Science.gov

Sample records for additional quantitative information

  1. Lipid Informed Quantitation and Identification

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin Crowell, PNNL

    2014-07-21

    LIQUID (Lipid Informed Quantitation and Identification) is a software program that has been developed to enable users to conduct both informed and high-throughput global liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based lipidomics analysis. This newly designed desktop application can quickly identify and quantify lipids from LC-MS/MS datasets while providing a friendly graphical user interface for users to fully explore the data. Informed data analysis simply involves the user specifying an electrospray ionization mode, lipid common name (i.e. PE(16:0/18:2)), and associated charge carrier. A stemplot of the isotopic profile and a line plot of the extracted ion chromatogram are also provided to show the MS-level evidence of the identified lipid. In addition to plots, other information such as intensity, mass measurement error, and elution time are also provided. Typically, a global analysis for 15,000 lipid targets

  2. 16 CFR 1102.16 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... PUBLICLY AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE Content Requirements § 1102.16 Additional... in the Database any additional information it determines to be in the public interest,...

  3. 16 CFR 1102.16 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... PUBLICLY AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE Content Requirements § 1102.16 Additional... in the Database any additional information it determines to be in the public interest,...

  4. 16 CFR 1102.16 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... PUBLICLY AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE Content Requirements § 1102.16 Additional... in the Database any additional information it determines to be in the public interest,...

  5. Quantitative Information on Oncology Prescription Drug Websites.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Helen W; Aikin, Kathryn J; Squiers, Linda B

    2016-09-02

    Our objective was to determine whether and how quantitative information about drug benefits and risks is presented to consumers and healthcare professionals on cancer-related prescription drug websites. We analyzed the content of 65 active cancer-related prescription drug websites. We assessed the inclusion and presentation of quantitative information for two audiences (consumers and healthcare professionals) and two types of information (drug benefits and risks). Websites were equally likely to present quantitative information for benefits (96.9 %) and risks (95.4 %). However, the amount of the information differed significantly: Both consumer-directed and healthcare-professional-directed webpages were more likely to have quantitative information for every benefit (consumer 38.5 %; healthcare professional 86.1 %) compared with every risk (consumer 3.1 %; healthcare professional 6.2 %). The numeric and graphic presentations also differed by audience and information type. Consumers have access to quantitative information about oncology drugs and, in particular, about the benefits of these drugs. Research has shown that using quantitative information to communicate treatment benefits and risks can increase patients' and physicians' understanding and can aid in treatment decision-making, although some numeric and graphic formats are more useful than others.

  6. 16 CFR 1102.16 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... PUBLICLY AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE (Eff. Jan. 10, 2011) Content Requirements... notices, the CPSC shall include in the Database any additional information it determines to be in...

  7. Uniform Additivity in Classical and Quantum Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Andrew; Li, Ke; Smith, Graeme

    2017-01-01

    Information theory quantifies the optimal rates of resource interconversions, usually in terms of entropies. However, nonadditivity often makes evaluating entropic formulas intractable. In a few auspicious cases, additivity allows a full characterization of optimal rates. We study uniform additivity of formulas, which is easily evaluated and captures all known additive quantum formulas. Our complete characterization of uniform additivity exposes an intriguing new additive quantity and identifies a remarkable coincidence—the classical and quantum uniformly additive functions with one auxiliary variable are identical.

  8. 10 CFR 810.14 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Additional information. 810.14 Section 810.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES § 810.14 Additional information. The Department of Energy may at any time require a person engaging in any generally or specifically...

  9. 10 CFR 810.14 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional information. 810.14 Section 810.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES § 810.14 Additional information. The Department of Energy may at any time require a person engaging in any generally or specifically...

  10. 12 CFR 1010.116 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Additional information. 1010.116 Section 1010.116 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION LAND REGISTRATION (REGULATION J) Reporting Requirements § 1010.116 Additional information. (a) Property Owners' Association. (1) Will there be a property owners' association for...

  11. 12 CFR 1010.116 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Additional information. 1010.116 Section 1010.116 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION LAND REGISTRATION (REGULATION J) Reporting Requirements § 1010.116 Additional information. (a) Property Owners' Association. (1) Will there be a property owners' association for...

  12. 24 CFR 1710.116 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional information. 1710.116 Section 1710.116 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... URBAN DEVELOPMENT (INTERSTATE LAND SALES REGISTRATION PROGRAM) LAND REGISTRATION Reporting...

  13. 24 CFR 1710.216 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional information. 1710.216 Section 1710.216 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... URBAN DEVELOPMENT (INTERSTATE LAND SALES REGISTRATION PROGRAM) LAND REGISTRATION Reporting...

  14. 18 CFR 5.21 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Additional information. 5.21 Section 5.21 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT INTEGRATED LICENSE APPLICATION PROCESS §...

  15. 18 CFR 5.21 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional information. 5.21 Section 5.21 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT INTEGRATED LICENSE APPLICATION PROCESS §...

  16. 18 CFR 5.21 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional information. 5.21 Section 5.21 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT INTEGRATED LICENSE APPLICATION PROCESS §...

  17. 18 CFR 5.21 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Additional information. 5.21 Section 5.21 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT INTEGRATED LICENSE APPLICATION PROCESS §...

  18. 18 CFR 5.21 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional information. 5.21 Section 5.21 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT INTEGRATED LICENSE APPLICATION PROCESS §...

  19. 24 CFR 1710.116 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional information. 1710.116 Section 1710.116 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (INTERSTATE LAND...

  20. 27 CFR 41.197 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., § 41.197 was revised, effective Aug. 26, 2013 through Aug. 26, 2016. ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional information. 41.197 Section 41.197 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE...

  1. 18 CFR 33.10 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional information. 33.10 Section 33.10 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT APPLICATIONS UNDER FEDERAL POWER ACT SECTION...

  2. [Information about phosphorus additives and nutritional counseling].

    PubMed

    Kido, Shinsuke; Nomura, Kengo; Sasaki, Shohei; Shiozaki, Yuji; Segawa, Hiroko; Tatsumi, Sawako

    2012-10-01

    Hyperphosphatemia is a common disorder in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) , and may result in hyperparathyroidism and renal osteodystrophy. Hyperphosphatemia also may contribute to deterioration vascular calcification and increase mortality. Hence, correction and prevention of hyperphosphatemia is a main component of the management of CKD. This goal is usually approached both by administering phosphorus binders and by restricting dietary phosphorus (P) intake. Dietary intake of phosphorus (P) is derived largely from foods with high protein content or food additives and is an important determinant of P balance in patient with CKD. Food additives (PO4) can dramatically increase the amount of P consumed in the daily diet, especially because P is more readily absorbed in its inorganic form. In addition, information about the P content and type in prepared foods is often unavailable or misleading. Therefore, during dietary counseling of patients with CKD, we recommended that they consider both the absolute dietary P content and the P-to-protein ratio of foods and meals including food additives.

  3. [Absolute quantitation of quercetin and the glycosides in natural food additives by quantitative NMR].

    PubMed

    Tada, Atsuko; Takahashi, Kana; Sugimoto, Naoki; Suematsu, Takako; Arifuku, Kazunori; Saito, Takeshi; Ihara, Toshihide; Yoshida, Yuuichi; Ishizuki, Kyoko; Nishimura, Tetsuji; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Kawamura, Yoko

    2010-01-01

    We are developing a simple absolute quantitation method for organic compounds, by means of quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance (qNMR), with traceability to the International System of Units (SI units). The qNMR method was applied to the absolute quantitation of rutin, isoquercitrin and quercetin in natural food additives, rutin (extract), enzymatically decomposed rutin extract and quercetin, and those compounds as commercial reagents. In this study, 1,4-bis-(trimethylsilyl)benzene-d(4) (1,4-BTMSB-d(4)) whose purity was precisely evaluated on the basis of metrology, was newly used as a qNMR reference material, to be added to the sample solution as an internal standard. The contents of quercetin and quercetin glycosides were calculated from the ratio of the signal intensities of each aromatic proton at the 2' position of the three compounds (these are observed at different chemical shifts) to the eighteen protons of the six methyl groups on 1,4-BTMSB-d(4) used as a qNMR reference material. Rapid and simple qNMR method with only one step process was carried by using 1,4-BTMSB-d(4). It was demonstrated that the purities of rutin, isoquercitrin and quercetin can be separately determined by qNMR without the need for a separation process or reference materials for all the target compounds.

  4. 47 CFR 25.111 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Service (BSS) in Appendix 30 of the ITU Radio Regulations (RR) and associated feeder-link plans in Appendix 30A of the ITU RR, if the system has technical characteristics differing from those specified in... provide the Commission with the information required by Appendix 4 of the ITU RR for advance...

  5. 47 CFR 25.111 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS... Administrations. (c) In the Direct Broadcast Satellite service, applicants and licensees shall also provide the Commission with all information it requires in order to modify the Appendix 30 Broadcasting-Satellite...

  6. 47 CFR 25.111 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS... Administrations. (c) In the Direct Broadcast Satellite service, applicants and licensees shall also provide the Commission with all information it requires in order to modify the Appendix 30 Broadcasting-Satellite...

  7. 47 CFR 25.111 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS... Administrations. (c) In the Direct Broadcast Satellite service, applicants and licensees shall also provide the Commission with all information it requires in order to modify the Appendix 30 Broadcasting-Satellite...

  8. Recent Developments in Quantitative Graph Theory: Information Inequalities for Networks

    PubMed Central

    Dehmer, Matthias; Sivakumar, Lavanya

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we tackle a challenging problem in quantitative graph theory. We establish relations between graph entropy measures representing the structural information content of networks. In particular, we prove formal relations between quantitative network measures based on Shannon's entropy to study the relatedness of those measures. In order to establish such information inequalities for graphs, we focus on graph entropy measures based on information functionals. To prove such relations, we use known graph classes whose instances have been proven useful in various scientific areas. Our results extend the foregoing work on information inequalities for graphs. PMID:22355362

  9. Recent developments in quantitative graph theory: information inequalities for networks.

    PubMed

    Dehmer, Matthias; Sivakumar, Lavanya

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we tackle a challenging problem in quantitative graph theory. We establish relations between graph entropy measures representing the structural information content of networks. In particular, we prove formal relations between quantitative network measures based on Shannon's entropy to study the relatedness of those measures. In order to establish such information inequalities for graphs, we focus on graph entropy measures based on information functionals. To prove such relations, we use known graph classes whose instances have been proven useful in various scientific areas. Our results extend the foregoing work on information inequalities for graphs.

  10. 10 CFR 71.39 - Requirement for additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirement for additional information. 71.39 Section 71.39 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PACKAGING AND TRANSPORTATION OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Application for Package Approval § 71.39 Requirement for additional information. The...

  11. 78 FR 75568 - Notice of Request for Additional Information

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION Notice of Request for Additional Information The Commission gives notice that it has formally requested that the parties to the below listed agreement provide additional information pursuant to 46 U.S.C. 40304(d). This action prevents the...

  12. 29 CFR 502.44 - Additional information, if required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT OF CONTRACTUAL OBLIGATIONS FOR TEMPORARY ALIEN AGRICULTURAL WORKERS ADMITTED UNDER SECTION 218 OF... Administrative Law Judge's Decision § 502.44 Additional information, if required. Where the ARB has determined...

  13. 29 CFR 502.44 - Additional information, if required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT OF CONTRACTUAL OBLIGATIONS FOR TEMPORARY ALIEN AGRICULTURAL WORKERS ADMITTED UNDER SECTION 218 OF... Administrative Law Judge's Decision § 502.44 Additional information, if required. Where the ARB has determined...

  14. 29 CFR 502.44 - Additional information, if required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT OF CONTRACTUAL OBLIGATIONS FOR TEMPORARY ALIEN AGRICULTURAL WORKERS ADMITTED UNDER SECTION 218 OF... Administrative Law Judge's Decision § 502.44 Additional information, if required. Where the ARB has determined...

  15. 29 CFR 502.44 - Additional information, if required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT OF CONTRACTUAL OBLIGATIONS FOR TEMPORARY ALIEN AGRICULTURAL WORKERS ADMITTED UNDER SECTION 218 OF... Administrative Law Judge's Decision § 502.44 Additional information, if required. Where the ARB has determined...

  16. 29 CFR 502.44 - Additional information, if required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT OF CONTRACTUAL OBLIGATIONS FOR TEMPORARY ALIEN AGRICULTURAL WORKERS ADMITTED UNDER SECTION 218 OF... Administrative Law Judge's Decision § 502.44 Additional information, if required. Where the ARB has determined...

  17. 21 CFR 71.4 - Samples; additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Samples; additional information. 71.4 Section 71.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR... samples of the color additive, articles used as components thereof, or of the food, drug, or cosmetic...

  18. 21 CFR 71.4 - Samples; additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Samples; additional information. 71.4 Section 71.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR... samples of the color additive, articles used as components thereof, or of the food, drug, or cosmetic...

  19. From information theory to quantitative description of steric effects.

    PubMed

    Alipour, Mojtaba; Safari, Zahra

    2016-07-21

    Immense efforts have been made in the literature to apply the information theory descriptors for investigating the electronic structure theory of various systems. In the present study, the information theoretic quantities, such as Fisher information, Shannon entropy, Onicescu information energy, and Ghosh-Berkowitz-Parr entropy, have been used to present a quantitative description for one of the most widely used concepts in chemistry, namely the steric effects. Taking the experimental steric scales for the different compounds as benchmark sets, there are reasonable linear relationships between the experimental scales of the steric effects and theoretical values of steric energies calculated from information theory functionals. Perusing the results obtained from the information theoretic quantities with the two representations of electron density and shape function, the Shannon entropy has the best performance for the purpose. On the one hand, the usefulness of considering the contributions of functional groups steric energies and geometries, and on the other hand, dissecting the effects of both global and local information measures simultaneously have also been explored. Furthermore, the utility of the information functionals for the description of steric effects in several chemical transformations, such as electrophilic and nucleophilic reactions and host-guest chemistry, has been analyzed. The functionals of information theory correlate remarkably with the stability of systems and experimental scales. Overall, these findings show that the information theoretic quantities can be introduced as quantitative measures of steric effects and provide further evidences of the quality of information theory toward helping theoreticians and experimentalists to interpret different problems in real systems.

  20. The Limitations of Quantitative Social Science for Informing Public Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerrim, John; de Vries, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Quantitative social science (QSS) has the potential to make an important contribution to public policy. However it also has a number of limitations. The aim of this paper is to explain these limitations to a non-specialist audience and to identify a number of ways in which QSS research could be improved to better inform public policy.

  1. 25 CFR 227.7 - Additional information from applicant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Additional information from applicant. 227.7 Section 227.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING How to Acquire...

  2. 25 CFR 227.7 - Additional information from applicant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Additional information from applicant. 227.7 Section 227.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING How to Acquire Leases §...

  3. 25 CFR 227.7 - Additional information from applicant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional information from applicant. 227.7 Section 227.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING How to Acquire...

  4. 25 CFR 215.17 - Additional information required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional information required. 215.17 Section 215.17 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEAD AND ZINC MINING... interested in lead and zinc mining leases, or land under the jurisdiction of the Quapaw Indian Agency,...

  5. 38 CFR 39.3 - Decisionmakers, notifications, and additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Decisionmakers, notifications, and additional information. 39.3 Section 39.3 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) AID TO STATES FOR ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT...

  6. 25 CFR 227.7 - Additional information from applicant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional information from applicant. 227.7 Section 227.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING How to Acquire...

  7. 25 CFR 227.7 - Additional information from applicant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional information from applicant. 227.7 Section 227.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING How to Acquire...

  8. 21 CFR 207.31 - Additional drug listing information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional drug listing information. 207.31 Section 207.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL REGISTRATION OF PRODUCERS OF DRUGS AND LISTING OF DRUGS IN COMMERCIAL...

  9. 21 CFR 207.31 - Additional drug listing information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Additional drug listing information. 207.31 Section 207.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL REGISTRATION OF PRODUCERS OF DRUGS AND LISTING OF DRUGS IN COMMERCIAL...

  10. 21 CFR 207.31 - Additional drug listing information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Additional drug listing information. 207.31 Section 207.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL REGISTRATION OF PRODUCERS OF DRUGS AND LISTING OF DRUGS IN COMMERCIAL...

  11. 29 CFR 2570.39 - Opportunities to submit additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Opportunities to submit additional information. 2570.39 Section 2570.39 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT UNDER THE EMPLOYEE RETIREMENT INCOME SECURITY ACT OF...

  12. 29 CFR 2570.39 - Opportunities to submit additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Opportunities to submit additional information. 2570.39 Section 2570.39 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT UNDER THE EMPLOYEE RETIREMENT INCOME SECURITY ACT OF...

  13. 29 CFR 2570.39 - Opportunities to submit additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Opportunities to submit additional information. 2570.39 Section 2570.39 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT UNDER THE EMPLOYEE RETIREMENT INCOME SECURITY ACT OF...

  14. 43 CFR 3922.30 - Application-Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Application-Additional information. 3922.30 Section 3922.30 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL SHALE LEASING...

  15. 43 CFR 3922.30 - Application-Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application-Additional information. 3922.30 Section 3922.30 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) OIL SHALE LEASING...

  16. 43 CFR 3922.30 - Application-Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Application-Additional information. 3922.30 Section 3922.30 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL SHALE LEASING...

  17. 43 CFR 3922.30 - Application-Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Application-Additional information. 3922.30 Section 3922.30 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL SHALE LEASING...

  18. 46 CFR 535.606 - Requests for additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requests for additional information. 535.606 Section 535.606 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE OCEAN COMMON CARRIER AND MARINE TERMINAL OPERATOR AGREEMENTS SUBJECT TO THE SHIPPING ACT OF 1984...

  19. Quantitative analysis of soil calcium by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using addition and addition-internal standardizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirvani-Mahdavi, Hamidreza; Shafiee, Parisa

    2016-12-01

    Matrix mismatching in the quantitative analysis of materials through calibration-based laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a serious problem. In this paper, to overcome the matrix mismatching, two distinct approaches named addition standardization (AS) and addition-internal combinatorial standardization (A-ICS) are demonstrated for LIBS experiments. Furthermore, in order to examine the efficiency of these methods, the concentration of calcium in ordinary garden soil without any fertilizer is individually measured by each of the two procedures. To achieve this purpose, ten standard samples with different concentrations of calcium (as the analyte) and copper (as the internal standard) are prepared in the form of cylindrical tablets, so that the soil plays the role of the matrix in all of them. The measurements indicate that the relative error of concentration compared to a certified value derived by induced coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy is 3.97% and 2.23% for AS and A-ICS methods, respectively. Furthermore, calculations related to standard deviation indicates that A-ICS method may be more accurate than AS one.

  20. Quantitative methods to direct exploration based on hydrogeologic information

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graettinger, A.J.; Lee, J.; Reeves, H.W.; Dethan, D.

    2006-01-01

    Quantitatively Directed Exploration (QDE) approaches based on information such as model sensitivity, input data covariance and model output covariance are presented. Seven approaches for directing exploration are developed, applied, and evaluated on a synthetic hydrogeologic site. The QDE approaches evaluate input information uncertainty, subsurface model sensitivity and, most importantly, output covariance to identify the next location to sample. Spatial input parameter values and covariances are calculated with the multivariate conditional probability calculation from a limited number of samples. A variogram structure is used during data extrapolation to describe the spatial continuity, or correlation, of subsurface information. Model sensitivity can be determined by perturbing input data and evaluating output response or, as in this work, sensitivities can be programmed directly into an analysis model. Output covariance is calculated by the First-Order Second Moment (FOSM) method, which combines the covariance of input information with model sensitivity. A groundwater flow example, modeled in MODFLOW-2000, is chosen to demonstrate the seven QDE approaches. MODFLOW-2000 is used to obtain the piezometric head and the model sensitivity simultaneously. The seven QDE approaches are evaluated based on the accuracy of the modeled piezometric head after information from a QDE sample is added. For the synthetic site used in this study, the QDE approach that identifies the location of hydraulic conductivity that contributes the most to the overall piezometric head variance proved to be the best method to quantitatively direct exploration. ?? IWA Publishing 2006.

  1. Censored data treatment using additional information in intelligent medical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zenkova, Z. N.

    2015-11-01

    Statistical procedures are a very important and significant part of modern intelligent medical systems. They are used for proceeding, mining and analysis of different types of the data about patients and their diseases; help to make various decisions, regarding the diagnosis, treatment, medication or surgery, etc. In many cases the data can be censored or incomplete. It is a well-known fact that censorship considerably reduces the efficiency of statistical procedures. In this paper the author makes a brief review of the approaches which allow improvement of the procedures using additional information, and describes a modified estimation of an unknown cumulative distribution function involving additional information about a quantile which is known exactly. The additional information is used by applying a projection of a classical estimator to a set of estimators with certain properties. The Kaplan-Meier estimator is considered as an estimator of the unknown cumulative distribution function, the properties of the modified estimator are investigated for a case of a single right censorship by means of simulations.

  2. Quantitative health research in an emerging information economy.

    PubMed

    More, A; Martin, D

    1998-09-01

    This paper is concerned with the changing information environment in the U.K. National Health Service and its implications for the quantitative analysis of health and health care. The traditionally available data series are contrasted with those sources that are being created or enhanced as a result of the post-1991 market-orientation of the health care system. The likely research implications of the commodification of health data are assessed and illustrated with reference to the specific example of the geography of asthma. The paper warns against a future in which large-scale quantitative health research is only possible in relation to projects which may yield direct financial or market benefits to the data providers.

  3. Integrated microfluidic device for serum biomarker quantitation using either standard addition or a calibration curve.

    PubMed

    Yang, Weichun; Sun, Xiuhua; Wang, Hsiang-Yu; Woolley, Adam T

    2009-10-01

    Detection and accurate quantitation of biomarkers such as alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) can be a key aspect of early stage cancer diagnosis. Microfluidic devices provide attractive analysis capabilities, including low sample and reagent consumption, as well as short assay times. However, to date microfluidic analyzers have relied almost exclusively on calibration curves for sample quantitation, which can be problematic for complex mixtures such as human serum. We have fabricated integrated polymer microfluidic systems that can quantitatively determine fluorescently labeled AFP in human serum using either the method of standard addition or a calibration curve. Our microdevices couple an immunoaffinity purification step with rapid microchip electrophoresis separation in a laser-induced fluorescence detection system, all under automated voltage control in a miniaturized polymer microchip. In conjunction with laser-induced fluorescence detection, these systems can quantify AFP at approximately 1 ng/mL levels in approximately 10 microL of human serum in a few tens of minutes. Our polymer microdevices have been applied in determining AFP in spiked serum samples. These integrated microsystems offer excellent potential for rapid, simple, and accurate biomarker quantitation in a point-of-care setting.

  4. Modular Skeletal Evolution in Sticklebacks Is Controlled by Additive and Clustered Quantitative Trait Loci

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Craig T.; Glazer, Andrew M.; Summers, Brian R.; Blackman, Benjamin K.; Norman, Andrew R.; Shapiro, Michael D.; Cole, Bonnie L.; Peichel, Catherine L.; Schluter, Dolph; Kingsley, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the genetic architecture of evolutionary change remains a long-standing goal in biology. In vertebrates, skeletal evolution has contributed greatly to adaptation in body form and function in response to changing ecological variables like diet and predation. Here we use genome-wide linkage mapping in threespine stickleback fish to investigate the genetic architecture of evolved changes in many armor and trophic traits. We identify >100 quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling the pattern of serially repeating skeletal elements, including gill rakers, teeth, branchial bones, jaws, median fin spines, and vertebrae. We use this large collection of QTL to address long-standing questions about the anatomical specificity, genetic dominance, and genomic clustering of loci controlling skeletal differences in evolving populations. We find that most QTL (76%) that influence serially repeating skeletal elements have anatomically regional effects. In addition, most QTL (71%) have at least partially additive effects, regardless of whether the QTL controls evolved loss or gain of skeletal elements. Finally, many QTL with high LOD scores cluster on chromosomes 4, 20, and 21. These results identify a modular system that can control highly specific aspects of skeletal form. Because of the general additivity and genomic clustering of major QTL, concerted changes in both protective armor and trophic traits may occur when sticklebacks inherit either marine or freshwater alleles at linked or possible “supergene” regions of the stickleback genome. Further study of these regions will help identify the molecular basis of both modular and coordinated changes in the vertebrate skeleton. PMID:24652999

  5. How to retrieve additional information from the multiplicity distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilk, Grzegorz; Włodarczyk, Zbigniew

    2017-01-01

    Multiplicity distributions (MDs) P(N) measured in multiparticle production processes are most frequently described by the negative binomial distribution (NBD). However, with increasing collision energy some systematic discrepancies have become more and more apparent. They are usually attributed to the possible multi-source structure of the production process and described using a multi-NBD form of the MD. We investigate the possibility of keeping a single NBD but with its parameters depending on the multiplicity N. This is done by modifying the widely known clan model of particle production leading to the NBD form of P(N). This is then confronted with the approach based on the so-called cascade-stochastic formalism which is based on different types of recurrence relations defining P(N). We demonstrate that a combination of both approaches allows the retrieval of additional valuable information from the MDs, namely the oscillatory behavior of the counting statistics apparently visible in the high energy data.

  6. Quantitative assessment of the benefits of specific information technologies applied to clinical studies in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Avilés, William; Ortega, Oscar; Kuan, Guillermina; Coloma, Josefina; Harris, Eva

    2008-02-01

    Clinical studies and trials require accessibility of large amounts of high-quality information in a timely manner, often daily. The integrated application of information technologies can greatly improve quality control as well as facilitate compliance with established standards such as Good Clinical Practice (GCP) and Good Laboratory Practice (GLP). We have customized and implemented a number of information technologies, such as personal data assistants (PDAs), geographic information system (GIS), and barcode and fingerprint scanning, to streamline a pediatric dengue cohort study in Managua, Nicaragua. Quantitative data was obtained to assess the actual contribution of each technology in relation to processing time, accuracy, real-time access to data, savings in consumable materials, and time to proficiency in training sessions. In addition to specific advantages, these information technologies benefited not only the study itself but numerous routine clinical and laboratory processes in the health center and laboratories of the Nicaraguan Ministry of Health.

  7. 31 CFR 26.5 - Upgrades and additional environmental information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., such environmental information from the MDB (e.g., environmental chapters from project feasibility studies or environmental data sheets) which contains this environmental analysis. The MDB Office...

  8. 76 FR 34639 - Notice of Proposed Additional Information Collection: Advisory Committee and Research and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-14

    ... Notice of Proposed Additional Information Collection: Advisory Committee and Research and Promotion... approved information collection of the Advisory Committee and Research and Promotion Background Information... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Advisory Committee and Research and Promotion Background Information....

  9. 10 CFR 1.3 - Sources of additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... fall within an exemption to the Act's openness requirement and the Commission also has determined that... availability of NRC records under the Freedom of Information Act and Privacy Act of 1974 may be obtained...

  10. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  11. 77 FR 39573 - Additional Identifying Information Associated With Persons Whose Property and Interests in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Identifying Information Associated With Persons Whose... Treasury's Office of Foreign Assets Control (``OFAC'') is publishing additional indentifying information... on June 1, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Assistant Director, Sanctions...

  12. 40 CFR 141.154 - Required additional health information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Hotline (800-426-4791). (b) Ending in the report due by July 1, 2001, a system which detects arsenic at... system that detects arsenic above 0.005 mg/L and up to and including 0.010 mg/L: (1) Must include in its report a short informational statement about arsenic, using language such as: While your drinking...

  13. 40 CFR 141.154 - Required additional health information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Hotline (800-426-4791). (b) Ending in the report due by July 1, 2001, a system which detects arsenic at... system that detects arsenic above 0.005 mg/L and up to and including 0.010 mg/L: (1) Must include in its report a short informational statement about arsenic, using language such as: While your drinking...

  14. 40 CFR 141.154 - Required additional health information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... consultation with the Primacy Agency. (c) A system which detects nitrate at levels above 5 mg/l, but below the MCL: (1) Must include a short informational statement about the impacts of nitrate on children using language such as: Nitrate in drinking water at levels above 10 ppm is a health risk for infants of...

  15. 40 CFR 141.154 - Required additional health information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... consultation with the Primacy Agency. (c) A system which detects nitrate at levels above 5 mg/l, but below the MCL: (1) Must include a short informational statement about the impacts of nitrate on children using language such as: Nitrate in drinking water at levels above 10 ppm is a health risk for infants of...

  16. 40 CFR 141.154 - Required additional health information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... consultation with the Primacy Agency. (c) A system which detects nitrate at levels above 5 mg/l, but below the MCL: (1) Must include a short informational statement about the impacts of nitrate on children using language such as: Nitrate in drinking water at levels above 10 ppm is a health risk for infants of...

  17. Multiple Linkage Disequilibrium Mapping Methods to Validate Additive Quantitative Trait Loci in Korean Native Cattle (Hanwoo)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yi; Kim, Jong-Joo

    2015-01-01

    The efficiency of genome-wide association analysis (GWAS) depends on power of detection for quantitative trait loci (QTL) and precision for QTL mapping. In this study, three different strategies for GWAS were applied to detect QTL for carcass quality traits in the Korean cattle, Hanwoo; a linkage disequilibrium single locus regression method (LDRM), a combined linkage and linkage disequilibrium analysis (LDLA) and a BayesCπ approach. The phenotypes of 486 steers were collected for weaning weight (WWT), yearling weight (YWT), carcass weight (CWT), backfat thickness (BFT), longissimus dorsi muscle area, and marbling score (Marb). Also the genotype data for the steers and their sires were scored with the Illumina bovine 50K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chips. For the two former GWAS methods, threshold values were set at false discovery rate <0.01 on a chromosome-wide level, while a cut-off threshold value was set in the latter model, such that the top five windows, each of which comprised 10 adjacent SNPs, were chosen with significant variation for the phenotype. Four major additive QTL from these three methods had high concordance found in 64.1 to 64.9Mb for Bos taurus autosome (BTA) 7 for WWT, 24.3 to 25.4Mb for BTA14 for CWT, 0.5 to 1.5Mb for BTA6 for BFT and 26.3 to 33.4Mb for BTA29 for BFT. Several candidate genes (i.e. glutamate receptor, ionotropic, ampa 1 [GRIA1], family with sequence similarity 110, member B [FAM110B], and thymocyte selection-associated high mobility group box [TOX]) may be identified close to these QTL. Our result suggests that the use of different linkage disequilibrium mapping approaches can provide more reliable chromosome regions to further pinpoint DNA makers or causative genes in these regions. PMID:26104396

  18. Multiple Linkage Disequilibrium Mapping Methods to Validate Additive Quantitative Trait Loci in Korean Native Cattle (Hanwoo).

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Kim, Jong-Joo

    2015-07-01

    The efficiency of genome-wide association analysis (GWAS) depends on power of detection for quantitative trait loci (QTL) and precision for QTL mapping. In this study, three different strategies for GWAS were applied to detect QTL for carcass quality traits in the Korean cattle, Hanwoo; a linkage disequilibrium single locus regression method (LDRM), a combined linkage and linkage disequilibrium analysis (LDLA) and a BayesCπ approach. The phenotypes of 486 steers were collected for weaning weight (WWT), yearling weight (YWT), carcass weight (CWT), backfat thickness (BFT), longissimus dorsi muscle area, and marbling score (Marb). Also the genotype data for the steers and their sires were scored with the Illumina bovine 50K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chips. For the two former GWAS methods, threshold values were set at false discovery rate <0.01 on a chromosome-wide level, while a cut-off threshold value was set in the latter model, such that the top five windows, each of which comprised 10 adjacent SNPs, were chosen with significant variation for the phenotype. Four major additive QTL from these three methods had high concordance found in 64.1 to 64.9Mb for Bos taurus autosome (BTA) 7 for WWT, 24.3 to 25.4Mb for BTA14 for CWT, 0.5 to 1.5Mb for BTA6 for BFT and 26.3 to 33.4Mb for BTA29 for BFT. Several candidate genes (i.e. glutamate receptor, ionotropic, ampa 1 [GRIA1], family with sequence similarity 110, member B [FAM110B], and thymocyte selection-associated high mobility group box [TOX]) may be identified close to these QTL. Our result suggests that the use of different linkage disequilibrium mapping approaches can provide more reliable chromosome regions to further pinpoint DNA makers or causative genes in these regions.

  19. Optimal utilization of non-additive quantitative trait locus in animal breeding programs.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Van der Werf, J H J; Kinghorn, B P

    2008-10-01

    Optimal selection on a single identified quantitative trait locus (QTL) with four modes of inheritance: normal autosomal, sex-limited, imprinting and X-linked, was evaluated in four breeding structures: single line selection (SLS), two-way crossing (2WC), three-way crossing (3WC) and reciprocal crossing (RC) by comparing extra benefit from mate selection over index selection to demonstrate effectiveness of mate selection in exploiting non-additive QTL. The results showed that the superiority varied at different QTL inheritance modes, initial favourable allele frequencies and breeding structures. The superiority tended to decrease with the increase of the favourable allele frequency except for over-dominant QTL and imprinted QTL in all breeding structures. Less superiority (below 9%) was observed for a recessive and a fully dominant QTL than for an over-dominant QTL (up to 27.11%). Normal autosomal and sex-linked QTL led to a similar trend of superiority from mate selection but the magnitude of the superiority with the latter was slightly higher than with the former for most combinations of the parameters. A high superiority (6.41-41.54%) was observed from mate selection over index selection for an imprinted QTL. A maternally imprinted QTL tended to lead to higher superiority from mate selection than a paternally imprinted QTL. X-linked QTL led to less superiority from mate selection than the other modes of QTL. A larger superiority from mate selection was observed for a recessive and a fully dominant QTL in structures 3WC and 2WC than structures RC and SLS. The superiority from autosomal QTL and X-linked QTL was lower in the structure RC than in other structures examined.

  20. SNP Markers as Additional Information to Resolve Complex Kinship Cases

    PubMed Central

    Pontes, M. Lurdes; Fondevila, Manuel; Laréu, Maria Victoria; Medeiros, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background DNA profiling with sets of highly polymorphic autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) markers has been applied in various aspects of human identification in forensic casework for nearly 20 years. However, in some cases of complex kinship investigation, the information provided by the conventionally used STR markers is not enough, often resulting in low likelihood ratio (LR) calculations. In these cases, it becomes necessary to increment the number of loci under analysis to reach adequate LRs. Recently, it has been proposed that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) could be used as a supportive tool to STR typing, eventually even replacing the methods/markers now employed. Methods In this work, we describe the results obtained in 7 revised complex paternity cases when applying a battery of STRs, as well as 52 human identification SNPs (SNPforID 52plex identification panel) using a SNaPshot methodology followed by capillary electrophoresis. Results Our results show that the analysis of SNPs, as complement to STR typing in forensic casework applications, would at least increase by a factor of 4 total PI values and correspondent Essen-Möller's W value. Conclusions We demonstrated that SNP genotyping could be a key complement to STR information in challenging casework of disputed paternity, such as close relative individualization or complex pedigrees subject to endogamous relations. PMID:26733770

  1. 78 FR 77119 - Proposed Information Collection Request; Comment Request; Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-20

    ... AGENCY Proposed Information Collection Request; Comment Request; Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: 2011 Renewable Fuel Standards-- Petition for International Aggregate Compliance Approach AGENCY... to submit an information collection request (ICR), ``Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives:...

  2. The quantitative surface analysis of an antioxidant additive in a lubricant oil matrix by desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Da Costa, Caitlyn; Reynolds, James C; Whitmarsh, Samuel; Lynch, Tom; Creaser, Colin S

    2013-01-01

    RATIONALE Chemical additives are incorporated into commercial lubricant oils to modify the physical and chemical properties of the lubricant. The quantitative analysis of additives in oil-based lubricants deposited on a surface without extraction of the sample from the surface presents a challenge. The potential of desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) for the quantitative surface analysis of an oil additive in a complex oil lubricant matrix without sample extraction has been evaluated. METHODS The quantitative surface analysis of the antioxidant additive octyl (4-hydroxy-3,5-di-tert-butylphenyl)propionate in an oil lubricant matrix was carried out by DESI-MS in the presence of 2-(pentyloxy)ethyl 3-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)propionate as an internal standard. A quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometer fitted with an in-house modified ion source enabling non-proximal DESI-MS was used for the analyses. RESULTS An eight-point calibration curve ranging from 1 to 80 µg/spot of octyl (4-hydroxy-3,5-di-tert-butylphenyl)propionate in an oil lubricant matrix and in the presence of the internal standard was used to determine the quantitative response of the DESI-MS method. The sensitivity and repeatability of the technique were assessed by conducting replicate analyses at each concentration. The limit of detection was determined to be 11 ng/mm2 additive on spot with relative standard deviations in the range 3–14%. CONCLUSIONS The application of DESI-MS to the direct, quantitative surface analysis of a commercial lubricant additive in a native oil lubricant matrix is demonstrated. © 2013 The Authors. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24097398

  3. 30 CFR 75.1200-1 - Additional information on mine map.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Additional information on mine map. 75.1200-1... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps § 75.1200-1 Additional information on mine map. Additional information required to be shown on mine maps under § 75.1200...

  4. 30 CFR 75.1200-1 - Additional information on mine map.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Additional information on mine map. 75.1200-1... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps § 75.1200-1 Additional information on mine map. Additional information required to be shown on mine maps under § 75.1200...

  5. Precise quantitative addition of multiple reagents into droplets in sequence using glass fiber-induced droplet coalescence.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunyu; Xu, Jian; Ma, Bo

    2015-02-07

    Precise quantitative addition of multiple reagents into droplets in sequence is still a bottleneck in droplet-based analysis. To address this issue, we presented a simple and robust glass fiber-induced droplet coalescence method. The hydrophilic glass fiber embedded in the microchannels can induce the deformation of droplets and trigger the coalescence. Serial addition of reagents with controlled volumes was performed by this method without the requirement for an external power source.

  6. Results of Studying Astronomy Students’ Science Literacy, Quantitative Literacy, and Information Literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buxner, Sanlyn; Impey, Chris David; Follette, Katherine B.; Dokter, Erin F.; McCarthy, Don; Vezino, Beau; Formanek, Martin; Romine, James M.; Brock, Laci; Neiberding, Megan; Prather, Edward E.

    2017-01-01

    Introductory astronomy courses often serve as terminal science courses for non-science majors and present an opportunity to assess non future scientists’ attitudes towards science as well as basic scientific knowledge and scientific analysis skills that may remain unchanged after college. Through a series of studies, we have been able to evaluate students’ basic science knowledge, attitudes towards science, quantitative literacy, and informational literacy. In the Fall of 2015, we conducted a case study of a single class administering all relevant surveys to an undergraduate class of 20 students. We will present our analysis of trends of each of these studies as well as the comparison case study. In general we have found that students basic scientific knowledge has remained stable over the past quarter century. In all of our studies, there is a strong relationship between student attitudes and their science and quantitative knowledge and skills. Additionally, students’ information literacy is strongly connected to their attitudes and basic scientific knowledge. We are currently expanding these studies to include new audiences and will discuss the implications of our findings for instructors.

  7. Being an Informed Consumer of Quantitative Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fashola, Olatokunbo S.

    2004-01-01

    Before schools and districts invest their scarce resources in the products that educational researchers have developed, teachers, administrators, and community members need to become informed consumers of educational research. This article strives to bridge the gap between researchers and practitioners by exploring how to become an informed…

  8. Informed Consent Conversations and Documents: A Quantitative Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Koyfman, Shlomo A.; Reddy, Chandana A.; Hizlan, Sabahat; Leek, Angela C.; Kodish, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Background Informed consent for clinical research includes two components: informed consent documents (ICD) and informed consent conversations (ICC). Readability software has been used to help simplify the language of the ICD, but rarely employed to assess the language during the ICC, which may influence the quality of informed consent. This analysis was completed to determine if length and reading levels of transcribed ICCs are lower than their corresponding ICDs for selected clinical trials, and to assess whether investigator experience affected use of simpler language and comprehensiveness. Methods Prospective study where ICCs were audio-recorded at 6 institutions when families were offered participation in pediatric phase I oncology trials. Word count, Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level (FKGL) and Flesch Reading Ease Score (FRES) of ICCs were compared to corresponding ICDs, including the frequency that investigators addressed 8 pre-specified critical consent elements during the ICC. Results Sixty-nine unique physician/protocol pairs were identified. Overall, ICCs contained fewer words (4,677 vs. 6,364; p=0.0016), had lower FKGL (6 vs. 9.7; p=<0.0001) and higher FRES (77.8 vs. 56.7; p<0.0001) than their respective ICDs, but were more likely to omit critical consent elements, such as voluntariness (55%) and dose limiting toxicities (26%). Years of investigator experience was not correlated with reliably covering critical elements or decreased linguistic complexity. Conclusions Clinicians use more understandable language during ICCs than the corresponding ICD, but less reliably cover elements critical to fully informed consent. Focused efforts at providing communication training for clinician-investigators should be done to optimize the synergy between the ICD and conversation. PMID:26505269

  9. Demonstrate Capabilities of Digital Graphics System to Obtain Quantitative Information from Flow Visualization Data.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    AFWAL-TR-85- 2062 00 DEMONSTRATE CAPABILITIES OF DIGITAL GRAPHICS a Ln SYSTEM TO OBTAIN QUANTITATIVE INFORMATION FROM FLOW...34Flow isualization.-Image:-.Dye Concentration, Quantitative 21 08 01 Information,, Digital Xmage.Frocessing- Dynamic fluid 21 04 Knalysis; Digitization ...Video I’iage; Digitized Image(con’t) ig ABSTRACT f’ti olinue n rIeterse If necessarv and identify by block number) , /The technical feasibility of

  10. Information theory, gene expression, and combinatorial regulation: a quantitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Jost, Jürgen; Scherrer, Klaus

    2014-03-01

    According to a functional definition of the term "gene", a protein-coding gene corresponds to a polypeptide and, hence, a coding sequence. It is therefore as such not yet present at the DNA level, but assembled from possibly heterogeneous pieces in the course of RNA processing. Assembly and regulation of genes require, thus, information about when and in which quantity specific polypeptides are to be produced. To assess this, we draw upon precise biochemical data. On the basis of our conceptual framework, we also develop formal models for the coordinated expression of specific sets of genes through the interaction of transcripts and mRNAs and with proteins via a precise putative regulatory code. Thus, the nucleotides in transcripts and mRNA are not only arranged into amino acid-coding triplets, but at the same time may participate in regulatory oligomotifs that provide binding sites for specific proteins. We can then quantify and compare product and regulatory information involved in gene expression and regulation.

  11. Mastitomics, the integrated omics of bovine milk in an experimental model of Streptococcus uberis mastitis: 2. Label-free relative quantitative proteomics† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6mb00290k Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Mudaliar, Manikhandan; Tassi, Riccardo; Thomas, Funmilola C.; McNeilly, Tom N.; Weidt, Stefan K.; McLaughlin, Mark; Wilson, David; Burchmore, Richard; Herzyk, Pawel; Eckersall, P. David

    2016-01-01

    Mastitis, inflammation of the mammary gland, is the most common and costly disease of dairy cattle in the western world. It is primarily caused by bacteria, with Streptococcus uberis as one of the most prevalent causative agents. To characterize the proteome during Streptococcus uberis mastitis, an experimentally induced model of intramammary infection was used. Milk whey samples obtained from 6 cows at 6 time points were processed using label-free relative quantitative proteomics. This proteomic analysis complements clinical, bacteriological and immunological studies as well as peptidomic and metabolomic analysis of the same challenge model. A total of 2552 non-redundant bovine peptides were identified, and from these, 570 bovine proteins were quantified. Hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis showed clear clustering of results by stage of infection, with similarities between pre-infection and resolution stages (0 and 312 h post challenge), early infection stages (36 and 42 h post challenge) and late infection stages (57 and 81 h post challenge). Ingenuity pathway analysis identified upregulation of acute phase protein pathways over the course of infection, with dominance of different acute phase proteins at different time points based on differential expression analysis. Antimicrobial peptides, notably cathelicidins and peptidoglycan recognition protein, were upregulated at all time points post challenge and peaked at 57 h, which coincided with 10 000-fold decrease in average bacterial counts. The integration of clinical, bacteriological, immunological and quantitative proteomics and other-omic data provides a more detailed systems level view of the host response to mastitis than has been achieved previously. PMID:27412694

  12. 49 CFR 260.25 - Additional information for Applicants not having a credit rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... prospective traffic base; (3) System-wide plans to maintain equipment and rights-of-way at current or improved... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional information for Applicants not having a... Financial Assistance § 260.25 Additional information for Applicants not having a credit rating....

  13. 49 CFR 260.25 - Additional information for Applicants not having a credit rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... prospective traffic base; (3) System-wide plans to maintain equipment and rights-of-way at current or improved... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional information for Applicants not having a... Financial Assistance § 260.25 Additional information for Applicants not having a credit rating....

  14. 16 CFR 2.20 - Petitions for review of requests for additional information or documentary material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... additional information or documentary material. 2.20 Section 2.20 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE... material, or recommend such modification to the responsible Assistant Director of the Bureau of Competition... investigation. A request for additional information or documentary material may be modified only in...

  15. 47 CFR 25.111 - Additional information and ITU cost recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional information and ITU cost recovery....111 Additional information and ITU cost recovery. (a) The Commission may request from any party at any... interference caused by radio stations authorized by other Administrations is guaranteed unless ITU...

  16. 49 CFR 260.25 - Additional information for Applicants not having a credit rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional information for Applicants not having a... Financial Assistance § 260.25 Additional information for Applicants not having a credit rating. Each application submitted by Applicants not having a recent credit rating from one or more nationally...

  17. 33 CFR 148.107 - What additional information may be required?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... What additional information may be required? (a) The Commandant (CG-5), in coordination with MARAD, may... analysis, explanation, or other information he or she deems necessary. (b) The Commandant (CG-5) may... (CG-5) may set a deadline for receiving the information. (1) If the applicant states that the...

  18. 33 CFR 148.107 - What additional information may be required?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... What additional information may be required? (a) The Commandant (CG-5), in coordination with MARAD, may... analysis, explanation, or other information he or she deems necessary. (b) The Commandant (CG-5) may... (CG-5) may set a deadline for receiving the information. (1) If the applicant states that the...

  19. 75 FR 77645 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Color Additive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Color Additive Certification Requests and Recordkeeping AGENCY: Food and Drug... certification of color additives manufactured for use in foods, drugs, cosmetics or medical devices in the... of information technology. Color Additive Certification Requests and Recordkeeping--21 CFR Part...

  20. A Quantitative Study into the Information Technology Project Portfolio Practice: The Impact on Information Technology Project Deliverables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Wei

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation applied the quantitative approach to the data gathered from online survey questionnaires regarding the three objects: Information Technology (IT) Portfolio Management, IT-Business Alignment, and IT Project Deliverables. By studying this data, this dissertation uncovered the underlying relationships that exist between the…

  1. Defense Health Care: Additional Information Needed about Mental Health Provider Staffing Needs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    DEFENSE HEALTH CARE Additional Information Needed about Mental Health Provider Staffing Needs Report to the...REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Defense Health Care: Additional Information Needed about Mental ...Z39-18 Page i GAO-15-184 DOD Mental Health Staffing Letter 1 Background 4 DOD and the Military Services Have Increased the

  2. Quantitative analysis of EGR proteins binding to DNA: assessing additivity in both the binding site and the protein

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiajian; Stormo, Gary D

    2005-01-01

    Background Recognition codes for protein-DNA interactions typically assume that the interacting positions contribute additively to the binding energy. While this is known to not be precisely true, an additive model over the DNA positions can be a good approximation, at least for some proteins. Much less information is available about whether the protein positions contribute additively to the interaction. Results Using EGR zinc finger proteins, we measure the binding affinity of six different variants of the protein to each of six different variants of the consensus binding site. Both the protein and binding site variants include single and double mutations that allow us to assess how well additive models can account for the data. For each protein and DNA alone we find that additive models are good approximations, but over the combined set of data there are context effects that limit their accuracy. However, a small modification to the purely additive model, with only three additional parameters, improves the fit significantly. Conclusion The additive model holds very well for every DNA site and every protein included in this study, but clear context dependence in the interactions was detected. A simple modification to the independent model provides a better fit to the complete data. PMID:16014175

  3. Quantitative aspects of informed consent: considering the dose response curve when estimating quantity of information.

    PubMed

    Lynöe, N; Hoeyer, K

    2005-12-01

    Information is usually supposed to be a prerequisite for people making decisions on whether or not to participate in a clinical trial. Previously conducted studies and research ethics scandals indicate that participants have sometimes lacked important pieces of information. Over the past few decades the quantity of information believed to be adequate has increased significantly, and in some instances a new maxim seems to be in place: the more information, the better the ethics in terms of respecting a participant's autonomy. The authors hypothesise that the dose-response curve from pharmacology or toxicology serves as a model to illustrate that a large amount of written information does not equal optimality. Using the curve as a pedagogical analogy when teaching ethics to students in clinical sciences, and also in engaging in dialogue with research institutions, may promote reflection on how to adjust information in relation to the preferences of individual participants, thereby transgressing the maxim that more information means better ethics.

  4. 78 FR 52803 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Additional...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-26

    ... OMB under the PRA and displays a currently valid OMB Control Number. In addition, notwithstanding any... collection of information that does not display a valid Control Number. See 5 CFR 1320.5(a) and 1320.6. The DOL obtains OMB approval for this information collection under Control Number 1218-0237....

  5. A Framework for General Education Assessment: Assessing Information Literacy and Quantitative Literacy with ePortfolios

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubert, David A.; Lewis, Kati J.

    2014-01-01

    This essay presents the findings of an authentic and holistic assessment, using a random sample of one hundred student General Education ePortfolios, of two of Salt Lake Community College's (SLCC) college-wide learning outcomes: quantitative literacy (QL) and information literacy (IL). Performed by four faculty from biology, humanities, and…

  6. Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Nutrition and Food Safety Information in School Science Textbooks of India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subba Rao, G. M.; Vijayapushapm, T.; Venkaiah, K.; Pavarala, V.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess quantity and quality of nutrition and food safety information in science textbooks prescribed by the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE), India for grades I through X. Design: Content analysis. Methods: A coding scheme was developed for quantitative and qualitative analyses. Two investigators independently coded the…

  7. Quantitative Study of Emotional Intelligence and Communication Levels in Information Technology Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendon, Michalina

    2016-01-01

    This quantitative non-experimental correlational research analyzes the relationship between emotional intelligence and communication due to the lack of this research on information technology professionals in the U.S. One hundred and eleven (111) participants completed a survey that measures both the emotional intelligence and communication…

  8. Climate Change Education: Quantitatively Assessing the Impact of a Botanical Garden as an Informal Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sellmann, Daniela; Bogner, Franz X.

    2013-01-01

    Although informal learning environments have been studied extensively, ours is one of the first studies to quantitatively assess the impact of learning in botanical gardens on students' cognitive achievement. We observed a group of 10th graders participating in a one-day educational intervention on climate change implemented in a botanical garden.…

  9. 76 FR 9637 - Proposed Information Collection (Veteran Suicide Prevention Online Quantitative Surveys) Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-18

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Veteran Suicide Prevention Online Quantitative Surveys) Activity... outreach efforts on the prevention of suicide among Veterans and their families. DATES: Written comments...). Type of Review: New collection. Abstract: VA's top priority is the prevention of Veterans suicide....

  10. Quantitative Analysis of Qualitative Information from Interviews: A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fakis, Apostolos; Hilliam, Rachel; Stoneley, Helen; Townend, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background: A systematic literature review was conducted on mixed methods area. Objectives: The overall aim was to explore how qualitative information from interviews has been analyzed using quantitative methods. Methods: A contemporary review was undertaken and based on a predefined protocol. The references were identified using inclusion and…

  11. Forty Years of the "Journal of Librarianship and Information Science": A Quantitative Analysis, Part I

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furner, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on the first part of a two-part quantitative analysis of volume 1-40 (1969-2008) of the "Journal of Librarianship and Information Science" (formerly the "Journal of Librarianship"). It provides an overview of the current state of LIS research journal publishing in the UK; a review of the publication and…

  12. "The Dose Makes the Poison": Informing Consumers About the Scientific Risk Assessment of Food Additives.

    PubMed

    Bearth, Angela; Cousin, Marie-Eve; Siegrist, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Intensive risk assessment is required before the approval of food additives. During this process, based on the toxicological principle of "the dose makes the poison,ˮ maximum usage doses are assessed. However, most consumers are not aware of these efforts to ensure the safety of food additives and are therefore sceptical, even though food additives bring certain benefits to consumers. This study investigated the effect of a short video, which explains the scientific risk assessment and regulation of food additives, on consumers' perceptions and acceptance of food additives. The primary goal of this study was to inform consumers and enable them to construct their own risk-benefit assessment and make informed decisions about food additives. The secondary goal was to investigate whether people have different perceptions of food additives of artificial (i.e., aspartame) or natural origin (i.e., steviolglycoside). To attain these research goals, an online experiment was conducted on 185 Swiss consumers. Participants were randomly assigned to either the experimental group, which was shown a video about the scientific risk assessment of food additives, or the control group, which was shown a video about a topic irrelevant to the study. After watching the video, the respondents knew significantly more, expressed more positive thoughts and feelings, had less risk perception, and more acceptance than prior to watching the video. Thus, it appears that informing consumers about complex food safety topics, such as the scientific risk assessment of food additives, is possible, and using a carefully developed information video is a successful strategy for informing consumers.

  13. Sender–receiver systems and applying information theory for quantitative synthetic biology

    PubMed Central

    Barcena Menendez, Diego; Senthivel, Vivek Raj; Isalan, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Sender–receiver (S–R) systems abound in biology, with communication systems sending information in various forms. Information theory provides a quantitative basis for analysing these processes and is being applied to study natural genetic, enzymatic and neural networks. Recent advances in synthetic biology are providing us with a wealth of artificial S–R systems, giving us quantitative control over networks with a finite number of well-characterised components. Combining the two approaches can help to predict how to maximise signalling robustness, and will allow us to make increasingly complex biological computers. Ultimately, pushing the boundaries of synthetic biology will require moving beyond engineering the flow of information and towards building more sophisticated circuits that interpret biological meaning. PMID:25282688

  14. Sender-receiver systems and applying information theory for quantitative synthetic biology.

    PubMed

    Barcena Menendez, Diego; Senthivel, Vivek Raj; Isalan, Mark

    2015-02-01

    Sender-receiver (S-R) systems abound in biology, with communication systems sending information in various forms. Information theory provides a quantitative basis for analysing these processes and is being applied to study natural genetic, enzymatic and neural networks. Recent advances in synthetic biology are providing us with a wealth of artificial S-R systems, giving us quantitative control over networks with a finite number of well-characterised components. Combining the two approaches can help to predict how to maximise signalling robustness, and will allow us to make increasingly complex biological computers. Ultimately, pushing the boundaries of synthetic biology will require moving beyond engineering the flow of information and towards building more sophisticated circuits that interpret biological meaning.

  15. Quantitative evaluation of translational medicine based on scientometric analysis and information extraction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yin; Diao, Tianxi; Wang, Lei

    2014-12-01

    Designed to advance the two-way translational process between basic research and clinical practice, translational medicine has become one of the most important areas in biomedicine. The quantitative evaluation of translational medicine is valuable for the decision making of global translational medical research and funding. Using the scientometric analysis and information extraction techniques, this study quantitatively analyzed the scientific articles on translational medicine. The results showed that translational medicine had significant scientific output and impact, specific core field and institute, and outstanding academic status and benefit. While it is not considered in this study, the patent data are another important indicators that should be integrated in the relevant research in the future.

  16. 24 CFR 1710.200 - Instructions for Statement of Record, Additional Information and Documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Instructions for Statement of Record, Additional Information and Documentation. 1710.200 Section 1710.200 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR...

  17. 10 CFR 52.158 - Contents of application; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Contents of application; additional technical information. 52.158 Section 52.158 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.158 Contents of application;...

  18. 10 CFR 52.158 - Contents of application; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Contents of application; additional technical information. 52.158 Section 52.158 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.158 Contents of application;...

  19. 10 CFR 52.158 - Contents of application; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Contents of application; additional technical information. 52.158 Section 52.158 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.158 Contents of application;...

  20. 10 CFR 52.158 - Contents of application; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contents of application; additional technical information. 52.158 Section 52.158 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.158 Contents of application;...

  1. 10 CFR 52.158 - Contents of application; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Contents of application; additional technical information. 52.158 Section 52.158 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.158 Contents of application;...

  2. 16 CFR 803.20 - Requests for additional information or documentary material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requests for additional information or documentary material. 803.20 Section 803.20 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF 1976...

  3. 16 CFR 803.20 - Requests for additional information or documentary material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Requests for additional information or documentary material. 803.20 Section 803.20 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF 1976...

  4. 16 CFR 803.20 - Requests for additional information or documentary material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Requests for additional information or documentary material. 803.20 Section 803.20 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF 1976...

  5. 16 CFR 803.21 - Additional information shall be supplied within reasonable time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional information shall be supplied within reasonable time. 803.21 Section 803.21 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF...

  6. 16 CFR 803.21 - Additional information shall be supplied within reasonable time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Additional information shall be supplied within reasonable time. 803.21 Section 803.21 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF...

  7. 16 CFR 803.21 - Additional information shall be supplied within reasonable time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Additional information shall be supplied within reasonable time. 803.21 Section 803.21 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF...

  8. 16 CFR 803.21 - Additional information shall be supplied within reasonable time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Additional information shall be supplied within reasonable time. 803.21 Section 803.21 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF...

  9. 16 CFR 803.21 - Additional information shall be supplied within reasonable time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Additional information shall be supplied within reasonable time. 803.21 Section 803.21 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF...

  10. 16 CFR 803.20 - Requests for additional information or documentary material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Requests for additional information or documentary material. 803.20 Section 803.20 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF 1976...

  11. 18 CFR 33.3 - Additional information requirements for applications involving horizontal competitive impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional information... and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE... reserve existing transmission capacity needed for native load growth and network transmission...

  12. 18 CFR 33.3 - Additional information requirements for applications involving horizontal competitive impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional information... and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE... reserve existing transmission capacity needed for native load growth and network transmission...

  13. 18 CFR 33.3 - Additional information requirements for applications involving horizontal competitive impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Additional information... and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE... reserve existing transmission capacity needed for native load growth and network transmission...

  14. 40 CFR Table 42 to Subpart Uuu of... - Additional Information for Initial Notification of Compliance Status

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Additional Information for Initial Notification of Compliance Status 42 Table 42 to Subpart UUU of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... applicable emission limit and the continuous opacity or that the emission monitoring system meets...

  15. 17 CFR 229.1118 - (Item 1118) Reports and additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false (Item 1118) Reports and additional information. 229.1118 Section 229.1118 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS FOR FILING FORMS UNDER SECURITIES ACT OF 1933, SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT...

  16. 17 CFR 229.1118 - (Item 1118) Reports and additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false (Item 1118) Reports and additional information. 229.1118 Section 229.1118 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS FOR FILING FORMS UNDER SECURITIES ACT OF 1933, SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT...

  17. 38 CFR 39.4 - Decision makers, notifications, and additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Decision makers, notifications, and additional information. 39.4 Section 39.4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) AID TO STATES FOR ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT,...

  18. 38 CFR 39.4 - Decision makers, notifications, and additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Decision makers, notifications, and additional information. 39.4 Section 39.4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) AID FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT, OR...

  19. 38 CFR 39.4 - Decision makers, notifications, and additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Decision makers, notifications, and additional information. 39.4 Section 39.4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) AID FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT, OR...

  20. 38 CFR 39.4 - Decision makers, notifications, and additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Decision makers, notifications, and additional information. 39.4 Section 39.4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) AID FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT, OR...

  1. 30 CFR 250.418 - What additional information must I submit with my APD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Applying for A Permit to Drill § 250.418 What additional information must I submit with my APD? You must include the following with the APD: (a) Rated capacities of the drilling...

  2. 30 CFR 250.418 - What additional information must I submit with my APD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Applying for A Permit to Drill § 250.418 What additional information must I submit with my APD? You must include the following with the APD: (a) Rated capacities of the drilling...

  3. 30 CFR 250.418 - What additional information must I submit with my APD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Applying for A Permit to Drill § 250.418 What additional information must I submit with my APD? You must include the following with the APD: (a) Rated capacities of the drilling...

  4. 30 CFR 250.418 - What additional information must I submit with my APD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Applying for A Permit to Drill § 250.418 What additional information must I submit with my APD? You must include the following with the APD: (a) Rated capacities of the drilling rig and...

  5. 38 CFR 61.15 - Capital grants-obtaining additional information and awarding capital grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Capital grants-obtaining additional information and awarding capital grants. 61.15 Section 61.15 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VA HOMELESS PROVIDERS GRANT AND PER DIEM...

  6. 38 CFR 61.15 - Obtaining additional information and awarding capital grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Obtaining additional information and awarding capital grants. 61.15 Section 61.15 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VA HOMELESS PROVIDERS GRANT AND PER DIEM PROGRAM § 61.15...

  7. 38 CFR 61.15 - Obtaining additional information and awarding capital grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Obtaining additional information and awarding capital grants. 61.15 Section 61.15 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VA HOMELESS PROVIDERS GRANT AND PER DIEM PROGRAM § 61.15...

  8. 38 CFR 61.15 - Capital grants-obtaining additional information and awarding capital grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Capital grants-obtaining additional information and awarding capital grants. 61.15 Section 61.15 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VA HOMELESS PROVIDERS GRANT AND PER DIEM...

  9. 18 CFR 33.4 - Additional information requirements for applications involving vertical competitive impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional information... and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE... entities that provides inputs to electricity products and one or more merging entities that...

  10. 18 CFR 33.4 - Additional information requirements for applications involving vertical competitive impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Additional information... and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE... entities that provides inputs to electricity products and one or more merging entities that...

  11. 18 CFR 33.4 - Additional information requirements for applications involving vertical competitive impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional information... and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE... entities that provides inputs to electricity products and one or more merging entities that...

  12. Quantitative photoacoustic characterization of blood clot in blood: A mechanobiological assessment through spectral information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Deblina; Vasudevan, Srivathsan; Chen, George C. K.; Sharma, Norman

    2017-02-01

    Formation of blood clots, called thrombus, can happen due to hyper-coagulation of blood. Thrombi, while moving through blood vessels can impede blood flow, an important criterion for many critical diseases like deep vein thrombosis and heart attacks. Understanding mechanical properties of clot formation is vital for assessment of severity of thrombosis and proper treatment. However, biomechanics of thrombus is less known to clinicians and not very well investigated. Photoacoustic (PA) spectral response, a non-invasive technique, is proposed to investigate the mechanism of formation of blood clots through elasticity and also differentiate clots from blood. Distinct shift (increase in frequency) of the PA response dominant frequency during clot formation is reported. In addition, quantitative differentiation of blood clots from blood has been achieved through parameters like dominant frequency and spectral energy of PA spectral response. Nearly twofold increases in dominant frequency in blood clots compared to blood were found in the PA spectral response. Significant changes in energy also help in quantitatively differentiating clots from blood, in the blood. Our results reveal that increase in density during clot formation is reflected in the PA spectral response, a significant step towards understanding the mechanobiology of thrombus formation. Hence, the proposed tool, in addition to detecting thrombus formation, could reveal mechanical properties of the sample through quantitative photoacoustic spectral parameters.

  13. Oxygen octahedra picker: A software tool to extract quantitative information from STEM images.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Salzberger, Ute; Sigle, Wilfried; Eren Suyolcu, Y; van Aken, Peter A

    2016-09-01

    In perovskite oxide based materials and hetero-structures there are often strong correlations between oxygen octahedral distortions and functionality. Thus, atomistic understanding of the octahedral distortion, which requires accurate measurements of atomic column positions, will greatly help to engineer their properties. Here, we report the development of a software tool to extract quantitative information of the lattice and of BO6 octahedral distortions from STEM images. Center-of-mass and 2D Gaussian fitting methods are implemented to locate positions of individual atom columns. The precision of atomic column distance measurements is evaluated on both simulated and experimental images. The application of the software tool is demonstrated using practical examples.

  14. Quantitatively Mapping Cellular Viscosity with Detailed Organelle Information via a Designed PET Fluorescent Probe

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tianyu; Liu, Xiaogang; Spring, David R.; Qian, Xuhong; Cui, Jingnan; Xu, Zhaochao

    2014-01-01

    Viscosity is a fundamental physical parameter that influences diffusion in biological processes. The distribution of intracellular viscosity is highly heterogeneous, and it is challenging to obtain a full map of cellular viscosity with detailed organelle information. In this work, we report 1 as the first fluorescent viscosity probe which is able to quantitatively map cellular viscosity with detailed organelle information based on the PET mechanism. This probe exhibited a significant ratiometric fluorescence intensity enhancement as solvent viscosity increases. The emission intensity increase was attributed to combined effects of the inhibition of PET due to restricted conformational access (favorable for FRET, but not for PET), and the decreased PET efficiency caused by viscosity-dependent twisted intramolecular charge transfer (TICT). A full map of subcellular viscosity was successfully constructed via fluorescent ratiometric detection and fluorescence lifetime imaging; it was found that lysosomal regions in a cell possess the highest viscosity, followed by mitochondrial regions. PMID:24957323

  15. Quantitatively Mapping Cellular Viscosity with Detailed Organelle Information via a Designed PET Fluorescent Probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tianyu; Liu, Xiaogang; Spring, David R.; Qian, Xuhong; Cui, Jingnan; Xu, Zhaochao

    2014-06-01

    Viscosity is a fundamental physical parameter that influences diffusion in biological processes. The distribution of intracellular viscosity is highly heterogeneous, and it is challenging to obtain a full map of cellular viscosity with detailed organelle information. In this work, we report 1 as the first fluorescent viscosity probe which is able to quantitatively map cellular viscosity with detailed organelle information based on the PET mechanism. This probe exhibited a significant ratiometric fluorescence intensity enhancement as solvent viscosity increases. The emission intensity increase was attributed to combined effects of the inhibition of PET due to restricted conformational access (favorable for FRET, but not for PET), and the decreased PET efficiency caused by viscosity-dependent twisted intramolecular charge transfer (TICT). A full map of subcellular viscosity was successfully constructed via fluorescent ratiometric detection and fluorescence lifetime imaging; it was found that lysosomal regions in a cell possess the highest viscosity, followed by mitochondrial regions.

  16. Quantitative Analysis of Gender Stereotypes and Information Aggregation in a National Election

    PubMed Central

    Tumminello, Michele; Miccichè, Salvatore; Varho, Jan; Piilo, Jyrki; Mantegna, Rosario N.

    2013-01-01

    By analyzing a database of a questionnaire answered by a large majority of candidates and elected in a parliamentary election, we quantitatively verify that (i) female candidates on average present political profiles which are more compassionate and more concerned with social welfare issues than male candidates and (ii) the voting procedure acts as a process of information aggregation. Our results show that information aggregation proceeds with at least two distinct paths. In the first case candidates characterize themselves with a political profile aiming to describe the profile of the majority of voters. This is typically the case of candidates of political parties which are competing for the center of the various political dimensions. In the second case, candidates choose a political profile manifesting a clear difference from opposite political profiles endorsed by candidates of a political party positioned at the opposite extreme of some political dimension. PMID:23555606

  17. Bridging the pressure gap: Can we get local quantitative structural information at 'near-ambient' pressures?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodruff, D. P.

    2016-10-01

    In recent years there have been an increasing number of investigations aimed at 'bridging the pressure gap' between UHV surface science experiments on well-characterised single crystal surfaces and the much higher (ambient and above) pressures relevant to practical catalyst applications. By applying existing photon-in/photon-out methods and developing instrumentation to allow photoelectron emission to be measured in higher-pressure sample environments, it has proved possible to obtain surface compositions and spectroscopic fingerprinting of chemical and molecular states of adsorbed species at pressures up to a few millibars. None of these methods, however, provide quantitative structural information on the local adsorption sites of isolated atomic and molecular adsorbate species under these higher-pressure reaction conditions. Methods for gaining this information are reviewed and evaluated.

  18. Quantitatively mapping cellular viscosity with detailed organelle information via a designed PET fluorescent probe.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tianyu; Liu, Xiaogang; Spring, David R; Qian, Xuhong; Cui, Jingnan; Xu, Zhaochao

    2014-06-24

    Viscosity is a fundamental physical parameter that influences diffusion in biological processes. The distribution of intracellular viscosity is highly heterogeneous, and it is challenging to obtain a full map of cellular viscosity with detailed organelle information. In this work, we report 1 as the first fluorescent viscosity probe which is able to quantitatively map cellular viscosity with detailed organelle information based on the PET mechanism. This probe exhibited a significant ratiometric fluorescence intensity enhancement as solvent viscosity increases. The emission intensity increase was attributed to combined effects of the inhibition of PET due to restricted conformational access (favorable for FRET, but not for PET), and the decreased PET efficiency caused by viscosity-dependent twisted intramolecular charge transfer (TICT). A full map of subcellular viscosity was successfully constructed via fluorescent ratiometric detection and fluorescence lifetime imaging; it was found that lysosomal regions in a cell possess the highest viscosity, followed by mitochondrial regions.

  19. PAT-1 safety analysis report addendum author responses to request for additional information.

    SciTech Connect

    Weiner, Ruth F.; Schmale, David T.; Kalan, Robert J.; Akin, Lili A.; Miller, David Russell; Knorovsky, Gerald Albert; Yoshimura, Richard Hiroyuki; Lopez, Carlos; Harding, David Cameron; Jones, Perry L.; Morrow, Charles W.

    2010-09-01

    The Plutonium Air Transportable Package, Model PAT-1, is certified under Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations Part 71 by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) per Certificate of Compliance (CoC) USA/0361B(U)F-96 (currently Revision 9). The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) submitted SAND Report SAND2009-5822 to NRC that documented the incorporation of plutonium (Pu) metal as a new payload for the PAT-1 package. NRC responded with a Request for Additional Information (RAI), identifying information needed in connection with its review of the application. The purpose of this SAND report is to provide the authors responses to each RAI. SAND Report SAND2010-6106 containing the proposed changes to the Addendum is provided separately.

  20. 41 CFR 102-79.111 - Where may Executive agencies find additional information on Integrated Workplace concepts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... agencies find additional information on Integrated Workplace concepts? 102-79.111 Section 102-79.111 Public... Space Integrated Workplace § 102-79.111 Where may Executive agencies find additional information on Integrated Workplace concepts? The GSA Office of Governmentwide Policy provides additional guidance in...

  1. 41 CFR 102-79.111 - Where may Executive agencies find additional information on Integrated Workplace concepts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... agencies find additional information on Integrated Workplace concepts? 102-79.111 Section 102-79.111 Public... Space Integrated Workplace § 102-79.111 Where may Executive agencies find additional information on Integrated Workplace concepts? The GSA Office of Governmentwide Policy provides additional guidance in...

  2. 41 CFR 102-79.111 - Where may Executive agencies find additional information on Integrated Workplace concepts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... agencies find additional information on Integrated Workplace concepts? 102-79.111 Section 102-79.111 Public... Space Integrated Workplace § 102-79.111 Where may Executive agencies find additional information on Integrated Workplace concepts? The GSA Office of Governmentwide Policy provides additional guidance in...

  3. 41 CFR 102-79.111 - Where may Executive agencies find additional information on Integrated Workplace concepts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... agencies find additional information on Integrated Workplace concepts? 102-79.111 Section 102-79.111 Public... Space Integrated Workplace § 102-79.111 Where may Executive agencies find additional information on Integrated Workplace concepts? The GSA Office of Governmentwide Policy provides additional guidance in...

  4. Effect of mobile phase additives on qualitative and quantitative analysis of ginsenosides by liquid chromatography hybrid quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yan; Guan, Tianye; Zhou, Yuanyuan; Liu, Yanna; Xing, Lu; Zheng, Xiao; Dai, Chen; Du, Ping; Rao, Tai; Zhou, Lijun; Yu, Xiaoyi; Hao, Kun; Xie, Lin; Wang, Guangji

    2013-07-05

    This study was to systematically investigate the effect of mobile phase additives, including ammonia water, formic acid, acetic acid, ammonium chloride and water (as a control), on qualitative and quantitative analysis of fifteen representative ginsenosides based on liquid chromatography hybrid quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-Q-TOF/MS). To evaluate the influence of mobile phase additives on qualitative performance, the quality of the negative mode MS/MS spectra of ginsenosides produced by online LC-Q-TOF/MS analyses, particularly the numbers and intensities of fragment ions, were compared under different adduct ion states, and found to be strongly affected by the mobile phase additives. When 0.02% acetic acid was added in the mobile phase, the deprotonated ginsenosides ions produced the most abundant product ions, while almost no product ion was observed for the chlorinated ginsenoside ions when 0.1mM ammonium chloride was used as the mobile phase additive. On the other hand, sensitivity, linear range and precision were adopted to investigate the quantitative performance affected by different mobile phase additives. Validation results of the LC-Q-TOF/MS-based quantitative performance for ginsenosides showed that ammonium chloride not only provided the highest sensitivity for all the target analytes, but also dramatically improved the linear ranges, the intra-day and inter-day precisions comparing to the results obtained using other mobile phase additives. Importantly, the validated method, using 0.1mM ammonium chloride as the mobile phase additive, was successfully applied to the quantitative analysis of ginsenosides in rat plasma after intragastric administration of Ginsenoside Extract at 200mg/kg. In conclusion, 0.02% acetic acid was deemed to be the most suitable mobile phase additive for qualitative analysis of ginsenosides, and 0.1mM ammonium chloride in mobile phase could lead to the best quantitative performance. Our results reveal that

  5. Differentiation between Glioblastoma Multiforme and Primary Cerebral Lymphoma: Additional Benefits of Quantitative Diffusion-Weighted MR Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chien Feng; Chen, Tai Yuan; Shu, Ginger; Kuo, Yu Ting; Lee, Yu Chang

    2016-01-01

    The differentiation between glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and primary cerebral lymphoma (PCL) is important because the treatments are substantially different. The purpose of this article is to describe the MR imaging characteristics of GBM and PCL with emphasis on the quantitative ADC analysis in the tumor necrosis, the most strongly-enhanced tumor area, and the peritumoral edema. This retrospective cohort study collected 104 GBM (WHO grade IV) patients and 22 immune-competent PCL (diffuse large B cell lymphoma) patients. All these patients had pretreatment brain MR DWI and ADC imaging. Analysis of conventional MR imaging and quantitative ADC measurement including the tumor necrosis (ADCn), the most strongly-enhanced tumor area (ADCt), and the peritumoral edema (ADCe) were done. ROC analysis with optimal cut-off values and area-under-the ROC curve (AUC) was performed. For conventional MR imaging, there are statistical differences in tumor size, tumor location, tumor margin, and the presence of tumor necrosis between GBM and PCL. Quantitative ADC analysis shows that GBM tended to have significantly (P<0.05) higher ADC in the most strongly-enhanced area (ADCt) and lower ADC in the peritumoral edema (ADCe) as compared with PCL. Excellent AUC (0.94) with optimal sensitivity of 90% and specificity of 86% for differentiating between GBM and PCL was obtained by combination of ADC in the tumor necrosis (ADCn), the most strongly-enhanced tumor area (ADCt), and the peritumoral edema (ADCe). Besides, there are positive ADC gradients in the peritumoral edema in a subset of GBMs but not in the PCLs. Quantitative ADC analysis in these three areas can thus be implemented to improve diagnostic accuracy for these two brain tumor types. The histological correlation of the ADC difference deserves further investigation. PMID:27631626

  6. Emerging Technologies in the Built Environment: Geographic Information Science (GIS), 3D Printing, and Additive Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    New, Joshua Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract 1: Geographic information systems emerged as a computer application in the late 1960s, led in part by projects at ORNL. The concept of a GIS has shifted through time in response to new applications and new technologies, and is now part of a much larger world of geospatial technology. This presentation discusses the relationship of GIS and estimating hourly and seasonal energy consumption profiles in the building sector at spatial scales down to the individual parcel. The method combines annual building energy simulations for city-specific prototypical buildings and commonly available geospatial data in a GIS framework. Abstract 2: This presentation focuses on 3D printing technologies and how they have rapidly evolved over the past couple of years. At a basic level, 3D printing produces physical models quickly and easily from 3D CAD, BIM (Building Information Models), and other digital data. Many AEC firms have adopted 3D printing as part of commercial building design development and project delivery. This presentation includes an overview of 3D printing, discusses its current use in building design, and talks about its future in relation to the HVAC industry. Abstract 3: This presentation discusses additive manufacturing and how it is revolutionizing the design of commercial and residential facilities. Additive manufacturing utilizes a broad range of direct manufacturing technologies, including electron beam melting, ultrasonic, extrusion, and laser metal deposition for rapid prototyping. While there is some overlap with the 3D printing talk, this presentation focuses on the materials aspect of additive manufacturing and also some of the more advanced technologies involved with rapid prototyping. These technologies include design of carbon fiber composites, lightweight metals processing, transient field processing, and more.

  7. Prepositioned Stocks: Additional Information and a Consistent Definition Would Make DOD’s Annual Report More Useful

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    PREPOSITIONED STOCKS Additional Information and a Consistent Definition Would Make DOD’s Annual Report More Useful...COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Prepositioned Stocks: Additional Information and a Consistent Definition Would Make DOD’s...STOCKS Additional Information and a Consistent Definition Would Make DOD’s Annual Report More Useful Why GAO Did This Study DOD prepositions stocks

  8. The Visual Display of Quantitative Information; Envisioning Information; Visual Explanations: Images and Quantities, Evidence and Narrative (by Edward R. Tufte)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Harold H.

    1999-02-01

    The Visual Display of Quantitative Information Edward R. Tufte. Graphics Press: Cheshire, CT, 1983. 195 pp. ISBN 0-961-39210-X. 40.00. Envisioning Information Edward R. Tufte. Graphics Press: Cheshire, CT, 1990. 126 pp. ISBN 0-961-39211-8. 48.00. Visual Explanations: Images and Quantities, Evidence and Narrative Edward R. Tufte. Graphics Press: Cheshire, CT, 1997. 156 pp. ISBN 0-9613921-2-6. $45.00. Visual Explanations: Images and Quantities, Evidence and Narrative is the most recent of three books by Edward R. Tufte about the expression of information through graphs, charts, maps, and images. The most important of all the practical advice in these books is found on the first page of the first book, The Visual Display of Quantitative Information. Quantitative graphics should:

    Show the data Induce the viewer to think about the substance rather than the graphical design Avoid distorting what the data have to say Present many numbers in a small space Make large data sets coherent Encourage the eye to compare data Reveal the data at several levels of detail Serve a clear purpose: description, exploration, tabulation, or decoration Be closely integrated with the statistical and verbal descriptions of a data set
    Tufte illustrates these principles through all three books, going to extremes in the care with which he presents examples, both good and bad. He has designed the books so that the reader almost never has to turn a page to see the image, graph, or table that is being described in the text. The books are set in Monotype Bembo, a lead typeface designed so that smaller sizes open the surrounding white space, producing a pleasing balance. Some of the colored pages were put through more than 20 printing steps in order to render the subtle shadings required. The books are printed on heavy paper stock, and the fact that contributing artists, the typeface, the printing company, and the bindery are all credited on one of the back flyleaves is one

  9. How predictive quantitative modelling of tissue organisation can inform liver disease pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Drasdo, Dirk; Hoehme, Stefan; Hengstler, Jan G

    2014-10-01

    From the more than 100 liver diseases described, many of those with high incidence rates manifest themselves by histopathological changes, such as hepatitis, alcoholic liver disease, fatty liver disease, fibrosis, and, in its later stages, cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, primary biliary cirrhosis and other disorders. Studies of disease pathogeneses are largely based on integrating -omics data pooled from cells at different locations with spatial information from stained liver structures in animal models. Even though this has led to significant insights, the complexity of interactions as well as the involvement of processes at many different time and length scales constrains the possibility to condense disease processes in illustrations, schemes and tables. The combination of modern imaging modalities with image processing and analysis, and mathematical models opens up a promising new approach towards a quantitative understanding of pathologies and of disease processes. This strategy is discussed for two examples, ammonia metabolism after drug-induced acute liver damage, and the recovery of liver mass as well as architecture during the subsequent regeneration process. This interdisciplinary approach permits integration of biological mechanisms and models of processes contributing to disease progression at various scales into mathematical models. These can be used to perform in silico simulations to promote unravelling the relation between architecture and function as below illustrated for liver regeneration, and bridging from the in vitro situation and animal models to humans. In the near future novel mechanisms will usually not be directly elucidated by modelling. However, models will falsify hypotheses and guide towards the most informative experimental design.

  10. Research in health sciences library and information science: a quantitative analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Dimitroff, A

    1992-01-01

    A content analysis of research articles published between 1966 and 1990 in the Bulletin of the Medical Library Association was undertaken. Four specific questions were addressed: What subjects are of interest to health sciences librarians? Who is conducting this research? How do health sciences librarians conduct their research? Do health sciences librarians obtain funding for their research activities? Bibliometric characteristics of the research articles are described and compared to characteristics of research in library and information science as a whole in terms of subject and methodology. General findings were that most research in health sciences librarianship is conducted by librarians affiliated with academic health sciences libraries (51.8%); most deals with an applied (45.7%) or a theoretical (29.2%) topic; survey (41.0%) or observational (20.7%) research methodologies are used; descriptive quantitative analytical techniques are used (83.5%); and over 25% of research is funded. The average number of authors was 1.85, average article length was 7.25 pages, and average number of citations per article was 9.23. These findings are consistent with those reported in the general library and information science literature for the most part, although specific differences do exist in methodological and analytical areas. PMID:1422504

  11. Research in health sciences library and information science: a quantitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Dimitroff, A

    1992-10-01

    A content analysis of research articles published between 1966 and 1990 in the Bulletin of the Medical Library Association was undertaken. Four specific questions were addressed: What subjects are of interest to health sciences librarians? Who is conducting this research? How do health sciences librarians conduct their research? Do health sciences librarians obtain funding for their research activities? Bibliometric characteristics of the research articles are described and compared to characteristics of research in library and information science as a whole in terms of subject and methodology. General findings were that most research in health sciences librarianship is conducted by librarians affiliated with academic health sciences libraries (51.8%); most deals with an applied (45.7%) or a theoretical (29.2%) topic; survey (41.0%) or observational (20.7%) research methodologies are used; descriptive quantitative analytical techniques are used (83.5%); and over 25% of research is funded. The average number of authors was 1.85, average article length was 7.25 pages, and average number of citations per article was 9.23. These findings are consistent with those reported in the general library and information science literature for the most part, although specific differences do exist in methodological and analytical areas.

  12. Understanding the information needs of people with haematological cancers. A meta-ethnography of quantitative and qualitative research.

    PubMed

    Atherton, K; Young, B; Salmon, P

    2017-02-10

    Clinical practice in haematological oncology often involves difficult diagnostic and treatment decisions. In this context, understanding patients' information needs and the functions that information serves for them is particularly important. We systematically reviewed qualitative and quantitative evidence on haematological oncology patients' information needs to inform how these needs can best be addressed in clinical practice. PsycINFO, Medline and CINAHL Plus electronic databases were searched for relevant empirical papers published from January 2003 to July 2016. Synthesis of the findings drew on meta-ethnography and meta-study. Most quantitative studies used a survey design and indicated that patients are largely content with the information they receive from physicians, however much or little they actually receive, although a minority of patients are not content with information. Qualitative studies suggest that a sense of being in a caring relationship with a physician allows patients to feel content with the information they have been given, whereas patients who lack such a relationship want more information. The qualitative evidence can help explain the lack of association between the amount of information received and contentment with it in the quantitative research. Trusting relationships are integral to helping patients feel that their information needs have been met.

  13. 77 FR 31068 - Additional Identifying Information Associated With Persons Whose Property and Interests in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ... Information Technology AGENCY: Office of Foreign Assets Control, Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... Technology,'' whose property and interests in property are blocked. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT... Information Technology,'' (the ``Order'') pursuant to, inter alia, the International Emergency Economic...

  14. A Quantitative Study of the Resultant Differences between Additive Practices and Reductive Practices in Data Requirements Gathering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    With the increase in technology in all facets of our lives and work, there is an ever increasing set of expectations that people have regarding information availability, response time, and dependability. While expectations are affected by gender, age, experience, industry, and other factors, people have expectations of technology, and from…

  15. Quantitative First-Principles Kinetic Modeling of the Aza-Michael Addition to Acrylates in Polar Aprotic Solvents.

    PubMed

    Desmet, Gilles B; D'hooge, Dagmar R; Omurtag, Pinar Sinem; Espeel, Pieter; Marin, Guy B; Du Prez, Filip E; Reyniers, Marie-Françoise

    2016-12-16

    This work presents a detailed computational study and kinetic analysis of the aza-Michael addition of primary and secondary amines to acrylates in an aprotic solvent. Accurate rate coefficients for all elementary steps in the various competing mechanisms are calculated using an ONIOM-based approach in which the full system is calculated with M06-2X/6-311+G(d,p) and the core system with CBS-QB3 corrected for solvation using COSMO-RS. Diffusional contributions are taken into account using the coupled encounter pair model with diffusion coefficients calculated based on molecular dynamics simulations. The calculated thermodynamic and kinetic parameters for all forward and reverse elementary reactions are fed to a microkinetic model giving excellent agreement with experimental data obtained using GC analysis. Rate analysis reveals that for primary and secondary amines, the aza-Michael addition to ethyl acrylate occurs preferentially according to a 1,2-addition mechanism, consisting of the pseudoequilibrated formation of a zwitterion followed by a rate controlling amine assisted proton transfer toward the singly substituted product. The alternative 1,4-addition becomes competitive if substituents are present on the amine or double bond of the acrylate. Primary amines react faster than secondary amines due to increased solvation of the zwitterionic intermediate and less sterically hindered proton transfer.

  16. 77 FR 67655 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Food Additive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-13

    ...) Moderate Category: For a food additive petition without complex chemistry, manufacturing, efficacy, or...) Complex Category: For a food additive petition with complex chemistry, manufacturing, efficacy, and/or... investigational food additive file without complex chemistry, manufacturing, efficacy, or safety issues,...

  17. Systematics of the family Plectopylidae in Vietnam with additional information on Chinese taxa (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Stylommatophora)

    PubMed Central

    Páll-Gergely, Barna; Hunyadi, András; Ablett, Jonathan; Lương, Hào Văn; Fred Naggs; Asami, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Vietnamese species from the family Plectopylidae are revised based on the type specimens of all known taxa, more than 600 historical non-type museum lots, and almost 200 newly-collected samples. Altogether more than 7000 specimens were investigated. The revision has revealed that species diversity of the Vietnamese Plectopylidae was previously overestimated. Overall, thirteen species names (anterides Gude, 1909, bavayi Gude, 1901, congesta Gude, 1898, fallax Gude, 1909, gouldingi Gude, 1909, hirsuta Möllendorff, 1901, jovia Mabille, 1887, moellendorffi Gude, 1901, persimilis Gude, 1901, pilsbryana Gude, 1901, soror Gude, 1908, tenuis Gude, 1901, verecunda Gude, 1909) were synonymised with other species. In addition to these, Gudeodiscus hemmeni sp. n. and Gudeodiscus messageri raheemi ssp. n. are described from north-western Vietnam. Sixteen species and two subspecies are recognized from Vietnam. The reproductive anatomy of eight taxa is described. Based on anatomical information, Halongella gen. n. is erected to include Plectopylis schlumbergeri and Plectopylis fruhstorferi. Additionally, the genus Gudeodiscus is subdivided into two subgenera (Gudeodiscus and Veludiscus subgen. n.) on the basis of the morphology of the reproductive anatomy and the radula. The Chinese Gudeodiscus phlyarius werneri Páll-Gergely, 2013 is moved to synonymy of Gudeodiscus phlyarius. A spermatophore was found in the organ situated next to the gametolytic sac in one specimen. This suggests that this organ in the Plectopylidae is a diverticulum. Statistically significant evidence is presented for the presence of calcareous hook-like granules inside the penis being associated with the absence of embryos in the uterus in four genera. This suggests that these probably play a role in mating periods before disappearing when embryos develop. Sicradiscus mansuyi is reported from China for the first time. PMID:25632253

  18. 75 FR 78950 - Availability of Additional Information for the Proposed Rulemaking for Colorado's Attainment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    ... provided, unless the comment includes information claimed to be Confidential Business Information (CBI) or... contact information unless you provide it in the body of your comment. If you send an e-mail comment... information in the body of your comment and with any disk or CD-ROM you submit. If EPA cannot read...

  19. Additional information is not ignored: New evidence for information integration and inhibition in take-the-best decisions.

    PubMed

    Dummel, Sebastian; Rummel, Jan; Voss, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Ignoring information when making a decision is at the heart of the take-the-best (TTB) strategy, according to which decision makers only consider information about the most valid cue (TTB-relevant) and ignore less valid cues (TTB-irrelevant). Results of four experiments, however, show that participants do not ignore information when cues are easily available (Experiments 1a, 1b, and 3) or when task instructions emphasize decision accuracy (Experiment 2). In all four experiments we found that the consistency between the TTB-relevant cue and a supposedly TTB-irrelevant cue systematically affected decision times and confidence ratings of even those participants whose choices were consistently driven by only the TTB-relevant cue. In Experiments 1a and 1b, we also found that these participants were more likely to ignore information when cues had to be acquired sequentially, suggesting that whether or not participants ignore information depends on information availability. Experiment 2 further showed that different task instructions (emphasizing decision accuracy vs. speed) affect whether or not participants ignore information. Finally, Experiment 3 addressed the question of how participants process information that, according to TTB, is considered irrelevant for their choices. We find first evidence that participants who consistently make choices in line with TTB inhibit information about a TTB-irrelevant cue when this information conflicts with their decisions. Findings are considered and discussed in relation to current models of decision making.

  20. Evaluation of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as a mobile phase additive during top 3 label-free quantitative proteomics.

    PubMed

    Strzelecka, Dominika; Holman, Stephen W; Eyers, Claire E

    2015-11-30

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) has been advocated as a beneficial additive to electrospray solvents for peptide analysis due to the improved ionisation efficiency conferred. Previous reports have shown that the resultant improvements in peptide ion signal intensities are non-uniform. As a result, it was hypothesised that inclusion of DMSO in electrospray solvents could be detrimental to the outcome of intensity-based label-free absolute quantification approaches, specifically the top 3 method. The effect of DMSO as a mobile phase additive in top 3 label-free quantification was therefore evaluated. We show that inclusion of DMSO enhances data quality, improving the precision and number of proteins quantified, with no significant change to the quantification values observed in its absence.

  1. 40 CFR 79.21 - Information and assurances to be provided by the additive manufacturer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGISTRATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Additive... application for registration submitted by the manufacturer of a designated fuel additive shall include the..., percentage by weight, and method of analysis of each element in the additive are required provided,...

  2. Quantitative mass spectrometric analysis of dipeptides in protein hydrolysate by a TNBS derivatization-aided standard addition method.

    PubMed

    Hanh, Vu Thi; Kobayashi, Yutaro; Maebuchi, Motohiro; Nakamori, Toshihiro; Tanaka, Mitsuru; Matsui, Toshiro

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish, through a standard addition method, a convenient quantification assay for dipeptides (GY, YG, SY, YS, and IY) in soybean hydrolysate using 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonate (TNBS) derivatization-aided LC-TOF-MS. Soybean hydrolysate samples (25.0 mg mL(-1)) spiked with target standards were subjected to TNBS derivatization. Under the optimal LC-MS conditions, five target dipeptides derivatized with TNBS were successfully detected. Examination of the standard addition curves, with a correlation coefficient of r(2) > 0.979, provided a reliable quantification of the target dipeptides, GY, YG, SY, YS, and IY, in soybean hydrolysate to be 424 ± 20, 184 ± 9, 2188 ± 199, 327 ± 16, and 2211 ± 133 μg g(-1) of hydrolysate, respectively. The proposed LC-MS assay is a reliable and convenient assay method, with no interference from matrix effects in hydrolysate, and with no requirement for the use of an isotope labeled internal standard.

  3. Towards a Quantitative Performance Measurement Framework to Assess the Impact of Geographic Information Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandenbroucke, D.; Van Orshoven, J.; Vancauwenberghe, G.

    2012-12-01

    Over the last decennia, the use of Geographic Information (GI) has gained importance, in public as well as in private sector. But even if many spatial data and related information exist, data sets are scattered over many organizations and departments. In practice it remains difficult to find the spatial data sets needed, and to access, obtain and prepare them for using in applications. Therefore Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDI) haven been developed to enhance the access, the use and sharing of GI. SDIs consist of a set of technological and non-technological components to reach this goal. Since the nineties many SDI initiatives saw light. Ultimately, all these initiatives aim to enhance the flow of spatial data between organizations (users as well as producers) involved in intra- and inter-organizational and even cross-country business processes. However, the flow of information and its re-use in different business processes requires technical and semantic interoperability: the first should guarantee that system components can interoperate and use the data, while the second should guarantee that data content is understood by all users in the same way. GI-standards within the SDI are necessary to make this happen. However, it is not known if this is realized in practice. Therefore the objective of the research is to develop a quantitative framework to assess the impact of GI-standards on the performance of business processes. For that purpose, indicators are defined and tested in several cases throughout Europe. The proposed research will build upon previous work carried out in the SPATIALIST project. It analyzed the impact of different technological and non-technological factors on the SDI-performance of business processes (Dessers et al., 2011). The current research aims to apply quantitative performance measurement techniques - which are frequently used to measure performance of production processes (Anupindi et al., 2005). Key to reach the research objectives

  4. 40 CFR 79.21 - Information and assurances to be provided by the additive manufacturer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... fuel additive will be sold, offered for sale, or introduced into commerce, and the fuel additive manufacturer's recommended range of concentration and purpose-in-use for each such type of fuel. (e) Such other... (e) of this section as provided in § 79.5(b). (g) Assurances that the additive manufacturer will...

  5. Post-reconstruction non-local means filtering methods using CT side information for quantitative SPECT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, Se Young; Fessler, Jeffrey A.; Dewaraja, Yuni K.

    2013-09-01

    Quantitative SPECT techniques are important for many applications including internal emitter therapy dosimetry where accurate estimation of total target activity and activity distribution within targets are both potentially important for dose-response evaluations. We investigated non-local means (NLM) post-reconstruction filtering for accurate I-131 SPECT estimation of both total target activity and the 3D activity distribution. We first investigated activity estimation versus number of ordered-subsets expectation-maximization (OSEM) iterations. We performed simulations using the XCAT phantom with tumors containing a uniform and a non-uniform activity distribution, and measured the recovery coefficient (RC) and the root mean squared error (RMSE) to quantify total target activity and activity distribution, respectively. We observed that using more OSEM iterations is essential for accurate estimation of RC, but may or may not improve RMSE. We then investigated various post-reconstruction filtering methods to suppress noise at high iteration while preserving image details so that both RC and RMSE can be improved. Recently, NLM filtering methods have shown promising results for noise reduction. Moreover, NLM methods using high-quality side information can improve image quality further. We investigated several NLM methods with and without CT side information for I-131 SPECT imaging and compared them to conventional Gaussian filtering and to unfiltered methods. We studied four different ways of incorporating CT information in the NLM methods: two known (NLM CT-B and NLM CT-M) and two newly considered (NLM CT-S and NLM CT-H). We also evaluated the robustness of NLM filtering using CT information to erroneous CT. NLM CT-S and NLM CT-H yielded comparable RC values to unfiltered images while substantially reducing RMSE. NLM CT-S achieved -2.7 to 2.6% increase of RC compared to no filtering and NLM CT-H yielded up to 6% decrease in RC while other methods yielded lower RCs

  6. Post-reconstruction non-local means filtering methods using CT side information for quantitative SPECT.

    PubMed

    Chun, Se Young; Fessler, Jeffrey A; Dewaraja, Yuni K

    2013-09-07

    Quantitative SPECT techniques are important for many applications including internal emitter therapy dosimetry where accurate estimation of total target activity and activity distribution within targets are both potentially important for dose–response evaluations. We investigated non-local means (NLM) post-reconstruction filtering for accurate I-131 SPECT estimation of both total target activity and the 3D activity distribution. We first investigated activity estimation versus number of ordered-subsets expectation–maximization (OSEM) iterations. We performed simulations using the XCAT phantom with tumors containing a uniform and a non-uniform activity distribution, and measured the recovery coefficient (RC) and the root mean squared error (RMSE) to quantify total target activity and activity distribution, respectively. We observed that using more OSEM iterations is essential for accurate estimation of RC, but may or may not improve RMSE. We then investigated various post-reconstruction filtering methods to suppress noise at high iteration while preserving image details so that both RC and RMSE can be improved. Recently, NLM filtering methods have shown promising results for noise reduction. Moreover, NLM methods using high-quality side information can improve image quality further. We investigated several NLM methods with and without CT side information for I-131 SPECT imaging and compared them to conventional Gaussian filtering and to unfiltered methods. We studied four different ways of incorporating CT information in the NLM methods: two known (NLM CT-B and NLM CT-M) and two newly considered (NLM CT-S and NLM CT-H). We also evaluated the robustness of NLM filtering using CT information to erroneous CT. NLM CT-S and NLM CT-H yielded comparable RC values to unfiltered images while substantially reducing RMSE. NLM CT-S achieved −2.7 to 2.6% increase of RC compared to no filtering and NLM CT-H yielded up to 6% decrease in RC while other methods yielded lower

  7. 36 CFR 1290.2 - Scope of additional records and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... describe the agency's: (1) Records policies and schedules; (2) Filing systems and organization; (3) Storage... Act; and (6) Reclassification to a higher level, transfer, destruction, or other information...

  8. 41 CFR 102-75.140 - In addition to the title report, and all necessary environmental information and certifications...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 102-75.140 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false In addition to the title report, and all necessary environmental information and certifications, what information must...

  9. 14 CFR 121.317 - Passenger information requirements, smoking prohibitions, and additional seat belt requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Passenger information requirements, smoking... OPERATIONS Instrument and Equipment Requirements § 121.317 Passenger information requirements, smoking... command. (c) No person may operate an airplane on a flight on which smoking is prohibited by part 252...

  10. 14 CFR 121.317 - Passenger information requirements, smoking prohibitions, and additional seat belt requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Passenger information requirements, smoking... OPERATIONS Instrument and Equipment Requirements § 121.317 Passenger information requirements, smoking... command. (c) No person may operate an airplane on a flight on which smoking is prohibited by part 252...

  11. 14 CFR 121.317 - Passenger information requirements, smoking prohibitions, and additional seat belt requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... prohibitions, and additional seat belt requirements. 121.317 Section 121.317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... prohibitions, and additional seat belt requirements. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (l) of this section... paragraph (l) of this section, the “Fasten Seat Belt” sign shall be turned on during any movement on...

  12. 14 CFR 121.317 - Passenger information requirements, smoking prohibitions, and additional seat belt requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... prohibitions, and additional seat belt requirements. 121.317 Section 121.317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... prohibitions, and additional seat belt requirements. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (l) of this section... paragraph (l) of this section, the “Fasten Seat Belt” sign shall be turned on during any movement on...

  13. 36 CFR 1290.2 - Scope of additional records and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PRESIDENT JOHN F. KENNEDY ASSASSINATION RECORDS COLLECTION ACT OF 1992 (JFK ACT) § 1290.2 Scope of... Act; and (6) Reclassification to a higher level, transfer, destruction, or other information...

  14. 21 CFR 803.12 - Where and how do I submit reports and additional information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES MEDICAL DEVICE REPORTING General Provisions § 803.12 Where and how do... information required under this part to FDA, CDRH, Medical Device Reporting, P.O. Box 3002, Rockville,...

  15. 21 CFR 803.12 - Where and how do I submit reports and additional information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES MEDICAL DEVICE REPORTING General Provisions § 803.12 Where and how do... information required under this part to FDA, CDRH, Medical Device Reporting, P.O. Box 3002, Rockville,...

  16. 21 CFR 71.15 - Confidentiality of data and information in color additive petitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... has been abandoned and they no longer represent a trade secret or confidential commercial or financial... studies and tests of a color additive on animals and humans and all studies and tests on a color...

  17. 21 CFR 71.15 - Confidentiality of data and information in color additive petitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... has been abandoned and they no longer represent a trade secret or confidential commercial or financial... studies and tests of a color additive on animals and humans and all studies and tests on a color...

  18. 21 CFR 71.15 - Confidentiality of data and information in color additive petitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... established in § 20.61 of this chapter. (6) All records showing the Food and Drug Administration's testing of... studies and tests of a color additive on animals and humans and all studies and tests on a color...

  19. Twenty-five additional cases of trisomy 9 mosaic: Birth information, medical conditions, and developmental status.

    PubMed

    Bruns, Deborah A; Campbell, Emily

    2015-05-01

    Limited literature exists on children and adults diagnosed with the mosaic form of trisomy 9. Data from the Tracking Rare Incidence Syndromes (TRIS) project has provided physical characteristics and medical conditions for 14 individuals. This article provides TRIS Survey results of 25 additional cases at two data points (birth and survey completion) as well as developmental status. Results confirmed a number of phenotypic features and medical conditions. In addition, a number of cardiac anomalies were reported along with feeding and respiratory difficulties in the immediate postnatal period. In addition, developmental status data indicated a range in functioning level up to skills in the 36 and 48-month range. Strengths were also noted across the sample in language and communication, fine motor and social-emotional development. Implications for professionals caring for children with this genetic condition are offered.

  20. 21 CFR 803.12 - Where and how do I submit reports and additional information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... information? 803.12 Section 803.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... health emergency, this can be brought to FDA's attention by contacting the FDA Office of Emergency Operations (HFA-615), Office of Crisis Management, Office of the Commissioner, at 301-443-1240, followed...

  1. 14 CFR 121.317 - Passenger information requirements, smoking prohibitions, and additional seat belt requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... lavatory a sign or placard that reads: “Federal law provides for a penalty of up to $2,000 for tampering..., no person may operate an airplane unless it is equipped with passenger information signs that meet... signs must be constructed so that the crewmembers can turn them on and off. (b) Except as provided...

  2. 49 CFR 40.331 - To what additional parties must employers and service agents release information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Confidentiality and... information about that employee's drug or alcohol tests to an identified person, you must provide the... for this part and DOT agency drug and alcohol program functions. (2) All written, printed,...

  3. Software for Information Storage and Retrieval Tested, Evaluated and Compared: Part VI--Various Additional Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sieverts, Eric G.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Reports on tests evaluating nine microcomputer software packages designed for information storage and retrieval: BRS-Search, dtSearch, InfoBank, Micro-OPC, Q&A, STN-PFS, Strix, TINman, and ZYindex. Tables and narrative evaluations detail results related to security, hardware, user features, search capability, indexing, input, maintenance of files,…

  4. 13 CFR 126.403 - May SBA require additional information from a HUBZone SBC?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... information from a HUBZone SBC? 126.403 Section 126.403 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS... HUBZone SBC? (a) At the discretion of the D/HUB, SBA has the right to require that a HUBZone SBC submit... adverse inference from the failure of a HUBZone SBC to cooperate with a program examination or...

  5. 29 CFR 2590.702-1 - Additional requirements prohibiting discrimination based on genetic information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... diabetes. A begins to experience excessive sweating, thirst, and fatigue. A's physician examines A and... adult onset diabetes mellitus (Type 2 diabetes). (ii) Conclusion. In this Example 1, A has been... involved. The diagnosis is not based principally on genetic information. Thus, Type 2 diabetes...

  6. 45 CFR 146.122 - Additional requirements prohibiting discrimination based on genetic information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... diabetes. A begins to experience excessive sweating, thirst, and fatigue. A's physician examines A and... adult onset diabetes mellitus (Type 2 diabetes). (ii) Conclusion. In this Example 1, A has been... involved. The diagnosis is not based principally on genetic information. Thus, Type 2 diabetes...

  7. The state of RT-quantitative PCR: firsthand observations of implementation of minimum information for the publication of quantitative real-time PCR experiments (MIQE).

    PubMed

    Taylor, Sean C; Mrkusich, Eli M

    2014-01-01

    In the past decade, the techniques of quantitative PCR (qPCR) and reverse transcription (RT)-qPCR have become accessible to virtually all research labs, producing valuable data for peer-reviewed publications and supporting exciting research conclusions. However, the experimental design and validation processes applied to the associated projects are the result of historical biases adopted by individual labs that have evolved and changed since the inception of the techniques and associated technologies. This has resulted in wide variability in the quality, reproducibility and interpretability of published data as a direct result of how each lab has designed their RT-qPCR experiments. The 'minimum information for the publication of quantitative real-time PCR experiments' (MIQE) was published to provide the scientific community with a consistent workflow and key considerations to perform qPCR experiments. We use specific examples to highlight the serious negative ramifications for data quality when the MIQE guidelines are not applied and include a summary of good and poor practices for RT-qPCR.

  8. Quantitative X-ray mapping, scatter diagrams and the generation of correction maps to obtain more information about your material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuhrer, R.; Moran, K.

    2014-03-01

    Quantitative X-ray mapping with silicon drift detectors and multi-EDS detector systems have become an invaluable analysis technique and one of the most useful methods of X-ray microanalysis today. The time to perform an X-ray map has reduced considerably with the ability to map minor and trace elements very accurately due to the larger detector area and higher count rate detectors. Live X-ray imaging can now be performed with a significant amount of data collected in a matter of minutes. A great deal of information can be obtained from X-ray maps. This includes; elemental relationship or scatter diagram creation, elemental ratio mapping, chemical phase mapping (CPM) and quantitative X-ray maps. In obtaining quantitative x-ray maps, we are able to easily generate atomic number (Z), absorption (A), fluorescence (F), theoretical back scatter coefficient (η), and quantitative total maps from each pixel in the image. This allows us to generate an image corresponding to each factor (for each element present). These images allow the user to predict and verify where they are likely to have problems in our images, and are especially helpful to look at possible interface artefacts. The post-processing techniques to improve the quantitation of X-ray map data and the development of post processing techniques for improved characterisation are covered in this paper.

  9. 10 CFR 52.80 - Contents of applications; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... 52.80 Section 52.80 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.80 Contents of applications; additional technical... the circumstances associated with the loss of large areas of the plant due to explosions or fire...

  10. 10 CFR 52.80 - Contents of applications; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... 52.80 Section 52.80 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.80 Contents of applications; additional technical... the circumstances associated with the loss of large areas of the plant due to explosions or fire...

  11. 10 CFR 52.80 - Contents of applications; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... 52.80 Section 52.80 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.80 Contents of applications; additional technical... the circumstances associated with the loss of large areas of the plant due to explosions or fire...

  12. 10 CFR 52.80 - Contents of applications; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... 52.80 Section 52.80 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.80 Contents of applications; additional technical... the circumstances associated with the loss of large areas of the plant due to explosions or fire...

  13. 10 CFR 52.80 - Contents of applications; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... 52.80 Section 52.80 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.80 Contents of applications; additional technical... the circumstances associated with the loss of large areas of the plant due to explosions or fire...

  14. Facing Facts: Can the Face-Name Mnemonic Strategy Accommodate Additional Factual Information?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carney, Russell N.; Levin, Joel R.

    2012-01-01

    In 3 experiments, undergraduates used their own best method (control) or an "imposed" face-name mnemonic strategy to associate 18 caricatured faces, names, and additional facts. On all immediate tests (prompted by the faces), and on the delayed tests of Experiments 2a and 2b combined, mnemonic students statistically outperformed control students…

  15. 40 CFR 79.21 - Information and assurances to be provided by the additive manufacturer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... will be accepted in lieu thereof; (2) In the case of an additive for engine oil, only the name..., that a percentage figure combining the percentages of carbon, hydrogen, and/or oxygen may be provided... any 1975 or subsequent model year vehicle or engine, or that the manufacturer has obtained a...

  16. 40 CFR 79.21 - Information and assurances to be provided by the additive manufacturer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... will be accepted in lieu thereof; (2) In the case of an additive for engine oil, only the name..., that a percentage figure combining the percentages of carbon, hydrogen, and/or oxygen may be provided... any 1975 or subsequent model year vehicle or engine, or that the manufacturer has obtained a...

  17. 40 CFR 79.21 - Information and assurances to be provided by the additive manufacturer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... will be accepted in lieu thereof; (2) In the case of an additive for engine oil, only the name..., that a percentage figure combining the percentages of carbon, hydrogen, and/or oxygen may be provided... any 1975 or subsequent model year vehicle or engine, or that the manufacturer has obtained a...

  18. 77 FR 58911 - Additional Identifying Information for One (1) Individual Designated Pursuant to Executive Order...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-24

    ... Threaten to Disrupt the Middle East Peace Process'' (the ``Order''). DATES: The addition by the Director of... sanctions on persons who threaten to disrupt the Middle East peace process. The President identified in the... Middle East peace ] process; or (2) assist in, sponsor, or provide financial, material, or...

  19. Standard Addition Quantitative Real-Time PCR (SAQPCR): A Novel Approach for Determination of Transgene Copy Number Avoiding PCR Efficiency Estimation

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Changqing; Wang, Weiwei; Grierson, Donald; Xu, Changjie; Chen, Kunsong

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) has been previously applied to estimate transgene copy number in transgenic plants. However, the results can be erroneous owing to inaccurate estimation of PCR efficiency. Here, a novel qPCR approach, named standard addition qPCR (SAQPCR), was devised to accurately determine transgene copy number without the necessity of obtaining PCR efficiency data. The procedures and the mathematical basis for the approach are described. A recombinant plasmid harboring both the internal reference gene and the integrated target gene was constructed to serve as the standard DNA. It was found that addition of suitable amounts of standard DNA to test samples did not affect PCR efficiency, and the guidance for selection of suitable cycle numbers for analysis was established. Samples from six individual T0 tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants were analyzed by SAQPCR, and the results confirmed by Southern blot analysis. The approach produced accurate results and required only small amounts of plant tissue. It can be generally applied to analysis of different plants and transgenes. In addition, it can also be applied to zygosity analysis. PMID:23308234

  20. Extracting quantitative information from single-molecule super-resolution imaging data with LAMA – LocAlization Microscopy Analyzer

    PubMed Central

    Malkusch, Sebastian; Heilemann, Mike

    2016-01-01

    Super-resolution fluorescence microscopy revolutionizes cell biology research and provides novel insights on how proteins are organized at the nanoscale and in the cellular context. In order to extract a maximum of information, specialized tools for image analysis are necessary. Here, we introduce the LocAlization Microscopy Analyzer (LAMA), a comprehensive software tool that extracts quantitative information from single-molecule super-resolution imaging data. LAMA allows characterizing cellular structures by their size, shape, intensity, distribution, as well as the degree of colocalization with other structures. LAMA is freely available, platform-independent and designed to provide direct access to individual analysis of super-resolution data. PMID:27703238

  1. Extracting quantitative information from single-molecule super-resolution imaging data with LAMA – LocAlization Microscopy Analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malkusch, Sebastian; Heilemann, Mike

    2016-10-01

    Super-resolution fluorescence microscopy revolutionizes cell biology research and provides novel insights on how proteins are organized at the nanoscale and in the cellular context. In order to extract a maximum of information, specialized tools for image analysis are necessary. Here, we introduce the LocAlization Microscopy Analyzer (LAMA), a comprehensive software tool that extracts quantitative information from single-molecule super-resolution imaging data. LAMA allows characterizing cellular structures by their size, shape, intensity, distribution, as well as the degree of colocalization with other structures. LAMA is freely available, platform-independent and designed to provide direct access to individual analysis of super-resolution data.

  2. Breath-hold and free-breathing F-18-FDG-PET/CT in malignant melanoma—detection of additional tumoral foci and effects on quantitative parameters

    PubMed Central

    Bärwolf, Robert; Zirnsak, Mariana; Freesmeyer, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Abstract During PET/CT acquisition, respiratory motion generates artifacts in the form of breath-related blurring, which may impair lesion detectability and diagnostic accuracy. This observational study was undertaken to verify whether breath-hold F-18-FDG-PET/CT (bhPET) detects additional foci compared to free-breathing PET/CT (fbPET) in cases of malignant melanoma, and to assess the impact of breath-holding on standard uptake values (SUV) and metabolic isocontoured volume (mVic40). Thirty-four patients with melanoma were examined. BhPET and fbPET findings of 117 lesions were compared and correlated with standard contrast-enhanced (ce) CT and MRI for lesion verification. Quantitative parameters (SUVmax, SUVmean, and mVic40) were assessed for both methods and evaluated by linear regression and Spearman correlation. The impact of lesion size and time interval between investigations was analyzed. In 1 patient, a CT-confirmed liver metastasis was seen only on bhPET but not on fbPET. At bhPET, SUVmax, and SUVmean proved significantly higher and mVic40 significantly lower than at fbPET. The positive effect on SUVmax and SUVmean was more pronounced in smaller lesions, whereas the time interval between bhPET and fbPET did not influence SUV or mVic40. In our patient cohort, bhPET yielded significantly higher SUV and provided improved volumetric lesion definition, particularly of smaller lesions. Also one additional liver lesion was identified. Breath-hold PET/CT is technically feasible, and may become clinically useful when fine quantitative evaluations are needed. PMID:28079829

  3. The Readability of Electronic Cigarette Health Information and Advice: A Quantitative Analysis of Web-Based Information

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Shu-Hong; Conway, Mike

    2017-01-01

    Background The popularity and use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) has increased across all demographic groups in recent years. However, little is currently known about the readability of health information and advice aimed at the general public regarding the use of e-cigarettes. Objective The objective of our study was to examine the readability of publicly available health information as well as advice on e-cigarettes. We compared information and advice available from US government agencies, nongovernment organizations, English speaking government agencies outside the United States, and for-profit entities. Methods A systematic search for health information and advice on e-cigarettes was conducted using search engines. We manually verified search results and converted to plain text for analysis. We then assessed readability of the collected documents using 4 readability metrics followed by pairwise comparisons of groups with adjustment for multiple comparisons. Results A total of 54 documents were collected for this study. All 4 readability metrics indicate that all information and advice on e-cigarette use is written at a level higher than that recommended for the general public by National Institutes of Health (NIH) communication guidelines. However, health information and advice written by for-profit entities, many of which were promoting e-cigarettes, were significantly easier to read. Conclusions A substantial proportion of potential and current e-cigarette users are likely to have difficulty in fully comprehending Web-based health information regarding e-cigarettes, potentially hindering effective health-seeking behaviors. To comply with NIH communication guidelines, government entities and nongovernment organizations would benefit from improving the readability of e-cigarettes information and advice. PMID:28062390

  4. 24 CFR 903.9 - May HUD request additional information in the Annual Plan of a troubled PHA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false May HUD request additional information in the Annual Plan of a troubled PHA? 903.9 Section 903.9 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC...

  5. 12 CFR 516.220 - If OTS requests additional information to complete my application, how will it process my...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... complete my application, how will it process my application? 516.220 Section 516.220 Banks and Banking... Standard Treatment § 516.220 If OTS requests additional information to complete my application, how will it... your response. OTS will notify you that it has extended the period before the end of the initial...

  6. 12 CFR 390.128 - If the FDIC requests additional information to complete my application, how will it process my...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... complete my application, how will it process my application? 390.128 Section 390.128 Banks and Banking... additional information to complete my application, how will it process my application? (a) You may use the... will notify you that it has extended the period before the end of the initial 15-day period and...

  7. 12 CFR 116.220 - If the OCC requests additional information to complete my application, how will it process my...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... complete my application, how will it process my application? 116.220 Section 116.220 Banks and Banking... Treatment § 116.220 If the OCC requests additional information to complete my application, how will it... that it has extended the period before the end of the initial 15-day period and will briefly...

  8. 12 CFR 516.220 - If OTS requests additional information to complete my application, how will it process my...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... complete my application, how will it process my application? 516.220 Section 516.220 Banks and Banking... Standard Treatment § 516.220 If OTS requests additional information to complete my application, how will it... your response. OTS will notify you that it has extended the period before the end of the initial...

  9. 41 CFR 102-79.111 - Where may Executive agencies find additional information on Integrated Workplace concepts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Where may Executive agencies find additional information on Integrated Workplace concepts? 102-79.111 Section 102-79.111 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued)...

  10. A new species of Neparholaspis (Acari: Parholaspididae) from Russia, with additional information on Neparholaspis evansi Krantz, 1960.

    PubMed

    Marchenko, Irina I

    2016-08-23

    Neparholaspis dubatolovi sp. nov. is described and illustrated from adult females and males collected from litter and moss in montane forest in north-eastern Sikhote-Alin Ridge in the Far East of Russia. Additional morphological information and illustrations of Neparholaspis evansi Krantz, 1960 are provided, based on examination of a paratype. A key to the world species of Neparholaspis is provided.

  11. 76 FR 80377 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB Additional On-Site Data Collection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ... of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB Additional On-Site Data Collection for the... HCV programs. The proposed data collection will take place through site visits to up to 30 PHAs and... the PHA. The results of the site visits will be used to identify PHAs to participate in a...

  12. Tautomers of a Fluorescent G Surrogate and Their Distinct Photophysics Provide Additional Information Channels.

    PubMed

    Sholokh, Marianna; Improta, Roberto; Mori, Mattia; Sharma, Rajhans; Kenfack, Cyril; Shin, Dongwon; Voltz, Karine; Stote, Roland H; Zaporozhets, Olga A; Botta, Maurizio; Tor, Yitzhak; Mély, Yves

    2016-07-04

    Thienoguanosine ((th) G) is an isomorphic nucleoside analogue acting as a faithful fluorescent substitute of G, with respectable quantum yield in oligonucleotides. Photophysical analysis of (th) G reveals the existence of two ground-state tautomers with significantly shifted absorption and emission wavelengths, and high quantum yield in buffer. Using (TD)-DFT calculations, the tautomers were identified as the H1 and H3 keto-amino tautomers. When incorporated into the loop of (-)PBS, the (-)DNA copy of the HIV-1 primer binding site, both tautomers are observed and show differential sensitivity to protein binding. The red-shifted H1 tautomer is strongly favored in matched (-)/(+)PBS duplexes, while the relative emission of the H3 tautomer can be used to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms. These tautomers and their distinct environmental sensitivity provide unprecedented information channels for analyzing G residues in oligonucleotides and their complexes.

  13. Tautomers of a Fluorescent G Surrogate and Their Distinct Photophysics Provide Additional Information Channels

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Rajhans; Kenfack, Cyril; Shin, Dongwon; Voltz, Karine; Stote, Roland H.; Zaporozhets, Olga A.; Botta, Maurizio; Tor, Yitzhak; Mély, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Thienoguanosine (thG) is an isomorphic nucleoside analogue acting as a faithful fluorescent substitute of G, with respectable quantum yield in oligonucleotides. Photophysical analysis of thG reveals the existence of two ground-state tautomers with significantly shifted absorption and emission wavelengths, and high quantum yield in buffer. Using (TD)-DFT calculations, the tautomers were identified as the H1 and H3 keto-amino tautomers. When incorporated into the loop of (−)PBS, the (−)DNA copy of the HIV-1 primer binding site, both tautomers are observed and show differential sensitivity to protein binding. The red-shifted H1 tautomer is strongly favored in matched (−)/(+)PBS duplexes, while the relative emission of the H3 tautomer can be used to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms. These tautomers and their distinct environmental sensitivity provide unprecedented information channels for analyzing G residues in oligonucleotides and their complexes. PMID:27273741

  14. Inclusion of Additional Plant Species and Trait Information in Dynamic Vegetation Modeling of Arctic Tundra and Boreal Forest Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Euskirchen, E. S.; Patil, V.; Roach, J.; Griffith, B.; McGuire, A. D.

    2015-12-01

    Dynamic vegetation models (DVMs) have been developed to model the ecophysiological characteristics of plant functional types in terrestrial ecosystems. They have frequently been used to answer questions pertaining to processes such as disturbance, plant succession, and community composition under historical and future climate scenarios. While DVMs have proved useful in these types of applications, it has often been questioned if additional detail, such as including plant dynamics at the species-level and/or including species-specific traits would make these models more accurate and/or broadly applicable. A sub-question associated with this issue is, 'How many species, or what degree of functional diversity, should we incorporate to sustain ecosystem function in modeled ecosystems?' Here, we focus on how the inclusion of additional plant species and trait information may strengthen dynamic vegetation modeling in applications pertaining to: (1) forage for caribou in northern Alaska, (2) above- and belowground carbon storage in the boreal forest and lake margin wetlands of interior Alaska, and (3) arctic tundra and boreal forest leaf phenology. While the inclusion of additional information generally proved valuable in these three applications, this additional detail depends on field data that may not always be available and may also result in increased computational complexity. Therefore, it is important to assess these possible limitations against the perceived need for additional plant species and trait information in the development and application of dynamic vegetation models.

  15. A Network Neuroscience of Human Learning: Potential to Inform Quantitative Theories of Brain and Behavior.

    PubMed

    Bassett, Danielle S; Mattar, Marcelo G

    2017-04-01

    Humans adapt their behavior to their external environment in a process often facilitated by learning. Efforts to describe learning empirically can be complemented by quantitative theories that map changes in neurophysiology to changes in behavior. In this review we highlight recent advances in network science that offer a sets of tools and a general perspective that may be particularly useful in understanding types of learning that are supported by distributed neural circuits. We describe recent applications of these tools to neuroimaging data that provide unique insights into adaptive neural processes, the attainment of knowledge, and the acquisition of new skills, forming a network neuroscience of human learning. While promising, the tools have yet to be linked to the well-formulated models of behavior that are commonly utilized in cognitive psychology. We argue that continued progress will require the explicit marriage of network approaches to neuroimaging data and quantitative models of behavior.

  16. An Internet compendium of analytical methods and spectroscopic information for monomers and additives used in food packaging plastics.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, J; Simoneau, C; Cote, D; Boenke, A

    2000-10-01

    An internet website (http:¿cpf.jrc.it/smt/) has been produced as a means of dissemination of methods of analysis and supporting spectroscopic information on monomers and additives used for food contact materials (principally packaging). The site which is aimed primarily at assisting food control laboratories in the European Union contains analytical information on monomers, starting substances and additives used in the manufacture of plastics materials. A searchable index is provided giving PM and CAS numbers for each of 255 substances. For each substance a data sheet gives regulatory information, chemical structures, physico-chemical information and background information on the use of the substance in particular plastics, and the food packaging applications. For monomers and starting substances (155 compounds) the infra-red and mass spectra are provided, and for additives (100 compounds); additionally proton NMR are available for about 50% of the entries. Where analytical methods have been developed for determining these substances as residual amounts in plastics or as trace amounts in food simulants these methods are also on the website. All information is provided in portable document file (PDF) format which means that high quality copies can be readily printed, using freely available Adobe Acrobat Reader software. The website will in future be maintained and up-dated by the European Commission's Joint Research Centre (JRC) as new substances are authorized for use by the European Commission (DG-ENTR formerly DGIII). Where analytical laboratories (food control or other) require reference substances these can be obtained free-of-charge from a reference collection housed at the JRC and maintained in conjunction with this website compendium.

  17. Presenting quantitative information about decision outcomes: a risk communication primer for patient decision aid developers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Making evidence-based decisions often requires comparison of two or more options. Research-based evidence may exist which quantifies how likely the outcomes are for each option. Understanding these numeric estimates improves patients’ risk perception and leads to better informed decision making. This paper summarises current “best practices” in communication of evidence-based numeric outcomes for developers of patient decision aids (PtDAs) and other health communication tools. Method An expert consensus group of fourteen researchers from North America, Europe, and Australasia identified eleven main issues in risk communication. Two experts for each issue wrote a “state of the art” summary of best evidence, drawing on the PtDA, health, psychological, and broader scientific literature. In addition, commonly used terms were defined and a set of guiding principles and key messages derived from the results. Results The eleven key components of risk communication were: 1) Presenting the chance an event will occur; 2) Presenting changes in numeric outcomes; 3) Outcome estimates for test and screening decisions; 4) Numeric estimates in context and with evaluative labels; 5) Conveying uncertainty; 6) Visual formats; 7) Tailoring estimates; 8) Formats for understanding outcomes over time; 9) Narrative methods for conveying the chance of an event; 10) Important skills for understanding numerical estimates; and 11) Interactive web-based formats. Guiding principles from the evidence summaries advise that risk communication formats should reflect the task required of the user, should always define a relevant reference class (i.e., denominator) over time, should aim to use a consistent format throughout documents, should avoid “1 in x” formats and variable denominators, consider the magnitude of numbers used and the possibility of format bias, and should take into account the numeracy and graph literacy of the audience. Conclusion A substantial and

  18. Combining qualitative and quantitative spatial and temporal information in a hierarchical structure: Approximate reasoning for plan execution monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoebel, Louis J.

    1993-01-01

    The problem of plan generation (PG) and the problem of plan execution monitoring (PEM), including updating, queries, and resource-bounded replanning, have different reasoning and representation requirements. PEM requires the integration of qualitative and quantitative information. PEM is the receiving of data about the world in which a plan or agent is executing. The problem is to quickly determine the relevance of the data, the consistency of the data with respect to the expected effects, and if execution should continue. Only spatial and temporal aspects of the plan are addressed for relevance in this work. Current temporal reasoning systems are deficient in computational aspects or expressiveness. This work presents a hybrid qualitative and quantitative system that is fully expressive in its assertion language while offering certain computational efficiencies. In order to proceed, methods incorporating approximate reasoning using hierarchies, notions of locality, constraint expansion, and absolute parameters need be used and are shown to be useful for the anytime nature of PEM.

  19. High School Students' Informal Reasoning on a Socio-Scientific Issue: Qualitative and Quantitative Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Ying-Tien; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2007-01-01

    Recently, the significance of learners' informal reasoning on socio-scientific issues has received increasing attention among science educators. To gain deeper insights into this important issue, an integrated analytic framework was developed in this study. With this framework, 71 Grade 10 students' informal reasoning about nuclear energy usage…

  20. A quantitative approach to measure road network information based on edge diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xun; Zhang, Hong; Lan, Tian; Cao, Weiwei; He, Jing

    2015-12-01

    The measure of map information has been one of the key issues in assessing cartographic quality and map generalization algorithms. It is also important for developing efficient approaches to transfer geospatial information. Road network is the most common linear object in real world. Approximately describe road network information will benefit road map generalization, navigation map production and urban planning. Most of current approaches focused on node diversities and supposed that all the edges are the same, which is inconsistent to real-life condition, and thus show limitations in measuring network information. As real-life traffic flow are directed and of different quantities, the original undirected vector road map was first converted to a directed topographic connectivity map. Then in consideration of preferential attachment in complex network study and rich-club phenomenon in social network, the from and to weights of each edge are assigned. The from weight of a given edge is defined as the connectivity of its end node to the sum of the connectivities of all the neighbors of the from nodes of the edge. After getting the from and to weights of each edge, edge information, node information and the whole network structure information entropies could be obtained based on information theory. The approach has been applied to several 1 square mile road network samples. Results show that information entropies based on edge diversities could successfully describe the structural differences of road networks. This approach is a complementarity to current map information measurements, and can be extended to measure other kinds of geographical objects.

  1. Supra-additive contribution of shape and surface information to individual face discrimination as revealed by fast periodic visual stimulation.

    PubMed

    Dzhelyova, Milena; Rossion, Bruno

    2014-12-24

    Face perception depends on two main sources of information--shape and surface cues. Behavioral studies suggest that both of them contribute roughly equally to discrimination of individual faces, with only a small advantage provided by their combination. However, it is difficult to quantify the respective contribution of each source of information to the visual representation of individual faces with explicit behavioral measures. To address this issue, facial morphs were created that varied in shape only, surface only, or both. Electrocephalogram (EEG) were recorded from 10 participants during visual stimulation at a fast periodic rate, in which the same face was presented four times consecutively and the fifth face (the oddball) varied along one of the morphed dimensions. Individual face discrimination was indexed by the periodic EEG response at the oddball rate (e.g., 5.88 Hz/5 = 1.18 Hz). While shape information was discriminated mainly at right occipitotemporal electrode sites, surface information was coded more bilaterally and provided a larger response overall. Most importantly, shape and surface changes alone were associated with much weaker responses than when both sources of information were combined in the stimulus, revealing a supra-additive effect. These observations suggest that the two kinds of information combine nonlinearly to provide a full individual face representation, face identity being more than the sum of the contribution of shape and surface cues.

  2. Additive effects of two quantitative trait loci that confer Rhopalosiphum maidis (corn leaf aphid) resistance in maize inbred line Mo17

    PubMed Central

    Betsiashvili, Mariam; Ahern, Kevin R.; Jander, Georg

    2015-01-01

    Plants show considerable within-species variation in their resistance to insect herbivores. In the case of Zea mays (cultivated maize), Rhopalosiphum maidis (corn leaf aphids) produce approximately twenty times more progeny on inbred line B73 than on inbred line Mo17. Genetic mapping of this difference in maize aphid resistance identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) on chromosomes 4 and 6, with the Mo17 allele reducing aphid reproduction in each case. The chromosome 4 QTL mapping interval includes several genes involved in the biosynthesis of DIMBOA (2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one), a maize defensive metabolite that also is required for callose accumulation in response to aphid feeding. Consistent with the known association of callose with plant defence against aphids, R. maidis reproduction on B73×Mo17 recombinant inbred lines was negatively correlated with both DIMBOA content and callose formation. Further genetic mapping, as well as experiments with near-isogenic lines, confirmed that the Mo17 allele causes increased DIMBOA accumulation relative to the B73 allele. The chromosome 6 aphid resistance QTL functions independently of DIMBOA accumulation and has an effect that is additive to that of the chromosome 4 QTL. Thus, at least two separate defence mechanisms account for the higher level of R. maidis resistance in Mo17 compared with B73. PMID:25249072

  3. Website Use and Effects of Online Information About Tobacco Additives Among the Dutch General Population: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Crutzen, Rik; Kienhuis, Anne S; Talhout, Reinskje; de Vries, Hein

    2017-01-01

    Background As a legal obligation, the Dutch government publishes online information about tobacco additives to make sure that it is publicly available. Little is known about the influence this website (”tabakinfo”) has on visitors and how the website is evaluated by them. Objective This study assesses how visitors use the website and its effect on their knowledge, risk perception, attitude, and smoking behavior. The study will also assess how the website is evaluated by visitors using a sample of the Dutch general population, including smokers and nonsmokers. Methods A randomized controlled trial was conducted, recruiting participants from an online panel. At baseline, participants (N=672) were asked to fill out an online questionnaire about tobacco additives. Next, participants were randomly allocated to either one of two experimental groups and invited to visit the website providing information about tobacco additives (either with or without a database containing product-specific information) or to a control group that had no access to the website. After 3 months, follow-up measurements took place. Results At follow-up (n=492), no statistically significant differences were found for knowledge, risk perception, attitude, or smoking behavior between the intervention and control groups. Website visits were positively related to younger participants (B=–0.07, 95% CI –0.12 to –0.01; t11=–2.43, P=.02) and having a low risk perception toward tobacco additives (B=–0.32, 95% CI –0.63 to –0.02; t11=–2.07, P=.04). In comparison, having a lower education (B=–0.67, 95% CI –1.14 to –0.17; t11=–2.65, P=.01) was a significant predictor for making less use of the website. Furthermore, the website was evaluated less positively by smokers compared to nonsmokers (t324=–3.55, P<.001), and males compared to females (t324=–2.21, P=.02). Conclusions The website did not change perceptions of tobacco additives or smoking behavior. Further research is

  4. Success Rates by Software Development Methodology in Information Technology Project Management: A Quantitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Gerald P.

    2013-01-01

    Despite over half a century of Project Management research, project success rates are still too low. Organizations spend a tremendous amount of valuable resources on Information Technology projects and seek to maximize the utility gained from their efforts. The author investigated the impact of software development methodology choice on ten…

  5. Quantitative assessment of drivers of recent global temperature variability: an information theoretic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhaskar, Ankush; Ramesh, Durbha Sai; Vichare, Geeta; Koganti, Triven; Gurubaran, S.

    2017-02-01

    Identification and quantification of possible drivers of recent global temperature variability remains a challenging task. This important issue is addressed adopting a non-parametric information theory technique, the Transfer Entropy and its normalized variant. It distinctly quantifies actual information exchanged along with the directional flow of information between any two variables with no bearing on their common history or inputs, unlike correlation, mutual information etc. Measurements of greenhouse gases: CO2 , CH4 and N2O; volcanic aerosols; solar activity: UV radiation, total solar irradiance (TSI) and cosmic ray flux (CR); El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Global Mean Temperature Anomaly (GMTA) made during 1984-2005 are utilized to distinguish driving and responding signals of global temperature variability. Estimates of their relative contributions reveal that CO2 ({˜ } 24 % ), CH4 ({˜ } 19 % ) and volcanic aerosols ({˜ }23 % ) are the primary contributors to the observed variations in GMTA. While, UV ({˜ } 9 % ) and ENSO ({˜ } 12 % ) act as secondary drivers of variations in the GMTA, the remaining play a marginal role in the observed recent global temperature variability. Interestingly, ENSO and GMTA mutually drive each other at varied time lags. This study assists future modelling efforts in climate science.

  6. Quantitative Modeling of Human Performance in Information Systems. Technical Research Note 232.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, James D.

    1974-01-01

    A general information system model was developed which focuses on man and considers the computer only as a tool. The ultimate objective is to produce a simulator which will yield measures of system performance under different mixes of equipment, personnel, and procedures. The model is structured around three basic dimensions: (1) data flow and…

  7. Qualitative and Quantitative Measures of Second Language Writing: Potential Outcomes of Informal Target Language Learning Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, N. Anthony; Solovieva, Raissa V.; Eggett, Dennis L.

    2011-01-01

    This research describes a method applied at a U.S. university in a third-year Russian language course designed to facilitate Advanced and Superior second language writing proficiency through the forum of argumentation and debate. Participants had extensive informal language experience living in a Russian-speaking country but comparatively little…

  8. A Relevance-based Quantitative Measure for Internet Information Retrieval Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacCall, Steven L.; Cleveland, Ana D.

    1999-01-01

    Presents a metric for comparing the performance of common classes of Internet information retrieval tools, including human indexed catalogs of Web resources and automatically indexed databases of Web pages. The benefit of the proposed metric is that it is relevance-based, and it facilitates the comparison of the performance of different classes of…

  9. Quantitative Analysis of Non-Financial Motivators and Job Satisfaction of Information Technology Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mieszczak, Gina L.

    2013-01-01

    Organizations depend extensively on Information Technology professionals to drive and deliver technology solutions quickly, efficiently, and effectively to achieve business goals and profitability. It has been demonstrated that professionals with experience specific to the company are valuable assets, and their departure puts technology projects…

  10. [Rad-Esito: new informational additions in the integration of content of hospital discharge cards for acute patients].

    PubMed

    Rini, F; Piscioneri, C; Consolante, C; Fara, G M

    2009-01-01

    Since the January 2008 the tracking of additional information about hospital discharge card's content has been activated in Latium. The new data, noticed by RAD-Esito card, regard the hospitalizations for acute myocardial infarction, femoral neck fracture and coronary artery bypass surgery. This study's objective has been to evaluate the quality of the data collected with the new card, at the end of the 1st semester of experimentation, concerning two institutes of care of Latium, the Casilino Polyclinic (ASL Rome B) and the Anzio-Nettuno hospital (Assembled Hospitals, ASL Rome H). Furthermore, any significant correlation's existence between a few variables for acute myocardial infarction and femoral fracture with the mortality rate and the average hospitalization period has been statistically verified. This study's preliminary results show how the integration of the hospital informative flow with the new clinical variables will be able to allow the promotion of the quality in the coding of the diagnosis and procedures, according to the current international innovations. This additional information will also be able to support the regional appropriateness and outcome of the treatments evaluation programs.

  11. Personal information of adolescents on the Internet: A quantitative content analysis of MySpace.

    PubMed

    Hinduja, Sameer; Patchin, Justin W

    2008-02-01

    Many youth have recently embraced online social networking sites such as MySpace (myspace.com) to meet their social and relational needs. While manifold benefits stem from participating in such web-based environments, the popular media has been quick to demonize MySpace even though an exponentially small proportion of its users have been victimized due to irresponsible or naive usage of the technology it affords. Major concerns revolve around the possibility of sexual predators and pedophiles finding and then assaulting adolescents who carelessly or unwittingly reveal identifiable information on their personal profile pages. The current study sought to empirically ascertain the type of information youth are publicly posting through an extensive content analysis of randomly sampled MySpace profile pages. Among other findings, 8.8% revealed their full name, 57% included a picture, 27.8% listed their school, and 0.3% provided their telephone number. When considered in its proper context, these results indicate that the problem of personal information disclosure on MySpace may not be as widespread as many assume, and that the overwhelming majority of adolescents are responsibly using the web site. Implications for Internet safety among adolescents and future research regarding adolescent Internet use are discussed.

  12. Individuals with post-stroke hemiparesis are able to use additional sensory information to reduce postural sway.

    PubMed

    Cunha, B P; Alouche, S R; Araujo, I M G; Freitas, S M S F

    2012-03-28

    The present study aimed to investigate whether stroke survivals are able to use the additional somatosensory information provided by the light touch to reduce their postural sway during the upright stance. Eight individuals, naturally right-handed pre-stroke, and eight healthy age-matched adults stood as quiet as possible on a force plate during 35s. Participants performed two trials for each visual condition (eyes open and closed) and somatosensory condition (with and without the right or left index fingertip touching an instrumented rigid and fixed bar). When participants touched the bar, they were asked to apply less than 1N of vertical force. The postural sway was assessed by the center of pressure (COP) displacement area, mean amplitude and velocity. In addition, the mean and standard deviation of the force vertically applied on the bar during the trials with touch were assessed. The averaged values of COP area, amplitude and velocity were greater for stroke individuals compared to healthy adults during all visual and somatosensory conditions. For both groups, the values of all variables increased when participants stood with eyes closed and reduced when they touched the bar regardless of the side of the touch. Overall, the results suggested that, as healthy individuals, persons with post-stroke hemiparesis are able to use the additional somatosensory information provided by the light touch to reduce the postural sway.

  13. Linking quantitative microbial risk assessment and epidemiological data: informing safe drinking water trials in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Enger, Kyle S; Nelson, Kara L; Clasen, Thomas; Rose, Joan B; Eisenberg, Joseph N S

    2012-05-01

    Intervention trials are used extensively to assess household water treatment (HWT) device efficacy against diarrheal disease in developing countries. Using these data for policy, however, requires addressing issues of generalizability (relevance of one trial in other contexts) and systematic bias associated with design and conduct of a study. To illustrate how quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) can address water safety and health issues, we analyzed a published randomized controlled trial (RCT) of the LifeStraw Family Filter in the Congo. The model accounted for bias due to (1) incomplete compliance with filtration, (2) unexpected antimicrobial activity by the placebo device, and (3) incomplete recall of diarrheal disease. Effectiveness was measured using the longitudinal prevalence ratio (LPR) of reported diarrhea. The Congo RCT observed an LPR of 0.84 (95% CI: 0.61, 1.14). Our model predicted LPRs, assuming a perfect placebo, ranging from 0.50 (2.5-97.5 percentile: 0.33, 0.77) to 0.86 (2.5-97.5 percentile: 0.68, 1.09) for high (but not perfect) and low (but not zero) compliance, respectively. The calibration step provided estimates of the concentrations of three pathogen types (modeled as diarrheagenic E. coli, Giardia, and rotavirus) in drinking water, consistent with the longitudinal prevalence of reported diarrhea measured in the trial, and constrained by epidemiological data from the trial. Use of a QMRA model demonstrated the importance of compliance in HWT efficacy, the need for pathogen data from source waters, the effect of quantifying biases associated with epidemiological data, and the usefulness of generalizing the effectiveness of HWT trials to other contexts.

  14. A quantitative method to analyze the quality of EIA information in wind energy development and avian/bat assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Tony; Nielsen, Erik; Auberle, William; Solop, Frederic I.

    2013-01-15

    The environmental impact assessment (EIA) has been a tool for decision makers since the enactment of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Since that time, few analyses have been performed to verify the quality of information and content within EIAs. High quality information within assessments is vital in order for decision makers, stake holders, and the public to understand the potential impact of proposed actions on the ecosystem and wildlife species. Low quality information has been a major cause for litigation and economic loss. Since 1999, wind energy development has seen an exponential growth with unknown levels of impact on wildlife species, in particular bird and bat species. The purpose of this article is to: (1) develop, validate, and apply a quantitative index to review avian/bat assessment quality for wind energy EIAs; and (2) assess the trends and status of avian/bat assessment quality in a sample of wind energy EIAs. This research presents the development and testing of the Avian and Bat Assessment Quality Index (ABAQI), a new approach to quantify information quality of ecological assessments within wind energy development EIAs in relation to avian and bat species based on review areas and factors derived from 23 state wind/wildlife siting guidance documents. The ABAQI was tested through a review of 49 publicly available EIA documents and validated by identifying high variation in avian and bat assessments quality for wind energy developments. Of all the reviewed EIAs, 66% failed to provide high levels of preconstruction avian and bat survey information, compared to recommended factors from state guidelines. This suggests the need for greater consistency from recommended guidelines by state, and mandatory compliance by EIA preparers to avoid possible habitat and species loss, wind energy development shut down, and future lawsuits. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We developed, validated, and applied a quantitative index to review

  15. An Informed Approach to Improving Quantitative Literacy and Mitigating Math Anxiety in Undergraduates Through Introductory Science Courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Follette, K.; McCarthy, D.

    2012-08-01

    Current trends in the teaching of high school and college science avoid numerical engagement because nearly all students lack basic arithmetic skills and experience anxiety when encountering numbers. Nevertheless, such skills are essential to science and vital to becoming savvy consumers, citizens capable of recognizing pseudoscience, and discerning interpreters of statistics in ever-present polls, studies, and surveys in which our society is awash. Can a general-education collegiate course motivate students to value numeracy and to improve their quantitative skills in what may well be their final opportunity in formal education? We present a tool to assess whether skills in numeracy/quantitative literacy can be fostered and improved in college students through the vehicle of non-major introductory courses in astronomy. Initial classroom applications define the magnitude of this problem and indicate that significant improvements are possible. Based on these initial results we offer this tool online and hope to collaborate with other educators, both formal and informal, to develop effective mechanisms for encouraging all students to value and improve their skills in basic numeracy.

  16. Quantitative 3D petrography using X-ray tomography 2: Combining information at various resolutions

    SciTech Connect

    Pamukcu, Ayla S.; Gualda, Guilherme A.R.

    2010-12-02

    X-ray tomography is a nondestructive technique that can be used to study rocks and other materials in three dimensions over a wide range of sizes. Samples that range from decimeters to micrometers in size can be analyzed, and micrometer- to centimeter-sized crystals, vesicles, and other particles can be identified and quantified. In many applications, quantification of a large spectrum of sizes is important, but this cannot be easily accomplished using a single tomogram due to a common trade-off between sample size and image resolution. This problem can be circumvented by combining tomograms acquired for a single sample at a variety of resolutions. We have successfully applied this method to obtain crystal size distributions (CSDs) for magnetite, pyroxene + biotite, and quartz + feldspar in Bishop Tuff pumice. Five cylinders of systematically varying size (1-10 mm diameter and height) were analyzed from each of five pumice clasts. Cylinder size is inversely proportional to image resolution, such that resolution ranges from 2.5 to 17 {micro}m/voxel with increasing sample size. This allows quantification of crystals 10-1000 {micro}m in size. We obtained CSDs for each phase in each sample by combining information from all resolutions, each size bin containing data from the resolution that best characterizes crystals of that size. CSDs for magnetite and pyroxene + biotite in late-erupted Bishop pumice obtained using this method are fractal, but do not seem to result from crystal fragmentation. CSDs for quartz + feldspar reveal a population of abundant crystals <35 {micro}m in size, and a population of crystals >50 {micro}m in size, which will be the focus of a separate publication.

  17. Delirium superimposed on dementia: a quantitative and qualitative evaluation of informal caregivers and health care staff experience

    PubMed Central

    Morandi, Alessandro; Lucchi, Elena; Turco, Renato; Morghen, Sara; Guerini, Fabio; Santi, Rossana; Gentile, Simona; Meagher, David; Voyer, Philippe; Fick, Donna M.; Schmitt, Eva M.; Inouye, Sharon K.; Trabucchi, Marco; Bellelli, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Objective Delirium superimposed on dementia (DSD) is common and potentially distressing for patients, caregivers, and health care staff. We quantitatively and qualitatively assessed the experience of informal caregiver and staff (staff nurses, nurse aides, physical therapists) caring for patients with DSD. Methods Caregivers’ and staff experience was evaluated three days after DSD resolution (T0) with a standardized questionnaire (quantitative interview) and open-ended questions (qualitative interview); caregivers were also evaluated at 1-month follow-up (T1). Results A total of 74 subjects were included; 33 caregivers and 41 health care staff (8 staff nurses, 20 physical therapists, 13 staff nurse aides/health care assistants). Overall, at both T0 and T1, the distress level was moderate among caregivers and mild among health care staff. Caregivers reported, at both T0 and T1, higher distress related to deficits of sustained attention and orientation, hypokinesia/psychomotor retardation, incoherence and delusions. The distress of health care staff related to each specific item of the Delirium-O-Meter was relatively low except for the physical therapists who reported higher level of distress on deficits of sustained/shifting attention and orientation, apathy, hypokinesia/psychomotor retardation, incoherence, delusion, hallucinations, anxiety/fear. The qualitative evaluation identified important categories of caregivers ‘and staff feelings related to the delirium experience. Conclusions This study provides information on the implication of the experience of delirium on caregivers and staff. The distress related to DSD underlines the importance of providing continuous training, support and experience for both the caregivers and health care staff to improve the care of patients with delirium superimposed on dementia. PMID:26286892

  18. Quantitative considerations to gather maximum information from viral growth efficiency studies: the example of polyomavirus type BK (BKV).

    PubMed

    Funk, Georg A

    2010-08-01

    This short communication shows how the application of simple mathematical formulae allows researchers to extract maximum information from viral growth efficiency studies at virtually no additional costs (in terms of time or money), thus improving the comparability of results (growth rates, replicative capacities, efficacies of antivirals) between in vitro and in vivo growth efficiency studies. This could help in elucidating kinetic links between the molecular basis of virus function and clinical findings.

  19. Expression Quantitative Trait Loci Information Improves Predictive Modeling of Disease Relevance of Non-Coding Genetic Variation

    PubMed Central

    Raj, Towfique; McGeachie, Michael J.; Qiu, Weiliang; Ziniti, John P.; Stubbs, Benjamin J.; Liang, Liming; Martinez, Fernando D.; Strunk, Robert C.; Lemanske, Robert F.; Liu, Andrew H.; Stranger, Barbara E.; Carey, Vincent J.; Raby, Benjamin A.

    2015-01-01

    Disease-associated loci identified through genome-wide association studies (GWAS) frequently localize to non-coding sequence. We and others have demonstrated strong enrichment of such single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs), supporting an important role for regulatory genetic variation in complex disease pathogenesis. Herein we describe our initial efforts to develop a predictive model of disease-associated variants leveraging eQTL information. We first catalogued cis-acting eQTLs (SNPs within 100kb of target gene transcripts) by meta-analyzing four studies of three blood-derived tissues (n = 586). At a false discovery rate < 5%, we mapped eQTLs for 6,535 genes; these were enriched for disease-associated genes (P < 10−04), particularly those related to immune diseases and metabolic traits. Based on eQTL information and other variant annotations (distance from target gene transcript, minor allele frequency, and chromatin state), we created multivariate logistic regression models to predict SNP membership in reported GWAS. The complete model revealed independent contributions of specific annotations as strong predictors, including evidence for an eQTL (odds ratio (OR) = 1.2–2.0, P < 10−11) and the chromatin states of active promoters, different classes of strong or weak enhancers, or transcriptionally active regions (OR = 1.5–2.3, P < 10−11). This complete prediction model including eQTL association information ultimately allowed for better discrimination of SNPs with higher probabilities of GWAS membership (6.3–10.0%, compared to 3.5% for a random SNP) than the other two models excluding eQTL information. This eQTL-based prediction model of disease relevance can help systematically prioritize non-coding GWAS SNPs for further functional characterization. PMID:26474488

  20. Quantitative trait loci with additive effect on palatability and fatty acid composition of meat in a Wagyu-Limousin F*2 population.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A whole genome scan was conducted on 328 F2 progeny in a Wagyu x Limousin cross to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting palatability and fatty acid composition of beef. We have identified seven QTL on four chromosomes involved in lipid metabolism and tenderness. These genomic regions are...

  1. Assessing Asian Scholarly Research in Library and Information Science: A Quantitative View as Reflected in "Web of Knowledge"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukherjee, Bhaskar

    2010-01-01

    This paper highlights the quantitative performance of scholarly LIS research in Asian countries based on articles published during 2001-2007 in journals indexed by the Social Science Citation Index of Web of Knowledge. The quantitative performance of Asian countries has been judged and compared on the basis of various quantitative indicators: (a)…

  2. 43 CFR 3276.13 - What additional information must I give BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam facilities? 3276.13 Section 3276.13 Public Lands... What additional information must I give BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam facilities? In addition to the regular monthly report information required by § 3276.12, send to BLM: (a)...

  3. 43 CFR 3276.13 - What additional information must I give BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam facilities? 3276.13 Section 3276.13 Public Lands... What additional information must I give BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam facilities? In addition to the regular monthly report information required by § 3276.12, send to BLM: (a)...

  4. 43 CFR 3276.13 - What additional information must I give BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam facilities? 3276.13 Section 3276.13 Public Lands... What additional information must I give BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam facilities? In addition to the regular monthly report information required by § 3276.12, send to BLM: (a)...

  5. 43 CFR 3276.13 - What additional information must I give BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam facilities? 3276.13 Section 3276.13 Public Lands... What additional information must I give BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam facilities? In addition to the regular monthly report information required by § 3276.12, send to BLM: (a)...

  6. Detection of multivessel disease in patients with sustained myocardial infarction by thallium 201 myocardial scintigraphy: No additional value of quantitative analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Niemeyer, M.G.; Pauwels, E.K.; van der Wall, E.E.; Cramer, M.J.; Verzijlbergen, J.F.; Zwinderman, A.H.; Ascoop, C.A. )

    1989-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the value of visual and quantitative thallium 201 scintigraphy for the detection of multivessel disease in 67 patients with a sustained transmural myocardial infarction. Also the viability of the myocardial regions corresponding to pathologic Q-waves was evaluated. Of the 67 patients, 51 patients had multivessel coronary artery disease (76%). The sensitivity of the exercise test was 53%, of thallium scintigraphy 69%, when interpreted visually, and 67%, when analysed quantitatively. The specificity of these methods was 69%, 56%, and 50%, respectively. Sixty-two infarct-related flow regions were detected by visual analysis of the thallium scans, total redistribution was observed in 11/62 (18%) of patients, partial redistribution in 26/62 (42%), and no redistribution in 25/62 (40%) of patients. The infarct-related areas with total redistribution on the thallium scintigrams were more likely to be associated with normal or hypokinetic wall motion (7/11: 64%) than the areas with a persistent defect (7/25:28%) (P = 0.05), which were more related with akinetic or dyskinetic wall motion. Based on our results, it is concluded that (1) both visual and quantitative analysis of thallium exercise scintigraphy have limited value to predict the presence or absence of multivessel coronary artery disease in patients with sustained myocardial infarction, and (2) exercise-induced thallium redistribution may occur within the infarct zone, suggesting the presence of viable but jeopardized myocardium in presumed fibrotic myocardial areas.

  7. On the additional information content of hyperspectral remote sensing data for estimating ecosystem carbon dioxde and energy exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohlfahrt, Georg; Hammerle, Albin; Tomelleri, Enrico

    2015-04-01

    Radiation reflected back from an ecosystem carries a spectral signature resulting from the interaction of radiation with the vegetation canopy and the underlying soil and thus allows drawing conclusions about the structure and functioning of an ecosystem. When this information is linked to a model of the leaf CO2 exchange, the ecosystem-scale CO2 exchange can be simulated. A well-known and very simplistic example for this approach is the light-use efficiency (LUE) model proposed by Monteith which links the flux of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation times a LUE parameter, both of which may be estimated based on remote sensing data, to predict the ecosystem gross photosynthesis. Here we explore the ability of a more elaborate approach by using near-surface remote sensing of hyperspectral reflected radiation, eddy covariance CO2 and energy flux measurements and a coupled radiative transfer and soil-vegetation-atmosphere-transfer (SVAT) model. Our main objective is to understand to what degree the joint assimilation of hyperspectral reflected radiation and eddy covariance flux measurements into the model helps to better constrain model parameters. To this end we use the SCOPE model, a combination of the well-known PROSAIL model and a SVAT model, and the Bayesian inversion algorithm DREAM. In order to explicitly link reflectance in the visible light and the leaf CO2 exchange, a novel parameterisation of the maximum carboxylation capacity parameter (Vcmax) on the leaf a+b chlorophyll content parameter of PROSAIL is introduced. Results are discussed with respect to the additional information content the hyperspectral data yield for simulating canopy photosynthesis.

  8. Adiponectin Provides Additional Information to Conventional Cardiovascular Risk Factors for Assessing the Risk of Atherosclerosis in Both Genders

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Jin-Ha; Kim, Sung-Kyung; Choi, Ho-June; Choi, Soo-In; Cha, So-Youn; Koh, Sang-Baek

    2013-01-01

    Background This study evaluated the relation between adiponectin and atherosclerosis in both genders, and investigated whether adiponectin provides useful additional information for assessing the risk of atherosclerosis. Methods We measured serum adiponectin levels and other cardiovascular risk factors in 1033 subjects (454 men, 579 women) from the Korean Genomic Rural Cohort study. Carotid intima–media-thickness (CIMT) was used as measure of atherosclerosis. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated using multiple logistic regression, and receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC), the category-free net reclassification improvement (NRI) and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) were calculated. Results After adjustment for conventional cardiovascular risk factors, such as age, waist circumference, smoking history, low-density and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, systolic blood pressure and insulin resistance, the ORs (95%CI) of the third tertile adiponectin group were 0.42 (0.25–0.72) in men and 0.47 (0.29–0.75) in women. The area under the curve (AUC) on the ROC analysis increased significantly by 0.025 in men and 0.022 in women when adiponectin was added to the logistic model of conventional cardiovascular risk factors (AUC in men: 0.655 to 0.680, p = 0.038; AUC in women: 0.654 to 0.676, p = 0.041). The NRI was 0.32 (95%CI: 0.13–0.50, p<0.001), and the IDI was 0.03 (95%CI: 0.01–0.04, p<0.001) for men. For women, the category-free NRI was 0.18 (95%CI: 0.02–0.34, p = 0.031) and the IDI was 0.003 (95%CI: −0.002–0.008, p = 0.189). Conclusion Adiponectin and atherosclerosis were significantly related in both genders, and these relationships were independent of conventional cardiovascular risk factors. Furthermore, adiponectin provided additional information to conventional cardiovascular risk factors regarding the risk of atherosclerosis. PMID:24116054

  9. PeptideDepot: flexible relational database for visual analysis of quantitative proteomic data and integration of existing protein information.

    PubMed

    Yu, Kebing; Salomon, Arthur R

    2009-12-01

    Recently, dramatic progress has been achieved in expanding the sensitivity, resolution, mass accuracy, and scan rate of mass spectrometers able to fragment and identify peptides through MS/MS. Unfortunately, this enhanced ability to acquire proteomic data has not been accompanied by a concomitant increase in the availability of flexible tools allowing users to rapidly assimilate, explore, and analyze this data and adapt to various experimental workflows with minimal user intervention. Here we fill this critical gap by providing a flexible relational database called PeptideDepot for organization of expansive proteomic data sets, collation of proteomic data with available protein information resources, and visual comparison of multiple quantitative proteomic experiments. Our software design, built upon the synergistic combination of a MySQL database for safe warehousing of proteomic data with a FileMaker-driven graphical user interface for flexible adaptation to diverse workflows, enables proteomic end-users to directly tailor the presentation of proteomic data to the unique analysis requirements of the individual proteomics lab. PeptideDepot may be deployed as an independent software tool or integrated directly with our high throughput autonomous proteomic pipeline used in the automated acquisition and post-acquisition analysis of proteomic data.

  10. Preferential access to genetic information from endogenous hominin ancient DNA and accurate quantitative SNP-typing via SPEX

    PubMed Central

    Brotherton, Paul; Sanchez, Juan J.; Cooper, Alan; Endicott, Phillip

    2010-01-01

    The analysis of targeted genetic loci from ancient, forensic and clinical samples is usually built upon polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-generated sequence data. However, many studies have shown that PCR amplification from poor-quality DNA templates can create sequence artefacts at significant levels. With hominin (human and other hominid) samples, the pervasive presence of highly PCR-amplifiable human DNA contaminants in the vast majority of samples can lead to the creation of recombinant hybrids and other non-authentic artefacts. The resulting PCR-generated sequences can then be difficult, if not impossible, to authenticate. In contrast, single primer extension (SPEX)-based approaches can genotype single nucleotide polymorphisms from ancient fragments of DNA as accurately as modern DNA. A single SPEX-type assay can amplify just one of the duplex DNA strands at target loci and generate a multi-fold depth-of-coverage, with non-authentic recombinant hybrids reduced to undetectable levels. Crucially, SPEX-type approaches can preferentially access genetic information from damaged and degraded endogenous ancient DNA templates over modern human DNA contaminants. The development of SPEX-type assays offers the potential for highly accurate, quantitative genotyping from ancient hominin samples. PMID:19864251

  11. PeptideDepot: Flexible Relational Database for Visual Analysis of Quantitative Proteomic Data and Integration of Existing Protein Information

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Kebing; Salomon, Arthur R.

    2010-01-01

    Recently, dramatic progress has been achieved in expanding the sensitivity, resolution, mass accuracy, and scan rate of mass spectrometers able to fragment and identify peptides through tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Unfortunately, this enhanced ability to acquire proteomic data has not been accompanied by a concomitant increase in the availability of flexible tools allowing users to rapidly assimilate, explore, and analyze this data and adapt to a variety of experimental workflows with minimal user intervention. Here we fill this critical gap by providing a flexible relational database called PeptideDepot for organization of expansive proteomic data sets, collation of proteomic data with available protein information resources, and visual comparison of multiple quantitative proteomic experiments. Our software design, built upon the synergistic combination of a MySQL database for safe warehousing of proteomic data with a FileMaker-driven graphical user interface for flexible adaptation to diverse workflows, enables proteomic end-users to directly tailor the presentation of proteomic data to the unique analysis requirements of the individual proteomics lab. PeptideDepot may be deployed as an independent software tool or integrated directly with our High Throughput Autonomous Proteomic Pipeline (HTAPP) used in the automated acquisition and post-acquisition analysis of proteomic data. PMID:19834895

  12. Quantitative trait loci with additive effects on palatability and fatty acid composition of meat in a Wagyu-Limousin F2 population.

    PubMed

    Alexander, L J; Macneil, M D; Geary, T W; Snelling, W M; Rule, D C; Scanga, J A

    2007-10-01

    A whole-genome scan was conducted on 328 F(2) progeny in a Wagyu x Limousin cross to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting palatability and fatty acid composition of beef at an age-constant endpoint. We have identified seven QTL on five chromosomes involved in lipid metabolism and tenderness. None of the genes encoding major enzymes involved in fatty acid metabolism, such as fatty acid synthase (FASN), acetyl-CoA carboxylase alpha (ACACA), solute carrier family 2 (facilitated glucose transporter) member 4 (SLC2A4), stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) and genes encoding the subunits of fatty acid elongase, was located in these QTL regions. The present study may lead to a better-tasting and healthier product for consumers through improved selection for palatability and lipid content of beef.

  13. The use of mode of action information in risk assessment: quantitative key events/dose-response framework for modeling the dose-response for key events.

    PubMed

    Simon, Ted W; Simons, S Stoney; Preston, R Julian; Boobis, Alan R; Cohen, Samuel M; Doerrer, Nancy G; Fenner-Crisp, Penelope A; McMullin, Tami S; McQueen, Charlene A; Rowlands, J Craig

    2014-08-01

    The HESI RISK21 project formed the Dose-Response/Mode-of-Action Subteam to develop strategies for using all available data (in vitro, in vivo, and in silico) to advance the next-generation of chemical risk assessments. A goal of the Subteam is to enhance the existing Mode of Action/Human Relevance Framework and Key Events/Dose Response Framework (KEDRF) to make the best use of quantitative dose-response and timing information for Key Events (KEs). The resulting Quantitative Key Events/Dose-Response Framework (Q-KEDRF) provides a structured quantitative approach for systematic examination of the dose-response and timing of KEs resulting from a dose of a bioactive agent that causes a potential adverse outcome. Two concepts are described as aids to increasing the understanding of mode of action-Associative Events and Modulating Factors. These concepts are illustrated in two case studies; 1) cholinesterase inhibition by the pesticide chlorpyrifos, which illustrates the necessity of considering quantitative dose-response information when assessing the effect of a Modulating Factor, that is, enzyme polymorphisms in humans, and 2) estrogen-induced uterotrophic responses in rodents, which demonstrate how quantitative dose-response modeling for KE, the understanding of temporal relationships between KEs and a counterfactual examination of hypothesized KEs can determine whether they are Associative Events or true KEs.

  14. 36 CFR 1281.12 - What information must be provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a Presidential library facility... ADMINISTRATION NARA FACILITIES PRESIDENTIAL LIBRARY FACILITIES § 1281.12 What information must be provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a Presidential library facility? (a)...

  15. 36 CFR 1281.12 - What information must be provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a Presidential library facility... ADMINISTRATION NARA FACILITIES PRESIDENTIAL LIBRARY FACILITIES § 1281.12 What information must be provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a Presidential library facility? (a)...

  16. 36 CFR 1281.12 - What information must be provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a Presidential library facility... ADMINISTRATION NARA FACILITIES PRESIDENTIAL LIBRARY FACILITIES § 1281.12 What information must be provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a Presidential library facility? (a)...

  17. 36 CFR 1281.12 - What information must be provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a Presidential library facility... ADMINISTRATION NARA FACILITIES PRESIDENTIAL LIBRARY FACILITIES § 1281.12 What information must be provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a Presidential library facility? (a)...

  18. 36 CFR 1281.12 - What information must be provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a Presidential library facility... ADMINISTRATION NARA FACILITIES PRESIDENTIAL LIBRARY FACILITIES § 1281.12 What information must be provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a Presidential library facility? (a)...

  19. Fact Sheets and Additional information Regarding the 2012 Particulate Matter (PM) National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Find tools for particulate matter, maps of nonattainment areas, an overview of the proposal, and information on designations, monitoring and permitting requirements and a presentation on the 2012 PM NAAQS revision.

  20. A Virtual Emergency Telemedicine Serious Game in Medical Training: A Quantitative, Professional Feedback-Informed Evaluation Study

    PubMed Central

    Constantinou, Riana; Marangos, Charis; Kyriacou, Efthyvoulos; Bamidis, Panagiotis; Dafli, Eleni; Pattichis, Constantinos S

    2015-01-01

    Background Serious games involving virtual patients in medical education can provide a controlled setting within which players can learn in an engaging way, while avoiding the risks associated with real patients. Moreover, serious games align with medical students’ preferred learning styles. The Virtual Emergency TeleMedicine (VETM) game is a simulation-based game that was developed in collaboration with the mEducator Best Practice network in response to calls to integrate serious games in medical education and training. The VETM game makes use of data from an electrocardiogram to train practicing doctors, nurses, or medical students for problem-solving in real-life clinical scenarios through a telemedicine system and virtual patients. The study responds to two gaps: the limited number of games in emergency cardiology and the lack of evaluations by professionals. Objective The objective of this study is a quantitative, professional feedback-informed evaluation of one scenario of VETM, involving cardiovascular complications. The study has the following research question: “What are professionals’ perceptions of the potential of the Virtual Emergency Telemedicine game for training people involved in the assessment and management of emergency cases?” Methods The evaluation of the VETM game was conducted with 90 professional ambulance crew nursing personnel specializing in the assessment and management of emergency cases. After collaboratively trying out one VETM scenario, participants individually completed an evaluation of the game (36 questions on a 5-point Likert scale) and provided written and verbal comments. The instrument assessed six dimensions of the game: (1) user interface, (2) difficulty level, (3) feedback, (4) educational value, (5) user engagement, and (6) terminology. Data sources of the study were 90 questionnaires, including written comments from 51 participants, 24 interviews with 55 participants, and 379 log files of their interaction with

  1. Processing time of addition or withdrawal of single or combined balance-stabilizing haptic and visual information

    PubMed Central

    Honeine, Jean-Louis; Crisafulli, Oscar; Sozzi, Stefania

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the integration time of haptic and visual input and their interaction during stance stabilization. Eleven subjects performed four tandem-stance conditions (60 trials each). Vision, touch, and both vision and touch were added and withdrawn. Furthermore, vision was replaced with touch and vice versa. Body sway, tibialis anterior, and peroneus longus activity were measured. Following addition or withdrawal of vision or touch, an integration time period elapsed before the earliest changes in sway were observed. Thereafter, sway varied exponentially to a new steady-state while reweighting occurred. Latencies of sway changes on sensory addition ranged from 0.6 to 1.5 s across subjects, consistently longer for touch than vision, and were regularly preceded by changes in muscle activity. Addition of vision and touch simultaneously shortened the latencies with respect to vision or touch separately, suggesting cooperation between sensory modalities. Latencies following withdrawal of vision or touch or both simultaneously were shorter than following addition. When vision was replaced with touch or vice versa, adding one modality did not interfere with the effect of withdrawal of the other, suggesting that integration of withdrawal and addition were performed in parallel. The time course of the reweighting process to reach the new steady-state was also shorter on withdrawal than addition. The effects of different sensory inputs on posture stabilization illustrate the operation of a time-consuming, possibly supraspinal process that integrates and fuses modalities for accurate balance control. This study also shows the facilitatory interaction of visual and haptic inputs in integration and reweighting of stance-stabilizing inputs. PMID:26334013

  2. 33 CFR 148.108 - What if a Federal or State agency or other interested party requests additional information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... must state briefly why the information is needed. (c) The Commandant (CG-5) must receive the request... decision on whether or not to approve the license application. (d) The Commandant (CG-5) will consider... the application process. (e) The Commandant (CG-5) may discuss the recommendation with...

  3. 33 CFR 148.108 - What if a Federal or State agency or other interested party requests additional information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... must state briefly why the information is needed. (c) The Commandant (CG-5) must receive the request... decision on whether or not to approve the license application. (d) The Commandant (CG-5) will consider... the application process. (e) The Commandant (CG-5) may discuss the recommendation with...

  4. Space Takes Time: Concentration Dependent Output Codes from Primary Olfactory Networks Rapidly Provide Additional Information at Defined Discrimination Thresholds

    PubMed Central

    Daly, Kevin C.; Bradley, Samual; Chapman, Phillip D.; Staudacher, Erich M.; Tiede, Regina; Schachtner, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    As odor concentration increases, primary olfactory network representations expand in spatial distribution, temporal complexity and duration. However, the direct relationship between concentration dependent odor representations and the psychophysical thresholds of detection and discrimination is poorly understood. This relationship is absolutely critical as thresholds signify transition points whereby representations become meaningful to the organism. Here, we matched stimulus protocols for psychophysical assays and intracellular recordings of antennal lobe (AL) projection neurons (PNs) in the moth Manduca sexta to directly compare psychophysical thresholds and the output representations they elicit. We first behaviorally identified odor detection and discrimination thresholds across an odor dilution series for a panel of structurally similar odors. We then characterized spatiotemporal spiking patterns across a population of individually filled and identified AL PNs in response to those odors at concentrations below, at, and above identified thresholds. Using spatial and spatiotemporal based analyses we observed that each stimulus produced unique representations, even at sub-threshold concentrations. Mean response latency did not decrease and the percent glomerular activation did not increase with concentration until undiluted odor. Furthermore, correlations between spatial patterns for odor decreased, but only significantly with undiluted odor. Using time-integrated Euclidean distance (ED) measures, we determined that added spatiotemporal information was present at the discrimination but not detection threshold. This added information was evidenced by an increase in integrated distance between the sub-detection and discrimination threshold concentrations (of the same odor) that was not present in comparison of the sub-detection and detection threshold. After consideration of delays for information to reach the AL we find that it takes ~120–140 ms for the AL to

  5. Examination of Information Technology (IT) Certification and the Human Resources (HR) Professional Perception of Job Performance: A Quantitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Horo, Neal O.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative survey study was to test the Leontief input/output theory relating the input of IT certification to the output of the English-speaking U.S. human resource professional perceived IT professional job performance. Participants (N = 104) rated their perceptions of IT certified vs. non-IT certified professionals' job…

  6. Simple additive effects are rare: a quantitative review of plant biomass and soil process responses to combined manipulations of CO2 and temperature.

    PubMed

    Dieleman, Wouter I J; Vicca, Sara; Dijkstra, Feike A; Hagedorn, Frank; Hovenden, Mark J; Larsen, Klaus S; Morgan, Jack A; Volder, Astrid; Beier, Claus; Dukes, Jeffrey S; King, John; Leuzinger, Sebastian; Linder, Sune; Luo, Yiqi; Oren, Ram; De Angelis, Paolo; Tingey, David; Hoosbeek, Marcel R; Janssens, Ivan A

    2012-09-01

    In recent years, increased awareness of the potential interactions between rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations ([ CO2 ]) and temperature has illustrated the importance of multifactorial ecosystem manipulation experiments for validating Earth System models. To address the urgent need for increased understanding of responses in multifactorial experiments, this article synthesizes how ecosystem productivity and soil processes respond to combined warming and [ CO2 ] manipulation, and compares it with those obtained in single factor [ CO2 ] and temperature manipulation experiments. Across all combined elevated [ CO2 ] and warming experiments, biomass production and soil respiration were typically enhanced. Responses to the combined treatment were more similar to those in the [ CO2 ]-only treatment than to those in the warming-only treatment. In contrast to warming-only experiments, both the combined and the [ CO2 ]-only treatments elicited larger stimulation of fine root biomass than of aboveground biomass, consistently stimulated soil respiration, and decreased foliar nitrogen (N) concentration. Nonetheless, mineral N availability declined less in the combined treatment than in the [ CO2 ]-only treatment, possibly due to the warming-induced acceleration of decomposition, implying that progressive nitrogen limitation (PNL) may not occur as commonly as anticipated from single factor [ CO2 ] treatment studies. Responses of total plant biomass, especially of aboveground biomass, revealed antagonistic interactions between elevated [ CO2 ] and warming, i.e. the response to the combined treatment was usually less-than-additive. This implies that productivity projections might be overestimated when models are parameterized based on single factor responses. Our results highlight the need for more (and especially more long-term) multifactor manipulation experiments. Because single factor CO2 responses often dominated over warming responses in the combined treatments, our

  7. Key Factors in the Success of an Organization's Information Security Culture: A Quantitative Study and Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    This research study reviewed relative literature on information security and information security culture within organizations to determine what factors potentially assist an organization in implementing, integrating, and maintaining a successful organizational information security culture. Based on this review of literature, five key factors were…

  8. Providing additional information about the benefits of statins in a leaflet for patients with coronary heart disease: a qualitative study of the impact on attitudes and beliefs

    PubMed Central

    Dickinson, Rebecca; Raynor, David K; MacDonald, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the impact of providing additional information about the potential benefits of simvastatin in a patient leaflet on attitudes and beliefs. Design Interview-based study using a generic qualitative approach and framework analysis. Participants 21 participants receiving a prescription for simvastatin were recruited from a general practitioner practice (from a total of 120). 8 participants were women; the age range was 55–92. Intervention Participants were provided with leaflets showing one of 3 types of additional benefit information: (1) textual statement, (2) number needed to treat (NNT) or (3) natural frequency. Semistructured interviews explored patient's attitudes and beliefs. Results A descriptive narrative of preferences for format suggested patients prefer textual as opposed to numerical benefit information. Significant barriers to the acceptance of numerical benefit information included difficulty in understanding the numbers. Patients overestimated the benefits of statins and expressed surprise at the numerical information. Conclusions Textual information was preferred but numerical information, in particular in the form of a natural frequency, may help patients make judgements about their medicines. NNTs were found to be very difficult to understand. This raises the prospect that some patients might reject medicines because of disappointment with the perceived low benefits of their medicines. The self-reported impact on behaviour appeared minimal with reports of intentions to ‘do what the doctor tells me’. Further research is needed to explore the impact of such statements on people who are yet to be prescribed a statin. PMID:27913558

  9. Information Technology Tools Analysis in Quantitative Courses of IT-Management (Case Study: M.Sc.-Tehran University)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eshlaghy, Abbas Toloie; Kaveh, Haydeh

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the most suitable ICT-based education and define the most suitable e-content creation tools for quantitative courses in the IT-management Masters program. ICT-based tools and technologies are divided in to three categories: the creation of e-content, the offering of e-content, and access to e-content. In…

  10. EPA evaluation of the SYNERGY-1 fuel additive under Section 511 of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Syria, S.L.

    1981-06-01

    This document announces the conclusions of the EPA evaluation of the 'SYNERGY-1' device under provisions of Section 511 of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act. This additive is intended to improve fuel economy and exhaust emission levels of two and four cycle gasoline fueled engines.

  11. Improve Quality of Life - additional criteria for health and social care information technology acceptance in an ageing world.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Reversing the rising cost of health and social systems is needed in ageing developed and developing countries. A new model of ageing is advocated by the World Health Organization. This new model asks for more personal health accountability and a more integrated approach on care and preventive cure. Information systems and technologies can play an important role in supporting the changes needed in order to have better and more sustainable health and social care systems. Using value and results for patients as criteria by which systems are accepted by users and by organizations can contribute to a value based competition in health and social care systems. The unified theory of acceptance and use of technology is presented, and the pertinence of adding an extension to the theory in order capture Quality of Life improvements expectations is explored.

  12. Separate information required for nuclear and subnuclear localization: additional complexity in localizing an enzyme shared by mitochondria and nuclei.

    PubMed Central

    Rose, A M; Joyce, P B; Hopper, A K; Martin, N C

    1992-01-01

    The TRM1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae codes for a tRNA modification enzyme, N2,N2-dimethylguanosine-specific tRNA methyltransferase (m2(2)Gtase), shared by mitochondria and nuclei. Immunofluorescent staining at the nuclear periphery demonstrates that m2(2)Gtase localizes at or near the nuclear membrane. In determining sequences necessary for targeting the enzyme to nuclei and mitochondria, we found that information required to deliver the enzyme to the nucleus is not sufficient for its correct subnuclear localization. We also determined that mislocalizing the enzyme from the nucleus to the cytoplasm does not destroy its biological function. This change in location was caused by altering a sequence similar to other known nuclear targeting signals (KKSKKKRC), suggesting that shared enzymes are likely to use the same import pathway as proteins that localize only to the nucleus. As with other well-characterized mitochondrial proteins, the mitochondrial import of the shared methyltransferase depends on amino-terminal amino acids, and removal of the first 48 amino acids prevents its import into mitochondria. While this truncated protein is still imported into nuclei, the immunofluorescent staining is uniform throughout rather than at the nuclear periphery, a staining pattern identical to that described for a fusion protein consisting of the first 213 amino acids of m2(2)Gtase in frame with beta-galactosidase. As both of these proteins together contain the entire m2(2)Gtase coding region, the information necessary for association with the nuclear periphery must be more complex than the short linear sequence necessary for nuclear localization. Images PMID:1448094

  13. Acceptance Factors Influencing Adoption of National Institute of Standards and Technology Information Security Standards: A Quantitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiriakou, Charles M.

    2012-01-01

    Adoption of a comprehensive information security governance model and security controls is the best option organizations may have to protect their information assets and comply with regulatory requirements. Understanding acceptance factors of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Risk Management Framework (RMF) comprehensive…

  14. The quantum-mechanical approach to construction of quantitative assessments of some documentary information properties (on example of nuclear knowledge)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedev, A. A.; Maksimov, N. V.; Smirnova, E. V.

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents a model of information interactions, based on a probabilistic concept of meanings. The proposed hypothesis about the wave nature of information and use of quantum mechanics mathematical apparatus allow to consider the phenomena of interference and diffraction with respect to the linguistic variables, and to quantify dynamics of terms in subject areas. Retrospective database INIS IAEA was used as an experimental base.

  15. Quantitative assessment of distance to collection point and improved sorting information on source separation of household waste.

    PubMed

    Rousta, Kamran; Bolton, Kim; Lundin, Magnus; Dahlén, Lisa

    2015-06-01

    The present study measures the participation of households in a source separation scheme and, in particular, if the household's application of the scheme improved after two interventions: (a) shorter distance to the drop-off point and (b) easy access to correct sorting information. The effect of these interventions was quantified and, as far as possible, isolated from other factors that can influence the recycling behaviour. The study was based on households located in an urban residential area in Sweden, where waste composition studies were performed before and after the interventions by manual sorting (pick analysis). Statistical analyses of the results indicated a significant decrease (28%) of packaging and newsprint in the residual waste after establishing a property close collection system (intervention (a)), as well as significant decrease (70%) of the miss-sorted fraction in bags intended for food waste after new information stickers were introduced (intervention (b)). Providing a property close collection system to collect more waste fractions as well as finding new communication channels for information about sorting can be used as tools to increase the source separation ratio. This contribution also highlights the need to evaluate the effects of different types of information and communication concerning sorting instructions in a property close collection system.

  16. A Quantitative Examination of Perceived Promotability of Information Security Professionals with Vendor-Specific Certifications versus Vendor-Neutral Certifications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleghorn, Gregory D.

    2011-01-01

    Human capital theory suggests the knowledge, skills, and abilities one obtains through experience, on-the-job training, or education enhances one's productivity. This research was based on human capital theory and promotability (i.e., upward mobility). The research offered in this dissertation shows what effect obtaining information security…

  17. Fortifying the Pipeline: A Quantitative Exploration of High School Factors Impacting the Information Literacy of First-Year College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabbi, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between a sample of first-time college freshmen students' high school experiences that are developmentally related to information literacy competency and their scores on the iSkills assessment. iSkills is an online evaluation developed by the Educational Testing Service (ETS), which tests…

  18. A Quantitative Study of Factors Contributing to Perceived Job Satisfaction of Information Technology Professionals Working in California Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temple, James Christian

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this replication study was to understand job satisfaction factors (work, pay, supervision, people, opportunities for promotion, and job in general) as measured by the abridged Job Descriptive Index (aJDI) and the abridged Job in General (aJIG) scale for information technology (IT) professionals working in California…

  19. The quantitative prediction of in vivo enzyme-induction caused by drug exposure from in vitro information on human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Kato, Motohiro; Chiba, Koji; Horikawa, Masato; Sugiyama, Yuichi

    2005-08-01

    There have been no reports of the quantitative prediction of induction for drug-metabolizing enzymes in humans. We have tried to predict such enzyme induction in humans from in vitro data obtained using human hepatocytes. The in vitro and in vivo data on enzyme induction by inducers, such as rifampicin, phenobarbital and omeprazole, were collected from the published literature. The degree of enzyme induction in humans was compared with that predicted from in vitro data on human hepatocytes. Using the in vivo data, we calculated the hepatic intrinsic clearance of typical CYP substrates, such as midazolam and caffeine, before and after inducer treatment and estimated the induction ratios of hepatic intrinsic clearance following treatment. In the in vitro studies, the amount of mRNA or enzyme and enzyme activity in human hepatocytes, with or without an inducer, were compared and the induction ratios were estimated. The unbound mean concentration was taken as an index of drug exposure and the induction ratios in the in vivo and in vitro studies were compared. The unbound mean concentrations of inducers used in the in vitro studies were higher than those in the in vivo studies. The maximum induction ratios by inducers in the in vitro studies were higher than those in the in vivo studies. The induction ratio for rifampicin, omeprazole, troglitazone, dexamethasone and phenobarbital increased as the unbound mean concentration increased to reach a constant value. The induction of CYP3A and 1A was analyzed by the Emax model. The maximum induction ratio (Emax) and the concentration at half maximum induction (EC50) for rifampicin, omeprazole, troglitazone, dexamethasone and phenobarbital were 12.3, 0.847 micromol/L, 2.36, 0.225 micromol/L, 6.86, 0.002 micromol/L, 8.30, 9.32 micromol/L, and 7.62, 58.4 micromol/L, respectively. The Emax and EC50 of omeprazole for CYP1A were 12.02 and 0.075 micromol/L, respectively. The predicted induction ratio of all those inducers, except for

  20. Quantitative measurement of eyestrain on 3D stereoscopic display considering the eye foveation model and edge information.

    PubMed

    Heo, Hwan; Lee, Won Oh; Shin, Kwang Yong; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2014-05-15

    We propose a new method for measuring the degree of eyestrain on 3D stereoscopic displays using a glasses-type of eye tracking device. Our study is novel in the following four ways: first, the circular area where a user's gaze position exists is defined based on the calculated gaze position and gaze estimation error. Within this circular area, the position where edge strength is maximized can be detected, and we determine this position as the gaze position that has a higher probability of being the correct one. Based on this gaze point, the eye foveation model is defined. Second, we quantitatively evaluate the correlation between the degree of eyestrain and the causal factors of visual fatigue, such as the degree of change of stereoscopic disparity (CSD), stereoscopic disparity (SD), frame cancellation effect (FCE), and edge component (EC) of the 3D stereoscopic display using the eye foveation model. Third, by comparing the eyestrain in conventional 3D video and experimental 3D sample video, we analyze the characteristics of eyestrain according to various factors and types of 3D video. Fourth, by comparing the eyestrain with or without the compensation of eye saccades movement in 3D video, we analyze the characteristics of eyestrain according to the types of eye movements in 3D video. Experimental results show that the degree of CSD causes more eyestrain than other factors.

  1. Second line drug susceptibility testing to inform the treatment of rifampin-resistant tuberculosis: a quantitative perspective.

    PubMed

    Kendall, Emily A; Cohen, Ted; Mitnick, Carole D; Dowdy, David W

    2017-03-01

    Treatment failure and resistance amplification are common among patients with rifampin-resistant tuberculosis (TB). Drug susceptibility testing (DST) for second-line drugs is recommended for these patients, but logistical difficulties have impeded widespread implementation of second-line DST in many settings. To provide a quantitative perspective on the decision to scale up second-line DST, we synthesize literature on the prevalence of second-line drug resistance, the expected clinical and epidemiologic benefits of using second-line DST to ensure that patients with rifampin-resistant TB receive effective regimens, and the costs of implementing (or not implementing) second-line DST for all individuals diagnosed with rifampin-resistant TB. We conclude that, in most settings, second-line DST could substantially improve treatment outcomes for patients with rifampin-resistant TB, reduce transmission of drug-resistant TB, prevent amplification of drug resistance, and be affordable or even cost-saving. Given the large investment made in each patient treated for rifampin-resistant TB, these payoffs would come at relatively small incremental cost. These anticipated benefits likely justify addressing the real challenges faced in implementing second-line DST in most high-burden settings.

  2. Use of Weather Information by General Aviation Pilots. Part 1. Quantitative: Reported Use and Value of Providers and Products

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    Approach/departure over water Flight duration more than 3 hours High bird hazard Unpaved runway OPERATIONAL FACTORS IFR and only approach is...per- sonal and weather risk assessment guide. No IFR Flight plan in VFR conditions B-1 APPENDIX B Interview instrument used in this study 1...time spent in each (estimates) Country % time SME # B-2 This is a study about how GA pilots use weather information. Please bear in mind these

  3. Use of qualitative and quantitative information in neural networks for assessing agricultural chemical contamination of domestic wells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mishra, A.; Ray, C.; Kolpin, D.W.

    2004-01-01

    A neural network analysis of agrichemical occurrence in groundwater was conducted using data from a pilot study of 192 small-diameter drilled and driven wells and 115 dug and bored wells in Illinois, a regional reconnaissance network of 303 wells across 12 Midwestern states, and a study of 687 domestic wells across Iowa. Potential factors contributing to well contamination (e.g., depth to aquifer material, well depth, and distance to cropland) were investigated. These contributing factors were available in either numeric (actual or categorical) or descriptive (yes or no) format. A method was devised to use the numeric and descriptive values simultaneously. Training of the network was conducted using a standard backpropagation algorithm. Approximately 15% of the data was used for testing. Analysis indicated that training error was quite low for most data. Testing results indicated that it was possible to predict the contamination potential of a well with pesticides. However, predicting the actual level of contamination was more difficult. For pesticide occurrence in drilled and driven wells, the network predictions were good. The performance of the network was poorer for predicting nitrate occurrence in dug and bored wells. Although the data set for Iowa was large, the prediction ability of the trained network was poor, due to descriptive or categorical input parameters, compared with smaller data sets such as that for Illinois, which contained more numeric information.

  4. Methodology development for quantitative optimization of security enhancement in medical information systems -Case study in a PACS and a multi-institutional radiotherapy database-.

    PubMed

    Haneda, Kiyofumi; Umeda, Tokuo; Koyama, Tadashi; Harauchi, Hajime; Inamura, Kiyonari

    2002-01-01

    The target of our study is to establish the methodology for analyzing level of security requirements, for searching suitable security measures and for optimizing security distribution to every portion of medical practice. Quantitative expression must be introduced to our study as possible for the purpose of easy follow up of security procedures and easy evaluation of security outcomes or results. Results of system analysis by fault tree analysis (FTA) clarified that subdivided system elements in detail contribute to much more accurate analysis. Such subdivided composition factors very much depended on behavior of staff, interactive terminal devices, kinds of service, and routes of network. As conclusion, we found the methods to analyze levels of security requirements for each medical information systems employing FTA, basic events for each composition factor and combination of basic events. Methods for searching suitable security measures were found. Namely risk factors for each basic event, number of elements for each composition factor and candidates of security measure elements were found. Method to optimize the security measures for each medical information system was proposed. Namely optimum distribution of risk factors in terms of basic events were figured out, and comparison of them between each medical information systems became possible.

  5. Use of metabolic control analysis to give quantitative information on control of lipid biosynthesis in the important oil crop, Elaeis guineensis (oilpalm).

    PubMed

    Ramli, Umi S; Salas, Joaquin J; Quant, Patti A; Harwood, John L

    2009-10-01

    * Oil crops are a very important commodity. Although many genes and enzymes involved in lipid accumulation have been identified, much less is known of regulation of the overall process. To address the latter we have applied metabolic control analysis to lipid synthesis in the important crop, oilpalm (Elaeis guineensis). * Top-down metabolic control analysis (TDCA) was applied to callus cultures capable of accumulating appreciable triacylglycerol. The biosynthetic pathway was divided into two blocks, connected by the intermediate acyl-CoAs. Block A comprised enzymes for fatty acid synthesis and Block B comprised enzymes of lipid assembly. * Double manipulation TDCA used diflufenican and bromooctanoate to inhibit Block A and Block B, respectively, giving Block flux control coefficients of 0.61 and 0.39. Monte Carlo simulations provided extra information from previously-reported single manipulation TDCA data, giving Block flux control coefficients of 0.65 and 0.35 for A and B. * These experiments are the first time that double manipulation TDCA has been applied to lipid biosynthesis in any organism. The data show that approaching two-thirds of the total control of carbon flux to lipids in oilpalm cultures lies with the fatty acid synthesis block of reactions. This quantitative information will assist future, informed, genetic manipulation of oilpalm.

  6. A quantitative documentation of the composition of two powdered herbal formulations (antimalarial and haematinic) using ethnomedicinal information from ogbomoso, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ogunkunle, Adepoju Tunde Joseph; Oyelakin, Tosin Mathew; Enitan, Abosede Oluwaseyi; Oyewole, Funmilayo Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The safety of many African traditional herbal remedies is doubtful due to lack of standardization. This study therefore attempted to standardize two polyherbal formulations from Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria, with respect to the relative proportions (weight-for-weight) of their botanical constituents. Information supplied by 41 local herbal practitioners was statistically screened for consistency and then used to quantify the composition of antimalarial (Maloff-HB) and haematinic (Haematol-B) powdered herbal formulations with nine and ten herbs, respectively. Maloff-HB contained the stem bark of Enantia chlorantha Oliv. (30.0), Alstonia boonei De Wild (20.0), Mangifera indica L. (10.0), Okoubaka aubrevillei Phelleg & Nomand (8.0), Pterocarpus osun Craib (4.0), root bark of Calliandra haematocephala Hassk (10.0), Sarcocephalus latifolius (J. E. Smith) E. A. Bruce (8.0), Parquetina nigrescens (Afz.) Bullock (6.0), and the vines of Cassytha filiformis L. (4.0), while Haematol-B was composed of the leaf sheath of Sorghum bicolor Moench (30.0), fruit calyx of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (20.0), stem bark of Theobroma cacao L. (10.0), Khaya senegalensis (Desr.) A. Juss (5.5), Mangifera indica (5.5), root of Aristolochia ringens Vahl. (7.0), root bark of Sarcocephalus latifolius (5.5), Uvaria chamae P. Beauv. (5.5), Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides (Lam.) Zepern & Timler (5.5), and seed of Garcinia kola Heckel (5.5). In pursuance of their general acceptability, the two herbal formulations are recommended for their pharmaceutical, phytochemical, and microbial qualities.

  7. A Quantitative Documentation of the Composition of Two Powdered Herbal Formulations (Antimalarial and Haematinic) Using Ethnomedicinal Information from Ogbomoso, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ogunkunle, Adepoju Tunde Joseph; Oyelakin, Tosin Mathew; Enitan, Abosede Oluwaseyi; Oyewole, Funmilayo Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The safety of many African traditional herbal remedies is doubtful due to lack of standardization. This study therefore attempted to standardize two polyherbal formulations from Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria, with respect to the relative proportions (weight-for-weight) of their botanical constituents. Information supplied by 41 local herbal practitioners was statistically screened for consistency and then used to quantify the composition of antimalarial (Maloff-HB) and haematinic (Haematol-B) powdered herbal formulations with nine and ten herbs, respectively. Maloff-HB contained the stem bark of Enantia chlorantha Oliv. (30.0), Alstonia boonei De Wild (20.0), Mangifera indica L. (10.0), Okoubaka aubrevillei Phelleg & Nomand (8.0), Pterocarpus osun Craib (4.0), root bark of Calliandra haematocephala Hassk (10.0), Sarcocephalus latifolius (J. E. Smith) E. A. Bruce (8.0), Parquetina nigrescens (Afz.) Bullock (6.0), and the vines of Cassytha filiformis L. (4.0), while Haematol-B was composed of the leaf sheath of Sorghum bicolor Moench (30.0), fruit calyx of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (20.0), stem bark of Theobroma cacao L. (10.0), Khaya senegalensis (Desr.) A. Juss (5.5), Mangifera indica (5.5), root of Aristolochia ringens Vahl. (7.0), root bark of Sarcocephalus latifolius (5.5), Uvaria chamae P. Beauv. (5.5), Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides (Lam.) Zepern & Timler (5.5), and seed of Garcinia kola Heckel (5.5). In pursuance of their general acceptability, the two herbal formulations are recommended for their pharmaceutical, phytochemical, and microbial qualities. PMID:24701246

  8. Quantitative imaging methods in osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Oei, Ling; Koromani, Fjorda; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Zillikens, M. Carola

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis is characterized by a decreased bone mass and quality resulting in an increased fracture risk. Quantitative imaging methods are critical in the diagnosis and follow-up of treatment effects in osteoporosis. Prior radiographic vertebral fractures and bone mineral density (BMD) as a quantitative parameter derived from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) are among the strongest known predictors of future osteoporotic fractures. Therefore, current clinical decision making relies heavily on accurate assessment of these imaging features. Further, novel quantitative techniques are being developed to appraise additional characteristics of osteoporosis including three-dimensional bone architecture with quantitative computed tomography (QCT). Dedicated high-resolution (HR) CT equipment is available to enhance image quality. At the other end of the spectrum, by utilizing post-processing techniques such as the trabecular bone score (TBS) information on three-dimensional architecture can be derived from DXA images. Further developments in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) seem promising to not only capture bone micro-architecture but also characterize processes at the molecular level. This review provides an overview of various quantitative imaging techniques based on different radiological modalities utilized in clinical osteoporosis care and research. PMID:28090446

  9. Quantitative imaging methods in osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Oei, Ling; Koromani, Fjorda; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Zillikens, M Carola; Oei, Edwin H G

    2016-12-01

    Osteoporosis is characterized by a decreased bone mass and quality resulting in an increased fracture risk. Quantitative imaging methods are critical in the diagnosis and follow-up of treatment effects in osteoporosis. Prior radiographic vertebral fractures and bone mineral density (BMD) as a quantitative parameter derived from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) are among the strongest known predictors of future osteoporotic fractures. Therefore, current clinical decision making relies heavily on accurate assessment of these imaging features. Further, novel quantitative techniques are being developed to appraise additional characteristics of osteoporosis including three-dimensional bone architecture with quantitative computed tomography (QCT). Dedicated high-resolution (HR) CT equipment is available to enhance image quality. At the other end of the spectrum, by utilizing post-processing techniques such as the trabecular bone score (TBS) information on three-dimensional architecture can be derived from DXA images. Further developments in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) seem promising to not only capture bone micro-architecture but also characterize processes at the molecular level. This review provides an overview of various quantitative imaging techniques based on different radiological modalities utilized in clinical osteoporosis care and research.

  10. [Underreporting of tuberculosis in the Information System on Notifiable Diseases (SINAN): primary default and case detection from additional data sources using probabilistic record linkage].

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Rejane Sobrino; Andrade, Vanusa de Lemos; Oliveira, Gisele Pinto de

    2012-08-01

    This study aimed to analyze underreporting of tuberculosis (TB) cases in the Information System on Notifiable Diseases (SINAN), based on the following data sources: Mortality Information System (SIM), Registry and Follow-up Book for TB Case Treatment (LPATB), and Laboratory Registry Book (LRLAB). Probabilistic record linkage was used between the SIM (2007-2008) and SINAN (2002-2008). A search was conducted in LPATB and LRLAB (2007-2008) for cases not recorded in SINAN. There were 125 deaths, of which 44.8% were not recorded in SINAN. In LPATB, 58 cases (5.1%) were in treatment and were not reported in SINAN. LRLAB showed 32 smear-positive cases not reported to SINAN and without treatment, representing primary default. Addition of the retrieved cases, led to a 14.6% increase in the incidence rate in 2007 and 11.6% in 2008. Underreporting of deaths from or with TB in the Mortality Information System and primary default revealed difficulties in access to adequate and timely treatment, calling for rethinking of strategies to detect cases for timely treatment.

  11. A comparison of 3D poly(ε-caprolactone) tissue engineering scaffolds produced with conventional and additive manufacturing techniques by means of quantitative analysis of SR μ-CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brun, F.; Intranuovo, F.; Mohammadi, S.; Domingos, M.; Favia, P.; Tromba, G.

    2013-07-01

    The technique used to produce a 3D tissue engineering (TE) scaffold is of fundamental importance in order to guarantee its proper morphological characteristics. An accurate assessment of the resulting structural properties is therefore crucial in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the produced scaffold. Synchrotron radiation (SR) computed microtomography (μ-CT) combined with further image analysis seems to be one of the most effective techniques to this aim. However, a quantitative assessment of the morphological parameters directly from the reconstructed images is a non trivial task. This study considers two different poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffolds fabricated with a conventional technique (Solvent Casting Particulate Leaching, SCPL) and an additive manufacturing (AM) technique (BioCell Printing), respectively. With the first technique it is possible to produce scaffolds with random, non-regular, rounded pore geometry. The AM technique instead is able to produce scaffolds with square-shaped interconnected pores of regular dimension. Therefore, the final morphology of the AM scaffolds can be predicted and the resulting model can be used for the validation of the applied imaging and image analysis protocols. It is here reported a SR μ-CT image analysis approach that is able to effectively and accurately reveal the differences in the pore- and throat-size distributions as well as connectivity of both AM and SCPL scaffolds.

  12. Amplitudes of Pain-Related Evoked Potentials Are Useful to Detect Small Fiber Involvement in Painful Mixed Fiber Neuropathies in Addition to Quantitative Sensory Testing – An Electrophysiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Niels; Kahn, Ann-Kathrin; Zeller, Daniel; Katsarava, Zaza; Sommer, Claudia; Üçeyler, Nurcan

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the usefulness of pain-related evoked potentials (PREP) elicited by electrical stimulation for the identification of small fiber involvement in patients with mixed fiber neuropathy (MFN). Eleven MFN patients with clinical signs of large fiber impairment and neuropathic pain and ten healthy controls underwent clinical and electrophysiological evaluation. Small fiber function, electrical conductivity and morphology were examined by quantitative sensory testing (QST), PREP, and skin punch biopsy. MFN was diagnosed following clinical and electrophysiological examination (chronic inflammatory demyelinating neuropathy: n = 6; vasculitic neuropathy: n = 3; chronic axonal ­neuropathy: n = 2). The majority of patients with MFN characterized their pain by descriptors that mainly represent C-fiber-mediated pain. In QST, patients displayed elevated cold, warm, mechanical, and vibration detection thresholds and cold pain thresholds indicative of MFN. PREP amplitudes in patients correlated with cold (p < 0.05) and warm detection thresholds (p < 0.05). Burning pain and the presence of par-/dysesthesias correlated negatively with PREP amplitudes (p < 0.05). PREP amplitudes correlating with cold and warm detection thresholds, burning pain, and par-/dysesthesias support employing PREP amplitudes as an additional tool in conjunction with QST for detecting small fiber impairment in patients with MFN. PMID:26696950

  13. Quantitation and detection of vanadium in biologic and pollution materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, W. A.

    1974-01-01

    A review is presented of special considerations and methodology for determining vanadium in biological and air pollution materials. In addition to descriptions of specific analysis procedures, general sections are included on quantitation of analysis procedures, sample preparation, blanks, and methods of detection of vanadium. Most of the information presented is applicable to the determination of other trace elements in addition to vanadium.

  14. Developing Geoscience Students' Quantitative Skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manduca, C. A.; Hancock, G. S.

    2005-12-01

    Teaching Quantitative Skills in the Geosciences website (serc.Carleton.edu/quantskills/). In addition to the teaching activity collection (85 activites), this site contains a variety of resources to assist faculty with the methods they use to teach quantitative skills at both the introductory and advanced levels; information about broader efforts in quantitative literacy involving other science disciplines, and a special section of resources for students who are struggling with their quantitative skills. The site is part of the Digital Library for Earth Science Education and has been developed by geoscience faculty in collaboration with mathematicians and mathematics educators with funding from the National Science Foundation.

  15. Fuel characteristics pertinent to the design of aircraft fuel systems, Supplement I : additional information on MIL-F-7914(AER) grade JP-5 fuel and several fuel oils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, Henry C; Hibbard, Robert R

    1953-01-01

    Since the release of the first NACA publication on fuel characteristics pertinent to the design of aircraft fuel systems (NACA-RM-E53A21), additional information has become available on MIL-F7914(AER) grade JP-5 fuel and several of the current grades of fuel oils. In order to make this information available to fuel-system designers as quickly as possible, the present report has been prepared as a supplement to NACA-RM-E53A21. Although JP-5 fuel is of greater interest in current fuel-system problems than the fuel oils, the available data are not as extensive. It is believed, however, that the limited data on JP-5 are sufficient to indicate the variations in stocks that the designer must consider under a given fuel specification. The methods used in the preparation and extrapolation of data presented in the tables and figures of this supplement are the same as those used in NACA-RM-E53A21.

  16. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  17. DNA mixture genotyping by probabilistic computer interpretation of binomially-sampled laser captured cell populations: combining quantitative data for greater identification information.

    PubMed

    Ballantyne, Jack; Hanson, Erin K; Perlin, Mark W

    2013-06-01

    Two person DNA admixtures are frequently encountered in criminal cases and their interpretation can be challenging, particularly if the amount of DNA contributed by both individuals is approximately equal. Due to an inevitable degree of uncertainty in the constituent genotypes, reduced statistical weight is given to the mixture evidence compared to that expected from the constituent single source contributors. The ultimate goal of mixture analysis, then, is to precisely discern the constituent genotypes and here we posit a novel strategy to accomplish this. We hypothesised that LCM-mediated isolation of multiple groups of cells ('binomial sampling') from the admixture would create separate cell sub-populations with differing constituent weight ratios. Furthermore we predicted that interpreting the resulting DNA profiling data by the quantitative computer-based TrueAllele® interpretation system would result in an efficient recovery of the constituent genotypes due to newfound abilities to compute a maximum LR from sub-samples with skewed weight ratios, and to jointly interpret all possible pairings of sub-samples using a joint likelihood function. As a proof of concept, 10 separate cell samplings of size 20 recovered by LCM from each of two 1:1 buccal cell mixtures were DNA-STR profiled using a specifically developed LCN methodology, with the data analyzed by the TrueAllele® Casework system. In accordance with the binomial sampling hypothesis, the sub-samples exhibited weight ratios that were well dispersed from the 50% center value (50±35% at the 95% level). The maximum log(LR) information for a genotype inferred from a single 20 cell sample was 18.5 ban, with an average log(LR) information of 11.7 ban. Co-inferring genotypes using a joint likelihood function with two sub-samples essentially recovered the full genotype information. We demonstrate that a similar gain in genotype information can be obtained with standard (28-cycle) PCR conditions using the same

  18. Improved CT and MR image registration with the introduction of a dual-modality contrast agent: performance assessment using quantitative and information theoretic methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoisak, Jeremy D. P.; Zheng, Jinzi; Allen, Christine; Jaffray, David A.

    2008-03-01

    The ability of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to visualize and discriminate between normal and diseased tissues is improved with contrast agents, which are designed to differentially accumulate in tissues and modify their inherent imaging signal. Conventional contrast agents are limited to a single modality and require fast acquisitions due to rapid clearance following injection. Encapsulation of iohexol and gadoteridol within a nano-engineered liposome has been achieved and can increase their in vivo half-life to several days. We hypothesize that the persistence of this contrast agent in vivo, and the simultaneous co-localized contrast enhancement across modalities will improve longitudinal image registration. This work investigates the in vivo registration performance of the dual-modality contrast agent under realistic conditions. Previous characterizations of single-modality contrast agents were limited to qualitative inspections of signal intensity enhancement. We present quantitative, information theoretic methods for assessing image registration performance. The effect of increased localized contrast upon the mutual information of the MR and CT image sets was shown to increase post-injection. Images registered post- injection had a decreased registration error compared with pre-contrast images. Performance was maintained over extended time frames, contrast agent concentrations, and with decreased field-of-view. This characterization allows optimization of the contrast agent against desired performance for a given imaging task. The ability to perform robust longitudinal image registration is essential for pre-clinical investigations of tumor development, monitoring of therapy response, and therapy guidance over multiple fractions where registration of online cone-beam CT to planning CT and MR is necessary.

  19. BPI-ANCA Provides Additional Clinical Information to Anti-Pseudomonas Serology: Results from a Cohort of 117 Swedish Cystic Fibrosis Patients.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Ulrika; Carlsson, Malin; Hellmark, Thomas; Segelmark, Mårten

    2015-01-01

    Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) colonized with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) have worse prognosis compared with patients who are not. BPI-ANCA is an anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody against BPI (bactericidal/permeability increasing protein) correlating with P. aeruginosa colonization and adverse long time prognosis. Whether it provides additional information as compared to standard anti-P. aeruginosa serology tests is not known. 117 nontransplanted CF patients at the CF centre in Lund, Sweden, were followed prospectively for ten years. Bacterial colonisation was classified according to the Leeds criteria. IgA BPI-ANCA was compared with assays for antibodies against alkaline protease (AP), Elastase (ELA), and Exotoxin A (ExoA). Lung function and patient outcome, alive, lung transplanted, or dead, were registered. BPI-ANCA showed the highest correlation with lung function impairment with an r-value of 0.44. Forty-eight of the 117 patients were chronically colonized with P. aeruginosa. Twenty of these patients experienced an adverse outcome. Receiver operator curve (ROC) analysis revealed that this could be predicted by BPI-ANCA (AUC = 0.77), (p = 0.002) to a better degree compared with serology tests. BPI-ANCA correlates better with lung function impairment and long time prognosis than anti-P. aeruginosa serology and has similar ability to identify patients with chronic P. aeruginosa.

  20. From linked open data to molecular interaction: studying selectivity trends for ligands of the human serotonin and dopamine transporter† †The authors declare no competing interests. ‡ ‡Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6md00207b Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Hellsberg, Eva; Viereck, Michael; Ecker, Gerhard F.

    2016-01-01

    Retrieval of congeneric and consistent SAR data sets for protein targets of interest is still a laborious task to do if no appropriate in-house data set is available. However, combining integrated open data sources (such as the Open PHACTS Discovery Platform) with workflow tools now offers the possibility of querying across multiple domains and tailoring the search to the given research question. Starting from two phylogenetically related protein targets of interest (the human serotonin and dopamine transporters), the whole chemical compound space was explored by implementing a scaffold-based clustering of compounds possessing biological measurements for both targets. In addition, potential hERG blocking liabilities were included. The workflow allowed studying the selectivity trends of scaffold series, identifying potentially harmful compound series, and performing SAR, docking studies and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations for a consistent data set of 56 cathinones. This delivered useful insights into driving determinants for hDAT selectivity over hSERT. With respect to the scaffold-based analyses it should be noted that the cathinone data set could be retrieved only when Murcko scaffold analyses were combined with similarity searches such as a common substructure search. PMID:27891211

  1. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    ... or natural. Natural food additives include: Herbs or spices to add flavor to foods Vinegar for pickling ... Certain colors improve the appearance of foods. Many spices, as well as natural and man-made flavors, ...

  2. Multivariate Quantitative Chemical Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinchen, David G.; Capezza, Mary

    1995-01-01

    Technique of multivariate quantitative chemical analysis devised for use in determining relative proportions of two components mixed and sprayed together onto object to form thermally insulating foam. Potentially adaptable to other materials, especially in process-monitoring applications in which necessary to know and control critical properties of products via quantitative chemical analyses of products. In addition to chemical composition, also used to determine such physical properties as densities and strengths.

  3. Quantitative plant proteomics.

    PubMed

    Bindschedler, Laurence V; Cramer, Rainer

    2011-02-01

    Quantitation is an inherent requirement in comparative proteomics and there is no exception to this for plant proteomics. Quantitative proteomics has high demands on the experimental workflow, requiring a thorough design and often a complex multi-step structure. It has to include sufficient numbers of biological and technical replicates and methods that are able to facilitate a quantitative signal read-out. Quantitative plant proteomics in particular poses many additional challenges but because of the nature of plants it also offers some potential advantages. In general, analysis of plants has been less prominent in proteomics. Low protein concentration, difficulties in protein extraction, genome multiploidy, high Rubisco abundance in green tissue, and an absence of well-annotated and completed genome sequences are some of the main challenges in plant proteomics. However, the latter is now changing with several genomes emerging for model plants and crops such as potato, tomato, soybean, rice, maize and barley. This review discusses the current status in quantitative plant proteomics (MS-based and non-MS-based) and its challenges and potentials. Both relative and absolute quantitation methods in plant proteomics from DIGE to MS-based analysis after isotope labeling and label-free quantitation are described and illustrated by published studies. In particular, we describe plant-specific quantitative methods such as metabolic labeling methods that can take full advantage of plant metabolism and culture practices, and discuss other potential advantages and challenges that may arise from the unique properties of plants.

  4. Investigation of intervertebral disc degeneration using multivariate FTIR spectroscopic imaging† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5fd00160a Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Peeters, Mirte; Detiger, Suzanne E. L.; Helder, Marco N.; Smit, Theo H.; Le Maitre, Christine L.; Sammon, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally tissue samples are analysed using protein or enzyme specific stains on serial sections to build up a picture of the distribution of components contained within them. In this study we investigated the potential of multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) to deconvolute 2nd derivative spectra of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microscopic images measured in transflectance mode of goat and human paraffin embedded intervertebral disc (IVD) tissue sections, to see if this methodology can provide analogous information to that provided by immunohistochemical stains and bioassays but from a single section. MCR-ALS analysis of non-degenerate and enzymatically in vivo degenerated goat IVDs reveals five matrix components displaying distribution maps matching histological stains for collagen, elastin and proteoglycan (PG), as well as immunohistochemical stains for collagen type I and II. Interestingly, two components exhibiting characteristic spectral and distribution profiles of proteoglycans were found, and relative component/tissue maps of these components (labelled PG1 and PG2) showed distinct distributions in non-degenerate versus mildly degenerate goat samples. MCR-ALS analysis of human IVD sections resulted in comparable spectral profiles to those observed in the goat samples, highlighting the inter species transferability of the presented methodology. Multivariate FTIR image analysis of a set of 43 goat IVD sections allowed the extraction of semi-quantitative information from component/tissue gradients taken across the IVD width of collagen type I, collagen type II, PG1 and PG2. Regional component/tissue parameters were calculated and significant correlations were found between histological grades of degeneration and PG parameters (PG1: p = 0.0003, PG2: p < 0.0001); glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content and PGs (PG1: p = 0.0055, PG2: p = 0.0001); and MRI T2* measurements and PGs (PG1: p = 0.0021, PG2: p < 0.0001). Additionally

  5. Prediction of biochemical recurrence and prostate cancer specific death in men after radical retropublic prostatectomy: Use of pathology and computer-assisted quantitative nuclear grading information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Masood Ahmed

    Prostate cancer is the most common solid tumour in man. Accordingly, it is expected that 1 in 6 men will experience prostate cancer during their lifetime. Over the past 20 years there have been tremendous advancements in both diagnostic as well as surgical approach to prostate cancer. This has led not only to earlier detection of the disease in its natural history, but also the availability of effective surgical management. Furthermore, the discovery of serum prostate specific antigen as a marker for prostate cancer along with greater acceptance of prostate cancer screening has resulted in an increase in the incidence of prostate cancer in men younger than 50 years of age. This is an age group that has traditionally been associated with a poor prognosis after radical prostatectomy. In addition, despite being able to effectively remove the whole of the gland with limited morbidity, approximately 25% of men after radical prostatectomy will experience biochemical recurrence with time. Moreover, the majority will progress to distant metastases and/or die from prostate cancer. We firstly investigated whether radical prostatectomy is a viable option for men younger than 50 years of age diagnosed with clinically localised prostate cancer. We also determined factors that predict disease recurrence after radical prostatectomy. As many men demonstrate evidence of biochemical recurrence with some showing further progression after radical prostatectomy, we, therefore, investigated whether pathological variables as well as nuclear morphometry could be used to predict those that are at an increased risk for disease recurrence after radical prostatectomy. Our results demonstrated that 1) radical prostatectomy can be safely performed in younger men as it can provide excellent long-term disease-free survival; 2) We determined that there are a number of factors that are associated with an increased risk for disease recurrence after radical prostatectomy; 3) We have constructed a new

  6. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  7. Phosphazene additives

    DOEpatents

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  8. Quantitative research.

    PubMed

    Watson, Roger

    2015-04-01

    This article describes the basic tenets of quantitative research. The concepts of dependent and independent variables are addressed and the concept of measurement and its associated issues, such as error, reliability and validity, are explored. Experiments and surveys – the principal research designs in quantitative research – are described and key features explained. The importance of the double-blind randomised controlled trial is emphasised, alongside the importance of longitudinal surveys, as opposed to cross-sectional surveys. Essential features of data storage are covered, with an emphasis on safe, anonymous storage. Finally, the article explores the analysis of quantitative data, considering what may be analysed and the main uses of statistics in analysis.

  9. QUANTITATIVE MORPHOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: In toxicology, the role of quantitative assessment of brain morphology can be understood in the context of two types of treatment-related alterations. One type of alteration is specifically associated with treatment and is not observed in control animals. Measurement ...

  10. Molecules in the mirror: how SERS backgrounds arise from the quantum method of images† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional derivation of eqn (5). See DOI: 10.1039/c4cp00093e Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Stephen M.; Harris, Nadine

    2014-01-01

    The Raman coupling of light to molecular vibrations is strongly modified when they are placed near a plasmonic metal surface, with the appearance of a strong broad continuum background in addition to the normal surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) peaks. Using a quantum method of images approach, we produce a simple but quantitative explanation of the inevitable presence of the background, due to the resistive damping of the image molecule. This model thus suggests new strategies for enhancing the SERS peak to background ratio. PMID:24584480

  11. Environmental Assessment for the Construction of an Addition to USSOCOM Command and Control Facility, an Information Technology Facility, and a Permanent Parking Lot MacDill AFB, Florida

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    In addition, since the site is larger than one acre in area, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Phase II Storm water...Clean Air Act (CAA), as amended in 1977 and 1990, provides the basis for regulating air pollution to the atmosphere. The United States Environmental...Protection Agency (USEPA) set air quality standards for six “criteria” pollutants : carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), sulfur

  12. Quantitative glycomics.

    PubMed

    Orlando, Ron

    2010-01-01

    The ability to quantitatively determine changes is an essential component of comparative glycomics. Multiple strategies are available by which this can be accomplished. These include label-free approaches and strategies where an isotopic label is incorporated into the glycans prior to analysis. The focus of this chapter is to describe each of these approaches while providing insight into their strengths and weaknesses, so that glycomic investigators can make an educated choice of the strategy that is best suited for their particular application.

  13. Quantitative photoacoustic tomography

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Zhen; Jiang, Huabei

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, several algorithms that allow for quantitative photoacoustic reconstruction of tissue optical, acoustic and physiological properties are described in a finite-element method based framework. These quantitative reconstruction algorithms are compared, and the merits and limitations associated with these methods are discussed. In addition, a multispectral approach is presented for concurrent reconstructions of multiple parameters including deoxyhaemoglobin, oxyhaemoglobin and water concentrations as well as acoustic speed. Simulation and in vivo experiments are used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the reconstruction algorithms presented. PMID:19581254

  14. Two new endemic species of Ameiva (Squamata: Teiidae) from the dry forest of northwestern Peru and additional information on Ameiva concolor Ruthven, 1924.

    PubMed

    Koch, Claudia; Venegas, Pablo J; Rödder, Dennis; Flecks, Morris; Böhme, Wolfgang

    2013-12-04

    We describe two new species of Ameiva Meyer, 1795 from the dry forest of the Northern Peruvian Andes. The new species Ameiva nodam sp. nov. and Ameiva aggerecusans sp. nov. share a divided frontal plate and are differentiated from each other and from their congeners based on genetic (12S and 16S rRNA genes) and morphological characteristics. A. nodam sp. nov. has dilated postbrachials, a maximum known snout-vent length of 101 mm, 10 longitudinal rows of ventral plates, 86-113 midbody granules, 25-35 lamellae under the fourth toe, and a color pattern with 5 longitudinal yellow stripes on the dorsum. Ameiva aggerecusans sp. nov. has not or only hardly dilated postbrachials, a maximum known snout-vent length of 99.3 mm, 10-12 longitudinal rows of ventral plates, 73-92 midbody granules, 31-39 lamellae under the fourth toe, and the females and juveniles of the species normally exhibit a cream-colored vertebral stripe on a dark dorsum ground color. We provide information on the intraspecific variation and distribution of A. concolor. Furthermore, we provide information on the environmental niches of the taxa and test for niche conservatism. 

  15. Mapping Publication Trends and Identifying Hot Spots of Research on Internet Health Information Seeking Behavior: A Quantitative and Co-Word Biclustering Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fan; Li, Min; Guan, Peng; Ma, Shuang

    2015-01-01

    Background The Internet has become an established source of health information for people seeking health information. In recent years, research on the health information seeking behavior of Internet users has become an increasingly important scholarly focus. However, there have been no long-term bibliometric studies to date on Internet health information seeking behavior. Objective The purpose of this study was to map publication trends and explore research hot spots of Internet health information seeking behavior. Methods A bibliometric analysis based on PubMed was conducted to investigate the publication trends of research on Internet health information seeking behavior. For the included publications, the annual publication number, the distribution of countries, authors, languages, journals, and annual distribution of highly frequent major MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) terms were determined. Furthermore, co-word biclustering analysis of highly frequent major MeSH terms was utilized to detect the hot spots in this field. Results A total of 533 publications were included. The research output was gradually increasing. There were five authors who published four or more articles individually. A total of 271 included publications (50.8%) were written by authors from the United States, and 516 of the 533 articles (96.8%) were published in English. The eight most active journals published 34.1% (182/533) of the publications on this topic. Ten research hot spots were found: (1) behavior of Internet health information seeking about HIV infection or sexually transmitted diseases, (2) Internet health information seeking behavior of students, (3) behavior of Internet health information seeking via mobile phone and its apps, (4) physicians’ utilization of Internet medical resources, (5) utilization of social media by parents, (6) Internet health information seeking behavior of patients with cancer (mainly breast cancer), (7) trust in or satisfaction with Web-based health

  16. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification assay identifies additional copy number changes compared with R-band karyotype and provide more accuracy prognostic information in myelodysplastic syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zefeng; Zhang, Yue; Liu, Jinqin; Li, Bing; Fang, Liwei; Zhang, Hongli; Pan, Lijuan; Hu, Naibo; Qu, Shiqiang; Cai, Wenyu; Ru, Kun; Jia, Yujiao; Huang, Gang; Xiao, Zhijian

    2017-01-01

    Cytogenetic analysis provides important diagnostic and prognostic information for patients with Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and plays an essential role in the International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) and the revised International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS-R). Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) assay is a recently developed technique to identify targeted cytogenetic aberrations in MDS patients. In the present study, we evaluated the results obtained using an MLPA assay in 437 patients with MDS to determine the efficacy of MLPA analysis. Using R-banding karyotyping, 45% (197/437) of MDS patients had chromosomal abnormalities, whereas MLPA analysis detected that 35% (153/437) of MDS cases contained at least one copy-number variations (CNVs) .2/5 individuals (40%) with R-band karyotype failures had trisomy 8 detected using only MLPA. Clonal cytogenetic abnormalities were detected in 20/235 (8.5%) MDS patients with a normal R-band karyotype, and 12/20 (60%) of those patients were reclassified into a higher-risk IPSS-R prognostic category. When sequencing and cytogenetics were combined, the fraction of patients with MDS-related oncogenic lesions increased to 87.3% (233/267 cases). MLPA analysis determined that the median OS of patients with a normal karyotype (n=218) was 65 months compared with 27 months in cases with an aberrant karyotype (P=0.002) in 240 patients with normal or failed karyotypes by R-banding karyotyping. The high-resolution MPLA assay is an efficient and reliable method that can be used in conjunction with R-band karyotyping to detect chromosomal abnormalities in patients with suspected MDS. MLPA may also provide more accurate prognostic information. PMID:27906673

  17. Quantitative microbiological risk assessment as a tool to obtain useful information for risk managers--specific application to Listeria monocytogenes and ready-to-eat meat products.

    PubMed

    Mataragas, M; Zwietering, M H; Skandamis, P N; Drosinos, E H

    2010-07-31

    The presence of Listeria monocytogenes in a sliced cooked, cured ham-like meat product was quantitatively assessed. Sliced cooked, cured meat products are considered as high risk products. These ready-to-eat, RTE, products (no special preparation, e.g. thermal treatment, before eating is required), support growth of pathogens (high initial pH=6.2-6.4 and water activity=0.98-0.99) and has a relatively long period of storage at chilled temperatures with a shelf life equal to 60 days based on manufacturer's instructions. Therefore, in case of post-process contamination, even with low number of cells, the microorganism is able to reach unacceptable levels at the time of consumption. The aim of this study was to conduct a Quantitative Microbiological Risk Assessment (QMRA) on the risk of L. monocytogenes presence in RTE meat products. This may help risk managers to make decisions and apply control measures with ultimate objective the food safety assurance. Examples are given to illustrate the development of practical risk management strategies based on the results obtained from the QMRA model specifically developed for this pathogen/food product combination.

  18. NGSI student activities in open source information analysis in support of the training program of the U.S. DOE laboratories for the entry into force of the additional protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Sandoval, M Analisa; Uribe, Eva C; Sandoval, Marisa N; Boyer, Brian D; Stevens, Rebecca S

    2009-01-01

    In 2008 a joint team from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) consisting of specialists in training of IAEA inspectors in the use of complementary access activities formulated a training program to prepare the U.S. Doe laboratories for the entry into force of the Additional Protocol. As a major part of the support of the activity, LANL summer interns provided open source information analysis to the LANL-BNL mock inspection team. They were a part of the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative's (NGSI) summer intern program aimed at producing the next generation of safeguards specialists. This paper describes how they used open source information to 'backstop' the LANL-BNL team's effort to construct meaningful Additional Protocol Complementary Access training scenarios for each of the three DOE laboratories, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Idaho National Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  19. A mental health needs assessment of children and adolescents in post-conflict Liberia: results from a quantitative key-informant survey

    PubMed Central

    Borba, Christina P.C.; Ng, Lauren C.; Stevenson, Anne; Vesga-Lopez, Oriana; Harris, Benjamin L.; Parnarouskis, Lindsey; Gray, Deborah A.; Carney, Julia R.; Domínguez, Silvia; Wang, Edward K.S.; Boxill, Ryan; Song, Suzan J.; Henderson, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Between 1989 and 2004, Liberia experienced a devastating civil war that resulted in widespread trauma with almost no mental health infrastructure to help citizens cope. In 2009, the Liberian Ministry of Health and Social Welfare collaborated with researchers from Massachusetts General Hospital to conduct a rapid needs assessment survey in Liberia with local key informants (n = 171) to examine the impact of war and post-war events on emotional and behavioral problems of, functional limitations of, and appropriate treatment settings for Liberian youth aged 5–22. War exposure and post-conflict sexual violence, poverty, infectious disease and parental death negatively impacted youth mental health. Key informants perceived that youth displayed internalizing and externalizing symptoms and mental health-related functional impairment at home, school, work and in relationships. Medical clinics were identified as the most appropriate setting for mental health services. Youth in Liberia continue to endure the harsh social, economic and material conditions of everyday life in a protracted post-conflict state, and have significant mental health needs. Their observed functional impairment due to mental health issues further limited their access to protective factors such as education, employment and positive social relationships. Results from this study informed Liberia's first post-conflict mental health policy. PMID:26807147

  20. A mental health needs assessment of children and adolescents in post-conflict Liberia: results from a quantitative key-informant survey.

    PubMed

    Borba, Christina P C; Ng, Lauren C; Stevenson, Anne; Vesga-Lopez, Oriana; Harris, Benjamin L; Parnarouskis, Lindsey; Gray, Deborah A; Carney, Julia R; Domínguez, Silvia; Wang, Edward K S; Boxill, Ryan; Song, Suzan J; Henderson, David C

    2016-01-02

    Between 1989 and 2004, Liberia experienced a devastating civil war that resulted in widespread trauma with almost no mental health infrastructure to help citizens cope. In 2009, the Liberian Ministry of Health and Social Welfare collaborated with researchers from Massachusetts General Hospital to conduct a rapid needs assessment survey in Liberia with local key informants (n = 171) to examine the impact of war and post-war events on emotional and behavioral problems of, functional limitations of, and appropriate treatment settings for Liberian youth aged 5-22. War exposure and post-conflict sexual violence, poverty, infectious disease and parental death negatively impacted youth mental health. Key informants perceived that youth displayed internalizing and externalizing symptoms and mental health-related functional impairment at home, school, work and in relationships. Medical clinics were identified as the most appropriate setting for mental health services. Youth in Liberia continue to endure the harsh social, economic and material conditions of everyday life in a protracted post-conflict state, and have significant mental health needs. Their observed functional impairment due to mental health issues further limited their access to protective factors such as education, employment and positive social relationships. Results from this study informed Liberia's first post-conflict mental health policy.

  1. Additives in plastics.

    PubMed Central

    Deanin, R D

    1975-01-01

    The polymers used in plastics are generally harmless. However, they are rarely used in pure form. In almost all commercial plastics, they are "compounded" with monomeric ingredients to improve their processing and end-use performance. In order of total volume used, these monomeric additives may be classified as follows: reinforcing fibers, fillers, and coupling agents; plasticizers; colorants; stabilizers (halogen stabilizers, antioxidants, ultraviolet absorbers, and biological preservatives); processing aids (lubricants, others, and flow controls); flame retardants, peroxides; and antistats. Some information is already available, and much more is needed, on potential toxicity and safe handling of these additives during processing and manufacture of plastics products. PMID:1175566

  2. Additives in plastics.

    PubMed

    Deanin, R D

    1975-06-01

    The polymers used in plastics are generally harmless. However, they are rarely used in pure form. In almost all commercial plastics, they are "compounded" with monomeric ingredients to improve their processing and end-use performance. In order of total volume used, these monomeric additives may be classified as follows: reinforcing fibers, fillers, and coupling agents; plasticizers; colorants; stabilizers (halogen stabilizers, antioxidants, ultraviolet absorbers, and biological preservatives); processing aids (lubricants, others, and flow controls); flame retardants, peroxides; and antistats. Some information is already available, and much more is needed, on potential toxicity and safe handling of these additives during processing and manufacture of plastics products.

  3. 24 CFR 1710.116 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the right to exercise, any control over the Association because of voting rights or placement of... any of the following general areas: Lot marketing and advertising, rendering of lot services, and...

  4. 12 CFR 1010.116 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... developer exercise, or have the right to exercise, any control over the Association because of voting rights... environment, land sales, securities sales, construction or sale of homes or home improvements, consumer fraud... subdivision. (d) Resale or exchange program. (1) Are there restrictions which might hinder lot owners in...

  5. 24 CFR 1710.116 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT (INTERSTATE LAND SALES REGISTRATION PROGRAM) LAND REGISTRATION Reporting Requirements..., when will it be formed? Who is responsible for its formation? (2) Does the developer exercise, or have the right to exercise, any control over the Association because of voting rights or placement...

  6. 24 CFR 1710.116 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... land but only the right to use it for a certain period of time.” (f) Equal opportunity in lot sales... the right to exercise, any control over the Association because of voting rights or placement of... Statements of Record and amendments need not be listed.) (2) Has the developer, the owner of the land,...

  7. 303d Impaired Waters Additional Information

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    For ATTAINS 303(d) geospatial data, the Table of Available Cycles in the RAD lists the most recent ATTAINS cycle for which GIS data are available for each state. Page includes a fact sheet and pollution category summary document.

  8. 24 CFR 1710.216 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of any membership agreement or similar document. (b) Price range, type of sales and marketing. (1... marketing to be used for the subdivision. The description should include, but need not be limited to... will be furnished transportation from distant cities to the subdivision; (iv) Whether mass...

  9. Visual constraints for the perception of quantitative depth from temporal interocular unmatched features.

    PubMed

    Ni, Rui; Chen, Lin; Andersen, George J

    2010-07-21

    Previous research (Brooks & Gillam, 2006) has found that temporal interocular unmatched (IOUM) features generate a perception of subjective contours and can result in a perception of quantitative depth. In the present study we examine in detail the factors important for quantitative depth perception from IOUM features. In Experiments 1 and 2 observers were shown temporal IOUM features based on three dots that disappeared behind an implicit surface. Subjects reported a perception of a subjective surface and were able to perceive qualitative depth. In Experiments 3 and 4 metrical depth was perceived when binocular disparity features were added to the display. These results suggest that quantitative depth from IOUM information is perceived when binocular matched information is present in regions adjacent to the surface. In addition, the perceived depth of the subjective surface decreased with an increase in the width of the subjective surface suggesting a limitation in the propagation of quantitative depth to surface regions where qualitative depth information is available.

  10. Quantitative Literacy: Geosciences and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, R. M.; McCallum, W. G.

    2002-12-01

    Quantitative literacy seems like such a natural for the geosciences, right? The field has gone from its origin as a largely descriptive discipline to one where it is hard to imagine failing to bring a full range of mathematical tools to the solution of geological problems. Although there are many definitions of quantitative literacy, we have proposed one that is analogous to the UNESCO definition of conventional literacy: "A quantitatively literate person is one who, with understanding, can both read and represent quantitative information arising in his or her everyday life." Central to this definition is the concept that a curriculum for quantitative literacy must go beyond the basic ability to "read and write" mathematics and develop conceptual understanding. It is also critical that a curriculum for quantitative literacy be engaged with a context, be it everyday life, humanities, geoscience or other sciences, business, engineering, or technology. Thus, our definition works both within and outside the sciences. What role do geoscience faculty have in helping students become quantitatively literate? Is it our role, or that of the mathematicians? How does quantitative literacy vary between different scientific and engineering fields? Or between science and nonscience fields? We will argue that successful quantitative literacy curricula must be an across-the-curriculum responsibility. We will share examples of how quantitative literacy can be developed within a geoscience curriculum, beginning with introductory classes for nonmajors (using the Mauna Loa CO2 data set) through graduate courses in inverse theory (using singular value decomposition). We will highlight six approaches to across-the curriculum efforts from national models: collaboration between mathematics and other faculty; gateway testing; intensive instructional support; workshops for nonmathematics faculty; quantitative reasoning requirement; and individual initiative by nonmathematics faculty.

  11. A Primer on Disseminating Applied Quantitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Bethany A.; DiStefano, Christine; Morgan, Grant B.

    2010-01-01

    Transparency and replication are essential features of scientific inquiry, yet scientific communications of applied quantitative research are often lacking in much-needed procedural information. In an effort to promote researchers dissemination of their quantitative studies in a cohesive, detailed, and informative manner, the authors delineate…

  12. Quantitative Decision Support Requires Quantitative User Guidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, L. A.

    2009-12-01

    Is it conceivable that models run on 2007 computer hardware could provide robust and credible probabilistic information for decision support and user guidance at the ZIP code level for sub-daily meteorological events in 2060? In 2090? Retrospectively, how informative would output from today’s models have proven in 2003? or the 1930’s? Consultancies in the United Kingdom, including the Met Office, are offering services to “future-proof” their customers from climate change. How is a US or European based user or policy maker to determine the extent to which exciting new Bayesian methods are relevant here? or when a commercial supplier is vastly overselling the insights of today’s climate science? How are policy makers and academic economists to make the closely related decisions facing them? How can we communicate deep uncertainty in the future at small length-scales without undermining the firm foundation established by climate science regarding global trends? Three distinct aspects of the communication of the uses of climate model output targeting users and policy makers, as well as other specialist adaptation scientists, are discussed. First, a brief scientific evaluation of the length and time scales at which climate model output is likely to become uninformative is provided, including a note on the applicability the latest Bayesian methodology to current state-of-the-art general circulation models output. Second, a critical evaluation of the language often employed in communication of climate model output, a language which accurately states that models are “better”, have “improved” and now “include” and “simulate” relevant meteorological processed, without clearly identifying where the current information is thought to be uninformative and misleads, both for the current climate and as a function of the state of the (each) climate simulation. And thirdly, a general approach for evaluating the relevance of quantitative climate model output

  13. Quantitative evaluation for brain CT/MRI coregistration based on maximization of mutual information in patients with focal epilepsy investigated with subdural electrodes.

    PubMed

    Ken, Soléakhéna; Di Gennaro, Giancarlo; Giulietti, Giovanni; Sebastiano, Fabio; De Carli, Diego; Garreffa, Girolamo; Colonnese, Claudio; Passariello, Roberto; Lotterie, Jean-Albert; Maraviglia, Bruno

    2007-07-01

    Patients with drug-resistant focal epilepsy may require intracranial investigations with subdural electrodes. These must be correctly localized with respect to the brain cortical surface and require appropriate monitoring. For this purpose, coregistration techniques, which fuse preimplantation 3D magnetic resonance imaging scans with postimplantation computed tomography scans, have been implemented. In order to reduce localization errors due to the fusion process, we used a coregistration method based on the maximization of mutual information (MI) in 11 patients with extratemporal epilepsy who were invasively investigated. Our registration method is based on three processing steps: rigid-body transformation for coregistration, computation of MI as a similarity measure and the use of the Downhill Simplex optimization method. After consistency analysis, the shift of the registration method reached 0.14+/-0.27 mm in translation and 0.03+/-0.14 degrees in rotation, and the accuracies assessed on voxels of skull surface and voxels of the center of the brain volume were 1.42+/-0.61 and 1.15+/-0.53 mm, respectively. The accuracy of the fusion process reached submillimeter range, and results were considered reliable for surgical planning in all studied patients.

  14. Group Sparse Additive Models

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Junming; Chen, Xi; Xing, Eric P.

    2016-01-01

    We consider the problem of sparse variable selection in nonparametric additive models, with the prior knowledge of the structure among the covariates to encourage those variables within a group to be selected jointly. Previous works either study the group sparsity in the parametric setting (e.g., group lasso), or address the problem in the nonparametric setting without exploiting the structural information (e.g., sparse additive models). In this paper, we present a new method, called group sparse additive models (GroupSpAM), which can handle group sparsity in additive models. We generalize the ℓ1/ℓ2 norm to Hilbert spaces as the sparsity-inducing penalty in GroupSpAM. Moreover, we derive a novel thresholding condition for identifying the functional sparsity at the group level, and propose an efficient block coordinate descent algorithm for constructing the estimate. We demonstrate by simulation that GroupSpAM substantially outperforms the competing methods in terms of support recovery and prediction accuracy in additive models, and also conduct a comparative experiment on a real breast cancer dataset.

  15. Receptor tyrosine kinase signaling: a view from quantitative proteomics.

    PubMed

    Dengjel, Joern; Kratchmarova, Irina; Blagoev, Blagoy

    2009-10-01

    Growth factor receptor signaling via receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) is one of the basic cellular communication principals found in all metazoans. Extracellular signals are transferred via membrane spanning receptors into the cytoplasm, reversible tyrosine phosphorylation being the hallmark of all RTKs. In recent years proteomic approaches have yielded detailed descriptions of cellular signaling events. Quantitative proteomics is able to characterize the exact position and strength of post-translational modifications (PTMs) providing essential information for understanding the molecular basis of signal transduction. Numerous new post-translational modification sites have been identified by quantitative mass spectrometry-based proteomics. In addition, plentiful new players in signal transduction have been identified underlining the complexity and the modular architecture of most signaling networks. In this review, we outline the principles of signal transduction via RTKs and highlight some of the new insights obtained from proteomic approaches such as protein microarrays and quantitative mass spectrometry.

  16. A Quantitative Infrared Spectroscopy Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krahling, Mark D.; Eliason, Robert

    1985-01-01

    Although infrared spectroscopy is used primarily for qualitative identifications, it is possible to use it as a quantitative tool as well. The use of a standard curve to determine percent methanol in a 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol sample is described. Background information, experimental procedures, and results obtained are provided. (JN)

  17. Randomized pilot study and qualitative evaluation of a clinical decision support system for brain tumour diagnosis based on SV ¹H MRS: evaluation as an additional information procedure for novice radiologists.

    PubMed

    Sáez, Carlos; Martí-Bonmatí, Luis; Alberich-Bayarri, Angel; Robles, Montserrat; García-Gómez, Juan M

    2014-02-01

    The results of a randomized pilot study and qualitative evaluation of the clinical decision support system Curiam BT are reported. We evaluated the system's feasibility and potential value as a radiological information procedure complementary to magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to assist novice radiologists in diagnosing brain tumours using MR spectroscopy (1.5 and 3.0T). Fifty-five cases were analysed at three hospitals according to four non-exclusive diagnostic questions. Our results show that Curiam BT improved the diagnostic accuracy in all the four questions. Additionally, we discuss the findings of the users' feedback about the system, and the further work to optimize it for real environments and to conduct a large clinical trial.

  18. A statistical approach based on substitution of macronutrients provides additional information to models analyzing single dietary factors in relation to type 2 diabetes in danish adults: the Inter99 study.

    PubMed

    Faerch, Kristine; Lau, Cathrine; Tetens, Inge; Pedersen, Oluf Borbye; Jørgensen, Torben; Borch-Johnsen, Knut; Glümer, Charlotte

    2005-05-01

    Most studies analyzing diet-disease relations focus on single dietary factors rather than combining different nutrients into the same statistical model. The objective of this study was to identify dietary factors associated with the probability of having diabetes identified by screening (SDM) in Danish men and women aged 30-60 y. A specific objective was to examine whether an alternative statistical approach could provide additional information to already existing statistical approaches used in nutritional epidemiology. Baseline data from the Danish population-based Inter99 study were used. The dietary intake of 262 individuals with SDM was compared with that of 4627 individuals with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) using 2 different types of multiple logistic regression models adjusted for potential confounders. The first model included single dietary factors, whereas the second model was based on substitution of macronutrients. In the models with single dietary factors, high intakes of carbohydrates, dietary fiber, and coffee were inversely associated with SDM (P < 0.01), whereas high intakes of total fat and saturated fat were positively associated with SDM (P < 0.05). A modest U-shaped association was found between alcohol consumption and SDM (P = 0.10) [corrected] Results from the substitution model showed that when 3% of energy (En%) as carbohydrate replaced 3 En% fat or alcohol, the probability of having SDM decreased by 9 and 10%, respectively (P < 0.01) [corrected] No other macronutrient substitutions resulted in significant associations. Hence, the statistical approach based on substitution of macronutrients provided additional information to the model analyzing single dietary factors.

  19. Precocious quantitative cognition in monkeys.

    PubMed

    Ferrigno, Stephen; Hughes, Kelly D; Cantlon, Jessica F

    2016-02-01

    Basic quantitative abilities are thought to have an innate basis in humans partly because the ability to discriminate quantities emerges early in child development. If humans and nonhuman primates share this developmentally primitive foundation of quantitative reasoning, then this ability should be present early in development across species and should emerge earlier in monkeys than in humans because monkeys mature faster than humans. We report that monkeys spontaneously make accurate quantity choices by 1 year of age in a task that human children begin to perform only at 2.5 to 3 years of age. Additionally, we report that the quantitative sensitivity of infant monkeys is equal to that of the adult animals in their group and that rates of learning do not differ between infant and adult animals. This novel evidence of precocious quantitative reasoning in infant monkeys suggests that human quantitative reasoning shares its early developing foundation with other primates. The data further suggest that early developing components of primate quantitative reasoning are constrained by maturational factors related to genetic development as opposed to learning experience alone.

  20. Quantitative Hyperspectral Reflectance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Marvin E.; Aalderink, Bernard J.; Padoan, Roberto; de Bruin, Gerrit; Steemers, Ted A.G.

    2008-01-01

    Hyperspectral imaging is a non-destructive optical analysis technique that can for instance be used to obtain information from cultural heritage objects unavailable with conventional colour or multi-spectral photography. This technique can be used to distinguish and recognize materials, to enhance the visibility of faint or obscured features, to detect signs of degradation and study the effect of environmental conditions on the object. We describe the basic concept, working principles, construction and performance of a laboratory instrument specifically developed for the analysis of historical documents. The instrument measures calibrated spectral reflectance images at 70 wavelengths ranging from 365 to 1100 nm (near-ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared). By using a wavelength tunable narrow-bandwidth light-source, the light energy used to illuminate the measured object is minimal, so that any light-induced degradation can be excluded. Basic analysis of the hyperspectral data includes a qualitative comparison of the spectral images and the extraction of quantitative data such as mean spectral reflectance curves and statistical information from user-defined regions-of-interest. More sophisticated mathematical feature extraction and classification techniques can be used to map areas on the document, where different types of ink had been applied or where one ink shows various degrees of degradation. The developed quantitative hyperspectral imager is currently in use by the Nationaal Archief (National Archives of The Netherlands) to study degradation effects of artificial samples and original documents, exposed in their permanent exhibition area or stored in their deposit rooms. PMID:27873831

  1. Quantitative analysis in megageomorphology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayer, L.

    1985-01-01

    Megageomorphology is the study of regional topographic features and their relations to independent geomorphic variables that operate at the regional scale. These independent variables can be classified as either tectonic or climatic in nature. Quantitative megageomorphology stresses the causal relations between plate tectonic factors and landscape features or correlations between climatic factors and geomorphic processes. In addition, the cumulative effects of tectonics and climate on landscape evolution that simultaneously operate in a complex system of energy transfer is of interst. Regional topographic differentiation, say between continents and ocean floors, is largely the result of the different densities and density contrasts within the oceanic and continental lithosphere and their isostatic consequences. Regional tectonic processes that alter these lithospheric characteristics include rifting, collision, subduction, transpression and transtension.

  2. Automated identification of pathways from quantitative genetic interaction data

    PubMed Central

    Battle, Alexis; Jonikas, Martin C; Walter, Peter; Weissman, Jonathan S; Koller, Daphne

    2010-01-01

    High-throughput quantitative genetic interaction (GI) measurements provide detailed information regarding the structure of the underlying biological pathways by reporting on functional dependencies between genes. However, the analytical tools for fully exploiting such information lag behind the ability to collect these data. We present a novel Bayesian learning method that uses quantitative phenotypes of double knockout organisms to automatically reconstruct detailed pathway structures. We applied our method to a recent data set that measures GIs for endoplasmic reticulum (ER) genes, using the unfolded protein response as a quantitative phenotype. The results provided reconstructions of known functional pathways including N-linked glycosylation and ER-associated protein degradation. It also contained novel relationships, such as the placement of SGT2 in the tail-anchored biogenesis pathway, a finding that we experimentally validated. Our approach should be readily applicable to the next generation of quantitative GI data sets, as assays become available for additional phenotypes and eventually higher-level organisms. PMID:20531408

  3. QUANTITATIVE PROCEDURES FOR NEUROTOXICOLOGY RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this project, previously published information on biologically based dose-response model for brain development was used to quantitatively evaluate critical neurodevelopmental processes, and to assess potential chemical impacts on early brain development. This model has been ex...

  4. A Quantitative Gas Chromatographic Ethanol Determination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leary, James J.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a gas chromatographic experiment for the quantitative determination of volume percent ethanol in water ethanol solutions. Background information, procedures, and typical results are included. Accuracy and precision of results are both on the order of two percent. (JN)

  5. Quantitative high spatiotemporal imaging of biological processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borbely, Joe; Otterstrom, Jason; Mohan, Nitin; Manzo, Carlo; Lakadamyali, Melike

    2015-08-01

    Super-resolution microscopy has revolutionized fluorescence imaging providing access to length scales that are much below the diffraction limit. The super-resolution methods have the potential for novel discoveries in biology. However, certain technical limitations must be overcome for this potential to be fulfilled. One of the main challenges is the use of super-resolution to study dynamic events in living cells. In addition, the ability to extract quantitative information from the super-resolution images is confounded by the complex photophysics that the fluorescent probes exhibit during the imaging. Here, we will review recent developments we have been implementing to overcome these challenges and introduce new steps in automated data acquisition towards high-throughput imaging.

  6. In vivo validation of quantitative frequency domain fluorescence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yuting; Ghijsen, Michael; Nalcioglu, Orhan; Gulsen, Gultekin

    2012-12-01

    We have developed a hybrid frequency domain fluorescence tomography and magnetic resonance imaging system (MRI) for small animal imaging. The main purpose of this system is to obtain quantitatively accurate fluorescence concentration and lifetime images using a multi-modality approach. In vivo experiments are undertaken to evaluate the system. We compare the recovered fluorescence parameters with and without MRI structural a priori information. In addition, we compare two optical background heterogeneity correction methods: Born normalization and utilizing diffuse optical tomography (DOT) functional a priori information. The results show that the concentration and lifetime of a 4.2-mm diameter indocyanine green inclusion located 15 mm deep inside a rat can be recovered with less than a 5% error when functional a priori information from DOT and structural a priori information from MRI are utilized.

  7. Acquisition of Language Information from Online Databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, Hikomaro

    This report describes the methods to acquire language information from online databases, which are usually employed to retrieve technical information. Typical uses are shown to obtain equivalent foreign words, language usages, illustrative sentences and statistical linguistic data, by use of JOIS, DIALOG, SDC and BRS online information systems. In comparison with dictionaries and usage books, the online databases provide a vast file of language information, which is unabridged, continually updated and accessible through any words or their combinations. In addition, they give quantitative data such as frequencies in use of words and expressions.

  8. Rigour in quantitative research.

    PubMed

    Claydon, Leica Sarah

    2015-07-22

    This article which forms part of the research series addresses scientific rigour in quantitative research. It explores the basis and use of quantitative research and the nature of scientific rigour. It examines how the reader may determine whether quantitative research results are accurate, the questions that should be asked to determine accuracy and the checklists that may be used in this process. Quantitative research has advantages in nursing, since it can provide numerical data to help answer questions encountered in everyday practice.

  9. From inverse problems in mathematical physiology to quantitative differential diagnoses.

    PubMed

    Zenker, Sven; Rubin, Jonathan; Clermont, Gilles

    2007-11-01

    The improved capacity to acquire quantitative data in a clinical setting has generally failed to improve outcomes in acutely ill patients, suggesting a need for advances in computer-supported data interpretation and decision making. In particular, the application of mathematical models of experimentally elucidated physiological mechanisms could augment the interpretation of quantitative, patient-specific information and help to better target therapy. Yet, such models are typically complex and nonlinear, a reality that often precludes the identification of unique parameters and states of the model that best represent available data. Hypothesizing that this non-uniqueness can convey useful information, we implemented a simplified simulation of a common differential diagnostic process (hypotension in an acute care setting), using a combination of a mathematical model of the cardiovascular system, a stochastic measurement model, and Bayesian inference techniques to quantify parameter and state uncertainty. The output of this procedure is a probability density function on the space of model parameters and initial conditions for a particular patient, based on prior population information together with patient-specific clinical observations. We show that multimodal posterior probability density functions arise naturally, even when unimodal and uninformative priors are used. The peaks of these densities correspond to clinically relevant differential diagnoses and can, in the simplified simulation setting, be constrained to a single diagnosis by assimilating additional observations from dynamical interventions (e.g., fluid challenge). We conclude that the ill-posedness of the inverse problem in quantitative physiology is not merely a technical obstacle, but rather reflects clinical reality and, when addressed adequately in the solution process, provides a novel link between mathematically described physiological knowledge and the clinical concept of differential diagnoses

  10. Electric utility use of fireside additives. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Locklin, D.W.; Krause, H.H.; Anson, D.; Reid, W.

    1980-01-01

    Fireside additives have been used or proposed for use in fossil-fired utility boilers to combat a number of problems related to boiler performance and reliability. These problems include corrosion, fouling, superheat control, and acidic emissions. Fuel additives and other fireside additives have been used mainly with oil firing; however, there is growing experience with additives in coal-firing, especially for flyash conditioning to improve the performance of electrostatic precipitators. In decisions regarding the selection and use of additives, utilities have had to rely extensively on empiricism, due partly to an incomplete understanding of processes involved and partly to the limited amount of quantitative data. The study reported here was sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute to assemble and analyze pertinent operating experience and to recommend guidelines for utility decisions on the use of additives. The combined results of the state-of-the-art review of technical literature and a special survey of utility experience are reported. A total of 38 utilities participated in the survey, providing information on trials conducted on 104 units in 93 different plants. Altogether, 445 separate trials were reported, each representing a unit/additive/fuel combination. Additives used in these trials included 90 different additive formulations, both pure compounds and proprietary products. These formulations were categorized into 37 generic classes according to their chemical constituents, and the results of the survey are presented by these generic classes. The findings are organized according to the operating problems for which fireside additives are used. Guidelines are presented for utility use in additive selection and in planning additive trials.

  11. A Semiquantitative Framework for Gene Regulatory Networks: Increasing the Time and Quantitative Resolution of Boolean Networks

    PubMed Central

    Kerkhofs, Johan; Geris, Liesbet

    2015-01-01

    Boolean models have been instrumental in predicting general features of gene networks and more recently also as explorative tools in specific biological applications. In this study we introduce a basic quantitative and a limited time resolution to a discrete (Boolean) framework. Quantitative resolution is improved through the employ of normalized variables in unison with an additive approach. Increased time resolution stems from the introduction of two distinct priority classes. Through the implementation of a previously published chondrocyte network and T helper cell network, we show that this addition of quantitative and time resolution broadens the scope of biological behaviour that can be captured by the models. Specifically, the quantitative resolution readily allows models to discern qualitative differences in dosage response to growth factors. The limited time resolution, in turn, can influence the reachability of attractors, delineating the likely long term system behaviour. Importantly, the information required for implementation of these features, such as the nature of an interaction, is typically obtainable from the literature. Nonetheless, a trade-off is always present between additional computational cost of this approach and the likelihood of extending the model’s scope. Indeed, in some cases the inclusion of these features does not yield additional insight. This framework, incorporating increased and readily available time and semi-quantitative resolution, can help in substantiating the litmus test of dynamics for gene networks, firstly by excluding unlikely dynamics and secondly by refining falsifiable predictions on qualitative behaviour. PMID:26067297

  12. Congruence of additive and non-additive effects on gene expression estimated from pedigree and SNP data.

    PubMed

    Powell, Joseph E; Henders, Anjali K; McRae, Allan F; Kim, Jinhee; Hemani, Gibran; Martin, Nicholas G; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T; Gibson, Greg; Montgomery, Grant W; Visscher, Peter M

    2013-05-01

    There is increasing evidence that heritable variation in gene expression underlies genetic variation in susceptibility to disease. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of the similarity between relatives for transcript variation is warranted--in particular, dissection of phenotypic variation into additive and non-additive genetic factors and shared environmental effects. We conducted a gene expression study in blood samples of 862 individuals from 312 nuclear families containing MZ or DZ twin pairs using both pedigree and genotype information. From a pedigree analysis we show that the vast majority of genetic variation across 17,994 probes is additive, although non-additive genetic variation is identified for 960 transcripts. For 180 of the 960 transcripts with non-additive genetic variation, we identify expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) with dominance effects in a sample of 339 unrelated individuals and replicate 31% of these associations in an independent sample of 139 unrelated individuals. Over-dominance was detected and replicated for a trans association between rs12313805 and ETV6, located 4MB apart on chromosome 12. Surprisingly, only 17 probes exhibit significant levels of common environmental effects, suggesting that environmental and lifestyle factors common to a family do not affect expression variation for most transcripts, at least those measured in blood. Consistent with the genetic architecture of common diseases, gene expression is predominantly additive, but a minority of transcripts display non-additive effects.

  13. Dual function microscope for quantitative DIC and birefringence imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chengshuai; Zhu, Yizheng

    2016-03-01

    A spectral multiplexing interferometry (SXI) method is presented for integrated birefringence and phase gradient measurement on label-free biological specimens. With SXI, the retardation and orientation of sample birefringence are simultaneously encoded onto two separate spectral carrier waves, generated by a crystal retarder oriented at a specific angle. Thus sufficient information for birefringence determination can be obtained from a single interference spectrum, eliminating the need for multiple acquisitions with mechanical rotation or electrical modulation. In addition, with the insertion of a Nomarski prism, the setup can then acquire quantitative differential interference contrast images. Red blood cells infected by malaria parasites are imaged for birefringence retardation as well as phase gradient. The results demonstrate that the SXI approach can achieve both quantitative phase imaging and birefringence imaging with a single, high-sensitivity system.

  14. Non-interferometric quantitative phase imaging of yeast cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poola, Praveen K.; Pandiyan, Vimal Prabhu; John, Renu

    2015-12-01

    Real-time imaging of live cells is quite difficult without the addition of external contrast agents. Various methods for quantitative phase imaging of living cells have been proposed like digital holographic microscopy and diffraction phase microscopy. In this paper, we report theoretical and experimental results of quantitative phase imaging of live yeast cells with nanometric precision using transport of intensity equations (TIE). We demonstrate nanometric depth sensitivity in imaging live yeast cells using this technique. This technique being noninterferometric, does not need any coherent light sources and images can be captured through a regular bright-field microscope. This real-time imaging technique would deliver the depth or 3-D volume information of cells and is highly promising in real-time digital pathology applications, screening of pathogens and staging of diseases like malaria as it does not need any preprocessing of samples.

  15. 27 CFR 5.33 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... English, and for products bottled for consumption within Puerto Rico the required information may be... cannot be removed without thorough application of water or other solvents. (f) Additional information...

  16. 27 CFR 5.33 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... English, and for products bottled for consumption within Puerto Rico the required information may be... cannot be removed without thorough application of water or other solvents. (f) Additional information...

  17. 27 CFR 5.33 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... English, and for products bottled for consumption within Puerto Rico the required information may be... cannot be removed without thorough application of water or other solvents. (f) Additional information...

  18. 27 CFR 5.33 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... English, and for products bottled for consumption within Puerto Rico the required information may be... cannot be removed without thorough application of water or other solvents. (f) Additional information...

  19. 27 CFR 5.33 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... English, and for products bottled for consumption within Puerto Rico the required information may be... cannot be removed without thorough application of water or other solvents. (f) Additional information...

  20. Quantitative plutonium microdistribution in bone tissue of vertebra from a Mayak worker.

    PubMed

    Lyovkina, Yekaterina V; Miller, Scott C; Romanov, Sergey A; Krahenbuhl, Melinda P; Belosokhov, Maxim V

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain quantitative data on plutonium microdistribution in different structural elements of human bone tissue for local dose assessment and dosimetric models validation. A sample of the thoracic vertebra was obtained from a former Mayak worker with a rather high plutonium burden. Additional information was obtained on occupational and exposure history, medical history, and measured plutonium content in organs. Plutonium was detected in bone sections from its fission tracks in polycarbonate film using neutron-induced autoradiography. Quantitative analysis of randomly selected microscopic fields on one of the autoradiographs was performed. Data included fission fragment tracks in different bone tissue and surface areas. Quantitative information on plutonium microdistribution in human bone tissue was obtained for the first time. From these data, the quantitative relationships of plutonium decays in bone volume to decays on bone surface in cortical and trabecular fractions were defined as 2.0 and 0.4, correspondingly. The measured quantitative relationship of decays in bone volume to decays on bone surface does not coincide with recommended models for the cortical bone fraction by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Biokinetic model parameters of extrapulmonary compartments might need to be adjusted after expansion of the data set on quantitative plutonium microdistribution in other bone types in humans as well as other cases with different exposure patterns and types of plutonium.

  1. Neutron-Encoded Mass Signatures for Quantitative Top-Down Proteomics∥

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The ability to acquire highly accurate quantitative data is an increasingly important part of any proteomics experiment, whether shotgun or top-down approaches are used. We recently developed a quantitation strategy for peptides based on neutron encoding, or NeuCode SILAC, which uses closely spaced heavy isotope-labeled amino acids and high-resolution mass spectrometry to provide quantitative data. We reasoned that the strategy would also be applicable to intact proteins and could enable robust, multiplexed quantitation for top-down experiments. We used yeast lysate labeled with either 13C615N2-lysine or 2H8-lysine, isotopologues of lysine that are spaced 36 mDa apart. Proteins having such close spacing cannot be distinguished during a medium resolution scan, but upon acquiring a high-resolution scan, the two forms of the protein with each amino acid are resolved and the quantitative information revealed. An additional benefit NeuCode SILAC provides for top down is that the spacing of the isotope peaks indicates the number of lysines present in the protein, information that aids in identification. We used NeuCode SILAC to quantify several hundred isotope distributions, manually identify and quantify proteins from 1:1, 3:1, and 5:1 mixed ratios, and demonstrate MS2-based quantitation using ETD. PMID:24475910

  2. Quantitative in vivo imaging of embryonic development: opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Gregg, Chelsea L; Butcher, Jonathan T

    2012-07-01

    Animal models are critically important for a mechanistic understanding of embryonic morphogenesis. For decades, visualizing these rapid and complex multidimensional events has relied on projection images and thin section reconstructions. While much insight has been gained, fixed tissue specimens offer limited information on dynamic processes that are essential for tissue assembly and organ patterning. Quantitative imaging is required to unlock the important basic science and clinically relevant secrets that remain hidden. Recent advances in live imaging technology have enabled quantitative longitudinal analysis of embryonic morphogenesis at multiple length and time scales. Four different imaging modalities are currently being used to monitor embryonic morphogenesis: optical, ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). Each has its advantages and limitations with respect to spatial resolution, depth of field, scanning speed, and tissue contrast. In addition, new processing tools have been developed to enhance live imaging capabilities. In this review, we analyze each type of imaging source and its use in quantitative study of embryonic morphogenesis in small animal models. We describe the physics behind their function, identify some examples in which the modality has revealed new quantitative insights, and then conclude with a discussion of new research directions with live imaging.

  3. 19F NMR-, ESR-, and vis-NIR-spectroelectrochemical study of the unconventional reduction behaviour of a perfluoroalkylated fullerene: dimerization of the C70(CF3)10 – radical anion† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional electrochemical and spectroscopic results, mass spectrometry study, and DFT-optimized Cartesian coordinates. See DOI: 10.1039/c5an01129a Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Machata, Peter; Clikeman, Tyler T.; Rosenkranz, Marco

    2015-01-01

    The most abundant isomer of C70(CF3)10 (70-10-1) is a rare example of a perfluoroalkylated fullerene exhibiting electrochemically irreversible reduction. We show that electrochemical reversibility at the first reduction step is achieved at scan rates higher than 500 V s–1. Applying ESR-, vis-NIR-, and 19F NMR-spectroelectrochemistry, as well as mass spectrometry and DFT calculations, we show that the (70-10-1)– radical monoanion is in equilibrium with a singly-bonded diamagnetic dimeric dianion. This study is the first example of 19F NMR spectroelectrochemistry, which promises to be an important method for the elucidation of redox mechanisms of fluoroorganic compounds. Additionally, we demonstrate the importance of combining different spectroelectrochemical methods and quantitative analysis of the transferred charge and spin numbers in the determination of the redox mechanism. PMID:26359514

  4. Evaluation of impaired fingertip texture discrimination and wrist position sense in patients affected by stroke: comparison of clinical and new quantitative measures.

    PubMed

    Carey, Leeanne M; Matyas, Thomas A; Oke, Linda E

    2002-01-01

    Discriminative sensory loss is common following stroke but may not be adequately detected by routine clinical measures. Quantitative tests of texture discrimination and limb position sense have been recently developed. These tests provide reliable estimates of discrimination, differentiate impaired performance following stroke, and have standardized criteria of abnormality. The purpose of this study was to compare predictions of impairment based on current clinical measures with predictions based on these quantitative, standardized measures. Thirty-five patients who had strokes were tested on the new quantitative measures and clinical measures of texture discrimination and limb position sense. The findings indicated poor agreement between impairment defined using current clinical measures and statistically abnormal performance on the new quantitative, norm-referenced measures. The findings suggest that the quantitative tests may provide additional assessment information to supplement that of the existing clinical measures of texture discrimination and limb position sense. Further development of these new quantitative measures is indicated.

  5. Quantitative environmental risk analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Klovning, J.; Nilsen, E.F.

    1995-12-31

    According to regulations relating to implementation and rise of risk analysis in the petroleum activities issued by the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate, it is mandatory for an operator on the Norwegian Continental Shelf to establish acceptance criteria for environmental risk in the activities and carry out environmental risk analysis. This paper presents a {open_quotes}new{close_quotes} method for environmental risk analysis developed by the company. The objective has been to assist the company to meet rules and regulations and to assess and describe the environmental risk in a systematic manner. In the environmental risk analysis the most sensitive biological resource in the affected area is used to assess the environmental damage. The analytical method is based on the methodology for quantitative risk analysis related to loss of life. In addition it incorporates the effect of seasonal fluctuations in the environmental risk evaluations. The paper is describing the function of the main analytical sequences exemplified through an analysis of environmental risk related to exploration drilling in an environmental sensitive area on the Norwegian Continental Shelf.

  6. An Experiment to Quantitate Organically Bound Phosphate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Richard E.

    1985-01-01

    Describes quick and easy experiments that yield quantitative information on a variety of levels, emphasize the concept of experimental controls, and integrate the experimental with the theoretical using the organic phosphates as the experimental system. Background information, list of materials needed, and procedures used are included. (JN)

  7. Towards quantitative assessment of calciphylaxis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deserno, Thomas M.; Sárándi, István.; Jose, Abin; Haak, Daniel; Jonas, Stephan; Specht, Paula; Brandenburg, Vincent

    2014-03-01

    Calciphylaxis is a rare disease that has devastating conditions associated with high morbidity and mortality. Calciphylaxis is characterized by systemic medial calcification of the arteries yielding necrotic skin ulcerations. In this paper, we aim at supporting the installation of multi-center registries for calciphylaxis, which includes a photographic documentation of skin necrosis. However, photographs acquired in different centers under different conditions using different equipment and photographers cannot be compared quantitatively. For normalization, we use a simple color pad that is placed into the field of view, segmented from the image, and its color fields are analyzed. In total, 24 colors are printed on that scale. A least-squares approach is used to determine the affine color transform. Furthermore, the card allows scale normalization. We provide a case study for qualitative assessment. In addition, the method is evaluated quantitatively using 10 images of two sets of different captures of the same necrosis. The variability of quantitative measurements based on free hand photography is assessed regarding geometric and color distortions before and after our simple calibration procedure. Using automated image processing, the standard deviation of measurements is significantly reduced. The coefficients of variations yield 5-20% and 2-10% for geometry and color, respectively. Hence, quantitative assessment of calciphylaxis becomes practicable and will impact a better understanding of this rare but fatal disease.

  8. Additive Similarity Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sattath, Shmuel; Tversky, Amos

    1977-01-01

    Tree representations of similarity data are investigated. Hierarchical clustering is critically examined, and a more general procedure, called the additive tree, is presented. The additive tree representation is then compared to multidimensional scaling. (Author/JKS)

  9. Electric utility use of fireside additives. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Locklin, D.W.; Krause, H.H.; Anson, D.; Reid, W.

    1980-01-01

    Fireside additives have been used or proposed for use in fossil-fired utility boilers to combat a number of problems related to boiler performance and reliability. These problems include corrosion, fouling, superheat control, and acidic emissions. Fuel additivies and other fireside additives have been used mainly with oil firing; however, there is growing experience with additives in coal-firing, especially for flyash conditioning to improve the performance of electrostatic precipitators. In decisions regarding the selection and use of additives, utilities have had to rely extensively on empiricism, due partly to our incomplete understanding of processes involved and partly to the limited amount of quantitative data. The study reported here was sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute to assemble and analyze pertinent operating experience and to recommend guidelines for utility decisions on the use of additives. This report describes the combined results of the state-of-the-art review of technical literature and a special survey of utility experience. A total of 38 utilities participated in the survey, providing information on trials conducted on 104 units in 93 different plants. Altogether, 445 separate trials were reported, each representing a unit/additive/fuel combination. 90 different additive formulations, both pure compounds and proprietary products, were categorized into 37 generic classes according to their chemical constituents, and the results of the survey are presented by these generic classes. This report is organized according to the operating problems for which fireside additives are used. Guidelines are presented for utility use in additive selection and in planning additive trials.

  10. Application of quantitative signal detection in the Dutch spontaneous reporting system for adverse drug reactions.

    PubMed

    van Puijenbroek, Eugène; Diemont, Willem; van Grootheest, Kees

    2003-01-01

    The primary aim of spontaneous reporting systems (SRSs) is the timely detection of unknown adverse drug reactions (ADRs), or signal detection. Generally this is carried out by a systematic manual review of every report sent to an SRS. Statistical analysis of the data sets of an SRS, or quantitative signal detection, can provide additional information concerning a possible relationship between a drug and an ADR. We describe the role of quantitative signal detection and the way it is applied at the Netherlands Pharmacovigilance Centre Lareb. Results of the statistical analysis are implemented in the traditional case-by-case analysis. In addition, for data-mining purposes, a list of associations of ADRs and suspected drugs that are disproportionally present in the database is periodically generated. Finally, quantitative signal generation can be used to study more complex relationships, such as drug-drug interactions and syndromes. The results of quantitative signal detection should be considered as an additional source of information, complementary to the traditional analysis. Techniques for the detection of drug interactions and syndromes offer a new challenge for pharmacovigilance in the near future.

  11. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. R.; St. Clair, T. L.; Burks, H. D.; Stoakley, D. M.

    1987-01-01

    A method has been found for enhancing the melt flow of thermoplastic polyimides during processing. A high molecular weight 422 copoly(amic acid) or copolyimide was fused with approximately 0.05 to 5 pct by weight of a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive, and this melt was studied by capillary rheometry. Excellent flow and improved composite properties on graphite resulted from the addition of a PMDA-aniline additive to LARC-TPI. Solution viscosity studies imply that amic acid additives temporarily lower molecular weight and, hence, enlarge the processing window. Thus, compositions containing the additive have a lower melt viscosity for a longer time than those unmodified.

  12. [Food additives and healthiness].

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects.

  13. Quantitative volumetric breast density estimation using phase contrast mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhentian; Hauser, Nik; Kubik-Huch, Rahel A.; D'Isidoro, Fabio; Stampanoni, Marco

    2015-05-01

    Phase contrast mammography using a grating interferometer is an emerging technology for breast imaging. It provides complementary information to the conventional absorption-based methods. Additional diagnostic values could be further obtained by retrieving quantitative information from the three physical signals (absorption, differential phase and small-angle scattering) yielded simultaneously. We report a non-parametric quantitative volumetric breast density estimation method by exploiting the ratio (dubbed the R value) of the absorption signal to the small-angle scattering signal. The R value is used to determine breast composition and the volumetric breast density (VBD) of the whole breast is obtained analytically by deducing the relationship between the R value and the pixel-wise breast density. The proposed method is tested by a phantom study and a group of 27 mastectomy samples. In the clinical evaluation, the estimated VBD values from both cranio-caudal (CC) and anterior-posterior (AP) views are compared with the ACR scores given by radiologists to the pre-surgical mammograms. The results show that the estimated VBD results using the proposed method are consistent with the pre-surgical ACR scores, indicating the effectiveness of this method in breast density estimation. A positive correlation is found between the estimated VBD and the diagnostic ACR score for both the CC view (p=0.033 ) and AP view (p=0.001 ). A linear regression between the results of the CC view and AP view showed a correlation coefficient γ = 0.77, which indicates the robustness of the proposed method and the quantitative character of the additional information obtained with our approach.

  14. Quantitative phase imaging of arthropods

    PubMed Central

    Sridharan, Shamira; Katz, Aron; Soto-Adames, Felipe; Popescu, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Classification of arthropods is performed by characterization of fine features such as setae and cuticles. An unstained whole arthropod specimen mounted on a slide can be preserved for many decades, but is difficult to study since current methods require sample manipulation or tedious image processing. Spatial light interference microscopy (SLIM) is a quantitative phase imaging (QPI) technique that is an add-on module to a commercial phase contrast microscope. We use SLIM to image a whole organism springtail Ceratophysella denticulata mounted on a slide. This is the first time, to our knowledge, that an entire organism has been imaged using QPI. We also demonstrate the ability of SLIM to image fine structures in addition to providing quantitative data that cannot be obtained by traditional bright field microscopy. PMID:26334858

  15. Quantitative indices in paternity cases.

    PubMed

    Lenhartová, E; Lenhart, K; Bártová, A

    1992-01-01

    The study discusses the basic quantitative indices used as a standard method in foreign professional literature dealing with paternity cases. They are as follows: 1. mean probability of exclusion (PE) which characterizes the informative value of the experts opinions and is the same in all the disputes evaluated by this expert. 2. relative frequency of men chosen at random from the population and excluded at given phenotype of mother and child (RME). 3. probability of paternity (PP) for particular trio: mother-child-the accused man. Hereinafter the results of our studies in the HLA laboratory in Olomouc from 1976-1991 are introduced.

  16. Polylactides in additive biomanufacturing.

    PubMed

    Poh, Patrina S P; Chhaya, Mohit P; Wunner, Felix M; De-Juan-Pardo, Elena M; Schilling, Arndt F; Schantz, Jan-Thorsten; van Griensven, Martijn; Hutmacher, Dietmar W

    2016-12-15

    New advanced manufacturing technologies under the alias of additive biomanufacturing allow the design and fabrication of a range of products from pre-operative models, cutting guides and medical devices to scaffolds. The process of printing in 3 dimensions of cells, extracellular matrix (ECM) and biomaterials (bioinks, powders, etc.) to generate in vitro and/or in vivo tissue analogue structures has been termed bioprinting. To further advance in additive biomanufacturing, there are many aspects that we can learn from the wider additive manufacturing (AM) industry, which have progressed tremendously since its introduction into the manufacturing sector. First, this review gives an overview of additive manufacturing and both industry and academia efforts in addressing specific challenges in the AM technologies to drive toward AM-enabled industrial revolution. After which, considerations of poly(lactides) as a biomaterial in additive biomanufacturing are discussed. Challenges in wider additive biomanufacturing field are discussed in terms of (a) biomaterials; (b) computer-aided design, engineering and manufacturing; (c) AM and additive biomanufacturing printers hardware; and (d) system integration. Finally, the outlook for additive biomanufacturing was discussed.

  17. Additive Manufactured Product Integrity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waller, Jess; Wells, Doug; James, Steve; Nichols, Charles

    2017-01-01

    NASA is providing key leadership in an international effort linking NASA and non-NASA resources to speed adoption of additive manufacturing (AM) to meet NASA's mission goals. Participants include industry, NASA's space partners, other government agencies, standards organizations and academia. Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) is identified as a universal need for all aspects of additive manufacturing.

  18. 32 CFR 2001.24 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Markings § 2001.24 Additional requirements. (a) Marking prohibitions. Markings other than “Top Secret... the marking, “This Document Contains (indicate country of origin) Information.” Agencies may also.... If the fact that information is foreign government information must be concealed, the...

  19. Quantitative analysis of glycated proteins.

    PubMed

    Priego-Capote, Feliciano; Ramírez-Boo, María; Finamore, Francesco; Gluck, Florent; Sanchez, Jean-Charles

    2014-02-07

    The proposed protocol presents a comprehensive approach for large-scale qualitative and quantitative analysis of glycated proteins (GP) in complex biological samples including biological fluids and cell lysates such as plasma and red blood cells. The method, named glycation isotopic labeling (GIL), is based on the differential labeling of proteins with isotopic [(13)C6]-glucose, which supports quantitation of the resulting glycated peptides after enzymatic digestion with endoproteinase Glu-C. The key principle of the GIL approach is the detection of doublet signals for each glycated peptide in MS precursor scanning (glycated peptide with in vivo [(12)C6]- and in vitro [(13)C6]-glucose). The mass shift of the doublet signals is +6, +3 or +2 Da depending on the peptide charge state and the number of glycation sites. The intensity ratio between doublet signals generates quantitative information of glycated proteins that can be related to the glycemic state of the studied samples. Tandem mass spectrometry with high-energy collisional dissociation (HCD-MS2) and data-dependent methods with collision-induced dissociation (CID-MS3 neutral loss scan) are used for qualitative analysis.

  20. Quantitative Relaxometry of the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Deoni, Sean C.L.

    2011-01-01

    The exquisite soft tissue contrast provided by magnetic resonance imaging arises principally from differences in the intrinsic relaxation properties, T1 and T2. Though the intricate relationships that link tissue microstructure and the longitudinal and transverse relaxation times remain to be firmly established, quantitative measurement of these parameters, also referred to as quantitative relaxometry, can be informative of disease-related tissue change, developmental plasticity, and other biological processes. Further, relaxometry studies potentially offer a more detailed characterization of tissue, compared with conventional qualitative or weighted imaging approaches. The purpose of this review is to briefly review the biophysical basis of relaxation, focusing specifically on the T1, T2 and T2* relaxation times, and to detail some of the more widely used and clinically feasible techniques for their in vivo measurement. We will focus on neuroimaging applications, though the methods described are equally well suited to cardiac, abdominal and musculoskeletal imaging. Potential sources of error, and methods for their correction, are also touched on. Finally, the combination of relaxation time data with other complementary quantitative imaging data, including diffusion tensor imaging, is discussed, with the aim of more thoroughly characterizing brain tissue. PMID:21613875

  1. Recapturing Quantitative Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pernezny, Ken; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Presents a classroom activity on estimating animal populations. Uses shoe boxes and candies to emphasize the importance of mathematics in biology while introducing the methods of quantitative ecology. (JRH)

  2. CADDIS Recent Additions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Causal Analysis/Diagnosis Decision Information System, or CADDIS, is a website developed to help scientists and engineers in the Regions, States, and Tribes conduct causal assessments in aquatic systems.

  3. EMC Recent Additions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page has information about recent changes to promulgated and proposed test methods, perfomance specifications, and quality assurance procedures. It also includes updates and changes to all other approved and proposed test methods.

  4. Rationale for the sluggish oxidative addition of aryl halides to Au(i)† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. CCDC 891201–891204 and 964933. For ESI and crystallographic data in CIF or other electronic format see DOI: 10.1039/c3cc48914k Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Livendahl, Madeleine; Goehry, Charles

    2014-01-01

    The oxidative addition of Csp2–Br or Csp2–I bonds to gold(i) does not take place even under very favorable intramolecular conditions that could form five- or six-membered gold(iii) metallacycles. DFT calculations reveal that although this process could be feasible thermodynamically, it is kinetically very sluggish. PMID:24382586

  5. Quantitative receptor autoradiography

    SciTech Connect

    Boast, C.A.; Snowhill, E.W.; Altar, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    Quantitative receptor autoradiography addresses the topic of technical and scientific advances in the sphere of quantitative autoradiography. The volume opens with a overview of the field from a historical and critical perspective. Following is a detailed discussion of in vitro data obtained from a variety of neurotransmitter systems. The next section explores applications of autoradiography, and the final two chapters consider experimental models. Methodological considerations are emphasized, including the use of computers for image analysis.

  6. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, James C. (Inventor); Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  7. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of the additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  8. CSGRqtl: A Comparative Quantitative Trait Locus Database for Saccharinae Grasses.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dong; Paterson, Andrew H

    2017-01-01

    Conventional biparental quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping has led to some successes in the identification of causal genes in many organisms. QTL likelihood intervals not only provide "prior information" for finer-resolution approaches such as GWAS but also provide better statistical power than GWAS to detect variants with low/rare frequency in a natural population. Here, we describe a new element of an ongoing effort to provide online resources to facilitate study and improvement of the important Saccharinae clade. The primary goal of this new resource is the anchoring of published QTLs for this clade to the Sorghum genome. Genetic map alignments translate a wealth of genomic information from sorghum to Saccharum spp., Miscanthus spp., and other taxa. In addition, genome alignments facilitate comparison of the Saccharinae QTL sets to those of other taxa that enjoy comparable resources, exemplified herein by rice.

  9. Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Seiler, Stephan; Deistung, Andreas; Schweser, Ferdinand; Franthal, Sebastian; Homayoon, Nina; Katschnig-Winter, Petra; Koegl-Wallner, Mariella; Pendl, Tamara; Stoegerer, Eva Maria; Wenzel, Karoline; Fazekas, Franz; Ropele, Stefan; Reichenbach, Jürgen Rainer; Schmidt, Reinhold; Schwingenschuh, Petra

    2016-01-01

    Background Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) and R2* relaxation rate mapping have demonstrated increased iron deposition in the substantia nigra of patients with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, the findings in other subcortical deep gray matter nuclei are converse and the sensitivity of QSM and R2* for morphological changes and their relation to clinical measures of disease severity has so far been investigated only sparsely. Methods The local ethics committee approved this study and all subjects gave written informed consent. 66 patients with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease and 58 control subjects underwent quantitative MRI at 3T. Susceptibility and R2* maps were reconstructed from a spoiled multi-echo 3D gradient echo sequence. Mean susceptibilities and R2* rates were measured in subcortical deep gray matter nuclei and compared between patients with PD and controls as well as related to clinical variables. Results Compared to control subjects, patients with PD had increased R2* values in the substantia nigra. QSM also showed higher susceptibilities in patients with PD in substantia nigra, in the nucleus ruber, thalamus, and globus pallidus. Magnetic susceptibility of several of these structures was correlated with the levodopa-equivalent daily dose (LEDD) and clinical markers of motor and non-motor disease severity (total MDS-UPDRS, MDS-UPDRS-I and II). Disease severity as assessed by the Hoehn & Yahr scale was correlated with magnetic susceptibility in the substantia nigra. Conclusion The established finding of higher R2* rates in the substantia nigra was extended by QSM showing superior sensitivity for PD-related tissue changes in nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathways. QSM additionally reflected the levodopa-dosage and disease severity. These results suggest a more widespread pathologic involvement and QSM as a novel means for its investigation, more sensitive than current MRI techniques. PMID:27598250

  10. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wender, Ester H.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that food additives are causally associated with hyperkinesis and learning disabilities in children is reviewed, and available data are summarized. Available from: American Medical Association 535 North Dearborn Street Chicago, Illinois 60610. (JG)

  11. Smog control fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Lundby, W.

    1993-06-29

    A method is described of controlling, reducing or eliminating, ozone and related smog resulting from photochemical reactions between ozone and automotive or industrial gases comprising the addition of iodine or compounds of iodine to hydrocarbon-base fuels prior to or during combustion in an amount of about 1 part iodine per 240 to 10,000,000 parts fuel, by weight, to be accomplished by: (a) the addition of these inhibitors during or after the refining or manufacturing process of liquid fuels; (b) the production of these inhibitors for addition into fuel tanks, such as automotive or industrial tanks; or (c) the addition of these inhibitors into combustion chambers of equipment utilizing solid fuels for the purpose of reducing ozone.

  12. Wetting and cavitation pathways on nanodecorated surfaces† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5sm02794b Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Amabili, Matteo; Lisi, Emanuele; Casciola, Carlo Massimo

    2016-01-01

    In this contribution we study the wetting and nucleation of vapor bubbles on nanodecorated surfaces via free energy molecular dynamics simulations. The results shed light on the stability of superhydrophobicity in submerged surfaces with nanoscale corrugations. The re-entrant geometry of the cavities under investigation is capable of sustaining a confined vapor phase within the surface roughness (Cassie state) both for hydrophobic and hydrophilic combinations of liquid and solid. The atomistic system is of nanometric size; on this scale thermally activated events can play an important role ultimately determining the lifetime of the Cassie state. Such a superhydrophobic state can break down by full wetting of the texture at large pressures (Cassie–Wenzel transition) or by nucleating a vapor bubble at negative pressures (cavitation). Specialized rare event techniques show that several pathways for wetting and cavitation are possible, due to the complex surface geometry. The related free energy barriers are of the order of 100k B T and vary with pressure. The atomistic results are found to be in semi-quantitative accord with macroscopic capillarity theory. However, the latter is not capable of capturing the density fluctuations, which determine the destabilization of the confined liquid phase at negative pressures (liquid spinodal). PMID:26905783

  13. Kentucky Department for Natural Resources and Environmental Protection permit application for air contaminant source: SRC-I demonstration plant, Newman, Kentucky. Supplement I. [Additional information on 38 items requested by KY/DNREP

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, Jr., John F.

    1981-02-13

    In response to a letter from KY/DNREP, January 19, 1981, ICRC and DOE have prepared the enclosed supplement to the Kentucky Department for Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Permit Application for Air Contaminant Source for the SRC-I Demonstration Plant. Each of the 38 comments contained in the letter has been addressed in accordance with the discussions held in Frankfort on January 28, 1981, among representatives of KY/DNREP, EPA Region IV, US DOE, and ICRC. The questions raised involve requests for detailed information on the performance and reliability of proprietary equipment, back-up methods, monitoring plans for various pollutants, composition of wastes to flares, emissions estimates from particular operations, origin of baseline information, mathematical models, storage tanks, dusts, etc. (LTN)

  14. A new bush anole (Iguanidae, Polychrotinae, Polychrus) from the upper Marañon basin, Peru, with a redescription of Polychrus peruvianus (Noble, 1924) and additional information on Polychrus gutturosus Berthold, 1845

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Claudia; Venegas, Pablo J.; Garcia-Bravo, Antonio; Böhme, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We herein describe a new colorful species of Polychrus with a conspicuous sexual dimorphism from the dry forest of the northern portion of Región de La Libertad, Peru. The new species differs from all other Polychrus species, in that this species has very small dorsal scales and thus a higher number of scales around midbody and in the middorsal line from behind the occipital scales to the level of the posterior edge of the thigh. Furthermore, we redescribe Polychrus peruvianus whose original description is short and lacks information on intraspecific variation and sexual dimorphism. Also, we add some information on intraspecific variation and ecology of Polychrus gutturosus. Finally, we synonymize Polychrus spurrelli Boulenger with Polychrus gutturosus. PMID:22287882

  15. Value of Information References

    SciTech Connect

    Morency, Christina

    2014-12-12

    This file contains a list of relevant references on value of information (VOI) in RIS format. VOI provides a quantitative analysis to evaluate the outcome of the combined technologies (seismology, hydrology, geodesy) used to monitor Brady's Geothermal Field.

  16. Isothiourea-catalysed enantioselective pyrrolizine synthesis: synthetic and computational studies† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: NMR spectra, HPLC analysis and computational co-ordinates. Data available.12 CCDC 1483759. For ESI and crystallographic data in CIF or other electronic format see DOI: 10.1039/c6ob01557c Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Stark, Daniel G.; Williamson, Patrick; Gayner, Emma R.; Musolino, Stefania F.; Kerr, Ryan W. F.; Taylor, James E.; Slawin, Alexandra M. Z.; O'Riordan, Timothy J. C.

    2016-01-01

    The catalytic enantioselective synthesis of a range of cis-pyrrolizine carboxylate derivatives with outstanding stereocontrol (14 examples, >95 : 5 dr, >98 : 2 er) through an isothiourea-catalyzed intramolecular Michael addition-lactonisation and ring-opening approach from the corresponding enone acid is reported. An optimised and straightforward three-step synthetic route to the enone acid starting materials from readily available pyrrole-2-carboxaldehydes is delineated, with benzotetramisole (5 mol%) proving the optimal catalyst for the enantioselective process. Ring-opening of the pyrrolizine dihydropyranone products with either MeOH or a range of amines leads to the desired products in excellent yield and enantioselectivity. Computation has been used to probe the factors leading to high stereocontrol, with the formation of the observed cis-steroisomer predicted to be kinetically and thermodynamically favoured. PMID:27489030

  17. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapid prototyping technology that allows parts to be built in a series of thin layers from plastic, ceramics, and metallics. Metallic additive manufacturing is an emerging form of rapid prototyping that allows complex structures to be built using various metallic powders. Significant time and cost savings have also been observed using the metallic additive manufacturing compared with traditional techniques. Development of the metallic additive manufacturing technology has advanced significantly over the last decade, although many of the techniques to inspect parts made from these processes have not advanced significantly or have limitations. Several external geometry inspection techniques exist such as Coordinate Measurement Machines (CMM), Laser Scanners, Structured Light Scanning Systems, or even traditional calipers and gages. All of the aforementioned techniques are limited to external geometry and contours or must use a contact probe to inspect limited internal dimensions. This presentation will document the development of a process for real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record of the additive manufacturing process using Infrared camera imaging and processing techniques.

  18. Cesium-containing triple cation perovskite solar cells: improved stability, reproducibility and high efficiency† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5ee03874j Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Matsui, Taisuke; Seo, Ji-Youn; Domanski, Konrad; Correa-Baena, Juan-Pablo; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad Khaja; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M.; Tress, Wolfgang; Abate, Antonio; Hagfeldt, Anders; Grätzel, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Today's best perovskite solar cells use a mixture of formamidinium and methylammonium as the monovalent cations. With the addition of inorganic cesium, the resulting triple cation perovskite compositions are thermally more stable, contain less phase impurities and are less sensitive to processing conditions. This enables more reproducible device performances to reach a stabilized power output of 21.1% and ∼18% after 250 hours under operational conditions. These properties are key for the industrialization of perovskite photovoltaics. PMID:27478500

  19. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamine, containing phenylethvnvl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynviphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pvrrolidinone to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  20. Fused Lasso Additive Model

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Ashley; Witten, Daniela; Simon, Noah

    2016-01-01

    We consider the problem of predicting an outcome variable using p covariates that are measured on n independent observations, in a setting in which additive, flexible, and interpretable fits are desired. We propose the fused lasso additive model (FLAM), in which each additive function is estimated to be piecewise constant with a small number of adaptively-chosen knots. FLAM is the solution to a convex optimization problem, for which a simple algorithm with guaranteed convergence to a global optimum is provided. FLAM is shown to be consistent in high dimensions, and an unbiased estimator of its degrees of freedom is proposed. We evaluate the performance of FLAM in a simulation study and on two data sets. Supplemental materials are available online, and the R package flam is available on CRAN. PMID:28239246

  1. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamines containing phenylethynyl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynylphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidi none to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  2. Quantitative myocardial perfusion SPECT.

    PubMed

    Tsui, B M; Frey, E C; LaCroix, K J; Lalush, D S; McCartney, W H; King, M A; Gullberg, G T

    1998-01-01

    In recent years, there has been much interest in the clinical application of attenuation compensation to myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with the promise that accurate quantitative images can be obtained to improve clinical diagnoses. The different attenuation compensation methods that are available create confusion and some misconceptions. Also, attenuation-compensated images reveal other image-degrading effects including collimator-detector blurring and scatter that are not apparent in uncompensated images. This article presents basic concepts of the major factors that degrade the quality and quantitative accuracy of myocardial perfusion SPECT images, and includes a discussion of the various image reconstruction and compensation methods and misconceptions and pitfalls in implementation. The differences between the various compensation methods and their performance are demonstrated. Particular emphasis is directed to an approach that promises to provide quantitative myocardial perfusion SPECT images by accurately compensating for the 3-dimensional (3-D) attenuation, collimator-detector response, and scatter effects. With advances in the computer hardware and optimized implementation techniques, quantitatively accurate and high-quality myocardial perfusion SPECT images can be obtained in clinically acceptable processing time. Examples from simulation, phantom, and patient studies are used to demonstrate the various aspects of the investigation. We conclude that quantitative myocardial perfusion SPECT, which holds great promise to improve clinical diagnosis, is an achievable goal in the near future.

  3. Biobased lubricant additives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fully biobased lubricants are those formulated using all biobased ingredients, i.e. biobased base oils and biobased additives. Such formulations provide the maximum environmental, safety, and economic benefits expected from a biobased product. Currently, there are a number of biobased base oils that...

  4. More Than Additional Space...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CEFP Journal, 1973

    1973-01-01

    A much needed addition to the Jamestown Elementary School turned out to be more than an expansion of walls for more space. A new educational program, a limited budget, and a short time line were tackled on a team approach basis and were successfully resolved. (Author)

  5. Regulation of highly homologous major urinary proteins in house mice quantified with label-free proteomic methods† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6mb00278a Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Enk, Viktoria M.; Baumann, Christian; Thoß, Michaela; Luzynski, Kenneth C.; Razzazi-Fazeli, Ebrahim

    2016-01-01

    Major urinary proteins (MUPs) are highly homologous proteoforms that function in binding, transporting and releasing pheromones in house mice. The main analytical challenge for studying variation in MUPs, even for state-of-the-art proteomics techniques, is their high degree of amino acid sequence homology. In this study we used unique peptides for proteoform-specific identification. We applied different search engines (ProteinPilot™ vs. PEAKS®) and protein databases (MUP database vs. SwissProt + unreviewed MUPs), and found that proteoform identification is influenced by addressing background proteins (unregulated urinary proteins, non-MUPs) during the database search. High resolution Q-TOF mass spectrometry was used to identify and precisely quantify the regulation of MUP proteoforms in male mice that were reared in standard housing and then transferred to semi-natural enclosures (within-subject design). By using a designated MUP database we were able to distinguish 19 MUP proteoforms, with A2CEK6 (a Mup11 gene product) being the most abundant based on spectral intensities. We compared three different quantification strategies based on MS1- (from IDA and SWATH™ spectra) and MS2 (SWATH™) data, and the results of these methods were correlated. Furthermore, three data normalization methods were compared and we found that increased statistical significance of fold-changes can be achieved by normalization based on urinary protein concentrations. We show that male mice living in semi-natural enclosures significantly up-regulated some but not all MUPs (differential regulation), e.g., A2ANT6, a Mup6 gene product, was upregulated between 9-fold (MS1) and 13-fold (MS2) using the designated MUP database. Finally, we show that 85 ± 7% of total MS intensity can be attributed to MUP-derived peptides, which supports the assumption that MUPs are the primary proteins in mouse urine. Our results provide new tools for assessing qualitative and quantitative variation of MUPs

  6. An alternative to gamma histograms for ROI-based quantitative dose comparisons.

    PubMed

    Dvorak, P

    2009-06-21

    An alternative to gamma (gamma) histograms for ROI-based quantitative comparisons of dose distributions using the gamma concept is proposed. The method provides minimum values of dose difference and distance-to-agreement such that a pre-set fraction of the region of interest passes the gamma test. Compared to standard gamma histograms, the method provides more information in terms of pass rate per gamma calculation. This is achieved at negligible additional calculation cost and without loss of accuracy. The presented method is proposed as a useful and complementary alternative to standard gamma histograms, increasing both the quantity and quality of information for use in acceptance or rejection decisions.

  7. Information Presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holden, Kritina L.; Thompson, Shelby G.; Sandor, Aniko; McCann, Robert S.; Kaiser, Mary K.; Adelstein, Barnard D.; Begault, Durand R.; Beutter, Brent R.; Stone, Leland S.; Godfroy, Martine

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the Information Presentation Directed Research Project (DRP) is to address design questions related to the presentation of information to the crew. In addition to addressing display design issues associated with information formatting, style, layout, and interaction, the Information Presentation DRP is also working toward understanding the effects of extreme environments encountered in space travel on information processing. Work is also in progress to refine human factors-based design tools, such as human performance modeling, that will supplement traditional design techniques and help ensure that optimal information design is accomplished in the most cost-efficient manner. The major areas of work, or subtasks, within the Information Presentation DRP for FY10 are: 1) Displays, 2) Controls, 3) Procedures and Fault Management, and 4) Human Performance Modeling. The poster will highlight completed and planned work for each subtask.

  8. Teaching Quantitative Skills in a Geoscience Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manduca, C. A.; MacDonald, R. H.; Savina, M.; Andersen, J.; Patterson, S.; Mason, M.

    2002-12-01

    New attention is needed to the ways in which quantitative skills are taught in the geosciences. At the introductory level, geoscience courses play an important role in teaching students the basic abilities needed to use and understand quantitative information. These skills are becoming more important as quantitative information is increasingly used by all citizens to make informed personal choices, for financial success, and to guide our democracy (Mathematics and Democracy, Steen, 2001). Mathematical skills are also becoming increasingly fundamental to success as a practicing geoscientist requiring modification of teaching within the major. An integrated approach developing synergies between mathematics, geoscience and other science courses will be most effective in enhancing students learning in these areas. This summer 40 mathematics and geoscience faculty met at Carleton College for 5 days to explore the ways in which geoscience and mathematical approaches to teaching skills complement each other and to develop materials that reflected the strengths of both approaches. Primary outcomes included 1) new appreciation of the importance of incorporating multiple representations, in-depth problems, contextual examples, and group work in teaching mathematical and quantitative skills, 2) a preliminary list of skills that can form a basic vocabulary for discussions of course content, 3) ten resources developed jointly by mathematicians and geoscientists for use in courses, and 4) new collaborations between geoscientists and mathematicians both on campuses and beyond. Full information about the workshop and its results are available at http://serc.carleton.edu/quantskills/events/NAGT02

  9. Data Management For Quantitative Electron Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavallari, Vittorio

    1986-05-01

    A set of computer-assisted procedures was developed for sampling and processing quantitative information from electron images. Data are manually collected using a digitizing tablet, and subsequently elaborated with a I B M- compatible personal computer. Programs presented here deals with stereological calculations, numerical taxonomy and basic statistics applied to tumor cell samples.

  10. Research essentials. How to critique quantitative research.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Sharon; Collier, Sue

    2015-11-01

    QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH is a systematic approach to investigating numerical data and involves measuring or counting attributes, that is quantities. Through a process of transforming information that is collected or observed, the researcher can often describes a situation or event, answering the 'what' and 'how many' questions about a situation ( Parahoo 2014 ).

  11. Quantitative Hydrocarbon Surface Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglas, Vonnie M.

    2000-01-01

    The elimination of ozone depleting substances, such as carbon tetrachloride, has resulted in the use of new analytical techniques for cleanliness verification and contamination sampling. The last remaining application at Rocketdyne which required a replacement technique was the quantitative analysis of hydrocarbons by infrared spectrometry. This application, which previously utilized carbon tetrachloride, was successfully modified using the SOC-400, a compact portable FTIR manufactured by Surface Optics Corporation. This instrument can quantitatively measure and identify hydrocarbons from solvent flush of hardware as well as directly analyze the surface of metallic components without the use of ozone depleting chemicals. Several sampling accessories are utilized to perform analysis for various applications.

  12. Highly Reproducible Label Free Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of RNA Polymerase Complexes*

    PubMed Central

    Mosley, Amber L.; Sardiu, Mihaela E.; Pattenden, Samantha G.; Workman, Jerry L.; Florens, Laurence; Washburn, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    The use of quantitative proteomics methods to study protein complexes has the potential to provide in-depth information on the abundance of different protein components as well as their modification state in various cellular conditions. To interrogate protein complex quantitation using shotgun proteomic methods, we have focused on the analysis of protein complexes using label-free multidimensional protein identification technology and studied the reproducibility of biological replicates. For these studies, we focused on three highly related and essential multi-protein enzymes, RNA polymerase I, II, and III from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We found that label-free quantitation using spectral counting is highly reproducible at the protein and peptide level when analyzing RNA polymerase I, II, and III. In addition, we show that peptide sampling does not follow a random sampling model, and we show the need for advanced computational models to predict peptide detection probabilities. In order to address these issues, we used the APEX protocol to model the expected peptide detectability based on whole cell lysate acquired using the same multidimensional protein identification technology analysis used for the protein complexes. Neither method was able to predict the peptide sampling levels that we observed using replicate multidimensional protein identification technology analyses. In addition to the analysis of the RNA polymerase complexes, our analysis provides quantitative information about several RNAP associated proteins including the RNAPII elongation factor complexes DSIF and TFIIF. Our data shows that DSIF and TFIIF are the most highly enriched RNAP accessory factors in Rpb3-TAP purifications and demonstrate our ability to measure low level associated protein abundance across biological replicates. In addition, our quantitative data supports a model in which DSIF and TFIIF interact with RNAPII in a dynamic fashion in agreement with previously published reports. PMID

  13. 32 CFR 2003.15 - Additional functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... President through the National Security Advisor, the ISCAP performs such additional advisory functions as... National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT OFFICE, NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION INTERAGENCY SECURITY CLASSIFICATION APPEALS PANEL...

  14. 32 CFR 2003.15 - Additional functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... President through the National Security Advisor, the ISCAP performs such additional advisory functions as... National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT OFFICE, NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION INTERAGENCY SECURITY CLASSIFICATION APPEALS PANEL...

  15. Vinyl capped addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D. (Inventor); Malarik, Diane C. (Inventor); Delvigs, Peter (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Polyimide resins (PMR) are generally useful where high strength and temperature capabilities are required (at temperatures up to about 700 F). Polyimide resins are particularly useful in applications such as jet engine compressor components, for example, blades, vanes, air seals, air splitters, and engine casing parts. Aromatic vinyl capped addition polyimides are obtained by reacting a diamine, an ester of tetracarboxylic acid, and an aromatic vinyl compound. Low void materials with improved oxidative stability when exposed to 700 F air may be fabricated as fiber reinforced high molecular weight capped polyimide composites. The aromatic vinyl capped polyimides are provided with a more aromatic nature and are more thermally stable than highly aliphatic, norbornenyl-type end-capped polyimides employed in PMR resins. The substitution of aromatic vinyl end-caps for norbornenyl end-caps in addition polyimides results in polymers with improved oxidative stability.

  16. Electrophilic addition of astatine

    SciTech Connect

    Norseev, Yu.V.; Vasaros, L.; Nhan, D.D.; Huan, N.K.

    1988-03-01

    It has been shown for the first time that astatine is capable of undergoing addition reactions to unsaturated hydrocarbons. A new compound of astatine, viz., ethylene astatohydrin, has been obtained, and its retention numbers of squalane, Apiezon, and tricresyl phosphate have been found. The influence of various factors on the formation of ethylene astatohydrin has been studied. It has been concluded on the basis of the results obtained that the univalent cations of astatine in an acidic medium is protonated hypoastatous acid.

  17. Profiling phylogenetic informativeness.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Jeffrey P

    2007-04-01

    for evaluation of phylogenetic experiments. It conveys the utility of the addition of characters a phylogenetic study and it provides a basis for deciding whether appropriate phylogenetic power has been applied to a polytomy that is proposed to be a rapid radiation. Moreover, it provides a quantitative measure of the capacity of a gene to resolve soft polytomies.

  18. Functional Generalized Additive Models.

    PubMed

    McLean, Mathew W; Hooker, Giles; Staicu, Ana-Maria; Scheipl, Fabian; Ruppert, David

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the functional generalized additive model (FGAM), a novel regression model for association studies between a scalar response and a functional predictor. We model the link-transformed mean response as the integral with respect to t of F{X(t), t} where F(·,·) is an unknown regression function and X(t) is a functional covariate. Rather than having an additive model in a finite number of principal components as in Müller and Yao (2008), our model incorporates the functional predictor directly and thus our model can be viewed as the natural functional extension of generalized additive models. We estimate F(·,·) using tensor-product B-splines with roughness penalties. A pointwise quantile transformation of the functional predictor is also considered to ensure each tensor-product B-spline has observed data on its support. The methods are evaluated using simulated data and their predictive performance is compared with other competing scalar-on-function regression alternatives. We illustrate the usefulness of our approach through an application to brain tractography, where X(t) is a signal from diffusion tensor imaging at position, t, along a tract in the brain. In one example, the response is disease-status (case or control) and in a second example, it is the score on a cognitive test. R code for performing the simulations and fitting the FGAM can be found in supplemental materials available online.

  19. Quantitative Simulation Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Černý, Pavol; Henzinger, Thomas A.; Radhakrishna, Arjun

    While a boolean notion of correctness is given by a preorder on systems and properties, a quantitative notion of correctness is defined by a distance function on systems and properties, where the distance between a system and a property provides a measure of "fit" or "desirability." In this article, we explore several ways how the simulation preorder can be generalized to a distance function. This is done by equipping the classical simulation game between a system and a property with quantitative objectives. In particular, for systems that satisfy a property, a quantitative simulation game can measure the "robustness" of the satisfaction, that is, how much the system can deviate from its nominal behavior while still satisfying the property. For systems that violate a property, a quantitative simulation game can measure the "seriousness" of the violation, that is, how much the property has to be modified so that it is satisfied by the system. These distances can be computed in polynomial time, since the computation reduces to the value problem in limit average games with constant weights. Finally, we demonstrate how the robustness distance can be used to measure how many transmission errors are tolerated by error correcting codes.

  20. Quantitative analysis of endogenous compounds.

    PubMed

    Thakare, Rhishikesh; Chhonker, Yashpal S; Gautam, Nagsen; Alamoudi, Jawaher Abdullah; Alnouti, Yazen

    2016-09-05

    Accurate quantitative analysis of endogenous analytes is essential for several clinical and non-clinical applications. LC-MS/MS is the technique of choice for quantitative analyses. Absolute quantification by LC/MS requires preparing standard curves in the same matrix as the study samples so that the matrix effect and the extraction efficiency for analytes are the same in both the standard and study samples. However, by definition, analyte-free biological matrices do not exist for endogenous compounds. To address the lack of blank matrices for the quantification of endogenous compounds by LC-MS/MS, four approaches are used including the standard addition, the background subtraction, the surrogate matrix, and the surrogate analyte methods. This review article presents an overview these approaches, cite and summarize their applications, and compare their advantages and disadvantages. In addition, we discuss in details, validation requirements and compatibility with FDA guidelines to ensure method reliability in quantifying endogenous compounds. The standard addition, background subtraction, and the surrogate analyte approaches allow the use of the same matrix for the calibration curve as the one to be analyzed in the test samples. However, in the surrogate matrix approach, various matrices such as artificial, stripped, and neat matrices are used as surrogate matrices for the actual matrix of study samples. For the surrogate analyte approach, it is required to demonstrate similarity in matrix effect and recovery between surrogate and authentic endogenous analytes. Similarly, for the surrogate matrix approach, it is required to demonstrate similar matrix effect and extraction recovery in both the surrogate and original matrices. All these methods represent indirect approaches to quantify endogenous compounds and regardless of what approach is followed, it has to be shown that none of the validation criteria have been compromised due to the indirect analyses.

  1. Critical Quantitative Inquiry in Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stage, Frances K.; Wells, Ryan S.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter briefly traces the development of the concept of critical quantitative inquiry, provides an expanded conceptualization of the tasks of critical quantitative research, offers theoretical explanation and justification for critical research using quantitative methods, and previews the work of quantitative criticalists presented in this…

  2. Regulating the modulus of a chiral liquid crystal polymer network by light† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6sm00114a Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Kamlesh; Schenning, Albertus P. H. J.; Broer, Dirk J.

    2016-01-01

    We report a novel way to modulate the elastic modulus of azobenzene containing liquid crystal networks (LCNs) by exposure to light. The elastic modulus can cycle between different levels by controlling the illumination conditions. Exposing the polymer network to UV light near the trans absorption band of azobenzene gives a small reduction of the glass transition temperature thereby lowering the modulus. The addition of blue light addressing the cis absorption band surprisingly amplifies this effect. The continuous oscillatory effects of the trans-to-cis isomerization of the azobenzene overrule the overall net cis conversion. The influence on the chain dynamics of the network is demonstrated by dynamic mechanical thermal analysis which shows a large shift of the glass transition temperature and a modulus decrease by more than two orders of magnitude. The initial high modulus and the glassy state are recovered within a minute in the dark by switching off the light sources, despite the observation that azobenzene is still predominantly in its cis state. Based on these new findings, we are able to create a shape memory polymer LCN film at room temperature using light. PMID:26924678

  3. Quantitative trait loci for floral morphology in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed Central

    Juenger, T; Purugganan, M; Mackay, T F

    2000-01-01

    A central question in biology is how genes control the expression of quantitative variation. We used statistical methods to estimate genetic variation in eight Arabidopsis thaliana floral characters (fresh flower mass, petal length, petal width, sepal length, sepal width, long stamen length, short stamen length, and pistil length) in a cosmopolitan sample of 15 ecotypes. In addition, we used genome-wide quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping to evaluate the genetic basis of variation in these same traits in the Landsberg erecta x Columbia recombinant inbred line population. There was significant genetic variation for all traits in both the sample of naturally occurring ecotypes and in the Ler x Col recombinant inbred line population. In addition, broad-sense genetic correlations among the traits were positive and high. A composite interval mapping (CIM) analysis detected 18 significant QTL affecting at least one floral character. Eleven QTL were associated with several floral traits, supporting either pleiotropy or tight linkage as major determinants of flower morphological integration. We propose several candidate genes that may underlie these QTL on the basis of positional information and functional arguments. Genome-wide QTL mapping is a promising tool for the discovery of candidate genes controlling morphological development, the detection of novel phenotypic effects for known genes, and in generating a more complete understanding of the genetic basis of floral development. PMID:11063709

  4. Quantitative Schlieren analysis applied to holograms of crystals grown on Spacelab 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Howard L.

    1986-01-01

    In order to extract additional information about crystals grown in the microgravity environment of Spacelab, a quantitative schlieren analysis technique was developed for use in a Holography Ground System of the Fluid Experiment System. Utilizing the Unidex position controller, it was possible to measure deviation angles produced by refractive index gradients of 0.5 milliradians. Additionally, refractive index gradient maps for any recorded time during the crystal growth were drawn and used to create solute concentration maps for the environment around the crystal. The technique was applied to flight holograms of Cell 204 of the Fluid Experiment System that were recorded during the Spacelab 3 mission on STS 51B. A triglycine sulfate crystal was grown under isothermal conditions in the cell and the data gathered with the quantitative schlieren analysis technique is consistent with a diffusion limited growth process.

  5. Quantitative NIR chemical imaging in heritage science.

    PubMed

    Cséfalvayová, Linda; Strlič, Matija; Karjalainen, Harri

    2011-07-01

    Until recently, applications of spectral imaging in heritage science mostly focused on qualitative examination of artworks. This is partly due to the complexity of artworks and partly due to the lack of appropriate standard materials. With the recent advance of NIR imaging spectrometers, the interval 1000-2500 nm became available for exploration, enabling us to extract quantitative chemical information from artworks. In this contribution, the development of 2D NIR quantitative chemical maps of heritage objects is discussed along with presentation of the first quantitative image. Further case studies include semiquantitative mapping of plasticiser distribution in a plastic object and identification of historic plastic materials. In the NIR imaging studies discussed, sets of 256 spatially registered images were collected at different wavelengths in the NIR region of 1000-2500 nm. The data was analyzed as a spectral cube, both as a stack of wavelength-resolved images and as a series of spectra, one per each sample pixel, using multivariate analysis. This approach is only possible using well-characterized reference sample collections, as quantitative imaging applications need to be developed, thus enabling spatial maps of damaged and degraded areas to be visualized to a level of chemical detail previously not possible. Such quantitative chemical mapping of vulnerable areas of heritage objects is invaluable, as it enables damage to historic objects to be quantitatively visualized.

  6. Nonlinear responses in salt marsh functioning to increased nitrogen addition.

    PubMed

    Vivanco, Lucía; Irvine, Irina C; Martiny, Jennifer B H

    2015-04-01

    Salt marshes provide storm protection to shorelines, sequester carbon (C), and mitigate coastal eutrophication. These valuable coastal ecosystems are confronted with increasing nitrogen (N) inputs from anthropogenic sources, such as agricultural runoff, wastewater, and atmospheric deposition. To inform predictions of salt marsh functioning and sustainability in the future, we characterized the response of a variety of plant, microbial, and sediment responses to a seven-level gradient of N addition in three Californian salt marshes after 7 and 14 months of N addition. The marshes showed variable responses to the experimental N gradient that can be grouped as neutral (root biomass, sediment respiration, potential carbon mineralization, and potential net nitrification), linear (increasing methane flux, decreasing potential net N mineralization, and increasing sediment inorganic N), and nonlinear (saturating aboveground plant biomass and leaf N content, and exponentially increasing sediment inorganic and organic N). The three salt marshes showed quantitative differences in most ecosystem properties and processes rates; however, the form of the response curves to N addition were generally consistent across the three marshes, indicating that the responses observed may be applicable to other marshes in the region. Only for sediment properties (inorganic and organic N pool) did the shape of the response differ significantly between marshes. Overall, the study suggests salt marshes are limited in their ability to sequester C and N with future increases in N, even without further losses in marsh area.

  7. Bespoke contrast-matched diblock copolymer nanoparticles enable the rational design of highly transparent Pickering double emulsions† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: GPC chromatograms, additional transmission electron micrographs, digital photographs, visible absorption spectra and laser diffraction data, further optical and fluorescence micrographs. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr03856e Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Kate L.; Derry, Matthew J.; Warren, Nicholas J.; Ratcliffe, Liam P. D.; Williams, Clive N.; Brown, Steven L.

    2016-01-01

    We report the preparation of highly transparent oil-in-water Pickering emulsions using contrast-matched organic nanoparticles. This is achieved via addition of judicious amounts of either sucrose or glycerol to an aqueous dispersion of poly(glycerol monomethacrylate)56–poly(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl methacrylate)500 [PGMA–PTFEMA] diblock copolymer nanoparticles prior to high shear homogenization with an equal volume of n-dodecane. The resulting Pickering emulsions comprise polydisperse n-dodecane droplets of 20–100 μm diameter and exhibit up to 96% transmittance across the visible spectrum. In contrast, control experiments using non-contrast-matched poly(glycerol monomethacrylate)56–poly(benzyl methacrylate)300 [PGMA56–PBzMA300] diblock copolymer nanoparticles as a Pickering emulsifier only produced conventional highly turbid emulsions. Thus contrast-matching of the two immiscible phases is a necessary but not sufficient condition for the preparation of highly transparent Pickering emulsions: it is essential to use isorefractive nanoparticles in order to minimize light scattering. Furthermore, highly transparent oil-in-water-in-oil Pickering double emulsions can be obtained by homogenizing the contrast-matched oil-in-water Pickering emulsion prepared using the PGMA56–PTFEMA500 nanoparticles with a contrast-matched dispersion of hydrophobic poly(lauryl methacrylate)39–poly(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl methacrylate)800 [PLMA39–PTFEMA800] diblock copolymer nanoparticles in n-dodecane. Finally, we show that an isorefractive oil-in-water Pickering emulsion enables fluorescence spectroscopy to be used to monitor the transport of water-insoluble small molecules (pyrene and benzophenone) between n-dodecane droplets. Such transport is significantly less efficient than that observed for the equivalent isorefractive surfactant-stabilized emulsion. Conventional turbid emulsions do not enable such a comparison to be made because the intense light scattering leads to

  8. Siloxane containing addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maudgal, S.; St. Clair, T. L.

    1984-01-01

    Addition polyimide oligomers have been synthesized from bis(gamma-aminopropyl) tetramethyldisiloxane and 3, 3', 4, 4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride using a variety of latent crosslinking groups as endcappers. The prepolymers were isolated and characterized for solubility (in amide, chlorinated and ether solvents), melt flow and cure properties. The most promising systems, maleimide and acetylene terminated prepolymers, were selected for detailed study. Graphite cloth reinforced composites were prepared and properties compared with those of graphite/Kerimid 601, a commercially available bismaleimide. Mixtures of the maleimide terminated system with Kerimid 601, in varying proportions, were also studied.

  9. The NIST Quantitative Infrared Database

    PubMed Central

    Chu, P. M.; Guenther, F. R.; Rhoderick, G. C.; Lafferty, W. J.

    1999-01-01

    With the recent developments in Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometers it is becoming more feasible to place these instruments in field environments. As a result, there has been enormous increase in the use of FTIR techniques for a variety of qualitative and quantitative chemical measurements. These methods offer the possibility of fully automated real-time quantitation of many analytes; therefore FTIR has great potential as an analytical tool. Recently, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S.EPA) has developed protocol methods for emissions monitoring using both extractive and open-path FTIR measurements. Depending upon the analyte, the experimental conditions and the analyte matrix, approximately 100 of the hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) listed in the 1990 U.S.EPA Clean Air Act amendment (CAAA) can be measured. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has initiated a program to provide quality-assured infrared absorption coefficient data based on NIST prepared primary gas standards. Currently, absorption coefficient data has been acquired for approximately 20 of the HAPs. For each compound, the absorption coefficient spectrum was calculated using nine transmittance spectra at 0.12 cm−1 resolution and the Beer’s law relationship. The uncertainties in the absorption coefficient data were estimated from the linear regressions of the transmittance data and considerations of other error sources such as the nonlinear detector response. For absorption coefficient values greater than 1 × 10−4 μmol/mol)−1 m−1 the average relative expanded uncertainty is 2.2 %. This quantitative infrared database is currently an ongoing project at NIST. Additional spectra will be added to the database as they are acquired. Our current plans include continued data acquisition of the compounds listed in the CAAA, as well as the compounds that contribute to global warming and ozone depletion.

  10. A simple approach to obtain hybrid Au-loaded polymeric nanoparticles with a tunable metal load† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr06850a Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Luque-Michel, Edurne; Larrea, Ane; Lahuerta, Celia; Imbuluzqueta, Edurne; Arruebo, Manuel; Santamaría, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    A new strategy to nanoengineer multi-functional polymer–metal hybrid nanostructures is reported. By using this protocol the hurdles of most of the current developments concerning covalent and non-covalent attachment of polymers to preformed inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) are overcome. The strategy is based on the in situ reduction of metal precursors using the polymeric nanoparticle as a nanoreactor. Gold nanoparticles and poly(dl-lactic-co-glycolic acid), PLGA, are located in the core and shell, respectively. This novel technique enables the production of PLGA NPs smaller than 200 nm that bear either a single encapsulated Au NP or several smaller NPs with tunable sizes and a 100% loading efficiency. In situ reduction of Au ions inside the polymeric NPs was achieved on demand by using heat to activate the reductive effect of citrate ions. In addition, we show that the loading of the resulting Au NPs inside the PLGA NPs is highly dependent on the surfactant used. Electron microscopy, laser irradiation, UV-Vis and fluorescence spectroscopy characterization techniques confirm the location of Au nanoparticles. These promising results indicate that these hybrid nanomaterials could be used in theranostic applications or as contrast agents in dark-field imaging and computed tomography. PMID:26612770

  11. 75 FR 51444 - Procurement List Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-20

    ..., CT. Contracting Activity: Department of Defense, Defense Contract Management Agency (DCMA), Boston... 10800, 1421 Jefferson Davis Highway, Arlington, Virginia 22202-3259. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Additions On 6/4/2010 (75 FR 31768-31769); 6/11/2010 (75 FR 33270-33271); 6/...

  12. Quantitative ultrasonic phased array imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engle, Brady J.; Schmerr, Lester W., Jr.; Sedov, Alexander

    2014-02-01

    When imaging with ultrasonic phased arrays, what do we actually image? What quantitative information is contained in the image? Ad-hoc delay-and-sum methods such as the synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT) and the total focusing method (TFM) fail to answer these questions. We have shown that a new quantitative approach allows the formation of flaw images by explicitly inverting the Thompson-Gray measurement model. To examine the above questions, we have set up a software simulation test bed that considers a 2-D scalar scattering problem of a cylindrical inclusion with the method of separation of variables. It is shown that in SAFT types of imaging the only part of the flaw properly imaged is the front surface specular response of the flaw. Other responses (back surface reflections, creeping waves, etc.) are improperly imaged and form artifacts in the image. In the case of TFM-like imaging the quantity being properly imaged is an angular integration of the front surface reflectivity. The other, improperly imaged responses are also averaged, leading to a reduction in some of the artifacts present. Our results have strong implications for flaw sizing and flaw characterization with delay-and-sum images.

  13. Clinical Utility of Quantitative Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Rosenkrantz, Andrew B; Mendiratta-Lala, Mishal; Bartholmai, Brian J.; Ganeshan, Dhakshinamoorthy; Abramson, Richard G.; Burton, Kirsteen R.; Yu, John-Paul J.; Scalzetti, Ernest M.; Yankeelov, Thomas E.; Subramaniam, Rathan M.; Lenchik, Leon

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative imaging (QI) is increasingly applied in modern radiology practice, assisting in the clinical assessment of many patients and providing a source of biomarkers for a spectrum of diseases. QI is commonly used to inform patient diagnosis or prognosis, determine the choice of therapy, or monitor therapy response. Because most radiologists will likely implement some QI tools to meet the patient care needs of their referring clinicians, it is important for all radiologists to become familiar with the strengths and limitations of QI. The Association of University Radiologists Radiology Research Alliance Quantitative Imaging Task Force has explored the clinical application of QI and summarizes its work in this review. We provide an overview of the clinical use of QI by discussing QI tools that are currently employed in clinical practice, clinical applications of these tools, approaches to reporting of QI, and challenges to implementing QI. It is hoped that these insights will help radiologists recognize the tangible benefits of QI to their patients, their referring clinicians, and their own radiology practice. PMID:25442800

  14. Using waveform information in nonlinear data assimilation.

    PubMed

    Rey, Daniel; Eldridge, Michael; Morone, Uriel; Abarbanel, Henry D I; Parlitz, Ulrich; Schumann-Bischoff, Jan

    2014-12-01

    Information in measurements of a nonlinear dynamical system can be transferred to a quantitative model of the observed system to establish its fixed parameters and unobserved state variables. After this learning period is complete, one may predict the model response to new forces and, when successful, these predictions will match additional observations. This adjustment process encounters problems when the model is nonlinear and chaotic because dynamical instability impedes the transfer of information from the data to the model when the number of measurements at each observation time is insufficient. We discuss the use of information in the waveform of the data, realized through a time delayed collection of measurements, to provide additional stability and accuracy to this search procedure. Several examples are explored, including a few familiar nonlinear dynamical systems and small networks of Colpitts oscillators.

  15. Platelet additive solution - electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Azuma, Hiroshi; Hirayama, Junichi; Akino, Mitsuaki; Ikeda, Hisami

    2011-06-01

    Recent attention to solutions that replace most or all plasma in platelet concentrates, while maintaining satisfactory platelet function, is motivated by the potential of plasma reduction or depletion to mitigate various transfusion-related adverse events. This report considers the electrolytic composition of previously described platelet additive solutions, in order to draw general conclusions about what is required for platelet function and longevity. The optimal concentrations of Na(+) and Cl(-) are 69-115 mM. The presence of both K(+) and Mg(2+) in platelet suspension at nearly physiological concentrations (3-5mM and 1.5-3mM, respectively) is indispensable for good preservation capacity because both electrolytes are required to prevent platelet activation. In contrast to K(+) and Mg(2+), Ca(2+) may not be important because no free Ca(2+) is available in M-sol, which showed excellent platelet preservation capacity at less than 5% plasma concentration. The importance of bicarbonate (approximately 40 mM) can be recognized when the platelets are suspended in additive solution under less than 5% residual plasma concentration.

  16. Metal organic framework synthesis in the presence of surfactants: towards hierarchical MOFs?† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4ce02324b Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Dikhtiarenko, A.; Mayoral, A.; Tellez, C.; Coronas, J.; Kapteijn, F.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of synthesis pH and H2O/EtOH molar ratio on the textural properties of different aluminium trimesate metal organic frameworks (MOFs) prepared in the presence of the well-known cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) at 120 °C was studied with the purpose of obtaining a MOF with hierarchical pore structure. Depending on the pH and the solvent used, different topologies were obtained (namely, MIL-96, MIL-100 and MIL-110). On the one hand, MIL-110 was obtained at lower temperatures than those commonly reported in the literature and without additives to control the pH; on the other hand, MIL-100 with crystallite sizes as small as 30 ± 10 nm could be easily synthesized in a mixture of H2O and EtOH with a H2O/EtOH molar ratio of 3.4 at pH 2.6 in the presence of CTAB. The resulting material displays a hierarchical porosity that combines the microporosity from the MOF and the non-ordered mesopores defined in between the MOF nanoparticles. Interestingly, the maximum of the pore size distribution could be varied between 3 and 33 nm. Finally, at pH 2.5 and using water as a solvent, platelets of MIL-96, a morphology never observed before for this MOF, were synthesized with a (001) preferential crystal orientation, the (001) plane running parallel to the bipyramidal cages of the MIL-96 topology. PMID:26246799

  17. Recent developments in quantitative proteomics.

    PubMed

    Becker, Christopher H; Bern, Marshall

    2011-06-17

    Proteomics is the study of proteins on a large scale, encompassing the many interests scientists and physicians have in their expression and physical properties. Proteomics continues to be a rapidly expanding field, with a wealth of reports regularly appearing on technology enhancements and scientific studies using these new tools. This review focuses primarily on the quantitative aspect of protein expression and the associated computational machinery for making large-scale identifications of proteins and their post-translational modifications. The primary emphasis is on the combination of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) methods and associated tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Tandem mass spectrometry, or MS/MS, involves a second analysis within the instrument after a molecular dissociative event in order to obtain structural information including but not limited to sequence information. This review further focuses primarily on the study of in vitro digested proteins known as bottom-up or shotgun proteomics. A brief discussion of recent instrumental improvements precedes a discussion on affinity enrichment and depletion of proteins, followed by a review of the major approaches (label-free and isotope-labeling) to making protein expression measurements quantitative, especially in the context of profiling large numbers of proteins. Then a discussion follows on the various computational techniques used to identify peptides and proteins from LC-MS/MS data. This review article then includes a short discussion of LC-MS approaches to three-dimensional structure determination and concludes with a section on statistics and data mining for proteomics, including comments on properly powering clinical studies and avoiding over-fitting with large data sets.

  18. Quantitative kinetics of proteolytic enzymes determined by a surface concentration-based assay using peptide arrays.

    PubMed

    Jung, Se-Hui; Kong, Deok-Hoon; Park, Seoung-Woo; Kim, Young-Myeong; Ha, Kwon-Soo

    2012-08-21

    Peptide arrays have emerged as a key technology for drug discovery, diagnosis, and cell biology. Despite the promise of these arrays, applications of peptide arrays to quantitative analysis of enzyme kinetics have been limited due to the difficulty in obtaining quantitative information of enzymatic reaction products. In this study, we developed a new approach for the quantitative kinetics analysis of proteases using fluorescence-conjugated peptide arrays, a surface concentration-based assay with solid-phase peptide standards using dry-off measurements, and compared it with an applied concentration-based assay. For fabrication of the peptide arrays, substrate peptides of cMMP-3, caspase-3, caspase-9, and calpain-1 were functionalized with TAMRA and cysteine, and were immobilized onto amine-functionalized arrays using a heterobifunctional linker, N-[γ-maleimidobutyloxy]succinimide ester. The proteolytic activities of the four enzymes were quantitatively analyzed by calculating changes induced by enzymatic reactions in the concentrations of peptides bound to array surfaces. In addition, this assay was successfully applied for calculating the Michaelis constant (K(m,surf)) for the four enzymes. Thus, this new assay has a strong potential for use in the quantitative evaluation of proteases, and for drug discovery through kinetics studies including the determination of K(m) and V(max).

  19. Additive composition, for gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Vataru, M.

    1989-01-10

    An admixture is described that comprises Diesel fuel and an additive composition added thereto which is between about 0.05 to about 2.0 percent by weight of the fuel, the composition comprising: (a) between about 0.05 and 25% relative weight parts of an organic peroxide, and (b) between about 0.1 and 25% relative weight parts of detergent selected from the component group that consists of: (i) fatty amines; (ii) ethoxylated and propoxylated derivatives of fatty amines; (iii) fatty diamines; (iv) fatty imidazlines; (v) polymeric amines and derivatives thereof; (vi) combination of one or more of the (i) through (v) components with carboxylic acid or acids having from three to forth carbon atoms, (c) from about 99.0 to about 50% by weight of a hydrocarbon solvent.

  20. Teardrop bladder: additional considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Wechsler, R.J.; Brennan, R.E.

    1982-07-01

    Nine cases of teardrop bladder (TDB) seen at excretory urography are presented. In some of these patients, the iliopsoas muscles were at the upper limit of normal in size, and additional evaluation of the perivesical structures with computed tomography (CT) was necessary. CT demonstrated only hypertrophied muscles with or without perivesical fat. The psoas muscles and pelvic width were measured in 8 patients and compared with the measurements of a control group of males without TDB. Patients with TDB had large iliopsoas muscles and narrow pelves compared with the control group. The psoas muscle width/pelvic width ratio was significantly greater (p < 0.0005) in patients with TDB than in the control group, with values of 1.04 + 0.05 and 0.82 + 0.09, respectively. It is concluded that TDB is not an uncommon normal variant in black males. Both iliopsoas muscle hypertrophy and a narrow pelvis are factors that predispose a patient to TDB.

  1. New addition curing polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frimer, Aryeh A.; Cavano, Paul

    1991-01-01

    In an attempt to improve the thermal-oxidative stability (TOS) of PMR-type polymers, the use of 1,4-phenylenebis (phenylmaleic anhydride) PPMA, was evaluated. Two series of nadic end-capped addition curing polyimides were prepared by imidizing PPMA with either 4,4'-methylene dianiline or p-phenylenediamine. The first resulted in improved solubility and increased resin flow while the latter yielded a compression molded neat resin sample with a T(sub g) of 408 C, close to 70 C higher than PME-15. The performance of these materials in long term weight loss studies was below that of PMR-15, independent of post-cure conditions. These results can be rationalized in terms of the thermal lability of the pendant phenyl groups and the incomplete imidization of the sterically congested PPMA. The preparation of model compounds as well as future research directions are discussed.

  2. Perspectives on Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourell, David L.

    2016-07-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has skyrocketed in visibility commercially and in the public sector. This article describes the development of this field from early layered manufacturing approaches of photosculpture, topography, and material deposition. Certain precursors to modern AM processes are also briefly described. The growth of the field over the last 30 years is presented. Included is the standard delineation of AM technologies into seven broad categories. The economics of AM part generation is considered, and the impacts of the economics on application sectors are described. On the basis of current trends, the future outlook will include a convergence of AM fabricators, mass-produced AM fabricators, enabling of topology optimization designs, and specialization in the AM legal arena. Long-term developments with huge impact are organ printing and volume-based printing.

  3. Sewage sludge additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

  4. Energy & Climate: Getting Quantitative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfson, Richard

    2011-11-01

    A noted environmentalist claims that buying an SUV instead of a regular car is energetically equivalent to leaving your refrigerator door open for seven years. A fossil-fuel apologist argues that solar energy is a pie-in-the-sky dream promulgated by na"ive environmentalists, because there's nowhere near enough solar energy to meet humankind's energy demand. A group advocating shutdown of the Vermont Yankee nuclear plant claims that 70% of its electrical energy is lost in transmission lines. Around the world, thousands agitate for climate action, under the numerical banner ``350.'' Neither the environmentalist, the fossil-fuel apologist, the antinuclear activists, nor most of those marching under the ``350'' banner can back up their assertions with quantitative arguments. Yet questions about energy and its environmental impacts almost always require quantitative answers. Physics can help! This poster gives some cogent examples, based on the newly published 2^nd edition of the author's textbook Energy, Environment, and Climate.

  5. Primary enzyme quantitation

    DOEpatents

    Saunders, G.C.

    1982-03-04

    The disclosure relates to the quantitation of a primary enzyme concentration by utilizing a substrate for the primary enzyme labeled with a second enzyme which is an indicator enzyme. Enzyme catalysis of the substrate occurs and results in release of the indicator enzyme in an amount directly proportional to the amount of primary enzyme present. By quantifying the free indicator enzyme one determines the amount of primary enzyme present.

  6. Quantitation of signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Krauss, S; Brand, M D

    2000-12-01

    Conventional qualitative approaches to signal transduction provide powerful ways to explore the architecture and function of signaling pathways. However, at the level of the complete system, they do not fully depict the interactions between signaling and metabolic pathways and fail to give a manageable overview of the complexity that is often a feature of cellular signal transduction. Here, we introduce a quantitative experimental approach to signal transduction that helps to overcome these difficulties. We present a quantitative analysis of signal transduction during early mitogen stimulation of lymphocytes, with steady-state respiration rate as a convenient marker of metabolic stimulation. First, by inhibiting various key signaling pathways, we measure their relative importance in regulating respiration. About 80% of the input signal is conveyed via identifiable routes: 50% through pathways sensitive to inhibitors of protein kinase C and MAP kinase and 30% through pathways sensitive to an inhibitor of calcineurin. Second, we quantify how each of these pathways differentially stimulates functional units of reactions that produce and consume a key intermediate in respiration: the mitochondrial membrane potential. Both the PKC and calcineurin routes stimulate consumption more strongly than production, whereas the unidentified signaling routes stimulate production more than consumption, leading to no change in membrane potential despite increased respiration rate. The approach allows a quantitative description of the relative importance of signal transduction pathways and the routes by which they activate a specific cellular process. It should be widely applicable.

  7. Evolutionary quantitative genetics of nonlinear developmental systems.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, Michael B

    2015-08-01

    In quantitative genetics, the effects of developmental relationships among traits on microevolution are generally represented by the contribution of pleiotropy to additive genetic covariances. Pleiotropic additive genetic covariances arise only from the average effects of alleles on multiple traits, and therefore the evolutionary importance of nonlinearities in development is generally neglected in quantitative genetic views on evolution. However, nonlinearities in relationships among traits at the level of whole organisms are undeniably important to biology in general, and therefore critical to understanding evolution. I outline a system for characterizing key quantitative parameters in nonlinear developmental systems, which yields expressions for quantities such as trait means and phenotypic and genetic covariance matrices. I then develop a system for quantitative prediction of evolution in nonlinear developmental systems. I apply the system to generating a new hypothesis for why direct stabilizing selection is rarely observed. Other uses will include separation of purely correlative from direct and indirect causal effects in studying mechanisms of selection, generation of predictions of medium-term evolutionary trajectories rather than immediate predictions of evolutionary change over single generation time-steps, and the development of efficient and biologically motivated models for separating additive from epistatic genetic variances and covariances.

  8. Nanoparticle-mediated photothermal effect enables a new method for quantitative biochemical analysis using a thermometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Guanglei; Sanjay, Sharma T.; Dou, Maowei; Li, Xiujun

    2016-03-01

    A new biomolecular quantitation method, nanoparticle-mediated photothermal bioassay, using a common thermometer as the signal reader was developed. Using an immunoassay as a proof of concept, iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) captured in the sandwich-type assay system were transformed into a near-infrared (NIR) laser-driven photothermal agent, Prussian blue (PB) NPs, which acted as a photothermal probe to convert the assay signal into heat through the photothermal effect, thus allowing sensitive biomolecular quantitation using a thermometer. This is the first report of biomolecular quantitation using a thermometer and also serves as the first attempt to introduce the nanoparticle-mediated photothermal effect for bioassays.A new biomolecular quantitation method, nanoparticle-mediated photothermal bioassay, using a common thermometer as the signal reader was developed. Using an immunoassay as a proof of concept, iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) captured in the sandwich-type assay system were transformed into a near-infrared (NIR) laser-driven photothermal agent, Prussian blue (PB) NPs, which acted as a photothermal probe to convert the assay signal into heat through the photothermal effect, thus allowing sensitive biomolecular quantitation using a thermometer. This is the first report of biomolecular quantitation using a thermometer and also serves as the first attempt to introduce the nanoparticle-mediated photothermal effect for bioassays. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional information on FTIR characterization (Fig. S1), photothermal immunoassay of PSA in human serum samples (Table S1), and the Experimental section, including preparation of antibody-conjugated iron oxide NPs, sandwich-type immunoassay, characterization, and photothermal detection protocol. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr09051b

  9. Additive lattice kirigami.

    PubMed

    Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D

    2016-09-01

    Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes.

  10. Ceramics with Different Additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Juanjuan; Feng, Lajun; Lei, Ali; Zhao, Kang; Yan, Aijun

    2014-09-01

    Li2CO3, MgCO3, BaCO3, and Bi2O3 dopants were introduced into CaCu3Ti4O12 (CCTO) ceramics in order to improve the dielectric properties. The CCTO ceramics were prepared by conventional solid-state reaction method. The phase structure, microstructure, and dielectric behavior were carefully investigated. The pure structure without any impurity phases can be confirmed by the x-ray diffraction patterns. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis illuminated that the grains of Ca0.90Li0.20Cu3Ti4O12 ceramics were greater than that of pure CCTO. It was important for the properties of the CCTO ceramics to study the additives in complex impedance spectroscopy. It was found that the Ca0.90Li0.20Cu3Ti4O12 ceramics had the higher permittivity (>45000), the lower dielectric loss (<0.025) than those of CCTO at 1 kHz at room temperature and good temperature stability from -30 to 75 °C.

  11. Additive lattice kirigami

    PubMed Central

    Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M.; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D.

    2016-01-01

    Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes. PMID:27679822

  12. Comprehensive quantitative analysis on privacy leak behavior.

    PubMed

    Fan, Lejun; Wang, Yuanzhuo; Jin, Xiaolong; Li, Jingyuan; Cheng, Xueqi; Jin, Shuyuan

    2013-01-01

    Privacy information is prone to be leaked by illegal software providers with various motivations. Privacy leak behavior has thus become an important research issue of cyber security. However, existing approaches can only qualitatively analyze privacy leak behavior of software applications. No quantitative approach, to the best of our knowledge, has been developed in the open literature. To fill this gap, in this paper we propose for the first time four quantitative metrics, namely, possibility, severity, crypticity, and manipulability, for privacy leak behavior analysis based on Privacy Petri Net (PPN). In order to compare the privacy leak behavior among different software, we further propose a comprehensive metric, namely, overall leak degree, based on these four metrics. Finally, we validate the effectiveness of the proposed approach using real-world software applications. The experimental results demonstrate that our approach can quantitatively analyze the privacy leak behaviors of various software types and reveal their characteristics from different aspects.

  13. Comprehensive Quantitative Analysis on Privacy Leak Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Lejun; Wang, Yuanzhuo; Jin, Xiaolong; Li, Jingyuan; Cheng, Xueqi; Jin, Shuyuan

    2013-01-01

    Privacy information is prone to be leaked by illegal software providers with various motivations. Privacy leak behavior has thus become an important research issue of cyber security. However, existing approaches can only qualitatively analyze privacy leak behavior of software applications. No quantitative approach, to the best of our knowledge, has been developed in the open literature. To fill this gap, in this paper we propose for the first time four quantitative metrics, namely, possibility, severity, crypticity, and manipulability, for privacy leak behavior analysis based on Privacy Petri Net (PPN). In order to compare the privacy leak behavior among different software, we further propose a comprehensive metric, namely, overall leak degree, based on these four metrics. Finally, we validate the effectiveness of the proposed approach using real-world software applications. The experimental results demonstrate that our approach can quantitatively analyze the privacy leak behaviors of various software types and reveal their characteristics from different aspects. PMID:24066046

  14. Quantitative Phase Analysis by the Rietveld Method for Forensic Science.

    PubMed

    Deng, Fei; Lin, Xiaodong; He, Yonghong; Li, Shu; Zi, Run; Lai, Shijun

    2015-07-01

    Quantitative phase analysis (QPA) is helpful to determine the type attribute of the object because it could present the content of the constituents. QPA by Rietveld method requires neither measurement of calibration data nor the use of an internal standard; however, the approximate crystal structure of each phase in a mixture is necessary. In this study, 8 synthetic mixtures composed of potassium nitrate and sulfur were analyzed by Rietveld QPA method. The Rietveld refinement was accomplished with a material analysis using diffraction program and evaluated by three agreement indices. Results showed that Rietveld QPA yielded precise results, with errors generally less than 2.0% absolute. In addition, a criminal case which was broken successfully with the help of Rietveld QPA method was also introduced. This method will allow forensic investigators to acquire detailed information of the material evidence, which could point out the direction for case detection and court proceedings.

  15. Liquid crystal quantitative temperature measurement technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Wei; Wu, Zongshan

    2001-10-01

    Quantitative temperature measurement using wide band thermochromic liquid crystals is an “area” thermal measurement technique. This technique utilizes the feature that liquid crystal changes its reflex light color with variation of temperature and applies an image capturing and processing system to calibrate the characteristic curve of liquid crystal’s color-temperature. Afterwards, the technique uses this curve to measure the distribution of temperature on experimental model. In this paper, firstly, each part of quantitative temperature measurement system using liquid crystal is illustrated and discussed. Then the technique is employed in a long duration hypersonic wind tunnel, and the quantitative result of the heat transfer coefficient along laminar plate is obtained. Additionally, some qualitative results are also given. In the end, comparing the experimental results with reference enthalpy theoretical results, a conclusion of thermal measurement accuracy is drawn.

  16. Quantitation of camptothecin and related compounds.

    PubMed

    Palumbo, M; Sissi, C; Gatto, B; Moro, S; Zagotto, G

    2001-11-25

    Camptothecin and congeners represent a clinically very useful class of anticancer agents. Proper identification and quantitation of the original compounds and their metabolites in biological fluids is fundamental to assess drug metabolism and distribution in animals and in man. In this paper we will review the recent literature available on the methods used for separation and quantitative determination of the camptothecin family of drugs. Complications arise from the fact that they are chemically labile, and the pharmacologically active lactone structure can undergo ring opening at physiological conditions. In addition, a number of metabolic changes usually occur, producing a variety of active or inactive metabolites. Hence, the conditions of extraction, pre-treatment and quantitative analysis are to be carefully calibrated in order to provide meaningful results.

  17. Evaluation of quantitative accuracy in CZT-based pre-clinical SPECT for various isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, S.-J.; Yu, A. R.; Kim, Y.-s.; Kang, W.-S.; Jin, S. S.; Kim, J.-S.; Son, T. J.; Kim, H.-J.

    2015-05-01

    In vivo pre-clinical single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is a valuable tool for functional small animal imaging, but several physical factors, such as scatter radiation, limit the quantitative accuracy of conventional scintillation crystal-based SPECT. Semiconductor detectors such as CZT overcome these deficiencies through superior energy resolution. To our knowledge, little scientific information exists regarding the accuracy of quantitative analysis in CZT-based pre-clinical SPECT systems for different isotopes. The aim of this study was to assess the quantitative accuracy of CZT-based pre-clinical SPECT for four isotopes: 201Tl, 99mTc, 123I, and 111In. The quantitative accuracy of the CZT-based Triumph X-SPECT (Gamma-Medica Ideas, Northridge, CA, U.S.A.) was compared with that of a conventional SPECT using GATE simulation. Quantitative errors due to the attenuation and scatter effects were evaluated for all four isotopes with energy windows of 5%, 10%, and 20%. A spherical source containing the isotope was placed at the center of the air-or-water-filled mouse-sized cylinder phantom. The CZT-based pre-clinical SPECT was more accurate than the conventional SPECT. For example, in the conventional SPECT with an energy window of 10%, scatter effects degraded quantitative accuracy by up to 11.52%, 5.10%, 2.88%, and 1.84% for 201Tl, 99mTc, 123I, and 111In, respectively. However, with the CZT-based pre-clinical SPECT, the degradations were only 9.67%, 5.45%, 2.36%, and 1.24% for 201Tl, 99mTc, 123I, and 111In, respectively. As the energy window was increased, the quantitative errors increased in both SPECT systems. Additionally, the isotopes with lower energy of photon emissions had greater quantitative error. Our results demonstrated that the CZT-based pre-clinical SPECT had lower overall quantitative errors due to reduced scatter and high detection efficiency. Furthermore, the results of this systematic assessment quantifying the accuracy of these SPECT

  18. High Performance Liquid Chromatography of Vitamin A: A Quantitative Determination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohman, Ove; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Experimental procedures are provided for the quantitative determination of Vitamin A (retinol) in food products by analytical liquid chromatography. Standard addition and calibration curve extraction methods are outlined. (SK)

  19. The Quantitative Imaging Network in Precision Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Nordstrom, Robert J.

    2017-01-01

    Precision medicine is a healthcare model that seeks to incorporate a wealth of patient information to identify and classify disease progression and to provide tailored therapeutic solutions for individual patients. Interventions are based on knowledge of molecular and mechanistic causes, pathogenesis and pathology of disease. Individual characteristics of the patients are then used to select appropriate healthcare options. Imaging is playing an increasingly important role in identifying relevant characteristics that help to stratify patients for different interventions. However, lack of standards, limitations in image-processing interoperability, and errors in data collection can limit the applicability of imaging in clinical decision support. Quantitative imaging is the attempt to extract reliable, numerical information from images to eliminate qualitative judgments and errors for providing accurate measures of tumor response to therapy or for predicting future response. This issue of Tomography reports quantitative imaging developments made by several members of the National Cancer Institute Quantitative Imaging Network, a program dedicated to the promotion of quantitative imaging methods for clinical decision support. PMID:28083563

  20. Fluorochromes for DNA Staining and Quantitation.

    PubMed

    Mazzini, Giuliano; Danova, Marco

    2017-01-01

    In these last few decades the great explosion of the molecular approaches has casted a little shadow on the DNA quantitative analysis. Nevertheless DNA cytochemistry represented a long piece of history in cell biology since the advent of the Feulgen reaction. This discovery was really the milestone of the emerging quantitative cytochemistry, and scientists from all over the world produced a very large literature on this subject. This first era of quantitation (histochemistry followed by cytochemistry) started by means of absorption measurements (histophotometry and cytophotometry). The successive introduction of fluorescence microscopy gave a great boost to quantitation, making easier and faster the determination of cell components by means of cytofluorometry. The development of flow cytometry further contributed to the importance of quantitative cytochemistry. At its beginning, the mission of flow cytometry was still DNA quantitation. For a decade the Feulgen reaction had been the reference methodology for both conventional and flow cytofluorometry; the advent of Shiff-type reagents contributed to expand the variety of possible fluorochromes excitable in the entire visible spectrum as well as in the ultraviolet region. The fluorescence scenario was progressively enriched by new probes among which are the intercalating dyes which made DNA quantitation simple and fast, thus spreading it worldwide. The final explosion of cytofluorometry was made possible by the availability of a large variety of probes directly binding DNA structure. In addition, immunofluorescence allowed to correlate the cell cycle-related DNA content to other cell markers. In the clinical application of flow cytometry, this promoted the introduction of multiparametric analyses aimed at describing the cytokinetic characteristics of a given cell subpopulation defined by a specific immunophenotype setting.

  1. Integrating Quantitative Knowledge into a Qualitative Gene Regulatory Network

    PubMed Central

    Bourdon, Jérémie; Eveillard, Damien; Siegel, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Despite recent improvements in molecular techniques, biological knowledge remains incomplete. Any theorizing about living systems is therefore necessarily based on the use of heterogeneous and partial information. Much current research has focused successfully on the qualitative behaviors of macromolecular networks. Nonetheless, it is not capable of taking into account available quantitative information such as time-series protein concentration variations. The present work proposes a probabilistic modeling framework that integrates both kinds of information. Average case analysis methods are used in combination with Markov chains to link qualitative information about transcriptional regulations to quantitative information about protein concentrations. The approach is illustrated by modeling the carbon starvation response in Escherichia coli. It accurately predicts the quantitative time-series evolution of several protein concentrations using only knowledge of discrete gene interactions and a small number of quantitative observations on a single protein concentration. From this, the modeling technique also derives a ranking of interactions with respect to their importance during the experiment considered. Such a classification is confirmed by the literature. Therefore, our method is principally novel in that it allows (i) a hybrid model that integrates both qualitative discrete model and quantities to be built, even using a small amount of quantitative information, (ii) new quantitative predictions to be derived, (iii) the robustness and relevance of interactions with respect to phenotypic criteria to be precisely quantified, and (iv) the key features of the model to be extracted that can be used as a guidance to design future experiments. PMID:21935350

  2. Functional Linear Models for Association Analysis of Quantitative Traits

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Ruzong; Wang, Yifan; Mills, James L.; Wilson, Alexander F.; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E.; Xiong, Momiao

    2014-01-01

    Functional linear models are developed in this paper for testing associations between quantitative traits and genetic variants, which can be rare variants or common variants or the combination of the two. By treating multiple genetic variants of an individual in a human population as a realization of a stochastic process, the genome of an individual in a chromosome region is a continuum of sequence data rather than discrete observations. The genome of an individual is viewed as a stochastic function that contains both linkage and linkage disequilibrium (LD) information of the genetic markers. By using techniques of functional data analysis, both fixed and mixed effect functional linear models are built to test the association between quantitative traits and genetic variants adjusting for covariates. After extensive simulation analysis, it is shown that the F-distributed tests of the proposed fixed effect functional linear models have higher power than that of sequence kernel association test (SKAT) and its optimal unified test (SKAT-O) for three scenarios in most cases: (1) the causal variants are all rare, (2) the causal variants are both rare and common, and (3) the causal variants are common. The superior performance of the fixed effect functional linear models is most likely due to its optimal utilization of both genetic linkage and LD information of multiple genetic variants in a genome and similarity among different individuals, while SKAT and SKAT-O only model the similarities and pairwise LD but do not model linkage and higher order LD information sufficiently. In addition, the proposed fixed effect models generate accurate type I error rates in simulation studies. We also show that the functional kernel score tests of the proposed mixed effect functional linear models are preferable in candidate gene analysis and small sample problems. The methods are applied to analyze three biochemical traits in data from the Trinity Students Study. PMID:24130119

  3. Functional linear models for association analysis of quantitative traits.

    PubMed

    Fan, Ruzong; Wang, Yifan; Mills, James L; Wilson, Alexander F; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E; Xiong, Momiao

    2013-11-01

    Functional linear models are developed in this paper for testing associations between quantitative traits and genetic variants, which can be rare variants or common variants or the combination of the two. By treating multiple genetic variants of an individual in a human population as a realization of a stochastic process, the genome of an individual in a chromosome region is a continuum of sequence data rather than discrete observations. The genome of an individual is viewed as a stochastic function that contains both linkage and linkage disequilibrium (LD) information of the genetic markers. By using techniques of functional data analysis, both fixed and mixed effect functional linear models are built to test the association between quantitative traits and genetic variants adjusting for covariates. After extensive simulation analysis, it is shown that the F-distributed tests of the proposed fixed effect functional linear models have higher power than that of sequence kernel association test (SKAT) and its optimal unified test (SKAT-O) for three scenarios in most cases: (1) the causal variants are all rare, (2) the causal variants are both rare and common, and (3) the causal variants are common. The superior performance of the fixed effect functional linear models is most likely due to its optimal utilization of both genetic linkage and LD information of multiple genetic variants in a genome and similarity among different individuals, while SKAT and SKAT-O only model the similarities and pairwise LD but do not model linkage and higher order LD information sufficiently. In addition, the proposed fixed effect models generate accurate type I error rates in simulation studies. We also show that the functional kernel score tests of the proposed mixed effect functional linear models are preferable in candidate gene analysis and small sample problems. The methods are applied to analyze three biochemical traits in data from the Trinity Students Study.

  4. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 24 - Additional Information

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... Section 24.2(a)(14) Household income (exclusions). Household income for purposes of this regulation does... owners and tenants to potential health or safety threats and to offer to temporarily relocate them while... the “geographic area” is not to be construed to be a small, limited area. Sections...

  5. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 24 - Additional Information

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... Section 24.2(a)(14) Household income (exclusions). Household income for purposes of this regulation does... owners and tenants to potential health or safety threats and to offer to temporarily relocate them while... the “geographic area” is not to be construed to be a small, limited area. Sections...

  6. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 24 - Additional Information

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... Section 24.2(a)(14) Household income (exclusions). Household income for purposes of this regulation does... owners and tenants to potential health or safety threats and to offer to temporarily relocate them while... the “geographic area” is not to be construed to be a small, limited area. Sections...

  7. 78 FR 8144 - Notice of Request for Additional Information

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    ... as Maersk Line; China Shipping Container Lines (Hong Kong) Company Limited and China Shipping Container Lines Company Limited (operating as a single carrier); CMA CGM, S.A.; COSCO Container Lines...; Orient Overseas Container Line Limited; Yangming Marine Transport Corp.; and Zim Integrated...

  8. 78 FR 76625 - Notice of Request for Additional Information

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-18

    .... Moller-Maersk A/S; CMA CGM, S.A.; Atlantic Container Line; China Shipping Container Lines Co., Ltd; China Shipping Container Lines (Hong Kong) Co., Ltd.; Companhia Libra de Navegacao; Compania Libra de Navegacion... Overseas Container Line Limited; Yang Ming Marine Transport Corp.; and Zim Integrated Shipping...

  9. 12 CFR 980.7 - Examinations; requests for additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... Nothing in this part shall limit in any manner the right of the Finance Board to conduct any examination... new business activity, nothing in this part shall limit the right of the Finance Board at any time to... cooperative nature of the Bank System; and (v) Finance Board review of any contracts or agreements between...

  10. 49 CFR 260.27 - Additional information for loan guarantees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Lender, Holder, or prospective Lender; (3) Brief statement of the circumstances and negotiations leading to the agreement by the Lender, Holder, or prospective Lender to make the loan; (4) Brief statement... officers; and. (5) Full and complete statement of all sums to be provided by the Lender or Holder, or to...

  11. 17 CFR 229.1011 - (Item 1011) Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., arrangement, understanding or relationship between the offeror or any of its executive officers, directors, controlling persons or subsidiaries and the subject company or any of its executive officers, directors, controlling persons or subsidiaries (other than any agreement, arrangement or understanding disclosed...

  12. 31 CFR 26.5 - Upgrades and additional environmental information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... determine that a project would have a significant impact on the human environment, but that the level of... that: (i) A MDB project would have a significant impact on the human environment, and (ii) The MDB... than a full-fledged environmental impact assessment as defined by that MDB's own procedures,...

  13. APPENDIX C - ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ON FLUSHING IN ESTUARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water residence time is an important determinant of the sensitivity of the response of estuaries and other water bodies to nutrient loading. A variety of terms such as residence time, flushing time, transit time, turnover time, and age are used to describe time scales for transpo...

  14. Additional information for impact response of the restart safety rods

    SciTech Connect

    Yau, W.W.F.

    1991-10-14

    WSRC-RP-91-677 studied the structural response of the safety rods under the conditions of brake failure and accidental release. It was concluded that the maximum impact loading to the safety rod is 6020 pounds based on conservative considerations that energy dissipation attributable to fluid resistance and reactor superstructure flexibility. The staffers of the Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board reviewed the results and inquired about the extent of conservatism. By request of the RESTART team, I reassessed the impact force due to these conservative assumptions. This memorandum reports these assessments.

  15. 29 CFR 501.44 - Additional information, if required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT OF CONTRACTUAL OBLIGATIONS FOR TEMPORARY ALIEN AGRICULTURAL WORKERS ADMITTED UNDER SECTION 218 OF THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT Administrative Proceedings Review of Administrative Law...

  16. 29 CFR 501.44 - Additional information, if required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT OF CONTRACTUAL OBLIGATIONS FOR TEMPORARY ALIEN AGRICULTURAL WORKERS ADMITTED UNDER SECTION 218 OF THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT Administrative Proceedings Review of Administrative Law...

  17. 29 CFR 501.44 - Additional information, if required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT OF CONTRACTUAL OBLIGATIONS FOR TEMPORARY ALIEN AGRICULTURAL WORKERS ADMITTED UNDER SECTION 218 OF THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT Administrative Proceedings Review of Administrative Law...

  18. 29 CFR 503.53 - Additional information, if required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT OF OBLIGATIONS FOR TEMPORARY NONIMMIGRANT NON-AGRICULTURAL WORKERS ADMITTED UNDER SECTION 214(c)(1) OF THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT Administrative Proceedings Review of Administrative Law...

  19. 29 CFR 503.53 - Additional information, if required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT OF OBLIGATIONS FOR TEMPORARY NONIMMIGRANT NON-AGRICULTURAL WORKERS ADMITTED UNDER SECTION 214(c)(1) OF THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT Administrative Proceedings Review of Administrative Law...

  20. 29 CFR 501.44 - Additional information, if required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT OF CONTRACTUAL OBLIGATIONS FOR TEMPORARY ALIEN AGRICULTURAL WORKERS ADMITTED UNDER SECTION 218 OF THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT Administrative Proceedings Review of Administrative Law...