traits; (2) maximum-likelihood mapping of qualitative traits; (3) information-content mapping, showing the extent to which all inheritance information has been extracted at each location in the genome; and (4) quantitative-trait mapping, by two parametric methods and one nonparametric method. In addition, we explore the effects of marker density, marker polymorphism, and availability of parents on the information content of a study. We have implemented the analysis methods in a new computer package, MAPMAKER/SIBS. With this computer package, complete multipoint analysis with dozens of markers in hundreds of sib pairs can be carried out in minutes. 25 refs., 8 figs.

  19. [Resources for qualitative research: the DIPEx website].

    PubMed

    Cura Della Redazione, A

    2013-01-01

    Resources for qualitative research: the DIPEX website. DIPEx (Personal Experiences of Health & Illness) produces a website giving personal accounts of health and illness. These accounts are in written, audio and video format and aim to give information and support so that people are better informed about the life choices they might need to make when encountering a new health experience, serious illness or health problem. Modules on 75 illnessess/problems are available.

  20. Ecosystems and People: Qualitative Insights

    EPA Science Inventory

    Both qualitative and quantitative techniques are crucial in researching human impacts from ecological changes. This matches the importance of ?mixed methods? approaches in other disciplines. Qualitative research helps explore the relevancy and transferability of the foundational ...

  1. Incorporating Translation in Qualitative Studies: Two Case Studies in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutrisno, Agustian; Nguyen, Nga Thanh; Tangen, Donna

    2014-01-01

    Cross-language qualitative research in education continues to increase. However, there has been inadequate discussion in the literature concerning the translation process that ensures research trustworthiness applicable for bilingual researchers. Informed by the literature on evaluation criteria for qualitative data translation, this paper…

  2. A qualitative approach for recovering relative depths in dynamic scenes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haynes, S. M.; Jain, R.

    1987-01-01

    This approach to dynamic scene analysis is a qualitative one. It computes relative depths using very general rules. The depths calculated are qualitative in the sense that the only information obtained is which object is in front of which others. The motion is qualitative in the sense that the only required motion data is whether objects are moving toward or away from the camera. Reasoning, which takes into account the temporal character of the data and the scene, is qualitative. This approach to dynamic scene analysis can tolerate imprecise data because in dynamic scenes the data are redundant.

  3. Qualitative studies. Their role in medical research.

    PubMed Central

    Huston, P.; Rowan, M.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To define qualitative research in terms of its philosophical roots, the questions it addresses, its methods and analyses, and the type of results it can offer. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE and CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature) databases were searched for the years January 1985 to April 1998. The search strategy consisted of "textword" terms that searched in the "title" field of both databases. Qualitative research and evaluation textbooks in health and the social sciences were also used. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: The information on qualitative research is based on the most recent and valid evidence from the health and social science fields. MAIN MESSAGE: Qualitative research seeks to understand and interpret personal experience to explain social phenomena, including those related to health. It can address questions that quantitative research cannot, such as why people do not adhere to a treatment regimen or why a certain health care intervention is successful. It uses many methods of data collection, including participant observation, case studies, and interviews, and numerous approaches to data analysis that range from the quasistatistical to the intuitive and inductive. CONCLUSIONS: Qualitative research, a form of research completely different from quantitative research, can provide important insights into health-related phenomena and can enrich further research inquiries. PMID:9839063

  4. 36 CFR 1281.12 - What information must be provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...; and (v) A review of all critical spaces where NARA holdings will be stored, used, or exhibited, including information on life-safety, environmental, holdings storage, and other systems against...

  5. Building and critiquing qualitative research websites: a cyberspace project to connect undergraduate nursing students in Canada and the United States.

    PubMed

    Teel, Cynthia S; Shaw, Judith A

    2005-01-01

    This project had a dual purpose: 1) to facilitate student learning about qualitative research methods, and 2) to promote collegiality and professional development among senior nursing students in Canada and the United States through the use of distance technology. In each of three project years, students at St. Francis Xavier University (STFX) in Nova Scotia initiated the experience by working in small groups to develop websites about different methodological approaches in qualitative research. Site information included an overview of the selected approach, discussion of trustworthiness issues, citation of journal articles in which authors used the approach, additional references, and some personal information about the student developers. Also working in small groups, University of Kansas students identified and read related research articles, reviewed website information, and responded to the STFX groups about the usefulness of site information in increasing understanding of qualitative methods and using the information for evaluation of research. The experience promoted active use of qualitative research concepts and facilitated the development of skills in evaluating research article content and website content. Participation in the activity fostered positive perceptions about the value and use of research and helped students appreciate the similarities in courses, programs, and professional requirements and values among international peers. PMID:16021938

  6. Situating methodology within qualitative research.

    PubMed

    Kramer-Kile, Marnie L

    2012-01-01

    Qualitative nurse researchers are required to make deliberate and sometimes complex methodological decisions about their work. Methodology in qualitative research is a comprehensive approach in which theory (ideas) and method (doing) are brought into close alignment. It can be difficult, at times, to understand the concept of methodology. The purpose of this research column is to: (1) define qualitative methodology; (2) illuminate the relationship between epistemology, ontology and methodology; (3) explicate the connection between theory and method in qualitative research design; and 4) highlight relevant examples of methodological decisions made within cardiovascular nursing research. Although there is no "one set way" to do qualitative research, all qualitative researchers should account for the choices they make throughout the research process and articulate their methodological decision-making along the way.

  7. Presenting and Evaluating Qualitative Research

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to help authors to think about ways to present qualitative research papers in the American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education. It also discusses methods for reviewers to assess the rigour, quality, and usefulness of qualitative research. Examples of different ways to present data from interviews, observations, and focus groups are included. The paper concludes with guidance for publishing qualitative research and a checklist for authors and reviewers. PMID:21179252

  8. Common Perspectives in Qualitative Research.

    PubMed

    Flannery, Marie

    2016-07-01

    The primary purpose of this column is to focus on several common core concepts that are foundational to qualitative research. Discussion of these concepts is at an introductory level and is designed to raise awareness and understanding of several conceptual foundations that undergird qualitative research. Because of the variety of qualitative approaches, not all concepts are relevant to every design and tradition. However, foundational aspects were selected for highlighting. PMID:27314194

  9. Qualitative interviewing as measurement.

    PubMed

    Paley, John

    2010-04-01

    The attribution of beliefs and other propositional attitudes is best understood as a form of measurement, however counter-intuitive this may seem. Measurement theory does not require that the thing measured should be a magnitude, or that the calibration of the measuring instrument should be numerical. It only requires a homomorphism between the represented domain and the representing domain. On this basis, maps measure parts of the world, usually geographical locations, and 'belief' statements measure other parts of the world, namely people's aptitudes. Having outlined an argument for this view, I deal with an obvious objection to it: that self-attribution of belief cannot be an exercise in measurement, because we are all aware, from introspection, that our beliefs have an intrinsically semantic form. Subsequently, I turn to the philosophical and methodological ramifications of the measurement theoretic view. I argue, first, that it undermines at least one version of constructivism and, second, that it provides an effective alternative to the residually Cartesian philosophy that underpins much qualitative research. Like other anti-Cartesian strategies, belief-attribution-as-measurement implies that the objective world is far more knowable than the subjective one, and that reality is ontologically prior to meaning. I regard this result as both plausible and welcome.

  10. Two new endemic species of Ameiva (Squamata: Teiidae) from the dry forest of northwestern Peru and additional information on Ameiva concolor Ruthven, 1924.

    PubMed

    Koch, Claudia; Venegas, Pablo J; Rödder, Dennis; Flecks, Morris; Böhme, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    We describe two new species of Ameiva Meyer, 1795 from the dry forest of the Northern Peruvian Andes. The new species Ameiva nodam sp. nov. and Ameiva aggerecusans sp. nov. share a divided frontal plate and are differentiated from each other and from their congeners based on genetic (12S and 16S rRNA genes) and morphological characteristics. A. nodam sp. nov. has dilated postbrachials, a maximum known snout-vent length of 101 mm, 10 longitudinal rows of ventral plates, 86-113 midbody granules, 25-35 lamellae under the fourth toe, and a color pattern with 5 longitudinal yellow stripes on the dorsum. Ameiva aggerecusans sp. nov. has not or only hardly dilated postbrachials, a maximum known snout-vent length of 99.3 mm, 10-12 longitudinal rows of ventral plates, 73-92 midbody granules, 31-39 lamellae under the fourth toe, and the females and juveniles of the species normally exhibit a cream-colored vertebral stripe on a dark dorsum ground color. We provide information on the intraspecific variation and distribution of A. concolor. Furthermore, we provide information on the environmental niches of the taxa and test for niche conservatism.  PMID:25113348

  11. Do X-ray determined cardiac volume and signs of congestive heart failure provide additional prognostic information after myocardial infarction if the left ventricular ejection fraction is known?

    PubMed

    Rollag, A; Mangschau, A; Jonsbu, J; Aase, O; Nerdrum, H J; Erikssen, J

    1989-04-01

    Cardiac volume (CV) was measured and indices of pulmonary congestion (PCG) were judged from routine chest films taken post myocardial infarction (AMI) in a consecutive series of 477 patients (340 first and 137 recurrent AMIs). Cardiac volume (CV) and signs of PCG were compared to left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), measured with isotope technique, and the prognostic value of all the parameters was assessed after 1 and 5 years. The accuracy of CV and PCG in predicting impaired LVEF was low (62% and 50% respectively). Although specificity is suboptimal, however, these parameters provided valuable prognostic information. For example, patients with signs of PCG had a very high 1 and 5 years' mortality, and two-thirds of those who died during the first year of observation had enlarged CV. The independent value of LVEF determination was mainly observed in re-AMI patients. A more restricted use of this expensive procedure may therefore be recommended. PMID:2498456

  12. Using Numbers in Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Joseph A.

    2010-01-01

    The use of numerical/quantitative data in qualitative research studies and reports has been controversial. Prominent qualitative researchers such as Howard Becker and Martyn Hammersley have supported the inclusion of what Becker called "quasi-statistics": simple counts of things to make statements such as "some," "usually," and "most" more…

  13. Positive changes after breast cancer: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Bahrami, Masoud; Taleghani, Fariba; Loripoor, Marzeyeh; Yousefy, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Traumatic events such as breast cancer along with negative effects on patients also have positive effects. These cases have been studied less in Iran. Therefore, this study was conducted with the aim of explanation of positive changes after breast cancer by using a qualitative approach. Materials and Methods: This qualitative study was conducted in 2012 in one of the specialized centers for cancer affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. In this study, it was interviewed with 19 women with breast cancer about positive changes after cancer by using individual, open and deep methods. The interviews were analyzed with conventional content analysis method. Results: The titles of the three major categories were included as behavioral changes to maintain and promote health (acquisition of health information and adopting promoting health behaviors), spiritual development (attention to the God and sense of meaning in life, revising the values and priorities, strengthening moral and behavioral traits) and personal growth and flourish (feeling empowerment, confidence and efforts to achieve the goals and desires). These three categories have led to emerge themes in this study as the “Awakening after cancer.” Conclusions: The results of this study indicated positive changes after breast cancer. Considering such changes while providing care and consulting to patients with breast cancer in addition to facilitate and accelerate positive changes will be prompted to provide care and proper and influential consulting to promote patient health. PMID:26430682

  14. From experience to definition: addressing the question 'what is qualitative research?'.

    PubMed

    Smythe, Liz; Giddings, Lynne S

    2007-07-01

    Most health professionals today have heard of 'qualitative research' but many remain confused as to what it is and how to go about doing it. In this paper, two experienced qualitative researchers become engaged in conversation exploring the question 'what is qualitative research?' Lynne Giddings and Liz Smythe are Associate Professors in the Faculty of Health & Environmental Sciences at the Auckland University of Technology. They engage a reader in exploring issues such as: What might draw you to qualitative research? How does qualitative research make a difference to practice? How can reading a qualitative research article inform practice? From a qualitative perspective, what is 'truth'? How many participants? What happens to the data? What about the bias of the researcher? Can qualitative findings be trusted? Stories and exemplars are used to highlight the processes and issues involved in undertaking a qualitative research study.

  15. Finding Qualitative Research Evidence for Health Technology Assessment.

    PubMed

    DeJean, Deirdre; Giacomini, Mita; Simeonov, Dorina; Smith, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    Health technology assessment (HTA) agencies increasingly use reviews of qualitative research as evidence for evaluating social, experiential, and ethical aspects of health technologies. We systematically searched three bibliographic databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, and Social Science Citation Index [SSCI]) using published search filters or "hedges" and our hybrid filter to identify qualitative research studies pertaining to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and early breast cancer. The search filters were compared in terms of sensitivity, specificity, and precision. Our screening by title and abstract revealed that qualitative research constituted only slightly more than 1% of all published research on each health topic. The performance of the published search filters varied greatly across topics and databases. Compared with existing search filters, our hybrid filter demonstrated a consistently high sensitivity across databases and topics, and minimized the resource-intensive process of sifting through false positives. We identify opportunities for qualitative health researchers to improve the uptake of qualitative research into evidence-informed policy making.

  16. Cancer patients' needs during hospitalisation: a quantitative and qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Tamburini, Marcello; Gangeri, Laura; Brunelli, Cinzia; Boeri, Paolo; Borreani, Claudia; Bosisio, Marco; Karmann, Claude Fusco; Greco, Margherita; Miccinesi, Guido; Murru, Luciana; Trimigno, Patrizia

    2003-01-01

    Background The evaluation of cancer patients needs, especially during that delicate period when they are hospitalized, allows the identification of those areas of care that require to be improved. Aims of the study were to evaluate the needs in cancer inpatients and to improve the understanding of the meanings of the needs expressed. Methods The study was conducted during a "sample day", with all the cancer patients involved having been hospitalized at the Istituto Nazionale Tumori of Milan (INT) for at least 48 hours beforehand. The study was carried out using quantitative and qualitative methodologies. The quantitative part of the study consisted in making use of the Needs Evaluation Questionnaire (NEQ), a standardized questionnaire administered by the INT Psychology Unit members, supported by a group of volunteers from the Milan section of the Italian League Against Cancer. The aim of the qualitative part of the study, by semi-structured interviews conducted with a small sample of 8 hospitalized patients, was to improve our understanding of the meanings, implications of the needs directly described from the point of view of the patients. Such an approach determines the reasons and conditions of the dissatisfaction in the patient, and provides additional information for the planning of improvement interventions. Results Of the 224 eligible patients, 182 (81%) completed the questionnaire. Four of the top five needs expressed by 40% or more of the responders concerned information needs (diagnosis, future conditions, dialogue with doctors, economic-insurance solutions related to the disease). Only one of the 5 was concerned with improved "hotel" services (bathrooms, meals, cleanliness). Qualitative analysis showed that the most expressed need (to receive more information on their future conditions) has the meaning to know how their future life will be affected more than to know his/her actual prognosis. Conclusions Some of the needs which emerged from this

  17. A Qualitative-Quantitative H-NMR Experiment for the Instrumental Analysis Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, John S.; Leary, James J.

    1986-01-01

    Describes an experiment combining qualitative and quantitative information from hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance spectra. Reviews theory, discusses the experimental approach, and provides sample results. (JM)

  18. Learning Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerhart, Lael

    2009-01-01

    In this article I explore through a narrative how I came to do a research project in East New York. I show how first contact was established, how local contacts were made, and how trust between my research participants and me was created. I then explore how the research topic evolved through informal conversations, open-ended interviews, and…

  19. The ethics of qualitative nursing research.

    PubMed

    Robley, L R

    1995-01-01

    Nurse researchers conducting qualitative studies need to be acutely aware of the unique ways ethics, both nursing and research ethics, affect all phases of the qualitative research process. Decisions about what to study, which persons will be asked to participate, what methodology will be used, how to achieve truly informed consent, when to terminate or interrupt interviews, when to probe deeply, when therapy or nursing care supersedes research, and what and how case studies should be documented in the published results are all matters for ethical deliberation. This article seeks to examine some of the less obvious, yet very important, ethical concerns that nurses face throughout the research process and build a common core of values that can lead to meaningful process and socially responsible research results.

  20. Qualitative model-based diagnostics for rocket systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maul, William; Meyer, Claudia; Jankovsky, Amy; Fulton, Christopher

    1993-01-01

    A diagnostic software package is currently being developed at NASA LeRC that utilizes qualitative model-based reasoning techniques. These techniques can provide diagnostic information about the operational condition of the modeled rocket engine system or subsystem. The diagnostic package combines a qualitative model solver with a constraint suspension algorithm. The constraint suspension algorithm directs the solver's operation to provide valuable fault isolation information about the modeled system. A qualitative model of the Space Shuttle Main Engine's oxidizer supply components was generated. A diagnostic application based on this qualitative model was constructed to process four test cases: three numerical simulations and one actual test firing. The diagnostic tool's fault isolation output compared favorably with the input fault condition.

  1. Trajectory constraints in qualitative simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Brajnik, G.; Clancy, D.J.

    1996-12-31

    We present a method for specifying temporal constraints on trajectories of dynamical systems and enforcing them during qualitative simulation. This capability can be used to focus a simulation, simulate non-autonomous and piecewise-continuous systems, reason about boundary condition problems and incorporate observations into the simulation. The method has been implemented in TeQSIM, a qualitative simulator that combines the expressive power of qualitative differential equations with temporal logic. It interleaves temporal logic model checking with the simulation to constrain and refine the resulting predicted behaviors and to inject discontinuous changes into the simulation.

  2. NGSI student activities in open source information analysis in support of the training program of the U.S. DOE laboratories for the entry into force of the additional protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Sandoval, M Analisa; Uribe, Eva C; Sandoval, Marisa N; Boyer, Brian D; Stevens, Rebecca S

    2009-01-01

    In 2008 a joint team from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) consisting of specialists in training of IAEA inspectors in the use of complementary access activities formulated a training program to prepare the U.S. Doe laboratories for the entry into force of the Additional Protocol. As a major part of the support of the activity, LANL summer interns provided open source information analysis to the LANL-BNL mock inspection team. They were a part of the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative's (NGSI) summer intern program aimed at producing the next generation of safeguards specialists. This paper describes how they used open source information to 'backstop' the LANL-BNL team's effort to construct meaningful Additional Protocol Complementary Access training scenarios for each of the three DOE laboratories, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Idaho National Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  3. Qualitative methods for assessing risk

    SciTech Connect

    Mahn, J.A.; Hannaman, G.W.; Kryska, P.

    1995-04-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE) non-nuclear facilities generally require only a qualitative accident analysis to assess facility risks in accordance with DOE Order 5481.1B, Safety Analysis and Review System. Achieving a meaningful qualitative assessment of risk necessarily requires the use of suitable non-numerical assessment criteria. Typically, the methods and criteria for assigning facility-specific accident scenarios to the qualitative severity and likelihood classification system in the DOE order requires significant judgment in many applications. Systematic methods for more consistently assigning the total accident scenario frequency and associated consequences are required to substantiate and enhance future risk ranking between various activities at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). SNL`s Risk Management and National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Department has developed an improved methodology for performing qualitative risk assessments in accordance wi the DOE order requirements. Products of this effort are an improved set of qualitative description that permit (1) definition of the severity for both technical and programmatic consequences that may result from a variety of accident scenarios, and (2) qualitative representation of the likelihood of occurrence. These sets of descriptions are intended to facilitate proper application of DOE criteria for assessing facility risks.

  4. The Many Organisational Factors Relevant to Planning Change in Emergency Care Departments: A Qualitative Study to Inform a Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial Aiming to Improve the Management of Patients with Mild Traumatic Brain Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Bosch, Marije; Tavender, Emma J.; Brennan, Sue E.; Knott, Jonathan; Gruen, Russell L.; Green, Sally E.

    2016-01-01

    commitment, but relatively low change efficacy). Regarding implementation processes, the importance of (visible) senior leadership for all professions involved was identified as a critical factor. An unpredictable and hectic environment brings challenges in creating an environment in which team-based and organisational learning can thrive (system antecedents for innovation). In addition, the position of the ED as the entry-point of the hospital points to the relevance of securing buy-in from other units. Conclusions We identified several organisational factors relevant to realising change in ED management of patients who present with mild head injuries. These factors will inform the intervention design and process evaluation in a trial evaluating the effectiveness of our implementation intervention. PMID:26845772

  5. 15 CFR 970.2601 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Miscellaneous §...

  6. 15 CFR 970.2601 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Miscellaneous §...

  7. 15 CFR 970.2601 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Miscellaneous §...

  8. 15 CFR 970.2601 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Miscellaneous §...

  9. 15 CFR 970.2601 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Miscellaneous §...

  10. 12 CFR 1010.116 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... developer exercise, or have the right to exercise, any control over the Association because of voting rights... there any functions or services that the developer now provides at no charge for which the association... to a purchaser? If the taxes are to paid to the developer, include a statement that “Should we...

  11. 24 CFR 1710.116 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., when will it be formed? Who is responsible for its formation? (2) Does the developer exercise, or have... or services that the developer now provides at no charge for which the association may be required to... taxes are to paid to the developer, include a statement that “Should we not forward the tax funds to...

  12. 24 CFR 1710.216 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... a copy of the charter or certificate of incorporation. (2) If the developer exercises any control... developer or any affiliate or principal of the developer. If there have been, briefly summarize the terms of... to reimburse the developer, its affiliates or successors for any attorney's fees or costs...

  13. 24 CFR 1710.116 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., when will it be formed? Who is responsible for its formation? (2) Does the developer exercise, or have... or services that the developer now provides at no charge for which the association may be required to... taxes are to paid to the developer, include a statement that “Should we not forward the tax funds to...

  14. 24 CFR 1710.116 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., when will it be formed? Who is responsible for its formation? (2) Does the developer exercise, or have... or services that the developer now provides at no charge for which the association may be required to... taxes are to paid to the developer, include a statement that “Should we not forward the tax funds to...

  15. 12 CFR 1010.116 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ....116 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION LAND REGISTRATION (REGULATION J..., financial obligations including operating costs, maintenance and repair costs and reserves for replacement... environment, land sales, securities sales, construction or sale of homes or home improvements, consumer...

  16. 12 CFR 1010.116 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ....116 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION LAND REGISTRATION (REGULATION J..., financial obligations including operating costs, maintenance and repair costs and reserves for replacement... environment, land sales, securities sales, construction or sale of homes or home improvements, consumer...

  17. 24 CFR 1710.116 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... is voluntary, you may be required to pay a disproportionate share of the association costs or it may... including operating costs, maintenance and repair costs and reserves for replacement? If not, how will any... it valid and what is its cost? (3) Time sharing. (i) How is title to be conveyed? How many...

  18. 24 CFR 1710.116 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT (INTERSTATE LAND SALES REGISTRATION PROGRAM) LAND REGISTRATION Reporting Requirements... violation of a Federal, state or local law concerned with the environment, land sales, securities sales... owner of the land or any of their principals, officers, directors, parent corporation, subsidiaries...

  19. 24 CFR 1710.216 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT (INTERSTATE LAND SALES REGISTRATION PROGRAM) LAND REGISTRATION Reporting Requirements... supporting documents, including copies of any laws which restrict the ownership of land by aliens, shall...

  20. 24 CFR 1710.216 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT (INTERSTATE LAND SALES REGISTRATION PROGRAM) LAND REGISTRATION Reporting Requirements... supporting documents, including copies of any laws which restrict the ownership of land by aliens, shall...

  1. Qualitative Inquiry in Athletic Training: Principles, Possibilities, and Promises

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Jenny

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the principles of qualitative research and provide insights into how such methods can benefit the profession of athletic training. Background: The growth of a profession is influenced by the type of research performed by its members. Although qualitative research methods can serve to answer many clinical and professional questions that help athletic trainers navigate their socioprofessional contexts, an informal review of the Journal of Athletic Training reveals a paucity of such methods. Description: We provide an overview of the characteristics of qualitative research and common data collection and analysis techniques. Practical examples related to athletic training are also offered. Applications: Athletic trainers interact with other professionals, patients, athletes, and administrators and function in a larger society. Consequently, they are likely to face critical influences and phenomena that affect the meaning they give to their experiences. Qualitative research facilitates a depth of understanding related to our contexts that traditional research may not provide. Furthermore, qualitative research complements traditional ways of thinking about research itself and promotes a greater understanding related to specific phenomena. As the profession of athletic training continues to grow, qualitative research methods will assume a more prominent role. Thus, it will be necessary for consumers of athletic training research to understand the functional aspects of the qualitative paradigm. PMID:12937461

  2. Enhancing the quality and credibility of qualitative analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Patton, M Q

    1999-01-01

    Varying philosophical and theoretical orientations to qualitative inquiry remind us that issues of quality and credibility intersect with audience and intended research purposes. This overview examines ways of enhancing the quality and credibility of qualitative analysis by dealing with three distinct but related inquiry concerns: rigorous techniques and methods for gathering and analyzing qualitative data, including attention to validity, reliability, and triangulation; the credibility, competence, and perceived trustworthiness of the qualitative researcher; and the philosophical beliefs of evaluation users about such paradigm-based preferences as objectivity versus subjectivity, truth versus perspective, and generalizations versus extrapolations. Although this overview examines some general approaches to issues of credibility and data quality in qualitative analysis, it is important to acknowledge that particular philosophical underpinnings, specific paradigms, and special purposes for qualitative inquiry will typically include additional or substitute criteria for assuring and judging quality, validity, and credibility. Moreover, the context for these considerations has evolved. In early literature on evaluation methods the debate between qualitative and quantitative methodologists was often strident. In recent years the debate has softened. A consensus has gradually emerged that the important challenge is to match appropriately the methods to empirical questions and issues, and not to universally advocate any single methodological approach for all problems. PMID:10591279

  3. A Conversational Model for Qualitative Research: A Case Study of Clergy and Religious Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roland, Daniel; Wicks, Don A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the qualitative research interview as a conversation designed to gain understanding of the world of research informants. It illustrates the potential of the qualitative research interview when the researcher is able to enter into and maintain a conversation with the research informant as an insider in the latter's community.…

  4. Exploring Perceptions of the Mental Health of Youth in Mexico: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Lisa; Varjas, Kris; Cadenhead, Catherine; Morillas, Catalina; Morris, Ashley

    2012-01-01

    Limited information is available regarding the mental health of children and adolescents in Mexico (Paula, Duarte, & Bordin, 2007). The purpose of this exploratory qualitative study was to examine the construct of mental health of children and adolescents from the emic perspective of key informants in Mexico. Utilizing qualitative methods of…

  5. Qualitative methods for assessing risk

    SciTech Connect

    Mahn, J.A.; Hannaman, G.W.; Kryska, P.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe a qualitative risk assessment process that supplements the requirements of DOE/AL 5481.1B. Although facility managers have a choice of assessing risk either quantitatively or qualitatively, trade offs are involved in making the most appropriate choice for a given application. The results that can be obtained from a quantitative risk assessment are significantly more robust than those results derived from a qualitative approach. However, the advantages derived from quantitative risk assessment are achieved at a greater expenditure of money, time and convenience. This document provides the elements of a framework for performing a much less costly qualitative risk assessment, while retaining the best attributes of quantitative methods. The approach discussed herein will; (1) provide facility managers with the tools to prepare consistent, site wide assessments, and (2) aid the reviewers who may be tasked to evaluate the assessments. Added cost/benefit measures of the qualitative methodology include the identification of mechanisms for optimally allocating resources for minimizing risk in an expeditious, and fiscally responsible manner.

  6. College student stressors: a review of the qualitative research.

    PubMed

    Hurst, Carrie S; Baranik, Lisa E; Daniel, Francis

    2013-10-01

    A total of 40 qualitative studies were reviewed and coded according to the college student stressors they represented. These studies utilized a variety of qualitative methods to examine stressors representing the following themes: relationships, lack of resources, academics, the environment, expectations, diversity, transitions and other stressors. Relationship stressors were the most commonly reported theme and covered areas including stress associated with family, romantic, peer and faculty relationships. Three of the themes (relationships, diversity and other) are novel categories of stressors compared with quantitative reviews on the topic, highlighting the importance of gathering both quantitative and qualitative pieces of information. This review contributes to the stress literature by synthesizing and identifying trends in the qualitative student stress research.

  7. Qualitative research and speech-language pathology: a tutorial for the clinical realm.

    PubMed

    Damico, Jack S; Simmons-Mackie, Nina N

    2003-05-01

    As an analytic paradigm, qualitative research offers much to clinical speech-language pathology. This paradigm has a long history of use in the social sciences, and it is well suited to address the complex issues of speech, language, and communication. As an introduction to this forum on qualitative research, this article provides an operational definition of qualitative research, discusses the primary distinguishing traits of this research paradigm, and describes six viable traditions of inquiry for our application. Additionally, numerous qualitative studies within our field are considered, and five potential reasons for the increased use of qualitative research studies in our discipline are discussed. PMID:12828527

  8. Qualitative research in clinical epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Deborah M; Way, Christine Y

    2015-01-01

    This chapter has been written to specifically address the usefulness of qualitative research for the practice of clinical epidemiology. The methods of grounded theory to facilitate understanding of human behavior and construction of monitoring scales for use in quantitative studies are discussed. In end-stage renal disease patients receiving long-term hemodialysis, a qualitative study used grounded theory to generate a multilayered classification system, which culminated in a substantive theory on living with end-stage renal disease and hemodialysis. The qualitative data base was re-visited for the purpose of scale development and led to the Patient Perception of Hemodialysis Scale (PPHS). The quantitative study confirmed that the PPHS was psychometrically valid and reliable and supported the major premises of the substantive theory. PMID:25694318

  9. Qualitative research in clinical epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Deborah M; Way, Christine Y

    2015-01-01

    This chapter has been written to specifically address the usefulness of qualitative research for the practice of clinical epidemiology. The methods of grounded theory to facilitate understanding of human behavior and construction of monitoring scales for use in quantitative studies are discussed. In end-stage renal disease patients receiving long-term hemodialysis, a qualitative study used grounded theory to generate a multilayered classification system, which culminated in a substantive theory on living with end-stage renal disease and hemodialysis. The qualitative data base was re-visited for the purpose of scale development and led to the Patient Perception of Hemodialysis Scale (PPHS). The quantitative study confirmed that the PPHS was psychometrically valid and reliable and supported the major premises of the substantive theory.

  10. Quantitative vs qualitative research methods.

    PubMed

    Lakshman, M; Sinha, L; Biswas, M; Charles, M; Arora, N K

    2000-05-01

    Quantitative methods have been widely used because of the fact that things that can be measured or counted gain scientific credibility over the unmeasurable. But the extent of biological abnormality, severity, consequences and the impact of illness cannot be satisfactorily captured and answered by the quantitative research alone. In such situations qualitative methods take a holistic perspective preserving the complexities of human behavior by addressing the "why" and "how" questions. In this paper an attempt has been made to highlight the strengths and weaknesses of both the methods and also that a balanced mix of both qualitative as well as quantitative methods yield the most valid and reliable results.

  11. Supramolecular polymerisation in water; elucidating the role of hydrophobic and hydrogen-bond interactions† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details, characterization by IR and UV spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering, video files of optical microscopy imaging. See DOI: 10.1039/c5sm02843d Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Leenders, Christianus M. A.; Baker, Matthew B.; Pijpers, Imke A. B.; Lafleur, René P. M.; Albertazzi, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the self-assembly of small molecules in water is crucial for the development of responsive, biocompatible soft materials. Here, a family of benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxamide (BTA) derivatives that comprise a BTA moiety connected to an amphiphilic chain is synthesised with the aim to elucidate the role of hydrophobic and hydrogen-bonding interactions in the self-assembly of these BTAs. The amphiphilic chain consists of an alkyl chain with a length of 10, 11, or 12 methylene units, connected to a tetraethylene glycol (at the periphery). The results show that an undecyl spacer is the minimum length required for these BTAs to self-assemble into supramolecular polymers. Interestingly, exchange studies reveal only minor differences in exchange rates between BTAs containing undecyl or dodecyl spacers. Additionally, IR spectroscopy provides the first experimental evidence that hydrogen-bonding is operative and contributes to the stabilisation of the supramolecular polymers in water. PMID:26892482

  12. Commentary: Writing and evaluating qualitative research reports

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An overview of qualitative methods is provided, particularly for reviewers and authors who may be less familiar with qualitative research. A question and answer format is used to address considerations for writing and evaluating qualitative research. When producing qualitative research, individuals ...

  13. Qualitative Research Articles: Guidelines, Suggestions and Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crescentini, Alberto; Mainardi, Giuditta

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to give ideas and suggestions to avoid some typical problems of qualitative articles. The aim is not to debate quality in qualitative research but to indicate some practical solutions. Design/methodology/approach: The paper discusses the design of qualitative research and the structure of a qualitative article…

  14. A QUALITATIVE METHOD TO ESTIMATE HSI DISPLAY COMPLEXITY

    SciTech Connect

    Jacques Hugo; David Gertman

    2013-04-01

    There is mounting evidence that complex computer system displays in control rooms contribute to cognitive complexity and, thus, to the probability of human error. Research shows that reaction time increases and response accuracy decreases as the number of elements in the display screen increase. However, in terms of supporting the control room operator, approaches focusing on addressing display complexity solely in terms of information density and its location and patterning, will fall short of delivering a properly designed interface. This paper argues that information complexity and semantic complexity are mandatory components when considering display complexity and that the addition of these concepts assists in understanding and resolving differences between designers and the preferences and performance of operators. This paper concludes that a number of simplified methods, when combined, can be used to estimate the impact that a particular display may have on the operator's ability to perform a function accurately and effectively. We present a mixed qualitative and quantitative approach and a method for complexity estimation.

  15. Domestic violence and employment: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Swanberg, Jennifer E; Logan, T K

    2005-01-01

    This exploratory study sought to gather detailed information about how domestic violence affects women's employment, specifically to identify the types of job interference tactics used by abusers and their consequences on women's job performance; identify and understand the context associated with disclosure about victimization to employers and coworkers; and identify the supports offered to employees after disclosure. Qualitative analyses, guided by grounded theory, revealed that perpetrators exhibited job interference behaviors before, during, and after work. Abuser tactics reduced women's job performance as measured by absenteeism, tardiness, job leavings, and terminations. Among women who disclosed victimization to employers, informal and formal job supports were offered. Workplace supports led to short-term job retention, but fear and safety issues mitigated employers' attempts to retain workers.

  16. 78 FR 27388 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection Renewal; Comment Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-10

    ... Occasional Qualitative Surveys AGENCY: Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC). ACTION: Notice and... information collection entitled, ``Occasional Qualitative Surveys'' (OMB No. 3064-0127). DATES: Comments must... renew the following information collection: Title: Occasional Qualitative Surveys. OMB Number:...

  17. Caregiving: A Qualitative Concept Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermanns, Melinda; Mastel-Smith, Beth

    2012-01-01

    A common definition of caregiving does not exist. In an attempt to define the concept of caregiving, the authors used a hybrid qualitative model of concept development to analyze caregiving. The model consists of three phases: (a) theoretical, (b) fieldwork, and (c) analytical. The theoretical phase involves conducting an interdisciplinary…

  18. Reconsidering Constructivism in Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Cheu-Jey George

    2012-01-01

    This article examines constructivism, a paradigm in qualitative research that has been propagated by Egon Guba, Yvonna Lincoln, and Norman Denzin. A distinction is made between whether the basic presuppositions of constructivism are credible compared to those of a competing paradigm and whether constructivism's beliefs are internally consistent.…

  19. Teaching Reflexivity in Qualitative Interviewing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiung, Ping-Chun

    2008-01-01

    Reflexivity has gained paramount status in qualitative inquiry. It is central to debates on subjectivity, objectivity, and, ultimately, the scientific foundation of social science knowledge and research. Although much work on doing reflexivity by researchers and practitioners has been published, scholars have only recently begun to explore how one…

  20. Qualitative Research in Rehabilitation Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanley-Maxwell, Cheryl; Al Hano, Ibrahim; Skivington, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Qualitative research approaches offer rehabilitation scholars and practitioners avenues into understanding the lives and experiences of people with disabilities and those people and systems with whom they interact. The methods used often parallel those used in counseling and appear to be well matched with the field of rehabilitation counseling.…

  1. Qualitative Assessment of Arts Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stake, Robert; Munson, April

    2008-01-01

    Exploring the complicated issues of assessment in the arts, the authors discuss assessment of arts education and arts programs from a qualitative perspective: experiential, naturalistic, and ethnographic interpretation. With special attention to the practices of teaching, learning, and administration of education in the arts, quality is sought…

  2. Historical Perspectives toward Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watras, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    The keynote address on which this article is based considers four stages or types of studies that qualitative researchers undertake in the field of education. The reason that I explored this focus was to illustrate the benefits and the dangers of designing studies to serve policy makers. The research that I selected sought to uncover information…

  3. Qualitative Analysis: The Current Status.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, G. Mattney, Jr.; Waggoner, William H.

    1983-01-01

    To assist in designing/implementing qualitative analysis courses, examines reliability/accuracy of several published separation schemes, notes methods where particular difficulties arise (focusing on Groups II/III), and presents alternative schemes for the separation of these groups. Only cation analyses are reviewed. Figures are presented in…

  4. Discourse Tracing as Qualitative Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeGreco, Marianne; Tracy, Sarah J.

    2009-01-01

    This article introduces a qualitative research method called "discourse tracing". Discourse tracing draws from contributions made by ethnographers, discourse critics, case study scholars, and process tracers. The approach offers new insights and an attendant language about how we engage in research designed specifically for the…

  5. Qualitative Research in Educational Gerontology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Applewhite, Steven Lozano

    1997-01-01

    Quantitative methods such as logical positivism often view nondominant groups as deviant and purport to be objective. Qualitative methods such as ethnography help educational gerontologists understand diverse elderly populations and allow elders to participate in the process of defining reality and producing knowledge. (SK)

  6. Coverage and representation of condoms in conjunction with HIV/AIDS in the Kenyan Daily Nation Newspaper from 1989-2003: a qualitative content analysis to inform health promotion.

    PubMed

    McMorrow, Shannon L; Lagerwey, Mary D; Ford, Leigh A

    HIV/AIDS has been a pressing problem in the East African country of Kenya for over 20 years. Promotion of condom use is one prevention strategy embraced in global health prevention of HIV, but use remains relatively low in Kenya. In order to better understand the socio-historic context of discourses about condoms in Kenya, this study explored how condoms were covered and represented in the Kenyan Daily Nation newspaper from 1989-2003. Qualitative content analysis was conducted for 91 items from the Daily Nation including articles, letters to the editor, columns, opinion and editorial pieces, advertisements, and cartoons. These items were systematically examined for the manner and content of manifest and latent references to condoms. Researchers found four major themes, "controversy and confusion," "we need to do more: condoms might help," "not for Kenyans or from Kenyans," and "stigmatized associations." Findings provide needed insight into the socio-cultural context surrounding condoms in Kenya that is often lacking within health promotion and HIV prevention programs.

  7. Distinguishing Features and Similarities Between Descriptive Phenomenological and Qualitative Description Research.

    PubMed

    Willis, Danny G; Sullivan-Bolyai, Susan; Knafl, Kathleen; Cohen, Marlene Z

    2016-09-01

    Scholars who research phenomena of concern to the discipline of nursing are challenged with making wise choices about different qualitative research approaches. Ultimately, they want to choose an approach that is best suited to answer their research questions. Such choices are predicated on having made distinctions between qualitative methodology, methods, and analytic frames. In this article, we distinguish two qualitative research approaches widely used for descriptive studies: descriptive phenomenological and qualitative description. Providing a clear basis that highlights the distinguishing features and similarities between descriptive phenomenological and qualitative description research will help students and researchers make more informed choices in deciding upon the most appropriate methodology in qualitative research. We orient the reader to distinguishing features and similarities associated with each approach and the kinds of research questions descriptive phenomenological and qualitative description research address.

  8. The role of theory in qualitative health research.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Moira

    2010-06-01

    The role of theory in qualitative research is often underplayed but it is relevant to the quality of such research in three main ways. Theory influences research design, including decisions about what to research and the development of research questions. Theory underpins methodology and has implications for how data are analyzed and interpreted. Finally, theory about a particular health issue may be developed, contributing to what is already known about the topic that is the focus of the study. This paper will critically consider the role of theory in qualitative primary care research in relation to these three areas. Different approaches to qualitative research will be drawn upon in order to illustrate the ways in which theory might variably inform qualitative research, namely generic qualitative research, grounded theory and discourse analysis. The aim is to describe and discuss key issues and provide practical guidance so that researchers are more aware of the role theory has to play and the importance of being explicit about how theory affects design, analysis and the quality of qualitative research.

  9. Critical Issues: Sounding Like More Than Background Noise to Policy Makers: Qualitative Researchers in the Policy Arena.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roller, Cathy M.; Long, Richard M.

    2001-01-01

    Addresses the relationships of qualitative researchers to the policy-making process. Uses the example of the Reading Excellence Act to demonstrate that qualitative researchers have many points of access to the policy-making process. Suggests qualitative researchers must provide relevant information, communicate in a straightforward manner,…

  10. Qualitative research and the profound grasp of the obvious.

    PubMed Central

    Hurley, R E

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To discuss the value of promoting coexistent and complementary relationships between qualitative and quantitative research methods as illustrated by presentations made by four respected health services researchers who described their experiences in multi-method projects. DATA SOURCES: Presentations and publications related to the four research projects, which described key substantive and methodological areas that had been addressed with qualitative techniques. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Sponsor interest in timely, insightful, and reality-anchored evidence has provided a strong base of support for the incorporation of qualitative methods into major contemporary policy research studies. In addition, many issues may be suitable for study only with qualitative methods because of their complexity, their emergent nature, or because of the need to revisit and reexamine previously untested assumptions. CONCLUSION: Experiences from the four projects, as well as from other recent health services studies with major qualitative components, support the assertion that the interests of sponsors in the policy realm and pressure from them suppress some of the traditional tensions and antagonisms between qualitative and quantitative methods. PMID:10591276

  11. Risk in Schooling: The Contribution of Qualitative Research to Our Understanding of the Overrepresentation of Minorities in Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harry, Beth; Fenton, Patrice

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews 15 qualitative studies examining factors contributing to the overrepresentation of minorities in special education. Eleven studies constituted numerical surveys of practitioner perspectives, with additional questions that were analyzed qualitatively. Four studies relied on face-to-face interviews or qualitative surveys,…

  12. Using checklists and algorithms to improve qualitative exposure judgment accuracy.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Susan F; Stenzel, Mark; Drolet, Daniel; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy

    2016-01-01

    Most exposure assessments are conducted without the aid of robust personal exposure data and are based instead on qualitative inputs such as education and experience, training, documentation on the process chemicals, tasks and equipment, and other information. Qualitative assessments determine whether there is any follow-up, and influence the type that occurs, such as quantitative sampling, worker training, and implementing exposure and risk management measures. Accurate qualitative exposure judgments ensure appropriate follow-up that in turn ensures appropriate exposure management. Studies suggest that qualitative judgment accuracy is low. A qualitative exposure assessment Checklist tool was developed to guide the application of a set of heuristics to aid decision making. Practicing hygienists (n = 39) and novice industrial hygienists (n = 8) were recruited for a study evaluating the influence of the Checklist on exposure judgment accuracy. Participants generated 85 pre-training judgments and 195 Checklist-guided judgments. Pre-training judgment accuracy was low (33%) and not statistically significantly different from random chance. A tendency for IHs to underestimate the true exposure was observed. Exposure judgment accuracy improved significantly (p <0.001) to 63% when aided by the Checklist. Qualitative judgments guided by the Checklist tool were categorically accurate or over-estimated the true exposure by one category 70% of the time. The overall magnitude of exposure judgment precision also improved following training. Fleiss' κ, evaluating inter-rater agreement between novice assessors was fair to moderate (κ = 0.39). Cohen's weighted and unweighted κ were good to excellent for novice (0.77 and 0.80) and practicing IHs (0.73 and 0.89), respectively. Checklist judgment accuracy was similar to quantitative exposure judgment accuracy observed in studies of similar design using personal exposure measurements, suggesting that the tool could be useful in

  13. Using checklists and algorithms to improve qualitative exposure judgment accuracy.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Susan F; Stenzel, Mark; Drolet, Daniel; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy

    2016-01-01

    Most exposure assessments are conducted without the aid of robust personal exposure data and are based instead on qualitative inputs such as education and experience, training, documentation on the process chemicals, tasks and equipment, and other information. Qualitative assessments determine whether there is any follow-up, and influence the type that occurs, such as quantitative sampling, worker training, and implementing exposure and risk management measures. Accurate qualitative exposure judgments ensure appropriate follow-up that in turn ensures appropriate exposure management. Studies suggest that qualitative judgment accuracy is low. A qualitative exposure assessment Checklist tool was developed to guide the application of a set of heuristics to aid decision making. Practicing hygienists (n = 39) and novice industrial hygienists (n = 8) were recruited for a study evaluating the influence of the Checklist on exposure judgment accuracy. Participants generated 85 pre-training judgments and 195 Checklist-guided judgments. Pre-training judgment accuracy was low (33%) and not statistically significantly different from random chance. A tendency for IHs to underestimate the true exposure was observed. Exposure judgment accuracy improved significantly (p <0.001) to 63% when aided by the Checklist. Qualitative judgments guided by the Checklist tool were categorically accurate or over-estimated the true exposure by one category 70% of the time. The overall magnitude of exposure judgment precision also improved following training. Fleiss' κ, evaluating inter-rater agreement between novice assessors was fair to moderate (κ = 0.39). Cohen's weighted and unweighted κ were good to excellent for novice (0.77 and 0.80) and practicing IHs (0.73 and 0.89), respectively. Checklist judgment accuracy was similar to quantitative exposure judgment accuracy observed in studies of similar design using personal exposure measurements, suggesting that the tool could be useful in

  14. Honors Dissertation Abstracts: A Bounded Qualitative Meta-Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holman, Debra K.; Banning, James H.

    2012-01-01

    A potential source of useful information about undergraduate honors education can be found in doctoral dissertation abstracts that focus on honors. Debra Holman and James Banning of Colorado State University sought to explore this resource by undertaking a bounded qualitative meta-study of such abstracts using document analysis. Three…

  15. The Development and Manifestation of Altruistic Caring: A Qualitative Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, Jennifer R.; Smith, Heather L.; Robinson, Edward H., III

    2009-01-01

    Qualitative, phenomenological research provides rich information about the constructive, life span perspectives of the manifestation and development of altruism. Using an interpretive phenomenological approach, this study investigated "altruism" as described by 34 older persons in a continuing care retirement community. The findings identified 13…

  16. Qualitative Inequality: Experiences of Women in Ethiopian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molla, Tebeje; Cuthbert, Denise

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the lived experiences of women in Ethiopian higher education (HE) as a counterpoint to understandings of gender equity informed only by data on admission, progression and completions rates. Drawing on a critical qualitative inquiry approach, we analyse and interpret data drawn from focus group discussions with female students…

  17. A Qualitative Study of Teachers' Beliefs and Principles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munby, Hugh

    This qualitative study sought information about the content, nature, and diversity of teachers' beliefs and principles. Selected studies involving the beliefs of teachers in the areas of curriculum theory and innovation, decision making and thinking, and improving teaching are discussed and analyzed. A discussion of the study's methodology points…

  18. Obstructions to Sampling Qualitative Properties

    PubMed Central

    Reimers, Arne C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Sampling methods have proven to be a very efficient and intuitive method to understand properties of complicated spaces that cannot easily be computed using deterministic methods. Therefore, sampling methods became a popular tool in the applied sciences. Results Here, we show that sampling methods are not an appropriate tool to analyze qualitative properties of complicated spaces unless RP = NP. We illustrate these results on the example of the thermodynamically feasible flux space of genome-scale metabolic networks and show that with artificial centering hit and run (ACHR) not all reactions that can have variable flux rates are sampled with variables flux rates. In particular a uniform sample of the flux space would not sample the flux variabilities completely. Conclusion We conclude that unless theoretical convergence results exist, qualitative results obtained from sampling methods should be considered with caution and if possible double checked using a deterministic method. PMID:26287384

  19. Suicide and Prostitution among Street Youth: A Qualitative Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Sean A.; Kral, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    Presents results of a qualitative analysis of the narratives of 29 street youth in which they describe their experiences with, and understanding of, suicide. A history of attempted suicide was reported by 76% of the participants. Additionally it was found that prostitution was linked with their suicidal experiences and may account for the high…

  20. Resolving the Quantitative-Qualitative Dilemma: A Critical Realist Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, David

    2007-01-01

    The philosophical issues underpinning the quantitative-qualitative divide in educational research are examined. Three types of argument which support a resolution are considered: pragmatism, false duality and warranty through triangulation. In addition a number of proposed strategies--alignment, sequencing, translation and triangulation--are…